WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface co2 gas

  1. Enceladus' near-surface CO2 gas pockets and surface frost deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Dennis L.; Davies, Ashley Gerard; Johnson, Torrence V.; Combe, Jean-Philippe; McCord, Thomas B.; Radebaugh, Jani; Singh, Sandeep

    2018-03-01

    Solid CO2 surface deposits were reported in Enceladus' South Polar Region by Brown et al. (2006). They noted that such volatile deposits are temporary and posited ongoing replenishment. We present a model for this replenishment by expanding on the Matson et al. (2012) model of subsurface heat and chemical transport in Enceladus. Our model explains the distributions of both CO2 frost and complexed CO2 clathrate hydrate as seen in the Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) data. We trace the journey of CO2 from a subsurface ocean. The ocean-water circulation model of Matson et al. (2012) brings water up to near the surface where gas exsolves to form bubbles. Some of the CO2 bubbles are trapped and form pockets of gas in recesses at the bottom of the uppermost ice layer. When fissures break open these pockets, the CO2 gas is vented. Gas pocket venting is episodic compared to the more or less continuous eruptive plumes, emanating from the "tiger stripes", that are supported by plume chambers. Two styles of gas pocket venting are considered: (1) seeps, and (2) blowouts. The presence of CO2 frost patches suggests that the pocket gas slowly seeped through fractured, cold ice and when some of the gas reached the surface it was cold enough to condense (i.e., T ∼70 to ∼119 K). If the fissure opening is large, a blowout occurs. The rapid escape of gas and drop in pocket pressure causes water in the pocket to boil and create many small aerosol droplets of seawater. These may be carried along by the erupting gas. Electrically charged droplets can couple to the magnetosphere, and be dragged away from Enceladus. Most of the CO2 blowout gas escapes from Enceladus and the remainder is distributed globally. However, CO2 trapped in a clathrate structure does not escape. It is much heavier and slower moving than the CO2 gas. Its motion is ballistic and has an average range of about 17 km. Thus, it contributes to deposits in the vicinity of the vent. Local heat

  2. A microporous MOF with a polar pore surface exhibiting excellent selective adsorption of CO2 from CO2-N2 and CO2-CH4 gas mixtures with high CO2 loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Arun; Chand, Santanu; Elahi, Syed Meheboob; Das, Madhab C

    2017-11-14

    A microporous MOF {[Zn(SDB)(L) 0.5 ]·S} n (IITKGP-5) with a polar pore surface has been constructed by the combination of a V-shaped -SO 2 functionalized organic linker (H 2 SDB = 4,4'-sulfonyldibenzoic acid) with an N-rich spacer (L = 2,5-bis(3-pyridyl)-3,4-diaza-2,4-hexadiene), forming a network with sql(2,6L1) topology. IITKGP-5 is characterized by TGA, PXRD and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The framework exhibits lozenge-shaped channels of an approximate size of 4.2 × 5.6 Å 2 along the crystallographic b axis with a potential solvent accessible volume of 26%. The activated IITKGP-5a revealed a CO 2 uptake capacity of 56.4 and 49 cm 3 g -1 at 273 K/1 atm and 295 K/1 atm, respectively. On the contrary, it takes up a much smaller amount of CH 4 (17 cm 3 g -1 at 273 K and 13.6 cm 3 g -1 at 295 K) and N 2 (5.5 cm 3 g -1 at 273 K; 4 cm 3 g -1 at 295 K) under 1 atm pressure exhibiting its potential for a highly selective adsorption of CO 2 from flue gas as well as a landfill gas mixture. Based on the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST), a CO 2 /N 2 selectivity of 435.5 and a CO 2 /CH 4 selectivity of 151.6 have been realized at 273 K/100 kPa. The values at 295 K are 147.8 for CO 2 /N 2 and 23.8 for CO 2 /CH 4 gas mixtures under 100 kPa. In addition, this MOF nearly approaches the target values proposed for PSA and TSA processes for practical utility exhibiting its prospect for flue gas separation with a CO 2 loading capacity of 2.04 mmol g -1 .

  3. Surface modification of the titanium implant using TEA CO2 laser pulses in controllable gas atmospheres - Comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciganovic, J.; Stasic, J.; Gakovic, B.; Momcilovic, M.; Milovanovic, D.; Bokorov, M.; Trtica, M.

    2012-01-01

    Interaction of a TEA CO 2 laser, operating at 10.6 μm wavelength and pulse duration of 100 ns (FWHM), with a titanium implant in various gas atmospheres was studied. The Ti implant surface modification was typically studied at the moderate laser beam energy density/fluence of 28 J/cm 2 in the surrounding of air, N 2 , O 2 or He. The energy absorbed from the TEA CO 2 laser beam is partially converted to thermal energy, which generates a series of effects, such as melting, vaporization of the molten material, shock waves, etc. The following titanium implant surface changes and phenomena were observed, depending on the gas used: (i) creation of cone-like surface structures in the atmospheres of air, N 2 and O 2 , and dominant micro-holes/pores in He ambient; (ii) hydrodynamic features, most prominent in air; (iii) formation of titanium nitride and titanium oxide layers, and (iv) occurrence of plasma in front of the implant. It can be concluded from this study that the reported laser fluence and gas ambiences can effectively be applied for enhancing the titanium implant roughness and creation of titanium oxides and nitrides on the strictly localized surface area. The appearance of plasma in front of the implants indicates relatively high temperatures created above the surface. This offers a sterilizing effect, facilitating contaminant-free conditions.

  4. Power stabilized CO2 gas transport laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.D.; Kirk, R.F.; Moreno, F.E.; Ahmed, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    The output power of a high power (1 kW or more) CO 2 gas transport laser is stabilized by flowing the gas mixture over copper plated baffles in the gas channel during operation of the laser. Several other metals may be used instead of copper, for example, nickel, manganese, palladium, platinum, silver and gold. The presence of copper in the laser gas circuit stabilizes output power by what is believed to be a compensation of the chemical changes in the gas due to the cracking action of the electrical discharge which has the effect of diminishing the capactiy of the carbon dioxide gas mixture to maintain the rated power output of the laser. (U.S.)

  5. Faults as Windows to Monitor Gas Seepage: Application to CO2 Sequestration and CO2-EOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W. Klusman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of potential gas seepage for CO2 sequestration and CO2-EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery in geologic storage will involve geophysical and geochemical measurements of parameters at depth and at, or near the surface. The appropriate methods for MVA (Monitoring, Verification, Accounting are needed for both cost and technical effectiveness. This work provides an overview of some of the geochemical methods that have been demonstrated to be effective for an existing CO2-EOR (Rangely, CA, USA and a proposed project at Teapot Dome, WY, USA. Carbon dioxide and CH4 fluxes and shallow soil gas concentrations were measured, followed by nested completions of 10-m deep holes to obtain concentration gradients. The focus at Teapot Dome was the evaluation of faults as pathways for gas seepage in an under-pressured reservoir system. The measurements were supplemented by stable carbon and oxygen isotopic measurements, carbon-14, and limited use of inert gases. The work clearly demonstrates the superiority of CH4 over measurements of CO2 in early detection and quantification of gas seepage. Stable carbon isotopes, carbon-14, and inert gas measurements add to the verification of the deep source. A preliminary accounting at Rangely confirms the importance of CH4 measurements in the MVA application.

  6. Gas permeation process for post combustion CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfister, Marc

    2017-01-01

    CO 2 Capture and Storage (CCS) is a promising solution to separate CO 2 from flue gas, to reduce the CO 2 emissions in the atmosphere, and hence to reduce global warming. In CCS, one important constraint is the high additional energy requirement of the different capture processes. That statement is partly explained by the low CO 2 fraction in the inlet flue gas and the high output targets in terms of CO 2 capture and purity (≥90%). Gas permeation across dense membrane can be used in post combustion CO 2 capture. Gas permeation in a dense membrane is ruled by a mass transfer mechanism and separation performance in a dense membrane are characterized by component's effective permeability and selectivity. One of the newest and encouraging type of membrane in terms of separation performance is the facilitated transport membrane. Each particular type of membrane is defined by a specific mass transfer law. The most important difference to the mass transfer behavior in a dense membrane is related to the facilitated transport mechanism and the solution diffusion mechanism and its restrictions and limitations. Permeation flux modelling across a dense membrane is required to perform a post combustion CO 2 capture process simulation. A CO 2 gas permeation separation process is composed of a two-steps membrane process, one drying step and a compression unit. Simulation on the energy requirement and surface area of the different membrane modules in the global system are useful to determine the benefits of using dense membranes in a post combustion CO 2 capture technology. (author)

  7. Spectroscopic characterisation of iodine deposits on 18%Cr/8%Ni and mild steel surfaces oxidised in CO2/CH3I gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, J.W.

    1987-08-01

    An understanding and quantification of iodine-131 attenuation within the gas circuit of a Commercial Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor is required for reactor safety assessments. To this end it is desirable to identify the chemical state of iodine in the gas phase or when deposited on reactor surfaces. Samples of 18%Cr/8%Ni and mild steel pipe, with iodine deposited on their surfaces following oxidation in CO 2 /CH 3 I gas mixtures, have been characterised in the present work using a variety of different spectroscopic techniques including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, scanning Auger microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The chemical nature of the deposited iodine has been determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to be a metal iodide by correlating I 3d binding energies with those obtained from well characterised standards; the binding energies of the ejected I 3d photoelectrons being sensitive to the chemical environment experienced by the iodine atoms. The distribution of iodine throughout the oxide layers formed on these steels was determined by repeated cycles of argon-ion bombardment and analysis to build up an elemental depth profile whilst at the same time determining the chemical state of the elements present. Differences in oxide composition and morphology are discussed in relation to the deposition behaviour observed on 18%Cr/8%Ni and mild steel and it is suggested that gradual incorporation of the iodine occurs throughout the oxidation/deposition period. (U.K.)

  8. Variability in soil CO2 production and surface CO2 efflux across riparian-hillslope transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent Jerald. Pacific

    2007-01-01

    The spatial and temporal controls on soil CO2 production and surface CO2 efflux have been identified as an outstanding gap in our understanding of carbon cycling. I investigated both the spatial and temporal variability of soil CO2 concentrations and surface CO2 efflux across eight topographically distinct riparian-hillslope transitions in the ~300 ha subalpine upper-...

  9. Soil surface CO2 fluxes on the Konza Prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, J. M.; Garcia, R.; Verma, Shoshi B.

    1990-01-01

    The utilization of a soil chamber to measure fluxes of soil-surface CO2 fluxes is described in terms of equipment, analytical methods, and estimate quality. A soil chamber attached to a gas-exchange system measures the fluxes every 5-15 min, and the data are compared to measurements of the CO2 fluxes from the canopy and from the soil + canopy. The soil chamber yields good measurements when operated in a closed system that is ported to the free atmosphere, and the CO2 flux is found to have a diurnal component.

  10. Leakage and Seepage of CO2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites: CO2 Migration into Surface Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldenburg, Curt M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and its storage in deep geologic formations. One of the concerns of geologic carbon sequestration is that injected CO 2 may leak out of the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment, and seep out of the ground or into surface water. In this research, we investigate the process of CO 2 leakage and seepage into saturated sediments and overlying surface water bodies such as rivers, lakes, wetlands, and continental shelf marine environments. Natural CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes are well studied and provide insight into the expected transport mechanisms and fate of seepage fluxes of similar magnitude. Also, natural CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes are pervasive in surface water environments at levels that may mask low-level carbon sequestration leakage and seepage. Extreme examples are the well known volcanic lakes in Cameroon where lake water supersaturated with respect to CO 2 overturned and degassed with lethal effects. Standard bubble formation and hydrostatics are applicable to CO 2 bubbles in surface water. Bubble-rise velocity in surface water is a function of bubble size and reaches a maximum of approximately 30 cm s -1 at a bubble radius of 0.7 mm. Bubble rise in saturated porous media below surface water is affected by surface tension and buoyancy forces, along with the solid matrix pore structure. For medium and fine grain sizes, surface tension forces dominate and gas transport tends to occur as channel flow rather than bubble flow. For coarse porous media such as gravels and coarse sand, buoyancy dominates and the maximum bubble rise velocity is predicted to be approximately 18 cm s -1 . Liquid CO 2 bubbles rise slower in water than gaseous CO 2 bubbles due to the smaller density contrast. A comparison of ebullition (i.e., bubble formation) and resulting bubble flow versus dispersive gas transport for CO 2 and CH 4 at three different seepage rates reveals that

  11. CO_2 gas sensors based on rare earth oxycarbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haensch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This title presents a new type of CO_2 gas sensor, that allows the measurement of CO_2 gas with very low effort. The measurement principle is based on two semiconducting materials. One the ''receptor'' and a ''transducer'' form a semiconductor junction. Electronic changes in the receptor change the electrical resistance in the transducer and therefor allow the easy electrical measurement. The reactivity and the reaction mechanism is thoroughly studied. In the first part the basics and resistance measurements are presented. A comparison between different mixtures is done. The main part studies the surface chemistry with operando DRIFT spectroscopy. The chemical reactivity of different target gases and background gases is studied thoroughly. The electronic properties of Oxycarbonates and the combination of oxycarbonate and tin oxide were studied using operando Kelvin probes measurements. The result is that CO_2 alters the electron affinity of the material. Once moisture is present, an additional band bending is visible. The band bending dominated in a humid atmosphere, the work function changes. The electronic connection of oxycarbonate and tin oxide, the work function change of Oxycarbonates can be transferred to the tin oxide. Using the collected data, a basic idea of the operation will be presented by a two-semiconductor materials gas sensor.

  12. CO2 capture by gas hydrate crystallization: Application on the CO2-N2 mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchemoua, A.

    2012-01-01

    CO 2 capture and sequestration represent a major industrial and scientific challenge of this century. There are different methods of CO 2 separation and capture, such as solid adsorption, amines adsorption and cryogenic fractionation. Although these processes are well developed at industrial level, they are energy intensive. Hydrate formation method is a less energy intensive and has an interesting potential to separate carbon dioxide. Gas hydrates are Document crystalline compounds that consist of hydrogen bonded network of water molecules trapping a gas molecule. Gas hydrate formation is favored by high pressure and low temperature. This study was conducted as a part of the SECOHYA ANR Project. The objective is to study the thermodynamic and kinetic conditions of the process to capture CO 2 by gas hydrate crystallization. Firstly, we developed an experimental apparatus to carry out experiments to determine the thermodynamic and kinetic formation conditions of CO 2 -N 2 gas hydrate mixture in water as liquid phase. We showed that the operative pressure may be very important and the temperature very low. For the feasibility of the project, we used TBAB (Tetrabutylammonium Bromide) as thermodynamic additive in the liquid phase. The use of TBAB may reduce considerably the operative pressure. In the second part of this study, we presented a thermodynamic model, based on the van der Waals and Platteeuw model. This model allows the estimation of thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Experimental equilibrium data of CO 2 -CH 4 and CO 2 -N 2 mixtures are presented and compared to theoretical results. (author)

  13. Development of Novel CO2 Adsorbents for Capture of CO2 from Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauth, D.J.; Filburn, T.P. (University of Hartford, West Hartford, CT); Gray, M.L.; Hedges, S.W.; Hoffman, J.; Pennline, H.W.; Filburn, T.

    2007-06-01

    Capturing CO2 emissions generated from fossil fuel-based power plants has received widespread attention and is considered a vital course of action for CO2 emission abatement. Efforts are underway at the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory to develop viable energy technologies enabling the CO2 capture from large stationary point sources. Solid, immobilized amine sorbents (IAS) formulated by impregnation of liquid amines within porous substrates are reactive towards CO2 and offer an alternative means for cyclic capture of CO2 eliminating, to some degree, inadequacies related to chemical absorption by aqueous alkanolamine solutions. This paper describes synthesis, characterization, and CO2 adsorption properties for IAS materials previously tested to bind and release CO2 and water vapor in a closed loop life support system. Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), acrylonitrile-modified tetraethylenepentamine (TEPAN), and a single formulation consisting of TEPAN and N, N’-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine (BED) were individually supported on a poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate and examined. CO2 adsorption profiles leading to reversible CO2 adsorption capacities were obtained using thermogravimetry. Under 10% CO2 in nitrogen at 25°C and 1 atm, TEPA supported on PMMA over 60 minutes adsorbed ~3.2 mmol/g{sorbent} whereas, TEPAN supported on PMMA along with TEPAN and BED supported on PMMA adsorbed ~1.7 mmol/g{sorbent} and ~2.3 mmol/g{sorbent} respectively. Cyclic experiments with a 1:1 weight ratio of TEPAN and BED supported on poly (methyl methacrylate) beads utilizing a fixed-bed flow system with 9% CO2, 3.5% O2, nitrogen balance with trace gas constituents were studied. CO2 adsorption capacity was ~ 3 mmols CO2/g{sorbent} at 40°C and 1.4 atm. No beneficial effect on IAS performance was found using a moisture-laden flue gas mixture. Tests with 750 ppmv NO in a humidified gas stream revealed negligible NO sorption onto the IAS. A high SO2

  14. Silicon microring refractometric sensor for atmospheric CO(2) gas monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Guangcan; Horvath, Cameron; Aktary, Mirwais; Van, Vien

    2016-01-25

    We report a silicon photonic refractometric CO(2) gas sensor operating at room temperature and capable of detecting CO(2) gas at atmospheric concentrations. The sensor uses a novel functional material layer based on a guanidine polymer derivative, which is shown to exhibit reversible refractive index change upon absorption and release of CO(2) gas molecules, and does not require the presence of humidity to operate. By functionalizing a silicon microring resonator with a thin layer of the polymer, we could detect CO(2) gas concentrations in the 0-500ppm range with a sensitivity of 6 × 10(-9) RIU/ppm and a detection limit of 20ppm. The microring transducer provides a potential integrated solution in the development of low-cost and compact CO(2) sensors that can be deployed as part of a sensor network for accurate environmental monitoring of greenhouse gases.

  15. Surface CO2 leakage during the first shallow subsurface CO2 release experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Lewicki, J.L.; Oldenburg, C.; Dobeck, L.; Spangler, L.

    2008-01-01

    A new field facility was used to study CO2 migration processes and test techniques to detect and quantify potential CO2 leakage from geologic storage sites. For 10 days starting 9 July 2007, and for seven days starting 5 August 2007, 0.1 and 0.3 t CO2 d-1, respectively, were released from a ~;100-m long, sub-water table (~;2.5-m depth) horizontal well. The spatio-temporal evolution of leakage was mapped through repeated grid measurements of soil CO2 flux (FCO2). The surface leakage onset...

  16. Atmospheric inversion of the surface CO2 flux with 13CO2 constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Mo, G.; Deng, F.

    2013-10-01

    Observations of 13CO2 at 73 sites compiled in the GLOBALVIEW database are used for an additional constraint in a global atmospheric inversion of the surface CO2 flux using CO2 observations at 210 sites for the 2002-2004 period for 39 land regions and 11 ocean regions. This constraint is implemented using the 13CO2/CO2 flux ratio modeled with a terrestrial ecosystem model and an ocean model. These models simulate 13CO2 discrimination rates of terrestrial photosynthesis and respiration and ocean-atmosphere diffusion processes. In both models, the 13CO2 disequilibrium between fluxes to and from the atmosphere is considered due to the historical change in atmospheric 13CO2 concentration. For the 2002-2004 period, the 13CO2 constraint on the inversion increases the total land carbon sink from 3.40 to 3.70 Pg C yr-1 and decreases the total oceanic carbon sink from 1.48 to 1.12 Pg C yr-1. The largest changes occur in tropical areas: a considerable decrease in the carbon source in the Amazon forest, and this decrease is mostly compensated by increases in the ocean region immediately west of the Amazon and the southeast Asian land region. Our further investigation through different treatments of the 13CO2/CO2 flux ratio used in the inversion suggests that variable spatial distributions of the 13CO2 isotopic discrimination rate simulated by the models over land and ocean have considerable impacts on the spatial distribution of the inverted CO2 flux over land and the inversion results are not sensitive to errors in the estimated disequilibria over land and ocean.

  17. Effects of CO2 gas as leaks from geological storage sites on agro-ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Ravi; Colls, Jeremy J; Steven, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage in geological formations has potential risks in the long-term safety because of the possibility of CO2 leakage. Effects of leaking gas, therefore, on vegetation, soil, and soil-inhabiting organisms are critical to understand. An artificial soil gassing and response...... detection field facility developed at the University of Nottingham was used to inject CO2 gas at a controlled flow rate (1 l min-1) into soil to simulate build-up of soil CO2 concentrations and surface fluxes from two land use types: pasture grassland, and fallow followed by winter bean. Mean soil CO2....... This study showed adverse effects of CO2 gas on agro-ecosystem in case of leakage from storage sites to surface....

  18. Why natural gas for CO2 and climate control?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roose, T.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have suggested that increased use of natural gas is a possible strategy for reducing the potential for global warming. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) contributes as much to global warming as all other greenhouse gases combined. During combustion, natural gas generates less CO 2 per unit of energy produced than either coal or oil. On the basis of the amount of CO 2 emitted, the potential for global warming could be reduced by substituting natural gas to coal or oil. However, since natural gas is primarily methane, a potent greenhouse gas, these emissions could reduce natural gas's inherent advantage of lower CO 2 emissions. To address this issue and compare the fuels on an equivalent basis, it is necessary to account for emissions of all greenhouse gases throughout the fuel cycle of each fuel and to determine the impact of these gases on global warming. Gas Research Institute and EPA jointly funded a study to quantify methane emissions from the natural gas industry so that this information could be used as input to address the issue of the fuel switching strategy. The study found that the natural gas industry emitted 1.4% of natural gas production (314 Bscf of methane) to the atmosphere in 1992. Today, due to voluntary reductions from the gas industry, the percent leaked is even less. This 1992 amount has been analyzed over a broad range of global warming potentials, and the conclusion that fuel switching to natural gas reduces the potential for global warming is supported. The results of this study are presented in this paper

  19. Noble gas geochemistry to monitor CO2 geological storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafortune, St.

    2007-11-01

    According to the last IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) report, a probability of 90 % can be now established for the responsibility of the anthropogenic CO 2 emissions for the global climate change observed since the beginning of the 20. century. To reduce these emissions and keep producing energy from coal, oil or gas combustions, CO 2 could be stored in geological reservoirs like aquifers, coal beds, and depleted oil or gas fields. Storing CO 2 in geological formations implies to control the efficiency and to survey the integrity of the storages, in order to be able to detect the possible leaks as fast as possible. Here, we study the feasibility of a geochemical monitoring through noble gas geochemistry. We present (1) the development of a new analytical line, Garodiox, developed to extract quantitatively noble gas from water samples, (2) the testing of Garodiox on samples from a natural CO 2 storage analogue (Pavin lake, France) and (3) the results of a first field work on a natural CO 2 accumulation (Montmiral, France). The results we obtain and the conclusions we draw, highlight the interest of the geochemical monitoring we suggest. (author)

  20. Equivalent oil price, equivalent gas price and CO2 cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.

    2008-01-01

    This article assess the magnitudes of costs to replace oil (and natural gas) in their fixed (heat) or mobile (transport) uses with energy savings or non CO 2 emitting energies. The price of oil (or gas) at which such measures would be profitable at is inferred, without any tax or subsidy, as well as the resulting CO 2 costs avoided. It shows that several of the actions considered in France and Europe to protect the climate are far from being the most economically justified. (author)

  1. Determining CO2 storage potential during miscible CO2 enhanced oil recovery: Noble gas and stable isotope tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jenna L.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Hunt, Andrew; Beebe, Thomas L; Parker, Andrew D; Warwick, Peter D.; Drake, Ronald; McCray, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are fueling anthropogenic climate change. Geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 in depleted oil reservoirs is one option for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere while enhancing oil recovery. In order to evaluate the feasibility of using enhanced oil recovery (EOR) sites in the United States for permanent CO2 storage, an active multi-stage miscible CO2flooding project in the Permian Basin (North Ward Estes Field, near Wickett, Texas) was investigated. In addition, two major natural CO2 reservoirs in the southeastern Paradox Basin (McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon) were also investigated as they provide CO2 for EOR operations in the Permian Basin. Produced gas and water were collected from three different CO2 flooding phases (with different start dates) within the North Ward Estes Field to evaluate possible CO2 storage mechanisms and amounts of total CO2retention. McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon were sampled for produced gas to determine the noble gas and stable isotope signature of the original injected EOR gas and to confirm the source of this naturally-occurring CO2. As expected, the natural CO2produced from McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon is a mix of mantle and crustal sources. When comparing CO2 injection and production rates for the CO2 floods in the North Ward Estes Field, it appears that CO2 retention in the reservoir decreased over the course of the three injections, retaining 39%, 49% and 61% of the injected CO2 for the 2008, 2010, and 2013 projects, respectively, characteristic of maturing CO2 miscible flood projects. Noble gas isotopic composition of the injected and produced gas for the flood projects suggest no active fractionation, while δ13CCO2 values suggest no active CO2dissolution into formation water, or mineralization. CO2 volumes capable of dissolving in residual formation fluids were also estimated along with the potential to store pure-phase supercritical CO2. Using a combination

  2. Predicting gas decomposition in an industrialized pulsed CO2 laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available to be stable at O2 levels in excess of 2%, whereas previously reported values suggest stable operation at values of less than 1%. This is thought to be related to the unusually high starting CO2 concentration of the gas mix, and the short time pulse...

  3. A Highly Stable Microporous Covalent Imine Network Adsorbent for Natural Gas Upgrading and Flue Gas CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Swapan Kumar

    2016-06-06

    The feasible capture and separation of CO2 and N2 from CH4 is an important task for natural gas upgrading and the control of greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we studied the microporous covalent imine networks (CIN) material prepared through Schiff base condensation and exhibited superior chemical robustness under both acidic and basic conditions and high thermal stability. The material possesses a relatively uniform nanoparticle size of approximately 70 to 100 nm. This network featured permanent porosity with a high surface area (722 m2g-1) and micropores. A single-component gas adsorption study showed enhanced CO2 and CH4 uptakes of 3.32 mmol/g and 1.14 mmol/g, respectively, at 273 K and 1 bar, coupled with high separation selectivities for CO2/CH4, CH4/N2, and CO2/N2 of 23, 11.8 and 211, respectively. The enriched Lewis basicity in the porous skeletons favours the interaction of quadrupolar CO2 and polarizable CH4, resulting in enhanced CH4 and CO2 uptake and high CH4/N2, CO2/CH4 and CO2/N2 selectivities. Breakthrough experiments showed high CO2/CH4, CH4/N2 and CO2/N2 selectivities of 7.29, 40 and 125, respectively, at 298 K and 1 bar. High heats of adsorption for CH4 and CO2 (QstCH4; 32.61 kJ mol-1 and QstCO2; 42.42 kJ mol-1) provide the ultimate validation for the high selectivity. To the best of our knowledge, such a versatile adsorbent material that displays both enhanced uptake and selectivity for a variety of binary gas mixtures, including CO2/ CH4, CO2/N2 and CH4/N2, has not been extensively explored.

  4. Effects of CO2 gas as leaks from geological storage sites on agro-ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Ravi H.; Colls, Jeremy J.; Steven, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage in geological formations has potential risks in the long-term safety because of the possibility of CO 2 leakage. Effects of leaking gas, therefore, on vegetation, soil, and soil-inhabiting organisms are critical to understand. An artificial soil gassing and response detection field facility developed at the University of Nottingham was used to inject CO 2 gas at a controlled flow rate (1 l min -1 ) into soil to simulate build-up of soil CO 2 concentrations and surface fluxes from two land use types: pasture grassland, and fallow followed by winter bean. Mean soil CO 2 concentrations was significantly higher in gassed pasture plots than in gassed fallow plots. Germination of winter bean sown in gassed fallow plots was severely hindered and the final crop stand was reduced to half. Pasture grass showed stress symptoms and above-ground biomass was significantly reduced compared to control plot. A negative correlation (r = -0.95) between soil CO 2 and O 2 concentrations indicated that injected CO 2 displaced O 2 from soil. Gassing CO 2 reduced soil pH both in grass and fallow plots (p = 0.012). The number of earthworm castings was twice as much in gassed plots than in control plots. This study showed adverse effects of CO 2 gas on agro-ecosystem in case of leakage from storage sites to surface.

  5. Non-Volcanic release of CO2 in Italy: quantification, conceptual models and gas hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodini, G.; Cardellini, C.; Caliro, S.; Avino, R.

    2011-12-01

    Central and South Italy are characterized by the presence of many reservoirs naturally recharged by CO2 of deep provenance. In the western sector, the reservoirs feed hundreds of gas emissions at the surface. Many studies in the last years were devoted to (i) elaborating a map of CO2 Earth degassing of the region; (ii) to asses the gas hazard; (iii) to develop methods suitable for the measurement of the gas fluxes from different types of emissions; (iv) to elaborate the conceptual model of Earth degassing and its relation with the seismic activity of the region and (v) to develop physical numerical models of CO2 air dispersion. The main results obtained are: 1) A general, regional map of CO2 Earth degassing in Central Italy has been elaborated. The total flux of CO2 in the area has been estimated in ~ 10 Mt/a which are released to the atmosphere trough numerous dangerous gas emissions or by degassing spring waters (~ 10 % of the CO2 globally estimated to be released by the Earth trough volcanic activity). 2) An on line, open access, georeferenced database of the main CO2 emissions (~ 250) was settled up (http://googas.ov.ingv.it). CO2 flux > 100 t/d characterise 14% of the degassing sites while CO2 fluxes from 100 t/d to 10 t/d have been estimated for about 35% of the gas emissions. 3) The sites of the gas emissions are not suitable for life: the gas causes many accidents to animals and people. In order to mitigate the gas hazard a specific model of CO2 air dispersion has been developed and applied to the main degassing sites. A relevant application regarded Mefite d'Ansanto, southern Apennines, which is the largest natural emission of low temperature CO2 rich gases, from non-volcanic environment, ever measured in the Earth (˜2000 t/d). Under low wind conditions, the gas flows along a narrow natural channel producing a persistent gas river which has killed over a period of time many people and animals. The application of the physical numerical model allowed us to

  6. Soil gas (222Rn, CO2, 4He) behaviour over a natural CO2 accumulation, Montmiral area (Drome, France): geographical, geological and temporal relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal, Frederick; Joublin, Franck; Haas, Hubert; Jean-prost, Veronique; Ruffier, Veronique

    2011-01-01

    The south east basin of France shelters deep CO 2 reservoirs often studied with the aim of better constraining geological CO 2 storage operations. Here we present new soil gas data, completing an existing dataset (CO 2 , 222 Rn, 4 He), together with mineralogical and physical characterisations of soil columns, in an attempt to better understand the spatial distribution of gas concentrations in the soils and to rule on the sealed character of the CO 2 reservoir at present time. Anomalous gas concentrations were found but did not appear to be clearly related to geological structures that may drain deep gases up to the surface, implying a dominant influence of near surface processes as indicated by carbon isotope ratios. Coarse grained, quartz-rich soils favoured the existence of high CO 2 concentrations. Fine grained clayey soils preferentially favoured the existence of 222 Rn but not CO 2 . Soil formations did not act as barriers preventing gas migrations in soils, either due to water content or due to mineralogical composition. No abundant leakage from the Montmiral reservoir can be highlighted by the measurements, even near the exploitation well. As good correlation between CO 2 and 222 Rn concentrations still exist, it is suggested that 222 Rn migration is also CO 2 dependent in non-leaking areas - diffusion dominated systems.

  7. Castration of piglets under CO2-gas anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritzen, M A; Kluivers-Poodt, M; Reimert, H G M; Hindle, V; Lambooij, E

    2008-11-01

    It has become common practice in pig fattening production systems to castrate young boar piglets without the use of anaesthesia. In this study, we examined whether or not CO2 gas is capable of inducing an acceptable anaesthetic state during which castration can be performed. The first step was to identify the most promising CO2/O2 mixture. Based on the results from this first experiment, a mixture of 70% CO2 + 30% O2 was chosen for further investigation as a potential anaesthetic during the castration of young piglets. Thereby, it was established whether the duration and depth of anaesthesia were acceptable for castration where the animal has to be insensible and unconscious. Physiological effects were assessed based on electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) measurements, blood gas values and behavioural responses. During the induction phase, the only typical behaviour the piglets exhibited when exposed to the 70/30 gas mixture was heavy breathing. All piglets (n = 25) lost consciousness after approximately 30 s according to the EEG. Heart rate decreased slowly during the induction phase, a serious drop occurred when piglets lost their posture. Immediately after this drop, the heart rate neared zero or showed a very irregular pattern. Shortly after loss of posture, most animals showed a few convulsions. None of the animals showed any reaction to castration in behaviour and/or on the EEG and ECG. On average, the piglets recovered within 59 s, i.e. EEG returned to its pre-induction pattern and piglets were able to regain a standing position. After 120 s, heart rate returned to pre-induction levels. In order to explore the usage range of CO2 concentration, 24 piglets were exposed to 60% CO2 + 20% O2 + 20% N2 for up to 30 s after loss of consciousness (as registered on EEG), and castrated after removal from the chamber. Sixteen of the 24 animals showed a reaction to the castration on the EEG. To establish the maximum time piglets survive in 70% CO2 + 30

  8. The CO2-tax and its ability to reduce CO2 emissions related to oil and gas production in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roemo, F.; Lund, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    The primary ambition of the paper is to illustrate some relevant effects of the CO 2 -tax, and draw the line from company adaptation via national ambitions and goals to global emission consequences. The CO 2 -tax is a success for oil and gas production only to the extent that the CO 2 emission per produced unit oil/gas is reduced as a consequence of the tax. If not, the CO 2 -tax is a pure fiscal tax and has no qualitative impact on the CO 2 emissions. The reduction potential is then isolated to the fact that some marginal fields will not be developed, and the accelerated close down of fields in production. The paper indicates that a significant replacement of older gas turbines at a certain level of the CO 2 -tax could be profitable for the companies. This is dependent on change in turbine energy utilization, and the investment cost. The CO 2 -tax is a political success for the nation if it is a significant contributor to achieve national emission goals. Furthermore, is the CO 2 -tax an environmental success only to the extent it contributes to reductions in the CO 2 emissions globally. The paper indicates that there are possibilities for major suboptimal adaptations in connection with national CO 2 -taxation of the oil and gas production. 13 refs., 6 figs

  9. Change of properties after oxidation of IG-11 graphite by air and CO2 gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Yun-Soo; Chi, Se-Hwan; Cho, Kwang-Yun

    2008-01-01

    Artificial graphite is typically manufactured by carbonization of a shaped body of a kneaded mixture using granular cokes as a filler and pitch as a binder. It undergoes a pitch impregnation process if necessary and finally applying graphitization heat treatment. The effect of thermal oxidation in air or a CO 2 atmosphere on IG-11 graphite samples is investigated in this study. The results show a localized oxidation process that progressively reveals the large coke particles with increasing level of overall weight loss in air. The surface of the graphite was peeled off and no change was found in the specific gravity after air oxidation. However, the specific gravity of graphite was continuously decreased by CO 2 oxidation. The decrease in the specific gravity by CO 2 oxidation was due to CO 2 gas that progressed from the surface to the interior. The pore shape after CO 2 oxidation differed from that under air oxidation

  10. Monthly dynamics of carbon dioxide exchange across the sea surface of the Arctic Ocean in response to changes in gas transfer velocity and partial pressure of CO2 in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Wrobel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic Ocean (AO is an important basin for global oceanic carbon dioxide (CO2 uptake, but the mechanisms controlling air–sea gas fluxes are not fully understood, especially over short and long timescales. The oceanic sink of CO2 is an important part of the global carbon budget. Previous studies have shown that in the AO differences in the partial pressure of CO2 (ΔpCO2 and gas transfer velocity (k both contribute significantly to interannual air–sea CO2 flux variability, but that k is unimportant for multidecadal variability. This study combined Earth Observation (EO data collected in 2010 with the in situ pCO2 dataset from Takahashi et al. (2009 (T09 using a recently developed software toolbox called FluxEngine to determine the importance of k and ΔpCO2 on CO2 budgets in two regions of the AO – the Greenland Sea (GS and the Barents Sea (BS with their continental margins. Results from the study indicate that the variability in wind speed and, hence, the gas transfer velocity, generally play a major role in determining the temporal variability of CO2 uptake, while variability in monthly ΔpCO2 plays a major role spatially, with some exceptions.

  11. Sonochemical surface functionalization of exfoliated LDH: Effect on textural properties, CO2 adsorption, cyclic regeneration capacities and subsequent gas uptake for simultaneous methanol synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeh, Collins I; Huang, Xiani; Yang, Xiaogang; Sun, Cheng-Gong; Wang, Jiawei

    2017-11-01

    To improve CO 2 adsorption, amine modified Layered double hydroxide (LDH) were prepared via a two stage process, SDS/APTS intercalation was supported by ultrasonic irradiation and then followed by MEA extraction. The prepared samples were characterised using Scanning electron microscope-Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The characterisation results were compared with those obtained using the conventional preparation method with consideration to the effect of sonochemical functionalization on textural properties, adsorption capacity, regeneration and lifetime of the LDH adsorbent. It is found that LDHs prepared by sonochemical modification had improved pore structure and CO 2 adsorption capacity, depending on sonic intensity. This is attributed to the enhanced deprotonation of activated amino functional groups via the sonochemical process. Subsequently, this improved the amine loading and effective amine efficiency by 60% of the conventional. In addition, the sonochemical process improved the thermal stability of the adsorbent and also, reduced the irreversible CO 2 uptake, CUirrev, from 0.18mmol/g to 0.03mmol/g. Subsequently, improving the lifetime and ease of regenerating the adsorbent respectively. This is authenticated by subjecting the prepared adsorbents to series of thermal swing adsorption (TSA) cycles until its adsorption capacity goes below 60% of the original CO 2 uptake. While the conventional adsorbent underwent a 10 TSA cycles before breaking down, the sonochemically functionalized LDH went further than 30 TSA cycles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Forgotten carbon: indirect CO2 in greenhouse gas emission inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillenwater, Michael

    2008-01-01

    National governments that are Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are required to submit greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories accounting for the emissions and removals occurring within their geographic territories. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides inventory methodology guidance to the Parties of the UNFCCC. This methodology guidance, and national inventories based on it, omits carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the atmospheric oxidation of methane, carbon monoxide, and non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions that result from several source categories. The inclusion of this category of 'indirect' CO 2 in GHG inventories increases global anthropogenic emissions (excluding land use and forestry) between 0.5 and 0.7%. However, the effect of inclusion on aggregate UNFCCC Annex I Party GHG emissions would be to reduce the growth of total emissions, from 1990 to 2004, by 0.2% points. The effect on the GHG emissions and emission trends of individual countries varies. The paper includes a methodology for calculating these emissions and discusses uncertainties. Indirect CO 2 is equally relevant for GHG inventories at other scales, such as global, regional, organizational, and facility. Similarly, project-based methodologies, such as those used under the Clean Development Mechanism, may need revising to account for indirect CO 2

  13. Gases (CH4, CO2 and N2 and pore water chemistry in the surface sediments of Lake Orta, Italy: acidification effects on C and N gas cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald D. ADAMS

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Lake Orta, a subalpine, warm monomictic lake in northwestern Italy was heavily polluted from rayon factory discharges of ammonium and copper since 1926. In the 1950s accumulations of contaminants resulted in whole lake pHs of 3.8-4.0 from ammonium oxidation. Partial remediation started in the 1950s, but by 1985-89 the water remained acidified at pHs of 4.0. Artificial liming (14,500 t in 1989-90 resulted in improved water quality and substantial recovery of the biological community. Sediment gases, sampled in 1989 before liming, from the lake's four basins showed severe inhibition of methanogenesis (CH4 = 0.0-0.15 mM in the surface sediments (0.5-5 cm of the southern basin, location of the plant effluent, as compared to the deep central and northern basins (0.9-1.4 mM. Four years after liming, cores collected in 1994 near the 1989 southern basin sites showed a slight change in surface sediment methane (0.07-0.82 mM, yet suggested continual sediment toxicity, at least to carbon cycling through methanogenesis. Calculations of diffuse flux of CH4 at the sediment-water interface (SWI in 1989 were 6.6-7.4 mM m-2 day-1 for the central and northern basins and 0.13 for the southern basin. CH4 fluxes increased 16x to 2 mM m-2 day-1 in 1994 in the southern basin, possibly from remediation of near surface sediments. The impact of pollution on denitrification (formation of sediment N2 gas was not so obvious since two processes could counteract each other (high NO3 - stimulating denitrification versus possible negative effects from acidity and metals. The calculated flux of N2 from the southern basin sediments increased 5x four years after liming compared to the period of acidification, suggesting possible toxicity towards denitrifiers during the earlier period. Core overlying water (0.68 mM exhibited N2 concentrations close to saturation, while most surface sediments were twice as much (1.5 mM. Surface (0-6 cm sediment N2 was similar at most sites, with the

  14. Evaluation of Mars CO2 Capture and Gas Separation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Gibson, Tracy; Devor, Robert; Captain, James

    2011-01-01

    Recent national policy statements have established that the ultimate destination of NASA's human exploration program is Mars. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is a key technology required to ,enable such missions and it is appropriate to review progress in this area and continue to advance the systems required to produce rocket propellant, oxygen, and other consumables on Mars using the carbon dioxide atmosphere and other potential resources. The Mars Atmospheric Capture and Gas separation project is selecting, developing, and demonstrating techniques to capture and purify Martian atmospheric gases for their utilization for the production of hydrocarbons, oxygen, and water in ISRU systems. Trace gases will be required to be separated from Martian atmospheric gases to provide pure CO2 to processing elements. In addition, other Martian gases, such as nitrogen and argon, occur in concentrations high enough to be useful as buffer gas and should be captured as well. To achieve these goals, highly efficient gas separation processes will be required. These gas separation techniques are also required across various areas within the ISRU project to support various consumable production processes. The development of innovative gas separation techniques will evaluate the current state-of-the-art for the gas separation required, with the objective to demonstrate and develop light-weight, low-power methods for gas separation. Gas separation requirements include, but are not limited to the selective separation of: (1) methane and water from unreacted carbon oxides (C02-CO) and hydrogen typical of a Sabatier-type process, (2) carbon oxides and water from unreacted hydrogen from a Reverse Water-Gas Shift process, (3)/carbon oxides from oxygen from a trash/waste processing reaction, and (4) helium from hydrogen or oxygen from a propellant scavenging process. Potential technologies for the separations include' freezers, selective membranes, selective solvents, polymeric sorbents

  15. CO2 removals and CO2 and non-CO2 trace gas emissions affected by human activity in the forests in the Republic of macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grupche, Ljupcho; Lozanovski, Risto; Markovska, Natasha

    2001-01-01

    During 2000 and 2001 inventories of CO 2 removals and emissions caused by changes in forest and other woody biomass stocks, as well as the inventories of CO 2 and non-CO 2 trace gas emissions caused by forest conversions (accidental burning) were carried out. According to the forest area in ha, and depending on the differences between the annual biomass increment and annual biomass consumption, about 30-50% of total annual carbon uptake increment is released through the biomass consumption from stocks. 50-70% of the net annual carbon uptake converted to CO 2 identify the annual removals of this gas, which is on average 1805 Gg/yr, ranging between 1485 and 2243 Gg/yr. From 1990 to 1998 on average 4700 ha forest area (min. 110 ha in 1991, max. 14420 ha in 1993) was burned. Proportionally to the burned area, there was a release on average of 18.62 kt C annually (min. 0.42 kt C, max. 57.11 kt), related to 136.07 kt CO 2 on average (min. 1.5 kt CO 2 , max. 209.22 kt CO 2 ). (Original)

  16. Selective CO2 gas adsorption in the narrow crystalline cavities of flexible peptide metallo-macrocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Ryosuke; Kuwata, Chika; Masumoto, Yui

    2015-02-21

    Crystalline peptide Ni(ii)-macrocycles (BF4(-) salt) exhibited moderate CO2 gas adsorption (ca. 6-7 CO2 molecules per macrocycle) into very narrow cavities (narrowest part gas in preference to CH4 and N2 gases.

  17. Subsurface oxide plays a critical role in CO2 activation by Cu(111) surfaces to form chemisorbed CO2, the first step in reduction of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, Marco; Xiao, Hai; Cheng, Tao; Goddard, William A; Yano, Junko; Crumlin, Ethan J

    2017-06-27

    A national priority is to convert CO 2 into high-value chemical products such as liquid fuels. Because current electrocatalysts are not adequate, we aim to discover new catalysts by obtaining a detailed understanding of the initial steps of CO 2 electroreduction on copper surfaces, the best current catalysts. Using ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy interpreted with quantum mechanical prediction of the structures and free energies, we show that the presence of a thin suboxide structure below the copper surface is essential to bind the CO 2 in the physisorbed configuration at 298 K, and we show that this suboxide is essential for converting to the chemisorbed CO 2 in the presence of water as the first step toward CO 2 reduction products such as formate and CO. This optimum suboxide leads to both neutral and charged Cu surface sites, providing fresh insights into how to design improved carbon dioxide reduction catalysts.

  18. Comparison of Surface and Column Variations of CO2 Over Urban Areas for Future Active Remote CO2 Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yonghoon; Yang, Melissa; Kooi, Susan; Browell, Edward

    2015-01-01

    High resolution in-situ CO2 measurements were recorded onboard the NASA P-3B during the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) Field Campaign, to investigate the ability of space-based observations to accurately assess near surface conditions related to air quality. This campaign includes, Washington DC/Baltimore, MD (July 2011), San Joaquin Valley, CA (January - February 2013), Houston, TX (September 2013), and Denver, CO (July-August 2014). Each of these campaigns consisted of missed approaches and approximately two hundred vertical soundings of CO2 within the lower troposphere (surface to about 5 km). In this study, surface (0 - 1 km) and column-averaged (0 - 3.5 km) CO2 mixing ratio values from the vertical soundings in the four geographically different urban areas are used to investigate the temporal and spatial variability of CO2 within the different urban atmospheric emission environments. Tracers such as CO, CH2O, NOx, and NMHCs are used to identify the source of CO2 variations in the urban sites. Additionally, we apply nominal CO2 column weighting functions for potential future active remote CO2 sensors operating in the 1.57-microns and 2.05-microns measurement regions to convert the in situ CO2 vertical mixing ratio profiles to variations in CO2 column optical depths, which is what the active remote sensors actually measure. Using statistics calculated from the optical depths at each urban site measured during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign and for each nominal weighting function, we investigate the natural variability of CO2 columns in the lower troposphere; relate the CO2 column variability to the urban surface emissions; and show the measurement requirements for the future ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons) in the continental U.S. urban areas.

  19. Gas geochemistry of natural analogues for the studies of geological CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voltattorni, N.; Sciarra, A.; Caramanna, G.; Cinti, D.; Pizzino, L.; Quattrocchi, F.

    2009-01-01

    Geological sequestration of anthropogenic CO 2 appears to be a promising method for reducing the amount of greenhouse gases released to the atmosphere. Geochemical modelling of the storage capacity for CO 2 in saline aquifers, sandstones and/or carbonates should be based on natural analogues both in situ and in the laboratory. The main focus of this paper has been to study natural gas emissions representing extremely attractive surrogates for the study and prediction of the possible consequences of leakage from geological sequestration sites of anthropogenic CO 2 (i.e., the return to surface, potentially causing localised environmental problems). These include a comparison among three different Italian case histories: (i) the Solfatara crater (Phlegraean Fields caldera, southern Italy) is an ancient Roman spa. The area is characterised by intense and diffuse hydrothermal activity, testified by hot acidic mud pools, thermal springs and a large fumarolic field. Soil gas flux measurements show that the entire area discharges between 1200 and 1500 tons of CO 2 per day; (ii) the Panarea Island (Aeolian Islands, southern Italy) where a huge submarine volcanic-hydrothermal gas burst occurred in November, 2002. The submarine gas emissions chemically modified seawater causing a strong modification of the marine ecosystem. All of the collected gases are CO 2 -dominant (maximum value: 98.43 vol.%); (iii) the Tor Caldara area (Central Italy), located in a peripheral sector of the quiescent Alban Hills volcano, along the faults of the Ardea Basin transfer structure. The area is characterised by huge CO 2 degassing both from water and soil. Although the above mentioned areas do not represent a storage scenario, these sites do provide many opportunities to study near-surface processes and to test monitoring methodologies.

  20. Experimental investigation of CO_2 separation by adsorption methods in natural gas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.J.; Fu, Y.; Huang, Y.X.; Tao, Z.C.; Zhu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The ideal swing adsorption tank can improve the adsorption performance. • Pure CO_2 adsorption experimental data agrees well with extended Langmuir model. • Langmuir-Freundlich model correlates CO_2/CH_4 mixture adsorption data fairly well. • The temperature increases in the order swing 2 > swing1 > static for pure CO_2 adsorption. • Swinging the adsorption tank can improve the separation efficiency. - Abstract: CO_2 separation for natural gas purification by the adsorption method was studied in detail using volumetric adsorption apparatus. The crystalline phase and microstructure of the experimental sample were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Micromeritics ASAP 2020 instrument. The XRD pattern proves that the experimental sample consists of 13X zeolites. The SEM images show that the 13X zeolites expose a large number of micro-channels on the surface of the particles. The microporous volume is 0.22 cm"3 (STP)/g. The ideal swing frequency for the adsorption tank can improve the adsorption performance of an adsorbent compared with a static adsorption tank. The pure CO_2 adsorption experimental data agrees well with the extended Langmuir model. The Langmuir-Freundlich model correlates the CO_2/CH_4 mixture adsorption experimental data fairly well. The relative errors between the simulated results and the experimental data are very little, which indicates that these fitted models are correct. The average selectivity of CO_2/CH_4 in a static and swing adsorption tank are, respectively, 3.57 and 3.93, considerably higher than 1, indicating preferential CO_2 adsorption over CH_4 in CO_2/CH_4 mixtures. This also shows that the swing can improve CO_2 separation for natural gas purification. For the three types of motion status, the temperature of the adsorption tank increased in the order swing 2 > swing1 > static state for pure CO_2 adsorption in 13X zeolites. The temperature variation decreased as the

  1. Enhancement of farmland greenhouse gas emissions from leakage of stored CO2: simulation of leaked CO2 from CCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueyan; Ma, Xin; Wu, Yang; Li, Yue

    2015-06-15

    The effects of leaked CO2 on plant and soil constitute a key objective of carbon capture and storage (CCS) safety. The effects of leaked CO2 on trace soil gas (e.g., methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in farmlands are not well-understood. This study simulated the effects of elevated soil CO2 on CH4 and N2O through pot experiments. The results revealed that significant increases of CH4 and N2O emissions were induced by the simulated CO2 leakages; the emission rates of CH4 and N2O were substantial, reaching about 222 and 48 times than that of the control, respectively. The absolute global warming potentials (GWPs) of the additional CH4 and N2O are considerable, but the cumulative GWPs of the additional CH4 and N2O only accounted for 0.03% and 0.06%, respectively, of the cumulative amount of leaked CO2 under high leakage conditions. The results demonstrate that leakage from CCS projects may lead to additional greenhouse gas emissions from soil; however, in general, the amount of additional CH4 and N2O emissions is negligible when compared with the amount of leaked CO2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Assisting Gas Optimization in CO2 Laser Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1996-01-01

    High quality laser welding is achieved under the condition of optimizing all process parameters. Assisting gas plays an important role for sound welds. In the conventional welding process assisting gas is used as a shielding gas to prevent that the weld seam oxidates. In the laser welding process...... assisting gas is also needed to control the laser induced plasma.Assisting gas is one of the most important parameters in the laser welding process. It is responsible for obtaining a quality weld which is characterized by deep penetration, no interior imperfections, i.e. porosity, no crack, homogeneous seam...... surface, etc. In this work a specially designed flexible off-axis nozzle capable of adjusting the angle of the nozzle, the diameter of the nozzle, and the distance between the nozzle end and the welding zone is tested. In addition to the nozzle parameters three gases, Nitrogen, Argon, and Helium...

  3. Modelling land surface fluxes of CO2 in response to climate change and nitrogen deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristina; Ambelas Skjøth, Carsten; Geels, Camilla

    Climate change, land use variations, and impacts of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition represent uncertainties for the prediction of future greenhouse gas exchange between land surfaces and the atmosphere as the mechanisms describing nutritional effects are not well developed in climate...... climate feedback mechanisms of CO2 between changes in management, land use practise, and climate change....

  4. Investigation of Na-CO2 Reaction with Initial Reaction in Various Reacting Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Su; Park, Gunyeop; Kim, Soo Jae; Park, Hyun Sun; Kim, Moo Hwan; Wi, Myung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    The reaction products that cause oxidation and erosion are threaten the heat transfer tubes so that it is necessary to investigate Na-CO 2 reaction according to various experimental parameter. Unlike SWR, Na-CO 2 reaction is more complex to deal with reaction kinetics. Since a comprehensive understanding of Na-CO 2 reaction mechanism is crucial for the safety analysis, the reaction phenomenon under the various conditions was investigated. The current issue is to make a database for developing computational code for CO 2 gas leak situation because it is experimentally difficult to analyze the actual accident situation. Most studies on Na-CO 2 interaction reports that chemical reaction is getting vigorous as temperature increased and reactivity is sensitive as temperature change between 400 .deg. C and 600 .deg. C. Therefore, temperature range is determined based on the operating condition (450 - 500 .deg. C) of KALIMER-600 employed as supercritical CO 2 brayton cycle energy conversion system for Na-CO 2 heat exchanger. And next parameter is sodium surface area which contact between sodium and CO 2 when CO 2 is injected into sodium pool in the accident situation. So, the fundamental surface reaction is experimentally studied in the range of 8 - 12cm 2 . Additionally, it has been reported in recent years that CO 2 Flow rate affects reactivity less significantly and CO 2 flow rate is assumed that 5 SLPM (standard liter per minute) is suitable as a basis for a small leakage. The finally selected control parameters is sodium temperature and reacting surface area with constant CO 2 flow rate. Na-CO 2 reaction test is performed for investigating risk of potential accident which contacts with liquid sodium and CO 2 . Amount of reaction is saturated as time passed because of kept a balance between production of solid phase reaction products and amount of diffusivity. These results contribute to make a database for the SFR safety analysis and additional experiments are needed

  5. Continuous CO2 gas monitoring to clarify natural pattern and artificial leakage signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joun, W.; Ha, S. W.; Joo, Y. J.; Lee, S. S.; Lee, K. K.

