WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface charge entrapment

  1. Bubble entrapment during sphere impact onto quiescent liquid surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy

    2011-06-20

    We report observations of air bubble entrapment when a solid sphere impacts a quiescent liquid surface. Using high-speed imaging, we show that a small amount of air is entrapped at the bottom tip of the impacting sphere. This phenomenon is examined across a broad range of impact Reynolds numbers, 0.2 a Re = (DU0/Il) a 1.2\\' 105. Initially, a thin air pocket is formed due to the lubrication pressure in the air layer between the sphere and the liquid surface. As the liquid surface deforms, the liquid contacts the sphere at a finite radius, producing a thin sheet of air which usually contracts to a nearly hemispherical bubble at the bottom tip of the sphere depending on the impact parameters and liquid properties. When a bubble is formed, the final bubble size increases slightly with the sphere diameter, decreases with impact speed but appears independent of liquid viscosity. In contrast, for the largest viscosities tested herein, the entrapped air remains in the form of a sheet, which subsequently deforms upon close approach to the base of the tank. The initial contact diameter is found to conform to scalings based on the gas Reynolds number whilst the initial thickness of the air pocket or adimplea scales with a Stokes\\' number incorporating the influence of the air viscosity, sphere diameter and impact speed and liquid density. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

  2. Tantalum surface oxidation: Bond relaxation, energy entrapment, and electron polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yongling [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies (Ministry of Education), Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Thin Film Materials and Devices, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Bo, Maolin [Yangtze Normal University, College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Chongqing 408100 (China); Wang, Yan [School of Information and Electronic Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Hunan 411201 (China); Liu, Yonghui [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies (Ministry of Education), Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Thin Film Materials and Devices, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Sun, Chang Q. [NOVITAS, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Huang, Yongli, E-mail: huangyongli@xtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies (Ministry of Education), Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Thin Film Materials and Devices, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Graphical abstract: The bond, electron and energy relaxation result in core level energy shift, local densification, quantum entrapment and electron polarization of bonding electrons. - Highlights: • Increasing the oxygen coverage lowers the adsorption energy associated with lattice reconstruction. • Electrons transfer from Ta surface atoms to sp-hydrated oxygen, creating dipole moment that decreases the work function. • Oxygen chemisorption modified valence density-of-state (DOS) for Ta with four excessive DOS features: O−Ta bonding, O{sup 2−} lone pairs, Ta+ electron holes, and the lone-pair polarized Ta dipoles. • The bond, electron and energy relaxation between surface undercoordinated atoms are responsible for core level energy shift, local densification, quantum entrapment and electron polarization of bonding electrons. - Abstract: A combination of photoelectron spectrometric analysis and density functional theory calculations has enabled reconciliation of the bond-energy-electron relaxation for the Ta(100, 110, 111) surfaces chemisorbed with oxygen at different coverages. Results show that increasing oxygen coverage lowers the adsorption energy associated with lattice reconstruction. Valence electrons transfer from Ta surface atoms to oxygen to create four excessive DOS features in terms of O−Ta bonding, lone pairs of oxygen, Ta{sup +} electron holes, and polarized Ta dipoles. Oxidation proceeds in the following dynamics: oxygen gets electrons from two neighboring Ta atoms left behind Ta{sup +}; the sp{sup 3}-orbital hybridization takes place with additional two electron lone pairs, the lone pairs polarize the other two Ta neighbors becoming dipoles. X-ray photoelectron spectral analysis results in the 4f binding energy of an isolated Ta atom and its shift upon bond formation and oxidation. Exercises provide not only a promising numerical approach for the quantitative information about the bond and electronic behavior but also consistent

  3. Delta-sleep inducing peptide entrapment in the charged macroporous matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanova, Tatiana V., E-mail: sukhanovat@mail.ru [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Laboratory of Cell Interactions, Miklukho-Maklaya st., 16/10 Moscow (Russian Federation); Artyukhov, Alexander A.; Gurevich, Yakov M.; Semenikhina, Marina A. [Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Research and Teaching Center “Biomaterials”, Miusskaya sq., 9 Moscow (Russian Federation); Prudchenko, Igor A. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Laboratory of Peptide Chemistry, Miklukho-Maklaya st., 16/10 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shtilman, Mikhail I. [Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Research and Teaching Center “Biomaterials”, Miusskaya sq., 9 Moscow (Russian Federation); Markvicheva, Elena A. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Laboratory Polymers for Biology, Miklukho-Maklaya st., 16/10 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-01

    Various biomolecules, for example proteins, peptides etc., entrapped in polymer matrices, impact interactions between matrix and cells, including stimulation of cell adhesion and proliferation. Delta-sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) possesses numerous beneficial properties, including its abilities in burn treatment and neuronal protection. DSIP entrapment in two macroporous polymer matrices based on copolymer of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and methylen-bis-acrylamide (Co-DMAEMA-MBAA) and copolymer of acrylic acid and methylen-bis-acrylamide (Co-AA-MBAA) has been studied. Quite 100% of DSIP has been entrapped into positively charged Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix, while the quantity of DSIP adsorbed on negatively charged Co-AA-MBAA was only 2–6%. DSIP release from Co-DMAEMA-MBAA was observed in saline solutions (0.9% NaCl and PBS) while there was no DSIP release in water or 25% ethanol, thus ionic strength was a reason of this process. - Graphical abstract: Delta-sleep inducing peptide possessing neuroprotective and wound healing properties was adsorbed on positively charged polymer matrix Co-DMAEMA-MBAA for tissue engineering. The peptide released from Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix in function of ionic strength of solution, pH decreasing stimulated peptide release from Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix for 3 h. This construction could be a base of new bioactive implants. - Highlights: • Macroporous positively charged Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix pore size was 20–35 μm. • DSIP was adsorbed on Co-DMAEMA-MBAA totally in 16 h. • Its release depends on ionic strength of solution (no release in 25% ethanol or water). • Co-DMAEMA-MBAA matrix swelling depends on pH and ionic strength of solution. • DSIP is destroyed in PBS and 0.9% NaCl in 5 days, but in water it was more stable.

  4. Electrical signals guided entrapment and controlled release of antibiotics on titanium surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaowen; Wu, Huiping; Li, Yuanyuan; Wei, Xiaoquan; Du, Yumin

    2013-05-01

    Electrical signals are used to trigger the entrapment and release of antibiotics on the surface of titanium plate. The entrapment of antibiotics relies on the electrochemically induced pH gradient generated at the titanium surface that allows the gelation of an aminopolysaccharide chitosan and codeposition of vancomycin, a common antibiotic, within chitosan gel. The release of vancomycin is controlled by an anodic signal imposed to the titanium plate that causes a pH decrease and erosion of chitosan gel. We show that the on demand entrapment and release of vancomycin at the surface of titanium plate is fundamentally altered and controlled by voltage. We expect that this rapid, mild and facile electrochemical process for antibiotics loading and release will find applications in controlled drug release from titanium implants. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Interaction between heterogeneously charged surfaces: surface patches and charge modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yaakov, Dan; Andelman, David; Diamant, Haim

    2013-02-01

    When solid surfaces are immersed in aqueous solutions, some of their charges can dissociate and leave behind charged patches on the surface. Although the charges are distributed heterogeneously on the surface, most of the theoretical models treat them as homogeneous. For overall non-neutral surfaces, the assumption of surface charge homogeneity is rather reasonable since the leading terms of two such interacting surfaces depend on the nonzero average charge. However, for overall neutral surfaces the nature of the surface charge distribution is crucial in determining the intersurface interaction. In the present work we study the interaction between two charged surfaces across an aqueous solution for several charge distributions. The analysis is preformed within the framework of the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann theory. For periodic charge distributions the interaction is found to be repulsive at small separations, unless the two surface distributions are completely out-of-phase with respect to each other. For quenched random charge distributions we find that due to the presence of the ionic solution in between the surfaces, the intersurface repulsion dominates over the attraction in the linear regime of the Poisson-Boltzmann theory. The effect of quenched charge heterogeneity is found to be particularly substantial in the case of large charged domains.

  6. Spacecraft Surface Charging Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    discharges however produce replacement currents that can be global. The local effect of punchthrough is illustrated by a small dipole model for the...St’rap I Farda or TEK7103 Scope Power Dipole -- Line tenna To To PA HP05000 and Spectrum X-Y Analyzer Plotter Figure 61. Test setup for surface...Testing Seminar, Los Angeles, CA, p. 77-82, 19817. Levadou, F., "Proprietes Electriques Des Materiaux." Space Environment: Prevention of Risks Related

  7. A novel method for preventing surface film entrapment of water fleas and its application for toxicity testing with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Rongxue; Kwak, Jin Il; An, Youn-Joo

    2017-02-01

    Some water fleas such as Daphnia galeata and Bosmina longirostris are difficult to culture and use in ecotoxicity testing since they can easily become entrapped at the surface film. Cetyl alcohol was the most prevalent chemical used to prevent the entrapment of water fleas in previous studies. However, cetyl alcohol possesses a number of disadvantages including its toxicity and water insolubility. This study presents a novel method for preventing surface film entrapment of the water flea D. galeata and B. longirostris acute testing. We examined the applicability of saponin extracts from Quillaja saponaria, natural surfactants commonly extracted from plants. Its application of saponin extracts was tested by ecotoxicity testing of heavy metals. Based on the acute test results for heavy metals, a concentration of 1.0 mg/L of saponins was determined as suitable for preventing surface film entrapment of D. galeata and B. longirostris with negligible adverse effects. This study proposes a novel method for preventing surface film entrapment of D. galeata and B. longirostris through the application saponins and could be valuable to make them suitable test species in ecotoxicity testing.

  8. Atomic configuration of hydrogenated and clean tantalum(111) surfaces: Bond relaxation, energy entrapment and electron polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Maolin; Li, Lei; Guo, Yongling; Yao, Chuang; Peng, Cheng; Sun, Chang Q.

    2018-01-01

    By studying the tantalum (Ta)(111) surface with X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and density functional theory, we determined binding energy values for the clean Ta(111) (+3.068 eV) and hydrogenated Ta(111) (+3.421 eV) surfaces with an isolated atom level of 18.977 eV. Using the bond-band barrier and zone-selective electron spectroscopy correlation, we investigated the mechanism of hydrogenation adsorption on the Ta(111) surface. We found the local densities of states of the first layer of Ta atoms in the reconstructed structure, which formed on the adsorbent hydrogen of the surface chemical bond contracts and dipole polarization. Moreover, we showed that on the Ta(111) surface, the hydrogen-induced surface core level shifts are dominated by quantum entrapment and are proportional to the calculated hybridized orbitals of the valence band. The latter is therefore correlated to the local surface chemical reactivity and is useful for other adsorbate systems on transition metals.

  9. Evaluation of Near-Surface Gases in Marine Sediments to Assess Subsurface Petroleum Gas Generation and Entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Abrams

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gases contained within near-surface marine sediments can be derived from multiple sources: shallow microbial activity, thermal cracking of organic matter and inorganic materials, or magmatic-mantle degassing. Each origin will display a distinctive hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon composition as well as compound-specific isotope signature and thus the interpretation of origin should be relatively straightforward. Unfortunately, this is not always the case due to in situ microbial alteration, non-equilibrium phase partitioning, mixing, and fractionation related to the gas extraction method. Sediment gases can reside in the interstitial spaces, bound to mineral or organic surfaces and/or entrapped in carbonate inclusions. The interstitial sediment gases are contained within the sediment pore space, either dissolved in the pore waters (solute or as free (vapour gas. The bound gases are believed to be attached to organic and/or mineral surfaces, entrapped in structured water or entrapped in authigenic carbonate inclusions. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the gas types found within shallow marine sediments and examine issues related to gas sampling and extraction. In addition, the paper will discuss how to recognise mixing, alteration and fractionation issues to best interpret the seabed geochemical results and determine gas origin to assess subsurface petroleum gas generation and entrapment.

  10. Surface Charging and Points of Zero Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Kosmulski, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Presents Points of Zero Charge data on well-defined specimen of materials sorted by trademark, manufacturer, and location. This text emphasizes the comparison between particular results obtained for different portions of the same or very similar material and synthesizes the information published in research reports over the past few decades

  11. Complementary surface charge for enhanced capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.; Porada, S.; Omosebi, A.; Liu, K.L.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Landon, J.

    2016-01-01

    Commercially available activated carbon cloth electrodes are treated using nitric acid and ethylenediamine solutions, resulting in chemical surface charge enhanced carbon electrodes for capacitive deionization (CDI) applications. Surface charge enhanced electrodes are then configured in a CDI

  12. Surface charge compensation for a highly charged ion emission microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.W.; Hamza, A.V.; Newman, M.W.; Holder, J.P.; Schneider, D.H.G.; Schenkel, T.

    2003-01-01

    A surface charge compensation electron flood gun has been added to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) highly charged ion (HCI) emission microscope. HCI surface interaction results in a significant charge residue being left on the surface of insulators and semiconductors. This residual charge causes undesirable aberrations in the microscope images and a reduction of the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) mass resolution when studying the surfaces of insulators and semiconductors. The benefits and problems associated with HCI microscopy and recent results of the electron flood gun enhanced HCI microscope are discussed

  13. Diclofenac sodium entrapment and release from halloysite nanotubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejčová, Kateřina; Deasy, Patrick B; Rabišková, Miloslava

    2013-02-01

    Halloysite was found to have interesting nanotubular geometry viable for the entrapment of various active agents. In this experiment, the ability of hollow halloysite cylinders to entrap the anionic model drug diclofenac sodium and to retard drug dissolution rate was investigated. Drugs could be incorporated into layered tubules via three different mechanisms: adsorption, intercalation and tubular entrapment. Based on the adsorption studies, some diclofenac sodium was shown to be adsorbed to the polyionic mineral surface despite its permanent negative charge. The X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRPD) results did not prove any intercalation reaction to occur. The most important drug-loading mechanism involved the tubular entrapment with encapsulation efficiency 48.1%. The drug release from halloysite was prolonged in comparison with the dissolution of pure drug. Halloysite itself as well as halloysite loaded with the drug proved to be appropriate material to form pellets by extrusion /spheronization method. halloysite diclofenac sodium drug entrapment pellets prolonged drug release.

  14. Invisible Surface Charge Pattern on Inorganic Electrets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Hansen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    We propose an easy method to pattern the surface charge of ${\\rm SiO}_{2}$ electrets without patterning the dielectric layer. By eliminating the use of metal guard electrodes, both the charge efficiency and the surface charge stability in humid environments improve. We apply the concept...

  15. Surface charge measurement by the Pockels effect

    CERN Document Server

    Sam, Y L

    2001-01-01

    have been observed by applying both impulse and AC voltages to a needle electrode in direct contact with the BSO. AC surface discharge behaviour of polymeric materials bonded to the BSO has also been investigated. The effect of the surrounding environment has been experimentally examined by placing the cell inside a vacuum chamber. Surface charge measurements have been made at various atmospheric pressures. The effect of an electro-negative gas (Sulphur Hexafluoride) on the surface charge distribution has also been investigated. This thesis is concerned with the design and development of a surface charge measurement system using Pockels effect. The measurement of surface charge is important in determining the electrical performance of high voltage insulation materials. The method proposed allows on-line measurement of charge and can generate two-dimensional images that represent the charge behaviour on the surface of the material under test. The measurement system is optical and uses a Pockels crystal as the ...

  16. On equilibrium charge distribution above dielectric surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Slyusarenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the equilibrium state of the charged many-particle system above dielectric surface is formulated. We consider the case of the presence of the external attractive pressing field and the case of its absence. The equilibrium distributions of charges and the electric field, which is generated by these charges in the system in the case of ideally plane dielectric surface, are obtained. The solution of electrostatic equations of the system under consideration in case of small spatial heterogeneities caused by the dielectric surface, is also obtained. These spatial inhomogeneities can be caused both by the inhomogeneities of the surface and by the inhomogeneous charge distribution upon it. In particular, the case of the "wavy" spatially periodic surface is considered taking into account the possible presence of the surface charges.

  17. DETERMINATION OF SURFACE CHARGE DENSITY OF α ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    dissociation of these groups, result into a pH dependent surface charge whose density can be measured by acid-base titration. The surface charge density determined by such method is essentially measured relative to the unknown condition of the oxide/liquid interface prior to reagent addition (i.e. at the point of zero ...

  18. A directional entrapment modification on the polyethylene surface by the amphiphilic modifier of stearyl-alcohol poly(ethylene oxide) ether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiang; Chen, Yi; Huang, Juexin; Huang, Jian; Wang, Xiaolin; Yao, Jiaying

    2018-05-01

    A novel entrapment modification method involving directional implantation of the amphiphilic modifier of stearyl-alcohol poly(ethylene oxide) ether (AEO) into the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) surface is proposed. This modification technique allows the AEO modifier to be able to spontaneously attain and subsequently penetrate into the swollen HDPE surface with its hydrophobic stearyl segment, while its hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) segment spontaneously points to water. The AEO modifier with a HLB number below 8.7 was proved appropriate for the directional entrapment, Nevertheless, AEOs with larger HLB numbers were also effective modifiers in the presence of salt additives. In addition, a larger and hydrophobic micelle, induced respectively by the AEO concentration above 1.3 × 10-2 mol/L and the entrapping temperature above the cloud point of AEO, could lead to a sharp contact angle decline of the modified surface. Finally, a hydrophilic HDPE surface with the modifier coverage of 38.9% was reached by the directional entrapment method, which is far larger than that of 19.2% by the traditional entrapment method.

  19. Surface transport processes in charged porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabitto, Jorge; Tsouris, Costas

    2017-07-15

    Surface transport processes are very important in chemistry, colloidal sciences, engineering, biology, and geophysics. Natural or externally produced charges on surfaces create electrical double layers (EDLs) at the solid-liquid interface. The existence of the EDLs produces several complex processes including bulk and surface transport of ions. In this work, a model is presented to simulate bulk and transport processes in homogeneous porous media comprising big pores. It is based on a theory for capacitive charging by ideally polarizable porous electrodes without Faradaic reactions or specific adsorption of ions. A volume averaging technique is used to derive the averaged transport equations in the limit of thin electrical double layers. Description of the EDL between the electrolyte solution and the charged wall is accomplished using the Gouy-Chapman-Stern (GCS) model. The surface transport terms enter into the average equations due to the use of boundary conditions for diffuse interfaces. Two extra surface transports terms appear in the closed average equations. One is a surface diffusion term equivalent to the transport process in non-charged porous media. The second surface transport term is a migration term unique to charged porous media. The effective bulk and transport parameters for isotropic porous media are calculated solving the corresponding closure problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mixed hemi/ad-micelles coated magnetic nanoparticles for the entrapment of hemoglobin at the surface of a screen-printed carbon electrode and its direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri-Aref, Mohaddeseh; Raoof, Jahan Bakhsh; Kiekens, Filip; De Wael, Karolien

    2015-12-15

    An efficient procedure for the physical entrapment of proteins within a biocompatible matrix and their immobilization on electrode surfaces is of utmost importance in the fabrication of biosensors. In this work, the magnetic entrapment of hemoglobin (Hb) at the surface of a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE), through mixed hemi/ad-micelles (MHAM) array of positively charged surfactant supported iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (Mag-NPs), is reported. The Hb/MHAM@Mag-NPs biocomposite is captured at SPCE by a super magnet (Hb/MHAM@Mag-NPs/SPCE). To gain insight in the configuration of the mixed hemi/ad-micelles of CTAB at Mag-NPs, zeta-potential measurements were performed. The entrapment of Hb at MHAM@Mag-NPs was confirmed by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Direct electron transfer of the Hb intercalated into the composite film showed a pair of well-defined quasi-reversible redox peak at formal potential of -0.255 V vs. Ag/AgCl corresponding to heme Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couple. It shows that the MHAM@Mag-NPs composite could increase the adsorption ability for Hb, thus provides a facile direct electron transfer between the Hb and the substrate. The proposed biosensor showed excellent electrocatalytic activity to the H2O2 reduction in the wide concentration range from 5.0 to 300.0 µM obtained by amperometric measurement. The Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) value of Hb at the modified electrode is 55.4 µM, showing its high affinity. Magnetic entrapment offers a promising design for fast, convenient and effective immobilization of protein within a few minutes for determination of the target molecule in low sample volume at disposable cost-effective SPCE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Colloids with continuously tunable surface charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ravensteijn, Bas G P; Kegel, Willem K

    2014-09-09

    In this paper, we present a robust way to tune the surface potential of polystyrene colloids without changing the pH, ionic strength, etc. The colloids are composed of a cross-linked polystyrene core and a cross-linked vinylbenzyl chloride layer. Besides the chlorine groups, the particle surface contains sulfate/sulfonate groups (arising from the polymerization initiators) that provide a negative surface potential. Performing a Menschutkin reaction on the surface chlorine groups with tertiary amines allows us to introduce quaternary, positively charged amines. The overall charge on the particles is then determined by the ratio between the sulfate/sulfonate moieties and the quaternary amines. Using this process, we were able to invert the charge in a continuous manner without losing colloidal stability upon passing the isoelectric point. The straightforward reaction mechanism together with the fact that the reaction could be quenched rapidly resulted in a colloidal system in which the ζ potential can be tuned between -80 and 45 mV. As proof of principle, the positively charged particles were used in heterocoagulation experiments with nanometer- and micrometer-sized negatively charged silica particles to create geometrically well-defined colloidal (nano) clusters.

  2. Surface charge measurement using an electrostatic probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1998-01-01

    During the 1960s, the first measurements of charge on dielectric surfaces using simple electrostatic probes were reported. However it is only within the last 10 years that a proper understanding of the probe response has been developed. This situation arose as a consequence of the earlier studies...

  3. Bubble entrapment through topological change

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2010-05-03

    When a viscousdrop impacts onto a solid surface, it entraps a myriad of microbubbles at the interface between liquid and solid. We present direct high-speed video observations of this entrapment. For viscousdrops, the tip of the spreading lamella is separated from the surface and levitated on a cushion of air. We show that the primary mechanism for the bubble entrapment is contact between this precursor sheet of liquid with the solid and not air pulled directly through cusps in the contact line. The sheet makes contact with the solid surface,forming a wetted patch, which grows in size, but only entraps a bubble when it meets the advancing contact line. The leading front of this wet patch can also lead to the localized thinning and puncturing of the liquid film producing strong splashing of droplets.

  4. Charge transport by holographic Fermi surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Faulkner, Thomas; Liu, Hong; McGreevy, John; Vegh, David

    2013-01-01

    We compute the contribution to the conductivity from holographic Fermi surfaces obtained from probe fermions in an AdS charged black hole. This requires calculating a certain part of the one-loop correction to a vector propagator on the charged black hole geometry. We find that the current dissipation is as efficient as possible and the transport lifetime coincides with the single-particle lifetime. In particular, in the case where the spectral density is that of a marginal Fermi liquid, the resistivity is linear in temperature.

  5. A coupled surface/subsurface flow model accounting for air entrapment and air pressure counterflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delfs, Jens Olaf; Wang, Wenqing; Kalbacher, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    the mass exchange between compartments. A benchmark test, which is based on a classic experimental data set on infiltration excess (Horton) overland flow, identified a feedback mechanism between surface runoff and soil air pressures. Our study suggests that air compression in soils amplifies surface runoff......This work introduces the soil air system into integrated hydrology by simulating the flow processes and interactions of surface runoff, soil moisture and air in the shallow subsurface. The numerical model is formulated as a coupled system of partial differential equations for hydrostatic (diffusive...... wave) shallow flow and two-phase flow in a porous medium. The simultaneous mass transfer between the soil, overland, and atmosphere compartments is achieved by upgrading a fully established leakance concept for overland-soil liquid exchange to an air exchange flux between soil and atmosphere. In a new...

  6. Surface area loss and increased sphericity account for the splenic entrapment of subpopulations of Plasmodium falciparum ring-infected erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Safeukui

    Full Text Available Ex vivo perfusion of human spleens revealed innate retention of numerous cultured Plasmodium falciparum ring-infected red blood cells (ring-iRBCs. Ring-iRBC retention was confirmed by a microsphiltration device, a microbead-based technology that mimics the mechanical filtering function of the human spleen. However, the cellular alterations underpinning this retention remain unclear. Here, we use ImageStream technology to analyze infected RBCs' morphology and cell dimensions before and after fractionation with microsphiltration. Compared to fresh normal RBCs, the mean cell membrane surface area loss of trophozoite-iRBCs, ring-iRBCs and uninfected co-cultured RBCs (uRBCs was 14.2% (range: 8.3-21.9%, 9.6% (7.3-12.2% and 3.7% (0-8.4, respectively. Microsphilters retained 100%, ∼50% and 4% of trophozoite-iRBCs, ring-iRBCs and uRBCs, respectively. Retained ring-iRBCs display reduced surface area values (estimated mean, range: 17%, 15-18%, similar to the previously shown threshold of surface-deficient RBCs retention in the human spleen (surface area loss: >18%. By contrast, ring-iRBCs that successfully traversed microsphilters had minimal surface area loss and normal sphericity, suggesting that these parameters are determinants of their retention. To confirm this hypothesis, fresh normal RBCs were exposed to lysophosphatidylcholine to induce a controlled loss of surface area. This resulted in a dose-dependent retention in microsphilters, with complete retention occurring for RBCs displaying >14% surface area loss. Taken together, these data demonstrate that surface area loss and resultant increased sphericity drive ring-iRBC retention in microsphilters, and contribute to splenic entrapment of a subpopulation of ring-iRBCs. These findings trigger more interest in malaria research fields, including modeling of infection kinetics, estimation of parasite load, and analysis of risk factors for severe clinical forms. The determination of the threshold of

  7. Bacterial resistance control on mineral surfaces of hydroxyapatite and human teeth via surface charge-driven antifouling coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venault, Antoine; Yang, Hui-Shan; Chiang, Yen-Che; Lee, Bor-Shuinn; Ruaan, Ruoh-Chyu; Chang, Yung

    2014-03-12

    This works reports a set of new functionalized polyethyleneimine (PEI) polymers, including a neutral PEGylated polymer PEI-g-PEGMA, a negatively charged polymer PEI-g-SA, and a zwitterionic polymer PEI-g-SBMA, and their use as antibiofouling coating agent for human teeth protection. Polymers were synthesized by Michael addition, XPS analysis revealed that each polymer could be efficiently coated onto hydroxyapatite, ceramic material used as a model tooth. Polymers carrying a negative net charge were more efficiently adsorbed, because of the establishment of electrostatic interactions with calcium ions. Protein adsorption tests revealed that two factors were important in the reduction of protein adsorption. Both the surface charge and the surface ability to bind and entrap water molecules had to be considered. PEI-g-SBMA, which zeta potential in PBS solution was negative, was efficient to inhibit the adsorption of BSA, a negative protein. On the other hand, it also resisted the adsorption of lysozyme, a positive protein, because zwitterionic molecules can easily entrap water and provide a very hydrophilic environment. Streptococcus mutans attachment tests performed unveiled that all modified polymers were efficient to resist this type of bacteria responsible for dental carries. Best results were also obtained with PEI-g-SBMA coating. This polymer was also shown to efficiently resist the adsorption of positively charged bacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia). Tests performed on real human tooth showed that PEI-g-SBMA could inhibit up to 70% of bacteria adhesion, which constitutes a major result considering that surface of teeth is very rough, therefore physically promoting the attachment of proteins and bacteria.

