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Sample records for surface coating operation

  1. 40 CFR 63.5743 - What standards must I meet for aluminum recreational boat surface coating operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recreational boat surface coating operations? 63.5743 Section 63.5743 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Manufacturing Standards for Aluminum Recreational Boat Surface Coating Operations § 63.5743 What standards must I meet for aluminum recreational boat surface coating operations? (a) For aluminum wipedown solvent...

  2. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering - Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Rafi, H. Khalid, E-mail: khalidrafi@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Ram, G.D. Janaki [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Reddy, G. Madhusudhan [Metal Joining Group, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL) Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500 058 (India); Nagalakshmi, R. [Welding Research Institute, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli 620 014 (India)

    2012-08-15

    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

  3. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R.; Rafi, H. Khalid; Ram, G.D. Janaki; Reddy, G. Madhusudhan; Nagalakshmi, R.

    2012-01-01

    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: ► Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. ► Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. ► Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. ► Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

  4. Nature Inspired Surface Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubner, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Materials Scientists more and more are looking to nature for clues on how to create highly functional surface coatings with exceptional properties. The fog harvesting capabilities of the Namib Desert beetle, the beautiful iridescent colors of the hummingbird, and the super water repellant abilities of the Lotus leaf are but a few examples of the amazing properties developed over many years in the natural world. Nature also makes extensive use of the pH-dependent behavior of weak functional groups such as carboxylic acid and amine functional groups. This presentation will explore synthetic mimics to the nano- and microstructures responsible for these fascinating properties. For example, we have demonstrated a pH-induced porosity transition that can be used to create porous films with pore sizes that are tunable from the nanometer scale to the multiple micron scale. The pores of these films, either nano- or micropores, can be reversibly opened and closed by changes in solution pH. The ability to engineer pH-gated porosity transitions in heterostructured thin films has led to the demonstration of broadband anti-reflection coatings that mimic the anti-reflection properties of the moth eye and pH-tunable Bragg reflectors with a structure and function similar to that found in hummingbird wings and the Longhorn beetle. In addition, the highly textured honeycomb-like surfaces created by the formation of micron-scale pores are ideally suited for the creation of superhydrophobic surfaces that mimic the behavior of the self-cleaning lotus leaf. The development of synthetic "backbacks" on immune system cells that may one day ferry drugs to disease sites will also be discussed.

  5. Surface cracking in resistance seam welding of coated steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adonyi, Y.; Kimchi, M.

    1994-12-31

    In this experimental work, the focus was on the understanding the electrode-wheel/coated steel surface phenomena by building operational lobes and by correlating the weld quality with static-and dynamic-contact-resistance variation during welding. Conventional AC, DC, and electrode-wire resistance-seam weldability of printed zinc-coated and hot-dipped tin-coated steel was performed in this work, as compared with traditional lead-tin (terne) coating used as reference material. Variables included steel substrate type, welding equipment type, electrode-wheel cleaning practice, and electrode-wire geometry. Optic and electron microscopy were used for the evaluation of specimens extracted from longitudinal cross-sections of representative welds. The size and morphology of surface cracks was characterized and correlated with variations in the above-mentioned parameters. It was found that the tin-coated (unpainted) steel sheet had a superior all-together performance to the zinc-coated steel and terne-coated steel, both in terms of wider weldability lobes and lesser surface cracking. The extent of surface cracking was greatly reduced by using the electrode-wire seam welding process using a longitudinally grooved wire profile, which also widened the corresponding weldability lobes. It was also found that the extent of cracking depended on the electrode knurl geometry, substrate type, and the presence of conductive paint applied on top of the metallic coating. An attempt was made to characterize the specific mechanisms governing the LME phenomenon for the lead-, zinc and tin-based coating systems and to assess the potential for crack propagation in the welds. The dynamic contact resistance was found to be a good measure of the welding process stability and an indicator of defect formation. It was found that the ratio between the static and dynamic contact resistances of the tin-coated sheet was considerably lower than similar ratios for bare and zinc-coated sheet.

  6. Induction surface hardening of hard coated steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Kessler, Olaf; Hoffmann, Franz

    1999-01-01

    after the deposition of TiN hard coatings on steel substrates. Influences of both the coating properties and the substrate properties are discussed in dependence on the parameters of induction heating. Thereby the heating time, heating atmosphere and the power input into the specimen are changed......The deposition of hard coatings with CVD-processes is commonly used to improve the wear resistance e.g. of tool steels in forming. The advantages of CVD are undisputed (high deposition rates with simple equipment, excellent coating properties). Nevertheless, the disadvantage of the CVD....... The effect of induction surface hardening on the properties of the coating-substrate-systems is mainly characterized using investigations of microstructure and chemical composition as well as measurements of hardness and residual stresses in dependence on the distance from the surface. Furthermore...

  7. INCREASING EFFICIENCY OF REPAIRING, MANUFACTURING AND OPERATION OF THE TPP FACILITIES BY TECHNOLOGY OF GAS-THERMAL COATING AND LASER SURFACE MELTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Grachev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers effectiveness increase of the TPP heat-mechanical equipment repair, manufacturing and maintenance as exemplified by gas-thermal technique for hardening laststages rotor blades of the steam turbines. The rotor blades work under conditions of intense power loading, their airfoil being erosion-corrosion destructed by the action of the moist-steam flow. Repairing companies employ quite a number of technologies to restore some of erosion-worn rotor blades. Inter alia, argon-arc, plasma and gas-powder weld deposition of the original material with subsequent machining, stellite protection recovery, electrical spark alloying the entry edge mat surface, spraying ion-plasma coating on the blade airfoil surface. In domestic turbine building, rotor blades of the steam turbines last stages are manufactured of martensitic class stainless steel. The key condition for successful blade restoration is thermal effect minimizing on the base material for excluding the slag areas possible forming. The laser surface coating technology provides these conditions. They coat the surface of an item being processed by way of melting the base and the adding material. In as much the base melts smallest, the coating characteristics depend mainly on the properties of adding material. The procedure of laser coating passes through several stages including physical contact creation, chemical interaction (laser radiation absorption, volumetrical processes resulting in formation of stable bonds in volume of the materials that have reacted. For the low-pressure cylinder rotor blades supplementary protection against erosion destruction, LLC ‘Technological Systems of Protective Coating’ developed technology of the blade airfoil protective finish by method of high-speed gas-flame sputter. The company realized this technology in 2012 during K-200-12,8 turbine (of the Leningrad Metallurgical Works – LMZ repairing in Zainsk SDPP by JSC ‘Tatenergo’. The

  8. Nanocomposite tribological coatings with 'chameleon' surface adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voevodin, A.A.; Fitz, T.A.; Hu, J.J.; Zabinski, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Nanocomposite tribological coatings were designed to respond to changing environmental conditions by self-adjustment of their surface properties to maintain good tribological performance in any environment. These smart coatings have been dubbed 'chameleon' because, analogous to a chameleon changing its skin color to avoid predators, the coating changes its 'skin' chemistry and structure to avoid wear. The concept was originally developed using WC, diamondlike carbon, and WS 2 material combination for adaptation to a humid/dry environment cycling. In order to address temperature variation, nanocomposite coatings made of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) in a gold matrix were developed with encapsulated nanosized reservoirs of MoS 2 and diamondlike carbon (DLC). Coatings were produced using a combination of laser ablation and magnetron sputtering. They were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Results were correlated with mechanical and tribological characterization. Coating hardness was evaluated using nanoindentation, while coating adhesion and toughness were estimated using scratch and Vickers indentation tests. Friction and wear endurance measurements of YSZ/Au/MoS 2 /DLC coatings against steel and Si 3 N 4 balls were performed at room temperature in controlled humidity air, dry nitrogen, and vacuum environments, as well as at 500 deg. C in air. Depending on the environment, coating friction surface changed its chemistry and structure between (i) graphitic carbon for sliding in humid air [coating friction coefficients (c.o.f. 0.10-0.15)], (ii) hexagonal MoS 2 for sliding in dry N 2 and vacuum (c.o.f. 0.02-0.05), and (iii) metallic Au for sliding in air at 500 deg. C (c.o.f. 0.10-0.20). The unique coating skin adaptation realized with YSZ/Au/MoS 2 /DLC and WC/DLC/WS composites proves a universal applicability of the chameleon design

  9. Coatings and Surface Treatments for Reusable Entry Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sylvia M.

    2016-01-01

    This talk outlines work in coatings for TPS done at NASA Ames. coatings and surface treatments on reusable TPS are critical for controlling the behavior of the materials. coatings discussed include RCG, TUFI and HETC. TUFROc is also discussed.

  10. Surface coating for prevention of crust formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-24

    A flexible surface coating which promotes the removal of deposits as they reach the surface by preventing adhesion and crust formation is disclosed. Flexible layers are attached to each side of a flexible mesh substrate comprising of a plurality of zones composed of one or more neighboring cells, each zone having a different compressibility than its adjacent zones. The substrate is composed of a mesh made of strands and open cells. The cells may be filled with foam. Studs or bearings may also be positioned in the cells to increase the variation in compressibility and thus the degree of flexing of the coating. Surface loading produces varying amounts of compression from point to point causing the coating to flex as deposits reach it, breaking up any hardening deposits before a continuous crust forms. Preferably one or more additional layers are also used, such as an outer layer of a non-stick material such as TEFLON, which may be pigmented, and an inner, adhesive layer to facilitate applying the coating to a surface. 5 figs.

  11. Radiation curable coatings having nonadherent surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaske, J.E.; Georgas, N.T.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation polymerizable coatings having nonadherent surfaces are provided utilizing nonaqueous emulsions of a liquid alkyl hydrogen polysiloxane in a radiation polymerizable polyethylenic liquid. Polyacrylates in combination with amines, and ultraviolet photosensitizers are particularly contemplated for rapid nonair inhibited ultraviolet cure. 13 claims

  12. Electrowetting of Weak Polyelectrolyte-Coated Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sénéchal, Vincent; Saadaoui, Hassan; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Juan; Drummond, Carlos

    2017-05-23

    Polymer coatings are commonly used to modify interfacial properties like wettability, lubrication, or biocompatibility. These properties are determined by the conformation of polymer molecules at the interface. Polyelectrolytes are convenient elementary bricks to build smart materials, given that polyion chain conformation is very sensitive to different environmental variables. Here we discuss the effect of an applied electric field on the properties of surfaces coated with poly(acrylic acid) brushes. By combining atomic force microscopy, quartz crystal microbalance, and contact angle experiments, we show that it is possible to precisely tune polyion chain conformation, surface adhesion, and surface wettability using very low applied voltages if the polymer grafting density and environmental conditions (pH and ionic strength) are properly formulated. Our results indicate that the effective ionization degree of the grafted weak polyacid can be finely controlled with the externally applied field, with important consequences for the macroscopic surface properties.

  13. Surface Coating of Plastic Parts for Business Machines (Industrial Surface Coating): New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn more about the new source performance standards (NSPS) for surface coating of plastic parts for business machines by reading the rule summary and history and finding the code of federal regulations as well as related rules.

  14. Surface coating for blood-contacting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ajit Kumar Balakrishnan

    The major problems always encountered with the blood-contacting surfaces are their compatibility, contact blood damage, and thrombogenicity. Titanium nitride (TiN) is a hard, inert, ceramic material that is widely used in the engineering industry. TiN has been proven to be a good biomaterial in its crystalline form, in orthopedic, and in tissue implant applications. This dissertation describes a method to coat amorphous TiN on the blood-contacting surfaces of certain medical devices using the room-temperature sputtering process and to characterize, to test, and to evaluate the coating for a reliable, durable, and compatible blood-contacting surface The blood-compatibility aspects were evaluated with standard, established protocols and procedures to prove the feasibility. An amorphous TiN coating is developed, characterized, tested, and blood compatibility evaluated by applying to the blood-contacting surfaces of stainless steel, catheters, and blood filters. The flexibility characteristics were proven by applying it to the diaphragms of the pulsatile pneumatic ventricular assist device. The results show that amorphous titanium nitride is flexible and adherent to polymeric substrates like polyurethane and polyester. Blood compatibility evaluation showed comparable results with catheters and superior behavior with stainless steel and polyester filters. It is concluded that amorphous titanium nitride can be considered to be applied to the surfaces of some of the medical devices in order to improve blood compatibility.

  15. "Diamond" over-coated Microstrip Gas Chambers for high rate operation

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, A J; Bouclier, Roger; Capéans-Garrido, M; Dominik, Wojciech; Hoch, M; Manzin, G; Million, Gilbert; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Sharma, A

    1997-01-01

    We describe the recent developments on the diamond-like carbon (DLC) over-coated Microstrip Gas Chambers made on drawn glass substrates. MSGC surface coating with thin DLC layer of stable and controlled resistivity was proposed to overcome the limitation of detector operation due to surface charging-up under avalanches. This brings also advantages for the detector manufacturing technology. The thin layer, deposited on top of a manufactured MSGC (over-coating), demonstrates excellent mechanical properties and very good stability. We report on recent measurements with DLC over-coated MSGCs of various surface resistivities (ranging from 1013W/r to 1016W/r) on D-263 and AF45 glass substrates. Over-coated MSGCs exhibit good rate capability for the resistivity of the surface around 1015W/r. Stable operation up to 50 mC/cm of accumulated charge from avalanches has been demonstrated.

  16. Photoemission from Coated Surfaces A Comparison of Theory to Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, K

    2005-01-01

    Photocathodes for FELs and accelerators will benefit from rugged and self-rejuvenating photocathodes with high QE at the longest possible wavelength. The needs of a high power FEL are not met at present by existing photocathode-drive laser combinations: requirements generally necessitate barrier-lowering coatings which are degraded by operation. We seek to develop a controlled porosity dispenser cathode, and shall report on our coordinated experimental and theoretical studies. Our models account for field, thermal, and surface effects of cesium monolayers on photoemission, and compare well with concurrent experiments examining the QE, patchiness, and evolution of the coatings. Field enhancement, thermal variation of specific heat and electron relaxation rates and their relation to high laser intensity and/or short pulse-to-pulse separation, variations in work function effects due to coating non-uniformity, and the dependence on the wavelength of the incident light are included. The status of methods by which ...

  17. Effects of surface treatment on the properties of UV coating

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Xiaolei; Li, Rongrong; Teng, Yu; Cao, Pingxiang; Wang, Xiaodong (Alice); Ji, Futang

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the surface treatment of raw medium-density fiberboard on the properties of 1st ultraviolet putty coating film and the effects of primer coating arrangement on the qualities of 1st ultraviolet primer film were investigated. With regard to surface roughness and the recorded adhesion of the coating film, there were significant variations when the surface treatment was modified or when the coating arrangement was changed. The findings led to the conclusion that there was a close...

  18. Analyzing surface coatings in situ: High-temperature surface film analyzer developed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Scientists at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have devised a new instrument that can analyze surface coatings under operating conditions. The High-Temperature Surface Film Analyzer is the first such instrument to analyze the molecular composition and structure of surface coatings on metals and solids under conditions of high temperature and pressure in liquid environments. Corrosion layers, oxide coatings, polymers or paint films, or adsorbed molecules are examples of conditions that can be analyzed using this instrument. Film thicknesses may vary from a few molecular layers to several microns or thicker. The instrument was originally developed to study metal corrosion in aqueous solutions similar to the cooling water systems of light-water nuclear reactors. The instrument may have use for the nuclear power industry where coolant pipes degrade due to stress corrosion cracking, which often leads to plant shutdown. Key determinants in the occurrence of stress corrosion cracking are the properties and composition of corrosion scales that form inside pipes. The High-Temperature Surface Analyzer can analyze these coatings under laboratory conditions that simulate the same hostile environment of high temperature, pressure, and solution that exist during plant operations. The ability to analyze these scales in hostile liquid environments is unique to the instrument. Other applications include analyzing paint composition, corrosion of materials in geothermal power systems, integrity of canisters for radioactive waste storage, corrosion inhibitor films on piping and drilling systems, and surface scales on condenser tubes in industrial hot water heat exchangers. The device is not patented

  19. Laser surface sealing and strenghtening of zirconia coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitbon, A.; Boquet, L.; Delsart, D.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed zirconia coatings are of general interest as thermal barriers in diesel and gas turbine engines. However, their residual porosity and poor mechanical properties require surface sealing and strengthening. Moreover, dense zirconia is not impervious to oxygen at high temperatures (ionic conductivity). Surface densification was achieved by melting a thin layer, using a continuous wave CO 2 laser. The cracks induced by shrinkage and differential stresses were controlled by spraying alumina powder in the laser beam during surface melting. The formation of alumina-zirconia composites, or possibly eutectics, generates improved chemical resistance and mechanical properties. Both laser-sealed and as-sprayed coatings were tested for bond strength, wear, corrosion and thermal cycling up to 900degC. The bond strength and thermal barrier efficiency of as-sprayed coatings were retained after laser treatment, whilst wear, corrosion and thermal shock resistances were clearly improved. Future works include thermal cycling up to 1200degC and erosion tests. The main objective is to lower the operating and maintenance costs of gas turbine engines for electric power generation. (orig.)

  20. Characterization of novel silane coatings on titanium implant surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matinlinna, Jukka P; Tsoi, James Kit‐Hon; de Vries, Jacob; Busscher, Hendrik

    Objectives This in vitro study describes and characterizes a developed novel method to produce coatings on Ti. Hydrophobic coatings on substrates are needed in prosthetic dentistry to promote durable adhesion between luting resin cements and coated Ti surfaces. In implant dentistry the hydrophobic

  1. Surface analysis of DLC coating on cam-tappet system

    OpenAIRE

    FOUVRY, Siegfried; PAGNOUX, Geoffrey; PEIGNEY, Michael; DELATTRE, Benoit; MERMAT-ROLLET, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Tribomechanical properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings make them particularly interesting for numerous applications, like automotive ones. But although DLC coatings show a generally high wear resistance, they sometimes can exhibit severe multiple wear. In this study, a surface analysis of worn coated tappets is performed, leading to a complete coupled wear scenario.

  2. Surface Roughness Reduction of Additive Manufactured Products by Applying a Functional Coating Using Ultrasonic Spray Coating

    OpenAIRE

    Deferme, Wim; Reddy, Naveen; D'Haen, Jan; Drijkoningen, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    To reduce the high surface roughness of additive manufactured (AM) products, typically a post-treatment is required. Subtractive post-treatments are often performed by hand and are therefore expensive and time consuming, whereas conventional additive post-treatments, such as pneumatic spray coating, require large quantities of coating material. Ultrasonic spray coating, in contrast, is an additive post-treatment technology capable of applying coatings in an efficient way, resulting in less ma...

  3. Electro-responsive polyelectrolyte-coated surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sénéchal, V; Saadaoui, H; Rodriguez-Hernandez, J; Drummond, C

    2017-07-01

    The anchoring of polymer chains at solid surfaces is an efficient way to modify interfacial properties like the stability and rheology of colloidal dispersions, lubrication and biocompatibility. Polyelectrolytes are good candidates for the building of smart materials, as the polyion chain conformation can often be tuned by manipulation of different physico-chemical variables. However, achieving efficient and reversible control of this process represents an important technological challenge. In this regard, the application of an external electrical stimulus on polyelectrolytes seems to be a convenient control strategy, for several reasons. First, it is relatively easy to apply an electric field to the material with adequate spatiotemporal control. In addition, in contrast to chemically induced changes, the molecular response to a changing electric field occurs relatively quickly. If the system is properly designed, this response can then be used to control the magnitude of surface properties. In this work we discuss the effect of an external electric field on the adhesion and lubrication properties of several polyelectrolyte-coated surfaces. The influence of the applied field is investigated at different pH and salt conditions, as the polyelectrolyte conformation is sensitive to these variables. We show that it is possible to fine tune friction and adhesion using relatively low applied fields.

  4. Long-term stable surface modification of DLC coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotzmann Gaby

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of coatings based on diamond like carbon (DLC for medical applications was established during the last years. Main advantages of these coatings are its high hardness, good wear and friction behavior and its biocompatibility. Using low-energy electron-beam treatment, we addressed the surface modification of DLC coatings. The aim was to generate new biofunctional surface characteristics that are long-term stable.

  5. Method and coating composition for protecting and decontaminating surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overhold, D C; Peterson, M D

    1959-03-10

    A protective coating useful in the decontamination of surfaces exposed to radioactive substances is described. This coating is placed on the surface before use and is soluble in water, allowing its easy removal in the event decontamination becomes necessary. Suitable coating compositions may be prepared by mixing a water soluble carbohydrate such as sucrose or dextrin, together with a hygroscopic agent such as calcium chloride or zinc chloride.

  6. Superhydrophobic coatings for aluminium surfaces synthesized by chemical etching process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Varshney

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the superhydrophobic coatings on aluminium surfaces were prepared by two-step (chemical etching followed by coating and one-step (chemical etching and coating in a single step processes using potassium hydroxide and lauric acid. Besides, surface immersion time in solutions was varied in both processes. Wettability and surface morphologies of treated aluminium surfaces were characterized using contact angle measurement technique and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Microstructures are formed on the treated aluminium surfaces which lead to increase in contact angle of the surface (>150°. Also on increasing immersion time, contact angle further increases due to increase in size and depth of microstructures. Additionally, these superhydrophobic coatings show excellent self-cleaning and corrosion-resistant behavior. Water jet impact, floatation on water surface, and low temperature condensation tests assert the excellent water-repellent nature of coatings. Further, coatings are to be found mechanically, thermally, and ultraviolet stable. Along with, these coatings are found to be excellent regeneration ability as verified experimentally. Although aforesaid both processes generate durable and regenerable superhydrophobic aluminium surfaces with excellent self-cleaning, corrosion-resistant, and water-repellent characteristics, but one-step process is proved more efficient and less time consuming than two-step process and promises to produce superhydrophobic coatings for industrial applications.

  7. Method for Qualification of Coatings Applied to Wet Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-16

    The field application of a pipeline repair or rehabilitation coating usually cannot wait until ambient conditions become optimal. In a humid environment, water can condense on the pipe surface because the pipe surface is usually cooler than the ambie...

  8. Surface coating metrology of carbides of cutting tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, V. D.; Basova, G. D.

    2017-10-01

    The coatings were studied by their main sign of the micrometric thickness by means of coating destruction and electron microscopical study of cleavage surfaces. Shock stress ruptures of heated carbides of cutting tools were performed. The discovery of the coating technology and creation of the coating structure for nonuniform and nonequilibrium conditions of the cutting process were dealt with. Multifracture microdestruction of nitride coatings, caused by complex external influences, was analysed to reveal the mechanism of interaction of elementary failures. Positive results were obtained in the form of improving the strength and wear resistance of the product, crack resistance increasing.

  9. Superhydrophobic Surface Coatings for Microfluidics and MEMs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branson, Eric D.; Singh, Seema [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA; Houston, Jack E.; van Swol, Frank B.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2006-11-01

    Low solid interfacial energy and fractally rough surface topography confer to Lotus plants superhydrophobic (SH) properties like high contact angles, rolling and bouncing of liquid droplets, and self-cleaning of particle contaminants. This project exploits the porous fractal structure of a novel, synthetic SH surface for aerosol collection, its self-cleaning properties for particle concentration, and its slippery nature 3 to enhance the performance of fluidic and MEMS devices. We propose to understand fundamentally the conditions needed to cause liquid droplets to roll rather than flow/slide on a surface and how this %22rolling transition%22 influences the boundary condition describing fluid flow in a pipe or micro-channel. Rolling of droplets is important for aerosol collection strategies because it allows trapped particles to be concentrated and transported in liquid droplets with no need for a pre-defined/micromachined fluidic architecture. The fluid/solid boundary condition is important because it governs flow resistance and rheology and establishes the fluid velocity profile. Although many research groups are exploring SH surfaces, our team is the first to unambiguously determine their effects on fluid flow and rheology. SH surfaces could impact all future SNL designs of collectors, fluidic devices, MEMS, and NEMS. Interfaced with inertial focusing aerosol collectors, SH surfaces would allow size-specific particle populations to be collected, concentrated, and transported to a fluidic interface without loss. In microfluidic systems, we expect to reduce the energy/power required to pump fluids and actuate MEMS. Plug-like (rather than parabolic) velocity profiles can greatly improve resolution of chip-based separations and enable unprecedented control of concentration profiles and residence times in fluidic-based micro-reactors. Patterned SH/hydrophilic channels could induce mixing in microchannels and enable development of microflow control elements

  10. Surface coatings deposited by CVD and PVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, H.M.

    1982-01-01

    The demand for wear and corrosion protective coatings is increasing due to economic facts. Deposition processes in gas atmospheres like the CVD and PVD processes attained a tremendous importance especially in the field of the deposition of thin hard refractory and ceramic coatings. CVD and PVD processes are reviewed in detail. Some examples of coating installations are shown and numerous applications are given to demonstrate the present state of the art. (orig.) [de

  11. The surface properties of biopolymer-coated fruit: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cristina Moncayo Martinez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental conservation concerns have led to research and development regarding biodegradable materials from biopolymers, leading to new formulations for edible films and coatings for preserving the quality of fresh fruit and vegetables. Determining fruit skin surface properties for a given coating solution has led to predicting coating efficiency. Wetting was studied by considering spreading, adhesion and cohesion and measuring the contact angle, thus optimising the coating formulation in terms of biopolymer, plasticiser, surfactant, antimicrobial and antioxidant concentration. This work reviews the equations for determining fruit surface properties by using polar and dispersive interaction calculations and by determining the contact angle.

  12. A dual response surface optimization methodology for achieving uniform coating thickness in powder coating process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boby John

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The powder coating is an economic, technologically superior and environment friendly painting technique compared with other conventional painting methods. However large variation in coating thickness can reduce the attractiveness of powder coated products. The coating thickness variation can also adversely affect the surface appearance and corrosion resistivity of the product. This can eventually lead to customer dissatisfaction and loss of market share. In this paper, the author discusses a dual response surface optimization methodology to minimize the thickness variation around the target value of powder coated industrial enclosures. The industrial enclosures are cabinets used for mounting the electrical and electronic equipment. The proposed methodology consists of establishing the relationship between the coating thickness & the powder coating process parameters and developing models for the mean and variance of coating thickness. Then the powder coating process is optimized by minimizing the standard deviation of coating thickness subject to the constraint that the thickness mean would be very close to the target. The study resulted in achieving a coating thickness mean of 80.0199 microns for industrial enclosures, which is very close to the target value of 80 microns. A comparison of the results of the proposed approach with that of existing methodologies showed that the suggested method is equally good or even better than the existing methodologies. The result of the study is also validated with a new batch of industrial enclosures.

  13. Quantitation of Surface Coating on Nanoparticles Using Thermogravimetric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongargaonkar, Alpana A; Clogston, Jeffrey D

    2018-01-01

    Nanoparticles are critical components in nanomedicine and nanotherapeutic applications. Some nanoparticles, such as metallic nanoparticles, consist of a surface coating or surface modification to aid in its dispersion and stability. This surface coating may affect the behavior of nanoparticles in a biological environment, thus it is important to measure. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) can be used to determine the amount of coating on the surface of the nanoparticle. TGA experiments run under inert atmosphere can also be used to determine residual metal content present in the sample. In this chapter, the TGA technique and experimental method are described.

  14. Surface protection of austenitic steels by carbon nanotube coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLucas, T.; Schütz, S.; Suarez, S.; Mücklich, F.

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, surface protection properties of multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) deposited on polished austenitic stainless steel are evaluated. Electrophoretic deposition is used as a coating technique. Contact angle measurements reveal hydrophilic as well as hydrophobic wetting characteristics of the carbon nanotube coating depending on the additive used for the deposition. Tribological properties of carbon nanotube coatings on steel substrate are determined with a ball-on-disc tribometer. Effective lubrication can be achieved by adding magnesium nitrate as an additive due to the formation of a holding layer detaining CNTs in the contact area. Furthermore, wear track analysis reveals minimal wear on the coated substrate as well as carbon residues providing lubrication. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy is used to qualitatively analyse the elemental composition of the coating and the underlying substrate. The results explain the observed wetting characteristics of each coating. Finally, merely minimal oxidation is detected on the CNT-coated substrate as opposed to the uncoated sample.

  15. Surface treatment of zinc coatings by molybdate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fachikov, L.; Ivanova, D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Molybdate conversion treatments on zinc coatings. ► Zn, Mo, P, O and Ni are basic elements in the coatings. ► Better corrosion resistance of zinc coatings after molybdate surface treatment. - Abstract: The influence of different factors such as concentration, temperature, pH and cathodic polarization on formation, properties and composition of coatings obtained under treatment of zinc surfaces by molybdate solutions has been investigated by gravimetric, electrochemical and physical methods. Coatings obtained at pH 4 are distinguished for the best uniformity and density of color. The thicknesses of coatings raise by increasing the cathode current density under other equal conditions. Molybdenum, zinc and phosphorus are the basic components of the passive films.

  16. Self-assembled hemocompatible coating on poly (vinyl chloride) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zha Zhengbao; Ma Yan; Yue Xiuli; Liu Meng [Nanobiotechnology Division, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resources and Environment, School of Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Dai Zhifei, E-mail: zhifei.dai@hit.edu.cn [Nanobiotechnology Division, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resources and Environment, School of Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2009-11-15

    A stable hemocompatible coating was fabricated by consecutive alternating adsorption of iron (III) and two kinds of polysaccharides, heparin (Hep) and dextran sulfate (DS), onto poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) surfaces via electrostatic interaction. The fluctuation of contact angles with the alternative deposition of iron (III) and polysaccharides verified the progressive buildup of the mulitilayer coating onto the PVC surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis revealed that the PVC surfaces were completely masked by iron-polysaccharides multilayer coatings. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assay showed that both Hep/Fe{sup 3+}/Hep and DS/Fe{sup 3+}/Hep coated PVC were less thrombogenic than the uncoated one. Chromogenic assay for heparin activity proved definitively that the inhibition of locally produced thrombin was ascribed to the thromboresistance of the surface-bound heparin. Compared with the unmodified PVC surfaces, iron-polysaccharide multilayer coating presented a drastically reduced adhesion in vitro of platelets, polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Interestingly, the DS/Fe{sup 3+}/Hep coating was found to exhibit higher hydrophilicity and stability, hence lower non-specific protein adsorption in comparison with Hep/Fe{sup 3+}/Hep coating due to the incorporation of dextran sulfate into the multilayer coating.

  17. Surface coated polyurethane with improved bioactivity and cytocompatability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chetty, AS

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available -ray-diffraction spectroscopy (XRD) (Figure 1B). The HA layer appeared well bonded to the underlying PU surface as the coating remained intact even after vigorous scrubbing and sticky tape adhesion testing. Average HA coating thickness observed by SEM cross... coating, via precipitation and ion exchange between the SBF and the HA layer. 3 Cytocompatibility testing The crystal violet assay was employed to stain cellular DNA, which is directly related to the number of cells attached onto the substrates...

  18. Antibacterial effect of doxycycline-coated dental abutment surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Rui; Tiainen, Hanna; Shabestari, Maziar; Lyngstadaas, Ståle P; Haugen, Håvard J; Witsø, Ingun L; Lönn-Stensrud, Jessica; Jugowiec, Dawid

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm formation on dental abutment may lead to peri-implant mucositis and subsequent peri-implantitis. These cases are clinically treated with antibiotics such as doxycycline (Doxy). Here we used an electrochemical method of cathodic polarization to coat Doxy onto the outer surface of a dental abutment material. The Doxy-coated surface showed a burst release in phosphate-buffered saline during the first 24 h. However, a significant amount of Doxy remained on the surface for at least 2 weeks especially on a 5 mA–3 h sample with a higher Doxy amount, suggesting both an initial and a long-term bacteriostatic potential of the coated surface. Surface chemistry was analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Surface topography was evaluated by field emission scanning electron microscopy and blue-light profilometry. Longer polarization time from 1 h to 5 h and higher current density from 1 to 15 mA cm −2 resulted in a higher amount of Doxy on the surface. The surface was covered by a layer of Doxy less than 100 nm without significant changes in surface topography. The antibacterial property of the Doxy-coated surface was analyzed by biofilm and planktonic growth assays using Staphylococcus epidermidis. Doxy-coated samples reduced both biofilm accumulation and planktonic growth in broth culture, and also inhibited bacterial growth on agar plates. The antibacterial effect was stronger for samples of 5 mA–3 h coated with a higher amount of Doxy compared to that of 1 mA–1 h. Accordingly, an abutment surface coated with Doxy has potential for preventing bacterial colonization when exposed to the oral cavity. Doxy-coating could be a viable way to control peri-implant mucositis and prevent its progression into peri-implantitis. (paper)

  19. Monitoring tablet surface roughness during the film coating process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitavuopio, Paulus; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Rantanen, Jukka

    2006-01-01

    the process of film coating tablets were studied by noncontact laser profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). An EDX analysis was used to monitor the magnesium stearate and titanium dioxide of the tablets. The tablet cores were film coated with aqueous hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, and the film......The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change of surface roughness and the development of the film during the film coating process using laser profilometer roughness measurements, SEM imaging, and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Surface roughness and texture changes developing during...... coating was performed using an instrumented pilot-scale side-vented drum coater. The SEM images of the film-coated tablets showed that within the first 30 minutes, the surface of the tablet cores was completely covered with a thin film. The magnesium signal that was monitored by SEM-EDX disappeared after...

  20. Stresses and Cracks in Surface Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsewell, Andy

    2000-01-01

    This extended abstract of the talk to be given at the Danish Metallurgical Society, Winter Meeting 1999, gives an outline of the areas of interest in current projects in wear and corrosion resistant coatings at Materials Technology, Technical University of Denmark (IPT, Materialeteknologi, DTU......). It also briefly describes our method of approach in analysing new coating / substrate combinations or new materials processing techniques for producing a given coating. We strive to combine, often in collaboration with others, a fundamental understanding of microstructure, mechanical properties...

  1. INFLUENCE OF WORKPIECE SURFACE PREPARATION ON THERMAL BARRIER COATING DURABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Petrova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with the impact of workpiece surface quality on adhesive strength and durability of thermal barrier coating. The result revealed that the roughness of metal layer influences on the adhesion of ceramic coating and depends the thickness of ceramic crystals when using method of Electron beam deposition.

  2. Mechanical Properties of Glass Surfaces Coated with Tin Oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swindlehurst, W. E.; Cantor, B.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of tin oxide coatings on the coefficient of friction and fracture strength of glass surfaces is studied. Experiments were performed partly on commercially treated glass bottles and partly on laboratory prepared microscope slides. Coatings were applied in the laboratory by decomposition...

  3. Possibilities of surface coating for thermal insulation. [zirconium dioxide, titanium dioxide, and zircon coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeschel, E.; Weisser, G.

    1979-01-01

    Calculations performed for pulsating heat sources indicate a relatively thin (200-1000 micron) coating can lower temperature both inside and on the surface of a construction material. Various coating materials (including zirconium dioxide) are discussed, together with possible thermic stresses and ways to deal with the latter.

  4. Laser surface modification of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coating on AISI H13 tool steel substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, M. S.; Aqida, S. N.; Ismail, I.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents laser surface modification of plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating to seal porosity defect. Laser surface modification on plasma sprayed YSZ was conducted using 300W JK300HPS Nd: YAG laser at different operating parameters. Parameters varied were laser power and pulse frequency with constant residence time. The coating thickness was measured using IM7000 inverted optical microscope and surface roughness was analysed using two-dimensional Mitutoyo Surface Roughness Tester. Surface roughness of laser surface modification of YSZ H-13 tool steel decreased significantly with increasing laser power and decreasing pulse frequency. The re-melted YSZ coating showed higher hardness properties compared to as-sprayed coating surface. These findings were significant to enhance thermal barrier coating surface integrity for dies in semi-solid processing.

  5. 29 CFR 1910.124 - General requirements for dipping and coating operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for dipping and coating operations... Dipping and Coating Operations § 1910.124 General requirements for dipping and coating operations. (a... coating operation using flammable or combustible liquids is: (i) Free of any solid particulate that poses...

  6. A study on the surface roughness of a thin HSQ coating on a fine milled surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohaghegh, Kamran; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Pranov, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses a novel application of a thin layer coating on a metallic machined surface with particular attention to roughness of the coating compared to the original surface before coating. The coating is a nominally 1 μm film of Hydrogen Silsesquioxane (HSQ) which is commonly used...... in the semiconductor industry in the manufacture of integrated circuits. The work piece is a fine peripheral-milled tool steel surface which is widely used in industrial applications. Roughness improvement after the application of HSQ coating is reported....

  7. Surface coating for prevention of metallic seed migration in tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyunseok; Park, Jong In [Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Seok; Park, Min [Interdisciplinary Program in Bioengineering, Seoul National University College of Engineering, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Kwang-Jae [Hanaro Applications Research, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Young-bong [Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Choy, Young Bin, E-mail: ybchoy@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: sye@snu.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary Program in Bioengineering, Seoul National University College of Engineering, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Ye, Sung-Joon, E-mail: ybchoy@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: sye@snu.ac.kr [Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In radiotherapy, metallic implants often detach from their deposited sites and migrate to other locations. This undesirable migration could cause inadequate dose coverage for permanent brachytherapy and difficulties in image-guided radiation delivery for patients. To prevent migration of implanted seeds, the authors propose a potential strategy to use a biocompatible and tissue-adhesive material called polydopamine. Methods: In this study, nonradioactive dummy seeds that have the same geometry and composition as commercial I-125 seeds were coated in polydopamine. Using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the surface of the polydopamine-coated and noncoated seeds was characterized. The detachment stress between the two types of seeds and the tissue was measured. The efficacy of polydopamine-coated seed was investigated through in vitro migration tests by tracing the seed location after tissue implantation and shaking for given times. The cytotoxicity of the polydopamine coating was also evaluated. Results: The results of the coating characterization have shown that polydopamine was successfully coated on the surface of the seeds. In the adhesion test, the polydopamine-coated seeds had 2.1-fold greater detachment stress than noncoated seeds. From the in vitro test, it was determined that the polydopamine-coated seed migrated shorter distances than the noncoated seed. This difference was increased with a greater length of time after implantation. Conclusions: The authors suggest that polydopamine coating is an effective technique to prevent migration of implanted seeds, especially for permanent prostate brachytherapy.

  8. Epoxy coatings electrodeposited on aluminium and modified aluminium surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Zorica Ž.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behaviour and thermal stability of epoxy coatings electrodeposited on modified aluminum surfaces (anodized, phosphatized and chromatized-phosphatized aluminium were monitored during exposure to 3% NaCl solution, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Better protective properties of the epoxy coatings on anodized and chromatized-phosphatized aluminum with respect to the same epoxy coatings on aluminum and phosphatized aluminum were obtained: higher values of Rp and Rct and smaller values of Cc and Cd, from EIS, and a smaller amount of absorbed water inside the coating, from TGA. On the other hand, a somewhat lower thermal stability of these coatings was obtained (smaller values of the ipdt temperature. This behavior can be explained by the less porous structure of epoxy coatings on anodized and chromatized-phosphatized aluminum, caused by a lower rate of H2 evolution and better wet ability.

  9. Evaluation of Advanced Solid Lubricant Coatings for Foil Air Bearings Operating at 25 and 500 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Fellenstein, James A.; Benoy, Patricia A.

    1998-01-01

    The tribological properties of one chrome oxide and one chrome carbide based solid lubricant coating were evaluated in a partial-arc foil bearing at 25 and 500 C. Start/stop bearing operation up to 20,000 cycles were run under 10 kPa (1.5 psi) static deadweight load. Bearing friction (torque) was measured during the test. Specimen wear and SEM/EDS surface analyses were conducted after testing to understand and elucidate the tribological characteristics observed. The chrome oxide coating which contains both (Ag) and (BaF2/CaF2) for low and high temperature lubrication, exhibited low friction in sliding against Al2O3 coated foils at 25 and 500 C. The chrome carbide coating, which lacked a low temperature lubricant but contained BaF2/CaF2 as a high temperature lubricant, exhibited high friction at 25 C and low friction at 500 C against both bare and Al2O3 coated superalloy foil surfaces. Post test surface analyses suggest that improved tribological performance is exhibited when a lubricant film from the coating transfers to the foil surface.

  10. Coatings and claddings for the reduction of plasma contamination and surface erosion in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminsky, M.

    1980-01-01

    For the successful operation of plasma devices and future fusion reactors it is necessary to control plasma impurity release and surface erosion. Effective methods to obtain such controls include the application of protective coatings to, and the use of clad materials for, certain first wall components. Major features of the development programs for coatings and claddings for fusion applications will be described together with an outline of the testing program. A discussion of some pertinent test results will be included

  11. Dynamic recrystallization in friction surfaced austenitic stainless steel coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puli, Ramesh, E-mail: rameshpuli2000@gmail.com; Janaki Ram, G.D.

    2012-12-15

    Friction surfacing involves complex thermo-mechanical phenomena. In this study, the nature of dynamic recrystallization in friction surfaced austenitic stainless steel AISI 316L coatings was investigated using electron backscattered diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the alloy 316L undergoes discontinuous dynamic recrystallization under conditions of moderate Zener-Hollomon parameter during friction surfacing. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic recrystallization in alloy 316L friction surfaced coatings is examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfacing leads to discontinuous dynamic recrystallization in alloy 316L. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strain rates in friction surfacing exceed 400 s{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estimated grain size matches well with experimental observations in 316L coatings.

  12. Surface functionalization with strontium-containing nanocomposite coatings via EPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kena; Huang, Dan; Cai, Jing; Cai, Xinjie; Gong, Lingling; Huang, Pin; Wang, Yining; Jiang, Tao

    2016-10-01

    Metal orthopedic implants still face challenges in some compromised conditions, partly due to bio-inertness. The present study aimed to functionalize metallic implants with organic-inorganic nanocomposite (strontium-containing chitosan/gelatin) coatings through a simple single-step electrophoretic deposition under mild conditions. The surface characterization and in vitro cellular response were studied and compared with chitosan/gelatin (CS/G) coatings. SEM images suggested the inorganic nanoparticles may be encapsulated within or mixed with organic polymers. The XRD patterns showed that strontium carbonate was generated in the coatings. The TEM images revealed strontium-containing nanoparticles were released from the coatings in PBS. The continuous release after the initial burst release ensured the enduring effects of the functionalized surface. The tensile bond strength of the coatings to the substrates increased after the addition of strontium. In vitro cellular study confirmed that strontium-containing coatings supported the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells and exhibited excellent ability to enhance the differentiation of such pre-osteoblasts. Therefore, such organic-inorganic nanocomposite coatings are a promising candidate to functionalize orthopedic implant surfaces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Computer analysis of transient heat transfer from coated surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, A.; Holmes, D.

    1983-01-01

    The transient thermal response of internally heated, coated surfaces in contact with liquid helium was investigated with a previously developed computer model. The coatings were found to affect the time required to initiate film boiling or to quench a superconductor in the substrate. The energy which can be absorbed without an unacceptably large temperature rise depends most strongly upon the coating thermal property group (kpC /SUB p/ ) /SUP 1/2/ and on the peak nucleate boiling heat flux. Dielectric materials for electrical insulation usually have low thermal property group values, but a new class of ceramic materials shows great promise for application with superconducting devices as electrical insulations with good thermal properties. Coating materials with thermal property group values greater than that of OFHC copper at liquid helium temperatures provide the same thermal stability as a bare copper surface exposed to the helium bath. Possible applications of the new materials to potted windings are also discussed

  14. Removable coating for contamination protection of concrete surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, G.; Beaulardi, L.

    1985-01-01

    In order to research protective coatings for concrete surfaces, assuring an effective protection against contamination and that it be easily removed before dismantling the structures, commercial stripping paints have been characterized for their conventional and nuclear properties: water and chemicals, abrasion, impact, tensile stress resistance, stripping capacity, decontaminability. The protective power of the coatings against contamination has been checked by recording the surface activity before and after stripping the paint film: the activity filtered through the coating was, in any case, very low (< 1% of the deposited activity). Indications from large scale application of a stripping paint in NUCLEO (Rome) establishments and technical evaluation of the possible utilization of removable coatings in the CAORSO Nuclear Power Station, are also reported

  15. RF surface resistance study of non-evaporable getter coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyshev, Oleg B., E-mail: oleg.malyshev@stfc.ac.uk [ASTeC, STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, WA4 4AD Cheshire (United Kingdom); Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury, Warrington, WA4 4AD Cheshire (United Kingdom); Gurran, Lewis [ASTeC, STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, WA4 4AD Cheshire (United Kingdom); Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury, Warrington, WA4 4AD Cheshire (United Kingdom); Engineering, Lancaster University, Cockcroft Institute, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Goudket, Philippe; Marinov, Kiril [ASTeC, STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, WA4 4AD Cheshire (United Kingdom); Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury, Warrington, WA4 4AD Cheshire (United Kingdom); Wilde, Stuart [ASTeC, STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, WA4 4AD Cheshire (United Kingdom); Loughborough University, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Valizadeh, Reza [ASTeC, STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, WA4 4AD Cheshire (United Kingdom); Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury, Warrington, WA4 4AD Cheshire (United Kingdom); Burt, Graeme [Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury, Warrington, WA4 4AD Cheshire (United Kingdom); Engineering, Lancaster University, Cockcroft Institute, Lancaster (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-01

    In many particle accelerators the beam parameters could be affected by the beam pipe wakefield impedance. It is vital to understand how the wakefield impedance might vary due to various coatings on the surface of the vacuum chamber, and this can be derived from surface resistance measurements. The bulk conductivity of two types of NEG films (dense and columnar) is determined. This is achieved by measuring the surface resistance of NEG-coated samples using an RF test cavity and fitting the experimental data to a standard theoretical model. The conductivity values obtained are then used to compare resistive wall wakefield effects in beam pipes coated with either of the two types of film. - Highlights: • The surface resistance two types of non-evaporable getter film was measured. • The bulk conductivity of two types of NEG films (dense and columnar) was determined. • The obtained conductivity values were applied for various RF frequencies.

  16. [Formation of microbial populations on the surface of protective coatings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopteva, Zh P; Zanina, V V; Piliashenko-Novokhatnyĭ, A I; Kopteva, A E; Kozlova, I A

    2001-01-01

    Formation of microbial cenosis on the surface of polyethylene-, polyurethane- and oil-bitumen-based protective coatings was studied in dynamics during 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days. It has been shown that the biofilm was formed on the protective materials during 14 days and consisted of ammonifying, denitrifying, hydrocarbon-oxidizing and sulphate-reducing bacteria referred to Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Kesulfovibrio genera. The bacteria which form the biofilm on coatings possess high denitrifying and sulphate-reducing activities. Corrosion inhibitors-biocydes, introduced in composition of oil-bitumen coatings suppressed growth and metabolic activity of corrosion-active bacteria.

  17. Surface Coating of Gypsum-Based Molds for Maxillofacial Prosthetic Silicone Elastomeric Material: The Surface Topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Salah; Ariffin, Zaihan; Husein, Adam; Reza, Fazal

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the surface roughness of maxillofacial silicone elastomers fabricated in noncoated and coated gypsum materials. This study was also conducted to characterize the silicone elastomer specimens after surfaces were modified. A gypsum mold was coated with clear acrylic spray. The coated mold was then used to produce modified silicone experimental specimens (n = 35). The surface roughness of the modified silicone elastomers was compared with that of the control specimens, which were prepared by conventional flasking methods (n = 35). An atomic force microscope (AFM) was used for surface roughness measurement of silicone elastomer (unmodified and modified), and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to evaluate the topographic conditions of coated and noncoated gypsum and silicone elastomer specimens (unmodified and modified) groups. After the gypsum molds were characterized, the fabricated silicone elastomers molded on noncoated and coated gypsum materials were evaluated further. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis of gypsum materials (noncoated and coated) and silicone elastomer specimens (unmodified and modified) was performed to evaluate the elemental changes after coating was conducted. Independent t test was used to analyze the differences in the surface roughness of unmodified and modified silicone at a significance level of p silicone elastomers processed against coated gypsum materials (p silicone elastomers. Silicone elastomers with lower surface roughness of maxillofacial prostheses can be obtained simply by coating a gypsum mold. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  18. Antibacterial and Bioactive Coatings on Titanium Implant Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Aranya, Anupama Kulkarni; Pushalkar, Smruti; Zhao, Minglei; LeGeros, Racquel Z.; Zhang, Yu; Saxena, Deepak

    2017-01-01

    Various surface modifications have been tried for enhancing osseointegration of the dental implants like mechanical and/or chemical treatments and deposition of calcium phosphate coatings. The objective of this research was to develop calcium-phosphate based thin coatings with antibacterial and bioactive properties for potential application in dental implants. Titanium (Ti) discs were immersed in different calcifying solutions: CaP (positive control), F-CaP, Zn-CaP and FZn-CaP and incubated f...

  19. Current Developments in Antimicrobial Surface Coatings for Biomedical Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swartjes, J. J. T. M.; Sharma, P. K.; van Kooten, T. G.; van der Mei, H. C.; Mahmoudi, M.; Busscher, H. J.; Rochford, E. T. J.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation on material surfaces represent a serious problem in society from both an economical and health perspective. Surface coating approaches to prevent bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are of increased importance due to the increasing prevalence

  20. Lunar Surface Mission Operations Scenario and Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Larissa S.; Torney, Susan E.; Rask, John Doug; Bleisath, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    Planetary surface operations have been studied since the last visit of humans to the Moon, including conducting analog missions. Mission Operations lessons from these activities are summarized. Characteristics of forecasted surface operations are compared to current human mission operations approaches. Considerations for future designs of mission operations are assessed.

  1. Technology of Strengthening Steel Details by Surfacing Composite Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, V. G.; Bataev, A. A.; Rakhimyanov, Kh M.; Mul, D. O.

    2016-04-01

    The article considers the problem of forming wear resistant meal ceramic coatings on steel surfaces using the results of our own investigations and the analysis of achievements made in the country and abroad. Increasing the wear resistance of surface layers of steel details is achieved by surfacing composite coatings with carbides or borides of metals as disperse particles in the strengthening phase. The use of surfacing on wearing machine details and mechanisms has a history of more than 100 years. But still engineering investigations in this field are being conducted up to now. The use of heating sources which provide a high density of power allows ensuring temperature and time conditions of surfacing under which composites with peculiar service and functional properties are formed. High concentration of energy in the zone of melt, which is created from powder mixtures and the hardened surface layer, allows producing the transition zone between the main material and surfaced coating. Surfacing by the electron beam directed from vacuum to the atmosphere is of considerable technological advantages. They give the possibility of strengthening surface layers of large-sized details by surfacing powder mixtures without their preliminary compacting. A modified layer of the main metal with ceramic particles distributed in it is created as a result of heating surfaced powders and the detail surface layer by the electron beam. Technology of surfacing allows using powders of refractory metals and graphite in the composition of powder mixtures. They interact with one another and form the particles of the hardening phase of the composition coating. The chemical composition of the main and surfaced materials is considered to be the main factor which determines the character of metallurgical processes in local zones of melt as well as the structure and properties of surfaced composition.

  2. GRINDING OF SURFACES WITH COATINGS FORMED BY ELECTROMAGNETIC FACING WITH SURFACE PLASTIC DEFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. A. Mrochek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents investigation results on machining of surfaces having a coating formed by electromagnetic facing with surface plastic deformation and using abrasive and diamond wheels having a porous metal binder with orientated drains.

  3. Maintenance Solutions for Bleeding and Flushed Pavements Surfaced with a Seal Coat or Surface Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    This report summarizes the findings of research directed at identifying maintenance solutions for bleeding and : flushed asphalt pavements surfaced with seal coats or surface treatments. Although the basic mechanism associated with : both bleeding an...

  4. Haemocompatibility evaluation of DLC- and SiC-coated surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdin N.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-like carbon (DLC and silicon carbide (SiC coatings are attractive because of low friction coefficient, high hardness, chemical inertness and smooth finish, which they provide to biomedical devices. Silicon wafers (Siwaf and silicone rubber (Sirub plates were coated using plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PE-CVD techniques. This article describes: 1- the characterization of modified surfaces using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR and contact angle measurements, 2- the results of three in-vitro haemocompatibility assays. Coated surfaces were compared to uncoated materials and various substrates such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, polyethylene (LDPE, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and medical steel (MS. Thrombin generation, blood platelet adhesion and complement convertase activity tests revealed the following classification, from the most to the least heamocompatible surface: Sirub/ DLC-Sirub/ DLC-Siwaf/ LDPE/ PDMS/ SiC-Siwaf/ Siwaf/ PMMA/ MS. The DLC coating surfaces delayed the clotting time, tended to inhibit the platelet and complement convertase activation, whereas SiC-coated silicon wafer can be considered as thrombogenic. This study has taken into account three events of the blood activation: coagulation, platelet activation and inflammation. The response to those events is an indicator of the in vitro haemocompatibility of the different surfaces and it allows us to select biomaterials for further in vivo blood contacting investigations.

  5. Antibacterial and bioactive coatings on titanium implant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni Aranya, Anupama; Pushalkar, Smruti; Zhao, Minglei; LeGeros, Racquel Z; Zhang, Yu; Saxena, Deepak

    2017-08-01

    Various surface modifications have been tried for enhancing osseointegration of the dental implants like mechanical and/or chemical treatments and deposition of calcium phosphate coatings. The objective of this research was to develop calcium-phosphate based thin coatings with antibacterial and bioactive properties for potential application in dental implants. Titanium (Ti) discs were immersed in different calcifying solutions: CaP (positive control), F-CaP, Zn-CaP, and FZn-CaP and incubated for 24 h. Negative control was uncoated Ti discs. Coated surfaces were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Antibacterial properties were tested using Porphyromonas gingivalis because of its strong association with periodontal and peri-implant infections. Bacterial adhesion and colonization were studied at different timepoints. The coated surfaces had compositional characteristics similar to that of bone mineral and they inhibited the growth, colonization and adherence of P. gingivalis, resulted in reduced thickness of biofilms and bacterial inhibition in the culture medium as compared to the positive and negative controls (p  0.05). It has been previously demonstrated that these coatings have excellent in vitro bioactivity (formed carbonate hydroxyapatite when immersed in a simulated body fluid). Such coatings can enhance osseointegration and prevent infection in implants, thereby improving the success rates of implants. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2218-2227, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Laminin coatings on implant surfaces promote osseointegration: Fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Fawad; Al Amri, Mohammad D; Kellesarian, Sergio Varela; Al-Askar, Mansour; Al-Kheraif, Abdulaziz A; Romanos, Georgios E

    2016-08-01

    To our knowledge from indexed literature, the role of laminins in the expression of osteogenic biomarkers and osseointegration enhancement has not been systematically reviewed. The aim of the present systematic review was to assess the role of laminin coatings on implant surfaces in promoting osseointegration. To address the focused question, "Do laminin coatings on implant surfaces influence osseointegration?", indexed databases were searched from 1965 up to and including November 2015 using various combination of the following keywords: "Bone to implant contact"; "implant"; "laminins"; and "osseointegration". Letters to the Editor, case-reports/case-series, historic reviews, and commentaries were excluded. The pattern of the present systematic review was customized to primarily summarize the pertinent data. Nine studies were included. Six studies were prospective and were performed in animals and 5 studies were in vitro. Results from 8 studies showed that laminin coatings enhanced new bone formation around implants and/or bone-to-implant contact. One study showed that laminin coated implants surfaces did not improve osseointegration. On experimental grounds, laminin coatings seem to enhance osteogenic biomarkers expression and/or osseointegration; however, from a clinical perspective, further randomized control trials are needed to assess the role of laminin coatings in promoting osseointegration around dental implants. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A study of the effect of coatings operation on radioiodine removing adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, W.P.; Enneking, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear air treatment systems are designed to remove radioactive contaminants from air. If the contaminants are gaseous in form (iodine and its compounds), activated carbon is employed to remove them from the air stream by the process of adsorption. The ability of the carbon to perform its function is checked periodically by sending representative samples to a laboratory for testing. Test methods and conditions are included in the plant technical specification along with failure criteria. When a test sample fails to perform as specified, the carbon in the air cleaning unit must be replaced with new material. Solvents from coating operations can poison carbon by blocking or reducing the surface area available for subsequent reaction of radioiodine compounds. NUCON has developed mathematical models to predict the amount of solvent in the air and residual solvents remaining in the coating at any given time during a coating operation for both normal and accident ventilation modes

  8. Surface roughness reduction using spray-coated hydrogen silsesquioxane reflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cech, Jiri; Pranov, Henrik; Kofod, Guggi; Matschuk, Maria; Murthy, Swathi; Taboryski, Rafael

    2013-09-01

    Surface roughness or texture is the most visible property of any object, including injection molded plastic parts. Roughness of the injection molding (IM) tool cavity directly affects not only appearance and perception of quality, but often also the function of all manufactured plastic parts. So called “optically smooth” plastic surfaces is one example, where low roughness of a tool cavity is desirable. Such tool surfaces can be very expensive to fabricate using conventional means, such as abrasive diamond polishing or diamond turning. We present a novel process to coat machined metal parts with hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) to reduce their surface roughness. Results from the testing of surfaces made from two starting roughnesses are presented; one polished with grit 2500 sandpaper, another with grit 11.000 diamond polishing paste. We characterize the two surfaces with AFM, SEM and optical profilometry before and after coating. We show that the HSQ coating is able to reduce peak-to-valley roughness more than 20 times on the sandpaper polished sample, from 2.44(±0.99) μm to 104(±22) nm and more than 10 times for the paste polished sample from 1.85(±0.63) μm to 162(±28) nm while roughness averages are reduced 10 and 3 times respectively. We completed more than 10,000 injection molding cycles without detectable degradation of the HSQ coating. This result opens new possibilities for molding of affordable plastic parts with perfect surface finish.

  9. Comparison of surface fractal dimensions of chromizing coating and P110 steel for corrosion resistance estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Naiming; Guo, Junwen; Xie, Faqin; Zou, Jiaojuan; Tian, Wei; Yao, Xiaofei; Zhang, Hongyan; Tang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Continuous chromizing coating was synthesized on P110 steel by pack cementation. • The chromizing coating showed better corrosion resistance. • Comparison of surface fractal dimensions can estimate corrosion resistance. - Abstract: In the field of corrosion research, mass gain/loss, electrochemical tests and comparing the surface elemental distributions, phase constitutions as well as surface morphologies before and after corrosion are extensively applied to investigate the corrosion behavior or estimate the corrosion resistance of materials that operated in various environments. Most of the above methods are problem oriented, complex and longer-period time-consuming. However from an object oriented point of view, the corroded surfaces of materials often have self-similar characterization: fractal property which can be employed to efficiently achieve damaged surface analysis. The present work describes a strategy of comparison of the surface fractal dimensions for corrosion resistance estimation: chromizing coating was synthesized on P110 steel surface to improve its performance via pack cementation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to investigate the surface morphologies of the original and corroded samples. Surface fractal dimensions of the detected samples were calculated by binary images related to SEM images of surface morphologies with box counting algorithm method. The results showed that both surface morphologies and surface fractal dimensions of P110 steel varied greatly before and after corrosion test, but the chromizing coating changed slightly. The chromizing coating indicated better corrosion resistance than P110 steel. Comparison of surface fractal dimensions of original and corroded samples can rapidly and exactly realize the estimation of corrosion resistance

  10. Wetting of polymer melts on coated and uncoated steel surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Julie; Contraires, Elise; Brulez, Anne-Catherine; Larochette, Mathieu; Valette, Stéphane; Benayoun, Stéphane

    2017-07-01

    A comparative study of the wetting of three different commercial polymer melts on various coated and uncoated steel surfaces is described in this report. The wettability of steel and coatings (three different titanium nitride coatings, TiN, TiNOx, TiNOy, a chromium coating, CrN, and a diamond-like carbon coating, DLC) used for mold in polymer processing is determined at different temperatures between 25 °C and 120 °C. Contact angle measurements of melted polypropylene (PP), Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) and Polycarbonate (PC) on steel and on the different coatings were performed to investigate the wetting behavior under closer-to-processing conditions. Recommendations for good measurement conditions were proposed. Moreover, the surface free energy of each melt polymer was determined. The works of adhesion between all polymers and all substrates were established. Among all tested polymers, the lowest value of the works of adhesion is calculated for ABS and for PC thereafter, and the highest value is calculated for PP. These results will be particularly important for such applications as determining the extent to which these polymers can contribute to the replication quality in injection molding.

  11. Mechanical analysis of surface-coated zircaloy cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youho Lee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A structural model for stress distributions of coated Zircaloy subjected to realistic incore pressure difference, thermal expansion, irradiation-induced axial growth, and creep has been developed in this study. In normal operation, the structural integrity of coating layers is anticipated to be significantly challenged with increasing burnup. Strain mismatch between the zircaloy and the coated layer, due to their different irradiation-induced axial growth, and creep deformation are found to be the most dominant causes of stress. This study suggests that the compatibility of the high temperature irradiation-induced strains (axial growth and creep between zircaloy and the coating layer and the capability to undergo plastic strain should be taken as key metrics, along with the traditional focus on chemical protectiveness.

  12. Mechanical analysis of surface-coated zircaloy cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, You Ho; Lee, Jeong Ik; No, Hee Cheon [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    A structural model for stress distributions of coated Zircaloy subjected to realistic incore pressure difference, thermal expansion, irradiation-induced axial growth, and creep has been developed in this study. In normal operation, the structural integrity of coating layers is anticipated to be significantly challenged with increasing burnup. Strain mismatch between the zircaloy and the coated layer, due to their different irradiation-induced axial growth, and creep deformation are found to be the most dominant causes of stress. This study suggests that the compatibility of the high temperature irradiation-induced strains (axial growth and creep) between zircaloy and the coating layer and the capability to undergo plastic strain should be taken as key metrics, along with the traditional focus on chemical protectiveness.