    2017-12-01

    Continuous CO2 gas monitoring at shallow aquifer is significant for early detection and immediate handling of an aquifer impacted by leaking CO2 gas from the sequestration reservoir. However, it is difficult to decide the origin of CO2 gas because detected CO2 includes not only leaked CO2 but also naturally emitted CO2. We performed CO2 injection and monitoring tests in a shallow aquifer. Before the injection of CO2 infused water, we have conducted continuous monitoring of multi-level soil CO2 gas concentration and physical parameters such as temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed and direction, and precipitation. The monitoring data represented that CO2 gas concentrations in unsaturated soil zone borehole showed differences at depths and daily variation (360 to 6980 ppm volume). Based on the observed data at 5 m and 8 m depths, vertical flux of gas was calculated as 0.471 L/min (LPM) for inflow from 5 m to 8 m and 9.42E-2 LPM for outflow from 8 m to 5 m. The numerical and analytical models were used to calculate the vertical flux of gas and to compare with observations. The results showed that pressure-based modeling could not explain the rapid change of CO2 gas concentration in borehole. Acknowledgement Financial support was provided by the "R&D Project on Environmental Management of Geologic CO2 Storage" from the KEITI (Project Number: 2014001810003)

  6. The Effect of Thermal Convection on Earth-Atmosphere CO2 Gas Exchange in Aggregated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganot, Y.; Weisbrod, N.; Dragila, M. I.

    2011-12-01

    Gas transport in soils and surface-atmosphere gas exchange are important processes that affect different aspects of soil science such as soil aeration, nutrient bio-availability, sorption kinetics, soil and groundwater pollution and soil remediation. Diffusion and convection are the two main mechanisms that affect gas transport, fate and emissions in the soils and in the upper vadose zone. In this work we studied CO2 soil-atmosphere gas exchange under both day-time and night-time conditions, focusing on the impact of thermal convection (TCV) during the night. Experiments were performed in a climate-controlled laboratory. One meter long columns were packed with matrix of different grain size (sand, gravel and soil aggregates). Air with 2000 ppm CO2 was injected into the bottom of the columns and CO2 concentration within the columns was continuously monitored by an Infra Red Gas Analyzer. Two scenarios were compared for each soil: (1) isothermal conditions, representing day time conditions; and (2) thermal gradient conditions, i.e., atmosphere colder than the soil, representing night time conditions. Our results show that under isothermal conditions, diffusion is the major mechanism for surface-atmosphere gas exchange for all grain sizes; while under night time conditions the prevailing mechanism is dependent on the air permeability of the matrix: for sand and gravel it is diffusion, and for soil aggregates it is TCV. Calculated CO2 flux for the soil aggregates column shows that the TCV flux was three orders of magnitude higher than the diffusive flux.

  7. Subsurface oxide plays a critical role in CO_2 activation by Cu(111) surfaces to form chemisorbed CO_2 , the first step in reduction of CO_2

    OpenAIRE

    Favaro, Marco; Xiao, Hai; Cheng, Tao; Goddard, William A.; Yano, Junko; Crumlin, Ethan J.

    2017-01-01

    A national priority is to convert CO_2 into high-value chemical products such as liquid fuels. Because current electrocatalysts are not adequate, we aim to discover new catalysts by obtaining a detailed understanding of the initial steps of CO_2 electroreduction on copper surfaces, the best current catalysts. Using ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy interpreted with quantum mechanical prediction of the structures and free energies, we show that the presence of a thin suboxide s...

  8. Subsurface oxide plays a critical role in CO2 activation by Cu(111) surfaces to form chemisorbed CO2, the first step in reduction of CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Favaro, M; Xiao, H; Cheng, T; Goddard, WA; Crumlin, EJ

    2017-01-01

    A national priority is to convert CO2 into high-value chemical products such as liquid fuels. Because current electrocatalysts are not adequate, we aim to discover new catalysts by obtaining a detailed understanding of the initial steps of CO2 electroreduction on copper surfaces, the best current catalysts. Using ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy interpreted with quantum mechanical prediction of the structures and free energies, we show that the presence of a thin suboxide str...

  9. Highly Surface-Active Ca(OH)2 Monolayer as a CO2 Capture Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçelik, V Ongun; Gong, Kai; White, Claire E

    2018-03-14

    Greenhouse gas emissions originating from fossil fuel combustion contribute significantly to global warming, and therefore the design of novel materials that efficiently capture CO 2 can play a crucial role in solving this challenge. Here, we show that reducing the dimensionality of bulk crystalline portlandite results in a stable monolayer material, named portlandene, that is highly effective at capturing CO 2 . On the basis of theoretical analysis comprised of ab initio quantum mechanical calculations and force-field molecular dynamics simulations, we show that this single-layer phase is robust and maintains its stability even at high temperatures. The chemical activity of portlandene is seen to further increase upon defect engineering of its surface using vacancy sites. Defect-containing portlandene is capable of separating CO and CO 2 from a syngas (CO/CO 2 /H 2 ) stream, yet is inert to water vapor. This selective behavior and the associated mechanisms have been elucidated by examining the electronic structure, local charge distribution, and bonding orbitals of portlandene. Additionally, unlike conventional CO 2 capturing technologies, the regeneration process of portlandene does not require high temperature heat treatment because it can release the captured CO 2 by application of a mild external electric field, making portlandene an ideal CO 2 capturing material for both pre- and postcombustion processes.

  10. Tailoring gas-phase CO2 electroreduction selectivity to hydrocarbons at Cu nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Garcia, I.; Albo, J.; Irabien, A.

    2018-01-01

    Copper-based surfaces appear as the most active catalysts for CO2 electroreduction to hydrocarbons, even though formation rates and efficiencies still need to be improved. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the continuous gas-phase CO2 electroreduction to hydrocarbons (i.e. ethylene and methane) at copper nanoparticulated-based surfaces, paying attention to particle size influence (ranging from 25-80 nm) on reaction productivity, selectivity, and Faraday efficiency (FE) for CO2 conversion. The effect of the current density and the presence of a microporous layer within the working electrode are then evaluated. Copper-based gas diffusion electrodes are prepared by airbrushing the catalytic ink onto carbon supports, which are then coupled to a cation exchange membrane (Nafion) in a membrane electrode assembly. The results show that the use of smaller copper nanoparticles (25 nm) leads to a higher ethylene production (1148 μmol m-2 s-1) with a remarkable high FE (92.8%), at the same time, diminishing the competitive hydrogen evolution reaction in terms of FE. This work demonstrates the importance of nanoparticle size on reaction selectivity, which may be of help to design enhanced electrocatalytic materials for CO2 valorization to hydrocarbons.

  11. Underwater photosynthesis and respiration in leaves of submerged wetland plants: gas films improve CO2 and O2 exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmer, Timothy David; Pedersen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    (N) was enhanced up to sixfold. Gas films on submerged leaves enable continued gas exchange via stomata and thus bypassing of cuticle resistance, enhancing exchange of O(2) and CO(2) with the surrounding water, and therefore underwater P(N) and respiration.......Many wetland plants have gas films on submerged leaf surfaces. We tested the hypotheses that leaf gas films enhance CO(2) uptake for net photosynthesis (P(N)) during light periods, and enhance O(2) uptake for respiration during dark periods. Leaves of four wetland species that form gas films......, and two species that do not, were used. Gas films were also experimentally removed by brushing with 0.05% (v/v) Triton X. Net O(2) production in light, or O(2) consumption in darkness, was measured at various CO(2) and O(2) concentrations. When gas films were removed, O(2) uptake in darkness was already...

  12. Geomechanical issues of anthropogenic CO2 sequestration in exploited gas fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferronato, Massimiliano; Gambolati, Giuseppe; Janna, Carlo; Teatini, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    Anthropogenic CO 2 sequestration in deep geological formations may represent a viable option to fulfil the requirements of the 1997 Kyoto protocol on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Scenarios of CO 2 sequestration through three injection wells in an exploited gas field located in the Po sedimentary basin (Italy) are simulated with the final target to understand the geomechanical consequences of the injection of carbon dioxide. Investigated scenarios include, as a hypothetical case, the long-term injection of CO 2 until the initial reservoir pressure is exceeded by as much as 40% over a period of about 100 years. The process is analyzed from the geomechanical point of view using a finite element-interface element (FE-IE) model with the following main issues addressed: (1) prediction of the possible land vertical uplift and corresponding impact on the ground infrastructures; (2) evaluation of the stress state induced in the reservoir formation with the possible generation of fractures and (3) a risk analysis for the activation of existing faults. The geomechanical constitutive law of the Northern Adriatic basin relying on the radioactive marker interpretation is implemented into the FE model, while an elasto-plastic relationship based on the Mohr-Coulomb criterion is used for the IE reproducing the fault behaviour. The in situ stress prior to the gas field exploitation is compressive with the principal horizontal stress in the direction perpendicular to the major faults equal to the vertical stress. The results show that the ground surface rebound due to the overpressure generated by the CO 2 sequestration partially mitigates the land subsidence experienced by the area because of the previous gas field depletion with differential displacements that are confined within the safety bounds suggested in the literature for the surface infrastructures. Activation of a few faults lying close to the northern reservoir boundary points to a slip of a couple of

  13. Quasiclassical trajectory study of the energy transfer in CO2--rare gas systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzukawa, H.H. Jr.; Wolfsberg, M.; Thompson, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    Computational methods are presented for the study of collisions between a linear, symmetric triatomic molecule and an atom by three-dimensional quasiclassical trajectory calculations. Application is made to the investigation of translational to rotational and translational to vibrational energy transfer in the systems CO 2 --Kr, CO 2 --Ar, and CO 2 --Ne. Potential-energy surfaces based on spectroscopic and molecular beam scattering data are used. In most of the calculations, the CO 2 molecule is initially in the quantum mechanical zero-point vibrational state and in a rotational state picked from a Boltzmann distribution at 300 0 K. The energy transfer processes are investigated for translational energies ranging from 0.1 to 10 eV. Translational to rotational energy transfer is found to be the major process for CO 2 --rare gas collisions at these energies. Below 1 eV there is very little translational to vibrational energy transfer. The effects of changes in the internal energy of the molecule, in the masses of the collidants, and in the potential-energy parameters are studied in an attempt to gain understanding of the energy transfer processes

  14. Near Surface CO2 Triple Oxygen Isotope Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasadhar Mahata

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The isotopic composition of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is a powerful tool for constraining its sources and sinks. In particular, the 17O oxygen anomaly [Δ17O = 1000 × ln(1 + δ17O/1000 - 0.516 × 1000 × ln(1 + δ18O/1000], with a value > 0.5‰ produced in the middle atmosphere, provides an ideal tool for probing the exchange of carbon dioxide between the biosphere/hydrosphere and atmosphere. The biosphere/hydrosphere and anthropogenic emissions give values ≤ 0.3‰. Therefore, any anomaly in near surface CO2 would reflect the balance between stratospheric input and exchange with the aforementioned surface sources. We have analyzed Δ17O values of CO2 separated from air samples collected in Taipei, Taiwan, located in the western Pacific region. The obtained mean anomaly is 0.42 ± 0.14‰ (1-σ standard deviation, in good agreement with model prediction and a published decadal record. Apart from typically used δ13C and δ18O values, the Δ17O value could provide an additional tracer for constraining the carbon cycle.

  15. Porous materials as high performance adsorbents for CO2 capture, gas separation and purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun

    Global warming resulted from greenhouse gases emission has received a widespread attention. Among the greenhouse gases, CO2 contributes more than 60% to global warming due to its huge emission amount. The flue gas contains about 15% CO2 with N2 as the balance. If CO2 can be separated from flue gas, the benefit is not only reducing the global warming effect, but also producing pure CO2 as a very useful industry raw material. Substantial progress is urgent to be achieved in an industrial process. Moreover, energy crisis is one of the biggest challenges for all countries due to the short life of fossil fuels, such as, petroleum will run out in 50 years and coal will run out in 150 years according to today's speed. Moreover, the severe pollution to the environment caused by burning fossil fuels requires us to explore sustainable, environment-friendly, and facile energy sources. Among several alternative energy sources, natural gas is one of the most promising alternative energy sources due to its huge productivity, abundant feed stock, and ease of generation. In order to realize a substantial adsorption process in industry, synthesis of new adsorbents or modification of existing adsorbent with improved properties has become the most critical issue. This dissertation reports systemic characterization and development of five serials of novel adsorbents with advanced adsorption properties. In chapter 2, nitrogen-doped Hypercross-linking Polymers (HCPs) have been synthesized successfully with non-carcinogenic chloromethyl methyl ether (CME) as the cross-linking agent within a single step. Texture properties, surface morphology, CO2/N2 selectivity, and adsorption heat have been presented and demonstrated properly. A comprehensive discussion on factors that affect the CO2 adsorption and CO2/N 2 separation has also been presented. It was found that high micropore proportion and N-content could effectively enhance CO2 uptake and CO2/N2 separation selectivity. In chapter 3, a

  16. The operation of wholesale electricity, CO2 and natural gas markets in 2010-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The first part analyses the electricity wholesale markets: development of the main wholesale market segments, electricity price, electricity production analysis and transparency of production data, transaction analysis. The second part analyses CO 2 markets: evolution of the institutional framework and perspectives, exchanges volumes on the CO 2 market, the CO 2 price in Europe, fundamentals of the European CO 2 market. The third part addresses the gas market: development of gas trade, gas price, gas infrastructures, supply and outlets for stake holders and new comers

  17. Study on the supercritical CO2 power cycles for landfill gas firing gas turbine bottoming cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Seok; Ahn, Yoonhan; Kim, Beomjoo; Lee, Jeong Ik

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a comparison of nine supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO 2 ) bottoming power cycles in conjunction with a topping cycle of landfill gas (LFG) fired 5MWe gas turbine is presented. For the comparison purpose, a sensitivity study of the cycle design parameters for nine different cycles was conducted and each cycle thermodynamic performance is evaluated. In addition, the cycle performance evaluation dependency on the compressor inlet temperature variation is performed to investigate how S-CO 2 cycles sensitive to the heat sink temperature variation. Furthermore, the development of new S-CO 2 cycle layouts is reported and the suggested cycles' performances are compared to the existing cycle layouts. It was found that a recompression cycle is not suitable for the bottoming cycle application, but a partial heating cycle has relatively higher net produced work with a simple layout and small number of components. Although a dual heated and flow split cycle has the highest net produced work, it has disadvantages of having numerous components and complex process which requires more sophisticated operational strategies. This study identified that the recuperation process is much more important than the intercooling process to the S-CO 2 cycle design for increasing the thermal efficiency and the net produced work point of view. - Highlights: • Study of nine S-CO 2 power cycle layouts for a small scale landfill gas power generation application. • Development of new S-CO 2 cycle layouts. • Sensitivity analysis of S-CO 2 cycles to evaluate and compare nine cycles' performances.

  18. Geoelectric Monitoring of geological CO2 storage at Ketzin, Germany (CO2SINK project): Downhole and Surface-Downhole measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, D.; Schuett, H.; Schoebel, B.; Krueger, K.; Schmidt-Hattenberger, C.; Schilling, F.

    2009-04-01

    Numerical models of the CO2 storage experiment CO2SINK (CO2 Storage by Injection into a Natural Saline Aquifer at Ketzin), where CO2 is injected into a deep saline aquifer at roughly 650 m depth, yield a CO2 saturation of approximately 50% for large parts of the plume. Archie's equation predicts an increase of the resistivity by a factor of approximately 3 to 4 for the reservoir sandstone, and laboratory tests on Ketzin reservoir samples support this prediction. Modeling results show that tracking the CO2 plume may be doable with crosshole resistivity surveys under these conditions. One injection well and two observation wells were drilled in 2007 to a depth of about 800 m and were completed with "smart" casings, arranged L-shaped with distances of 50 m and 100 m. 45 permanent ring-shaped steel electrodes were attached to the electrically insulated casings of the three Ketzin wells at 590 m to 735 m depth with a spacing of about 10 m. It is to our knowledge the deepest permanent vertical electrical resistivity array (VERA) worldwide. The electrodes are connected to the current power supply and data registration units at the surface through custom-made cables. This deep electrode array allows for the registration of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data sets at basically any desired repetition rate and at very low cost, without interrupting the injection operations. The installation of all 45 electrodes succeeded. The electrodes are connected to the electrical cable, and the insulated casing stood undamaged. Even after 2-odd years under underground conditions only 6 electrodes are in a critical state now, caused by corrosion effects. In the framework of the COSMOS project (CO2-Storage, Monitoring and Safety Technology), supported by the German "Geotechnologien" program, the geoelectric monitoring has been performed. The 3D crosshole time-laps measurements are taken using dipole-dipole configurations. The data was inverted using AGI EarthImager 3D to obtain 3D

  19. Modelling CO2 emissions from water surface of a boreal hydroelectric reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weifeng; Roulet, Nigel T; Kim, Youngil; Strachan, Ian B; Del Giorgio, Paul; Prairie, Yves T; Tremblay, Alain

    2018-01-15

    To quantify CO 2 emissions from water surface of a reservoir that was shaped by flooding the boreal landscape, we developed a daily time-step reservoir biogeochemistry model. We calibrated the model using the measured concentrations of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (C) in a young boreal hydroelectric reservoir, Eastmain-1 (EM-1), in northern Quebec, Canada. We validated the model against observed CO 2 fluxes from an eddy covariance tower in the middle of EM-1. The model predicted the variability of CO 2 emissions reasonably well compared to the observations (root mean square error: 0.4-1.3gCm -2 day -1 , revised Willmott index: 0.16-0.55). In particular, we demonstrated that the annual reservoir surface effluxes were initially high, steeply declined in the first three years, and then steadily decreased to ~115gCm -2 yr -1 with increasing reservoir age over the estimated "engineering" reservoir lifetime (i.e., 100years). Sensitivity analyses revealed that increasing air temperature stimulated CO 2 emissions by enhancing CO 2 production in the water column and sediment, and extending the duration of open water period over which emissions occur. Increasing the amount of terrestrial organic C flooded can enhance benthic CO 2 fluxes and CO 2 emissions from the reservoir water surface, but the effects were not significant over the simulation period. The model is useful for the understanding of the mechanism of C dynamics in reservoirs and could be used to assist the hydro-power industry and others interested in the role of boreal hydroelectric reservoirs as sources of greenhouse gas emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Acidic sweep gas with carbonic anhydrase coated hollow fiber membranes synergistically accelerates CO2 removal from blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazawa, D T; Kimmel, J D; Finn, M C; Federspiel, W J

    2015-10-01

    The use of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) is well established as a therapy for patients suffering from acute respiratory failure. Development of next generation low blood flow (carbonic anhydrase (CA) immobilized bioactive hollow fiber membrane (HFM) which significantly accelerates CO2 removal from blood in model gas exchange devices by converting bicarbonate to CO2 directly at the HFM surface. This present study tested the hypothesis that dilute sulfur dioxide (SO2) in oxygen sweep gas could further increase CO2 removal by creating an acidic microenvironment within the diffusional boundary layer adjacent to the HFM surface, facilitating dehydration of bicarbonate to CO2. CA was covalently immobilized onto poly (methyl pentene) (PMP) HFMs through glutaraldehyde activated chitosan spacers, potted in model gas exchange devices (0.0151 m(2)) and tested for CO2 removal rate with oxygen (O2) sweep gas and a 2.2% SO2 in oxygen sweep gas mixture. Using pure O2 sweep gas, CA-PMP increased CO2 removal by 31% (258 mL/min/m(2)) compared to PMP (197 mL/min/m(2)) (Premoval by 17% (230 mL/min/m(2)) compared to pure oxygen sweep gas control (Premoval increased by 109% (411 mL/min/m(2)) (Premoval, and when used in combination with bioactive CA-HFMs has a synergistic effect to more than double CO2 removal while maintaining physiologic pH. Through these technologies the next generation of intravascular and paracorporeal respiratory assist devices can remove more CO2 with smaller blood contacting surface areas. A clinical need exists for more efficient respiratory assist devices which utilize low blood flow rates (removal efficiency by shifting equilibrium from bicarbonate to gaseous CO2, through either a bioactive carbonic anhydrase enzyme coating or bulk blood acidification with lactic acid. In this study we demonstrate a novel approach to local blood acidification using an acidified sweep gas in combination with a bioactive coating to more than double CO2 removal

  1. CO2 adsorption-assisted CH4 desorption on carbon models of coal surface: A DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He; Chu, Wei; Huang, Xia; Sun, Wenjing; Jiang, Chengfa; Liu, Zhongqing

    2016-07-01

    Injection of CO2 into coal is known to improve the yields of coal-bed methane gas. However, the technology of CO2 injection-enhanced coal-bed methane (CO2-ECBM) recovery is still in its infancy with an unclear mechanism. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to elucidate the mechanism of CO2 adsorption-assisted CH4 desorption (AAD). To simulate coal surfaces, different six-ring aromatic clusters (2 × 2, 3 × 3, 4 × 4, 5 × 5, 6 × 6, and 7 × 7) were used as simplified graphene (Gr) carbon models. The adsorption and desorption of CH4 and/or CO2 on these carbon models were assessed. The results showed that a six-ring aromatic cluster model (4 × 4) can simulate the coal surface with limited approximation. The adsorption of CO2 onto these carbon models was more stable than that in the case of CH4. Further, the adsorption energies of single CH4 and CO2 in the more stable site were -15.58 and -18.16 kJ/mol, respectively. When two molecules (CO2 and CH4) interact with the surface, CO2 compels CH4 to adsorb onto the less stable site, with a resulting significant decrease in the adsorption energy of CH4 onto the surface of the carbon model with pre-adsorbed CO2. The Mulliken charges and electrostatic potentials of CH4 and CO2 adsorbed onto the surface of the carbon model were compared to determine their respective adsorption activities and changes. At the molecular level, our results showed that the adsorption of the injected CO2 promoted the desorption of CH4, the underlying mechanism of CO2-ECBM.

  2. Application of Notched Long-Period Fiber Grating Based Sensor for CO2 Gas Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao-Wei; Chiang, Chia-Chin

    2016-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma etching process to fabricate notched long-period fiber gratings for CO2 gas sensing is proposed in this article. In the gas sensing test, the 15% mixed CO2 gas was used for characterization of CO2 adsorption by the amine-modified nanoporous silica foams of the notched long-period fiber grating sensor. The results shows the spectra were changed with the CO2 gas flow within 13 min. During the absorption process, the transmission of the resonant dip was decreased by 2.884 dB. Therefore, the proposed notched long-period fiber grating gas sensor shows good performance and is suitable as a gas sensor for monitoring the CO2 adsorption process.

  3. Adsorption of methane and CO2 onto olivine surfaces in Martian dust conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla-Roa, Elizabeth; Martin-Torres, Javier; Sainz-Díaz, C. Ignacio

    2018-04-01

    Methane has been detected on all planets of our Solar System, and most of the larger moons, as well as in dwarf-planets like Pluto and Eric. The presence of this molecule in rocky planets is very interesting because its presence in the Earth's atmosphere is mainly related to biotic processes. Space instrumentation in orbiters around Mars has detected olivine on the Martian soil and dust. On the other hand the measurements of methane from the Curiosity rover report detection of background levels of atmospheric methane with abundance that is lower than model estimates of ultraviolet degradation of accreted interplanetary dust particles or carbonaceous chondrite material. Additionally, elevated levels of methane about this background have been observed implying that Mars is episodically producing methane from an additional unknown source, making the reasons of these temporal fluctuations of methane a hot topic in planetary research. The goal of this study is to investigate at atomic level the interactions during the adsorption processes of methane and other Mars atmospheric species (CO2, H2O) on forsterite surfaces, through electronic structure calculations based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT). We propose two models to simulate the interaction of adsorbates with the surface of dust mineral, such as binary mixtures (5CH4+5H2O/5CH4+5CO2) and as a semi-clathrate adsorption. We have obtained interesting results of the adsorption process in the mixture 5CH4+5CO2. Associative and dissociative adsorptions were observed for water and CO2 molecules. The methane molecules were only trapped and held by water or CO2 molecules. In the dipolar surface, the adsorption of CO2 molecules produced new species: one CO from a CO2 dissociation, and, two CO2 molecules chemisorbed to mineral surface forming in one case a carbonate group. Our results suggest that CO2 has a strong interaction with the mineral surface when methane is present. These results could be confirmed after the

  4. Mass transfer of CO2 to groundwaters from a near-surface waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, F.; Wilkinson, S.R.; Manni, G.; Torok, J.

    1995-01-01

    Gaseous 14 CO 2 originating from buried low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW) in a near-surface disposal site can be released to the environment via two major paths: gas-phase diffusion through soils to the atmosphere, and dissolution in groundwater, followed by aqueous migration. Aqueous migration would give the highest dose to an individual, especially if C-14 was converted to an organic form and ingested. Gaseous diffusion would give a lower dose, largely because of atmospheric dispersion and dilution. The objective of this study was to develop the capability to estimate which of the two paths will likely be dominant for typical near-surface disposal facilities. The main missing parameter for making this estimate was a mass-transfer coefficient (K L ) of 14 CO 2 to groundwaters, which was determined experimentally using a large sand box. The K L thus determined was approximately 10 to 20 times smaller than for an open liquid surface. This suggests that there is a potential resistance to mass transfer, probably caused by the capillary fringe. The value obtained was incorporated into a simple model of CO 2 transport around a typical near-surface disposal site. The model suggests that CO 2 transport via both gaseous release and aqueous migration paths are of similar magnitude for a repository located ∼2 m above the water table. (author). 11 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  5. Highly Stable Porous Covalent Triazine-Piperazine Linked Nanoflower as a Feasible Adsorbent for Flue Gas CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Swapan Kumar

    2016-02-11

    Here, we report a porous covalent triazine-piperazine linked polymer (CTPP) featuring 3D nanoflower morphology and enhanced capture/removal of CO2, CH4 from air (N2), essential to control greenhouse gas emission and natural gas upgrading. 13C solid-state NMR and FTIR analyses and CHN and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) elemental analyses confirmed the integration of triazine and piperazine components in the network. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses revealed a relatively uniform particle size of approximately 400 to 500 nm with 3D nanoflower microstructure, which was formed by the self-assembly of interwoven and slight bent nanoflake components. The material exhibited outstanding chemical robustness under acidic and basic medium and high thermal stability up to 773 K. The CTPP possess high surface area (779 m2/g) and single-component gas adsorption study exhibited enhanced CO2 and CH4 uptake of 3.48 mmol/g, 1.09 mmol/g, respectively at 273 K, 1 bar; coupled with high sorption selectivities for CO2/N2 and CH4/N2 of 128 and 17, respectively. The enriched Lewis basicity of the CTPP favors the interaction with CO2, which results in an enhanced CO2 adsorption capacity and high CO2/N2 selectivity. The binary mixture breakthrough study for the flue gas composition at 298 K showed a high CO2/N2 selectivity of 82. CO2 heats of adsorption for the CTPP (34 kJ mol−1) were realized at the borderline between strong physisorption and weak chemisorption (QstCO2; 25−50 kJ mol−1) and low Qst value for N2 (22.09 kJ mol−1), providing the ultimate validation for the high selectivity of CO2 over N2.

  6. Heterogeneity-enhanced gas phase formation in shallow aquifers during leakage of CO2-saturated water from geologic sequestration sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plampin, Michael R.; Lassen, Rune N.; Sakaki, Toshihiro; Porter, Mark L.; Pawar, Rajesh J.; Jensen, Karsten H.; Illangasekare, Tissa H.

    2014-12-01

    A primary concern for geologic carbon storage is the potential for leakage of stored carbon dioxide (CO2) into the shallow subsurface where it could degrade the quality of groundwater and surface water. In order to predict and mitigate the potentially negative impacts of CO2 leakage, it is important to understand the physical processes that CO2 will undergo as it moves through naturally heterogeneous porous media formations. Previous studies have shown that heterogeneity can enhance the evolution of gas phase CO2 in some cases, but the conditions under which this occurs have not yet been quantitatively defined, nor tested through laboratory experiments. This study quantitatively investigates the effects of geologic heterogeneity on the process of gas phase CO2 evolution in shallow aquifers through an extensive set of experiments conducted in a column that was packed with layers of various test sands. Soil moisture sensors were utilized to observe the formation of gas phase near the porous media interfaces. Results indicate that the conditions under which heterogeneity controls gas phase evolution can be successfully predicted through analysis of simple parameters, including the dissolved CO2 concentration in the flowing water, the distance between the heterogeneity and the leakage location, and some fundamental properties of the porous media. Results also show that interfaces where a less permeable material overlies a more permeable material affect gas phase evolution more significantly than interfaces with the opposite layering.

  7. Dissolution without disappearing: multicomponent gas exchange for CO2 bubbles in a microfluidic channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Suin; Wan, Jiandi; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Panchal, Prathamesh D; Stone, Howard A

    2014-07-21

    We studied the dissolution dynamics of CO2 gas bubbles in a microfluidic channel, both experimentally and theoretically. In the experiments, spherical CO2 bubbles in a flow of a solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) first shrink rapidly before attaining an equilibrium size. In the rapid dissolution regime, the time to obtain a new equilibrium is 30 ms regardless of SDS concentration, and the equilibrium radius achieved varies with the SDS concentration. To explain the lack of complete dissolution, we interpret the results by considering the effects of other gases (O2, N2) that are already dissolved in the aqueous phase, and we develop a multicomponent dissolution model that includes the effect of surface tension and the liquid pressure drop along the channel. Solutions of the model for a stationary gas bubble show good agreement with the experimental results, which lead to our conclusion that the equilibrium regime is obtained by gas exchange between the bubbles and liquid phase. Also, our observations from experiments and model calculations suggest that SDS molecules on the gas-liquid interface form a diffusion barrier, which controls the dissolution behaviour and the eventual equilibrium radius of the bubble.

  8. Biomimetic Membrane for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael C. Trachtenberg

    2007-05-31

    These Phase III experiments successfully addressed several issues needed to characterize a permeator system for application to a pulverized coal (PC) burning furnace/boiler assuming typical post-combustion cleanup devices in place. We completed key laboratory stage optimization and modeling efforts needed to move towards larger scale testing. The SOPO addressed six areas. Task 1--Post-Combustion Particle Cleanup--The first object was to determine if the Carbozyme permeator performance was likely to be reduced by particles (materials) in the flue gas stream that would either obstruct the mouth of the hollow fibers (HF) or stick to the HF bore wall surface. The second, based on the Acceptance Standards (see below), was to determine whether it would be preferable to clean the inlet gas stream (removing acid gases and particulates) or to develop methods to clean the Carbozyme permeator if performance declined due to HF block. We concluded that condensation of particle and particulate emissions, in the heat exchanger, could result in the formation of very sticky sulfate aerosols with a strong likelihood of obtruding the HF. These must be managed carefully and minimized to near-zero status before entering the permeator inlet stream. More extensive post-combustion cleanup is expected to be a necessary expense, independent of CO{sub 2} capture technology This finding is in agreement with views now emerging in the literature for a variety of CO{sub 2} capture methods. Task 2--Water Condensation--The key goal was to monitor and control temperature distributions within the permeator and between the permeator and its surroundings to determine whether water condensation in the pores or the HF bore would block flow, decreasing performance. A heat transfer fluid and delivery system were developed and employed. The result was near isothermal performance that avoided all instances of flow block. Direct thermocouple measurements provided the basis for developing a heat transfer

  9. Development of New Potassium Carbonate Sorbent for CO2 Capture under Real Flue Gas Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Esmaili

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the development of a new potassium carbonateon alumina support sorbent prepared by impregnating K2CO3 with an industrial grade of Al2O3 support was investigated. The CO2 capture capacity was measured using real flue gas with 8% CO2 and 12% H2O in a fixed-bed reactor at a temperature of 65 °C using breakthrough curves. The developed sorbent showed an adsorption capacity of 66.2 mgCO2/(gr sorbent. The stability of sorbent capture capacity was higher than the reference sorbent. The SO2 impurity decreased sorbent capacity about 10%. The free carbon had a small effect on sorbent capacity after 5 cycles. After 5 cycles of adsorption and regeneration, the changes in the pore volume and surface area were 0.020 cm3/gr and 5.5 m2/gr respectively. Small changes occurred in the pore size distribution and surface area of sorbent after 5 cycles.

  10. CAPTURING EXHAUST CO2 GAS USING MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Dhawan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide is considered as one of the major contenders when the question of greenhouse effect arises. So for any industry or power plant it is of utmost importance to follow certain increasingly stringent environment protection rules and laws. So it is significant to keep eye on any possible methods to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in an efficient way. This paper reviews the available literature so as to try to provide an insight of the possibility of using Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFCs as the carbon capturing and segregating devices and the various factors that affect the performance of MCFCs during the process of CO2 capture.

  11. Assembly of ZIF-67 Metal-Organic Framework over Tin Oxide Nanoparticles for Synergistic Chemiresistive CO2 Gas Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DMello, Marilyn Esclance; Sundaram, Nalini G; Kalidindi, Suresh Babu

    2018-05-03

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are widely known for their record storage capacities of small gas molecules (H 2 , CO 2 , and CH 4 ). Assembly of such porous materials onto well-known chemiresistive gas sensing elements such as SnO 2 could be an attractive prospect to achieve novel sensing properties as this affects the surface chemistry of SnO 2 . Cobalt-imidazole based ZIF-67 MOF was grown onto preformed SnO 2 nanoparticles to realize core-shell like architecture and explored for greenhouse gas CO 2 sensing. CO 2 sensing over SnO 2 is a challenge because its interaction with SnO 2 surface is minimal. The ZIF-67 coating over SnO 2 improved the response of SnO 2 up to 12-fold (for 50 % CO 2 ). The SnO 2 @ZIF-67 also showed a response of 16.5±2.1 % for 5000 ppm CO 2 (threshold limit value (TLV)) at 205 °C, one of the best values reported for a SnO 2 -based sensor. The observed novel CO 2 sensing characteristics are assigned to electronic structure changes at the interface of ZIF-67 and SnO 2 . © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A rigorous mechanistic model for predicting gas hydrate formation kinetics: The case of CO2 recovery and sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZareNezhad, Bahman; Mottahedin, Mona

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A mechanistic model for predicting gas hydrate formation kinetics is presented. ► A secondary nucleation rate model is proposed for the first time. ► Crystal–crystal collisions and crystal–impeller collisions are distinguished. ► Simultaneous determination of nucleation and growth kinetics are established. ► Important for design of gas hydrate based energy storage and CO 2 recovery systems. - Abstract: A rigorous mechanistic model for predicting gas hydrate formation crystallization kinetics is presented and the special case of CO 2 gas hydrate formation regarding CO 2 recovery and sequestration processes has been investigated by using the proposed model. A physical model for prediction of secondary nucleation rate is proposed for the first time and the formation rates of secondary nuclei by crystal–crystal collisions and crystal–impeller collisions are formulated. The objective functions for simultaneous determination of nucleation and growth kinetics are presented and a theoretical framework for predicting the dynamic behavior of gas hydrate formation is presented. Predicted time variations of CO 2 content, total number and surface area of produced hydrate crystals are in good agreement with the available experimental data. The proposed approach can have considerable application for design of gas hydrate converters regarding energy storage and CO 2 recovery processes.

  13. Norwegian gas sales and the impacts on European CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, E.; Boug, P.; Kverndokk, S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper has studied the impacts on Western European CO 2 emissions of a reduction in Norwegian gas sales. Such impacts are due to changes in energy demand, energy supply, and environmental and political regulations. The gas supply model DYNOPOLY was used to analyse the effects on Russian and Algerian gas exports of a reduction in Norwegian gas supply. The effects on the demand side and the effects of committing to CO 2 targets were analysed using the energy demand model SEEM. If Western European countries commit to their announced CO 2 emissions targets, reduced Norwegian gas sales will have no impact on emissions. The consumption of oil and coal will increase slightly, while the total energy consumption will go down. Also, a reduction in Norwegian gas sales will have only minor impacts on the CO 2 emissions from Western Europe when no emissions regulations are considered

  14. Interfacial Interactions and Wettability Evaluation of Rock Surfaces for CO2 Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shojai Kaveh, N.

    2014-01-01

    To reduce CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, different scenarios are proposed to capture and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in geological formations (CCS). Storage strategies include CO2 injection into deep saline aquifers, depleted gas and oil reservoirs, and unmineable coal seams. To identify a secure

  15. Dissolution of cemented fractures in gas bearing shales in the context of CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Kamil; Szymczak, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    Carbon dioxide has a stronger binding than methane to the organic matter contained in the matrix of shale rocks [1]. Thus, the injection of CO2 into shale formation may enhance the production rate and total amount of produced methane, and simultaneously permanently store pumped CO2. Carbon dioxide can be injected during the initial fracking stage as CO2 based hydraulic fracturing, and/or later, as a part of enhanced gas recovery (EGR) [2]. Economic and environmental benefits makes CO2 sequestration in shales potentially very for industrial-scale operation [3]. However, the effective process requires large area of fracture-matrix interface, where CO2 and CH4 can be exchanged. Usually natural fractures, existing in shale formation, are preferentially reactivated during hydraulic fracturing, thus they considerably contribute to the flow paths in the resulting fracture system [4]. Unfortunately, very often these natural fractures are sealed by calcite [5]. Consequently the layer of calcite coating surfaces impedes exchange of gases, both CO2 and CH4, between shale matrix and fracture. In this communication we address the question whether carbonic acid, formed when CO2 is mixed with brine, is able to effectively dissolve a calcite layer present in the natural fractures. We investigate numerically fluid flow and dissolution of calcite coating in natural shale fractures, with CO2-brine mixture as a reactive fluid. Moreover, we discuss the differences between slow dissolution (driven by carbonic acid) and fast dissolution (driven by stronger hydrochloric acid) of calcite layer. We compare an impact of the flow rate and geometry of the fracture on the parameters of practical importance: available surface area, morphology of dissolution front, time scale of the dissolution, and the penetration length. We investigate whether the dissolution is sufficiently non-uniform to retain the fracture permeability, even in the absence of the proppant. The sizes of analysed fractures

  16. CO_2 capture from flue gas using clathrate formation in the presence of thermodynamic promoters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soyoung; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Seo, Yongwon

    2017-01-01

    Tetrahydrofuran (THF) as a water-soluble sII clathrate former, cyclopentane (CP) as a water-insoluble sII clathrate former, and tetra n-butyl ammonium chloride (TBAC) as a water-soluble semiclathrate former were used to investigate their thermodynamic promotion effects on clathrate-based CO_2 capture from simulated flue gas. The phase equilibria of CO_2 (20%) + N_2 (80%) + promoter clathrates at different promoter concentrations revealed that the presence of THF, CP, and TBAC could significantly reduce the clathrate formation pressure. THF solutions provided the highest gas uptake and steepest CO_2 concentration changes in the vapor phase, whereas TBAC solutions showed the highest CO_2 selectivity (∼61%) in the clathrate phase. CP solutions exhibited a slower formation rate, but their final gas uptake and CO_2 selectivity in the clathrate phase were comparable to the THF solutions. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the enclathration of both CO_2 and N_2 in the clathrate cages and a structural transition due to the inclusion of promoters in the clathrate phase. The overall experimental results indicate that TBAC is a viable thermodynamic promoter for clathrate-based CO_2 capture from simulated flue gas, considering the lower pressure requirement for clathrate formation, higher CO_2 enrichment in the clathrate phase, non-toxicity, and non-volatility. - Highlights: • Clathrate-based CO_2 capture was investigated in the presence of thermodynamic promoters. • THF, CP, and TBAC demonstrated a significant thermodynamic promotion for CO_2 (20%) + N_2 (80%) clathrates. • The highest gas uptake was observed for the THF (5.6 mol%) solution. • TBAC solutions showed the highest CO_2 selectivity in the clathrate phase (∼61%). • Raman spectroscopy confirmed the guest gas enclathration and clathrate structure.

  17. Amino acid salt solutions as solvents in CO2 capture from flue gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Thomsen, Kaj; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    New solvents based on the salts of amino acids have emerged as an alternative to the alkanolamine solutions, for the chemical absorption of CO2 from flue gas. But only few studies on amino acids as CO2 capturing agents have been performed so far. One of the interesting features of amino acid salt...... solutions is their ability to form solid precipitates upon the absorption of CO2. The occurrence of crystallization offers the possibility of increasing the CO2 loading capacity of the solvent. However, precipitation can also have negative effect on the CO2 capture process. The chemical nature of the solid...... of glycine, taurine, and lysine, while in the case of proline, and glutamic acid, the precipitate was found to be bicarbonate. These results give an important contribution to further understanding the potential of amino acid salt solutions in CO2 capture from flue gas....

  18. Highly integrated CO2 capture and conversion: Direct synthesis of cyclic carbonates from industrial flue gas

    KAUST Repository

    Barthel, Alexander; Saih, Youssef; Gimenez, Michel; Pelletier, Jeremie; Kü hn, Fritz Elmar; D´ Elia, Valerio; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Robust and selective catalytic systems based on early transition metal halides (Y, Sc, Zr) and organic nucleophiles were found able to quantitatively capture CO2 from diluted streams via formation of hemicarbonate species and to convert it to cyclic organic carbonates under ambient conditions. This observation was exploited in the direct and selective chemical fixation of flue gas CO2 collected from an industrial exhaust, affording high degrees of CO2 capture and conversion.

  19. Highly integrated CO2 capture and conversion: Direct synthesis of cyclic carbonates from industrial flue gas

    KAUST Repository

    Barthel, Alexander

    2016-02-08

    Robust and selective catalytic systems based on early transition metal halides (Y, Sc, Zr) and organic nucleophiles were found able to quantitatively capture CO2 from diluted streams via formation of hemicarbonate species and to convert it to cyclic organic carbonates under ambient conditions. This observation was exploited in the direct and selective chemical fixation of flue gas CO2 collected from an industrial exhaust, affording high degrees of CO2 capture and conversion.

  20. Testing CO2 Sequestration in an Alkaline Soil Treated with Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum (FGDG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Y.; Tokunaga, T. K.

    2012-12-01

    Identifying effective and economical methods for increasing carbon storage in soils is of interest for reducing soil CO2 fluxes to the atmosphere in order to partially offset anthropogenic CO2 contributions to climate change This study investigates an alternative strategy for increasing carbon retention in soils by accelerating calcite (CaCO3) precipitation and promoting soil organic carbon (SOC) complexation on mineral surfaces. The addition of calcium ion to soils with pH > 8, often found in arid and semi-arid regions, may accelerate the slow process of calcite precipitation. Increased ionic strength from addition of a soluble Ca source also suppresses microbial activity which oxidizes SOC to gaseous CO2. Through obtaining C mass balances in soil profiles, this study is quantifying the efficiency of gypsum amendments for mitigating C losses to the atmosphere. The objective of this study is to identify conditions in which inorganic and organic C sequestration is practical in semi-arid and arid soils by gypsum treatment. As an inexpensive calcium source, we proposed to use flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG), a byproduct of fossil fuel burning electric power plants. To test the hypothesis, laboratory column experiments have been conducted in calcite-buffered soil with addition of gypsum and FGDG. The results of several months of column monitoring are demonstrating that gypsum-treated soil have lowered amounts of soil organic carbon loss and increased inorganic carbon (calcite) production. The excess generation of FGDG relative to industrial and agricultural needs, FGDG, is currently regarded as waste. Thus application of FGDG application in some soils may be an effective and economical means for fixing CO2 in soil organic and inorganic carbon forms.Soil carbon cycle, with proposed increased C retention by calcite precipitation and by SOC binding onto soil mineral surfaces, with both processes driven by calcium released from gypsum dissolution.

  1. Monitoring gas-phase CO2 in the headspace of champagne glasses through combined diode laser spectrometry and micro-gas chromatography analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriaux, Anne-Laure; Vallon, Raphaël; Parvitte, Bertrand; Zeninari, Virginie; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Cilindre, Clara

    2018-10-30

    During Champagne or sparkling wine tasting, gas-phase CO 2 and volatile organic compounds invade the headspace above glasses, thus progressively modifying the chemical space perceived by the consumer. Gas-phase CO 2 in excess can even cause a very unpleasant tingling sensation perturbing both ortho- and retronasal olfactory perception. Monitoring as accurately as possible the level of gas-phase CO 2 above glasses is therefore a challenge of importance aimed at better understanding the close relationship between the release of CO 2 and a collection of various tasting parameters. Here, the concentration of CO 2 found in the headspace of champagne glasses served under multivariate conditions was accurately monitored, all along the 10 min following pouring, through a new combined approach by a CO 2 -Diode Laser Sensor and micro-gas chromatography. Our results show the strong impact of various tasting conditions (volume dispensed, intensity of effervescence, and glass shape) on the release of gas-phase CO 2 above the champagne surface. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CO2 gas sensitivity of sputtered zinc oxide thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Gas sensitivity; ZnO; sputtering; XRD patterns; structure; thin films. 1. Introduction. Because zinc ... voltage and absorption properties of those fabricated films have been ... tations are useful in many physical applications. The in- plane (Hegde ...

  3. Facile synthesis of triazine-triphenylamine-based microporous covalent polymer adsorbent for flue gas CO2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Swapan Kumar

    2017-07-17

    The sustainable capture and sequestration of CO2 from flue gas emission is an important and unavoidable challenge to control greenhouse gas release and climate change. In this report, we describe a triazine-triphenylamine-based microporous covalent organic polymer under mild synthetic conditions. 13C and 15N solid-state NMR and FTIR analyses confirm the linkage of the triazine and triphenylamine components in the porous polymer skeleton. The material is composed of spherical particles 1.0 to 2.0 μm in size and possesses a high surface area (1104 m2/g). The material exhibits superb chemical robustness under acidic and basic conditions and high thermal stability. Single-component gas adsorption exhibits an enhanced CO2 uptake of 3.12 mmol/g coupled with high sorption selectivity for CO2/N2 of 64 at 273 K and 1 bar, whereas the binary gas mixture breakthrough study using a model flue gas composition at 298 K shows a high CO2/N2 selectivity of 58. The enhanced performance is attributed to the high Lewis basicity of the framework, as it favors the interaction with CO2.

  4. Highly Stable Porous Covalent Triazine-Piperazine Linked Nanoflower as a Feasible Adsorbent for Flue Gas CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Swapan Kumar; Wang, Xinbo; Ostwal, Mayur; Zhao, Yunfeng; Han, Yu; Lai, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    robustness under acidic and basic medium and high thermal stability up to 773 K. The CTPP possess high surface area (779 m2/g) and single-component gas adsorption study exhibited enhanced CO2 and CH4 uptake of 3.48 mmol/g, 1.09 mmol/g, respectively at 273 K

  5. Consequences of thermal fracture developments due to injection cold CO2 into depleted gas fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, E.; Pizzocolo, F.; Loeve, D.; Fokker, P.A.; Hofstee, C.; Orlic, B.; Maas, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    CO2 storage is planned in a depleted gas field called P18, which is located offshore in the vicinity of the Dutch coast. This project is also known as the ROAD project, which is the Rotterdam capture and storage demonstration project. In the P18-4 compartment, cold CO2 will be injected into a

  6. CO2 Capture from Flue Gas using Amino Acid Salt Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj

    2009-01-01

    difficult. Amino acid salt solutions have emerged as an alternative to the alkanolamine solutions. A number of advantages make amino acid salt solutions attractive solvents for CO2 capture from flue gas. In the present study CO2 absorption in aqueous solutions of 0.5 M potassium glycinate and 0.5 M...

  7. Multi-shelled ZnCo2O4 yolk-shell spheres for high-performance acetone gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ya; Zhu, Zongye; Ding, Degong; Lu, Wenbo; Xue, Qingzhong

    2018-06-01

    In the present study, multi-shelled ZnCo2O4 yolk-shell spheres have been successfully prepared by using carbonaceous microspheres as templates. It is found that the multi-shelled ZnCo2O4 yolk-shell spheres based sensor shows optimal sensing performances (response value of 38.2, response/recovery time of 19 s/71 s) toward 500 ppm acetone at 200 °C. In addition, this sensor exhibits a low detection limit of 0.5 ppm acetone (response value of 1.36) and a good selectivity toward hydrogen, methane, ethanol, ammonia and carbon dioxide. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that acetone gas response of multi-shelled ZnCo2O4 yolk-shell spheres is significantly better than that of ZnCo2O4 nanotubes and ZnCo2O4 nanosheets. High acetone response of the multi-shelled ZnCo2O4 yolk-shell spheres is attributed to the enhanced gas accessibility of the multi-shell morphology caused by the small crystalline size and high specific surface area while the short response/recovery time is mainly related to the rapid gas diffusion determined by the highly porous structure. Our work puts forward an exciting opportunity in designing various yolk-shelled structures for multipurpose applications.

  8. Trace gas exchange above the floor of a deciduous forest: 1. Evaporation and CO2 efflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Meyers, Tilden P.

    1991-04-01

    The eddy correlation method has great potential for directly measuring trace gas fluxes at the floor of a forest canopy, but a thorough validation study has not been yet conducted. Another appeal of the eddy correlation method is its ability to study processes that regulate and modulate gas exchange between the soil/litter complex and the atmosphere that cannot be probed with chambers. In this paper we report on eddy correlation measurements of water vapor, sensible heat, and carbon dioxide exchange that were made at the floor of a deciduous forest. The validity of the eddy correlation method to measure the emission of water vapor and CO2 from a deciduous forest floor is demonstrated by our ability to close the surface energy budget during periods that meet the requirements of the technique. Water vapor fluxes from a dry forest floor are strongly influenced by large-scale turbulent events that penetrate deep into the canopy. The frequency of these turbulent events prevents equilibrium evaporation rates from being achieved because the dynamic time constant for water vapor exchange is longer. Consequently, maximal evaporation rates are capped to rates defined by the product of the driving potential of the atmosphere and the surface conductance. On the other hand, evaporation from a wet forest floor proceeds at rates reaching or exceeding equilibrium evaporation and are highly correlated with static pressure fluctuations. CO2 efflux rates are governed by litter and soil temperature, as expected. But we also find a significant correlation between static pressure fluctuations and soil/litter CO2 exchange rates.

  9. The U.S. Gas Flooding Experience: CO2 Injection Strategies and Impact on Ultimate Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez-Lopez, Vanessa [The University of Texas at Austin; Hosseini, Seyyed; Gil-Egui, Ramon

    2017-09-29

    The Permian Basin in West Texas and southwestern New Mexico has seen 45 years of oil reserve growth through CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2 EOR). More than 60 CO2 EOR projects are currently active in the region’s limestone, sandstone and dolomite reservoirs. Water alternating gas (WAG) has been the development strategy of choice in the Permian for several technical and economic reasons. More recently, the technology started to get implemented in the much more porous and permeable clastic depositional systems of the onshore U.S. Gulf Coast. Continued CO2 injection (CGI), as opposed to WAG, was selected as the injection strategy to develop Gulf Coast oil fields, where CO2 injection volumes are significantly larger (up to 6 times larger) than those of the Permian. We conducted a compositional simulation based study with the objective of comparing the CO2 utilization ratios (volume of CO2 injected to produce a barrel of oil) of 4 conventional and novel CO2 injection strategies: (1) continuous gas injection (CGI), (2) water alternating gas (WAG), (3) water curtain injection (WCI), and (4) WAG and WCI combination. These injection scenarios were simulated using the GEM module from the Computer Modeling Group (CMG). GEM is an advanced general equation-of-state compositional simulator, which includes equation of state, CO2 miscible flood, CO2/brine interactions, and complex phase behavior. The simulator is set up to model three fluid phases including water, oil, and gas. Our study demonstrates how the selected field development strategy has a significant impact on the ultimate recovery of CO2-EOR projects, with GCI injection providing maximum oil recovery in absolute volume terms, but with WAG offering a more balanced technical-economical approach.

  10. Linking interfacial chemistry of CO2 to surface structures of hydrated metal oxide nanoparticles: hematite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshova, Irina V; Ponnurangam, Sathish; Somasundaran, Ponisseril

    2013-05-14

    A better understanding of interaction with dissolved CO2 is required to rationally design and model the (photo)catalytic and sorption processes on metal (hydr)oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous media. Using in situ FTIR spectroscopy, we address this problem for rhombohedral 38 nm hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles as a model. We not only resolve the structures of the adsorbed carbonate species, but also specify their adsorption sites and their location on the nanoparticle surface. The spectral relationships obtained present a basis for a new method of characterizing the microscopic structural and acid-base properties (related to individual adsorption sites) of hydrated metal (hydr)oxide NPs using atmospherically derived CO2 as a probe. Specifically, we distinguish two carbonate species suggesting two principally different adsorption mechanisms. One species, which is more weakly adsorbed, has an inner-sphere mononuclear monodentate structure which is formed by a conventional ligand-exchange mechanism. At natural levels of dissolved carbonate and pH from 3 to 11, this species is attached to the most acidic/reactive surface cations (surface states) associated with ferrihydrite-like surface defects. The second species, which is more strongly adsorbed, presents a mixed C and O coordination of bent CO2. This species uniquely recognizes the stoichiometric rhombohedral {104} facets in the NP texture. Like in gas phase, it is formed through the surface coordination of molecular CO2. We address how the adsorption sites hosting these two carbonate species are affected by the annealing and acid etching of the NPs. These results support the nanosize-induced phase transformation of hematite towards ferrihydrite under hydrous conditions, and additionally show that the process starts from the roughened areas of the facet intersections.