  8. Stabilization of organophosphorus hydrolase by entrapment in silk fibroin: formation of a robust enzymatic material suitable for surface coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Patrick B; Walker, Anne Y; Dickerson, Matthew B; Kaplan, David L; Naik, Rajesh R

    2012-07-09

    Organophosphates are some of the most acutely toxic compounds synthesized on an industrial scale, and organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) has the ability to hydrolyze and inactivate a number of these chemicals. However, OPH activity is vulnerable to harsh environmental conditions that would accompany its practical utility in the field; a limitation that can also be extended to conditions required for incorporation of OPH into useful materials. Here we present evidence that entrapment of OPH in silk fibroin leads to stabilization of OPH activity under a variety of conditions that would otherwise reduce free enzyme activity, such as elevated temperature, UV light exposure and the presence of detergent. Silk fibroin entrapment of OPH also allowed for its dispersal into a polyurethane-based coating that retained organophosphate hydrolysis activity after formulation, application and drying. Together, the data presented here demonstrate the utility of silk fibroin entrapment for the protection of OPH activity under a variety of environmental conditions.

  9. Scattered surface charge density: A tool for surface characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Naydenov, Borislav

    2011-11-28

    We demonstrate the use of nonlocal scanning tunneling spectroscopic measurements to characterize the local structure of adspecies in their states where they are significantly less perturbed by the probe, which is accomplished by mapping the amplitude and phase of the scattered surface charge density. As an example, we study single-H-atom adsorption on the n-type Si(100)-(4 × 2) surface, and demonstrate the existence of two different configurations that are distinguishable using the nonlocal approach and successfully corroborated by density functional theory. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  10. Influence of surface charge on the in vitro protein adsorption and cell cytotoxicity of paclitaxel loaded poly(ε-caprolactone nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathyamoorthy Nandhakumar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The biokinetic fate of polymeric nanoparticles in the physiological milieu is strongly influenced by its properties such as size, surface charge and surface affinity. The electrostatic properties of the polymeric nanoparticles and, thereby, the reliant properties such as cellular interactions, reactivity and toxicity, can be tailored by modulating the surface charge. Therefore, the present study aimed at studying the influence of surface charge on the physicochemical properties, in vitro protein adsorption and cell cytotoxicity of poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL nanoparticles (NPs. Paclitaxel loaded PCL nanoparticles were obtained by emulsion solvent evaporation extraction technique and differently charged using ionic surfactants. The NPs were characterized for size, zeta potential, morphology, entrapment and release. In vitro protein adsorption and cytotoxicity of NPs with different surface charge was investigated. The prepared NPs were rounded with a smooth surface and had a particle size less than 250 nm with narrow distribution and high entrapment efficiency (>80%. The zeta potential of the particles varied between −22 mV and +16 mV depending on its composition. The in vitro protein adsorption studies revealed that positively charged NPs adsorbed more proteins than other formulations. The cytotoxicity studies on MCF-7 cells exhibited that positively charged NPs engender the highest cell inhibition due to preferential uptake based on electrostatic interactions with cell membranes. The results suggest that surface charge could be undeniably significant in determining the protein adsorption and cellular interactions and must be intently considered during the design of colloidal particles to impart better performance in the physiological system. Keywords: Poly(ε-caprolactone, Nanoparticles, Surface charge, Protein adsorption, Cytotoxicity

  11. Surface-induced charge at the Ge (001) surface and its interaction with self-interstitials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiyama, Eiji; Sueoka, Koji [Department of Communication Engineering, Okayama Prefectural University, 111 Kuboki, Soja-shi, Okayama-ken 719-1197 (Japan); Vanhellemont, Jan [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2014-02-21

    The Ge (001) surface with dimer structure, is negatively charged while into the bulk, positive charges are observed even deeper than the fifteenth layer from the surface. This is different from the Si case. This charge distribution can lead to the repulsion of positively charged self-interstitials by the positively charged near surface layer in an implantation or irradiation process. Self-interstitial reflection by Ge surfaces had been proposed to explain the results of diffusion experiments during irradiation whereby positively charged self-interstitials are generated by collisions of highly energetic particles with Ge atoms. We investigated different Ge (001) surface comparing an as-cleaved surface with dangling bonds to a surface with dimer structure, and to a surface terminated by hydrogen atoms. The effect of these different surface terminations on the surface-induced charges in the near surface bulk were calculated by ab initio techniques.

  12. Role of protein surface charge in monellin sweetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wei-Feng; Szczepankiewicz, Olga; Thulin, Eva; Linse, Sara; Carey, Jannette

    2009-03-01

    A small number of proteins have the unusual property of tasting intensely sweet. Despite many studies aimed at identifying their sweet taste determinants, the molecular basis of protein sweetness is not fully understood. Recent mutational studies of monellin have implicated positively charged residues in sweetness. In the present work, the effect of overall net charge was investigated using the complementary approach of negative charge alterations. Multiple substitutions of Asp/Asn and Glu/Gln residues radically altered the surface charge of single-chain monellin by removing six negative charges or adding four negative charges. Biophysical characterization using circular dichroism, fluorescence, and two-dimensional NMR demonstrates that the native fold of monellin is preserved in the variant proteins under physiological solution conditions although their stability toward chemical denaturation is altered. A human taste test was employed to determine the sweetness detection threshold of the variants. Removal of negative charges preserves monellin sweetness, whereas added negative charge has a large negative impact on sweetness. Meta-analysis of published charge variants of monellin and other sweet proteins reveals a general trend toward increasing sweetness with increasing positive net charge. Structural mapping of monellin variants identifies a hydrophobic surface predicted to face the receptor where introduced positive or negative charge reduces sweetness, and a polar surface where charges modulate long-range electrostatic complementarity.

  13. Charge transmission through liquid neon and helium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galea, R [Nevis Laboratories, Columbia University, 136 South Broadway, P.O.Box 137, Irvington, NY, 10533 (United States); Dodd, J [Nevis Laboratories, Columbia University, 136 South Broadway, P.O.Box 137, Irvington, NY, 10533 (United States); Leltchouk, M [Nevis Laboratories, Columbia University, 136 South Broadway, P.O.Box 137, Irvington, NY, 10533 (United States); Willis, W [Nevis Laboratories, Columbia University, 136 South Broadway, P.O.Box 137, Irvington, NY, 10533 (United States); Rehak, P [Brookhaven National Laboratory, P.O. Box 5000, Upton, NY, 11973 (United States); Tcherniatine, V [Brookhaven National Laboratory, P.O. Box 5000, Upton, NY, 11973 (United States)

    2007-04-15

    The transmission of charges through liquid neon and helium surfaces was studied. It was found that the penetration of charges from the liquid to the gas phase is more complex than a simple barrier penetration. The effective surface trapping times of localized electrons in liquid neon is much longer than previously measured.

  14. Charge transmission through liquid neon and helium surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, R.; Dodd, J.; Leltchouk, M.; Willis, W.; Rehak, P.; Tcherniatine, V.

    2007-04-01

    The transmission of charges through liquid neon and helium surfaces was studied. It was found that the penetration of charges from the liquid to the gas phase is more complex than a simple barrier penetration. The effective surface trapping times of localized electrons in liquid neon is much longer than previously measured.

  15. Influences of process and formulation parameters on powder flow properties and immunogenicity of spray dried polymer particles entrapping recombinant pneumococcal surface protein A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anish, Chakkumkal; Upadhyay, Arun K; Sehgal, Devinder; Panda, Amulya Kumar

    2014-05-15

    Particle size, antigen load and its release characteristic are the three the main attributes of polymer particles based vaccine delivery systems. The present studies focus on the formulation of spray dried polylactide microparticles entrapping pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA). Influence of process variables during polymer particle formation were optimized by using half-factorial design. Feed rate and atomization pressure during spray drying were found to be the most important parameters for achieving uniform size particles. Spray drying of preformed particles from different stages of solvent evaporation method resulted in formation of particle having different porosity and protein release profile. Presence of polyvinyl alcohol in the external aqueous phase not only contributed towards regulating the size of particles but also influenced the burst release of protein from particles. Polymer particles entrapping PspA elicited robust IgG responses both in mice and in rats. Antigen load in microparticles correlated with the antibody titer indicating the maintenance of protein integrity during particle formation using spray drying. Both, process engineering and formulation parameters during spray drying influenced the particles in terms of size, load and antigen release characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Surface charging, discharging and chemical modification at a sliding contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S. V.; Kusano, Y.; Morgen, P.; Michelsen, P. K.

    2012-01-01

    Electrostatic charging, discharging, and consequent surface modification induced by sliding dissimilar surfaces have been studied. The surface-charge related phenomena were monitored by using a home-built capacitive, non-contact electrical probe, and the surface chemistry was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The experiments were performed on the disk surface of a ball-on-rotating-disk apparatus; using a glass disk and a Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) ball arrangement, and a polyester disks and a diamondlike carbon (DLC) coated steel ball arrangement. The capacitive probe is designed to perform highly resolved measurements, which is sensitive to relative change in charge density on the probed surface. For glass and Teflon arrangement, electrical measurements show that the ball track acquires non-uniform charging. Here not only the increase in charge density, but interestingly, increase in number of highly charged regions on the ball track was resolved. Threefold increase in the number of such highly charged regions per cycle was detected immediately before the gas breakdown-like incidences compared to that of other charge/discharge incidences at a fixed disk rotation speed. We are also able to comment on the behavior and the charge decay time in the ambient air-like condition, once the sliding contact is discontinued. XPS analysis showed a marginal deoxidation effect on the polyester disks due to the charging and discharging of the surfaces. Moreover, these XPS results clearly indicate that the wear and friction (sliding without charging) on the surface can be discarded from inducing such a deoxidation effect.

  17. Double Charged Surface Layers in Lead Halide Perovskite Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Sarmah, Smritakshi P.

    2017-02-01

    Understanding defect chemistry, particularly ion migration, and its significant effect on the surface’s optical and electronic properties is one of the major challenges impeding the development of hybrid perovskite-based devices. Here, using both experimental and theoretical approaches, we demonstrated that the surface layers of the perovskite crystals may acquire a high concentration of positively charged vacancies with the complementary negatively charged halide ions pushed to the surface. This charge separation near the surface generates an electric field that can induce an increase of optical band gap in the surface layers relative to the bulk. We found that the charge separation, electric field, and the amplitude of shift in the bandgap strongly depend on the halides and organic moieties of perovskite crystals. Our findings reveal the peculiarity of surface effects that are currently limiting the applications of perovskite crystals and more importantly explain their origins, thus enabling viable surface passivation strategies to remediate them.

  18. Mapping and Quantifying Surface Charges on Clay Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Gaikwad, Ravi; Hande, Aharnish; Das, Siddhartha; Thundat, Thomas

    2015-09-29

    Understanding the electrical properties of clay nanoparticles is very important since they play a crucial role in every aspect of oil sands processing, from bitumen extraction to sedimentation in mature fine tailings (MFT). Here, we report the direct mapping and quantification of surface charges on clay nanoparticles using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and electrostatic force microscopy (EFM). The morphology of clean kaolinite clay nanoparticles shows a layered structure, while the corresponding surface potential map shows a layer-dependent charge distribution. More importantly, a surface charge density of 25 nC/cm(2) was estimated for clean kaolinite layers by using EFM measurements. On the other hand, the EFM measurements show that the clay particles obtained from the tailings demonstrate a reduced surface charge density of 7 nC/cm(2), which may be possibly attributed to the presence of various bituminous compounds residing on the clay surfaces.

  19. Understanding colloidal charge renormilization from surface chemistry : experiment and theory

    OpenAIRE

    Gisler, Thomas; Schulz, S. F.; Borkovec, Michal; Sticher, Hans; Schurtenberger, Peter; D'Aguanno, Bruno; Klein, Rudolf

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we report on the charging behavior of latex particles in aqueous suspensions. We use static light scattering and acid-base titrations as complementary techniques to observe both effective and bare particle charges. Acid-base titrations at various ionic strengths provide the pH dependent charging curves. The surface chemical parameters (dissociation constant of the acidic carboxylic groups, total density of ionizable sites and Stem capacitance) are determined from tits of a Stem ...

  20. Interfacial biocatalysis on charged and immobilized substrates: the roles of enzyme and substrate surface charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Bob E; Kellis, James T; Cascão-Pereira, Luis G; Robertson, Channing R; Frank, Curtis W

    2011-01-04

    An enzyme charge ladder was used to examine the role of electrostatic interactions involved in biocatalysis at the solid-liquid interface. The reactive substrate consisted of an immobilized bovine serum albumin (BSA) multilayer prepared using a layer-by-layer technique. The zeta potential of the BSA substrate and each enzyme variant was measured to determine the absolute charge in solution. Enzyme adsorption and the rate of substrate surface hydrolysis were monitored for the enzyme charge ladder series to provide information regarding the strength of the enzyme-substrate interaction and the rate of interfacial biocatalysis. First, each variant of the charge ladder was examined at pH 8 for various solution ionic strengths. We found that for positively charged variants the adsorption increased with the magnitude of the charge until the surface became saturated. For higher ionic strength solutions, a greater positive enzyme charge was required to induce adsorption. Interestingly, the maximum catalytic rate was not achieved at enzyme saturation but at an invariable intermediate level of adsorption for each ionic strength value. Furthermore, the maximum achievable reaction rate for the charge ladder was larger for higher ionic strength values. We propose that diffusion plays an important role in interfacial biocatalysis, and for strong enzyme-substrate interaction, the rate of diffusion is reduced, leading to a decrease in the overall reaction rate. We investigated the effect of substrate charge by varying the solution pH from 6.1 to 8.7 and by examining multiple ionic strength values for each pH. The same intermediate level of adsorption was found to maximize the overall reaction rate. However, the ionic strength response of the maximum achievable rate was clearly dependent on the pH of the experiment. We propose that this observation is not a direct effect of pH but is caused by the change in substrate surface charge induced by changing the pH. To prove this

  1. Electrostatic behavior of the charge-regulated bacterial cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yongsuk; Brown, Derick G

    2008-05-06

    The electrostatic behavior of the charge-regulated surfaces of Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Bacillus brevis was studied using numerical modeling in conjunction with potentiometric titration and electrophoretic mobility data as a function of solution pH and electrolyte composition. Assuming a polyelectrolytic polymeric bacterial cell surface, these experimental and numerical analyses were used to determine the effective site numbers of cell surface acid-base functional groups and Ca(2+) sorption coefficients. Using effective site concentrations determined from 1:1 electrolyte (NaCl) experimental data, the charge-regulation model was able to replicate the effects of 2:1 electrolyte (CaCl(2)), both alone and as a mixture with NaCl, on the measured zeta potential using a single Ca(2+) surface binding constant for each of the bacterial species. This knowledge is vital for understanding how cells respond to changes in solution pH and electrolyte composition as well as how they interact with other surfaces. The latter is especially important due to the widespread use of the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory in the interpretation of bacterial adhesion. As surface charge and surface potential both vary on a charge-regulated surface, accurate modeling of bacterial interactions with surfaces ultimately requires use of an electrostatic model that accounts for the charge-regulated nature of the cell surface.

  2. Screening model for nanowire surface-charge sensors in liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Martin Hedegård; Mortensen, Asger; Brandbyge, Mads

    2007-01-01

    The conductance change of nanowire field-effect transistors is considered a highly sensitive probe for surface charge. However, Debye screening of relevant physiological liquid environments challenge device performance due to competing screening from the ionic liquid and nanowire charge carriers....

  3. Modeling the Electric Potential and Surface Charge Density Near Charged Thunderclouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, Matthew Stephen

    2018-03-01

    Thundercloud charge separation, or the process by which the bottom portion of a cloud gathers charge and the top portion of the cloud gathers the opposite charge, is still not thoroughly understood. Whatever the mechanism, though, a charge separation definitely exists and can lead to electrostatic discharge via cloud-to-cloud lightning and cloud-to-ground lightning. We wish to examine the latter form, in which upward leaders from Earth connect with downward leaders from the cloud to form a plasma channel and produce lightning. Much of the literature indicates that the lower part of a thundercloud becomes negatively charged while the upper part becomes positively charged via convective charging, although the opposite polarity can certainly exist along with various, complex intra-cloud currents. It is estimated that >90% of cloud-to-ground lightning is "negative lightning," or the flow of charges from the bottom of the cloud, while the remaining the flow of charges from the top of the cloud. We wish to understand the electric potential surrounding charged thunderclouds as well as the resulting charge density on the surface of Earth below them. In this paper we construct a simple and adaptable model that captures the very basic features of the cloud/ground system and that exhibits conditions favorable for both forms of lightning. In this way, we provide a practical application of electrostatic dipole physics as well as the method of images that can serve as a starting point for further modeling and analysis by students.

  4. Why Do Spacecraft Charge in Sunlight? Differential Charging and Surface Condition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lai, Shu T; Tautz, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    .... We compare the results with observations. The second reason concerns reflectance. Much attention has been paid in recent years to the effect of surface conditions on secondary emission, which plays an essential role in spacecraft charging...

  5. Surface charge effects in protein adsorption on nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramesh, M; Shimoni, O; Ostrikov, K; Prawer, S; Cervenka, J

    2015-03-19

    Understanding the interaction of proteins with charged diamond nanoparticles is of fundamental importance for diverse biomedical applications. Here we present a thorough study of protein binding, adsorption kinetics and structure on strongly positively (hydrogen-terminated) and negatively (oxygen-terminated) charged nanodiamond particles using a quartz crystal microbalance by dissipation and infrared spectroscopy. By using two model proteins (bovine serum albumin and lysozyme) of different properties (charge, molecular weight and rigidity), the main driving mechanism responsible for the protein binding to the charged nanoparticles was identified. Electrostatic interactions were found to dominate the protein adsorption dynamics, attachment and conformation. We developed a simple electrostatic model that can qualitatively explain the observed adsorption behaviour based on charge-induced pH modifications near the charged nanoparticle surfaces. Under neutral conditions, the local pH around the positively and negatively charged nanodiamonds becomes very high (11-12) and low (1-3) respectively, which has a profound impact on the protein charge, hydration and affinity to the nanodiamonds. Small proteins (lysozyme) were found to form multilayers with significant conformational changes to screen the surface charge, while larger proteins (albumin) formed monolayers with minor conformational changes. The findings of this study provide a step forward toward understanding and eventually predicting nanoparticle interactions with biofluids.

  6. Understanding colloidal charge renormalization from surface chemistry: Experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisler, T.; Schulz, S. F.; Borkovec, M.; Sticher, H.; Schurtenberger, P.; D'Aguanno, B.; Klein, R.

    1994-12-01

    In this paper we report on the charging behavior of latex particles in aqueous suspensions. We use static light scattering and acid-base titrations as complementary techniques to observe both effective and bare particle charges. Acid-base titrations at various ionic strengths provide the pH dependent charging curves. The surface chemical parameters (dissociation constant of the acidic carboxylic groups, total density of ionizable sites and Stern capacitance) are determined from fits of a Stern layer model to the titration data. We find strong evidence that the dissociation of protons is the only specific adsorption process. Effective particle charges are determined by fits of integral equation calculations of the polydisperse static structure factor to the static light scattering data. A generalization of the Poisson-Boltzmann cell model including the dissociation of the acidic surface groups and the autodissociation of water is used to predict effective particle charges from the surface chemical parameters determined by the titration experiments. We find that the light scattering data are best described by a model where a small fraction of the ionizable surface sites are sulfate groups which are completely dissociated at moderate pH. These effective charges are comparable to the predictions by a basic cell model where charge regulation is absent.

  7. Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Glass Surface Charging Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, Gabriel

    Charging behavior of multi-component display-type (i.e. low alkali) glass surfaces has been studied using a combination of experimental and theoretical methods. Data obtained by way of a Rolling Sphere Test (RST), streaming/zeta potential and surface energy measurements from commercially available display glass surfaces (Corning EAGLE XGRTM and Lotus(TM) XT) suggest that charge accumulation is highly dependent on surface treatment (chemical and/or physical modification) and measurement environment, presumably through reactionary mechanisms at the surface with atmospheric moisture. It has been hypothesized that water dissociation, along with the corresponding hydroxylation of the glass surface, are important processes related to charging in glass-metal contact systems. Classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations, in conjunction with various laboratory based measurements (RST, a newly developed ElectroStatic Gauge (ESG) and Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS)) on simpler Calcium AluminoSilicate (CAS) glass surfaces were used to further explore these phenomena. Analysis of simulated high-silica content (≥50%) (CAS) glass structures suggest that controlled variation of bulk chemistry can directly affect surface defect concentrations, such as non-bridging oxygen (NBO), which can be suitable high-energy sites for hydrolysis-type reactions to occur. Calculated NBO surface concentrations correlate well with charge based measurements on laboratory fabricated CAS surfaces. The data suggest that a directional/polar shift in contact-charge transfer occurs at low silica content (≤50%) where the highest concentrations of NBOs are observed. Surface charging sensitivity with respect to NBO concentration decreases as the relative humidity of the measurement environment increases; which should be expected as the highly reactive sites are progressively covered by liquid water layers. DRIFTS analysis of CAS powders expand on this analysis showing

  8. DETERMINATION OF SURFACE CHARGE DENSITY OF α ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    . ... include manufacture of aerospace housing, automotive and jet engines and lead acid batteries. [2]. In specialised ... diameter of one hydrated ion) from the surface of the oxide (ψd) are normally measured through methods such as ...

  9. Surface charging, discharging and chemical modification at a sliding contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Kusano, Yukihiro; Morgen, Per

    2012-01-01

    -ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The experiments were performed on the disk surface of a ball-on-rotating-disk apparatus; using a glass disk and a Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) ball arrangement, and a polyester disks and a diamondlike carbon (DLC) coated steel ball arrangement. The capacitive probe...... is designed to perform highly resolved measurements, which is sensitive to relative change in charge density on the probed surface. For glass and Teflon arrangement, electrical measurements show that the ball track acquires non-uniform charging. Here not only the increase in charge density, but interestingly...... indicate that the wear and friction (sliding without charging) on the surface can be discarded from inducing such a deoxidation effect. © 2012 American Institute of Physics...

  10. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D P

    2010-01-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome is a rare abnormality of the anatomical relationship between the popliteal artery and adjacent muscles or fibrous bands in the popliteal fossa. The following is a case report of a 19 year old female, in whom popliteal artery entrapment syndrome was diagnosed, and successfully treated surgically. A review of literature is also presented and provides details on how PAES is classified, diagnosed both clinically and radiologically, and treated surgically.

  11. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klooster, N.J.J.; Janevski, B.K.; Kitslaar, P.

    1988-01-01

    Two patients with unilateral popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) are reported. The importance of diligence in angiographic diagnosis and recognition of the so-called 'functional' PAES group as a separate entity are stressed. It is inferred from our material that a surgical approach for PAES is to be advocated since surgical release of the entrapment can lead to complete resolution of symptoms regardless of aetiology. (orig.) [de

  12. Chemical sensors based on surface charge transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtasebi, Amirmasoud; Kruse, Peter

    2018-02-01

    The focus of this review is an introduction to chemiresistive chemical sensors. The general concept of chemical sensors is briefly introduced, followed by different architectures of chemiresistive sensors and relevant materials. For several of the most common systems, the fabrication of the active materials used in such sensors and their properties are discussed. Furthermore, the sensing mechanism, advantages, and limitations of each group of chemiresistive sensors are briefly elaborated. Compared to electrochemical sensors, chemiresistive sensors have the key advantage of a simpler geometry, eliminating the need for a reference electrode. The performance of bulk chemiresistors can be improved upon by using freestanding ultra-thin films (nanomaterials) or field effect geometries. Both of those concepts have also been combined in a gateless geometry, where charge transport though a percolation network of nanomaterials is modulated via adsorbate doping.

  13. A surface diffuse scattering model for the mobility of electrons in surface charge coupled devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, M.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical model for the mobility of electrons in surface charge coupled devices is studied on the basis of the results previously obtained, considering a surface diffuse scattering; the importance of the results obtained for a better understanding of the influence of the fringing field in surface charge coupled devices is discussed. (author)

  14. Laboratory measurements of dusty surface charging in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kevin; Wang, Joseph

    2017-09-01

    A novel method is developed to study the charging of a conducting surface covered by a thin dust layer in plasma. The potential profile in the dust layer and the floating potential of the surface underneath are measured directly by embedding conducting wires in the dust and connecting the wires to a measurement plate outside the vacuum chamber, where a Trek non-contacting electrostatic voltmeter measures the floating potential of the measurement plate. Laboratory experiments are carried out to study plasma charging of a conducting plate covered by lunar dust simulant, JSC-1A. The results show that the plate potential is dependent on both the ambient plasma condition and the dust layer thickness. The current balance condition controls the floating potential of the dust surface while the dust layer acts as a capacitor and controls the potential of the plate with respect to the dust surface. Hence, a dust covered conducting plate will be charged more negatively than a clean plate.

  15. Direct quantification of negatively charged functional groups on membrane surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Tiraferri, Alberto

    2012-02-01

    Surface charge plays an important role in membrane-based separations of particulates, macromolecules, and dissolved ionic species. In this study, we present two experimental methods to determine the concentration of negatively charged functional groups at the surface of dense polymeric membranes. Both techniques consist of associating the membrane surface moieties with chemical probes, followed by quantification of the bound probes. Uranyl acetate and toluidine blue O dye, which interact with the membrane functional groups via complexation and electrostatic interaction, respectively, were used as probes. The amount of associated probes was quantified using liquid scintillation counting for uranium atoms and visible light spectroscopy for the toluidine blue dye. The techniques were validated using self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols with known amounts of charged moieties. The surface density of negatively charged functional groups of hand-cast thin-film composite polyamide membranes, as well as commercial cellulose triacetate and polyamide membranes, was quantified under various conditions. Using both techniques, we measured a negatively charged functional group density of 20-30nm -2 for the hand-cast thin-film composite membranes. The ionization behavior of the membrane functional groups, determined from measurements with toluidine blue at varying pH, was consistent with published data for thin-film composite polyamide membranes. Similarly, the measured charge densities on commercial membranes were in general agreement with previous investigations. The relative simplicity of the two methods makes them a useful tool for quantifying the surface charge concentration of a variety of surfaces, including separation membranes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Surface charge algebra in gauge theories and thermodynamic integrability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnich, Glenn; Compere, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    Surface charges and their algebra in interacting Lagrangian gauge field theories are constructed out of the underlying linearized theory using techniques from the variational calculus. In the case of exact solutions and symmetries, the surface charges are interpreted as a Pfaff system. Integrability is governed by Frobenius' theorem and the charges associated with the derived symmetry algebra are shown to vanish. In the asymptotic context, we provide a generalized covariant derivation of the result that the representation of the asymptotic symmetry algebra through charges may be centrally extended. Comparison with Hamiltonian and covariant phase space methods is made. All approaches are shown to agree for exact solutions and symmetries while there are differences in the asymptotic context

  17. Charged particle discrimination with silicon surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coote, G.E.; Pithie, J.; Vickridge, I.C.

    1996-01-01

    The application for materials analysis of nuclear reactions that give rise to charged particles is a powerful surface analytical and concentration depth profiling technique. Spectra of charged particles, with energies in the range 0.1 to 15 MeV, emitted from materials irradiated with beams of light nuclei such as deuterons are measured with silicon surface barrier detectors. The spectra from multi-elemental materials typically encountered in materials research are usually composed of an overlapping superposition of proton, alpha, and other charged particle spectra. Interpretation of such complex spectra would be simplified if a means were available to electronically discriminate between the detector response to the different kinds of charged particle. We have investigated two methods of discriminating between different types of charged particles. The fast charge pulses from a surface barrier detector have different shapes, depending on the spatial distribution of energy deposition of the incident particle. Fast digitisation of the pulses, followed by digital signal processing provides one avenue for discrimination. A second approach is to use a thin transmission detector in front of a thick detector as a detector telescope. For a given incident energy, different types of charged particles will lose different amounts of energy in the thin detector, providing an alternative means of discrimination. We show that both approaches can provide significant simplification in the interpretation of charged particle spectra in practical situations, and suggest that silicon surface barrier detectors having graded electronic properties could provide improved discrimination compared to the current generation of detectors having homogeneous electronic properties. (author).12 refs., 2 tabs., 28 figs

  18. Surface charge effects in protein adsorption on nanodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramesh, M.; Shimoni, O.; Ostrikov, K.; Prawer, S.; Cervenka, J.