  13. Operator bosonization on Riemann surfaces: new vertex operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semikhatov, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    A new formalism is proposed for the construction of an operator theory of generalized ghost systems (bc theories of spin J) on Riemann surfaces (loop diagrams of the theory of closed strings). The operators of the bc system are expressed in terms of operators of the bosonic conformal theory on a Riemann surface. In contrast to the standard bosonization formulas, which have meaning only locally, operator Baker-Akhiezer functions, which are well defined globally on a Riemann surface of arbitrary genus, are introduced. The operator algebra of the Baker-Akhiezer functions generates explicitly the algebraic-geometric τ function and correlation functions of bc systems on Riemann surfaces

  14. Frictional forces between hydrophilic and hydrophobic particle coated nanostructured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Petra M; Claesson, Per M.; Swerin, Agne

    2013-01-01

    Friction forces have long been associated with the famous Amontons' rule that states that the friction force is linearly dependent on the applied normal load, with the proportionality constant being known as the friction coefficient. Amontons' rule is however purely phenomenological and does...... not in itself provide any information on why the friction coefficient is different for different material combinations. In this study, friction forces between a colloidal probe and nanostructured particle coated surfaces in an aqueous environment exhibiting different roughness length scales were measured...... by utilizing the atomic force microscope (AFM). The chemistry of the surfaces and the probe was varied between hydrophilic silica and hydrophobized silica. For hydrophilic silica surfaces, the friction coefficient was significantly higher for the particle coated surfaces than on the flat reference surface. All...

  15. High rate operation of micro-strip gas chambers on diamond-coated glass

    CERN Document Server

    Bouclier, Roger; Million, Gilbert; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Temmel, T; Cooke, R A; Donnel, S; Sastri, S A; Sonderer, N

    1996-01-01

    Very high rate operation of micro­strip gas chambers can be achieved using slightly conducting substrates. We describe preliminary measurements realized with detectors manufactured on boro-silicate glass coated, before the photo-lithographic processing, with a diamond layer having a surface resistivity of around 1014 ‡/o. Stable medium-term operation, and a rate capability largely exceeding the one obtained with identical plates manufactured on uncoated glass are demonstrated. If these results are confirmed by long-term measurements the diamond coating technology appears very attractive since it allows, with a moderate cost overhead, to use thin, commercially available glass with the required surface quality for the large-scale production of gas micro-strip detectors.

  16. Hydroxyapatite coating on damaged tooth surfaces by immersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Byoung-Ki; Ryu, Su-Chak [Department of Nanomaterials Engineering, College of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Pusan National University, Miryang, 607-706 (Korea, Republic of); Sun, Fangfang; Koh, Kwangnak; Han, Dong-Wook; Lee, Jaebeom, E-mail: jaebeom@pusan.ac.k [Department of Nanomedical Engineering, College of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Pusan National University, Miryang, 607-706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) was coated on scratched areas of a human tooth and HAp disks by the immersion method in a HAp colloidal solution (<=20{mu}m of average diameter dispersed in DI water). The surface morphologies of the scratched area after immersion for 1-3 months were investigated showing that the damaged surfaces were remarkably recovered. Then, the mechanical property and chemical stability of the HAp coating layers on both specimens were determined via the Vickers hardness test and concentration measurement of extracted Ca{sup 2+} ions, respectively, after strong acidic treatment. The cellular behavior of mouse calvaria-derived pre-osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1) was also examined on the HAp layers regenerated on micro-scratched HAp disks for the purpose of their potential applications on maxillofacial bone conservation and reconstruction for prosthetic dentistry, and artificial disk preparation of a vertebral column. The notable loss of Ca{sup 2+} ions under a highly acidic condition was not observed in the layers coated by HAp adsorption, indicating that the coating surface was well adhered with the original surfaces of the respective specimen. Moreover, the HAp adsorption did not adversely affect the adhesion, growth and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells on the coated HAp layers for up to 21 days. These results suggest that the HAp coating on the scratched areas of the tooth would be effectively applicable for the development of long-term prevention of micro-cleavage and tooth health supporters to reduce discoloration and further maxillofacial and orthopedic applications.

  17. Surface property modification of coatings via self-stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Robert Joseph

    Biological fouling occurs everywhere in the marine environment and is a significant problem for marine vessels. Anti-fouling coatings have been used effectively to prevent fouling; however, these coatings harm non-targeted sea-life. Fouling-release coatings (FRC) appear to be an alternative way to combat fouling. FRC do not necessarily prevent the settlement of marine organisms but rather allow their easy removal with application of shear to the coatings surface. These coatings must be non-toxic, non-leaching, have low surface energy, low modulus, and durability to provide easy removal of marine organisms. Here the goal is to develop FRC based on thermosetting siloxane-polyurethane, amphiphilic polyurethane, and zwitterionic/amphiphilic polyurethane systems. A combinatorial high-throughput approach has been taken in order to explore the variables that may affect the performance of the final coatings. Libraries of acrylic polyols were synthesized using combinatorial high-throughput techniques by either batch or semi-batch processes. The design of the experiments for the batch and semi-batch processes were done combinatorially to explore a range of compositions and various reaction process variables that cannot be accomplished or are not suitable for single reaction experiments. Characterization of Rapid-GPC, high-throughput DSC, and gravimetrically calculated percent solids verified the effects of different reaction conditions on the MW, glass transition temperatures, and percent conversion of the different compositions of acrylic polyols. Coatings were characterized for their surface energy, pseudobarnacle pull-off adhesion, and were subjected to bioassays including marine bacteria, algae, and barnacles. From the performance properties results the acrylic polyol containing 20% hydroxyethyl acrylate and 80% butyl acrylate was selected for further siloxane-polyurethane formulations and were subjected to the same physical, mechanical, and performance testing

  18. Performance of waterborne acrylic surface coatings on wood ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1, February 2011, pp. 113–119. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Performance of waterborne acrylic surface coatings on wood impregnated with Cu-ethanolamine preservatives. M HUMAR, M PAVLI ˇC, D ŽLINDRA†, M TOMAŽI ˇC†† and M PETRI ˇC. ∗. Department of Wood Science and Technology, University of Ljubljana, ...

  19. Metal-coated magnetic nanoparticles for surface enhanced Raman ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report the optimization and usage of surfactantless, water dispersible Ag and Au-coated γ–Fe2O3 nanoparticles for applications in surface-enhanced .... After the solvent evaporated, 2 μL of analyte of ∼1 μM concentration was ..... dry soil, and comprised of smooth, distinct, rectangular and square shaped islands, whose ...

  20. LANTHANUM STAINING OF THE SURFACE COAT OF CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Stephen M.

    1971-01-01

    Among the techniques which have been reported to stain the surface coat of cells, for electron microscopy, is lanthanum staining en bloc. Similarly, the presence of the cationic dye, Alcian blue 8GX, in a primary glutaraldehyde fixative has been reported to improve the preservation of the surface coat of cells of many types; however, the preserved coat is not very electron opaque unless thin sections are counterstained. The present paper shows that for several rat tissues lanthanum staining en bloc is an effective electron stain for the cell surface, giving excellent contrast, if combined sequentially with prefixation in an aldehyde fixative containing Alcian blue. The cationic substance cetylpyridinium chloride was found to have a similar effect to that of Alcian blue in enhancing the lanthanum staining of the surface coat material of the brush border of intestinal epithelial cells. The patterns of lanthanum staining obtained for the tissues studied strikingly resemble those reported in the literature where tissues are stained by several standard methods for demonstrating mucosubstances at the ultrastructural level. This fact and the reproduction of the effect of Alcian blue by cetylpyridinium chloride constitute a persuasive empirical argument that the material visualized is a mucopolysaccharide or mucopolysaccharide-protein complex. PMID:4108476

  1. Efficiency of surface modified Ti coated with copper nanoparticles to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    various fields like medical instruments and devices, water treatment and food processing. For better utilization of antimicrobial activity the metal nanoparticles may be com- bined with polymers to form composites [23]. Our pre- vious study also proved the anti-biofouling property of surface modified Ti coated with silver ...

  2. Fe3Si surface coating on SiFe steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneeweiss, O.; Pizurova, N.; Jiraskova, Y.; Zak, T.; Cornut, B.

    2000-01-01

    Fe 3 Si layers were prepared using chemical vapor deposition of Si on the surface of Go steel and its subsequent heat treatment. The changes in the structure and phase composition after different heat treatment conditions have been analyzed. The coating is characterized by high hardness, good corrosion resistance, high electrical resistivity, and the spin texture which differs from the steel substrate

  3. Surface roughness reduction using spray-coated hydrogen silsesquioxane reflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cech, Jiri; Pranov, Henrik; Kofod, Guggi

    2013-01-01

    Surface roughness or texture is the most visible property of any object, including injection molded plastic parts. Roughness of the injection molding (IM) tool cavity directly affects not only appearance and perception of quality, but often also the function of all manufactured plastic parts. So...... are reduced 10 and 3 times respectively. We completed more than 10,000 injection molding cycles without detectable degradation of the HSQ coating. This result opens new possibilities for molding of affordable plastic parts with perfect surface finish....... called “optically smooth” plastic surfaces is one example, where low roughness of a tool cavity is desirable. Such tool surfaces can be very expensive to fabricate using conventional means, such as abrasive diamond polishing or diamond turning. We present a novel process to coat machined metal parts...

  4. Gelatin Nano-coating for Inhibiting Surface Crystallization of Amorphous Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerakapibal, Rattavut; Gui, Yue; Yu, Lian

    2018-01-05

    Inhibit the fast surface crystallization of amorphous drugs with gelatin nano-coatings. The free surface of amorphous films of indomethacin or nifedipine was coated by a gelatin solution (type A or B) and dried. The coating's effect on surface crystallization was evaluated. Coating thickness was estimated from mass change after coating. For indomethacin (weak acid, pK a  = 4.5), a gelatin coating of either type deposited at pH 5 and 10 inhibited its fast surface crystal growth. The coating thickness was 20 ± 10 nm. A gelatin coating deposited at pH 3, however, provided no protective effect. These results suggest that an effective gelatin coating does not require that the drug and the polymer have opposite charges. The ineffective pH 3 coating might reflect the poor wetting of indomethacin's neutral, hydrophobic surface by the coating solution. For nifedipine (weak base, pK a  = 2.6), a gelatin coating of either type deposited at pH 5 inhibited its fast surface crystal growth. Gelatin nano-coatings can be conveniently applied to amorphous drugs from solution to inhibit fast surface crystallization. Unlike strong polyelectrolyte coatings, a protective gelatin coating does not require strict pairing of opposite charges. This could make gelatin coating a versatile, pharmaceutically acceptable coating for stabilizing amorphous drugs.

  5. Current Developments in Antimicrobial Surface Coatings for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartjes, J J T M; Sharma, P K; van Kooten, T G; van der Mei, H C; Mahmoudi, M; Busscher, H J; Rochford, E T J

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation on material surfaces represent a serious problem in society from both an economical and health perspective. Surface coating approaches to prevent bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are of increased importance due to the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains. Effective antimicrobial surface coatings can be based on an anti-adhesive principle that prevents bacteria to adhere, or on bactericidal strategies, killing organisms either before or after contact is made with the surface. Many strategies, however, implement a multifunctional approach that incorporates both of these mechanisms. For anti-adhesive strategies, the use of polymer chains, or hydrogels is preferred, although recently a new class of super-hydrophobic surfaces has been described which demonstrate improved anti-adhesive activity. In addition, bacterial killing can be achieved using antimicrobial peptides, antibiotics, chitosan or enzymes directly bound, tethered through spacer-molecules or encased in biodegradable matrices, nanoparticles and quaternary ammonium compounds. Notwithstanding the ubiquitous nature of the problem of microbial colonization of material surfaces, this review focuses on the recent developments in antimicrobial surface coatings with respect to biomaterial implants and devices. In this biomedical arena, to rank the different coating strategies in order of increasing efficacy is impossible, since this depends on the clinical application aimed for and whether expectations are short- or long term. Considering that the era of antibiotics to control infectious biofilms will eventually come to an end, the future for biofilm control on biomaterial implants and devices is likely with surface-associated modifications that are non-antibiotic related.

  6. Thermal repellent properties of surface coating using silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. Y.; Halim, M. S.; Aminudin, E.; Guntor, N. A.

    2017-11-01

    Extensive land development in urban areas is completely altering the surface profile of human living environment. As cities growing rapidly, impervious building and paved surfaces are replacing the natural landscape. In the developing countries with tropical climate, large masses of building elements, such as brick wall and concrete members, absorb and store large amount of heat, which in turn radiate back to the surrounding air during the night time. This bubble of heat is known as urban heat island (UHI). The use of high albedo urban surfaces is an inexpensive measure that can reduce surrounded temperature. Thus, the main focus of this study is to investigate the ability of silica, SiO2, with high albedo value, to be used as a thermal-repelled surface coating for brick wall. Three different silica coatings were used, namely silicone resin, silicone wax and rain repellent and one exterior commercial paint (jota shield paint) that commercially available in the market were applied on small-scale brick wall models. An uncoated sample also had been fabricated as a control sample for comparison. These models were placed at the outdoor space for solar exposure. Outdoor environment measurement was carried out where the ambient temperature, surface temperature, relative humidity and UV reflectance were recorded. The effect of different type of surface coating on temperature variation of the surface brick wall and the thermal performance of coatings as potential of heat reduction for brick wall have been studied. Based on the results, model with silicone resin achieved the lowest surface temperature which indicated that SiO2 can be potentially used to reduce heat absorption on the brick wall and further retains indoor passive thermal comfortability.

  7. Investigation of anti-Relaxation coatings for alkali-metal vapor cells using surface science techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltzer, S. J.; Michalak, D. J.; Donaldson, M. H.; Balabas, M. V.; Barber, S. K.; Bernasek, S. L.; Bouchiat, M.-A.; Hexemer, A.; Hibberd, A. M.; Jackson Kimball, D. F.; Jaye, C.; Karaulanov, T.; Narducci, F. A.; Rangwala, S. A.; Robinson, H. G.; Shmakov, A. K.; Voronov, D. L.; Yashchuk, V. V.; Pines, A.; Budker, D.

    2010-10-11

    Many technologies based on cells containing alkali-metal atomic vapor benefit from the use of antirelaxation surface coatings in order to preserve atomic spin polarization. In particular, paraffin has been used for this purpose for several decades and has been demonstrated to allow an atom to experience up to 10?000 collisions with the walls of its container without depolarizing, but the details of its operation remain poorly understood. We apply modern surface and bulk techniques to the study of paraffin coatings in order to characterize the properties that enable the effective preservation of alkali spin polarization. These methods include Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, atomic force microscopy, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We also compare the light-induced atomic desorption yields of several different paraffin materials. Experimental results include the determination that crystallinity of the coating material is unnecessary, and the detection of C=C double bonds present within a particular class of effective paraffin coatings. Further study should lead to the development of more robust paraffin antirelaxation coatings, as well as the design and synthesis of new classes of coating materials.

  8. Effect of cathodic polarization on coating doxycycline on titanium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geißler, Sebastian; Tiainen, Hanna; Haugen, Håvard J., E-mail: h.j.haugen@odont.uio.no

    2016-06-01

    Cathodic polarization has been reported to enhance the ability of titanium based implant materials to interact with biomolecules by forming titanium hydride at the outermost surface layer. Although this hydride layer has recently been suggested to allow the immobilization of the broad spectrum antibiotic doxycycline on titanium surfaces, the involvement of hydride in binding the biomolecule onto titanium remains poorly understood. To gain better understanding of the influence this immobilization process has on titanium surfaces, mirror-polished commercially pure titanium surfaces were cathodically polarized in the presence of doxycycline and the modified surfaces were thoroughly characterized using atomic force microscopy, electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and angle-resolved X-ray spectroscopy. We demonstrated that no hydride was created during the polarization process. Doxycycline was found to be attached to an oxide layer that was modified during the electrochemical process. A bacterial assay using bioluminescent Staphylococcus epidermidis Xen43 showed the ability of the coating to reduce bacterial colonization and planktonic bacterial growth. - Highlights: • Titanium hydride was found not to be involved in immobilization of doxycycline. • Doxycycline coating was strongly bound to a modified surface oxide layer. • Effect of coatings tested using a dynamic bacteria assay based on bioluminescence. • Topmost layer of adsorbed doxycycline was shown to have strong antibacterial effect.

  9. Mechanical Properties of Glass Surfaces Coated with Tin Oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swindlehurst, W. E.; Cantor, B.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of tin oxide coatings on the coefficient of friction and fracture strength of glass surfaces is studied. Experiments were performed partly on commercially treated glass bottles and partly on laboratory prepared microscope slides. Coatings were applied in the laboratory by decomposition...... of tin tetrachloride on industrial soda glass at ~800K to thicknesses of ~3×10-8 and 3×10 -7 m, commercially by the `titanising' process on industrial soda glass at ~800K to a thickness of ~3.10-9 m, and in the laboratory by radio frequency sputtering from tin oxide powder over a range of glass...

  10. Wear of Shaped Surfaces of PVD Coated Dies for Clinching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Džupon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A clinching method that uses a simple toolset consisting of a punch and a die, is utilized for joining lightweight materials. This paper is aimed at investigating the wear of the die cavity of a clinching tool. A clinching tool with a specially shaped cavity was used for joining thin hot-dip galvanized steel sheets. Various types of physical vapour deposition (PVD coatings such as ZrN, CrN and TiCN were deposited on the shaped surface of the die using Lateral Rotating Arc-Cathodes technology. Hot-dip galvanized steel sheets were used for testing the clinching tool. The material properties of PVD coatings that were deposited on the shaped part of the clinching die were evaluated. Finite Element Analysis was used to localize the area of the shaped part of the die and the part of surface area of the cylindrical die cavity of ϕ 5.0 mm, in which high contact pressure values were predicted. The prediction of the start of the wear cycle was verified experimentally by the clinching of 300 samples of hot-dip galvanized steel sheets. Unlike the CrN and ZrN coatings, the TiCN coating remained intact on the entire surface of the die.

  11. Effects of Surface Coating Preparation and Sliding Modes on Titanium Oxide Coated Titanium Alloy for Aerospace Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yuan Peng

    2014-01-01

    electrolytic oxidation (PEO. During the PEO procedure, a composition of silicate and phosphate was used as the electrolyte. In order to evaluate the coating, pin-on-disk (POD tribology tests and cyclic inclined sliding tests were used under dry room conditions. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS were utilized to examine the morphology and composition of the coating surfaces. The results of the POD tests revealed that the PEO coating could have a low coefficient of friction and suggested that high silicon concentrations in the PEO coatings take away oxygen from stoichiometric Ti oxides to create lubricating oxides. In addition, cyclic inclined sliding tests showed that smaller pores on the surface of the coating could permit a higher coating cohesive strength and allow the coated Ti alloy surface to perform better under high inclined sliding forces.

  12. Surface self-organization in multilayer film coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvalov, Gleb M.; Kostyrko, Sergey A.

    2017-12-01

    It is a recognized fact that during film deposition and subsequent thermal processing the film surface evolves into an undulating profile. Surface roughness affects many important aspects in the engineering application of thin film materials such as wetting, heat transfer, mechanical, electromagnetic and optical properties. To accurately control the morphological surface modifications at the micro- and nanoscale and improve manufacturing techniques, we design a mathematical model of the surface self-organization process in multilayer film materials. In this paper, we consider a solid film coating with an arbitrary number of layers under plane strain conditions. The film surface has a small initial perturbation described by a periodic function. It is assumed that the evolution of the surface relief is governed by surface and volume diffusion. Based on Gibbs thermodynamics and linear theory of elasticity, we present a procedure for constructing a governing equation that gives the amplitude change of the surface perturbation with time. A parametric study of the evolution equation leads to the definition of a critical undulation wavelength that stabilizes the surface. As a numerical result, the influence of geometrical and physical parameters on the morphological stability of an isotropic two-layered film coating is analyzed.

  13. PROCESSES PROCEEDING ON CONCRETE COATING SURFACES IN CASE OF THEIR CHEMICAL PROTECTION AGAINST WINTER SLIPPERINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Pshembaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete coatings of road traffic highways along with operational loadings caused by flow of traffic are subjected to weather and climate impacts. These are the following impacts: changes in temperature and air humidity, solar radiation,surface wind speed which is participating in formation of active heat-and-mass transfer in a surface layer of the concrete coating. One of the most complicated and important periods in the road traffic highway operation is so called transitional nature period (from Summer to Autumn and from Winter to Spring. These periods are accompanied by intensive rain and snow fall and possible formation of ice loading on the surface of cement and concrete coatings. These impacts significantly deteriorate friction properties of road pavement (friction factor φ is decreased up to 0.4 and less that can be a prerequisite to creation of various accident situations due to sharp increase in braking distance. For example, while having dry pavement the friction factor φ is equal to 0.80–0.85, and during icy condition of the road the factor φ constitutes 0.08–0.15 that consequently entails an increase in braking distance from 7.5 up to 20.0 m and more. It is quite possible that ice layer appears on the surface of concrete coatings when road traffic highways are used in winter season. Various methods are applicable to remove ice from the surface they can include also ice-melting chemicals and sodium chloride NaCl in particular. The chemical decreases freezing temperature of the formed brine and causes ice melting at negative temperature. Processes of NaCl dissolution and ice melting have an endothermic character, in other words these processes are accompanied by heat ingress and due to it temperature is sharply decreasing in the surface layer of the concrete coating which is under the melting ice and in this case phenomenon of thermal shock is observed.

  14. Pipeline coating inspection in Mexico applying surface electromagnetic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, O.; Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Villarreal, J.M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP), Mexico City (Mexico); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Cano, B. [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), Mexico City (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The main problems in the pipeline systems in Mexico include: extremely aggressive soil characterized by a high clay content and low resistivity, interconnection between several pipes, including electrical contacts of active pipelines with out of service pipes, and short distances between pipes in comparison with their depths which reduce the resolution of coating inspection. The results presented in this work show the efficiency of the Surface Electromagnetic Pipeline Inspection (SEMPI) technology to determine the technical condition of pipelines in situations before mentioned. The SEMPI technology includes two stages: regional and detailed measurements. The regional stage consists of magnetic field measurements along the pipeline using large distances (10 - 100 m) between observation points to delimit zones with damaged coating. For quantitative assessing the leakage and coating resistances along pipeline, additional measurements of voltage and soil resistivity measurements are performed. The second stage includes detailed measurements of the electric field on the pipe intervals with anomalous technical conditions identified in the regional stage. Based on the distribution of the coating electric resistance and the subsoil resistivity values, the delimitation of the zones with different grade of coating quality and soil aggressiveness are performed. (author)

  15. Advances in surface engineering. V. 1. Fundamentals of coatings. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, P.K.; Burnell-Gray, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    The scientific and technical research papers in these three volumes, on advances in surface engineering, cover the fundamentals of coatings, process technology and engineering applications, and are based on the proceedings of the May 1996 conference of the same name, held at the University of Northumbria. High temperature corrosion, aqueous corrosion, wear and fatigue are covered in Volume 1. Volume 2 includes papers on various surface engineering technologies including physical and chemical vapour deposition, thermal methods, plasmas and welds, lasers, peening and electrochemistry. Applications of surface engineering to the biomedical, aerospace, automotive, cutting tools and manufacturing, power generation and marine industries are discussed in Volume 3. (UK)

  16. Enhanced propellant performance via environmentally friendly curable surface coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Manning

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface coating of granular propellants is widely used in a multiplicity of propellants for small, medium and large caliber ammunition. All small caliber ball propellants exhibit burning progressivity due to application of effective deterrent coatings. Large perforated propellant grains have also begun utilizing plasticizing and impregnated deterrent coatings with the purpose of increasing charge weights for greater energy and velocity for the projectile. The deterrent coating and impregnation process utilizes volatile organic compounds (VOCs and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs which results in propellants that need to be forced air dried which impacts air quality. Propellants undergo temperature fluctuations during their life. Diffusion coefficients vary exponentially with variations in temperature. A small temperature increase can induce a faster migration, even over a short period of time, which can lead to large deviations in the concentration. This large concentration change in the ammunition becomes a safety or performance liability. The presence of both polymeric deterrents and nitroglycerin(NG in the nitrocellulose matrix and organic solvents leads to higher diffusion rates. This results in continued emissions of VOCs and HAPs. Conventional polymers tend to partition within the propellant matrix. In other words, localized mixing can occur between the polymer and underlying propellant. This is due to solvent induced softening of the polymer vehicle over the propellant grain. In effect this creates a path where migration can occur. Since nitrate esters, like NG, are relatively small, it can exude to the surface and create a highly unstable and dangerous situation for the warfighter. Curable polymers do not suffer from this partitioning due to “melting” because no VOC solvents are present. They remain surface coated. The small scale characterization testing, such as closed bomb testing, small scale sensitivity, thermal stability, and

  17. Coating of hydroxyapatite doped Ag on commercially pure titanium surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Jonas de Oliveira; Vercik, Luci Cristina de Oliveira; Rigo, Eliana Cristina da Silva

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results of bioactive coating on commercially pure titanium surface (CpTi) doped with Ag ions. The coating consists of 3 steps, in step 1- surface chemical treatment of the samples with NaOH, step 2 - immersing the substrate in question in a sodium silicate solution (SS) to the nucleation and step 3 - reimmersion these substrates in synthetic solution that simulates the blood serum for precipitation and growth of apatite layer. After the coating step the AgNO 3 substrates were immersed in solutions with concentrations of 20 ppm and 100 ppm at 37 ° C for 48h. The substrates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). By the results verified the formation of an apatite layer with aspects of cells, on the surface of CpTi. The increase in Ag concentration causes an increase in Ag amount doped in apatite layer. With the results we concluded that it is possible to obtain an apatite layer on a metal surface as the CpTi doped with Ag ions

  18. THE METHOD OF ROLL SURFACE QUALITY MEASUREMENT FOR CONTINUOUS HOT DIP ZINC COATED STEEL SHEET PRODUCTION LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Yong Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes a developed analyzing system of roll surface during the process of continuous hot dip zinc coated steel sheet production line, in particular, adhering problem by transferred inclusions from roll to steel sheet surface during annealing process so called the pickup. The simulated test machine for coated roll surface in processing line has been designed and performed. The system makes it possible to analyze roll surface condition according to pickup phenomena from various roll coatings concerning operating conditions of hearth rolls in annealing furnace. The algorithm of fast pickup detection on surface is developed on the base of processing of several optical images of surface. The parameters for quality estimation of surface with pickups were developed. The optical system for images registration and image processing electronics may be used in real time and embed in processing line.

  19. Porous polymer coatings: a versatile approach to superhydrophobic surfaces**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkin, Pavel A.; Svec, Frantisek

    2009-01-01

    We present a facile and inexpensive approach to superhydrophobic polymer coatings. The method involves the in-situ polymerization of common monomers in the presence of a porogenic solvent to afford superhydrophobic surfaces with the desired combination of micro- and nano-scale roughness. The method is applicable to a variety of substrates and is not limited to small areas or flat surfaces. The polymerized material can be ground into a superhydrophobic powder, which, once applied to a surface, renders it superhydrophobic. The morphology of the porous polymer structure can be efficiently controlled by composition of the polymerization mixture, while surface chemistry can be adjusted by photografting. Morphology control is used to reduce the globule size of the porous architecture from micro down to nanoscale thereby affording a transparent material. The influence of both surface chemistry as well as the length scale of surface roughness on the superhydrophobicity is discussed. PMID:20160978

  20. Plasma surface oxidation of 316L stainless steel for improving adhesion strength of silicone rubber coating to metal substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latifi, Afrooz, E-mail: afroozlatifi@yahoo.com [Department of Biomaterials, Biomedical Engineering Faculty, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Imani, Mohammad [Novel Drug Delivery Systems Dept., Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box 14965/115, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorasani, Mohammad Taghi [Biomaterials Dept., Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box 14965/159, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Daliri Joupari, Morteza [Animal and Marine Biotechnology Dept., National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, P.O. Box 14965/161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Stainless steel 316L was surface modified by plasma surface oxidation (PSO) and silicone rubber (SR) coating. • On the PSO substrates, concentration of oxide species was increased ca. 2.5 times comparing to non-PSO substrates. • The surface wettability was improved to 12.5°, in terms of water contact angle, after PSO. • Adhesion strength of SR coating on the PSO substrates was improved by more than two times comparing to non-PSO ones. • After pull-off test, the fractured area patterns for SR coating were dependent on the type of surface modifications received. - Abstract: Stainless steel 316L is one of the most widely used materials for fabricating of biomedical devices hence, improving its surface properties is still of great interest and challenging in biomaterial sciences. Plasma oxidation, in comparison to the conventional chemical or mechanical methods, is one of the most efficient methods recently used for surface treatment of biomaterials. Here, stainless steel specimens were surface oxidized by radio-frequency plasma irradiation operating at 34 MHz under pure oxygen atmosphere. Surface chemical composition of the samples was significantly changed after plasma oxidation by appearance of the chromium and iron oxides on the plasma-oxidized surface. A wettable surface, possessing high surface energy (83.19 mN m{sup −1}), was observed after plasma oxidation. Upon completion of the surface modification process, silicone rubber was spray coated on the plasma-treated stainless steel surface. Morphology of the silicone rubber coating was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A uniform coating was formed on the oxidized surface with no delamination at polymer–metal interface. Pull-off tests showed the lowest adhesion strength of coating to substrate (0.12 MPa) for untreated specimens and the highest (0.89 MPa) for plasma-oxidized ones.

  1. Bubbling surface operators and S-duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomis, Jaume; Matsuura, Shunji

    2007-01-01

    We construct smooth asymptotically /ADS solutions of Type IIB supergravity corresponding to all the half-BPS surface operators in N = 4 SYM. All the parameters labeling a half-BPS surface operator are identified in the corresponding bubbling geometry. We use the supergravity description of surface operators to study the action of the SL(2,Z) duality group of N 4 SYM on the parameters of the surface operator, and find that it coincides with the recent proposal by Gukov and Witten in the framework of the gauge theory approach to the geometrical Langlands with ramification. We also show that whenever a bubbling geometry becomes singular that the path integral description of the corresponding surface operator also becomes singular

  2. Inhibition of Sulfide Mineral Oxidation by Surface Coating Agents: Batch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Ji, M. K.; Yun, H. S.; Park, Y. T.; Gee, E. D.; Lee, W. R.; Jeon, B.-H.

    2012-04-01

    Mining activities and mineral industries have impacted on rapid oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS2) which leads to Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) formation. Some of the abandoned mines discharge polluted water without proper environmental remediation treatments, largely because of financial constraints in treating AMD. Magnitude of the problem is considerable, especially in countries with a long history of mining. As metal sulfides become oxidized during mining activities, the aqueous environment becomes acid and rich in many metals, including iron, lead, mercury, arsenic and many others. The toxic heavy metals are responsible for the environmental deterioration of stream, groundwater and soils. Several strategies to remediate AMD contaminated sites have been proposed. Among the source inhibition and prevention technologies, microencapsulation (coating) has been considered as a promising technology. The encapsulation is based on inhibition of O2 diffusion by surface coating agent and is expected to control the oxidation of pyrite for a long time. Potential of several surface coating agents for preventing oxidation of metal sulfide minerals from both Young-Dong coal mine and Il-Gwang gold mine were examined by conducting batch experiments and field tests. Powdered pyrite as a standard sulfide mineral and rock samples from two mine outcrops were mixed with six coating agents (KH2PO4, MgO and KMnO4 as chemical agents, and apatite, cement and manganite as mineral agents) and incubated with oxidizing agents (H2O2 or NaClO). Batch experiments with Young-Dong coal mine samples showed least SO42- production in presence of KMnO4 (16% sulfate production compared to no surface coating agents) or cement (4%) within 8 days. In the case of Il-Gwang mine samples, least SO42- production was observed in presence of KH2PO4 (8%) or cement (2%) within 8 days. Field-scale pilot tests at Il-Gwang site also showed that addition of KH2PO4 decreased sulfate production from 200 to

  3. COATING OF POLYMERIC SUBSTRATE CATALYSTS ON METALLIC SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. HOSSEINI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results of a study on coating of a polymeric substrate ca-talyst on metallic surface. Stability of coating on metallic surfaces is a proper specification. Sol-gel technology was used to synthesize adhesion promoters of polysilane compounds that act as a mediator. The intermediate layer was coated by synthesized sulfonated polystyrene-divinylbenzene as a catalyst for production of MTBE in catalytic distillation process. Swelling of catalyst and its separation from the metal surface was improved by i increasing the quantity of divinylbenzene in the resin’s production process and ii applying adhesion pro¬moters based on the sol-gel process. The rate of ethyl silicate hydrolysis was intensified by increasing the concentration of utilized acid while the conden¬sation polymerization was enhanced in the presence of OH–. Sol was formed at pH 2, while the pH should be 8 for the formation of gel. By setting the ratio of the initial concentrations of water to ethyl silicate to 8, the gel formation time was minimized.

  4. The phospholipid vesicles coating on metal chelated inorganic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jeong Ho; Cho, Min Ae; Son, Hong Ha; Lee, Cheon Koo; Kim, Kyung Ja

    2007-01-01

    This work showed the formation of phospholipid vesicle coating on inorganic sericite surface with characterization by combining electron microscopy of FE-SEM, TEM, AFM, and qualitatively evaluated the coated phospholipid vesicle by XPS as a function of etching time. The possibility of phospholipid vesicle mobility on the surface was restrained by the chelation effect of magnesium cation. The stabilization properties of phospholipid vesicles on sericite surface were demonstrated by the various concentration of magnesium cation. The presence of magnesium was found to have a much more pronounced influence on the lipid deposition process. The Mg cation plays an important role for attaching the phospholipids with optimum concentration of 7 mM. Totally, the phospholipid vesicles coating on inorganic powder could be useful for bio-related fields such as cosmetics and drug delivery system as the key functional compounds. We hope this basic result lead to a general and simple approach to prepare a wide a range of controlled releasing materials including an encapsulation with cosmetics or drugs

  5. Multifunctional methacrylate-based coatings for glass and metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospiech, Doris; Jehnichen, Dieter; Starke, Sandra; Müller, Felix; Bünker, Tobias; Wollenberg, Anne; Häußler, Liane; Simon, Frank; Grundke, Karina; Oertel, Ulrich; Opitz, Michael; Kruspe, Rainer

    2017-03-01

    In order to prevent freshwater biofouling glass and metal surfaces were coated with novel transparent methacrylate-based copolymers. The multifunctionality of the copolymers, such as adhesion to the substrate, surface polarity, mechanical long-term stability in water, and ability to form metal complexes was inserted by the choice of suitable comonomers. The monomer 2-acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate (AAMA) was used as complexing unit to produce copper(II) complexes in the coating's upper surface layer. The semifluorinated monomer 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl methacrylate was employed to adjust the surface polarity and wettability. Comprehensive surface characterization techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements showed that surface compositions and properties can be easily adjusted by varying the concentrations of the comonomers. The formation of copper(II) complexes along the copolymer chains and their stability against washing out with plenty of water was proven by XPS. Copolymers containing semifluorinated comonomers significantly inhibited the growth of Achnanthidium species. Copolymers with copper-loaded AAMA-sequences were able to reduce both the growth of Achnanthidium spec. and Staphylococcus aureus.

  6. Multifunctional methacrylate-based coatings for glass and metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pospiech, Doris, E-mail: pospiech@ipfdd.de [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Jehnichen, Dieter [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Starke, Sandra; Müller, Felix [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Organic Chemistry of Polymers, Dresden (Germany); Bünker, Tobias [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Wollenberg, Anne [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Organic Chemistry of Polymers, Dresden (Germany); Häußler, Liane; Simon, Frank; Grundke, Karina; Oertel, Ulrich [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Opitz, Michael; Kruspe, Rainer [IDUS Biologisch Analytisches Umweltlabor GmbH, Ottendorf-Okrilla (Germany)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • New methacrylate-based copolymers synthesized by free radical polymerization. • Comonomer AAMA was able to complex Cu (II) ions in solvent annealing procedure. • Coatings had efficient anti-biofouling efficacy. - Abstract: In order to prevent freshwater biofouling glass and metal surfaces were coated with novel transparent methacrylate-based copolymers. The multifunctionality of the copolymers, such as adhesion to the substrate, surface polarity, mechanical long-term stability in water, and ability to form metal complexes was inserted by the choice of suitable comonomers. The monomer 2-acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate (AAMA) was used as complexing unit to produce copper(II) complexes in the coating’s upper surface layer. The semifluorinated monomer 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl methacrylate was employed to adjust the surface polarity and wettability. Comprehensive surface characterization techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements showed that surface compositions and properties can be easily adjusted by varying the concentrations of the comonomers. The formation of copper(II) complexes along the copolymer chains and their stability against washing out with plenty of water was proven by XPS. Copolymers containing semifluorinated comonomers significantly inhibited the growth of Achnanthidium species. Copolymers with copper-loaded AAMA-sequences were able to reduce both the growth of Achnanthidium spec. and Staphylococcus aureus.

  7. Multifunctional methacrylate-based coatings for glass and metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospiech, Doris; Jehnichen, Dieter; Starke, Sandra; Müller, Felix; Bünker, Tobias; Wollenberg, Anne; Häußler, Liane; Simon, Frank; Grundke, Karina; Oertel, Ulrich; Opitz, Michael; Kruspe, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • New methacrylate-based copolymers synthesized by free radical polymerization. • Comonomer AAMA was able to complex Cu (II) ions in solvent annealing procedure. • Coatings had efficient anti-biofouling efficacy. - Abstract: In order to prevent freshwater biofouling glass and metal surfaces were coated with novel transparent methacrylate-based copolymers. The multifunctionality of the copolymers, such as adhesion to the substrate, surface polarity, mechanical long-term stability in water, and ability to form metal complexes was inserted by the choice of suitable comonomers. The monomer 2-acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate (AAMA) was used as complexing unit to produce copper(II) complexes in the coating’s upper surface layer. The semifluorinated monomer 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl methacrylate was employed to adjust the surface polarity and wettability. Comprehensive surface characterization techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements showed that surface compositions and properties can be easily adjusted by varying the concentrations of the comonomers. The formation of copper(II) complexes along the copolymer chains and their stability against washing out with plenty of water was proven by XPS. Copolymers containing semifluorinated comonomers significantly inhibited the growth of Achnanthidium species. Copolymers with copper-loaded AAMA-sequences were able to reduce both the growth of Achnanthidium spec. and Staphylococcus aureus.

  8. Characterization of magnetron sputtered surface coatings by AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahler, C.; Endstrasser, N.; Jaksch, S.; Scheier, P.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Surface coatings produced by magnetron sputtering are investigated by STM and AES. Thin films of silicon nanoparticles are deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces by magnetron sputtering. These silicon nanoparticle films are manipulated by means of a variable temperature UHV-STM, to realize lithography on the nanometer scale. Several factors affect the stability of the films and thereby the lifetime of the produced surface structures. To investigate the influence of these parameters, various methods like AFM, AES and XPS have to be applied. The dependence of the surface stability on the grade of oxidation is determined from the ratio between silicon and oxygen. This can be achieved by Auger electron spectroscopy. Our Auger spectrometer was modified in order to allow measuring the time development of the Auger spectrum during the oxidation process. Chemical images are generated by collecting an Auger spectrum at every spot as the primary electron beam is rastered across the sample surface. (author)

  9. Surface analysis of thin film coatings on container glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, A.; Wood, B.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Container glass is generally coated with a tin oxide layer followed by a coating of polymer. These coatings are believed to improve the mechanical properties of container glass as well as aid in the application of advertising labels to glass. The tin oxide layer on commercial beer bottles has a total thickness of about 15-20nm which consists of an interfacial layer comprising 70-85% of the total thickness. The polymer coating is about 2-5nm thick and also possesses an interfacial layer with tin oxide. A PHI Model 560 XPS/ SAM/ SIMS multi-technique system Is used to estimate concentration profiles of Sn, O, C, Si, Ca, Na and O. A combination of XPS, AES and SIMS is necessary to describe the coatings. Instrumental conditions and sample preparation methods are developed to optimize the analysis of thin films on glass. The coating comprises of three areas, namely (A) where polymer and tin co-exist (B) a pure tin oxide layer and (C) where tin co-exists with glass. By varying the chemical source of tin, it is possible to systematically vary the thickness of the interface and the concentration profile of Sn. Using XRD, crystalline phase(s) could be detected in tin oxide films as thin as 15nm. While the principle phase is cassiterite, a second phase is also detected which is believed to originate from the interface. Using a UMIS 2000 nanoindentor system, instrumental parameters are optimized for measurement of elastic modulus of films at varying depths, i.e. from surface of coating to the bulk of the glass. A sharp rise is observed at depth corresponding to the interface which is indicative of the significance of the interfacial layer. Samples are prepared by systematic ion-milling which are representative of various regions of the coating, namely (A), (B) and (C). These samples are analyzed by XRD and TEM. Based on these studies, a structural model of tin oxide layer and interface is presented to explain increase in elastic modulus at the interface. Copyright

  10. Surface and Sliding Wear Behaviour of Different Coatings and Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera-Cárdenas E.E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the sliding wear behaviour of the coatings TiN, CrN and WC/C applied on steel substrates was studied using a reciprocating wear test machine. All tests were carried out in dry conditions, at room temperature (20-23 C and 45% - 50% relative humidity. The average sliding velocity was 0.08 m/s and an amplitude of 2 mm was used. The applied loads were 11.76 N (Po = 1.74 GPa and 7.84 N (Po = 1.52 GPa. Optical microscopy was used to observe the characteristics of wear scars and spalls and possible causes of their formation. The variation of the friction coefficient against the number of cycles was obtained. This was used to determine more precisely the time (number of cycles where the coating presented the first signs of wear, in addition Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS was performed, as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and hardness tests on the wear traces, which reinforced the previous observations. Thus it was possible to know the wear life of different coatings and possible causes of variation. Increasing the load was an important factor in the variation of wear life results. But it is also important to consider other factors such as surface roughness and thickness of coatings.

  11. Chitosan coating as an antibacterial surface for biomedical applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie D'Almeida

    Full Text Available A current public health issue is preventing post-surgical complications by designing antibacterial implants. To achieve this goal, in this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of an animal-free chitosan grafted onto a titanium alloy.Animal-free chitosan binding on the substrate was performed by covalent link via a two-step process using TriEthoxySilylPropyl Succinic Anhydride (TESPSA as the coupling agent. All grafting steps were studied and validated by means of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, Time-of-Flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS analyses and Dynamic-mode Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (DSIMS. The antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus strains of the developed coating was assessed using the number of colony forming units (CFU.XPS showed a significant increase in the C and N atomic percentages assigned to the presence of chitosan. A thick layer of polymer deposit was detected by ToF-SIMS and the results obtained by DSIMS measurements are in agreement with ToF-SIMS and XPS analyses and confirms that the coating synthesis was a success. The developed coating was active against both gram negative and gram positive tested bacteria.The success of the chitosan immobilization was proven using the surface characterization techniques applied in this study. The coating was found to be effective against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus strains.

  12. Protective coatings of metal surfaces by cold plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manory, R.; Grill, A.

    1985-01-01

    The cold plasma techniques for deposition of various types of protective coatings are reviewed. The main advantage of these techniques for deposition of ceramic films is the lower process temperature, which enables heat treating of the metal prior to deposition. In the field of surface hardening of steel, significant reduction of treatment time and energy consumption were obtained. A simple model for the plasma - surface reactions in a cold plasma system is presented, and the plasma deposition techniques are discussed in view of this model.

  13. Surface characteristic of chemically converted graphene coated low carbon steel by electro spray coating method for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell bipolar plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsoo; Kim, Yang Do; Nam, Dae Geun

    2013-05-01

    Graphene was coated on low carbon steel (SS400) by electro spray coating method to improve its properties of corrosion resistance and contact resistance. Exfoliated graphite was made of the graphite by chemical treatment (Chemically Converted Graphene, CCG). CCG is distributed using dispersing agent, and low carbon steel was coated with diffuse graphene solution by electro spray coating method. The structure of the CCG was analyzed using XRD and the coating layer of surface was analyzed using SEM. Analysis showed that multi-layered graphite structure was destroyed and it was transformed in to fine layers graphene structure. And the result of SEM analysis on the surface and the cross section, graphene layer was uniformly formed with 3-5 microm thickness on the surface of substrate. Corrosion resistance test was applied in the corrosive solution which is similar to the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack inside. And interfacial contact resistance (ICR) test was measured to simulate the internal operating conditions of PEMFC stack. As a result of measuring corrosion resistance and contact resistance, it could be confirmed that low carbon steel coated with CCG was revealed to be more effective in terms of its applicability as PEMFC bipolar plate.

  14. Surface functionalization of dopamine coated iron oxide nanoparticles for various surface functionalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, Jennifer; Xu, Yaolin; Lovas, Kira [Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa , AL 35487 (United States); Qin, Ying [Alabama Innovation and Mentoring of Entrepreneurs, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Bao, Yuping, E-mail: ybao@eng.ua.edu [Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa , AL 35487 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We present effective conjugation of four small molecules (glutathione, cysteine, lysine, and Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane) onto dopamine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. Conjugation of these molecules could improve the surface functionality of nanoparticles for more neutral surface charge at physiological pH and potentially reduce non-specific adsorption of proteins to nanoparticles surfaces. The success of conjugation was evaluated with dynamic light scattering by measuring the surface charge changes and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for surface chemistry analysis. The stability of dopamine-coated nanoparticles and the ability of conjugated nanoparticles to reduce the formation of protein corona were evaluated by measuring the size and charge of the nanoparticles in biological medium. This facile conjugation method opens up possibilities for attaching various surface functionalities onto iron oxide nanoparticle surfaces for biomedical applications.

  15. Surface functionalization of dopamine coated iron oxide nanoparticles for various surface functionalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, Jennifer; Xu, Yaolin; Lovas, Kira; Qin, Ying; Bao, Yuping

    2017-01-01

    We present effective conjugation of four small molecules (glutathione, cysteine, lysine, and Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane) onto dopamine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. Conjugation of these molecules could improve the surface functionality of nanoparticles for more neutral surface charge at physiological pH and potentially reduce non-specific adsorption of proteins to nanoparticles surfaces. The success of conjugation was evaluated with dynamic light scattering by measuring the surface charge changes and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for surface chemistry analysis. The stability of dopamine-coated nanoparticles and the ability of conjugated nanoparticles to reduce the formation of protein corona were evaluated by measuring the size and charge of the nanoparticles in biological medium. This facile conjugation method opens up possibilities for attaching various surface functionalities onto iron oxide nanoparticle surfaces for biomedical applications.

  16. Effect of ion irradiation on the surface energy of deposited coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremin, E. N.; Guchenko, S. A.; Kasymov, S. S.; Yurov, V. M.; Vedyashkin, M. V.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated multi-element coatings exposed to argon ion bombardment. The coatings were irradiated using a multi-ampere hollow-cathode ion source. The arc current was 1 A, and the potential of the substrate was maintained equal to 300 V. The surface tension (surface energy) of the coatings was measured before and after irradiation through the size-dependence of the microhardness and electrical resistivity of coatings on their thickness. Ion irradiation was found to affect the surface energy of the coatings in different ways. This is due to both the structure of the coating and its elemental composition.

  17. Cobalt Porphyrin-Polypyridyl Surface Coatings for Photoelectrosynthetic Hydrogen Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiler, A M; Khusnutdinova, D; Wadsworth, B L; Moore, G F

    2017-10-16

    Hybrid materials that link light capture and conversion technologies with the ability to drive reductive chemical transformations are attractive as components in photoelectrosynthetic cells. We show that thin-film polypyridine surface coatings provide a molecular interface to assemble cobalt porphyrin catalysts for hydrogen evolution onto a visible-light-absorbing p-type gallium phosphide semiconductor. Spectroscopic techniques, including grazing angle attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, confirm that the cobalt centers of the porphyrin macrocycles coordinate to pyridyl nitrogen sites of the organic surface coating. The cobalt porphyrin surface concentration and fraction of pyridyl sites coordinated to a cobalt center are quantified using complementary methods of ellipsometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In aqueous solutions under simulated solar illumination the modified cathode is photochemically active for hydrogen production, generating the product gas with near-unity Faradaic efficiency at a rate of ≈10 μL min -1 cm -2 when studied in a three-electrode configuration and polarized at the equilibrium potential of the H + /H 2 couple. This equates to a photoelectrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction activity of 17.6 H 2 molecules s -1 Co -1 , the highest value reported to date for a molecular-modified semiconductor. Key features of the functionalized photocathode include (1) the relative ease of synthetic preparation made possible by application of an organic surface coating that provides molecular recognition sites for immobilizing the cobalt porphyrin complexes at the semiconductor surface and (2) the use of visible light to drive cathodic fuel-forming reactions in aqueous solutions with no added organic acids or sacrificial chemical reductants.

  18. Electron beam processed plasticized epoxy coatings for surface protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Mervat S.; Mohamed, Heba A.; Kandile, Nadia G.; Said, Hossam M.; Mohamed, Issa M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · Coating formulations with EA 70%, HD 20%, and castor oil 10% under 1 Mrad pass -1 irradiation dose showed the best adhesion and passed bending tests. · The prepared EP-SF-An adduct improve anti-corrosion properties of coatings without any significant effect on physical, mechanical and chemical properties of the cured film. The optimum amount of aniline adduct as corrosion inhibitor was found to be 0.4 g for 100 g of coating formulation. · The corrosion inhibition efficiency of the prepared adduct competed the commercial efficiency. - Abstract: Epoxy acrylate oligomer (EA) was plasticized by adding different plasticizers such as epoxidized soybean oil, glycerol and castor oil and cured by electron beam (EB). Different irradiation doses (1, 2.5 and 5 Mrad pass -1 ) were used in the curing process. The effect of both different irradiation doses and plasticizers on the end use performance properties of epoxy acrylate coating namely, pencil hardness, bending test, adhesion test, acid and alkali resistance test were studied. It was observed that incorporation of castor oil in epoxy acrylate diluted by 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (HD) monomer with a ratio (EA 70%, HD 20%, castor oil 10%) under 1 Mrad pass -1 irradiation dose improved the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of cured films than the other plasticizer. Sunflower free fatty acid was epoxidized in situ under well established conditions. The epoxidized sunflower free fatty acids (ESFA) were subjected to react with aniline in sealed ampoules under inert atmosphere at 140 deg. C. The produced adducts were added at different concentrations to epoxy acrylate coatings under certain EB irradiation dose and then evaluated as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel surfaces in terms of weight loss measurements and corrosion resistance tests. It was found that, addition of 0.4 g of aniline adduct to 100 g epoxy acrylate formula may give the best corrosion protection for carbon steel and compete the

  19. Influence of surface preparation on the corrosion performance of epoxy coatings for ship ballast tank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Buter, S.J.; Ferrari, G.M.

    2011-01-01

    The surface preparation has influence on the adhesion for coatings and consequently affect the corrosion performance of the coatings. The international Maritime Organization (IMO) has adopted a Performance Standard for Protective Coatings (PSPC) on the surface preparation for ballast tanks. However,

  20. Supramolecular polymers as surface coatings: rapid fabrication of healable superhydrophobic and slippery surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiang; Schlaich, Christoph; Prévost, Sylvain; Schulz, Andrea; Böttcher, Christoph; Gradzielski, Michael; Qi, Zhenhui; Haag, Rainer; Schalley, Christoph A

    2014-11-19

    Supramolecular polymerization for non-wetting surface coatings is described. The self-assembly of low-molecular-weight gelators (LMWGs) with perfluorinated side chains can be utilized to rapidly construct superhydrophobic, as well as liquid-infused slippery surfaces within minutes. The lubricated slippery surface exhibits impressive repellency to biological li-quids, such as human serum and blood, and very fast self-healing. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Operation of ASDEX Upgrade with high-Z wall coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohde, V.; Neu, R.; Krieger, K.; Maier, H.; Geier, A.; Tabasso, A.; Kallenbach, A.; Pugno, R.; Bolshukhin, D.; Zarrabian, M.

    2001-01-01

    The material for plasma facing components of a future fusion device is still not decided. At present most experiments use graphite, because of its good thermo mechanical properties and the low radiation potential of carbon. Due to the high erosion yield and, especially, due to the codeposition with tritium, its use in a fusion reactor is still questionable. Based on the good experience using tungsten as divertor material in ASDEX Upgrade, which demonstrated that a divertor tokamak can be operated with a tungsten divertor without reduction of the performance, a step by step strategy was followed. Main sources of the carbon are predicted at the inner heat shield, which covers the central column. Tungsten test tiles confirm the erosion at this position due to charge exchange neutral, but also a non negligible ion sputtering component. A first step was done by siliconisation. In ASDEX Upgrade the maximal silicon concentration was 0.002. Consequently the performance of the experiment was not influenced by silicon radiation. A second step was done by tungsten coating of 1.2m 2 of the inner heat shield. Experiments are done without subsequent wall coating, which would cover the tungsten. Spectroscopically measured central tungsten densities are always below ∼5*10 -6 and mostly below the detection limit. Again no influence on the plasma performance parameters are found. Extrapolation to ITER conditions yields concentrations, which will not prohibit successful operation. The next step in ASDEX Upgrade will be a mostly tungsten covered inner heat shield at the next experimental campaign. (author)

  2. Functional possibilities of organosilicon coatings on the surface of CsI-based scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Andryustchenko, L A; Goriletsky, V I; Zaslavsky, B G; Zosim, D I; Charkina, T A; Trefilova, L N; Renker, D; Ritt, S; Mzhavia, D A

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown that a thin film (15+-5 mu m) based on organosilicon coating applied to all surface of CsI and CsI(Tl) scintillators excluding the output window, can combine the following functions: (1) covering from atmospheric effects; (2) scintillation light convertor of luminescence towards the region of higher spectral sensitivity of the photoreceiver and (3) ancillary surface for performance of operations on changing the light collection coefficient without the risk to exceed limited size tolerations. Wavelength-shifting coating effect on radiation hardness of pure CsI is discussed. After irradiation a new absorption bands appear in the range 250-300 nm mainly. So, contrary to the 310 nm emission, the energy losses for converted light remain the same.

  3. Attachment of mycobacteria to fibronectin-coated surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, T L; McGarr, J A; Abou-Zeid, C; Rook, G A; Stanford, J L; Aslanzadeh, J; Brown, E J

    1988-05-01

    This report investigates the extent of the expression of fibronectin (FN) binding properties among the mycobacteria and provides preliminary characteristics of the bacterial molecule(s) mediating attachment. Eight BCG substrains, three Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and four other mycobacterial species all expressed FN-binding capacity. Treatment of organisms with detergent prior to the binding assay destroyed the FN-binding capacity of BCG but not that of Staphylococcus aureus. Trypsin pretreatment eliminated the FN-binding capacity of both BCG and S. aureus. [35S]Methionine-labelled material in supernatants from BCG and M. tuberculosis cultures attached to FN-coated surfaces. These culture supernatants inhibited the attachment of BCG but not S. aureus to FN-coated surfaces. This inhibitory activity of the supernatants was removed by affinity chromatography on FN-Sepharose but was not affected by similar passage over a control column (human serum albumin attached to Sepharose). These results demonstrate that the ability to bind FN is present in all mycobacterial species tested and suggest that attachment is mediated by trypsin-sensitive cell-surface component(s).

  4. Operation of microstrip gas chambers manufactured on glass coated with high resistivity diamond-like layers

    CERN Document Server

    Boimska, B; Dominik, Wojciech; Hoch, M; Million, Gilbert; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Sharma, A

    1997-01-01

    We describe recent observations and measurements realized with micro-strip gas chambers (MSGCs) manufactured on boro-silicate glass coated with a thin layer of diamond-like carbon (DLC) having a surface resistivity around 4.10$^{16}\\Omega/\\Box$. The role of the back-pla electrode configuration and potential in the detector performance has been studied. Even for this very high resistivity of the coatings, MSGCs operate differently from those manufactured on bare boro-silicate glass; the charge gain increases with the radiation flux for counting rates above 103 Hz/mm2, reaching a value 60% higher for 105 Hz/mm2. This behavior does not depend on the presence and potential of the back plane electrode; however, both maximum gain and rate capability are influenced by the drift field. From this study, compared with measurements realized previously with other detectors, we deduce that for stable high rate operation of MSGCs the resistivity of the coating should not exceed ~10$^{15}\\Omega/\\Box$.

  5. Influence of viscoelastic property on laser-generated surface acoustic waves in coating-substrate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hongxiang; Zhang Shuyi; Xu Baiqiang

    2011-01-01

    Taking account of the viscoelasticity of materials, the pulsed laser generation of surface acoustic waves in coating-substrate systems has been investigated quantitatively by using the finite element method. The displacement spectra of the surface acoustic waves have been calculated in frequency domain for different coating-substrate systems, in which the viscoelastic properties of the coatings and substrates are considered separately. Meanwhile, the temporal displacement waveforms have been obtained by applying inverse fast Fourier transforms. The numerical results of the normal surface displacements are presented for different configurations: a single plate, a slow coating on a fast substrate, and a fast coating on a slow substrate. The influences of the viscoelastic properties of the coating and the substrate on the attenuation of the surface acoustic waves have been studied. In addition, the influence of the coating thickness on the attenuation of the surface acoustic waves has been also investigated in detail.

  6. Specific Features of Chip Making and Work-piece Surface Layer Formation in Machining Thermal Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Yaroslavtsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of unique engineering structural and performance properties inherent in metallic composites characterizes wear- and erosion-resistant high-temperature coatings made by thermal spraying methods. This allows their use both in manufacturing processes to enhance the wear strength of products, which have to operate under the cyclic loading, high contact pressures, corrosion and high temperatures and in product renewal.Thermal coatings contribute to the qualitative improvement of the technical level of production and product restoration using the ceramic composite materials. However, the possibility to have a significantly increased product performance, reduce their factory labour hours and materials/output ratio in manufacturing and restoration is largely dependent on the degree of the surface layer quality of products at their finishing stage, which is usually provided by different kinds of machining.When machining the plasma-sprayed thermal coatings, a removing process of the cut-off layer material is determined by its distinctive features such as a layered structure, high internal stresses, low ductility material, high tendency to the surface layer strengthening and rehardening, porosity, high abrasive properties, etc. When coatings are machined these coating properties result in specific characteristics of chip formation and conditions for formation of the billet surface layer.The chip formation of plasma-sprayed coatings was studied at micro-velocities using an experimental tool-setting microscope-based setup, created in BMSTU. The setup allowed simultaneous recording both the individual stages (phases of the chip formation process and the operating force factors.It is found that formation of individual chip elements comes with the multiple micro-cracks that cause chipping-off the small particles of material. The emerging main crack in the cut-off layer of material leads to separation of the largest chip element. Then all the stages

  7. Plasma surface oxidation of 316L stainless steel for improving adhesion strength of silicone rubber coating to metal substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Afrooz; Imani, Mohammad; Khorasani, Mohammad Taghi; Daliri Joupari, Morteza

    2014-11-01

    Stainless steel 316L is one of the most widely used materials for fabricating of biomedical devices hence, improving its surface properties is still of great interest and challenging in biomaterial sciences. Plasma oxidation, in comparison to the conventional chemical or mechanical methods, is one of the most efficient methods recently used for surface treatment of biomaterials. Here, stainless steel specimens were surface oxidized by radio-frequency plasma irradiation operating at 34 MHz under pure oxygen atmosphere. Surface chemical composition of the samples was significantly changed after plasma oxidation by appearance of the chromium and iron oxides on the plasma-oxidized surface. A wettable surface, possessing high surface energy (83.19 mN m-1), was observed after plasma oxidation. Upon completion of the surface modification process, silicone rubber was spray coated on the plasma-treated stainless steel surface. Morphology of the silicone rubber coating was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A uniform coating was formed on the oxidized surface with no delamination at polymer-metal interface. Pull-off tests showed the lowest adhesion strength of coating to substrate (0.12 MPa) for untreated specimens and the highest (0.89 MPa) for plasma-oxidized ones.

  8. Surface characterization and corrosion behavior of micro-arc oxidized Ti surface modified with hydrothermal treatment and chitosan coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neupane, Madhav Prasad; Park, Il Song; Lee, Min Ho

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we describe the surface modification of commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) by a composite/multilayer coating approach for biomedical applications. CP-Ti samples were treated by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and subsequently some of the samples were coated with chitosan (Chi) by dip coating method, while others were subjected to hydrothermal treatment (HT) followed by chitosan coating. The MAO, MAO/Chi, and MAO/HT/Chi coated Ti were characterized and their characteristics were compared with CP-Ti. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the structural and morphological characteristics. The average surface roughness was determined using a surface profilometer. The corrosion resistance of untreated and surface modified Ti in commercial saline at 298 K was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization test. The results indicated that the chitosan coating is very well integrated with the MAO and MAO/HT coating by physically interlocking itself with the coated layer and almost sealed all the pores. The surface roughness of hydrothermally treated and chitosan coated MAO film was superior evidently to that with other sample groups. The corrosion studies demonstrated that the MAO, hydrothermally treated and chitosan coated sample enhanced the corrosion resistance of titanium. The result indicates that fabrication of hydrothermally treated MAO surface coatings with chitosan is a significant approach to protect the titanium from corrosion, hence enhancing the potential use of titanium as bio-implants. - Highlights: • Micro-arc oxidized (MAO) and hydrothermally treated (HT) Ti surfaces are coated with chitosan (Chi). • The MAO/HT/Chi surface exhibits pores sealing and enhanced the surface roughness. • The MAO/HT/Chi surface significantly increase the corrosion resistance. • The MAO/HT/Chi can be a potential surface of titanium for bio-implants

  9. Study the polymer coating for detecting and surface decontamination of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Thi Quynh Luong; Nguyen Van Chinh

    2011-01-01

    Strippable polymer coating is one of the methods for effective surface decontamination. It has been developed in both detecting and removing the radioactive isotope and heavy metal elements from contaminated surfaces. A polymer coating is produced to be sprayed or brushed on contaminated material of uranium. The places of U contamination is shown by color change of polymer coating. As the polymer coating is dried up to form a strong film, the contaminations are absorbed in to the coating and contaminated surfaces are cleaned by removing the film. (author)

  10. Physisorbed surface coatings for poly(dimethylsiloxane) and quartz microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viefhues, M.; Manchanda, S.; Chao, T.-C.; Anselmetti, D.; Regtmeier, J.; Ros, A.