  11. CO2 emission costs and Gas/Coal competition for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santi, Federico

    2005-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how a CO 2 emission reduction programme can change the competition between the two power production technologies which will probably dominate the future of the Italian power industry: the coal fired USC steam power plant and the natural gas fired CCGT power plant. An economic value of the CO 2 emission is calculated, in order to make the short-run-marginal-cost (or the long-run-marginal-cost). equal for both technologies, under a CO 2 emission trading scheme and following a single-plant specific CO 2 emission homogenizing approach [it

  12. On which timescales do gas transfer velocities control North Atlantic CO2 flux variability?

    OpenAIRE

    Couldrey, Matthew; Oliver, Kevin; Yool, Andrew; Halloran, Paul; Achterberg, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The North Atlantic is an important basin for the global ocean's uptake of anthropogenic and natural carbon dioxide (CO2), but the mechanisms controlling this carbon flux are not fully understood. The air-sea flux of CO2, F, is the product of a gas transfer velocity, k, the air-sea CO2 concentration gradient, ΔpCO2, and the temperature and salinity-dependent solubility coefficient, α. k is difficult to constrain, representing the dominant uncertainty in F on short (instantaneous to interannual...

  13. Wettability determination by contact angle measurements: hvbB coal-water system with injection of synthetic flue gas and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojai Kaveh, Narjes; Rudolph, E Susanne J; Wolf, Karl-Heinz A A; Ashrafizadeh, Seyed Nezameddin

    2011-12-01

    Geological sequestration of pure carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in coal is one of the methods to sequester CO(2). In addition, injection of CO(2) or flue gas into coal enhances coal bed methane production (ECBM). The success of this combined process depends strongly on the wetting behavior of the coal, which is function of coal rank, ash content, heterogeneity of the coal surface, pressure, temperature and composition of the gas. The wetting behavior can be evaluated from the contact angle of a gas bubble, CO(2) or flue gas, on a coal surface. In this study, contact angles of a synthetic flue gas, i.e. a 80/20 (mol%) N(2)/CO(2) mixture, and pure CO(2) on a Warndt Luisenthal (WL) coal have been determined using a modified pendant drop cell in a pressure range from atmospheric to 16 MPa and a constant temperature of 318 K. It was found that the contact angles of flue gas on WL coal were generally smaller than those of CO(2). The contact angle of CO(2) changes from water-wet to gas-wet by increasing pressure above 8.5 MPa while the one for the flue gas changes from water-wet to intermediate-wet by increasing pressure above 10 MPa. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. System-level modeling for economic evaluation of geological CO2 storage in gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2007-01-01

    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from industrial sources into deep geological formations such as brine aquifers or depleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research is being conducted to improve understanding of factors affecting particular aspects of geological CO 2 storage (such as storage performance, storage capacity, and health, safety and environmental (HSE) issues) as well as to lower the cost of CO 2 capture and related processes. However, there has been less emphasis to date on system-level analyses of geological CO 2 storage that consider geological, economic, and environmental issues by linking detailed process models to representations of engineering components and associated economic models. The objective of this study is to develop a system-level model for geological CO 2 storage, including CO 2 capture and separation, compression, pipeline transportation to the storage site, and CO 2 injection. Within our system model we are incorporating detailed reservoir simulations of CO 2 injection into a gas reservoir and related enhanced production of methane. Potential leakage and associated environmental impacts are also considered. The platform for the system-level model is GoldSim [GoldSim User's Guide. GoldSim Technology Group; 2006, http://www.goldsim.com]. The application of the system model focuses on evaluating the feasibility of carbon sequestration with enhanced gas recovery (CSEGR) in the Rio Vista region of California. The reservoir simulations are performed using a special module of the TOUGH2 simulator, EOS7C, for multicomponent gas mixtures of methane and CO 2 . Using a system-level modeling approach, the economic benefits of enhanced gas recovery can be directly weighed against the costs and benefits of CO 2 injection

  15. AN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE APPROACH FOR THE PREDICTION OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS IN CO2 LASER CUTTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILOŠ MADIĆ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In laser cutting, the cut quality is of great importance. Multiple non-linear effects of process parameters and their interactions make very difficult to predict cut quality. In this paper, artificial intelligence (AI approach was applied to predict the surface roughness in CO2 laser cutting. To this aim, artificial neural network (ANN model of surface roughness was developed in terms of cutting speed, laser power and assist gas pressure. The experimental results obtained from Taguchi’s L25 orthogonal array were used to develop ANN model. The ANN mathematical model of surface roughness was expressed as explicit nonlinear function of the selected input parameters. Statistical results indicate that the ANN model can predict the surface roughness with good accuracy. It was showed that ANNs may be used as a good alternative in analyzing the effects of cutting parameters on the surface roughness.

  16. Soil surface CO2 fluxes in a Norway spruce stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Acosta, Manuel; Janouš, Dalibor; Marek, Michal V.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 50 (2004), s. 573-578 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB3087301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Norway spruce * Soil CO2 efflux * Q10 Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  17. CO_2-mitigation options for the offshore oil and gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Tock, Laurence; Breuhaus, Peter; Maréchal, François; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The possibilities for reducing offshore CO_2-emissions, by CO_2-capture, waste heat recovery and electrification are assessed. • Multi-objective optimisation, process modelling, economic and environmental analyses are used for evaluating system designs. • A reduction of more than 15% of the total CO_2-emissions can be achieved for the present case study. • High sensitivity of the avoidance costs to the natural gas price and CO_2-tax. - Abstract: The offshore extraction of oil and gas is an energy-intensive process leading to the production of CO_2 and methane, discharged into the atmosphere, and of chemicals, rejected into the sea. The taxation of these emissions, in Norway, has encouraged the development of more energy-efficient and environmental-friendly solutions, of which three are assessed in this paper: (i) the implementation of waste heat recovery, (ii) the installation of a CO_2-capture unit and (iii) the platform electrification. A North Sea platform is taken as case study, and these three options are modelled, analysed and compared, using thermodynamic, economic and environmental indicators. The results indicate the benefits of all these options, as the total CO_2-emissions can be reduced by more than 15% in all cases, while the avoidance costs vary widely and are highly sensitive to the natural gas price and CO_2-tax.

  18. Analysis of CO2 Separation from Flue Gas, Pipeline Transportation, and Sequestration in Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2007-09-01

    This report was written to satisfy a milestone of the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration task of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration project. The report begins to assess the costs associated with separating the CO2 from flue gas and then injecting it into an unminable coal seam. The technical challenges and costs associated with CO2 separation from flue gas and transportation of the separated CO2 from the point source to an appropriate sequestration target was analyzed. The report includes the selection of a specific coal-fired power plant for the application of CO2 separation technology. An appropriate CO2 separation technology was identified from existing commercial technologies. The report also includes a process design for the chosen technology tailored to the selected power plant that used to obtain accurate costs of separating the CO2 from the flue gas. In addition, an analysis of the costs for compression and transportation of the CO2 from the point-source to an appropriate coal bed sequestration site was included in the report.

  19. Spatio-temporal Variability in Surface Ocean pCO2 Inferred from Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The variability of surface ocean pCO2 is examined on multiple spatial and temporal scales. Temporal autocorrelation analysis is used to examine pCO2 variability over multiple years. Spatial autocorrelation analysis describes pCO2 variability over multiple spatial scales. Spatial autocorrelation lengths range between

  20. Reactivity of dissolved- vs. supercritical-CO2 phase toward muscovite basal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, J.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Kim, Y.; Wang, S.; Altoe, M. V. P.; Ashby, P. D.; DePaolo, D.

    2015-12-01

    The current understanding of geochemical reactions in reservoirs for geological carbon sequestration (GCS) is largely based on aqueous chemistry (CO2 dissolves in reservoir brine and brine reacts with rocks). However, only a portion of the injected supercritical (sc) CO2 dissolves before the buoyant plume contacts caprock, where it is expected to reside for a long time. Although numerous studies have addressed scCO2-mineral reactions occurring within adsorbed aqueous films, possible reactions resulting from direct CO2-rock contact remain less understood. Does CO2 as a supercritical phase react with reservoir rocks? Do mineral react differently with scCO2 than with dissolved CO2? We selected muscovite, one of the more stable and common rock-forming silicate minerals, to react with scCO2 phase (both water-saturated and water-free) and compared with CO2-saturated-brine. The reacted basal surfaces were analyzed using atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for examining the changes in surface morphology and chemistry. The results show that scCO2 (regardless of its water content) altered muscovite considerably more than CO2-saturated brine; suggest CO2 diffusion into mica interlayers and localized mica dissolution into scCO2 phase. The mechanisms underlying these observations and their implications for GCS need further exploration.

  1. Simulasi Pengaruh Kandungan CO2 dalam Gas Umpan terhadap Reforming dan Shift Converter Sistem Pabrik Amoniak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefry Yusuf

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Perubahan produksi dan pangsa pasar gas alam domestik maupun global mempengaruhi suplai terhadap pabrik pupuk-amoniak baik dari sisi jumlah, komposisi maupun harga. Kondisi ini memungkinkan pabrik amoniak menerima jenis gas alam berat kaya dengan CO2 (raw gas maupun gas alam  ringan minim CO2 (treated gas. Pada penelitian ini telah dilakukan analisa pengaruh perubahan  komposisi gas alam terutama kandungan CO2 dengan variasi 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 dan 50% vol terhadap operasional reforming dan shift converter sistem pabrik amoniak-2 PT. PI Mexisting dengan metodelogi simulasi mengggunakan Aspen HYSYS V8.0. Untuk memproduksi amoniak dengan jumlah yang sama, hasil studi menunjukkan penambahan CO2 dalam gas umpan akan meningkatkan pressure drop sistem, laju pembentukan komponen hidrogen turun sementara konsumsi energi bertambah di reforming, beban katalis shift converter dan beban feed gas compressor meningkat. Kandungan CO2 sebesar 7% vol masih mungkin diaplikasikan, mengingat ada batasan beban peralatan.

  2. Application of Factorial Design for Gas Parameter Optimization in CO2 Laser Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Dragsted, Birgitte; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1997-01-01

    The effect of different gas process parameters involved in CO2 laser welding has been studied by applying two-set of three-level complete factorial designs. In this work 5 gas parameters, gas type, gas flow rate, gas blowing angle, gas nozzle diameter, gas blowing point-offset, are optimized...... to be a very useful tool for parameter optimi-zation in laser welding process. Keywords: CO2 laser welding, gas parameters, factorial design, Analysis of Variance........ The bead-on-plate welding specimens are evaluated by a number of quality char-acteristics, such as the penetration depth and the seam width. The significance of the gas pa-rameters and their interactions are based on the data found by the Analysis of Variance-ANOVA. This statistic methodology is proven...

  3. Optimization of CO2 Laser Cutting Process using Taguchi and Dual Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Madić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Selection of optimal cutting parameter settings for obtaining high cut quality in CO2 laser cutting process is of great importance. Among various analytical and experimental optimization methods, the application of Taguchi and response surface methodology is one of most commonly used for laser cutting process optimization. Although the concept of dual response surface methodology for process optimization has been used with success, till date, no experimental study has been reported in the field of laser cutting. In this paper an approach for optimization of CO2 laser cutting process using Taguchi and dual response surface methodology is presented. The goal was to determine the near optimal laser cutting parameter values in order to ensure robust condition for minimization of average surface roughness. To obtain experimental database for development of response surface models, Taguchi’s L25 orthogonal array was implemented for experimental plan. Three cutting parameters, the cutting speed (3, 4, 5, 6, 7 m/min, the laser power (0.7, 0.9, 1.1, 1.3, 1.5 kW, and the assist gas pressure (3, 4, 5, 6, 7 bar, were used in the experiment. To obtain near optimal cutting parameters settings, multi-stage Monte Carlo simulation procedure was performed on the developed response surface models.

  4. Joint interpretation of geoelectrical and soil-gas measurements for monitoring CO2 releases at a natural analogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, U.; Watanabe, N.; Singh, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    the complex behaviour of temporal variations for the flow patterns. In particular, coupled migration of gas and water plays an important influencing role in this process. Site-specific, near surface geological features and meteorological conditions seem to exert great influence on the degassing pattern...... and flux measurements, self-potential (SP) and geoelectrical surveys) showed that the combination of geophysical methods with soil-gas analysis for mesoscale monitoring of the shallow subsurface above geologic CO2 storages can be a valuable tool for mapping and monitoring potential CO2 spread...... in the subsurface. Three measurement campaigns were undertaken - May 2011, July 2011 and April 2012 - at an analogue site in the Cheb Basin, Czech Republic, with the aim of studying CO2 leakages and their temporal and spatial behaviour. Results of geoelectrical investigations give an insight into the structural...

  5. Impact of CO_2-enriched combustion air on micro-gas turbine performance for carbon capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, Thom; Finney, Karen N.; Ingham, Derek B.; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Power generation is one of the largest anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission sources; although it is now reducing in carbon intensity due to switching from coal to gas, this is only part of a bridging solution that will require the utilization of carbon capture technologies. Gas turbines, such as those at the UK Carbon Capture Storage Research Centre's Pilot-scale Advanced CO_2 Capture Technology (UKCCSRC PACT) National Core Facility, have high exhaust gas mass flow rates with relatively low CO_2 concentrations; therefore solvent-based post-combustion capture is energy intensive. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can increase CO_2 levels, reducing the capture energy penalty. The aim of this paper is to simulate EGR through enrichment of the combustion air with CO_2 to assess changes to turbine performance and potential impacts on complete generation and capture systems. The oxidising air was enhanced with CO_2, up to 6.29%vol dry, impacting mechanical performance, reducing both engine speed by over 400 revolutions per minute and compression temperatures. Furthermore, it affected complete combustion, seen in changes to CO and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. This impacted on turbine efficiency, which increased specific fuel consumption (by 2.9%). CO_2 enhancement could therefore result in significant efficiency gains for the capture plant. - Highlights: • Experimental investigation of the impact of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on GT performance. • Combustion air was enhanced with CO_2 to simulate EGR. • EGR impact was ascertained by CO and unburned hydrocarbon changes. • Primary factor influencing performance was found to be oxidiser temperature. • Impact of CO_2 enhancement on post-combustion capture efficiency.

  6. High-frequency pressure variations in the vicinity of a surface CO2 flux chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene S. Takle; James R. Brandle; R. A. Schmidt; Rick Garcia; Irina V. Litvina; William J. Massman; Xinhua Zhou; Geoffrey Doyle; Charles W. Rice

    2003-01-01

    We report measurements of 2Hz pressure fluctuations at and below the soil surface in the vicinity of a surface-based CO2 flux chamber. These measurements were part of a field experiment to examine the possible role of pressure pumping due to atmospheric pressure fluctuations on measurements of surface fluxes of CO2. Under the moderate wind speeds, warm temperatures,...

  7. Atmosphere–Surface Fluxes of CO2 using Spectral Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lise Lotte; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    2010-01-01

    Different flux estimation techniques are compared here in order to evaluate air–sea exchange measurement methods used on moving platforms. Techniques using power spectra and cospectra to estimate fluxes are presented and applied to measurements of wind speed and sensible heat, latent heat and CO2...... fluxes. Momentum and scalar fluxes are calculated from the dissipation technique utilizing the inertial subrange of the power spectra and from estimation of the cospectral amplitude, and both flux estimates are compared to covariance derived fluxes. It is shown how even data having a poor signal......-to-noise ratio can be used for flux estimations....

  8. [Research on the spectral feature and identification of the surface vegetation stressed by stored CO2 underground leakage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-Hao; Jiang, Jin-Bao; Steven, Michael D; Gong, A-Du; Li, Yi-Fan

    2012-07-01

    With the global climate warming, reducing greenhouse gas emissions becomes a focused problem for the world. The carbon capture and storage (CCS) techniques could mitigate CO2 into atmosphere, but there is a risk in case that the CO2 leaks from underground. The objective of this paper is to study the chlorophyll contents (SPAD value), relative water contents (RWC) and leaf spectra changing features of beetroot under CO2 leakage stress through field experiment. The result shows that the chlorophyll contents and RWC of beetroot under CO2 leakage stress become lower than the control beetroot', and the leaf reflectance increases in the 550 nm region and decreases in the 680nm region. A new vegetation index (R550/R680) was designed for identifying beetroot under CO2 leakage stress, and the result indicates that the vegetation index R550/R680 could identify the beetroots after CO2 leakage for 7 days. The index has strong sensitivity, stability and identification for monitoring the beetroots under CO2 stress. The result of this paper has very important meaning and application values for selecting spots of CCS project, monitoring and evaluating land-surface ecology under CO2 stress and monitoring the leakage spots by using remote sensing.

  9. CO2 emissions, natural gas and renewables, economic growth: Assessing the evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Kangyin; Sun, Renjin; Dong, Xiucheng

    2018-05-31

    This study aims to test the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in China by developing a new framework based on the suggestion of Narayan and Narayan (2010). The dynamic effect of natural gas and renewable energy consumption on CO 2 emissions is also analyzed. Considering the structural break observed in the sample, a series of econometric techniques allowing for structural breaks is utilized for the period 1965-2016. The empirical results confirm the existence of the EKC for CO 2 emissions in China. Furthermore, in both the long-run and the short-run, the beneficial effects of natural gas and renewables on CO 2 emission reduction are observable. In addition, the mitigation effect of natural gas on CO 2 emissions will be weakened over time, while renewables will become progressively more important. Finally, policy suggestions are highlighted not only for mitigating CO 2 emissions, but also for promoting growth in the natural gas and renewable energy industries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of CO 2 on a High Performance Hollow-Fiber Membrane for Natural Gas Purification

    KAUST Repository

    Omole, Imona C.

    2010-05-19

    A 6FDA-based, cross-linkable polyimide was characterized in the form of a defect-free asymmetric hollow-fiber membrane. The novel membrane was cross-linked at various temperatures and tested for natural gas purification in the presence of high CO2 partial pressures. The cross-linked membrane material shows high intrinsic separation performance for CO2 and CH4 (selectivity ∼49, CO2 permeability ∼161 barrer, with a feed at 65 psia, 35 °C, and 10% CO2). Cross-linked asymmetric hollow-fiber membranes made from the material show good resistance to CO2-induced plasticization. Carbon dioxide partial pressures as high as ∼400 psia were employed, and the membrane was shown to be promisingly stable under these aggressive conditions. The performance of the membrane was also analyzed using the dual-mode sorption/transport model. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  11. Surface monitoring of microseismicity at the Decatur, Illinois, CO2 sequestration demonstration site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaven, Joern; Hickman, Stephen H.; McGarr, Arthur F.; Ellsworth, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Sequestration of CO2 into subsurface reservoirs can play an important role in limiting future emission of CO2 into the atmosphere (e.g., Benson and Cole, 2008). For geologic sequestration to become a viable option to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, large-volume injection of supercritical CO2 into deep sedimentary formations is required. These formations offer large pore volumes and good pore connectivity and are abundant (Bachu, 2003; U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources Assessment Team, 2013). However, hazards associated with injection of CO2 into deep formations require evaluation before widespread sequestration can be adopted safely (Zoback and Gorelick, 2012). One of these hazards is the potential to induce seismicity on pre-existing faults or fractures. If these faults or fractures are large and critically stressed, seismic events can occur with magnitudes large enough to pose a hazard to surface installations and, possibly more critical, the seal integrity of the cap rock. The Decatur, Illinois, carbon capture and storage (CCS) demonstration site is the first, and to date, only CCS project in the United States that injects a large volume of supercritical CO2 into a regionally extensive, undisturbed saline formation. The first phase of the Decatur CCS project was completed in November 2014 after injecting a million metric tons of supercritical CO2 over three years. This phase was led by the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) and included seismic monitoring using deep borehole sensors, with a few sensors installed within the injection horizon. Although the deep borehole network provides a more comprehensive seismic catalog than is presented in this paper, these deep data are not publically available. We contend that for monitoring induced microseismicity as a possible seismic hazard and to elucidate the general patterns of microseismicity, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) surface and shallow borehole network described below

  12. Emission of CO2 Gas and Radioactive Pollutant from Coal Fired Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, N.Finahari; Djati-HS; Heni-Susiati

    2006-01-01

    Energy utilization for power plant in Indonesia is still depending on burning fossil fuel such as coal, oil and gaseous fuel. The direct burning of coal produces CO 2 gas that can cause air pollution, and radioactive pollutant that can increase natural radioactive dosage. Natural radionuclide contained in coal is in the form of kalium, uranium, thorium and their decay products. The amount of CO 2 gas emission produced by coal fired power plant can be reduced by equipping the plant with waste-gas treatment facility. At this facility, CO 2 gas is reacted with calcium hydroxide producing calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate then can be used as basic material in food, pharmaceutical and construction industries. The alternative method to reduce impact of air pollution is by replacing coal fuel with nuclear fuel or new and renewable fuel. (author)

  13. The effects of Norwegian gas export on the global CO2 emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report analyses how a limitation of Norway's gas export might affect the global CO 2 emission. In principle, a reduction of this export can lead to decreased or increased CO 2 emission depending on changes in several conditions that individually have conflicting emission effects. What the total effect will be can only become clear after a thorough empirical analysis of the supply and demand structure. The model calculations presented in the report show that the global emission will probably increase if Norway reduces the gas export. A gas export reduction of 10 million tonne oil equivalents in 2015 will increase the global emission by 1.4 and 7.5 million tonne CO 2 depending on the assumption made for alternative gas supplies to the European market and for market conditions in the importing countries. 4 refs., 32 figs., 44 tabs

  14. Effect of gas field production and CO2 injection on brine flow and salt precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeve, D.; Tambach, T.J.; Hofstee, C.; Plug, W.J.; Maas, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports modeling of gas field produc-tion and CO2 injection from a theoretical reser-voir based on characteristics of the P18 gas field in the Dutch offshore, which consists of four geological deposits with different petrophysical properties. We especially focus on the brine flow during

  15. Risico's 'groen' gas voor CO2 - dosering ingeschat : Interview met Tom Dueck en Chris van Dijk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Peter; Dueck, T.A.; Dijk, van C.J.

    2009-01-01

    De overheid wil gebruik van duurzaam 'groen gas' ofwel 'biogas' stimuleren. De vraag is of dit gas een verhoogd risico oplevert bij het gebruik van rookgassen voor CO2-dosering in de tuinbouw. Biogas kan mee helpen aan het gebruik van duurzamer energie in de glastuinbouw

  16. Synthetic gas production from dry black liquor gasification process using direct causticization with CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Muhammad; Yan, Jinyue; Dahlquist, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We study synthetic gas production from dry black liquor gasification system. ► Direct causticization eliminates energy intensive lime kiln reducing biomass use. ► Results show large SNG production potential at significant energy efficiency (58%). ► Substantial CO 2 capture potential plus CO 2 reductions from natural gas replacement. ► Significant transport fuel replacement especially in Sweden and Europe. -- Abstract: Synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from dry black liquor gasification (DBLG) system is an attractive option to reduce CO 2 emissions replacing natural gas. This article evaluates the energy conversion performance of SNG production from oxygen blown circulating fluidized bed (CFB) black liquor gasification process with direct causticization by investigating system integration with a reference pulp mill producing 1000 air dried tonnes (ADt) of pulp per day. The direct causticization process eliminates use of energy intensive lime kiln that is a main component required in the conventional black liquor recovery cycle with the recovery boiler. The paper has estimated SNG production potential, the process energy ratio of black liquor (BL) conversion to SNG, and quantified the potential CO 2 abatement. Based on reference pulp mill capacity, the results indicate a large potential of SNG production (about 162 MW) from black liquor but at a cost of additional biomass import (36.7 MW) to compensate the total energy deficit. The process shows cold gas energy efficiency of about 58% considering black liquor and biomass import as major energy inputs. About 700 ktonnes per year of CO 2 abatement i.e. both possible CO 2 capture and CO 2 offset from bio-fuel use replacing natural gas, is estimated. Moreover, the SNG production offers a significant fuel replacement in transport sector especially in countries with large pulp and paper industry e.g. in Sweden, about 72% of motor gasoline and 40% of total motor fuel could be replaced.

  17. Water-gas shift (WGS) Operation of Pre-combustion CO2 Capture Pilot Plant at the Buggenum IGCC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, H.A.J.; Damen, K.; Makkee, M.; Trapp, C.

    2014-01-01

    In the Nuon/Vattenfall CO2 Catch-up project, a pre-combustion CO2 capture pilot plant was built and operated at the Buggenum IGCC power plant, the Netherlands. The pilot consist of sweet water-gas shift, physical CO2 absorption and CO2 compression. The technology performance was verified and

  18. Experimental Study of Matrix Permeability of Gas Shale: An Application to CO2-Based Shale Fracturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengpeng Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Because the limitations of water-based fracturing fluids restrict their fracturing efficiency and scope of application, liquid CO2 is regarded as a promising substitute, owing to its unique characteristics, including its greater environmental friendliness, shorter clean-up time, greater adsorption capacity than CH4 and less formation damage. Conversely, the disadvantage of high leak-off rate of CO2 fracturing due to its very low viscosity determines its applicability in gas shales with ultra-low permeability, accurate measurement of shale permeability to CO2 is therefore crucial to evaluate the appropriate injection rate and total consumption of CO2. The main purpose of this study is to accurately measure shale permeability to CO2 flow during hydraulic fracturing, and to compare the leak-off of CO2 and water fracturing. A series of permeability tests was conducted on cylindrical shale samples 38 mm in diameter and 19 mm long using water, CO2 in different phases and N2 considering multiple influencing factors. According to the experimental results, the apparent permeability of shale matrix to gaseous CO2 or N2 is greatly over-estimated compared with intrinsic permeability or that of liquid CO2 due to the Klinkenberg effect. This phenomenon explains that the permeability values measured under steady-state conditions are much higher than those under transient conditions. Supercritical CO2 with higher molecular kinetic energy has slightly higher permeability than liquid CO2. The leak-off rate of CO2 is an order of magnitude higher than that of water under the same injection conditions due to its lower viscosity. The significant decrease of shale permeability to gas after water flooding is due to the water block effect, and much longer clean-up time and deep water imbibition depth greatly impede the gas transport from the shale matrix to the created fractures. Therefore, it is necessary to substitute water-based fracturing fluids with liquid or super

  19. Electron drift velocities of Ar-CO2-CF4 gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markeloff, R.

    1994-11-01

    The muon spectrometer for the D0 experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory uses proportional drift tubes filled with an Ar-CO 2 -CF 4 gas mixture. Measurements of drift velocity as a function of electric field magnitude for 90%-5%-5% and 90%-4%-6% Ar-CO 2 -CF 4 mixtures are presented, and our operational experiences with these gases at D0 is discussed

  20. Long-term CO2 injection and its impact on near-surface soil microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwosdz, Simone; West, Julia M; Jones, David; Rakoczy, Jana; Green, Kay; Barlow, Tom; Blöthe, Marco; Smith, Karon; Steven, Michael; Krüger, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Impacts of long-term CO 2 exposure on environmental processes and microbial populations of near-surface soils are poorly understood. This near-surface long-term CO 2 injection study demonstrated that soil microbiology and geochemistry is influenced more by seasonal parameters than elevated CO 2 Soil samples were taken during a 3-year field experiment including sampling campaigns before, during and after 24 months of continuous CO 2 injection. CO 2 concentrations within CO 2 -injected plots increased up to 23% during the injection period. No CO 2 impacts on geochemistry were detected over time. In addition, CO 2 -exposed samples did not show significant changes in microbial CO 2 and CH 4 turnover rates compared to reference samples. Likewise, no significant CO 2 -induced variations were detected for the abundance of Bacteria, Archaea (16S rDNA) and gene copy numbers of the mcrA gene, Crenarchaeota and amoA gene. The majority (75%-95%) of the bacterial sequences were assigned to five phyla: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and Bacteroidetes The majority of the archaeal sequences (85%-100%) were assigned to the thaumarchaeotal cluster I.1b (soil group). Univariate and multivariate statistical as well as principal component analyses showed no significant CO 2 -induced variation. Instead, seasonal impacts especially temperature and precipitation were detected. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China 2012: Inventory and Supply Chain Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Yaowen; Zhao, Xueli; Meng, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Reliable inventory information is critical in informing emission mitigation efforts. Using the latest officially released emission data, which is production based, we take a consumption perspective to estimate the non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for China in 2012. The non-CO2 GHG emissions, which cover CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6, amounted to 2003.0 Mt. CO2-eq (including 1871.9 Mt. CO2-eq from economic activities), much larger than the total CO2 emissions in some developed countries. Urban consumption (30.1%), capital formation (28.2%), and exports (20.6%) derived approximately four fifths of the total embodied emissions in final demand. Furthermore, the results from structural path analysis help identify critical embodied emission paths and key economic sectors in supply chains for mitigating non-CO2 GHG emissions in Chinese economic systems. The top 20 paths were responsible for half of the national total embodied emissions. Several industrial sectors such as Construction, Production and Supply of Electricity and Steam, Manufacture of Food and Tobacco and Manufacture of Chemicals, and Chemical Products played as the important transmission channels. Examining both production- and consumption-based non-CO2 GHG emissions will enrich our understanding of the influences of industrial positions, final consumption demands, and trades on national non-CO2 GHG emissions by considering the comprehensive abatement potentials in the supply chains.

  2. Dual Alkali Solvent System for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Wang, H Paul; Liao, Chang-Yu; Zhao, Xinglei; Hsiung, Tung-Li; Liu, Shou-Heng; Chang, Shih-Ger

    2017-08-01

    A novel two-aqueous-phase CO 2 capture system, namely the dual alkali solvent (DAS) system, has been developed. Unlike traditional solvent-based CO 2 capture systems in which the same solvent is used for both CO 2 absorption and stripping, the solvent of the DAS system consists of two aqueous phases. The upper phase, which contains an organic alkali 1-(2-hydroxyethyl) piperazine (HEP), is used for CO 2 absorption. The lower phase, which consists of a mixture of K 2 CO 3 /KHCO 3 aqueous solution and KHCO 3 precipitate, is used for CO 2 stripping. Only a certain kind of amine (such as HEP) is able to ensure the phase separation, satisfactory absorption efficiency, effective CO 2 transfer from the upper phase to the lower phase, and regeneration of the upper phase. In the meantime, due to the presence of K 2 CO 3 /KHCO 3 in the lower phase, HEP in the upper phase is capable of being regenerated from its sulfite/sulfate heat stable salt, which enables the simultaneous absorption of CO 2 and SO 2 /SO 3 from the flue gas. Preliminary experiments and simulations indicate that the implementation of the DAS system can lead to 24.0% stripping energy savings compared to the Econamine process, without significantly lowering the CO 2 absorption efficiency (∼90%).

  3. Membrane-assisted CO2 liquefaction: performance modelling of CO2 capture from flue gas in cement production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, R.H.B.; Vercauteren, F.F.; Os, P.J. van; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Berstad, D.; Anantharaman, R.

    2017-01-01

    CEMCAP is an international R&D project under the Horizon 2020 Programme preparing the ground for the large-scale implementation of CO2 capture in the European cement industry. This paper concerns the performance modeling of membraneassisted CO2 liquefaction as a possible retrofit application for

  4. An update to the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT version 2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.C.E.; Pfeil, B.; Smith, K.; Hankin, S.; Olsen, A.; Alin, S. R.; Cosca, C.; Harasawa, S.; Kozyr, A.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K. M.; Schuster, U.; Telszewski, M.; Tilbrook, B.; Wada, C.; Akl, J.; Barbero, L.; Bates, N. R.; Boutin, J.; Bozec, Y.; Cai, W. -J.; Castle, R. D.; Chavez, F. P.; Chen, L.; Chierici, M.; Currie, K.; de Baar, H. J. W.; Evans, W.; Feely, R. A.; Fransson, A.; Gao, Z.; Hales, B.; Hardman-Mountford, N. J.; Hoppema, M.; Huang, W. -J.; Hunt, C. W.; Huss, B.; Ichikawa, T.; Johannessen, T.; Jones, E. M.; Jones, S. D.; Jutterstrom, S.; Kitidis, V.; Koertzinger, A.; Landschuetzer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefevre, N.; Manke, A. B.; Mathis, J. T.; Merlivat, L.; Metzl, N.; Murata, A.; Newberger, T.; Omar, A. M.; Ono, T.; Park, G. -H.; Paterson, K.; Pierrot, D.; Rios, A. F.; Sabine, C. L.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J.; Sarma, V. V. S. S.; Schlitzer, R.; Sieger, R.; Skjelvan, I.; Steinhoff, T.; Sullivan, K. F.; Sun, H.; Sutton, A. J.; Suzuki, T.; Sweeney, C.; Takahashi, T.; Tjiputra, J.; Tsurushima, N.; van Heuven, S. M. A. C.; Vandemark, D.; Vlahos, P.; Wallace, D. W. R.; Wanninkhof, R.; Watson, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT), an activity of the international marine carbon research community, provides access to synthesis and gridded fCO(2) (fugacity of carbon dioxide) products for the surface oceans. Version 2 of SOCAT is an update of the previous release (version 1) with more data

  5. Analysis of Urban Forest Needs as Anthropogenic (CO2) Gas Absorbent in Semarang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febriani, Anisa Putri; Retnaningsih Soeprobowati, Tri; Maryono

    2018-02-01

    Green open space in cities in significant needs to maintenance environment quality. On of the critical function is to absorb increasing number of gas CO2. Therefore, developing urban forest in cities is very importance. The objective of the study is to determine the area of urban forest as CO2 gas anthropogenic absorb which is formed from fuel, diesel fuel, liquid petroleum gas. The study consists of (1) Analyzing the number of CO2 gas emission by calculating the needs of petroleum and gas based on the number of population, (2) Analyzing the power of gas absorption, (3) Measuring the air concentration of CO2 gas ambient based on daily traffic activities. This study shown that from year 2013 to year 2017, the increasing of urban forest is not so significant. For year 2013 the green open space in Semarang City are 373.67 hectares (7.5 percent from Semarang City area), consists of 239 parks, 11 public cemeteries, production forests, community forests, and urban forests, however the area of urban forest is not increase. The study assess that Antidesmabunius is one of the green species which high absorb capacity planted for Semarang. This trees produce 31,31 ton annually. This study proposed to fostering Antidesmabunius as one principle threes in Semarang urban forest.

  6. Numerical Simulations for Enhanced Methane Recovery from Gas Hydrate Accumulations by Utilizing CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhara, Prathyusha

    In 2013, the International Energy Outlook (EIA, 2013) projected that global energy demand will grow by 56% between 2010 and 2040. Despite strong growth in renewable energy supplies, much of this growth is expected to be met by fossil fuels. Concerns ranging from greenhouse gas emissions and energy security are spawning new interests for other sources of energy including renewable and unconventional fossil fuel such as shale gas and oil as well as gas hydrates. The production methods as well as long-term reservoir behavior of gas hydrate deposits have been under extensive investigation. Reservoir simulators can be used to predict the production potentials of hydrate formations and to determine which technique results in enhanced gas recovery. In this work, a new simulation tool, Mix3HydrateResSim (Mix3HRS), which accounts for complex thermodynamics of multi-component hydrate phase comprised of varying hydrate solid crystal structure, is used to perform the CO2-assisted production technique simulations from CH4 hydrate accumulations. The simulator is one among very few reservoir simulators which can simulate the process of CH4 substitution by CO2 (and N2 ) in the hydrate lattice. Natural gas hydrate deposits around the globe are categorized into three different classes based on the characteristics of the geological sediments present in contact with the hydrate bearing deposits. Amongst these, the Class 2 hydrate accumulations predominantly confirmed in the permafrost and along seashore, are characterized by a mobile aqueous phase underneath a hydrate bearing sediment. The exploitation of such gas hydrate deposits results in release of large amounts of water due to the presence of permeable water-saturated sediments encompassing the hydrate deposits, thus lowering the produced gas rates. In this study, a suite of numerical simulation scenarios with varied complexity are considered which aimed at understanding the underlying changes in physical, thermodynamic and

  7. System for δ13C-CO2 and xCO2 analysis of discrete gas samples by cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Dane; Bodé, Samuel; Boeckx, Pascal

    2017-11-01

    A method was devised for analysing small discrete gas samples (50 mL syringe) by cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). Measurements were accomplished by inletting 50 mL syringed samples into an isotopic-CO2 CRDS analyser (Picarro G2131-i) between baseline readings of a reference air standard, which produced sharp peaks in the CRDS data feed. A custom software script was developed to manage the measurement process and aggregate sample data in real time. The method was successfully tested with CO2 mole fractions (xCO2) ranging from 20 000 ppm and δ13C-CO2 values from -100 up to +30 000 ‰ in comparison to VPDB (Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite). Throughput was typically 10 samples h-1, with 13 h-1 possible under ideal conditions. The measurement failure rate in routine use was ca. 1 %. Calibration to correct for memory effects was performed with gravimetric gas standards ranging from 0.05 to 2109 ppm xCO2 and δ13C-CO2 levels varying from -27.3 to +21 740 ‰. Repeatability tests demonstrated that method precision for 50 mL samples was ca. 0.05 % in xCO2 and 0.15 ‰ in δ13C-CO2 for CO2 compositions from 300 to 2000 ppm with natural abundance 13C. Long-term method consistency was tested over a 9-month period, with results showing no systematic measurement drift over time. Standardised analysis of discrete gas samples expands the scope of application for isotopic-CO2 CRDS and enhances its potential for replacing conventional isotope ratio measurement techniques. Our method involves minimal set-up costs and can be readily implemented in Picarro G2131-i and G2201-i analysers or tailored for use with other CRDS instruments and trace gases.

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the USS BOLD in the Gulf of Mexico from 2007-05-02 to 2007-08-24 (NODC Accession 0117500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117500 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from USS BOLD in the Gulf of Mexico from 2007-05-02 to 2007-08-24. These data...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NUKA ARCTICA in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and others from 2005-01-07 to 2005-12-03 (NODC Accession 0081037)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081037 includes chemical, physical and surface underway data collected from NUKA ARCTICA in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea, North Atlantic Ocean,...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and others from 1994-11-04 to 2012-08-31 (NODC Accession 0083189)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0083189 includes chemical, physical and underway - surface data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea, Bering Sea,...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and others from 2011-05-17 to 2012-10-26 (NODC Accession 0083197)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0083197 includes chemical, physical and underway - surface data collected from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea, Bering Sea, Coastal Waters of...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Munida in the South Pacific Ocean from 2004-01-26 to 2006-07-30 (NODC Accession 0100218)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0100218 includes Surface underway data collected from Munida in the South Pacific Ocean from 2004-01-26 to 2006-07-30. These data include Partial...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Marcus G. Langseth in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and others from 2010-05-07 to 2013-06-25 (NODC Accession 0109901)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109901 includes Surface underway data collected from Marcus G. Langseth in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea, Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea, Cordell Bank...

  14. On which timescales do gas transfer velocities control North Atlantic CO2 flux variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couldrey, Matthew P.; Oliver, Kevin I. C.; Yool, Andrew; Halloran, Paul R.; Achterberg, Eric P.

    2016-05-01

    The North Atlantic is an important basin for the global ocean's uptake of anthropogenic and natural carbon dioxide (CO2), but the mechanisms controlling this carbon flux are not fully understood. The air-sea flux of CO2, F, is the product of a gas transfer velocity, k, the air-sea CO2 concentration gradient, ΔpCO2, and the temperature- and salinity-dependent solubility coefficient, α. k is difficult to constrain, representing the dominant uncertainty in F on short (instantaneous to interannual) timescales. Previous work shows that in the North Atlantic, ΔpCO2 and k both contribute significantly to interannual F variability but that k is unimportant for multidecadal variability. On some timescale between interannual and multidecadal, gas transfer velocity variability and its associated uncertainty become negligible. Here we quantify this critical timescale for the first time. Using an ocean model, we determine the importance of k, ΔpCO2, and α on a range of timescales. On interannual and shorter timescales, both ΔpCO2 and k are important controls on F. In contrast, pentadal to multidecadal North Atlantic flux variability is driven almost entirely by ΔpCO2; k contributes less than 25%. Finally, we explore how accurately one can estimate North Atlantic F without a knowledge of nonseasonal k variability, finding it possible for interannual and longer timescales. These findings suggest that continued efforts to better constrain gas transfer velocities are necessary to quantify interannual variability in the North Atlantic carbon sink. However, uncertainty in k variability is unlikely to limit the accuracy of estimates of longer-term flux variability.

  15. Interactions between the Design and Operation of Shale Gas Networks, Including CO2 Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifzadeh Mahdi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As the demand for energy continues to increase, shale gas, as an unconventional source of methane (CH4, shows great potential for commercialization. However, due to the ultra-low permeability of shale gas reservoirs, special procedures such as horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, periodic well shut-in, and carbon dioxide (CO2 injection may be required in order to boost gas production, maximize economic benefits, and ensure safe and environmentally sound operation. Although intensive research is devoted to this emerging technology, many researchers have studied shale gas design and operational decisions only in isolation. In fact, these decisions are highly interactive and should be considered simultaneously. Therefore, the research question addressed in this study includes interactions between design and operational decisions. In this paper, we first establish a full-physics model for a shale gas reservoir. Next, we conduct a sensitivity analysis of important design and operational decisions such as well length, well arrangement, number of fractures, fracture distance, CO2 injection rate, and shut-in scheduling in order to gain in-depth insights into the complex behavior of shale gas networks. The results suggest that the case with the highest shale gas production may not necessarily be the most profitable design; and that drilling, fracturing, and CO2 injection have great impacts on the economic viability of this technology. In particular, due to the high costs, enhanced gas recovery (EGR using CO2 does not appear to be commercially competitive, unless tax abatements or subsidies are available for CO2 sequestration. It was also found that the interactions between design and operational decisions are significant and that these decisions should be optimized simultaneously.

  16. Tail gas treatment of SEWGS technology. Literature review on CO2 and H2S separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, E.N.; Van Dijk, H.A.J. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    This literature review is the result of an investigation of the most important way to remove sulphur for the last decades. We will discuss Claus and Claus tail gas process options to solve the problem. Next to solutions which come from membranes, direct oxidation catalysis, from acid gas removal technology, sorbent technology, and liquid oxidation. Each field will be described and explained to understand in which way it could be suitable to separate CO2 and H2S and reach our goals with regard to CO2 transport and storage conditions. Finally, the target of this work will be to propose some interesting and promising solutions in view of future experiments.

  17. Interdisciplinary Investigation of CO2 Sequestration in Depleted Shale Gas Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoback, Mark D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Kovscek, Anthony R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Wilcox, Jennifer [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This project investigates the feasibility of geologic sequestration of CO2 in depleted shale gas reservoirs from an interdisciplinary viewpoint. It is anticipated that over the next two decades, tens of thousands of wells will be drilled in the 23 states in which organic-rich shale gas deposits are found. This research investigates the feasibility of using these formations for sequestration. If feasible, the number of sites where CO2 can be sequestered increases dramatically. The research embraces a broad array of length scales ranging from the ~10 nanometer scale of the pores in the shale formations to reservoir scale through a series of integrated laboratory and theoretical studies.

  18. Structure and properties of optical-discharge plasma in CO2-laser beam near target surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danshchikov, Ye. V.; Dymshakov, V. A.; Lebedev, F. V.; Ryazanov, A. V.

    1986-05-01

    An experimental study of optical-discharge plasma in a CO2-laser beam at a target surface was made for the purpose of exploring the not yet understood role of this plasma in the laser-target interaction process. Such a plasma was produced by means of a quasi-continuous CO2-laser with an unstable resonator, its power being maintained constant for 1 ms periods. Its radiation was focused on the surfaces of thick and seeding thin Al, Ti, and Ta targets inclined at an approximately 70 deg. angle to the beam, inside a hermetic chamber containing air, argon, or helium under atmospheric pressure. The radiation intensity distribution over the focal plane and the nearest caustic surface in the laser beam was measured along with the plasma parameters, the latter by the methods of spectral analysis and photoelectric recording. The instrumentation for this purpose included an MDR-3 monochromator with an entrance slit, a double electron-optical converter, a memory oscillograph, and an SI-10-30 ribbon lamp as radiation reference standard. The results yielded integral diametral intensity distributions of the emission lines Ti-II (457.2 nm), Ti-I (464 nm), Ar-II (462 nm), radial and axial temperature profiles of optical discharge in metal vapor in surrounding gas, and the radial temperature profile of irradiated metal surface at successive instants of time. The results reveal marked differences between the structures and the properties of optical-discharge plasma in metal vapor and in surrounding gas, optical discharge in the former being characterized by localization within the laser beam and optical discharge in the latter being characterized by a drift away from the target.

  19. Robust C–C bonded porous networks with chemically designed functionalities for improved CO2 capture from flue gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Thirion

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective carbon dioxide (CO2 capture requires solid, porous sorbents with chemically and thermally stable frameworks. Herein, we report two new carbon–carbon bonded porous networks that were synthesized through metal-free Knoevenagel nitrile–aldol condensation, namely the covalent organic polymer, COP-156 and 157. COP-156, due to high specific surface area (650 m2/g and easily interchangeable nitrile groups, was modified post-synthetically into free amine- or amidoxime-containing networks. The modified COP-156-amine showed fast and increased CO2 uptake under simulated moist flue gas conditions compared to the starting network and usual industrial CO2 solvents, reaching up to 7.8 wt % uptake at 40 °C.

  20. Modeling and Simulated Annealing Optimization of Surface Roughness in CO2 Laser Nitrogen Cutting of Stainless Steel

    OpenAIRE

    M. Madić; M. Radovanović; B. Nedić

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic methodology for empirical modeling and optimization of surface roughness in nitrogen, CO2 laser cutting of stainless steel . The surface roughness prediction model was developed in terms of laser power , cutting speed , assist gas pressure and focus position by using The artificial neural network ( ANN ) . To cover a wider range of laser cutting parameters and obtain an experimental database for the ANN model development, Taguchi 's L27 orthogonal array was im...

  1. Review of the impacts of leaking CO 2 gas and brine on groundwater quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Bacon, Diana H.; Zheng, Liange; Kyle, Jennifer; Brown, Christopher F.

    2017-06-01

    This review paper provides a synthetic view of the existing knowledge and summarizes data and findings of the recent literature on the subject of the potential leaking of CO2 from the deep subsurface storage reservoirs and the effects on aquifer quality. New ideas and concepts are developed and insights are also provided. The objectives of this paper are to: 1) present and discuss potential risks for groundwater degradation due to CO2 gas and brine exposure; 2) identify the set of geochemical data required to assess and predict aquifer responses to CO2 and brine leakage. Specifically, this paper will discuss the following issues: 1) Aquifer responses (such as changes in aqueous phase/groundwater chemical composition; changes in solid phase chemistry and mineralogy; changes in the extent and rate of reactions and processes and possible establishment of a new network of reactions and processes affecting or controlling overall mobility of major, minor, and trace elements; development of conceptual and reduced order models (ROMs) to describe and predict aquifer responses); 2) The degree of impact such as significant or insignificant changes in pH and major, minor, and trace element release that depend on the following controlling variables; the effect of leaking plume characteristics (gas composition, pure CO2 and/or CO2 -CH4 -H2S mixtures and brine concentration and composition (trace metals); aquifer properties [such as initial aqueous phase conditions and mineralogy: minerals controlling sediments’ response (e.g., calcite, Si bearing minerals, etc.)]; overview of relevant hydrogeological and geochemical processes related to the impact of CO2 gas and brine on groundwater quality; the fate of the elements released from sediments or transported with brine (such as precipitation/incorporation into minerals (calcite and other minerals), adsorption, electron transfer reactions, the role of natural attenuation; whether or not the release of metals following exposure to

  2. Surface heat flow and CO2 emissions within the Ohaaki hydrothermal field, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissmann, C.; Christenson, B.; Werner, C.; Leybourne, M.; Cole, J.; Gravley, D.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions and heat flow have been determined from the Ohaaki hydrothermal field, Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ), New Zealand following 20a of production (116MW e). Soil CO2 degassing was quantified with 2663 CO2 flux measurements using the accumulation chamber method, and 2563 soil temperatures were measured and converted to equivalent heat flow (Wm -2) using published soil temperature heat flow functions. Both CO2 flux and heat flow were analysed statistically and then modelled using 500 sequential Gaussian simulations. Forty subsoil CO 2 gas samples were also analysed for stable C isotopes. Following 20a of production, current CO2 emissions equated to 111??6.7T/d. Observed heat flow was 70??6.4MW, compared with a pre-production value of 122MW. This 52MW reduction in surface heat flow is due to production-induced drying up of all alkali-Cl outflows (61.5MW) and steam-heated pools (8.6MW) within the Ohaaki West thermal area (OHW). The drying up of all alkali-Cl outflows at Ohaaki means that the soil zone is now the major natural pathway of heat release from the high-temperature reservoir. On the other hand, a net gain in thermal ground heat flow of 18MW (from 25MW to 43.3??5MW) at OHW is associated with permeability increases resulting from surface unit fracturing by production-induced ground subsidence. The Ohaaki East (OHE) thermal area showed no change in distribution of shallow and deep soil temperature contours despite 20a of production, with an observed heat flow of 26.7??3MW and a CO 2 emission rate of 39??3T/d. The negligible change in the thermal status of the OHE thermal area is attributed to the low permeability of the reservoir beneath this area, which has limited production (mass extraction) and sheltered the area from the pressure decline within the main reservoir. Chemistry suggests that although alkali-Cl outflows once contributed significantly to the natural surface heat flow (~50%) they contributed little (99% of the original CO 2

  3. Relating surface chemistry and oxygen surface exchange in LnBaCo2O(5+δ) air electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez, Helena; Druce, John; Kilner, John A; Ishihara, Tatsumi

    2015-01-01

    The surface and near-surface chemical composition of electroceramic materials often shows significant deviations from that of the bulk. In particular, layered materials, such as cation-ordered LnBaCo2O(5+δ) perovskites (Ln = lanthanide), undergo surface and sub-surface restructuring due to the segregation of the divalent alkaline-earth cation. These processes can take place during synthesis and processing steps (e.g. deposition, sintering or annealing), as well as at temperatures relevant for the operation of these materials as air electrodes in solid oxide fuel cells and electrolysers. Furthermore, the surface segregation in these double perovskites shows fast kinetics, starting at temperatures as low as 400 °C over short periods of time and leading to a decrease in the transition metal surface coverage exposed to the gas phase. In this work, we use a combination of stable isotope tracer labeling and surface-sensitive ion beam techniques to study the oxygen transport properties and their relationship with the surface chemistry in ordered LnBaCo2O(5+δ) perovskites. Time-of-Flight Secondary-Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) combined with (18)O isotope exchange was used to determine the oxygen tracer diffusion (D*) and surface exchange (k*) coefficients. Furthermore, Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS) was used for the analysis of the surface and near surface chemistry as it provides information from the first mono-atomic layer of the materials. In this way, we could relate the compositional modifications (e.g. cation segregation) taking place at the electrochemically-active surface during the exchange at high temperatures and the oxygen transport properties in double perovskite electrode materials to further our understanding of the mechanism of the surface exchange process.

  4. COMPARISON OF CO2-EMISSIONS OF HOUSEHOLDS HEATED BY NATURAL GAS AND FIREWOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÓNIKA PALÁDI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of climate protection, one of the most important questions is the reduction of the GHG emission. In this study, I compared CO2 -emission of households heated by natural gas and firewood, which had similar heated area and volume of air, considering the carbon-dioxide absorbing of forests of the households heated by firewood. Natural gas is a fossil fuel; however, the firewood (solid biomass is a renewable energy resource. One of the main features of renewable energy sources is to get into the atmosphere less CO2 than fossil fuels. The renewable energy resources emit into the air just as much CO2 as they absorb during their life cycle.

  5. Mineral storage of CO2/H2S gas mixture injection in basaltic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. E.; Gunnarsson, I.; Aradottir, E. S.; Oelkers, E. H.; Sigfússon, B.; Snæbjörnsdottír, S. Ó.; Matter, J. M.; Stute, M.; Júlíusson, B. M.; Gíslason, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage is one solution to reducing CO2 emissions in the atmosphere. The long-term geological storage of buoyant supercritical CO2 requires high integrity cap rock. Some of the risk associated with CO2 buoyancy can be overcome by dissolving CO2 into water during its injection, thus eliminating its buoyancy. This enables injection into fractured rocks, such as basaltic rocks along oceanic ridges and on continents. Basaltic rocks are rich in divalent cations, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe2+, which react with CO2 dissolved in water to form stable carbonate minerals. This possibility has been successfully tested as a part of the CarbFix CO2storage pilot project at the Hellisheiði geothermal power plant in Iceland, where they have shown mineralization occurs in less than two years [1, 2]. Reykjavik Energy and the CarbFix group has been injecting a mixture of CO2 and H2S at 750 m depth and 240-250°C since June 2014; by 1 January 2016, 6290 tons of CO2 and 3530 tons of H2S had been injected. Once in the geothermal reservoir, the heat exchange and sufficient dissolution of the host rock neutralizes the gas-charged water and saturates the formation water respecting carbonate and sulfur minerals. A thermally stable inert tracer was also mixed into the stream to monitor the subsurface transport and to assess the degree of subsurface carbonation and sulfide precipitation [3]. Water and gas samples have been continuously collected from three monitoring wells and geochemically analyzed. Based on the results, mineral saturation stages have been defined. These results and tracer mass balance calculations are used to evaluate the rate and magnitude of CO2 and H2S mineralization in the subsurface, with indications that mineralization of carbon and sulfur occurs within months. [1] Gunnsarsson, I., et al. (2017). Rapid and cost-effective capture and subsurface mineral storage of carbon and sulfur. Manuscript submitted for publication. [2] Matter, J., et al. (2016). Rapid

  6. Gas-water-rock interactions induced by reservoir exploitation, CO2 sequestration, and other geological storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecourtier, J.