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the interaction of proteins with charged diamond nanoparticles is of fundamental importance for diverse biomedical applications. Here we present a thorough study of protein binding, adsorption kinetics and structure on strongly positively (hydrogen-terminated) and negatively (oxygen-terminated) charged nanodiamond particles using a quartz crystal microbalance by dissipation and infrared spectroscopy. By using two model proteins (bovine serum albumin and lysozyme) of different properties (charge, molecular weight and rigidity), the main driving mechanism responsible for the protein binding to the charged nanoparticles was identified. Electrostatic interactions were found to dominate the protein adsorption dynamics, attachment and conformation. We developed a simple electrostatic model that can qualitatively explain the observed adsorption behaviour based on charge-induced pH modifications near the charged nanoparticle surfaces. Under neutral conditions, the local pH around the positively and negatively charged nanodiamonds becomes very high (11-12) and low (1-3) respectively, which has a profound impact on the protein charge, hydration and affinity to the nanodiamonds. Small proteins (lysozyme) were found to form multilayers with significant conformational changes to screen the surface charge, while larger proteins (albumin) formed monolayers with minor conformational changes. The findings of this study provide a step forward toward understanding and eventually predicting nanoparticle interactions with biofluids.Understanding the interaction of proteins with charged diamond nanoparticles is of fundamental importance for diverse biomedical applications. Here we present a thorough study of protein binding, adsorption kinetics and structure on strongly positively (hydrogen-terminated) and negatively (oxygen-terminated) charged nanodiamond particles using a quartz crystal microbalance by dissipation and infrared spectroscopy. By using two model proteins

  19. Cytotoxicity of surface-functionalized silicon and germanium nanoparticles: the dominant role of surface charges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhattacharjee, S.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Singh, M.P.; Atkins, T.M.; Purkait, T.K.; Xu, Z.; Regli, S.; Shukaliak, A.; Clark, R.J.; Mitchell, B.S.; Alink, G.M.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Fink, M.J.; Veinot, J.G.C.; Kauzlarich, S.M.; Zuilhof, H.

    2013-01-01

    Although it is frequently hypothesized that surface (like surface charge) and physical characteristics (like particle size) play important roles in cellular interactions of nanoparticles (NPs), a systematic study probing this issue is missing. Hence, a comparative cytotoxicity study, quantifying

  20. 3D electric field calculation with surface charge method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an outline and some examples of three dimensional electric field calculations with a computer code developed at NIRS. In the code, a surface charge method is adopted because of it's simplicity in the mesh establishing procedure. The charge density in a triangular mesh is assumed to distribute with a linear function of the position. The electric field distribution is calculated for a pair of drift tubes with the focusing fingers on the opposing surfaces. The field distribution in an acceleration gap is analyzed with a Fourier-Bessel series expansion method. The calculated results excellently reproduces the measured data with a magnetic model. (author)

  1. Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altintas, Ümit; Helgstrand, Ulf Johan Vilhelm; Hansen, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report our experience with popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) with special emphasis on the applicability of duplex ultrasound scanning (DUS) when diagnosing PAES. In addition to examining the correlation between DUS and intraoperative findings in symptoma......The purpose of this study was to report our experience with popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) with special emphasis on the applicability of duplex ultrasound scanning (DUS) when diagnosing PAES. In addition to examining the correlation between DUS and intraoperative findings...

  2. Influence of surface charge on lysozyme adsorption to ceria nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Binghui; Wu Peng; Yokel, Robert A.; Grulke, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding mechanisms for forming protein coronas on nanomaterial surfaces is essential to designing drug delivery systems and designing and interpreting the results of nanomaterial toxicity tests. The study reports the adsorption behavior of a positively charged protein, lysozyme, on cerium dioxide (ceria) nanoparticles with three different surface charges. Adsorption isotherms were modeled with the Toth and Sips equations. Isotherm loading levels were compared to monolayer coverage estimate for ‘side-on’ and ‘end-on’ lysozyme orientations as well as random packing (jamming) and maximum packing limits. Evaluation of adsorption site energy distributions (generated using the model coefficients) suggested that the negatively charged ceria surface had a very broad site energy distribution and that its surface heterogeneity controls the adsorption process. By contrast, the adsorption of lysozyme on the positively charged nanoparticles appears to be influenced by lateral effects from adsorbed protein species. The results illustrate the importance of nanoparticle surface chemistry to protein adsorption. The modeling and site energy distribution evaluations may be useful for interpreting the formation of protein coronas on nanoparticles.

  3. Surface Charge and Ion Sorption Properties of Titanium Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, M. K.; Machesky, M. L.; Wesolowski, D. J.; Finnegan, M. P.; Palmer, D. A.

    2001-12-01

    The interaction of submicron metal oxide particles with natural aqueous solutions results in the hydroxylation of surface sites, which impart a pH-dependent surface charge. The charged submicron particles influence processes such as nanoparticle assembly and alteration, crystal growth rates and morphologies, colloid flocculation, and contaminant transport. The surface charge and ion sorption properties of metal-oxide particles may be studied by potentiometric titrations, using hydrogen-electrode concentration-cells or traditional glass electrodes and an autotitrator. These techniques have been used to quantify the adsorption of various ions (Na+, Rb+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Cl-) on rutile, at ionic strengths up to 1.0 molality and temperatures to 250° C. The crystalline rutile used in these studies is less than 400 nm in diameter, has a BET surface area of 17 m2/g, and the 110 and 100 faces predominate. The negative surface charge of the rutile was enhanced by increasing temperature, increasing ionic strength, and decreasing the ionic radii of the electrolyte cation. Moreover, the addition of a divalent cation significantly enhances the negative charge of the rutile surface. These data have been rationalized with the MUSIC model of Hiemestra and van Riemsdijk, and a Basic Stern layer description of the electric double layer (EDL). Model fitting of the experimental data provides binding constants for the adsorbed counterions and divalent cations, and capacitance values as well as corresponding electrical potential values of the binding planes. Recently, new studies have been initiated to determine particle size affects on the proton induced surface charge and ion sorption properties of titanium dioxide. In these studies, anatase with a BET surface area of 40 and 100 m2/g (primary particle sizes of 40 and 10 nm, respectively) is being investigated. The complexity of both the experimental and modeling procedures increases with decreasing particle size. For example, the fine

  4. The protective nature of passivation films on zinc: surface charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muster, Tim H.; Cole, Ivan S.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of oxide surface charge on the corrosion performance of zinc metals was investigated. Oxidised zinc species (zinc oxide, zinc hydroxychloride, zinc hydroxysulfate and zinc hydroxycarbonate) with chemical compositions similar to those produced on zinc during atmospheric corrosion were formed as particles from aqueous solution, and as passive films deposited onto zinc powder, and rolled zinc, surfaces. Synthesized oxides were characterised by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The zeta potentials of various oxide particles, as determined by microelectrophoresis, are reported as a function of pH. Particulates containing a majority of zinc hydroxycarbonate and zinc hydroxysulfate crystallites were found to possess a negative surface charge below pH 6, whilst zinc oxide-hydroxide and zinc hydroxychloride crystallites possessed isoelectric points (IEP's) higher than pH 8. The ability of chloride species to pass through a bed of 3 μm diameter zinc powder was found to increase for surfaces possessing carboxy and sulfate surface species, suggesting that negatively charged surfaces can aid in the repulsion of chloride ions. Electrochemical analysis of the open-circuit potential as a function of time at a fixed pH of 6.5 showed that the chemical composition of passive films on zinc plates influenced the ability of chloride ions to access anodic sites for periods of approximately 1 h

  5. The control mechanism of surface traps on surface charge behavior in alumina-filled epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chuanyang; Hu, Jun; Lin, Chuanjie; He, Jinliang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the role surface traps play in the charge injection and transfer behavior of alumina-filled epoxy composites, surface traps with different trap levels are introduced by different surface modification methods which include dielectric barrier discharges plasma, direct fluorination, and Cr 2 O 3 coating. The resulting surface physicochemical characteristics of experimental samples were observed using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The surface potential under dc voltage was detected and the trap level distribution was measured. The results suggest that the surface morphology of the experimental samples differs dramatically after treatment with different surface modification methods. Different surface trap distributions directly determine the charge injection and transfer property along the surface. Shallow traps with trap level of 1.03–1.11 eV and 1.06–1.13 eV introduced by plasma and fluorination modifications are conducive for charge transport along the insulating surface, and the surface potential can be modified, producing a smoother potential curve. The Cr 2 O 3 coating can introduce a large number of deep traps with energy levels ranging from 1.09 to 1.15 eV. These can prevent charge injection through the reversed electric field formed by intensive trapped charges in the Cr 2 O 3 coatings. (paper)

  6. Electron capture by highly charged ions from surfaces and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, F.

    2008-01-11

    In this study highly charged ions produced in Electron Beam Ion Traps are used to investigate electron capture from surfaces and gases. The experiments with gas targets focus on spectroscopic measurements of the K-shell x-rays emitted at the end of radiative cascades following electron capture into Rydberg states of Ar{sup 17+} and Ar{sup 18+} ions as a function of collision energy. The ions are extracted from an Electron Beam Ion Trap at an energy of 2 keVu{sup -1}, charge-selected and then decelerated down to 5 eVu{sup -1} for interaction with an argon gas target. For decreasing collision energies a shift to electron capture into low orbital angular momentum capture states is observed. Comparative measurements of the K-shell x-ray emission following electron capture by Ar{sup 17+} and Ar{sup 18+} ions from background gas in the trap are made and a discrepancy in the results compared with those from the extraction experiments is found. Possible explanations are discussed. For the investigation of electron capture from surfaces, highly charged ions are extracted from an Electron Beam Ion Trap at energies of 2 to 3 keVu{sup -1}, charge-selected and directed onto targets comprising arrays of nanoscale apertures in silicon nitride membranes. The highly charged ions implemented are Ar{sup 16+} and Xe{sup 44+} and the aperture targets are formed by focused ion beam drilling in combination with ion beam assisted thin film deposition, achieving hole diameters of 50 to 300 nm and aspect ratios of 1:5 to 3:2. After transport through the nanoscale apertures the ions pass through an electrostatic charge state analyzer and are detected. The percentage of electron capture from the aperture walls is found to be much lower than model predictions and the results are discussed in terms of a capillary guiding mechanism. (orig.)

  7. Surface charge modulated aptasensor in a single glass conical nanopore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Sheng-Lin; Cao, Shuo-Hui; Zheng, Yu-Bin; Zhao, Shuang; Yang, Jin-Lei; Li, Yao-Qun

    2015-09-15

    In this work, we have proposed a label-free nanopore-based biosensing strategy for protein detection by performing the DNA-protein interaction inside a single glass conical nanopore. A lysozyme binding aptamer (LBA) was used to functionalize the walls of glass nanopore via siloxane chemistry and negatively charged recognition sites were thus generated. The covalent modification procedures and their recognition towards lysozyme of the single conical nanopore were characterized via ionic current passing through the nanopore membrane, which was measured by recording the current-voltage (I-V) curves in 1mM KCl electrolyte at pH=7.4. With the occurring of recognition event, the negatively charged wall was partially neutralized by the positively charged lysozyme molecules, leading to a sensitive change of the surface charge-dependent current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. Our results not only demonstrate excellent selectivity and sensitivity towards the target protein, but also suggest a route to extend this nanopore-based sensing strategy to the biosensing platform designs of a wide range of proteins based on a charge modulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Theory of the surface dipole layer and of surface tension in liquids of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senatore, G.; Tosi, M.P.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of the surface density profiles and of the surface tension of a two-component liquid of charged particles in equilibrium with its vapour is examined. The exact equilibrium conditions for the profiles are given in terms of the inverse response functions of the inhomogeneous fluid, and alternative exact expressions for the surface tension are derived. The use of a density gradient expansion reduces the problem to knowledge of properties of a homogeneous charged fluid on a uniform neutralizing background, in which the total particle density and the charge density are independent variables. Additional simplifications are discussed for special cases for which a perturbative treatment of the surface charge density profile can be developed, and in particular for nearly symmetric ionic liquids and for simple liquid metals. (author)

  9. Adsorption of cations onto positively charged surface mesopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neue, Uwe; Iraneta, Pamela; Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges

    2013-11-29

    Uwe Neue developed a theoretical treatment to account for the adsorption of ions on mesopores of packing materials the walls of which are bonded to ionic ligands but left this work unfinished. We elaborated upon this treatment and refined it, based on the equivalence that he suggested between charged surface particles and a membrane that separates two ionic solutions but is impermeable to one specification. He had written that the electro-chemical potentials in both ionic solutions are equal (Donnan equilibrium). The equilibrium between the surface and the pore concentrations is accounted for by an homogeneous electrostatically modified Langmuir (EML) isotherm model. The theoretical results are presented for four different charge surface concentrations σ0=0, 0.001, 0.002, and 0.003C/m(2), using a phosphate buffer (W(S)pH=2.65) of ionic strength I=10mM. The average pore size, the specific surface area, and the specific pore volume of the stationary phase were Dp=140Å, Sp=182m(2)/g, and Vp=0.70cm(3)/g, respectively. The theoretical results provide the quantitative difference between the ionic strength, the pH, and the concentrations of all the ions in the pores and in the bulk eluent. The theory predicts (1) that the retention times of cations under linear conditions is lower and (2) that their band widths under overloaded conditions for a given retention factor shrinks when the surface charge density σ0 is increased. These theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental results published previously and explain them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Surface Charge Transfer Doping of Monolayer Phosphorene via Molecular Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuanyuan; Xia, Feifei; Shao, Zhibin; Zhao, Jianwei; Jie, Jiansheng

    2015-12-03

    Monolayer phosphorene has attracted much attention owing to its extraordinary electronic, optical, and structural properties. Rationally tuning the electrical transport characteristics of monolayer phosphorene is essential to its applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices. Herein, we study the electronic transport behaviors of monolayer phosphorene with surface charge transfer doping of electrophilic molecules, including 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ), NO2, and MoO3, using density functional theory combined with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. F4TCNQ shows optimal performance in enhancing the p-type conductance of monolayer phosphorene. Static electronic properties indicate that the enhancement is originated from the charge transfer between adsorbed molecule and phosphorene layer. Dynamic transport behaviors demonstrate that additional channels for hole transport in host monolayer phosphorene were generated upon the adsorption of molecule. Our work unveils the great potential of surface charge transfer doping in tuning the electronic properties of monolayer phosphorene and is of significance to its application in high-performance devices.

  11. Interaction of slow highly charged ions with surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumayr, F. [Technische Universitaet Wien (Austria)

    1994-12-31

    A review will be presented on recent investigations concerning the interaction of slow ({le} 10{sup 6} m/s) ions in high charge states approaching a clean metal surface. Detailed information on the generation and decay of transiently formed multiply excited {open_quotes}hollow atoms{close_quotes} can be gained from the measurement of total yields and energy distributions of emitted electrons and, in particular, from the electron emission statistics. By comparing measured results with model calculations based on a recently extended classical over-barrier approach, different sources for the observed electron emission can be identified: autoionisation of the multiply excited hollow atoms on their way toward the surface; promotion above the vacuum barrier of electrons previously captured by the projectile, due to their self- and image-charge screening near the surface; `peeling-off` of electrons still bound in highly excited projectile states at the moment of surface impact, and finally; electron emission due to final subsurface de-excitation.

  12. Surface electrical charge of bloodstream trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora de Sousa

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Bloodstream trypomastigotes of some Trypanosoma cruzi strains were processed through DEAE-cellulose columns under standardized conditions. The results obtained suggest mainly that these strains present different surface charges, that there are subpopulations of bloodstream trypomastigotes as regards electrical charges and that the broad forms are less negative than the slender ones.Tripomastigotas sanguíneos de algumas cepas de Trypanosoma cruzi foram processadas em colunas de DEAE-celulose sob condições padronizadas. Os resultados obtidos sugerem principalmente que estas cepas possuem cargas superficiais diferentes, que em relação a este aspecto existem subpopulações de tripomastigotas e que as formas largas são menos negativas do que as finas.

  13. Ion association at discretely-charged dielectric interfaces: Giant charge inversion [Dielectric response controlled ion association at physically heterogeneous surfaces: Giant charge reversal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhi -Yong [Chongqing Univ. of Technology, Chongqing (China); Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Wu, Jianzhong [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2017-07-11

    Giant charge reversal has been identified for the first time by Monte Carlo simulation for a discretely charged surface in contact with a trivalent electrolyte solution. It takes place regardless of the surface charge density under study and the monovalent salt. In stark contrast to earlier predictions based on the 2-dimensional Wigner crystal model to describe strong correlation of counterions at the macroion surface, we find that giant charge reversal reflects an intricate interplay of ionic volume effects, electrostatic correlations, surface charge heterogeneity, and the dielectric response of the confined fluids. While the novel phenomenon is yet to be confirmed with experiment, the simulation results appear in excellent agreement with a wide range of existing observations in the subregime of charge inversion. Lastly, our findings may have far-reaching implications to understanding complex electrochemical phenomena entailing ionic fluids under dielectric confinements.

  14. Charge exchange, surface-induced dissociation and reactions of doubly charged molecular ions SF42+ upon impact on a stainless steel surface: A comparison with surface-induced dissociation of singly charged SF4+ molecular ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feketeová, L.; Grill, V.; Zappa, F.; Endstrasser, N.; Rasul, B.; Herman, Zdeněk; Scheier, P.; Märk, T. D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 276, č. 1 (2008), s. 37-42 ISSN 1387-3806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : doubly charged ion * surface-induced dissociations * surface-induced reaction * charge exchange Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.445, year: 2008

  15. Corrected Debye-Hückel analysis of surface complexation. II. A theory of surface charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Magnus; Abbas, Zareen; Ahlberg, Elisabet; Gobom, Sylvia; Nordholm, Sture

    2002-05-01

    A theory of surface charging of colloidal particles suspended in an electrolyte solution is presented. The charging at the particle surface is assumed to originate from the adsorption and desorption of protons and is therefore strongly dependent on the acidity of the solution. The surface binding of protons occurs locally at sites of occupancy zero or one that are described by a binding energy u(0) and a three-dimensional vibration of frequency nu. The diffuse screening of ions at the surface is described by the corrected Debye-Hückel analysis assuming linear response. The model contains a capacitor layer close to the charged surface and the finite size of the electrolyte ions is taken into account. The theory has been applied to titrated surface charge data on goethite (alpha-FeOOH) at NaClO(4) background concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 1.0 M. The protonation mechanism used in the modeling of these data corresponds to the 1-pK approach. A very good description of the experimental data was obtained at the highest ionic strength. Close to the pH(pzc) the theory also gave a good description at lower ionic strengths. However, at low salt concentrations and pH values far away from the pH(pzc) the electrostatic potential outside the capacitor layer becomes so high that nonlinear electrostatic effects become important and the theory therefore underestimates the surface charge. These results were compared with model calculations obtained using existing surface complexation models.

  16. Surface-confined electroactive molecules for multistate charge storage information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Torrent, M; Rovira, C; Veciana, J

    2013-01-18

    Bi-stable molecular systems with potential for applications in binary memory devices are raising great interest for device miniaturization. Particular appealing are those systems that operate with electrical inputs since they are compatible with existing electronic technologies. The processing of higher memory densities in these devices could be accomplished by increasing the number of memory states in each cell, although this strategy has not been much explored yet. Here we highlight the recent advances devoted to the fabrication of charge-storage molecular surface-confined devices exhibiting multiple states. Mainly, this goal has been realized immobilizing a variety (or a combination) of electroactive molecules on a surface, although alternative approaches employing non-electroactive systems have also been described. Undoubtedly, the use of molecules with chemically tunable properties and nanoscale dimensions are raising great hopes for the devices of the future in which molecules can bring new perspectives such as multistability.

  17. Electrokinetics of nanochannels and porous membranes with dynamic surface charges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Bækbo

    interesting because it relies on capillary filling, so it avoids the use of external forcing such as electric fields. Basically, during the filling of nanochannels by capillary action, the advancing electrolyte is titrated by deprotonation from the surface. This is observed using the pH-sensitive fluorescent....... Notably, we find that the conductance minimum is mainly caused by hydronium ions, and in our case almost exclusively due to carbonic acid generated from the dissolution of CO2 from the atmosphere. We carry out delicate experiments and measure the conductance of silica nanochannels as a function...... in the literature. Fourth, we use our model to predict a novel phenomenon called currentinduced membrane discharge (CIMD) to explain over-limiting current in ionexchange membranes. The model is based on dynamic surface charges in the membrane in equilibrium with the buffer. However, here we take the next step...

  18. [Suprascapular nerve entrapment syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, C; Druschky, K F; Sturm, U; Neundörfer, B; Fahlbusch, R

    1988-09-02

    Nineteen patients with isolated suprascapular entrapment neuropathy were seen between 1980 and 1986. A neurogenic cause and absence of other deficits were confirmed by electromyography. Electroneurographic tests were performed in 13 and demonstrated delayed conduction time and (or) reduction in stimulus response amplitude. In 16 patients there was an acute or chronic mechanical cause (direct pressure on the suprascapular nerve, forced dislocation of the shoulder blade). Two types of paralysis could be distinguished, an upper one affecting both the infra- and the supraspinatus muscles (12 patients), and a lower one involving only the infraspinatus muscle (4 patients). In two patients an inflammatory cause was considered likely, while in one the cause remained unclear. Restricting movement brought about an improvement in most patients, while in one the neurophysiological parameters improved after neurosurgical intervention, without complete clinical restoration.

  19. Effect of surface topography and morphology on space charge packets in polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yuanxiang; Wang Yunshan; Sun Qinghua; Wang Ninghua

    2009-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) is a major kind of internal insulating material. With great progresses of space charge measurement technologies in the last three decades, lots of researches are focused on space charge in PE. The heat pressing and annealing condition of polyethylene affect its morphology obviously. During the heat pressing, the surface of PE forms different surface topographies because of different substrate materials. Surface topography has great relation to the epitaxial crystallization layer and influences the space charge characteristic of PE dramatically. This paper studied the formation process of different surface topographies and their micrographic characters in low density polyethylene (LDPE). pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) method was used to measure the space charge distribution of samples with different surface topographies and morphologies in LDPE. The effect of surface topography and morphology to space charge packet were studied. The surface topography has great influence on space charge packet polarity and morphology has influence on both movement speed rate and polarity of space charge packet.

  20. Surface charge regulation upon polyelectrolyte adsorption, hematite, polystyrene sulfonate, surface charge regulation - Theoretical calculations and hematite-poly(styrene sulfonate) system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemsdijk, van W.H.; Koopal, L.K.; Stuart, M.A.C.; Klein Wolterink, J.

    2006-01-01

    The charge regulation of a mineral surface upon adsorption of a strong polyelectrolyte is studied theoretically and experimentally. Self-consistent-field calculations were done to evaluate the charge characteristics of a model oxide surface in the absence and presence of a linear strong

  1. Surface characterization and surface electronic structure of organic quasi-one-dimensional charge transfer salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sing, M.; Schwingenschlögl, U.; Claessen, R.

    2003-01-01

    We have thoroughly characterized the surfaces of the organic charge-transfer salts TTF-TCNQ and (TMTSF)(2)PF6 which are generally acknowledged as prototypical examples of one-dimensional conductors. In particular x-ray-induced photoemission spectroscopy turns out to be a valuable nondestructive d...

  2. Mapping surface charge density of lipid bilayers by quantitative surface conductivity microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Lasse Hyldgaard; Fuhs, Thomas; Dong, Mingdong

    2016-01-01

    Local surface charge density of lipid membranes influences membrane-protein interactions leading to distinct functions in all living cells, and it is a vital parameter in understanding membrane-binding mechanisms, liposome design and drug delivery. Despite the significance, no method has so far...

  3. 'Bootstrap' charging of surfaces composed of multiple materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.; Parks, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    The paper examines the charging of a checkerboard array of two materials, only one of which tends to acquire a negative potential alone, using the NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP). The influence of the charging material's field causes the otherwise 'non-charging' material to acquire a negative potential due to the suppression of its secondary emission ('bootstrap' charging). The NASCAP predictions for the equilibrium potential difference between the two materials are compared to results based on an analytical model.

  4. Surface charge method for molecular surfaces with curved areal elements I. Spherical triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2018-03-01

    Parametrizing a curved surface with flat triangles in electrostatics problems creates a diverging electric field. One way to avoid this is to have curved areal elements. However, charge density integration over curved patches appears difficult. This paper, dealing with spherical triangles, is the first in a series aiming to solve this problem. Here, we lay the ground work for employing curved patches for applying the surface charge method to electrostatics. We show analytically how one may control the accuracy by expanding in powers of the the arc length (multiplied by the curvature). To accommodate not extremely small curved areal elements, we have provided enough details to include higher order corrections that are needed for better accuracy when slightly larger surface elements are used.

  5. NTERACTION BETWEEN SURFACE CHARGE PHENOMENA AND MULTI-SPECIES DIFFUSION IN CEMENT BASED MATERIALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesson, Björn

    2008-01-01

    Measurements strongly indicate that the ‘inner’ surface of the microscopic structure of cement based materials has a fixed negative charge. This charge contributes to the formation of so-called electrical double layers. In the case of cement based materials the ionic species located in such layers...... are typically potassium -, sodium - and calcium ions. Due to the high specific surface area of hydrated cement, a large amount of ions can be located in theses double layers even if the surface charge is relatively low. The attraction force, caused by the fixed surface charge on ions located close to surfaces...

  6. Negligible water surface charge determined using Kelvin probe and total reflection X-ray fluorescence techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalov, Vladimir L; Möhwald, Helmuth; Konovalov, Oleg V; Knecht, Volker

    2013-09-07

    The water surface charge has been extensively debated in recent decades. Electrophoretic mobilities of air bubbles in water and disjoining pressures between the surfaces of aqueous films suggest that the surface of water exhibits a significant negative charge. This is commonly attributed to a strong adsorption of hydroxide ions at the interface, though spectroscopic measurements and simulation studies suggest surface depletion of hydroxide ions. Alternatively, the negative surface charge could arise from surface contamination with trace charged surfactants. We have probed the variation in the surface charge of water with pH by measuring surface potentials using the Kelvin probe technique. Independently, the abundance in the interfacial layer of "reporter ions" (Rb(+) and Br(-)), which must be affected by a charged surface, has been monitored using the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TRXF) technique. Special care was taken to prove the high sensitivity of this technique as well as to avoid surface contaminants. The magnitude of the surface charge was found to be below 1 e per 500 nm(2) (TRXF). No evidence of variations in the surface potential between pH 2-3 and pH 9-12 was detected within the accuracies of the methods (5 mV for Kelvin probe and 2 mV for TRXF). Hence, our findings suggest that the clean water surface exhibits negligible charge in a wide pH range.