    2011-01-01

    Surface modifications of microfluidic devices are of essential importance for successful bioanalytical applications. Here, we investigate three different coatings for quartz and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) surfaces. We employed a triblock copolymer with trade name F108, poly (l-lysine)-g-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-PEG), as well as the hybrid coating n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside and methyl cellulose (DDM/MC). The impact of these coatings was characterized by measuring the electroosmotic flow (EOF), contact angle, and prevention of protein adsorption. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of static coatings, i.e., the incubation with the coating agent prior to measurements, and dynamic coatings, where the coating agent was present during the measurement. We found that all coatings on PDMS as well as quartz reduced EOF, increased reproducibility of EOF, reduced protein adsorption, and improved the wettability of the surfaces. Among the coating strategies tested, the dynamic coatings with DDM/MC and F108 demonstrated maximal reduction of EOF and protein adsorption and simultaneously best long-term stability concerning EOF. For PLL-PEG, a reversal in the EOF direction was observed. Interestingly, the static surface coating strategy with F108 proved to be as effective to prevent protein adsorption as dynamic coating with this block copolymer. These findings will allow optimized parameter choices for coating strategies on PDMS and quartz microfluidic devices in which control of EOF and reduced biofouling are indispensable. PMID:21847528

  11. Surface properties of semi-synthetic enteric coating films: Opportunities to develop bio-based enteric coating films for colon- targeted delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the surface properties of the semi-synthetic enteric coating materials for potential colon- targeted bioactive delivery. The enteric coating materials were produced by combining nanoscale resistant starch, pectin, and carboxymethylcellulose. The surface properties of the co...

  12. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Aaaaaaa... - Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations 2 Table 2 of Subpart AAAAAAA of Part 63 Protection of Environment... AAAAAAA of Part 63—Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations For * * * 1...

  13. Electron beam processed plasticized epoxy coatings for surface protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Mervat S. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City (Egypt); Mohamed, Heba A., E-mail: hebaamohamed@gmail.com [National Research Center, Dokki (Egypt); Kandile, Nadia G. [University College for Girls, Ain Shams University (Egypt); Said, Hossam M.; Mohamed, Issa M. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City (Egypt)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {center_dot} Coating formulations with EA 70%, HD 20%, and castor oil 10% under 1 Mrad pass{sup -1} irradiation dose showed the best adhesion and passed bending tests. {center_dot} The prepared EP-SF-An adduct improve anti-corrosion properties of coatings without any significant effect on physical, mechanical and chemical properties of the cured film. The optimum amount of aniline adduct as corrosion inhibitor was found to be 0.4 g for 100 g of coating formulation. {center_dot} The corrosion inhibition efficiency of the prepared adduct competed the commercial efficiency. - Abstract: Epoxy acrylate oligomer (EA) was plasticized by adding different plasticizers such as epoxidized soybean oil, glycerol and castor oil and cured by electron beam (EB). Different irradiation doses (1, 2.5 and 5 Mrad pass{sup -1}) were used in the curing process. The effect of both different irradiation doses and plasticizers on the end use performance properties of epoxy acrylate coating namely, pencil hardness, bending test, adhesion test, acid and alkali resistance test were studied. It was observed that incorporation of castor oil in epoxy acrylate diluted by 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (HD) monomer with a ratio (EA 70%, HD 20%, castor oil 10%) under 1 Mrad pass{sup -1} irradiation dose improved the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of cured films than the other plasticizer. Sunflower free fatty acid was epoxidized in situ under well established conditions. The epoxidized sunflower free fatty acids (ESFA) were subjected to react with aniline in sealed ampoules under inert atmosphere at 140 deg. C. The produced adducts were added at different concentrations to epoxy acrylate coatings under certain EB irradiation dose and then evaluated as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel surfaces in terms of weight loss measurements and corrosion resistance tests. It was found that, addition of 0.4 g of aniline adduct to 100 g epoxy acrylate formula may give the best corrosion

  14. Cell/surface interactions on laser micro-textured titanium-coated silicon surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwenifumbo, Steven; Li, Mingwei; Chen, Jianbo; Beye, Aboubaker; Soboyejo, Wolé

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of nano-scale titanium coatings, and micro-groove/micro-grid patterns on cell/surface interactions on silicon surfaces. The nature of the cellular attachment and adhesion to the coated/uncoated micro-textured surfaces was elucidated by the visualization of the cells and relevant cytoskeletal & focal adhesion proteins through scanning electron microscopy and immunofluorescence staining. Increased cell spreading and proliferation rates are observed on surfaces with 50 nm thick Ti coatings. The micro-groove geometries have been shown to promote contact guidance, which leads to reduced scar tissue formation. In contrast, smooth surfaces result in random cell orientations and the increased possibility of scar tissue formation. Immunofluorescence cell staining experiments also reveal that the actin stress fibers are aligned along the groove dimensions, with discrete focal adhesions occurring along the ridges, within the grooves and at the ends of the cell extensions. The implications of the observed cell/surface interactions are discussed for possible applications of silicon in implantable biomedical systems.

  15. Effect of Surface Coatings on Cylinders Exposed to Underwater Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.W. Kwon

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of a coated cylinder (metallic cylinder coated with a rubber material subjected to an underwater explosion is analyzed numerically. The dynamic response of the coated cylinder appears to be adversely affected when impacted by an underwater shock wave under certain conditions of geometry and material properties of the coating. When adversely affected, significant deviations in values of axial stress, hoop stress, and strain are observed. The coated cylinder exhibits a larger deformation and higher internal energy in the metallic material. Rubber coatings appeared to inhibit energy dissipation from the metallic material to the surrounding water medium. A parametric study of various coatings was performed on both aluminum and steel cylinders. The adverse effect of the coating decreased when the stiffness of the rubber layer increased, indicating the existence of a threshold value. The results of this study indicate that the stiffness of the coating is a critical factor to the shock hardening of the coated cylinder.

  16. Effect of Surface Contaminants Remained on the Blasted Surface on Epoxy Coating Performance and Corrosion Resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Kwang Ki; Park, Chung Seo; Kim, Ki Hong; Chung, Mong Kyu; Park, Jin Hwan

    2006-01-01

    One of the critical issues in the coating specification is the allowable limit of surface contaminant(s) - such as soluble salt(s), grit dust, and rust - after grit blasting. Yet, there is no universally accepted data supporting the relationship between the long-term coating performance and the amount of various surface contaminants allowed after grit blasting. In this study, it was attempted to prepare epoxy coatings applied on grit-blasted steel substrate dosed with controlled amount of surface contaminants - such as soluble salt(s), grit dust, and rust. Then, coating samples were subjected to 4,200 hours of cyclic test(NORSOK M-501), which were then evaluated in terms of resistance to rust creepage, blistering, chalking, rusting, cracking and adhesion strength. Additional investigations on the possible damage at the paint/steel interface were carried out using an Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy(EIS) and observations of under-film-corrosion. Test results suggested that the current industrial specifications were well matched with the allowable degree of rust, whereas the allowable amount of soluble salt and grit dust after grit blasting showed a certain deviation from the specifications currently employed for fabrication of marine vessels and offshore facilities

  17. Surface hardening of optic materials by deposition of diamond like carbon coatings from separated plasma of arc discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipkov, A. S.; Bashkov, V. M.; Belyaeva, A. O.; Stepanov, R.; Mironov, Y. M.; Galinovsky, A. L.

    2015-02-01

    This article considers the issue of strengthening of optic materials used in the IR spectrum by deposition of diamond like carbon coatings from separated plasma arc discharge. The report shows results of tests of bare and strengthened optical materials such as BaF2, MgF2, Si, Ge, including the testing of their strength and spectral characteristics. Results for the determination of optical constants for the DLC coatings deposited on substrates of Ge and Si, by using separated plasma, are also presented. Investigations showed that surface hardening of optical materials operable in the IR range, by the deposition of diamond like carbon coating onto their surface, according to this technology, considerably improves operational properties and preserves or improves their optic properties.

  18. Operation of ASDEX Upgrade with tungsten coated walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohde, V.; Neu, R.; Dux, R.; Geier, A.; Gong, X.; Kallenbach, A.; Krieger, K.; Lindig, S.; Maier, H.; Mueller, W.; Pugno, R.; Schneider, W.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1998 a step by step approach to investigate high-Z material at the main chamber walls of the ASDEX Upgrade divertor tokamak was followed, resulting in 7.1 m 2 of tungsten coated tiles at the central column during the 2001-02 campaign. Despite this large area, plasma operation was not hampered in any way by tungsten radiation. Results obtained from a variety of confinement regimes indicate that the core tungsten concentration depends mostly on core transport rather than on the tungsten erosion source. For medium density H-mode discharges tungsten concentration ∼ 1·10 -6 are found. Higher concentrations are observed only under discharge conditions where neoclassical accumulation becomes dominant as in case of strong background plasma peaking. On the other hand, core accumulation can be effectively controlled without noticeable confinement degradation by applying central heating. Unexpected high average tungsten erosion due to ions could be attributed to transient limiter phases, especially during plasma ramp-down. (author)

  19. Microstructure Analysis of Laser Remelting for Thermal Barrier Coatings on the Surface of Titanium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Bin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the preparation and organization performance of thermal barrier coatings (TCBs on the surface of titanium were studied experimentally. Nanostructured 8 wt% yttria partially stabilized zirconia coatings were deposited by air plasma spraying. The microstructure of nanostructured and the conventional coating was studied after laser remelting. It has shown that formed a network of micro-cracks and pits after laser remelting on nanostructured coatings. With the decrease of the laser scanning speed, mesh distribution of micro cracks was gradually thinning on nanostructured coatings. Compared with conventional ceramic layers, the mesh cracks of nanostructured coating is dense and the crack width is small.

  20. Antisoiling technology: Theories of surface soiling and performance of antisoiling surface coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Willis, P. B.

    1984-11-01

    Physical examination of surfaces undergoing natural outdoor soiling suggests that soil matter accumulates in up to three distinct layers. The first layer involves strong chemical attachment or strong chemisorption of soil matter on the primary surface. The second layer is physical, consisting of a highly organized arrangement of soil creating a gradation in surface energy from a high associated with the energetic first layer to the lowest possible state on the outer surfce of the second layer. The lowest possible energy state is dictated by the physical nature of the regional atmospheric soiling materials. These first two layers are resistant to removal by rain. The third layer constitutes a settling of loose soil matter, accumulating in dry periods and being removed during rainy periods. Theories and evidence suggest that surfaces that should be naturally resistant to the formation of the first two-resistant layers should be hard, smooth, hydrophobic, free of first-period elements, and have the lowest possible surface energy. These characteristics, evolving as requirements for low-soiling surfaces, suggest that surfaces or surface coatings should be of fluorocarbon chemistry. Evidence for the three-soil-layer concept, and data on the positive performance of candidate fluorocarbon coatings on glass and transparent plastic films after 28 months of outdoor exposure, are presented.

  1. Surface and sliding wear behaviour of different coatings and steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera-Cardenas, E.E. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Zempoala, Hidalgo (Mexico)]. E-mail: evera@upp.edu.mx; Vite-Torres, M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: drmanulvite9@hotmail.com; Lewis, R. [University of Sheffield (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: roger.lewis@sheffield.ac.uk

    2012-01-15

    In this work, the sliding wear behaviour of the coatings TiN, CrN and WC/C applied on steel substrates was studied using a reciprocating wear test machine. All tests were carried out in dry conditions, at room temperature (20-23 degrees Celsius and 45% - 50% relative humidity). The average sliding velocity was 0.08 m/s and an amplitude of 2 mm was used. The applied loads were 11.76 N (Po = 1.74 GPa) and 7.84 N (Po = 1.52 GPa). Optical microscopy was used to observe the characteristics of wear scars and spalls and possible causes of their formation. The variation of the friction coefficient against the number of cycles was obtained. This was used to determine more precisely the time (number of cycles) where the coating presented the first signs of wear, in addition Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) was performed, as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and hardness tests on the wear traces, which reinforced the previous observations. Thus it was possible to know the wear life of different coatings and possible causes of variation. Increasing the load was an important factor in the variation of wear life results. But it is also important to consider other factors such as surface roughness and thickness of coatings. [Spanish] En este trabajo se estudio el comportamiento en desgaste por deslizamiento de los recubrimientos de TiN, CrN y WC/C aplicados sobre sustratos de acero. Las pruebas se realizaron con una maquina reciprocante en condiciones secas a temperatura ambiente (20-23 grados centigrados y 45% - 50% de humedad relativa). Se empleo una velocidad promedio de 0.08 m/s y una amplitud de 2 mm. Las cargas aplicadas fueron de 11.76N (Po = 1.74 GPa) y de 7.84 N (Po = 1.52 GPa). Se realizo microscopia optica para observar las caracteristicas de las zonas de desgaste y sus posibles causas de formacion. Se obtuvo graficamente la variacion del coeficiente de friccion con el numero de ciclos. Estos datos se emplearon para determinar con mayor precision el

  2. Evaluation of Surface Characteristics of Denture Base Using Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Coating: An SEM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aa, Jafari; Mh, Lotfi-Kamran; M, Ghafoorzadeh; Sm, Shaddel

    2017-06-01

    Despite the numerous positive features of acrylic denture base, there are a number of undeniable associated disadvantages. The properties of denture base have been improved through various interventions including application of different types of filler and coatings. This study aimed to evaluate the surface roughness, thickness and coating quality of organic-inorganic coating on the denture base through scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, the colour change was evaluated visually. The organic-inorganic hybrid coatings were prepared. Acrylic discs of 10×10 mm were fabricated. The test discs were dipped in the hybrid coating and cured. In order to evaluate the surface roughness and coating thickness, the surface and cross-section of the samples in both coated and control groups were subjected to scanning electron microscopy. The colour change and transparency were visually evaluated with naked eyes. The data were statistically analyzed by student's t test. The hybrid materials perfectly covered all the surfaces of acrylic resin and established proper thickness. The coated group seemed smoother and flatter than the control group; however, the difference was not statistically significant ( for all parameters p > 0.05). It was quite a thin coating and no perceptible colour change was observed. The hybrid coating maintained good binding, caused no noticeable discoloration, and thoroughly covered the acrylic resin surface with uniform delicate thickness. It also slightly improved the acrylic resin surface roughness.

  3. Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot Excavator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Smith, Jonathan D.; Ebert, Thomas; Cox, Rachel; Rahmatian, Laila; Wood, James; Schuler, Jason; Nick, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot (RASSOR) excavator robot is a teleoperated mobility platform with a space regolith excavation capability. This more compact, lightweight design (<50 kg) has counterrotating bucket drums, which results in a net-zero reaction horizontal force due to the self-cancellation of the symmetrical, equal but opposing, digging forces.

  4. Surface modification of commercial tin coatings by carbon ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L.J.; Sood, D.K.; Manory, R.R. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Commercial TiN coatings of about 2 {mu}m thickness on high speed steel substrates were implanted at room temperature with 95 keV carbon ions at nominal doses between 1 x 10{sup 17} - 8x10{sup 17} ions cm{sup -2}. Carbon ion implantation induced a significant improvement in ultramicrohardness, friction coefficient and wear properties. The surface microhardness increases monotonically by up to 115% until a critical dose is reached. Beyond this dose the hardness decreases, but remains higher than that of unimplanted sample. A lower friction coefficient and a longer transition period towards a steady state condition were obtained by carbon ion implantation. The changes in tribomechanical properties are discussed in terms of radiation damage and possible formation of a second phase rich in carbon. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Development of sustainable paper coatings using nanoscale industrial surface processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Breedveld, Leo; Lahti, Johanna

    to inform the public about the processes and benefits of the prototype products, and partly to give feedback to the project partners on the environmental and safety aspects of the different material, processing, use and waste stages. By that being a link between the industrial project partners developing...... products, and the process and material developers providing new coatings with specific properties. The combination of RA and LCA/LCC within the early stages of product development provide a more holistic approach, It is commonly believed to be also economical beneficial as changes are easier to implement...... developers, production industries, consumers and authorities. Part of the consideration is the public perception of the new product and the processes to manufacture it, which is an important aspect for products being developed using nanoscale surface processing. Such considerations are integrated...

  6. Boron nitride protective coating of beryllium window surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmuer, N.F.

    1991-12-01

    The use of beryllium windows on white synchrotron radiation beamlines is constrained by the fact that the downstream surfaces of these windows should not be exposed to ambient atmosphere. They should, rather, be protected by a tail-piece under vacuum or containing helium atmosphere. This tailpiece is typically capped by Kapton (3M Corporation, St. Paul, MN) or aluminum foil. The reason for such an arrangement is due to the health risk associated with contaminants (BeO) which from on the exposed beryllium window surfaces and due to possible loss of integrity of the windows. Such a tail-piece may, however, add unwanted complications to the beamline in the form of vacuum pumps or helium supplies and their related monitoring systems. The Kapton windows may burn through in the case of high intensity beams and lower energy radiation may be absorbed in the case of aluminum foil windows. A more ideal situation would be to provide a coating for the exposed beryllium window surface, sealing it off from the atmosphere, thus preventing contamination and/or degradation of the window, and eliminating the need for helium or vacuum equipment

  7. Modification of implant material surface properties by means of oxide nano-structured coatings deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonov, Vladimir; Zykova, Anna; Smolik, Jerzy; Rogowska, Renata; Lukyanchenko, Vladimir; Kolesnikov, Dmitrii

    2014-08-01

    The deposition of functional coatings on the metal surface of artificial joints is an effective way of enhancing joint tribological characteristics. It is well-known that nanostructured oxide coatings have specific properties advantageous for future implant applications. In the present study, we measured the high hardness parameters, the adhesion strength and the low friction coefficient of the oxide magnetron sputtered coatings. The corrosion test results show that the oxide coating deposition had improved the corrosion resistance by a factor of ten for both stainless steel and titanium alloy substrates. Moreover, the hydrophilic nature of coated surfaces in comparison with the metal ones was investigated in the tensiometric tests. The surfaces with nanostructured oxide coatings demonstrated improved biocompatibility for in vitro and in vivo tests, attributed to the high dielectric constants and the high values of the surface free energy parameters.

  8. Controlled reactions between chromia and coating on alloy surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderoth, Søren

    1996-01-01

    An electrically conducting Sr-doped lanthanum chromite (LSC) coating has been produced by reacting a coating of fine particles of La oxide and Sr oxide with chromia formed as an external scale on a metallic alloy. In addition to the formation of LSC the coating also resulted in much reduced...

  9. Behavior of osteoblasts on TI surface with two different coating designed for orthodontic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Leonardo; Crismani, Adriano; Falkensammer, Frank; Bantleon, Hans-Peter; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui; Andrukhov, Oleh

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we coated Ti surfaces with polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and titanium nitride (TiN) and investigated in vitro the behavior of osteoblasts on these surfaces. MG-63 osteoblasts were cultured on titanium discs with different surface treatment: uncoated Ti6Al4V, TiN-coated, PTFE-coated. Cell viability/proliferation was detected by MTT assay. Gene-expression levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC), type I collagen, receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa-B ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were determined by qPCR. Cell behavior on different surfaces was observed by time-lapse microscopy. Cells grown on PTFE-coated Ti surface exhibited delayed surface attachment and decreased proliferation after 48 h. However, after 168 h of culture cells grown on PTFE-coated surface exhibited higher viability/proliferation, higher expression levels of ALP and OC, and higher OPG/RANKL ratio compared to uncoated surface. No effect of TiN-coating on any investigated parameter was found. Our results shows that PTFE coating exhibits no toxic effect on MG-63 cells and slightly stimulates expression of several genes associated with osteogenesis. We propose that PTFE coating could be considered as a possible choice for a surface treatment of temporary skeletal anchorage devices in orthodontics.

  10. 2d index and surface operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadde, Abhijit; Gukov, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we compute the superconformal index of 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theories. The 2d superconformal index, a.k.a. flavored elliptic genus, is computed by a unitary matrix integral much like the matrix integral that computes the 4d superconformal index. We compute the 2d index explicitly for a number of examples. In the case of abelian gauge theories we see that the index is invariant under flop transition and under CY-LG correspondence. The index also provides a powerful check of the Seiberg-type duality for non-abelian gauge theories discovered by Hori and Tong. In the later half of the paper, we study half-BPS surface operators in N=2 superconformal gauge theories. They are engineered by coupling the 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theory living on the support of the surface operator to the 4d N=2 theory, so that different realizations of the same surface operator with a given Levi type are related by a 2d analogue of the Seiberg duality. The index of this coupled system is computed by using the tools developed in the first half of the paper. The superconformal index in the presence of surface defect is expected to be invariant under generalized S-duality. We demonstrate that it is indeed the case. In doing so the Seiberg-type duality of the 2d theory plays an important role

  11. 75 FR 17162 - Dipping and Coating Operations (Dip Tanks) Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ...] Dipping and Coating Operations (Dip Tanks) Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's... Standard on Dipping and Coating Operations (Dip Tanks) (29 CFR 1910.126(g)(4)). DATES: Comments must be... of efforts in obtaining information (29 U.S.C. 657). The Standard on Dipping and Coating Operations...

  12. Electrochemical corrosion behaviours of pulsed bias MSIP aluminum coating on depleted uranium surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qingfu; Zhang Pengcheng; Chen Lin; Liu Qinghe; Lang Dingmu; Wang Xiaohong

    2009-01-01

    Aluminum coating was prepared by magnetron sputtering ion plating (MSIP) with pulsed bias on depleted uranium surface. Its electrochemical corrosion behaviours were studied by electrochemical technology, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS). The corrosion potential of aluminum coating (-534.8 mV) is higher than that of depleted uranium (-641.2 mV). The aluminum coating is a cathodic deposit to depleted uranium. Depleted uranium coated aluminum has much higher polarization resistance,greater magnitude of electrochemical impedance and much lower corrosion current than that of depleted uranium. The aluminum coating has a good corrosion resistance to depleted uranium. Corrosion characteristic of depleted uranium coated aluminum is a typical local corrosion. Meanwhile,the aluminum coating cracks and flakes off from depleted uranium substrate, which deteriorates its anti-corrosion property. Pseudo-diffusion layer on interface between aluminum coating and uranium substrate has some degree of anti-corrosion effect. (authors)

  13. Remanufacture of Zirconium-Based Conversion Coatings on the Surface of Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Jin, Guo; Song, Jiahui; Cui, Xiufang; Cai, Zhaobing

    2017-04-01

    Brush plating provides an effective method for creating a coating on substrates of various shapes. A corroded zirconium-based conversion coating was removed from the surface of a magnesium alloy and then replaced with new coatings prepared via brush plating. The structure and composition of the remanufactured coating were determined via x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results revealed that the coatings consist of oxide, fluoride, and tannin-related organics. The composition of the coatings varied with the voltage. Furthermore, as revealed via potentiodynamic polarization spectroscopy, these coatings yielded a significant increase in the corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloy. The friction coefficient remained constant for almost 300s during wear resistance measurements performed under a 1-N load and dry sliding conditions, indicating that the remanufactured coatings provide effective inhibition to corrosion.

  14. Hard Coat Layers by PE-CVD Process for the Top Surface of Touch Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okunishi, T; Sato, N; Yazawa, K

    2013-01-01

    In order to protect surface from damages, the high pencil hardness and the high abrasion resistance are required for the hard coat layers on polyethylene telephthalate (PET) films for the application of touch panel surface. We have already found that the UV-curing-hard-coat-polymer (UHP) coated PET films show the poor abrasion resistance, while they have the high pencil hardness. It reveals that the abrasion resistance of hard coat layers of the UHP is not simply dependent on the pencil hardness. In this work, we have studied to improve the abrasion resistance of SiOC films as hard coat layers, which were formed by PE-CVD process on UHP coated PET. The abrasion resistance was evaluated by Taber abrasion test. PE-CVD hard coat layers which formed on UHP coater PET films have showed the better abrasion resistance and have the possibility of substitution to the thin glass sheets for touch panel application.

  15. Surface Microstructure of Nanoaluminized CoCrAlY Coating Irradiated by HCPEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermal sprayed CoCrAlY coating was prepared by air plasma spray on the surface of Ni-based superalloy GH4169; then, a nanoscale aluminum film was deposited with electron beam vacuum deposition on it. The coatings irradiated by high-current pulsed electron beam were investigated. After HCPEB treatment, the Al film was remelted into the bond coat. XRD result shows that Al and Al2O3 phase were recorded in the irradiated and aluminized coatings, while Co-based oxides which originally existed in the initial samples disappeared. Microstructure observations reveal that the original coating with porosity, cavities, and inclusions was significantly changed after HCPEB treatment as compact appearance of interconnected bulged nodules. Moreover, the grains on the irradiated coating were very refined and homogeneously dispersed on the surface, which could effectively inhibit the corrosive gases and improve the coating oxidation resistance.

  16. Durable hydrophobic coating composition for metallic surfaces and method for the preparation of the composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiong

    2017-02-14

    A durable hydrophobic coating composition containing fluorinated silanes for metallic surfaces, such as stainless steel surfaces. The composition includes at least one fluorine-containing silane compound, at least one phosphorus-containing silane compound, and at least one hydrolysable compound. This coating is suitable for condenser tubes, among other applications, to promote dropwise condensation.

  17. The HIE-ISOLDE Superconducting Cavities: Surface Treatment and Niobium Thin Film Coating

    CERN Document Server

    Lanza, G; Ferreira, L M A; Gustafsson, A E; Pasini, M; Trilhe, P; Palmieri, V

    2010-01-01

    CERN has designed and prepared new facilities for the surface treatment and niobium sputter coating of the HIE-ISOLDE superconducting cavities. We describe here the design choices, as well as the results of the first surface treatments and test coatings.

  18. Prospects of DLC coating as environment friendly surface treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S W; Kim, S G

    2011-06-01

    After first commercialization in 90's, the applications of diamond-like carbon (DLC) have been significantly expanded to tool, automobile parts, machineries and moulds to enhance wear and friction properties. Although DLC has many advantages like high hardness, low friction electrical insulating and chemical stability and has the possible market, its application in the field is still very limited due to the gaps of understanding between end-user and developer of its advantage of costing. Recently, one of the most popular issues in the surface modification is providing the long lasting super-hydrophilic or -hydrophobic properties on the material surface for the outdoor usage. A lot of material loss is caused due to water corrosion which has to do with the flow and contacts of water like fuel cell separator and air conditioner parts. The consequence of development of functional surface based on the hydrophilic or hydrophobic design for the important parts would be really helpful for materials to be cleaner and more energy effective. Here, we first reviewed the DLC technology and then examined the kind of surface modification as well as its merits and disadvantage. We also looked at how we can improve super-hydrophilic and super hydrophobic for the DLC coating layer as well as current status of technology and arts of DLC. In the end, we would like to suggest it as one of the environmental friendly industrial technology. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. REMR Management System - Coatings for Use on Wet or Damp Steel Surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beitelman, Alfred

    1997-01-01

    .... The surfaces of these structures normally can be blast cleaned to a white metal grade, but condensation and/or water leaking around seals immediately make the surfaces too wet for the application of many coatings...

  20. Biological effects of carbon black nanoparticles are changed by surface coating with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Karina; Ströbele, Michael; Schlick, Sandra; Webering, Sina; Jenckel, André; Kopf, Johannes; Danov, Olga; Sewald, Katherina; Buj, Christian; Creutzenberg, Otto; Tillmann, Thomas; Pohlmann, Gerhard; Ernst, Heinrich; Ziemann, Christina; Hüttmann, Gereon; Heine, Holger; Bockhorn, Henning; Hansen, Tanja; König, Peter; Fehrenbach, Heinz

    2017-03-21

    Carbon black nanoparticles (CBNP) are mainly composed of carbon, with a small amount of other elements (including hydrogen and oxygen). The toxicity of CBNP has been attributed to their large surface area, and through adsorbing intrinsically toxic substances, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). It is not clear whether a PAH surface coating changes the toxicological properties of CBNP by influencing their physicochemical properties, through the specific toxicity of the surface-bound PAH, or by a combination of both. Printex ® 90 (P90) was used as CBNP; the comparators were P90 coated with either benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) or 9-nitroanthracene (9NA), and soot from acetylene combustion that bears various PAHs on the surface (AS-PAH). Oxidative stress and IL-8/KC mRNA expression were determined in A549 and bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o-, Calu-3), mouse intrapulmonary airways and tracheal epithelial cells. Overall toxicity was tested in a rat inhalation study according to Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) criteria. Effects on cytochrome monooxygenase (Cyp) mRNA expression, cell viability and mucociliary clearance were determined in acute exposure models using explanted murine trachea. All particles had similar primary particle size, shape, hydrodynamic diameter and ζ-potential. All PAH-containing particles had a comparable specific surface area that was approximately one third that of P90. AS-PAH contained a mixture of PAH with expected higher toxicity than BaP or 9NA. PAH-coating reduced some effects of P90 such as IL-8 mRNA expression and oxidative stress in A549 cells, granulocyte influx in the in vivo OECD experiment, and agglomeration of P90 and mucus release in the murine trachea ex vivo. Furthermore, P90-BaP decreased particle transport speed compared to P90 at 10 μg/ml. In contrast, PAH-coating induced IL-8 mRNA expression in bronchial epithelial cell lines, and Cyp mRNA expression and apoptosis in tracheal epithelial

  1. Advanced thermal barrier coatings for operation in high hydrogen content fueled gas turbines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampath, Sanjay [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2015-04-02

    The Center for Thermal Spray Research (CTSR) at Stony Brook University in partnership with its industrial Consortium for Thermal Spray Technology is investigating science and technology related to advanced metallic alloy bond coats and ceramic thermal barrier coatings for applications in the hot section of gasified coal-based high hydrogen turbine power systems. In conjunction with our OEM partners (GE and Siemens) and through strategic partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (materials degradation group and high temperature materials laboratory), a systems approach, considering all components of the TBC (multilayer ceramic top coat, metallic bond coat & superalloy substrate) is being taken during multi-layered coating design, process development and subsequent environmental testing. Recent advances in process science and advanced in situ thermal spray coating property measurement enabled within CTSR has been incorporated for full-field enhancement of coating and process reliability. The development of bond coat processing during this program explored various aspects of processing and microstructure and linked them to performance. The determination of the bond coat material was carried out during the initial stages of the program. Based on tests conducted both at Stony Brook University as well as those carried out at ORNL it was determined that the NiCoCrAlYHfSi (Amdry) bond coats had considerable benefits over NiCoCrAlY bond coats. Since the studies were also conducted at different cycling frequencies, thereby addressing an associated need for performance under different loading conditions, the Amdry bond coat was selected as the material of choice going forward in the program. With initial investigations focused on the fabrication of HVOF bond coats and the performance of TBC under furnace cycle tests , several processing strategies were developed. Two-layered HVOF bond coats were developed to render optimal balance of density and surface roughness

  2. Anticoagulation and endothelial cell behaviors of heparin-loaded graphene oxide coating on titanium surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Chang-Jiang, E-mail: panchangjiang@hyit.edu.cn [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Interventional Medical Devices, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huai' an 223003 (China); Pang, Li-Qun [Department of General Surgery, Huai' an First People' s Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Huai' an 223300 (China); Gao, Fei [Zhejiang Zylox Medical Devices Co., Ltd., Hangzhou 310000 (China); Wang, Ya-Nan; Liu, Tao; Ye, Wei; Hou, Yan-Hua [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Interventional Medical Devices, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huai' an 223003 (China)

    2016-06-01

    Owing to its unique physical and chemical properties, graphene oxide (GO) has attracted tremendous interest in many fields including biomaterials and biomedicine. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the endothelial cell behaviors and anticoagulation of heparin-loaded GO coating on the titanium surface. To this end, the titanium surface was firstly covered by the polydopamine coating followed by the deposition of the GO coating. Heparin was finally loaded on the GO coating to improve the blood compatibility. The results of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated that the heparin-loaded GO coating was successfully created on the titanium surface. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicated that a relative uniform GO coating consisting of multilayer GO sheets was formed on the substrate. The hydrophilicity of the titanium surface was enhanced after the deposition of GO and further improved significantly by the loading heparin. The GO coating can enhance the endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation as compared with polydopamine coating and the blank titanium. Loading heparin on the GO coating can significantly reduce the platelet adhesion and prolong the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) while not influence the endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation. Therefore, the heparin-loaded GO coating can simultaneously enhance the cytocompatibility to endothelial cells and blood compatibility of biomaterials. Because the polydopamine coating can be easily prepared on most of biomaterials including polymer, ceramics and metal, thus the approach of the present study may open up a new window of promising an effective and efficient way to promote endothelialization and improve the blood compatibility of blood-contact biomedical devices such as intravascular stents. - Highlights: • Heparin-loaded graphene oxide coating was

  3. Systems and methods for coating conduit interior surfaces utilizing a thermal spray gun with extension arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Karen A.; Zatorski, Raymond A.

    2005-07-12

    Systems and methods for applying a coating to an interior surface of a conduit. In one embodiment, a spray gun configured to apply a coating is attached to an extension arm which may be inserted into the bore of a pipe. The spray gun may be a thermal spray gun adapted to apply a powder coating. An evacuation system may be used to provide a volume area of reduced air pressure for drawing overspray out of the pipe interior during coating. The extension arm as well as the spray gun may be cooled to maintain a consistent temperature in the system, allowing for more consistent coating.

  4. Novel surface coating materials for endodontic dental implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathi, M.H.; Mortazavi, V.; Moosavi, S.B.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design and produce novel coating materials in order to obtain two goals including; improvement of the corrosion behavior of metallic dental endodontic implant and the bone osteointegration simultaneously. Stainless steel 316L (SS) was used as a metallic substrate and a novel Hydroxyapatite/Titanium (HA/Ti) composite coating was prepared on it. Structural characterization techniques including XRD, SEM and EDX were utilized to investigate the microstructure and morphology of the coating. Electrochemical tests were performed in physiological solutions in order to determine and compare the corrosion behavior of the coated and uncoated specimens as an indication of biocompatibility. Two types of endodontic implants including; SS with and without (HA/Ti) composite coating were prepared and subsequently implanted in the mandibular canine of 20 cats after completion of root canal treatment and osseous preparation. After a healing period of 4 months, osteointegration evaluation and histopathological interpretation was carried out using SEM and optical microscopy. Results indicate that the novel HA/Ti composite coating improves the corrosion behavior and biocompatibility of SS endodontic dental implant. The clinical evaluation (in vivo test) results showed that there was significant difference in osteointegration between coated and uncoated endodontic dental implants and average bone osteointegration of coated implants were more than uncoated implants. The histopathological results and bone tissue response to the coated implants was acceptable and it was concluded that HA/Ti composite coated SS could be used as well as an endodontic dental implant. (author)

  5. Novel surface coating materials for endodontic dental implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fathi, M.H. [Isfahan Univ. of Technology, Materials Engineering Dept., Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mortazavi, V.; Moosavi, S.B. [Isfahan Univ. of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to design and produce novel coating materials in order to obtain two goals including; improvement of the corrosion behavior of metallic dental endodontic implant and the bone osteointegration simultaneously. Stainless steel 316L (SS) was used as a metallic substrate and a novel Hydroxyapatite/Titanium (HA/Ti) composite coating was prepared on it. Structural characterization techniques including XRD, SEM and EDX were utilized to investigate the microstructure and morphology of the coating. Electrochemical tests were performed in physiological solutions in order to determine and compare the corrosion behavior of the coated and uncoated specimens as an indication of biocompatibility. Two types of endodontic implants including; SS with and without (HA/Ti) composite coating were prepared and subsequently implanted in the mandibular canine of 20 cats after completion of root canal treatment and osseous preparation. After a healing period of 4 months, osteointegration evaluation and histopathological interpretation was carried out using SEM and optical microscopy. Results indicate that the novel HA/Ti composite coating improves the corrosion behavior and biocompatibility of SS endodontic dental implant. The clinical evaluation (in vivo test) results showed that there was significant difference in osteointegration between coated and uncoated endodontic dental implants and average bone osteointegration of coated implants were more than uncoated implants. The histopathological results and bone tissue response to the coated implants was acceptable and it was concluded that HA/Ti composite coated SS could be used as well as an endodontic dental implant. (author)

  6. Preparation of aluminide coatings on the inner surface of tubes by heat treatment of Al coatings electrodeposited from an ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Dongpeng; Chen, Yimin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Ling, Guoping, E-mail: linggp@zju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Liu, Kezhao; Chen, Chang’an; Zhang, Guikai [National Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Al coating is prepared on the inner surface of one-meter tube. • Al coating shows good adherence to the substrate. • The thickness of Al coating is uniform along the tube. • Aluminide coating is obtained by heat treating Al coating. • Structure of aluminide coating is regulated by different thickness of Al coating. - Abstract: Aluminide coatings were prepared on the inner surface of 316L stainless steel tubes with size of Ø 12 mm × 1000 mm by heat-treating Al coatings electrodeposited from AlCl{sub 3}-1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride (AlCl{sub 3}–EMIC) ionic liquid at room temperature. Studies on the electrolytic etching pretreatment of stainless tubes before Al coating electrodeposition were carried out. The Al coating showed good adherence to the substrate after electrolytic etching at 10 mA/cm{sup 2} for 10 min. The thickness of Al coatings was uniform along the tube. The structure of prepared aluminide coatings can be regulated by different thickness of Al coating. The outer layer of aluminide coatings was FeAl, Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} and FeAl{sub 3} for the samples of 1-μm, 5-μm and 10-μm thick Al coatings, respectively.

  7. Analysis of polymer surfaces and thin-film coatings with Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAnally, Gerard David

    2001-01-01

    This thesis investigates the potential of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for the analysis and characterisation of polymer surfaces. The Raman and SERS spectra from a PET film are presented. The SERS spectra from the related polyester PBT and from the monomer DMT are identical to PET, showing that only the aromatic signals are enhanced. Evidence from other compounds is presented to show that loss of the carbonyl stretch (1725 cm -1 ) from the spectra is due to a chemical interaction between the silver and surface carbonyl groups. The interaction of other polymer functional groups with silver is discussed. A comparison of Raman and SERS spectra collected from three faces of a single crystal shows the SERS spectra are depolarised. AFM images of the silver films used to obtain SERS are presented. They consist of regular islands of silver, fused together to form a complete film. The stability and reproducibility and of these surfaces is assessed. Band assignments for the SERS spectrum of PET are presented. A new band in the spectrum (1131 cm -1 ) is assigned to a complex vibration using a density functional calculation. Depth profiling through a polymer film on to the silver layer showed the SERS signals arise from the silver surface only. The profiles show the effects of refraction on the beam, and the adverse affect on the depth resolution. Silver films were used to obtain SERS spectra from a 40 nm thin-film coating on PET, without interference from the PET layer. The use of an azo dye probe as a marker to detect the coating is described. Finally, a novel method for the synthesis of a SERS-active vinyl-benzotriazole monomer is reported. The monomer was incorporated into a thin-film coating and the SERS spectrum obtained from the polymer. (author)

  8. California; Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District; VOCs from Motor Vehicle Assembly Coating Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing to approve a revision to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District portion of the California SIP concerning emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from motor vehicle assembly coating operations.

  9. Electrochemical Behavior Of Bioactive Coatings On Cp-ti Surface For Dental Application.

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Isabella da Silva Vieira; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; da Cruz, Nilson Cristino; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz; Ricomini-Filho, Antonio Pedro; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T

    2016-01-01

    The surface characteristics and electrochemical properties of bioactive coatings produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) with calcium, phosphorous, silicon and silver on commercially pure titanium were evaluated. PEO treatment produced a porous oxide layer, which improved the surface topography, and enriched the surface chemistry with bioactive elements, responsible for mimicking bone surface. The surfaces with higher calcium concentration presented antibacterial and biocompatibility ...

  10. Poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel coatings with tunable surface exposure of hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, David; Villain, Arthur; Ku, David N; Corté, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Insufficient bone anchoring is a major limitation of artificial substitutes for connective osteoarticular tissues. The use of coatings containing osseoconductive ceramic particles is one of the actively explored strategies to improve osseointegration and strengthen the bone-implant interface for general tissue engineering. Our hypothesis is that hydroxyapatite (HA) particles can be coated robustly on specific assemblies of PVA hydrogel fibers for the potential anchoring of ligament replacements. A simple dip-coating method is described to produce composite coatings made of microscopic hydroxyapatite (HA) particles dispersed in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix. The materials are compatible with the requirements for implant Good Manufacturing Practices. They are applied to coat bundles of PVA hydrogel fibers used for the development of ligament implants. By means of optical and electronic microscopy, we show that the coating thickness and surface state can be adjusted by varying the composition of the dipping solution. Quantitative analysis based on backscattered electron microscopy show that the exposure of HA at the coating surface can be tuned from 0 to over 55% by decreasing the weight ratio of PVA over HA from 0.4 to 0.1. Abrasion experiments simulating bone-implant contact illustrate how the coating cohesion and wear resistance increase by increasing the content of PVA relative to HA. Using pullout experiments, we find that these coatings adhere well to the fiber bundles and detach by propagation of a crack inside the coating. These results provide a guide to select coated implants for anchoring artificial ligaments.

  11. Behavior of Ag nanoparticles in soil: Effects of particle surface coating, aging and sewage sludge amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitley, Annie R.; Levard, Clément; Oostveen, Emily; Bertsch, Paul M.; Matocha, Chris J.; Kammer, Frank von der; Unrine, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    This study addressed the relative importance of particle coating, sewage sludge amendment, and aging on aggregation and dissolution of manufactured Ag nanoparticles (Ag MNPs) in soil pore water. Ag MNPs with citrate (CIT) or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coatings were incubated with soil or municipal sewage sludge which was then amended to soil (1% or 3% sludge (w/w)). Pore waters were extracted after 1 week and 2 and 6 months and analyzed for chemical speciation, aggregation state and dissolution. Ag MNP coating had profound effects on aggregation state and partitioning to pore water in the absence of sewage sludge, but pre-incubation with sewage sludge negated these effects. This suggests that Ag MNP coating does not need to be taken into account to understand fate of AgMNPs applied to soil through biosolids amendment. Aging of soil also had profound effects that depended on Ag MNP coating and sludge amendment. -- Highlights: •Silver nanoparticle coating affects fate in unamended soils. •Citrated coated silver nanoparticles could be found in pore water for up to six months. •Pre-incubation of silver nanoparticles in sewage sludge negated effects of surface coating. •Weathered or reprecipitated particles found in pore water for up to two months in sludge amended soils. •Particle surface coating, sewage sludge amendment and aging all have important impacts. -- Behavior of manufactured silver nanoparticles in soil depends on surface coating, contact with sewage sludge, and aging

  12. Surface modifications and Nano-composite coatings to improve the bonding strength of titanium-porcelain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Litong, E-mail: guolitong810104@163.com [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); ustralian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Chen, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Xuemei; Feng, Wei [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Li, Baoe [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Lin, Cheng; Tao, Xueyu; Qiang, Yinghuai [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China)

    2016-04-01

    Surface modifications of Ti and nano-composite coatings were employed to simultaneously improve the surface roughness, corrosion resistance and chemical bonding between porclain-Ti. The specimens were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, surface roughness, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, corrosion resistance and bonding strength tests. The SEM results showed that hybrid structures with micro-stripes, nano-pores and nano-protuberances were prepared by surface modification of Ti, which significantly enhanced the surface roughness and corrosion resistance of Ti. Porous nano-composite coatings were synthesized on Ti anodized with pre-treatment in 40% HF acid. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were added into the hybrid coating to increase the solid phase content of the sols and avoid the formation of microcracks. With the TiO{sub 2} content increasing from 45 wt% to 60 wt%, the quantities of the microcracks on the coating surface gradually decreased. The optimal TiO{sub 2} content for the nanocomposite coatings is 60 wt% in this research. Compared to the uncoated group, the bonding strength of the coated groups showed a bonding strength improvement of 23.96%. The cytotoxicity of the 4# coating group was ranked as zero, which corresponds to non-cytotoxicity. - Highlights: • Surface roughness of Ti was increased by surface modification of Ti. • Corrosion resistance was enhanced by surface modification of Ti. • Porous nano-composite coatings were synthesized on Ti by sol–gel process. • TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were added into the coating to avoid formation of cracks. • The nano-composite coatings increased the bonding strength of about 24%.

  13. Prime surface coating: A novel method for making thick ceramic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashefi, Mehrdad

    The use of coatings to protect or enhance the performance of a component manufactured from a different material is well recognised as a cost effective solution in many engineering situations. This approach is particularly appropriate for ceramic materials deposited as coatings. However, in general such coatings are either relatively thin (determined that ceramic powders could be well dispersed in an alkoxyethyl cyanoacrylate binder to a maximum volume fraction of 0.45 for uni-modal powders with mean particle sizes 8 mum, and 0.58 for a bi-modal alumina powder, Para-toluene sulphonic acid and caffeine have been identified as suitable polymerization inhibitors and initiators respectively. Coatings with controlled thicknesses between 0.4 and 1.0 mm have been successfully deposited onto metallic and ceramic substrates. SEM micrographs show good uniformity of the coating and that successful adhesion can be achieved, as also shown by the joint shear strength test results. The versatile properties of the cyanoacrylates suggest that there are potential applications for the coatings at the cured stage. This study also describes and discusses the debinding and sintering of alumina and zirconia coatings. Using 96% alumina substrates resulted in successful sintering of the debonded layers to full density. The microstructural studies show good uniformity in the coatings with good adhesion to the substrate. The indentation hardness and toughness values measured in the sintered coatings were comparable with the results obtained on the commercial alumina used as the substrate.

  14. Effect of Surface Modification on Corrosion Resistance of Uncoated and DLC Coated Stainless Steel Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scendo, Mieczyslaw; Staszewska-Samson, Katarzyna

    2017-08-01

    Corrosion resistance of 4H13 stainless steel (EN-X46Cr13) surface uncoated and coated with an amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) film [diamond-like carbon (DLC)] in acidic chloride solution was investigated. The DLC films were deposited on steel surface by a plasma deposition, direct current discharge (PDCD) method. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) was used to determine the chemical groups existing on DLC films. The surface of the specimens was observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The tribological properties of the both materials were examined using a ball-on disk tribometer. The microhardness (HV) of diamond-like carbon film increased over five times in relation to the 4H13 stainless steel without of DLC coating. Oxidation kinetic parameters were determined by gravimetric and electrochemical methods. The high value of polarization resistance indicates that the DLC film on substrate was characterized by low electrical conductivity. The corrosion rate of 4H13 stainless steel with of DLC film decreased about eight times in relation to uncoated surface of 4H13 stainless steel.

  15. Chitosan/titanium dioxide nanocomposite coatings: Rheological behavior and surface application to cellulosic paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yanjun; Hu, Xiulan; Zhang, Xinqi; Guo, Daliang; Zhang, Junhua; Kong, Fangong

    2016-10-20

    Incorporation of nanofillers into a polymeric matrix has received much attention as a route to reinforced polymer nanocomposites. In the present work, an environmentally friendly chitosan (CTS)/titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocomposite coating was designed/prepared and subsequently employed for imparting antibacterium and improved mechanical properties to cellulosic paper via surface coating. Effect of TiO2 nanoparticle loadings on the rheological behavior of nanocomposite coatings was investigated. Surface application of CTS/TiO2 nanocomposite coatings to cellulosic paper was performed, and the antibacterial activity and mechanical properties of surface-coated cellulosic paper were examined. Results showed that the increased TiO2 nanoparticle loadings decreased the viscosity and dynamic viscoelasticity of the as-prepared coatings, and improved the antibacterial activity and mechanical properties of surface-coated cellulosic paper. The optimum loading of TiO2 nanoparticles was identified at 10%. This work suggested that CTS/TiO2 nanocomposite coatings may have the potential to be used as a promising antibacterial protective coating for paper packaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reflectance variability of surface coatings reveals characteristic eigenvalue spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, José M.; Díaz, José A.; Barros, Rui

    2012-10-01

    We have examined the trial-to-trial variability of the reflectance spectra of surface coatings containing effect pigments. Principal component analysis of reflectances was done at each detection angle separately. A method for classification of principal components is applied based on the eigenvalue spectra. It was found that the eigenvalue spectra follow characteristic power laws and depend on the detection angle. Three different subsets of principal components were examined to separate the relevant spectral features related to the pigments from other noise sources. Reconstruction of the reflectance spectra by taking only the first subset indicated that reflectance variability was higher at near-specular reflection, suggesting a correlation with the trial-to-trial deposition of effect pigments. Reconstruction by using the second subset indicates that variability was higher at short wavelengths. Finally, reconstruction by using only the third subset indicates that reflectance variability was not totally random as a function of the wavelength. The methods employed can be useful in the evaluation of color variability in industrial paint application processes.

  17. Microstructure, bioactivity and osteoblast behavior of monoclinic zirconia coating with nanostructured surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guocheng; Meng, Fanhao; Ding, Chuanxian; Chu, Paul K; Liu, Xuanyong

    2010-03-01

    A monoclinic zirconia coating with a nanostructural surface was prepared on the Ti-6Al-4V substrate by an atmospheric plasma-spraying technique, and its microstructure and composition, as well as mechanical and biological properties, were investigated to explore potential application as a bioactive coating on bone implants. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy revealed that the zirconia coating was composed of monoclinic zirconia which was stable at low temperature, and its surface consists of nano-size grains 30-50 nm in size. The bond strength between the coating and the Ti-6Al-4V substrate was 48.4 + or - 6.1 MPa, which is higher than that of plasma-sprayed HA coatings. Hydrothermal experiments indicated that the coating was stable in a water environment and the phase composition and Vickers hardness were independent of the hydrothermal treatment time. Bone-like apatite is observed to precipitate on the surface of the coating after soaking in simulated body fluid for 6 days, indicating excellent bioactivity in vitro. The nanostructured surface composed of monoclinic zirconia is believed to be crucial to its bioactivity. Morphological observation and the cell proliferation test demonstrated that osteoblast-like MG63 cells could attach to, adhere to and proliferate well on the surface of the monoclinic zirconia coating, suggesting possible applications in hard tissue replacements. Copyright 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Titanium Surface Coating with a Laminin-Derived Functional Peptide Promotes Bone Cell Adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Ki Min

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminin-derived peptide coatings can enhance epithelial cell adhesion to implants, and the positive effect of these peptides on bone cell adhesion has been anticipated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the improvement in bone cell attachment to and activity on titanium (Ti scaffolds coated with a laminin-derived functional peptide, Ln2-P3 (the DLTIDDSYWYRI motif. Four Ti disc surfaces were prepared, and a human osteosarcoma (HOS cell attachment test was performed to select two candidate surfaces for peptide coating. These two candidates were then coated with Ln2-P3 peptide, a scrambled peptide, or left uncoated to measure cell attachment to each surface, following which one surface was chosen to assess alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and osteogenic marker gene expression with quantitative real-time PCR. On the commercially pure Ti surface, the Ln2-P3 coating significantly increased cellular ALP activity and the expression levels of ALP and bone sialoprotein mRNA as compared with the scrambled peptide-coated and uncoated surfaces. In conclusion, although further in vivo studies are needed, the findings of this in vitro study indicate that the Ln2-P3-coated implant surface promotes bone cell adhesion, which has clinical implications for reducing the overall treatment time of dental implant therapy.

  19. RASSOR - Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Tracy R.; Mueller, Rob

    2015-01-01

    The Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot (RASSOR) is a lightweight excavator for mining in reduced gravity. RASSOR addresses the need for a lightweight (robot that is able to overcome excavation reaction forces while operating in reduced gravity environments such as the moon or Mars. A nominal mission would send RASSOR to the moon to operate for five years delivering regolith feedstock to a separate chemical plant, which extracts oxygen from the regolith using H2 reduction methods. RASSOR would make 35 trips of 20 kg loads every 24 hours. With four RASSORs operating at one time, the mission would achieve 10 tonnes of oxygen per year (8 t for rocket propellant and 2 t for life support). Accessing craters in space environments may be extremely hard and harsh due to volatile resources - survival is challenging. New technologies and methods are required. RASSOR is a product of KSC Swamp Works which establishes rapid, innovative and cost effective exploration mission solutions by leveraging partnerships across NASA, industry and academia.

  20. Surface Coating Constraint Induced Self-Discharging of Silicon Nanoparticles as Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Langli; Zhao, Peng; Yang, Hui; Liu, Borui; Zhang, Jiguang; Cui, Yi; Yu, Guihua; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-10-01

    One of the key challenges of Si-based anodes for lithium ion batteries is the large volume change upon lithiation and delithiation, which commonly leads to electrochemo-mechanical degradation and subsequent fast capacity fading. Recent studies have shown that applying nanometer-thick coating layers on Si nanoparticle (SiNPs) enhances cyclability and capacity retention. However, it is far from clear how the coating layer function from the point of view of both surface chemistry and electrochemo-mechanical effect. Herein, we use in situ transmission electron microscopy to investigate the lithiation/delithiation kinetics of SiNPs coated with a conductive polymer, polypyrrole (PPy). We discovered that this coating layer can lead to “self-delithiation” or “self-discharging” at different stages of lithiation. We rationalized that the self-discharging is driven by the internal compressive stress generated inside the lithiated SiNPs due to the constraint effect of the coating layer. We also noticed that the critical size of lithiation-induced fracture of SiNPs is increased from ~ 150 nm for bare SiNPs to ~ 380 nm for the PPy-coated SiNPs, showing a mechanically protective role of the coating layer. These observations demonstrate both beneficial and detrimental roles of the surface coatings, shedding light on rational design of surface coatings for silicon to retain high-power and high capacity as anode for lithium ion batteries.

  1. Surface modification of polyester fabric with plasma pretreatment and carbon nanotube coating for antistatic property improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.X., E-mail: cxwang@mail.dhu.edu.cn [College of Textiles and Clothing, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Ecological Building Materials and Environmental Protection Equipments, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Technology in Environmental Protection, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Lv, J.C. [College of Textiles and Clothing, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Ren, Y. [School of Textile and Clothing, Nantong University, Jiangsu 226019 (China); Zhi, T.; Chen, J.Y.; Zhou, Q.Q. [College of Textiles and Clothing, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Lu, Z.Q.; Gao, D.W. [College of Textiles and Clothing, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Ecological Building Materials and Environmental Protection Equipments, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Technology in Environmental Protection, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Jin, L.M. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201204 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PET was finished by plasma treatment and SWCNT coating to improve antistatic property. • Plasma modification had a positive effect on SWCNT coating on PET fiber surface. • O{sub 2} plasma was more effective in SWCNT coating than Ar plasma in the shorter time. • Antistatic enhanced and then declined with enhancing treatment time and output power. • Antistatic increased with increasing concentration, curing time, curing temperature. - Abstract: This study introduced a green method to prepare antistatic polyester (PET) fabrics by plasma pretreatment and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) coating. The influences of plasma conditions and SWCNT coating parameters on antistatic property of PET fabrics were investigated. PET fabrics were pretreated under various plasma conditions such as different treatment times, output powers and working gases, and then SWCNT coating on the plasma treated PET fabrics was carried out by coating-dry-cure using various coating parameters including different SWCNT concentrations, curing times and curing temperatures. PET fabrics were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and volume resistivity. SEM and XPS analysis of the plasma treated PET fabrics revealed the increase in surface roughness and oxygen/nitrogen containing groups on the PET fiber surface. SEM and XPS analysis of the plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics indicated the SWCNT coating on PET fiber surface. The plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics exhibited a good antistatic property, which increased and then decreased with the increasing plasma treatment time and output power. The antistatic property of the O{sub 2} plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabric was better and worse than that of N{sub 2} or Ar plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabric in the shorter treatment time and the longer treatment time, respectively. In addition, the antistatic property of the

  2. Surface modification of polyester fabric with plasma pretreatment and carbon nanotube coating for antistatic property improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.X.; Lv, J.C.; Ren, Y.; Zhi, T.; Chen, J.Y.; Zhou, Q.Q.; Lu, Z.Q.; Gao, D.W.; Jin, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PET was finished by plasma treatment and SWCNT coating to improve antistatic property. • Plasma modification had a positive effect on SWCNT coating on PET fiber surface. • O 2 plasma was more effective in SWCNT coating than Ar plasma in the shorter time. • Antistatic enhanced and then declined with enhancing treatment time and output power. • Antistatic increased with increasing concentration, curing time, curing temperature. - Abstract: This study introduced a green method to prepare antistatic polyester (PET) fabrics by plasma pretreatment and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) coating. The influences of plasma conditions and SWCNT coating parameters on antistatic property of PET fabrics were investigated. PET fabrics were pretreated under various plasma conditions such as different treatment times, output powers and working gases, and then SWCNT coating on the plasma treated PET fabrics was carried out by coating-dry-cure using various coating parameters including different SWCNT concentrations, curing times and curing temperatures. PET fabrics were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and volume resistivity. SEM and XPS analysis of the plasma treated PET fabrics revealed the increase in surface roughness and oxygen/nitrogen containing groups on the PET fiber surface. SEM and XPS analysis of the plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics indicated the SWCNT coating on PET fiber surface. The plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics exhibited a good antistatic property, which increased and then decreased with the increasing plasma treatment time and output power. The antistatic property of the O 2 plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabric was better and worse than that of N 2 or Ar plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabric in the shorter treatment time and the longer treatment time, respectively. In addition, the antistatic property of the plasma treated

  3. The influence of surface topography of UV coated and printed cardboard on the print gloss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Karlović

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The incident light on the printed surface undergoes through several processes of scattering, absorbtion and reflectiondepending on the surface topography and structure of the material. The specular part of the surface reflection is commonlyattributed as the geometric component of the reflection, and when measured is associated with specular gloss.The diffuse part of the surface reflection contains the chromatic part of the reflection and is commonly calculatedthrough colorimetric values. Using UV coatings as surface enhacement materials which affect the optical propertiesof coated surfaces and final appearance of the printed product forms new surface topography over the existingone. We have investigated the influence of three different amounts of UV glossy and matte oveprint coating on themeasured specular gloss of printed cardboard samples. The different amount of coatings on the printed samples wereachived using three different screen stencils of 180 threads/cm, 150 threads/cm and 120 threads/cm thread count.The cardboard samples were analysed with AFM and SEM microscopes to obtain surface topography and roughnessvalues which were evaluated with the measured geometric values speficied as instrumental gloss. The surfaceswith a specific amount of UV coatings showed a new formed topography which influences the reflection of light.The changes in topography were evaluated through surface roughness parameters which showed a decline of surfaceroughness with tht additional ammount of glossy and matte coatings. The obtained and calculated correlations showthere is a high correlation between coating ammount and surface roughness change and gloss for the glossy UVcoating. The results for the matte UV coatings showed lower correlation for the gloss and surface roughness.

  4. Silica coating and photocatalytic activities of ZnO nanoparticles: effect of operational parameters and kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, L F M; Emara, M M; El-Moselhy, M M; Maziad, N A; Hussein, O K

    2014-10-15

    Silica-coating ZnO nanoparticles were prepared using the hydrothermal method. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX). It was found that ultrafine core/shell structured silica-coating ZnO nanoparticles were successfully obtained. TEM analysis revealed a continuous and uniform silica coating layer of about 8nm in thickness on the surface of ZnO nanoparticles. The photocatalytic performance of silica-coating ZnO core/shell nanoparticles in methylene blue aqueous solution was investigated. The effects of some operational parameters such as pH value, nanocatalyst loading and initial MB concentration on the degradation efficiency were discussed. Kinetic parameters were experimentally determined and a pseudo-first-order kinetic was observed. Thus, the main advantage of the coating is the stability of the photocatalysts and the better performance in acidic or alkaline solutions. Compared to ZnO the maximum apparent rate constant is obtained at pH 8.5 (pH 11.5 in case of bare ZnO). Moreover, the Langmuir adsorption model was applied to describe the equilibrium isotherm at different MB concentration. The applicability of the Langmuir isotherm suggests monolayer coverage of the MB onto surface of silica-coating ZnO nanoparticles. The kinetics of the adsorption with respect to the initial dye concentration, were also investigated. The pseudo-first-order and second-order kinetic models were used and the rate constants were evaluated. The kinetic studies revealed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model better represented the adsorption kinetics, suggesting that the adsorption process may be chemisorption. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Surface modifications and Nano-composite coatings to improve the bonding strength of titanium-porcelain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Litong; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Xuemei; Feng, Wei; Li, Baoe; Lin, Cheng; Tao, Xueyu; Qiang, Yinghuai

    2016-04-01

    Surface modifications of Ti and nano-composite coatings were employed to simultaneously improve the surface roughness, corrosion resistance and chemical bonding between porclain-Ti. The specimens were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, surface roughness, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, corrosion resistance and bonding strength tests. The SEM results showed that hybrid structures with micro-stripes, nano-pores and nano-protuberances were prepared by surface modification of Ti, which significantly enhanced the surface roughness and corrosion resistance of Ti. Porous nano-composite coatings were synthesized on Ti anodized with pre-treatment in 40% HF acid. TiO2 nanoparticles were added into the hybrid coating to increase the solid phase content of the sols and avoid the formation of microcracks. With the TiO2 content increasing from 45 wt% to 60 wt%, the quantities of the microcracks on the coating surface gradually decreased. The optimal TiO2 content for the nanocomposite coatings is 60 wt% in this research. Compared to the uncoated group, the bonding strength of the coated groups showed a bonding strength improvement of 23.96%. The cytotoxicity of the 4# coating group was ranked as zero, which corresponds to non-cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental investigation on carbon nano tubes coated brass rectangular extended surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthilkumar, Rajendran; Prabhu, Sethuramalingam; Cheralathan, Marimuthu

    2013-01-01

    Finned surface has been extensively used for free convection cooling of internal combustion engines and several electronic kits etc. Here rectangular brass fin was preferred for analysis. Thermocouples were attached all over the surface of the fin in equal distances. The measurement of surface temperature and calculated convective heat transfer rate were reported for several heat input values. The overall system performance can be improved by enhancing heat transfer rate of extended surfaces. Based on the above requirement, brass surface was coated by carbon nano tubes. The temperature and heat transfer characteristics were investigated using Taguchi method for experimental design. Finally the performances of coated and non-coated rectangular brass fins were compared. The average percentage of increase in heat transfer rate was proved around 12% for carbon nanocoated rectangular brass fins. - Graphical abstract: The designed Natural and Forced convection Heat Transfer Test Rig measures the enhanced rate of heat transfer for nano coated rectangular fins than in non-coated fins. Highlights: ► Rectangular brass fins were preferred for convective heat transfer process. ► The rectangular brass fins are coated with multi wall carbon nano tubes in EBPVD process with nanometer thickness. ► Temperature and heat transfer rate were investigated for nanocoated and non-coated fins by using Taguchi method. ► Multi wall carbon nanotubes act as a pin fin to enhance surface area for effective convective heat transfer rate.