    2005-01-01

    Here is given a summary of the opening address of the IFP International Workshop: 'gas-water-rock interactions induced by reservoir exploitation, CO 2 sequestration, and other geological storage' (18-20 November 2003). 'This broad topic is of major interest to the exploitation of geological sites since gas-water-mineral interactions determine the physicochemical characteristics of these sites, the strategies to adopt to protect the environment, and finally, the operational costs. Modelling the phenomena is a prerequisite for the engineering of a geological storage, either for disposal efficiency or for risk assessment and environmental protection. During the various sessions, several papers focus on the great achievements that have been made in the last ten years in understanding and modelling the coupled reaction and transport processes occurring in geological systems, from borehole to reservoir scale. Remaining challenges such as the coupling of mechanical processes of deformation with chemical reactions, or the influence of microbiological environments on mineral reactions will also be discussed. A large part of the conference programme will address the problem of mitigating CO 2 emissions, one of the most important issues that our society must solve in the coming years. From both a technical and an economic point of view, CO 2 geological sequestration is the most realistic solution proposed by the experts today. The results of ongoing pilot operations conducted in Europe and in the United States are strongly encouraging, but geological storage will be developed on a large scale in the future only if it becomes possible to predict the long term behaviour of stored CO 2 underground. In order to reach this objective, numerous issues must be solved: - thermodynamics of CO 2 in brines; - mechanisms of CO 2 trapping inside the host rock; - geochemical modelling of CO 2 behaviour in various types of geological formations; - compatibility of CO 2 with oil-well cements

  7. Experimental and Numerical Modelling of CO2 Atmospheric Dispersion in Hazardous Gas Emission Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, A.; sainz Gracia, A. S.; Grandia, F.; Bruno, J.

    2015-12-01

    Under stable atmospheric conditions and/or in presence of topographic depressions, CO2 concentrations can reach high values resulting in lethal effect to living organisms. The distribution of denser than air gases released from the underground is governed by gravity, turbulence and dispersion. Once emitted, the gas distribution is initially driven by buoyancy and a gas cloud accumulates on the ground (gravitational phase); with time the density gradient becomes less important due to dispersion or mixing and gas distribution is mainly governed by wind and atmospheric turbulence (passive dispersion phase). Natural analogues provide evidences of the impact of CO2 leakage. Dangerous CO2 concentration in atmosphere related to underground emission have been occasionally reported although the conditions favouring the persistence of such a concentration are barely studied.In this work, the dynamics of CO2 in the atmosphere after ground emission is assessed to quantify their potential risk. Two approaches have been followed: (1) direct measurement of air concentration in a natural emission site, where formation of a "CO2 lake" is common and (2) numerical atmospheric modelling. Two sites with different morphology were studied: (a) the Cañada Real site, a flat terrain in the Volcanic Field of Campo de Calatrava (Spain); (b) the Solforata di Pomezia site, a rough terrain in the Alban Hills Volcanic Region (Italy). The comparison between field data and model calculations reveal that numerical dispersion models are capable of predicting the formation of CO2 accumulation over the ground as a consequence of underground gas emission. Therefore, atmospheric modelling could be included as a valuable methodology in the risk assessment of leakage in natural degassing systems and in CCS projects. Conclusions from this work provide clues on whether leakage may be a real risk for humans and under which conditions this risk needs to be included in the risk assessment.

  8. Removal of CO2 in closed loop off-gas treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemens, M.K.; Nelson, P.A.; Swift, W.M.

    1994-01-01

    A closed loop test system has been installed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to demonstrate off-gas treatment, absorption, and purification systems to be used for incineration and vitrification of hazardous and mixed waste. Closed loop systems can virtually eliminate the potential for release of hazardous or toxic materials to the atmosphere during both normal and upset conditions. In initial tests, a 250,000 Btu/h (75 kW thermal) combustor was operated in an open loop to produce a combustion product gas. The CO 2 in these tests was removed by reaction with a fluidized bed of time to produce CaCO 3 . Subsequently, recirculation system was installed to allow closed loop operation with the addition of oxygen to the recycle stream to support combustion. Commercially marketed technologies for removal of CO 2 can be adapted for use on closed loop incineration systems. The paper also describes the Absorbent Solution Treatment (AST) process, based on modifications to commercially demonstrated gas purification technologies. In this process, a side loop system is added to the main loop for removing CO 2 in scrubbing towers using aqueous-based CO 2 absorbents. The remaining gas is returned to the incinerator with oxygen addition. The absorbent is regenerated by driving off the CO 2 and water vapor, which are released to the atmosphere. Contaminants are either recycled for further treatment or form precipitates which are removed during the purification and regeneration process. There are no direct releases of gases or particulates to the environment. The CO 2 and water vapor go through two changes of state before release, effectively separating these combustion products from contaminants released during incineration. The AST process can accept a wide range of waste streams. The system may be retrofitted to existing Facilities or included in the designs for new installations

  9. Possibilities for the reduction of CO2- and CH4-emissions of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muessig, S.

    1994-01-01

    The use of fossil fuels increases the portion of greenhouse gases, especially CO 2 and CH 4 . In this paper firstly the specific emission rates of these greenhouse gases for the various fuels are compared. Secondly possibilities for the reduction of CO 2 and CH 4 for natural gas which are relatively small anyhow are discussed. Thirdly the use of renewable energy within the gas industry and the ocean and into depleted reservoirs are discussed. It is shown that the efficient use of energy of the fossil fuel natural gas is most successful in all branches of gas consumption to decrease emission. Combined-cycle processes, cogeneration as well as modern domestic heating systems are described. Fuel cells and the application of hydrogen is shortly discussed. (orig.)

  10. Effects of CO 2 on a High Performance Hollow-Fiber Membrane for Natural Gas Purification

    KAUST Repository

    Omole, Imona C.; Adams, Ryan T.; Miller, Stephen J.; Koros, William J.

    2010-01-01

    A 6FDA-based, cross-linkable polyimide was characterized in the form of a defect-free asymmetric hollow-fiber membrane. The novel membrane was cross-linked at various temperatures and tested for natural gas purification in the presence of high CO2

  11. Development of CO2 and KrF gas lasers as drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwood, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    Several different driver systems are currently under development in the national ICF program. Los Alamos has traditionally emphasized gas laser systems because of their intrinsic high average power capability and ease of operation. This paper will review the status of activities in both carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and krypton fluoride (KrF) development at the Laboratory

  12. Electricity, Natural Gas and CO2 markets Observatory - 2. Quarter of 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the Observatory is to provide the general public with indicators for monitoring market deregulation. It both covers the wholesale and retail electricity and gas markets in Metropolitan France. Since 2013, it also covers the wholesale CO 2 market. This Observatory is updated every three months and data are available on CRE web site (www.cre.fr)

  13. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA as well as flue gas from coal combustion. This topical report covers Phase 2b, which is the construction phase of pilot demonstration subsystems that make up the integrated plant. The subsystems included are the mineralization subsystem, the Alkalinity Based on Low Energy (ABLE) subsystem, the waste calcium oxide processing subsystem, and the fiber cement board production subsystem. The fully integrated plant is now capable of capturing CO2 from various sources (gas and coal) and mineralizing into a reactive calcium carbonate binder and subsequently producing commercial size (4ftx8ft) fiber cement boards. The topical report provides a description of the “as built” design of these subsystems and the results of the commissioning activities that have taken place to confirm operability. At the end of Phase 2b, the CCMP pilot demonstration is fully ready for testing.

  14. A Highly Stable Microporous Covalent Imine Network Adsorbent for Natural Gas Upgrading and Flue Gas CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Swapan Kumar; Wang, Xinbo; Ostwal, Mayur; Lai, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    The feasible capture and separation of CO2 and N2 from CH4 is an important task for natural gas upgrading and the control of greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we studied the microporous covalent imine networks (CIN) material prepared through Schiff

  15. A novel pump-driven veno-venous gas exchange system during extracorporeal CO2-removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Alexander; Riss, Katharina; Schellongowski, Peter; Bojic, Andja; Wohlfarth, Philipp; Robak, Oliver; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Staudinger, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Pump-driven veno-venous extracorporeal CO2-removal (ECCO2-R) increasingly takes root in hypercapnic lung failure to minimize ventilation invasiveness or to avoid intubation. A recently developed device (iLA activve(®), Novalung, Germany) allows effective decarboxylation via a 22 French double lumen cannula. To assess determinants of gas exchange, we prospectively evaluated the performance of ECCO2-R in ten patients receiving iLA activve(®) due to hypercapnic respiratory failure. Sweep gas flow was increased in steps from 1 to 14 L/min at constant blood flow (phase 1). Similarly, blood flow was gradually increased at constant sweep gas flow (phase 2). At each step gas transfer via the membrane as well as arterial blood gas samples were analyzed. During phase 1, we observed a significant increase in CO2 transfer together with a decrease in PaCO2 levels from a median of 66 mmHg (range 46-85) to 49 (31-65) mmHg from 1 to 14 L/min sweep gas flow (p gas flow rates. During phase 2, oxygen transfer significantly increased leading to an increase in PaO2 from 67 (49-87) at 0.5 L/min to 117 (66-305) mmHg at 2.0 L/min (p gas flow results in effective CO2-removal, which can be further reinforced by raising blood flow. The clinically relevant oxygenation effect in this setting could broaden the range of indications of the system and help to set up an individually tailored configuration.

  16. Interaction of cw CO2 laser radiation with plasma near-metallic substrate surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azharonok, V. V.; Astapchik, S. A.; Zabelin, Alexandre M.; Golubev, Vladimir S.; Golubev, V. S.; Grezev, A. N.; Filatov, Igor V.; Chubrik, N. I.; Shimanovich, V. D.

    2000-07-01

    Optical and spectroscopic methods were used in studying near-surface plasma that is formed under the effect CW CO2 laser of (2- 5)x106W/cm2 power density upon stainless steel in He and Ar shielding gases. The variation of plume spatial structure with time has been studied, the outflow of gas-vapor jets from the interaction area has been characterized. The spectra of plasma plume pulsations have been obtained for the frequency range Δf = 0-1 MHz. The temperature and electron concentration of plasma plume have been found under radiation effect upon the target of stainless steel. Consideration has been given to the most probable mechanisms of CW laser radiation-metal non-stationary interaction.

  17. Gas power plant with CO2 handling. A study of alternative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolland, Olav; Hagen, Roger I.; Maurstad, Ola; Tangen, Grethe; Juliussen, Olav; Svendsen, Hallvard

    2002-01-01

    The report documents a study which compares 12 different technologies for gas power plants with CO 2 handling. The additional costs in removing the CO 2 in connection with electricity production is calculated to at least 18-19 oere /kWh compared to conventional gas power production without CO 2 capture. The calculated extra costs are somewhat higher than previously published figures. The difference is mainly due to that the estimated costs for pipelines and injection system for CO 2 are higher than in other studies. The removal of CO 2 in connection with gas power production implies increased use of natural gas. The most developed technologies would lead to a procentual increase in the gas consumption per kWh electricity of 18-25%. Gas power plants based on the present technologies would have efficiencies in the size of 46-49%. The efficiency of power plants without CO 2 handling is supposed to be 58%. There is no foundation for pointing out a ''winner's' among the compared technologies in the study. The present available technologies excepted, there are no technology which stands out as better than the others from an economic viewpoint. Gas turbine with membrane based separation of oxygen from air (AZEP) has a potential for lower costs but implies challenging technological development and thence considerable technological risks. Two technologies, capture of carbon from natural gas previous to combustion and exhaust gas purification based on absorption, may be employed in 3 - 4 years. The other technologies require more development and maturing. Three of the technologies may be particularly interesting because hydrogen may be produced as a byproduct. Demonstration plant and choice of technology: 1) There is a limited need for demonstration plants with respect to technology development. 2) It is important for the technology development to be able to test various technologies in a laboratory or in a flexible pilot plant. 3) Many technologies and components may be

  18. Catalytic combustion of the retentate gas from a CO2/H2 separation membrane reactor for further CO2 enrichment and energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Kyung-Ran; Park, Jin-Woo; Lee, Sung-Wook; Hong, Sungkook; Lee, Chun-Boo; Oh, Duck-Kyu; Jin, Min-Ho; Lee, Dong-Wook; Park, Jong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The CCR (catalytic combustion reaction) of the retentate gas, consisting of 90% CO 2 and 10% H 2 obtained from a CO 2 /H 2 separation membrane reactor, was investigated using a porous Ni metal catalyst in order to recover energy and further enrich CO 2 . A disc-shaped porous Ni metal catalyst, namely Al[0.1]/Ni, was prepared by a simple method and a compact MCR (micro-channel reactor) equipped with a catalyst plate was designed for the CCR. CO 2 and H 2 concentrations of 98.68% and 0.46%, respectively, were achieved at an operating temperature of 400 °C, GHSV (gas-hourly space velocity) of 50,000 h −1 and a H 2 /O 2 ratio (R/O) of 2 in the unit module. In the case of the MCR, a sheet of the Ni metal catalyst was easily installed along with the other metal plates and the concentration of CO 2 in the retentate gas increased up to 96.7%. The differences in temperatures measured before and after the CCR were 31 °C at the product outlet and 19 °C at the N 2 outlet in the MCR. The disc-shaped porous metal catalyst and MCR configuration used in this study exhibit potential advantages, such as high thermal transfer resulting in improved energy recovery rate, simple catalyst preparation, and easy installation of the catalyst in the MCR. - Highlights: • The catalytic combustion of a retentate gas obtained from the H 2 /CO 2 separation membrane. • A disc-shaped porous nickel metal catalyst and a micro-channel reactor for catalytic hydrogen combustion. • CO 2 enrichment up to 98.68% at 400 °C, 50,000 h −1 and H 2 /O 2 ratio of 2.

  19. Capacity expansion analysis of UGSs rebuilt from low-permeability fractured gas reservoirs with CO2 as cushion gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Tan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The techniques of pressurized mining and hydraulic fracturing are often used to improve gas well productivity at the later development stage of low-permeability carbonate gas reservoirs, but reservoirs are watered out and a great number of micro fractures are produced. Therefore, one of the key factors for underground gas storages (UGS rebuilt from low-permeability fractured gas reservoirs with CO2 as the cushion gas is how to expand storage capacity effectively by injecting CO2 to displace water and to develop control strategies for the stable migration of gas–water interface. In this paper, a mathematical model was established to simulate the gas–water flow when CO2 was injected into dual porosity reservoirs to displace water. Then, the gas–water interface migration rules while CO2 was injected in the peripheral gas wells for water displacement were analyzed with one domestic UGS rebuilt from fractured gas reservoirs as the research object. And finally, discussion was made on how CO2 dissolution, bottom hole flowing pressure (BHFP, CO2 injection rate and micro fracture parameters affect the stability of gas–water interface in the process of storage capacity expansion. It is shown that the speed of capacity expansion reaches the maximum value at the fifth cycle and then decreases gradually when UGS capacity is expanded in the pattern of more injection and less withdrawal. Gas–water interface during UGS capacity expansion is made stable due to that the solubility of CO2 in water varies with the reservoir pressure. When the UGS capacity is expanded at constant BHFP and the flow rate, the expansion speed can be increased effectively by increasing the BHFP and the injection flow rate of gas wells in the central areas appropriately. In the reservoir areas with high permeability and fracture-matrix permeability ratio, the injection flow rate should be reduced properly to prevent gas–water interface fingering caused by a high-speed flow

  20. Improvement of supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle using binary gas mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Woo Seok

    2011-02-01

    A Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) is one of the strongest candidates for the next generation nuclear reactor. However, the conventional design of a SFR concept with an indirect Rankine cycle is inevitably subjected to a sodium-water reaction. To prevent hazardous situation caused by sodium-water reaction, the SFR with Brayton cycle using Supercritical Carbon dioxide (S-CO 2 cycle) as a working fluid can be an alternative approach. The S-CO 2 Brayton cycle is more sensitive to the critical point of working fluids than other Brayton cycles. This is because compressor work significantly decreases at slightly above the critical point due to high density near the boundary between the supercritical state and the subcritical state. For this reason, the minimum temperature and pressure of cycle are just above the CO 2 critical point. The critical point acts as a limitation of the lowest operating condition of the cycle. In general, lowering the rejection temperature of a thermodynamic cycle increases the efficiency and thus, changing the critical point of CO 2 can result in an improvement of the total cycle efficiency with the same cycle layout. Modifying the critical point of the working fluid can be done by adding other gases to CO 2 . The direction and range of the CO 2 critical point variation depends on the mixed component and its amount. In particular, chemical reactivity of the gas mixture itself and the gas mixture with sodium at high temperatures are of interest. To modify the critical point of the working fluid, several gases were chosen as candidates by which chemical stability with sodium within the interested range of cycle operating condition was assured: CO 2 was mixed with N 2 , O 2 , He, Ar and Xe. To evaluate the effect of shifting the critical point and changes in the properties of the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle, a supercritical Brayton cycle analysis code connected with the REFPROP program from the NIST was developed. The developed code is for evaluating

  1. Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas Database Version 5 (SOCATv5) (NCEI Accession 0163180)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT, www.socat.info) is a synthesis activity by the international marine carbon research community and has more than 100 contributors...

  2. A breakthrough in flue gas cleanup, CO2 mitigation and H2S removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Wolf; Wasas, James; Stenger, Raymond; Howell, Evan

    2010-09-15

    SWAPSOL Corp. is developing commercial processes around a newly discovered reaction that reduces H2S below detectable levels while reacting with CO2 to form water, sulfur and carsuls, a carbon-sulfur polymer. The Stenger-Wasas Process (SWAP) stands to simplify sulfur removal technology as it consumes CO2 in an exothermic reaction. The SWAP has applications in landfill, sour, flue and Claus tail gas cleanup and may replace Claus technology. Destruction of waste hydrocarbons provides a source of H2S. The primary reactions and variants have been independently verified and the chemical kinetics determined by a third party laboratory.

  3. Biological Effect of Gas Plasma Treatment on CO2 Gas Foaming/Salt Leaching Fabricated Porous Polycaprolactone Scaffolds in Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Yeong Bak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous polycaprolactone (PCL scaffolds were fabricated by using the CO2 gas foaming/salt leaching process and then PCL scaffolds surface was treated by oxygen or nitrogen gas plasma in order to enhance the cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation. The PCL and NaCl were mixed in the ratios of 3 : 1. The supercritical CO2 gas foaming process was carried out by solubilizing CO2 within samples at 50°C and 8 MPa for 6 hr and depressurization rate was 0.4 MPa/s. The oxygen or nitrogen plasma treated porous PCL scaffolds were prepared at discharge power 100 W and 10 mTorr for 60 s. The mean pore size of porous PCL scaffolds showed 427.89 μm. The gas plasma treated porous PCL scaffolds surface showed hydrophilic property and the enhanced adhesion and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells comparing to untreated porous PCL scaffolds. The PCL scaffolds produced from the gas foaming/salt leaching and plasma surface treatment are suitable for potential applications in bone tissue engineering.

  4. Simple Synthesis of ZnCo2O4 Nanoparticles as Gas-sensing Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Bangale

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductive nanometer-size material ZnCo2O4 was synthesized by a solution combustion reaction of inorganic reagents of Zn(NO33. 6H2O, Co(NO33.6H2O and glycine as a fuel. The process was a convenient, environment friendly, inexpensive and efficient preparation method for the ZnCo2O4 nanomaterial. The synthesized materials were characterized by TG/DTA, XRD, EDX, SEM, and TEM. Conductance responses of the nanocrystalline ZnCo2O4 thick film were measured by exposing the film to reducing gases like Acetone, Ethanol, Ammonia (NH3, Hydrogen (H2, Hydrogen sulphide (H2S, Chlorine (Cl2 and Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG. It was found that the sensors exhibited various sensing responses to these gases at different operating temperature. Furthermore, the sensor exhibited a fast response and a good recovery. The results demonstrated that ZnCo2O4 can be used as a new type of gas-sensing material which has a high sensitivity and good selectivity to Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG at 100 ppm.

  5. CO and CO2 dual-gas detection based on mid-infrared wideband absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ming; Zhong, Guo-qiang; Miao, Shu-zhuo; Zheng, Chuan-tao; Wang, Yi-ding

    2018-03-01

    A dual-gas sensor system is developed for CO and CO2 detection using a single broadband light source, pyroelectric detectors and time-division multiplexing (TDM) technique. A stepper motor based rotating system and a single-reflection spherical optical mirror are designed and adopted for realizing and enhancing dual-gas detection. Detailed measurements under static detection mode (without rotation) and dynamic mode (with rotation) are performed to study the performance of the sensor system for the two gas samples. The detection period is 7.9 s in one round of detection by scanning the two detectors. Based on an Allan deviation analysis, the 1σ detection limits under static operation are 3.0 parts per million (ppm) in volume and 2.6 ppm for CO and CO2, respectively, and those under dynamic operation are 9.4 ppm and 10.8 ppm for CO and CO2, respectively. The reported sensor has potential applications in various fields requiring CO and CO2 detection such as in the coal mine.

  6. Polyimide hollow fiber membranes for CO2 separation from wet gas mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Falbo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Matrimid®5218 hollow fiber membranes were prepared using the dry-wet spinning process. The transport properties were measured with pure gases (H2, CO2, N2, CH4 and O2 and with a mixture (30% CO2 and 70% N2 in dry and wet conditions at 25 ºC, 50 ºC, 60 ºC and 75 ºC and up to 600 kPa. Interesting values of single gas selectivity up to 60 ºC (between 31 and 28 for CO2/N2 and between 33 and 30 for CO2/CH4 in dry condition were obtained. The separation factor measured for the mixture was 20% lower compared to the single gas selectivity, in the whole temperature range analyzed. In saturation conditions the data showed that water influences the performance of the membranes, inducing a reduction of the permeance of all gases. Moreover, the presence of water caused a decrease of single gas selectivity and separation factor, although not so significant, highlighting the very high water resistance of hollow fiber membrane modules.

  7. Long-term surface pCO2 trends from observations and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjiputra, Jerry F.; Olsen, Are; Heinze, Christoph; Bopp, Laurent; Roy, Tilla

    2014-01-01

    We estimate regional long-term surface ocean pCO 2 growth rates using all available underway and bottled biogeochemistry data collected over the past four decades. These observed regional trends are compared with those simulated by five state-of-the-art Earth system models over the historical period. Oceanic pCO 2 growth rates faster than the atmospheric growth rates indicate decreasing atmospheric CO 2 uptake, while ocean pCO 2 growth rates slower than the atmospheric growth rates indicate increasing atmospheric CO 2 uptake. Aside from the western sub-polar North Pacific and the subtropical North Atlantic, our analysis indicates that the current observation-based basin-scale trends may be underestimated, indicating that more observations are needed to determine the trends in these regions. Encouragingly, good agreement between the simulated and observed pCO 2 trends is found when the simulated fields are sub sampled with the observational coverage. In agreement with observations, we see that the simulated pCO 2 trends are primarily associated with the increase in surface dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) associated with atmospheric carbon uptake, and in part by warming of the sea surface. Under the RCP8.5 future scenario, DIC continues to be the dominant driver of pCO 2 trends, with little change in the relative contribution of SST. However, the changes in the hydrological cycle play an increasingly important role. For the contemporary (1970-2011) period, the simulated regional pCO 2 trends are lower than the atmospheric growth rate over 90% of the ocean. However, by year 2100 more than 40% of the surface ocean area has a higher oceanic pCO 2 trend than the atmosphere, implying a reduction in the atmospheric CO 2 uptake rate. The fastest pCO 2 growth rates are projected for the sub-polar North Atlantic, while the high-latitude Southern Ocean and eastern equatorial Pacific have the weakest growth rates, remaining below the atmospheric pCO 2 growth rate. Our work

  8. Long-term surface pCO2 trends from observations and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry F. Tjiputra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We estimate regional long-term surface ocean pCO2 growth rates using all available underway and bottled biogeochemistry data collected over the past four decades. These observed regional trends are compared with those simulated by five state-of-the-art Earth system models over the historical period. Oceanic pCO2 growth rates faster than the atmospheric growth rates indicate decreasing atmospheric CO2 uptake, while ocean pCO2 growth rates slower than the atmospheric growth rates indicate increasing atmospheric CO2 uptake. Aside from the western subpolar North Pacific and the subtropical North Atlantic, our analysis indicates that the current observation-based basin-scale trends may be underestimated, indicating that more observations are needed to determine the trends in these regions. Encouragingly, good agreement between the simulated and observed pCO2 trends is found when the simulated fields are subsampled with the observational coverage. In agreement with observations, we see that the simulated pCO2 trends are primarily associated with the increase in surface dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC associated with atmospheric carbon uptake, and in part by warming of the sea surface. Under the RCP8.5 future scenario, DIC continues to be the dominant driver of pCO2 trends, with little change in the relative contribution of SST. However, the changes in the hydrological cycle play an increasingly important role. For the contemporary (1970–2011 period, the simulated regional pCO2 trends are lower than the atmospheric growth rate over 90% of the ocean. However, by year 2100 more than 40% of the surface ocean area has a higher oceanic pCO2 trend than the atmosphere, implying a reduction in the atmospheric CO2 uptake rate. The fastest pCO2 growth rates are projected for the subpolar North Atlantic, while the high-latitude Southern Ocean and eastern equatorial Pacific have the weakest growth rates, remaining below the atmospheric pCO2 growth rate. Our work

  9. Soil surface CO2 flux in a boreal black spruce fire chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuankuan; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Gower, Stith T.

    2003-02-01

    Understanding the effects of wildfire on the carbon (C) cycle of boreal forests is essential to quantifying the role of boreal forests in the global carbon cycle. Soil surface CO2 flux (Rs), the second largest C flux in boreal forests, is directly and indirectly affected by fire and is hypothesized to change during forest succession following fire. The overall objective of this study was to measure and model Rs for a black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] BSP) postfire chronosequence in northern Manitoba, Canada. The experiment design was a nested factorial that included two soil drainage classes (well and poorly drained) × seven postfire aged stands. Specific objectives were (1) to quantify the relationship between Rs and soil temperature for different aged boreal black spruce forests in well-drained and poorly drained soil conditions, (2) to examine Rs dynamics along postfire successional stands, and (3) to estimate annual soil surface CO2 flux for these ecosystems. Soil surface CO2 flux was significantly affected by soil drainage class (p = 0.014) and stand age (p = 0.006). Soil surface CO2 flux was positively correlated to soil temperature (R2 = 0.78, p aged stand combination. Soil surface CO2 flux was significantly greater at the well-drained than the poorly drained stands (p = 0.007) during growing season. Annual soil surface CO2 flux for the 1998, 1995, 1989, 1981, 1964, 1930, and 1870 burned stands averaged 226, 412, 357, 413, 350, 274, and 244 g C m-2 yr-1 in the well-drained stands and 146, 380, 300, 303, 256, 233, and 264 g C m-2 yr-1 in the poorly drained stands. Soil surface CO2 flux during the winter (from 1 November to 30 April) comprised from 5 to 19% of the total annual Rs. We speculate that the smaller soil surface CO2 flux in the recently burned than the older stands is mainly caused by decreased root respiration.

  10. Air-water gas exchange and CO2 flux in a mangrove-dominated estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, David T.; Ferrón, Sara; Engel, Victor C.; Larsen, Laurel G.; Barr, Jordan G.

    2014-01-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive ecosystems, but the fate of mangrove-derived carbon remains uncertain. Part of that uncertainty stems from the fact that gas transfer velocities in mangrove-surrounded waters are not well determined, leading to uncertainty in air-water CO2 fluxes. Two SF6 tracer release experiments were conducted to determine gas transfer velocities (k(600) = 8.3 ± 0.4 and 8.1 ± 0.6 cm h−1), along with simultaneous measurements of pCO2 to determine the air-water CO2 fluxes from Shark River, Florida (232.11 ± 23.69 and 171.13 ± 20.28 mmol C m−2 d−1), an estuary within the largest contiguous mangrove forest in North America. The gas transfer velocity results are consistent with turbulent kinetic energy dissipation measurements, indicating a higher rate of turbulence and gas exchange than predicted by commonly used wind speed/gas exchange parameterizations. The results have important implications for carbon fluxes in mangrove ecosystems.

  11. Using noble gas fingerprints at the Kerr Farm to assess CO2 leakage allegations linked to the Weyburn-Midale CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project

    OpenAIRE

    Gilfillan, Stuart; Sherk, George Williams; Poreda, Robert J.; Haszeldine, Robert

    2017-01-01

    For carbon capture and storage technology to successfully contribute to climate mitigation efforts, the stored CO2 must be securely isolated from the atmosphere and oceans. Hence, there is a need to establish and verify monitoring techniques that can detect unplanned migration of injected CO2 from a storage site to the near surface. Noble gases are sensitive tracers of crustal fluid input in the subsurface due to their low concentrations and unreactive nature. Several studies have identified ...

  12. Predicting mixed-gas adsorption equilibria on activated carbon for precombustion CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, S; Pis, J J; Rubiera, F; Pevida, C

    2013-05-21

    We present experimentally measured adsorption isotherms of CO2, H2, and N2 on a phenol-formaldehyde resin-based activated carbon, which had been previously synthesized for the separation of CO2 in a precombustion capture process. The single component adsorption isotherms were measured in a magnetic suspension balance at three different temperatures (298, 318, and 338 K) and over a large range of pressures (from 0 to 3000-4000 kPa). These values cover the temperature and pressure conditions likely to be found in a precombustion capture scenario, where CO2 needs to be separated from a CO2/H2/N2 gas stream at high pressure (~1000-1500 kPa) and with a high CO2 concentration (~20-40 vol %). Data on the pure component isotherms were correlated using the Langmuir, Sips, and dual-site Langmuir (DSL) models, i.e., a two-, three-, and four-parameter model, respectively. By using the pure component isotherm fitting parameters, adsorption equilibrium was then predicted for multicomponent gas mixtures by the extended models. The DSL model was formulated considering the energetic site-matching concept, recently addressed in the literature. Experimental gas-mixture adsorption equilibrium data were calculated from breakthrough experiments conducted in a lab-scale fixed-bed reactor and compared with the predictions from the models. Breakthrough experiments were carried out at a temperature of 318 K and five different pressures (300, 500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 kPa) where two different CO2/H2/N2 gas mixtures were used as the feed gas in the adsorption step. The DSL model was found to be the one that most accurately predicted the CO2 adsorption equilibrium in the multicomponent mixture. The results presented in this work highlight the importance of performing experimental measurements of mixture adsorption equilibria, as they are of utmost importance to discriminate between models and to correctly select the one that most closely reflects the actual process.

  13. A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2 detection techniques and transport models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spangler, Lee H.; Dobeck, Laura M.; Repasky, Kevin S.; Nehrir, Amin R.; Humphries, Seth D.; Barr, Jamie L.; Keith, Charlie J.; Shaw, Joseph A.; Rouse, Joshua H.; Cunningham, Alfred B.; Benson, Sally M.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Wells, Arthur W.; Diehl, J. R.; Strazisar, Brian; Fessenden, Julianna; Rahn, Thom A.; Amonette, James E.; Barr, Jonathan L.; Pickles, William L.; Jacobson, James D.; Silver, Eli A.; Male, Erin J.; Rauch, Henry W.; Gullickson, Kadie; Trautz, Robert; Kharaka, Yousif; Birkholzer, Jens; Wielopolski, Lucien

    2010-03-01

    A facility has been constructed to perform controlled shallow releases of CO2 at flow rates that challenge near surface detection techniques and can be scalable to desired retention rates of large scale CO2 storage projects. Preinjection measurements were made to determine background conditions and characterize natural variability at the site. Modeling of CO2 transport and concentration in saturated soil and the vadose zone was also performed to inform decisions about CO2 release rates and sampling strategies. Four releases of CO2 were carried out over the summer field seasons of 2007 and 2008. Transport of CO2 through soil, water, plants, and air was studied using near surface detection techniques. Soil CO2 flux, soil gas concentration, total carbon in soil, water chemistry, plant health, net CO2 flux, atmospheric CO2 concentration, movement of tracers, and stable isotope ratios were among the quantities measured. Even at relatively low fluxes, most techniques were able to detect elevated levels of CO2 in the soil, atmosphere, or water. Plant stress induced by CO2 was detectable above natural seasonal variations.

  14. Tail gas treatment of sour-SEWGS CO2 product. Public version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dijk, H.A.J. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    This literature review covers the technologies suitable for the CO2-H2S separation within the context of CO2 purification of a pre-combustion captured stream intended for storage or reuse. The technologies considered cover existing industrially applied processes, emerging processes as well as processes in development. Several technologies capable of achieving the desired CO2-H2S separation were identified. Among them are liquid scrubbing processes Thiopaq and CrystaSulf producing elemental sulphur, selective oxidation to elemental sulphur such as MODOP or based on novel catalysts and sorbent-based (reactive) separations using low-, medium- or high-temperature (reactive) sorbents. SEWGS stands for Sorption Enhanced Water Gas Shift process.

  15. Optimized CO2-flue gas separation model for a coal fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arachchige, Udara S.P.R. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Mohsin, Muhammad [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Melaaen, Morten C. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Tel-Tek, Porsgrunn (Norway)

    2013-07-01

    The detailed description of the CO2 removal process using mono-ethylamine (MEA) as a solvent for coal-fired power plant is present in this paper. The rate based Electrolyte NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the Aspen Plus. The complete removal process with re-circulating solvent back to the absorber was implemented with the sequential modular method in Aspen Plus. The most significant cost related to CO2 capture is the energy requirement for re-generating solvent, i.e. re-boiler duty. Parameters’ effects on re-boiler duty were studied, resulting decreased re-boiler duty with the packing height and absorber packing diameter, absorber pressure, solvent temperature, stripper packing height and diameter. On the other hand, with the flue gas temperature, re-boiler duty is increased. The temperature profiles and CO2 loading profiles were used to check the model behavior.

  16. System for δ13C–CO2 and xCO2 analysis of discrete gas samples by cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dickinson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A method was devised for analysing small discrete gas samples (50 mL syringe by cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS. Measurements were accomplished by inletting 50 mL syringed samples into an isotopic-CO2 CRDS analyser (Picarro G2131-i between baseline readings of a reference air standard, which produced sharp peaks in the CRDS data feed. A custom software script was developed to manage the measurement process and aggregate sample data in real time. The method was successfully tested with CO2 mole fractions (xCO2 ranging from  <  0.1 to  >  20 000 ppm and δ13C–CO2 values from −100 up to +30 000 ‰ in comparison to VPDB (Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite. Throughput was typically 10 samples h−1, with 13 h−1 possible under ideal conditions. The measurement failure rate in routine use was ca. 1 %. Calibration to correct for memory effects was performed with gravimetric gas standards ranging from 0.05 to 2109 ppm xCO2 and δ13C–CO2 levels varying from −27.3 to +21 740 ‰. Repeatability tests demonstrated that method precision for 50 mL samples was ca. 0.05 % in xCO2 and 0.15 ‰ in δ13C–CO2 for CO2 compositions from 300 to 2000 ppm with natural abundance 13C. Long-term method consistency was tested over a 9-month period, with results showing no systematic measurement drift over time. Standardised analysis of discrete gas samples expands the scope of application for isotopic-CO2 CRDS and enhances its potential for replacing conventional isotope ratio measurement techniques. Our method involves minimal set-up costs and can be readily implemented in Picarro G2131-i and G2201-i analysers or tailored for use with other CRDS instruments and trace gases.

  17. Dissolution of spherical cap CO2 bubbles attached to flat surfaces in air-saturated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Pablo; Parrales, Miguel A.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier

    2014-11-01

    Bubbles attached to flat surfaces immersed in quiescent liquid environments often display a spherical cap (SC) shape. Their dissolution is a phenomenon commonly observed experimentally. Modelling these bubbles as fully spherical may lead to an inaccurate estimate of the bubble dissolution rate. We develop a theoretical model for the diffusion-driven dissolution or growth of such multi-component SC gas bubbles under constant pressure and temperature conditions. Provided the contact angle of the bubble with the surface is large, the concentration gradients in the liquid may be approximated as spherically symmetric. The area available for mass transfer depends on the instantaneous bubble contact angle, whose dynamics is computed from the adhesion hysteresis model [Hong et al., Langmuir, vol. 27, 6890-6896 (2011)]. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements on the dissolution of SC CO2 bubbles immersed in air-saturated water support the validity of our model. We verify that contact line pinning slows down the dissolution rate, and the fact that any bubble immersed in a saturated gas-liquid solution eventually attains a final equilibrium size. Funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through Grant DPI2011-28356-C03-0.

  18. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of CO2 reaction with polycrystalline uranium surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Kezhao; Yu Yong; Zhou Juesheng; Wu Sheng; Wang Xiaolin; Fu Yibei

    1999-10-01

    The adsorption of CO 2 on 'clean' depleted polycrystalline uranium metal surface has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) at 300 K. The 'clean' surface were prepared by Ar + ion sputtering under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) condition with a base pressure 6.7 x 10 -8 Pa. The result s shows that adsorption of CO 2 on 'clean' uranium metal took place in total dissociation, and leads to the formation of uranium dioxide, uranium carbides and free carbon. The total dissociation of CO 2 produced carbon, oxygen species, CO 2 2- and CO 3 2- species. The diffusion tendency of carbon was much stronger than that of oxygen, and led to form a carbide in oxide-metal interface while the oxygen remained on their surface as an oxide

  19. An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO2 concentration data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogle, Stephen M; Davis, Kenneth; Lauvaux, Thomas; Miles, Natasha L; Richardson, Scott; Schuh, Andrew; Cooley, Dan; Breidt, F Jay; West, Tristram O; Heath, Linda S; Smith, James E; McCarty, Jessica L; Gurney, Kevin R; Tans, Pieter; Denning, A Scott

    2015-01-01

    Verifying national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories is a critical step to ensure that reported emissions data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are accurate and representative of a country’s contribution to GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Furthermore, verifying biogenic fluxes provides a check on estimated emissions associated with managing lands for carbon sequestration and other activities, which often have large uncertainties. We report here on the challenges and results associated with a case study using atmospheric measurements of CO 2 concentrations and inverse modeling to verify nationally-reported biogenic CO 2 emissions. The biogenic CO 2 emissions inventory was compiled for the Mid-Continent region of United States based on methods and data used by the US government for reporting to the UNFCCC, along with additional sources and sinks to produce a full carbon balance. The biogenic emissions inventory produced an estimated flux of −408 ± 136 Tg CO 2 for the entire study region, which was not statistically different from the biogenic flux of −478 ± 146 Tg CO 2 that was estimated using the atmospheric CO 2 concentration data. At sub-regional scales, the spatial density of atmospheric observations did not appear sufficient to verify emissions in general. However, a difference between the inventory and inversion results was found in one isolated area of West-central Wisconsin. This part of the region is dominated by forestlands, suggesting that further investigation may be warranted into the forest C stock or harvested wood product data from this portion of the study area. The results suggest that observations of atmospheric CO 2 concentration data and inverse modeling could be used to verify biogenic emissions, and provide more confidence in biogenic GHG emissions reporting to the UNFCCC. (letter)

  20. The persistence of natural CO2 accumulations over millennial timescales: Integrating noble gas and reservoir data at Bravo Dome, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhbari, D.

    2017-12-01

    Bravo Dome, the largest CO2 reservoir in the US, is a hydrogeologically closed system that has stored a very large amount of CO2 on millennial time scales. The pre-production gas pressures in Bravo Dome indicate that the reservoir is highly under-pressured and is divided into separate pressure compartments that do not communicate hydrologically. Previous studies used the noble gas composition at Bravo Dome to constrain the amount of dissolved CO2 into the brine. This CO2 dissolution into brine plays an important role in the observed under-pressure at the reservoir. However, the dissolution rates and transport mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we are looking into reservoir pressures and noble gas composition in the northeastern section of the reservoir to constrain timescales of CO2 dissolution. We are interested in northeastern part of the reservoir because the largest amount of CO2 was dissolved into brine in this section. Also, we specifically look into the evolution of the CO2/3He and 20Ne concentration during convective CO2 dissolution at Bravo Dome. 20Ne has atmospheric origin and is initially in the brine, while 3He and CO2 have magmatic sources and were introduced with the gas. CO2/3He decreases as more CO2 dissolves into brine, due to the higher solubility of CO2 compare to that of 3He. However, 20Ne concentration in the gas increases due to exsolution of 20Ne from brine into the gas phase. We present 2D numerical simulation that demonstrate the persistence of CO2 over 1Ma and reproduce the observed reservoir pressures and noble gas compositions. Our results indicate that convection is required to produce observed changes in gas composition. But diffusion makes a significant contribution to mass transport.

  1. Simulation of Transcritical CO2 Refrigeration System with Booster Hot Gas Bypass in Tropical Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, I. D. M. C.; Sudirman; Waisnawa, IGNS; Sunu, PW; Temaja, IW

    2018-01-01

    A Simulation computer becomes significant important for performance analysis since there is high cost and time allocation to build an experimental rig, especially for CO2 refrigeration system. Besides, to modify the rig also need additional cos and time. One of computer program simulation that is very eligible to refrigeration system is Engineering Equation System (EES). In term of CO2 refrigeration system, environmental issues becomes priority on the refrigeration system development since the Carbon dioxide (CO2) is natural and clean refrigerant. This study aims is to analysis the EES simulation effectiveness to perform CO2 transcritical refrigeration system with booster hot gas bypass in high outdoor temperature. The research was carried out by theoretical study and numerical analysis of the refrigeration system using the EES program. Data input and simulation validation were obtained from experimental and secondary data. The result showed that the coefficient of performance (COP) decreased gradually with the outdoor temperature variation increasing. The results show the program can calculate the performance of the refrigeration system with quick running time and accurate. So, it will be significant important for the preliminary reference to improve the CO2 refrigeration system design for the hot climate temperature.

  2. Soil surface CO2 fluxes and the carbon budget of a grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, J. M.; Garcia, R.; Verma, S. B.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of soil surface CO2 fluxes are reported for three sites within the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE) area, and simple empirical equations are fit to the data to provide predictions of soil fluxes from environmental observations. A prototype soil chamber, used to make the flux measurements, is described and tested by comparing CO2 flux measurements to a 40-L chamber, a 1-m/cu chamber, and eddy correlation. Results suggest that flux measurements with the prototype chamber are consistent with measurements by other methods to within about 20 percent. A simple empirical equation based on 10-cm soil temperature, 0- to 10-cm soil volumetric water content, and leaf area index predicts the soil surface CO2 flux with a rms error of 1.2 micro-mol sq m/s for all three sites. Further evidence supports using this equation to evaluate soil surface CO2 during the 1987 FIFE experiment. The soil surface CO2 fluxes when averaged over 24 hours are comparable to daily gross canopy photosynthetic rates. For 6 days of data the net daily accumulation of carbon is about 0.6 g CO2 sq m/d; this is only a few percent of the daily gross accumulation of carbon by photosynthesis. As the soil became drier in 1989, the net accumulation of carbon by the prairie increased, suggesting that the soil flux is more sensitive to temperature and drought than the photosynthetic fluxes.

  3. Approach for Self-Calibrating CO2 Measurements with Linear Membrane-Based Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detlef Lazik

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Linear membrane-based gas sensors that can be advantageously applied for the measurement of a single gas component in large heterogeneous systems, e.g., for representative determination of CO2 in the subsurface, can be designed depending on the properties of the observation object. A resulting disadvantage is that the permeation-based sensor response depends on operating conditions, the individual site-adapted sensor geometry, the membrane material, and the target gas component. Therefore, calibration is needed, especially of the slope, which could change over several orders of magnitude. A calibration-free approach based on an internal gas standard is developed to overcome the multi-criterial slope dependency. This results in a normalization of sensor response and enables the sensor to assess the significance of measurement. The approach was proofed on the example of CO2 analysis in dry air with tubular PDMS membranes for various CO2 concentrations of an internal standard. Negligible temperature dependency was found within an 18 K range. The transformation behavior of the measurement signal and the influence of concentration variations of the internal standard on the measurement signal were shown. Offsets that were adjusted based on the stated theory for the given measurement conditions and material data from the literature were in agreement with the experimentally determined offsets. A measurement comparison with an NDIR reference sensor shows an unexpectedly low bias (<1% of the non-calibrated sensor response, and comparable statistical uncertainty.

  4. Magnesium hydroxide extracted from a magnesium-rich mineral for CO2 sequestration in a gas-solid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pao-Chung; Huang, Cheng-Wei; Hsiao, Ching-Ta; Teng, Hsisheng

    2008-04-15

    Magnesium hydroxide extracted from magnesium-bearing minerals is considered a promising agent for binding CO2 as a carbonate mineral in a gas-solid reaction. An efficient extraction route consisting of hydrothermal treatment on serpentine in HCl followed by NaOH titration for Mg(OH)2 precipitation was demonstrated. The extracted Mg(OH)2 powder had a mean crystal domain size as small as 12 nm and an apparent surface area of 54 m2/g. Under one atmosphere of 10 vol% CO2/N2, carbonation of the serpentine-derived Mg(OH)2 to 26% of the stoichiometric limit was achieved at 325 degrees C in 2 h; while carbonation of a commercially available Mg(OH)2, with a mean crystal domain size of 33 nm and an apparent surface area of 3.5 m2/g, reached only 9% of the stoichiometric limit. The amount of CO2 fixation was found to be inversely proportional to the crystal domain size of the Mg(OH)2 specimens. The experimental data strongly suggested that only a monolayer of carbonates was formed on the crystal domain boundary in the gas-solid reaction, with little penetration of the carbonates into the crystal domain.

  5. Lifetime Extension of the Gas Discharge Detectors with Plasma Etching of Silicon Deposits in 80%CF4 + 20%CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, G. E.; Vakhtel, V. M.; Maysuzenko, D. A.; Tavtorkina, T. A.; Fetisov, A. A.; Shvetsova, N. Yu.

    2017-12-01

    A method of elimination of silicon compounds from the anode wire of an aged proportional counter is presented. The aging of a counter with a 70%Ar + 30%CO2 and a 60%Ar + 30%CO2 + 10%CF4 working mixture was stimulated by a 90Sr β source. To accelerate the process of aging, the gas mixture flow to the counter was supplied through a pipe with RTV coated wall. As a result, the amplitude of the signal decreased 70% already at accumulated charge of Q = 0.03 C/cm. The etching of the silicon compounds on the wire surface with an 80%CF4 + 20%CO2 gas mixture discharge led to full recovery of the operating characteristics of detector and an increase in the lifetime. A scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy analysis of the recovered wire surface were performed. In accordance with the results, a good quality of wire cleaning from SiO2 compounds was obtained.

  6. CO2 abatement policies in the power sector under an oligopolistic gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecking, Harald

    2014-01-01

    The paper at hand examines the power system costs when a coal tax or a fixed bonus for renewables is combined with CO 2 emissions trading. It explicitly accounts for the interaction between the power and the gas market and identifies three cost effects: First, a tax and a subsidy both cause deviations from the cost-efficient power market equilibrium. Second, these policies also impact the power sector's gas demand function as well as the gas market equilibrium and therefore have a feedback effect on power generation quantities indirectly via the gas price. Thirdly, by altering gas prices, a tax or a subsidy also indirectly affects the total costs of gas purchase by the power sector. However, the direction of the change in the gas price, and therefore the overall effect on power system costs, remains ambiguous. In a numerical analysis of the European power and gas market, I find using a simulation model integrating both markets that a coal tax affects gas prices ambiguously whereas a fixed bonus for renewables decreases gas prices. Furthermore, a coal tax increases power system costs, whereas a fixed bonus can decrease these costs because of the negative effect on the gas price. Lastly, the more market power that gas suppliers have, the stronger the outlined effects will be.

  7. Performance of Hollow Fiber Membrane Gas-Liquid Contactors to Absorb CO2 Using Diethanolamine (Dea as a Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutrasno Kartohardjono

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study uses DEA solution to absorb CO2 from the gas flow through the hollow fiber membrane contactors. This study aims to evaluate the performance of hollow fiber membrane contactors to absorb CO2 gas using DEA solution as solvent through mass transfer and hydrodynamics studies. The use of DEA solution is to reduce the mass transfer resistance in the liquid phase, and on the other side, the large contact area of the membrane surface can cover the disadvantage of membrane contactors; additional mass transfer resistance in the membrane phase. During experiments, CO2 feed flows through the fiber lumens, while the 0.01 M DEA solution flows in the shell side of membrane contactors. Experimental results show that the mass transfer coefficients and fluxes of CO2 increase with an increase in both water and DEA solution flow rates. Increasing the amount of fibers in the contactors will decrease the mass transfer and fluxes at the same DEA solution flow rate. Mass transfer coefficients and CO2 fluxes using DEA solution can achieve 28,000 and 7.6 million times greater than using water as solvent, respectively. Hydrodynamics studies show that the liquid pressure drops in the contactors increase with increasing liquid flow rate and number of fibers in the contactors. The friction between water and the fibers in the contactor was more pronounced at lower velocities, and therefore, the value of the friction factor is also higher at lower velocities.

  8. Monitoring CO2 gas-phase migration in a shallow sand aquifer using cross-borehole ground penetrating radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Rune Nørbæk; Sonnenborg, T.O.; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    2015-01-01

    and transversely to the groundwater flow direction. As the injection continued, the main flow direction of the gaseous CO2 shifted and CO2 gas pockets with a gas saturation of up to 0.3 formed below lower-permeable sand layers. CO2 gas was detected in a GPR-panel 5 m away from the injection point after 21 h...... of leakage from a CCS site, and that even small changes in the formation texture can create barriers for the CO2 migration....

  9. Modeling of Single and Dual Reservoir Porous Media Compressed Gas (Air and CO2) Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, C. M.; Liu, H.; Borgia, A.; Pan, L.

    2017-12-01

    Intermittent renewable energy sources are causing increasing demand for energy storage. The deep subsurface offers promising opportunities for energy storage because it can safely contain high-pressure gases. Porous media compressed air energy storage (PM-CAES) is one approach, although the only facilities in operation are in caverns (C-CAES) rather than porous media. Just like in C-CAES, PM-CAES operates generally by injecting working gas (air) through well(s) into the reservoir compressing the cushion gas (existing air in the reservoir). During energy recovery, high-pressure air from the reservoir is mixed with fuel in a combustion turbine to produce electricity, thereby reducing compression costs. Unlike in C-CAES, the storage of energy in PM-CAES occurs variably across pressure gradients in the formation, while the solid grains of the matrix can release/store heat. Because air is the working gas, PM-CAES has fairly low thermal efficiency and low energy storage density. To improve the energy storage density, we have conceived and modeled a closed-loop two-reservoir compressed CO2 energy storage system. One reservoir is the low-pressure reservoir, and the other is the high-pressure reservoir. CO2 is cycled back and forth between reservoirs depending on whether energy needs to be stored or recovered. We have carried out thermodynamic and parametric analyses of the performance of an idealized two-reservoir CO2 energy storage system under supercritical and transcritical conditions for CO2 using a steady-state model. Results show that the transcritical compressed CO2 energy storage system has higher round-trip efficiency and exergy efficiency, and larger energy storage density than the supercritical compressed CO2 energy storage. However, the configuration of supercritical compressed CO2 energy storage is simpler, and the energy storage densities of the two systems are both higher than that of PM-CAES, which is advantageous in terms of storage volume for a given

  10. Effect of venous (gut) CO2 loading on intrapulmonary gas fractions and ventilation in the tegu lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballam, G O; Donaldson, L A

    1988-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine regional pulmonary gas concentrations in the tegu lizard lung. Additionally, changes in pulmonary gas concentrations and ventilatory patterns caused by elevating venous levels of CO2 by gut infusion were measured. It was found that significant stratification of lung gases was present in the tegu and that dynamic fluctuations of CO2 concentration varied throughout the length of the lung. Mean FCO2 was greater and FO2 less in the posterior regions of the lung. In the posterior regions gas concentrations remained nearly constant, whereas in the anterior regions large swings were observed with each breath. In the most anterior sections of the lung near the bronchi, CO2 and O2 concentrations approached atmospheric levels during inspiration and posterior lung levels during expiration. During gut loading of CO2, the rate of rise of CO2 during the breathing pause increased. The mean level of CO2 also increased. Breathing rate and tidal volume increased to produce a doubling of VE. These results indicate that the method of introduction of CO2 into the tegu respiratory system determines the ventilatory response. If the CO2 is introduced into the venous blood a dramatic increase in ventilation is observed. If the CO2 is introduced into the inspired air a significant decrease in ventilation is produced. The changes in pulmonary CO2 environment caused by inspiratory CO2 loading are different from those caused by venous CO2 loading. We hypothesize that the differences in pulmonary CO2 environment caused by either inspiratory CO2 loading or fluctuations in venous CO2 concentration act differently on the IPC. The differing response of the IPC to the two methods of CO2 loading is the cause of the opposite ventilatory response seen during either venous or inspiratory loading.