  7. Specification of the Surface Charging Environment with SHIELDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, V.; Delzanno, G. L.; Henderson, M. G.; Godinez, H. C.; Jeffery, C. A.; Lawrence, E. C.; Meierbachtol, C.; Moulton, J. D.; Vernon, L.; Woodroffe, J. R.; Brito, T.; Toth, G.; Welling, D. T.; Yu, Y.; Albert, J.; Birn, J.; Borovsky, J.; Denton, M.; Horne, R. B.; Lemon, C.; Markidis, S.; Thomsen, M. F.; Young, S. L.

    2016-12-01

    Predicting variations in the near-Earth space environment that can lead to spacecraft damage and failure, i.e. "space weather", remains a big space physics challenge. A recently funded project through the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program aims at developing a new capability to understand, model, and predict Space Hazards Induced near Earth by Large Dynamic Storms, the SHIELDS framework. The project goals are to understand the dynamics of the surface charging environment (SCE), the hot (keV) electrons representing the source and seed populations for the radiation belts, on both macro- and microscale. Important physics questions related to rapid particle injection and acceleration associated with magnetospheric storms and substorms as well as plasma waves are investigated. These challenging problems are addressed using a team of world-class experts in the fields of space science and computational plasma physics, and state-of-the-art models and computational facilities. In addition to physics-based models (like RAM-SCB, BATS-R-US, and iPIC3D), new data assimilation techniques employing data from LANL instruments on the Van Allen Probes and geosynchronous satellites are developed. Simulations with the SHIELDS framework of the near-Earth space environment where operational satellites reside are presented. Further model development and the organization of a "Spacecraft Charging Environment Challenge" by the SHIELDS project at LANL in collaboration with the NSF Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) Workshop and the multi-agency Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) to assess the accuracy of SCE predictions are discussed.

  8. Effective Electrostatic Interactions Between Two Overall Neutral Surfaces with Quenched Charge Heterogeneity Over Atomic Length Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S.

    2017-12-01

    Using Monte Carlo results as a reference, a classical density functional theory ( CDFT) is shown to reliably predict the forces between two heterogeneously charged surfaces immersed in an electrolyte solution, whereas the Poisson-Boltzmann ( PB) theory is demonstrated to deteriorate obviously for the same system even if the system parameters considered fall within the validity range of the PB theory in the homogeneously charged surfaces. By applying the tested CDFT, we study the effective electrostatic potential of mean force ( EPMF) between two face-face planar and hard surfaces of zero net charge on which positive and negative charges are separated and considered to present as discontinuous spots on the inside edges of the two surfaces. Main conclusions are summarized as follows: (i) strength of the EPMF in the surface charge separation case is very sensitively and positively correlated with the surface charge separation level and valency of the salt ion. Particularly, the charge separation level and the salt ion valency have a synergistic effect, which makes high limit of the EPMF strength in the surface charge separation case significantly go beyond that of the ideal homogeneously charged surface counterpart at average surface charge density similar to the average surface positive or negative charge density in the charge separation case. (ii) The surface charge distribution patterns mainly influence sign of the EPMF: symmetrical and asymmetrical patterns induce repulsive and attractive (at small distances) EPMF, respectively; but with low valency salt ions and low charge separation level the opposite may be the case. With simultaneous presence of both higher valency cation and anion, the EPMF can be repulsive at intermediate distances for asymmetrical patterns. (iii) Salt ion size has a significant impact, which makes the EPMF tend to become more and more repulsive with the ion diameter regardless of the surface charge distribution patterns and the valency of

  9. Aspirin degradation in surface-charged TEMPO-oxidized mesoporous crystalline nanocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Daniel O; Hua, Kai; Forsgren, Johan; Mihranyan, Albert

    2014-01-30

    TEMPO-mediated surface oxidation of mesoporous highly crystalline Cladophora cellulose was used to introduce negative surface charges onto cellulose nanofibrils without significantly altering other structural characteristics. This enabled the investigation of the influence of mesoporous nanocellulose surface charges on aspirin chemical stability to be conducted. The negative surface charges (carboxylate content 0.44±0.01 mmol/g) introduced on the mesoporous crystalline nanocellulose significantly accelerated aspirin degradation, compared to the starting material which had significantly less surface charge (0.06±0.01 mmol/g). This effect followed from an increased aspirin amorphisation ability in mesopores of the oxidized nanocellulose. These results highlight the importance of surface charges in formulating nanocellulose for drug delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Colloids from oppositely charged polymers: reversibility and surface activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofs, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns the formation, solution properties, and adsorption of polyelectrolyte complexes composed of at least one diblock copolymer with a neutral and a charged block and either an oppositely charged homopolyelectrolyte or a diblock copolymer, with a neutral

  11. Highly charged ions impinging on a stepped metal surface under grazing incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robin, A; Niemann, D; Stolterfoht, N; Heiland, W

    We report on energy loss measurements and charge state distributions for 60 keV N6+ and 75 keV N5+ ions scattered off a Pt(110)(1x2) single crystal surface. In particular, the influence of surface steps on the energy loss and the outgoing charge states is discussed. The scattering angle and the

  12. Phosphorus solubility of agricultural soils: a surface charge and phosphorus-31 NMR speciation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated ten soils from six states in United States to determine the relationship between potentiometric titration derived soil surface charge and Phosphorus-31 (P) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) speciation with the concentration of water-extractable P (WEP). The surface charge value at the...

  13. The interplay between surface charging and microscale roughness during plasma etching of polymeric substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memos, George; Lidorikis, Elefterios; Kokkoris, George

    2018-02-01

    The surface roughness developed during plasma etching of polymeric substrates is critical for a variety of applications related to the wetting behavior and the interaction of surfaces with cells. Toward the understanding and, ultimately, the manipulation of plasma induced surface roughness, the interplay between surface charging and microscale roughness of polymeric substrates is investigated by a modeling framework consisting of a surface charging module, a surface etching model, and a profile evolution module. The evolution of initially rough profiles during plasma etching is calculated by taking into account as well as by neglecting charging. It is revealed, on the one hand, that the surface charging contributes to the suppression of root mean square roughness and, on the other hand, that the decrease of the surface roughness induces a decrease of the charging potential. The effect of charging on roughness is intense when the etching yield depends solely on the ion energy, and it is mitigated when the etching yield additionally depends on the angle of ion incidence. The charging time, i.e., the time required for reaching a steady state charging potential, is found to depend on the thickness of the polymeric substrate, and it is calculated in the order of milliseconds.

  14. Explaining electrostatic charging and flow of surface-modified acetaminophen powders as a function of relative humidity through surface energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallo, Laila J; Dave, Rajesh N

    2015-07-01

    Powder flow involves particle-particle and particle-vessel contacts and separation resulting in electrostatic charging. This important phenomenon was studied for uncoated and dry-coated micronized acetaminophen (MAPAP) as a function of relative humidity. The main hypothesis is that by modifying powder surface energy via dry coating of MAPAP performed using magnetically assisted impaction coating, its charging tendency, flow can be controlled. The examination of the relationship between electrostatic charging, powder flow, and the surface energies of the powders revealed that an improvement in flow because of dry coating corresponded to a decrease in the charging of the particles. A general trend of reduction in both electrostatic charging and dispersive surface energy with dry coating and relative humidity were also observed, except that a divergent behavior was observed at higher relative humidities (≥55% RH). The uncoated powder was found to have strong electron acceptor characteristic as compared with the dry coated. The adhesion energy between the particles and the tubes used for the electrostatic charging qualitatively predicted the decreasing trend in electrostatic charging from plastic tubes to stainless steel. In summary, the surface energies of the powders and the vessel could explain the electrostatic charging behavior and charge reduction because of dry coating. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  15. Surface charges for gravity and electromagnetism in the first order formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodden, Ernesto; Hidalgo, Diego

    2018-02-01

    A new derivation of surface charges for 3  +  1 gravity coupled to electromagnetism is obtained. Gravity theory is written in the tetrad-connection variables. The general derivation starts from the Lagrangian, and uses the covariant symplectic formalism in the language of forms. For gauge theories, surface charges disentangle physical from gauge symmetries through the use of Noether identities and the exactness symmetry condition. The surface charges are quasilocal, explicitly coordinate independent, gauge invariant and background independent. For a black hole family solution, the surface charge conservation implies the first law of black hole mechanics. As a check, we show the first law for an electrically charged, rotating black hole with an asymptotically constant curvature (the Kerr–Newman (anti-)de Sitter family). The charges, including the would-be mass term appearing in the first law, are quasilocal. No reference to the asymptotic structure of the spacetime nor the boundary conditions is required and therefore topological terms do not play a rôle. Finally, surface charge formulae for Lovelock gravity coupled to electromagnetism are exhibited, generalizing the one derived in a recent work by Barnich et al Proc. Workshop ‘ About Various Kinds of Interactions’ in honour of Philippe Spindel (4–5 June 2015, Mons, Belgium) C15-06-04 (2016 (arXiv:1611.01777 [gr-qc])). The two different symplectic methods to define surface charges are compared and shown equivalent.

  16. Simulating Supercapacitors: Can We Model Electrodes As Constant Charge Surfaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlet, Céline; Péan, Clarisse; Rotenberg, Benjamin; Madden, Paul A; Simon, Patrice; Salanne, Mathieu

    2013-01-17

    Supercapacitors based on an ionic liquid electrolyte and graphite or nanoporous carbon electrodes are simulated using molecular dynamics. We compare a simplified electrode model in which a constant, uniform charge is assigned to each carbon atom with a realistic model in which a constant potential is applied between the electrodes (the carbon charges are allowed to fluctuate). We show that the simulations performed with the simplified model do not provide a correct description of the properties of the system. First, the structure of the adsorbed electrolyte is partly modified. Second, dramatic differences are observed for the dynamics of the system during transient regimes. In particular, upon application of a constant applied potential difference, the increase in the temperature, due to the Joule effect, associated with the creation of an electric current across the cell follows Ohm's law, while unphysically high temperatures are rapidly observed when constant charges are assigned to each carbon atom.

  17. On the physics of both surface overcharging and charge reversal at heterophase interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Pengli; Ma, Zengwei

    2018-02-07

    The conventional paradigm for characterizing surface overcharging and charge reversal is based on the so-called Stern layer, in which surface dissociation reaction and specific chemical adsorption are assumed to take place. In this article, a series of Monte Carlo simulations have been applied to obtain useful insights into the underlying physics responsible for these two kinds of anomalous phenomena at the interface of two dielectrics, with special emphasis on the case of divalent counterions that are more relevant in natural and biological environments. At a weakly charged surface, it is found that independent of the type of surface charge distribution and the dielectric response of the solution, the overcharging event is universally driven by the ion size-asymmetric effect. Exceptionally, the overcharging still persists when the surface is highly charged but is only restricted to the case of discrete surface charge in a relatively low dielectric medium. As compared to the adsorption onto the homogeneously smeared charge surface that has the same average affinity for counterions, on the other hand, charge reversal under the action of a dielectric response can be substantially enhanced in the discrete surface charge representation due to strong association of counterions with interfacial groups, and the degree of enhancement depends in a nontrivial way on the reduction of the medium dielectric constant and the steric effects of finite ion size. Rather interestingly, the charge reversal is of high relevance to the overcharging of interfaces because the overwhelming interfacial association forces the coions closer to the surface due to their smaller size than the counterions. Upon the addition of a monovalent salt to the solution, the interfacial association with divalent counterions makes surface overcharging and charge reversal widely unaffected, in contrast to the prevailing notion that screening of surface charge of a homogeneous nature is determined by the

  18. Luminescent systems based on the isolation of conjugated PI systems and edge charge compensation with polar molecules on a charged nanostructured surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Zhao, Bin; Geohegan, David B.; Styers-Barnett, David J.; Hu, Hui

    2014-07-15

    A photoluminescent or electroluminescent system and method of making a non-luminescent nanostructured material into such a luminescent system is presented. The method of preparing the luminescent system, generally, comprises the steps of modifying the surface of a nanostructured material to create isolated regions to act as luminescent centers and to create a charge imbalance on the surface; applying more than one polar molecule to the charged surface of the nanostructured material; and orienting the polar molecules to compensate for the charge imbalance on the surface of the nanostructured material. The compensation of the surface charge imbalance by the polar molecules allows the isolated regions to exhibit luminescence.

  19. Theoretical study of the amphoteric oxide nanoparticle surface charge during multi-particle interactions in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfimov, A. V.; Aryslanova, E. M.; Chivilikhin, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    Nanoparticle surface charge plays an important role in many biological applications. In this study, an analytical surface charging model for the amphoteric oxide nanoparticles has been presented. The model accounts for the particle's electric double layer self-action on the charging process and the charge regulation during multi-particle interactions in aqueous solutions. The employment of the model allows to explicitly describe the nanoparticle agglomeration process and the accompanying agglomerate surface charge variation.

  20. Surface potential based modeling of charge, current, and capacitances in DGTFET including mobile channel charge and ambipolar behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Prateek; Yadav, Chandan; Agarwal, Amit; Chauhan, Yogesh Singh

    2017-08-01

    We present a surface potential based analytical model for double gate tunnel field effect transistor (DGTFET) for the current, terminal charges, and terminal capacitances. The model accounts for the effect of the mobile charge in the channel and captures the device physics in depletion as well as in the strong inversion regime. The narrowing of the tunnel barrier in the presence of mobile charges in the channel is incorporated via modeling of the inverse decay length, which is constant under channel depletion condition and bias dependent under inversion condition. To capture the ambipolar current behavior in the model, tunneling at the drain junction is also included. The proposed model is validated against TCAD simulation data and it shows close match with the simulation data.

  1. Effect of surface charge on the cellular uptake of fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kralj, Slavko, E-mail: slavko.kralj@ijs.si [Jozef Stefan Institute, Department for Materials Synthesis (Slovenia); Rojnik, Matija [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Pharmacy (Slovenia); Romih, Rok [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Cell Biology (Slovenia); Jagodic, Marko [Institute of Mathematics, Physics and Mechanics (Slovenia); Kos, Janko [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Pharmacy (Slovenia); Makovec, Darko [Jozef Stefan Institute, Department for Materials Synthesis (Slovenia)

    2012-10-15

    We report on the nanoparticle uptake into MCF10A neoT and PC-3 cells using flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, SQUID magnetometry, and transmission electron microscopy. The aim was to evaluate the influence of the nanoparticles' surface charge on the uptake efficiency. The surface of the superparamagnetic, silica-coated, maghemite nanoparticles was modified using amino functionalization for the positive surface charge (CNPs), and carboxyl functionalization for the negative surface charge (ANPs). The CNPs and ANPs exhibited no significant cytotoxicity in concentrations up to 500 {mu}g/cm{sup 3} in 24 h. The CNPs, bound to a plasma membrane, were intensely phagocytosed, while the ANPs entered cells through fluid-phase endocytosis in a lower internalization degree. The ANPs and CNPs were shown to be co-localized with a specific lysosomal marker, thus confirming their presence in lysosomes. We showed that tailoring the surface charge of the nanoparticles has a great impact on their internalization.

  2. Effect of surface charge on the cellular uptake of fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralj, Slavko; Rojnik, Matija; Romih, Rok; Jagodič, Marko; Kos, Janko; Makovec, Darko

    2012-10-01

    We report on the nanoparticle uptake into MCF10A neoT and PC-3 cells using flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, SQUID magnetometry, and transmission electron microscopy. The aim was to evaluate the influence of the nanoparticles' surface charge on the uptake efficiency. The surface of the superparamagnetic, silica-coated, maghemite nanoparticles was modified using amino functionalization for the positive surface charge (CNPs), and carboxyl functionalization for the negative surface charge (ANPs). The CNPs and ANPs exhibited no significant cytotoxicity in concentrations up to 500 μg/cm3 in 24 h. The CNPs, bound to a plasma membrane, were intensely phagocytosed, while the ANPs entered cells through fluid-phase endocytosis in a lower internalization degree. The ANPs and CNPs were shown to be co-localized with a specific lysosomal marker, thus confirming their presence in lysosomes. We showed that tailoring the surface charge of the nanoparticles has a great impact on their internalization.

  3. A numerical method for calculation of electrostatic charge distribution induced on conducting surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Hatamzadeh-Varmazyar; Zahra Masouri

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this article is on calculation of electrostatic charge distribution induced on conducting surfaces. For this purpose, the integral equation concept is used for mathematical modeling of the problem. A special set of exponential basis functions is introduced and defined to be used in formulation of a numerical method for solving the integral equation to obtain the charge distribution. The method is numerically evaluated via calculation of charge density for some structures by which...

  4. Charge Retention by Monodisperse Gold Clusters on Surfaces Prepared Using Soft Landing of Mass Selected Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Grant; Priest, Thomas; Laskin, Julia

    2012-02-01

    Monodisperse gold clusters have been prepared on surfaces in different charge states through soft landing of mass-selected ions. Gold clusters were synthesized in methanol solution by reduction of a gold precursor with a weak reducing agent in the presence of a diphosphine capping ligand. Electrospray ionization was used to introduce the clusters into the gas-phase and mass-selection was employed to isolate a single ionic cluster species which was delivered to surfaces at well controlled kinetic energies. Using in-situ time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) it is demonstrated that the cluster retains its 3+ charge state when soft landed onto the surface of a fluorinated self assembled monolayer on gold. In contrast, when deposited onto carboxylic acid terminated and conventional alkyl thiol surfaces on gold the clusters exhibit larger relative abundances of the 2+ and 1+ charge states, respectively. The kinetics of charge reduction on the surface have been investigated using in-situ Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance SIMS. It is shown that an extremely slow interfacial charge reduction occurs on the fluorinated monolayer surface while an almost instantaneous neutralization takes place on the surface of the alkyl thiol monolayer. Our results demonstrate that the size and charge state of small gold clusters on surfaces, both of which exert a dramatic influence on their chemical and physical properties, may be tuned through soft landing of mass-selected ions onto selected substrates.

  5. Strong coupling electrostatics for randomly charged surfaces: antifragility and effective interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodrat, Malihe; Naji, Ali; Komaie-Moghaddam, Haniyeh; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2015-05-07

    We study the effective interaction mediated by strongly coupled Coulomb fluids between dielectric surfaces carrying quenched, random monopolar charges with equal mean and variance, both when the Coulomb fluid consists only of mobile multivalent counterions and when it consists of an asymmetric ionic mixture containing multivalent and monovalent (salt) ions in equilibrium with an aqueous bulk reservoir. We analyze the consequences that follow from the interplay between surface charge disorder, dielectric and salt image effects, and the strong electrostatic coupling that results from multivalent counterions on the distribution of these ions and the effective interaction pressure they mediate between the surfaces. In a dielectrically homogeneous system, we show that the multivalent counterions are attracted towards the surfaces with a singular, disorder-induced potential that diverges logarithmically on approach to the surfaces, creating a singular but integrable counterion density profile that exhibits an algebraic divergence at the surfaces with an exponent that depends on the surface charge (disorder) variance. This effect drives the system towards a state of lower thermal 'disorder', one that can be described by a renormalized temperature, exhibiting thus a remarkable antifragility. In the presence of an interfacial dielectric discontinuity, the singular behavior of counterion density at the surfaces is removed but multivalent counterions are still accumulated much more strongly close to randomly charged surfaces as compared with uniformly charged ones. The interaction pressure acting on the surfaces displays in general a highly non-monotonic behavior as a function of the inter-surface separation with a prominent regime of attraction at small to intermediate separations. This attraction is caused directly by the combined effects from charge disorder and strong coupling electrostatics of multivalent counterions, which dominate the surface-surface repulsion due to

  6. Cryogenic germanium detectors for dark matter search: Surface events rejection by charge measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broniatowski, A.; Censier, B.; Juillard, A.; Berge, L.

    2006-01-01

    Test experiments have been performed on a Ge detector of the Edelweiss collaboration, combining time-resolved acquisition of the ionization signals with heat measurements. Pulse-shape analysis of the charge signals demonstrates the capability to reject surface events of poor charge collection with energies larger than 50 keV in ionization

  7. Adhesion of Mycobacterium smegmatis to Charged Surfaces and Diagnostics Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorse, Diane; Dhinojwala, Ali; Moore, Francisco

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) causes more than 1 million deaths annually. Smear microscopy is a primary rapid detection tool in areas where 95 % of PTB cases occur. This technique, in which the sputum of a symptomatic patient is stained and examined using a light microscope for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) shows sensitivity between 20 and 60 %. Insufficient bacterial isolation during sample preparation may be a reason for low sensitivity. We are optimizing a system to capture bacteria on the basis of electrostatic interactions to more thoroughly isolate bacteria from suspension and facilitate more accurate detection. Silica supports coated with positively-charged polyelectrolyte, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), captured approximately 4.1 times more Mycobacterium smegmatis, a model organism for MTB, than was captured on negatively-charged silica substrates. Future experimentation will employ branched polymer systems and seek to justify the use of colloidal stability theories to describe initial capture. Supported by University of Akron, Department of Polymer Science, Department of Biology; LORD Corporation.

  8. Parallel tempering Monte Carlo simulations of lysozyme orientation on charged surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yun; Zhou, Jian; Jiang, Shaoyi

    2010-02-01

    In this work, the parallel tempering Monte Carlo (PTMC) algorithm is applied to accurately and efficiently identify the global-minimum-energy orientation of a protein adsorbed on a surface in a single simulation. When applying the PTMC method to simulate lysozyme orientation on charged surfaces, it is found that lysozyme could easily be adsorbed on negatively charged surfaces with "side-on" and "back-on" orientations. When driven by dominant electrostatic interactions, lysozyme tends to be adsorbed on negatively charged surfaces with the side-on orientation for which the active site of lysozyme faces sideways. The side-on orientation agrees well with the experimental results where the adsorbed orientation of lysozyme is determined by electrostatic interactions. As the contribution from van der Waals interactions gradually dominates, the back-on orientation becomes the preferred one. For this orientation, the active site of lysozyme faces outward, which conforms to the experimental results where the orientation of adsorbed lysozyme is co-determined by electrostatic interactions and van der Waals interactions. It is also found that despite of its net positive charge, lysozyme could be adsorbed on positively charged surfaces with both "end-on" and back-on orientations owing to the nonuniform charge distribution over lysozyme surface and the screening effect from ions in solution. The PTMC simulation method provides a way to determine the preferred orientation of proteins on surfaces for biosensor and biomaterial applications.

  9. Characterization of the surface charge distribution on kaolinite particles using high resolution atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Naveen; Zhao, Cunlu; Klaassen, Aram Harold; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Sîretanu, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Most solid surfaces, in particular clay minerals and rock surfaces, acquire a surface charge upon exposure to an aqueous environment due to adsorption and/or desorption of ionic species. Macroscopic techniques such as titration and electrokinetic measurements are commonly used to determine the

  10. The influence of spherical cavity surface charge distribution on the sequence of partial discharge events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illias, Hazlee A [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Chen, George; Lewin, Paul L, E-mail: h.illias@um.edu.my [Tony Davies High Voltage Laboratory, School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-22

    In this work, a model representing partial discharge (PD) behaviour of a spherical cavity within a homogeneous dielectric material has been developed to study the influence of cavity surface charge distribution on the electric field distribution in both the cavity and the material itself. The charge accumulation on the cavity surface after a PD event and charge movement along the cavity wall under the influence of electric field magnitude and direction has been found to affect the electric field distribution in the whole cavity and in the material. This in turn affects the likelihood of any subsequent PD activity in the cavity and the whole sequence of PD events. The model parameters influencing cavity surface charge distribution can be readily identified; they are the cavity surface conductivity, the inception field and the extinction field. Comparison of measurement and simulation results has been undertaken to validate the model.

  11. LEO Orbit Surface Charging and Its Relationship to Environment, Vehicle Geometry, and Ionospheric Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fennell, Joseph F; Anderson, Phillip C

    2008-01-01

    .... Such surfaces can be both in shadow and in the satellite wake at the same time, which enhances the chances of charging in the dusk to pre-noon sector of the auroral oval, depending on plasma density...

  12. Influence of nanopore surface charge and magnesium ion on polyadenosine translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepoitevin, Mathilde; Coulon, Pierre Eugène; Bechelany, Mikhael; Cambedouzou, Julien; Janot, Jean-Marc; Balme, Sebastien

    2015-04-10

    We investigate the influence of a nanopore surface state and the addition of Mg(2+) on poly-adenosine translocation. To do so, two kinds of nanopores with a low aspect ratio (diameter ∼3-5 nm, length 30 nm) were tailored: the first one with a negative charge surface and the second one uncharged. It was shown that the velocity and the energy barrier strongly depend on the nanopore surface. Typically if the nanopore and polyA exhibit a similar charge, the macromolecule velocity increases and its global energy barrier of entrance in the nanopore decreases, as opposed to the non-charged nanopore. Moreover, the addition of a divalent chelating cation induces an increase of energy barrier of entrance, as expected. However, for a negative nanopore, this effect is counterbalanced by the inversion of the surface charge induced by the adsorption of divalent cations.

  13. The surface chemistry of divalent metal carbonate minerals; a critical assessment of surface charge and potential data using the charge distribution multi-site ion complexation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthers, M.; Charlet, L.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2008-01-01

    The Charge Distribution MUltiSite Ion Complexation or CD–MUSIC modeling approach is used to describe the chemical structure of carbonate mineralaqueous solution interfaces. The new model extends existing surface complexation models of carbonate minerals, by including atomic scale information on

  14. Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin entrapped in dextran film on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin (Hb) entrapped in the dextran (De) film on the surface of a room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF6) modified carbon paste electrode (CILE) has been investigated. UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy showed that Hb retained its native ...

  15. Enterococcus faecalis strains show culture heterogeneity in cell surface charge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Merode, Annet; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Waar, K; Krom, BP

    Adhesion of micro-organisms to biotic and abiotic surfaces is an important virulence factor and involves different types of interactions. Enterococcus faecalis, a human commensal and an important opportunistic pathogen, has the ability to adhere to surfaces. Biliary stents frequently become clogged

  16. Unipolar charging of nanoparticles by the Surface-discharge Microplasma Aerosol Charger (SMAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon-Bark; Sakurai, Hiromu; Seto, Takafumi

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, we report the development of a novel unipolar charger for nanoparticles, a system that achieves low particle loss and high charging efficiency without the use of sheath air. The efficient unipolar charging of the system is realized mainly by the surface-discharge microplasma unit, a device previously applied with good success to the neutralization or charging of submicron particles [Kwon et al., 2005, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 39, 987-1001; 2006, J. Aerosol Sci., 37, 483-499]. The unipolar charger generates unipolar ions using the surface discharge of a single electrode with a DC pulse supply. This marks an advance from our previous method of generating bipolar ions with the use of dual electrodes in earlier studies. We evaluated the efficiency of the penetration (or loss) and charging of nanoparticles in the size range of 3-15 nm, then compared the charging efficiencies measured with those predicted by diffusion charging theory. More than 90% of inlet nanoparticles penetrated the charger (less than 10% of the particle were lost) without the use of sheath air. Other chargers have only realized this high penetration efficiency by relying on sheath air flow. Moreover, the measured charging efficiencies agreed well with those predicted by diffusion charging theory and were somewhat higher and more size-dependent than the charging efficiencies of other nanoparticle chargers.