  7. Characterization of pigment-leached antifouling coatings using BET surface area measurements and mercury porosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2007-01-01

    In this work BET surface area measurements and mercury porosimetry are used to characterize leached layers formed when seawater-soluble pigments (Cu2O and ZnO) dissolve during accelerated leaching of simple antifouling coatings. Measurements on single-pigment coatings show that an increasing...

  8. Effect of a dielectric coating on terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on metal wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Valk, N.C.J.; Planken, P.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The authors present measurements and calculations on the effect of thin dielectric coatings on the propagation of terahertz pulses along the surface of metal wires. Our measurements show that propagation over only a few centimeters of wire having a thin dielectric coating, strongly distorts the

  9. Conformal surface coatings to enable high volume expansion Li-ion anode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Leah A; Cavanagh, Andrew S; George, Steven M; Jung, Yoon Seok; Yan, Yanfa; Lee, Se-Hee; Dillon, Anne C

    2010-07-12

    An alumina surface coating is demonstrated to improve electrochemical performance of MoO(3) nanoparticles as high capacity/high-volume expansion anodes for Li-ion batteries. Thin, conformal surface coatings were grown using atomic layer deposition (ALD) that relies on self-limiting surface reactions. ALD coatings were tested on both individual nanoparticles and prefabricated electrodes containing conductive additive and binder. The coated and non-coated materials were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling. Importantly, increased stability and capacity retention was only observed when the fully fabricated electrode was coated. The alumina layer both improves the adhesion of the entire electrode, during volume expansion/contraction and protects the nanoparticle surfaces. Coating the entire electrode also allows for an important carbothermal reduction process that occurs during electrode pre-heat treatment. ALD is thus demonstrated as a novel and necessary method that may be employed to coat the tortuous network of a battery electrode.

  10. Crack resistance of pvd coatings : Influence of surface treatment prior to deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoestbergen, E; de Hosson, J.T.M.

    The crack resistance of three different PVD coatings, TiN, Ti(C,N), and a multilayer system of alternating TiN and TiAlN, have been investigated. The three coating systems were deposited onto substrates with a different surface roughness to study the influence of this pretreatment on the crack

  11. Turbostratic boron nitride coated on high-surface area metal oxide templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Søren Kegnæs; Egeblad, Kresten; Brorson, M.

    2007-01-01

    Boron nitride coatings on high-surface area MgAl2O4 and Al2O3 have been synthesized and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and by X-ray powder diffraction. The metal oxide templates were coated with boron nitride using a simple nitridation in a flow of ammonia starting from ammonium...

  12. Polymer coating comprising 2-methoxyethyl acrylate units synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Source: US2012184029A The present invention relates to preparation of a polymer coating comprising or consisting of polymer chains comprising or consisting of units of 2-methoxyethyl acrylate synthesized by Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (SI ATRP) such as ARGET SI ATRP...... or AGET SI ATRP and uses of said polymer coating....

  13. Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot (RASSOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Smith, Jonathan D.; Cox, Rachel E.; Schuler, Jason M.; Ebert, Tom; Nick, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Regolith is abundant on extra-terrestrial surfaces and is the source of many resources such as oxygen, hydrogen, titanium, aluminum, iron, silica and other valuable materials, which can be used to make rocket propellant, consumables for life support, radiation protection barrier shields, landing pads, blast protection berms, roads, habitats and other structures and devices. Recent data from the Moon also indicates that there are substantial deposits of water ice in permanently shadowed crater regions and possibly under an over burden of regolith. The key to being able to use this regolith and acquire the resources, is being able to manipulate it with robotic excavation and hauling machinery that can survive and operate in these very extreme extra-terrestrial surface environments. In addition, the reduced gravity on the Moon, Mars, comets and asteroids poses a significant challenge in that the necessary reaction force for digging cannot be provided by the robot's weight as is typically done on Earth. Space transportation is expensive and limited in capacity, so small, lightweight payloads are desirable, which means large traditional excavation machines are not a viable option. A novel, compact and lightweight excavation robot prototype for manipulating, excavating, acquiring, hauling and dumping regolith on extra-terrestrial surfaces has been developed and tested. Lessons learned and test results will be presented including digging in a variety of lunar regolith simulant conditions including frozen regolith mixed with water ice.

  14. Surface Treatments of Fillers to Improve Dielectric Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kindley, Lee M

    1960-01-01

    The inability of present dielectric coatings to meet stringent reliability requirements under adverse moisture conditions and broad temperature ranges is one of the major problems facing the electronics industry...

  15. Selective formation of diamond-like carbon coating by surface catalyst patterning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palnichenko, A.V.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    The selective formation of diamond-like carbon coating by surface catalyst patterning was studied. DLC films was deposited using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, filtered vacuum arc deposition, laser ablation, magnetron sputtering and ion-beam lithography methods. The DLC coatings were...... obtained by means of a single short and intensive carbon plasma deposition pulse. The deposited DLC coating was characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy measurements. The DLC coating process gave rise to wide potential possibilities in micro-devices manufacturing productions....

  16. Unlubricated Gross Slip Fretting Wear of Metallic Plasma Sprayed Coatings for Ti6A14V Surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hager, Jr., Carl H; Sanders, Jeffrey H; Sharma, Shashi K

    2006-01-01

    .... The combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), surface profilometry, surface chemistry (EDS), and friction analysis were used to study coating performance and evaluate the interfacial wear mechanisms...

  17. Development and research of vacuum-plasma composite coatings for increase of operability of shearing dies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volosova Marina A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The technological principles of low-temperature deposition of multilayer vacuum-plasma coatings with the increased operational properties on various types of die steels with the assistance of accelerated argon molecules beam are offered in the article. Four standard architecture of vacuum-plasma coatings - Ti/(Ti,ZrN, Cr/CrN, TiN/TiCN/(Ti,CrN and Ti/(Ti,AlN are considered. It is shown that deposition of vacuum-plasma coatings of the listed structures at the optimum modes considerably reduces intensity of wear of shearing dies therefore quality of shaped products several times increases.

  18. Biomimetic electroactive polyimide with rose petal-like surface structure for anticorrosive coating application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Ji

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an electroactive polyimide (EPI coating with biomimetic surface structure of rose petal used in anticorrosion application was first presented. First of all, amino-capped aniline trimer (ACAT was synthesized by oxidative coupling reaction, followed by characterized through Fourier transform infrared spectroscooy (FTIR, liquid chromatography – mass spcerometry (LC-MS and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR spectroscopy. Subsequently, as-prepared ACAT was reacted with isopropylidenediphenoxy-bis(phthalic anhydride (BPADA to give electroactive poly(amic acid (EPAA. Moreover, poly(dimethylsiloxane (PDMS was used to be the soft negative template for pattern transfer from the surface of rose petal to the surface of polymer coating. The EPI coating with biomimetic structure was obtained by programmed heating the EPAA slurry casting onto the negative PDMS template. The anticorrosive performance of as-prepared biomimetic EPI coating was demonstrated by performing a series of electrochemical measurements (Tafel, Nyquist, and Bode plots upon cold-rolled steel (CRS electrode in a NaCl aqueous solution. It should be noted that the biomimetic EPI coating with rose petal-like structure was found to exhibit better anticorrosion than that of EPI without biomimetic structure. Moreover, the surface contact angle of water droplets for biomimetic EPI coating was found to be ~150°, which is significantly higher than that of EPI coating with smooth structure (~87°, indicating that the EPI coating with biomimetic structure reveals better hydrophobicity. The apparent mechanism for improved anticorrosive properties is twofold: (1 the biomimetic structure of EPI coating can repel water droplets. (2 electroactivity of EPI coating promotes the formation of densely passive layer of metal oxide on metallic surface.

  19. Improved adherence and spreading of Saos-2 cells on polypropylene surfaces achieved by surface texturing and carbon nitride coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllymaa, Katja; Myllymaa, Sami; Korhonen, Hannu; Lammi, Mikko J; Saarenpää, Hanna; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A; Tiitu, Virpi; Lappalainen, Reijo

    2009-11-01

    The adhesion and contact guidance of human primary osteogenic sarcoma cells (Saos-2) were characterized on smooth, microstructured (MST) and micro- and nano-structured (MNST) polypropylene (PP) and on the same samples with a silicon-doped carbon nitride (C(3)N(4)-Si) coating. Injection molding was used to pattern the PP surfaces and the coating was obtained by using ultra-short pulsed laser deposition (USPLD). Surfaces were characterized using atomic force microscopy and surface energy components were calculated according to the Owens-Wendt model. The results showed C(3)N(4)-Si coated surfaces to be significantly more hydrophilic than uncoated ones. In addition, there were 86% more cells in the smooth C(3)N(4)-Si coated PP compared to smooth uncoated PP and 551%/476% more cells with MST/MNST C(3)N(4)-Si coated PP than could be obtained with MST/MNST uncoated PP. Thus the adhesion, spreading and contact guidance of osteoblast-like cells was effectively improved by combining surface texturing and deposition of osteocompatible C(3)N(4)-Si coating.

  20. Operation of activated-fullerene-coated field emitters in technical vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumareva, T. A.; Sominskii, G. G.

    2013-07-01

    The operation of tungsten tip field emitters coated by activated fullerenes in technical vacuum is studied. Ways of emitter training to provide the self-reproducibility of the coatings and their long service life under intense ion bombardment in wide ranges of pressures, from 2 × 10-8 to (5-7) × 10-7 Torr, and emission currents, from (1.5-2.0) to (10-20) μA, are developed.

  1. Influence of residual stress on the adhesion and surface morphology of PECVD-coated polypropylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaritz, Montgomery; Hopmann, Christian; Behm, Henrik; Kirchheim, Dennis; Wilski, Stefan; Grochla, Dario; Banko, Lars; Ludwig, Alfred; Böke, Marc; Winter, Jörg; Bahre, Hendrik; Dahlmann, Rainer

    2017-11-01

    The properties of plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) coatings on polymer materials depend to some extent on the surface and material properties of the substrate. Here, isotactic polypropylene (PP) substrates are coated with silicon oxide (SiO x ) films. Plasmas for the deposition of SiO x are energetic and oxidative due to the high amount of oxygen in the gas mixture. Residual stress measurements using single Si cantilever stress sensors showed that these coatings contain high compressive stress. To investigate the influence of the plasma and the coatings, residual stress, silicon organic (SiOCH) coatings with different thicknesses between the PP and the SiO x coating are used as a means to protect the substrate from the oxidative SiO x coating process. Pull-off tests are performed to analyse differences in the adhesion of these coating systems. It could be shown that the adhesion of the PECVD coatings on PP depends on the coatings’ residual stress. In a PP/SiOCH/SiO x -multilayer system the residual stress can be significantly reduced by increasing the thickness of the SiOCH coating, resulting in enhanced adhesion.

  2. Utilization of Sanitizing Wipes on Selected Coated Nonstick Food Contact Surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Powers, Edmund

    2002-01-01

    ... of field sanitation. The cleaning and bactericidal efficacy of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) sanitizing wipes was tested on specially coated non-stick food contact surfaces, also under investigation by the Army...

  3. TiO2 Surface Coating of Mn-Zn Dopped Ferrites Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solný, Tomáš; Ptacek, Petr; Másilko, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with TiO2 coating of powder Mn-Zn ferrite in order to recieve photocatalytic layer on the top of these particles, forming core-shell catalyst. Powder catalysts are of great advance over the world due to the high surface area, considering the kinetics proceeds through heterogenous...... phase boundary catalysis. However their withdrawal from cleaning systems often requires energetically and economically demanding processes such as filtration and ultrafiltration. Since the ferrite is magnetic, the advantage of such formed core-shell photocatalyst is easibility of removing from...... photocatalytic decomposition system using external magnetic field. In this study the surface coating is performed, using Ti alkoxides mixtures with nanosized TiO2 particles and C and Au coating to form film layer of TiO2 on the surface of ferrite. XRD, SEM – EDS analyses are employed to study surface coating....

  4. Surface Coating of Wood Building Products National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Applicability Flowchart

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a January 2005 document that has a flow chart to help you determine if this National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) rule for Surface Coating of Wood Building Products applies to your facility.

  5. FORMING A PARTING LAYER OF COATING ON THE SURFACE OF THE MOULD DURING DIE-CASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pivovarchik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research on the study of the possibility of accumulation of the lubricating layer coating on the surface of the separation process of foundry equipment with high pressure die casting aluminum alloys.

  6. Double Lap Shear Testing of Coating-Modified Ice Adhesion to Specific Shuttle Component Surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferrick, M. G; Mulherin, Nathan D; Coutermarsh, Barry A; Durell, Glenn D; Curtis, Leslie A; St. Clair, Terry L; Weiser, Erik S; Cano, Roberto J; Smith, Trent M; Stevenson, Charles G; Martinez, Eloy C

    2006-01-01

    The goals of this experimental program were to optimize the effectiveness of an icephobic coating for use on several Space Shuttle surfaces, to evaluate the effects of adding an ultraviolet light absorber (UVA...

  7. Effect of Surface Pretreatment on the Corrosion Resistance of Epoxy-Coated Carbon Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dongho; Park, Jinhwan; Shon, Minyoung

    2012-01-01

    The corrosion resistance of epoxy-coated carbon steel was evaluated. The carbon steel surface was subjected to different treatment methods such as steel grit blasting with different size, steel shot ball blasting and power tool treatment. To study the effect of the treatments, the topology of the treated surface was observed by optical 3D microscopy and a pull-off adhesion test was conducted. The corrosion resistance of the epoxy-coated carbon steel was further examined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) combined with hygrothermal cyclic testing. The results of EIS indicated that the epoxy-coated carbon steel treated with steel grit blasting showed an improved corrosion resistance compared to untreated epoxy-coated surfaces or surfaces subjected to shot ball blasting and power tool treatments

  8. Tribological Behavior of Coating Cr Layer on 40Cr after Surface Electron Beam Pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J. J.; Wang, J.; Jiang, P.; Xu, H. B.; Li, H.; Hou, T. F.

    2017-12-01

    In this study,the friction and wear behavior of PVD coatings which were treated by 5 different processes,based on gear material-40Cr. Analyzing the effects of treating the gear material with electron beam in combination with magnetron sputtering on it,for dry friction and wear properties.The result showed that the electron beam pretreated substrate was useful to improve the tribological performance of coating material.Furthermore, the surface roughness of coating, the bonding force between substrate and coating as well as the load are the main factors affecting the tribological performance of this coating. Most importantly, the contribution of plowing effect on friction coefficient should be considered when the surface roughness is high.

  9. Pulse electrodeposition of self-lubricating Ni–W/PTFE nanocomposite coatings on mild steel surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangeetha, S. [Advanced Nanocomposite Coatings Laboratory, Department of Industrial Chemistry, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003 (India); Kalaignan, G. Paruthimal, E-mail: pkalaignan@yahoo.com [Advanced Nanocomposite Coatings Laboratory, Department of Industrial Chemistry, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003 (India); Anthuvan, J. Tennis [M. Kumarasamy College of Engineering, Karur, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PTFE polymer inclusion on Ni–W alloy matrix was electrodeposited by pulse current method. • Tribological properties and electrochemical characterizations of the nanocomposite coatings were analyzed. • The hydrophobic behaviour of Ni–W/PTFE nanocomposite coating was measured. • Ni–W/PTFE nanocomposite coatings have showed superior tribological properties and corrosion resistance relative to that of the Ni–W alloy matrix. - Abstract: Ni–W/PTFE nanocomposite coatings with various contents of PTFE (polytetafluoroethylene) particles were prepared by pulse current (PC) electrodeposition from the Ni–W plating bath containing self lubricant PTFE particles to be co-deposited. Co-deposited PTFE particulates were uniformly distributed in the Ni–W alloy matrix. The coatings were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX), X-ray Diffractometry (XRD) and Vicker's micro hardness tester. Tafel Polarization and electrochemical Impedance methods were used to evaluate the corrosion resistance behaviour of the nanocomposite coatings in 3.5% NaCl solution. It was found that, the Ni–W/PTFE nanocomposite coating has better corrosion resistance than the Ni–W alloy coating. Surface roughness and friction coefficient of the coated samples were assessed by Mitutoyo Surftest SJ-310 (ISO1997) and Scratch tester TR-101-M4 respectively. The contact angle (CA) of a water droplet on the surface of nanocomposite coating was measured by Optical Contact Goniometry (OCA 35). These results indicated that, the addition of PTFE in the Ni–W alloy matrix has resulted moderate microhardness, smooth surface, less friction coefficient, excellent water repellency and enhanced corrosion resistance of the nanocomposite coatings.

  10. Surface dispersive energy determined with IGC-ID in anti-graffiti-coated building materials

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona-Quiroga, Paula María; Rubio, J.; Sánchez, M. Jesús; Martínez-Ramírez, S.; Blanco-Varela, María Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Coating building materials with anti-graffiti treatments hinders or prevents spray paint adherence by generating low energy surfaces. This paper describes the effect of coating cement paste, lime mortar, granite, limestone and brick with two anti-graffiti agents (a water-base fluoroalkylsiloxane, “Protectosil Antigraffiti®”, and a Zr ormosil) on the dispersive component of the surface energy of these five construction materials. The agents were rediluted in their respective solvents at concen...

  11. Process for Non-Contact Removal of Organic Coatings from the Surface of Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor); Rutledge, Sharon K. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention discloses a method of removing organic protective coatings from a painting. In the present invention degraded protective coatings such as lacquers, acrylics, natural resins, carbons, soot, and polyurethane are safely removed from the surface of a painting without contact to the surface of the painting. This method can be used for restoration of paintings when they have been damaged, through age, fire, etc.

  12. Robust and thermal-healing superhydrophobic surfaces by spin-coating of polydimethylsiloxane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mengying; Peng, Shan; Deng, Wanshun; Yang, Xiaojun; Miao, Kai; Wen, Ni; Miao, Xinrui; Deng, Wenli

    2017-12-15

    Superhydrophobic surfaces easily lose their excellent water-repellency after damages, which limit their broad applications in practice. Thus, the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with excellent durability and thermal healing should be taken into consideration. In this work, robust superhydrophobic surfaces with thermal healing were successfully fabricated by spin-coating method. To achieve superhydrophobicity, cost-less and fluoride-free polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was spin-coated on rough aluminum substrates. After being spin-coated for one cycle, the superhydrophobic PDMS coated hierarchical aluminum (PDMS-H-Al) surfaces showed excellent tolerance to various chemical and mechanical damages in lab, and outdoor damages for 90days. When the PDMS-H-Al surfaces underwent severe damages such as oil contamination (peanut oil with high boiling point) or sandpaper abrasion (500g of force for 60cm), their superhydrophobicity would lose. Interestingly, through a heating process, cyclic oligomers generating from the partially decomposed PDMS acted as low-surface-energy substance on the damaged rough surfaces, leading to the recovery of superhydrophobicity. The relationship between the spin-coating cycles and surface wettability was also investigated. This paper provides a facile, fluoride-free and efficient method to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces with thermal healing. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Surface engineering glass-metal coatings designed for induction heating of ceramic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Amir Azam; Labbe, Jean Claude

    2014-01-01

    The term Surface Engineering is of relatively recent origin and use, however, the use of coatings and treatments to render surfaces of materials more suitable for certain application or environment is not new. With the advent of Vacuum Technology, Surface Engineering has gained a whole new impetus, whereby expensive materials with adequate mechanical, chemical and thermal properties are being coated or treated on their surfaces in order to achieve what is called as Surface Engineered materials. The present paper presents an overview of recent achievements in Surface Engineering and gives a detailed view of a specific application where glass-metal composite coatings were deposited on ceramic components in order to render them sensitive to induction heating. Sintered glaze coatings containing silver particles in appropriate concentration can be used for the induction heating of porcelain. Mixtures of glass ceramic powders with silver are used to prepare self-transfer patterns, which are deposited over porcelain. Several configurations of these coatings, which are aesthetic to start with, are employed and heating patterns are recorded. The microstructure of these coatings is discussed in relation to the heating ability by a classical household induction system. The results show that this technique is practical and commercially viable

  14. Surface engineering glass-metal coatings designed for induction heating of ceramic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A. A.; Labbe, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    The term Surface Engineering is of relatively recent origin and use, however, the use of coatings and treatments to render surfaces of materials more suitable for certain application or environment is not new. With the advent of Vacuum Technology, Surface Engineering has gained a whole new impetus, whereby expensive materials with adequate mechanical, chemical and thermal properties are being coated or treated on their surfaces in order to achieve what is called as Surface Engineered materials. The present paper presents an overview of recent achievements in Surface Engineering and gives a detailed view of a specific application where glass-metal composite coatings were deposited on ceramic components in order to render them sensitive to induction heating. Sintered glaze coatings containing silver particles in appropriate concentration can be used for the induction heating of porcelain. Mixtures of glass ceramic powders with silver are used to prepare self-transfer patterns, which are deposited over porcelain. Several configurations of these coatings, which are aesthetic to start with, are employed and heating patterns are recorded. The microstructure of these coatings is discussed in relation to the heating ability by a classical household induction system. The results show that this technique is practical and commercially viable. (author)

  15. Adhesion enhancement of Al coatings on carbon/epoxy composite surfaces by atmospheric plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, J.F.; Tournerie, N.; Maillard, H.

    2013-01-01

    Adhesion strengths between aluminium thin film coatings and manufactured carbon/epoxy composite surfaces were measured by assessing fracture tensile strengths using pull-off tests. The effect of the substrate roughness (nm to μm) of these composite surfaces on adhesion was studied by examining the surface free energies and adhesion strengths. The adhesion strengths of the coatings varied significantly. To improve the coating adhesion, each composite surface was treated with atmospheric plasma prior to deposition, which resulted in an increase in the surface free energy from approximately 40 mJ/m 2 to 70 mJ/m 2 because the plasma pretreatment led to the formation of hydrophilic C-O and C=O bonds on the composite surfaces, as demonstrated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. The adhesion strengths of the coatings were enhanced for all surface roughnesses studied. In our study, the effect of mechanical adhesion due to roughness was separated from the effect of modifying the chemical bonds with plasma activation. The adhesion ability of the pure resin was relatively weak. Increasing the surface roughness largely improved the adhesion of the resin surface. Plasma treatment of the pure resin also increased the surface adhesion. Our study shows that plasma activation effectively enhances the adhesion of manufactured composites, even when the surface roughness is on the order of microns. The ageing of the surface activation was also investigated, and the results demonstrate that atmospheric plasma has potential for use in the pretreatment of composite materials.

  16. The coating of surfaces for use in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Code of Practice provides general advice to designers and others on the factors affecting the choice of coating for use within the nuclear industry. It itemises those design features, which are pertinent to facilitating decontamination and specifies the optimum generic types of coating for a variety of working conditions. Data sheets on commercially available products are included in Section 6 of the Code under the appropriate generic type. Information provided on the data sheets includes a measure of the ease of decontamination of the coating using the accepted method of testing (currently as specified in BS 4247 Part 1) and other nuclear information, where available, i.e. radiation resistance, exhalation rate for radionuclide gases radon and thoron. It also indicates the more important conventional properties of the product. (author)

  17. Lithium Surface Coatings for Improved Plasma Performance in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugel, H W; Ahn, J -W; Allain, J P; Bell, R; Boedo, J; Bush, C; Gates, D; Gray, T; Kaye, S; Kaita, R; LeBlanc, B; Maingi, R; Majeski, R; Mansfield, D; Menard, J; Mueller, D; Ono, M; Paul, S; Raman, R; Roquemore, A L; Ross, P W; Sabbagh, S; Schneider, H; Skinner, C H; Soukhanovskii, V; Stevenson, T; Timberlake, J; Wampler, W R

    2008-02-19

    NSTX high-power divertor plasma experiments have shown, for the first time, significant and frequent benefits from lithium coatings applied to plasma facing components. Lithium pellet injection on NSTX introduced lithium pellets with masses 1 to 5 mg via He discharges. Lithium coatings have also been applied with an oven that directed a collimated stream of lithium vapor toward the graphite tiles of the lower center stack and divertor. Lithium depositions from a few mg to 1 g have been applied between discharges. Benefits from the lithium coating were sometimes, but not always seen. These improvements sometimes included decreases plasma density, inductive flux consumption, and ELM frequency, and increases in electron temperature, ion temperature, energy confinement and periods of MHD quiescence. In addition, reductions in lower divertor D, C, and O luminosity were measured.

  18. Qualitative Assessments via Infrared Vision of Sub-surface Defects Present Beneath Decorative Surface Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfarra, Stefano; Fernandes, Henrique C.; López, Fernando; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Zhang, Hai; Maldague, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    In this work, the potentialities of the infrared vision to explore sub-superficial defects in polychromatic statues were investigated. In particular, it was possible to understand how the reflector effect of the exterior golden layers could be minimized, applying advanced statistical algorithms to thermal images. Since this noble metal is present as external coating in both artworks, an in-depth discussion concerning its physicochemical properties is also added. In this context, the principal component thermography technique and, the more recent, partial least squares thermography technique were used on three different datasets recorded, providing long thermal stimuli. The main images were compared both to phasegrams and to the thermographic signal reconstruction results in order to have a clear outline of the situation to be debated. The effects of view factors on the radiation transfer linked to the specular reflections from the surface did not falsely highlight certain features inadvertently. Indeed, the raw thermograms were analyzed one by one. Reflectograms were used to pinpoint emissivity variations due to, e. g., possible repainting. The paper concludes that, as it is possible to understand from a physical point of view, the near-infrared reflectography technique is able to examine the state of conservation of the upper layers in cultural heritage objects, while the infrared thermography technique explores them more in-depth. The thesis statement is based on the thermal and nonthermal parts of the infrared region, therefore, indicating what can be detected by heating the surface and what can be visualized by illuminating the surface, bearing in mind the nature of the external coating.

  19. 40 CFR 63.5755 - How do I demonstrate compliance with the aluminum recreational boat surface coating spray gun...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the aluminum recreational boat surface coating spray gun cleaning work practice standards? 63.5755... surface coating spray gun cleaning work practice standards? You must demonstrate compliance with the aluminum coating spray gun cleaning work practice standards by meeting the requirements of paragraph (a) or...

  20. Coating compositions and method for the treatment of metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, N.; Stastny, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    An aqeuous acidic composition provides improved coating for aluminum. The composition comprises from about 10 to about 150 ppm zirconium, from about 20 to about 250 ppm fluoride, from 30 to about 125 ppm tannin, from about about 15 to about 100 ppm phosphate and from about 5 to about 50 ppm zinc, said coating solution having a tannin to phosphate ratio in the range of at least about 1:1 to about 2:1 and a pH in the range of about 2.3 to about 2.95

  1. Bio-polymer coatings on neural probe surfaces: Influence of the initial sample composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Winnie W.Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Herwik, Stanislav; Ruther, Patrick [Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), University of Freiburg (Germany); Goethelid, Emmanuelle [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Oscarsson, Sven, E-mail: sven@svenoscarsson.com [Department of Organic Chemistry, Stockholm University, Arrhenius Laboratory, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents the results of the study of hyaluronic acid (HyA) coating on two structural materials, silicon oxide (dielectric) surface and platinum (Pt) surface used for fabrication of probes developed for neurological investigations in the framework of the EU-project NeuroProbes. The silicon-based neural probes consist of multiple Pt electrodes on the probe shafts for neural recording applications. HyA coatings were proposed to apply on the probe surfaces to enhance the biocompatibility. This study aims at understanding the influence of the initial composition of the probe surface on the structure and morphology of HyA coating. HyA was chemically functionalized by SS-pyridin using (N-Succinimidyl 3-[2-pyridyldithio]-propionate) (SPDP) and was immobilized on the surfaces via a covalent bond. The dielectric and Pt surfaces were derivatized by use of (3-mercaptopropyl) methyldimethoxysilane (MPMDMS). The silanol groups in MPMDMS bind to the dielectric surface, leaving the thiol groups at the uppermost surface and the thiol groups then bind covalently to the functionalized HyA. On the Pt surface, it is the thiol group which binds on the Pt surface. The coated surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A well-defined HyA layer was observed on both dielectric and Pt surfaces. The coating of two molecular weights (340 kDa and 1.3 MDa) of HyA was examined. The influence of the silanized layer on the HyA coating was also investigated.

  2. Reciprocating Sliding Behaviour of Solid Lubricant Coating over Modified Titanium Alloy Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jothi Prakash, V. M.; Sathish, S.; Gopalakrishnan, T.; Venugopal, S.

    2017-03-01

    Tribological behaviour of contacting surfaces rigid sphere is using flat plate the with influence of normal and tangential loading (shear traction) is analysed using FEA model and surfaces being coated on flat plate by Titanium Alloy, Aluminium Alloy Molybdenum Di-sulphide. The finite element model facilitates to Evaluating the surface variables like contact stress distribution with the surface level and surface, contact pressure, shear stress and displacement. The finite element solution is validated through the hertz solution and on the successful verification.

  3. Effect of denture-coating composite on Candida albicans biofilm and surface degradation after disinfection protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Matheus Jacobina; de Oliveira, Denise G; Marcillo, Oscar O; Neppelenbroek, Karin H; Lara, Vanessa S; Porto, Vinícius C

    2016-04-01

    Denture stomatitis is the most common pathology affecting denture wearers and its main cause is colonisation of dentures with Candida albicans. This study investigated the effectiveness of two commercial composite surface sealants (Biscover(®) LV and Surface Coat(®)) to reduce C. albicans biofilm colonisation on denture resin, as well as their surface integrity after disinfection cycles with 1% sodium hypochlorite solution. Heat-cured acrylic resin specimens were manufactured (10 mm × 10 mm × 1 mm). The specimen surfaces were mechanically polished to simulate rough or smooth denture surfaces. Four surface-treatment groups were tested: smooth surfaces [0.3 μm of mean roughness (Ra)]; rough surfaces (3 μm of Ra); rough surfaces treated with Biscover(®) LV; and rough surfaces treated with Surface Coat(®). Specimens of each group were randomly divided to undergo immersion in distilled water or 1% sodium hypochlorite for 30 or 90 cycles each. Specimens of all groups in each immersion solution were tested using a crystal violet (CV) staining assay for biofilm quantification and by scanning electron microscopy for visual analyses of surface integrity and biofilm structure. CV assay data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's multiple comparison test (P surface integrity of Biscover(®) LV-treated surfaces were similar to those of smooth surfaces, whereas Surface Coat(®) -treated surfaces presented a similar performance to rough surfaces in all solutions and cycles. These results suggest the possibility of clinical use of Biscover(®) LV for denture coating on surfaces in which mechanical polish is not indicated, such as the fitting surface. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.

  4. Failure modes observed on worn surfaces of W-C-Co sputtered coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, A.; Cavaleiro, A.; Miranda, A.S.; Vieira, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    During scratch testing, the indenter gives rise to a distribution of stresses similar to that observed in tribocontacts. In this work, r.f.-sputtered W-C-Co coatings deposited from sintered WC + Co (6, 10 and 15 wt.% Co) at various substrate biases were scratched and tested tribologically and the morphology of the damaged surfaces was analysed. The cobalt content of the coatings is the main factor determining their tribological characteristics. The failure modes observed on the worn pin-on-disc tested surfaces are explained and compared with those obtained by scratch testing. In spite of it not being possible to establish quantitative results for the wear resistance of W-C-Co coatings from scratch testing, an estimation can be performed based on the observation of the failure modes in the scratch track. Thus scratch testing can be used to predict the tribological behaviour of coated surfaces. This possibility can reduce the number and cost of tribological tests. (orig.)

  5. Self-healing Characteristics of Collagen Coatings with Respect to Surface Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Lae; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2016-01-01

    A coating based on collagen with self-healing properties was developed for applications in mechanical components that are prone to abrasion due to contact with a counter surface. The inherent swelling behavior of collagen in water was exploited as the fundamental mechanism behind self-healing of a wear scar formed on the surface. The effects of freeze-drying process and water treatment of the collagen coatings on their mechanical and self-healing properties were analyzed. Water was also used as the medium to trigger the self-healing effect of the collagen coatings after the wear test. It was found that collagen coatings without freeze-drying did not demonstrate any self-healing effect whereas the coatings treated by freeze-drying process showed remarkable self-healing effect. Overall, collagen coatings that were freeze-dried and water treated showed the best friction and self-healing properties. Repeated self-healing ability of these coatings with respect to wear scar was also demonstrated. It was also confirmed that the self-healing property of the collagen coating was effective over a relatively wide range of temperature. PMID:27010967

  6. Mathematical model and computer code for coated particles performance at normal operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubev, I.; Kadarmetov, I.; Makarov, V.

    2002-01-01

    Computer modeling of thermo-mechanical behavior of coated particles during operating both at normal and off-normal conditions has a very significant role particularly on a stage of new reactors development. In Russia a big experience has been accumulated on fabrication and reactor tests of CP and fuel elements with UO 2 kernels. However, this experience cannot be using in full volume for development of a new reactor installation GT-MHR. This is due to very deep burn-up of the fuel based on plutonium oxide (up to 70% fima). Therefore the mathematical modeling of CP thermal-mechanical behavior and failure prediction becomes particularly important. The authors have a clean understanding that serviceability of fuel with high burn-ups are defined not only by thermo-mechanics, but also by structured changes in coating materials, thermodynamics of chemical processes, 'amoeba-effect', formation CO etc. In the report the first steps of development of integrate code for numerical modeling of coated particles behavior and some calculating results concerning the influence of various design parameters on fuel coated particles endurance for GT-MHR normal operating conditions are submitted. A failure model is developed to predict the fraction of TRISO-coated particles. In this model it is assumed that the failure of CP depends not only on probability of SiC-layer fracture but also on the PyC-layers damage. The coated particle is considered as a uniform design. (author)

  7. Nano-Ag-loaded hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium surfaces by electrochemical deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiong; Zhang, Bailin; Wang, Yingbo; Zhou, Xianli; Weng, Jie; Qu, Shuxin; Feng, Bo; Watari, Fumio; Ding, Yonghui; Leng, Yang

    2011-04-06

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on titanium (Ti) substrates have attracted much attention owing to the combination of good mechanical properties of Ti and superior biocompatibility of HA. Incorporating silver (Ag) into HA coatings is an effective method to impart the coatings with antibacterial properties. However, the uniform distribution of Ag is still a challenge and Ag particles in the coatings are easy to agglomerate, which in turn affects the applications of the coatings. In this study, we employed pulsed electrochemical deposition to co-deposit HA and Ag simultaneously, which realized the uniform distribution of Ag particles in the coatings. This method was based on the use of a well-designed electrolyte containing Ag ions, calcium ions and l-cysteine, in which cysteine acted as the coordination agent to stabilize Ag ions. The antibacterial and cell culture tests were used to evaluate the antibacterial properties and biocompatibility of HA/Ag composite coatings, respectively. The results indicated the as-prepared coatings had good antibacterial properties and biocompatibility. However, an appropriate silver content should be chosen to balance the biocompatibility and antibacterial properties. Heat treatments promoted the adhesive strength and enhanced the biocompatibility without sacrificing the antibacterial properties of the HA/Ag coatings. In summary, this study provided an alternative method to prepare bioactive surfaces with bactericidal ability for biomedical devices.

  8. Characterization of Modified and Polymer Coated Alumina Surfaces by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Yehia El-Naggar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prepared, modified, and coated alumina surfaces were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR to investigate the surface properties of the individual and double modified samples. FTIR helps in reporting the changes occurred in hydroxyl groups as well as the structure changes as a result of thermal treating, hydrothermal treating, silylation treating, alkali metal treating, coating, and bonding with polymer. FTIR spectroscopy represents the strength and abundance of surface acidic OH which determine the adsorption properties of polar and nonpolar sorbents. Generally, all treated samples exhibit decrease of OH groups compared with those of parent ones producing alumina surfaces of different adsorptive powers.

  9. Ceramic coated Y1 magnesium alloy surfaces by microarc oxidation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    V V NARULKAR*, S PRAKASH and K CHANDRA. Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247 667, India .... The microarc oxidation ceramic coating is mainly composed of cubic MgO, and MgAl2O4 sharp spinels as well as a little amount of MgSiO3, which di-. Figure 2.

  10. Erosive wear of a surface coated hydroturbine steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    turbines, pipelines and valves used in slurry transporta- tion of matter, and fluidized bed combustion systems. (Kosel 1992). Coatings of wide variety of materials ... design of test rig can be found in an earlier paper (Chau- han et al 2008). The erodents were accelerated down a. 16 mm diameter stainless steel tube, 1 m in ...

  11. Erosive wear of a surface coated hydroturbine steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Gun on a hot rolled 21Cr–4Ni–N steel meant for fabrication of hydro turbine underwater parts. The coatings have been characterized for microstructure, porosity, microhardness and crystalline nature. The erosion experiments were carried out using an air jet erosion test rig at a velocity of 120 ms. –1 and impingement angles.

  12. Performance of waterborne acrylic surface coatings on wood ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two waterborne acrylic coatings were applied on spruce wood, impregnated with two copperethanolamine containing preservatives (CuE and CuEQ), one of them (CuEQ) containing a boron compound, octanoic acid and a quaternary ammonium compound as additives. Lower contact angles and deeper penetration of both ...

  13. Biodegradable polymer brush as nanocoupled interface for improving the durability of polymer coating on metal surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedair, Tarek M; Cho, Youngjin; Joung, Yoon Ki; Han, Dong Keun

    2014-10-01

    Metal-based drug-eluting stents (DESs) have severe drawbacks such as peeling-off and cracking of the coated polymer. To prevent the fracture of polymer-coated layer and improve the durability of DES, poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) brushes were synthesized onto cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr or CC) surface through atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) followed by surface-initiated ring opening polymerization (SI-ROP) of l-lactide. The polymer brushes were then characterized by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), water contact angle, ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All of the unmodified and modified Co-Cr surfaces were coated with a matrix of poly(d,l-lactide) (PDLLA) and sirolimus (SRL). The in vitro drug release profile was measured for 70 days. The PLLA-modified Co-Cr showed a biphasic release pattern in the initial burst followed by a slow release. On the other hand, the unmodified Co-Cr showed fast drug release and detachment of the coated polymer layer due to the instability of the polymer layer on Co-Cr surface. In comparison, the PLLA-modified Co-Cr preserved a uniform coating without detachment even after 6 weeks of degradation test. The platelet morphology and low density of platelet adhered on the modified layer and the SRL-in-PDLLA coated Co-Cr surfaces demonstrated that these samples would be blood compatible. Therefore, the introduction of PLLA brush onto Co-Cr surface is proved to dramatically improve the durability of the coating layer, and it is a promising strategy to prevent the coating defects found in DESs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Surface coatings of unsaturated polyester resin Kamper wood (Dry obalan ops spp.) by using UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiarto Danu; Yusuf Sudo Hadi; Novi Eka Putri

    1999-01-01

    Kamper wood (Dryobalanops spp.) has high contribution in wood working industry and most of them need surface coating process. Radiation curing of surface coating, especially the use of ultra-violet (UV) light have potential to give contribution in the wood finishing. The experiment on surface coating of kamper wood has been conducted by using UV-radiation. Unsaturated polyester resin with the commercial name of Yucalac type 157 was used as coating materials after being added with styrene monomer, some fillers and radical photoinitiator of 2-hydroxy-2-2-methyl-l- phenyl propanone. Four photoinitiator concentration levels of 1.5 ; 2 ; 2.5 and 3 % by weight of resin were used. The coating materials were coated onto the wood panel samples by using high pressure sprayer. The wood samples were then exposed to irradiation by using 80 Watts/cm UV-source with variable conveyor speed of 3 ; 4 ; 5 and 5.8 m/min. Formulation of coating materials, pendulum hardness, adhesion, and gloss of cured films were evaluated

  15. Peri- and intra-implant bone response to microporous Ti coatings with surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braem, Annabel; Chaudhari, Amol; Vivan Cardoso, Marcio; Schrooten, Jan; Duyck, Joke; Vleugels, Jozef

    2014-02-01

    Bone growth on and into implants exhibiting substantial surface porosity is a promising strategy in order to improve the long-term stable fixation of bone implants. However, the reliability in clinical applications remains a point of discussion. Most attention has been dedicated to the role of macroporosity, leading to the general consensus of a minimal pore size of 50-100 μm in order to allow bone ingrowth. In this in vivo study, we assessed the feasibility of early bone ingrowth into a predominantly microporous Ti coating with an average thickness of 150 μm and the hypothesis of improving the bone response through surface modification of the porous coating. Implants were placed in the cortical bone of rabbit tibiae for periods of 2 and 4 weeks and evaluated histologically and histomorphometrically using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Bone with osteocytes encased in the mineralized matrix was found throughout the porous Ti coating up to the coating/substrate interface, highlighting that osseointegration of microporosities (coating in the host bone in the long term is possible. When surface modifications inside the porous structure further reduced the interconnective pore size to the submicrometer level, bone ingrowth was impaired. On the other hand, application of a sol-gel-derived bioactive glass-ceramic coating without altering the pore characteristics was found to significantly improve bone regeneration around the coating, while still supporting bone ingrowth. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Elucidation of the Oxygen Surface Kinetics in a Coated Dual-Phase Membrane for Enhancing Oxygen Permeation Flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Beom Tak; Park, Jeong Hwan; Park, Jong Hyuk; Yu, Ji Haeng; Joo, Jong Hoon

    2017-06-14

    The dual-phase membrane has received much attention as the solution to the instability of the oxygen permeation membrane. It has been reported that the oxygen flux of the dual-phase membrane is greatly enhanced by the active coating layer. However, there has been little discussion about the enhancement mechanism by surface coating in the dual-phase membrane. This study investigates the oxygen flux of the Ce 0.9 Gd 0.1 O 2-δ -La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3±δ (GDC 80 vol %/LSM 20 vol %) composite membrane depending on the oxygen partial pressure (P O 2 ) to elucidate the mechanism of enhanced oxygen flux by the surface modification in the fluorite-rich phase dual-phase membrane. The oxygen permeation resistances were obtained from the oxygen flux as a function of P O 2 using the oxygen permeation model. The surface exchange coefficient (k) and the bulk diffusion coefficient (D) were calculated from these resistances. According to the calculated k and D values, we concluded that the active coating layer (La 0.6 Sr 0.4 CoO 3-δ ) significantly increased the k value of the membrane. Furthermore, the surface exchange reaction on the permeate side was more sluggish than that at the feed side under operating conditions (feed: 0.21 atm/permeate side: 4.7 × 10 -4 atm). Therefore, the enhancement of the oxygen surface exchange kinetics at the permeate side is more important in improving the oxygen permeation flux of the thin film-based fluorite-rich dual-phase membrane. These results provide new insight about the function of the surface coating to enhance the oxygen permeation flux of the dual-phase membrane.

  17. Bacterial surface layer proteins as a novel capillary coating material for capillary electrophoretic separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Gordaliza, Estefanía, E-mail: emorenog@ucm.es [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Stigter, Edwin C.A. [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Department of Molecular Cancer Research, Universitair Medisch Centrum Utrecht, Wilhelmina Kinder Ziekenhuis, Lundlaan 6, 3584, EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Lindenburg, Petrus W.; Hankemeier, Thomas [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-06-07

    A novel concept for stable coating in capillary electrophoresis, based on recrystallization of surface layer proteins on hydrophobized fused silica capillaries, was demonstrated. Surface layer protein A (SlpA) from Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria was extracted, purified and used for coating pre-silanized glass substrates presenting different surface wettabilities (either hydrophobic or hydrophilic). Contact angle determination on SlpA-coated hydrophobic silica slides showed that the surfaces turned to hydrophilic after coating (53 ± 5°), due to a protein monolayer formation by protein-surface hydrophobic interactions. Visualization by atomic force microscopy demonstrated the presence of a SlpA layer on methylated silica slides displaying a surface roughness of 0.44 ± 0.02 nm. Additionally, a protein layer was visualized by fluorescence microscopy in methylated silica capillaries coated with SlpA and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled. The SlpA-coating showed an outstanding stability, even after treatment with 20 mM NaOH (pH 12.3). The electroosmotic flow in coated capillaries showed a partial suppression at pH 7.50 (3.8 ± 0.5 10{sup −9} m{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}) when compared with unmodified fused silica (5.9 ± 0.1 10{sup −8} m{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}). To demonstrate the potential of this novel coating, the SlpA-coated capillaries were applied for the first time for electrophoretic separation, and proved to be very suitable for the isotachophoretic separation of lipoproteins in human serum. The separations showed a high degree of repeatability (absolute migration times with 1.1–1.8% coefficient-of-variation (CV) within a day) and 2–3% CV inter-capillary reproducibility. The capillaries were stable for more than 100 runs at pH 9.40, and showed to be an exceptional alternative for challenging electrophoretic separations at long-term use. - Highlights: • New coating using recrystallized surface-layer proteins on

  18. Surface spins disorder in uncoated and SiO{sub 2} coated maghemite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeb, F. [Nanoscience and Technology Laboratory, International Islamic University, H-10, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Nadeem, K., E-mail: kashif.nadeem@iiu.edu.pk [Nanoscience and Technology Laboratory, International Islamic University, H-10, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Shah, S. Kamran Ali; Kamran, M. [Nanoscience and Technology Laboratory, International Islamic University, H-10, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Gul, I. Hussain [School of Chemical & Materials Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), H-12, 44000 Islamabad, Pakistan (Pakistan); Ali, L. [Materials Research Laboratory, International Islamic University, H-10, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2017-05-01

    We studied the surface spins disorder in uncoated and silica (SiO{sub 2}) coated maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles using temperature and time dependent magnetization. The average crystallite size for SiO{sub 2} coated and uncoated nanoparticles was about 12 and 29 nm, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the nanoparticles are spherical in shape and well separated. Temperature scans of zero field cooled (ZFC)/field cooled (FC) magnetization measurements showed lower average blocking temperature (T{sub B}) for SiO{sub 2} coated maghemite nanoparticles as compared to uncoated nanoparticles. The saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) of SiO{sub 2} coated maghemite nanoparticles was also lower than the uncoated nanoparticles and is attributed to smaller average crystallite size of SiO{sub 2} coated nanoparticles. For saturation magnetization vs. temperature data, Bloch's law (M(T)= M(0).(1− BT{sup b})) was fitted well for both uncoated and SiO{sub 2} coated nanoparticles and yields: B =3×10{sup −7} K{sup -b}, b=2.22 and B=0.0127 K{sup -b}, b=0.57 for uncoated and SiO{sub 2} coated nanoparticles, respectively. Higher value of B for SiO{sub 2} coated nanoparticles depicts decrease in exchange coupling due to enhanced surface spins disorder (broken surface bonds) as compared to uncoated nanoparticles. The Bloch's exponent b was decreased for SiO{sub 2} coated nanoparticles which is due to their smaller average crystallite size or finite size effects. Furthermore, a sharp increase of coercivity at low temperatures (<25 K) was observed for SiO{sub 2} coated nanoparticles which is also due to contribution of increased surface anisotropy or frozen surface spins in these smaller nanoparticles. The FC magnetic relaxation data was fitted to stretched exponential law which revealed slower magnetic relaxation for SiO{sub 2} coated nanoparticles. All these measurements revealed smaller average crystallite size and enhanced surface

  19. Evaluation on machined surface of hardened stainless steel generated by hard turning using coated carbide tools with wiper geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noordin, M.Y.; Kurniawan, D.; Sharif, S.

    2007-01-01

    Hard turning has been explored to be the finish machining operation for parts made of hardened steel. Its feasibility is determined partially by the quality of the resulting machined surface. This study evaluates the surface integrity of martensitic stainless steel (48 HRC) resulting from hard turning using coated carbide tool with wiper geometry at various cutting speed and feed and compares to that obtained using coated carbide tool with conventional geometry. The wiper coated carbide tool is able to produce machined surface which is of finer finish (Ra is finer than 0.4 μm at most cutting parameters) and yet is similarly inducing only minor microstructural alteration compared to its conventional counterpart. From the view of the chip morphology where continuous type of chip is desired rather than sawtooth chip type, the wiper tool generates continuous chip at almost similar range of cutting parameters compared to the case when using conventional tool. Additionally, the use of wiper tool also induces the preferred compressive residual stress at the machined surface. (author)

  20. Erosion behavior of hard surface coatings/inserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, A.V.; Bakker, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter attempts to determine the basic erosion behavior of several of the most promising refractory hard metal coatings and bodies that are currently either in development or commercial use. Discusses experimental conditions and metallographic analysis. Concludes that all of the materials tested eroded in a brittle manner, undergoing more erosion at a 90 0 impingement angle than a 30 0 angle; the CNTD SiC (hard) had the best erosion resistance; the coating materials had a peak erosion rate at the beginning of erosion; the amount of apparent plastic deformation that occurred in some of the materials can be related to the amount and condition of the metallic phases in the materials; and the large grain size near the coatingsubstrate interface of the CNTD SiC (hard) that eroded preferentially could be related to an instability in the deposition process that occurred near the initiation of deposition

  1. Surface modification of orthodontic implants by nanocomposite coatings based on chitosan and metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suetenkov D.Ye.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the properties of nanostructured coatings in orthodontic implants. Material and methods. Low and average molecular mass chitosan, 3-amynopropil-3-methoxysylan and suspensions of 5 nm and 10 nm gold nano-spheres stabilized with natrium citrate were used for nanocomposed surfaces. 2mg/ml polyethylenamin water solution was used for making the underlayer before putting polyion coverage using «POLYION-1M». The polyion covering dynamics was studied by polyquartz weighing method. Morphology of created layers was studied with atomic microscopy, elements were studied by secondary ion mass-spectrometry. Results. The best transmission among structures of chito-san/metals was showed by low molecular mass of chitosan and 8-1 Onm nanoparticles of metals. Analysis of roughness of surface shows that nanoparticles of gold make the most solid surface on 3-amynopropil-3-methoxysylan underlayer. Conclusion. The development of biocomparative materials in maxillofacial surgery is considered to be effective method of decreasing the risk of post-operative inflammatory complications by local antibacterial effect.

  2. Galvanic Liquid Applied Coating System for Protection of Embedded Steel Surfaces from Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Joseph; MacDowell, Louis; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete is an insidious problem for the Kennedy Space Center, government agencies, and the general public. Existing corrosion protection systems on the market are costly, complex, and time-consuming to install, require continuous maintenance and monitoring, and require specialized skills for installation. NASA's galvanic liquid-applied coating offers companies the ability to conveniently protect embedded steel rebar surfaces from corrosion. Liquid-applied inorganic galvanic coating contains one ore more of the following metallic particles: magnesium, zinc, or indium and may contain moisture attracting compounds that facilitate the protection process. The coating is applied to the outer surface of reinforced concrete so that electrical current is established between metallic particles and surfaces of embedded steel rebar; and electric (ionic) current is responsible for providing the necessary cathodic protection for embedded rebar surfaces.

  3. Durable Superomniphobic Surface on Cotton Fabrics via Coating of Silicone Rubber and Fluoropolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsheen Moiz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Performance textiles that protect human from different threats and dangers from environment are in high demand, and the advancement in functionalization technology together with employing advanced materials have made this an area of research focus. In this work, silicone rubber and environmentally friendly fluoropolymers have been employed to explore superomniphobic surface on cotton fabrics without compromising comfort much. It has been found that a cross-linked network between the rubber membrane and the fluoropolymers has been formed. The surface appearance, morphology, handle, thickness and chemical components of the surface of cotton fabrics have been changed. The coated fabrics showed resistance to water, aqueous liquid, oil, chemicals and soil. The comfort of the coated fabrics is different to uncoated cotton fabrics due to the existence of coated layers on the surface of cotton fabrics. This work would benefit the development and design of the next generation of performance textiles with balanced performance and comfort.

  4. Features of Wear-Resistant Cast Iron Coating Formation During Plasma-Powder Surfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdovin, K. N.; Emelyushin, A. N.; Nefed'ev, S. P.

    2017-09-01

    The structure of coatings deposited on steel 45 by plasma-powder surfacing of white wear-resistant cast iron is studied. The effects of surfacing regime and additional production effects on the welding bath during surfacing produced by current modulation, accelerated cooling of the deposited beads by blowing with air, and accelerated cooling of the substrate with running water on the structure, are determined. A new composition is suggested for powder material for depositing wear-resistant and corrosion-resistant coatings on a carbon steel by the plasma-powder process.

  5. Biofouling of Cr-Nickel Spray Coated Films on Steel Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kento; Kanematsu, Hideyuki; Kuroda, Daisuke; Ikigai, Hajime; Kogo, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Seiji

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, corrosion of metals brings us serious economic loss and it often reaches several percentage of GNP. Particularly the marine corrosion was serious and the counter measure was very hard to be established, since the number of factors is huge and complicated. One of the complicated factors in marine corrosion is biofouling. Biofouling was classified into two main categories, microfouling and macrofouling. The former is composed of biofilm formation mainly. Marine bacteria are attached to material surfaces, seeking for nutrition in oligotrophic environment and they excrete polysaccharide to form biofilm on metal surfaces. Then larger living matters are attached on the biofilms to develop biofouling on metal surfaces, which often lead loss and failures of metals in marine environments. From the viewpoint of corrosion protection and maintenance of marine structures, biofouling should be mitigated as much as possible. In this study, we applied spray coating to steels and investigated if chromium-nickel spray coating could mitigate the biofouling, being compared with the conventional aluminium-zinc spray coating in marine environments. The specimens used for this investigation are aluminium, zinc, aluminium-zinc, stacked chromium/nickel and those films were formed on carbon steel (JIS SS400). And the pores formed by spray coating were sealed by a commercial reagent for some specimens. All of those specimens were immersed into sea water located at Marina Kawage (854-3, Chisato, Tsu, Mie Prefecture) in Ise Bay for two weeks. The depth of the specimen was two meter from sea water surface and the distance was always kept constant, since they were suspended from the floating pier. The temperature in sea water changed from 10 to 15 degrees Celsius during the immersion test. The biofouling behavior was investigated by low vacuum SEM (Hitachi Miniscope TM1000) and X-ray fluorescent analysis. When the spray coated specimens with and without sealing agents were compared

  6. Surface Functionalization of Metal-Organic Framework Crystals with Catechol Coatings for Enhanced Moisture Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells-Gil, Javier; Novio, Fernando; Padial, Natalia M; Tatay, Sergio; Ruíz-Molina, Daniel; Martí-Gastaldo, Carlos

    2017-12-27

    Robust catechol coatings for enhanced moisture tolerance were produced in one step by direct reaction of Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) with synthetic catechols. We ascribe the rapid formation of homogeneous coatings around the metal-organic framework particles to the biomimetic catalytic activity of Cu(II) dimers in the external surface of the crystals. Use of fluorinated catechols results in hydrophobic, permeable coatings that protect HKUST from water degradation while retaining close to 100% of its original sorption capacity.

  7. Biofouling of Cr-Nickel Spray Coated Films on Steel Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kento; Kanematsu, Hideyuki; Kuroda, Daisuke; Ikigai, Hajime; Kogo, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Seiji

    2012-03-01

    Nowadays, corrosion of metals brings us serious economic loss and it often reaches several percentage of GNP. Particularly the marine corrosion was serious and the counter measure was very hard to be established, since the number of factors is huge and complicated. One of the complicated factors in marine corrosion is biofouling. Biofouling was classified into two main categories, microfouling and macrofouling. The former is composed of biofilm formation mainly. Marine bacteria are attached to material surfaces, seeking for nutrition in oligotrophic environment and they excrete polysaccharide to form biofilm on metal surfaces. Then larger living matters are attached on the biofilms to develop biofouling on metal surfaces, which often lead loss and failures of metals in marine environments. From the viewpoint of corrosion protection and maintenance of marine structures, biofouling should be mitigated as much as possible. In this study, we applied spray coating to steels and investigated if chromium-nickel spray coating could mitigate the biofouling, being compared with the conventional aluminium-zinc spray coating in marine environments. The specimens used for this investigation are aluminium, zinc, aluminium-zinc, stacked chromium/nickel and those films were formed on carbon steel (JIS SS400). And the pores formed by spray coating were sealed by a commercial reagent for some specimens. All of those specimens were immersed into sea water located at Marina Kawage (854-3, Chisato, Tsu, Mie Prefecture) in Ise Bay for two weeks. The depth of the specimen was two meter from sea water surface and the distance was always kept constant, since they were suspended from the floating pier. The temperature in sea water changed from 10 to 15 degrees Celsius during the immersion test. The biofouling behavior was investigated by low vacuum SEM (Hitachi Miniscope TM1000) and X-ray fluorescent analysis. When the spray coated specimens with and without sealing agents were compared

  8. Cellular Performance Comparison of Biomimetic Calcium Phosphate Coating and Alkaline-Treated Titanium Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of biomimetic calcium phosphate coating on osteoblasts behavior in vitro is not well established yet. In this study, we investigated the behavior of osteoblastic rat osteosarcoma 17/2.8 cells (ROS17/2.8 on two groups of biomaterial surfaces: alkaline-treated titanium surface (ATT and biomimetic calcium phosphate coated ATT (CaP. The cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation, and morphology on these surfaces were extensively evaluated to reveal the impact of substrate surface on osteoblastic cell responses. It was found that the ROS17/2.8 cells cultured on the ATT surface had higher attachment and proliferation rates compared to those on the CaP surface. Our results also showed that the calcium phosphate coatings generated in this work have an inhibiting effect on osteoblast adhesion and further influenced the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast compared to the ATT surface in vitro. Cells on the ATT surface also exhibited a higher alkaline phosphatase activity than on the CaP surface after two weeks of culture. Immunofluorescence staining and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the cells adhered and spread faster on the ATT surface than on the CaP surface. These results collectively suggested that substrate surface properties directly influence cell adhesion on different biomaterials, which would result in further influence on the cell proliferation and differentiation.

  9. Cellular Performance Comparison of Biomimetic Calcium Phosphate Coating and Alkaline-Treated Titanium Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mei

    2013-01-01

    The influence of biomimetic calcium phosphate coating on osteoblasts behavior in vitro is not well established yet. In this study, we investigated the behavior of osteoblastic rat osteosarcoma 17/2.8 cells (ROS17/2.8) on two groups of biomaterial surfaces: alkaline-treated titanium surface (ATT) and biomimetic calcium phosphate coated ATT (CaP). The cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation, and morphology on these surfaces were extensively evaluated to reveal the impact of substrate surface on osteoblastic cell responses. It was found that the ROS17/2.8 cells cultured on the ATT surface had higher attachment and proliferation rates compared to those on the CaP surface. Our results also showed that the calcium phosphate coatings generated in this work have an inhibiting effect on osteoblast adhesion and further influenced the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast compared to the ATT surface in vitro. Cells on the ATT surface also exhibited a higher alkaline phosphatase activity than on the CaP surface after two weeks of culture. Immunofluorescence staining and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the cells adhered and spread faster on the ATT surface than on the CaP surface. These results collectively suggested that substrate surface properties directly influence cell adhesion on different biomaterials, which would result in further influence on the cell proliferation and differentiation. PMID:24455730

  10. Investigation of antimicrobial activity and morphological properties of metal coated textile surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslan, Necdet; Sen, Tuba; Senturk, Kenan; Corukhlu, Turgay; Varturk, Ipek; Seker, S.; Shahidi, S.; Korachi, May; Dobrovolskiy, A.M.; Tsiolko, V.V.; Matsevich, S.V.; Keskin, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    The results of investigation antimicrobial and surface properties of the textiles metal coated by means of magnetron or the cleaning-deposition system, which is based on sequentially arranged DC anode layer accelerator and hollow cathode, are presented. The antimicrobial properties against bacteria E. coli and S. aureus of cotton and polyester/cotton textiles coated by Cu, Ti and Ag with the use of two different systems were examined and compared.

  11. Deposition of Coatings for Raising the Wear Resistance of Friction Surfaces of Spherical Sliding Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlenko, A. O.; Davydov, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    The process of finishing plasma hardening with deposition of a multilayer amorphous coating of the Si - O - C - N system is considered as applied to hardening of the friction surfaces of spherical sliding bearings. The microrelief, the submicrorelief, and the tribological characteristics of the deposited wear-resistant antifriction amorphous coating, which are responsible for the elevated wear resistance of spherical sliding bearings, are investigated.

  12. Surface hydrophobic co-modification of hollow silica nanoparticles toward large-area transparent superhydrophobic coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liangjuan; He, Junhui

    2013-04-15

    The present paper reports a novel, simple, and efficient approach to fabricate transparent superhydrophobic coatings on glass substrates by spray-coating stearic acid (STA) and 1H,1H,2H,2H-perflurooctyltriethoxysilane (POTS) co-modified hollow silica nanoparticles (SPHSNs), the surfaces of which were hydrophobic. The surface wettability of coatings was dependent on the conditions of post-treatment: the water contact angle of coating increased and then leveled off with increase in either the drying temperature or the drying time. When the coating was treated at 150°C for 5h, the water contact angle was as high as 160° and the sliding angle was lower than 1°, reaching excellent superhydrophobicity. They remained 159° and ≤1°, respectively, even after 3months storage under indoor conditions (20°C, 20%RH), demonstrating the long time stability of coating superhydrophobicity. The coating was robust both to the impact of water droplets (297 cm/s) and to acidic (pH=1) and basic (pH=14) droplets. It showed good transparency in the visible-near infrared spectral range, and the maximum transmittance reached as high as 89%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis were used to investigate the interactions among STA, POTS, and hollow silica nanoparticles (HSNs). Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to observe and estimate the morphology and surface roughness of coatings. Optical properties were characterized by a UV-visible-near infrared spectrophotometer. Surface wettability was studied by a contact angle/interface system. The enhancement of hydrophobicity to superhydrophobicity by post-treatment was discussed based on the transition from the Wenzel state to the Cassie state. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Surface Coating of Polyester Fabrics by Sol Gel Synthesized ZnO Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Merve Küçük; M. Lütfi Öveçoğlu

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide particles were synthesized using the sol-gel method and dip coated on polyester fabric. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed a single crystal phase of ZnO particles. Chemical characteristics of the polyester fabric surface were investigated using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) measurements. Morphology of ZnO coated fabric was analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). After particle analysis, the aqueous ZnO solution ...