  11. Wholesale markets. Electricity, Natural Gas and CO2 markets Observatory - 3. Quarter 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this wholesale markets Observatory is to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity, natural gas and CO 2 markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the Quarter. The indicators (main dates, key figures and graphs) are detailed in the second part

  12. Wholesale markets. Electricity, Natural Gas and CO2 markets Observatory - 4. Quarter 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this wholesale markets Observatory is to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity, natural gas and CO 2 markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the Quarter. The indicators (main dates, key figures and graphs) are detailed in the second part

  13. Wholesale markets. Electricity, Natural Gas and CO2 markets Observatory - 3. Quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-09-01

    The wholesale markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity, natural gas and CO 2 markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the Quarter. The indicators (main dates, key Graphs and graphs) are detailed in the second part

  14. Wholesale markets. Electricity, Natural Gas and CO2 markets Observatory - 1. Quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-03-01

    The wholesale markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity, natural gas and CO 2 markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the Quarter. The indicators (main dates, key figures and graphs) are detailed in the second part

  15. Wholesale markets. Electricity, Natural Gas and CO2 markets Observatory - 1. Quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-03-01

    The wholesale markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity, natural gas and CO 2 markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the Quarter. The indicators (main dates, key Graphs and graphs) are detailed in the second part

  16. Wholesale markets. Electricity, Natural Gas and CO2 markets Observatory - 2. Quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    The wholesale markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity, natural gas and CO 2 markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the Quarter. The indicators (main dates, key Graphs and graphs) are detailed in the second part

  17. Wholesale markets. Electricity, Natural Gas and CO2 markets Observatory - 3. Quarter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    The wholesale markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity, natural gas and CO 2 markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the Quarter. The indicators (main dates, key Graphs and graphs) are detailed in the second part

  18. Wholesale markets. Electricity, Natural Gas and CO2 markets Observatory - 2. Quarter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-06-01

    The wholesale markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity, natural gas and CO 2 markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the Quarter. The indicators (main dates, key Graphs and graphs) are detailed in the second part

  19. Wholesale markets. Electricity, Natural Gas and CO2 markets Observatory - 4. Quarter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The wholesale markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity, natural gas and CO 2 markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the Quarter. The indicators (main dates, key Graphs and graphs) are detailed in the second part

  20. Wholesale markets. Electricity, Natural Gas and CO2 markets Observatory - 1. Quarter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this wholesale markets Observatory is to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity, natural gas and CO 2 markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the Quarter. The indicators (main dates, key figures and graphs) are detailed in the second part

  1. Wholesale markets. Electricity, Natural Gas and CO2 markets Observatory - 4. Quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    The wholesale markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity, natural gas and CO 2 markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the Quarter. The indicators (main dates, key Graphs and graphs) are detailed in the second part

  2. Case study on ground surface deformation induced by CO2 injection into coal seam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Tang Chun'an

    2010-01-01

    To monitor a geomechanical response of injecting CO 2 into relatively shallow coal seams, tiltmeters were set as an array to cover the ground surface area surrounding the injection well, and to measure the ground deformation during a well fracturing stimulation and a short-term CO 2 injection test. In this paper, an attempt to establish a quantitative relationship between the in-situ coal swelling and the corresponding ground deformation was made by means of numerical simulation study. (authors)

  3. Facile synthesis of triazine-triphenylamine-based microporous covalent polymer adsorbent for flue gas CO2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Swapan Kumar; Wang, Xinbo; Lai, Zhiping

    2017-01-01

    The sustainable capture and sequestration of CO2 from flue gas emission is an important and unavoidable challenge to control greenhouse gas release and climate change. In this report, we describe a triazine-triphenylamine-based microporous covalent

  4. Is CO2 gas unsufflator necessary for laparoscopic training in animals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiraboshi Ricardo Brianezi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the efficacy and safety of compressed air to produce pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery in pigs for a training program of residence. METHODS: Dalland pigs weighing 15-17kg underwent general anethesia and mechanical ventilation. They were divided in 3 groups: A - (38 the pneumoperitnoneum was established with an automatic CO2 insufflator, B - (7 as in A except the CO2 gas was changed by compressed air, and C - (11 abdomen insufflation was obtained with compressed air directly from hospital pipe network system. Intra-abdominal pressure in all groups was kept between 12 and 15 mmHg. The laparoscopic procedures performed were distributed proportionally among groups: 20 bilateral nephrectomy, 20 dismembered pyeloplasty and 16 partial nephrectomy. Arterial blood sampling for gasometry was obtained before and 2h after establishment of pneumoperitoneum in 5 pigs of group C. RESULTS: The cost of 25 4,5kg CO2 container used in group A was R$ 3,150.00 (U$ 1,050.00. The mean length time of surgeries in groups A, B and C were respectively: 181±30min, 196±39min e 210±47min (p>0.05. Respiratory alkalosis occurred in 3 out of 5 pigs of group C. No animal exhibited signs of gas embolism or died during surgery. CONCLUSION: The use of compressed air for laparoscopy in pigs was safe, reduced costs and did not require the use of an automatic gas insufflator.

  5. Conceptual design of a commercial supercritical CO2 gas turbine for the fast reactor power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Y.; Ishizuka, T.; Aritomi, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design results of turbine and compressors of a supercritical CO 2 gas turbine connected to the commercial sodium cooled fast reactor. Power output of the gas turbine-generator system is 750 MWe. The system consists of turbine, main compressor and bypass compressor. Turbine is axial flow type. Both axial flow and centrifugal compressors were designed. Aerodynamic, blade strength and rotor dynamics calculations were conducted. Achievable adiabatic efficiencies and cross-sectional structures are given. For this design conditions, the axial flow compressor is superior to the centrifugal compressor due to the large mass flow rate. (authors)

  6. Remote sensing the sea surface CO2 of the Baltic Sea using the SOMLO methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parard, G.; Charantonis, A. A.; Rutgerson, A.

    2015-06-01

    Studies of coastal seas in Europe have noted the high variability of the CO2 system. This high variability, generated by the complex mechanisms driving the CO2 fluxes, complicates the accurate estimation of these mechanisms. This is particularly pronounced in the Baltic Sea, where the mechanisms driving the fluxes have not been characterized in as much detail as in the open oceans. In addition, the joint availability of in situ measurements of CO2 and of sea-surface satellite data is limited in the area. In this paper, we used the SOMLO (self-organizing multiple linear output; Sasse et al., 2013) methodology, which combines two existing methods (i.e. self-organizing maps and multiple linear regression) to estimate the ocean surface partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the Baltic Sea from the remotely sensed sea surface temperature, chlorophyll, coloured dissolved organic matter, net primary production, and mixed-layer depth. The outputs of this research have a horizontal resolution of 4 km and cover the 1998-2011 period. These outputs give a monthly map of the Baltic Sea at a very fine spatial resolution. The reconstructed pCO2 values over the validation data set have a correlation of 0.93 with the in situ measurements and a root mean square error of 36 μatm. Removing any of the satellite parameters degraded this reconstructed CO2 flux, so we chose to supply any missing data using statistical imputation. The pCO2 maps produced using this method also provide a confidence level of the reconstruction at each grid point. The results obtained are encouraging given the sparsity of available data, and we expect to be able to produce even more accurate reconstructions in coming years, given the predicted acquisition of new data.

  7. Quantitative measurement of carbon isotopic composition in CO2 gas reservoir by Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiajia; Li, Rongxi; Zhao, Bangsheng; Guo, Hui; Zhang, Shuan; Cheng, Jinghua; Wu, Xiaoli

    2018-04-15

    The use of Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy technology for quantitatively determining gas carbon isotope composition is presented. In this study, 12 CO 2 and 13 CO 2 were mixed with N 2 at various molar fraction ratios to obtain Raman quantification factors (F 12CO2 and F 13CO2 ), which provide a theoretical basis for calculating the δ 13 C value. And the corresponding values were 0.523 (0Raman peak area can be used for the determination of δ 13 C values within the relative errors range of 0.076% to 1.154% in 13 CO 2 / 12 CO 2 binary mixtures when F 12CO2 /F 13CO2 is 0.466972625. In addition, measurement of δ 13 C values by Micro-Laser Raman analysis were carried out on natural CO 2 gas from Shengli Oil-field at room temperature under different pressures. The δ 13 C values obtained by Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy technology and Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) technology are in good agreement with each other, and the relative errors range of δ 13 C values is 1.232%-6.964%. This research provides a fundamental analysis tool for determining gas carbon isotope composition (δ 13 C values) quantitatively by using Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy. Experiment of results demonstrates that this method has the potential for obtaining δ 13 C values in natural CO 2 gas reservoirs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Deep microbial life in the Altmark natural gas reservoir: baseline characterization prior CO2 injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Daria; Shaheed, Mina; Vieth, Andrea; Krüger, Martin; Kock, Dagmar; Würdemann, Hilke

    2010-05-01

    Within the framework of the CLEAN project (CO2 Largescale Enhanced gas recovery in the Altmark Natural gas field) technical basics with special emphasis on process monitoring are explored by injecting CO2 into a gas reservoir. Our study focuses on the investigation of the in-situ microbial community of the Rotliegend natural gas reservoir in the Altmark, located south of the city Salzwedel, Germany. In order to characterize the microbial life in the extreme habitat we aim to localize and identify microbes including their metabolism influencing the creation and dissolution of minerals. The ability of microorganisms to speed up dissolution and formation of minerals might result in changes of the local permeability and the long-term safety of CO2 storage. However, geology, structure and chemistry of the reservoir rock and the cap rock as well as interaction with saline formation water and natural gases and the injected CO2 affect the microbial community composition and activity. The reservoir located at the depth of about 3500m, is characterised by high salinity fluid and temperatures up to 127° C. It represents an extreme environment for microbial life and therefore the main focus is on hyperthermophilic, halophilic anaerobic microorganisms. In consequence of the injection of large amounts of CO2 in the course of a commercial EGR (Enhanced Gas Recovery) the environmental conditions (e.g. pH, temperature, pressure and solubility of minerals) for the autochthonous microorganisms will change. Genetic profiling of amplified 16S rRNA genes are applied for detecting structural changes in the community by using PCR- SSCP (PCR-Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism) and DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). First results of the baseline survey indicate the presence of microorganisms similar to representatives from other saline, hot, anoxic, deep environments. However, due to the hypersaline and hyperthermophilic reservoir conditions, cell numbers are low, so that

  9. Carbon-14 immobilization via the CO2-Ba(OH)2 hydrate gas-solid reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    Although no restrictions have been placed on the release of carbon-14, it has been identified as a potential health hazard due to the ease in which it may be assimilated into the biosphere. The intent of the Carbon-14 Immobilization Program, funded through the Airborne Waste Program Management Office, is to develop and demonstrate a novel process for restricting off-gas releases of carbon-14 from various nuclear facilities. The process utilizes the CO 2 -Ba(OH) 2 hydrate gas-solid reaction to directly remove and immobilize carbon-14. The reaction product, BaCO 3 , possesses both the thermal and chemical stability desired for long-term waste disposal. The process is capable of providing decontamination factors in excess of 1000 and reactant utilization of greater than 99% in the treatment of high volumetric, airlike (330 ppM CO 2 ) gas streams. For the treatment of an air-based off-gas stream, the use of packed beds of Ba(OH) 2 .8H 2 O flakes to remove CO 2 has been demonstrated. However, the operating conditions must be maintained between certain upper and lower limits with respect to the partial pressure of water. If the water vapor pressure in the gas is less than the dissociation vapor pressure of Ba(OH) 2 .8H 2 O, the bed will deactivate. If the vapor pressure is considerably greater, pressure drop problems will increase with increasing humidity as the particles curl and degrade. Results have indicated that when operated in the proper regime, the bulk of the increase in pressure drop results from the conversion of Ba(OH) 2 .8H 2 O to BaCO 3 and not from the hydration of the commercial Ba(OH) 2 .8H 2 O (i.e. Ba(OH) 2 .7.50H 2 O) to Ba(OH) 2 .8H 2 O

  10. Experience of the irradiation method under mixed gas (95% O2 plus 5% CO2) inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Michio; Tazaki, Eio

    1978-01-01

    The irradiation method under mixed gas of 95% O 2 plus CO 2 inhalation at one atomosphere was discussed to improve therapeutic results, in malignant tumors which are not greatly sensitive to irradiation. Randomized study was done in each attending institute, with common protocols. As a result, no positive effect was recognized in irradiation method under mixed gas inhalation with daily dose of 200 rad and 5 fractions per week, which is widely used clinically. But when irradiation dose was increased up to 500 to 600 rad per fraction, effect of the mixed gas was remarkable. But against this, observing for years, results in irradiation under mixed gas inhalation were not always related to the improvement of the long term survival. (author)

  11. Ultra violet photoemission studies of CO2 and NO adsorbed on W(100) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, A.K.; Broughton, J.Q.; Perry, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    In the last few years ultra violet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) has been successfully empolyed to determine the nature and bonding of the species formed when gases absorb on metal surfaces. This information is necessary to understand the mechanism of hetergeneous catalysis. The present report deals with UPS investigation of the chemisorption of CO 2 and NO on a W(100) surface. (Auth.)

  12. The importance of surface morphology in controlling the selectivity of polycrystalline copper for CO(2) electroreduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Wei; Peterson, Andrew A; Varela Gasque, Ana Sofia

    2012-01-01

    This communication examines the effect of the surface morphology of polycrystalline copper on electroreduction of CO(2). We find that a copper nanoparticle covered electrode shows better selectivity towards hydrocarbons compared with the two other studied surfaces, an electropolished copper elect...

  13. Study of plasma formation in CW CO2 laser beam-metal surface interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azharonok, V. V.; Vasilchenko, Zh V.; Golubev, Vladimir S.; Gresev, A. N.; Zabelin, Alexandre M.; Chubrik, N. I.; Shimanovich, V. D.

    1994-04-01

    An interaction of the cw CO2 laser beam and a moving metal surface has been studied. The pulsed and thermodynamical parameters of the surface plasma were investigated by optical and spectroscopical methods. The subsonic radiation wave propagation in the erosion plasma torch has been studied.

  14. Surface-downhole and crosshole geoelectrics for monitoring of brine injection at the Ketzin CO2 storage site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, Dennis; Bergmann, Peter; Labitzke, Tim; Wagner, Florian; Schmidt-Hattenberger, Cornelia

    2016-04-01

    et al., 2012). During the brine injection, usage of a new data acquisition unit allowed the daily collection of an extended crosshole data set. This data set was complemented by an alternative surface-downhole acquisition geometry, which for the first time allowed for regular current injections from three permanent surface electrodes into the existing electrical resistivity downhole array without the demand of an extensive field survey. This alternative surface-downhole acquisition geometry is expected to be characterized by good data quality and well confined sensitivity to the target storage zone. Time-lapse geoelectrical tomographies have been derived from both surface-downhole and crosshole data and show a conductive signature around the injection well associated with the displacement of CO2 by the injected brine. In addition to the above mentioned objectives of this brine injection experiment, comparative analysis of the surface-downhole and crosshole data provides the opportunity to evaluate the alternative surface-downhole acquisition geometry with respect to its resolution within the target storage zone and its ability to quantitatively constrain the displacement of CO2 during the brine injection. These results will allow for further improvement of the deployed alternative surface-downhole acquisition geometries. References Bergmann, P., Schmidt-Hattenberger, C., Kiessling, D., Rücker, C., Labitzke, T., Henninges, J., Baumann, G., Schütt, H. (2012). Surface-Downhole Electrical Resistivity Tomography applied to Monitoring of the CO2 Storage Ketzin (Germany). Geophysics, 77, B253-B267. Kiessling, D., Schmidt-Hattenberger, C., Schuett, H., Schilling, F., Krueger, K., Schoebel, B., Danckwardt, E., Kummerow, J., CO2SINK Group (2010). Geoelectrical methods for monitoring geological CO2 storage: First results from cross-hole and surface-downhole measurements from the CO2SINK test site at Ketzin (Germany). International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 4(5), 816

  15. Characterization of Qatar's surface carbonates for CO2 capture and thermochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakosimos, Konstantinos E.; Al-Haddad, Ghadeer; Sakellariou, Kyriaki G.; Pagkoura, Chrysa; Konstandopoulos, Athanasios G.

    2017-06-01

    Samples of surface carbonates were collected from three different areas of the Qatar peninsula. We employed material characterization techniques to examine the morphology and composition of the samples, while their CO2 capture capacity was assessed via multiple successive calcination-carbonation cycles. Our samples were mainly calcite and dolomite based. Calcite samples showed higher initial capacity of around 11 mmol CO2 g-1 which decayed rapidly to less than 2 mmol CO2 g-1. On the other hand, dolomite samples showed an excellent stability (˜15 cycles) with a capacity of 6 mmol CO2 g-1. The performance of the dolomite samples is better compared to other similar natural samples, from literature. A promising result for future studies towards improving their performance by physical and chemical modification.

  16. Impact of hydrogeological and geomechanical properties on surface uplift at a CO2 injection site: Parameter estimation and uncertainty quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, P.; Yoon, H.; Martinez, M. J.; Bishop, J. E.; Arnold, B. W.; Bryant, S.

    2013-12-01

    It is essential to couple multiphase flow and geomechanical response in order to predict a consequence of geological storage of CO2. In this study, we estimate key hydrogeologic features to govern the geomechanical response (i.e., surface uplift) at a large-scale CO2 injection project at In Salah, Algeria using the Sierra Toolkit - a multi-physics simulation code developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Importantly, a jointed rock model is used to study the effect of postulated fractures in the injection zone on the surface uplift. The In Salah Gas Project includes an industrial-scale demonstration of CO2 storage in an active gas field where CO2 from natural gas production is being re-injected into a brine-filled portion of the structure downdip of the gas accumulation. The observed data include millimeter scale surface deformations (e.g., uplift) reported in the literature and injection well locations and rate histories provided by the operators. Our preliminary results show that the intrinsic permeability and Biot coefficient of the injection zone are important. Moreover pre-existing fractures within the injection zone affect the uplift significantly. Estimation of additional (i.e., anisotropy ratio) and coupled parameters will help us to develop models, which account for the complex relationship between mechanical integrity and CO2 injection-induced pressure changes. Uncertainty quantification of model predictions will be also performed using various algorithms including null-space Monte Carlo and polynomial-chaos expansion methods. This work will highlight that our coupled reservoir and geomechanical simulations associated with parameter estimation can provide a practical solution for designing operating conditions and understanding subsurface processes associated with the CO2 injection. This work is supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office

  17. Pure- and Mixed-Gas Permeation Properties of Highly Selective and Plasticization Resistant Hydroxyl-Diamine-Based 6FDA Polyimides for CO2/CH4 Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Alaslai, Nasser Y.; Ghanem, Bader; Alghunaimi, Fahd; Litwiller, Eric; Pinnau, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    The effect of hydroxyl functionalization on the m-phenylene diamine moiety of 6FDA dianhydride-based polyimides was investigated for gas separation applications. Pure-gas permeability coefficients of He, H2, N2, O2, CH4, and CO2 were measured at 35 °C and 2 atm. The introduction of hydroxyl groups in the diamine moiety of 6FDA-diaminophenol (DAP) and 6FDA-diamino resorcinol (DAR) polyimides tightened the overall polymer structure due to increased charge transfer complex formation compared to unfunctionalized 6FDA-m-phenylene diamine (mPDA). The BET surface areas based on nitrogen adsorption of 6FDA-DAP (54 m2g−1) and of 6FDA-DAR (45 m2g−1) were ~18% and 32% lower than that of 6FDA-mPDA (66 m2g−1). 6FDA-mPDA had a pure-gas CO2 permeability of 14 Barrer and CO2/CH4 selectivity of 70. The hydroxyl-functionalized polyimides 6FDA-DAP and 6FDA-DAR exhibited very high pure-gas CO2/CH4 selectivities of 92 and 94 with moderate CO2 permeability of 11 and 8 Barrer, respectively. It was demonstrated that hydroxyl-containing polyimide membranes maintained very high CO2/CH4 selectivity (~ 75 at CO2 partial pressure of 10 atm) due to CO2 plasticization resistance when tested under high-pressure mixed-gas conditions. Functionalization with hydroxyl groups may thus be a promising strategy towards attaining highly selective polyimides for economical membrane-based natural gas sweetening.

  18. Pure- and Mixed-Gas Permeation Properties of Highly Selective and Plasticization Resistant Hydroxyl-Diamine-Based 6FDA Polyimides for CO2/CH4 Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Alaslai, Nasser Y.

    2016-01-05

    The effect of hydroxyl functionalization on the m-phenylene diamine moiety of 6FDA dianhydride-based polyimides was investigated for gas separation applications. Pure-gas permeability coefficients of He, H2, N2, O2, CH4, and CO2 were measured at 35 °C and 2 atm. The introduction of hydroxyl groups in the diamine moiety of 6FDA-diaminophenol (DAP) and 6FDA-diamino resorcinol (DAR) polyimides tightened the overall polymer structure due to increased charge transfer complex formation compared to unfunctionalized 6FDA-m-phenylene diamine (mPDA). The BET surface areas based on nitrogen adsorption of 6FDA-DAP (54 m2g−1) and of 6FDA-DAR (45 m2g−1) were ~18% and 32% lower than that of 6FDA-mPDA (66 m2g−1). 6FDA-mPDA had a pure-gas CO2 permeability of 14 Barrer and CO2/CH4 selectivity of 70. The hydroxyl-functionalized polyimides 6FDA-DAP and 6FDA-DAR exhibited very high pure-gas CO2/CH4 selectivities of 92 and 94 with moderate CO2 permeability of 11 and 8 Barrer, respectively. It was demonstrated that hydroxyl-containing polyimide membranes maintained very high CO2/CH4 selectivity (~ 75 at CO2 partial pressure of 10 atm) due to CO2 plasticization resistance when tested under high-pressure mixed-gas conditions. Functionalization with hydroxyl groups may thus be a promising strategy towards attaining highly selective polyimides for economical membrane-based natural gas sweetening.

  19. Carbon Disulfide (CS2) Mechanisms in Formation of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Formation from Unconventional Shale Gas Extraction and Processing Operations and Global Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Alisa L; Patel, Jay T

    2015-01-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2) has been historically associated with the production of rayon, cellophane, and carbon tetrachloride. This study identifies multiple mechanisms by which CS2 contributes to the formation of CO2 in the atmosphere. CS2 and other associated sulfide compounds were found by this study to be present in emissions from unconventional shale gas extraction and processing (E&P) operations. The breakdown products of CS2; carbonyl sulfide (COS), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are indirect greenhouse gases (GHGs) that contribute to CO2 levels in the atmosphere. The heat-trapping nature of CO2 has been found to increase the surface temperature, resulting in regional and global climate change. The purpose of this study is to identify five mechanisms by which CS2 and the breakdown products of CS2 contribute to atmospheric concentrations of CO2. The five mechanisms of CO2 formation are as follows: Chemical Interaction of CS2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) present in natural gas at high temperatures, resulting in CO2 formation;Combustion of CS2 in the presence of oxygen producing SO2 and CO2;Photolysis of CS2 leading to the formation of COS, CO, and SO2, which are indirect contributors to CO2 formation;One-step hydrolysis of CS2, producing reactive intermediates and ultimately forming H2S and CO2;Two-step hydrolysis of CS2 forming the reactive COS intermediate that reacts with an additional water molecule, ultimately forming H2S and CO2. CS2 and COS additionally are implicated in the formation of SO2 in the stratosphere and/or troposphere. SO2 is an indirect contributor to CO2 formation and is implicated in global climate change.

  20. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA. This topical report covers Subphase 2a which is the design phase of pilot demonstration subsystems. Materials of construction have been selected and proven in both lab scale and prototype testing to be acceptable for the reagent conditions of interest. The target application for the reactive carbonate material has been selected based upon small-scale feasibility studies and the design of a continuous fiber board production line has been completed. The electrochemical cell architecture and components have been selected based upon both lab scale and prototype testing. The appropriate quality control and diagnostic techniques have been developed and tested along with the required instrumentation and controls. Finally the demonstrate site infrastructure, NEPA categorical exclusion, and permitting is all ready for the construction and installation of the new units and upgrades.

  1. Between ice and gas: CO2 on the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbitts, C.

    2010-12-01

    CO2 exists in the surfaces of the icy Galilean and Saturnian satellites [1-6], yet despite its discovery over a decade ago on Ganymede, and five years ago on the Saturnian satellites, its nature is still debated [7]. On the Galilean satellites Callisto and Ganymede, the CO2 that is detected is bound to, or trapped within, the non-ice materials that prevent it from sublimating or otherwise escaping from the surface. On Europa, it resides within both the ice and nonice materials [8,9]. While greater abundances of CO2 may exist in the interiors of these moons, or small amounts may be continually created through particle bombardment of the surface, the observed CO2 is only a trace material, with a few hundred molecules responsible for the deepest absorption features and an estimated molar abundance of 0.1% [2; 10-12]. Yet its presence may provide essential clues to processes that shape the surfaces of the moon [13] and potentially key to understanding the composition of potential oceans in the subsurfaces. We continue measurements of the infrared properties associated with CO2 adsorbed onto nonice materials under pressures and at temperatures relevant to these icy satellites using bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy from ~ 1.5 to 5.5 μm. Previous measurements, using transmission spectroscopy, demonstrated both a compositional and a temperature dependence on the spectral signature of adsorbed CO2 [14]. Bidirectional spectroscopy enables detection of lower concentrations of adsorbate on fine-grained materials such as clays due to their large surface area to volume ratios and thus large surface areas that may be covered by adsorbate [15]. The effectiveness of transmission spectroscopy was also limited by the strong absorption of light within the pressed sample and its impermeability, which limited the coverage by adsorbate to the pellet’s outer surface. All measurements demonstrate that CO2 adsorbs onto montmorillonite clays, possibly due to its quadrupole moment

  2. Water Contact Angle Dependence with Hydroxyl Functional Groups on Silica Surfaces under CO2 Sequestration Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Zhang, Ning; Li, Weizhong; Song, Yongchen

    2015-12-15

    Functional groups on silica surfaces under CO2 sequestration conditions are complex due to reactions among supercritical CO2, brine and silica. Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to investigate the effects of hydroxyl functional groups on wettability. It has been found that wettability shows a strong dependence on functional groups on silica surfaces: silanol number density, space distribution, and deprotonation/protonation degree. For neutral silica surfaces with crystalline structure (Q(3), Q(3)/Q(4), Q(4)), as silanol number density decreases, contact angle increases from 33.5° to 146.7° at 10.5 MPa and 318 K. When Q(3) surface changes to an amorphous structure, water contact angle increases 20°. Water contact angle decreases about 12° when 9% of silanol groups on Q(3) surface are deprotonated. When the deprotonation degree increases to 50%, water contact angle decreases to 0. The dependence of wettability on silica surface functional groups was used to analyze contact angle measurement ambiguity in literature. The composition of silica surfaces is complicated under CO2 sequestration conditions, the results found in this study may help to better understand wettability of CO2/brine/silica system.

  3. Estimation of nocturnal CO2 and N2O soil emissions from changes in surface boundary layer mass storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Richard H.; Omonode, Rex A.

    2018-04-01

    Annual budgets of greenhouse and other trace gases require knowledge of the emissions throughout the year. Unfortunately, emissions into the surface boundary layer during stable, calm nocturnal periods are not measurable using most micrometeorological methods due to non-stationarity and uncoupled flow. However, during nocturnal periods with very light winds, carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) frequently accumulate near the surface and this mass accumulation can be used to determine emissions. Gas concentrations were measured at four heights (one within and three above canopy) and turbulence was measured at three heights above a mature 2.5 m maize canopy from 23 July to 10 September 2015. Nocturnal CO2 and N2O fluxes from the canopy were determined using the accumulation of mass within a 6.3 m control volume and out the top of the control volume within the nocturnal surface boundary layer. Diffusive fluxes were estimated by flux gradient method. The total accumulative and diffusive fluxes during near-calm nights (friction velocities CO2 and 0.53 nmol m-2 s-1 N2O. Fluxes were also measured using chambers. Daily mean CO2 fluxes determined by the accumulation method were 90 to 130 % of those determined using soil chambers. Daily mean N2O fluxes determined by the accumulation method were 60 to 80 % of that determined using soil chambers. The better signal-to-noise ratios of the chamber method for CO2 over N2O, non-stationary flow, assumed Schmidt numbers, and anemometer tilt were likely contributing reasons for the differences in chambers versus accumulated nocturnal mass flux estimates. Near-surface N2O accumulative flux measurements in more homogeneous regions and with greater depth are needed to confirm the conclusion that mass accumulation can be effectively used to estimate soil emissions during nearly calm nights.

  4. Effect of process parameters on power requirements of vacuum swing adsorption technology for CO2 capture from flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jun; Webley, Paul A.; Xiao, Penny

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of process and operating parameters - feed gas temperature, evacuation pressure and feed concentration - on the performance of carbon dioxide vacuum swing adsorption (CO 2 VSA) processes for CO 2 capture from gas, especially as it affects power consumption. To obtain reliable data on the VSA process, experimental work was conducted on a purposely built three bed CO 2 VSA pilot plant using commercial 13X zeolite. Both 6 step and 9 step cycles were used to determine the influences of temperature, evacuation pressure and feed concentration on process performance (recovery, purity, power and corresponding capture cost). A simple economic model for CO 2 capture was developed and employed herein. Through experiments and analysis, it is found that the feed gas temperature, evacuation pressure and feed concentration have significant effects on power consumption and CO 2 capture cost. Our data demonstrate that the CO 2 VSA process has good recovery (>70%), purity (>90%) and low power cost (4-10 kW/TPDc) when operating with 40 C feed gas provided relatively deep vacuum is used. Enhanced performance is obtained when higher feed gas concentration is fed to the plant, as expected. Our data indicates large potential for application of CO 2 VSA to CO 2 capture from flue gas. (author)

  5. Cycle development and design for CO2 capture from flue gas by vacuum swing adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Webley, Paul A

    2008-01-15

    CO2 capture and storage is an important component in the development of clean power generation processes. One CO2 capture technology is gas-phase adsorption, specifically pressure (or vacuum) swing adsorption. The complexity of these processes makes evaluation and assessment of new adsorbents difficult and time-consuming. In this study, we have developed a simple model specifically targeted at CO2 capture by pressure swing adsorption and validated our model by comparison with data from a fully instrumented pilot-scale pressure swing adsorption process. The model captures nonisothermal effects as well as nonlinear adsorption and nitrogen coadsorption. Using the model and our apparatus, we have designed and studied a large number of cycles for CO2 capture. We demonstrate that by careful management of adsorption fronts and assembly of cycles based on understanding of the roles of individual steps, we are able to quickly assess the effect of adsorbents and process parameters on capture performance and identify optimal operating regimes and cycles. We recommend this approach in contrast to exhaustive parametric studies which tend to depend on specifics of the chosen cycle and adsorbent. We show that appropriate combinations of process steps can yield excellent process performance and demonstrate how the pressure drop, and heat loss, etc. affect process performance through their effect on adsorption fronts and profiles. Finally, cyclic temperature profiles along the adsorption column can be readily used to infer concentration profiles-this has proved to be a very useful tool in cyclic function definition. Our research reveals excellent promise for the application of pressure/vacuum swing adsorption technology in the arena of CO2 capture from flue gases.

  6. CO2 Removal from Multi-component Gas Mixtures Utilizing Spiral-Wound Asymmetric Membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, W.B.; Fahmy, M.F.M.; Gad, F.K.; EI-Aleem, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    A systematic procedure and a computer program have been developed for simulating the performance of a spiral-wound gas permeate for the CO 2 removal from natural gas and other hydrocarbon streams. The simulation program is based on the approximate multi-component model derived by Qi and Henson(l), in addition to the membrane parameters achieved from the binary simulation program(2) (permeability and selectivity). Applying the multi-component program on the same data used by Qi and Henson to evaluate the deviation of the approximate model from the basic transport model, showing results more accurate than those of the approximate model, and are very close to those of the basic transport model, while requiring significantly less than 1 % of the computation time. The program was successfully applied on the data of Salam gas plant membrane unit at Khalda Petroleum Company, Egypt, for the separation of CO 2 from hydrocarbons in an eight-component mixture to estimate the stage cut, residue, and permeate compositions, and gave results matched with the actual Gas Chromatography Analysis measured by the lab

  7. Comparison of Dry Gas Seasonal Storage with CO2 Storage and Re-Use Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Killerud, Marie

    2013-01-01

    To make large-scale CO2 storage economic, many groups have proposed using CO2in EOR projects to create value for CO2 storage. However, CO2 EOR projectsgenerally require a large and variable supply of CO2 and consequently may requiretemporary storage of CO2 in geological formations. In order to store CO2 atoffshore sites as a source for CO2 EOR projects, the CO2 needs to be extractedfrom a storage site to a certain extent. Alternatively, CO2 EOR projects maybe developed alongside saline aquife...

  8. Investigation into CO2 laser cleaning of titanium alloys for gas-turbine component manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.W.; Crouse, P.L.; Li, L; Smith, A.J.E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports results of the investigation into the feasibility of using a CO 2 laser technology to perform critical cleaning of gas-turbine aero-engine components for manufacture. It reports the results of recent trials and relates these to a thermal model of the cleaning mechanisms, and describes resultant component integrity. The paper defines the experimental conditions for the laser cleaning of various aerospace-grade contaminated titanium alloys, using a continuous wave CO 2 laser. Laser cleaning of Ti64 proved successful for electron beam welding, but not for the more sensitive Ti6246. For diffusion bonding the trials produced a defective standard of joint. Effects of oxide formation is modelled and examined experimentally

  9. The potential of renewables versus natural gas with CO2 capture and storage for power generation under CO2 constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Broek, Machteld; Berghout, Niels; Rubin, Edward S.

    2015-01-01

    The costs of intermittent renewable energy systems (IRES) and power storage technologies are compared on a level playing field to those of natural gas combined cycle power plants with CO2 capture and storage (NGCC-CCS). To account for technological progress over time, an "experience

  10. The functioning of the electricity, CO2 and natural gas wholesale markets in 2011-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-11-01

    The Commission for Energy Regulation (CRE) monitors electricity and natural gas transactions carried out between suppliers, traders and producers, transactions carried out on the organised markets as well as cross-border trades. CRE's mission of monitoring wholesale markets aims to ensure that wholesale market energy prices are consistent with the technical and economic fundamentals of these markets. In particular, CRE strives to verify that no market power is exercised in such a way that a participant abuses its situation to attain abnormal prices, notably with regard to its costs. This task is now also in line with the Regulation on Energy Market Integrity and Transparency known as REMIT. This fifth surveillance report of the CRE presents and analyses the developments of wholesale markets in France in 2011 and the first semester of 2012 for electricity, gas and CO 2 . It also details the investigations carried out in relation to the behaviour of stakeholders or in case of particular market events. On the electricity market, the average spot price increased slightly and was established at euro 49/MWh (base-load), i.e. an increase of 3% compared with 2010; the price of the Calendar 2013 product increased following the German moratorium on nuclear energy before gradually decreasing over the second half of the year. The announcement of the moratorium also resulted in a price differential reversal with Germany (German prices becoming more expensive) until February 2012. Volumes traded also remained stable despite a drop in trade on the futures market. On the gas market, the LNG offer in Europe and France clearly fell on account of trade-offs with the Asian market where demand greatly increased following the accident of Fukushima, with gas replacing nuclear in electricity generation. Gas prices rose on average but remained more stable than in 2010 both on spot markets and futures markets. They progressed, however, at a lower rate than oil products on which long

  11. Gas geochemistry and preliminary CO2 output estimation from the island of Kos (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Walter; Daskalopoulou, Kyriaki; Calabrese, Sergio; Longo, Manfredi; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos; Gagliano, Antonina Lisa

    2017-04-01

    Several gas samples have been collected from natural gas manifestations at the island of Kos. Most of them are found underwater along the southern coast of the island. On land two anomalous degassing areas have been recognized. These are characterised by lack of vegetation and after long dry periods by the presence of sulfate salts efflorescences. Almost all the gases are CO2-dominated (CO2 ranging from 88 to 99%) with minor amounts of N2 (up to 7%) and CH4 (up to 2.6%). Only the on-land manifestations have also significant contents of H2 (up to 0.2%) and H2S (up to 0.3%). Only one underwater manifestation is N2-dominated (61-99%) with CH4 (0.6-11%) and low CO2 (0.1-26%). The isotopic composition of He shows values ranging from 0.84 to 6.72 R/RA indicating a sometimes strong mantle contribution with the highest values measured in two of the most strongly degassing areas (Paradise Beach and Volcania). C-isotopic composition of CO2 is in the range from -3.6 to 0.6 ‰ vs V-PDB with most of the values around -1‰ indicating a mixed mantle - limestones origin. Isotopic composition of CH4, ranging from -21.5 to 2.8‰ for C and from -143 to 36‰ for H, points to a geothermal origin with sometimes evident secondary oxidation processes. CO2-flux measurements showed values up to about 10,000 g/m2/day in the areas of Volcania and Kokkino Nero and up to about 50,000 g/m2/day at Paradise beach. Preliminary CO2 output estimations gave values of 8.8 and 4 tons/day for the first two areas respectively and of 2.7 tons/day for the latter. The total output of the island (15.5 tons/day) should be considered a minimum estimation because of the incomplete coverage of the area and is comparable to the other active volcanic/geothermal systems of Greece (Nisyros, Nea Kameni and Methana).

  12. Remote sensing algorithm for sea surface CO2 in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parard, G.; Charantonis, A. A.; Rutgerson, A.

    2014-08-01

    Studies of coastal seas in Europe have brought forth the high variability in the CO2 system. This high variability, generated by the complex mechanisms driving the CO2 fluxes makes their accurate estimation an arduous task. This is more pronounced in the Baltic Sea, where the mechanisms driving the fluxes have not been as highly detailed as in the open oceans. In adition, the joint availability of in-situ measurements of CO2 and of sea-surface satellite data is limited in the area. In this paper, a combination of two existing methods (Self-Organizing-Maps and Multiple Linear regression) is used to estimate ocean surface pCO2 in the Baltic Sea from remotely sensed surface temperature, chlorophyll, coloured dissolved organic matter, net primary production and mixed layer depth. The outputs of this research have an horizontal resolution of 4 km, and cover the period from 1998 to 2011. The reconstructed pCO2 values over the validation data set have a correlation of 0.93 with the in-situ measurements, and a root mean square error is of 38 μatm. The removal of any of the satellite parameters degraded this reconstruction of the CO2 flux, and we chose therefore to complete any missing data through statistical imputation. The CO2 maps produced by this method also provide a confidence level of the reconstruction at each grid point. The results obtained are encouraging given the sparsity of available data and we expect to be able to produce even more accurate reconstructions in the coming years, in view of the predicted acquisitions of new data.

  13. Utilization of high CO2 content formation gas for steam and electricity generation; Aprovechamiento del gas de formacion con alto contenido de CO2 para generacion de vapor y electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villagomez, Paul; Lamino, Marcelo; Jacome, Jose; Pastor, Santiago [EcuadorTLC, Quito (Ecuador). Grupo PETROBRAS

    2008-07-01

    Ecuador TLC SA, as part of the PETROBRAS Group, respecting its mission to act safe, cost-effectiveness, social and environmental responsibility, currently operates an oil production project in the Ecuatorian Amazon, known as Block 18. In Block 18, the process of gas burning is response for launch approximately 10 MMSCF of the gas associated with 77% CO2 in the environment. For this reason it was built a centralized power generation plants (PGE), of 17.38 MW, taking advantage of the gas with 77% CO2 from boilers to burn it, using it as a source of heat in a combined cycle steam turbines, generating electricity. This project is environmentally efficient with reduced emissions of CO2 and as reducing fuel costs to zero. The results of CO2 reduction is a corporate goal of PETROBRAS and this project will contribute to reducing CO2 emissions by approximately 400,000 Ton over the life of the project.

  14. Surface heat flow and CO2 emissions within the Ohaaki hydrothermal field, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rissmann, Clinton; Christenson, Bruce; Werner, Cynthia; Leybourne, Matthew; Cole, Jim; Gravley, Darren

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions and heat flow have been determined from the Ohaaki hydrothermal field, Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ), New Zealand following 20 a of production (116 MW e ). Soil CO 2 degassing was quantified with 2663 CO 2 flux measurements using the accumulation chamber method, and 2563 soil temperatures were measured and converted to equivalent heat flow (W m −2 ) using published soil temperature heat flow functions. Both CO 2 flux and heat flow were analysed statistically and then modelled using 500 sequential Gaussian simulations. Forty subsoil CO 2 gas samples were also analysed for stable C isotopes. Following 20 a of production, current CO 2 emissions equated to 111 ± 6.7 T/d. Observed heat flow was 70 ± 6.4 MW, compared with a pre-production value of 122 MW. This 52 MW reduction in surface heat flow is due to production-induced drying up of all alkali–Cl outflows (61.5 MW) and steam-heated pools (8.6 MW) within the Ohaaki West thermal area (OHW). The drying up of all alkali–Cl outflows at Ohaaki means that the soil zone is now the major natural pathway of heat release from the high-temperature reservoir. On the other hand, a net gain in thermal ground heat flow of 18 MW (from 25 MW to 43.3 ± 5 MW) at OHW is associated with permeability increases resulting from surface unit fracturing by production-induced ground subsidence. The Ohaaki East (OHE) thermal area showed no change in distribution of shallow and deep soil temperature contours despite 20 a of production, with an observed heat flow of 26.7 ± 3 MW and a CO 2 emission rate of 39 ± 3 T/d. The negligible change in the thermal status of the OHE thermal area is attributed to the low permeability of the reservoir beneath this area, which has limited production (mass extraction) and sheltered the area from the pressure decline within the main reservoir. Chemistry suggests that although alkali–Cl outflows once contributed significantly to the natural surface heat flow (∼50%) they

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2004-12-30 to 2005-11-20 (NCEI Accession 0148772)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148772 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NUKA ARCTICA in the Davis Strait, Kattegat and others from 2012-01-10 to 2012-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0157390)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157390 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from NUKA ARCTICA in the Davis Strait, Kattegat, The Sound, Great Belt, Little...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2013-06-02 to 2013-06-05 (NCEI Accession 0157234)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157234 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2013-06-02 to...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NUKA ARCTICA in the Davis Strait, Kattegat and others from 2007-04-27 to 2008-01-05 (NCEI Accession 0144288)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144288 includes Surface underway data collected from NUKA ARCTICA in the Davis Strait, Kattegat, The Sound, Great Belt, Little Belt, North Atlantic...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NUKA ARCTICA in the Baffin Bay, Davis Strait and others from 2013-02-01 to 2013-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0157395)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157395 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from NUKA ARCTICA in the Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Kattegat, The Sound, Great...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2013-08-03 to 2013-08-21 (NCEI Accession 0157420)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157420 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2013-08-03 to...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel and others from 2012-09-13 to 2012-09-25 (NCEI Accession 0157385)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157385 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel,...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-11-13 to 2012-11-15 (NCEI Accession 0157309)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157309 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-11-13 to...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-10-19 to 2012-10-20 (NCEI Accession 0157401)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157401 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-10-19 to...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea and South Atlantic Ocean from 2013-07-28 to 2013-07-31 (NCEI Accession 0157362)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157362 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea and South Atlantic Ocean...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-11-17 to 2012-12-01 (NCEI Accession 0157330)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157330 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-11-17 to...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2013-06-08 to 2013-06-17 (NCEI Accession 0157288)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157288 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2013-06-08 to...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-04-09 to 2012-04-14 (NCEI Accession 0157299)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157299 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-04-09 to...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2013-10-06 to 2013-10-08 (NCEI Accession 0157364)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157364 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2013-10-06 to...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-03-24 to 2012-04-07 (NCEI Accession 0157273)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157273 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel and North Atlantic...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-10-07 to 2012-10-17 (NCEI Accession 0157324)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157324 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-10-07 to...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel and others from 2013-09-10 to 2013-10-02 (NCEI Accession 0157366)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157366 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel,...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-03-10 to 2012-03-14 (NCEI Accession 0157343)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157343 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-03-10 to...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-04-24 to 2012-04-25 (NCEI Accession 0157270)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157270 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-04-24 to...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-09-10 to 2012-09-12 (NCEI Accession 0157400)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157400 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-09-10 to...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-05-28 to 2012-05-30 (NCEI Accession 0157384)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157384 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-05-28 to...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-12-01 to 2012-12-04 (NCEI Accession 0157318)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157318 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-12-01 to...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Thin film type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from 2009-01-04 to 2009-02-09 (NODC Accession 0108227)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108227 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Thin film type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from 2011-01-15 to 2011-02-18 (NODC Accession 0114448)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0114448 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the USS BOLD in the Gulf of Mexico from 2006-06-06 to 2006-09-11 (NODC Accession 0117493)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117493 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from USS BOLD in the Gulf of Mexico from 2006-06-06 to...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the CAPE HATTERAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2009-01-09 to 2010-03-21 (NODC Accession 0115765)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115765 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from CAPE HATTERAS in the Gulf of Mexico from 2009-01-09 to...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel and North Sea from 2013-07-11 to 2013-07-23 (NCEI Accession 0157281)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157281 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel and North Sea from...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and North Sea from 2013-10-12 to 2013-10-22 (NCEI Accession 0157304)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157304 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel, North Atlantic...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel and others from 2013-05-08 to 2013-05-28 (NCEI Accession 0157373)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157373 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel,...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel and others from 2013-04-19 to 2013-05-08 (NCEI Accession 0157305)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157305 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel,...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel and others from 2012-09-27 to 2012-10-04 (NCEI Accession 0157267)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157267 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel,...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel, North Atlantic Ocean and North Sea from 2012-02-18 to 2012-02-29 (NCEI Accession 0157300)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157300 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the English Channel, North Atlantic...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel and others from 2013-02-03 to 2013-02-13 (NCEI Accession 0157382)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157382 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel,...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel and others from 2012-10-23 to 2012-11-09 (NCEI Accession 0157241)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157241 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the Bristol Channel, English Channel,...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the METEOR in the English Channel, Indian Ocean and others from 1994-10-12 to 1994-11-12 (NODC Accession 0115605)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115605 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from METEOR in the English Channel, Indian Ocean, North...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the XUE LONG in the Bali Sea, Celebes Sea and others from 2007-11-12 to 2008-04-12 (NODC Accession 0108235)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108235 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from XUE LONG in the Bali Sea, Celebes Sea, East China Sea...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the XUE LONG in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and Bering Sea from 2008-07-30 to 2008-09-11 (NODC Accession 0109932)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109932 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from XUE LONG in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and Bering...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from AEGAEO in the Aegean Sea and Mediterranean Sea from 2006-02-08 to 2006-02-13 (NODC Accession 0084543)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0084543 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from AEGAEO in the Aegean Sea and Mediterranean Sea from...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Arabian Sea, Arafura Sea and others from 1999-01-14 to 1999-12-02 (NODC Accession 0081013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081013 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Arabian Sea, Arafura Sea, Bay of Bengal,...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Ryofu Maru in the East China Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2010-04-15 to 2013-09-13 (NODC Accession 0117056)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117056 includes Surface underway data collected from Ryofu Maru in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea and South...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from RYOFU MARU in the Bismarck Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 1983-01-19 to 1989-02-06 (NODC Accession 0080988)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0080988 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from RYOFU MARU in the Bismarck Sea, North Pacific Ocean,...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Coral Sea, Indian Ocean and others from 2012-04-11 to 2012-07-25 (NODC Accession 0115295)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115295 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Coral Sea, Indian Ocean, South...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from JOHAN HJORT in the Barents Sea, North Sea and others from 2007-11-15 to 2008-06-08 (NCEI Accession 0157398)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157398 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from JOHAN HJORT in the Barents Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea and Skagerrak...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from G.O. SARS in the Barents Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and others from 2009-01-18 to 2009-07-17 (NCEI Accession 0157383)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157383 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from G.O. SARS in the Barents Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, North...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea and others from 2008011 to 2010-10-31 (NODC Accession 0115181)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115181 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea, Great...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from RYOFU MARU in the Bismarck Sea, East China Sea and others from 1989-11-17 to 1992-03-09 (NCEI Accession 0157056)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157056 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from RYOFU MARU in the Bismarck Sea, East China Sea (Tung...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from unknown platforms in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Arabian Sea and others from 1957-10-21 to 1963-08-15 (NCEI Accession 0157734)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157734 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from unknown platforms in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea,...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Thin film type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from 2013-02-10 to 2013-03-09 (NODC Accession 0116410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0116410 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, optical and physical data collected from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Thin film type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from 2012-01-25 to 2012-03-07 (NODC Accession 0116411)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116411 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from HUDSON, KNORR and others in the Alboran Sea, Arabian Sea and others from 1977-11-07 to 1990-04-16 (NODC Accession 9400165)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 9400165 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from HUDSON, KNORR, NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE, MELVILLE,...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Thin film type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from 2009-12-24 to 2010-01-22 (NODC Accession 0108228)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108228 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Thin film type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the POLARSTERN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1995-11-09 to 1995-12-01 (NODC Accession 0112941)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112941 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from POLARSTERN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2016-02-20 to 2016-05-08 (NCEI Accession 0160572)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160572 includes Surface underway, chemical and meteorological data collected from POLARSTERN in the North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from KEIFU MARU in the East China Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2001-01-20 to 2012-06-12 (NODC Accession 0116978)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0116978 includes Surface underway data collected from KEIFU MARU in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea, Sea of Japan...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from SOGEN MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and Philippine Sea from 1991-10-08 to 1991-12-31 (NODC Accession 0080991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0080991 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from SOGEN MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and Philippine Sea...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Hakuho Maru in the Bali Sea, Bismarck Sea and others from 1968-11-16 to 1988-03-23 (NODC Accession 0080981)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0080981 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Hakuho Maru in the Bali Sea, Bismarck Sea, Celebes Sea...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the KNORR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Arabian Sea and others from 1994-12-01 to 1996-01-21 (NODC Accession 0115589)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115589 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from KNORR in the Andaman Sea or Burma Sea, Arabian Sea, Bay...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the KNORR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2011-06-28 to 2011-07-13 (NODC Accession 0117690)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117690 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from KNORR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2011-06-28 to...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Natalie Schulte in the Bass Strait, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2010-10-01 to 2012-06-21 (NODC Accession 0108233)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108233 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Natalie Schulte in the Bass Strait, North Pacific Ocean,...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the Indian Ocean, Mozambique Channel and South Atlantic Ocean from 2003-12-09 to 2004-01-24 (NCEI Accession 0144250)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144250 includes Surface underway data collected from MIRAI in the Indian Ocean, Mozambique Channel and South Atlantic Ocean from 2003-12-09 to...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Thin film type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from 2016-01-08 to 2016-01-21 (NCEI Accession 0160553)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160553 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, optical and physical data collected from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Pyxis in the Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea and others from 2001-11-06 to 2013-04-25 (NODC Accession 0081041)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081041 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Pyxis in the Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from G.O. SARS in the Norwegian Sea from 2008-11-13 to 2008-12-10 (NCEI Accession 0157353)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157353 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from G.O. SARS in the Norwegian Sea from 2008-11-13 to...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from G.O. SARS in the Barents Sea, North Greenland Sea and others from 2007-02-12 to 2007-10-28 (NCEI Accession 0157392)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157392 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from G.O. SARS in the Barents Sea, North Greenland Sea, North...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and others from 2014-05-05 to 2014-08-30 (NCEI Accession 0144350)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144350 includes Surface underway data collected from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea, Bering Sea, Coastal Waters of SE Alaska, Gulf of...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and others from 2013-08-06 to 2013-10-29 (NCEI Accession 0144346)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144346 includes Surface underway data collected from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea, Bering Sea and Northwest Passage from 2013-08-06 to...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and others from 1995-03-17 to 1995-04-27 (NCEI Accession 0157358)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157358 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2001-01-30 to 2002-01-13 (NCEI Accession 0157365)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157365 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Marcus G. Langseth in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and others from 2011-04-13 to 2011-12-28 (NCEI Accession 0144305)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144305 includes Surface underway data collected from Marcus G. Langseth in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea, Bering Sea, Gulf of Alaska, Hawaiian...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2004-01-20 to 2005-01-25 (NCEI Accession 0157327)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157327 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Pacific Ocean, Southern Oceans and Tasman Sea from 1997-01-12 to 1998-01-09 (NCEI Accession 0157323)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157323 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Pacific Ocean, Southern...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2008-12-31 to 2009-12-22 (NCEI Accession 0144533)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144533 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2004-01-01 to 2004-12-21 (NCEI Accession 0144538)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144538 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and others from 2015-07-14 to 2015-10-28 (NCEI Accession 0144530)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144530 includes Surface underway data collected from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea, Bering Sea, Coastal Waters of SE Alaska, Gulf of Alaska...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and others from 2012-08-01 to 2012-10-24 (NCEI Accession 0144338)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144338 includes Surface underway data collected from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea, Bering Sea, Coastal Waters of SE Alaska and North...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and others from 2003-01-05 to 2004-01-15 (NCEI Accession 0157387)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157387 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea,...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2000-02-15 to 2001-01-25 (NCEI Accession 0157250)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157250 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, North Pacific...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Marcus G. Langseth in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-10-04 to 2014-10-15 (NCEI Accession 0144547)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144547 includes Surface underway data collected from Marcus G. Langseth in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-10-04 to 2014-10-15. These data include...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2016-02-21 to 2016-08-04 (NCEI Accession 0160570)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160570 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean and...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2004-12-31 to 2005-12-26 (NCEI Accession 0144531)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144531 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2013-11-18 to 2014-12-25 (NCEI Accession 0157374)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157374 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 1996-05-04 to 1997-01-08 (NCEI Accession 0157413)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157413 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Marcus G. Langseth in the Aegean Sea, Alboran Sea and others from 2015-04-13 to 2015-11-12 (NCEI Accession 0144534)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144534 includes Surface underway data collected from Marcus G. Langseth in the Aegean Sea, Alboran Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean Sea -...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2002-01-18 to 2003-01-01 (NCEI Accession 0157376)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157376 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the North Pacific Ocean, South...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Thin film type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from 2014-01-06 to 2014-02-19 (NCEI Accession 0157272)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157272 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, optical and physical data collected from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Thin film type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from 2015-01-07 to 2015-02-06 (NCEI Accession 0157289)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157289 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, optical and physical data collected from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Thin film type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from 2011-10-11 to 2011-11-21 (NODC Accession 0115604)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115604 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, optical and physical data collected from MARION DUFRESNE in the Indian Ocean from...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from ANTARES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2009-03-20 to 2010-08-06 (NODC Accession 0114477)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0114477 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from ANTARES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2015-01-04 to 2015-10-18 (NCEI Accession 0157344)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157344 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, South Atlantic...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the South Atlantic Ocean from 2003-11-06 to 2003-12-05 (NCEI Accession 0144246)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144246 includes Surface underway data collected from MIRAI in the South Atlantic Ocean from 2003-11-06 to 2003-12-05. These data include AIR...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Marcus G. Langseth in the North Pacific Ocean from 2010-05-07 to 2010-09-30 (NCEI Accession 0144353)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144353 includes Surface underway data collected from Marcus G. Langseth in the North Pacific Ocean from 2010-05-07 to 2010-09-30. These data include...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2008-12-31 to 2009-12-21 (NCEI Accession 0148771)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148771 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Ryofu Maru in the East China Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 1995-07-16 to 1999-11-05 (NODC Accession 0116981)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0116981 includes Surface underway data collected from Ryofu Maru in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea, Sea of Japan...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea and others from 2011-05-27 to 2011-12-16 (NCEI Accession 0144345)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144345 includes Surface underway data collected from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean, Beaufort Sea, Bering Sea, Coastal Waters of SE Alaska, Gulf of...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the South Atlantic Ocean from 2013-12-23 to 2014-02-04 (NODC Accession 0116979)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116979 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the South Atlantic Ocean...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from ATLANTIS in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-03-24 to 2012-04-17 (NCEI Accession 0144247)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144247 includes Surface underway data collected from ATLANTIS in the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-03-24 to 2012-04-17. These data...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from TANGAROA in the South Pacific Ocean, Southern Oceans and Tasman Sea from 2015-01-05 to 2015-12-23 (NCEI Accession 0157326)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157326 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from TANGAROA in the South Pacific Ocean, Southern Oceans...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the Coral Sea, South Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea from 2003-08-03 to 2003-10-16 (NCEI Accession 0160573)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160573 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MIRAI in the Coral Sea, South Pacific Ocean and Tasman...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from RYOFU MARU in the Bismarck Sea, East China Sea and others from 1989-11-17 to 1995-03-07 (NODC Accession 0116982)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0116982 includes Surface underway data collected from RYOFU MARU in the Bismarck Sea, East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea,...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from KEIFU MARU in the East China Sea, Japan Sea and others from 2012-10-24 to 2013-08-27 (NODC Accession 0116977)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0116977 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from KEIFU MARU in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), Japan Sea,...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the Coral Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2009-04-10 to 2009-07-03 (NCEI Accession 0144249)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144249 includes Surface underway data collected from MIRAI in the Coral Sea, North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea, Solomon Sea and South Pacific Ocean...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2007-10-08 to 2007-12-26 (NCEI Accession 0157449)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157449 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MIRAI in the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean from 2007-07-24 to 2007-09-03 (NCEI Accession 0157457)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157457 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean from 2007-07-24 to...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MELVILLE in the South Pacific Ocean from 2010-01-05 to 2010-02-11 (NCEI Accession 0144244)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144244 includes Surface underway data collected from MELVILLE in the South Pacific Ocean from 2010-01-05 to 2010-02-11. These data include AIR...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from 2008-04-03 to 2008-11-20 (NODC Accession 0117697)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117697 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Ryofu Maru in the East China Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2000-01-22 to 2009-07-06 (NODC Accession 0116980)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0116980 includes Surface underway data collected from Ryofu Maru in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea, Sea of Japan...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from RABELAIS in the Caribbean Sea, Coral Sea and others from 1991-07-27 to 1997-01-15 (NCEI Accession 0157239)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157239 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from RABELAIS in the Caribbean Sea, Coral Sea, English Channel, North Atlantic...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2004-01-02 to 2004-12-21 (NCEI Accession 0148768)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148768 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Coral Sea, Great Australian Bight and others from 2011-04-06 to 2011-11-26 (NODC Accession 0115708)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115708 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Coral Sea, Great Australian...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATSUSHIMA in the Inland Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 1987-01-24 to 1991-03-10 (NODC Accession 0080987)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0080987 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATSUSHIMA in the Inland Sea (Seto Naikai), North Pacific...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from TAISEI MARU in the Coral Sea, Indian Ocean and others from 1993-01-25 to 1998-03-07 (NODC Accession 0080992)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0080992 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from TAISEI MARU in the Coral Sea, Indian Ocean, Inland Sea...