  17. Unipolar charging of nanoparticles by the Surface-discharge Microplasma Aerosol Charger (SMAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Soon-Bark [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Environment and Fire Control Research Team (Korea, Republic of); Sakurai, Hiromu [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, National Metrology Institute of Japan (Japan); Seto, Takafumi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Advanced Manufacturing Research Institute (Japan)], E-mail: t.seto@aist.go.jp

    2007-08-15

    In this paper, we report the development of a novel unipolar charger for nanoparticles, a system that achieves low particle loss and high charging efficiency without the use of sheath air. The efficient unipolar charging of the system is realized mainly by the surface-discharge microplasma unit, a device previously applied with good success to the neutralization or charging of submicron particles [Kwon et al., 2005, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 39, 987-1001; 2006, J. Aerosol Sci., 37, 483-499]. The unipolar charger generates unipolar ions using the surface discharge of a single electrode with a DC pulse supply. This marks an advance from our previous method of generating bipolar ions with the use of dual electrodes in earlier studies. We evaluated the efficiency of the penetration (or loss) and charging of nanoparticles in the size range of 3-15 nm, then compared the charging efficiencies measured with those predicted by diffusion charging theory. More than 90% of inlet nanoparticles penetrated the charger (less than 10% of the particle were lost) without the use of sheath air. Other chargers have only realized this high penetration efficiency by relying on sheath air flow. Moreover, the measured charging efficiencies agreed well with those predicted by diffusion charging theory and were somewhat higher and more size-dependent than the charging efficiencies of other nanoparticle chargers.

  18. Unipolar charging of nanoparticles by the Surface-discharge Microplasma Aerosol Charger (SMAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Soon-Bark; Sakurai, Hiromu; Seto, Takafumi

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we report the development of a novel unipolar charger for nanoparticles, a system that achieves low particle loss and high charging efficiency without the use of sheath air. The efficient unipolar charging of the system is realized mainly by the surface-discharge microplasma unit, a device previously applied with good success to the neutralization or charging of submicron particles [Kwon et al., 2005, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 39, 987-1001; 2006, J. Aerosol Sci., 37, 483-499]. The unipolar charger generates unipolar ions using the surface discharge of a single electrode with a DC pulse supply. This marks an advance from our previous method of generating bipolar ions with the use of dual electrodes in earlier studies. We evaluated the efficiency of the penetration (or loss) and charging of nanoparticles in the size range of 3-15 nm, then compared the charging efficiencies measured with those predicted by diffusion charging theory. More than 90% of inlet nanoparticles penetrated the charger (less than 10% of the particle were lost) without the use of sheath air. Other chargers have only realized this high penetration efficiency by relying on sheath air flow. Moreover, the measured charging efficiencies agreed well with those predicted by diffusion charging theory and were somewhat higher and more size-dependent than the charging efficiencies of other nanoparticle chargers

  19. Control of single-electron charging of metallic nanoparticles onto amorphous silicon surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Martin; Gmucová, Katarína; Nádazdy, Vojtech; Capek, Ignác; Satka, Alexander; Kopáni, Martin; Cirák, Július; Majková, Eva

    2008-11-01

    Sequential single-electron charging of iron oxide nanoparticles encapsulated in oleic acid/oleyl amine envelope and deposited by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique onto Pt electrode covered with undoped hydrogenated amorphous silicon film is reported. Single-electron charging (so-called quantized double-layer charging) of nanoparticles is detected by cyclic voltammetry as current peaks and the charging effect can be switched on/off by the electric field in the surface region induced by the excess of negative/positive charged defect states in the amorphous silicon layer. The particular charge states in amorphous silicon are created by the simultaneous application of a suitable bias voltage and illumination before the measurement. The influence of charged states on the electric field in the surface region is evaluated by the finite element method. The single-electron charging is analyzed by the standard quantized double layer model as well as two weak-link junctions model. Both approaches are in accordance with experiment and confirm single-electron charging by tunnelling process at room temperature. This experiment illustrates the possibility of the creation of a voltage-controlled capacitor for nanotechnology.

  20. Sorption of chrysoidine by row cork and cork entrapped in calcium alginate beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria M. Nurchi

    2014-01-01

    The influence on the sorption of pH, initial dye concentration, and particle size, as well as the efficiency of the entrapment, have been investigated. The maximum sorption was found for cork samples of fine particle size (FC, in both row and entrapped forms, at pH 7; conversely, at pH 4 the difference is significant (0.12 mmol/g for row cork and 0.20 mmol/g for entrapped cork, evoking a cooperation of alginate in binding the positively charged chrysoidine molecule.

  1. Concentration polarization and desalination in nanochannels: Effect of surface charge dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Mathias B.; Bruus, Henrik; Mani, Ali; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2011-11-01

    Mani, Zangle, and Santiago (Langmuir, 25, 3898-3916) have shown that at microchannel-nanochannel junctions the coupled effect of concentration polarization and surface conduction can lead to long range propagation of bulk ion-depletion shocks. Essential for this phenomena is the surface charge which for many materials depends on both the concentration and the pH of the local bulk electrolyte. Standard models predict that the surface charge decreases with decreasing concentration leading to the contradictory expectation that there is little or no surface charge in the depleted region and hence no mechanism to sustain long range propagation of desalination shocks. We show that this simple prediction fails to take into account axial transport terms. As such, we couple a surface charge model with the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for electric potential and ionic species combined with the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations for fluid velocity. Motivated by experimental work we consider steady-state solutions at the dead end of a nanochannel against a membrane, a scenario where especially space charge and electroosmotic flow are important. Our results suggest that the surface charge density remains finite and does not vanish, and even grows, as the depletion front propagates through the channel.

  2. Biofouling in membrane bioreactors: nexus between polyacrylonitrile surface charge and community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbelia, Lisendra; Hernalsteens, Marie-Aline; Ilyas, Shazia; Öztürk, Basak; Szymczyk, Anthony; Springael, Dirk; Vankelecom, Ivo

    2018-02-15

    The influence of membrane surface charge on biofouling community composition during activated sludge filtration in a membrane bioreactor was investigated in this study using polyacrylonitrile-based membranes. Membranes with different surface properties were synthesized by phase inversion followed by a layer-by-layer modification. Various characterization results showed that the membranes differed only in their surface chemical composition and charge, ie two of them were negative, one neutral and one positive. Membrane fouling experiments were performed for 40 days and the biofouling communities were analyzed. PCR-DGGE fingerprinting indicated selective enrichment of bacterial populations from the sludge suspension within the biofilms at any time point. The biofilm community composition seemed to change with time. However, no difference was observed between the biofilm community of differently charged membranes at specific time points. It could be concluded that membrane charges do not play a decisive role in the long-term selection of the key bacterial foulants.

  3. Dynamics of surface screening charges on domains of BiFeO3 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-xing Gu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of surface screening charges on BiFeO3 films with pre-written stripe domains was studied with surface potential measurements by Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy. The screening effect decays exponentially over time, and this decay is slower in the arrays with wider domains or larger intervals of domains, indicating that the in-plane diffusion of the surface screening charges plays a major role in the decay dynamics. The good agreement between experimental data and theoretical results based on diffusion-drift model confirms the mechanism of in-plane diffusion of the screening charges in the decay dynamics. Our work could provide a pathway to control the data stability of charge storage by artificially designing the ferroelectric domains.

  4. Effect of plasma-induced surface charging on catalytic processes: application to CO2 activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Kristof M.; Huygh, Stijn; Bogaerts, Annemie; Neyts, Erik C.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the nature and effect of the multitude of plasma–surface interactions in plasma catalysis is a crucial requirement for further process development and improvement. A particularly intriguing and rather unique property of a plasma-catalytic setup is the ability of the plasma to modify the electronic structure, and hence chemical properties, of the catalyst through charging, i.e. the absorption of excess electrons. In this work, we develop a quantum chemical model based on density functional theory to study excess negative surface charges in a heterogeneous catalyst exposed to a plasma. This method is specifically applied to investigate plasma-catalytic CO2 activation on supported M/Al2O3 (M = Ti, Ni, Cu) single atom catalysts. We find that (1) the presence of a negative surface charge dramatically improves the reductive power of the catalyst, strongly promoting the splitting of CO2 to CO and oxygen, and (2) the relative activity of the investigated transition metals is also changed upon charging, suggesting that controlled surface charging is a powerful additional parameter to tune catalyst activity and selectivity. These results strongly point to plasma-induced surface charging of the catalyst as an important factor contributing to the plasma-catalyst synergistic effects frequently reported for plasma catalysis.

  5. Interaction of singly and multiply charged ions with a lithium-fluoride surface

    CERN Document Server

    Wirtz, L

    2001-01-01

    Charge transfer between slow ions and an ionic crystal surface still poses a considerable challenge to theory due to the intrinsic many-body character of the system. For the neutralization of multiply charged ions in front of metal surfaces, the Classical Over the Barrier (COB) model is a widely used tool. We present an extension of this model to ionic crystal surfaces where the localization of valence electrons at the anion sites and the lack of cylindrical symmetry of the ion-surface system impede a simple analytical estimate of electron transfer rates. We use a classical trajectory Monte Carlo approach to calculate electron transfer rates for different charge states of the projectile ion. With these rates we perform a Monte Carlo simulation of the neutralization of slow Ne10+ ions in vertical incidence on an LiF surface. Capture of one or several electrons may lead to a local positive charge up of the surface. The projectile dynamics depends on the balance between the repulsion due to this charge and the a...

  6. X-ray emission in slow highly charged ion-surface collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, H; Abe, T; Fujita, Y; Sun, J; Takahashi, S; Tona, M; Yoshiyasu, N; Nakamura, N; Sakurai, M; Yamada, C; Ohtani, S

    2007-01-01

    X-rays emitted in the collisions of highly charged ions with a surface have been measured to investigate dissipation schemes of their potential energies. While 8.1% of the potential energy was dissipated in the collisions of He-like I ions with a W surface, 29.1% has been dissipated in the case of He-like Bi ions. The x-ray emissions play significant roles in the dissipation of the potential energies in the interaction of highly charged heavy ions with the surface

  7. Growth and decay of surface charges in grafts of Teflon in electrets states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinelli, I.M.M.

    1971-01-01

    The greatest problem founded in a cardiovascular implant is the thrombus formation. Teflon grafts were used in electret state for prothesis in vena cava of dogs. To put these grafts in an electret state a corona discharge in air was used and homocharge was formed predominantly. To measure the formed surface charge the oscillating capacitor technique was used. In the electret state the grafts have showed an initial density of charge of 10- 8 C/cm 2 and the charge decay and time decay of the samples were measured under many conditions. We found two activation energies, E 2 =0.17 e V and E 3 =1.12 e V, due to rapid and slow decay, respectively. The charged grafts were sterilized with ethilene gas oxide and this process apparently did not influence the charges

  8. Screening charge localization at LiNbO{sub 3} surface with Schottky junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Takahiro, E-mail: NAGATA.Takahiro@nims.go.jp; Chikyow, Toyohiro [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Kitamura, Kenji [Environment and Energy Materials Division, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2016-04-25

    Screening charge localization was demonstrated by using a Schottky contact with LiNbO{sub 3} (LN). A Cr/LN stack structure with a 2 μm diameter hole array penetrating the Cr layer localized the screening charge of LN in the hole, although the Al/LN stack structure exhibited no surface charge localization behavior. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that Cr formed a Schottky contact with LN, which prevents the screening charge from escaping from the hole arrays. The screening charge localization was enhanced by inserting SiO{sub 2} between the metal and LN, which moved the position of the Fermi level to mid gap.

  9. Charge retention by gold clusters on surfaces prepared using soft landing of mass selected ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Grant E; Priest, Thomas; Laskin, Julia

    2012-01-24

    Monodisperse gold clusters have been prepared on surfaces in different charge states through soft landing of mass-selected ions. Ligand-stabilized gold clusters were prepared in methanol solution by reduction of chloro(triphenylphosphine)gold(I) with borane tert-butylamine complex in the presence of 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane. Electrospray ionization was used to introduce the clusters into the gas phase, and mass selection was employed to isolate a single ionic cluster species (Au(11)L(5)(3+), L = 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane), which was delivered to surfaces at well-controlled kinetic energies. Using in situ time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), it is demonstrated that the Au(11)L(5)(3+) cluster retains its 3+ charge state when soft landed onto the surface of a 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecanethiol self-assembled monolayer (FSAM) on gold. In contrast, when deposited onto 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (COOH-SAM) and 1-dodecanethiol (HSAM) surfaces on gold, the clusters exhibit larger relative abundances of the 2+ and 1+ charge states, respectively. The kinetics of charge reduction on the FSAM and HSAM surfaces are investigated using in situ Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) SIMS. It is shown that an extremely slow interfacial charge reduction occurs on the FSAM surface while an almost instantaneous neutralization takes place on the surface of the HSAM. Our results demonstrate that the size and charge state of small gold clusters on surfaces, both of which exert a dramatic influence on their chemical and physical properties, may be tuned through soft landing of mass-selected ions onto carefully selected substrates. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. Ulnar nerve entrapment by anconeus epitrochlearis ligament.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tiong, William H C

    2012-01-01

    Ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow is the second most common upper limb entrapment neuropathy other than carpal tunnel syndrome. There have been many causes identified ranging from chronic aging joint changes to inflammatory conditions or systemic disorders. Among them, uncommon anatomical variants accounts for a small number of cases. Here, we report our experience in managing ulnar nerve entrapment caused by a rare vestigial structure, anconeus epitrochlearis ligament, and provide a brief review of the literature of its management.

  11. Insight into induced charges at metal surfaces and biointerfaces using a polarizable Lennard-Jones potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geada, Isidro Lorenzo; Ramezani-Dakhel, Hadi; Jamil, Tariq; Sulpizi, Marialore; Heinz, Hendrik

    2018-02-19

    Metallic nanostructures have become popular for applications in therapeutics, catalysts, imaging, and gene delivery. Molecular dynamics simulations are gaining influence to predict nanostructure assembly and performance; however, instantaneous polarization effects due to induced charges in the free electron gas are not routinely included. Here we present a simple, compatible, and accurate polarizable potential for gold that consists of a Lennard-Jones potential and a harmonically coupled core-shell charge pair for every metal atom. The model reproduces the classical image potential of adsorbed ions as well as surface, bulk, and aqueous interfacial properties in excellent agreement with experiment. Induced charges affect the adsorption of ions onto gold surfaces in the gas phase at a strength similar to chemical bonds while ions and charged peptides in solution are influenced at a strength similar to intermolecular bonds. The proposed model can be applied to complex gold interfaces, electrode processes, and extended to other metals.

  12. Surface treatment of silica nanoparticles for stable and charge-controlled colloidal silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Hye Min; Lee, Won-Jae; Lee, Chang-Woo; Kim, Tae-il; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Jeong, Jayoung; Paek, Seung-Min; Oh, Jae-Min

    2014-01-01

    An attempt was made to control the surface charge of colloidal silica nanoparticles with 20 nm and 100 nm diameters. Untreated silica nanoparticles were determined to be highly negatively charged and have stable hydrodynamic sizes in a wide pH range. To change the surface to a positively charged form, various coating agents, such as amine containing molecules, multivalent metal cation, or amino acids, were used to treat the colloidal silica nanoparticles. Molecules with chelating amine sites were determined to have high affinity with the silica surface to make agglomerations or gel-like networks. Amino acid coatings resulted in relatively stable silica colloids with a modified surface charge. Three amino acid moiety coatings (L-serine, L-histidine, and L-arginine) exhibited surface charge modifying efficacy of L-histidine > L-arginine > L-serine and hydrodynamic size preservation efficacy of L-serine > L-arginine > L-histidine. The time dependent change in L-arginine coated colloidal silica was investigated by measuring the pattern of the backscattered light in a Turbiscan™. The results indicated that both the 20 nm and 100 nm L-arginine coated silica samples were fairly stable in terms of colloidal homogeneity, showing only slight coalescence and sedimentation. PMID:25565824

  13. Dependence of Lunar Surface Charging on Solar Wind Plasma Conditions and Solar Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, T. J.; Farrell, W. M.; Halekas, J. S.; Burchill, J. K.; Collier, M. R.; Zimmerman, M. I.; Vondrak, R. R.; Delory, G. T.; Pfaff, R. F.

    2014-01-01

    The surface of the Moon is electrically charged by exposure to solar radiation on its dayside, as well as by the continuous flux of charged particles from the various plasma environments that surround it. An electric potential develops between the lunar surface and ambient plasma, which manifests itself in a near-surface plasma sheath with a scale height of order the Debye length. This study investigates surface charging on the lunar dayside and near-terminator regions in the solar wind, for which the dominant current sources are usually from the pohotoemission of electrons, J(sub p), and the collection of plasma electrons J(sub e) and ions J(sub i). These currents are dependent on the following six parameters: plasma concentration n(sub 0), electron temperature T(sub e), ion temperature T(sub i), bulk flow velocity V, photoemission current at normal incidence J(sub P0), and photo electron temperature T(sub p). Using a numerical model, derived from a set of eleven basic assumptions, the influence of these six parameters on surface charging - characterized by the equilibrium surface potential, Debye length, and surface electric field - is investigated as a function of solar zenith angle. Overall, T(sub e) is the most important parameter, especially near the terminator, while J(sub P0) and T(sub p) dominate over most of the dayside.

  14. The Natural Charge On The Surface Of The Earth | Mamah | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The natural electric charge or its artificial analogue as the fundamental unit of exploration has been fundamentally derived and compared for both the equatorial region and the polar region. The ratio of the unit charge on the surface of the earth at the equatorial region (ω ± ω0) = 0.59 rad where ω0 = 1.65; to that at the polar ...

  15. Application of »Mass Titration« to Determination of Surface Charge of Metal Oxides

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    The mass titration method, used for the point of zero charge determination, was extended to the measurement of the surface charge density. The results agree with the common method, which is the acid-base titration of the colloidal suspension. The advantage of mass titration is that one does not need to perform blank titration, instead one simply adds metal oxide powder to the electrolyte aqueous solution of known pH. To cover the pH range above and below the point of zero charge, two experime...

  16. Surface and charge transport characterization of polyaniline-cellulose acetate composite membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaiser, Asif A; Hyland, Margaret M; Patterson, Darrell A

    2011-02-24

    This study elucidates the charge transport processes of polyaniline (PANI) composite membranes and correlates them to the PANI deposition site and the extent of PANI surface layering on the base microporous membranes. PANI was deposited either as a surface layer or inside the pores of cellulose acetate microporous membranes using various in situ chemical polymerization techniques. The extent of PANI layering at the surface of the base membrane and its oxidation and doping states were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). PANI deposition on the membranes showed a strong dependence on the polymerization technique and polymerization time within a single technique. In XPS, the deconvolution of C 1s and N 1s core-level spectra of the composite membranes was used to quantify the extent of PANI layering at the surface along with its oxidation and doping states. PANI incompletely covered the surface of the base microporous membranes for all the employed techniques. However, the extent of the layering increased with the polymerization time in a particular technique. The charge transport through the bulk membrane and charge transfer at the membrane/electrode interface were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The data were analyzed using the equivalent circuit modeling technique. The modeling parameters revealed that PANI deposition at the surface enhanced the interfacial charge transfer but the process depended on the extent of the surface coverage of the membrane. In addition, the charge transport in the bulk membrane depended on the PANI intercalation level, which varied depending on the polymerization technique employed. In addition, the EIS of electrolyte-soaked membranes was also conducted to evaluate the effects of PANI deposition site on charge transport in the presence of an electrolyte. PANI layering at the pore walls of the base membrane from diaphragmatic polymerization

  17. Effects of Surface Charges on Dental Implants: Past, Present, and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Yan Guo; Jukka Pekka Matinlinna; Alexander Tin Hong Tang

    2012-01-01

    Osseointegration is a major factor influencing the success of dental implantation. To achieve rapid and strong, durable osseointegration, biomaterial researchers have investigated various surface treatment methods for dental subgingival titanium (Ti) implants. This paper focuses on surface-charge modification on the surface of titanium dental implants, which is a relatively new and very promising methodology for improving the implants' osseointegration properties. We give an overview on both ...

  18. Comparison of diffusion charging and mobility-based methods for measurement of aerosol agglomerate surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Bon Ki; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2012-05-01

    We compare different approaches to measure surface area of aerosol agglomerates. The objective was to compare field methods, such as mobility and diffusion charging based approaches, with laboratory approach, such as Brunauer, Emmett, Teller (BET) method used for bulk powder samples. To allow intercomparison of various surface area measurements, we defined 'geometric surface area' of agglomerates (assuming agglomerates are made up of ideal spheres), and compared various surface area measurements to the geometric surface area. Four different approaches for measuring surface area of agglomerate particles in the size range of 60-350 nm were compared using (i) diffusion charging-based sensors from three different manufacturers, (ii) mobility diameter of an agglomerate, (iii) mobility diameter of an agglomerate assuming a linear chain morphology with uniform primary particle size, and (iv) surface area estimation based on tandem mobility-mass measurement and microscopy. Our results indicate that the tandem mobility-mass measurement, which can be applied directly to airborne particles unlike the BET method, agrees well with the BET method. It was also shown that the three diffusion charging-based surface area measurements of silver agglomerates were similar within a factor of 2 and were lower than those obtained from the tandem mobility-mass and microscopy method by a factor of 3-10 in the size range studied. Surface area estimated using the mobility diameter depended on the structure or morphology of the agglomerate with significant underestimation at high fractal dimensions approaching 3.

  19. Ion distributions at charged aqueous surfaces: Synchrotron X-ray scattering studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Wei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Surface sensitive synchrotron X-ray scattering studies were performed to obtain the distribution of monovalent ions next to a highly charged interface at room temperature. To control surface charge density, lipids, dihexadecyl hydrogen-phosphate (DHDP) and dimysteroyl phosphatidic acid (DMPA), were spread as monolayer materials at the air/water interface, containing CsI at various concentrations. Five decades in bulk concentrations (CsI) are investigated, demonstrating that the interfacial distribution is strongly dependent on bulk concentration. We show that this is due to the strong binding constant of hydronium H3O+ to the phosphate group, leading to proton-transfer back to the phosphate group and to a reduced surface charge. Using anomalous reflectivity off and at the L3 Cs+ resonance, we provide spatial counterion (Cs+) distributions next to the negatively charged interfaces. The experimental ion distributions are in excellent agreement with a renormalized surface charge Poisson-Boltzmann theory for monovalent ions without fitting parameters or additional assumptions. Energy Scans at four fixed momentum transfers under specular reflectivity conditions near the Cs+ L3 resonance were conducted on 10-3 M CsI with DHDP monolayer materials on the surface. The energy scans exhibit a periodic dependence on photon momentum transfer. The ion distributions obtained from the analysis are in excellent agreement with those obtained from anomalous reflectivity measurements, providing further confirmation to the validity of the renormalized surface charge Poisson-Boltzmann theory for monovalent ions. Moreover, the dispersion corrections f0 and f00 for Cs+ around L3 resonance, revealing the local environment of a Cs+ ion in the solution at the interface, were extracted simultaneously with output of ion distributions.

  20. Proton surface charge determination in Spodosol horizons with organically bound aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyllberg, Ulf; Borggaard, Ole K.

    1998-05-01

    Net proton surface charge densities were determined in O, E, Bh, and Bs horizons of a sandy till, Spodosol from Denmark, by means of acid-base titration combined with ion adsorption in 0.005 M Ca(NO 3) 2 and independent permanent charge determination. The release of organic anions exceeded the adsorption of NO 3-, resulting in a desorption of anions in all horizons. Data were found to obey the law of balance between surface charges and adsorbed ions only when charges pertaining to Al and organic anions released during the titration experiments were accounted for, in addition to charges pertaining the potential determining ions (PDI) H + and OH - and the index ions Ca 2+ and NO 3-. It was furthermore shown that the point of zero net proton charge (PZNPC) in soils highly depends on the concentration of organically bound Al. Approaches previously used in soils, in which adsorbed Al n+ has been ignored (i.e., considered equivalent to nH + as a PDI), resulted in a PZNPC of 4.1 in the Bs horizon. If instead organically bound Al was accounted for as a counter-ion similar to 3/2Ca 2+, a PZNPC of 2.9 was obtained for the same Bs horizon. Based on PZNPC values estimated by the latter approach, combined with a weak-acid analog, it was shown that organic proton surface charges buffered pH with a similar intensity in the O, E, Bh, and Bs horizons of this study. Because the acidity of Al adsorbed to conjugate bases of soil organic acids is substantially weaker than the acidity of the corresponding protonated form of the organic acids, the point of zero net proton charge (PZNPC) will increase if the concentration of organically adsorbed Al increases at the expense of adsorbed H. This means that PZNPC values determined for soils with unknown concentrations of organically adsorbed Al are highly operational and not very meaningful as references.

  1. Phase behavior of charged colloids on spherical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Colm; Guerra, Rodrigo; Chaikin, Paul

    For a broad class of 2D materials, the transition from isotropic fluid to crystalline solid is described by the theory of melting due to Kosterlitz, Thouless, Halperin, Nelson and Young. According to this theory, long-range order is achieved via elimination of the topological defects which proliferate in the fluid phase. However, many natural and man-made 2D systems posses spatial curvature and/or non-trivial topology, which require the presence of defects, even at T = 0 . In principle, the presence of these defects could profoundly affect the phase behavior of such a system. In this presentation, we describe experiments and simulations we have performed on repulsive particles which are bound to the surface of a sphere. We observe spatial structures and inhomogeneous dynamics that cannot be captured by the measures traditionally used to describe flat-space phase behavior. We show that ordering is achieved by a novel mechanism: sequestration of topological defects into freely-terminating grain boundaries (``scars''), and simultaneous spatial organization of the scars themselves on the vertices of an icosahedron. The emergence of icosahedral order coincides with the localization of mobility into isolated ``lakes'' of fluid or glassy particles, situated at the icosahedron vertices.

  2. Self-Amplified Surface Charging and Partitioning of Ionic Liquids in Nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Justin N.; Van Aken, K. L.; Gogotsi, Y.; Wesolowski, David J.; Wu, Jianzhong

    2017-09-01

    We study ion partitioning and self-charging of nanoporous electrodes with room-temperature ionic liquids using a classical density-functional theory that accounts for molecular-excluded volume effects and electrostatic correlations. Nanopores of zero electrical potential are predicted to favor adsorption of small ions even without specific surface attraction, and the imbalanced distributions of cations and anions inside the pore induces a net surface charge that promotes further enrichment of small ions. The self-amplified ion partitioning is most significant when the nanopore and the ionic species are of comparable dimension.

  3. Influence of the projectile charge state on electron emission spectra from a Cu(111) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archubi, C. D.; Silkin, V. M.; Gravielle, M. S.

    2015-09-01

    Double differential electron emission distributions produced by grazing impact of fast dressed ions on a Cu(111) surface are investigated focusing on the effects of the electronic band structure. The process is described within the Band-Structure-Based approximation, which is a perturbative method that includes an accurate representation of the electron-surface interaction, incorporating information of the electronic band structure of the solid. Differences in the behavior of the emission spectra for He+ q, Li+ q, Be+ q and C+ q projectiles with different charge states q are explained by the combined effect of the projectile trajectory and the projectile charge distribution.

  4. Robust doubly charged nodal lines and nodal surfaces in centrosymmetric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzdušek, Tomáš; Sigrist, Manfred

    2017-10-01

    Weyl points in three spatial dimensions are characterized by a Z -valued charge—the Chern number—which makes them stable against a wide range of perturbations. A set of Weyl points can mutually annihilate only if their net charge vanishes, a property we refer to as robustness. While nodal loops are usually not robust in this sense, it has recently been shown using homotopy arguments that in the centrosymmetric extension of the AI symmetry class they nevertheless develop a Z2 charge analogous to the Chern number. Nodal loops carrying a nontrivial value of this Z2 charge are robust, i.e., they can be gapped out only by a pairwise annihilation and not on their own. As this is an additional charge independent of the Berry π -phase flowing along the band degeneracy, such nodal loops are, in fact, doubly charged. In this manuscript, we generalize the homotopy discussion to the centrosymmetric extensions of all Atland-Zirnbauer classes. We develop a tailored mathematical framework dubbed the AZ +I classification and show that in three spatial dimensions such robust and multiply charged nodes appear in four of such centrosymmetric extensions, namely, AZ +I classes CI and AI lead to doubly charged nodal lines, while D and BDI support doubly charged nodal surfaces. We remark that no further crystalline symmetries apart from the spatial inversion are necessary for their stability. We provide a description of the corresponding topological charges, and develop simple tight-binding models of various semimetallic and superconducting phases that exhibit these nodes. We also indicate how the concept of robust and multiply charged nodes generalizes to other spatial dimensions.