  14. Acetone vapor sensing using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser diode coated with polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansbæk, Thor; Nielsen, Claus Højgaard; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2009-01-01

    We report theoretical and experimental on a new vapor sensor, using a single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) coated with a polymer sensor coating, which can detect acetone vapor at a volume fraction of 2.5%. The sensor provides the advantage of standard packaging, small form......-factor, mechanical stability and low cost when combined with a monolithically integrated photodiode detector....

  15. Ag coated microneedle based surface enhanced Raman scattering probe for intradermal measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Clement; Liu, Quan

    2013-06-01

    We propose a silver coated microneedle to detect test molecules, including R6G and glucose, positioned at a depth of more than 700 μm below a skin phantom surface for mimicking intradermal surface-enhanced Raman scattering measurements.

  16. One-step surface selective modification of UV-curable hard coatings with photochemical metal organics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Kwang; Park, Chang-Sun; Park, Hyung-Ho, E-mail: hhpark@yonsei.ac.kr

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: This study demonstrates suitable for exceptional hybrid film under UV exposure. A small quantity of the dispersive photochemical precursor Sr 2-ethylhexanoate was mixed and the composition altered from the surface to the bottom, forming an organic layer and a densely concentrated SrO surface layer. The surface-selective SrO strongly enhanced the surface flatness and hardness of the UV-curable organic coating film. - Highlights: • Hybrid bi-layer coating was synthesized through one-pot UV exposure chemical route. • The influence of additive and different reactivity formed densely concentrated SrO surface layer. • Chemical composition and continuous interface between organic and inorganic were analyzed. • Surface flatness and mechanical property were improved by inorganic material. - Abstract: An organic–inorganic hybrid bi-layer film with a selective distribution of inorganic components was synthesized from a one-pot process of UV irradiation. A photochemical metal oxide precursor (Sr 2-ethylhexanoate) varying from 0 to 4 wt% was dispersed in UV-curable coating materials. Under UV exposure, the bi-layer started reacting simultaneously but at different rates due to differences in the two UV-condensable components’ reactivity. The effects of the dispersed inorganic component on the surface morphology and mechanical properties were investigated by atomic force microscopy and nanoindentation, respectively. The reaction process and rates were studied from linkage change using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy at various UV exposure times (0–30 min). The elemental distribution and the interface on the coating layer were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy from Ar etching, revealing continuous and gradual composition changes in depth. The results showed that a flattened and surface-selectively hardened SrO containing the coating film could be obtained by this simple process. Consequently, a small ratio of photochemical

  17. Impact of surface coated magnetite used in magnetic drug delivery system on immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaku, Yoshihiro; Tamada, Junya; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko; Osako, Mariana Kiomy; Koriyama, Hiroshi; Nakagami, Hironori; Nishijima, Shigehiro

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic drug delivery system (MDDS) is a technique to effectively accumulate drugs, which are combined with ferromagnetic particles, into the affected area using magnetic force control. This study intends to apply MDDS for immunotherapy by enhancing immune responses by a surface treatment of a ferromagnetic particle. The objective of this study is to give the adjuvant effect to a ferromagnetic particle by the surface treatment with alum, which is known as one of the common adjuvants that activates inflammasome pathway. First, magnetite was prepared as a ferromagnetic particle and coated with alum. Alum-coated magnetite increased the expression of caspase-1, which is an activated indicator of inflammasome, in the culture of human monocyte cell (THP-1 cell). To evaluate the potential of the surface coated particles, the particles were subcutaneously injected to mice with a peptide vaccine. As a result, the antibody titer was increased by the surface coated particles as assessed by ELISA. Although a magnetic force has not yet applied in this study, the administration experiment to mice using magnetic force control is our next step. In conclusion, we modified the immune response to magnetite by coating the surface with alum. This can lead to a clinical application for vaccine therapy in future.

  18. Meso-scale wrinkled coatings to improve heat transfers of surfaces facing ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakiuchida, Hiroshi; Tajiri, Koji; Tazawa, Masato; Yoshimura, Kazuki; Shimono, Kazuaki; Nakagawa, Yukio; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Fujita, Keisuke; Myoko, Masumi

    2015-01-01

    Meso-scale (micrometer-to submillimeter-scale) wrinkled surfaces coated on steel sheets used in outdoor storage and transport facilities for industrial low-temperature liquids were discovered to efficiently increase convective heat transfer between ambient air and the surface. The radiative and convective heat transfer coefficients of various wrinkled surfaces, which were formed by coating steel sheets with several types of shrinkable paints, were examined. The convective heat transfer coefficient of a surface colder than ambient air monotonically changed with average height difference and interval distance of the wrinkle undulation, where the proportions were 0.0254 and 0.0054 W/m 2 /K/μm, respectively. With this wrinkled coating, users can lower the possibility of condensation and reduce rust and maintenance cost of facilities for industrial low-temperature liquids. From the point of view of manufacturers, this coating method can be easily adapted to conventional manufacturing processes. - Highlights: • Various wrinkled surfaces were fabricated by a practical process. • Topographical effect on convection was parameterized separately from radiation. • Meso-scale wrinkled coatings increased convective heat transfer with ambient air. • Maintenance cost of outdoor steel sheets due to condensation can be reduced

  19. Fabrication, characterization, and biological assessment of multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coatings on titanium surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guoli; Zhang, Jing; Dong, Wenjing; Liu, Li; Shi, Jue; Wang, Huiming

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to fabricate a multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating on a titanium surface and evaluate its biological properties. A multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating was fabricated on titanium using a layer-by-layer assembly technique. The rate of coating degradation was evaluated by detecting the amount of cDNA remaining. Surface analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and surface contact angle measurements revealed the multilayer structure to consist of cationic lipid and confirmed that a laminin γ2 DNA layer could be fabricated on titanium via the layer-by-layer assembly process. The transfection efficiency was highest for five layers in the multilayer structure. HEK293 cells cultured on the multilayer films displayed significantly higher adhesion activity than the control group. The expression of laminin γ2 and the co-localization of integrin β4 and plectin were more obvious in HN4 cells cultured on the multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating, while weak immunoreactivities were observed in the control group. We concluded that the DNA-loaded multilayer provided a surface with good biocompatibility and that the multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating might be effective in improving cell adhesion and the formation of hemidesmosomes on titanium surfaces. PMID:26996815

  20. Differential scanning calorimetry and surface morphology studies on coated pellets using aqueous dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar-ur-Rahman; K H, Yuen; Jia Woei, Wong; Khan, Nurzalina A k

    2005-04-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the physicochemical changes during passage of drug through polymeric membranes and observe the surface morphology features of the coated pellets using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Drug solution was first sprayed around inert pellets to form drug-layered pellets that were coated with two commercial aqueous dispersions namely, Eudragit NE30 and Kollicoat SR30 using bottom-spray fluidized bed technique. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) confirmed that no interactions existed between drug and polymers. Small peak of drug was observed in the DSC thermograms of Eudragit NE30 coated pellets indicating that small amount of drug was still present in the polymeric membrane after dissolution. Views of SEM revealed as the coating levels of two types of aqueous dispersions were increased the surface of the pellets become more uniform and compact. Therefore, the diffusion length for dissolution medium to enter the drug layer and dissolved drug to diffuse out would be increased at higher coating levels. The polymer surface of coated pellets after 12 hours dissolution testing seemed to be shrunk and size of the pellets were also reduced indicating the depletion of reservoir layer.

  1. Effects of silica-coating on surface topography and bond strength of porcelain fused to CAD/CAM pure titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Takushi; Hamano, Naho; Ino, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of porcelain fusing to titanium and the effects of surface treatment on surface structure of titanium. In the shear bond strength test, titanium surface treatments were: conventional, silica-coating without bonding agent, and silica-coating with bonding agent. Titanium surface treatments for analysis by the atomic force microscope (AFM) were: polishing, alumina sandblasting and silica-coating. The shear bond strength value of silica-coating with bonding agent group showed significantly higher than that of other groups. In AFM observation results, regular foamy structure which is effective for wetting was only observed in silica-coating. Therefore, this structure might indicate silicon. Silica-coating renders forms a nanoscopic regular foamy structure, involved in superhydrophilicity, to titanium surface, which is markedly different from the irregular surface generated by alumina sandblasting.

  2. Effect of Surface Coating with Magnesium Stearate via Mechanical Dry Powder Coating Approach on the Aerosol Performance of Micronized Drug Powders from Dry Powder Inhalers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Qi (Tony); Qu, Li; Gengenbach, Thomas; Larson, Ian; Stewart, Peter J.; Morton, David A. V.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of particle surface coating with magnesium stearate on the aerosolization of dry powder inhaler formulations. Micronized salbutamol sulphate as a model drug was dry coated with magnesium stearate using a mechanofusion technique. The coating quality was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Powder bulk and flow properties were assessed by bulk densities and shear cell measurements. The aerosol performance was studied by las...

  3. Biocides from facade coatings in urban surface waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollmann, Ulla E; Styszko, Katarzyna; Ou, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Leaching of biocides from façade coatings attracts more and more attention within recent years. In-can as well as film preserving biocides are added to polymer resin based renders and paints in order protect from microbial spoilage. However, several studies revealed that biocides leach from......-water partitioning constant in comparison to render-water distribution constants. This was done based on the hypothesis that the render-water distribution constant can be described as the sum of the partitioning to polyacrylate, carbonates, sand particles and other render ingredients....

  4. Experimental study of nucleate pool boiling heat transfer of water on silicon oxide nanoparticle coated copper heating surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sudev; Kumar, D.S.; Bhaumik, Swapan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • EBPVD approach was employed for fabrication of well-ordered nanoparticle coated micro/nanostructure on metal surface. • Nucleate boiling heat transfer performance on nanoparticle coated micro/nanostructure surface was experimentally studied. • Stability of nanoparticle coated surface under boiling environment was systematically studied. • 58% enhancement of boiling heat transfer coefficient was found. • Present experimental results are validated with well known boiling correlations. - Abstract: Electron beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD) coating approach was employed for fabrication of well-ordered of nanoparticle coated micronanostructures on metal surfaces. This paper reports the experimental study of augmentation of pool boiling heat transfer performance and stabilities of silicon oxide nanoparticle coated surfaces with water at atmospheric pressure. The surfaces were characterized with respect to dynamic contact angle, surface roughness, topography, and morphology. The results were found that there is a reduction of about 36% in the incipience superheat and 58% enhancement in heat transfer coefficient for silicon oxide coated surface over the untreated surface. This enhancement might be the reason of enhanced wettability, enhanced surface roughness and increased number of a small artificial cavity on a heating surface. The performance and stability of nanoparticle coated micro/nanostructure surfaces were examined and found that after three runs of experiment the heat transfer coefficient with heat flux almost remain constant.

  5. Surface characteristics and bioactivity of a novel natural HA/zircon nanocomposite coated on dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamian, Ebrahim; Khandan, Amirsalar; Motamedi, Mahmood Reza Kalantar; Mirmohammadi, Hesam

    2014-01-01

    The surface characteristics of implant which influence the speed and strength of osseointegration include surface chemistry, crystal structure and crystallinity, roughness, strain hardening, and presence of impurities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity and roughness of a novel natural hydroxyapatite/zircon (NHA/zircon) nanobiocomposite, coated on 316L stainless steel (SS) soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF). NHA/zircon nanobiocomposite was fabricated with 0 wt.%, 5 wt.%, 10 wt.%, and 15 wt.% of zircon in NHA using ball mill for 20 minutes. The composite mixture was coated on 316L SS using plasma spray method. The results are estimated using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation to evaluate surface morphology, X-ray diffraction (XRD) to analyze phase composition, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique to evaluate the shape and size of prepared NHA. Surfaces roughness tester was performed to characterize the coated nanocomposite samples. The maximum average R a (14.54 μm) was found in the NHA 10 wt.% of zircon coating. In addition, crystallinity (X c ) was measured by XRD data, which indicated the minimum value (X c = 41.1%) for the sample containing 10 wt.% of zircon. Maximum bioactivity occurred in the sample containing 10 wt.% of zircon, which was due to two reasons: first, the maximum roughness and, second, the minimum crystallinity of nanobiocomposite coating.

  6. Bacterial adherence on fluorinated carbon based coatings deposited on polyethylene surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terriza, A; Del Prado, G; Perez, A Ortiz; Martinez, M J; Puertolas, J A; Manso, D Molina; Gonzalez-Elipe, A R; Yubero, F; Barrena, E Gomez; Esteban, J

    2010-01-01

    Development of intrinsically antibacterial surfaces is of key importance in the context of prostheses used in orthopaedic surgery. In this work we present a thorough study of several plasma based coatings that may be used with this functionality: diamond like carbon (DLC), fluorine doped DLC (F-DLC) and a high fluorine content carbon-fluor polymer (CF X ). The study correlates the surface chemistry and hydrophobicity of the coating surfaces with their antibacterial performance. The coatings were deposited by RF-plasma assisted deposition at room temperature on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) samples. Fluorine content and relative amount of C-C and C-F bond types was monitored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and hydrophobicity by water contact angle measurements. Adherence of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis to non-coated and coated UHMWPE samples was evaluated. Comparisons of the adherence performance were evaluated using a paired t test (two materials) and a Kruskall Wallis test (all the materials). S. aureus was statistically significant (p< 0.001) less adherent to DLC and F-DLC surfaces than S. epidermidis. Both bacteria showed reduction of adherence on DLC/UHMWPE. For S. aureus, reduction of bacterial adherence on F-DLC/UHMWPE was statistically significant respect to all other materials.

  7. Plasma Sprayed Bondable Stainless Surface (BOSS) Coatings for Corrosion Protection and Adhesion Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G. D.; Groff, G. B.; Rooney, M.; Cooke, A. V.; Boothe, R.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed Bondable Stainless Surface (BOSS) coatings are being developed under the Solid Propulsion Integrity Program's (SPIP) Bondlines Package. These coatings are designed as a steel case preparation treatment prior to insulation lay-up. Other uses include the exterior of steel cases and bonding surfaces of nozzle components. They provide excellent bondability - rubber insulation and epoxy bonds fail cohesively within the polymer - for both fresh surfaces and surfaces having undergone natural and accelerated environmental aging. They have passed the MSFC requirements for protection of inland and sea coast environment. Because BOSS coatings are inherently corrosion resistant, they do not require preservation by greases or oils. The reduction/elimination of greases and oils, known bondline degraders, can increase SRM reliability, decrease costs by reducing the number of process steps, and decrease environmental pollution by reducing the amount of methyl chloroform used for degreasing and thus reduce release of the ozone-depleting chemical in accordance with the Clean Air Act and the Montreal Protocol. The coatings can potential extend the life of RSRM case segments and nozzle components by eliminating erosion due to multiple grit blasting during each use cycle and corrosion damage during marine recovery. Concurrent work for the Air Force show that other BOSS coatings give excellent bondline strength and durability for high-performance structures of aluminum and titanium.

  8. Surface-layer gusts for aircraft operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, G.S.; Kristensen, L.

    1992-01-01

    We use Monin-Obukhov similarity theory to extend the Kristensen et al. (1991) aviation gust estimation technique from the neutral to the diabatic surface layer. Example calculations demonstrate the importance of this correction. Simple stability class methods using only standard aviation surface ...

  9. Electrochemical behavior of bioactive coatings on cp-Ti surface for dental application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Isabella da Silva Vieira; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; da Cruz, Nilson Cristino; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz; Ricomini-Filho, Antonio Pedro; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T

    2015-11-01

    The surface characteristics and electrochemical properties of bioactive coatings produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) with calcium, phosphorous, silicon and silver on commercially pure titanium were evaluated. PEO treatment produced a porous oxide layer, which improved the surface topography, and enriched the surface chemistry with bioactive elements, responsible for mimicking bone surface. The surfaces with higher calcium concentration presented antibacterial and biocompability properties with better responses for corrosion and barrier properties, due to the presence of rutile crystalline structure. PEO may be a promising surface treatment option to improve the electrochemical behavior of dental implants mitigating treatment failures.

  10. Surface wettability effects on critical heat flux of boiling heat transfer using nanoparticle coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Chin-Chi

    2012-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of surface wettability on pool boiling heat transfer. Nano-silica particle coatings were used to vary the wettability of the copper surface from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic by modifying surface topography and chemistry. Experimental results show that critical heat flux (CHF) values are higher in the hydrophilic region. Conversely, CHF values are lower in the hydrophobic region. The experimental CHF data of the modified surface do not fit the classical models. Therefore, this study proposes a simple model to build the nexus between the surface wettability and the growth of bubbles on the heating surface. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Inflammatory response to titanium surfaces with fibrinogen and catalase coatings: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göransson, A; Gretzer, C; Tengvall, P; Wennerberg, A

    2007-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possibility to modulate the early inflammatory response in vitro by coating titanium surfaces with candidate proinflammatory (fibrinogen coated turned titanium "Fib") and antiinflammatory proteins (catalase on top of fibrinogen coated turned titanium "Cat"). Additionally, turned titanium surfaces (Ti) were used as controls. The discs were incubated with human mononuclear cells. Adhered cells were investigated with respect to number, viability, differentiation (acute marker 27E10 vs. chronic marker RM3/1), and cytokine production (TNF-alpha and IL-10), after 24 and 72 h. The results indicated that it is possible to modulate the inflammatory response with protein coatings. However, the strongest inflammatory response, indicated by increased number of adhered cells and release of pro and antiinflammatory mediators, was induced by Cat. Furthermore, the cytokine production on this surface was not sensitive to LPS stimulation. Differentiation measured as the expression of the chronic cell surface marker, dominated after 72 h for all surface modifications and Cat displayed an increased number compared to the others. A decrease in the total number of adhered cells and amounts of TNF-alpha were observed on all surfaces over time. The cell viability was, in general, high for all tested surfaces. In conclusion, the study proved it possible to influence the early inflammatory response in vitro by immobilizing protein coatings to titanium surfaces. However, the catalase surface demonstrated the strongest inflammatory response, and the possibility to selectively use the potent antiinflammatory capacity of catalase needs to be further evaluated.

  12. Effect of surface topological structure and chemical modification of flame sprayed aluminum coatings on the colonization of Cylindrotheca closterium on their surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuyong; He, Xiaoyan; Suo, Xinkun; Huang, Jing; Gong, Yongfeng; Liu, Yi; Li, Hua

    2016-12-01

    Biofouling is one of the major problems for the coatings used for protecting marine infrastructures during their long-term services. Regulation in surface structure and local chemistry is usually the key for adjusting antifouling performances of the coatings. In this study, flame sprayed multi-layered aluminum coatings with micropatterned surfaces were constructed and the effects of their surface structure and chemistry on the settlement of typical marine diatoms were investigated. Micropatterned topographical morphology of the coatings was constructed by employing steel mesh as a shielding plate during the coating deposition. A silicone elastomer layer for sealing and interconnection was further brush-coated on the micropatterned coatings. Additional surface modification was made using zwitterionic molecules via DOPA linkage. The surface-modified coatings resist effectively colonization of Cylindrotheca closterium. This is explained by the quantitative examination of a simplified conditioning layer that deteriorated adsorption of bovine calf serum proteins on the zwitterionic molecule-treated samples is revealed. The colonization behaviors of the marine diatoms are markedly influenced by the micropatterned topographical morphology. Either the surface micropatterning or the surface modification by zwitterionic molecules enhances antimicrobial ability of the coatings. However, the combined micropatterned structure and zwitterionic modification do not show synergistic effect. The results give insight into anti-corrosion/fouling applications of the modified aluminum coatings in the marine environment.

  13. Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation Tool, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort undertook the creation of a Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation (SODAA) tool to store data relevant to airport surface research and...

  14. Effect of plasma spray operating conditions on plasma jet characteristics and coating properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, S.; Heberlein, J.

    1993-12-01

    Using statistical design of experiments, the arc current, total gas flow rate, percent secondary gas (He), and powder feed rate have been varied to assess the torch behavior and establish its correlation to coating properties. The torch response includes arc voltage drop, torch efficiency, and plasma jet geometry. High-speed images of the luminous plasma jet for each operating condition have been acquired with a LaserStrobeℳ videocamera, and image analysis has been used to quantify the jet length and jet fluctuations as additional torch responses. Porosity and unmelted particles, which are determined using image analysis of a micrograph of a NiAl coating cross section, were selected as principal coating characteristics. These findings are expected to be useful for optimization of new spray processes and for evaluation of new torch designs.

  15. Surface ultrastructure and mechanical properties of three different white-coated NiTi archwires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seong-Hee; Lim, Byung-Suh; Kwak, Eun Joo; Lee, Gi-Ja; Choi, Samjin; Park, Ki-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The recent trend in orthodontic treatment is to apply esthetic materials to orthodontic appliances with adequate clinical performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the ultrastructure (surface roughness) and mechanical properties (load-deflection curve) of three as-received, white-coated superelastic nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwires using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and modified three-point bending test assessments, respectively. Three representative esthetic NiTi archwires were used, silver-platinum- and polymer-coated NiTi Natural Dany (Dany group), epoxy resin-coated Orthoforce Ultraesthetic™ (Ultra group), and Teflon®-coated Perfect (Perfect group). Uncoated metallic areas of each wire were used as controls. The diameter of the Perfect archwire was significantly larger than that of other archwires. The Dany and Ultra groups showed more deflection than the Perfect group. The hysteresis area of the Dany and Ultra groups showed approximately two- and fourfold increases compared to the control and the Perfect group. The Dany group (2037.5 ± 527.3 nm) had the highest peak-to-peak surface roughness in the coated areas, followed by the Ultra group (811.1 ± 407.5 nm) and the Perfect group (362.7 ± 195.8 nm). However, reverse nanostructural changes in the surface roughness were observed in the uncoated metallic areas. The results suggested that the load-deflection properties and the surface roughness of superelastic NiTi archwires were affected directly by the coating materials. Although the efficiency of orthodontic treatment was affected by various factors, when only considering the frictional force and mechanostructural properties, the epoxy resin-coated Orthoforce Ultraesthetic™ archwires were the most effective for orthodontic treatment. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Evaluation of four surface coating treatments for resin to zirconia bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Pow, Edmond H N; Tsoi, James Kit-Hon; Matinlinna, Jukka P

    2014-04-01

    To compare the effects of four surface coating methods on resin to zirconia shear bond strength. Eighty pre-sintered zirconia discs were prepared and randomly divided into five study groups according to the corresponding methods of surface treatments as follows: group C (control group, fully sintered without any surface treatment), group S (fully sintered and then sandblasted with silica coated alumina powder), group G (fully sintered and then coated with glazing porcelain followed by acid etching), group Si (pre-coated with silica slurry then fully sintered), and group Z (coated with zirconia particles and then fully sintered). The observation of surface morphology and elemental composition analysis were conducted by SEM and EDX. Self-adhesive resin cement stubs (diameter 3.6mm and height 3mm) were then bonded on the zirconia discs with a cylindrical shape. Both initial and artificial aged (including 30-day water storage, thermal cycling for 3000 and 6000 cycles) shear bond strengths were then evaluated. All the tested coating methods showed significantly higher shear bond strengths than the control group, in both dry and aged conditions. Group S produced the strongest initial zirconia/resin bonding (19.7MPa) and the control group had the lowest value (8.8MPa). However, after thermal cycling, group Z exhibited the highest mean value. All the samples in the control group failed in the thermal cycling. Both different coating methods (ptreatments (pcoating might be a reliable way in enhancing adhesion between resin and zirconia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of surface treatment and biomimetic hydroxyapatite coating on the mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite/poly(L-lactic acid) fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fei; Shaw, Montgomery T; Olson, James R; Wei, Mei

    2013-02-01

    Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) micro-fibers have been coated with hydroxyapatite (HA) using a quick biomimetic method to form a precursor for bone repair composites. To increase the coating content within a coating time as short as 1-2.5 h, PLLA fibers have been treated by soaking in NaOH or NaOCl solutions at mild conditions. Although different surface hydrolysis and coating methods have been used to prepare bioceramic/polymer composites, it is for the first time that the influences of the surface treatment and HA coating process on the mechanical properties of the polymer and HA/polymer composite fibers were investigated systemically.

  18. On Degradation of Cast Iron Surface-Protective Paint Coat Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tupaj M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a presentation of a study on issues concerning degradation of protective paint coat having an adverse impact on aesthetic qualities of thin-walled cast-iron castings fabricated in furan resin sand. Microscopic examination and microanalyses of chemistry indicated that under the coat of paint covering the surface of a thin-walled casting, layers of oxides could be found presence of which can be most probably attributed to careless cleaning of the casting surface before the paint application process, as well as corrosion pits evidencing existence of damp residues under the paint layers contributing to creation of corrosion micro-cells

  19. Effectiveness of Protective Action of Coatings from Moisture Sorption into Surface Layer of Sand Moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaźnica N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the sorption process of surface layers of sand moulds covered by zirconium and zirconium - graphite alcohol coatings are presented in the paper. Investigations comprised two kinds of sand grains (silica sand and reclaimed sand of moulding sand with furan resin. Tests were performed under conditions of a high relative air humidity 75 - 85% and a constant temperature within the range 28 – 33°C. To evaluate the effectiveness of coatings protective action from moisture penetration into surface layers of sand moulds gravimetric method of quantitavie moisture sorption and ultrasonic method were applied in measurements.

  20. Washing-resistant surfactant coated surface is able to inhibit pathogenic bacteria adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treter, Janine; Bonatto, Fernando; Krug, Cristiano; Soares, Gabriel Vieira; Baumvol, Israel Jacob Rabin; Macedo, Alexandre José

    2014-06-01

    Surface-active substances, which are able to organize themselves spontaneously on surfaces, triggering changes in the nature of the solid-liquid interface, are likely to influence microorganism adhesion and biofilm formation. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate chemical non-ionic surfactants activity against pathogenic microbial biofilms and to cover biomaterial surfaces in order to obtain an anti-infective surface. After testing 11 different surfactants, Pluronic F127 was selected for further studies due to its non-biocidal properties and capability to inhibit up to 90% of biofilm formation of Gram-positive pathogen and its clinical isolates. The coating technique using direct impregnation on the surface showed important antibiofilm formation characteristics, even after extensive washes. Surface roughness and bacterial surface polarity does not influence the adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis, however, the material coated surface became extremely hydrophilic. The phenotype of S. epidermidis does not seem to have been affected by the contact with surfactant, reinforcing the evidence that a physical phenomenon is responsible for the activity. This paper presents a simple method of surface coating employing a synthetic surfactant to prevent S. epidermidis biofilm formation.

  1. Drag resistance measurements for newly applied antifouling coatings and welding seams on ship hull surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xueting; Olsen, S. M.; Andres, E.

    in their newly applied conditions. The effects of water absorption of newly applied antifouling coatings on frictional resistance were measured. A flexible rotor with artificial welding seams on its periphery has been designed and constructed to estimate the influence of welding seams on drag resistance. Both......Drag resistances of newly applied antifouling coatings and welding seams on ship hull surface have been investigated using a pilot-scale rotary setup. Both conventional biocide-based antifouling (AF) coatings and silicone-based fouling release (FR) coatings have been studied and compared...... the density of welding seams (number per 5 m ship side) and the height of welding seams had a significant effect on drag resistance....

  2. Platelet adhesion studies on dipyridamole coated polyurethane surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldenhoff Y. B.J.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification of polyurethanes (PUs by covalent attachment of dipyridamole (Persantinregistered is known to reduce adherence of blood platelets upon exposure to human platelet rich plasma (PRP. This effect was investigated in further detail. First platelet adhesion under static conditions was studied with four different biomaterial surfaces: untreated PU, PU immobilised with conjugate molecule 1, PU immobilised with conjugate molecule 2, and PU immobilised with conjugate molecule 3. In PU immobilised with 1 dipyridamole is directly linked to the surface, in PU immobilised with 2 there is a short hydrophilic spacer chain in between the surface and the dipyridamole, while conjugate molecule 3 is merely the spacer chain. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to characterise platelet adhesion from human PRP under static conditions, and fluorescence imaging microscopy was used to study platelet adhesion from whole blood under flow. SEM experiments encompassed both density measurements and analysis of the morphology of adherent platelets. In the static experiments the surface immobilised with 2 showed the lowest platelet adherence. No difference between the three modified surfaces emerged from the flow experiments. The surfaces were also incubated with washed blood platelets and labeled with Oregon-Green Annexin V. No capture of Oregon-Green Annexin V was seen, implying that the adhered platelets did not expose any phosphatidyl serine at their exteriour surface.

  3. Candida albicans aspects of novel silane system-coated titanium and zirconia implant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villard, Nicolas; Seneviratne, Chaminda; Tsoi, James Kit Hon; Heinonen, Markku; Matinlinna, Jukka

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of novel silane system coatings on zirconia and titanium implant surfaces and the attachment of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Titanium and zirconia specimens were silica-coated and silanized either with a commercial silane primer (RelyX Ceramic Primer™, 3M ESPE) or a novel silane system primer. The novel silane system primer was a blend of 1.0 vol% 3-acryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane and 0.3 vol% bis-1,2-(triethoxysilyl)ethane diluted in acidified ethanol-water solvent. The surface roughness (Ra ), the surface free energy and the chemical composition of substrate surfaces after treatments were evaluated. C. albcans biofilms were developed on silica-coated + silanized surfaces during 48 h of incubation time. Colony forming units (CFU) and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) quantified the cells on the material surfaces. Statistical analyses were carried out by 1-way ANOVA, Tukey post hoc and Games Howell post hoc test at 5% significance level (p). On zirconia and titanium surfaces, the Ra and the chemical composition of the specimens were equal (P silanization. CFU of C. albicans was significantly lower on zirconia coated with RelyX Ceramic Primer™, (P silanes (P = 0.002). RT-PCR revealed no differences between the mean quantities of C. albicans (P ≥ 0.067). Silica-coating and silanization had modified the titanium and zirconia surfaces significantly. Both the control and experimental silane primers might inhibit the biofilm formation of C. albicans. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Calcium carbonate hybrid coating promotes the formation of biomimetic hydroxyapatite on titanium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Marcos Antônio E.; Ruiz, Gilia C.M. [Departamento de Química-Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto 14040-901, SP (Brazil); Faria, Amanda N. [Departamento de Química-Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto 14040-901, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia-Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Zancanela, Daniela C.; Pereira, Lourivaldo S.; Ciancaglini, Pietro [Departamento de Química-Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto 14040-901, SP (Brazil); Ramos, Ana P., E-mail: anapr@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Química-Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto 14040-901, SP (Brazil)

    2016-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CaCO{sub 3} continuous films were deposited on titanium discs using a biomimetic approach. • The coatings origin hydroxyapatite when immersed in simulated body fluid. • The wettability and the free energy of the surfaces were increased after the treatment. • The coated titanium discs are bioactive and non-toxic to osteoblasts. - Abstract: CaCO{sub 3} particles dispersed in liquid media have proven to be good inductors of hydroxyapatite (HAp) growth. However, the use of CaCO{sub 3} deposited as thin films for this propose is unknown. Here, we report the growth of CaCO{sub 3} continuous films on Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) modified titanium surfaces and its use as HAp growth inductor. The Ti surfaces were modified with two, four, and six layers of dihexadecylphosphate (DHP)-LB films containing Ca{sup 2+}, exposed to CO{sub 2} (g) for 12 h. The modified surfaces were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C for 36 h and submitted to bioactivity studies. This procedure originates bioactive coatings composed by non-stoichiometric HAp as evidenced by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The presence of the CaCO{sub 3} film as pre-coating diminished the time necessary to growth continuous and homogeneous HAp films using a biomimetic approach. The surface properties of the films regarding their roughness, composition, charge, wettability, and surface free energy (γ{sub s}) were accessed. The presence of HAp increased the wettability and γ{sub s} of the surfaces. The coatings are not toxic for osteoblasts as observed for cell viability assays obtained after 7 and 14 days of culture. Moreover, the CaCO{sub 3} thin films promote the recovery of the osteoblasts viability more than the Ti surfaces themselves.

  5. Calcium carbonate hybrid coating promotes the formation of biomimetic hydroxyapatite on titanium surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Marcos Antônio E.; Ruiz, Gilia C.M.; Faria, Amanda N.; Zancanela, Daniela C.; Pereira, Lourivaldo S.; Ciancaglini, Pietro; Ramos, Ana P.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CaCO 3 continuous films were deposited on titanium discs using a biomimetic approach. • The coatings origin hydroxyapatite when immersed in simulated body fluid. • The wettability and the free energy of the surfaces were increased after the treatment. • The coated titanium discs are bioactive and non-toxic to osteoblasts. - Abstract: CaCO 3 particles dispersed in liquid media have proven to be good inductors of hydroxyapatite (HAp) growth. However, the use of CaCO 3 deposited as thin films for this propose is unknown. Here, we report the growth of CaCO 3 continuous films on Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) modified titanium surfaces and its use as HAp growth inductor. The Ti surfaces were modified with two, four, and six layers of dihexadecylphosphate (DHP)-LB films containing Ca 2+ , exposed to CO 2 (g) for 12 h. The modified surfaces were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C for 36 h and submitted to bioactivity studies. This procedure originates bioactive coatings composed by non-stoichiometric HAp as evidenced by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The presence of the CaCO 3 film as pre-coating diminished the time necessary to growth continuous and homogeneous HAp films using a biomimetic approach. The surface properties of the films regarding their roughness, composition, charge, wettability, and surface free energy (γ s ) were accessed. The presence of HAp increased the wettability and γ s of the surfaces. The coatings are not toxic for osteoblasts as observed for cell viability assays obtained after 7 and 14 days of culture. Moreover, the CaCO 3 thin films promote the recovery of the osteoblasts viability more than the Ti surfaces themselves.

  6. Superhydrophilicity and antibacterial property of a Cu-dotted oxide coating surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nie Yining

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aluminum-made settings are widely used in healthcare, schools, public facilities and transit systems. Frequently-touched surfaces of those settings are likely to harbour bacteria and be a potential source of infection. One method to utilize the effectiveness of copper (Cu in eliminating pathogens for these surfaces would be to coat the aluminum (Al items with a Cu coating. However, such a combination of Cu and Al metals is susceptible to galvanic corrosion because of their different electrochemical potentials. Methods In this work, a new approach was proposed in which electrolytic plasma oxidation (EPO of Al was used to form an oxide surface layer followed by electroplating of Cu metal on the top of the oxide layer. The oxide was designed to function as a corrosion protective and biocompatible layer, and the Cu in the form of dots was utilized as an antibacterial material. The antibacterial property enhanced by superhydrophilicity of the Cu-dotted oxide coating was evaluated. Results A superhydrophilic surface was successfully prepared using electrolytic plasma oxidation of aluminum (Al followed by electroplating of copper (Cu in a Cu-dotted form. Both Cu plate and Cu-dotted oxide surfaces had excellent antimicrobial activities against E. coli ATCC 25922, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA ATCC 43300 and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE ATCC 51299. However, its Cu-dotted surface morphology allowed the Cu-dotted oxide surface to be more antibacterial than the smooth Cu plate surface. The enhanced antibacterial property was attributed to the superhydrophilic behaviour of the Cu-dotted oxide surface that allowed the bacteria to have a more effective killing contact with Cu due to spreading of the bacterial suspension media. Conclusion The superhydrophilic Cu-dotted oxide coating surface provided an effective method of controlling bacterial growth and survival on contact surfaces and thus reduces the

  7. Optimization of Process Variables for Insulation Coating of Conductive Particles by Response Surface Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Chol-Ho [Sangji University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The powder core, conventionally fabricated from iron particles coated with insulator, showed large eddy current loss under high frequency, because of small specific resistance. To overcome the eddy current loss, the increase in the specific resistance of powder cores was needed. In this study, copper oxide coating onto electrically conductive iron particles was performed using a planetary ball mill to increase the specific resistance. Coating factors were optimized by the Response surface methodology. The independent variables were the CuO mass fraction, mill revolution number, coating time, ball size, ball mass and sample mass. The response variable was the specific resistance. The optimization of six factors by the fractional factorial design indicated that CuO mass fraction, mill revolution number, and coating time were the key factors. The levels of these three factors were selected by the three-factors full factorial design and steepest ascent method. The steepest ascent method was used to approach the optimum range for maximum specific resistance. The Box-Behnken design was finally used to analyze the response surfaces of the screened factors for further optimization. The results of the Box-Behnken design showed that the CuO mass fraction and mill revolution number were the main factors affecting the efficiency of coating process. As the CuO mass fraction increased, the specific resistance increased. In contrast, the specific resistance increased with decreasing mill revolution number. The process optimization results revealed a high agreement between the experimental and the predicted data (Adj-R2=0.944). The optimized CuO mass fraction, mill revolution number, and coating time were 0.4, 200 rpm, and 15 min, respectively. The measured value of the specific resistance of the coated pellet under the optimized conditions of the maximum specific resistance was 530 kΩ·cm.

  8. Optimization of Process Variables for Insulation Coating of Conductive Particles by Response Surface Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Chol-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The powder core, conventionally fabricated from iron particles coated with insulator, showed large eddy current loss under high frequency, because of small specific resistance. To overcome the eddy current loss, the increase in the specific resistance of powder cores was needed. In this study, copper oxide coating onto electrically conductive iron particles was performed using a planetary ball mill to increase the specific resistance. Coating factors were optimized by the Response surface methodology. The independent variables were the CuO mass fraction, mill revolution number, coating time, ball size, ball mass and sample mass. The response variable was the specific resistance. The optimization of six factors by the fractional factorial design indicated that CuO mass fraction, mill revolution number, and coating time were the key factors. The levels of these three factors were selected by the three-factors full factorial design and steepest ascent method. The steepest ascent method was used to approach the optimum range for maximum specific resistance. The Box-Behnken design was finally used to analyze the response surfaces of the screened factors for further optimization. The results of the Box-Behnken design showed that the CuO mass fraction and mill revolution number were the main factors affecting the efficiency of coating process. As the CuO mass fraction increased, the specific resistance increased. In contrast, the specific resistance increased with decreasing mill revolution number. The process optimization results revealed a high agreement between the experimental and the predicted data (Adj-R2=0.944). The optimized CuO mass fraction, mill revolution number, and coating time were 0.4, 200 rpm, and 15 min, respectively. The measured value of the specific resistance of the coated pellet under the optimized conditions of the maximum specific resistance was 530 kΩ·cm

  9. Effect of surface coating with magnesium stearate via mechanical dry powder coating approach on the aerosol performance of micronized drug powders from dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Qu, Li; Gengenbach, Thomas; Larson, Ian; Stewart, Peter J; Morton, David A V

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of particle surface coating with magnesium stearate on the aerosolization of dry powder inhaler formulations. Micronized salbutamol sulphate as a model drug was dry coated with magnesium stearate using a mechanofusion technique. The coating quality was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Powder bulk and flow properties were assessed by bulk densities and shear cell measurements. The aerosol performance was studied by laser diffraction and supported by a twin-stage impinger. High degrees of coating coverage were achieved after mechanofusion, as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Concomitant significant increases occurred in powder bulk densities and in aerosol performance after coating. The apparent optimum performance corresponded with using 2% w/w magnesium stearate. In contrast, traditional blending resulted in no significant changes in either bulk or aerosolization behaviour compared to the untreated sample. It is believed that conventional low-shear blending provides insufficient energy levels to expose host micronized particle surfaces from agglomerates and to distribute guest coating material effectively for coating. A simple ultra-high-shear mechanical dry powder coating step was shown as highly effective in producing ultra-thin coatings on micronized powders and to substantially improve the powder aerosolization efficiency.

  10. Drag resistance of ship hulls: Effects of surface roughness of newly applied fouling control coatings, coating water absorption, and welding seams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xueting; Olsen, Stefan Møller; Andrés, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    to the effects of coating water absorption on skin friction. Furthermore, to investigate the effects of welding seam height and density (number of welding seams per five meters of ship side) on drag resistance, a new flexible rotor was designed and used for experimentation. It was found, under the conditions...... selected, that a so-called fouling release (FR) coating caused approximately 5.6 % less skin friction (torque) over time than traditional biocide-based antifouling (AF) coatings at a tangential speed of 12 knots. Furthermore, results of immersion experiments and supporting “standard” water absorption...... experiments showed that water absorption of the FR coating did not result in any significant impacts on skin friction. On the other hand, water absorption was found to actually lower the skin friction of AF coatings. This may be attributed to a smoothening of the coating surface. The effects of welding seam...

  11. Activation of Osteoblastic Function on Titanium Surface with Titanium-Doped Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticle Coating: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Masahiro; Yamada, Masahiro; Wakamura, Masato; Egusa, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Kaoru

    Titanium-doped hydroxyapatite (TiHA) nanoparticles contain titanium atoms in the hydroxyapatite lattice, which can physicochemically functionalize the titanium surface without modification of the surface topography. This study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical properties of machined or microroughened titanium surfaces coated with TiHA nanoparticles and the functions of osteoblasts cultured on them. Titanium disks with commercially available surface topography, such as machined or sandblasted, large-grit, and acid-etched (SLA) surfaces, were coated with TiHA. The disks with original or TiHA-coated surfaces were evaluated in topography, wettability, and chemical composition. Osteoblastic cells from rat femurs were cultured on the disks and evaluated in proliferation and differentiation. TiHA coating changed from hydrophobicity to hydrophilicity on both machined and SLA surfaces. Calcium and phosphate atoms were detected all over the surface with TiHA coating regardless of the surface topography. However, the considerable change in the inherent surface topographies was not observed on both types of surfaces after TiHA coating. Osteoblastic proliferative activity at day 4 was increased by TiHA coating on both types of surfaces. TiHA coating did not enhance expressions of bone matrix-related genes such as osteocalcin, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, alkaline phosphatase, and collagen I. However, depositions of collagen, osteocalcin, and calcium in the culture at days 7 and 20 were increased on both types of surface topographies with TiHA coating. TiHA coating enhanced extracellular matrix formation on smooth and microroughened titanium surfaces by increasing osteoblastic proliferative activity without the deterioration of differentiation through hydrophilic and chemical functionalization.

  12. Modeling and Simulating Airport Surface Operations with Gate Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinski, Shannon; Windhorst, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The Surface Operations Simulator and Scheduler (SOSS) is a fast-time simulation platform used to develop and test future surface scheduling concepts such as NASAs Air Traffic Demonstration 2 of time-based surface metering at Charlotte Douglas International Airport (CLT). Challenges associated with CLT surface operations have driven much of SOSS development. Recently, SOSS functionality for modeling hardstand operations was developed to address gate conflicts, which occur when an arrival and departure wish to occupy the same gate at the same time. Because surface metering concepts such as ATD2 have the potential to increase gates conflicts as departure are held at their gates, it is important to study the interaction between surface metering and gate conflict management. Several approaches to managing gate conflicts with and without the use of hardstands were simulated and their effects on surface operations and scheduler performance compared.

  13. Determination of elastic mechanical characteristics of surface coatings from analysis of signals obtained by impulse excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaguly, E.; Craştiu, I.; Deac, S.; Gozman-Pop, C.; Drăgănescu, G.; Bereteu, L.

    2018-01-01

    Most of the surface coatings are based on the synthetic polymers, which are substances composed from very large molecules that form tough, flexible, adhesive films when applied to surfaces. The other components of surface coverings materials are pigments that provide colour, opacity, gloss and other properties. Surface coatings are two-phase composite materials: constitute a polymer matrix on the one side, and on the other side of the pigments and additives dispersed in the matrix. Their role is not only aesthetically but also to ensure anticorrosive protection or even improve some mechanical properties of coated surfaces. In this paper it will follow, starting from the mechanical properties of the substrate, the metallic sheet in general, to determine the new properties of the assembly of substrate and the two coating layers, also the determination of mechanical properties of the layers. From the analysis of vibroacoustic signals obtained by the impulse excitation of the sample, one can determine the elasticity modulus. These results come to validate the results based on finite element analysis (FEA) of the same samples.

  14. Tuning Surface Chemistry of Polyetheretherketone by Gold Coating and Plasma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotná, Zdeňka; Rimpelová, Silvie; Juřík, Petr; Veselý, Martin; Kolská, Zdeňka; Hubáček, Tomáš; Borovec, Jakub; Švorčík, Václav

    2017-06-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has good chemical and biomechanical properties that are excellent for biomedical applications. However, PEEK exhibits hydrophobic and other surface characteristics which cause limited cell adhesion. We have investigated the potential of Ar plasma treatment for the formation of a nanostructured PEEK surface in order to enhance cell adhesion. The specific aim of this study was to reveal the effect of the interface of plasma-treated and gold-coated PEEK matrices on adhesion and spreading of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The surface characteristics (polarity, surface chemistry, and structure) before and after treatment were evaluated by various experimental techniques (gravimetry, goniometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrokinetic analysis). Further, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to examine PEEK surface morphology and roughness. The biological response of cells towards nanostructured PEEK was evaluated in terms of cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation. Detailed cell morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Compared to plasma treatment, gold coating improved PEEK wettability. The XPS method showed a decrease in the carbon concentration with increasing time of plasma treatment. Cell adhesion determined on the interface between plasma-treated and gold-coated PEEK matrices was directly proportional to the thickness of a gold layer on a sample. Our results suggest that plasma treatment in a combination with gold coating could be used in biomedical applications requiring enhanced cell adhesion.

  15. Tuning Surface Chemistry of Polyetheretherketone by Gold Coating and Plasma Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotná, Zdeňka; Rimpelová, Silvie; Juřík, Petr; Veselý, Martin; Kolská, Zdeňka; Hubáček, Tomáš; Borovec, Jakub; Švorčík, Václav

    2017-12-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has good chemical and biomechanical properties that are excellent for biomedical applications. However, PEEK exhibits hydrophobic and other surface characteristics which cause limited cell adhesion. We have investigated the potential of Ar plasma treatment for the formation of a nanostructured PEEK surface in order to enhance cell adhesion. The specific aim of this study was to reveal the effect of the interface of plasma-treated and gold-coated PEEK matrices on adhesion and spreading of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The surface characteristics (polarity, surface chemistry, and structure) before and after treatment were evaluated by various experimental techniques (gravimetry, goniometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrokinetic analysis). Further, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to examine PEEK surface morphology and roughness. The biological response of cells towards nanostructured PEEK was evaluated in terms of cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation. Detailed cell morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Compared to plasma treatment, gold coating improved PEEK wettability. The XPS method showed a decrease in the carbon concentration with increasing time of plasma treatment. Cell adhesion determined on the interface between plasma-treated and gold-coated PEEK matrices was directly proportional to the thickness of a gold layer on a sample. Our results suggest that plasma treatment in a combination with gold coating could be used in biomedical applications requiring enhanced cell adhesion.

  16. Multifunctional Coating for Crew Cabin Surfaces and Fabrics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's crewed spacecrafts require routine cleaning of particulate, moisture, organic, and salt contaminants on the crew cabin surfaces and fabrics. Self-cleaning...

  17. Establishment of Epithelial Attachment on Titanium Surface Coated with Platelet Activating Peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiho Sugawara

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to produce epithelial attachment on a typical implant abutment surface of smooth titanium. A challenging complication that hinders the success of dental implants is peri-implantitis. A common cause of peri-implantitis may results from the lack of epithelial sealing at the peri-implant collar. Histologically, epithelial sealing is recognized as the attachment of the basement membrane (BM. BM-attachment is promoted by activated platelet aggregates at surgical wound sites. On the other hand, platelets did not aggregate on smooth titanium, the surface typical of the implant abutment. We then hypothesized that epithelial BM-attachment was produced when titanium surface was modified to allow platelet aggregation. Titanium surfaces were coated with a protease activated receptor 4-activating peptide (PAR4-AP. PAR4-AP coating yielded rapid aggregation of platelets on the titanium surface. Platelet aggregates released robust amount of epithelial chemoattractants (IGF-I, TGF-β and growth factors (EGF, VEGF on the titanium surface. Human gingival epithelial cells, when they were co-cultured on the platelet aggregates, successfully attached to the PAR4-AP coated titanium surface with spread laminin5 positive BM and consecutive staining of the epithelial tight junction component ZO1, indicating the formation of complete epithelial sheet. These in-vitro results indicate the establishment of epithelial BM-attachment to the titanium surface.

  18. In vitro study of Streptococcus mutans adhesion on composite resin coated with three surface sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Hye Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Although the coating of surface sealants to dental composite resin may potentially reduce bacterial adhesion, there seems to be little information regarding this issue. This preliminary in vitro study investigated the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans on the dental composite resins coated with three commercial surface sealants. Materials and Methods Composite resin (Filtek Z250 discs (8 mm in diameter, 1 mm in thickness were fabricated in a mold covered with a Mylar strip (control. In group PoGo, the surfaces were polished with PoGo. In groups PS, OG, and FP, the surfaces polished with PoGo were coated with the corresponding surface sealants (PermaSeal, PS; OptiGuard, OG; Fortify Plus, FP. The surfaces of the materials and S. mutans cells were characterized by various methods. S. mutans adhesion to the surfaces was quantitatively evaluated using flow cytometry (n = 9. Results Group OG achieved the lowest water contact angle among all groups tested (p 0.05 or significantly lower (group OG, p < 0.001 bacterial adhesion when compared with the control group. Conclusions The application of the surface sealants significantly reduced S. mutans adhesion to the composite resin polished with the PoGo.

  19. Control of surface wettability for inkjet printing by combining hydrophobic coating and plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Heung Yeol; Kang, Byung Ju; Lee, Dohyung; Oh, Je Hoon

    2013-01-01

    We have obtained a wide range of surface wettabilities of PI substrate for inkjet printing by combining hydrophobic solution coating and O 2 or Ar plasma treatments. Experiments were conducted to investigate the variation in inkjet-printed dot diameters with different surface treatments. The change in chemical and physical characteristics of treated surfaces was evaluated using static contact angle measurements, field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Only hydrophobic coated surface produces the smallest dot diameter and the largest contact angle. Dot diameter increases and contact angle decreases as the plasma treatment time increases. Since the removal of hydrophobic layer from the surface occurs due to the etching effect of O 2 and Ar plasma during the plasma treatments, F/C ratio decreases with increasing the plasma treatment time. Surface roughness variations are also observed after plasma treatments. The ranges of printed dot sizes for O 2 and Ar plasma treatments are 38 μm–70 μm and 38 μm–92 μm, respectively. Ar plasma treatment shows a wider range of surface wettability because of higher removal rate of the hydrophobic layer. This combination of hydrophobic coating and plasma treatment can offer an effective way to obtain a wide range of surface wettabilities for high quality inkjet-printed patterns. - Highlights: • Hydrophobic coating and plasma treatments were used to control surface wettability. • Inkjet-printed dot diameters increase with O 2 or Ar plasma treatment time. • Contact angles of Ag ink agree well with the variation tendency of dot diameters. • The removal of hydrophobic layer occurs during the plasma treatments. • Ar plasma treatment shows a wider range of surface wettability than O 2 plasma

  20. The effects of non-solvent on surface morphology and hydrophobicity of dip-coated polypropylene membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiqotul Himma, Nurul; Kusuma Wardani, Anita; Gede Wenten, I.

    2017-05-01

    Polypropylene (PP) has been widely used for fabrication of hydrophobic microporous membrane due to its good thermal and chemical stability. However, the hydrophobicity of PP is inadequate to prevent membrane wetting which hinders its application in long-term operation of membrane contactor and other hydrophobic membrane processes. Endowing the membrane with superhydrophobicity has become an attractive way to improve wetting resistance. In this work, superhydrophobic PP membrane was prepared by coating with roughened polymer film. A simple technique of two-step dip-coating was used for deposition of the non-solvent solution and polymer solution. The effects of five non-solvent types were investigated, including ethanol, isopropyl alcohol (IPA), acetone, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), and cyclohexanone. All non-solvents increased the surface roughness, leading to an improvement of membrane hydrophobicity. Superhydrophobic PP membranes with high water contact angle (WCA) of 150.4° and 151.3° have been successfully prepared by using IPA and MEK, respectively. Morphology characterization revealed that both modified membranes had more uniform and larger number of smaller aggregates which might minimize surface area in contact with liquid, resulting in increased contact angle. As the coating was conducted separately, the utilization of non-solvent could be more effective.

  1. Enhanced water repellency of surfaces coated with multiscale carbon structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchalot, Julien; Ramos, Stella. M. M.; Pirat, Christophe; Journet, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    Low cost and well characterized superhydrophobic surfaces are frequently required for industrial applications. Materials are commonly structured at the micro or nano scale. Surfaces decorated with nanotube derivatives synthesized by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) are of particular interest, since suitable modifications in the growth parameters can lead to numerous designs. In this article, we present surfaces that are selected for their specific wetting features with patterns ranging from dense forests to jungles with concave (re-entrant) surface such as flake-like multiscale roughness. Once these surfaces are functionalized adequately, their wetting properties are investigated. Their ability to sustain a superhydrophobic state for sessile water drops is examined. Finally, we propose a design to achieve a robust so-called ;Fakir; state, even for micrometer-sized drops, whereas with classic nanotubes forests it is not achievable. Thus, the drop remains on the apex of the protrusions with a high contact angle and a low contact angle hysteresis, while the surface features demonstrate good mechanical resistance against capillary forces.

  2. Experimental Equipment and Basic Technological Methods of Obtaining Cavitation Protective Coatings on Working Surfaces of Steam Turbine Blades Made of Titanium Alloy VT6 in Order to Replace Imports of Similar Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilous, V.A.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The experimental equipment and basic technological methods of obtaining сavitation protective coatings on the working surfaces of blades of steam turbines from titanium alloy VT6 have been created. The selection and the basis of the composition and conditions of synthesis of optimal coating for hardening blades have been justified. The parameters of deposition process of coatings on the blade model have been worked, the experimental technological deposition process of hardening coatings has been created. The tests of titanium alloy VT6 samples with the preferred coatings in simulation conditions close to operational have been conducted. The coatings on the blade model of length up to 130 cm and weight up to 30 kg have been deposited. The velocity of the TiN coating depositing was 10 mkm/h.

  3. Influence of surface morphology and microstructure on performance of CVD tungsten coating under fusion transient thermal loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Youyun, E-mail: lianyy@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China); Liu, Xiang; Wang, Jianbao; Feng, Fan [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China); Lv, Yanwei; Song, Jiupeng [China National R& D Center for Tungsten Technology, Xiamen Tungsten Co. Ltd, 361026 Xiamen (China); Chen, Jiming [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Thick CVD-W coatingswere deposited at a rapid growth rate. • The polished CVD-W coatings have highly textured structure and exhibited a very strong preferred orientation. • The polished CVD tungsten coatings show superior thermal shock resistance as compared with that of the as-deposited coatings. • The crack formation of the polished CVD-W was almost suppressed at an elevated temperature. - Abstract: Thick tungsten coatings have been deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at a rapid growth rate. A series of tungsten coatings with different thickness and surface morphology were prepared. The surface morphology, microstructure and preferred orientation of the CVD tungsten coatings were investigated. Thermal shock analyses were performed by using an electron beam facility to study the influence of the surface morphology and the microstructure on the thermal shock resistance of the CVD tungsten coatings. Repetitive (100 pulses) ELMs-like thermal shock loads were applied at various temperatures between room temperature and 600 °C with pulse duration of 1 ms and an absorbed power density of up to 1 GW/m{sup 2}. The results of the tests demonstrated that the specific surface morphology and columnar crystal structure of the CVD tungsten have significant influence on the surface cracking threshold and crack propagation of the materials. The CVD tungsten coatings with a polished surface show superior thermal shock resistance as compared with that of the as-deposited coatings with a rough surface.

  4. Bone char surface modification by nano-gold coating for elemental mercury vapor removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assari, Mohamad javad [Department of Environmental & Occupational Health, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares university, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaee, Abbas, E-mail: rezaee@modares.ac.ir [Department of Environmental & Occupational Health, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares university, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rangkooy, Hossinali [Occupational Health Department, Faculty of Health, Jondishapor Medical Sciences University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    Highlights: • A novel nanocomposite including bone char and gold nanoparticle was developed for capture of Hg{sup 0} vapor. • EDS and XRD results confirm the presence of nano-gold on the surface of the bone char support. • The majority of the pores were found to be in the mesoporous range. • The dynamic capacity of 586 μg/g was obtained for Hg{sup 0} vapor. - Abstract: The present work was done to develop a novel nanocomposite using bone char coated with nano-gold for capture of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) from air. The morphologies, structures, and chemical constitute of the prepared nanocomposite were evaluated by UV–VIS–NIR, dynamic light-scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The capture performance of nanocomposite was evaluated in a needle trap for mercury vapor. An on-line setup based on cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) was designed for Hg{sup 0} determination. Dynamic capacity of nanocomposite for Hg{sup 0} was shown high efficient operating capacity of 586.7 μg/g. As temperature increases, the dynamic adsorption capacity of the nanocomposite was decreased, which are characteristics of physicosorption processes. It was found that the surface modification of bone char with nano-gold has various advantages such as high operating dynamic adsorption capacity and low cost preparation. It was also demonstrated that the developed nanocomposite is suitable for on-line monitoring of Hg{sup 0}. It could be applied for the laboratory and field studies.

  5. Potential Release of Manufactured Nano Objects During Sanding of Nano-Coated Wood Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransman, Wouter; Bekker, Cindy; Tromp, Peter; Duis, Willem B

    2016-08-01

    Increasing production and applications of manufactured nano objects (MNOs) have become a source for human exposure and therefore raise concerns and questions about the possible health effects. In this study, the potential release of nano objects, their agglomerates, and aggregates (NOAA) as a result of sanding of hardwood treated with MNOs-containing coating was examined. Two types of MNO-containing coating were compared with untreated hardwood that allowed the evaluation of the influence of the chemical composition on the release of particles. Furthermore, the rotation speed of the sander and the grit size of the sanding paper were varied in order to assess their influence on the release of particles.Measurements were conducted in a gas-tight chamber with a volume of 19.5 m(3) in which ventilation was minimized during experiments. Particle size distributions were assessed by scanning mobility particle sizer , aerodynamic particle sizer, and electrical low pressure impactor. Furthermore, aerosol number concentrations (Nanotracer), active surface area (LQ1), and fractionated mass (Cascade Impactor) were measured before, during, and after sanding. Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) analysis was performed to adequately characterize the morphology, size, and chemical composition of released particles.SEM/EDX analysis indicated that sanding surfaces treated with MNO-containing coating did not release the designated MNO as free primary particles. In both coatings, clusters of MNO were perceived embedded in and attached to micro-sized wood and/or coating particles created by sanding the coated surface. Real-time measurements indicated a lower release of micro-sized particles from sanding of surfaces treated with Coating I than from sanding untreated surfaces or surfaces treated with Coating II. A substantial increase in nanosized and a slight increase in micro-sized particles was perceived as the rotation speed of the sander increased. However

  6. Improvement of Surface Properties of Inconel718 by HVOF Coating with WC-Metal Powder and by Laser Heat Treatment of the Coating

    OpenAIRE

    Chun, Hui Gon; Cho, Tong Yul; Yoon, Jae Hong; Lee, Gun Hwan

    2015-01-01

    High-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coating with WC-metal powder was carried out by using optimal coating process on an Inconel718 surface for improvement of the surface properties, friction, wear, and corrosion resistance. Binder metals such as Cr and Ni were completely melted and WC was decomposed partially to W2C and graphite during the high temperature (up to 3500°C) thermal spraying. The melted metals were bonded with WC and other carbides and were formed as WC-metal coating. ...

  7. Preparation of homogeneous titania coatings on the surface of MWNTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemeth, Zoltan; Reti, Balazs; Kukovecz, Akos; Hernadi, Klara [Department of Applied and Environmental Chemistry, University of Szeged, Rerrich Bela ter 1, Szeged 6720 (Hungary); Dieker, Christel; Alexander, Duncan T.L.; Forro, Laszlo [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Complexe, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Seo, Jin Won [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Katholieke Universitet Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44-bus, 2450 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2010-12-15

    The aim of this work was to develop a controllable route to produce a stable and inorganic layer on the surface of multi-wall carbon nanotubes. Precursor compounds such as TiBr{sub 4}, TiCl{sub 4}, Ti(OiPr){sub 4}, and Ti(OEt){sub 4} were used to cover the surface of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) under either solvent free or solution conditions. Various titania precursors were compared in the formation of homogeneous layers on the surface of CNTs. As-prepared titania coverages were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM, scanning electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. Results revealed that homogeneous coverage can be achieved in a controllable way. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. pH and redox responsive polymer for antifouling surface coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Seok [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju, 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); In, Insik, E-mail: in1@ut.ac.kr [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju, 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Department of IT Convergence, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju, 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Young, E-mail: parkchem@ut.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju, 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Department of IT Convergence, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju, 380-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Dual responsive surface with highly fouling resistance with the formation of a pH-dependent benzoic imine and redox-sensitive disulfide bond has been developed using a catechol/benzoic acid conjugated polymer and disulfide containing amine end-capped Pluronic. - Highlights: • Stimuli-responsive antifouling surface was prepared by layer-by-layer method. • The surface contact angle showed responsive behavior via pH and redox environments. • Simply coated polymer completely prevented cell adhesion onto surfaces. - Abstract: A dual environmentally responsive polymer with a highly fouling-resistant surface has been developed using poly[(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-g-benzoic acid)-co-(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate-g-2-chloro-3′, 4′-dihydroxyacetophenone)] [poly[(HEMA-BA)-co-(DMAEMA-CCDP)], P1] as a coating material. The redox-sensitive disulfide containing amine end-capped Pluronic [(Plu-S-S-NH{sub 2}), P2] was then introduced over the P1 surface via the formation of a pH-dependent benzoic imine bond, where the polyethylene glycol (PEG) acts as an antifouling agent. The successful adhesion of P1 and the deposition of P2 onto the P1-coated substrate were ascertained with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In vitro cell adhesion followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated an excellent antifouling nature of the P2 layer. Consequently, the reattachment of Hela cells was strongly observed when P2 layered on P1-coated substrates (P1–P2) was pretreated at lower pH and high redox conditions. The P1–P2 bilayer-coated substrate has exhibited a great advantage in its effective antifouling behaviors with well-tuned cell attachment and detachment.