  6. More gas, less coal, and less CO2? Unilateral CO2 reduction policy with more than one carbon energy source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daubanes, Julien Xavier; Henriet, Fanny; Schubert, Katheline

    -productive, ultimately increasing world emissions. Thus, we establish testable conditions as to whether a governmental emission-reduction commitment warrants the exploitation of gas, and whether such a strategy increases global emissions. We also characterize the extent to which this unilateral policy makes the rest...... of the world’s emission commitments more difficult to meet. Finally, we apply our results to the case of the US....

  7. Coke oven gas to methanol process integrated with CO_2 recycle for high energy efficiency, economic benefits and low emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Min-hui; Yi, Qun; Huang, Yi; Wu, Guo-sheng; Hao, Yan-hong; Feng, Jie; Li, Wen-ying

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • CO_2 recycle assistance with COG to CH_3OH with dry reforming is proposed. • New process with dry reforming improves H_2 utilization and energy saving. • Process with H_2 separation (CWHS) is more preferable to CH_3OH output. • CWHS shows an excellent performance in energy, economy and CO_2 emission reduction. - Abstract: A process of CO_2 recycle to supply carbon for assisting with coke oven gas to methanol process is proposed to realize clean and efficient coke oven gas utilization. Two CO_2 recycle schemes with respect to coke oven gas, namely with and without H_2 separation before reforming, are developed. It is revealed that the process with H_2 separation is more beneficial to element and energy efficiency improvement, and it also presents a better techno-economic performance in comparison with the conventional coke oven gas to methanol process. The exergy efficiency, direct CO_2 emission, and internal rate of return of the process with H_2 separation are 73.9%, 0.69 t/t-methanol, and 35.1%, respectively. This excellent performance implies that reforming technology selection, H_2 utilization efficiency, and CO_2 recycle ways have important influences on the performance of the coke oven gas to methanol process. The findings of this study represent significant progress for future improvements of the coke oven gas to methanol process, especially CO_2 conversion integrated with coke oven gas utilization in the coking industry.

  8. Effect of Feed Gas Flow Rate on CO2 Absorption through Super Hydrophobic Hollow Fiber membrane Contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartohardjono, Sutrasno; Alexander, Kevin; Larasati, Annisa; Sihombing, Ivander Christian

    2018-03-01

    Carbon dioxide is pollutant in natural gas that could reduce the heating value of the natural gas and cause problem in transportation due to corrosive to the pipeline. This study aims to evaluate the effects of feed gas flow rate on CO2 absorption through super hydrophobic hollow fiber contactor. Polyethyleneglycol-300 (PEG-300) solution was used as absorbent in this study, whilst the feed gas used in the experiment was a mixture of 30% CO2 and 70% CH4. There are three super hydrophobic hollow fiber contactors sized 6 cm and 25 cm in diameter and length used in this study, which consists of 1000, 3000 and 5000 fibers, respectively. The super hydrophobic fiber membrane used is polypropylene-based with outer and inner diameter of about 525 and 235 μm, respectively. In the experiments, the feed gas was sent through the shell side of the membrane contactor, whilst the absorbent solution was pumped through the lumen fibers. The experimental results showed that the mass transfer coefficient, flux, absorption efficiency for CO2-N2 system and CO2 loading increased with the feed gas flow rate, but the absorption efficiency for CO2-N2 system decreased. The mass transfer coefficient and the flux, at the same feed gas flow rate, decreased with the number of fibers in the membrane contactor, but the CO2 absorption efficiency and the CO2 loading increased.

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in 2008 (NODC Accession 0109930)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109930 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North...

  10. SnO2/PPy Screen-Printed Multilayer CO2 Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. WAGHULEY

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Tin dioxide (SnO2 plays a dominant role in solid state gas sensors and exhibit sensitivity towards oxidizing and reducing gases by a variation of its electrical properties. The electrical conducting polymer-polypyrrole (PPy has high anisotropy of electrical conduction and used as a gas sensor. SnO2/PPy multilayer, pure SnO2, pure PPy sensors were prepared by screen-printing method on Al2O3 layer followed by glass substrate. The sensors were used for different concentration (ppm of CO2 gas investigation at room temperature (303 K. The sensitivity of SnO2/PPy multilayer sensor was found to be higher, compared with pure SnO2 and pure PPy sensors. The multilayer sensor exhibited improved stability. The response and recovery time of multilayer sensor were found to be ~2 min and ~10 min respectively.

  11. Driving CO2 to a Quasi-Condensed Phase at the Interface between a Nanoparticle Surface and a Metal-Organic Framework at 1 bar and 298 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hiang Kwee; Lee, Yih Hong; Morabito, Joseph V; Liu, Yejing; Koh, Charlynn Sher Lin; Phang, In Yee; Pedireddy, Srikanth; Han, Xuemei; Chou, Lien-Yang; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Ling, Xing Yi

    2017-08-23

    We demonstrate a molecular-level observation of driving CO 2 molecules into a quasi-condensed phase on the solid surface of metal nanoparticles (NP) under ambient conditions of 1 bar and 298 K. This is achieved via a CO 2 accumulation in the interface between a metal-organic framework (MOF) and a metal NP surface formed by coating NPs with a MOF. Using real-time surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy, a >18-fold enhancement of surface coverage of CO 2 is observed at the interface. The high surface concentration leads CO 2 molecules to be in close proximity with the probe molecules on the metal surface (4-methylbenzenethiol), and transforms CO 2 molecules into a bent conformation without the formation of chemical bonds. Such linear-to-bent transition of CO 2 is unprecedented at ambient conditions in the absence of chemical bond formation, and is commonly observed only in pressurized systems (>10 5 bar). The molecular-level observation of a quasi-condensed phase induced by MOF coating could impact the future design of hybrid materials in diverse applications, including catalytic CO 2 conversion and ambient solid-gas operation.

  12. CO2 sorption on surface-modified carbonaceous support: Probing the influence of the carbon black microporosity and surface polarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gargiulo, Valentina; Alfè, Michela; Ammendola, Paola; Raganati, Federica; Chirone, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CO 2 -sorbent materials preparation by surface modification of CB. • CB functionalization (amino-groups), CB coating (Fe 3 O 4 ), CB impregnation (ionic liquid). • Sorbents bearing basic functionalities exhibit the higher CO 2 sorption capacity. • Microporous supporting material limits the CO 2 accessibility toward the adsorbing material. - Abstract: The use of solid sorbents is a convenient option in post-combustion CO 2 capture strategies. Sorbents selection is a key point because the materials are required to be both low-cost and versatile in typical post-combustion conditions in order to guarantee an economically advantageous overall process. This work compares strategies to tailor the chemico-physical features of carbon black (CB) by surface-modification and/or coating with a CO 2 -sorbent phase. The influence of the CB microporosity, enhanced by chemical/thermal treatments, is also taken into account. Three CB surface modifications are performed and compared: (i) oxidation and functionalization with amino-groups, (ii) coating with iron oxides and (iii) impregnation with an ionic liquid (IL). The CO 2 capture performance is evaluated on the basis of the breakthrough curves measured at atmospheric pressure and room temperature in a lab-scale fixed bed micro-reactor. Most of tested solids adsorb a CO 2 amount significantly higher than a 13X zeolite and DARCO FGD (Norit) activated carbon (up to 4 times more in the best case). The sorbents bearing basic functionalities (amino-groups and IL) exhibit the highest CO 2 sorption capacity. The use of a microporous carbonaceous support limits the accessibility of CO 2 toward the adsorbing phase (IL or FM) lowering the number of accessible binding sites for CO 2 .

  13. An attemp to use a pulsed CO2 laser for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    MILAN S. TRTICA; SCEPAN S. MILJANIC; NATASA N. STJEPANOVIC

    2000-01-01

    There is a growing interest in laser radioactive decontamination of metal surfaces. It offers advantages over conventional methods: improved safety, reduction of secondary waste, reduced waste volume, acceptable cost. The main mechanism of cleaning by lasers is ablation. A pulsed TEA CO2 laser was used in this work for surface cleaning in order to show that ablation of metal surfaces is possible even at relatively low pulse energies, and to suggest that it could be competitive with other lase...

  14. Transmucosal gas-loss rates in middle ears initially filled with O2 or CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Romain E; Vérillaud, Benjamin; Ars, Bernard; Tran Ba Huy, Patrice; Herman, Philippe; Ar, Amos

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates the role of different gases in clearance of gas in the middle ear cavity (ME) by its mucosal blood flow. A rat model was used to measure gas volume changes in the ME cavity at constant pressure without ventilation. We disturbed the normal gas composition of the ME by filling it with O 2 or CO 2 , measured the consequent changes in gas volume over time and compared these results with previously obtained ones for air and N 2 . The first 5 min of the primary transient phase (phase I) for O 2 or CO 2 was characterized by a volume loss decrease of -0.49 ± 0.34 μL and -46.28 ± 8.49 μL, respectively, with volume loss increase for air and N 2 differing greatly, at +0.17 ± 0.17 and +2.31 ± 0.81, respectively. The CO 2 value of -46.28 μL showed that a volume of gas equivalent to that of the ME cleft volume was eliminated within the first 5 min. In the second phase (phase II), all gases showed a linear decrease in volume, which presumably represents a steady-state gas loss rate. However, the gas loss rate of -0.307 ± 0.170 μL min -1 for O 2 -filled MEs was significantly higher than the mean of -0.124 μL min -1 for all other gases. We used a previously established mathematical model to calculate the effective ME mucosal blood flow rate under steady-state (phase II) conditions. The blood flow results for O 2 -filled MEs differed greatly from those of the other gases (89.0 ± 49.28 vs. 26.5 μL min -1 , on average), which suggest that the model used to calculate blood flow should be modified if used with O 2 -filled MEs. Further work should involve a comparison of our method with different methods to verify ME blood flow rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimating surface CO2 fluxes from space-borne CO2 dry air mole fraction observations using an ensemble Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dance

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF to estimate 8-day regional surface fluxes of CO2 from space-borne CO2 dry-air mole fraction observations (XCO2 and evaluate the approach using a series of synthetic experiments, in preparation for data from the NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO. The 32-day duty cycle of OCO alternates every 16 days between nadir and glint measurements of backscattered solar radiation at short-wave infrared wavelengths. The EnKF uses an ensemble of states to represent the error covariances to estimate 8-day CO2 surface fluxes over 144 geographical regions. We use a 12×8-day lag window, recognising that XCO2 measurements include surface flux information from prior time windows. The observation operator that relates surface CO2 fluxes to atmospheric distributions of XCO2 includes: a the GEOS-Chem transport model that relates surface fluxes to global 3-D distributions of CO2 concentrations, which are sampled at the time and location of OCO measurements that are cloud-free and have aerosol optical depths 2 profiles to XCO2, accounting for differences between nadir and glint measurements, and the associated scene-dependent observation errors. We show that OCO XCO2 measurements significantly reduce the uncertainties of surface CO2 flux estimates. Glint measurements are generally better at constraining ocean CO2 flux estimates. Nadir XCO2 measurements over the terrestrial tropics are sparse throughout the year because of either clouds or smoke. Glint measurements provide the most effective constraint for estimating tropical terrestrial CO2 fluxes by accurately sampling fresh continental outflow over neighbouring oceans. We also present results from sensitivity experiments that investigate how flux estimates change with 1 bias and unbiased errors, 2 alternative duty cycles, 3 measurement density and correlations, 4 the spatial resolution of estimated flux estimates, and 5 reducing the length of the lag window and the

  16. Water relations and gas exchange in poplar and willow under water stress and elevated atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jon D; Tognetti, Roberto; Paris, Piero

    2002-05-01

    Predictions of shifts in rainfall patterns as atmospheric [CO2] increases could impact the growth of fast growing trees such as Populus spp. and Salix spp. and the interaction between elevated CO2 and water stress in these species is unknown. The objectives of this study were to characterize the responses to elevated CO2 and water stress in these two species, and to determine if elevated CO2 mitigated drought stress effects. Gas exchange, water potential components, whole plant transpiration and growth response to soil drying and recovery were assessed in hybrid poplar (clone 53-246) and willow (Salix sagitta) rooted cuttings growing in either ambient (350 &mgr;mol mol-1) or elevated (700 &mgr;mol mol-1) atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]). Predawn water potential decreased with increasing water stress while midday water potentials remained unchanged (isohydric response). Turgor potentials at both predawn and midday increased in elevated [CO2], indicative of osmotic adjustment. Gas exchange was reduced by water stress while elevated [CO2] increased photosynthetic rates, reduced leaf conductance and nearly doubled instantaneous transpiration efficiency in both species. Dark respiration decreased in elevated [CO2] and water stress reduced Rd in the trees growing in ambient [CO2]. Willow had 56% lower whole plant hydraulic conductivity than poplar, and showed a 14% increase in elevated [CO2] while poplar was unresponsive. The physiological responses exhibited by poplar and willow to elevated [CO2] and water stress, singly, suggest that these species respond like other tree species. The interaction of [CO2] and water stress suggests that elevated [CO2] did mitigate the effects of water stress in willow, but not in poplar.

  17. Hydrogen production from food wastes and gas post-treatment by CO2 adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondas, V.; Gómez, X.; García, S.; Pevida, C.; Rubiera, F.; Morán, A.; Pis, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The dark fermentation process of food wastes was studied over an extended period. ► Decreasing the HRT of the process negatively affected the specific gas production. ► Adsorption of CO 2 was successfully attained using a biomass type activated carbon. ► H 2 concentration in the range of 85–95% was obtained for the treated gas-stream. - Abstract: The production of H 2 by biological means, although still far from being a commercially viable proposition, offers great promise for the future. Purification of the biogas obtained may lead to the production of highly concentrated H 2 streams appropriate for industrial application. This research work evaluates the dark fermentation of food wastes and assesses the possibility of adsorbing CO 2 from the gas stream by means of a low cost biomass-based adsorbent. The reactor used was a completely stirred tank reactor run at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) while the concentration of solids of the feeding stream was kept constant. The results obtained demonstrate that the H 2 yields from the fermentation of food wastes were affected by modifications in the hydraulic retention time (HRT) due to incomplete hydrolysis. The decrease in the duration of fermentation had a negative effect on the conversion of the substrate into soluble products. This resulted in a lower amount of soluble substrate being available for metabolisation by H 2 producing microflora leading to a reduction in specific H 2 production. Adsorption of CO 2 from a gas stream generated from the dark fermentation process was successfully carried out. The data obtained demonstrate that the column filled with biomass-derived activated carbon resulted in a high degree of hydrogen purification. Co-adsorption of H 2 S onto the activated carbon also took place, there being no evidence of H 2 S present in the bio-H 2 exiting the column. Nevertheless, the concentration of H 2 S was very low, and this co-adsorption did not affect the CO 2

  18. Optimization of Cutting Parameters of the Haynes 718 Nickel Alloy With Gas CO2 Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana PETRŮ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the application of laser technology and the optimization of parameters in the area of nickel alloy laser cutting intended for application in the aircraft industry. The main goal is to outline possibilities of use of the laser technology, primarily its application in the area of 3D material cutting. This experiment is focused on the optimization of cutting parameters of the Haynes 718 alloy with a gas CO2 laser. Originating cuts are evaluated primarily from the point of view of cut quality and accompanying undesirable phenomena occurring in the process of cutting. In conclusion the results achieved in the metallographic laboratory are described and analyzed.

  19. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), temperature, salinity and other variables collected from surface underway observations using shower head equilibrator, carbon dioxide gas detector and other instruments from the R/V Thomas G. Thompson in the Pacific Ocean from 2016-03-02 to 2016-04-18 (NCEI Accession 0158483)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains underway measurements of pCO2, salinity, sea surface temperature, and other parameters collected in the Pacific ocean on the R/V...

  20. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), temperature, salinity and other variables collected from surface underway observations using shower head equilibrator, carbon dioxide gas detector and other instruments from 3 trans-Pacific crossings onboard container ship Cap Blanche in the Pacific Ocean from 2016-03-13 to 2016-09-13 (NCEI Accession 0158484)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains underway measurements of pCO2, salinity, sea surface temperature, and other parameters that were collected during 3 trans-Pacific...

  1. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), temperature, salinity and other variables collected from surface underway observations using shower head equilibrator, carbon dioxide gas detector, and other instruments from container ship Cap Blanche in the Pacific Ocean from 2014-02-01 to 2014-11-26 (NCEI Accession 0132047)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains underway measurements of pCO2, salinity, sea surface temperature, and other parameters were collected during 6 trans-Pacific crossings...

  2. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), temperature, salinity and other variables collected from surface underway observations using shower head equilibrator, carbon dioxide gas detector, and other instruments from container ship Cap Vilano in the Pacific Ocean from 2013-02-01 to 2013-06-06 (NCEI Accession 0132054)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains underway measurements of pCO2, salinity, sea surface temperature, and other parameters were collected during 3 trans-Pacific crossings...

  3. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), temperature, salinity and other variables collected from surface underway observations using shower head equilibrator, carbon dioxide gas detector, and other instruments from 4 trans-Pacific crossings onboard container ship Cap Blanche in the Pacific Ocean from 2015-03-28 to 2015-12-04 (NCEI Accession 0141304)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains underway measurements of pCO2, salinity, sea surface temperature, and other parameters collected during 4 trans-Pacific crossings in...

  4. Reducing the CO2 emissions from fossil fuel power plans by exhaust gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Elena

    2007-01-01

    The emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other pollutants which result from burning fossil fuels has been identified as the major contributor to global warming and climate change. However, for the short term, at least for the next 10-20 years, the world will continue to rely on fossil fuels as the source of primary energy. The challenge for the fossil the fuel industry is to find cost-effective solutions that will reduce the release of CO 2 and other pollutants into the atmosphere. The focus of this paper is on the ability to treat the exhaust gas from fossil fuel power plants in order to capture and store the CO 2 and remove the other pollutants such as SO x and NO x which are released into the atmosphere. In summary, capture/separation costs represent the largest financial impediment for this type of plants. Hence, efficient, cost-effective capture/separation technologies need to be developed to allow their large-scale use. (author)

  5. Surface modification of polyethylene terephthalate using excimer and CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzadeh, H.; Dadsetan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Attempts have been made to evaluate microstructuring which affects cell behaviour, physical and chemical changes produced by laser irradiation onto the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface. The surfaces of PET were irradiated using the CO 2 laser and KrF excimer pulsed laser. The changes in chemical and physical properties of the irradiated PET surface were investigated by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and contact angle measurements. ATR-IR Spectra showed that the crystallinity in the surface region decreased due to the CO 2 laser and excimer laser irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy observations showed that the morphology of the laser irradiated PET surface changed due to laser irradiation. The results obtained from the cell behaviour studies revealed that changes of physico-chemical properties of the laser treated PET film have significantly changed in comparison with the unmodified PET

  6. Viability and adaptation potential of indigenous microorganisms from natural gas field fluids in high pressure incubations with supercritical CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, Janin; Rakoczy, Jana; Ostertag-Henning, Christian; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-21

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is currently under debate as large-scale solution to globally reduce emissions of the greenhouse gas CO2. Depleted gas or oil reservoirs and saline aquifers are considered as suitable reservoirs providing sufficient storage capacity. We investigated the influence of high CO2 concentrations on the indigenous bacterial population in the saline formation fluids of a natural gas field. Bacterial community changes were closely examined at elevated CO2 concentrations under near in situ pressures and temperatures. Conditions in the high pressure reactor systems simulated reservoir fluids i) close to the CO2 injection point, i.e. saturated with CO2, and ii) at the outer boundaries of the CO2 dissolution gradient. During the incubations with CO2, total cell numbers remained relatively stable, but no microbial sulfate reduction activity was detected. After CO2 release and subsequent transfer of the fluids, an actively sulfate-respiring community was re-established. The predominance of spore-forming Clostridiales provided evidence for the resilience of this taxon against the bactericidal effects of supercritical (sc)CO2. To ensure the long-term safety and injectivity, the viability of fermentative and sulfate-reducing bacteria has to be considered in the selection, design, and operation of CCS sites.

  7. Pengaruh penambahan Ca(OH2 pada Proses Pirolisis terhadap Hasil Gasifikasi Batubara Bituminus dengan medium Gas CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saripah Sobah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pemanfaatan batubara melalui proses gasifikasi perlu dikembangkan lebih lanjut karena proses ini dapat dijadikan alternatif untuk menggantikan peranan  gas alam sebagai sumber gas sintesis. Di samping itu, proses ini dapat mengurangi pencemaran lingkungan karena teknologi gasifikasi merupakan teknologi yang bersih dan dapat mengurangi jumlah gas CO2 yang dibuang ke lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan Ca(OH2 pada proses pirolisis terhadap hasil gasifikasi arang batubara bituminus dengan medium gas CO2. Reaksi karbon dari arang batubara dengan gas CO2 pada proses gasifikasi merupakan reaksi endotermis dan berlangsung sangat lambat pada suhu di bawah 1000oC sehingga digunakan Ca(OH2 sebagai katalisator. Proses gasifikasi batubara dijalankan dalam reaktor fixed bed. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa gasifikasi arang batubara dengan penambahan Ca(OH2 pada proses pirolisis memberikan pengaruh terhadap komposisi gas hasil yaitu berkurangnya kadar gas CO2 dan menyebabkan berkurangnya kadar belerang pada arang hasil pirolisis dan gasifikasi. Proses ini juga dapat mengurangi kadar gas CO2 sebesar 63,17% dan untuk  gasifikasi tanpa Ca(OH2 , CO2 dapat dikurangi kadarnya sampai 35,2%.

  8. Low Overpotential and High Current CO2 Reduction with Surface Reconstructed Cu Foam Electrodess

    KAUST Repository

    Min, Shixiong

    2016-06-23

    While recent reports have demonstrated that oxide-derived Cu-based electrodes exhibit high selectivity for CO2 reduction at low overpotential, the low catalytic current density (<2 mA/cm2 at -0.45 V vs. RHE) still largely limits its applications for large-scale fuel synthesis. Here we report an extremely high current density for CO2 reduction at low overpotential using a Cu foam electrode prepared by air-oxidation and subsequent electroreduction. Apart from possessing three-dimensional (3D) open frameworks, the resulting Cu foam electrodes prepared at higher temperatures exhibit enhanced electrochemically active surface area and distinct surface structures. In particular, the Cu foam electrode prepared at 500 °C exhibits an extremely high geometric current density of ~9.4 mA/cm2 in CO2-satrurated 0.1 M KHCO3 aqueous solution and achieving ~39% CO and ~23% HCOOH Faradaic efficiencies at -0.45 V vs. RHE. The high activity and significant selectivity enhancement are attributable to the formation of abundant grain-boundary supported active sites and preferable (100) and (111) facets as a result of reconstruction of Cu surface facets. This work demonstrates that the structural integration of Cu foam with open 3D frameworks and the favorable surface structures is a promising strategy to develop an advanced Cu electrocatalyst that can operate at high current density and low overpotential for CO2 reduction.

  9. Effect of surface-breakdown plasma on metal drilling by pulsed CO2-laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutiunian, P. V.; Baranov, V. Iu.; Bobkov, I. V.; Bol'Shakov, L. A.; Dolgov, V. A.

    1988-03-01

    The effect of low-threshold surface breakdown produced by short (5-microsec) CO2-laser pulses on the metal drilling process is investigated. Data on the interaction of metals with laser pulses having the same duration but different shape are shown to be different. The effect of the ambient atmospheric pressure on the laser drilling process is investigated.

  10. Metal organic framework absorbent platforms for removal of co2 and h2s from natural gas

    KAUST Repository

    Belmabkhout, Youssef; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Adil, Karim; Cadiau, Amandine; Bhatt, Prashant M.

    2016-01-01

    Provided herein are metal organic frameworks comprising metal nodes and N-donor organic ligands which have high selectivity and stability in the present of gases and vapors including H2S, H2O, and CO2. Methods include capturing one or more of H2S, H2O, and CO2 from fluid compositions, such as natural gas.

  11. Metal organic framework absorbent platforms for removal of co2 and h2s from natural gas

    KAUST Repository

    Belmabkhout, Youssef

    2016-10-13

    Provided herein are metal organic frameworks comprising metal nodes and N-donor organic ligands which have high selectivity and stability in the present of gases and vapors including H2S, H2O, and CO2. Methods include capturing one or more of H2S, H2O, and CO2 from fluid compositions, such as natural gas.

  12. CO2 storage in depleted gas reservoirs: A study on the effect of residual gas saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Raza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Depleted gas reservoirs are recognized as the most promising candidate for carbon dioxide storage. Primary gas production followed by injection of carbon dioxide after depletion is the strategy adopted for secondary gas recovery and storage practices. This strategy, however, depends on the injection strategy, reservoir characteristics and operational parameters. There have been many studies to-date discussing critical factors influencing the storage performance in depleted gas reservoirs while little attention was given to the effect of residual gas. In this paper, an attempt was made to highlight the importance of residual gas on the capacity, injectivity, reservoir pressurization, and trapping mechanisms of storage sites through the use of numerical simulation. The results obtained indicated that the storage performance is proportionally linked to the amount of residual gas in the medium and reservoirs with low residual fluids are a better choice for storage purposes. Therefore, it would be wise to perform the secondary recovery before storage in order to have the least amount of residual gas in the medium. Although the results of this study are useful to screen depleted gas reservoirs for the storage purpose, more studies are required to confirm the finding presented in this paper.

  13. Microfluidic and nanofluidic phase behaviour characterization for industrial CO2, oil and gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Bo; Riordon, Jason; Mostowfi, Farshid; Sinton, David

    2017-08-08

    Microfluidic systems that leverage unique micro-scale phenomena have been developed to provide rapid, accurate and robust analysis, predominantly for biomedical applications. These attributes, in addition to the ability to access high temperatures and pressures, have motivated recent expanded applications in phase measurements relevant to industrial CO 2 , oil and gas applications. We here present a comprehensive review of this exciting new field, separating microfluidic and nanofluidic approaches. Microfluidics is practical, and provides similar phase properties analysis to established bulk methods with advantages in speed, control and sample size. Nanofluidic phase behaviour can deviate from bulk measurements, which is of particular relevance to emerging unconventional oil and gas production from nanoporous shale. In short, microfluidics offers a practical, compelling replacement of current bulk phase measurement systems, whereas nanofluidics is not practical, but uniquely provides insight into phase change phenomena at nanoscales. Challenges, trends and opportunities for phase measurements at both scales are highlighted.

  14. Natural gas consumption, income, urbanization, and CO2 emissions in China and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarin, Sakiru Adebola; Lean, Hooi Hooi

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the impact of natural gas consumption, output, and urbanization on CO2 emission in China and India for the period, 1965-2013. A cointegraton test, which provides for endogenously determined structural breaks, has been applied to examine the long-run relationship and to investigate the presence of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in the two countries. The presence of causal relationship between the variables is also investigated. The findings show that there is a long-run relationship in the variables and natural gas, real GDP, and urbanization have long-run positive impact on emission in both countries. There is no evidence for EKC in China and India. The findings further suggest that there is a long-run feedback relationship between the variables. The policy inferences of these findings are discussed.

  15. Different Apparent Gas Exchange Coefficients for CO2 and CH4: Comparing a Brown-Water and a Clear-Water Lake in the Boreal Zone during the Whole Growing Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantakari, Miitta; Heiskanen, Jouni; Mammarella, Ivan; Tulonen, Tiina; Linnaluoma, Jessica; Kankaala, Paula; Ojala, Anne

    2015-10-06

    The air-water exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) is a central process during attempts to establish carbon budgets for lakes and landscapes containing lakes. Lake-atmosphere diffusive gas exchange is dependent on the concentration gradient between air and surface water and also on the gas transfer velocity, often described with the gas transfer coefficient k. We used the floating-chamber method in connection with surface water gas concentration measurements to estimate the gas transfer velocity of CO2 (kCO2) and CH4 (kCH4) weekly throughout the entire growing season in two contrasting boreal lakes, a humic oligotrophic lake and a clear-water productive lake, in order to investigate the earlier observed differences between kCO2 and kCH4. We found that the seasonally averaged gas transfer velocity of CH4 was the same for both lakes. When the lakes were sources of CO2, the gas transfer velocity of CO2 was also similar between the two study lakes. The gas transfer velocity of CH4 was constantly higher than that of CO2 in both lakes, a result also found in other studies but for reasons not yet fully understood. We found no differences between the lakes, demonstrating that the difference between kCO2 and kCH4 is not dependent on season or the characteristics of the lake.

  16. How Sodium Chloride Salt Inhibits the Formation of CO2 Gas Hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzammer, Christine; Finckenstein, Agnes; Will, Stefan; Braeuer, Andreas S

    2016-03-10

    We present an experimental Raman study on how the addition of sodium chloride to CO2-hydrate-forming systems inhibits the hydrate formation thermodynamically. For this purpose, the molar enthalpy of reaction and the molar entropy of reaction for the reaction of weakly hydrogen-bonded water molecules to strongly hydrogen bonded water molecules are determined for different salinities from the Raman spectrum of the water-stretching vibration. Simultaneously, the influence of the salinity on the solubility of CO2 in the liquid water-rich phase right before the start of hydrate formation is analyzed. The results demonstrate that various mechanisms contribute to the inhibition of gas hydrate formation. For the highest salt concentration of 20 wt % investigated, the temperature of gas hydrate formation is lowered by 12 K. For this concentration the molar enthalpy and entropy of reaction become smaller by 50 and 20%, respectively. Concurrently, the solubility of carbon dioxide is reduced by 70%. These results are compared with data in literature for systems of sodium chloride in water (without carbon dioxide).

  17. Simulation of a bubbling fluidized bed process for capturing CO2 from flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jeong-Hoo; Yi, Chang-Keun; Jo, Sung-Ho; Ryu, Ho-Jung; Park, Young-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    We simulated a bubbling bed process capturing CO 2 from flue gas. It applied for a laboratory scale process to investigate effects of operating parameters on capture efficiency. The adsorber temperature had a stronger effect than the regenerator temperature. The effect of regenerator temperature was minor for high adsorber temperature. The effect of regenerator temperature decreased to level off for the temperature >250 .deg. C. The capture efficiency was rather dominated by the adsorption reaction than the regeneration reaction. The effect of gas velocity was as appreciable as that of adsorber temperature. The capture efficiency increased with the solids circulation rate since it was ruled by the molar ratio of K to CO 2 for solids circulation smaller than the minimum required one (G s, min ). However, it leveled off for solids circulation rate >G s, min . As the ratio of adsorber solids inventory to the total solids inventory (x w1 ) increased, the capture efficiency increased until x w1 =0.705, but decreased for x w1 >0.705 because the regeneration time decreased too small. It revealed that the regeneration reaction was faster than the adsorption reaction. Increase of total solids inventory is a good way to get further increase in capture efficiency

  18. Hydro-geomechanical behaviour of gas-hydrate bearing soils during gas production through depressurization and CO2 injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deusner, C.; Gupta, S.; Kossel, E.; Bigalke, N.; Haeckel, M.

    2015-12-01

    Results from recent field trials suggest that natural gas could be produced from marine gas hydrate reservoirs at compatible yields and rates. It appears, from a current perspective, that gas production would essentially be based on depressurization and, when facing suitable conditions, be assisted by local thermal stimulation or gas hydrate conversion after injection of CO2-rich fluids. Both field trials, onshore in the Alaska permafrost and in the Nankai Trough offshore Japan, were accompanied by different technical issues, the most striking problems resulting from un-predicted geomechanical behaviour, sediment destabilization and catastrophic sand production. So far, there is a lack of experimental data which could help to understand relevant mechanisms and triggers for potential soil failure in gas hydrate production, to guide model development for simulation of soil behaviour in large-scale production, and to identify processes which drive or, further, mitigate sand production. We use high-pressure flow-through systems in combination with different online and in situ monitoring tools (e.g. Raman microscopy, MRI) to simulate relevant gas hydrate production scenarios. Key components for soil mechanical studies are triaxial systems with ERT (Electric resistivity tomography) and high-resolution local strain analysis. Sand production control and management is studied in a novel hollow-cylinder-type triaxial setup with a miniaturized borehole which allows fluid and particle transport at different fluid injection and flow conditions. Further, the development of a large-scale high-pressure flow-through triaxial test system equipped with μ-CT is ongoing. We will present results from high-pressure flow-through experiments on gas production through depressurization and injection of CO2-rich fluids. Experimental data are used to develop and parametrize numerical models which can simulate coupled process dynamics during gas-hydrate formation and gas production.

  19. Observational determination of surface radiative forcing by CO2 from 2000 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, D R; Collins, W D; Gero, P J; Torn, M S; Mlawer, E J; Shippert, T R

    2015-03-19

    The climatic impact of CO2 and other greenhouse gases is usually quantified in terms of radiative forcing, calculated as the difference between estimates of the Earth's radiation field from pre-industrial and present-day concentrations of these gases. Radiative transfer models calculate that the increase in CO2 since 1750 corresponds to a global annual-mean radiative forcing at the tropopause of 1.82 ± 0.19 W m(-2) (ref. 2). However, despite widespread scientific discussion and modelling of the climate impacts of well-mixed greenhouse gases, there is little direct observational evidence of the radiative impact of increasing atmospheric CO2. Here we present observationally based evidence of clear-sky CO2 surface radiative forcing that is directly attributable to the increase, between 2000 and 2010, of 22 parts per million atmospheric CO2. The time series of this forcing at the two locations-the Southern Great Plains and the North Slope of Alaska-are derived from Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer spectra together with ancillary measurements and thoroughly corroborated radiative transfer calculations. The time series both show statistically significant trends of 0.2 W m(-2) per decade (with respective uncertainties of ±0.06 W m(-2) per decade and ±0.07 W m(-2) per decade) and have seasonal ranges of 0.1-0.2 W m(-2). This is approximately ten per cent of the trend in downwelling longwave radiation. These results confirm theoretical predictions of the atmospheric greenhouse effect due to anthropogenic emissions, and provide empirical evidence of how rising CO2 levels, mediated by temporal variations due to photosynthesis and respiration, are affecting the surface energy balance.

  20. Heterogeneity-enhanced gas phase formation in shallow aquifers during leakage of CO2-saturated water from geologic sequestration sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plampin, Michael R.; Lassen, Rune Nørbæk; Sakaki, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    sands. Soil moisture sensors were utilized to observe the formation of gas phase near the porous media interfaces. Results indicate that the conditions under which heterogeneity controls gas phase evolution can be successfully predicted through analysis of simple parameters, including the dissolved CO2......, it is important to understand the physical processes that CO2 will undergo as it moves through naturally heterogeneous porous media formations. Previous studies have shown that heterogeneity can enhance the evolution of gas phase CO2 in some cases, but the conditions under which this occurs have not yet been...... quantitatively defined, nor tested through laboratory experiments. This study quantitatively investigates the effects of geologic heterogeneity on the process of gas phase CO2 evolution in shallow aquifers through an extensive set of experiments conducted in a column that was packed with layers of various test...

  1. Initiation of long, free-standing z discharges by CO2 laser gas heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, C.; Tauschwitz, A.; Penache, D.; Neff, S.; Knobloch, R.; Birkner, R.; Presura, R.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Yu, S. S.; Sharp, W. M.

    2002-01-01

    High current discharge channels can neutralize both current and space charge of very intense ion beams. Therefore, they are considered an interesting solution for final focus and beam transport in a heavy ion beam fusion reactor. At the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung accelerator facility, 50 cm long, free-standing discharge channels were created in a 60 cm diameter metallic chamber. Discharges with currents of 45 kA in 2 to 25 mbar ammonia (NH3) gas are initiated by a CO2 laser pulse along the channel axis before the capacitor bank is triggered. Resonant absorption of the laser, tuned to the v2 vibration of the ammonia molecule, causes strong gas heating. Subsequent expansion and rarefaction of the gas prepare the conditions for a stable discharge to fulfill the requirements for ion beam transport. The influence of an electric prepulse on the high current discharge was investigated. This article describes the laser-gas interaction and the discharge initiation mechanism. We found that channels are magnetohydrodynamic stable up to currents of 45 kA, measured by fast shutter and streak imaging techniques. The rarefaction of the laser heated gas is studied by means of a one-dimensional Lagrangian fluid code (CYCLOPS) and is identified as the dominant initiation mechanism of the discharge.

  2. Impact of membrane lung surface area and blood flow on extracorporeal CO2 removal during severe respiratory acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannidis, Christian; Strassmann, Stephan; Brodie, Daniel; Ritter, Philine; Larsson, Anders; Borchardt, Ralf; Windisch, Wolfram

    2017-12-01

    Veno-venous extracorporeal CO 2 removal (vv-ECCO 2 R) is increasingly being used in the setting of acute respiratory failure. Blood flow rates through the device range from 200 ml/min to more than 1500 ml/min, and the membrane surface areas range from 0.35 to 1.3 m 2 . The present study in an animal model with similar CO 2 production as an adult patient was aimed at determining the optimal membrane lung surface area and technical requirements for successful vv-ECCO 2 R. Four different membrane lungs, with varying lung surface areas of 0.4, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.3m 2 were used to perform vv-ECCO 2 R in seven anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, pigs with experimentally induced severe respiratory acidosis (pH 7.0-7.1) using a 20Fr double-lumen catheter with a sweep gas flow rate of 8 L/min. During each experiment, the blood flow was increased stepwise from 250 to 1000 ml/min. Amelioration of severe respiratory acidosis was only feasible when blood flow rates from 750 to 1000 ml/min were used with a membrane lung surface area of at least 0.8 m 2 . Maximal CO 2 elimination was 150.8 ml/min, with pH increasing from 7.01 to 7.30 (blood flow 1000 ml/min; membrane lung 1.3 m 2 ). The membrane lung with a surface of 0.4 m 2 allowed a maximum CO 2 elimination rate of 71.7 mL/min, which did not result in the normalization of pH, even with a blood flow rate of 1000 ml/min. Also of note, an increase of the surface area above 1.0 m 2 did not result in substantially higher CO 2 elimination rates. The pressure drop across the oxygenator was considerably lower (respiratory acidosis, irrespective of the surface area of the membrane lung being used. The converse was also true, low surface membrane lungs (0.4 m 2 ) were not capable of completely correcting severe respiratory acidosis across the range of blood flows used in this study.

  3. An energetic analysis of CO2 capture on a gas turbine combining flue gas recirculation and membrane separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belaissaoui, Bouchra; Cabot, Gilles; Cabot, Marie-Sophie; Willson, David; Favre, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Post-combustion Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is currently intensively investigated as a key issue for the mitigation of greenhouse gases emissions. A very large number of studies is dedicated to coal power plants. In this paper, the possibility to achieve carbon capture on a gas turbine, based on a combination of flue gas recycle and membrane separation is reported. Membrane processes are effectively known to offer attractive performances in terms of energy efficiency, as soon as concentrated and/or pressure mixtures have to be treated. Two different flow schemes have been simulated and compared: flue gas recycle with air combustion and flue gas recycle with an oxygen enriched feed mixture. The energy requirement of the different processes, expressed in GJ (thermal basis) per ton of recovered CO 2 , and the size of the membrane capture process (expressed in m 2 of membrane area) have been systematically estimated for different membrane separation performances. It is shown that an overall energy requirement down to 2.6 GJ per ton can possibly be achieved when optimal operating conditions, based on oxygen enriched air (OEA) combustion together with a highly selective membrane (CO 2 /N 2 selectivity of 200) are combined. Additional possibilities in order to minimise the energy penalty of the process are discussed. -- Highlights: ► A carbon capture process for gas turbine has been investigated for the first time, with membrane separation unit. ► Air combustion systematically induces CO 2 capture specific energy requirement far above alternative capture processes. ► Remarkably, a very low energy requirement can be achieved (down to 2.6 GJ/ton) with Oxygen Enriched Air combustion. ► Target membrane selectivities and optimal oxygen content for combustion have been identified.

  4. Construction and design of CO2-laser amplifiers with self-sustained and electron-beam-controlled gas discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, W.E.

    1975-08-01

    Following a description of the fundamentals and of the manner of functioning of CO 2 lasers, a theoretical and experimental investigation is performed to see whether the self-sustained or the non-self-sustained gas discharge is suitable for an amplifier in a CO 2 high-power laser system. The measured results show that the excitation by non-self-sustained gas discharge is more advantageous for amplifiers. The reasons are given. (GG/LH) [de

  5. Measurements of soil, surface water, and groundwater CO2 concentration variability within Earth's critical zone: low-cost, long-term, high-temporal resolution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstock, J. M.; Covington, M. D.; Williams, S. G. W.; Myre, J. M.; Rodriguez, J.

    2017-12-01

    Variability in CO2 fluxes within Earth's Critical zone occurs over a wide range of timescales. Resolving this and its drivers requires high-temporal resolution monitoring of CO2 both in the soil and aquatic environments. High-cost (> 1,000 USD) gas analyzers and data loggers present cost-barriers for investigations with limited budgets, particularly if high spatial resolution is desired. To overcome high-costs, we developed an Arduino based CO2 measuring platform (i.e. gas analyzer and data logger). The platform was deployed at multiple sites within the Critical Zone overlying the Springfield Plateau aquifer in Northwest Arkansas, USA. The CO2 gas analyzer used in this study was a relatively low-cost SenseAir K30. The analyzer's optical housing was covered by a PTFE semi-permeable membrane allowing for gas exchange between the analyzer and environment. Total approximate cost of the monitoring platform was 200 USD (2% detection limit) to 300 USD (10% detection limit) depending on the K30 model used. For testing purposes, we deployed the Arduino based platform alongside a commercial monitoring platform. CO2 concentration time series were nearly identical. Notably, CO2 cycles at the surface water site, which operated from January to April 2017, displayed a systematic increase in daily CO2 amplitude. Preliminary interpretation suggests key observation of seasonally increasing stream metabolic function. Other interpretations of observed cyclical and event-based behavior are out of the scope of the study; however, the presented method describes an accurate near-hourly characterization of CO2 variability. The new platform has been shown to be operational for several months, and we infer reliable operation for much longer deployments (> 1 year) given adequate environmental protection and power supply. Considering cost-savings, this platform is an attractive option for continuous, accurate, low-power, and low-cost CO2 monitoring for remote locations, globally.

  6. Wholesale electricity, CO2, and gas market functioning. 2012-2013 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-10-01

    The Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) monitors transactions by participants on the French wholesale electricity and gas markets since 2006 and it monitors CO 2 trading since late 2010 in cooperation with the AMF. This power is granted by Articles L. 131-2 and L. 131-3 of the Energy Code. Therefore, in the context of its monitoring mission, CRE ensures that wholesale energy market prices are consistent with the technical and economic fundamentals of these markets. In particular, CRE strives to verify that no market power is exercised in such a way that a participant abuses its situation to attain abnormal prices, notably with regard to its costs. This mission is now also part of the European Regulation on Energy Market Integrity and Transparency of 25 October 2011 (REMIT). The REMIT organises wholesale energy market monitoring, prohibits market abuse (insider trading and market manipulation), and requires market participants to disclose any inside information they hold. It entrusts market monitoring, at European level, to the Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER) in cooperation with national regulatory authorities responsible for national investigations and sanctions. The Brottes law of 15 April 2013 expressly entrusted CRE with the mission of ensuring REMIT implementation and CoRDis jurisdiction to sanction any breaches of the regulation. The energy markets are experiencing major change. The emergence of unconventional hydrocarbons in North America has profoundly changed the global balance of gas and oil production. American gas market prices dropped due to abundant supply causing a significant decline in imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) from across the Atlantic and a strong incentive to produce electricity in gas-fired plants to the detriment of coal-fired plants. This significant decline in demand for coal in the United States significantly weakened global coal prices. World energy demand is mainly driven by emerging markets, particularly

  7. High speed surface cleaning by a high repetition rated TEA-CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunemi, Akira; Hirai, Ryo; Hagiwara, Kouji; Nagasaka, Keigo; Tashiro, Hideo

    1994-01-01

    We demonstrated the feasibility of high speed cleaning of solid surfaces by the laser ablation technique using a TEA-CO 2 laser. The laser pulses with the repetition rate of 1 kHz were applied to paint, rust, moss and dirt attached on the surfaces. The attachments were effectively removed without the damage of bulk surfaces by the irradiation of line-focused sequential pulses with an energy of 300 mJ/pulse. A cleaning rate reached to 17 m 2 /hour for the case of paint removal from iron surfaces. (author)

  8. A TPD-MS study of glassy carbon surfaces oxidized by CO2 and O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILA D. LAUSEVIC

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The temperature-programmed desorption (TPD method combined with mass spectrometric (MS analysis has been applied to investigate the surface properties of carbon materials. The apparatus consisting of a temperature-programmed furnace and a quadrupole mass spectrometer was constructed in order to characterize the surface of differently treated glassy carbon samples. In this work, samples of glassy carbon exposed to air, CO2 and O2 were examined. The desorption of H2O, CO and CO2, as major products, indicated the presence of different oxide groups. The amount of these groups for all samples was calculated. It is concluded that oxidation affects the nature and the amount of the surface oxide groups and contributes to their increased stability.

  9. Comparative analysis of CO2 separation from flue gas by membrane gas absorption technology and chemical absorption technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Shuiping; Fang, Mengxiang; Zhang, Weifeng; Zhong, Weilong; Luo, Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa

    2008-01-01

    This paper firstly evaluated the CO 2 absorption performance of a membrane gas absorption system (MAS) and chemical absorption system (CAS) using the overall mass transfer coefficient (K G a V ) as a basis for comparison. MAS selected microporous polypropylene (PP) hollow fiber membrane contactors to capture CO 2 from the simulated flue gas while CAS used a randomly packed column containing stainless Pall packing. Aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA) solution was adopted in both absorbers. Experimental results show that if the fresh membranes were tested, MAS has the higher K G a V values than that of CAS. However, when all the membrane pores were completely wetted or 50% pores were plugged, CAS inversely performs better than MAS in terms of K G a V values. In addition, the economic performance of MAS and CAS was also estimated. Results indicate that if the real operational time of membrane module is reduced to less than the critical value affected by the membrane price, the CO 2 captured cost of MAS is inversely higher than that of CAS. Therefore, the current well-accepted statement that MAS is superior to CAS in any case may be somewhat arbitrary unless membrane pore-wetting and pore-plugging problems, how to reduce the membrane price and how to prolong the membrane lifetime can be solved perfectly in the future. (author)

  10. Isostructural and cage-specific replacement occurring in sII hydrate with external CO2/N2 gas and its implications for natural gas production and CO2 storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Young-ju; Park, Seongmin; Kang, Hyery; Ahn, Yun-Ho; Lim, Dongwook; Kim, Se-Joon; Lee, Jaehyoung; Lee, Joo Yong; Ahn, Taewoong; Seo, Yongwon; Lee, Huen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The structural sustainability of sII hydrate is demonstrated during the replacement. • The experimental evidence of isostructural replacement is revealed. • The cage-specific replacement in sII hydrates allows long-term CO 2 storage. • The compositions and extent of replacement are cross-checked by GC and NMR analyses. - Abstract: A replacement technique has been regarded as a promising strategy for both CH 4 exploitation from gas hydrates and CO 2 sequestration into deep-ocean reservoirs. Most research has been focused on replacement reactions that occur in sI hydrates due to their prevalence in natural gas hydrates. However, sII hydrates in nature have been also discovered in some regions, and the replacement mechanism in sII hydrates significantly differs from that in sI hydrates. In this study, we have intensively investigated the replacement reaction of sII (C 3 H 8 + CH 4 ) hydrate by externally injecting CO 2 /N 2 (50:50) gas mixture with a primary focus on powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, and gas chromatography analyses. In particular, it was firstly confirmed that there was no structural transformation during the replacement of C 3 H 8 + CH 4 hydrate with CO 2 /N 2 gas injection, indicating that sII hydrate decomposition followed by sI hydrate formation did not occur. Furthermore, the cage-specific replacement pattern of the C 3 H 8 + CH 4 hydrate revealed that CH 4 replacement with N 2 in the small cages of sII was more significant than C 3 H 8 replacement with CO 2 in the large cages of sII. The total extent of the replacement for the C 3 H 8 + CH 4 hydrate was cross-checked by NMR and GC analyses and found to be approximately 54%. Compared to the replacement for CH 4 hydrate with CO 2 /N 2 gas, the lower extent of the replacement for the C 3 H 8 + CH 4 hydrate with CO 2 /N 2 gas was attributable to the persistent presence of C 3 H 8 in the large cages and the lower content of N 2 in the feed gas. The

  11. Trends in land surface phenology and atmospheric CO2 seasonality in the Northern Hemisphere terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsamo, A.; Chen, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Northern terrestrial ecosystems have shown global warming-induced advances in start, delays in end, and thus increased lengths of growing season and gross photosynthesis in recent decades. The tradeoffs between seasonal dynamics of two opposing fluxes, CO2 uptake through photosynthesis and release through respiration, determine the influence of the terrestrial ecosystems on the atmospheric CO2 concentration and 13C/12C isotope ratio seasonality. Atmospheric CO2 and 13C/12C seasonality is controlled by vegetation phenology, but is not identical because growth will typically commence some time before and terminate some time after the net carbon exchange changes sign in spring and autumn, respectively. Here, we use 34-year satellite normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) observations to determine how changes in vegetation productivity and phenology affect both the atmospheric CO2 and 13C/12C seasonality. Differences and similarities in recent trends of CO2 and 13C/12C seasonality and vegetation phenology will be discussed. Furthermore, we use the NDVI observations, and atmospheric CO2 and 13C/12C data to show the trends and variability of the timing of peak season plant activity. Preliminary results show that the peak season plant activity of the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropical terrestrial ecosystems is shifting towards spring, largely in response to the warming-induced advance of the start of growing season. Besides, the spring-ward shift of the peak plant activity is contributing the most to the increasing peak season productivity. In other words, earlier start of growing season is highly linked to earlier arrival of peak of season and higher NDVI. Changes in the timing of peak season plant activity are expected to disrupt the synchrony of biotic interaction and exert strong biophysical feedbacks on climate by modifying the surface albedo and energy budget.