  5. suprascapular nerve entrapment secondary to compression at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-16

    Feb 16, 2010 ... entrapment syndrome in English literature (2,3) but in fact the first description of suprascapular nerve entrapment was provided by André ... suprascapular nerve injury proximal to the branch to supraspinatus muscle. ... suprascapular notch, most of the time the reason is supraglenoid cyst as reported by ...

  6. Common peroneal nerve entrapment with the communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sciatic nerve divides into tibial nerve and common peroneal nerve at the level of superior angle of popliteal fossa and variations in its branching pattern are common. The most common nerve entrapment syndrome in the lower limbs is common peroneal nerve entrapment at fibular head. Invariably it can also be trapped in ...

  7. Influence of radioactivity on surface charging and aggregation kinetics of particles in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Lee, Ida; McFarlane, Joanna; Tsouris, Costas

    2014-01-01

    Radioactivity can influence surface interactions, but its effects on particle aggregation kinetics have not been included in transport modeling of radioactive particles. In this research, experimental and theoretical studies have been performed to investigate the influence of radioactivity on surface charging and aggregation kinetics of radioactive particles in the atmosphere. Radioactivity-induced charging mechanisms have been investigated at the microscopic level, and heterogeneous surface potential caused by radioactivity is reported. The radioactivity-induced surface charging is highly influenced by several parameters, such as rate and type of radioactive decay. A population balance model, including interparticle forces, has been employed to study the effects of radioactivity on particle aggregation kinetics in air. It has been found that radioactivity can hinder aggregation of particles because of similar surface charging caused by the decay process. Experimental and theoretical studies provide useful insights into the understanding of transport characteristics of radioactive particles emitted from severe nuclear events, such as the recent accident of Fukushima or deliberate explosions of radiological devices.

  8. Nerve entrapment after hamstring injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrer, Heinz; Nauck, Tanja; Konerding, Moritz A

    2012-09-01

    Hamstring muscle injuries are a frequent cause of athletic sequelae, and the frequency of reinjuries is high. Frequently, disability in sport is the consequence and performance is limited. A case report of a soccer player who was unable to play his sport after a minor hamstring muscle injury is presented. We introduce a previously undescribed lesion featured by a scar compromising a motor branch of the sciatic nerve to the long head of the biceps femoris muscle. Resection of the involved branch of the nerve resulted in complete pain relief and full sport capacity. This case report demonstrates that in very rare cases, a scar tissue-induced intramuscular entrapment of a branch of the sciatic nerve must be considered as a reason for athletic incapacity after minor hamstring injury. Both the degree of a muscular injury and its specific location within the injured muscle may therefore influence the functional outcome.

  9. Neutralization and equilibration of highly charged argon ions at grazing incidence on a graphite surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winecki, S.; Cocke, C.L.; Stoeckli, M.P.; Fry, D.

    1996-01-01

    Final charge state distributions of argon ions, scattered grazingly from a smooth highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface, have been measured as a function of initial charge state (q=4-17) and impact velocity (v=0.15-0.62 a.u.). The final charge state distribution changes strongly with the impact velocity, but is almost independent of the initial charge state. The neutralization during grazing-angle scattering is compared to the charge state equilibration experienced by ions passing through a solid (carbon foil), and these two processes seem to have common properties. A K x-ray spectrum from the K-shell vacancy decay of 51 keV Ar 17+ projectiles was obtained as a function of the angle between the ion beam and the surface. First measurements of x-ray spectra in coincidence with grazingly scattered ions are reported. A simple model for argon neutralization near and below the surface is proposed. The model assumes a direct side-feeding into the Ar M-shell followed by Auger and radiative L and K-shell filling

  10. Charge reversal of the rodlike colloidal fd virus through surface chemical modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenkun; Buitenhuis, Johan; Cukkemane, Abhishek; Brocker, Melanie; Bott, Michael; Dhont, Jan K G

    2010-07-06

    There is increasing interest in the use of viruses as model systems for fundamental research and as templates for nanomaterials. In this work, the rodlike fd virus was subjected to chemical modifications targeting different solvent-exposed functional groups in order to tune its surface properties, especially reversing the surface charge from negative to positive. The carboxyl groups of fd were coupled with different kinds of organic amines by carbodiimide chemistry, resulting in modified viruses that are positively charged over a wide range of pH. Care was taken to minimize intervirus cross linking, which often occurs because of such modifications. The surface amino groups were also grafted with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) end-functionalized with an active succinimidyl ester in order to introduce a steric stabilization effect. By combining charge reversal with PEG grafting, a reversible attraction between positively and negatively charged PEG-grafted fd viruses could be realized, which was tuned by the ionic strength of the solution. In addition, a charge-reversed fd virus forms only a pure nematic phase in contrast to the cholesteric phase of the wild type. These modified viruses might be used as model systems in soft condensed matter physics, for example, in the study of polyelectrolyte complexes or lyotropic liquid-crystalline phase behavior.

  11. Electrokinetic effect combined with surface-charge assumption: a possible generation mechanism of coseismic EM signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hengxin; Wen, Jian; Huang, Qinghua; Chen, Xiaofei

    2015-02-01

    According to field observations, electromagnetic (EM) signals accompanying seismic waves can be recorded. The orders of magnitude of observed coseismic electric and magnetic signals associated with earthquakes are usually around 1 to 101 mV km-1 and 10-2 to 1 nT, respectively. In this paper, we carry out numerical simulation of coseismic EM signals associated with seismic waves due to electrokinetic effect and compare with field observations. The seismic source is represented by a finite fault measuring 15 × 9 km2 with a max slip displacement 1.5 m, corresponding to a Mw 5.9 earthquake. While using the EM surface boundary condition of continuous horizontal EM components, the magnetic signals only accompany the late-arriving S waves at receiver near the ground surface. This is obviously different from field observations. Thus, we adopt another EM surface boundary condition which assumes the ground surface carries surface charge. For the used half-space model, a surface-charge density magnitude |Qsc| in excess of 10-4 C m-2 is sufficient to make horizontal magnetic components clearly show up at the whole time duration of seismic waves. When |Qsc| increases, the contribution of surface-charge density to coseismic EM signals becomes more and more dominant comparing with that of the seismically induced streaming-current. We estimate the Qsc expected at the Earth's surface might be a value between -5 × 10-4 and -0.1 C m-2 by the comparison between numerical results and field observations. The vertical magnetic signals only accompany the late-arriving seismic waves, because they are theoretically only induced by SH wave. The field observation results of vertical magnetic signals may be resulted from the scattering effect or the seismic dynamo effect. We conclude that electrokinetic effect combined with surface-charge assumption is one possible generation mechanism of the observed coseismic EM signals.

  12. Single ion induced surface nanostructures: a comparison between slow highly charged and swift heavy ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumayr, Friedrich; Facsko, Stefan; El-Said, Ayman S; Trautmann, Christina; Schleberger, Marika

    2011-10-05

    This topical review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the formation of surface nanostructures, an intriguing phenomenon in ion-surface interaction due to the impact of individual ions. In many solid targets, swift heavy ions produce narrow cylindrical tracks accompanied by the formation of a surface nanostructure. More recently, a similar nanometric surface effect has been revealed for the impact of individual, very slow but highly charged ions. While swift ions transfer their large kinetic energy to the target via ionization and electronic excitation processes (electronic stopping), slow highly charged ions produce surface structures due to potential energy deposited at the top surface layers. Despite the differences in primary excitation, the similarity between the nanostructures is striking and strongly points to a common mechanism related to the energy transfer from the electronic to the lattice system of the target. A comparison of surface structures induced by swift heavy ions and slow highly charged ions provides a valuable insight to better understand the formation mechanisms. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  13. Cutaneous and mucosal human papillomaviruses differ in net surface charge, potential impact on tropism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibom Carl

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Papillomaviruses can roughly be divided into two tropism groups, those infecting the skin, including the genus beta PVs, and those infecting the mucosa, predominantly genus alpha PVs. The L1 capsid protein determines the phylogenetic separation between beta types and alpha types and the L1 protein is most probably responsible for the first interaction with the cell surface. Virus entry is a known determinant for tissue tropism and to study if interactions of the viral capsid with the cell surface could affect HPV tropism, the net surface charge of the HPV L1 capsid proteins was analyzed and HPV-16 (alpha and HPV-5 (beta with a mucosal and cutaneous tropism respectively were used to study heparin inhibition of uptake. The negatively charged L1 proteins were all found among HPVs with cutaneous tropism from the beta- and gamma-PV genus, while all alpha HPVs were positively charged at pH 7.4. The linear sequence of the HPV-5 L1 capsid protein had a predicted isoelectric point (pI of 6.59 and a charge of -2.74 at pH 7.4, while HPV-16 had a pI of 7.95 with a charge of +2.98, suggesting no interaction between HPV-5 and the highly negative charged heparin. Furthermore, 3D-modelling indicated that HPV-5 L1 exposed more negatively charged amino acids than HPV-16. Uptake of HPV-5 (beta and HPV-16 (alpha was studied in vitro by using a pseudovirus (PsV assay. Uptake of HPV-5 PsV was not inhibited by heparin in C33A cells and only minor inhibition was detected in HaCaT cells. HPV-16 PsV uptake was significantly more inhibited by heparin in both cells and completely blocked in C33A cells.

  14. Dendrimer-induced leukocyte procoagulant activity depends on particle size and surface charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolskaia, Marina A; Patri, Anil K; Potter, Timothy M; Rodriguez, Jamie C; Hall, Jennifer B; McNeil, Scott E

    2012-02-01

    Thrombogenicity associated with the induction of leukocyte procoagulant activity (PCA) is a common complication in sepsis and cancer. Since nanoparticles are increasingly used for drug delivery, their interaction with coagulation systems is an important part of the safety assessment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of nanoparticle physicochemical properties on leukocyte PCA, and to get insight into the mechanism of PCA induction. A total of 12 formulations of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers, varying in size and surface charge, were studied in vitro using recalcification time assay. Irrespective of their size, anionic and neutral dendrimers did not induce leukocyte PCA in vitro. Cationic particles induced PCA in a size- and charge-dependent manner. The mechanism of PCA induction was similar to that of doxorubicin. Cationic dendrimers were also found to exacerbate endotoxin-induced PCA. PAMAM dendrimer-induced leukocyte PCA depends on particle size, charge and density of surface groups.

  15. Potential sputtering from a Si surface by very highly charged ion impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tona, Masahide; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Satoshi; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Yoshiyasu, Nobuo; Sakurai, Makoto; Yamada, Chikashi; Ohtani, Shunsuke

    2007-01-01

    We have observed radiation effect in collision of slow highly charged ions with the following target materials; a SiO 2 thin film, a Si(1 1 1)-(7 x 7) surface and a hydrogen terminated Si(1 1 1)-(1 x 1) surface. Secondary ion mass spectrometry and scanning tunneling microscopy revealed some features due to 'potential sputtering'; (a) strong dependence of secondary particle emission on the surface condition, (b) high yield of positive ion emission including cluster fragments and (c) creation of nanometer sized surface structure. The mechanism for the potential sputtering is briefly discussed, based on the 'Coulomb explosion' model

  16. Nano-scale surface modification of materials with slow, highly charged ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, M.; Tona, M.; Takahashi, S.; Watanabe, H.; Nakamura, N.; Yoshiyasu, N.; Yamada, C.; Ohtani, S.; Sakaue, H.A.; Kawase, Y.; Mitsumori, K.; Terui, T.; Mashiko, S.

    2007-01-01

    Some results on surface modification of Si and graphite with highly charged ions (HCIs) are presented. Modified surfaces were observed using scanning tunneling microscopy. Crater-like structure with a diameter in nm region is formed on a Si(1 1 1)-(7 x 7) surface by the incidence of a single HCI. The protrusion structure is formed on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface on the other hand, and the structure becomes an active site for molecular adsorption. A new, intense HCI source and an experimental apparatus are under development in order to process and observe aligned nanostructures created by the impact of collimated HCI beam

  17. Double layer of platinum electrodes: Non-monotonic surface charging phenomena and negative double layer capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Jianbo; Eikerling, Michael

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a refined double layer model of platinum electrodes accounting for chemisorbed oxygen species, oriented interfacial water molecules, and ion size effects in solution is presented. It results in a non-monotonic surface charging relation and a peculiar capacitance vs. potential curve with a maximum and possibly negative values in the potential regime of oxide-formation.

  18. Surface charge-specific interactions between polymer nanoparticles and ABC transporters in Caco-2 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhattacharjee, S.; Opstal, van E.J.; Alink, G.M.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Zuilhof, H.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    The surface charge-dependent transport of polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) across Caco-2 monolayers grown on transwell culture systems as an in vitro model for intestinal transport was tested. The transport of well-characterized, monodisperse, and fluorescent tri-block copolymer nanoparticles

  19. Nanometer-size surface modification produced by single, low energy, highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockli, M.P.

    1994-01-01

    Atomically flat surfaces of insulators have been bombarded with low energy, highly charged ions to search for nanometer-size surface modifications. It is expected that the high electron deficiency of highly charged ions will capture and/or remove many of the insulator's localized electrons when impacting on an insulating surface. The resulting local electron deficiency is expected to locally disintegrate the insulator through a open-quotes Coulomb explosionclose quotes forming nanometer-size craters. Xe ions with charge states between 10+ and 45+ and kinetic energies between 0 and 10 keV/q were obtained from the KSU-CRYEBIS, a CRYogenic Electron Beam Ion Source and directed onto various insulating materials. Mica was favored as target material as atomically flat surfaces can be obtained reliably through cleaving. However, the authors observations with an atomic force microscope have shown that mica tends to defoliate locally rather than disintegrate, most likely due to the small binding forces between adjacent layers. So far the authors measurements indicate that each ion produces one blister if the charge state is sufficiently high. The blistering does not seem to depend very much on the kinetic energy of the ions

  20. Using the lambda function to evaluate probe measurements of charged dielectric surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rerup, T. O.; Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1996-01-01

    The use of Pedersen's λ function to evaluate electrostatic probe measurements of charged dielectric surfaces is demonstrated. With a knowledge of the probe λ function, the procedure by which this function is employed is developed, and thereafter applied to a set of experimental measurements avail...

  1. Mobile colloid generation induced by a cementitious plume: mineral surface-charge controls on mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dien; Kaplan, Daniel I; Roberts, Kimberly A; Seaman, John C

    2012-03-06

    Cementitious materials are increasingly used as engineered barriers and waste forms for radiological waste disposal. Yet their potential effect on mobile colloid generation is not well-known, especially as it may influence colloid-facilitated contaminant transport. Whereas previous papers have studied the introduction of cement colloids into sediments, this study examined the influence of cement leachate chemistry on the mobilization of colloids from a subsurface sediment collected from the Savannah River Site, USA. A sharp mobile colloid plume formed with the introduction of a cement leachate simulant. Colloid concentrations decreased to background concentrations even though the aqueous chemical conditions (pH and ionic strength) remained unchanged. Mobile colloids were mainly goethite and to a lesser extent kaolinite. The released colloids had negative surface charges and the mean particle sizes ranged primarily from 200 to 470 nm. Inherent mineralogical electrostatic forces appeared to be the controlling colloid removal mechanism in this system. In the background pH of ~6.0, goethite had a positive surface charge, whereas quartz (the dominant mineral in the immobile sediment) and kaolinite had negative surface charges. Goethite acted as a cementing agent, holding kaolinite and itself onto the quartz surfaces due to the electrostatic attraction. Once the pH of the system was elevated, as in the cementitious high pH plume front, the goethite reversed to a negative charge, along with quartz and kaolinite, then goethite and kaolinite colloids were mobilized and a sharp spike in turbidity was observed. Simulating conditions away from the cementitious source, essentially no colloids were mobilized at 1:1000 dilution of the cement leachate or when the leachate pH was ≤ 8. Extreme alkaline pH environments of cementitious leachate may change mineral surface charges, temporarily promoting the formation of mobile colloids.

  2. Factors influencing the cytotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles: particle size and surface charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, M; Kim, M K; Cho, H J; Lee, J A; Yu, J; Chung, H E; Choi, S J

    2011-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle is one of the most important materials in diverse applications, since it has UV light absorption, antimicrobial, catalytic, semi-conducting, and magnetic properties. However, there is little information about the toxicological effects of ZnO nanoparticles with respect to physicochemical properties. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the relationships between cytotoxicity and physicochemical properties of ZnO nanoparticle such as particle size and surface charge in human lung cells. Two different sizes of ZnO nanoparticles (20 and 70 nm) were prepared with positive (+) or negative (-) charge, and then, cytotoxicity of different ZnO nanoparticles was evaluated by measuring cell proliferation in short-term and long-term, membrane integrity, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The results demonstrated that smaller particles exhibited high cytotoxic effects compared to larger particles in terms of inhibition of cell proliferation, membrane damage, and ROS generation. In addition, positively charged ZnO showed greater ROS production than ZnO with negative charge. These findings suggest that the cytoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles are strongly affected by their particle size and surface charge, highlighting the role of the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles to understand and predict their potential adverse effects on human.

  3. Structural and electrostatic effects at the surfaces of size- and charge-selected aqueous nanodrops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard J; O'Brien, Jeremy T; Chang, Terrence M; Williams, Evan R

    2017-07-01

    The effects of ion charge, polarity and size on the surface morphology of size-selected aqueous nanodrops containing a single ion and up to 550 water molecules are investigated with infrared photodissociation (IRPD) spectroscopy and theory. IRPD spectra of M(H 2 O) n where M = La 3+ , Ca 2+ , Na + , Li + , I - , SO 4 2- and supporting molecular dynamics simulations indicate that strong interactions between multiply charged ions and water molecules can disrupt optimal hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) at the nanodrop surface. The IRPD spectra also reveal that "free" OH stretching frequencies of surface-bound water molecules are highly sensitive to the ion's identity and the OH bond's local H-bond environment. The measured frequency shifts are qualitatively reproduced by a computationally inexpensive point-charge model that shows the frequency shifts are consistent with a Stark shift from the ion's electric field. For multiply charged cations, pronounced Stark shifting is observed for clusters containing ∼100 or fewer water molecules. This is attributed to ion-induced solvent patterning that extends to the nanodrop surface, and serves as a spectroscopic signature for a cation's ability to influence the H-bond network of water located remotely from the ion. The Stark shifts measured for the larger nanodrops are extrapolated to infinite dilution to obtain the free OH stretching frequency of a surface-bound water molecule at the bulk air-water interface (3696.5-3701.0 cm -1 ), well within the relatively wide range of values obtained from SFG measurements. These cluster measurements also indicate that surface curvature effects can influence the free OH stretching frequency, and that even nanodrops without an ion have a surface potential that depends on cluster size.

  4. Method of impressing and reading out a surface charge on a multilayered detector structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zermeno, A.; Marsh, L.M.; Cowart, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A latent charge image is recorded on and reproduced from a multilayered detector. Firstly the detector is given a uniform surface charge on its photoconductive layer. This layer is then biased with an electric field of opposite polarity to the surface charge. The detector is then exposed to a modulated radiation flux to cause at least partial discharge of the photoconductive layer. The latent charge image of the modulated radiation flux is thus stored and later read by scanning the surface of the photoconductive layer with a small diameter photon beam to discharge further sequentially the photoconductive layer. The changing electrical potential of this discharge is detected and processed into a video signal by a processor for storage or display. This invention provides a method and apparatus capable of replacing conventional photographic and radiographic films. It also provides an X-ray sensing system which produces radiographic images of a patient using a lower radiation dosage. The output is an analog or digital video signal that may be displayed on a television monitor, recorded on film or directly stored or processed in a computer for image enhancement or pattern recognition. Other aspects are detailed. (U.K.)

  5. One-Step Synthesis of PEGylated Gold Nanoparticles with Tunable Surface Charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rares Stiufiuc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports a rapid, simple and efficient one-step synthesis and detailed characterisation of stable aqueous colloids of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs coated with unmodified poly(ethyleneglycol (PEG molecules of different molecular weights and surface charges. By mixing and heating aqueous solutions of PEG with variable molecular chain and gold(III chloride hydrate (HAuCl4 in the presence of NaOH, we have successfully produced uniform colloidal 5 nm PEG coated AuNPs of spherical shape with tunable surface charge and an average diameter of 30 nm within a few minutes. It has been found out that PEGylated AuNPs provide optical enhancement of the characteristic vibrational bands of PEG molecules attached to the gold surface when they are excited with both visible (532 nm and NIR (785 nm laser lines. The surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS signal does not depend on the length of the PEG molecular chain enveloping the AuNPs, and the stability of the colloid is not affected by the addition of concentrated salt solution (0.1 M NaCl, thus suggesting their potential use for in vitro and in vivo applications. Moreover, by gradually changing the chain length of the biopolymer, we were able to control nanoparticles’ surface charge from −28 to −2 mV, without any modification of the Raman enhancement properties and of the colloidal stability.

  6. Estimation of Nanodiamond Surface Charge Density from Zeta Potential and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhenpeng; Wang, Yi

    2017-04-20

    Molecular dynamics simulations of nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly used to study their interactions with various biological macromolecules. Such simulations generally require detailed knowledge of the surface composition of the NP under investigation. Even for some well-characterized nanoparticles, however, this knowledge is not always available. An example is nanodiamond, a nanoscale diamond particle with surface dominated by oxygen-containing functional groups. In this work, we explore using the harmonic restraint method developed by Venable et al., to estimate the surface charge density (σ) of nanodiamonds. Based on the Gouy-Chapman theory, we convert the experimentally determined zeta potential of a nanodiamond to an effective charge density (σ eff ), and then use the latter to estimate σ via molecular dynamics simulations. Through scanning a series of nanodiamond models, we show that the above method provides a straightforward protocol to determine the surface charge density of relatively large (> ∼100 nm) NPs. Overall, our results suggest that despite certain limitation, the above protocol can be readily employed to guide the model construction for MD simulations, which is particularly useful when only limited experimental information on the NP surface composition is available to a modeler.

  7. Electrostatic Deformation of Liquid Surfaces by a Charged Rod and a Van de Graaff Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Slisko, Josip; García Molina, Rafael; Abril Sánchez, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Authors of physics textbooks frequently use the deflection of a thin, vertically falling water jet by a charged balloon, 1–3 comb, 4–6 or rod 7–9 as a visually appealing and conceptually relevant example of electrostatic attraction. Nevertheless, no attempts are made to explore whether these charged bodies could cause visible deformation of a horizontal water surface. That being so, we were quite surprised when we discovered that a 19th-century French book 10 contained a drawing showing an ap...

  8. The dependence of the nuclear charge form factor on short range correlations and surface fluctuation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massen, S. E.; Garistov, V. P.; Grypeos, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of nuclear surface fluctuations on harmonic oscillator elastic charge form factor of light nuclei are investigated, simultaneously approximating the short-range correlations through a Jastrow correlation factor. Inclusion of the surface fluctuation effects within this description, by truncating the cluster expansion at the two-body part, is found to improve somewhat the fit to the elastic charge form-factor of 16 O and 40 Ca. However, the convergence of the cluster expansion is expected to deteriorate. An additional finding is that surface-fluctuation correlations produce a drastic change in the asymptotic behaviour of the point-proton form-factor, which now falls off quite slowly (i.e. as const.q -4 ) at large values of the momentum transfer q

  9. Wetting of a Charged Surface of Glassy Carbon by Molten Alkali-Metal Chlorides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, V. P.

    2018-03-01

    Values of the contact angle of wetting of a surface of glassy carbon by molten chlorides of lithium, sodium, potassium, and cesium are measured by the meniscus weight method to determine the common factors of wettability of solid surfaces by ionic melts upon a change in the salt phase composition and a jump in electric potential. It is found that with a potential shift in the positive direction the shape of the curve of the contact angle's dependence on the potential varies upon substitution of one salt by another: the angle of wetting shrinks monotonously in lithium chloride but remains constant in molten cesium chloride. This phenomenon is explained by the hypothesis that the nature of the halide anion adsorption on the positively charged surface of an electrode is chemical and not electrostatic. It is shown that the adsorption process is accompanied by charge transfer through the interface, with covalent bonding between the adsorbent and adsorbate.

  10. Effect of the surface roughness on contact charging of polypropylene with mercury; Polypropylene to suigin tono sesshoku taiden ni oyobosu hyomen arasa no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, Y.; Saito, K. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    2000-02-14

    The effect of the surface roughness on the contact charging of polypropylene with mercury has been studied by measuring the two-dimensional surface charge distribution. For each sample film, one half of its area was made rough by sandpaper, and the other half was left untreated. These two portions were charged by contacting them simultaneously with mercury, and the two-dimensional surface charge distribution was measured over the entire sample. Our observations show that the behavior of the contact charging clearly depends on physical roughness. The charge density on rough surface was lower than that on smooth surface. Moreover, when the surface was made exceedingly rough, no contact charging occurred. (author)

  11. Calculation of the surface potential and surface charge density by measurement of the three-phase contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, H; Nikolov, A; Wasan, D T

    2012-11-01

    The silica/silicon wafer is widely used in the semiconductor industry in the manufacture of electronic devices, so it is essential to understand its physical chemistry and determine the surface potential at the silica wafer/water interface. However, it is difficult to measure the surface potential of a silica/silicon wafer directly due to its high electric resistance. In the present study, the three-phase contact angle (TPCA) on silica is measured as a function of the pH. The surface potential and surface charge density at the silica/water surface are calculated by a model based on the Young-Lippmann equation in conjunction with the Gouy-Chapman model for the electric double layer. In measurements of the TPCA on silica, two distinct regions were identified with a boundary at pH 9.5-showing a dominance of the surface ionization of silanol groups below pH 9.5 and a dominance of the dissolution of silica into the aqueous solution above pH 9.5. Since the surface chemistry changes above pH 9.5, the model is applied to solutions below pH 9.5 (ionization dominant) for the calculation of the surface potential and surface charge density at the silica/aqueous interface. In order to evaluate the model, a galvanic mica cell was made of a mica sheet and the surface potential was measured directly at the mica/water interface. The model results are also validated by experimental data from the literature, as well as the results obtained by the potentiometric titration method and the electro-kinetic measurements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nanofabrication on a Si surface by slow highly charged ion impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tona, Masahide; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Satoshi; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Yoshiyasu, Nobuo; Sakurai, Makoto; Terui, Toshifumi; Mashiko, Shinro; Yamada, Chikashi; Ohtani, Shunsuke

    2007-01-01

    We have observed surface chemical reactions which occur at the impact sites on a Si(1 1 1)-(7 x 7) surface and a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface bombarded by highly charged ions (HCIs) by using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Crater structures are formed on the Si(1 1 1)-(7 x 7) surface by single I 50+ -impacts. STM-observation for the early step of oxidation on the surface suggests that the impact site is so active that dangling bonds created by HCI impacts are immediately quenched by reaction with residual gas molecules. We show also the selective adsorption of organic molecules at a HCI-induced impact site on the HOPG surface

  13. Impact of nanosilver on various DNA lesions and HPRT gene mutations - effects of charge and surface coating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huk, A.; Izak-Nau, E.; el Yamani, N.; Uggerud, H.; Vadset, M.; Zasońska, Beata Anna; Duschl, A.; Dusinska, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, 24 July (2015), 25_1-25_20 ISSN 1743-8977 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : silver nanomaterials * surface charge * surface coating Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 8.649, year: 2015

  14. Implementation and interpretation of surface potential decay measurements on corona-charged non-woven fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabti, B; Antoniu, A; Plopeanu, M; Dascalescu, L; Yahiaoui, B; Bendahmane, B

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the peculiarities of the surface potential decay (SPD) curves obtained for certain non-woven media. The experiments were performed on samples of non-woven poly-propylene (PP) sheets, which are typically employed in the construction of air filters for heat, ventilation and air conditioning. The samples were in contact with a grounded plane, in order to: (1) ensure better charging and measurement reproducibility; (2) simulate the worst situation of practical interest. They were charged using either a high-voltage wire-type dual electrode or a triode-type electrode arrangement. The aspect of the SPD curves depends on the electrode configuration. When the electric field is strong enough, it can activate charge injection at the insulator-metal interface and extrinsic conduction.