  9. Effects of surface treatment of aluminium alloy 1050 on the adhesion and anticorrosion properties of the epoxy coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharifi Golru, S., E-mail: samanesharifi@aut.ac.ir [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Attar, M.M., E-mail: attar@aut.ac.ir [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramezanzadeh, B. [Department of Surface Coating and Corrosion, Institute for Color Science and Technology, No. 59,Vafamanesh St, Hosainabad Sq, Lavizan, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-01

    Highlights: • Aluminium alloy 1050 was treated by zirconium-based (Zr) conversion coating. • The surface morphology and surface free energy of the samples were obtained. • The adhesion properties of the epoxy coating was studied on the treated samples. • The corrosion resistance of the epoxy coating was enhanced on treated samples. - Abstract: The objective of this work is to investigate the effects of zirconium-based (Zr) conversion coating on the adhesion properties and corrosion resistance of an epoxy/polyamide coating applied on the aluminium alloy 1050 (AA1050). Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS), atomic force microscope (AFM) and contact angle measuring device were employed in order to characterize the surface characteristics of the Zr treated AA1050 samples. The epoxy/polyamide coating was applied on the untreated and Zr treated samples. The epoxy coating adhesion to the aluminium substrate was evaluated by pull-off test before and after 30 days immersion in 3.5% w/w NaCl solution. In addition, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and salt spray tests were employed to characterize the corrosion protection properties of the epoxy coating applied on the AA1050 samples. Results revealed that the surface treatment of AA1050 by zirconium conversion coating resulted in the increase of surface free energy and surface roughness. The dry and recovery (adhesion strength after 30 days immersion in the 3.5 wt% NaCl solution) adhesion strengths of the coatings applied on the Zr treated aluminium samples were greater than untreated sample. In addition, the adhesion loss of the coating applied on the Zr treated aluminium substrate was lower than other samples. Also, the results obtained from EIS and salt spray test clearly revealed that the Zr conversion coating could enhance the corrosion protective performance of the epoxy coating significantly.

  10. Effects of surface treatment of aluminium alloy 1050 on the adhesion and anticorrosion properties of the epoxy coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifi Golru, S.; Attar, M.M.; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Aluminium alloy 1050 was treated by zirconium-based (Zr) conversion coating. • The surface morphology and surface free energy of the samples were obtained. • The adhesion properties of the epoxy coating was studied on the treated samples. • The corrosion resistance of the epoxy coating was enhanced on treated samples. - Abstract: The objective of this work is to investigate the effects of zirconium-based (Zr) conversion coating on the adhesion properties and corrosion resistance of an epoxy/polyamide coating applied on the aluminium alloy 1050 (AA1050). Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS), atomic force microscope (AFM) and contact angle measuring device were employed in order to characterize the surface characteristics of the Zr treated AA1050 samples. The epoxy/polyamide coating was applied on the untreated and Zr treated samples. The epoxy coating adhesion to the aluminium substrate was evaluated by pull-off test before and after 30 days immersion in 3.5% w/w NaCl solution. In addition, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and salt spray tests were employed to characterize the corrosion protection properties of the epoxy coating applied on the AA1050 samples. Results revealed that the surface treatment of AA1050 by zirconium conversion coating resulted in the increase of surface free energy and surface roughness. The dry and recovery (adhesion strength after 30 days immersion in the 3.5 wt% NaCl solution) adhesion strengths of the coatings applied on the Zr treated aluminium samples were greater than untreated sample. In addition, the adhesion loss of the coating applied on the Zr treated aluminium substrate was lower than other samples. Also, the results obtained from EIS and salt spray test clearly revealed that the Zr conversion coating could enhance the corrosion protective performance of the epoxy coating significantly

  11. Cellular Stress Response to Engineered Nanoparticles: Effect of Size, Surface Coating, and Cellular Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    CELLULAR STRESS RESPONSE TO ENGINEERED NANOPARTICLES: EFFECT OF SIZE, SURFACE COATING, AND CELLULAR UPTAKE RY Prasad 1, JK McGee2, MG Killius1 D Ackerman2, CF Blackman2 DM DeMarini2 , SO Simmons2 1 Student Services Contractor, US EPA, RTP, NC 2 US EPA, RTP, NC The num...

  12. Cytotoxicity of organic surface coating agents used for nanoparticles synthesis and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Newton, Brandon; Lewis, Eybriunna; Fu, Peter P; Kafoury, Ramzi; Ray, Paresh C; Yu, Hongtao

    2015-06-01

    Impact on health by nanomaterials has become a public concern with the great advances of nanomaterials for various applications. Surface coating agents are an integral part of nanoparticles, but not enough attention has been paid during toxicity tests of nanoparticles. As a result, there are inconsistent toxicity results for certain nanomaterials. In this study, we explored the cytotoxicity of eleven commonly used surface coating agents in two cell lines, human epidermal keratinocyte (HaCaT) and lung fibroblast (CRL-1490) cells, at surface coating agent concentrations of 3, 10, 30, and 100 μM. Two exposure time points, 2 h and 24 h, were employed for the study. Six of the eleven surface coating agents are cytotoxic, especially those surfactants with long aliphatic chains, both cationic (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, oleylamine, tetraoctylammonium bromide, and hexadecylamine) and anionic (sodium dodecylsulfate). In addition, exposure time and the use of different cell lines also affect the cytotoxicity results. Therefore, factors such as cell lines used and exposure times must be considered when conducting toxicity tests or comparing cytotoxicity results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Wear rate and surface coating optimization of coconut coir-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The use of fuzzy logic for modeling surface parameters of coconut coir-based composite is the focus of this research paper. Natural fiber–polymer composite has been developed by combining coconut coir as a stimulator and polyester as a fixative. This sturdy material is resistant to scratches in the coating process on the ...

  14. Interaction of human mesenchymal stem cells with osteopontin coated hydroxyapatite surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza; Foss, Morten

    2010-01-01

    In vitro studies of the initial attachment, spreading and motility of human bone mesenchymal stem cells have been carried out on bovine osteopontin (OPN) coated hydroxyapatite (HA) and gold (Au) model surfaces. The adsorption of OPN extracted from bovine milk was monitored by the quartz crystal...

  15. Improved performance of TiC-coated graphite limiters by surface texturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitley, J.B.; Mattox, D.M.; Trester, P.W.; Emerson, L.C.

    1983-01-01

    TicC-coated graphite limiters are currently in wide use as tokamak limiters. These limiters usually suffer a groove type of damage caused by plasma disruptions. A surface texturing treatment is described that reduces the occurrence of this type of damage

  16. A selectively coated photonic crystal fiber based surface plasmon resonance sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, X; Zhang, Y.; Pan, S.S.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel design for a photonic crystal fiber based surface plasmonic resonance sensor. The sensor consists of selectively metal-coated air holes containing analyte channels, which enhance the phase matching between the plasmonic mode and the core-guided mode. Good refractive index sensi...

  17. Surface modification of TiO2 coatings by Zn ion implantation for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to the PIII-treated TiO2 coatings than E. coli. Surface chemical composition of TiO2-based implants plays a crucial role in biological interaction because it is in direct contact with the biological environment. Zn is an important trace element for enhancing cell proliferation,. ALP activity, collagen synthesis, and protein synthesis.

  18. Surface characterization and effectiveness evaluation of anti-graffiti coatings on highly porous stone materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettieri, Mariateresa; Masieri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    In this study, two commercial sacrificial anti-graffiti systems, provided as water emulsion, were applied on a highly porous stone. The behavior of the anti-graffiti treatments was investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance mode (ATR-FTIR), colorimetric tests, and water static contact angle measurements. The presence of a protective coating enhanced the removal of paint sprayed on the stone. However, penetration of the staining agent below the surface, due to the high porosity of the substrate, caused difficulties in eliminating the paint. In fact, repeated cleaning procedures, involving hot water, mechanical action, and chemical removers, did not allow a complete removal of the paint. The examined systems behaved against graffiti in different ways. No affinity between the wax-based product and the paint was observed; nevertheless, this behavior did not result in good anti-graffiti performances. On the contrary, the penetration of the paint into the fluorine-based coating yielded a good anti-graffiti effectiveness, since the stain was easily eliminated from the surfaces. The anti-graffiti coatings survived in limited areas after the cleaning processes, although the studied compounds are suggested as sacrificial products. Such behavior may affect the maintenance activities, when the surface is no longer protected and the coating need to be renewed, since compatibility problems, as well as harmful accumulation, could occur because of further treatments on these surfaces.

  19. Visualization of the distribution of surface-active block copolymers in PDMS-based coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noguer, A. Camós; Latipov, R.; Madsen, F. B.

    2018-01-01

    and added to a PDMS coating for visualization purposes. The surface-activity and biofouling resistance of the synthesized copolymer was confirmed by water contact angle measurements and seawater immersion experiments. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images showed that the triblock copolymer...

  20. The freezing process of continuously sprayed water droplets on the superhydrophobic silicone acrylate resin coating surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianlin; Xu, Ke; Wu, Yao; Lan, Binhuan; Jiang, Xingliang; Shu, Lichun

    2014-10-01

    This study conducted experiments on freezing process of water droplets on glass slides covered with superhydrophobic coatings under the continuous water spray condition in the artificial climatic chamber which could simulate low temperature and high humidity environments. The freezing mechanism and freezing time of water droplets under the condition of continuous spray were observed by the microscope and were compared with those of the single static droplet. Then, differences of freezing process between continuously sprayed droplets and single static droplet were analyzed. Furthermore, the effects of static contact angle (CA), contact angle hysteresis (CAH) and roughness of the superhydrophobic coating surface on the freezing time of continuously sprayed droplets were explored. Results show that the freezing process of the continuously sprayed droplets on the superhydrophobic coating started with the homogeneous nucleation at gas-liquid interfaces. In addition, the temperature difference between the location near the solid-liquid interface and the location near the gas-liquid interface was the key factor that influenced the ice crystallization mechanism of water droplets. Moreover, with the larger CA, the smaller CAH and the greater roughness of the surface, droplets were more likely to roll down the surface and the freezing duration on the surface was delayed. Based on the findings, continuous water spray is suggested in the anti-icing superhydrophobic coatings research.

  1. Polymer-coated vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diode vapor sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansbæk, Thor; Nielsen, Claus Højgaard; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2010-01-01

    We report a new method for monitoring vapor concentration of volatile organic compounds using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). The VCSEL is coated with a polymer thin film on the top distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). The analyte absorption is transduced to the electrical domain ...

  2. Metal-coated magnetic nanoparticles for surface enhanced Raman ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    magnetic properties of these nanoparticles combined with SERS provide a wide range of applications. Keywords. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering; magnetic nanoparticles; core-shell nanostructure; bio-diagnosis. 1. Introduction. In recent years, plasmonic nanostructures exhibiting novel optical properties have attracted ...

  3. ZnO nanowires coated hydrophobic surfaces for various biomedical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    71

    which is typically found in water and can cause special type of pneumonia known as. Legionnaries disease. Because, if the material surface is hydrophilic the bacteria's present in water may adhere to the biomaterial resulting in bio-film formation, which may cause pathogenesis [8-10]. For achieving antibacterial activity, ...

  4. Ceramic coated Y1 magnesium alloy surfaces by microarc oxidation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Abstract. The magnesium alloys occupy an important place in marine applications, but their poor corrosion resistance, wear resistance, hardness and so on, have limited their application. To meet these defects, some techniques are developed. Microarc oxidation is a one such recently developed surface treatment ...

  5. Microbial deterioration of surface paint coatings. | Ogbulie | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial and fungal species associated with the normal and deteriorated painted surface in Owerri, Imo State were isolated and identified. The bacteria genera isolated were Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Enterobacter and Streptomces, whereas the fungal genera isolated were Rhizopus, ...

  6. Efficiency of surface modified Ti coated with copper nanoparticles to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Titanium (Ti) used as condenser material in nuclear power plants encounter severe biofouling in marine environment which in turn affects the efficiency of the metal. To reduce the biofouling by marine microorganisms, surface modification of the Ti was carried out by anodization process to obtain nanotubes ...

  7. Ceramic coated Y1 magnesium alloy surfaces by microarc oxidation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The magnesium alloys occupy an important place in marine applications, but their poor corrosion resistance, wear resistance, hardness and so on, have limited their application. To meet these defects, some techniques are developed. Microarc oxidation is a one such recently developed surface treatment technology under ...

  8. Ceramic coated Y1 magnesium alloy surfaces by microarc oxidation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The magnesium alloys occupy an important place in marine applications, but their poor corrosion resistance, wear resistance, hardness and so on, have limited their application. To meet these defects, some techniques are developed. Microarc oxidation is a one such recently developed surface treatment technology under ...

  9. Novel surface coating strategies for better battery materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wen, L

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available concepts of ‘ultrathin conformal coating’, ‘continuous phase coating’ and ‘multifunctional coating’ are proposed and discussed, followed by the authors’ rational perspectives on the future development and potential research hot spot in the surface...

  10. Interaction of phosphorylcholine with fibronectin coatings: Surface characterization and biological performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montaño-Machado, Vanessa, E-mail: vanessa.montano-machado.1@ulaval.ca [Laboratory for Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Dept. of Min-Met-Materials Eng., & University Hospital Research Center, Laval University, University Campus, PLT-1745G, Québec, Québec, G1 V 0A6 (Canada); ERRMECe, University of Cergy-Pontoise, Site Saint-Martin, 2 Avenue Adolphe Chauvin, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); Noël, Céline, E-mail: celine.noel@unamur.be [Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Université de Namur, 61 rue de Bruxelles, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Chevallier, Pascale, E-mail: pascale.chevallier@crchudequebec.ulaval.ca [Laboratory for Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Dept. of Min-Met-Materials Eng., & University Hospital Research Center, Laval University, University Campus, PLT-1745G, Québec, Québec, G1 V 0A6 (Canada); Turgeon, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.turgeon@crchudequebec.ulaval.ca [Laboratory for Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Dept. of Min-Met-Materials Eng., & University Hospital Research Center, Laval University, University Campus, PLT-1745G, Québec, Québec, G1 V 0A6 (Canada); Houssiau, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.houssiau@unamur.be [Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Université de Namur, 61 rue de Bruxelles, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Pauthe, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.pauthe@u-cergy.fr [ERRMECe, University of Cergy-Pontoise, Site Saint-Martin, 2 Avenue Adolphe Chauvin, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); and others

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Fibronectin/phosphorylcholine coatings on plasma deposited fluorocarbon films were created. • The effect of several coating techniques on the surface biological performances was evaluated. • XPS, DWCA, immunostaining and ToF-SIMS (imaging and depth profiling) techniques were applied. • Potential for cardiovascular applications was showed by endothelial cell and blood interactions. - Abstract: Coating medical devices with several bioactive molecules is an interesting approach to achieve specific biological targets upon the interaction of the biomaterial with the living environment. In this work, a fluorocarbon polymer (CF{sub x}) was first deposited by plasma treatment on stainless steel (SS) substrate and thereafter, coatings containing fibronectin (FN) and phosphorylcholine (PRC) were created for cardiovascular applications. These two biomolecules were chosen to promote endothelialization and to avoid thrombus formation, respectively. Adsorption and grafting techniques were applied – and combined – to accomplish 4 different coatings containing both molecules. However, big challenge was found to characterize a small molecule (PRC: 184 g/mol) interacting with a protein (FN: 450 kD). For the first time XPS, dynamic water contact angle, immunostaining and ToF-SIMS (imaging and depth profiling) analyses were combined to accomplish the characterization of such a coating. The most encouraging biological performances were obtained for samples where FN was grafted to the CF{sub x} film followed by the adsorption of PRC: proliferation of endothelial cells and hemocompatibility properties were observed. Promising coatings for cardiovascular applications were developed. The relevance of characterizing the coatings with high sensitive techniques and the further correlation with their biological performances were evidenced.

  11. Antimicrobial characterization of silver nanoparticle-coated surfaces by “touch test” method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunell M

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Marianne Gunell,1,2 Janne Haapanen,3 Kofi J Brobbey,4 Jarkko J Saarinen,4 Martti Toivakka,4 Jyrki M Mäkelä,3 Pentti Huovinen,1 Erkki Eerola1,2 1Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Turku, 2Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Microbiology and Genetics Service Area, Turku University Hospital, Turku, 3Aerosol Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, 4Laboratory of Paper Coating and Converting, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland Abstract: Bacterial infections, especially by antimicrobial resistant (AMR bacteria, are an increasing problem worldwide. AMR is especially a problem with health care-associated infections due to bacteria in hospital environments being easily transferred from patient to patient and from patient to environment, and thus, solutions to prevent bacterial transmission are needed. Hand washing is an effective tool for preventing bacterial infections, but other approaches such as nanoparticle-coated surfaces are also needed. In the current study, direct and indirect liquid flame spray (LFS method was used to produce silver nanoparticle-coated surfaces. The antimicrobial properties of these nanoparticle surfaces were evaluated with the “touch test” method against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. It was shown in this study that in glass samples one silver nanoparticle-coating cycle can inhibit E. coli growth, whereas at least two coating cycles were needed to inhibit S. aureus growth. Silver nanoparticle-coated polyethylene (PE and PE terephthalate samples did not inhibit bacterial growth as effectively as glass samples: three nanoparticle-coating cycles were needed to inhibit E. coli growth, and more than 30 coating cycles were needed until S. aureus growth was inhibited. To conclude, with the LFS method, it is possible to produce nanostructured large-area antibacterial surfaces which show

  12. 16 CFR 1145.2 - Paint (and other similar surface-coating materials) containing lead; toys, children's articles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Paint (and other similar surface-coating materials) containing lead; toys, children's articles, and articles of furniture bearing such paint (or... TO OTHER ACTS UNDER THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT § 1145.2 Paint (and other similar surface-coating...

  13. Alternative Surface Coatings and Surface Treatments for Hazardous Cadmium Plating of Small Parts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, K

    1995-01-01

    .... Conclusions resulting from mechanical testing and two-month exposure tests are provided. Several alternative coatings appear to provide corrosion resistance comparable to cadmium on non-complex shapes...

  14. Fracture resistance of dental nickel–titanium rotary instruments with novel surface treatment: Thin film metallic glass coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wen Chi

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: The novel surface treatment of Ti-Zr-B thin film metallic glass on dental NiTi rotary files can effectively improve the fatigue fracture resistance by offering a smooth coated surface with amorphous microstructure.

  15. THE SIZE AND SURFACE COATING OF NANOSILVER DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTS BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY IN BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER (RBEC4) CELLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linking the physical properties of nanoparticles with differences in their biological activity is critical for understanding their potential toxicity and mode of action. The influence of aggregate size, surface coating, and surface charge on nanosilver's (nanoAg) movement through...

  16. Impact of nanosilver on various DNA lesions and HPRT gene mutations - effects of charge and surface coating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huk, A.; Izak-Nau, E.; el Yamani, N.; Uggerud, H.; Vadset, M.; Zasońska, Beata Anna; Duschl, A.; Dusinska, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, 24 July (2015), 25_1-25_20 ISSN 1743-8977 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : silver nanomaterials * surface charge * surface coating Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 8.649, year: 2015

  17. A study of the deposition process of multilayer coatings on the inner tube surface with the pulsed laser deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozovan, A.A., E-mail: loz-plasma@ya.ru; Alexandrova, S.S.; Mishnev, M.A.; Prishepov, S.V.

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Submitted laser bench for coatings, deposited on the inner surfaces of tubes by PLD. • Sprayed multilayered Ti/TiN coatings on the inner surfaces of tubes of small diameter. • We study this of coatings by method RBS and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF). • Shown a significant mixing of the layers thickness of 90 μm. -- Abstract: The multilayer Ti/TiN/Ti coatings (consisting of nano-scale layers) on the inner surface of stainless steel tubes of small diameter were studied. The coatings were deposited by using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique (in the reactive and non-reactive deposition modes). The coatings were analyzed using the X-ray fluorescence analysis with total external reflection (TXRF) and the Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). It was found that the deposition of multilayer Ti/TiN/Ti coatings leads to the essential mixing of coating layers due to sputtering of coatings with fast atoms and ions from the laser plume and the evaporation of the coating under the laser radiation reflected from the target surface.

  18. Tailoring the Surface Properties of Coatings Through Self-Stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-13

    Introduction Marine biofouling is the unwanted accumulation, attachment and growth of microorganisms , plants and animals on surfaces submerged in...like proteins and polysaccharides,1 accumulation of microorganisms like diatoms and bacteria, settlement of algal species and finally attachment of...Abrasion experiment The abrasion set up was made up of a long plastic plank, with a handle on one end and sponge attached to it on the opposite side

  19. PPS-PEG surface coating to reduce thrombogenicity of small diameter ePTFE vascular grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrer, L; Duwe, J; Zisch, A H; Khabiri, E; Cikirikcioglu, M; Napoli, A; Goessl, A; Schaffner, T; Hess, O M; Carrel, T; Kalangos, A; Hubbell, J A; Walpoth, B H

    2005-10-01

    Patency failure of small vascular synthetic grafts is still a major problem for coronary and peripheral revascularization. Thus, three new surface coatings of small synthetic grafts were tested in an acute pig model to evaluate their thrombogenicity (extracorporeal arterio-venous shunt) and in a chronic rat model to evaluate the tissue reaction they induced (subcutaneous implantation). In five domestic pigs (25-30 kg) an extracorporeal femoro-femoral arterio-venous shunt model was used. The study protocol included first a non-heparinized perfusion sequence followed by graft perfusion after 10,000 UI iv heparin. Grafts were perfused for 3 and 9 minutes. The following coatings were tested on ePTFE grafts: poly-propylene sulphide (PPS)--poly-ethylene glycol (PEG) (wet and dry applications) as well as carbon. Two sets of control were used, one dry and one wet (vehicle only). After perfusion grafts were examined by scanning electron microscopy for semi-quantitative assessment (score 0-3) of cellular and microthrombi deposition. To assess tissue compatibility, pieces of each material were implanted subcutaneously in 16 Wistar rats. At 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks four animals each were sacrificed for semi-quantitative (score 0-3) histologic evaluation of tissue reaction. In the pig model, cellular deposition and microthrombi formation increased over time. In non- heparinized animals, the coatings did not improve the surface characteristics, since they did not prevent microthrombi formation and cellular deposition. In heparinized animals, thrombogenicity was lowest in coated grafts,especially in PPS -PEG dry (pPPS-PEG dry, but this difference was not statistically significant vs.controls. In the rat model,no significant differences of the tissue reaction could be shown between materials. While all coatings failed to add any benefit for lowering tissue reaction, surface coating with PPS -PEG (dry application) reduced thrombogenicity significantly (in heparinized animals) and thus

  20. Surface characteristics of coated polyester fabric with reduced graphene oxide and polypyrrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berendjchi, Amirhosein [Department of Textile Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khajavi, Ramin, E-mail: khajavi@azad.ac.ir [Nano Technology Research Center, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yousefi, Ali Akbar [Faculty of Polymer Processing, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yazdanshenas, Mohammad Esmail [Department of Textile Engineering, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PET in form of film or membrane is hydrophobic and its wetting behavior follows the Wenzel wetting theory. In the form of textile materials it shows hydrophilicity. • rGO coated PET fabric shows hydrophobicity and its wetting behavior places between Wenzel and Cassie–Baxter models. • PET coated fabric by PPy shows superhydrophobicity and its wetting behavior is consistence with Cassie–Baxter model. • Due to oxidation of the rGO during in situ synthesis of PPy the rGO–PPy coated PET shows hydrophilicity. - Abstract: In this study, the influence of coating polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and polypyrrole (PPy), individually or in combination (rGO–PPy), on surface chemistry and roughness (focusing on wetting behavior), were analyzed systematically. Characterization was carried out by observing the topography (atomic force microscopy – AFM) and stating surface analysis (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy – XPS), contact angles (goniometry), water shedding angles, and surface energy values of the samples. The results showed that the contact angles of pristine (uncoated), GO and rGO–PPy coated samples were 0°, while it was 92°, 123° and 151° for hot pressed (2nd pristine sample), rGO and PPy samples, respectively. A zero contact angle for PET sample was due to its wicking ability. Results were interpreted with Young, Wenzel and Cassie Baxter equations. It was found that PPy coated samples were consistent with Cassie–Baxter equation, while rGO placed between Wenzel and Cassie–Baxter wetting models.

  1. Effect of surface organic coatings of cellulose nanocrystals on the viability of mammalian cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Ambar S; Jaramillo, Francesca; Hemraz, Usha D; Boluk, Yaman; Ckless, Karina; Sunasee, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) have emerged as promising candidates for a number of bio-applications. Surface modification of CNCs continues to gain significant research interest as it imparts new properties to the surface of the nanocrystals for the design of multifunctional CNCs-based materials. A small chemical surface modification can potentially lead to drastic behavioral changes of cell-material interactions thereby affecting the intended bio-application. In this work, unmodified CNCs were covalently decorated with four different organic moieties such as a diaminobutane fragment, a cyclic oligosaccharide ( β -cyclodextrin), a thermoresponsive polymer (poly[ N -isopropylacrylamide]), and a cationic aminomethacrylamide-based polymer using different synthetic covalent methods. The effect of surface coatings of CNCs and the respective dose-response of the above organic moieties on the cell viability were evaluated on mammalian cell cultures (J774A.1 and MFC-7), using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphe-nyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays. Overall, the results indicated that cells exposed to surface-coated CNCs for 24 h did not display major changes in cell viability, membrane permeability as well as cell morphology. However, with longer exposure, all these parameters were somewhat affected, which appears not to be correlated with either anionic or cationic surface coatings of CNCs used in this study.

  2. Preparation and Surface Modification of Silica Nanoparticles for Superhydrophopic Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Hadi Aysa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Silica  nanoparticles are well-known to be one of the multifunctional inorganic compounds which are widely used in medical applications. The aim of this study is to prepare the particles of nano silica oxide with particle size ranging from 20-25 nm. In the present study, surface modification of Silica nanoparticles was performed, and influence of modification on the structure and morphological properties was investigated. The resulting  nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM.  Silica nanoparticles with the average diameter of about 20 nm were modified with oleic acid, as coupling agents, in order to modify their surface properties and make them more waterproof dispersible in the organic area. Among the results is that the  surface modification of the   Silica nano-particles leads to more dispersion in the organic medium which indicates better organic synthesis.One of the results obtained,is that modified silica-nanoparticles can be used effectively in environmental and safety applications and can be used in future medical applications as wound stick that prevent water from reaching the wound and then prevent  an inflamation.

  3. Wettability behaviour of RTV silicone rubber coated on nanostructured aluminium surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, Gelareh; Farzaneh, Masoud; Jafari, Reza

    2011-05-01

    A nanostructutered superhydrophobic surface was elaborated by applying an RTV silicone rubber coating on electrochemically processed aluminium substrates. Study of anodisation voltage on surface morphology showed that higher anodising voltage led to larger pore sizes. Scanning electron microscopy image analysis showed bird's nest and beehive structures formed on anodised surfaces at 50 V and 80 V. Water static contact angle on the treated surfaces reached up to 160° at room temperature. Study of superhydrophobic surfaces at super cooled temperature showed important delayed freezing time for RTV hydrophobic surfaces when compared to non-treated aluminium. However, lower wettability was observed when surface temperature went down from 20 °C to -10 °C. Also, it was found that the capacitance of superhydrophobic surfaces decreased with increasing anodising voltage.

  4. Surface characterisation and electrochemical behaviour of porous titanium dioxide coated 316L stainless steel for orthopaedic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagarajan, S.; Rajendran, N.

    2009-01-01

    Porous titanium dioxide was coated on surgical grade 316L stainless steel (SS) and its role on the corrosion protection and enhanced biocompatibility of the materials was studied. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) were carried out to characterise the surface morphology and also to understand the structure of the as synthesised coating on the substrates. The corrosion behaviour of titanium dioxide coated samples in simulated body fluid was evaluated using polarisation and impedance spectroscopy studies. The results reveal that the titanium dioxide coated 316L SS exhibit a higher corrosion resistance than the uncoated 316L SS. The titanium dioxide coated surface is porous, uniform and also it acts as a barrier layer to metallic substrate and the porous titanium dioxide coating induces the formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the metal surface.

  5. Surface enhanced 316L/SiC nano-composite coatings via laser cladding and following cold-swaging process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhang; Gao, Shiyou

    2017-10-01

    Cold-swaging is one of a cold deformation processes, and ceramic-reinforcement nano-composite coatings can effectively improve the performance of metal matrix surface. Therefore, the two processes are innovatively combined to further improve the surface properties of the metal matrix in this paper. The microstructure and surface properties of the laser cladding 316L + 10 wt% SiC nano-composite coatings were examined through designed experiments after cold-swaging by self-developed hydraulic machine. Furthermore, the coatings were compared with those without cold-swaging coatings at the same time. The result shows that the cold-swaging process can further enhance the tensile strength, micro-hardness and the wear resistance of the composite coating. This study can be used as a reference for further strengthening of laser cladding nano-composite coatings in future research.

  6. Surface coating influence on elastic properties of spruce wood by means of holographic vibration mode visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongova, M.; Urgela, Stanislav

    1999-07-01

    Physicoacoustical properties of wood influenced by surface coating are studied by modal analysis. Resonant spruce plates were coated by stain, nitrocellulose varnish, special violin paint and shellac. The modal testing was performed by electronic speckle pattern interferometry. For this purpose, equipment called VIBROVIZER was used. The collected values of physicoacoustical characteristics (density, Young's modulus, acoustic constant) were compared using the graphic plots of data. The 3D plots help to evaluate wooden plates from a viewpoint of the quality control. This fact offers new opportunity for musical instrument manufacturers.

  7. Effect of surface organic coatings of cellulose nanocrystals on the viability of mammalian cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimenez AS

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ambar S Jimenez,1 Francesca Jaramillo,1 Usha D Hemraz,2 Yaman Boluk,3 Karina Ckless,1 Rajesh Sunasee1 1Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Plattsburgh, Plattsburgh, NY, USA; 2National Research Council, Montreal, QC, Canada, 3Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta and National Institute for Nanotechnology, National Research Council, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs have emerged as promising candidates for a number of bio-applications. Surface modification of CNCs continues to gain significant research interest as it imparts new properties to the surface of the nanocrystals for the design of multifunctional CNCs-based materials. A small chemical surface modification can potentially lead to drastic behavioral changes of cell-material interactions thereby affecting the intended bio-application. In this work, unmodified CNCs were covalently decorated with four different organic moieties such as a diaminobutane fragment, a cyclic oligosaccharide (β-cyclodextrin, a thermoresponsive polymer (poly[N-isopropylacrylamide], and a cationic aminomethacrylamide-based polymer using different synthetic covalent methods. The effect of surface coatings of CNCs and the respective dose-response of the above organic moieties on the cell viability were evaluated on mammalian cell cultures (J774A.1 and MFC-7, using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays. Overall, the results indicated that cells exposed to surface-coated CNCs for 24 h did not display major changes in cell viability, membrane permeability as well as cell morphology. However, with longer exposure, all these parameters were somewhat affected, which appears not to be correlated with either anionic or cationic surface coatings of CNCs used in this study. Keywords: cellulose nanocrystals, surface coating, cell viability, MTT, LDH

  8. Surface characterization and cytotoxicity analysis of plasma sprayed coatings on titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Zia ur; Shabib, Ishraq [School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Science of Advanced Materials, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Haider, Waseem, E-mail: haide1w@cmich.edu [School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Science of Advanced Materials, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    In the realm of biomaterials, metallic materials are widely used for load bearing joints due to their superior mechanical properties. Despite the necessity for long term metallic implants, there are limitations to their prolonged use. Naturally, oxides of titanium have low solubilities and form passive oxide film spontaneously. However, some inclusion and discontinuity spots in oxide film make implant to adopt the decisive nature. These defects heighten the dissolution of metal ions from the implant surface, which results in diminishing bio-integration of titanium implant. To increase the long-term metallic implant stability, surface modifications of titanium alloys are being carried out. In the present study, biomimetic coatings of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite and titanium were applied to the surface of commercially pure titanium and Ti6Al4V. Surface morphology and surface chemistry were studied using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were carried out in order to study their electrochemical behavior. Moreover, cytotoxicity analysis was conducted for osteoblast cells by performing MTS assay. It is concluded that both hydroxyapatite and titanium coatings enhance corrosion resistance and improve cytocompatibility. - Highlights: • Surface morphology and surface chemistry were studied using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. • The cyclic polarization tests revealed noticeable improvement towards the positive potentials for both Tip coatings. • CpTi-Hap and Ti6Al4V-Hap both demonstrate similar corrosion rate. • High cytotoxicity was observed for Mp when compared with Tip and Hap after 21 days of immersion. • Both Tip and Hap coatings promoted the osteoblast cell adhesion and exhibited stellar morphology.

  9. Sol-gel network silica/modified montmorillonite clay hybrid nanocomposites for hydrophobic surface coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meera, Kamal Mohamed Seeni; Sankar, Rajavelu Murali; Murali, Adhigan; Jaisankar, Sellamuthu N; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2012-02-01

    Sol-gel silica/nanoclay composites were prepared through sol-gel polymerization technique using tetraethylorthosilicate precursor and montmorillonite (MMT) clay in aqueous media. In this study, both montmorillonite-K(+) and organically modified MMT (OMMT) clays were used. The prepared composites were coated on glass substrate by making 1 wt% solution in ethyltrichlorosilane. The incorporation of nanoclay does not alter the intensity of characteristic Si-O-Si peak of silica network. Thermogravimetric studies show that increasing clay content increased the degradation temperature of the composites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results of organically modified MMT nanoclay incorporated composite show a shift in the melting behavior up to 38°C. From DSC thermograms, we observed that the ΔH value decreased with increasing clay loading. X-ray diffraction patterns prove the presence of nanoclay in the composite and increase in the concentration of organically modified nanoclay from 3 to 5 wt% increases the intensity of the peak at 2θ=8° corresponds to OMMT. Morphology of the control silica gel composite was greatly influenced by the incorporation of OMMT. The presence of nanoclay changed the surface of control silica gel composite into cleaved surface with brittle in nature. Contact angle measurements were done for the coatings to study their surface behavior. These hybrid coatings on glass substrate may have applications for hydrophobic coatings on leather substrate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Compliment Graphene Oxide Coating on Silk Fiber Surface via Electrostatic Force for Capacitive Humidity Sensor Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kook In; Kim, Seungdu; Lee, In Gyu; Kim, Jong Pil; Kim, Jung-Ha; Hong, Suck Won; Cho, Byung Jin; Hwang, Wan Sik

    2017-02-19

    Cylindrical silk fiber (SF) was coated with Graphene oxide (GO) for capacitive humidity sensor applications. Negatively charged GO in the solution was attracted to the positively charged SF surface via electrostatic force without any help from adhesive intermediates. The magnitude of the positively charged SF surface was controlled through the static electricity charges created on the SF surface. The GO coating ability on the SF improved as the SF's positive charge increased. The GO-coated SFs at various conditions were characterized using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Raman spectroscopy, and LCR meter. Unlike the intact SF, the GO-coated SF showed clear response-recovery behavior and well-behaved repeatability when it was exposed to 20% relative humidity (RH) and 90% RH alternatively in a capacitive mode. This approach allows humidity sensors to take advantage of GO's excellent sensing properties and SF's flexibility, expediting the production of flexible, low power consumption devices at relatively low costs.

  11. Compliment Graphene Oxide Coating on Silk Fiber Surface via Electrostatic Force for Capacitive Humidity Sensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kook In Han

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrical silk fiber (SF was coated with Graphene oxide (GO for capacitive humidity sensor applications. Negatively charged GO in the solution was attracted to the positively charged SF surface via electrostatic force without any help from adhesive intermediates. The magnitude of the positively charged SF surface was controlled through the static electricity charges created on the SF surface. The GO coating ability on the SF improved as the SF’s positive charge increased. The GO-coated SFs at various conditions were characterized using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, Raman spectroscopy, and LCR meter. Unlike the intact SF, the GO-coated SF showed clear response-recovery behavior and well-behaved repeatability when it was exposed to 20% relative humidity (RH and 90% RH alternatively in a capacitive mode. This approach allows humidity sensors to take advantage of GO’s excellent sensing properties and SF’s flexibility, expediting the production of flexible, low power consumption devices at relatively low costs.

  12. Manufacture of nanosized apatite coatings on titanium with different surface treatments using a supersaturated calcification solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Paz Ramos

    Full Text Available The biomimetic method is used for the deposition of calcium phosphate coatings (Ca - P on the surface of different biomaterials. However, the application of this method requires long exposure times in order to obtain a suitable layer thickness for its use in medical devices. In this paper, we present a fast approach to obtain apatite coatings on titanium, using a combination of supersaturated calcification solution (SCS with chemical modification of the titanium surface. Also, it was evaluated the effect of four different surface treatments on the apatite deposition rate. Commercially pure titanium plates were activated by chemical or thermochemical treatments. Then, the activated samples were immersed in a solution with high content of calcium and phosphate ions at 37 ºC for 24 h, mimicking the physiological conditions. The coatings were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. The use of SCS solutions allowed the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite coatings within a period of 24 h with a thickness between 1 and 5.3 µm. Besides, precipitates of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with a globular configuration, forming aggregates with submicrometer size, were found in SCS solutions.

  13. Multivalent anchoring and cross-linking of mussel-inspired antifouling surface coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiang; Becherer, Tobias; Mutihac, Radu-Cristian; Noeske, Paul-Ludwig Michael; Paulus, Florian; Haag, Rainer; Grunwald, Ingo

    2014-08-11

    In this work, we combine nature's amazing bioadhesive catechol with the excellent bioinert synthetic macromolecule hyperbranched polyglycerol (hPG) to prepare antifouling surfaces. hPG can be functionalized by different amounts of catechol groups for multivalent anchoring and cross-linking because of its highly branched architecture. The catecholic hPGs can be immobilized on various surfaces including metal oxides, noble metals, ceramics, and polymers via simple incubation procedures. The effect of the catechol amount on the immobilization, surface morphology, stability, and antifouling performance of the coatings was studied. Both anchoring and cross-linking interactions provided by catechols can enhance the stability of the coatings. When the catechol groups on the hPG are underrepresented, the tethering of the coating is not effective; while an overrepresentation of catechol groups leads to protein adsorption and cell adhesion. Thus, only a well-balanced amount of catechols as optimized and described in this work can supply the coatings with both good stability and antifouling ability.

  14. Enhanced protective properties of epoxy/polyaniline-camphorsulfonate nanocomposite coating on an ultrafine-grained metallic surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pour-Ali, Sadegh, E-mail: pourali2020@ut.ac.ir; Kiani-Rashid, Alireza; Babakhani, Abolfazl; Davoodi, Ali

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Preparing mild steel surface with ultrafine grains by wire brushing process. • Performance of a smart coating on micro- and nano-crystalline surfaces. • Corrosion evaluation, surface analysis and ac/dc electrochemical measurements. • Ultrafine surface grains improve protective behavior of epoxy/PANI-CSA coating. - Abstract: An ultrafine-grained surface layer on mild steel substrate with average grain size of 77 nm was produced through wire brushing process. Surface grain size was determined through transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. This substrate was coated with epoxy and an in situ synthesized epoxy/polyaniline-camphorsulfonate (epoxy/PANI-CSA) nanocomposite. The corrosion behavior was studied by open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization and impedance measurements. Results of electrochemical tests evidenced the enhanced protective properties of epoxy/PANI-CSA coating on the substrate with ultrafine-grained surface.

  15. Quantitative analysis of visible surface defect risk in tablets during film coating using terahertz pulsed imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Masahiro; Hiraishi, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-30

    Tablets are the most common form of solid oral dosage produced by pharmaceutical industries. There are several challenges to successful and consistent tablet manufacturing. One well-known quality issue is visible surface defects, which generally occur due to insufficient physical strength, causing breakage or abrasion during processing, packaging, or shipping. Techniques that allow quantitative evaluation of surface strength and the risk of surface defect would greatly aid in quality control. Here terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) was employed to evaluate the surface properties of core tablets with visible surface defects of varying severity after film coating. Other analytical methods, such as tensile strength measurements, friability testing, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), were used to validate TPI results. Tensile strength and friability provided no information on visible surface defect risk, whereas the TPI-derived unique parameter terahertz electric field peak strength (TEFPS) provided spatial distribution of surface density/roughness information on core tablets, which helped in estimating tablet abrasion risk prior to film coating and predicting the location of the defects. TPI also revealed the relationship between surface strength and blending condition and is a nondestructive, quantitative approach to aid formulation development and quality control that can reduce visible surface defect risk in tablets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Forward impact extrusion of surface textured steel blanks using coated tooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hild, Rafael; Feuerhack, Andreas; Trauth, Daniel; Arghavani, Mostafa; Kruppe, Nathan C.; Brögelmann, Tobias; Bobzin, Kirsten; Klocke, Fritz

    2017-10-01

    A method to enable dry metal forming by the means of a self-lubricating coating and surface textures was researched using an innovative Pin-On-Cylinder-Tribometer. The experimental analysis was complemented by a numerical model of the complex contact conditions between coated tools and the surface textured specimen at the micro-level. Based on the results, the explanation of the tribological interactions between surface textured specimens and the tool in dry full forward extrusion is the objective of this work. Therefore, experimental dry extrusion tests were performed using a tool system. The extruded specimens were evaluated regarding their geometry as well as by the required punch force. Thereby, the effectiveness and the feasibility of dry metal forming on the example of full forward extrusion was evaluated. Thus, one more step towards the technical realization of dry metal forming of low alloy steels under industrial conditions was realized.

  17. Materials selection of surface coatings in an advanced size reduction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, J.L.; Younger, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    A materials selection test program was conducted to characterize optimum interior surface coatings for an advanced size reduction facility. The equipment to be processed by this facility consists of stainless steel apparatus (e.g., glove boxes, piping, and tanks) used for the chemical recovery of plutonium. Test results showed that a primary requirement for a satisfactory coating is ease of decontamination. A closely related concern is the resistance of paint films to nitric acid - plutonium environments. A vinyl copolymer base paint was the only coating, of eight paints tested, with properties that permitted satisfactory decontamination of plutonium and also performed equal to or better than the other paints in the chemical resistance, radiation stability, and impact tests

  18. Fabrication of slender elastic shells by the coating of curved surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A.; Brun, P.-T.; Marthelot, J.; Balestra, G.; Gallaire, F.; Reis, P. M.

    2016-04-01

    Various manufacturing techniques exist to produce double-curvature shells, including injection, rotational and blow molding, as well as dip coating. However, these industrial processes are typically geared for mass production and are not directly applicable to laboratory research settings, where adaptable, inexpensive and predictable prototyping tools are desirable. Here, we study the rapid fabrication of hemispherical elastic shells by coating a curved surface with a polymer solution that yields a nearly uniform shell, upon polymerization of the resulting thin film. We experimentally characterize how the curing of the polymer affects its drainage dynamics and eventually selects the shell thickness. The coating process is then rationalized through a theoretical analysis that predicts the final thickness, in quantitative agreement with experiments and numerical simulations of the lubrication flow field. This robust fabrication framework should be invaluable for future studies on the mechanics of thin elastic shells and their intrinsic geometric nonlinearities.

  19. Review on Electroless Plating Ni-P Coatings for Improving Surface Performance of Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Zou, Jiaojuan; Lin, Naiming; Tang, Bin

    2014-04-01

    Electroless plating has been considered as an effective approach to provide protection and enhancement for metallic materials with many excellent properties in engineering field. This paper begins with a brief introduction of the fundamental aspects underlying the technological principles and conventional process of electroless nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) coatings. Then this paper discusses different electroless nickel plating, including binary plating, ternary composite plating and nickel plating with nanoparticles and rare earth, with the intention of improving the surface performance on steel substrate in recent years in detail. Based on different coating process, the varied features depending on the processing parameters are highlighted. Separately, diverse preparation techniques aiming at improvement of plating efficiency are summarized. Moreover, in view of the outstanding performance, such as corrosion resistance, abrasive resistance and fatigue resistance, this paper critically reviews the behaviors and features of various electroless coatings under different conditions.

  20. A selectively coated photonic crystal fiber based surface plasmon resonance sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Xia; Zhang, Ying; Pan, Shanshan; Shum, Ping; Yan, Min; Leviatan, Yehuda; Li, Changming

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel design for a photonic crystal fiber based surface plasmonic resonance sensor. The sensor consists of selectively metal-coated air holes containing analyte channels, which enhance the phase matching between the plasmonic mode and the core-guided mode. Good refractive index sensitivity as high as 5500 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) can be achieved in the proposed structure. Compared with the entirely coated structure, the selectively coated sensor design demonstrates narrower resonance spectral width. Moreover, the greater resonance depth can improve the sensing performance in terms of signal to noise ratio (SNR). The improvements in spectral width and SNR can both contribute to a better detection limit for this refractive index sensor

  1. Supplementary Microstructural Features Induced During Laser Surface Melting of Thermally Sprayed Inconel 625 Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nauman; Voisey, K. T.; McCartney, D. G.

    2014-02-01

    Laser surface melting of thermally sprayed coatings has the potential to enhance their corrosion properties by incorporating favorable microstructural changes. Besides homogenizing the as-sprayed structure, laser melting may induce certain microstructural modifications (i.e., supplementary features) in addition to those that directly improve the corrosion performance. Such features, being a direct result of the laser treatment process, are described in this paper which is part of a broader study in which high velocity oxy-fuel sprayed Inconel 625 coatings on mild-steel substrates were treated with a diode laser and the modified microstructure characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The laser treated coating features several different zones, including a region with a microstructure in which there is a continuous columnar dendritic structure through a network of retained oxide stringers.

  2. Effect of surface coating on the screw loosening of dental abutment screws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Ik; Choe, Han-Cheol; Chung, Chae-Heon

    2004-12-01

    Regardless of the type of performed restoration, in most cases, a screw connection is employed between the abutment and implant. For this reason, implant screw loosening has remained a problem in restorative practices. The purpose of this study was to compare the surface of coated/plated screws with titanium and gold alloy screws and to evaluate the physical properties of coated/plated material after scratch tests via FE-SEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy) investigation. GoldTite, titanium screws provided by 3i (Implant Innovation, USA) and TorqTite, titanium screws by Steri-Oss (Nobel Biocare, USA) and gold screws and titanium screws by AVANA (Osstem Implant, Korea) were selected for this study. The surface, crest, and root of the abutment screws were observed by FE-SEM. A micro-diamond needle was also prepared for the scratch test. Each abutment screw was fixed, and a scratch on the surface of the head region was made at constant load and thereafter the fine trace was observed with FE-SEM. The surface of GoldTite was smoother than that of other screws and it also had abundant ductility and malleability compared with titanium and gold screws. The scratch tests also revealed that teflon particles were exfoliated easily in the screw coated with teflon. The titanium screw had rough surface and low ductility. The clinical use of gold-plated screws is recommended as a means of preventing screw loosening.

  3. Atomic Oxygen Treatment for Non-Contact Removal of Organic Protective Coatings from Painting Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Cales, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Current techniques for removal of varnish (lacquer) and other organic protective coatings from paintings involve contact with the surface. This contact can remove pigment, or alter the shape and location of paint on the canvas surface. A thermal energy atomic oxygen plasma, developed to simulate the space environment in low Earth orbit, easily removes these organic materials. Uniform removal of organic protective coatings from the surfaces of paintings is accomplished through chemical reaction. Atomic oxygen will not react with oxides so that most paint pigments will not be affected by the reaction. For paintings containing organic pigments, the exposure can be carefully timed so that the removal stops just short of the pigment. Color samples of Alizarin Crimson, Sap Green, and Zinc White coated with Damar lacquer were exposed to atomic oxygen. The lacquer was easily removed from all of the samples. Additionally, no noticeable change in appearance was observed after the lacquer was reapplied. The same observations were made on a painted canvas test sample obtained from the Cleveland Museum of Art. Scanning electron microscope photographs showed a slight microscopic texturing of the vehicle after exposure. However, there was no removal or disturbance of the paint pigment on the surface. It appears that noncontact cleaning using atomic oxygen may provide a viable alternative to other cleaning techniques. It is especially attractive in cases where the organic protective surface cannot be acceptably or safely removed by conventional techniques.

  4. Analyses of Biofilm on Implant Abutment Surfaces Coating with Diamond-Like Carbon and Biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huacho, Patricia Milagros Maquera; Nogueira, Marianne N Marques; Basso, Fernanda G; Jafelicci Junior, Miguel; Francisconi, Renata S; Spolidorio, Denise M P

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface free energy (SFE), wetting and surface properties as well as antimicrobial, adhesion and biocompatibility properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated surfaces. In addition, the leakage of Escherichia coli through the abutment-dental implant interface was also calculated. SFE was calculated from contact angle values; R a was measured before and after DLC coating. Antimicrobial and adhesion properties against E. coli and cytotoxicity of DLC with human keratinocytes (HaCaT) were evaluated. Further, the ability of DLC-coated surfaces to prevent the migration of E. coli into the external hexagonal implant interface was also evaluated. A sterile technique was used for the semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (semi-quantitative PCR). The surfaces showed slight decreases in cell viability (p0.05). It was concluded that DLC was shown to be a biocompatible material with mild cytotoxicity that did not show changes in R a, SFE, bacterial adhesion or antimicrobial properties and did not inhibit the infiltration of E. coli into the abutment-dental implant interface.

  5. AFM imaging of bacteria in liquid media immobilized on gelatin coated mica surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doktycz, M.J.; Sullivan, C.J.; Hoyt, P.R.; Pelletier, D.A.; Wu, S.; Allison, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    Immobilization of particulates, especially biomolecules and cells, onto surfaces is critical for imaging with the atomic force microscope (AFM). In this paper, gelatin coated mica surfaces are shown to be suitable for immobilizing and imaging both gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus, and gram negative, Escherichia coli, bacteria in both air and liquid environments. Gelatin coated surfaces are shown to be superior to poly-L-lysine coated surfaces that are commonly used for the immobilization of cells. This cell immobilization technique is being developed primarily for live cell imaging of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The genome of R. palustris has been sequenced and the organism is the target of intensive studies aimed at understanding genome function. Images of R. palustris grown both aerobically and anaerobically in liquid media are presented. Images in liquid media show the bacteria is rod shaped and smooth while images in air show marked irregularity and folding of the surface. Significant differences in the vertical dimension are also apparent with the height of the bacteria in liquid being substantially greater than images taken in air. In air immobilized bacterial flagella are clearly seen while in liquid this structure is not visible. Additionally, significant morphological differences are observed that depend on the method of bacterial growth

  6. Antifungal coatings by caspofungin immobilization onto biomaterials surfaces via a plasma polymer interlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesser, Stefani S; Jasieniak, Marek; Coad, Bryan R; Griesser, Hans J

    2015-12-14

    Not only bacteria but also fungal pathogens, particularly Candida species, can lead to biofilm infections on biomedical devices. By covalent grafting of the antifungal drug caspofungin, which targets the fungal cell wall, onto solid biomaterials, a surface layer can be created that might be able to provide long-term protection against fungal biofilm formation. Plasma polymerization of propionaldehyde (propanal) was used to deposit a thin (∼20 nm) interfacial bonding layer bearing aldehyde surface groups that can react with amine groups of caspofungin to form covalent interfacial bonds for immobilization. Surface analyses by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry confirmed the intended grafting and uniformity of the coatings, and durability upon extended washing. Testing for fungal cell attachment and ensuing biofilm formation showed that caspofungin retained activity when covalently bound onto surfaces, disrupting colonizing Candida cells. Mammalian cytotoxicity studies using human primary fibroblasts indicated that the caspofungin-grafted surfaces were selective in eliminating fungal cells while allowing attachment and spreading of mammalian cells. These in vitro data suggest promise for use as antifungal coatings, for example, on catheters, and the use of a plasma polymer interlayer enables facile transfer of the coating method onto a wide variety of biomaterials and biomedical devices.

  7. Combinatorial materials research applied to the development of new surface coatings XIII: an investigation of polysiloxane antimicrobial coatings containing tethered quaternary ammonium salt groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Partha; Lee, Elizabeth; Gubbins, Nathan; Christianson, David A; Stafslien, Shane J; Daniels, Justin; Vanderwal, Lyndsi; Bahr, James; Chisholm, Bret J

    2009-01-01

    High-throughput biological assays were used to develop structure - antimicrobial relationships for polysiloxane coatings containing chemically bound (tethered) quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) moieties. The QAS-functional polysiloxanes were derived from solution blends of a silanol-terminated polydimethylsiloxane, a trimethoxysilane-functional QAS (QAS-TMS), and methylacetoxysilane. Since the QAS moieties provide antimicrobial activity through interaction with the microorganism cell wall, most of the compositional variables that were investigated were associated with the chemical structure of the QAS-TMS. Twenty different QAS-TMS were synthesized for the study and the antimicrobial activity of sixty unique polysiloxane coatings derived from these QAS-TMS determined toward Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , and Candida albicans . The results of the study showed that essentially all of the compositional variables significantly influenced antimicrobial activity. Surface characterization of these moisture-cured coatings using atomic force microscopy as well as water contact angle and water contact angle hysteresis measurements indicated that the compositional variables significantly affected coating surface morphology and surface chemistry. Overall, compositional variables that produced heterogeneous surface morphologies provided the highest antimicrobial activity suggesting that the antimicrobial activity was primarily derived from the relationship between coating chemical composition and self-assembly of QAS moieties at the coating/air interface. Using data modeling software, a narrow region of the compositional space was identified that provided broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity.

  8. Simulation, microstructure and microhardness of the nano-SiC coating formed on Al surface via laser shock processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, C.Y.; Cui, X.G.; Zhao, Q.; Ren, X.D.; Zhou, J.Z.; Liu, Z.; Wang, Y.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Nano-SiC coating is successfully fabricated on pure Al surface via LSPC. • Movement states of the nano-SiC particles are analyzed by FEM. • Formation mechanism of the nano-SiC coating is put forward and discussed. • Microhardness of the Al is significantly improved due to the nano-SiC coating. - Abstract: A novel method, laser shock processing coating (LSPC), has been developed to fabricate a particle-reinforced coating based on laser shock processing (LSP). In this study, a nano-SiC coating is successfully prepared on pure Al surface via LSPC. The surface and cross section morphologies as well as the compositions of nano-SiC coating are investigated. Moreover, a finite element method (FEM) is employed to clarify the formation process of nano-SiC coating. On the basis of the above analyzed results, a possible formation mechanism of the nano-SiC coating is tentatively put forward and discussed. Furthermore, the nano-SiC coating shows superior microhardness over the Al substrate

  9. State of California; Mojave Desert AQMD; Approval of Air Plan Revisions; VOCs from Marine and Pleasure Craft Coating Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is finalizing action on a revision to the Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District (MDAQMD) portion of the California SIP relating to emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from marine and pleasure craft coating operations.

  10. ASYMPTOTICAL CALCULATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES SCATTERED FROM A DIELECTRIC COATED CYLINDRICAL SURFACE WITH PHYSICAL OPTICS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur YALÇIN

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, quasi-optical scattering of finite source electromagnetic waves from a dielectric coated cylindrical surface is analysed with Physical Optics (PO approach. A linear electrical current source is chosen as the finite source. Reflection coefficient of the cylindrical surface is derived by using Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD. Then, with the help of this coefficient, fields scattered from the surface are obtained. These field expressions are used in PO approach and surface scattering integral is determined. Evaluating this integral asymptotically, fields reflected from the surface and surface divergence coefficient are calculated. Finally, results obtained in this study are evaluated numerically and effects of the surface impedance to scattered fields are analysed. The time factor is taken as j te? in this study.

  11. The Effectiveness of Surface Coatings on Preventing Interfacial Reaction During Ultrasonic Welding of Aluminum to Magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteli, Alexandria; Robson, Joseph D.; Chen, Ying-Chun; Prangnell, Philip B.

    2013-12-01

    High power ultrasonic spot welding (USW) is a solid-state joining process that is advantageous for welding difficult dissimilar material couples, like magnesium to aluminum. USW is also a useful technique for testing methods of controlling interfacial reaction in welding as the interface is not greatly displaced by the process. However, the high strain rate deformation in USW has been found to accelerate intermetallic compound (IMC) formation and a thick Al12Mg17 and Al3Mg2 reaction layer forms after relatively short welding times. In this work, we have investigated the potential of two approaches for reducing the IMC reaction rate in dissimilar Al-Mg ultrasonic welds, both involving coatings on the Mg sheet surface to (i) separate the join line from the weld interface, using a 100- μm-thick Al cold spray coating, and (ii) provide a diffusion barrier layer, using a thin manganese physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating. Both methods were found to reduce the level of reaction and increase the failure energy of the welds, but their effectiveness was limited due to issues with coating attachment and survivability during the welding cycle. The effect of the coatings on the joint's interface microstructure, and the fracture behavior have been investigated in detail. Kinetic modeling has been used to show that the benefit of the cold spray coating can be attributed to the reaction rate reverting to that expected under static conditions. This reduces the IMC growth rate by over 50 pct because at the weld line, the high strain rate dynamic deformation in USW normally enhances diffusion through the IMC layer. In comparison, the thin PVD barrier coating was found to rapidly break up early in USW and become dispersed throughout the deformation layer reducing its effectiveness.

  12. Sensitive resonant gas sensor operating in air with metal organic frameworks coating

    KAUST Repository

    Jaber, Nizar

    2017-08-09

    We report a practical resonant gas sensor that is uniformly coated with metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and excited near the higher order modes for a higher attained sensitivity. The resonator is based on an electrostatically excited clamped-clamped microbeam. The microbeam is fabricated from a polyimide layer coated from the top with Cr/Au and from the bottom with Cr/Au/Cr layer. The geometry of the resonator is optimized to reduce the effect of the squeeze film damping, thereby allowing operation under atmospheric pressure. The electrostatic force electrode is designed to enhance the excitation of the second mode of vibration with the minimum power required. Significant frequency shift (kHz) is demonstrated for the first time upon water vapor, acetone, and ethanol exposure due to the MOFs functionalization and the higher order modes excitation. Also, the adsorption dynamics and MOF selectivity is investigated by studying the decaying time constants of the response upon gas exposure.

  13. Bacteriomimetic poly-γ-glutamic acid surface coating for hemocompatibility and safety of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Gayong; Kim, Dongyoon; Kim, Jinyoung; Suh, Min Sung; Kim, Youn Kyu; Oh, Yu-Kyoung

    2017-08-01

    Poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA), a major component of the bacterial capsule, is known to confer hydrophilicity to bacterial surfaces and protect bacteria from interactions with blood cells. We tested whether applying a bacteriomimetic surface coating of PGA modulates interactions of nanomaterials with blood cells or affects their safety and photothermal antitumor efficacy. Amphiphilic PGA (APGA), prepared by grafting phenylalanine residues to PGA, was used to anchor PGA to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets, a model of hydrophobic nanomaterials. Surface coating of rGO with bacterial capsule-like APGA yielded APGA-tethered rGO nanosheets (ArGO). ArGO nanosheets remained stable in serum over 4 weeks, whereas rGO in plain form precipitated in serum within 5 minutes. Moreover, ArGO did not interact with blood cells, whereas rGO in plain form or as a physical mixture with PGA formed aggregates with blood cells. Mice administered ArGO at a dose of 50 mg/kg showed 100% survival and no hepatic or renal toxicity. No mice survived exposure at the same dose of rGO or a PGA/rGO mixture. Following intravenous administration, ArGO showed a greater distribution to tumors and prolonged tumor retention compared with other nanosheet formulations. Irradiation with near-infrared light completely ablated tumors in mice treated with ArGO. Our results indicate that a bacteriomimetic surface modification of nanomaterials with bacterial capsule-like APGA improves the stability in blood, biocompatibility, tumor distribution, and photothermal antitumor efficacy of rGO. Although APGA was used here to coat the surfaces of rGO, it could be applicable to coat surfaces of other hydrophobic nanomaterials.

  14. Surface properties and water treatment capacity of surface engineered silica coated with 3-(2-aminoethyl) aminopropyltrimethoxysilane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majewski, Peter, E-mail: peter.majewski@unisa.edu.au [School of Advanced Manufacturing and Mechanical Engineering, Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Adelaide (Australia); Keegan, Alexandra [Microbiology Research, Australian Water Quality Centre, South Australian Water Corporation, Adelaide (Australia)

    2012-01-15

    This study's focus was on the water-based, one-pot preparation and characterisation of silica particles coated with 3-(2-aminoethyl)aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (Diamo) and the efficiency of the material in removing the pathogens Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium immunogenum, Vibrio cholerae, poliovirus, and Cryptosporidium parvum. The water-based processing resulted in Diamo coated silica particles with significantly increased positive surface charge as determined by zeta potential measurements. In addition, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry of pure and Diamo coated silica confirmed the presence of Diamo on the surface of the particles. Thermogravimetric measurements and chemical analysis of the silica indicated a surface concentration of amine groups of about 1 mmol/g{sub silica}. Water treatment tests with the pathogens showed that a dose of about 10 g appeared to be sufficient to remove pathogens from pure water samples which were spiked with pathogen concentrations between about 10{sup 2} and 10{sup 4} cfu/mL.