  12. A Study on the Evaluation of Real Gas vs. Ideal Gas for its Application to the CO2 Leak Flow Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hwa-Young; Lee, Jeong Ik

    2015-01-01

    The leak can cause various mechanical and thermal problems. Moreover, CO 2 also reacts with sodium by producing some solid reaction products (i.e. Na 2 CO 3 , Na 2 O, etc.), toxic gas (i.e. CO) and heat. Prior to applying the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle to the SFRs, the important safety issues that can occur in the Na-CO 2 heat exchanger should be evaluated. For this, it is essential to predict a CO 2 leak mechanism when the pressure boundary fails. The degree of sodium-CO 2 reaction is determined by several factors; a crack or rupture size, the interfacial area between sodium and CO 2 , the amount of released CO 2 , and so on. In order to simulate more reasonable and realistic CO 2 leak flow, one needs to evaluate and improve some limitations found from the previous studies. The dynamic response in the CO 2 side should be considered for varying mass flux at the nozzle exit over time. Thus, it is necessary to investigate more practical flow model to evaluate the system condition change and its consequences during the CO 2 leak. For the flow modeling, it is obvious that a real gas effect and friction force should be considered. However, due to its complexity and difficulty, it is generally assumed that CO 2 behaves as an ideal gas, and an isentropic critical flow without considering the friction force was applied for the analysis so far. In this paper, before incorporating the real gas effect and friction force to the model, gas properties are evaluated as the first step. The fluid properties of CO 2 is studied to observe how strong the real gas effect can be under SFR operating conditions. From this result, it is determined that which gas model is applicable to the CO 2 leak flow model for simulating the accident scenario in the given conditions of Na-CO 2 heat exchanger. The ideal gas law and the isentropic critical flow model are generally applied to predict the state and the flow rate of CO 2 leak in the Na-CO 2 heat exchanger previously. However, to simulate a

  13. Using 13X, LiX, and LiPdAgX zeolites for CO_2 capture from post-combustion flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.J.; Zhu, M.; Fu, Y.; Huang, Y.X.; Tao, Z.C.; Li, W.L.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We synthesized a novel adsorbent named LiPdAgX zeolite. • CCS was proposed from microstructure, selectivity and separation factor of zeolite. • The static and flowing adsorption using CO_2/N_2 mixture on X zeolites were studied. • LiPdAgX zeolite required less energy for regeneration compared to 13X and MEA. • LiPdAgX zeolite can effectively capture CO_2 from post-combustion flue gas. - Abstract: This work investigates the application of X zeolites for capturing CO_2 from post-combustion flue gas. LiX and LiPdAgX zeolites were prepared by an ion-exchange method using 13X zeolite. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that all samples exhibited characteristic peaks of X zeolites, where the peak intensities increased in the order: LiPdAgX > LiX > 13X. The enhanced intensity of the diffraction peaks can increase the activity of the X zeolites and improve their adsorption performance. Scanning electron microscopy imaging showed that the intergranular pore canals of LiPdAgX zeolite were more concentrated. Pore structure analysis indicated that addition of Li"+ to the 13X zeolite enhanced the specific surface areas and pore volumes of the zeolites. Among the 13X, LiX, and LiPdAgX zeolites, LiPdAgX showed the highest CO_2/N_2selectivity, where the difference in the CO_2 adsorption capacity was due to differences in the number of adsorption sites and thermal conductivities of the X zeolites. The CO_2 breakthrough time increased in succession for the 13X, LiX, and LiPdAgX zeolites. The CO_2/N_2 separation factor of the LiPdAgX zeolite was twice that of the 13X zeolite at a CO_2 concentration of 20 vol.%. The temperature variations during the adsorption process were used to determine the regeneration energy and adsorption capacity of the X zeolites. LiPdAgX zeolite required less energy for regeneration than 13X zeolite and MEA. After regeneration, the separation factor of LiPdAgX zeolite remained at 6.38 for 20 vol.% CO_2 in the flue gas. Therefore, Li

  14. Inferring CO2 Fluxes from OCO-2 for Assimilation into Land Surface Models to Calculate Net Ecosystem Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, R.; Radov, A.; Halem, M.; Nearing, G. S.

    2016-12-01

    Investigations of mid to high latitude atmospheric CO2 show a growing seasonal amplitude. Land surface models poorly predict net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and are unable to substantiate these sporadic observations. An investigation of how the biosphere has reacted to changes in atmospheric CO2 is essential to our understanding of potential climate-vegetation feedbacks. A global, seasonal investigation of CO2-flux is then necessary in order to assimilate into land surface models for improving the prediction of annual NEE. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) of DOE collects CO2-flux measurements (in addition to CO2 concentration and various other meteorological quantities) at several towers located around the globe at half hour temporal frequencies. CO2-fluxes are calculated via the eddy covariance technique, which utilizes CO2-densities and wind velocities to calculate CO2-fluxes. The global coverage of CO2 concentrations as provided by the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) provide satellite-derived CO2 concentrations all over the globe. A framework relating the satellite-inferred CO2 concentrations collocated with the ground-based ARM as well as Ameriflux stations would enable calculations of CO2-fluxes far from the station sites around the entire globe. Regression techniques utilizing deep-learning neural networks may provide such a framework. Additionally, meteorological reanalysis allows for the replacement of the ARM multivariable meteorological variables needed to infer the CO2-fluxes. We present the results of inferring CO2-fluxes from OCO-2 CO2 concentrations for a two year period, Sept. 2014- Sept. 2016 at the ARM station located near Oklahoma City. A feed-forward neural network (FFNN) is used to infer relationships between the following data sets: F([ARM CO2-density], [ARM Meteorological Data]) = [ARM CO2-Flux] F([OCO-2 CO2-density],[ARM Meteorological Data]) = [ARM CO2-Flux] F([ARM CO2-density],[Meteorological Reanalysis]) = [ARM CO2-Flux

  15. Experimental study on CO2 frosting and clogging in a brazed plate heat exchanger for natural gas liquefaction process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jitan; He, Tianbiao; Ju, Yonglin

    2018-04-01

    The plate-fin heat exchanger (PFHE), which has been widely used in natural gas liquefaction (LNG) industry at present, has some disadvantages such as being sensitive to the impurities in the feed gas, such as water, CO2 and H2S. Compared with the PFHE, the brazed plate heat exchanger (BPHE), which has been applied in some boil off gas (BOG) recycling LNG plants of small to middle size, has simpler inherent structure and higher impurity tolerance. In this study the BPHE is suggested to replace the PFHE to simplify or even omit the massive CO2 purification equipment for the LNG process. A set of experimental apparatus is designed and constructed to investigate the influence of the CO2 concentration of the natural gas on solid precipitation inside a typical BPHE meanly by considering the flow resistance throughout the LNG process. The results show that the maximum allowable CO2 concentration of the natural gas liquefied in the BPHE is two orders of magnitude higher than that in the PFHE under the same condition. In addition, the solid-liquid separation for the CO2 impurity is studied and the reasonable separating temperature is obtained. The solid CO2 should be separated below 135 K under the pressure of 3 MPa.

  16. Condensing gas boilers for energy efficiency and reduction of CO2 and NOx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewardson, E.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of the study are: 1) to demonstrate the effectiveness of condensing gas boiler hot water system in reducing energy costs and pollution; 2) to illustrate the importance of marketing this technology to uninformed end users. The development of condensing boilers in the European Community, the materials used, product designs, key performance measures, and the types of applications suited to these products are outlined. Using calculations from a body of work produced by the Chartered Institute of Building Service Engineers in Britain, it is demonstrated how seasonal efficiency differs from combustion efficiency, and how the added capital cost for these boilers may be recovered within an acceptable commercial pay back period from fuel cost savings. Applying current NO x and CO 2 information from a body of the CE Technical Committees, the author show how these products can reduce pollution levels both from CO 2 and NO x . An example of marketing these products to a largely uninformed end user customer market is cited. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs. (orig.)

  17. Eddy covariance observations of surface leakage during shallow subsurface CO2 releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Hilley, George E.; Fischer, Marc L.; Pan, Lehua; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Dobeck, Laura; Spangler, Lee

    2009-06-01

    We tested the ability of eddy covariance (EC) to detect, locate, and quantify surface CO2 flux leakage signals within a background ecosystem. For 10 days starting on 9 July 2007, and for 7 days starting on 3 August 2007, 0.1 (Release 1) and 0.3 (Release 2) t CO2 d-1, respectively, were released from a horizontal well ˜100 m in length and ˜2.5 m in depth located in an agricultural field in Bozeman, Montana. An EC station measured net CO2 flux (Fc) from 8 June 2006 to 4 September 2006 (mean and standard deviation = -12.4 and 28.1 g m-2 d-1, respectively) and from 28 May 2007 to 4 September 2007 (mean and standard deviation = -12.0 and 28.1 g m-2 d-1, respectively). The Release 2 leakage signal was visible in the Fc time series, whereas the Release 1 signal was difficult to detect within variability of ecosystem fluxes. To improve detection ability, we calculated residual fluxes (Fcr) by subtracting fluxes corresponding to a model for net ecosystem exchange from Fc. Fcr had reduced variability and lacked the negative bias seen in corresponding Fc distributions. Plotting the upper 90th percentile Fcr versus time enhanced the Release 2 leakage signal. However, values measured during Release 1 fell within the variability assumed to be related to unmodeled natural processes. Fcr measurements and corresponding footprint functions were inverted using a least squares approach to infer the spatial distribution of surface CO2 fluxes during Release 2. When combined with flux source area evaluation, inversion results roughly located the CO2 leak, while resolution was insufficient to quantify leakage rate.

  18. Measurements of Gasification Characteristics of Coal and Char in CO2-Rich Gas Flow by TG-DTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification properties of pulverized coal and char in CO2-rich gas flow were investigated by using gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA with changing O2%, heating temperature gradient, and flow rate of CO2-rich gases provided. Together with TG-DTA, flue gas generated from the heated coal, such as CO, CO2, and hydrocarbons (HCs, was analyzed simultaneously on the heating process. The optimum O2% in CO2-rich gas for combustion and gasification of coal or char was discussed by analyzing flue gas with changing O2 from 0 to 5%. The experimental results indicate that O2% has an especially large effect on carbon oxidation at temperature less than 1100°C, and lower O2 concentration promotes gasification reaction by producing CO gas over 1100°C in temperature. The TG-DTA results with gas analyses have presented basic reference data that show the effects of O2 concentration and heating rate on coal physical and chemical behaviors for the expected technologies on coal gasification in CO2-rich gas and oxygen combustion and underground coal gasification.

  19. Pentiptycene-based polyurethane with enhanced mechanical properties and CO2-plasticization resistance for thin film gas separation membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pournaghshband Isfahani, Ali; Sadeghi, Morteza; Wakimoto, Kazuki; Shrestha, Binod Babu; Bagheri, Rouhollah; Sivaniah, Easan; Ghalei, Behnam

    2018-04-30

    Development of thin film composite (TFC) membranes offers an opportunity to achieve the permeability/selectivity requirements for optimum CO2 separation performance. However, the durability and performance of thin film gas separation membranes are mostly challenged by weak mechanical properties and high CO2 plasticization. Here, we designed new polyurethane (PU) structures with bulky aromatic chain extenders that afford preferred mechanical properties for ultra-thin film formation. An improvement of about 1500% in Young's modulus and 600% in hardness was observed for pentiptycene-based PUs compared to typical PU membranes. Single (CO2, H2, CH4, and N2) and mixed (CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4) gas permeability tests were performed on the PU membranes. The resulting TFC membranes showed a high CO2 permeance up to 1400 GPU (10-6 cm3(STP) cm-2s-1 cmHg-1) and the CO2/N2 and CO2/H2 selectivities of about 22 and 2.1, respectively. The enhanced mechanical properties of pentiptycene-based PUs results in high performance thin membranes with the similar selectivity of the bulk polymer. The thin film membranes prepared from pentiptycene-based PUs also showed a two-fold enhanced plasticization resistance compared to non-pentiptycene containing PU membranes.

  20. Process development of coke oven gas to methanol integrated with CO2 recycle for satisfactory techno-economic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Qun; Gong, Min-Hui; Huang, Yi; Feng, Jie; Hao, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Ji-Long; Li, Wen-Ying

    2016-01-01

    A novel process designed for producing methanol from coke oven gas (COG) integrated with CO 2 recycle is proposed. In the new system, oxygen replacing air is blown to combustor for assisting combustion of COG and unreacted syngas from methanol synthesis process. The combustion process provides to the heat required in the coking process. The rest COG reacts with the recycled CO 2 separated from the exhaust gas to produce syngas for methanol synthesis. The unreacted syngas from methanol synthesis process with low grade energy level is recycled to the combustor. In the whole methanol production process, there is no additional process with respect to supplementary carbon, and the carbon resource only comes from the internal CO 2 recycle in the plant. With the aid of techno-economic analysis, the new system presents the energy or exergy saving by 5–10%, the CO 2 emission reduction by about 70% and the internal rate of return increase by 5–8%, respectively, in comparison with the traditional COG to methanol process. - Highlights: • A process for producing methanol from COG integrated with CO 2 recycle is first proposed. • CO 2 from the exhaust gas is recycled to supply carbon for producing syngas. • New integrated plant simplifies the production process with 5–8% IRR increase. • New system presents about 5–10% energy saving, about 70% CO 2 emission reduction.

  1. Separation of glycosidic catiomers by TWIM-MS using CO2 as a drift gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataglion, Giovana A; Souza, Gustavo Henrique Martins Ferreira; Heerdt, Gabriel; Morgon, Nelson H; Dutra, José Diogo Lisboa; Freire, Ricardo Oliveira; Eberlin, Marcos N; Tata, Alessandra

    2015-02-01

    Traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry (TWIM-MS) is shown to be able to separate and characterize several isomeric forms of diterpene glycosides stevioside (Stv) and rebaudioside A (RebA) that are cationized by Na(+) and K(+) at different sites. Determination and characterization of these coexisting isomeric species, herein termed catiomers, arising from cationization at different and highly competitive coordinating sites, is particularly challenging for glycosides. To achieve this goal, the advantage of using CO2 as a more massive and polarizable drift gas, over N2, was demonstrated. Post-TWIM-MS/MS experiments were used to confirm the separation. Optimization of the possible geometries and cross-sectional calculations for mobility peak assignments were also performed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Particle-in-cell modeling of streamer branching in CO2 gas

    KAUST Repository

    Levko, Dmitry

    2017-07-07

    The mechanism of streamer branching remains one of the unsolved problems of low-temperature plasma physics. The understanding of this phenomenon requires very high-fidelity models that include, for instance, the kinetic description of electrons. In this paper, we use a two-dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisional model to study the branching of anode-directed streamers propagating through short cathode-anode gap filled with atmospheric-pressure CO2 gas. We observe three key phenomena leading to the streamer branching at the considered conditions: flattening of the streamer head, the decrease of the streamer head thickness, and the generation at the streamer head of electrons having the energy larger than 50 eV. For the conditions of our studies, the non-homogeneous distribution of such energetic electrons at the streamer head is probably the primary mechanism responsible for the streamer branching.

  3. Experimental and theoretical analysis of defocused CO2 laser microchanneling on PMMA for enhanced surface finish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Shashi; Kumar, Subrata

    2017-02-01

    The poor surface finish of CO2 laser-micromachined microchannel walls is a major limitation of its utilization despite several key advantages, like low fabrication cost and low time consumption. Defocused CO2 laser beam machining is an effective solution for fabricating smooth microchannel walls on polymer and glass substrates. In this research work, the CO2 laser microchanneling process on PMMA has been analyzed at different beam defocus positions. Defocused processing has been investigated both theoretically and experimentally, and the depth of focus and beam diameter have been determined experimentally. The effect of beam defocusing on the microchannel width, depth, surface roughness, heat affected zone and microchannel profile were examined. A previously developed analytical model for microchannel depth prediction has been improved by incorporating the threshold energy density factor. A semi-analytical model for predicting the microchannel width at different defocus positions has been developed. A semi-empirical model has also been developed for predicting microchannel widths at different defocusing conditions for lower depth values. The developed models were compared and verified by performing actual experiments. Multi-objective optimization was performed to select the best optimum set of input parameters for achieving the desired surface roughness.

  4. On the feasibility of borehole-to-surface electromagnetics for monitoring CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G. A.; Zhdanov, M. S.; Hibbs, A. D.; Black, N.; Gribenko, A. V.; Cuma, M.; Agundes, A.; Eiskamp, G.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects rely on storing supercritical CO2 in deep saline reservoirs where buoyancy forces drive the injected CO2 upward into the aquifer until a seal is reached. The permanence of the sequestration depends entirely on the long-term geological integrity of the seal. Active geophysical monitoring of the sequestration is critical for informing CO2 monitoring, accounting and verification (MVA) decisions. During injection, there exists a correlation between the changes in CO2 and water saturations in a saline reservoir. Dissolved salts react with the CO2 to precipitate out as carbonates, thereby generally decreasing the electrical resistivity. As a result, there is a correlation between the change in fluid saturation and measured electromagnetic (EM) fields. The challenge is to design an EM survey appropriate for monitoring large, deep reservoirs. Borehole-to-surface electromagnetic (BSEM) surveys consist of borehole-deployed galvanic transmitters and a surface-based array of electric and magnetic field sensors. During a recent field trial, it was demonstrated that BSEM could successfully identify the oil-water contact in the water-injection zone of a carbonate reservoir. We review the BSEM methodology, and perform full-field BSEM modeling. The 3D resistivity models used in this study are based on dynamic reservoir simulations of CO2 injection into a saline reservoir. Although the electric field response at the earth's surface is low, we demonstrate that it can be accurately measured and processed with novel methods of noise cancellation and sufficient stacking over the period of monitoring to increase the signal-to-noise ratio for subsequent seismic- and well-constrained 3D inversion. For long-term or permanent monitoring, we discuss the deployment of novel electric field sensors with chemically inert electrodes that couple to earth in a capacitive manner. This capacitive coupling is a purely EM phenomenon, which, to first order, has

  5. Quantitative measurement of carbon isotopic composition in CO2 gas reservoir by Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiajia; Li, Rongxi; Zhao, Bangsheng; Guo, Hui; Zhang, Shuan; Cheng, Jinghua; Wu, Xiaoli

    2018-04-01

    The use of Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy technology for quantitatively determining gas carbon isotope composition is presented. In this study, 12CO2 and 13CO2 were mixed with N2 at various molar fraction ratios to obtain Raman quantification factors (F12CO2 and F13CO2), which provide a theoretical basis for calculating the δ13C value. And the corresponding values were 0.523 (0 Laser Raman analysis were carried out on natural CO2 gas from Shengli Oil-field at room temperature under different pressures. The δ13C values obtained by Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy technology and Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) technology are in good agreement with each other, and the relative errors range of δ13C values is 1.232%-6.964%. This research provides a fundamental analysis tool for determining gas carbon isotope composition (δ13C values) quantitatively by using Micro-Laser Raman spectroscopy. Experiment of results demonstrates that this method has the potential for obtaining δ13C values in natural CO2 gas reservoirs.

  6. CO2-Binding Organic Liquids Gas Capture with Polarity-Swing-Assisted Regeneration Full Technology Feasibility Study B1 - Solvent-based Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldebrant, David J

    2014-08-31

    PNNL, Fluor Corporation and Queens University (Kingston, ON) successfully completed a three year comprehensive study of the CO2BOL water-lean solvent platform with Polarity Swing Assisted Regeneration (PSAR). This study encompassed solvent synthesis, characterization, environmental toxicology, physical, thermodynamic and kinetic property measurements, Aspen Plus™ modeling and bench-scale testing of a candidate CO2BOL solvent molecule. Key Program Findings The key program findings are summarized as follows: • PSAR favorably reduced stripper duties and reboiler temperatures with little/no impact to absorption column • >90% CO2 capture was achievable at reasonable liquid-gas ratios in the absorber • High rich solvent viscosities (up to 600 cP) were successfully demonstrated in the bench-scale system. However, the projected impacts of high viscosity to capital cost and operational limits compromised the other levelized cost of electricity benefits. • Low thermal conductivity of organics significantly increased the required cross exchanger surface area, and potentially other heat exchange surfaces. • CO2BOL had low evaporative losses during bench-scale testing • There was no evidence of foaming during bench scale testing • Current CO2BOL formulation costs project to be $35/kg • Ecotoxicity (Water Daphnia) was comparable between CO2BOL and MEA (169.47 versus 103.63 mg/L) • Full dehydration of the flue gas was determined to not be economically feasible. However, modest refrigeration (13 MW for the 550 MW reference system) was determined to be potentially economically feasible, and still produce a water-lean condition for the CO2BOLs (5 wt% steady-state water loading). • CO2BOLs testing with 5 wt% water loading did not compromise anhydrous performance behavior, and showed actual enhancement of CO2 capture performance. • Mass transfer of CO2BOLs was not greatly impeded by viscosity • Facile separation of antisolvent from lean CO2BOL was

  7. FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEM MODELING FOR BED ACTIVE CARBON RE-GENERATION PROCESS (CO2 GAS FACTORY CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Febriana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bed active carbon is one of the most important materials that had great impact in determining level of impurities in production of CO2 gas. In this particular factory case, there is unavailability of standard duration time of heating and cooling and steam flow rate for the re-generation process of bed active carbon. The paper discusses the fuzzy inference system for modeling of re-generation process of bed active carbon to find the optimum setting parameter. The fuzzy inference system was build using real historical daily processing data. After validation process, surface plot analysis was performed to find the optimum setting. The result of re-generation parameter setting is 9-10 hours of heating process, 4.66-5.32 hours of cooling process, and 1500-2500 kg/hr of steam flow rate.

  8. Correlation between Surface Roughness Characteristics in CO2 Laser Cutting of Mild Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Radovanović

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CO2 laser oxygen cutting of mild steel is widely used industrial application. Cut surface quality is a very important characteristic of laser cutting that ensures an advantage over other contour cutting processes. In this paper mathematical models for estimating characteristics of surface quality such as average surface roughness and ten-point mean roughness in CO2 laser cutting of mild steel based on laser cutting parameters were developed. Empirical models were developed using artificial neural networks and experimental data collected. Taguchi’s orthogonal array was implemented for experimental plan. From the analysis of the developed mathematical models it was observed that functional dependence between laser cutting parameters, their interactions and surface roughness characteristics is complex and non-linear. It was also observed that there exist region of minimal average surface roughness to ten-point mean roughness ratio. The relationship between average surface roughness and ten-point mean roughness was found to be nonlinear and can be expressed with a second degree polynomial.

  9. Can Producing Oil Store Carbon? Greenhouse Gas Footprint of CO2EOR, Offshore North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R Jamie; Haszeldine, R Stuart

    2015-05-05

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2EOR) is a proven and available technology used to produce incremental oil from depleted fields while permanently storing large tonnages of injected CO2. Although this technology has been used successfully onshore in North America and Europe, there are currently no CO2EOR projects in the United Kingdom. Here, we examine whether offshore CO2EOR can store more CO2 than onshore projects traditionally have and whether CO2 storage can offset additional emissions produced through offshore operations and incremental oil production. Using a high-level Life Cycle system approach, we find that the largest contribution to offshore emissions is from flaring or venting of reproduced CH4 and CO2. These can already be greatly reduced by regulation. If CO2 injection is continued after oil production has been optimized, then offshore CO2EOR has the potential to be carbon negative--even when emissions from refining, transport, and combustion of produced crude oil are included. The carbon intensity of oil produced can be just 0.056-0.062 tCO2e/bbl if flaring/venting is reduced by regulation. This compares against conventional Saudi oil 0.040 tCO2e/bbl or mined shale oil >0.300 tCO2e/bbl.

  10. Decontamination of surfaces by blasting with crystals of H2O and CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, C.E.; Parfitt, J.E.; Patton, B.D.

    1995-02-01

    A major mission of the US Department of Energy during the 1990s is site and environmental cleanup. In pursuit of this mission, numerous remediation projects are under way and many others are being planned at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In this report, tests using two proposed methods for decontaminating surfaces one using water ice crystals [Crystalline Ice Blast (CIB)], the other using dry ice crystals (CO 2 Cleanblast trademark) -- are described. Both methods are adaptations of the commonly used sand blasting technology. The two methods tested differ from sand blasting in that the particles are not particularly abrasive and do not accumulate as particles in the wastes. They differ from each other in that the CO 2 particles sublime during and after impact and the ice particles melt. Thus, the two demonstrations provide important information about two strong candidate decontamination methodologies. Each process was tested at ORNL using contaminated lead bricks and contaminated tools and equipment. Demonstrations with the prototype Crystalline Ice Blast and the CO 2 Cleanblast systems showed that paint, grease, and oil can be removed from metal, plastic, asphalt, and concrete surfaces. Furthermore, removal of contamination from lead bricks was highly effective. Both processes were found to be less effective, under the conditions tested, with contaminated tools and equipment that had chemically bonded contamination or contamination located in crevices since neither technology abrades the substrates or penetrates deeply into crevices to remove particulates. Some process improvements are recommended

  11. A multi-decade record of high-quality fCO2 data in version 3 of the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Dorothee; Landa, Camilla S.; Pfeil, Benjamin; Metzl, Nicolas; O’Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Smith, Karl; Cosca, Cathy; Harasawa, Sumiko; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Jones, Stephen; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Steinhoff, Tobias; Sweeney, Colm; Schuster, Ute; Takahashi, Taro; Tilbrook, Bronte; Wada, Chisato; Wanninkhof, Rik; Alin, Simone R.; Balestrini, Carlos F.; Barbero, Leticia; Bates, Nicholas; Bianchi, Alejandro A.; Bonou, Frédéric; Boutin, Jacqueline; Bozec, Yann; Burger, Eugene F.; Cai, Wei-Jun; Castle, Robert D.; Chen, Liqi; Chierici, Melissa; Currie, Kim; Evans, Wiley; Featherstone, Charles; Feely, Richard; Fransson, Agneta; Goyet, Catherine; Greenwood, Naomi; Gregor, Luke; Hankin, Steven C.; Hardman-Mountford, Nick J.; Harlay, Jérôme; Hauck, Judith; Hoppema, Mario; Humphreys, Matthew P.; Hunt, Christopher W.; Huss, Betty; Ibánhez, J. Severino P.; Johannessen, Truls; Keeling, Ralph F.; Kitidis, Vassilis; Körtzinger, Arne; Kozyr, Alex; Krasakopoulou, Evangelia; Kuwata, Akira; Landschützer, Peter; Lauvset, Siv K.; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lo Monaco, Claire; Manke, Ansley; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Merlivat, Liliane; Millero, Frank J.; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Murata, Akihiko; Newberger, Timothy; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Paterson, Kristina; Pearce, David; Pierrot, Denis; Robbins, Lisa L.; Saito, Shu; Salisbury, Joe; Schlitzer, Reiner; Schneider, Bernd; Schweitzer, Roland; Sieger, Rainer; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Sullivan, Kevin F.; Sutherland, Stewart C.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Tadokoro, Kazuaki; Telszewski, Maciej; Tuma, Matthias; van Heuven, Steven M. A. C.; Vandemark, Douglas; Ward, Brian; Watson, Andrew J.; Xu, Suqing

    2016-01-01

    The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) is a synthesis of quality-controlled f CO2 (fugacity of carbon dioxide) values for the global surface oceans and coastal seas with regular updates. Version 3 of SOCAT has 14.7 million f CO2 values from 3646 data sets covering the years 1957 to 2014. This latest version has an additional 4.6 million f CO2 values relative to version 2 and extends the record from 2011 to 2014. Version 3 also significantly increases the data availability for 2005 to 2013. SOCAT has an average of approximately 1.2 million surface water f CO2 values per year for the years 2006 to 2012. Quality and documentation of the data has improved. A new feature is the data set quality control (QC) flag of E for data from alternative sensors and platforms. The accuracy of surface water f CO2 has been defined for all data set QC flags. Automated range checking has been carried out for all data sets during their upload into SOCAT. The upgrade of the interactive Data Set Viewer (previously known as the Cruise Data Viewer) allows better interrogation of the SOCAT data collection and rapid creation of high-quality figures for scientific presentations. Automated data upload has been launched for version 4 and will enable more frequent SOCAT releases in the future. High-profile scientific applications of SOCAT include quantification of the ocean sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide and its long-term variation, detection of ocean acidification, as well as evaluation of coupled-climate and ocean-only biogeochemical models. Users of SOCAT data products are urged to acknowledge the contribution of data providers, as stated in the SOCAT Fair Data Use Statement. This ESSD (Earth System Science Data) “living data” publication documents the methods and data sets used for the assembly of this new version of the SOCAT data collection and compares these with those used for earlier versions of the data collection (Pfeil et al., 2013; Sabine et al., 2013; Bakker et al., 2014). 

  12. Adaptation response surfaces for managing wheat under perturbed climate and CO2 in a Mediterranean environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz-Ramos, M.; Ferrise, Roberto; Rodríguez, A

    2018-01-01

    type were analysed by constructing response surfaces, which we termed, in accordance with their specific purpose, adaptation response surfaces (ARSs). These were created to assess the effect of adaptations through a range of plausible P, T and [CO2] perturbations. The results indicated that impacts....... However, a single sI was sufficient to develop a high adaptation potential, including options mainly based on spring wheat, current cycle duration and early sowing date. Depending on local environment (e.g. soil type), many of these adaptations can maintain current yield levels under moderate changes in T...

  13. Predicting the ultimate potential of natural gas SOFC power cycles with CO2 capture - Part B: Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanari, Stefano; Mastropasqua, Luca; Gazzani, Matteo; Chiesa, Paolo; Romano, Matteo C.

    2016-09-01

    An important advantage of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) as future systems for large scale power generation is the possibility of being efficiently integrated with processes for CO2 capture. Focusing on natural gas power generation, Part A of this work assessed the performances of advanced pressurised and atmospheric plant configurations (SOFC + GT and SOFC + ST, with fuel cell integration within a gas turbine or a steam turbine cycle) without CO2 separation. This Part B paper investigates such kind of power cycles when applied to CO2 capture, proposing two ultra-high efficiency plant configurations based on advanced intermediate-temperature SOFCs with internal reforming and low temperature CO2 separation process. The power plants are simulated at the 100 MW scale with a set of realistic assumptions about FC performances, main components and auxiliaries, and show the capability of exceeding 70% LHV efficiency with high CO2 capture (above 80%) and a low specific primary energy consumption for the CO2 avoided (1.1-2.4 MJ kg-1). Detailed results are presented in terms of energy and material balances, and a sensitivity analysis of plant performance is developed vs. FC voltage and fuel utilisation to investigate possible long-term improvements. Options for further improvement of the CO2 capture efficiency are also addressed.

  14. Acidic sweep gas with carbonic anhydrase coated hollow fiber membranes synergistically accelerates CO2 removal from blood

    OpenAIRE

    Arazawa, D. T.; Kimmel, J. D.; Finn, M.C.; Federspiel, W. J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) is well established as a therapy for patients suffering from acute respiratory failure. Development of next generation low blood flow (< 500 mL/min) ECCO2R devices necessitates more efficient gas exchange devices. Since over 90% of blood CO2 is transported as bicarbonate (HCO3−), we previously reported development of a carbonic anhydrase (CA) immobilized bioactive hollow fiber membrane (HFM) which significantly accelerates CO2 removal ...

  15. Controls of evapotranspiration and CO2 fluxes from scots pine by surface conductance and abiotic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianshan Zha

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (E and CO2 flux (Fc in the growing season of an unusual dry year were measured continuously over a Scots pine forest in eastern Finland, by eddy covariance techniques. The aims were to gain an understanding of their biological and environmental control processes. As a result, there were obvious diurnal and seasonal changes in E, Fc , surface conductance (gc , and decoupling coefficient (Ω, showing similar trends to those in radiation (PAR and vapour pressure deficit (δ. The maximum mean daily values (24-h average for E, Fc , gc , and Ω were 1.78 mmol m(-2 s(-1, -11.18 µmol m(-2 s(-1, 6.27 mm s(-1, and 0.31, respectively, with seasonal averages of 0.71 mmol m(-2 s(-1, -4.61 µmol m(-2 s(-1, 3.3 mm s(-1, and 0.16. E and Fc were controlled by combined biological and environmental variables. There was curvilinear dependence of E on gc and Fc on gc . Among the environmental variables, PAR was the most important factor having a positive linear relationship to E and curvilinear relationship to Fc , while vapour pressure deficit was the most important environmental factor affecting gc . Water use efficiency was slightly higher in the dry season, with mean monthly values ranging from 6.67 to 7.48 μmol CO2 (mmol H2O(-1 and a seasonal average of 7.06 μmol CO2 (μmol H2O(-1. Low Ω and its close positive relationship with gc indicate that evapotranspiration was sensitive to surface conductance. Mid summer drought reduced surface conductance and decoupling coefficient, suggesting a more biotic control of evapotranspiration and a physiological acclimation to dry air. Surface conductance remained low and constant under dry condition, supporting that a constant value of surface constant can be used for modelling transpiration under drought condition.

  16. Short-term effects of CO2 leakage on the soil bacterial community in a simulated gas leakage scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Zhang, Wangyuan; Zhang, Shaoliang; Zhu, Qianlin; Feng, Qiyan; Chen, Fu

    2017-01-01

    The technology of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture and storage (CCS) has provided a new option for mitigating global anthropogenic emissions with unique advantages. However, the potential risk of gas leakage from CO 2 sequestration and utilization processes has attracted considerable attention. Moreover, leakage might threaten soil ecosystems and thus cannot be ignored. In this study, a simulation experiment of leakage from CO 2 geological storage was designed to investigate the short-term effects of different CO 2 leakage concentration (from 400 g m -2 day -1 to 2,000 g m -2 day -1 ) on soil bacterial communities. A shunt device and adjustable flow meter were used to control the amount of CO 2 injected into the soil. Comparisons were made between soil physicochemical properties, soil enzyme activities, and microbial community diversity before and after injecting different CO 2 concentrations. Increasing CO 2 concentration decreased the soil pH, and the largest variation ranged from 8.15 to 7.29 ( p soil CO 2 concentration increased. The dominant phylum in the soil samples was Proteobacteria , whose proportion rose rapidly from 28.85% to 67.93%. In addition, the proportion of Acidobacteria decreased from 19.64% to 9.29% ( p soil ecosystems.

  17. Carbon-14 immobilization via the CO2-Ba(OH)2 hydrate gas-solid reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, G.L.

    1981-08-01

    For the treatment of an air-based off-gas stream, the use of packed beds of Ba(OH) 2 .8H 2 O flakes to remove CO 2 has been demonstrated. However, the operating conditions must be maintained between certain upper and lower limits with respect to the partial pressure of water. If the water vapor pressure in the gas is less than the dissociation vapor pressure of Ba(OH) 2 .8H 2 O, the bed will deactivate. If the vapor pressure is considerably greater, pressure drop problems will increase with increaseing humidity as the particles curl and degrade. Results have indicted that when operated in the proper regime, the bulk of the increase in pressure drop results from the conversion of Ba(OH) 2 .8H 2 O to BaCO 3 and not from the hydration of the commercial Ba(OH) 2 .8H 2 O (i.e., Ba(OH) 2 .7.50H 2 O) to Ba(OH) 2 .8H 2 O

  18. Gas-fired power plants: Investment timing, operating flexibility and CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleten, Stein-Erik; Naesaekkaelae, Erkka

    2010-01-01

    We analyze investments in gas-fired power plants based on stochastic electricity and natural gas prices. A simple but realistic two-factor model is used for price processes, enabling analysis of the value of operating flexibility, the opportunity to abandon the capital equipment, as well as finding thresholds for energy prices for which it is optimal to enter into the investment. We develop a method to compute upper and lower bounds on plant values and investment threshold levels. Our case study uses representative power plant investment and operations data, and historical forward prices from well-functioning energy markets. We find that when the decision to build is considered, the abandonment option does not have significant value, whereas the operating flexibility and time-to-build option have significant effect on the building threshold. Furthermore, the joint value of the operating flexibility and the abandonment option is much smaller than the sum of their separate values, because both are options to shut down. The effects of emission costs on the value of installing CO 2 capture technology are also analyzed.

  19. Possibilities of a metal surface radioactive decontamination using a pulsed CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milijanic, Scepan S.; Stjepanovic, Natasa N.; Trtica, Milan S.

    2000-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the laser radioactive decontamination of metal surfaces. It offers advantages over conventional methods: improved safety, reduction of secondary waste, reduced waste volume, acceptable cost. A main mechanism of cleaning in by lasers is ablation. In this work a pulsed TEA CO2 laser was used for surface cleaning, primarily in order to demonstrate that the ablation from metal surfaces with this laser is possible even with relatively low pulse energies, and secondary, that it could be competitive with other lasers because of much higher energy efficiencies. The laser pulse contains two parts, one strong and shot peak at the beginning, followed with a tail. The beam was focused onto a contaminated surface with a KBr lens. The surface was contaminated with 137Cs. Three different metals were used: stainless steel, copper and aluminum. The evaporated material was pumped out in air atmosphere and transferred to a filter. Presence of the activity on the filter was proved by a germanium detector-multichannel analyzer. Activity levels were measured by a GM counter. Calculated decontamination factors as well as collection factors have shown that ablation takes place with relatively high efficiency of decontamination. This investigation suggests that decontamination using the CO2 laser should be seriously considered.

  20. Effect of plasma-induced surface charging on catalytic processes: application to CO2 activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Kristof M.; Huygh, Stijn; Bogaerts, Annemie; Neyts, Erik C.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the nature and effect of the multitude of plasma-surface interactions in plasma catalysis is a crucial requirement for further process development and improvement. A particularly intriguing and rather unique property of a plasma-catalytic setup is the ability of the plasma to modify the electronic structure, and hence chemical properties, of the catalyst through charging, i.e. the absorption of excess electrons. In this work, we develop a quantum chemical model based on density functional theory to study excess negative surface charges in a heterogeneous catalyst exposed to a plasma. This method is specifically applied to investigate plasma-catalytic CO2 activation on supported M/Al2O3 (M = Ti, Ni, Cu) single atom catalysts. We find that (1) the presence of a negative surface charge dramatically improves the reductive power of the catalyst, strongly promoting the splitting of CO2 to CO and oxygen, and (2) the relative activity of the investigated transition metals is also changed upon charging, suggesting that controlled surface charging is a powerful additional parameter to tune catalyst activity and selectivity. These results strongly point to plasma-induced surface charging of the catalyst as an important factor contributing to the plasma-catalyst synergistic effects frequently reported for plasma catalysis.

  1. Pilot-scale multistage membrane process for the separation of CO2 from LNG-fired flue gas

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Seung Hak

    2013-06-01

    In this study, a multistage pilot-scale membrane plant was constructed and operated for the separation of CO2 from Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)-fired boiler flue gas of 1000 Nm3/day. The target purity and recovery of CO2 were 99 vol.% and 90%, respectively. For this purpose, asymmetric polyethersulfone (PES) hollow fibers membranes has been developed in our previous work and has evaluated the effects of operating pressure and feed concentration of CO2 on separation performance. The operating and permeation data obtained were also analyzed in relation with the numerical simulation data using countercurrent flow model. Based on these results, in this study, four-staged membrane process including dehumidification process has been designed, installed, and operated to demonstrate the feasibility of multistage membrane systems for removing CO2 from flue gases. The operation results using this plant were compared to the numerical simulation results on multistage membrane process. The experimental results matched well with the numerical simulation data. The concentration and the recovery of CO2 in the permeate stream of final stage were ranged from 95-99 vol.% and 70-95%, respectively, depending on the operating conditions. This study demonstrated the applicability of the membrane-based pilot plant for CO2 recovery from flue gas. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND RESPONSE SURFACE MODELING OF PI/PES-ZEOLITE 4A MIXED MATRIX MEMBRANE FOR CO2 SEPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. KUSWORO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of preparation of polyimide/polyethersulfone (PI/PES blending-zeolite mixed matrix membrane through the manipulation of membrane production variables such as polymer concentration, blending composition and zeolite loading. Combination of central composite design and response surface methodology were applied to determine the main effect and interaction effects of these variables on membrane separation performance. The quadratic models between each response and the independent parameters were developed and the response surface models were tested with analysis of variance (ANOVA. In this study, PI/ (PES–zeolite 4A mixed matrix membranes were casted using dry/wet phase inversion technique. The separation performance of mixed matrix membrane had been tested using pure gases such as CO2 and CH4. The results showed that zeolite loading was the most significant variable that influenced the CO2/CH4 selectivity among three variables and the experimental results were in good agreement with those predicted by the proposed regression models. The gas separation performance of the membrane was relatively higher as compare to polymeric membrane. Therefore, combination of central composite design and response surface methodology can be used to prepare optimal condition for mixed matrix membrane fabrication. The incorporation of 20 wt% zeolite 4A into 25 wt% of PI/PES matrix had resulted in a high separation performance of membrane material.

  3. Optimization of CO2 adsorption capacity and cyclical adsorption/desorption on tetraethylenepentamine-supported surface-modified hydrotalcite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouchprasitchai, Nutthavich; Pintuyothin, Nuthapol; Pongstabodee, Sangobtip

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate CO 2 adsorption capacity of tetraethylenepentamine-functionalized basic-modified calcined hydrotalcite (TEPA/b-cHT) sorbents at atmospheric pressure formed under varying TEPA loading levels, temperatures, sorbent weight to total gaseous flow rate (W/F) ratios and CO 2 concentrations in the influent gas. The TEPA/b-cHT sorbents were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) analysis of nitrogen (N 2 ) adsorption/desorption and carbon-hydrogen-nitrogen (CHN) elemental analysis. Moreover, a full 2 4 factorial design with three central points at a 95% confidence interval was used to screen important factor(s) on the CO 2 adsorption capacity. It revealed that 85.0% variation in the capacity came from the influence of four main factors and the 15.0% one was from their interactions. A face-centered central composite design response surface method (FCCCD-RSM) was then employed to optimize the condition, the maximal capacity of 5.5-6.1mmol/g was achieved when operating with a TEPA loading level of 39%-49% (W/W), temperature of 76-90°C, W/F ratio of 1.7-2.60(g·sec)/cm 3 and CO 2 concentration of 27%-41% (V/V). The model fitted sufficiently the experimental data with an error range of ±1.5%. From cyclical adsorption/desorption and selectivity at the optimal condition, the 40%TEPA/b-cHT still expressed its effective performance after eight cycles. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. The French wholesale electricity, natural gas and CO2 markets in 2010-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-10-01

    . With the resumption of demand, wholesale prices on the principal European markets were above the low points reached in 2010. The average spot price in the North zone was euro 17.6 /MWh in 2010, corresponding to a rise of 40% compared to 2009. This rise continued in 2011, with the spot price reaching levels close to euro 25 /MWh. This fourth CRE report on performance of the French energy markets incorporates an analysis of the CO 2 markets for the first time. Since the entry into effect of the banking and financial regulation law in October 2010, CRE has been charged with monitoring transactions carried out by suppliers, traders and producers of electricity and natural gas on greenhouse gas emission quotas, and on the term contracts and financial instruments for which they constitute the underlying. This monitoring, which is a transposition of the recommendations of the Prada report, is coordinated with the French financial regulator AMF (Autorite des Marches Financiers), which monitors French spot and futures exchanges in CO 2 . Cooperation between CRE and the AMF was formalised in a memorandum of understanding signed and made public in December 2010. As provided by the banking and financial regulation law, this agreement covers the electricity, gas and CO 2 markets and allows to implement a regulation adapted to both the financialisation of the energy markets and their specificities. Confidence in the European carbon market was affected at the beginning of 2010 by quota thefts recorded in some European countries. The European Commission has since acted to strengthen the security of the registries, one of the key links in the carbon market infrastructure. European carbon prices have varied in a volatile fashion in a context of an excess supply of quotas compared to actual emissions in both 2010 and 2009. The prospect of going to phase III in 2013, when quotas will become paid in large part - completely for the electricity sector - is supporting prices. Recently, prices

  5. Reduction of energy cost and CO2 emission for the furnace using energy recovered from waste tail-gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jou, Chih-Ju G.; Wu, Chung-Rung; Lee, Chien-Li

    2010-01-01

    In this research, the waste tail gas emitted from petrochemical processes, e.g. catalytic reforming unit, catalytic cracking unit and residue desulfurization unit, was recovered and reused as a replacement of natural gas (NG). On-site experimental results show that both the flame length and orange-yellowish brightness decrease with more proportion of waste gas fuel added to the natural gas, and that the adiabatic temperature of the mixed fuel is greater than 1800 o C. A complete replacement of natural gas by the recovered waste gas fuel will save 5.8 x 10 6 m 3 of natural gas consumption, and 3.5 x 10 4 tons of CO 2 emission annually. In addition, the reduction of residual O 2 concentration in flue gases from 4% to 3% will save 1.1 x 10 6 m 3 of natural gas consumption, reduce 43.0% of NO x emission, and 1.3 x 10 3 tons of CO 2 emission annually. Thus, from the viewpoint of the overall economics and sustainable energy policy, recovering the waste tail gas energy as an independent fuel source to replace natural gas is of great importance for saving energy, reducing CO 2 emission reduction, and lowering environmental impact.

  6. Distribution of the partial pressure of CO2 in surface water (pCO2w) between Japan and the Hawaiian Islands: pCO2w-SST relationship in the winter and summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hisayuki Y.; Ishii, Masao; Matsueda, Hidekazu; Kawano, Takeshi; Murata, Akihiko; Takasugi, Yoshio

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of measurements of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in surface seawater (pCO 2 w) between Japan and the Hawaiian Islands in winter and summer, we examined the relationship between pCO 2 w and the sea surface temperature (SST) in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG). In winter, pCO 2 w correlated well with the SST (0.14-0.24%/deg C), suggesting a monotonous change in the carbonate system. However, in summer, five different pCO 2 w-SST relationships were found in the NPSG (including the Kuroshio Extension) due to changes in the relative contribution of ocean dynamics (upwelling, vertical mixing and advection), biological activity in the absence (very low level) of macro-nutrients and thermodynamics. The increase in pCO 2 w corresponding to a unit increase in the SST from January to July was low (<2.5%/deg C) west (leeward side) of the Hawaiian Islands (19-22 deg N, 158-168 deg W) and in the Kuroshio Extension (33-35 deg N, 140-165deg E), and high (3%/deg C) south of the Kuroshio Extension (25-30 deg N, 180-165 deg W) and the Hawaiian Islands (15-19 deg N, 157-162 deg W). This suggested that the drawdown of dissolved inorganic carbon was affected by the enhanced biological activity due to upwelling events associated with eddies and/or the transport of dissolved nutrients from gyre edges to the interior

  7. Desain Pabrik Sodium Karbonat Dari CO2 Flue Gas Pabrik Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fadlan Minallah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dengan semakin meningkatnya kebutuhan energi di Indonesia selama beberapa tahunn terakhir ini, semakin juga meningkatkan bertambahnya gas rumah kaca yang dihasilkan. Gas rumah kaca (GRK yang terdiri dari CO2, CH4, N2O, HCFC, dan CFC serta uap air (H2O, dimana yang menjadi sumber utama terjadinya pemasan global. Terutama pada pabrik yang menghasilkan GRK itu sendiri selama proses produksi, seperti pabrik semen 15.107.267 ton, pabrik produksi kapur 3.688.147 ton, dan pabrik kaca/gelas 170.000 ton. Prospek soda abu (nama pasar sodium karbonat di Indonesia masih dalam kondisi baik karena kebutuhan komoditas ini semakin bertambah dengan rate 3,4% pertahun untuk industri kapur, industri gelas, dan industri keramik. Selama ini kebutuhan soda abu di Indonesia masih dipenuhi dengan adanya impor dari negara lain, karena belum adanya produsen natrium karbonat di dalam negeri yang menjadikan komoditas ini sebagai produk utama dari pabriknya. Pabrik ini direncanakan akan didirikan di Kabupaten Tuban, JawaTimur dengan estimasi waktu mulai produksi pada tahun 2017. Penentuan lokasi pabrik berdasarkan pada sumber bahan baku. Hal ini karena bahan baku yang digunakan adalah flue gas dari pabrik semen. Untuk menemuhi kebutuhan akan sodium karbonat kapasitas produk sodium karbonat ini sebesar 86,37 ton/jam. Pabrik beroperasi selama 24 jam per hari dengan hari kerja 330 hari per tahun. Proses pembuatan soda abu dengan proses karbonasi terdiri dari empat unit proses, yaitu dust removal unit, absorption unit, crystalization unit, dan soda ash unit. Dari analisa perhitungan ekonomi didapat Investasi Rp79.285.526.850, IRR sebesar 26%, POT selama 4,39 tahun, dan NPV positif 15 tahun sebesar Rp589.068.911.634. Umur dari pabrik ini diperkirakan selama 15 tahun dengan masa periode pembangunannya selama 2 tahun di mana operasi pabrik ini 330 hari/tahun.

  8. An attemp to use a pulsed CO2 laser for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAN S. TRTICA

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in laser radioactive decontamination of metal surfaces. It offers advantages over conventional methods: improved safety, reduction of secondary waste, reduced waste volume, acceptable cost. The main mechanism of cleaning by lasers is ablation. A pulsed TEA CO2 laser was used in this work for surface cleaning in order to show that ablation of metal surfaces is possible even at relatively low pulse energies, and to suggest that it could be competitive with other lasers because of much higher energy efficiencies. A brief theoretical analysis was made before the experiments. The laser beam was focused using a KBr-lens onto a surface contaminated with 137Cs (b-, t1/2 = 30.17 y. Three different metals were used: stainless steel, copper and aluminium. The ablated material was pumped out in an air atmosphere and transferred to a filter. The presence of activity on the filter was shown by a germanium detector-multichannel analyzer. The activity levels were measured by a GM counter. The calculated decontamination factors and collection factors showed that ablation occurs with a relatively high efficiency of decontamination. This investigation suggests that decontamination using a CO2 laser should be seriously considered.

  9. Engineering Cu surfaces for the electrocatalytic conversion of CO2: Controlling selectivity toward oxygenates and hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Christopher; Hatsukade, Toru; Kim, Youn-Geun; Vailionis, Arturas; Baricuatro, Jack H.; Higgins, Drew C.; Nitopi, Stephanie A.; Soriaga, Manuel P.; Jaramillo, Thomas F.

    2017-01-01

    In this study we control the surface structure of Cu thin-film catalysts to probe the relationship between active sites and catalytic activity for the electroreduction of CO2 to fuels and chemicals. Here, we report physical vapor deposition of Cu thin films on large-format (∼6 cm2) single-crystal substrates, and confirm epitaxial growth in the , , and orientations using X-ray pole figures. To understand the relationship between the bulk and surface structures, in situ electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy was conducted on Cu(100), (111), and (751) thin films. The studies revealed that Cu(100) and (111) have surface adlattices that are identical to the bulk structure, and that Cu(751) has a heterogeneous kinked surface with (110) terraces that is closely related to the bulk structure. Electrochemical CO2 reduction testing showed that whereas both Cu(100) and (751) thin films are more active and selective for C–C coupling than Cu(111), Cu(751) is the most selective for >2e− oxygenate formation at low overpotentials. Our results demonstrate that epitaxy can be used to grow single-crystal analogous materials as large-format electrodes that provide insights on controlling electrocatalytic activity and selectivity for this reaction. PMID:28533377

  10. Techno-economic process design of a commercial-scale amine-based CO_2 capture system for natural gas combined cycle power plant with exhaust gas recirculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Usman; Agbonghae, Elvis O.; Hughes, Kevin J.; Ingham, Derek B.; Ma, Lin; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • EGR is a way to enhance the CO_2 content with reduction in design variables and cost. • Both process and economic analyses are essential to reach the optimum design variables. • Commercial-scale NGCC with and without EGR is presented. • Process design of the amine-based CO_2 capture plant is evaluated for with and without EGR. - Abstract: Post-combustion CO_2 capture systems are gaining more importance as a means of reducing escalating greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, for natural gas-fired power generation systems, exhaust gas recirculation is a method of enhancing the CO_2 concentration in the lean flue gas. The present study reports the design and scale-up of four different cases of an amine-based CO_2 capture system at 90% capture rate with 30 wt.% aqueous solution of MEA. The design results are reported for a natural gas-fired combined cycle system with a gross power output of 650 MW_e without EGR and with EGR at 20%, 35% and 50% EGR percentage. A combined process and economic analysis is implemented to identify the optimum designs for the different amine-based CO_2 capture plants. For an amine-based CO_2 capture plant with a natural gas-fired combined cycle without EGR, an optimum liquid to gas ratio of 0.96 is estimated. Incorporating EGR at 20%, 35% and 50%, results in optimum liquid to gas ratios of 1.22, 1.46 and 1.90, respectively. These results suggest that a natural gas-fired power plant with exhaust gas recirculation will result in lower penalties in terms of the energy consumption and costs incurred on the amine-based CO_2 capture plant.

  11. Variations in pCO2 during summer in the surface water of an unproductive lake in northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, A.; Aaberg, J.; Jansson, M.

    2007-01-01

    Unproductive lakes are generally supersaturated with carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and emit CO 2 to the atmosphere continuously during ice-free periods. However, temporal variation of the partial pressure of CO 2 (pCO 2 ) and thus of CO 2 evasion to atmosphere is poorly documented. We therefore carried out temporally high-resolution (every 6 h) measurements of the pCO 2 using an automated logger system in the surface water of a subarctic, unproductive, lake in the birch forest belt. The study period was June-September 2004. We found that the pCO 2 showed large seasonal variation, but low daily variation. The seasonal variation was likely mainly caused by variations in input and mineralization of allochthonous organic matter. Stratification depth probably also influenced pCO 2 of the surface water by controlling the volume in which mineralization of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) occurred. In lakes, with large variations in pCO 2 , as in our study lake a high (weekly) sampling intensity is recommended for obtaining accurate estimates of the evasion of CO 2

  12. The potential of near-surface geophysical methods in a hierarchical monitoring approach for the detection of shallow CO2 seeps at geological storage sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, U.; Schuetze, C.; Dietrich, P.

    2013-12-01

    application of FTIR spectroscopy in combination with soil gas surveys and geophysical investigations results in a comprehensive site characterization, including atmospheric and near-surface CO2 distribution, as well as subsurface structural features. We observed a correlation of higher CO2 concentration and flux rates at the meso-scale that coincides with distinct geophysical anomalies. Here, we found prominent SP anomalies and zones of lower resistivity in the geoelectrical images compared to undisturbed regions nearby. This presentation will discuss the results we obtained and illustrate the influence of CO2 on electrical parameters measured under field conditions in relation to environmental parameters.