  15. Implementation and interpretation of surface potential decay measurements on corona-charged non-woven fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabti, B.; Antoniu, A.; Plopeanu, M.; Yahiaoui, B.; Bendahmane, B.; Dascalescu, L.

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the peculiarities of the surface potential decay (SPD) curves obtained for certain non-woven media. The experiments were performed on samples of non-woven poly-propylene (PP) sheets, which are typically employed in the construction of air filters for heat, ventilation and air conditioning. The samples were in contact with a grounded plane, in order to: (1) ensure better charging and measurement reproducibility; (2) simulate the worst situation of practical interest. They were charged using either a high-voltage wire-type dual electrode or a triode-type electrode arrangement. The aspect of the SPD curves depends on the electrode configuration. When the electric field is strong enough, it can activate charge injection at the insulator-metal interface and extrinsic conduction.

  16. Probing the surface charge on the basal planes of Kaolinite particles with high resolution Atomic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Naveen; Andersson, M.P.; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Sîretanu, Igor

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution atomic force microscopy is used to map the surface charge on the basal planes of kaolinite nanoparticles in an ambient solution of variable pH and NaCl or CaCl2 concentration. Using DLVO theory with charge regulation, we determine from the measured force–distance curves the surface

  17. An algorithm for three-dimensional Monte-Carlo simulation of charge distribution at biofunctionalized surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Bulyha, Alena

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a Monte-Carlo algorithm in the constant-voltage ensemble for the calculation of 3d charge concentrations at charged surfaces functionalized with biomolecules is presented. The motivation for this work is the theoretical understanding of biofunctionalized surfaces in nanowire field-effect biosensors (BioFETs). This work provides the simulation capability for the boundary layer that is crucial in the detection mechanism of these sensors; slight changes in the charge concentration in the boundary layer upon binding of analyte molecules modulate the conductance of nanowire transducers. The simulation of biofunctionalized surfaces poses special requirements on the Monte-Carlo simulations and these are addressed by the algorithm. The constant-voltage ensemble enables us to include the right boundary conditions; the dna strands can be rotated with respect to the surface; and several molecules can be placed in a single simulation box to achieve good statistics in the case of low ionic concentrations relevant in experiments. Simulation results are presented for the leading example of surfaces functionalized with pna and with single- and double-stranded dna in a sodium-chloride electrolyte. These quantitative results make it possible to quantify the screening of the biomolecule charge due to the counter-ions around the biomolecules and the electrical double layer. The resulting concentration profiles show a three-layer structure and non-trivial interactions between the electric double layer and the counter-ions. The numerical results are also important as a reference for the development of simpler screening models. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Oxidation and metal-insertion in molybdenite surfaces: evaluation of charge-transfer mechanisms and dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shutthanandan V

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2, a layered transition-metal dichalcogenide, has been of special importance to the research community of geochemistry, materials and environmental chemistry, and geotechnical engineering. Understanding the oxidation behavior and charge-transfer mechanisms in MoS2 is important to gain better insight into the degradation of this mineral in the environment. In addition, understanding the insertion of metals into molybdenite and evaluation of charge-transfer mechanism and dynamics is important to utilize these minerals in technological applications. Furthermore, a detailed investigation of thermal oxidation behavior and metal-insertion will provide a basis to further explore and model the mechanism of adsorption of metal ions onto geomedia. The present work was performed to understand thermal oxidation and metal-insertion processes of molybdenite surfaces. The analysis was performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS, and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA. Structural studies using SEM and TEM indicate the local-disordering of the structure as a result of charge-transfer process between the inserted lithium and the molybdenite layer. Selected area electron diffraction measurements indicate the large variations in the diffusivity of lithium confirming that the charge-transfer is different along and perpendicular to the layers in molybdenite. Thermal heating of molybenite surface in air at 400°C induces surface oxidation, which is slow during the first hour of heating and then increases significantly. The SEM results indicate that the crystals formed on the molybdenite surface as a result of thermal oxidation exhibit regular thin-elongated shape. The average size and density of the crystals on the surface is dependent on the time of annealing; smaller size and high density during the first one-hour and

  19. Medial and Lateral Plantar Nerve Entrapment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foot Problems Overview of Foot Problems Achilles Tendon Bursitis Achilles Tendon Enthesopathy Bunion Corns and Calluses Damage ... the Foot Freiberg Disease Hammer Toe Inferior Calcaneal Bursitis Medial and Lateral Plantar Nerve Entrapment Metatarsal Joint ...

  20. The role of surface charge in cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of medical nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fröhlich E

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Eleonore FröhlichCenter for Medical Research, Medical University of Graz, Graz, AustriaAbstract: Many types of nanoparticles (NPs are tested for use in medical products, particularly in imaging and gene and drug delivery. For these applications, cellular uptake is usually a prerequisite and is governed in addition to size by surface characteristics such as hydrophobicity and charge. Although positive charge appears to improve the efficacy of imaging, gene transfer, and drug delivery, a higher cytotoxicity of such constructs has been reported. This review summarizes findings on the role of surface charge on cytotoxicity in general, action on specific cellular targets, modes of toxic action, cellular uptake, and intracellular localization of NPs. Effects of serum and intercell type differences are addressed. Cationic NPs cause more pronounced disruption of plasma-membrane integrity, stronger mitochondrial and lysosomal damage, and a higher number of autophagosomes than anionic NPs. In general, nonphagocytic cells ingest cationic NPs to a higher extent, but charge density and hydrophobicity are equally important; phagocytic cells preferentially take up anionic NPs. Cells do not use different uptake routes for cationic and anionic NPs, but high uptake rates are usually linked to greater biological effects. The different uptake preferences of phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells for cationic and anionic NPs may influence the efficacy and selectivity of NPs for drug delivery and imaging.Keywords: endocytosis, plasma membrane, lysosomes, polystyrene particles, quantum dots, dendrimers

  1. The effects of two counterpropagating surface acoustic wave beams on single electron acoustic charge transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jianhong; Guo Huazhong; Song Li; Zhang Wei; Gao Jie; Lu Chuan

    2010-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the effects of two counterpropagating surface acoustic waves on the acoustoelectric current of single electron transport devices. A significant improvement in the accuracy of current quantization is achieved as a result of an additional surface acoustic wave beam. The experiments reveal the sinusoidally periodical modulation in the acoustoelectric current characteristic as a function of the relative phase of the two surface acoustic wave beams. Besides, by using standing surface acoustic waves, the acoustoelectric current is detected which we consider as the so-called anomalous acoustoelectric current produced by acoustic wave mechanical deformations. This kind current is contributed to one component of the acoustoelectric current in surface acoustic wave device, which could enable us to establish a more adequate description of acoustoelectric effects on single-electron acoustic charge transport.

  2. Competitive adsorption and ordered packing of counterions near highly charged surfaces: From mean-field theory to Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jiayi; Zhou, Shenggao; Xu, Zhenli; Li, Bo

    2012-04-01

    Competitive adsorption of counterions of multiple species to charged surfaces is studied by a size-effect-included mean-field theory and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The mean-field electrostatic free-energy functional of ionic concentrations, constrained by Poisson's equation, is numerically minimized by an augmented Lagrangian multiplier method. Unrestricted primitive models and canonical ensemble MC simulations with the Metropolis criterion are used to predict the ionic distributions around a charged surface. It is found that, for a low surface charge density, the adsorption of ions with a higher valence is preferable, agreeing with existing studies. For a highly charged surface, both the mean-field theory and the MC simulations demonstrate that the counterions bind tightly around the charged surface, resulting in a stratification of counterions of different species. The competition between mixed entropy and electrostatic energetics leads to a compromise that the ionic species with a higher valence-to-volume ratio has a larger probability to form the first layer of stratification. In particular, the MC simulations confirm the crucial role of ionic valence-to-volume ratios in the competitive adsorption to charged surfaces that had been previously predicted by the mean-field theory. The charge inversion for ionic systems with salt is predicted by the MC simulations but not by the mean-field theory. This work provides a better understanding of competitive adsorption of counterions to charged surfaces and calls for further studies on the ionic size effect with application to large-scale biomolecular modeling.

  3. Specification of electron radiation environment at GEO and MEO for surface charging estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganushkina, N.; Dubyagin, S.; Mateo Velez, J. C.; Liemohn, M. W.

    2017-12-01

    A series of anomalies at GEO have been attributed to electrons of energy below 100 keV, responsible for surface charging. The process at play is charge deposition on covering insulating surfaces and is directly linked to the space environment at a time scale of a few tens of seconds. Even though modern satellites benefited from the analysis of past flight anomalies and losses, it appears that surface charging remains a source of problems. Accurate specification of the space environment at different orbits is of a key importance. We present the operational model for low energy (index. The presented model provides the low energy electron flux at all L-shells and at all satellite orbits, when necessary. IMPTAM is used to simulate the fluxes of low energy electrons inside the Earth's magnetosphere at the time of severe events measured on LANL satellites at GEO. There is no easy way to say what will be the flux of keV electrons at MEO when surface charging events are detected at GEO than to use a model. The maximal electron fluxes obtained at MEO (L = 4.6) within a few tens of minutes hours following the LANL events at GEO have been extracted to feed a database of theoretical/numerical worst-case environments for surface charging at MEO. All IMPTAM results are instantaneous, data have not been average. In order to validate the IMPTAM output at MEO, we conduct the statistical analysis of measured electron fluxes onboard Van Allen Probes (ECT HOPE (20 eV-45 keV) and ECT MagEIS (30 - 300 keV) at distances of 4.6 Re. IMPTAM e- flux at MEO is used as input to SPIS, the Spacecraft Plasma Interaction System Software toolkit for spacecraft-plasma interactions and spacecraft charging modelling (http://dev.spis.org/projects/spine/home/spis). The research leading to these results was funded by the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement No 606716 SPACESTORM and by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under

  4. A Small Angle Neutron Scattering Study of Cylindrical nanoparticle with Controlled Surface Charge Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Hwan; Choi, Sung-Min; Kline, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    Surfactant molecules in aqueous solution self assemble into various micellar structures such as sphere, rod, vesicle, and lamellar, above critical micelle concentration (CMC). Self-assembled surfactants systems, therefore, have been very popular as templates for preparing various nanostructured materials. Due to their dynamic nature, however, micellar structures are very susceptible to solution conditions such as temperature, concentration, pH and pressure, limiting their applications. In this study, we have developed rigid rod-like nanoparticles with controlled surface charge density by the free radical polymerization of cationic surfactants with polymerizable counterions, cetyltrimethylammonium 4- vinylbenzoate (CTVB), with varying concentration of sodium styrenesulfonate (NaSS). The structure and surface charge density of the nanoparticles were characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and zeta potential measurements

  5. A variable pressure method for characterizing nanoparticle surface charge using pore sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Robert; Anderson, Will; Eldridge, James; Glossop, Ben; Willmott, Geoff

    2012-04-03

    A novel method using resistive pulse sensors for electrokinetic surface charge measurements of nanoparticles is presented. This method involves recording the particle blockade rate while the pressure applied across a pore sensor is varied. This applied pressure acts in a direction which opposes transport due to the combination of electro-osmosis, electrophoresis, and inherent pressure. The blockade rate reaches a minimum when the velocity of nanoparticles in the vicinity of the pore approaches zero, and the forces on typical nanoparticles are in equilibrium. The pressure applied at this minimum rate can be used to calculate the zeta potential of the nanoparticles. The efficacy of this variable pressure method was demonstrated for a range of carboxylated 200 nm polystyrene nanoparticles with different surface charge densities. Results were of the same order as phase analysis light scattering (PALS) measurements. Unlike PALS results, the sequence of increasing zeta potential for different particle types agreed with conductometric titration.

  6. Dynamical image potential and induced forces for charged particles moving parallel to a solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arista, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    The dynamical image potential and ensuing forces induced by a charged particle moving parallel to a solid surface are investigated by using a dielectric formulation for semi-infinite dispersive media. The adiabatic behavior of the field in the asymptotic range is discussed in a general way using a multipole expansion. Several calculations illustrate the behavior of the field using both a simple model, where the surface response is approximated by a single plasma resonance, and a more realistic representation of the medium based upon the empirical information on the optical constants for various solids (Al, Cu, Ag, and Au). The model parameters may be adjusted to provide very good agreement with the optical-data integrations of the stopping and lateral forces on the moving charge. On the other hand, important differences in the description of the wake potential using either the simple plasma resonance model, or the optical-data representation, are obtained for Cu, Ag, and Au

  7. Energy spectra and charge states of light atoms scattered by solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parilis, E.S.; Verleger, V.K.

    1980-01-01

    The theories of backscattering and charge state formation of light atoms (H, D, and He) for the energy range 1 keV 0 0 and theta. The dependence of epsilonsub(max) on theta determines the mean effective range for the scattering at the angle theta. The appearance of surface peaks in the energy spectra of neutrals below energy E 0 + , Hsup(*), and H - . (orig.)

  8. Development of GaN-based nanosensors using surface charge lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, Veaceslav; Braniste, Tudor; Volciuc, Olesea; Pavlidis, Dimitris; Sarua, Andrei; Kuball, Martin; Heard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor nanotechnology is a fast developing branch of modern engineering that offers perspectives for the development of electronic devices with superior parameters. A special and important niche in nanotechnology is allocated to the fabrication of nanosensors which are expected to exhibit higher sensitivity in comparison with classical microelectronic sensors. Various aspects of fabrication of GaN based nanosensors using Surface Charge Lithography are discussed and preliminary tests for gas sensors applications are presented.

  9. Binding of chloroquine to ionic micelles: Effect of pH and micellar surface charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Santos, Marcela de, E-mail: marcelafarmausp77@gmail.com [Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida do Café, s/n, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo 14040-903 (Brazil); Perpétua Freire de Morais Del Lama, Maria, E-mail: mpemdel@fcfrp.usp.br [Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida do Café, s/n, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo 14040-903 (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Bioanalítica, Departamento de Química Analítica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, s/n, Campinas, São Paulo 13083-970 (Brazil); Siuiti Ito, Amando, E-mail: amandosi@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes, 3900, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo 14040-901 (Brazil); and others

    2014-03-15

    The pharmacological action of chloroquine relies on its ability to cross biological membranes in order to accumulate inside lysosomes. The present work aimed at understanding the basis for the interaction between different chloroquine species and ionic micelles of opposite charges, the latter used as a simple membrane model. The sensitivity of absorbance and fluorescence of chloroquine to changes in its local environment was used to probe its interaction with cetyltrimethylammonium micelles presenting bromide (CTAB) and sulfate (CTAS) as counterions, in addition to dodecyl sulfate micelles bearing sodium (SDS) and tetramethylammonium (TMADS) counterions. Counterion exchange was shown to have little effect on drug–micelle interaction. Chloroquine first dissociation constant (pKa{sub 1}) shifted to opposite directions when anionic and cationic micelles were compared. Chloroquine binding constants (K{sub b}) revealed that electrostatic forces mediate charged drug–micelle association, whereas hydrophobic interactions allowed neutral chloroquine to associate with anionic and cationic micelles. Fluorescence quenching studies indicated that monoprotonated chloroquine is inserted deeper into the micelle surface of anionic micelles than its neutral form, the latter being less exposed to the aqueous phase when associated with cationic over anionic assemblies. The findings provide further evidence that chloroquine–micelle interaction is driven by a tight interplay between the drug form and the micellar surface charge, which can have a major effect on the drug biological activity. -- Highlights: • Chloroquine (CQ) pKa{sub 1} increased for SDS micelles and decreased for CTAB micelles. • CQ is solubilized to the surface of both CTAB and SDS micelles. • Monoprotonated CQ is buried deeper into SDS micelles than neutral CQ. • Neutral CQ is less exposed to aqueous phase in CTAB over SDS micelles. • Local pH and micellar surface charge mediate interaction of CQ with

  10. Improving energy conversion efficiency for triboelectric nanogenerator with capacitor structure by maximizing surface charge density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xianming; Guo, Hengyu; Yue, Xule; Gao, Jun; Xi, Yi; Hu, Chenguo

    2015-02-07

    Nanogenerators with capacitor structures based on piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity, triboelectricity and electrostatic induction have been extensively investigated. Although the electron flow on electrodes is well understood, the maximum efficiency-dependent structure design is not clearly known. In this paper, a clear understanding of triboelectric generators with capacitor structures is presented by the investigation of polydimethylsiloxane-based composite film nanogenerators, indicating that the generator, in fact, acts as both an energy storage and output device. Maximum energy storage and output depend on the maximum charge density on the dielectric polymer surface, which is determined by the capacitance of the device. The effective thickness of polydimethylsiloxane can be greatly reduced by mixing a suitable amount of conductive nanoparticles into the polymer, through which the charge density on the polymer surface can be greatly increased. This finding can be applied to all the triboelectric nanogenerators with capacitor structures, and it provides an important guide to the structural design for nanogenerators. It is demonstrated that graphite particles with sizes of 20-40 nm and 3.0% mass mixed into the polydimethylsiloxane can reduce 34.68% of the effective thickness of the dielectric film and increase the surface charges by 111.27% on the dielectric film. The output power density of the triboelectric nanogenerator with the composite polydimethylsiloxane film is 3.7 W m(-2), which is 2.6 times as much as that of the pure polydimethylsiloxane film.

  11. Surface charge-specific interactions between polymer nanoparticles and ABC transporters in Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Sourav; van Opstal, Edward J.; Alink, Gerrit M.; Marcelis, Antonius T. M.; Zuilhof, Han; Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M.

    2013-06-01

    The surface charge-dependent transport of polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) across Caco-2 monolayers grown on transwell culture systems as an in vitro model for intestinal transport was tested. The transport of well-characterized, monodisperse, and fluorescent tri-block copolymer nanoparticles (TCNPs/size 45 nm) and polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs/size 50 nm), with different surface charges (positive and negative), was quantified. The positive PNPs showed a higher intracellular uptake and flux across the Caco-2 monolayers than the negative PNPs. Multidrug resistance/P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp), a specific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, was found to play a major role in the cellular efflux of positive PNPs, whereas the multidrug resistance protein 1 took part in the efflux of negative PNPs from Caco-2 cells. The positive PNPs also caused an increased cellular uptake and apical to basolateral transport of the carcinogen PhIP across the Caco-2 monolayer. The flavonoid quercetin, which is known to interact with ABC transporters, promoted the intracellular uptake of different PNPs and interfered with the normal distribution patterns of PNPs in the transwell system. These results indicate that PNPs display surface charge-specific interactions with ABC transporters and can even affect the bioavailability of toxic food-borne compounds (like pro-carcinogens).

  12. Surface charge-specific interactions between polymer nanoparticles and ABC transporters in Caco-2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, Sourav, E-mail: sourav.bhattacharjee@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry (Netherlands); Opstal, Edward J. van; Alink, Gerrit M. [Wageningen University, Division of Toxicology (Netherlands); Marcelis, Antonius T. M.; Zuilhof, Han [Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry (Netherlands); Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M. [Wageningen University, Division of Toxicology (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    The surface charge-dependent transport of polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) across Caco-2 monolayers grown on transwell culture systems as an in vitro model for intestinal transport was tested. The transport of well-characterized, monodisperse, and fluorescent tri-block copolymer nanoparticles (TCNPs/size {approx}45 nm) and polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs/size {approx}50 nm), with different surface charges (positive and negative), was quantified. The positive PNPs showed a higher intracellular uptake and flux across the Caco-2 monolayers than the negative PNPs. Multidrug resistance/P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp), a specific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, was found to play a major role in the cellular efflux of positive PNPs, whereas the multidrug resistance protein 1 took part in the efflux of negative PNPs from Caco-2 cells. The positive PNPs also caused an increased cellular uptake and apical to basolateral transport of the carcinogen PhIP across the Caco-2 monolayer. The flavonoid quercetin, which is known to interact with ABC transporters, promoted the intracellular uptake of different PNPs and interfered with the normal distribution patterns of PNPs in the transwell system. These results indicate that PNPs display surface charge-specific interactions with ABC transporters and can even affect the bioavailability of toxic food-borne compounds (like pro-carcinogens).

  13. Developing an optical chopper-modulated capacitive probe for measuring surface charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolini, D; McKinney, R; Harry, G M

    2007-04-01

    Gravitational-wave observatories such as Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) use suspended optics in a Michelson interferometer configuration to measure strains in space between 10 Hz and 3 kHz. One potential noise source in this frequency range is the buildup and motion of surface charge on the optics, which can generate fluctuating electric fields, interfere with position control, and reduce reflectance by attracting dust to the optical surface. We have developed a capacitive probe to measure the magnitude and relaxation time of surface charge deposited on smaller test optics in high vacuum ( approximately 10(-5) Torr). Our device modulates capacitance with a tuning-fork optical chopper between probe and sample, chosen for vacuum compatibility and minimal cost. We have found that the probe has a resolution of (3.5+/-0.5)x10(5) e(-)cm(2) in air, on the order of charging levels that could contribute noise to Advanced LIGO, and sufficient for measuring relaxation times on test optics.

  14. Surface charge-specific interactions between polymer nanoparticles and ABC transporters in Caco-2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, Sourav; Opstal, Edward J. van; Alink, Gerrit M.; Marcelis, Antonius T. M.; Zuilhof, Han; Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M.

    2013-01-01

    The surface charge-dependent transport of polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) across Caco-2 monolayers grown on transwell culture systems as an in vitro model for intestinal transport was tested. The transport of well-characterized, monodisperse, and fluorescent tri-block copolymer nanoparticles (TCNPs/size ∼45 nm) and polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs/size ∼50 nm), with different surface charges (positive and negative), was quantified. The positive PNPs showed a higher intracellular uptake and flux across the Caco-2 monolayers than the negative PNPs. Multidrug resistance/P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp), a specific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, was found to play a major role in the cellular efflux of positive PNPs, whereas the multidrug resistance protein 1 took part in the efflux of negative PNPs from Caco-2 cells. The positive PNPs also caused an increased cellular uptake and apical to basolateral transport of the carcinogen PhIP across the Caco-2 monolayer. The flavonoid quercetin, which is known to interact with ABC transporters, promoted the intracellular uptake of different PNPs and interfered with the normal distribution patterns of PNPs in the transwell system. These results indicate that PNPs display surface charge-specific interactions with ABC transporters and can even affect the bioavailability of toxic food-borne compounds (like pro-carcinogens).

  15. Interaction of slow and highly charged ions with surfaces: formation of hollow atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolterfoht, N.; Grether, M.; Spieler, A.; Niemann, D. [Hahn-Meitner Institut, Berlin (Germany). Bereich Festkoerperphysik; Arnau, A.

    1997-03-01

    The method of Auger spectroscopy was used to study the interaction of highly charged ions with Al and C surfaces. The formation of hollow Ne atoms in the first surface layers was evaluated by means of a Density Functional theory including non-linear screening effects. The time-dependent filling of the hollow atom was determined from a cascade model yielding information about the structure of the K-Auger spectra. Variation of total intensities of the L- and K-Auger peaks were interpreted by the cascade model in terms of attenuation effects on the electrons in the solid. (author)

  16. Surface-plasmon dispersion relation for the inhomogeneous charge-density medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsh, O.K.; Agarwal, B.K.

    1989-01-01

    The surface-plasmon dispersion relation is derived for the plane-bounded electron gas when there is an inhomogeneous charge-density distribution in the plasma. The hydrodynamical model is used. Both cphi and dcphi/dx are taken to be continuous at the surface of the slab, where cphi is the scalar potential. The dispersion relation is compared with the theoretical works of Stern and Ferrell and of Harsh and Agarwal. It is also compared with the observations of Kunz. A dispersion relation for the volume-plasmon oscillations is derived which resembles the well-known relation of Bohm and Pines

  17. A surface structural model for ferrihydrite I: Sites related to primary charge, molar mass, and mass density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2009-01-01

    A multisite surface complexation (MUSIC) model for ferrihydrite (Fh) has been developed. The surface structure and composition of Fh nanoparticles are described in relation to ion binding and surface charge development. The site densities of the various reactive surface groups, the molar mass, the

  18. Surface charges and Np(V) sorption on amorphous Al- and Fe- silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Nero, M.; Assada, A.; Barillon, R.; Duplatre, G.; Made, B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Sorption onto Si-rich alteration layers of crystalline minerals and nuclear glasses, and onto amorphous secondary silicates of rocks and soils, are expected to retard the migration of actinides in the near- and far-field of HLW repositories. We present experimental and modeling studies on the effects of silicate structure and bulk chemistry, and of solution chemistry, on charges and adsorption of neptunyl ions at surfaces of synthetic, amorphous or poorly ordered silica, Al-silicates and Fe-silicates. The Al-silicates display similar pH-dependent surface charges characterized by predominant Si-O - Si sites, and similar surface affinities for neptunyl ions, irrespective to their Si/Al molar ratio (varying from 10 to 4.3). Such experimental features are explained by incorporation of Al atoms in tetrahedral position in the silicate lattice, leading to only trace amounts of high-affinity Al-OH surface groups due to octahedral Al. By contrast, the structure of the Fe-silicates ensures the occurrence of high-affinity Fe-OH surface groups, whose concentration is shown by proton adsorption measurements to increase with decreasing of the silicate Si/Fe molar ratio (from 10 to 2.3). Nevertheless, experimental data of the adsorption of neptunyl and electrolyte ions show unexpectedly weak effect of the Si/Fe ratio, and suggest predominant Si-OH surface groups. A possible explanation is that aqueous silicate anions, released by dissolution, adsorb at OH Fe - surface groups and / or precipitate as silica gel coatings, because experimental solutions were found at near-equilibrium with respect to amorphous silica. Therefore, the environmental sorption of Np(V) onto Si-rich, amorphous or poorly ordered Al-silicates may primarily depend on pH and silicate specific surface areas, given the low overall chemical affinity of such phases for dissolved metals. By contrast, the sorption of Np(V) on natural, amorphous or poorly ordered Fe-silicates may be a

  19. The surface charge of oxides and its role in deposition and transport of radioactivity in water-cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, P.H.; Campbell, A.B.