  15. Electrophoretic deposition of nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating on AZ91 magnesium alloy implants with different surface treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojaee, Ramin, E-mail: raminrojaee@aim.com [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathi, Mohammadhossein [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dental Materials Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raeissi, Keyvan [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Bio-absorbable magnesium (Mg) based alloys have been introduced as innovative orthopedic implants during recent years. It has been specified that rapid degradation of Mg based alloys in physiological environment should be restrained in order to be utilized in orthopedic trauma fixation and vascular intervention. In this developing field of healthcare materials, micro-arc oxidation (MAO), and MgF{sub 2} conversion coating were exploited as surface pre-treatment of AZ91 magnesium alloy to generate a nanostructured hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) coating via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used to characterize the obtained powder and coatings. The potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the coated and uncoated specimens, and in vitro bioactivity evaluation were performed in simulated body fluid. Results revealed that the MAO/n-HAp coated AZ91 Mg alloy samples with a rough topography and lower corrosion current density leads to a lower Mg degradation rate accompanied by high bioactivity.

  16. Examination of the surface coatings removed from K-East Basin fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; Jenson, E.D.

    1998-05-01

    This report provides the results of studies conducted on coatings discovered on the surfaces of some N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) elements stored at the Hanford K-East Basin. These elements had been removed from the canisters and visually examined in-basin during FY 1996 as part of a series of characterization tests. The characterization tests are being performed to support the Integrated Process Strategy developed to package, dry, transport, and store the SNF in an interim storage facility on the Hanford site. Samples of coating materials were removed from K-East canister elements 2350E and 2540E, which had been sent, along with nine other elements, to the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (327 Building) for further characterization following the in-basin examinations. These coating samples were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory using various analytical methods. This report is part of the overall studies to determine the drying behavior of corrosion products associated with the K-Basin fuel elements. Altogether, five samples of coating materials were analyzed. These analyses suggest that hydration of the coating materials could be an additional source of moisture in the Multi-Canister Overpacks being used to contain the fuel for storage

  17. Examination of the surface coating removed from K-East Basin fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; Jenson, E.D.

    1998-05-01

    This report provides the results of studies conducted on coatings discovered on the surfaces of some N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) elements stored at the Hanford K-East Basin. These elements had been removed from the canisters and visually examined in-basin during FY 1996 as part of a series of characterization tests. The characterization tests are being performed to support the Integrated Process Strategy developed to package, dry, transport, and store the SNF in an interim storage facility on the Hanford site. Samples of coating materials were removed from K-East canister elements 2350E and 2540E, which had been sent, along with nine other elements, to the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (327 Building) for further characterization following the in-basin examinations. These coating samples were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory using various analytical methods. This report is part of the overall studies to determine the drying behavior of corrosion products associated with the K-Basin fuel elements. Altogether, five samples of coating materials were analyzed. These analyses suggest that hydration of the coating materials could be an additional source of moisture in the Multi-Canister Overpacks being used to contain the fuel for storage.

  18. Multifunctional surface modification of silk fabric via graphene oxide repeatedly coating and chemical reduction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiliang; Wang, Chaoxia

    2017-05-01

    Multifunctional silk fabrics with electrical conductive, anti-ultraviolet and water repellent were successfully prepared by surface modification with graphene oxide (GO). The yellow-brown GO deposited on the surface of silk fabric was converted into graphitic black reduced graphene (RGO) by sodium hydrosulfite. The surface properties of silk fabrics were changed by repeatedly RGO coating process, which have been proved by SEM and XPS. The SEM results showed that the RGO sheets were successive form a continuously thin film on the surface of silk fabrics, and the deposition of GO or RGO also can be proved by XPS. The electrical conductivity was tested by electrical surface resistance value of the silk fabric, the surface resistance decreased with increasing of RGO surface modification times, and a low surface resistance value reached to 3.24 KΩ cm-1 after 9 times of modification, indicating the silk obtained excellent conductivity. The UPF value of one time GO modification silk fabric (silk-1RGO) was enhanced significantly to 24.45 in comparison to 10.40 of original silk. The contact angle of RGO coating silk samples was all above of 120°. The durability of RGO coated silk fabrics was tested by laundering. The electrical surface resistance of silk-4RGO (65.74 KΩ cm-1), silk-6RGO (15.54 KΩ cm-1) and silk-8RGO (3.86 KΩ cm-1) fabrics was up to 86.82, 22.30 and 6.57 KΩ cm-1 after 10 times of standard washing, respectively. The UPF value, contact angle and color differences of RGO modified silk fabric slightly changed before and after 10 times of standard washing. Therefore, the washing fastness of electric conduction, anti-ultraviolet and water repellent multifunctional silk fabrics was excellent.

  19. Technical note: Influence of surface roughness and local turbulence on coated-wall flow tube experiments for gas uptake and kinetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coated-wall flow tube reactors are frequently used to investigate gas uptake and heterogeneous or multiphase reaction kinetics under laminar flow conditions. Coating surface roughness may potentially distort the laminar flow pattern, induce turbulence and introduce uncertainties in the calculated uptake coefficient based on molecular diffusion assumptions (e.g., Brown/Cooney–Kim–Davis (CKD/Knopf–Pöschl–Shiraiwa (KPS methods, which has not been fully resolved in earlier studies. Here, we investigate the influence of surface roughness and local turbulence on coated-wall flow tube experiments for gas uptake and kinetic studies. According to laminar boundary theory and considering the specific flow conditions in a coated-wall flow tube, we derive and propose a critical height δc to evaluate turbulence effects in the design and analysis of coated-wall flow tube experiments. If a geometric coating thickness δg is larger than δc, the roughness elements of the coating may cause local turbulence and result in overestimation of the real uptake coefficient (γ. We further develop modified CKD/KPS methods (i.e., CKD-LT/KPS-LT to account for roughness-induced local turbulence effects. By combination of the original methods and their modified versions, the maximum error range of γCKD (derived with the CKD method or γKPS (derived with the KPS method can be quantified and finally γ can be constrained. When turbulence is generated, γCKD or γKPS can bear large difference compared to γ. Their difference becomes smaller for gas reactants with lower uptake (i.e., smaller γ and/or for a smaller ratio of the geometric coating thickness to the flow tube radius (δg ∕ R0. On the other hand, the critical height δc can also be adjusted by optimizing flow tube configurations and operating conditions (i.e., tube diameter, length, and flow velocity, to ensure not only unaffected laminar flow patterns but also other specific requirements for an

  20. Technical note: Influence of surface roughness and local turbulence on coated-wall flow tube experiments for gas uptake and kinetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo; Su, Hang; Kuhn, Uwe; Meusel, Hannah; Ammann, Markus; Shao, Min; Pöschl, Ulrich; Cheng, Yafang

    2018-02-01

    Coated-wall flow tube reactors are frequently used to investigate gas uptake and heterogeneous or multiphase reaction kinetics under laminar flow conditions. Coating surface roughness may potentially distort the laminar flow pattern, induce turbulence and introduce uncertainties in the calculated uptake coefficient based on molecular diffusion assumptions (e.g., Brown/Cooney-Kim-Davis (CKD)/Knopf-Pöschl-Shiraiwa (KPS) methods), which has not been fully resolved in earlier studies. Here, we investigate the influence of surface roughness and local turbulence on coated-wall flow tube experiments for gas uptake and kinetic studies. According to laminar boundary theory and considering the specific flow conditions in a coated-wall flow tube, we derive and propose a critical height δc to evaluate turbulence effects in the design and analysis of coated-wall flow tube experiments. If a geometric coating thickness δg is larger than δc, the roughness elements of the coating may cause local turbulence and result in overestimation of the real uptake coefficient (γ). We further develop modified CKD/KPS methods (i.e., CKD-LT/KPS-LT) to account for roughness-induced local turbulence effects. By combination of the original methods and their modified versions, the maximum error range of γCKD (derived with the CKD method) or γKPS (derived with the KPS method) can be quantified and finally γ can be constrained. When turbulence is generated, γCKD or γKPS can bear large difference compared to γ. Their difference becomes smaller for gas reactants with lower uptake (i.e., smaller γ) and/or for a smaller ratio of the geometric coating thickness to the flow tube radius (δg / R0). On the other hand, the critical height δc can also be adjusted by optimizing flow tube configurations and operating conditions (i.e., tube diameter, length, and flow velocity), to ensure not only unaffected laminar flow patterns but also other specific requirements for an individual flow tube

  1. Surface and interface analysis of poly-hydroxyethylmethacrylate-coated anodic aluminium oxide membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Nurshahidah [School of Engineering and Information Technology, Murdoch University, WA 6150 (Australia); Murdoch Applied Nanotechnology Research Group, Murdoch University, WA 6150 (Australia); Duan, Xiaofei [School of Chemistry, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Jiang, Zhong-Tao, E-mail: Z.Jiang@murdoch.edu.au [School of Engineering and Information Technology, Murdoch University, WA 6150 (Australia); Goh, Bee Min [School of Engineering and Information Technology, Murdoch University, WA 6150 (Australia); Lamb, Robert [School of Chemistry, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Tadich, Anton [Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, VIC 3086 (Australia); Poinern, Gérrard Eddy Jai; Fawcett, Derek [Murdoch Applied Nanotechnology Research Group, Murdoch University, WA 6150 (Australia); Chapman, Peter [Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, WA 6102 (Australia); Singh, Pritam [School of Engineering and Information Technology, Murdoch University, WA 6150 (Australia)

    2014-01-15

    The surface and interface of poly (2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) (PHEMA) and anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes were comprehensively investigated using Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. It was found that 1s→π* (C=O) and 1s→σ* (C-O) transitions were dominant on the surface of both bulk PHEMA polymer and PHEMA-surface coated AAO (AAO–PHEMA) composite. Findings from NEXAFS, Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analyses suggest the possibility of chemical interaction between carbon from the ester group of polymer and AAO membrane.

  2. Gliding arc surface modification of carrot nanofibre coating - perspective for composite processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Berglund, L; Aitomäki, Y

    2016-01-01

    Surfaces of carrot nanofibre coatings were modified by a gliding arc in atmospheric pressure air. The treatment strengthened wetting of deionized water and glycerol, increased an oxygen content, C-O and C=O, and moderately roughened the surfaces. In the perspective of composite materials......, these changes to the nanofibres can potentially improve their processability when they are to be impregnated with a polymeric matrix. However, longer exposure to the gliding arc reduced oxidation and roughness of the surface, and thus there exists an optimum condition to achieve good wetting to solvents....

  3. Surface structuring and coating performance: novel biocidefree nanocomposite coatings with anti-fouling and fouling-release properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, M.E.L.; Rentrop, C.H.A.; Willemsen, P.R.

    2010-01-01

    State-of-the-art coatings consist of all kinds of ingredients amongst which (inorganic) filler particles are important additives. Knowledge of particle modification and chemistry of the coating formulation allows tailoring the coating properties and thus its performance and applicability. Recently

  4. Yttria coating on quartz mould inner surface for fabrication of metal fuel slug using injection casting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinod, A.V.; Hemanth Kumar, S.; Manivannan, A.; Muralidaran, P.; Anthonysamy, S.; Sudha, R.

    2016-01-01

    Quartz moulds are used for casting metal alloy of U-Zr slugs by injection casting process. Ceramic (Y 2 O 3 ) coating on inner surface of the quartz mould is provided to avoid silica contamination in the fuel slugs during casting. Experiments were carried out to standardise the coating process and optimising various parameters such as particle size of Y 2 O 3 , choice of suitable binder, method for application of coating, drying and sintering at high temperature to ensure uniformity and strength of coating. Required Coating thickness of ∼40 μm was achieved on a quartz mould of inner diameter of 4.98±0.01mm. Experimental procedure for coating on inner surface of the quartz tubes using yttrium oxide is described in this work. (author)

  5. The Barrier Properties of PET Coated DLC Film Deposited by Microwave Surface-Wave PECVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lianhua; Chen, Qiang

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we report the investigation of diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposited by microwave surface-wave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) web for the purpose of the barrier property improvement. In order to characterize the properties of DLC coatings, we used several substrates, silicon wafer, glass, and PET web and KBr tablet. The deposition rate was obtained by surface profiler based on the DLC deposited on glass substrates; Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) was carried out on KBr tablets to investigate chemical composition and bonding structure; the morphology of the DLC coating was analyzed by atomic force microscope (AFM) on Si substrates. For the barrier properties of PET webs, we measured the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) after coated with DLC films. We addressed the film barrier property related to process parameters, such as microwave power and pulse parameter in this work. The results show that the DLC coatings can greatly improve the barrier properties of PET webs.

  6. Laser damage of HR, AR-coatings, monolayers and bare surfaces at 1064 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnov, S. V.; Klimentov, S. M.; Said, A. A.; Soileau, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    Laser induced damage thresholds and morphologies were investigated in a variety of uncoated and coated surfaces, including monolayers and multi-layers of different chemical compositions. Both antireflective (AR) and highly reflective (HR) were tested. Testing was done at 1064 nm with 25 picosecond and 8 nanosecond YAG/Nd laser single pulses. Spot diameter in the experiments varied from 0.09 to 0.22 mm. The laser damage measurement procedure consisted of 1-on-1 (single laser pulse in the selected site) and N-on-1 experiments including repeated irradiation by pulses of the same fluence and subsequently raised from pulse to pulse fluence until damage occurred. The highest picosecond damage thresholds of commercially available coatings averaged 12 - 14 J/sq cm, 50 percent less than thresholds obtained in bare fused silica. Some coatings and bare surfaces revealed a palpable preconditioning effect (an increase in threshold of 1.2 to 1.8 times). Picosecond and nanosecond data were compared to draw conclusions about pulse width dependence. An attempt was made to classify damage morphologies according to the type of coating, class of irradiating, and damage level.

  7. Reducing bacteria and macrophage density on nanophase hydroxyapatite coated onto titanium surfaces without releasing pharmaceutical agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Garima; Yazici, Hilal; Webster, Thomas J.

    2015-04-01

    Reducing bacterial density on titanium implant surfaces has been a major concern because of the increasing number of nosocomial infections. Controlling the inflammatory response post implantation has also been an important issue for medical devices due to the detrimental effects of chronic inflammation on device performance. It has recently been demonstrated that manipulating medical device surface properties including chemistry, roughness and wettability can control both infection and inflammation. Here, we synthesized nanophase (that is, materials with one dimension in the nanoscale) hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium to reduce bacterial adhesion and inflammatory responses (as measured by macrophage functions) and compared such results to bare titanium and plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite titanium coated surfaces used clinically today. This approach is a pharmaceutical-free approach to inhibit infection and inflammation due to the detrimental side effects of any drug released in the body. Here, nanophase hydroxyapatite was synthesized in sizes ranging from 110-170 nm and was subsequently coated onto titanium samples using electrophoretic deposition. Results indicated that smaller nanoscale hydroxyapatite features on titanium surfaces alone decreased bacterial attachment in the presence of gram negative (P. aeruginosa), gram positive (S. aureus) and ampicillin resistant gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria as well as were able to control inflammatory responses; properties which should lead to their further investigation for improved medical applications.

  8. Characterizing the collision of potassium atoms with a siloxane coated glass surface using spectroscopic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgus, Tyler Christophe

    2001-07-01

    We have developed a series of three experiments to characterize the collisions between potassium atoms and a siloxane coated non-stick surface on a glass substrate. The first experiment looks at the aggregate effect of multiple collisions of the potassium atoms with the surface. The atoms are observed spectroscopically. The spectroscopic information allows for the calculation of the flux, average velocity, and density of the potassium atoms. These quantities are also calculated with a computer model. The parameters of the model are the probability that a potassium atom will stick to the surface during a collision, and the probabilities that the collision is specular or diffuse. The second experiment uses the photo-desorption effect to create a spatially peaked non-equilibrium density distribution. The rate of decay of this distribution is fit with a computer model whose free parameter is proportional to the probability that an atom will stick to the siloxane coated wall during a collision. The third experiment is designed to observe the results of a single collision with a siloxane coated surface. Again, the potassium atoms are observed spectroscopically, the Doppler effect providing velocity resolution. The intensity of the fluorescence is related to the velocity-density distribution. The density is then theoretically modeled using the same simple kernel, accounting for contributions to the density from the potassium source, specular collisions, and diffuse collisions.

  9. Microbiological quality control of single-walled carbon-nanotubes-coated surfaces experimentally contaminated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natalizi, T.; Frioni, A.; Passeri, D.; Pantanella, F.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of new nanotechnologies involves the spreading of nanoparticles in various fields of human life. Nanoparticles in general and, more specifically, carbon nanotubes have been adopted for many practical approaches i.e.: coatings for medical devices, food process industry and drug delivery. Humans will be increasingly exposed to nanoparticles but the susceptibility of nanostructured materials to microbial colonization in process of manufacturing and storage has not been thoroughly considered. Therefore, the microbiological quality control of nanoparticles plays a pivotal role. Different analytical methods have been attempted for detecting bacterial population contaminating a surface, but no one can be considered fully appropriate. Here, BioTimer Assay (BTA) and conventional sonication followed by colony forming units method (S-CFU) were applied for microbiological quality control of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)-coated surfaces experimentally contaminated with Streptococcus mutans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our results demonstrated that S-CFU is unreliable to actually determine the number of bacteria, contaminating abiotic surfaces, as it does not detach all adherent bacteria and kills part of the bacterial population. Instead, BTA is a reliable method to enumerate bacteria colonizing SWCNTs-coated surfaces and can be considered a useful tool for microbiological quality control of nanomaterials for human use.

  10. Temperature Mapping of Air Film-Cooled Thermal Barrier Coated Surfaces Using Phosphor Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    2016-01-01

    While the effects of thermal barrier coating (TBC) thermal protection and air film cooling effectiveness for jet engine components are usually studied separately, their contributions to combined cooling effectiveness are interdependent and are not simply additive. Therefore, combined cooling effectiveness must be measured to achieve an optimum balance between TBC thermal protection and air film cooling. Phosphor thermometry offers several advantages for mapping temperatures of air film cooled surfaces. While infrared thermography has been typically applied to study air film cooling effectiveness, temperature accuracy depends on knowing surface emissivity (which may change) and correcting for effects of reflected radiation. Because decay time-based full-field phosphor thermometry is relatively immune to these effects, it can be applied advantageously to temperature mapping of air film-cooled TBC-coated surfaces. In this presentation, an overview will be given of efforts at NASA Glenn Research Center to perform temperature mapping of air film-cooled TBC-coated surfaces in a burner rig test environment. The effects of thermal background radiation and flame chemiluminescence on the measurements are investigated, and the strengths and limitations of this method for studying air film cooling effectiveness are discussed.

  11. Introducing a Semi-Coated Model to Investigate Antibacterial Effects of Biocompatible Polymers on Titanium Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Winkel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Peri-implant infections from bacterial biofilms on artificial surfaces are a common threat to all medical implants. They are a handicap for the patient and can lead to implant failure or even life-threatening complications. New implant surfaces have to be developed to reduce biofilm formation and to improve the long-term prognosis of medical implants. The aim of this study was (1 to develop a new method to test the antibacterial efficacy of implant surfaces by direct surface contact and (2 to elucidate whether an innovative antimicrobial copolymer coating of 4-vinyl-N-hexylpyridinium bromide and dimethyl(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphonate (VP:DMMEP 30:70 on titanium is able to reduce the attachment of bacteria prevalent in peri-implant infections. With a new in vitro model with semi-coated titanium discs, we were able to show a dramatic reduction in the adhesion of various pathogenic bacteria (Streptococcus sanguinis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, completely independently of effects caused by soluble materials. In contrast, soft tissue cells (human gingival or dermis fibroblasts were less affected by the same coating, despite a moderate reduction in initial adhesion of gingival fibroblasts. These data confirm the hypothesis that VP:DMMEP 30:70 is a promising antibacterial copolymer that may be of use in several clinical applications.

  12. Interactions between protein coated particles and polymer surfaces studied with the rotating particles probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, M; Spridon, D; van IJzendoorn, L J; Prins, M W J

    2012-05-29

    Nonspecific interactions between proteins and polymer surfaces have to be minimized in order to control the performance of biosensors based on immunoassays with particle labels. In this paper we investigate these nonspecific interactions by analyzing the response of protein coated magnetic particles to a rotating magnetic field while the particles are in nanometer vicinity to a polymer surface. We use the fraction of nonrotating (bound) particles as a probe for the interaction between the particles and the surface. As a model system, we study the interaction of myoglobin coated particles with oxidized polystyrene surfaces. We measure the interaction as a function of the ionic strength of the solution, varying the oxidation time of the polystyrene and the pH of the solution. To describe the data we propose a model in which particles bind to the polymer by crossing an energy barrier. The height of this barrier depends on the ionic strength of the solution and two interaction parameters. The fraction of nonrotating particles as a function of ionic strength shows a characteristic shape that can be explained with a normal distribution of energy barrier heights. This method to determine interaction parameters paves the way for further studies to quantify the roles of protein coated particles and polymers in their mutual nonspecific interactions in different matrixes.

  13. Introducing a Semi-Coated Model to Investigate Antibacterial Effects of Biocompatible Polymers on Titanium Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Andreas; Dempwolf, Wibke; Gellermann, Eva; Sluszniak, Magdalena; Grade, Sebastian; Heuer, Wieland; Eisenburger, Michael; Menzel, Henning; Stiesch, Meike

    2015-01-01

    Peri-implant infections from bacterial biofilms on artificial surfaces are a common threat to all medical implants. They are a handicap for the patient and can lead to implant failure or even life-threatening complications. New implant surfaces have to be developed to reduce biofilm formation and to improve the long-term prognosis of medical implants. The aim of this study was (1) to develop a new method to test the antibacterial efficacy of implant surfaces by direct surface contact and (2) to elucidate whether an innovative antimicrobial copolymer coating of 4-vinyl-N-hexylpyridinium bromide and dimethyl(2-methacryloyloxyethyl) phosphonate (VP:DMMEP 30:70) on titanium is able to reduce the attachment of bacteria prevalent in peri-implant infections. With a new in vitro model with semi-coated titanium discs, we were able to show a dramatic reduction in the adhesion of various pathogenic bacteria (Streptococcus sanguinis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis), completely independently of effects caused by soluble materials. In contrast, soft tissue cells (human gingival or dermis fibroblasts) were less affected by the same coating, despite a moderate reduction in initial adhesion of gingival fibroblasts. These data confirm the hypothesis that VP:DMMEP 30:70 is a promising antibacterial copolymer that may be of use in several clinical applications. PMID:25690041

  14. Effect of liquid immersion of PEDOT: PSS-coated polyester fabric on surface resistance and wettability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getnet Tadesse, Melkie; Loghin, Carmen; Chen, Yan; Wang, Lichuan; Catalin, Dumitras; Nierstrasz, Vincent

    2017-06-01

    Coating of textile fabrics with poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly (styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is one of the methods used for obtaining functional or smart applications. In this work, we prepared PEDOT:PSS polymer with certain additives such as polyethylene glycol, methanol (MeOH), and ethylene glycol on polyester fabric substrates by a simple immersion process. Surface resistance was measured and analyzed with analysis of variance to determine the coating parameters at 95% confidence level. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study of the samples were performed. Contact angle and washing fastness measurements were conducted, to observe the wettability and washing fastness of the samples, respectively. Surface resistance values were decreased by a factor of 100, due to conductive enhancers. As the immersion time and temperature condition varies, surface resistance showed no difference, statistically. FTIR analysis supports the idea that the mechanism responsible for the conductivity enhancement is the partial replacement of PSS from PEDOT chain by forming a hydrogen bond with hydroxyl ion (OH) of the conductive enhancers. A SEM images showed that PEDOT:PSS is well distributed to the surface of the fabrics. Contact angle measurements showed morphology change in the samples. The conductivity was reasonably stable after 10 washing cycles. Altogether, an effective simple immersion of coated polyester fabric is presented to achieve functional textiles that offer a broad range of possible applications.

  15. Bacterial adhesion to protein-coated surfaces: An AFM and QCM-D study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Joshua; Liu, Yatao; Camesano, Terri A.

    2009-09-01

    Bacterial adhesion to biomaterials, mineral surfaces, or other industrial surfaces is strongly controlled by the way bacteria interact with protein layers or organic matter and other biomolecules that coat the materials. Despite this knowledge, many studies of bacterial adhesion are performed under clean conditions, instead of in the presence of proteins or organic molecules. We chose fetal bovine serum (FBS) as a model protein, and prepared FBS films on quartz crystals. The thickness of the FBS layer was characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging under liquid and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). Next, we characterized how the model biomaterial surface would interact with the nocosomial pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis. An AFM probe was coated with S. epidermidis cells and used to probe a gold slide that had been coated with FBS or another protein, fibronectin (FN). These experiments show that AFM and QCM-D can be used in complementary ways to study the complex interactions between bacteria, proteins, and surfaces.

  16. Surface treatment of titanium by a polydimethylsiloxane coating on bond strength of resin to titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Christie Ying Kei; Liu, Dan; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the in vitro effect of titanium surface treatment by a polydimethylsiloxane coating on the shear bond strength of a resin composite cement to titanium. The titanium samples (40×30mm) were divided into 4 groups (n=12). A control group was surface treated by sandblasting using 110µm silica-coated alumina powder at a constant pressure of 300kPa for 15s/1cm(2). For other three test groups, a polydimethylsiloxane silicone grease was applied onto the surface. The samples were subjected to thermal treatment in air at temperatures of 800°C, 1000°C, and 1100°C for 2h. A silane coupling agent was then applied and a resin composite stub was bonded using a polyethylene mold. The samples were submitted to three different storage conditions: dry storage, water storage in deionized water at 37°C for 30 days and thermo-cycled for 6000 cycles between 5.0 and 55.0°C. The shear bond strengths of all test groups were determined using a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD (psurface morphology of titanium and elemental composition were examined with SEM and EDAX. The results showed that there was a significant difference for different surface treatments (psurface after thermal treatment of the coating. Surface treatment of titanium with a polydimethylsiloxane coating at 1000°C and 1100°C curing provides sufficient resin bonding for clinical services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Photocatalytic TiO2 and Doped TiO2 Coatings to Improve the Hygiene of Surfaces Used in Food and Beverage Processing—A Study of the Physical and Chemical Resistance of the Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parnia Navabpour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 coatings deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering and spray coating methods, as well as Ag- and Mo-doped TiO2 coatings were investigated as self-cleaning surfaces for beverage processing. The mechanical resistance and retention of the photocatalytic properties of the coatings were investigated over a three-month period in three separate breweries. TiO2 coatings deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering showed better mechanical durability than the spray coated surfaces, whilst the spray-deposited coating showed enhanced retention of photocatalytic properties. The presence of Ag and Mo dopants improved the photocatalytic properties of TiO2 as well as the retention of these properties. The spray-coated TiO2 was the only coating which showed light-induced hydrophilicity, which was retained in the coatings surviving the process conditions.

  18. Influence of the surface roughness of coated and uncoated papers on the digital print mottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Jurič

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many factors influence the occurrence of print mottle in prints. In printing process three main components are involved: printing press, substrate and toner. They can be considered as separate components, but in most cases their interaction influences the quality of the print. The goal of this work was to examine the influence of surface roughness of different types of paper (coated and uncoated on print mottle of electrophotographic digital prints. We set up a hypothesis that print mottle will be more apparent on rougher surfaces. In the experimental part we printed four different substrates with different surface properties on electrophotographic printing press. Morphology of the papers surface was analysed using atomic force microscopy (AFM from which surface properties were calculated. For print mottle characterization Gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM method was used. Based on the measurements and results we can conclude, contrary to the initial hypothesis, that uncoated papers with rougher surfaces produce smaller print mottle values.

  19. Surface Morphology and Hardness Analysis of TiCN Coated AA7075 Aluminium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinath, M. K.; Ganesha Prasad, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Successful titanium carbonitride (TiCN) coating on AA7075 plates using the PVD technique depends upon many variables, including temperature, pressure, incident angle and energy of the reactive ions. Coated specimens have shown an increase in their surface hardness of 2.566 GPa. In this work, an attempt to further augment the surface hardness and understand its effects on the surface morphology was performed through heat treatments at 500°C for different duration of times. Specimen's heat treated at 500°C for 1 h exhibited a maximum surface hardness of 6.433 GPa, corresponding to an increase of 92.07%. The XRD results showed the presence of Al2Ti and AlTi3N and indicate the bond created between them. Unit cell lattice parameters in the XRD data are calculated using Bragg's law. The SEM images exhibit increasing crack sizes as the heat treatment time is increased. From the studies, the heat treatment duration can be optimized to 1 h, which exhibited an augmented surface hardness, as further increases in durations caused a drop in the surface hardness. The heat treatment effectively modified the surface hardness. Equations providing the relationships that temperature and time have with the reaction parameters are presented.

  20. Design and rapid prototyping of DLC coated fractal surfaces for tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Lantada, A; Mosquera, A; Endrino, J L; Lafont, P, E-mail: adiaz@etsii.upm.es

    2010-11-01

    Several medical devices (both implantable and for in vitro diagnosis) benefit greatly from having microtextured surfaces that help to improve and promote phenomena such as osteointegracion and cell / tissue growth on the surface of a device. Normally, the use of abrasives or chemical attacks are employed for obtaining such surface microtextures, however, it is sometimes difficult to precisely control the final surface characteristics (porosity, roughness, among others) and consequently the related biological aspects. In this work, we propose an alternative process based on the use of fractal surface models for designing special surfaces, which helps controlling the desired contact properties (from the design stage) in multiple applications within biomedical engineering, especially regarding tissue engineering tasks. Manufacturing can be directly accomplished by means of rapid prototyping technologies. This method supposes a focus change from a conventional 'top-down' to a more versatile 'bottom-up' approach. Finally, in order to improve the possible biological response, the surfaces of the designed devices were coated with hydrogen-free amorphous carbon (a-C) thin films, known to be highly biocompatible materials. The films were deposited at room temperature using the vacuum filter cathodic arc technique. Our first prototypes have helped verify the viability of the approach and to validate the design, manufacturing and coating processes.

  1. Evaluation of surface residual stresses in HVOF sprayed WC-12Co coatings by XRD and ED-hole drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizpour, M. Jalali; Nourouzi, S. [Babol University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Thermally sprayed coatings are inherently associated with residual stresses in the coatings. These stresses have a noticeable effect on the physical and mechanical properties of coatings. The high speed hole drilling method is widely used to measure the residual stress. Due to the nature of the thermally sprayed coatings, the application of this method for WC/Co coatings has some limitations. In the current study, WC-12Co coatings were deposited using HVOF thermal spraying. The electro discharge hole drilling method was developed to measure the through thickness residual stress in WC-Co thermally sprayed coatings. Morphological studies were conducted using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the powder and coating characteristics. The sin2ψ method was used to evaluate the surface residual stress by means of XRD. The residual stress at the surface using EDM and XRD was approximately -32.54 MPa and -40.6 MPa respectively. The experimental results reveal that the stress curves are not uniform through the coating thickness. It has been found that the mean residual stress is of approximately -126 MPa. Obtained results are in good agreement with the reported values from literatures. The developed method confirms the feasibility of residual stresses measurement for HVOF thermally sprayed WC-Co coatings.

  2. Mechanical properties and fractal analysis of the surface texture of sputtered hydroxyapatite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramowicz, Miroslaw [University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Oczapowskiego 11, 10-719 Olsztyn (Poland); Braic, Laurentiu [National Institute for Optoelectronics, 409 Atomistilor, 077125, Magurele (Romania); Azem, Funda Ak [Dokuz Eylul University, Engineering Faculty, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Tinaztepe Campus, 35397, Izmir (Turkey); Kulesza, Slawomir [University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Sloneczna 54, 10-710 Olsztyn (Poland); Birlik, Isil [Dokuz Eylul University, Engineering Faculty, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Tinaztepe Campus, 35397, Izmir (Turkey); Vladescu, Alina, E-mail: alinava@inoe.ro [National Institute for Optoelectronics, 409 Atomistilor, 077125, Magurele (Romania)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite were prepared at temperatures in the range from 400 to 800 °C. • The coatings prepared at 800 °C is closer to the stoichiometric hydroxyapatite. • Hardness and elastic modulus decreased with increasing deposition temperature. • The surface morphology strongly depends on the deposition temperature. • Mesokurtic height distribution pulled towards larger heights were formed at high temperature. - Abstract: This aim of this work is to establish a relationship between the surface morphology and mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite coatings prepared using RF magnetron sputtering at temperatures in the range from 400 to 800 °C. The topography of the samples was scanned using atomic force microscopy, and the obtained 3D maps were analyzed using fractal methods to derive the spatial characteristics of the surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the strong influence of the deposition temperature on the Ca/P ratio in the growing films. The coatings deposited at 600–800 °C exhibited a Ca/P ratio between 1.63 and 1.69, close to the stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (Ca/P = 1.67), which is crucial for proper osseointegration. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the intensity of phosphate absorption bands increased with increasing substrate temperature. Each sample exhibited well defined and sharp hydroxyapatite band at 566 cm{sup −1}, although more pronounced for the coatings deposited above 500 °C. Both the hardness and elastic modulus of the coated samples decrease with increasing deposition temperature. The surface morphology strongly depends on the deposition temperature. The sample deposited at 400 °C exhibits circular cavities dug in an otherwise flat surface. At higher deposition temperatures, these cavities increase in size and start to overlap each other so that at 500 °C the surface is composed of closely packed peaks and ridges. At that point, the characteristics of the surface turns from the

  3. Barium fluoride surface preparation, analysis and UV reflective coatings at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuest, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has begun a program of study on barium fluoride scintillating crystals for the Barium Fluoride Electromagnetic Calorimeter Collaboration. This program has resulted in a number of significant improvements in the mechanical processing, polishing and coating of barium fluoride crystals. Techniques have been developed using diamond-loaded pitch lapping that can produce 15 angstrom RMS surface finishes over large areas. These lapped surfaces have been shown to be crystalline using Rutherford Back-scattering (RBS). Also, special polishing fixtures have been designed based on mounting technology developed for the 1.1 m diameter optics used in LLNL's Nova Laser. These fixtures allow as many as five 25--50 cm long barium fluoride crystals to be polished and lapped at a time with the necessary tolerances for the 16,000 crystal Barium Fluoride Calorimeter. In addition, results will be presented on coating barium fluoride with UV reflective layers of magnesium fluoride and aluminum

  4. Measurement of Turbulent Skin Friction Drag Coefficients Produced by Distributed Surface Roughness of Pristine Marine Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zafiryadis, Frederik; Meyer, Knud Erik; Gökhan Ergin, F.

    Skin friction drag coefficients are determined for marine antifouling coatings in pristine condition by use of Constant Temperature Anemometry (CTA) with uni-directionalhot-wires. Mean flow behaviour for varying surface roughness is analysed in zero pressure gradient, flat plate, turbulentboundary...... drag coefficients as well as roughness Reynolds numbers for the various marine coatings across the range of Rex by fitting of the van Driest profile. The results demonstrate sound agreement with the present ITTC method for determining skin friction coefficients for practically smooth surfaces at low...... layers for Reynolds numbers from Rex =1:91x105 to Rex = 9:54x105. The measurements were conducted at the Technical University of Denmark in a closed-loop wind tunnel redesigned for investigations as this. Ensemble averages of the boundary layer velocity profiles allowed for determination of skin friction...

  5. Analysis of the Effect of Surface Modification on Polyimide Composites Coated with Erosion Resistant Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndalama, Tchinga; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Sutter, James K. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this research is to enhance performance of composite coatings through modification of graphite-reinforced polyimide composite surfaces prior to metal bond coat/ hard topcoat application for use in the erosive and/or oxidative environments of advanced engines. Graphite reinforced polyimide composites, PMR-15 and PMR-II-50, formed by sheet molding and pre-pregging will be surface treated, overlaid with a bond coat and then coated with WC-Co. The surface treatment will include cleaning, RF plasma or ultraviolet light- ozone etching, and deposition of SiO(x) groups. These surface treatments will be studied in order to investigate and improve adhesion and oxidation resistance. The following panels were provided by NASA-Glenn Research Center(NASA-GRC): Eight compression molded PMR-II-50; 6 x 6 x 0.125 in. Two vacuum-bagged PMR-II-50; 12 x 12 x 0.125 in. Eight compression molded PMR-15; 6 x 6 x 0.125 in. One vacuum-bagged PMR-15; 12 x 12 x 0.125 in. All panels were made using a 12 x 12 in. T650-35 8HS (3K-tow) graphite fabric. A diamond-wafering blade, with deionized water as a cutting fluid, was used to cut PMR-II-50 and PMR-15 panels into 1 x 1 in. pieces for surface tests. The panel edges exhibiting delamination were used for the preliminary surface preparation tests as these would be unsuitable for strength and erosion testing. PMR-15 neat resin samples were also provided by NASA GRC. Surface profiles of the as-received samples were determined using a Dektak III Surface profile measuring system. Two samples of compression molded PMR-II-50 and PMR-15, vacuum-bagged PMR-II-50 and PMR-15 were randomly chosen for surface profile measurement according to ANSI/ASME B46.1. Prior to each measurement, the samples were blasted with compressed air to remove any artifacts. Five 10 mm-long scans were made on each sample. The short and long wavelength cutoff filter values were set at 100 and 1000 m, diamond stylus radius was 12.5 microns. Table 1 is a summary of the

  6. Surface Moisture Measurement System Operation and Maintenance Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.; Pearce, K.L.; Stokes, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    This operations and maintenance manual addresses deployment, equipment and field hazards, operating instructions, calibration verification, removal, maintenance, and other pertinent information necessary to safely operate and store the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) and Liquid Observation Well Moisture Measurement System (LOWMMS). These systems were developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks

  7. Effect of Untampered Plasma Coating and Surface Texturing on Friction and Running-in Behavior of Piston Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirabbas Akbarzadeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The running-in behavior and the associated transient friction characteristics of a piston ring with different surface treatments are experimentally evaluated using a custom-made engine testing apparatus. Results are reported for a series of running-in and steady-state experiments on piston rings with different combinations of coated and textured surfaces. Comparisons are provided between five different types of piston rings: (1 with no textures; (2 with textures only; (3 with coating only; (4 first textured and then coated; and (5 first coated and then textured. A combination of the texturing and coating showed 12.5% improvement in the frictional behavior and up to 50% improvement in break-in time compared to cases when only one surface treatment was applied.

  8. Stress response of a clinical Enterococcus faecalis isolate subjected to a novel antimicrobial surface coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss-Lendzian, Emanuel; Vaishampayan, Ankita; de Jong, Anne; Landau, Uwe; Meyer, Carsten; Kok, Jan; Grohmann, Elisabeth

    2018-03-01

    Emerging antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria, paired with their ability to form biofilms on medical and technical devices, represents a serious problem for effective and long-term decontamination in health-care environments and gives rise to an urgent need for new antimicrobial materials. Here we present the impact of AGXX ® , a novel broad-spectrum antimicrobial surface coating consisting of micro-galvanic elements formed by silver and ruthenium, on the transcriptome of Enterococcus faecalis. A clinical E. faecalis isolate was subjected to metal stress by growing it for different periods in presence of the antimicrobial coating or silver-coated steel meshes. Subsequently, total RNA was isolated and next-generation RNA sequencing was performed to analyze variations in gene expression in presence of the antimicrobial materials with focus on known stress genes. Exposure to the antimicrobial coating had a large impact on the transcriptome of E. faecalis. After 24min almost 1/5 of the E. faecalis genome displayed differential expression. At each time-point the cop operon was strongly up-regulated, providing indirect evidence for the presence of free Ag + -ions. Moreover, exposure to the antimicrobial coating induced a broad general stress response in E. faecalis. Genes coding for the chaperones GroEL and GroES and the Clp proteases, ClpE and ClpB, were among the top up-regulated heat shock genes. Differential expression of thioredoxin, superoxide dismutase and glutathione synthetase genes indicates a high level of oxidative stress. We postulate a mechanism of action where the combination of Ag + -ions and reactive oxygen species generated by AGXX ® results in a synergistic antimicrobial effect, superior to that of conventional silver coatings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Ink-Jet Printing of Gluconobacter oxydans: Micropatterned Coatings As High Surface-to-Volume Ratio Bio-Reactive Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Fidaleo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We formulated a latex ink for ink-jet deposition of viable Gram-negative bacterium Gluconobacter oxydans as a model adhesive, thin, highly bio-reactive microstructured microbial coating. Control of G. oxydans latex-based ink viscosity by dilution with water allowed ink-jet piezoelectric droplet deposition of 30 × 30 arrays of two or three droplets/dot microstructures on a polyester substrate. Profilometry analysis was used to study the resulting dry microstructures. Arrays of individual dots with base diameters of ~233–241 µm were obtained. Ring-shaped dots with dot edges higher than the center, 2.2 and 0.9 µm respectively, were obtained when a one-to-four diluted ink was used. With a less diluted ink (one-to-two diluted, the microstructure became more uniform with an average height of 3.0 µm, but the ink-jet printability was more difficult. Reactivity of the ink-jet deposited microstructures following drying and rehydration was studied in a non-growth medium by oxidation of 50 g/L D-sorbitol to L-sorbose, and a high dot volumetric reaction rate was measured (~435 g·L−1·h−1. These results indicate that latex ink microstructures generated by ink-jet printing may hold considerable potential for 3D fabrication of high surface-to-volume ratio biocoatings for use as microbial biosensors with the aim of coating microbes as reactive biosensors on electronic devices and circuit chips.

  10. Surface Characterization of LMMS Molybdenum Disilicide Coated HTP-8 Using Arc- Jet Hypersonic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David A.

    2000-01-01

    Surface properties for an advanced Lockheed Martin Missile and Space (LMMS) molybdenum disilicide coated insulation (HTP-8) were determined using arc-jet flow to simulate Earth entry at hypersonic speeds. The catalytic efficiency (atom recombination coefficients) for this advanced thermal protection system was determined from arc-jet data taken in both oxygen and nitrogen streams at temperatures ranging from 1255 K to roughly 1600 K. In addition, optical and chemical stability data were obtained from these test samples.

  11. Protection of marble surfaces by using biodegradable polymers as coating agent

    OpenAIRE

    Ocak, Yılmaz; Sofuoğlu, Aysun; Tıhmınlıoğlu, Funda; Böke, Hasan

    2009-01-01

    Biodegradable polymers have been replaced over the synthetic polymers in many applications due to their good properties such as reversibility and biodegradability. Therefore they allow new treatment on the surface of the material to be protected and they fulfil the principles generally accepted by the International Conservation Community of Historic Monuments and Buildings. In this study, the efficiency of four different biodegradable polymers as protective coatings on marble-SO2 reaction was...

  12. Photocatalytic Reaction of Gas-Phase Naphthalene on Paint- and Sunscreen-Coated Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ashley, Nicholas A.; McBride, Noelle; Krumholt, Jason; Baker, Breeana; Valsaraj, Kalliat T.

    2012-01-01

    The uses of metal oxide nanoparticles in modern paint and sunscreen formulations are widespread. Through materials characterization and kinetic experiments, it is demonstrated that fresh surface coatings of paint and sunscreen photocatalytically degrade gaseous naphthalene. The primary metal oxides are TiO2 in the form of the rutile phase in paint and as anatase in sunscreen formulations. Other metal oxides present are Al2O3 and ZnO. Several organic fillers that are photochemically active are...

  13. SEM visualization of glycosylated surface molecules using lectin-coated microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, J.; Janer, L.; Campbell, M.

    1985-01-01

    There are several techniques currently used to localize glycosylated surface molecules by scanning electron microscopy (Grinnell, 1980; Molday, 1976; Linthicum and Sell, 1975; Nicolson, 1974; Lo Buglio, et al, 1972). A simple and rapid method, using a modification of Grinnell's technique is reported here. Essentially, microspheres coated with Concavalin A are used to bind to glycosylated regions of the palatal shelf epithelium and are visualized in the scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  14. SARDA: An Integrated Concept for Airport Surface Operations Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gautam; Hoang, Ty; Jung, Yoon Chul

    2013-01-01

    The Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is an integrated decision support tool for airlines and air traffic control tower enabling surface collaborative decision making (CDM) and departure metering in order to enhance efficiency of surface operations at congested airports. The presentation describes the concept and architecture of the SARDA as a CDM tool, and the results from a human-in-the-loop simulation of the tool conducted in 2012 at the FutureFlight Central, the tower simulation facility. Also, presented is the current activities and future plan for SARDA development. The presentation was given at the meeting with the FAA senior advisor of the Surface Operations Office.

  15. Cell shape and spreading of stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells cultured on fibronectin coated gold and hydroxyapatite surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza; Jensen, T H L; Kolind, K

    2011-01-01

    . In subsequent cell studies with hMSC's we studied the cell spreading, cytoskeletal organization and cell morphology on the respective surfaces. When the cells were adsorbed on the uncoated substrates, a diffuse cell actin cytoskeleton was revealed, and the cells had a highly elongated shape. On the fibronectin...... coated surfaces the cells adapted to a more polygonal shape with a well-defined actin cytoskeleton, while a larger cell area and roundness values were observed for cells cultured on the coated surfaces. Among the coated surfaces a slightly larger cell area and roundness values was observed on HA......In order to identify the cellular mechanisms leading to the biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite implants, we studied the interaction of human bone marrow derived stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSCs) with fibronectin-coated gold (Au) and hydroxyapatite (HA) surfaces. The adsorption of fibronectin...

  16. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the surface bioactivity of a calcium phosphate coated magnesium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liping; Pan, Feng; Yu, Guoning; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Erlin; Yang, Ke

    2009-03-01

    Magnesium has shown potential application as a bio-absorbable biomaterial, such as for bone screws and plates. In order to improve the surface bioactivity, a calcium phosphate was coated on a magnesium alloy by a phosphating process (Ca-P coating). The surface characterization showed that a porous and netlike CaHPO(4).2H(2)O layer with small amounts of Mg(2+) and Zn(2+) was formed on the surface of the Mg alloy. Cells L929 showed significantly good adherence and significantly high growth rate and proliferation characteristics on the Ca-P coated magnesium alloy (p<0.05) in in-vitro cell experiments, demonstrating that the surface cytocompatibility of magnesium was significantly improved by the Ca-P coating. In vivo implantations of the Ca-P coated and the naked alloy rods were carried out to investigate the bone response at the early stage. Both routine pathological examination and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the Ca-P coating provided magnesium with a significantly good surface bioactivity (p<0.05) and promoted early bone growth at the implant/bone interface. It was suggested that the Ca-P coating might be an effective method to improve the surface bioactivity of magnesium alloy.

  17. Effects of trimethylsilane plasma coating on the hydrophobicity of denture base resin and adhesion of Candida albicans on resin surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianshuang; Xu, Changqi; Hong, Liang; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Hottel, Timothy; Babu, Jegdish; Yu, Qingsong

    2017-12-01

    Candida-associated denture stomatitis is the most common oral mucosal lesion among denture wearers. Trimethylsilane (TMS) plasma coating may inhibit the growth of Candida albicans on denture surfaces. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate whether TMS plasma coatings can effectively reduce C albicans adhesion on denture base acrylic resin surfaces. Sixty denture base acrylic resin disks with smooth and rough surfaces were prepared and were either left untreated (control group) or coated with TMS monomer (experimental group) by using plasma. Contact angles were measured immediately after TMS plasma coating. The morphology of C albicans adhesion was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to characterize the elemental composition of the specimen surface. An adhesion test was performed by incubating the resin disk specimens in C albicans suspensions (1×10 7 cells/mL) at 37°C for 24 hours and further measuring the optical density of the C albicans by using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay test. One-way ANOVA and 2-way ANOVA were followed by a post hoc test analysis (α=.05). The group with TMS coating exhibited a more hydrophobic surface than the control group. EDS analysis revealed successful TMS plasma coating. The difference in the mean contact angles between the uncoated group and the TMS-coated group was statistically significant (Pcoating than on the surfaces of the experimental group. In the adhesion test, the amount of C albicans adhering to the surface of denture base resin with the TMS coating was significantly less than that on the surfaces without TMS coating (Pcoating significantly reduced the adhesion of C albicans to the denture base resin and may reduce denture stomatitis. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Poly-l-lysine-Coated Silver Nanoparticles as Positively Charged Substrates for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsich, L.; Bonifacio, A.; Mandal, S.; Krol, S.; Beleites, C.; Sergo, V.

    2012-01-01

    Positively charged nanoparticles to be used as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) were prepared by coating citrate-reduced silver nanoparticles with the cationic polymer poly-l-lysine. The average diameter of the coated nanoparticles is 75 nm, and their zeta potential is +62.3

  19. Single step method to fabricate durable superliquiphobic coating on aluminum surface with self-cleaning and anti-fogging properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, D; Varshney, P; Satapathy, M; Mohapatra, S S; Bhushan, B; Kumar, A

    2017-12-01

    The development of self-cleaning and anti-fogging durable superliquiphobic coatings for aluminum surfaces has raised tremendous interest in materials science. In this study, a superliquiphobic coating is fabricated on an aluminum surface by a single-step dip-coating method using 1H,1H,2H,2H-Perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane-modified SiO 2 nanoparticles. The successful implementation of the aforesaid coating in different applications requires extensive investigations of its characteristics and stability. To understand the properties of the coating, surface morphology, contact angle, self-cleaning, anti-fogging, and water repellency were investigated under perturbation conditions. Additionally, the dynamics of water and oil on the coated sample also were studied. Furthermore, the durability of the coating also was examined by performing thermal, chemical, and mechanical stability tests. It was found that the coating is superliquiphobic for water, ethylene glycol, glycerol and hexadecane, and shows thermal, chemical, and mechanical stability. Further, it exhibits self-cleaning and anti-fogging properties. This approach can be applied to any size and shape aluminum surface; thus, it has great industrial applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of surface characteristics under fretting of electrical contacts: Removal behaviour of hot dipped tin coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Woo; Ramesh Bapu, G.N.K.; Lee, Kang Yong

    2009-01-01

    The fretting corrosion behaviour of hot dipped tin coating is investigated at low fretting cycles at ±25 μm displacement amplitude, 0.5N normal load, 3 Hz frequency, 45-50% relative humidity, and 25 ± 1 deg. C temperature. The typical characteristics of the change in contact resistance with fretting cycles are explained. The fretted surface is examined using laser scanning microscope, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis to assess the surface profile, extent of fretting damage, extent of oxidation and elemental distribution across the contact zone. The interdependence of extent of wear and oxidation increases the complexity of the fretting corrosion behaviour of tin coating. The variation of contact resistance clearly revealed the fretting of tin coating from 50 to 1200 cycles and the fretting of the substrate above 1200 cycles. The observed low and stable contact resistance region and the fluctuating resistance region at various fretting cycles are explained and substantiated with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser scanning microscope (LSM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) analysis results of the fretted surface.

  1. Evaluation of surface characteristics under fretting of electrical contacts: Removal behaviour of hot dipped tin coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Woo [Stainless Steel Research Group, Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, Pohang 790-300 (Korea, Republic of); Ramesh Bapu, G.N.K. [Stress Analysis and Failure Design Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 134, Sinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang Yong, E-mail: kyl2813@yonsei.ac.kr [Stress Analysis and Failure Design Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 134, Sinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-01

    The fretting corrosion behaviour of hot dipped tin coating is investigated at low fretting cycles at {+-}25 {mu}m displacement amplitude, 0.5N normal load, 3 Hz frequency, 45-50% relative humidity, and 25 {+-} 1 deg. C temperature. The typical characteristics of the change in contact resistance with fretting cycles are explained. The fretted surface is examined using laser scanning microscope, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis to assess the surface profile, extent of fretting damage, extent of oxidation and elemental distribution across the contact zone. The interdependence of extent of wear and oxidation increases the complexity of the fretting corrosion behaviour of tin coating. The variation of contact resistance clearly revealed the fretting of tin coating from 50 to 1200 cycles and the fretting of the substrate above 1200 cycles. The observed low and stable contact resistance region and the fluctuating resistance region at various fretting cycles are explained and substantiated with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser scanning microscope (LSM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) analysis results of the fretted surface.

  2. Exogenous glycosaminoglycans coat damaged bladder surfaces in experimentally damaged mouse bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurst Robert E

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interstital cystitis is often treated with exogenous glycosaminoglycans such as heparin, chondroitin sulphate (Uracyst, hyaluronate (Cystistat or the semi-synthetic pentosan polysulphate (Elmiron. The mechanism of action is presumed to be due to a coating of the bladder surface to replace the normally present chondroitin sulphate and heparan sulphate lost as a result of the disease. This study used fluorescent labelled chondroitin sulphate to track the distribution of glycosaminoglycans administered intravesically to mouse bladder that had been damaged on the surface. Methods The surfaces of mouse bladders were damaged by 3 mechanisms – trypsin, 10 mM HCl, and protamine sulphate. Texas Red-labeled chondroitin sulphate was instilled into the bladders of animals with damaged bladders and controls instilled only with saline. Bladders were harvested, frozen, and sectioned for examination by fluorescence. Results The normal mouse bladder bound a very thin layer of the labelled chondroitin sulphate on the luminal surface. Trypsin- and HCl-damaged bladders bound the labelled chondroitin sulphate extensively on the surface with little penetration into the bladder muscle. Protamine produced less overt damage, and much less labelling was seen, presumably due to loss of the label as it complexed with the protamine intercalated into the bladder surface. Conclusion Glycosaminoglycan administered intravesically does bind to damaged bladder. Given that the changes seen following bladder damage resemble those seen naturally in interstitial cystitis, the mechanisms proposed for the action of these agents is consistent with a coating of damaged bladder.

  3. Superfocussing in a metal-coated tetrahedral tip by dimensional reduction of surface-to edge-plasmon modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.; Burr, G. W.; Grosjean, T.; Maletzky, T.; Fischer, U. C.

    2008-10-01

    Metal-coated dielectric tetrahedral tips (T-tip) have long been considered to be interesting structures for the confinement of light to nanoscopic dimensions, and in particular as probes for scanning near-field optical microscopy. Numerical investigations using the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method are used to explore the operation of a T-tip in extraction mode. A dipole source in close proximity to the apex excites the tip, revealing the field evolution in the tip, the resulting edge and face modes on the metal-coated surfaces, and the coupling from these modes into highly directional radiation into the dielectric interior of the tip. These results are the starting point for illumination-mode numerical investigations by a Volume Integral equation method, which compute the field distribution that develops in a T-tip when a Gaussian beam is incident into the tip, and which show that a highly confined electric field is produced at the apex of the tip. The process of light confinement can be considered as a superfocussing effect, because the intensity of the tightly confined light spot is significantly higher than that of the focussed yet much wider incident beam. The mechanism of superfocussing can be considered as a dimensional reduction of surface plasmon modes, where an edge plasmon is the most important link between the waveguide-modes inside the tip and the confined near field at the apex.

  4. Super-hydrophobic surfaces from a simple coating method: a bionic nanoengineering approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuyang; Chen Xianqiong; Xin, J H

    2006-01-01

    Inspired by the self-cleaning behaviour of lotus leaves in nature, we developed a simple coating method that can facilitate the bionic creation of super-hydrophobic surfaces on various substrates, thus providing a feasible way of fabricating super-hydrophobic surfaces for civil and industrial applications. Micro-nanoscale binary structured composite particles of silica/fluoropolymer were prepared using an emulsion-mediated sol-gel process, and then these composite particles were applied to various substrates to mimic the surface microstructures of lotus leaves. Super-hydrophobic surfaces with a water contact angle larger than 150 deg. are obtained, and these super-hydrophobic surfaces are expected to have potential applications for rusting-resistant, anti-fog and self-cleaning treatments

  5. XPS, XRD and laser Raman analysis of surface modified of 6150 steel substrates for the deposition of thick and adherent diamond-like carbon coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, William de Melo; Carneiro, Jose Rubens Goncalves, E-mail: williammelosilva@gmail.com [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Minas Gerais (PUC-MG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Trava-Airoldi, Vladimir Jesus [Associate Laboratory of Sensors and Materials, National Institute for Space Research, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    Although the 6150 steel has an excellent fatigue and impact resistance, it is unsuitable to operate it when the corrosion is a limited factor. We propose here a sequence of steel pre-treatment by carburizing, carbonitriding and nitriding in order to improve the poor adhesion between Diamond Like-Carbon coatings on steel. This sequence is our attempt to reduce the difference between the coefficients of thermal expansion of steel and DLC through the graded interface. This work demonstrates the quantitative analysis of the molecules present at surface using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The crystallographic structures are investigated by X-ray diffraction which shows the formation of carbides and nitride phases. Raman spectroscopy reveals the carburizing surface characteristics where DLC coating is nucleated and grown at the substrate. At the end of the analysis it is possible to verify which molecules and phases are formed on the steel surface interface after each step of pre-treatment. (author)

  6. XPS, XRD and laser raman analysis of surface modified of 6150 steel substrates for the deposition of thick and adherent diamond-like carbon coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William de Melo Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the 6150 steel has an excellent fatigue and impact resistance, it is unsuitable to operate it when the corrosion is a limited factor. We propose here a sequence of steel pre-treatment by carburizing, carbonitriding and nitriding in order to improve the poor adhesion between Diamond Like-Carbon coatings on steel. This sequence is our attempt to reduce the difference between the coefficients of thermal expansion of steel and DLC through the graded interface. This work demonstrates the quantitative analysis of the molecules present at surface using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The crystallographic structures are investigated by X-ray diffraction which shows the formation of carbides and nitride phases. Raman spectroscopy reveals the carburizing surface characteristics where DLC coating is nucleated and grown at the substrate. At the end of the analysis it is possible to verify which molecules and phases are formed on the steel surface interface after each step of pre-treatment.

  7. Bone-like apatite coating on functionalized poly(etheretherketone) surface via tailored silanization layers technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Yanyan; Xiong, Chengdong; Zhang, Shenglan; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Lifang

    2015-01-01

    Poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK) is a rigid semi-crystalline polymer with outstanding mechanical properties, bone-like stiffness and suitable biocompatibility that has attracted much interest as a biomaterial for orthopedic and dental implants. However, the bio-inert surface of PEEK limits its biomedical applications when direct osteointegration between the implants and the host tissue is desired. In this work, –PO 4 H 2 , –COOH and –OH groups were introduced on the PEEK surface by further chemical treatments of the vinyl-terminated silanization layers formed on the hydroxylation-pretreated PEEK surface. Both the surface-functionalized and pristine specimens were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements. When placed in 1.5 strength simulated body fluid (SBF) solution, apatite was observed to form uniformly on the functionalized PEEK surface and firmly attach to the substrate. The characterized results demonstrated that the coating was constituted by poorly crystallized bone-like apatite and the effect of surface functional groups on coating formation was also discussed in detail. In addition, in vitro biocompatibility of PEEK, in terms of pre-osteoblast cell (MC3T3-E1) attachment, spreading and proliferation, was remarkably enhanced by the bone-like apatite coating. Thus, this study provides a method to enhance the bioactivity of PEEK and expand its applications in orthopedic and dental implants. - Highlights: • –PO 4 H 2 , –COOH and –OH groups were successfully introduced onto PEEK surface via tailored silanization layer technique. • Bone-like apatite formed uniformly on surface-functionalized PEEK after immersion in SBF, and tightly adhered to the PEEK. • SEM, EDS, FTIR, XPS and XRD results showed that apatite layer is composed of low-crystalline bone-like apatite. • Bone-like apatite coating remarkably enhanced pre

  8. Bone-like apatite coating on functionalized poly(etheretherketone) surface via tailored silanization layers technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yanyan [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xiong, Chengdong; Zhang, Shenglan [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Li, Xiaoyu [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Zhang, Lifang, E-mail: zhanglfcioc@163.com [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK) is a rigid semi-crystalline polymer with outstanding mechanical properties, bone-like stiffness and suitable biocompatibility that has attracted much interest as a biomaterial for orthopedic and dental implants. However, the bio-inert surface of PEEK limits its biomedical applications when direct osteointegration between the implants and the host tissue is desired. In this work, –PO{sub 4}H{sub 2}, –COOH and –OH groups were introduced on the PEEK surface by further chemical treatments of the vinyl-terminated silanization layers formed on the hydroxylation-pretreated PEEK surface. Both the surface-functionalized and pristine specimens were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements. When placed in 1.5 strength simulated body fluid (SBF) solution, apatite was observed to form uniformly on the functionalized PEEK surface and firmly attach to the substrate. The characterized results demonstrated that the coating was constituted by poorly crystallized bone-like apatite and the effect of surface functional groups on coating formation was also discussed in detail. In addition, in vitro biocompatibility of PEEK, in terms of pre-osteoblast cell (MC3T3-E1) attachment, spreading and proliferation, was remarkably enhanced by the bone-like apatite coating. Thus, this study provides a method to enhance the bioactivity of PEEK and expand its applications in orthopedic and dental implants. - Highlights: • –PO{sub 4}H{sub 2}, –COOH and –OH groups were successfully introduced onto PEEK surface via tailored silanization layer technique. • Bone-like apatite formed uniformly on surface-functionalized PEEK after immersion in SBF, and tightly adhered to the PEEK. • SEM, EDS, FTIR, XPS and XRD results showed that apatite layer is composed of low-crystalline bone-like apatite. • Bone-like apatite coating

  9. Surface-dependent chemical equilibrium constants and capacitances for bare and 3-cyanopropyldimethylchlorosilane coated silica nanochannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Bækbo; Frey, Jared; Pennathur, Sumita

    2011-01-01

    , and pK+ are constant and independent of surface composition. Our theoretical model consists of three parts: (i) a chemical equilibrium model of the bare or coated wall, (ii) a chemical equilibrium model of the buffered bulk electrolyte, and (iii) a self-consistent Gouy–Chapman–Stern triple-layer model...... of the electrochemical double layer coupling these two equilibrium models. To validate our model, we used both pH-sensitive dye-based capillary filling experiments as well as electro-osmotic current-monitoring measurements. Using our model we predict the dependence of ζ potential, surface charge density, and capillary...