  13. Low-Computation Strategies for Extracting CO2 Emission Trends from Surface-Level Mixing Ratio Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shusterman, A.; Kim, J.; Lieschke, K.; Newman, C.; Cohen, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    Global momentum is building for drastic, regulated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions over the coming decade. With this increasing regulation comes a clear need for increasingly sophisticated monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) strategies capable of enforcing and optimizing emissions-related policy, particularly as it applies to urban areas. Remote sensing and/or activity-based emission inventories can offer MRV insights for entire sectors or regions, but are not yet sophisticated enough to resolve unexpected trends in specific emitters. Urban surface monitors can offer the desired proximity to individual greenhouse gas sources, but due to the densely-packed nature of typical urban landscapes, surface observations are rarely representative of a single source. Most previous efforts to decompose these complex signals into their contributing emission processes have involved inverse atmospheric modeling techniques, which are computationally intensive and believed to depend heavily on poorly understood a priori estimates of error covariance. Here we present a number of transparent, low-computation approaches for extracting source-specific emissions estimates from signals with a variety of nearfield influences. Using observations from the first several years of the BErkeley Atmospheric CO2 Observation Network (BEACO2N), we demonstrate how to exploit strategic pairings of monitoring "nodes," anomalous wind conditions, and well-understood temporal variations to hone in on specific CO2 sources of interest. When evaluated against conventional, activity-based bottom-up emission inventories, these strategies are seen to generate quantitatively rigorous emission estimates. With continued application as the BEACO2N data set grows in time and space, these approaches offer a promising avenue for optimizing greenhouse gas mitigation strategies into the future.

  14. Conversion of actual flue gas CO 2 via cycloaddition to propylene oxide catalyzed by a single-site, recyclable zirconium catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Kelly, Michael J.

    2017-06-12

    A reusable zirconium-based catalyst for the cycloaddition of CO2 to propylene oxide (PO) was prepared by the surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC) methodology. Accordingly, well-defined amounts of the ZrCl4·(OEt2)2 precursor were grafted on the surface of silica dehydroxylated at 700°C (SiO2-700) and at 200°C (SiO2-200) in order to afford surface coordination compounds with different podality and chemical environment. The identity of the surface complexes was thoroughly investigated by FT-IR, elemental microanalysis and solid state NMR and applied as a recoverable and reusable heterogeneous catalyst for the title reaction using pure CO2 and flue gas samples from a cement factory. The observed catalytic activity for the isolated zirconium complexes is rationalized by means of systematic DFT calculations.

  15. Conversion of actual flue gas CO 2 via cycloaddition to propylene oxide catalyzed by a single-site, recyclable zirconium catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Kelly, Michael J.; Barthel, Alexander; Maheu, Clement; Sodpiban, Ounjit; Dega, Frank-Blondel; Vummaleti, Sai V.C.; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Pelletier, Jeremie; Cavallo, Luigi; D'Elia, Valerio; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    A reusable zirconium-based catalyst for the cycloaddition of CO2 to propylene oxide (PO) was prepared by the surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC) methodology. Accordingly, well-defined amounts of the ZrCl4·(OEt2)2 precursor were grafted on the surface of silica dehydroxylated at 700°C (SiO2-700) and at 200°C (SiO2-200) in order to afford surface coordination compounds with different podality and chemical environment. The identity of the surface complexes was thoroughly investigated by FT-IR, elemental microanalysis and solid state NMR and applied as a recoverable and reusable heterogeneous catalyst for the title reaction using pure CO2 and flue gas samples from a cement factory. The observed catalytic activity for the isolated zirconium complexes is rationalized by means of systematic DFT calculations.

  16. Stabilization of the composition of the gas medium of a repetitively pulsed CO2 laser by means of hopcalite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, V. Iu.; Drokov, G. F.; Kuzmenko, V. A.; Mezhevov, V. S.; Pigulskaia, V. V.

    1986-05-01

    Results of experiments in which hopcalite was used to stabilize the composition of the gas medium of repetitively pulsed and monopulse CO2 lasers are reported. In particular, the mechanisms of the decrease in the catalyst activity with time under conditions for catalyst regeneration are determined. It is shown that the use of hopcalite has made it possible to achieve long-term operation of a high-power repetitively pulsed CO2 laser without changing the gas mixture in a closed circuit. Some details related to the use of hopcalite are discussed.

  17. Dynamic simulation and optimization of an industrial-scale absorption tower for CO2 capturing from ethane gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Pouladi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article considers a process technology based on absorption for CO2 capturing of ethane gas in phase 9 and 10 of south pars in Iran using diethanolamine (DEA as absorbent solvent. This CO2 capture plant was designed to achieve 85% CO2 recovery and obtain 19 ppm the CO2 concentration in the outlet of absorber. ASPEN–HYSYS software was used for the dynamic simulation of a commercial-scale CO2 capture plant and amine Pkg equation was chosen from the fluid property package for calculating the thermodynamic properties of the process. A static approach for optimization was used to evaluate the optimum conditions. This research revealed that pressure variation does not have any considerable changes in the absorption process, while both amine inlet temperature and volumetric flow rate increment enhance the absorption tower efficiency. The effect of temperature was very significant as shown in the dynamic study plots. The optimum condition for CO2 absorption from a stream of ethane gas with molar flow rate of 2118 kg mol h−1 was obtained 75 m3  h−1 of amine at 53 °C and 24 bar. This optimized condition is acceptable from economical, safe as well as feasible point of view.

  18. A technical, economic, and environmental assessment of amine-based CO2 capture technology for power plant greenhouse gas control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Anand B; Rubin, Edward S

    2002-10-15

    Capture and sequestration of CO2 from fossil fuel power plants is gaining widespread interest as a potential method of controlling greenhouse gas emissions. Performance and cost models of an amine (MEA)-based CO2 absorption system for postcombustion flue gas applications have been developed and integrated with an existing power plant modeling framework that includes multipollutant control technologies for other regulated emissions. The integrated model has been applied to study the feasibility and cost of carbon capture and sequestration at both new and existing coal-burning power plants. The cost of carbon avoidance was shown to depend strongly on assumptions about the reference plant design, details of the CO2 capture system design, interactions with other pollution control systems, and method of CO2 storage. The CO2 avoidance cost for retrofit systems was found to be generally higher than for new plants, mainly because of the higher energy penalty resulting from less efficient heat integration as well as site-specific difficulties typically encountered in retrofit applications. For all cases, a small reduction in CO2 capture cost was afforded by the SO2 emission trading credits generated by amine-based capture systems. Efforts are underway to model a broader suite of carbon capture and sequestration technologies for more comprehensive assessments in the context of multipollutant environmental management.

  19. Functioning of the wholesale electricity, CO2 and natural gas markets - 2013-2014 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteil, Anne; Casadei, Cecile

    2014-11-01

    The Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) monitors transactions by participants on the French wholesale electricity and gas markets since 2006 and it monitors CO 2 trading since late 2010 in cooperation with the AMF. This power is granted by Articles L. 131-2 and L. 131-3 of the Energy Code. Therefore, in the context of its monitoring mission, CRE ensures that wholesale energy market prices are consistent with the technical and economic fundamentals of these markets. In particular, CRE strives to verify that no market power is exercised in such a way that a participant abuses its situation to attain abnormal prices, notably with regard to its costs. This mission is now also part of the European Regulation on Energy Market Integrity and Transparency of 25 October 2011 (REMIT). The REMIT organises wholesale energy market monitoring, prohibits market abuse (insider trading and market manipulation), and requires market participants to disclose any inside information they hold. It entrusts market monitoring, at European level, to the Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER) in cooperation with national regulatory authorities responsible for national investigations and sanctions. The French law of 15 April 2013 on the transition towards green growth expressly entrusted CRE with the mission of ensuring REMIT implementation and CoRDiS jurisdiction to sanction any breaches of the regulation. The present report reviews the development of wholesale markets over the course of 2013 and the first half of 2014. It also presents detailed completed or ongoing analyses related to market participants' behaviour or to market events. The difficulties encountered by energy producers were confirmed during 2013 and the first half of 2014, in particular for electricity producers. The costs of production for coal-fired power stations remained particularly low, due especially to a continued drop in the coal prices and despite a slight increase in the CO 2 prices. Production

  20. Design and analysis of an axial bypass compressor blade in a supercritical CO2 gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Takao; Muto, Yasushi; Aritomi, Masanori; Tsuzuki, Nobuyoshi; Kikura, Hiroshige

    2010-01-01

    A supercritical carbon dioxide gas turbine can generate power at a high cycle thermal efficiency, even at modest temperatures of 500-550degC. Consequently, a more reliable and economically advantageous power generation system is achieved by coupling with a Na-cooled fast reactor. This paper mainly describes the bypass compressor (a key component) design and thermal hydraulic analysis using CFD (with FLUENT code). Fluid conditions of the bypass compressor are determined by the cycle calculation of this system. Aerodynamic design was conducted using the loss model described by Cohen et al., which enables the use of several stages while providing total adiabatic efficiency of 21 and 87%, respectively. Blade shapes were prepared based on flow angles and chord length obtained for the aerodynamic design. In the CFD analysis, the calculated value of the mass flow rate for each stage was adjusted to that of the design. The value of the design outlet pressure was reached at stage No. 16, which is fewer stages than that for design, No. 21. The difference between these stage numbers is attributed to the three-dimensional effect in design. If these effects are eliminated, then the design calculation yields an almost identical number of stages. Therefore, it was concluded that the existing design method is applicable to the supercritical CO 2 bypass compressor. Furthermore, CFD analysis appears to be an effective aerodynamic design tool, but these conclusions should be verified experimentally. (author)

  1. Assessment of gas cooled fast reactor with indirect supercritical CO2 cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejzlar, P.; Driscoll, M. J.; Dostal, V.; Dumaz, P.; Poullennec, G.; Alpy, N.

    2006-01-01

    Various indirect power cycle options for a helium cooled Gas cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) with particular focus on a supercritical CO 2 (SCO 2 ) indirect cycle are investigated as an alternative to a helium cooled direct cycle GFR. The Balance Of Plant (BOP) options include helium-nitrogen Brayton cycle, supercritical water Rankine cycle, and SCO 2 recompression Brayton power cycle in three versions: (1) basic design with turbine inlet temperature of 550 .deg. C, (2) advanced design with turbine inlet temperature of 650 .deg. C and (3) advanced design with the same turbine inlet temperature and reduced compressor inlet temperature. The indirect SCO 2 recompression cycle is found attractive since in addition to easier BOP maintenance it allows significant reduction of core outlet temperature, making design of the primary system easier while achieving very attractive efficiencies comparable to or slightly lower than, the efficiency of the reference GFR direct cycle design. In addition, the indirect cycle arrangement allows significant reduction of the GFR 'proximate-containment' and the BOP for the SCO 2 cycle is very compact. Both these factors will lead to reduced capital cost

  2. Application of optimal design methodologies in retrofitting natural gas combined cycle power plants with CO_2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Ming; Aziz, Farah; Li, Baohong; Perry, Simon; Zhang, Nan; Bulatov, Igor; Smith, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new approach is proposed for retrofitting NGCC power plants with CO2 capture. • HTI techniques are developed for improving heat recovery in NGCC power plants. • EGR techniques are developed to increase the process overall energy efficiency. • The proposed methods are efficient for practical application. - Abstract: Around 21% of the world’s power production is based on natural gas. Energy production is considered to be the significant sources of carbon dioxide (CO_2) emissions. This has a significant effect on the global warming. Improving power plant efficiency and adding a CO_2 capture unit into power plants, have been suggested to be a promising countermeasure against global warming. This paper presents a new insight to the application of energy efficient technologies in retrofitting natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants with CO_2 capture. High fidelity models of a 420 MW NGCC power plant and a CO_2 capture plant with CO_2 compression train have been built and integrated for 90% capture level. These models have been then validated by comparisons with practical operating data and literature results. The novelty of the paper is to propose optimal retrofitting strategies to minimize the efficiency penalty caused by integrating carbon capture units into the power plant, including (1) implementing heat transfer intensification techniques to increase energy saving in the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) of the power plant; (2) extracting suitable steam from the HRSG to supply the heat required by the capture process, thus on external heat is purchased; (3) employing exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to increase the overall energy efficiency of the integrated process, which can benefit both power plant (e.g. increasing power plant efficiency) and capture process (e.g. reducing heat demands). Compared with the base case without using any integrating and retrofitting strategies, the optimal solution based on the proposed approaches

  3. High-quality laser cutting of stainless steel in inert gas atmosphere by ytterbium fibre and CO2 lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golyshev, A A; Malikov, A G; Orishich, A M; Shulyat'ev, V B

    2014-01-01

    Processes of cutting stainless steel by ytterbium fibre and CO 2 lasers have been experimentally compared. The cut surface roughnesses for 3- and 5-mm-thick stainless steel sheets are determined. The absorption coefficient of laser radiation during cutting is measured. It is established that the power absorbed by metal during cutting by the CO 2 laser exceeds that for the ytterbium laser (provided that the cutting speed remains the same). The fact that the maximum cutting speed of the CO 2 laser is lower than that of the ytterbium fibre laser is explained. (laser technologies)

  4. Hydroquinone and Quinone-Grafted Porous Carbons for Highly Selective CO2 Capture from Flue Gases and Natural Gas Upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Krishna, Rajamani; Yang, Jiangfeng; Deng, Shuguang

    2015-08-04

    Hydroquinone and quinone functional groups were grafted onto a hierarchical porous carbon framework via the Friedel-Crafts reaction to develop more efficient adsorbents for the selective capture and removal of carbon dioxide from flue gases and natural gas. The oxygen-doped porous carbons were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. CO2, CH4, and N2 adsorption isotherms were measured and correlated with the Langmuir model. An ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) selectivity for the CO2/N2 separation of 26.5 (298 K, 1 atm) was obtained on the hydroquinone-grafted carbon, which is 58.7% higher than that of the pristine porous carbon, and a CO2/CH4 selectivity value of 4.6 (298 K, 1 atm) was obtained on the quinone-grafted carbon (OAC-2), which represents a 28.4% improvement over the pristine porous carbon. The highest CO2 adsorption capacity on the oxygen-doped carbon adsorbents is 3.46 mmol g(-1) at 298 K and 1 atm. In addition, transient breakthrough simulations for CO2/CH4/N2 mixture separation were conducted to demonstrate the good separation performance of the oxygen-doped carbons in fixed bed adsorbers. Combining excellent adsorption separation properties and low heats of adsorption, the oxygen-doped carbons developed in this work appear to be very promising for flue gas treatment and natural gas upgrading.

  5. Investigation of H2S and CO2 Removal from Gas Streams Using Hollow Fiber Membrane Gas–liquid Contactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Mirfendereski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical absorption of H2S and CO2 from CH4 was carried out in a polypropylene porous asymmetric hollow fiber membrane contactor (HFMC. A 0.5 mol L–1 aqueous solution of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA was used as chemical absorbent solution. Effects of gas flow rate, liquid flow rate, H2S concentration and CO2 concentration on the H2S outlet concentrations and CO2 removal percentage were investigated. The results showed that the removal of H2S with aqueous solution of MDEA was very high and indicated almost total removal of H2S. Experimental results also indicated that the membrane contactor was very efficient in the removal of trace H2S at high gas/ liquid flow ratio. The removal of H2S was almost complete with a recovery of more than 96 %. Using feed gas mixtures containing 5000 ppm H2S with CO2 concentrations in the range of 4–12 vol.%, the outlet H2S concentration of less than 1.0 ppm was attained with less than 4.0 vol.% of CO2 permeated and absorbed.

  6. Functional response of a near-surface soil microbial community to a simulated underground CO2 storage leak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Sergio E; Holben, William E

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of leaks from geologic carbon sequestration, also known as carbon capture and storage, is key to developing effective strategies for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions management and mitigation of potential negative effects. Here, we provide the first report on the potential effects of leaks from carbon capture and storage sites on microbial functional groups in surface and near-surface soils. Using a simulated subsurface CO2 storage leak scenario, we demonstrate how CO2 flow upward through the soil column altered both the abundance (DNA) and activity (mRNA) of microbial functional groups mediating carbon and nitrogen transformations. These microbial responses were found to be seasonally dependent and correlated to shifts in atmospheric conditions. While both DNA and mRNA levels were affected by elevated CO2, they did not react equally, suggesting two separate mechanisms for soil microbial community response to high CO2 levels. The results did not always agree with previous studies on elevated atmospheric (rather than subsurface) CO2 using FACE (Free-Air CO2 Enrichment) systems, suggesting that microbial community response to CO2 seepage from the subsurface might differ from its response to atmospheric CO2 increases.

  7. Experimental study and thermodynamic modeling of CO2 gas hydrate formation in presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Mohsen; Haghtalab, Ali; Fakhroueian, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanofluids enhance heat and mass transfer and affect on kinetic and thermodynamics. • The ZnO nanoparticles in liquid affect on kinetics and P-T curve of CO 2 hydrate. • ZnO nanoparticles enhance the growth rate and gas storage in CO 2 hydrate. • A thermodynamic modeling of CO 2 hydrate proposed in the presence of nanoparticles. • Water activity in ZnO + nanofluid was affected by enhancement of the CO 2 solubility. - Abstract: The effect of synthesized zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles was investigated on the kinetic and thermodynamic equilibrium conditions of CO 2 hydrate formation. The amount of the gas consumption was measured and compared for the four sample fluids: pure water, aqueous solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), water-based ZnO-nanofluid and water-based ZnO-nanofluid in the presence of SDS (0.001 mass fraction). The time of hydrate growth decreased and the amount of the storage gas enhanced in the presence of nanoparticles. Moreover, the nanoparticles size effect besides the CO 2 solubility enhancement in ZnO-nanofluid led to the reduction of water activity, so that the equilibrium curve of hydrate formation was shifted to higher pressures. A new correlation for Henry’s law constant was obtained using CO 2 -solubility data in ZnO-nanofluid. Finally using this correlation, the water activity was calculated through the Chen–Guo approach to propose a thermodynamic method for prediction of the equilibrium hydrate formation conditions in the presence of the nanoparticles.

  8. Mitigating CO2 Leakage by Immobilizing CO2 into Solid Reaction Products: 13th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, GHGT 2016. 14 November 2016 through 18 November 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasch, L.J.; Wollenweber, J.; Neele, F.; Fleury, M.

    2017-01-01

    In the unlikely case of CO2 leakage from a storage reservoir, it is desirable to close the leak efficiently and permanently. This could be done by injecting a reactive solution into the leak path, thereby immobilizing migrating CO2 by consuming the gas and forming solid reactants. With regard to

  9. Response of potato gas exchange and productivity to phosphorus deficiency and CO2 enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The degree to which crops respond to atmospheric carbon dioxide enrichment (CO2) may be influenced by their nutrition level. While the majority of CO2 and plant nutrition studies focus on nitrogen, phosphorus (P) is also required in relatively high amounts for important crops such as potato. To de...

  10. DFT study of the reactions of Mo and Mo with CO2 in gas phase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    understanding the mechanism of second-row metal reacting with CO2. The minimum energy ... et al.18 performed an IR study on the reaction of laser- ablated Mo atom .... indicate that the weak electrostatic interaction between. Mo. + and CO2 ...

  11. Demonstration of CO2 capture for flue gas of a glass factory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linders, M.J.G.; Huizinga, A.; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2012-01-01

    In the project "Connecting CO2 the next step - Carbon Capture and Use", two pilot demonstrations with a post-combustion CO2 capture setup of TNO were carried out at Ardagh Glass (Moerdijk) and Zeeland Refinery (Vlissingen). This article describes the demonstration at Ardagh, but the demonstration at

  12. 222Rn and 14CO2 concentrations in the surface layer of the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Chudy, M.; Sivo, A.; Richtarikova, M.; Boehm, R.; Polaskova, A.; Vojtyla, P.; Bosa, I.; Hola, O.

    2002-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of the Δ 14 C in the atmospheric near-ground CO 2 has been realized in Bratislava and Zlkovce, situated near the nuclear power plant Jaslovske Bohunice. Until 1993, the monthly mean Δ 14 C values showed a high variability. The annual means of Δ 14 C were about 30 per mille higher at Zlkovce than in highly industrialised Bratislava. An important change in the behaviour of the 14 C data has occurred since 1993. The records from both stations show the similar course, mainly due to the fact that there do not occur deep winter minima in Bratislava. This behaviour corresponds to the lower values of the total fossil fuel CO 2 emissions in the years after 1993 when compared to the previous years. At present, both sets of data show that the 14 C concentration is about 10% above the natural level. Since 1987 also the 222 Rn concentration in the surface layer of the atmosphere has been measured in Bratislava. These measurements provided an extensive set of the 222 Rn data characteristic for the inland environment with high level of atmospheric pollution. The seasonal and daily variations of the 222 Rn concentration were observed. The investigation of the relation between the monthly mean diurnal courses of the 222 Rn concentration and the atmospheric stability proved a high correlation between them. The 222 Rn data were used to interpret the anomalous Δ 14 C values in the surface layer of the atmosphere. (author)

  13. LIBS Sensor for Sub-surface CO2 Leak Detection in Carbon Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinesh JAIN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring carbon sequestration poses numerous challenges to the sensor community. For example, the subsurface environment is notoriously harsh, with large potential mechanical, thermal, and chemical stresses, making long-term stability and survival a challenge to any potential in situ monitoring method. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been demonstrated as a promising technology for chemical monitoring of harsh environments and hard to reach places. LIBS has a real- time monitoring capability and can be used for the elemental and isotopic analysis of solid, liquid, and gas samples. The flexibility of the probe design and the use of fiber- optics has made LIBS particularly suited for remote measurements. The paper focuses on developing a LIBS instrument for downhole high-pressure, high-temperature brine experiments, where CO2 leakage could result in changes in the trace mineral composition of an aquifer. The progress in fabricating a compact, robust, and simple LIBS sensor for widespread subsurface leak detection is presented.

  14. Abundances of isotopologues and calibration of CO2 greenhouse gas measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Tans

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a method to calculate the fractional distribution of CO2 across all of its component isotopologues based on measured δ13C and δ18O values. The fractional distribution can be used with known total CO2 to calculate the amount of substance fraction (mole fraction of each component isotopologue in air individually. The technique is applicable to any molecule where isotopologue-specific values are desired. We used it with a new CO2 calibration system to account for isotopic differences among the primary CO2 standards that define the WMO X2007 CO2-in-air calibration scale and between the primary standards and standards in subsequent levels of the calibration hierarchy. The new calibration system uses multiple laser spectroscopic techniques to measure mole fractions of the three major CO2 isotopologues (16O12C16O, 16O13C16O, and 16O12C18O individually. The three measured values are then combined into total CO2 (accounting for the rare unmeasured isotopologues, δ13C, and δ18O values. The new calibration system significantly improves our ability to transfer the WMO CO2 calibration scale with low uncertainty through our role as the World Meteorological Organization Global Atmosphere Watch Central Calibration Laboratory for CO2. Our current estimates for reproducibility of the new calibration system are ±0.01 µmol mol−1 CO2, ±0.2 ‰ δ13C, and ±0.2 ‰ δ18O, all at 68 % confidence interval (CI.

  15. Coal-based synthetic natural gas (SNG): A solution to China’s energy security and CO2 reduction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yanjun; Han, Weijian; Chai, Qinhu; Yang, Shuhong; Shen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Considering natural gas (NG) to be the most promising low-carbon option for the energy industry, large state owned companies in China have established numerous coal-based synthetic natural gas (SNG) projects. The objective of this paper is to use a system approach to evaluate coal-derived SNG in terms of life-cycle energy efficiency and CO 2 emissions. This project examined main applications of the SNG and developed a model that can be used for evaluating energy efficiency and CO 2 emissions of various fuel pathway systems. The model development started with the GREET model, and added the SNG module and an end-use equipment module. The database was constructed with Chinese data. The analyses show when the SNG are used for cooking, power generation, steam production for heating and industry, life-cycle energies are 20–108% higher than all competitive pathways, with a similar rate of increase in life-cycle CO 2 emissions. When a compressed natural gas (CNG) car uses the SNG, life-cycle CO 2 emission will increase by 150–190% compared to the baseline gasoline car and by 140–210% compared to an electric car powered by electricity from coal-fired power plants. The life-cycle CO 2 emission of SNG-powered city bus will be 220–270% higher than that of traditional diesel city bus. The gap between SNG-powered buses and new hybrid diesel buses will be even larger—life-cycle CO 2 emission of the former being around 4 times of that of the latter. It is concluded that the SNG will not accomplish the tasks of both energy conservation and CO 2 reduction. - Highlights: ► We evaluated life-cycle energy efficiency and CO 2 emissions of coal-derived SNG. ► We used GREET model and added a coal-based SNG and an end-use modules. ► The database was constructed with Chinese domestic data. ► Life-cycle energies and CO 2 emissions of coal-based SNG are 20–100% higher. ► Coal-based SNG is not a solution to both energy conservation and CO 2 reduction

  16. Chemisorption of H2O and CO2 on hydrotalcites for sorptionenhanced water-gas-shift processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, K.T.; Gallucci, F.; Cobden, P.; van Dijk, E; Hensen, E.J.M.; van Sint Annaland, M.

    2017-01-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis and breakthrough experiments in a packed bed reactor were used to validate a developed adsorption model to describe the cyclic working capacity of CO2 and H2O on a potassium-promoted hydrotalcite, a very promising adsorbent for sorption-enhanced water-gas-shift

  17. Thermal effects in a depleted gas field by cold CO2 injection in the presence of methana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeve, D.; Hofstee, C.; Maas, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    Depleted gas fields are seen as promising options for geological storage of CO2. The advantage of hydrocarbon fields are that the characteristics, such as the storage capacity and the proven sealing capacity are known. This means that only limited uncertainty remains after a technical feasibility

  18. Assessment of aversion to different concentrations of CO2 gas by weaned pigs using an approach-avoidance paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to examine the aversiveness of carbon dioxide (CO2) to weaned pigs using approach-avoidance and condition place avoidance paradigms. A preference-testing device was custom designed with two connected chambers maintained at static gas concentrations. The control chambe...

  19. Biomass consumption and CO2, CO and main hydrocarbon gas emissions in an Amazonian forest clearing fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. G. Soares Neto; J. A. Carvalho; C. A. G. Veras; E. C. Alvarado; R. Gielow; E. N. Lincoln; T. J. Christian; R. J. Yokelson; J. C. Santos

    2009-01-01

    Biomass consumption and CO2, CO and hydrocarbon gas emissions in an Amazonian forest clearing fire are presented and discussed. The experiment was conducted in the arc of deforestation, near the city of Alta Floresta, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The average carbon content of dry biomass was 48% and the estimated average moisture content of fresh biomass was 42% on...

  20. Predicting the ultimate potential of natural gas SOFC power cycles with CO2 capture : Part B: Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campanari, Stefano; Mastropasqua, Luca; Gazzani, Matteo; Chiesa, Paolo; Romano, Matteo C.

    2016-01-01

    An important advantage of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) as future systems for large scale power generation is the possibility of being efficiently integrated with processes for CO2 capture. Focusing on natural gas power generation, Part A of this work assessed the performances of advanced

  1. Enhanced the performance of graphene oxide/polyimide hybrid membrane for CO2 separation by surface modification of graphene oxide using polyethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-guang; Yang, Cai-hong; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Xue-yang

    2018-05-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) with different molecular weights was first used to modify graphene oxide (GO) samples. Subsequently, polyimide (PI) hybrid membranes containing modified-GO were fabricated via in situ polymerization. The separation performance of these hybrid membranes was evaluated using permeation experiments for CO2 and N2 gases. The morphology characterization showed that PEG with suitable molecular weight could be successfully grafted on the GO surface. PEG modification altered the surface properties of GO and introduced defective structures onto GO surface. This caused strong surface polarity and high free volume of membranes containing PEG-modified GO, thereby improving the separation performance of membranes. The addition of PEG-GO with low molecular weight effectively increased gas diffusion through hybrid membranes. The hybrid membranes containing PEG-GO with large molecular weight had high solubility performance for CO2 gas due to the introduction of numerous polar groups into polymeric membranes. With the loading content of modified GO, the CO2 gas permeability of hybrid membranes initially increased but eventually decreased. The optimal content of modified GO in membranes reached 3.0 wt%. When too much PEG added (exceeding 30 g), some impurities formed on GO surface and some aggregates appeared in the resulting hybrid membrane, which depressed the membrane performance.

  2. Adsorption of CO2 from flue gas streams by a highly efficient and stable aminosilica adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shou-Heng; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Chien, Yi-Chi; Hyu, Han-Ren

    2011-02-01

    Three ordered mesoporous silicas (OMSs) with different pore sizes and pore architectures were prepared and modified with amine functional groups by a postgrafting method. The carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption on these amine-modified OMSs was measured by using microbalances at 348 K, and their adsorption capacities were found to be 0.2-1.4 mmol g(-1) under ambient pressure using dry 15% CO2. It was found experimentally that the CO2 adsorption capacity and adsorption rate were attributed to the density of amine groups and pore volume, respectively. A simple method is described for the production of densely anchored amine groups on a solid adsorbent invoking direct incorporation of tetraethylenepentamine onto the as-synthesized OMSs. Unlike conventional amine-modified OMSs, which typically show CO2 adsorption capacity less than 2 mmol g(-1), such organic template occluded amine-OMS composites possessed remarkably high CO2 uptake of approximately 4.6 mmol g(-1) at 348 K and 1 atm for a dry 15% CO2/nitrogen feed mixture. The enhancement of 8% in CO2 adsorption capacity was also observed in the presence of 10.6% water vapor. Durability tests done by cyclic adsorption-desorption revealed that these adsorbents also possess excellent stability.

  3. Seasonal controls on surface pCO2 in the central and eastern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mixed layer pCO2 relations with temperature, oxygen, chlorophyll a and primary production revealed ..... Temperature dependence of CO2 fugacity in sea water; Mar. Chem. ... 1996 Mechanism of the biological response to winter cooling.

  4. Scalable fractionation of iron oxide nanoparticles using a CO2 gas-expanded liquid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengsarkar, Pranav S.; Xu, Rui; Roberts, Christopher B.

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles exhibit highly size-dependent physicochemical properties that are important in applications such as catalysis and environmental remediation. In order for these size-dependent properties to be effectively harnessed for industrial applications scalable and cost-effective techniques for size-controlled synthesis or size separation must be developed. The synthesis of monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles can be a prohibitively expensive process on a large scale. An alternative involves the use of inexpensive synthesis procedures followed by a size-selective processing technique. While there are many techniques available to fractionate nanoparticles, many of the techniques are unable to efficiently fractionate iron oxide nanoparticles in a scalable and inexpensive manner. A scalable apparatus capable of fractionating large quantities of iron oxide nanoparticles into distinct fractions of different sizes and size distributions has been developed. Polydisperse iron oxide nanoparticles (2–20 nm) coated with oleic acid used in this study were synthesized using a simple and inexpensive version of the popular coprecipitation technique. This apparatus uses hexane as a CO 2 gas-expanded liquid to controllably precipitate nanoparticles inside a 1L high-pressure reactor. This paper demonstrates the operation of this new apparatus and for the first time shows the successful fractionation results on a system of metal oxide nanoparticles, with initial nanoparticle concentrations in the gram-scale. The analysis of the obtained fractions was performed using transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The use of this simple apparatus provides a pathway to separate large quantities of iron oxide nanoparticles based upon their size for use in various industrial applications.

  5. Selective Reversible Absorption of the Industrial Off-Gas Components CO2 and NOx by Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas-Larsen, Peter Kjartan; Thomassen, Peter; Schill, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquids are promising new materials for climate and pollution control by selective absorption of CO2 and NOx in industrial off-gases. In addition pratical cleaning of industrial off gases seems to be attractive by use of ionic liquids distributed on the surface of porous, high surface area...

  6. CO2-Induced ATP-Dependent Release of Acetylcholine on the Ventral Surface of the Medulla Oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckstepp, Robert T R; Llaudet, Enrique; Gourine, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    Complex mechanisms that detect changes in brainstem parenchymal PCO2/[H+] and trigger adaptive changes in lung ventilation are responsible for central respiratory CO2 chemosensitivity. Previous studies of chemosensory signalling pathways suggest that at the level of the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata (VMS), CO2-induced changes in ventilation are (at least in part) mediated by the release and actions of ATP and/or acetylcholine (ACh). Here we performed simultaneous real-time biosensor recordings of CO2-induced ATP and ACh release from the VMS in vivo and in vitro, to test the hypothesis that central respiratory CO2 chemosensory transduction involves simultaneous recruitment of purinergic and cholinergic signalling pathways. In anaesthetised and artificially ventilated rats, an increase in inspired CO2 triggered ACh release on the VMS with a peak amplitude of ~5 μM. Release of ACh was only detected after the onset of CO2-induced activation of the respiratory activity and was markedly reduced (by ~70%) by ATP receptor blockade. In horizontal slices of the VMS, CO2-induced release of ATP was reliably detected, whereas CO2 or bath application of ATP (100 μM) failed to trigger release of ACh. These results suggest that during hypercapnia locally produced ATP induces or potentiates the release of ACh (likely from the medullary projections of distal groups of cholinergic neurones), which may also contribute to the development and/or maintenance of the ventilatory response to CO2.

  7. Spatial and Temporal Variability of CO2 and CH4 Concentrations in the Atmospheric Surface Layer over West Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belan, Boris D.; Machida, Toshinobu; Sasakawa, Motoki; Davydov, Denis K.; Fofonov, Alexander V.; Krasnov, Oleg A.; Maksyutov, Shamil; Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.

    2015-04-01

    The investigation of greenhouse gas behavior in the atmosphere plays a key role in predicting the global changes of Earth's climate. In this connection, of particular importance is the study of the distribution of sources/sinks of trace gases in the atmospheric surface layer over the different regions of the globe. In order to fill a gap in the data on greenhouse gas concentrations in Russia, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES, Japan) and Institute of Atmospheric Optics (IAO SB RAS, Russia) established a network for GHG monitoring (JR-STATION, Japan-Russia Siberian Tall Tower Inland Observation Network). Gas analyzers and meteorological sensors were mounted at radio relay towers located in different regions of West Siberia. The checking equipment was placed in containers at the tower base. In the containers, the climatic parameters optimal for gas analyzer operation were maintained. The work on the network development started in 2001. Since at each of the sites the measurement duration could be different, in this paper we present the data of the greenhouse gas monitoring for eight sites which give the primary idea on the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of CO2 and CH4 in the atmospheric surface layer over West Siberia. The analysis of the data showed that the average increase in concentration of carbon dioxide by results of our measurements in this territory increases within 1.95 - 2.53 ppm/year, depending on the area. The analysis of long-term data testifies about existence of growth of concentration of methane within 3.2 - 7.2 ppb / year. The presence of a distributed network of the sites operating in the monitoring regime makes it possible not only to investigate the temporal dynamics of CO2 and CH4 at each site and to determine the spatial differences between the concentrations by comparing the data, but also to plot the distribution charts for different moments of time. This work was supported by the Global Environment Research

  8. Functioning of the wholesale electricity, CO_2 and natural gas markets. Report 2015-2016 Surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    No major tightness was observed in 2015 in the French wholesale electricity and gas markets, against a drop in raw material prices, with another year warmer than usual and a particularly mild winter 2015-2016. The drop in oil prices, which was fast in 2014, continued in 2015, down an average 36 % between the two years. Coal prices dropped. However, raw material prices rebounded in the first months of 2016. Therefore, between the first and second quarter of 2016, oil prices increased 26 % reaching euro-31/barrel. Similarly, the price of coal increased from euro-32.4/t in January to euro-50.1/t at the end of June (+55 %). Developments in supply, and especially in demand, related to growth prospects are responsible in part for these changes. These trends are reflected in the wholesale energy price developments. The price of CO_2 allowances was disconnected from the raw material trends, first with an increase in 2015 exceeding euro-8/ton, followed by a sharp decline early 2016. This fall is due in particular to sales carried out by electricity producers in Europe against a backdrop of excess allowances. In this context, the French government proposed a national minimum price for the ton of CO_2 for thermal power stations. On 11 July 2016, the government announced that this mechanism would be applied only to coal plants. CRE recommends that the effects of such a mechanism should be studied specifically given the potential effects on the functioning of markets. The following in particular should be analysed: - the effects on wholesale electricity prices in France and on border exchanges; - the resulting carbon footprint since the expected rise in French wholesale electricity prices could lead to high-carbon electricity imports from bordering countries according to the periods of the year; - the micro-economic effects for the plants concerned and the macro-economic effects in terms of supply security; - and lastly, how it will link with the European framework, in

  9. Surface properties of poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) precipitation polymerized in supercritical CO2 and the influence of the molecular weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qing; Gu, Qing-Feng; Hu, Jian-Feng; Teng, Xin-Rong; Zhu, Yun-Feng

    2003-11-15

    In this paper, the surface properties, e.g., the total surface free energy and the related Lifshitz-van der Waals and Lewis acid-base components, of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precipitation polymerized in supercritical CO(2) have been characterized. Moreover, the influence of molecular weight varying has been also investigated. Results show that the surface properties of PAN resulting from supercritical CO(2) are different from those obtained by the conventional method. Of these data, one important finding is that the supercritical CO(2) PAN seems to decrease the surface free energy with the increased molecular weight. Based on previous recorded NMR spectra of this PAN and especially compared to commercial PAN, such phenomena are discussed and ascribed to an increase of the H-bonds and a reduction of the isotacticity in the supercritical CO(2) condition for PAN.

  10. Modeling and Simulated Annealing Optimization of Surface Roughness in CO2 Laser Nitrogen Cutting of Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Madić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic methodology for empirical modeling and optimization of surface roughness in nitrogen, CO2 laser cutting of stainless steel . The surface roughness prediction model was developed in terms of laser power , cutting speed , assist gas pressure and focus position by using The artificial neural network ( ANN . To cover a wider range of laser cutting parameters and obtain an experimental database for the ANN model development, Taguchi 's L27 orthogonal array was implemented in the experimental plan. The developed ANN model was expressed as an explicit nonlinear function , while the influence of laser cutting parameters and their interactions on surface roughness were analyzed by generating 2D and 3D plots . The final goal of the experimental study Focuses on the determinationof the optimum laser cutting parameters for the minimization of surface roughness . Since the solution space of the developed ANN model is complex, and the possibility of many local solutions is great, simulated annealing (SA was selected as a method for the optimization of surface roughness.

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of a novel power plant with LNG (liquefied natural gas) cold exergy exploitation and CO_2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Gómez, Manuel; Romero Gómez, Javier; López-González, Luis M.; López-Ochoa, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    The LNG (liquefied natural gas) regasification process is a source of cold exergy that is suitable to be recovered to improve the efficiency of thermal power plants. In this paper, an innovative power plant with LNG (liquefied natural gas) exergy utilisation and the capture of CO_2 proceeding from the flue gases is presented. It is characterised by the recovery of LNG cold exergy in a closed Brayton cycle and through direct expansion in an expander coupled to an electrical generator. Moreover, this novel power plant configuration allows CO_2 capture, through an oxy-fuel combustion system and a Rankine cycle that operates with the flue gases themselves and in quasi-critical conditions. The greatest advantage of this plant is that all the recoverable LNG exergy is used to increase the efficiency of the CBC (closed Brayton cycle) and in direct expansion whereas, in other power cycles found in literature that associate LNG regasification and CO_2 capture, part of the LNG exergy is used for condensing flue gas CO_2 for its subsequent capture. As a result, a high efficiency power plant is achieved, exceeding 65%, with almost zero greenhouse gas emissions. - Highlights: • LNG cold exergy can be recovered to improve the efficiency of power plants. • High efficiency power plant with almost zero greenhouse gas emissions. • CO_2 capture through an oxy-fuel combustion system and a Rankine cycle. • Sensitivity analysis of key parameters to evaluate the effect on the efficiency. • The exergy available in the LNG represents 34.79% of the fuel exergy.

  12. Air–Sea CO2 Gas Transfer Velocity in a Shallow Estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Eva Thorborg; Sørensen, Lise Lotte; Jensen, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    The air–sea transfer velocity of CO2(kCO2) was investigated in a shallow estuary in March to July 2012, using eddy-covariance measurements of CO2 fluxes and measured air–sea CO2 partial-pressure differences. A data evaluation method that eliminates data by nine rejection criteria in order......, the transfer velocity in the shallow water estuary was lower than in other coastal waters, possibly a symptom of low tidal amplitude leading to low intensity water turbulence. High transfer velocities were recorded above wind speeds of 5 m s−1 , believed to be caused by early-breaking waves and the large fetch...... (6.5 km) of the estuary. These findings indicate that turbulence in both air and water influences the transfer velocity....

  13. History Matching and Parameter Estimation of Surface Deformation Data for a CO2 Sequestration Field Project Using Ensemble-Based Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Reza; Srinivasan, Sanjay; Wheeler, Mary

    2015-04-01

    The application of ensemble-based algorithms for history matching reservoir models has been steadily increasing over the past decade. However, the majority of implementations in the reservoir engineering have dealt only with production history matching. During geologic sequestration, the injection of large quantities of CO2 into the subsurface may alter the stress/strain field which in turn can lead to surface uplift or subsidence. Therefore, it is essential to couple multiphase flow and geomechanical response in order to predict and quantify the uncertainty of CO2 plume movement for long-term, large-scale CO2 sequestration projects. In this work, we simulate and estimate the properties of a reservoir that is being used to store CO2 as part of the In Salah Capture and Storage project in Algeria. The CO2 is separated from produced natural gas and is re-injected into downdip aquifer portion of the field from three long horizontal wells. The field observation data includes ground surface deformations (uplift) measured using satellite-based radar (InSAR), injection well locations and CO2 injection rate histories provided by the operators. We implement variations of ensemble Kalman filter and ensemble smoother algorithms for assimilating both injection rate data as well as geomechanical observations (surface uplift) into reservoir model. The preliminary estimation results of horizontal permeability and material properties such as Young Modulus and Poisson Ratio are consistent with available measurements and previous studies in this field. Moreover, the existence of high-permeability channels (fractures) within the reservoir; especially in the regions around the injection wells are confirmed. This estimation results can be used to accurately and efficiently predict and quantify the uncertainty in the movement of CO2 plume.

  14. History matching and parameter estimation of surface deformation data for a CO2 sequestration field project using ensemble-based algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, J.; Tavakoli, R.; Min, B.; Srinivasan, S.; Wheeler, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Optimal management of subsurface processes requires the characterization of the uncertainty in reservoir description and reservoir performance prediction. The application of ensemble-based algorithms for history matching reservoir models has been steadily increasing over the past decade. However, the majority of implementations in the reservoir engineering have dealt only with production history matching. During geologic sequestration, the injection of large quantities of CO2 into the subsurface may alter the stress/strain field which in turn can lead to surface uplift or subsidence. Therefore, it is essential to couple multiphase flow and geomechanical response in order to predict and quantify the uncertainty of CO2 plume movement for long-term, large-scale CO2 sequestration projects. In this work, we simulate and estimate the properties of a reservoir that is being used to store CO2 as part of the In Salah Capture and Storage project in Algeria. The CO2 is separated from produced natural gas and is re-injected into downdip aquifer portion of the field from three long horizontal wells. The field observation data includes ground surface deformations (uplift) measured using satellite-based radar (InSAR), injection well locations and CO2 injection rate histories provided by the operators. We implement ensemble-based algorithms for assimilating both injection rate data as well as geomechanical observations (surface uplift) into reservoir model. The preliminary estimation results of horizontal permeability and material properties such as Young Modulus and Poisson Ratio are consistent with available measurements and previous studies in this field. Moreover, the existence of high-permeability channels/fractures within the reservoir; especially in the regions around the injection wells are confirmed. This estimation results can be used to accurately and efficiently predict and monitor the movement of CO2 plume.

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and sea surface temperature collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments during R/V Oden cruise Beringia_2005 (EXPOCODE 77DN20050720) in the Northwest Passage, Can. Archipelago, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea and Arctic Ocean from 2005-07-20 to 2005-08-17 (NCEI Accession 0164210)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0164210 includes Surface underway data collected from R/V Oden in the Northwest Passage, Can. Archipelago, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2002-03-07 to 2012-11-24 (NODC Accession 0083196)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0083196 includes chemical, physical and underway - surface data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean, South...

  17. Thermo-Economic Modelling and Process Integration of CO2-Mitigation Options on Oil and Gas Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Tock, Laurence; Breuhaus, Peter

    2014-01-01

    recovering CO2 that can be used for enhanced oil recovery. In this paper, a North Sea platform is considered as case study, and the site-scale retrofit integration of these three options is analysed, considering thermodynamic, economic and environmental performance indicators. The results illustrate......The offshore extraction of oil and gas is an energy-intensive process associated with large CO2 and CH4 emissions to the atmosphere and chemicals to the sea. The taxation of these emissions has encouraged the development of more energy-efficient and environmental-friendly solutions, of which three...

  18. Direct gas-solid carbonation kinetics of steel slag and the contribution to in situ sequestration of flue gas CO(2) in steel-making plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Sicong; Jiang, Jianguo; Chen, Xuejing; Yan, Feng; Li, Kaimin

    2013-12-01

    Direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag under various operational conditions was investigated to determine the sequestration of the flue gas CO2 . X-ray diffraction analysis of steel slag revealed the existence of portlandite, which provided a maximum theoretical CO2 sequestration potential of 159.4 kg CO 2 tslag (-1) as calculated by the reference intensity ratio method. The carbonation reaction occurred through a fast kinetically controlled stage with an activation energy of 21.29 kJ mol(-1) , followed by 10(3) orders of magnitude slower diffusion-controlled stage with an activation energy of 49.54 kJ mol(-1) , which could be represented by a first-order reaction kinetic equation and the Ginstling equation, respectively. Temperature, CO2 concentration, and the presence of SO2 impacted on the carbonation conversion of steel slag through their direct and definite influence on the rate constants. Temperature was the most important factor influencing the direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag in terms of both the carbonation conversion and reaction rate. CO2 concentration had a definite influence on the carbonation rate during the kinetically controlled stage, and the presence of SO2 at typical flue gas concentrations enhanced the direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag. Carbonation conversions between 49.5 % and 55.5 % were achieved in a typical flue gas at 600 °C, with the maximum CO2 sequestration amount generating 88.5 kg CO 2 tslag (-1) . Direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag showed a rapid CO2 sequestration rate, high CO2 sequestration amounts, low raw-material costs, and a large potential for waste heat utilization, which is promising for in situ carbon capture and sequestration in the steel industry. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. GasBench/isotope ratio mass spectrometry: a carbon isotope approach to detect exogenous CO(2) in sparkling drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabañero, Ana I; San-Hipólito, Tamar; Rupérez, Mercedes

    2007-01-01

    A new procedure for the determination of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) (13)C/(12)C isotope ratios, using direct injection into a GasBench/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GasBench/IRMS) system, has been developed to improve isotopic methods devoted to the study of the authenticity of sparkling drinks. Thirty-nine commercial sparkling drink samples from various origins were analyzed. Values of delta(13)C(cava) ranged from -20.30 per thousand to -23.63 per thousand, when C3 sugar addition was performed for a second alcoholic fermentation. Values of delta(13)C(water) ranged from -5.59 per thousand to -6.87 per thousand in the case of naturally carbonated water or water fortified with gas from the spring, and delta(13)C(water) ranged from -29.36 per thousand to -42.09 per thousand when industrial CO(2) was added. It has been demonstrated that the addition of C4 sugar to semi-sparkling wine (aguja) and industrial CO(2) addition to sparkling wine (cava) or water can be detected. The new procedure has advantages over existing methods in terms of analysis time and sample treatment. In addition, it is the first isotopic method developed that allows (13)C/(12)C determination directly from a liquid sample without previous CO(2) extraction. No significant isotopic fractionation was observed nor any influence by secondary compounds present in the liquid phase. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Selective Reversible Absorption of the Industrial Off-Gas Components CO2 and NOx by Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas-Larsen, Peter Kjartan; Thomassen, P.; Schill, Leonhard

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquids are promising new materials for climate and pollution control by selective absorption of CO2 and NOx in industrial off-gases. In addition practical cleaning of industrial off gases seems to be attractive by use of ionic liquids distributed on the surface of porous, high surface area...... carriers in the form of so-called Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) materials. The potential of selected ionic liquids for absorption of CO2 and NOx are demonstrated and the possible interference of other gases influencing the stability and absorption capacity of the ionic liquids are investigated...

  1. Transcritical CO2 power cycle – Effects of regenerative heating using turbine bleed gas at intermediate pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Subha; De, Sudipta

    2015-01-01

    For energy utilization from low temperature waste heat, CO 2 is a potential working fluid due to its lower critical temperature. In this work, assuming finite quantity of flue gas available at low temperature (200 °C), a thermodynamic model is developed for a transcritical CO 2 power cycle utilizing turbine bleed gas for regenerative heating. Analysis show that the cycle performance improves with higher value of bleed ratio. However, for a specified bleed pressure and bleed gas temperature at the regenerator exit, maximum practical value of bleed ratio may be fixed by considering the exponential growth of the regenerator size (specified by NTU (number of transfer unit)). Most significant observation is the existence of optimum bleed pressures corresponding to maximum 1st law efficiency or minimum cycle irreversibility for specified values of remaining cycle parameters. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic model for Transcritical CO 2 cycle with bleed gas are developed. • Effects of bleed ratio, pressure, and regenerator exit gas temperature are studied. • 1st and 2nd law efficiencies are estimated. • An optimum bleed pressure for maximum 1st and 2nd efficiencies is obtained. • Maximum value of 1st law efficiency is limited by regenerator size

  2. Fluid geochemistry and soil gas fluxes (CO2-CH4-H2S) at a promissory Hot Dry Rock Geothermal System: The Acoculco caldera, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, L.; Bernard-Romero, R.; Mazot, A.; Taran, Y. A.; Guevara, M.; Santoyo, E.

    2014-09-01

    The Acoculco caldera has been recognized by the Mexican Federal Electricity Company (CFE) as a Hot Dry Rock Geothermal System (HDR) and could be a potential candidate for developing an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS). Apart from hydrothermally altered rocks, geothermal manifestations within the Acoculco caldera are scarce. Close to ambient temperature bubbling springs and soil degassing are reported inside the caldera while a few springs discharge warm water on the periphery of the caldera. In this study, we infer the origin of fluids and we characterize for the first time the soil degassing dynamic. Chemical and isotopic (δ18O-δD) analyses of spring waters indicate a meteoric origin and the dissolution of CO2 and H2S gases, while gas chemical and isotopic compositions (N2/He, 3He/4He, 13C, 15N) reveal a magmatic contribution with both MORB- and arc-type signatures which could be explained by an extension regime created by local and regional fault systems. Gas geothermometry results are in agreement with temperature measured during well drilling (260 °C-300 °C). Absence of well-developed water reservoir at depth impedes re-equilibration of gases upon surface. A multi-gas flux survey including CO2, CH4 and H2S measurements was performed within the caldera. Using the graphical statistical analysis (GSA) approach, CO2 flux measurements were classified in two populations. Population A, representing 95% of measured fluxes is characterized by low values (mean: 18 g m- 2 day- 1) while the remaining 5% fluxes belonging to Population B are much higher (mean: 5543 g m- 2 day- 1). This low degassing rate probably reflects the low permeability of the system, a consequence of the intense hydrothermal alteration observed in the upper 800 m of volcanic rocks. An attempt to interpret the origin and transport mechanism of these fluxes is proposed by means of flux ratios as well as by numerical modeling. Measurements with CO2/CH4 and CO2/H2S flux ratios similar to mass ratios

  3. Characterizing near-surface CO2 conditions before injection - Perspectives from a CCS project in the Illinois Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, R.A.; Krapac, I.G.; Lewicki, J.L.; Curtis-Robinson, E.

    2011-01-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium is conducting a large-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) project in Decatur, Illinois, USA to demonstrate the ability of a deep saline formation to store one million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) from an ethanol facility. Beginning in early 2011, CO2 will be injected at a rate of 1,000 tonnes/day for three years into the Mount Simon Sandstone at a depth of approximately 2,100 meters. An extensive Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) program has been undertaken for the Illinois Basin Decatur Project (IBDP) and is focused on the 0.65 km2 project site. Goals include establishing baseline conditions to evaluate potential impacts from CO2 injection, demonstrating that project activities are protective of human health and the environment, and providing an accurate accounting of stored CO2. MVA efforts are being conducted pre-, during, and post- CO2 injection. Soil and net CO2 flux monitoring has been conducted for more than one year to characterize near-surface CO2 conditions. More than 2,200 soil CO2 flux measurements have been manually collected from a network of 118 soil rings since June 2009. Three ring types have been evaluated to determine which type may be the most effective in detecting potential CO 2 leakage. Bare soil, shallow-depth rings were driven 8 cm into the ground and were prepared to minimize surface vegetation in and near the rings. Bare soil, deep-depth rings were prepared similarly, but were driven 46 cm. Natural-vegetation, shallow-depth rings were driven 8 cm and are most representative of typical vegetation conditions. Bare-soil, shallow-depth rings had the smallest observed mean flux (1.78 ??mol m-2 s-1) versus natural-vegetation, shallow-depth rings (3.38 ??mol m-2 s-1). Current data suggest bare ring types would be more sensitive to small CO2 leak signatures than natural ring types because of higher signal to noise ratios. An eddy covariance (EC) system has been in use since June

  4. 14CO2 analysis of soil gas: Evaluation of sample size limits and sampling devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotte, Anja; Wischhöfer, Philipp; Wacker, Lukas; Rethemeyer, Janet

    2017-12-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) analysis of CO2 respired from soils or sediments is a valuable tool to identify different carbon sources. The collection and processing of the CO2, however, is challenging and prone to contamination. We thus continuously improve our handling procedures and present a refined method for the collection of even small amounts of CO2 in molecular sieve cartridges (MSCs) for accelerator mass spectrometry 14C analysis. Using a modified vacuum rig and an improved desorption procedure, we were able to increase the CO2 recovery from the MSC (95%) as well as the sample throughput compared to our previous study. By processing series of different sample size, we show that our MSCs can be used for CO2 samples of as small as 50 μg C. The contamination by exogenous carbon determined in these laboratory tests, was less than 2.0 μg C from fossil and less than 3.0 μg C from modern sources. Additionally, we tested two sampling devices for the collection of CO2 samples released from soils or sediments, including a respiration chamber and a depth sampler, which are connected to the MSC. We obtained a very promising, low process blank for the entire CO2 sampling and purification procedure of ∼0.004 F14C (equal to 44,000 yrs BP) and ∼0.003 F14C (equal to 47,000 yrs BP). In contrast to previous studies, we observed no isotopic fractionation towards lighter δ13C values during the passive sampling with the depth samplers.

  5. Studies of super-critical CO2 gas turbine power generation fast reactor (Contract research, translated document)