  10. Effect of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed YSZ Columnar Microstructure and Bond Coat Surface Preparation on Thermal Barrier Coating Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Benjamin; Quet, Aurélie; Bianchi, Luc; Schick, Vincent; Joulia, Aurélien; Malié, André; Rémy, Benjamin

    2017-08-01

    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is identified as promising for the enhancement of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems used in gas turbines. Particularly, the emerging columnar microstructure enabled by the SPS process is likely to bring about an interesting TBC lifetime. At the same time, the SPS process opens the way to a decrease in thermal conductivity, one of the main issues for the next generation of gas turbines, compared to the state-of-the-art deposition technique, so-called electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). In this paper, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings presenting columnar structures, performed using both SPS and EB-PVD processes, were studied. Depending on the columnar microstructure readily adaptable in the SPS process, low thermal conductivities can be obtained. At 1100 °C, a decrease from 1.3 W m-1 K-1 for EB-PVD YSZ coatings to about 0.7 W m-1 K-1 for SPS coatings was shown. The higher content of porosity in the case of SPS coatings increases the thermal resistance through the thickness and decreases thermal conductivity. The lifetime of SPS YSZ coatings was studied by isothermal cyclic tests, showing equivalent or even higher performances compared to EB-PVD ones. Tests were performed using classical bond coats used for EB-PVD TBC coatings. Thermal cyclic fatigue performance of the best SPS coating reached 1000 cycles to failure on AM1 substrates with a β-(Ni,Pt)Al bond coat. Tests were also performed on AM1 substrates with a Pt-diffused γ-Ni/γ'-Ni3Al bond coat for which more than 2000 cycles to failure were observed for columnar SPS YSZ coatings. The high thermal compliance offered by both the columnar structure and the porosity allowed the reaching of a high lifetime, promising for a TBC application.

  11. Smart Resonant Gas Sensor and Switch Operating in Air With Metal-Organic Frameworks Coating

    KAUST Repository

    Jaber, Nizar

    2017-11-03

    We report a resonant gas sensor, uniformly coated with a metal-organic framework (MOF), and excited it near the higher order modes for a higher attained sensitivity. Also, switching upon exceeding a threshold value is demonstrated by operating the resonator near the bifurcation point and the dynamic pull-in instabilities. The resonator is based on an electrostatically excited clamped-clamped microbeam. The microbeam is fabricated from a polyimide layer coated from the top with Cr/Au and from the bottom with Cr/Au/Cr layer. The geometry of the resonator is optimized to reduce the effect of squeeze film damping, thereby allowing operation under atmospheric pressure. The electrostatic electrode is designed to enhance the excitation of the second mode of vibration with the minimum power required. Significant frequency shift (kHz) is demonstrated for the first time upon water vapor, acetone, and ethanol exposure due to the MOF functionalization and the higher order modes excitation. Also, the adsorption dynamics and MOF selectivity is investigated by studying the decaying time constants of the response upon gas exposure.

  12. The Effect of Composition on the Surface Finish of PS400: A New High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Stanford, malcolm K.; Thomas, Fransua; Edmonds, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    A new composite, multi-constituent, solid lubricant coating, NASA PS400, developed for high temperature tribological applications, exhibits a smoother surface finish after grinding and polishing than its predecessors PS200 and PS300. In this paper, the baseline composition of PS400 is modified to investigate each individual constituent s role on the achievable surface finish through a series of coating deposition, grinding, and polishing experiments. Furthermore, to explore the limits of compositional tailoring for improved tribological performance, several PS400 coatings were doped with additional solid lubricants (graphite, MoS2 and BN) and tribologically tested. The test results clearly showed that, compared to PS300 coatings, PS400 achieves a smoother surface finish via a reduced lubricant content. Coatings prepared with higher than the baseline level (10 wt%) of lubricants exhibited higher final surface roughness than the earlier generation PS300 coatings. Reducing or eliminating the one or both lubricants (fluorides or silver) did not further improve the surface finish suggesting that the current composition of PS400 is near optimal with respect to surface finish. Lastly, attempts to improve the poor initial room temperature tribological behavior of PS400 via the addition of traditional solid lubricants were unsuccessful. Based upon this work and earlier results it is expected that future research will concentrate on developing methods to produce a lubricious glaze on the rubbing surface during break in to ensure that low friction and wear are rapidly achieved.

  13. Fabrication and assessment of a thin flexible surface coating made of pristine graphene for lightning strike protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wichita State University, 1845 Fairmount St., Wichita, KS 67260-0133 (United States); Soltani, S.A. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Wichita State University, 1845 Fairmount St., Wichita, KS 67260-0133 (United States); Le, L.N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wichita State University, 1845 Fairmount St., Wichita, KS 67260-0133 (United States); Asmatulu, R., E-mail: ramazan.asmatulu@wichita.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wichita State University, 1845 Fairmount St., Wichita, KS 67260-0133 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    A thin flexible coating made of pristine graphene was fabricated and applied on the surface of a commercial carbon fiber epoxy prepreg laminate to protect it against the lightning strike. To assess the coating’s effectiveness, the coated laminate was subjected to the simulated lightning strike as well as the electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE) testing. It was observed that the damaged area and volume in the coated laminate were reduced by 94% and 96%, respectively, as compared to the laminate without the coating. Moreover, the coated laminate had an average EMI SE of 51 dB over 100–2000 MHz range, 55 dB over 8–12 GHz range, and 60 dB over 12–18 GHz range marking 22%, 44%, and 49% improvement in EMI SE for each frequency range, respectively. The results indicate a great potential for the developed coating to protect the commercially available prepreg composites against the lightning strike.

  14. Robust superhydrophobic silicon without a low surface-energy hydrophobic coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshian, Sasha; Jokinen, Ville; Somerkivi, Villeseveri; Lokanathan, Arcot R; Franssila, Sami

    2015-01-14

    Superhydrophobic surfaces without low surface-energy (hydrophobic) modification such as silanization or (fluoro)polymer coatings are crucial for water-repellent applications that need to survive under harsh UV or IR exposures and mechanical abrasion. In this work, robust low-hysteresis superhydrophobic surfaces are demonstrated using a novel hierarchical silicon structure without a low surface-energy coating. The proposed geometry produces superhydrophobicity out of silicon that is naturally hydrophilic. The structure is composed of collapsed silicon nanowires on top and bottom of T-shaped micropillars. Collapsed silicon nanowires cause superhydrophobicity due to nanoscale air pockets trapped below them. T-shaped micropillars significantly decrease the water contact angle hysteresis because microscale air pockets are trapped between them and can not easily escape. Robustness is studied under mechanical polishing, high-energy photoexposure, high temperature, high-pressure water shower, and different acidic and solvent environments. Mechanical abrasion damages the nanowires on top of micropillars, but those at the bottom survive. Small increase of hysteresis is seen, but the surface is still superhydrophobic after abrasion.

  15. Surface Properties of Silane-Treated Diatomaceous Earth Coatings: Effect of Alkyl Chain Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Helanka J; Mortazavian, Hamid; Blum, Frank D

    2017-03-21

    Modification of diatomaceous earth (DE) was performed using alkyltrimethoxysilanes of different chain lengths (C3, C8, C12, C16, and C18), and their resultant properties were determined. The thermal properties of these alkyltrimethoxysilane-treated DE powders were probed using thermogravimetric analysis and temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry, and the surface/porosity was studied using nitrogen adsorption and electron microscopy. Crystallinity of the hydrocarbon tails occurred when the chain lengths were C12 or larger, and the adsorbed hydrocarbon amounts were 1.6 mg/m 2 or more. The wettability of functionalized DE-containing surfaces was studied using water contact angle measurements. At larger adsorbed amounts of 2.2 mg/m 2 or more, the treated DE formed superhydrophobic coatings (with water contact angles ≥150°) with a polyurethane binder. These coatings required a minimum of 30% particle loadings, which allowed the DE particles to dominate the surface. At loadings larger than approximately 50%, there was a decrease in the contact angles corresponding to a reduction in roughness on the surface. Samples with adsorbed amounts less than 2.2 mg/m 2 or chain lengths shorter than C12 were only hydrophobic. These results were in agreement with scanning electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area and pore volume measurements.

  16. Influence of process parameters on physical dimensions of AA6063 aluminium alloy coating on mild steel in friction surfacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Vijaya Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An attempt is made in the present study to obtain the relationships among process parameters and physical dimensions of AA6063 aluminium alloy coating on IS2062 mild steel obtained through friction surfacing and their impact on strength and ductility of the coating. Factorial experimental design technique was used to investigate and select the parameter combination to achieve a coating with adequate strength and ductility. Spindle speed, axial force and table traverse speed were observed to be the most significant factors on physical dimensions. It was observed that the thickness of the coating decreased as the coating width increased. In addition, the width and thickness of the coatings are higher at low and high torques. At intermediate torque values, when the force is high, the width of the coating is high, and its thickness is thin; and when the force is low, the width and thickness are low. The interaction effect between axial force (F – table traverse speed (Vx and spindle speed (N – table traverse speed (Vx produced an increasing effect on coating width and thickness, but other interactions exhibited decreasing influence. It has also been observed that sound coatings could be obtained in a narrow set of parameter range as the substrate-coating materials are metallurgically incompatible and have a propensity to form brittle intermetallics.

  17. Preparation and characterization of TiO2/silicate hierarchical coating on titanium surface for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qianli; Liu, Xujie; Elkhooly, Tarek A; Zhang, Ranran; Yang, Xing; Shen, Zhijian; Feng, Qingling

    2016-03-01

    In the current work, TiO2/silicate hierarchical coatings with various nanostructure morphologies were successfully prepared on titanium substrates through micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and subsequent hydrothermal treatment (HT). Moreover, the nucleation mechanism and growth behavior of the nanostructures, hydrophilicity, protein adsorption and apatite-inducing ability of various coatings were also explored. The novel TiO2/silicate hierarchical coatings comprised calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) as an outer-layer and TiO2 matrix as an inner-layer. According to the morphological features, the nanostructures were classified as nanorod, nanoplate and nanoleaf. The morphology, degree of crystallinity and crystalline phases of CSH nanostructures could be controlled by optimizing the HT conditions. The nucleation of CSH nanostructures is caused by release and re-precipitation mechanism. The TiO2/CSH hierarchical coatings exhibited some enhanced physical and biological performances compared to MAO-fabricated coating. The improvement of the hydrophilicity, fibronectin adsorption and apatite-inducing ability was found to be morphological dependent according to the following trend: nanoleaf coating>nanoplate coating>nanorod coating>MAO coating. The results indicate that the tuning of physical and morphological properties of nanostructures coated on biomaterial surface could significantly influence the hydrophilicity, protein adsorption and in vitro bioactivity of biomaterial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Final Rule to Reduce Toxic Air Pollutants from Surface Coating of Plastic Parts and Products Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains an August 2004 fact sheet with information regarding the final NESHAP for Surface Coating of Plastic Parts and Products. This document provides a summary of the information for the information for this regulation.

  19. Ti-O-N/Ti composite coating on Ti-6Al-4V: surface characteristics, corrosion properties and cellular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiao-Lin; Sun, Tao; Yu, Yonghao

    2015-03-01

    To enhance the corrosion resistance of Ti-6Al-4V and extend its lifetime in medical applications, Ti-O-N/Ti composite coating was synthesized on the surface via plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID). Surface morphology and cross sectional morphology of the composite coating were characterized using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Although X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis revealed that the Ti-O-N/Ti composite coating was composed of non-stoichiometric titanium oxide, titanium nitride and titanium oxynitride, no obvious characteristic peak corresponding to the crystalline phases of them was detected in the X-ray diffraction pattern. In accordance with Owens-Wendt equation, surface free energy of the uncoated and coated samples was calculated and compared. Moreover, the corrosion behavior of uncoated and coated samples was evaluated by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement, and an equivalent circuit deriving from Randles model was used to fit Bode plots and describe the electrochemical processes occurring at the sample/electrolyte interface. On the basis of the equivalent circuit model, the resistance of the composite coating was 4.7 times higher than that of the passive layer on uncoated samples, indicating the enhanced corrosion resistance after PIIID treatment. Compared to uncoated Ti-6Al-V, Ti-O-N/Ti-coated samples facilitated ostoblast proliferation within 7 days of cell culture, while there was no statistically significant difference in alkaline phosphate activity between uncoated and coated samples during 21 days of cell culture.

  20. Effect of perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane on the surface properties and anti-corrosion behavior of poly(dimethylsiloxane)-ZnO coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arukalam, Innocent O.; Meng, Meijiang; Xiao, Haigang; Ma, Yuantai; Oguzie, Emeka E.; Li, Ying

    2018-03-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane)-ZnO coatings modified with different amounts of perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) were prepared using sol-gel technique. The results of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) examinations showed that the surface structures and roughness of the coatings were respectively influenced by the increasing addition of FDTS. The water contact angle measurements showed maximum value of 130.52° with the 0.10 g FDTS-modified coating sample. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results indicated the coatings' hydrophobicity was also influenced by surface chemistry. The FTIR-ATR characterization results showed there was remarkable increase in the crystallinity of 0.10 g FDTS-modified coating after modification, and was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis of crystallization temperature and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) results with an estimation of 71.29% percent crystallinity. The mechanical properties of the coatings were also conducted. The EIS measurements for anti-corrosion behavior showed that 0.10 g FDTS-modified coating had the highest barrier performance and lowest rate of degradation. Indeed, the obtained data have demonstrated that 0.10 g (≈ 0.18%) FDTS produced the most significantly effect on the surface and barrier properties of the coatings and thus, can effectively be used for anti-corrosion application in the marine environments.

  1. Stabilization of metal nanoparticle films on glass surfaces using ultrathin silica coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikin, Yulia; Kedem, Ofer; Raz, Jennifer; Vaskevich, Alexander; Rubinstein, Israel

    2013-11-05

    Metal nanoparticle (NP) films, prepared by adsorption of NPs from a colloidal solution onto a preconditioned solid substrate, usually form well-dispersed random NP monolayers on the surface. For certain metals (e.g., Au, Ag, Cu), the NP films display a characteristic localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) extinction band, conveniently measured using transmission or reflection ultraviolet-visible light (UV-vis) spectroscopy. The surface plasmon band wavelength, intensity, and shape are affected by (among other parameters) the NP spatial distribution on the surface and the effective refractive index (RI) of the surrounding medium. A major concern in the formation of such NP assemblies on surfaces is a commonly observed instability, i.e., a strong tendency of the NPs to undergo aggregation upon removal from the solution and drying, expressed as a drastic change in the LSPR band. Since various imaging modes and applications require dried NP films, preservation of the film initial (wet) morphology and optical properties upon drying are highly desirable. The latter is achieved in the present work by introducing a convenient and generally applicable method for preventing NP aggregation upon drying while preserving the original film morphology and optical response. Stabilization of Au and Ag NP monolayers toward drying is accomplished by coating the immobilized NPs with an ultrathin (3.0-3.5 nm) silica layer, deposited using a sol-gel reaction performed on an intermediate self-assembled aminosilane layer. The thin silica coating prevents NP aggregation and maintains the initial NP film morphology and LSPR response during several cycles of drying and immersion in water. It is shown that the silica-coated NP films retain their properties as effective LSPR transducers.

  2. Applied electric field enhances DRG neurite growth: influence of stimulation media, surface coating and growth supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Matthew D.; Willits, Rebecca Kuntz

    2009-08-01

    Electrical therapies have been found to aid repair of nerve injuries and have been shown to increase and direct neurite outgrowth during stimulation. This enhanced neural growth existed even after the electric field (EF) or stimulation was removed, but the factors that may influence the enhanced growth, such as stimulation media or surface coating, have not been fully investigated. This study characterized neurite outgrowth and branching under various conditions: EF magnitude and application time, ECM surface coating, medium during EF application and growth supplements. A uniform, low-magnitude EF (24 or 44 V m-1) was applied to dissociated chick embryo dorsal root ganglia seeded on collagen or laminin-coated surfaces. During the growth period, cells were either exposed to NGF or N2, and during stimulation cells were exposed to either unsupplemented media (Ca2+) or PBS (no Ca2+). Parallel controls for each experiment included cells exposed to the chamber with no stimulation and cells remaining outside the chamber. After brief electrical stimulation (10 min), neurite length significantly increased 24 h after application for all conditions studied. Of particular interest, increased stimulation time (10-100 min) further enhanced neurite length on laminin but not on collagen surfaces. Neurite branching was not affected by stimulation on any surface, and no preferential growth of neurites was noted after stimulation. Overall, the results of this report suggest that short-duration electric stimulation is sufficient to enhance neurite length under a variety of conditions. While further data are needed to fully elucidate a mechanism for this increased growth, these data suggest that one focus of those investigations should be the interaction between the growth cone and the substrata.

  3. Bacterial resistance control on mineral surfaces of hydroxyapatite and human teeth via surface charge-driven antifouling coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venault, Antoine; Yang, Hui-Shan; Chiang, Yen-Che; Lee, Bor-Shuinn; Ruaan, Ruoh-Chyu; Chang, Yung

    2014-03-12

    This works reports a set of new functionalized polyethyleneimine (PEI) polymers, including a neutral PEGylated polymer PEI-g-PEGMA, a negatively charged polymer PEI-g-SA, and a zwitterionic polymer PEI-g-SBMA, and their use as antibiofouling coating agent for human teeth protection. Polymers were synthesized by Michael addition, XPS analysis revealed that each polymer could be efficiently coated onto hydroxyapatite, ceramic material used as a model tooth. Polymers carrying a negative net charge were more efficiently adsorbed, because of the establishment of electrostatic interactions with calcium ions. Protein adsorption tests revealed that two factors were important in the reduction of protein adsorption. Both the surface charge and the surface ability to bind and entrap water molecules had to be considered. PEI-g-SBMA, which zeta potential in PBS solution was negative, was efficient to inhibit the adsorption of BSA, a negative protein. On the other hand, it also resisted the adsorption of lysozyme, a positive protein, because zwitterionic molecules can easily entrap water and provide a very hydrophilic environment. Streptococcus mutans attachment tests performed unveiled that all modified polymers were efficient to resist this type of bacteria responsible for dental carries. Best results were also obtained with PEI-g-SBMA coating. This polymer was also shown to efficiently resist the adsorption of positively charged bacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia). Tests performed on real human tooth showed that PEI-g-SBMA could inhibit up to 70% of bacteria adhesion, which constitutes a major result considering that surface of teeth is very rough, therefore physically promoting the attachment of proteins and bacteria.

  4. Diamond-like carbon coatings enhance the hardness and resilience of bearing surfaces for use in joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, M E; Whiteside, L A; Xu, J; Katerberg, B J

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of a hard diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating to enhance the hardness and resilience of a bearing surface in joint replacement. The greater hardness of a magnesium-stabilized zirconium (Mg-PSZ) substrate was expected to provide a harder coating-substrate composite microhardness than the cobalt-chromium alloy (CoCr) also used in arthroplasty. Three femoral heads of each type (CoCr, Mg-PSZ, DLC-CoCr and DLC-Mg-PSZ) were examined. Baseline (non-coated) and composite coating/substrate hardness was measured by Vickers microhardness tests, while nanoindentation tests measured the hardness and elastic modulus of the DLC coating independent of the Mg-PSZ and CoCr substrates. Non-coated Mg-PSZ heads were considerably harder than non-coated CoCr heads, while DLC coating greatly increased the microhardness of the CoCr and Mg-PSZ substrates. On the nanoscale the non-coated heads were much harder than on the microscale, with CoCr exhibiting twice as much plastic deformation as Mg-PSZ. The mechanical properties of the DLC coatings were not significantly different for both the CoCr and Mg-PSZ substrates, producing similar moduli of resilience and plastic resistance ratios. DLC coatings greatly increased hardness on both the micro and nano levels and significantly improved resilience and resistance to plastic deformation compared with non-coated heads. Because Mg-PSZ allows less plastic deformation than CoCr and provides a greater composite microhardness, DLC-Mg-PSZ will likely be more durable for use as a bearing surface in vivo. Copyright 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Insertion torques influenced by bone density and surface roughness of HA–TiO{sub 2} coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, T.; Chen, Y.; Nie, X., E-mail: xnie@uwindsor.ca

    2013-12-31

    Bio-ceramic TiO{sub 2} coatings containing calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) were deposited onto Ti–6Al–4V alloy screws using plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) processes in an alkaline electrolyte with hydroxyapatite (HA) suspension. Coating on each screw had different surface roughness and morphology. Insertion torque (IT) of the coated screws in low (10 pcf, pounds per cubic feet), medium–high (20 pcf), and high (40 pcf) density of artificial bones was measured in comparison with that of the uncoated and sandblasted screws having similar surface roughness. Higher insertion torques and final seating torques were obtained in the coated screws which may result in less micro-movement during the primary implantation stage and thus lower the risk of implant failure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated that all coatings still adhesively remained on the screw surfaces after inserted into the bones with different densities. The relationship between coefficient of friction and surface roughness was also addressed to better understand the results of insertion torque. It was found that a lower density bone (similar to aged bone) would need a surface-rougher coated screw to achieve a high torque while a high density bone can have a wide range of selections for surface roughness of the screw. - Highlights: • The insertion torque of PEO-coated screws is higher than machined and sandblasting implants. • Lower density bone needs a rougher coated implant to increase the insertion torque. • The composite HA–TiO{sub 2} coating could benefit dental implants in both primary and secondary stability stages.

  6. Surface and Microstructural Failures of PET-Coated ECCS Plates by Salmon-Polymer Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Zumelzu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The new types of knowledge-intensive, multilayer containers consist of steel plates protected against corrosion by nanometric electrolytic chromium (Cr0 and chromium oxide (Cr2O3 layers chemically bonded to polyethylene terephthalate (PET polymer coating to preserve food. It was observed that after emptying the cans, the salmon adhered to the polymer coating, changing its color, and that this adhesion increased with longer storage times. This work was aimed at determining the product-container interactions and their characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD, confocal Raman and micro-Raman imaging and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis. The zones of adhesion showed surface changes, variations in crystallinity and microstructural degradation of the PET coating. In addition, localized damages altering the functional properties of the multilayer system were observed as microcracking in the chromium layers that protect the steel. The degradation undergone was evaluated and characterized at a surface and microstructural level to establish the failure mechanisms, which were mainly associated with the activity of the adhered muscle and its biochemical components. Finally, a recommendation is done to preserve the useful life and functionality of cans for the preservation and efficient use of resources with an impact on recycling and environmental conservancy.

  7. Atomic Layer-Deposited TiO2 Coatings on NiTi Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokoun, D.; Racek, J.; Kadeřávek, L.; Kei, C. C.; Yu, Y. S.; Klimša, L.; Šittner, P.

    2018-02-01

    NiTi shape-memory alloys may release poisonous Ni ions at the alloys' surface. In an attempt to prepare a well-performing surface layer on an NiTi sample, the thermally grown TiO2 layer, which formed during the heat treatment of NiTi, was removed and replaced with a new TiO2 layer prepared using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, it was found that the ALD layer prepared at as low a temperature as 100 °C contained Ti in oxidation states + 4 and + 3. As for static corrosion properties of the ALD-coated NiTi samples, they further improved compared to those covered by thermally grown oxide. The corrosion rate of samples with thermally grown oxide was 1.05 × 10-5 mm/year, whereas the corrosion rate of the ALD-coated samples turned out to be about five times lower. However, cracking of the ALD coating occurred at about 1.5% strain during the superelastic mechanical loading in tension taking place via the propagation of a localized martensite band.

  8. Fabrication of super-hydrophobic surfaces on aluminum alloy substrates by RF-sputtered polytetrafluoroethylene coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a method of fabricating super-hydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy substrate. The etching of aluminum surfaces has been performed using Beck's dislocation etchant for different time to create micrometer-sized irregular steps. An optimised etching time of 50 s is found to be essential before polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE coating, to obtain a highest water contact angle of 165±2° with a lowest contact angle hysteresis as low as 5±2°. The presence of patterned microstructure as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM together with the low surface energy ultrathin RF-sputtered PTFE films renders the aluminum alloy surfaces highly super-hydrophobic.

  9. Nanopore surface coating delivers nanopore size and shape through conductance-based sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frament, Cameron M; Bandara, Nuwan; Dwyer, Jason R

    2013-10-09

    The performance of nanopore single-molecule sensing elements depends intimately on their physical dimensions and surface chemical properties. These factors underpin the dependence of the nanopore ionic conductance on electrolyte concentration, yet the measured, or modeled, dependence only partially illuminates the details of geometry and surface chemistry. Using the electrolyte-dependent conductance data before and after selective surface functionalization of solid-state nanopores, however, introduces more degrees of freedom and improves the performance of conductance-based nanopore characterizations. Sets of representative nanopore profiles were used to generate conductance data, and the nanopore shape and exact dimensions were identified, through conductance alone, by orders-of-magnitude reductions in the geometry optimization metrics. The optimization framework could similarly be used to evaluate the nanopore surface coating thickness.

  10. Surface plasmon resonance image sensor module of spin-coated silver film with polymer layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jung-Han; Lee, Dong Hun; Cho, Yong-Jin; Lee, Myung-Hyun

    2013-11-01

    Prism modules of 20 nm-, 40 nm-, and 60 nm-thick spin-coated silver films both without and with an upper 100 nm-thick spin-coated polymer layer were fabricated for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) image sensor applications. The prism modules were applied to an SPR image sensor system. The coefficients of determination (R2s) for the 20 nm-, 40 nm- and 60 nm-thick silver films without the polymer layer were 0.9231, 0.9901, and 0.9889, respectively, and with the polymer layer 0.9228, 0.9951, and 0.9880, respectively when standard ethanol solutions with 0.1% intervals in the range of 20.0% to 20.5% were applied. The upper polymer layer has no effect on the R2. The prism modules of the 40-nm-thick spin-coated silver films had the highest R2 value of approximately 0.99. The durability of the 40 nm-thick spin-coated silver film with the 100 nm-thick polymer layer is much better than that without the upper low-loss polymer layer. The developed SPR image sensor module of the 40 nm-thick spin-coated silver film with the upper 100 nm-thick low-loss polymer film is expected to be a very cost-effective and robust solution because the films are formed at low temperatures in a short period of time without requiring a vacuum system and are very durable.

  11. Quantification of bacteria on abiotic surfaces by laser scanning cytometry: An automated approach to screen the antifouling properties of new surface coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regina, Viduthalai R.; Poulsen, Morten; Søhoel, Helmer

    2012-01-01

    . Among the coatings tested, a significant reduction in adhesion of S. xylosus was only observed for one coating, which also had a unique surface micro-structure. LSC was particularly sensitive for quantification at low cell densities, and the adhered bacteria could be quantified both as cell number...... and as area coverage. The method proved to be an excellent alternative to microscopy for fast and reproducible quantification of microbial colonization on abiotic surfaces....

  12. Innovative coating of nanostructured vanadium carbide on the F/M cladding tube inner surface for mitigating the fuel cladding chemical interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yong [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Phillpot, Simon [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2017-11-29

    500 oC, respectively. The coating layer contains both carbon and vanadium elements as quantified by WED, and the phases mainly consist of a mixture of V2C and VC, which was confirmed using X-ray diffraction patterns. In addition, the ratio between V and C varies with processing temperature, and it was observed that a higher temperature promotes the carbon adsorption and increases thickness of the coating. With optimized deposition conditions, we can apply the coating technique toward the actual T91 cladding materials, and provide the possibilities for the real application in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs). Diffusion couple experiments were performed at both 550 oC and 690 oC, which corresponds to normal and aggressive operating temperatures, respectively. The results show that vanadium carbide coating with wider thickness (8 µm) and lower carbon concentration (27 at.%) reduced the width of the inter diffusion region, indicating that vanadium carbide coating can mitigate FCCI effectively. In specific, inter-diffusion between Fe and Ce was prohibited over most area, but Ce diffusion occurred toward the coating and the Fe substrate through thinner coating layer, which needs further optimization in terms of uniform coating thickness. Overall, it is concluded that this coating process can be successfully applied onto the inner surface of HT9 cladding tubes and the FCCI can be effectively mitigated if not totally eliminated.

  13. Diffusion of surface-active amphiphiles in silicone-based fouling-release coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noguer, Albert Camós; Olsen, S. M.; Hvilsted, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Amphiphiles (i.e. amphiphilic molecules such as surfactants, block copolymers and similar compounds) are used in small amounts to modify the surface properties of polymeric materials. In silicone fouling-release coatings, PEG-based amphiphiles are added to provide biofouling-resistance. The success...... of the amphiphiles shows a weak dependency on their molecular weight, although this dependency is much less pronounced than for other rubbery polymeric materials. The biofouling-resistance properties in fouling-release coatings were also studied for these amphiphiles. It was found that the diffusion coefficient does...... not have any influence on the biofouling-resistance results for the studied compounds. Instead, the chemistry of the hydrophobic block of the amphiphiles is much more significant, with PEG-PDMS block copolymers showing the best properties among the studied compounds....

  14. Coating of inner surface of cylindrical pipe for hydrogen entry prevention using plasma process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Hiroharu; Nishiguchi, Hiroshi; Furutani, Takumi; Ohshima, Tamiko; Yagyu, Yoshihito; Ihara, Takeshi; Shinohara, Masanori; Suda, Yoshiaki

    2018-01-01

    Aluminum alloy A6061, which is highly resistant to hydrogen entry, was prepared on a carbide steel cylindrical pipe using a magnetron sputtering deposition method. In this method, plasma was generated between the cylindrical pipe substrate and the cylindrical rod targets, and it moved toward the axial direction with the generation of a modulated magnetic field by a low-frequency alternating coil current. Uniform A6061 thin films were deposited inside the cylindrical pipe using the magnetron sputtering deposition method. The surface morphologies of the films were smooth, and the uniformity of the films was increased by the modulated magnetic field. Moreover, hydrogen content measurements revealed that the A6061 plasma coating is highly resistant to hydrogen entry in corrosive environments, suggesting that the coating was applicable to the elastic deformation region of the base material.

  15. Simulation of reflectance from white-anodised aluminium surfaces using polyurethane–TiO2 composite coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Johansen, Villads Egede; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical calculations and experimental studies were carried out on polyurethane (PU)–TiO2 composite coatings on bright and matte aluminium surfaces with an aim to understand and tailor the light scattering from particles incorporated into an anodised layer for designing the optical appearance...... of anodised surfaces. PU matrix was selected for its matching refractive-index (n = 1.7) with anodic alumina layer. Three different TiO2 particle size distributions were dispersed in PU and spin coated onto bright high-gloss and matte caustic-etched aluminium substrates. The reflectance spectra of coated...

  16. Effect of surface coating composition on quantum dot mobility in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yonggang; Zhu, Huiguang; Becker, Matthew D.; Englehart, Jessica; Abriola, Linda M.; Colvin, Vicki L.; Pennell, Kurt D.

    2013-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have received considerable attention due to their unique optical and electrical properties. Although substantial research has focused on the potential applications and toxicological impacts of QDs, far less effort has been directed toward understanding their fate and transport in the environment. In this work, the effect of four coatings, polyethylene glycol functionalized polymer (PEGP), carboxyl derivatized polymer (COOHP), linoleic acid (LA), and polyacrylic acid-octylamine (PAA-OA), on the transport and retention of QDs in porous media were evaluated under environmentally relevant conditions. Aqueous QD suspensions (ca. 10 nM) were introduced into water-saturated columns packed with 40–50 mesh Ottawa sand at a pore-water velocity of 7.6 m/day. At an ionic strength (IS) of 3 mM and pH of 7, PEGP-coated QDs were completely retained within the column, while more than 60 % of COOHP-coated QDs were transported through a column run under identical conditions. When PAA-OA and LA were used as coatings, effluent QD recoveries increased to more than 65 and 89 % of the injected mass, respectively. Additionally, a decrease in pH from 9.5 to 5.0, or an increase of IS from 0 to 30 mM reduced the eluted mass of PAA-OA-coated QDs by more than 2 and 15 times, respectively. The relative mobility of coated QDs (LA > PAA-OA > COOHP > PEGP) was consistent with total interaction energy profiles between QDs and sand surfaces calculated based on Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO) theory. At an IS of 3 mM (NaCl) and pH 7, a linear correlation was obtained between the fraction of eluted QDs and the magnitude of the primary interaction energy barrier. These findings demonstrate the strong dependence of QD transport on coating type and indicate that interaction energies based on DLVO theory can be used to predict the relative mobility of QDs in porous media

  17. The Influence of Electrolytic Concentration on the Electrochemical Deposition of Calcium Phosphate Coating on a Direct Laser Metal Forming Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianyue Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A calcium phosphate (CaP coating on titanium surface enhances its biocompatibility, thus facilitating osteoconduction and osteoinduction with the inorganic phase of the human bone. Electrochemical deposition has been suggested as an effective means of fabricating CaP coatings on porous surface. The purpose of this study was to develop CaP coatings on a direct laser metal forming implant using electrochemical deposition and to investigate the effect of electrolytic concentration on the coating’s morphology and structure by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, water contact angle analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In group 10−2, coatings were rich in dicalcium phosphate, characterized to be thick, layered, and disordered plates. In contrast, in groups 10−3 and 10−4, the relatively thin and well-ordered coatings predominantly consisted of granular hydroxyapatite. Further, the hydrophilicity and cell affinity were improved as electrolytic concentration increased. In particular, the cells cultured in group 10−3 appeared to have spindle morphology with thick pseudopodia on CaP coatings; these spindles and pseudopodia strongly adhered to the rough and porous surface. By analyzing and evaluating the surface properties, we provided further knowledge on the electrolytic concentration effect, which will be critical for improving CaP coated Ti implants in the future.

  18. Cytotoxicity Induced by Engineered Silver Nanocrystallites Is Dependent on Surface Coatings and Cell Types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh, Anil K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Biosciences Division; Pelletier, Dale A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Biosciences Division; Wang, Wei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Biosciences Division; Gu, Baohua [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Doktycz, Mitchel J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Biosciences Division; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS)

    2012-01-04

    Due to their unique antimicrobial properties silver nanocrystallites have garnered substantial recognition and are used extensively in biomedical applications such as wound dressing, surgical instruments and as bone substitute material. They are also released into unintended locations such as the environment or biosphere. Therefore it is imperative to understand the potential interactions, fate and transport of nanoparticles with environmental biotic systems. Although numerous factors including the composition, size, shape, surface charge and capping molecule of nanoparticles are known to influence the cell cytotoxicity, our results demonstrate for the first time that surface coatings are a major determinant in eliciting the potential cytotoxicity and cell interactions of silver nanoparticles. In the present investigation, silver nanocrystallites with nearly uniform size and shape distribution but with different surface coatings, imparting overall high negativity to high positivity, were synthesized. These nanoparticles were poly (diallyldimethylammonium) chloride-Ag, biogenic-Ag, colloidal-Ag (uncoated) and oleate-Ag with zeta potentials +45±5 mV, -12± 2 mV, -42±5 mV and -45±5 mV respectively; the particles were thoroughly purified so as to avoid false cytotoxicity interpretations. A systematic investigation on the cytotoxic effects, cellular response and membrane damage caused by these four different silver nanoparticles were evaluated using multiple toxicity measurements on mouse macrophage (RAW-264.7) and lung epithelial (C-10) cell lines. From a toxicity perspective, our results clearly indicated that the cytotoxicity was depend on various factors such as synthesis procedure, surface coat or surface charge and the cell-type for the different silver nanoparticles that were investigated. Finally, poly (diallyldimethylammonium) chloride -Ag was found to be the most toxic, followed by biogenic-Ag and oleate-Ag, whereas uncoated-Ag was found to be least toxic

  19. Comparison of discrete Hodge star operators for surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.

    2016-05-10

    We investigate the performance of various discrete Hodge star operators for discrete exterior calculus (DEC) using circumcentric and barycentric dual meshes. The performance is evaluated through the DEC solution of Darcy and incompressible Navier–Stokes flows over surfaces. While the circumcentric Hodge operators may be favorable due to their diagonal structure, the barycentric (geometric) and the Galerkin Hodge operators have the advantage of admitting arbitrary simplicial meshes. Numerical experiments reveal that the barycentric and the Galerkin Hodge operators retain the numerical convergence order attained through the circumcentric (diagonal) Hodge operators. Furthermore, when the barycentric or the Galerkin Hodge operators are employed, a super-convergence behavior is observed for the incompressible flow solution over unstructured simplicial surface meshes generated by successive subdivision of coarser meshes. Insofar as the computational cost is concerned, the Darcy flow solutions exhibit a moderate increase in the solution time when using the barycentric or the Galerkin Hodge operators due to a modest decrease in the linear system sparsity. On the other hand, for the incompressible flow simulations, both the solution time and the linear system sparsity do not change for either the circumcentric or the barycentric and the Galerkin Hodge operators.

  20. Two component silicone modified epoxy foul release coatings: Effect of modulus, surface energy and surface restructuring on pseudobarnacle and macrofouling behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, S.K.; Chavan, J.G.; Sasane, Savita; Jagannath; Patri, M.; Samui, A.B.; Chakraborty, B.C.

    2010-01-01

    Two component silicone modified epoxy resin based low surface energy and non-toxic foul release coatings were developed. Silicone modified epoxy resin with 15 and 30% silicone content was used as component A and a polyether diamine (Jeffamine-500) was used as the component B. Free standing films were prepared by casting a mixture of components A and B in stoichiometric proportions. The surface composition, surface topography and wetting properties of the coatings were studied by angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle goniometry respectively. The mechanical properties of the cured films were evaluated by tensile measurements as well as dynamic mechanical analysis. Pseudobarnacles made of aluminium studs were attached to the coated panels and adhesion tests were carried out by a pseudobarnacle tester. Coated panels were exposed in Mumbai harbor for fouling studies for a period of 90 days. Surface restructuring studies of the coatings upon immersion in seawater were carried out by measuring the changes in advancing and receding contact angles by contact angle goniometry. The effect of surface energy, modulus and surface restructuring of the coatings on the macrofouling and pseudobarnacle adhesion properties has been discussed in detail.

  1. The effects of surface-coating alcohols on water uptake on ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, X.; Thomson, E. S.; Markovic, N.; Pettersson, J. B. C.

    2012-04-01

    The efficiency of water uptake by ice particles contributes to ice cloud development in the atmosphere with implications for the water cycle and climate on Earth. Here, we investigate heavy water (D2O) uptake by water ice with and without alcohol coatings. Methanol and n-butanol are used as alcohol surfactants with different carbon numbers. Water interactions with ice are probed using a recently developed environmental molecular beam (EMB) technique that allows for experiments at vapor pressures up to 10-2 mbar. When probing alcohol-coated ice, a micrometer thick water ice is first condensed on a substrate and subsequently covered by an alcohol monolayer. The application of a large range of alcohol partial pressures confirms the stability of the adsorbed monolayer. A mixed molecular beam of D2O and helium is directed at the ice surfaces under different conditions, and the scattered and desorbed D2O is measured and analyzed quantitatively to obtain water uptake coefficients. The results illustrate that sticking of impinging D2O molecules is almost perfect, but uptake in the presence of alcohol surfactants is strongly dependent on carbon chain length. Molecules from butanol-coated ice scatter and thermally desorb more efficiently than from ice coated by methanol. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange is eliminated as a possible sink of D2O because no HDO is detected beyond the 1% noise level. Between 170 K and 190 K temperature does not obviously influence the water uptake coefficient. These results provide a quantitatively constrained demonstration that adsorbed volatile organic compounds fundamentally alter ice surfaces and thus have the potential to be important in cloud processes ranging from formation to gas-phase scavenging.

  2. Impact-Free Measurement of Microtubule Rotations on Kinesin and Cytoplasmic-Dynein Coated Surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha Mitra

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the three-dimensional stepping of motor proteins on the surface of microtubules (MTs as well as the torsional components in their power strokes can be inferred from longitudinal MT rotations in gliding motility assays. In previous studies, optical detection of these rotations relied on the tracking of rather large optical probes present on the outer MT surface. However, these probes may act as obstacles for motor stepping and may prevent the unhindered rotation of the gliding MTs. To overcome these limitations, we devised a novel, impact-free method to detect MT rotations based on fluorescent speckles within the MT structure in combination with fluorescence-interference contrast microscopy. We (i confirmed the rotational pitches of MTs gliding on surfaces coated by kinesin-1 and kinesin-8 motors, (ii demonstrated the superiority of our method over previous approaches on kinesin-8 coated surfaces at low ATP concentration, and (iii identified MT rotations driven by mammalian cytoplasmic dynein, indicating that during collective motion cytoplasmic dynein side-steps with a bias in one direction. Our novel method is easy to implement on any state-of-the-art fluorescence microscope and allows for high-throughput experiments.

  3. Luminescent antireflective coatings with disordered surface nanostructures fabricated by liquid processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sota; Fujihara, Shinobu

    2011-03-15

    Antireflective phosphor coatings having disordered surface nanostructures were fabricated by a sol-gel dip coating method and a subsequent hot water treatment. Thin films of a Bi(3+),Eu(3+)-codoped YVO4 red phosphor were first prepared and effects of the addition of an aluminum source to precursor solutions on their microstructure and optical properties were examined. Optical transmittance of the YVO4:Bi(3+),Eu(3+) film was lower than that of a bare quartz glass substrate due to a higher refractive index of YVO4. The addition of the aluminum source and the hot water treatment resulted in a considerable increase of transmittance and its smaller angular dependence, which could generate an antireflective effect by the phosphor thin films. Observation of the microstructure revealed that the hot water treatment brought a remarkable change in the surface as well as the cross-section structure in the aluminum-added YVO4:Bi(3+),Eu(3+) film. The film density and hence the refractive index were gradually changed like a pseudo moth-eye structure, which explained the occurrence of the antireflective effect. The microstructural change was attributed to the dissolution of alumina present in the film and the reprecipitation of boehmite on the film surface during the hot water treatment. Photoluminescence of the YVO4:Bi(3+),Eu(3+) film could also be enhanced by the antireflective effect due to the suppression of surface Fresnel reflection of incident light and total internal reflection of emitted light.

  4. Surface-dependent chemical equilibrium constants and capacitances for bare and 3-cyanopropyldimethylchlorosilane coated silica nanochannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Mathias Bækbo; Frey, Jared; Pennathur, Sumita; Bruus, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    We present a combined theoretical and experimental analysis of the solid-liquid interface of fused-silica nanofabricated channels with and without a hydrophilic 3-cyanopropyldimethylchlorosilane (cyanosilane) coating. We develop a model that relaxes the assumption that the surface parameters C(1), C(2), and pK(+) are constant and independent of surface composition. Our theoretical model consists of three parts: (i) a chemical equilibrium model of the bare or coated wall, (ii) a chemical equilibrium model of the buffered bulk electrolyte, and (iii) a self-consistent Gouy-Chapman-Stern triple-layer model of the electrochemical double layer coupling these two equilibrium models. To validate our model, we used both pH-sensitive dye-based capillary filling experiments as well as electro-osmotic current-monitoring measurements. Using our model we predict the dependence of ζ potential, surface charge density, and capillary filling length ratio on ionic strength for different surface compositions, which can be difficult to achieve otherwise. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Antimicrobial activity and cytocompatibility of silver nanoparticles coated catheters via a biomimetic surface functionalization strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu K

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ke Wu,1 Yun Yang,2,3 Yanmei Zhang,2,3 Jiexi Deng,1 Changjian Lin2,31Department of Cardiology, The Affiliated Dongnan Hospital of Xiamen University, Zhangzhou, 2Department of Medical Materials, Beijing Medical Implant Engineering Research Center, Beijing Naton Technology Group, Beijing, 3State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Catheter-related bloodstream infections are a significant problem in the clinic and may result in a serious infection. Here, we developed a facile and green procedure for buildup of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs on the central venous catheters (CVCs surface. Inspired by mussel adhesive proteins, dopamine was used to form a thin polydopamine layer and induce AgNPs formation without additional reductants or stabilizers. The chemical and physicochemical properties of AgNPs coated CVCs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and water contact angle. The Staphylococcus aureus culture experiment was used to study the antibacterial properties. The cytocompatibility was assessed by water soluble tetrazolium salts (WST-1 assay, fluorescence staining, and scanning electron microscopy analysis. The results indicated that the CVCs surface was successfully coated with compact AgNPs. AgNPs were significantly well separated and spherical with a size of 30–50 nm. The density of AgNPs could be modulated by the concentration of silver nitrate solution. The antibacterial activity was dependent on the AgNPs dose. The high dose of AgNPs showed excellent antibacterial activity while associated with increased cytotoxicity. The appropriate density of AgNPs coated CVCs could exhibit improved biocompatibility and maintained evident sterilization effect. It is promising to design mussel-inspired silver releasing CVCs with both

  6. Evaluation of the attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of osteoblast on a calcium carbonate coating on titanium surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yi; Jiang Tao; Zhou Yi; Zhang Zhen; Wang Zhejun [Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering, Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China); Tong Hua; Shen Xinyu [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wang Yining, E-mail: wang.yn@whu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering, Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2011-07-20

    Titanium has been reported to have some limitations in dental and orthopaedic clinical application. This study described a coating process using a simple chemical method to prepare calcium carbonate coatings on smooth titanium (STi) and sandblasted and acid-etched titanium (SATi), and evaluated the biological response of the materials in vitro. The surfaces of STi, SATi, calcium carbonate coated STi (CC-STi) and calcium carbonate coated SATi (CC-SATi) were characterized for surface roughness, contact angles, surface morphology and surface chemistry. The morphology of MG63 cells cultured on the surfaces was observed by SEM and Immuno-fluorescence staining. Cell attachment/proliferation was assessed by MTT assay, and cell differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. MG63 was found to attach favorably to calcium carbonate crystals with longer cytoplasmic extensions on CC-STi and CC-SATi, resulting in lower cell proliferation but higher ALP activity when compared to STi and SATi respectively. Moreover, CC-SATi is more favorable than CC-STi in terms of biological response. In conclusion, the calcium carbonate coatings on titanium were supposed to improve the osteointegration process and stimulate osteoblast differentiation, especially in early stage. And this method could possibly be a feasible alternative option for future clinical application. Highlights: {yields} Calcium carbonate coatings were prepared on titanium substrates. {yields} The coating process is simple and cost-effective. {yields} Calcium carbonate coating could induce differentiation toward an osteoblastic phenotype. {yields} Calcium carbonate coating could enhance the osteointegration process especially in early stage.

  7. Surfaces: processing, coating, decontamination, pollution, etc. Surface mastering to prevent component corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucault, M.

    2012-01-01

    In the primary and secondary circuits of nuclear Pressurized Water Reactors, AREVA uses several nickel-based alloys or austenitic stainless steels for the manufacture of safety components. The experience feedback of the last twenty years allows us to point out the major role hold by the component surface state in their life duration. In this paper, we present four examples of problem encountered and solved by a surface study and the definition and implementation of processes for the surface control of the repaired components. Then, we propose some ideas about the present needs in term of analysis means to improve the surface knowledge and control of the manufactured components. (author)

  8. Carbohydrate Coating Reduces Adhesion of Biofilm-Forming Bacillus subtilis to Gold Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesel, S.; Mader, A.; Seeberger, P. H.; Lieleg, O.

    2014-01-01

    The growth of bacterial biofilms in pipes and food tanks causes severe problems in industry. Biofilms growing on medical implants or catheters are of great concern, as they can cause serious infections and decrease the functionality of the medical device. The prevention of bacterial adhesion—the first step in colonization and biofilm formation—is therefore very important. Current research comprises alterations in surface properties, the prevention of adhesin biosynthesis, inhibition with receptor analogs, or the development of anti-adhesive vaccines. We present a new approach that allows us to study bacterial adhesion with high sensitivity in real-time while testing several different surfaces in parallel. Using the cantilever-array technique we demonstrate that coating of gold surfaces with mono- or disaccharides results in a reduction of the bacterial adhesion of the biofilm-forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis NCIB 3610 to these gold surfaces. This reduction in bacterial adhesion is independent of the studied carbohydrate. Using several mutant strains, we investigate the underlying molecular interactions, and our results suggest that adhesion to gold surfaces is mediated by thiol groups present in proteins of the bacterial cell membrane or biofilm matrix proteins expressed at low levels by the wild-type strain. Furthermore, our data indicate that the adhesion of B. subtilis NCIB 3610 to carbohydrate-coated gold surfaces is facilitated by interactions between carbohydrates installed on the cantilever gold surface and an exopolysaccharide expressed by this strain. Understanding general and specific contributions of molecular interactions mediating bacterial adhesion will enable its prevention in the future. PMID:25038098

  9. Coating magnesium hydroxide on surface of carbon microspheres and interface binding with poly (ethylene terephthalate) matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Baoxia [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Research Center on Advanced Materials Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Textile Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Yuci 030600 (China); Niu, Mei, E-mail: niumei@tyut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Textile Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Yuci 030600 (China); Yang, Yongzhen, E-mail: yyztyut@126.com [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Research Center on Advanced Materials Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Bai, Jie; Song, Yinghao; Peng, Yun [College of Textile Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Yuci 030600 (China); Liu, Xuguang [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Magnesium hydroxide (MH) as a capsule wall was firstly coated on the surface of carbon microspheres (CMSs) to obtain MH@CMSs by liquid phase deposition method. • An organic layer of 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) was then introduced on the surface of MH@CMSs. • The formed two layers provided the FMH@CMSs/PET with good mechanical and flame-retardant properties. - Abstract: In this account, magnesium hydroxide (MH) employed as a capsule wall was firstly coated on the surface of carbon microspheres (CMSs) to obtain MH@CMSs using liquid phase deposition, then was modified by 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) to form FMH@CMSs. To investigate the interface binding forces, a series of PET composites was prepared by melt compounding with MH@CMSs or FMH@CMSs. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform Infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the morphology, chemical structure, and effect of functionalization of CMSs. The coating degree and thermal stability were investigated by thermogravimetry analysis. The results showed that CMSs were coated by an inorganic shell layer of MH as a capsule wall. On the other hand, MH@CMSs were coated with an organic layer of APTS. When compared to MH@CMSs, the interface binding forces between FMH@CMSs and PET matrix were significantly improved, and the tensile strength of FMH@CMSs/PET was higher than that of MH@CMSs/PET. At 1 wt% mass fraction of FMH@CMSs, the limiting oxygen index (LOI) value of PET composites increased from 21% to 27.6% following a V-0 rating. The tensile strength of FMH@CMSs/PET increased by 66.2% to reach 47.20 MPa, a value nearly similar to that of PET. Overall, the formed two layers provided the FMH@CMSs/PET with good mechanical and flame-retardant properties, which would broaden their scope of application.

  10. Surface Morphology and Corrosion Behavior of Hydroxyapatite-Coated Co-Cr Implant: Effect of Sintering Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirdar, Mostafa Rezazadeh; Taheri, Mohammad Mahdi

    2017-12-01

    The surface morphology and corrosion behavior of a hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) implant after sintering posttreatment using different times and temperatures were investigated. The substrates were electrophoretically coated with calcium phosphate in solution of Ca(NO3)·4H2O and NH4H2PO4. Sintering at four different conditions was then performed on the as-deposited samples. Scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurement, and potentiodynamic polarization studies were employed to investigate the surface morphology, porosity, wettability, and corrosion behavior of the coated samples. The results revealed that the HA-coated substrate sintered at temperature of 600°C for 20 min showed fairly uniform microstructure with the highest density and corrosion resistance compared with the other conditions. Moreover, the highest wettability was exhibited by the HA surface sintered at temperature of 500°C for 60 min.

  11. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Distinct Corona Composition on Magnetic Nanoparticles with Different Surface Coatings: Implications for Interactions with Primary Human Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Vogt

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs have emerged as promising contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. The influence of different surface coatings on the biocompatibility of SPIONs has been addressed, but the potential impact of the so-called corona of adsorbed proteins on the surface of SPIONs on their biological behavior is less well studied. Here, we determined the composition of the plasma protein corona on silica-coated versus dextran-coated SPIONs using mass spectrometry-based proteomics approaches. Notably, gene ontology (GO enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analysis revealed distinct protein corona compositions for the two different SPIONs. Relaxivity of silica-coated SPIONs was modulated by the presence of a protein corona. Moreover, the viability of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages was influenced by the protein corona on silica-coated, but not dextran-coated SPIONs, and the protein corona promoted cellular uptake of silica-coated SPIONs, but did not affect internalization of dextran-coated SPIONs.

  12. Studying the performance of a dehumidifier with adsorbent coated heat exchangers for tropical climate operations

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Seung Jin

    2016-09-26

    A solid desiccant dehumidifier equipped with adsorbent coated heat exchangers has been developed and investigated experimentally. The main component of the solid desiccant dehumidifier included two heat exchangers that were coated with silica gel regular density (RD) type powder in order to increase water adsorption uptake by improving its heat transfer. A series of experiment were conducted to evaluate two key performance indices, namely, moisture removal capacity and thermal performance, under various operating conditions. Results revealed that the reduction of dehumidification process time by 50% can lead to significant improvement of the mean humidity ratio at outlet up to 9.3 g/kg. The maximum moisture removal was found to decrease from 14.8 to 13.2 g/kg with higher airflow rates arising from the reduced residence time of the process air. It was further observed that the water moisture removal was highly affected by inlet humidity ratio. In addition, marked improvement in thermal performance can be achieved by a lowered hot water regeneration temperature. Copyright © 2016 ASHRAE

  13. Inevitable surface dependence of some operator products and integrability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigemoto, Kazuyasu; Tanaka, Azuma; Taguchi, Yukio; Yamamoto, Kunio.

    1976-01-01

    In general even in local theory the operator products at the same space-time point must be considered as a limit of non-local products. It is natural to confine non-locality on a space-like surface. In this case some operator products with three or more constituents possess an inevitable and purely quantum-mechanical surface dependence. Taking the pion-nucleon system as an example, we explicitly calculate in the order of g 2 this kind of the surface dependence of the interaction Hamiltonian. In order to obtain a consistent theory, this surface is required to be identified with the space-like surface in the Tomonaga-Schwinger equation. Then the interaction Hamiltonian needs an additional, non-canonical and surface-dependent term, which can be derived uniquely from the canonical Hamiltonian. The integrability of the Tomonaga-Schwinger equation is proved by taking account of this surface dependence together with the gradient term in the equal-time commutator. (auth.)

  14. New non-stick expoxy-silicone water-based coatings part 1: Physical and surface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garti, N. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel); Smith, J. [Decora Manufacturing, Fort Edward, NY (United States)

    1995-06-01

    In search for tomorrow`s technology for water-based coating, Decora Manufacturing and The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, have initiated an intensive research program for designing, developing and manufacturing new coatings based on cross-linked, room temperature-cured silicone-expoxy resins. The new water-borne coatings have most exciting characteristics such as: non-stick properties, effective release, high lubricity, corrosion protection and abrasion resistance. The coatings are environmentally-friendly and easy to use. These coatings are ideal for marine, agricultural, industrial and maintenance applications. This paper brings quantitative measurements related to the dispersion technology (particle size, stability, shelf-life), to the non-stick properties (deicing, low surface energy, easy-release and non-stick), lubricity, adhesion to substrates, viscosity, dynamic and static friction coefficients and environmental impact (low VOC, non-toxicity, low-leaching). The coating was tested in various industrial coating systems and was found to exhibit excellent non-stick and release properties. Special attention was given to Zebra Mussels, Quagga Mussels and other bacterial and algeal bioforms. The coating proved to be efficient as foul-release coating with very low biofouling adhesion. The low adhesion applied to many other substances in which foul-release means easy-clean and low-wear.

  15. Fabrication of the micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by sulfuric acid anodizing and polypropylene coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruomei; Liang, Shuquan; Liu, Jun; Pan, Anqiang; Yu, Y; Tang, Yan

    2013-03-01

    The preparation of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by anodizing and polypropylene (PP) coating was reported. Both the different anodizing process and different PP coatings of aluminum alloy were investigated. The effects of different anodizing conditions, such as electrolyte concentration, anodization time and current on the superhydrophobic surface were discussed. By PP coating after anodizing, a good superhydrophobic surface was facilely fabricated. The optimum conditions for anodizing were determined by orthogonal experiments. After the aluminium-alloy was grinded with 600# sandpaper, pretreated by 73 g/L hydrochloric acid solution at 1 min, when the concentration of sulfuric acid was 180 g/L, the concentration of oxalic acid was 5 g/L, the concentration of potassium dichromate was 10 g/L, the concentration of chloride sodium was 50 g/L and 63 g/L of glycerol, anodization time was 20 min, and anodization current was 1.2 A/dm2, anodization temperature was 30-35 degrees C, the best micro-nanostructure aluminum alloy films was obtained. On the other hand, the PP with different concentrations was used to the PP with different concentrations was used to coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was achieved by coating PP, and the duration of the superhydrophobic surface was improved by modifying the coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was surface with high concentration PP. The morphologies of micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface were further confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The material of PP with the low surface free energy combined with the micro/nano-structures of the surface resulted in the superhydrophobicity of the aluminum alloy surface.

  16. Surface free energy of non-stick coatings deposited using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen-Cheng; Lee, Shih-Chin; Dai, Shyue-Bin; Tien, Shein-Long; Chang, Chung-Chih; Fu, Yaw-Shyan

    2007-02-01

    Semiconductor IC packaging molding dies require wear resistance, corrosion resistance and non-sticking (with a low surface free energy). The molding releasing capability and performance are directly associated with the surface free energy between the coating and product material. The serious sticking problem reduces productivity and reliability. Depositing TiN, TiMoS, ZrN, CrC, CrN, NiCr, NiCrN, CrTiAlN and CrNiTiAlN coatings using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating, and characterizing their surface free energy are the main object in developing a non-stick coating system for semiconductor IC molding tools. The contact angle of water, diiodomethane and ethylene glycol on the coated surfaces were measured at temperature in 20 °C using a Dataphysics OCA-20 contact angle analyzer. The surface free energy of the coatings and their components (dispersion and polar) were calculated using the Owens-Wendt geometric mean approach. The surface roughness was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The adhesion force of these coatings was measured using direct tensile pull-off test apparatus. The experimental results showed that NiCrN, CrN and NiCrTiAlN coatings outperformed TiN, ZrN, NiCr, CiTiAlN, CrC and TiMoS coatings in terms of non-sticking, and thus have the potential as working layers for injection molding industrial equipment, especially in semiconductor IC packaging molding applications.

  17. Surface free energy of non-stick coatings deposited using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, C.-C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lee, S.-C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Dai, S.-B. [Center of General Studies, National Kaohsiung Marine University, Nan-Tzu, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Nano-Win Technology Co. Ltd., Tainan, Taiwan (China); Tien, S.-L. [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, 701 Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chang, C.-C. [Department of Physics, R.O.C. Military Academy, 830 Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Fu, Y.-S. [Department of Environment and Energy, National University of Tainan, Tainan, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: ysfu@mail.nutn.edu.tw

    2007-02-15

    Semiconductor IC packaging molding dies require wear resistance, corrosion resistance and non-sticking (with a low surface free energy). The molding releasing capability and performance are directly associated with the surface free energy between the coating and product material. The serious sticking problem reduces productivity and reliability. Depositing TiN, TiMoS, ZrN, CrC, CrN, NiCr, NiCrN, CrTiAlN and CrNiTiAlN coatings using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating, and characterizing their surface free energy are the main object in developing a non-stick coating system for semiconductor IC molding tools. The contact angle of water, diiodomethane and ethylene glycol on the coated surfaces were measured at temperature in 20 deg. C using a Dataphysics OCA-20 contact angle analyzer. The surface free energy of the coatings and their components (dispersion and polar) were calculated using the Owens-Wendt geometric mean approach. The surface roughness was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The adhesion force of these coatings was measured using direct tensile pull-off test apparatus. The experimental results showed that NiCrN, CrN and NiCrTiAlN coatings outperformed TiN, ZrN, NiCr, CiTiAlN, CrC and TiMoS coatings in terms of non-sticking, and thus have the potential as working layers for injection molding industrial equipment, especially in semiconductor IC packaging molding applications.

  18. Surface free energy of non-stick coatings deposited using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, C.-C.; Lee, S.-C.; Dai, S.-B.; Tien, S.-L.; Chang, C.-C.; Fu, Y.-S.

    2007-01-01

    Semiconductor IC packaging molding dies require wear resistance, corrosion resistance and non-sticking (with a low surface free energy). The molding releasing capability and performance are directly associated with the surface free energy between the coating and product material. The serious sticking problem reduces productivity and reliability. Depositing TiN, TiMoS, ZrN, CrC, CrN, NiCr, NiCrN, CrTiAlN and CrNiTiAlN coatings using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating, and characterizing their surface free energy are the main object in developing a non-stick coating system for semiconductor IC molding tools. The contact angle of water, diiodomethane and ethylene glycol on the coated surfaces were measured at temperature in 20 deg. C using a Dataphysics OCA-20 contact angle analyzer. The surface free energy of the coatings and their components (dispersion and polar) were calculated using the Owens-Wendt geometric mean approach. The surface roughness was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The adhesion force of these coatings was measured using direct tensile pull-off test apparatus. The experimental results showed that NiCrN, CrN and NiCrTiAlN coatings outperformed TiN, ZrN, NiCr, CiTiAlN, CrC and TiMoS coatings in terms of non-sticking, and thus have the potential as working layers for injection molding industrial equipment, especially in semiconductor IC packaging molding applications

  19. Hydrophobic cotton textile surfaces using an amphiphilic graphene oxide (GO) coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissera, Nadeeka D.; Wijesena, Ruchira N.; Perera, J. Rangana; Nalin de Silva, K.M.; Amaratunge, Gehan A.J.

    2015-01-01

    . Microscopic characterization of the fiber surface using SEM and AFM reveals the deposition of GO sheets on the fiber surface as a conformal coating. Analysis of the fabric surface using UV–vis absorption allowed identification of the ratio of hydrophobic to hydrophilic domains present on the GO coated cotton fabric surface. Hydrophobic properties on cotton fabric are ascribed to two dimensional amphiphilic properties of deposited GO nano sheets, which successfully lower the interfacial energy of the fabric surface

  20. Preparation of Trivalent Chromium and Rare Earth Composite Conversion Coating on Aluminum Alloy Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianzhen

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the surface conversion film on 6063 aluminum alloy was prepared by chemical plating process with chromium sulfate, lanthanum sulfate and sodium phosphate as film forming agent. The corrosion resistance and surface morphology of the conversion film were analyzed by pitting corrosion test of copper sulfate and SEM. The results show that when Cr2(SO4)3 is 10 g/L, La2(SO4)3 is 2 g/L, Na3PO4 is 8 g/L, pH value is 3, temperature is 40 °C, reaction time is 10 min, the corrosion resistance of the surface conversion film is the best. The conversion coating is light green, composed of Cr, La, P, Al, O and other elements.