    1972-01-01

    The role of surface charges in the deposition of suspended oxides on surfaces is discussed. Results of deposition of corrosion-product oxides on surfaces at room temperature and 200 o C are reported. These, together with results of the specific adsorption of Co(II) on negatively charged Fe 3 O 4 suspensions are used to explain the growth of Co-60 radiation fields in water-cooled reactors. (author)

  20. Evaluation of surface charge density and surface potential by electrophoretic mobility for solid lipid nanoparticles and human brain-microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yung-Chih; Chen, I-Chun

    2007-09-27

    Electrophoretic mobility, zeta potential, surface charge density, and surface potential of cacao butter-based solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and human brain-microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) were analyzed in this study. Electrophoretic mobility and zeta potential were determined experimentally. Surface charge density and surface potential were evaluated theoretically via incorporation of ion condensation theory with the relationship between surface charge density and surface potential. The results revealed that the lower the pH value, the weaker the electrostatic properties of the negatively charged SLN and HBMEC. A higher content of cacao butter or a slower stirring rate yielded a larger SLN and stronger surface electricity. On the contrary, storage led to instability of SLN suspension and weaker electrical behavior because of hydrolysis of ionogenic groups on the particle surfaces. Also, high H+ concentration resulted in excess adsorption of H+ onto HBMEC, rendering charge reversal and cell death. The largest normalized discrepancy between surface potential and zeta potential occurred at pH = 7. For a fixed biocolloidal species, the discrepancy was nearly invariant at high pH value. However, the discrepancy followed the order of electrical intensity for HBMEC system at low pH value because mammalian cells were sensitive to H+. The present study provided a practical method to obtain surface charge properties by capillary electrophoresis.

  1. Enhanced biomimic bactericidal surfaces by coating with positively-charged ZIF nano-dagger arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Yugen

    2017-10-01

    Cicada wing surfaces are covered with dense patterns of nano-pillar structure that prevent bacterial growth by rupturing adhered microbial cells. To mimic the natural nano-pillar structure, we developed a general and simple method to grow metal organic framework (MOF) nano-dagger arrays on a wide range of surfaces. These nano-daggers possess high bactericidal activity, with log reduction >7 for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. It was hypothesized that the positively-charged ZIF-L nano-dagger surfaces enhance bacterial cell adhesion, facilitating selective and efficient bacteria killing by the rigid and sharp nano-dagger tips. This research provides a safe and clean antimicrobial surface technology which does not require external chemicals and will not cause drug resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A smoothed particle hydrodynamics model for electrostatic transport of charged lunar dust on the moon surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zirui; Liu, G. R.

    2018-02-01

    The behavior of lunar dust on the Moon surface is quite complicated compared to that on the Earth surface due to the small lunar gravity and the significant influence of the complicated electrostatic filed in the Universe. Understanding such behavior is critical for the exploration of the Moon. This work develops a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) model with the elastic-perfectly plastic constitutive equation and Drucker-Prager yield criterion to simulate the electrostatic transporting of multiple charged lunar dust particles. The initial electric field is generated based on the particle-in-cell method and then is superposed with the additional electric field from the charged dust particles to obtain the resultant electric field in the following process. Simulations of cohesive soil's natural failure and electrostatic transport of charged soil under the given electric force and gravity were carried out using the SPH model. Results obtained in this paper show that the negatively charged dust particles levitate and transport to the shadow area with a higher potential from the light area with a lower potential. The motion of soil particles finally comes to a stable state. The numerical result for final distribution of soil particles and potential profile above planar surface by the SPH method matches well with the experimental result, and the SPH solution looks sound in the maximum levitation height prediction of lunar dust under an uniform electric field compared to theoretical solution, which prove that SPH is a reliable method in describing the behavior of soil particles under a complicated electric field and small gravity field with the consideration of interactions among soil particles.

  3. Adsorption of tetracycline on kaolinite with pH-dependent surface charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaohui; Schulz, Laura; Ackley, Caren; Fenske, Nancy

    2010-11-01

    Kaolinite is a major type of clay minerals in soils of warm and humid climate. Although it has a much lower cation exchange capacity (CEC) and specific surface area compared to swelling clays, its ubiquitous existence as well as its pH-dependent surface charge makes it an important component to study the interactions between contaminants and soils. Tetracycline (TC) is a group of broad spectrum antibiotics used extensively in human and veterinary medicine. It has a high aqueous solubility and a long environmental half-life. In this study, the interactions between TC and kaolinite in aqueous solution were investigated in batch tests and supplemented by FTIR analyses. The adsorption of TC on kaolinite was mainly on the external surfaces via cation exchange as confirmed by stoichiometric desorption of exchangeable cations and simultaneous adsorption of H(+) rather than due to complexation. Under acidic conditions, a reduction in surface charge, thus the CEC, resulted in more desorption of exchangeable cations compared to TC adsorption. Fitting of the experimental data to the adsorption of different species revealed that TC(+) accounted for 4/5 of the total TC adsorbed with the remaining by zwitterion TC(0), possible via hydrogen bonding. At higher temperature, the pKa2 and pKa3 values seem to shift a pH unit lower. Due to its pH-dependent charge of kaolinite, TC adsorption is more pH dependent. The TC adsorption capacity on kaolinite was much lower compared to that on swelling clays. However, the adsorption rate constant was faster than that on swelling clays owing to surface adsorption instead of intercalation. Despite its low TC adsorption capacity, the ubiquitous existence of kaolinite in soils of warm climate may play a vital role in the fate and transport of TC in these soils. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of solvent polarization and non-uniform ion size on electrostatic properties between charged surfaces in an electrolyte solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Jun-Sik

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we study electrostatic properties between two similar or oppositely charged surfaces immersed in an electrolyte solution by using the mean-field approach accounting for solvent polarization and non-uniform size effects. Applying a free energy formalism accounting for unequal ion sizes and orientational ordering of water dipoles, we derive coupled and self-consistent equations to calculate electrostatic properties between charged surfaces. Electrostatic properties for similarly charged surfaces depend on the counterion size but not on the coion size. Moreover, electrostatic potential and osmotic pressure between similarly charged surfaces are found to be increased with increasing counterion size. On the other hand, the corresponding ones between oppositely charged surfaces are related to both sizes of positive and negative ions. For oppositely charged surfaces, the electrostatic potential, number density of solvent molecules, and relative permittivity of an electrolyte having unequal ion sizes are not symmetric about the centerline between the charged surfaces. For either case, the consideration of solvent polarization results in a decrease in the electrostatic potential and the osmotic pressure compared to the case without the effect.

  5. Reversal of negative charges on the surface of Escherichia coli thioredoxin: pockets versus protrusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancusso, Romina; Cruz, Eduardo; Cataldi, Marcela; Mendoza, Carla; Fuchs, James; Wang, Hsin; Yang, Xiaomin; Tasayco, María Luisa

    2004-04-06

    Recent studies of proteins with reversed charged residues have demonstrated that electrostatic interactions on the surface can contribute significantly to protein stability. We have used the approach of reversing negatively charged residues using Arg to evaluate the effect of the electrostatics context on the transition temperature (T(m)), the unfolding Gibbs free energy change (DeltaG), and the unfolding enthalpy change (DeltaH). We have reversed negatively charged residues at a pocket (Asp9) and protrusions (Asp10, Asp20, Glu85), all located in interconnecting segments between elements of secondary structure on the surface of Arg73Ala Escherichia coli thioredoxin. DSC measurements indicate that reversal of Asp in a pocket (Asp9Arg/Arg73Ala, DeltaT(m) = -7.3 degrees C) produces a larger effect in thermal stability than reversal at protrusions: Asp10Arg/Arg73Ala, DeltaT(m) = -3.1 degrees C, Asp20Arg/Arg73Ala, DeltaT(m) = 2.0 degrees C, Glu85Arg/Arg73Ala, DeltaT(m) = 3.9 degrees ). The 3D structure of thioredoxin indicates that Asp20 and Glu85 have no nearby charges within 8 A, while Asp9 does not only have Asp10 as sequential neighbor, but it also forms a 5-A long-range ion pair with the solvent-exposed Lys69. Further DSC measurements indicate that neutralization of the individual charges of the ion pair Asp9-Lys69 with nonpolar residues produces a significant decrease in stability in both cases: Asp9Ala/Arg73Ala, DeltaT(m) = -3.7 degrees C, Asp9Met/Arg73Ala, DeltaT(m) = -5.5 degrees C, Lys69Leu/Arg73Ala, DeltaT(m) = -5.1 degrees C. However, thermodynamic analysis shows that reversal or neutralization of Asp9 produces a 9-15% decrease in DeltaH, while both reversal of Asp at protrusions and neutralization of Lys69 produce negligible changes. These results correlate well with the NMR analysis, which demonstrates that only the substitution of Asp9 produces extensive conformational changes and these changes occur in the surroundings of Lys69. Our results led us to

  6. Modified colloidal primitive model as a homogeneous surface charge distribution: ζ-potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanilla-Granados, Héctor M; Lozada-Cassou, Marcelo

    2013-10-03

    An integral equations theory is derived and applied to a modified colloidal primitive model (MCPM), for finite concentration colloidal dispersions. In MCPM, the charge on the colloidal particle is assumed to be smeared on its surface. We find important quantitative and qualitative differences of the ζ-potential, induced charge, and the colloid-colloid electric effective force, calculated in the MCPM, with those obtained from the colloidal primitive model (CPM), where the colloidal charge is assumed to be in the center of the particle, in spite of the fact that, due to Gauss's law, both models have the same particle distribution function. In particular, for the same parameters, while the ζ-potential is positive in MCPM, is negative in the CPM, implying opposite electrophoretic mobilities, μ. An inverse μ has been theoretically predicted in the past, for infinite dilution colloidal dispersions. The MCPM could be a better model for some colloidal particles. In both models, the CPM and the MCPM, it is found a very long-range colloid-colloid correlation, in accordance with previous Monte Carlo simulations. The electrostatic, as well as entropic, like-charged colloid-colloid forces are oscillatory, implying a long-range attraction.

  7. Probing the Surface Charge on the Basal Planes of Kaolinite Particles with High-Resolution Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution atomic force microscopy is used to map the surface charge on the basal planes of kaolinite nanoparticles in an ambient solution of variable pH and NaCl or CaCl2 concentration. Using DLVO theory with charge regulation, we determine from the measured force–distance curves the surface charge distribution on both the silica-like and the gibbsite-like basal plane of the kaolinite particles. We observe that both basal planes do carry charge that varies with pH and salt concentration. The silica facet was found to be negatively charged at pH 4 and above, whereas the gibbsite facet is positively charged at pH below 7 and negatively charged at pH above 7. Investigations in CaCl2 at pH 6 show that the surface charge on the gibbsite facet increases for concentration up to 10 mM CaCl2 and starts to decrease upon further increasing the salt concentration to 50 mM. The increase of surface charge at low concentration is explained by Ca2+ ion adsorption, while Cl– adsorption at higher CaCl2 concentrations partially neutralizes the surface charge. Atomic resolution imaging and density functional theory calculations corroborate these observations. They show that hydrated Ca2+ ions can spontaneously adsorb on the gibbsite facet of the kaolinite particle and form ordered surface structures, while at higher concentrations Cl– ions will co-adsorb, thereby changing the observed ordered surface structure. PMID:29140711

  8. Extracting dielectric fixed charge density on highly doped crystalline-silicon surfaces using photoconductance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, A.; Hoex, B.

    2017-11-01

    A novel method for the extraction of fixed interface charge, Qf, and the surface recombination parameters, Sn0 and Sp0, from the injection-level dependent effective minority carrier lifetime measurements is presented. Unlike conventional capacitance-voltage measurements, this technique can be applied to highly doped surfaces provided the surface carrier concentration transitions into strong depletion or inversion with increased carrier injection. By simulating the injection level dependent Auger-corrected inverse lifetime curve of symmetrically passivated and diffused samples after sequential annealing and corona charging, it was revealed that Qf, Sn0, and Sp0 have unique signatures. Therefore, these important electronic parameters, in some instances, can independently be resolved. Furthermore, it was shown that this non-linear lifetime behaviour is exhibited on both p-type and n-type diffused inverted surfaces, by demonstrating the approach with phosphorous diffused n+pn+ structures and boron diffused p+np+ structures passivated with aluminium oxide (AlOx) and silicon nitride, respectively (SiNx). The results show that the approximation of a mid-gap Shockley-Read-Hall defect level with equal capture cross sections is able to, in the samples studied in this work, reproduce the observed injection level dependent lifetime behaviour.

  9. Electrophoresis of a polarizable charged colloid with hydrophobic surface: A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Somnath; Majee, Partha Sarathi

    2017-04-01

    We consider the electrophoresis of a charged colloid for a generalized situation in which the particle is considered to be polarizable and the surface exhibits hydrophobicity. The dielectric polarization of the particle creates a nonlinear dependence of the electrophoretic velocity on the applied electric field, and the core hydrophobicity amplifies the fluid convection in the Debye layer. Thus, a linear analysis is no longer applicable for this situation. The present analysis is based on the numerical solution of the nonlinear electrokinetic equations based on the Navier-Stokes-Nernst-Planck-Poisson equations coupled with the Laplace equation for the electric field within the dielectric particle. The hydrophobicity of the particle may influence its electric polarization by enhancing the convective transport of ions. The nonlinear effects, such as double-layer polarization and relaxation, are also influenced by the hydrophobicity of the particle surface. The present results compare well for a lower range of the applied electric field and surface charge density with the existing results for a perfectly dielectric particle with a hydrophobic surface based on the first-order perturbation analysis due to Khair and Squires [Phys. Fluids 21, 042001 (2009), 10.1063/1.3116664]. Dielectric polarization creates a reduction in particle electrophoretic velocity, and its impact is strong for a moderate range of Debye length. A quantitative measure of the nonlinear effects is demonstrated by comparing the electrophoretic velocity with an existing linear model.

  10. Magnetic entrapment for fast, simple and reversible electrode modification with carbon nanotubes: application to dopamine detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldrich, Eva; Gómez, Rodrigo; Gabriel, Gemma; Muñoz, Francesc Xavier

    2011-01-15

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been exploited for an important number of electroanalytical and sensing purposes. Specifically, CNT incorporation to an electrode surface coating increases its roughness and area, provides electrocatalytic activity towards a variety of molecules, and improves electron transfer. This modification is generally based on the irreversible deposition of CNT on surface. Nevertheless, CNT are highly porous materials that might promote molecule non-specific adsorption and/or electrodeposition, which could induce sample-to-sample cross-contamination and affect measurement specificity and reproducibility. This drawback has been often circumvented by combining CNT with charged polymers able to repel molecules of opposed charge. We demonstrate that single-walled CNT (SWCNT) have a strong tendency to non-specifically adsorb onto the surface of protein-coated magnetic particles (MP). Magnetic capture of those MP generates CNT coentrapment and allows extremely fast, simple and reversible production of SWCNT electrodes. We have exploited this phenomenon for the production of modified screen-printed electrodes (MP/CNT-SPE), which have been characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The surface has been additionally optimized by evaluating the electrochemical performance of SPE modified with different amounts and proportions of MP and CNT. The modified devices have then been used for dopamine detection. MP/CNT-SPE generated improved assay sensitivity, lower limit of detection, and up to 500% higher current signals than bare electrodes. Magnetic entrapment is proposed as a promising strategy for the fast, simple and reversible generation of nanostructured electrodes of enhanced performance within a few minutes and electrode re-utilisation by simple magnet removal and surface washing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Plasma surface treatment to improve surface charge accumulation and dissipation of epoxy resin exposed to DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Lin, Haofan; Zhang, Shuai; Xie, Qin; Ren, Chengyan; Shao, Tao

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, deposition by non-thermal plasma is used as a surface modification technique to change the surface characteristics of epoxy resin exposed to DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages. The corresponding surface characteristics in both cases of DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages before and after the modification are compared and investigated. The measurement of the surface potential provides the surface charge distribution, which is used to show the accumulation and dissipation process of the surface charges. Morphology observations, chemical composition and electrical parameters measurements are used to evaluate the treatment effects. The experimental results show that, before the plasma treatment, the accumulated surface charges in the case of the DC voltage are more than that in the case of the nanosecond-pulse voltage. Moreover, the decay rate of the surface charges for the DC voltage is higher than that for the nanosecond-pulse voltage. However, the decay rate is no more than 41% after 1800 s for both types of voltages. After the plasma treatment, the maximum surface potentials decrease to 57.33% and 32.57% of their values before treatment for the DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages, respectively, indicating a decrease in the accumulated surface charges. The decay rate exceeds 90% for both types of voltages. These changes are mainly attributed to a change in the surface nanostructure, an increase in conductivity, and a decrease in the depth of energy level.

  12. Plasma surface treatment to improve surface charge accumulation and dissipation of epoxy resin exposed to DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Lin, Haofan; Zhang, Shuai; Ren, Chengyan; Shao, Tao; Xie, Qin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, deposition by non-thermal plasma is used as a surface modification technique to change the surface characteristics of epoxy resin exposed to DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages. The corresponding surface characteristics in both cases of DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages before and after the modification are compared and investigated. The measurement of the surface potential provides the surface charge distribution, which is used to show the accumulation and dissipation process of the surface charges. Morphology observations, chemical composition and electrical parameters measurements are used to evaluate the treatment effects. The experimental results show that, before the plasma treatment, the accumulated surface charges in the case of the DC voltage are more than that in the case of the nanosecond-pulse voltage. Moreover, the decay rate of the surface charges for the DC voltage is higher than that for the nanosecond-pulse voltage. However, the decay rate is no more than 41% after 1800 s for both types of voltages. After the plasma treatment, the maximum surface potentials decrease to 57.33% and 32.57% of their values before treatment for the DC and nanosecond-pulse voltages, respectively, indicating a decrease in the accumulated surface charges. The decay rate exceeds 90% for both types of voltages. These changes are mainly attributed to a change in the surface nanostructure, an increase in conductivity, and a decrease in the depth of energy level. (paper)

  13. Characterization of size, surface charge, and agglomeration state of nanoparticle dispersions for toxicological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jingkun; Oberdoerster, Guenter; Biswas, Pratim

    2009-01-01

    Characterizing the state of nanoparticles (such as size, surface charge, and degree of agglomeration) in aqueous suspensions and understanding the parameters that affect this state are imperative for toxicity investigations. In this study, the role of important factors such as solution ionic strength, pH, and particle surface chemistry that control nanoparticle dispersion was examined. The size and zeta potential of four TiO 2 and three quantum dot samples dispersed in different solutions (including one physiological medium) were characterized. For 15 nm TiO 2 dispersions, the increase of ionic strength from 0.001 M to 0.1 M led to a 50-fold increase in the hydrodynamic diameter, and the variation of pH resulted in significant change of particle surface charge and the hydrodynamic size. It was shown that both adsorbing multiply charged ions (e.g., pyrophosphate ions) onto the TiO 2 nanoparticle surface and coating quantum dot nanocrystals with polymers (e.g., polyethylene glycol) suppressed agglomeration and stabilized the dispersions. DLVO theory was used to qualitatively understand nanoparticle dispersion stability. A methodology using different ultrasonication techniques (bath and probe) was developed to distinguish agglomerates from aggregates (strong bonds), and to estimate the extent of particle agglomeration. Probe ultrasonication performed better than bath ultrasonication in dispersing TiO 2 agglomerates when the stabilizing agent sodium pyrophosphate was used. Commercially available Degussa P25 and in-house synthesized TiO 2 nanoparticles were used to demonstrate identification of aggregated and agglomerated samples.

  14. Surface structure modification of single crystal graphite after slow, highly charged ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzaher, I.; Akcöltekin, S.; Ban-d'Etat, B.; Manil, B.; Dey, K. R.; Been, T.; Boduch, P.; Rothard, H.; Schleberger, M.; Lebius, H.

    2018-04-01

    Single crystal graphite was irradiated by slow, highly charged ions. The modification of the surface structure was studied by means of Low-Energy Electron Diffraction. The observed damage cross section increases with the potential energy, i.e. the charge state of the incident ion, at a constant kinetic energy. The potential energy is more efficient for the damage production than the kinetic energy by more than a factor of twenty. Comparison with earlier results hints to a strong link between early electron creation and later target atom rearrangement. With increasing ion fluence, the initially large-scale single crystal is first transformed into μ m-sized crystals, before complete amorphisation takes place.

  15. Design of asymmetric particles containing a charged interior and a neutral surface charge: comparative study on in vivo circulation of polyelectrolyte microgels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Xu, Jing; Luft, J Christopher; Tian, Shaomin; Raval, Jay S; DeSimone, Joseph M

    2014-07-16

    Lowering the modulus of hydrogel particles could enable them to bypass in vivo physical barriers that would otherwise filter particles with similar size but higher modulus. Incorporation of electrolyte moieties into the polymer network of hydrogel particles to increase the swelling ratio is a straightforward and quite efficient way to decrease the modulus. In addition, charged groups in hydrogel particles can also help secure cargoes. However, the distribution of charged groups on the surface of a particle can accelerate the clearance of particles. Herein, we developed a method to synthesize highly swollen microgels of precise size with near-neutral surface charge while retaining interior charged groups. A strategy was employed to enable a particle to be highly cross-linked with very small mesh size, and subsequently PEGylated to quench the exterior amines only without affecting the internal amines. Acidic degradation of the cross-linker allows for swelling of the particles to microgels with a desired size and deformability. The microgels fabricated demonstrated extended circulation in vivo compared to their counterparts with a charged surface, and could potentially be utilized in in vivo applications including as oxygen carriers or nucleic acid scavengers.

  16. The Effect of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Surface Charge on Antigen Cross-Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Yongbin; Xing, Yun; Ren, Hongyan; Cui, Zhihua; Zhang, Yu; Yu, Guangjie; Urba, Walter J; Hu, Qingang; Hu, Hongming

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) have been explored for different kinds of applications in biomedicine, mechanics, and information. Here, we explored the synthetic SPIO NPs as an adjuvant on antigen cross-presentation ability by enhancing the intracellular delivery of antigens into antigen presenting cells (APCs). Particles with different chemical modifications and surface charges were used to study the mechanism of action of antigen delivery. Specifically, two types of magnetic NPs, γFe 2 O 3 /APTS (3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane) NPs and γFe 2 O 3 /DMSA (meso-2, 3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid) NPs, with the same crystal structure, magnetic properties, and size distribution were prepared. Then, the promotion of T-cell activation via dendritic cells (DCs) was compared among different charged antigen coated NPs. Moreover, the activation of the autophagy, cytosolic delivery of the antigens, and antigen degradation mediated by the proteasome and lysosome were measured. Our results indicated that positive charged γFe 2 O 3 /APTS NPs, but not negative charged γFe 2 O 3 /DMSA NPs, enhanced the cross-presentation ability of DCs. Increased cross-presentation ability induced by γFe 2 O 3 /APTS NPs was associated with increased cytosolic antigen delivery. On the contrary, γFe 2 O 3 /DMSA NPs was associated with rapid autophagy. Overall, our results suggest that antigen delivered in cytoplasm induced by positive charged particles is beneficial for antigen cross-presentation and T-cell activation. NPs modified with different chemistries exhibit diverse biological properties and differ greatly in their adjuvant potentials. Thus, it should be carefully considered many different effects of NPs to design effective and safe adjuvants.

  17. The Effect of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Surface Charge on Antigen Cross-Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Yongbin; Xing, Yun; Ren, Hongyan; Cui, Zhihua; Zhang, Yu; Yu, Guangjie; Urba, Walter J.; Hu, Qingang; Hu, Hongming

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) have been explored for different kinds of applications in biomedicine, mechanics, and information. Here, we explored the synthetic SPIO NPs as an adjuvant on antigen cross-presentation ability by enhancing the intracellular delivery of antigens into antigen presenting cells (APCs). Particles with different chemical modifications and surface charges were used to study the mechanism of action of antigen delivery. Specifically, two types of magnetic NPs, γFe2O3/APTS (3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane) NPs and γFe2O3/DMSA (meso-2, 3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid) NPs, with the same crystal structure, magnetic properties, and size distribution were prepared. Then, the promotion of T-cell activation via dendritic cells (DCs) was compared among different charged antigen coated NPs. Moreover, the activation of the autophagy, cytosolic delivery of the antigens, and antigen degradation mediated by the proteasome and lysosome were measured. Our results indicated that positive charged γFe2O3/APTS NPs, but not negative charged γFe2O3/DMSA NPs, enhanced the cross-presentation ability of DCs. Increased cross-presentation ability induced by γFe2O3/APTS NPs was associated with increased cytosolic antigen delivery. On the contrary, γFe2O3/DMSA NPs was associated with rapid autophagy. Overall, our results suggest that antigen delivered in cytoplasm induced by positive charged particles is beneficial for antigen cross-presentation and T-cell activation. NPs modified with different chemistries exhibit diverse biological properties and differ greatly in their adjuvant potentials. Thus, it should be carefully considered many different effects of NPs to design effective and safe adjuvants.

  18. Graphene Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor for Simultaneous Detection of Charge and Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Satoshi; Ono, Takao; Kanai, Yasushi; Ikuta, Takashi; Shimatani, Masaaki; Ogawa, Shinpei; Maehashi, Kenzo; Inoue, Koichi; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko

    2018-01-26

    We have combined a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) and a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor on a LiTaO 3 substrate to create a graphene surface acoustic wave (GSAW) sensor. When a SAW propagates in graphene, an acoustoelectric current (I A ) flows between two attached electrodes. This current has unique electrical characteristics, having both positive and negative peak values with respect to the electrolyte-gate voltage (V Eg ) in solution. We found that I A is controlled by V Eg and the amplitude of the SAW. It was also confirmed that the GSAW sensor detects changes of electrical charge in solution like conventional GFET sensors. Furthermore, the detection of amino-group-modified microbeads was performed by employing a GSAW sensor in a phthalate buffer solution at pH 4.1. The hole current peak shifted to the lower left in the I A -V Eg characteristics. The left shift was caused by charge detection by the GFET and can be explained by an increase of amino groups that have positive charges at pH 4.1. In contrast, the downward shift is thought to be due to a reduction in the amplitude of the propagating SAW because of an increase in the mass loading of microbeads. This mass loading was detected by the SAW sensor. Thus, we have demonstrated that the GSAW sensor is a transducer capable of the simultaneous detection of charge and mass, which indicates that it is an attractive platform for highly sensitive and multifunctional solution sensing.

  19. Enhanced charge recombination due to surfaces and twin defects in GaAs nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Evan; Sheng, Chunyang; Nakano, Aiichiro [Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Computer Science, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0242 (United States); Shimamura, Kohei; Shimojo, Fuyuki [Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Computer Science, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0242 (United States); Department of Physics, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2015-02-07

    Power conversion efficiency of gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowire (NW) solar cells is severely limited by enhanced charge recombination (CR) at sidewall surfaces, but its atomistic mechanisms are not well understood. In addition, GaAs NWs usually contain a high density of twin defects that form a twin superlattice, but its effects on CR dynamics are largely unknown. Here, quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations reveal the existence of an intrinsic type-II heterostructure at the (110) GaAs surface. Nonadiabatic quantum molecular dynamics (NAQMD) simulations show that the resulting staggered band alignment causes a photoexcited electron in the bulk to rapidly transfer to the surface. We have found orders-of-magnitude enhancement of the CR rate at the surface compared with the bulk value. Furthermore, QMD and NAQMD simulations show unique surface electronic states at alternating (111)A and (111)B sidewall surfaces of a twinned [111]-oriented GaAs NW, which act as effective CR centers. The calculated large surface recombination velocity quantitatively explains recent experimental observations and provides microscopic understanding of the underlying CR processes.

  20. Towards hot electron mediated charge exchange in hyperthermal energy ion-surface interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ray, M. P.; Lake, R. E.; Thomsen, Lasse Bjørchmar

    2010-01-01

    electrons useful for driving chemical reactions at surfaces. Using the binary collision approximation and a nonadiabatic model that takes into account the time-varying nature of the ion–surface interaction, the energy loss of the ions is reproduced. The energy loss for Na + ions incident on the devices......We have made Na + and He + ions incident on the surface of solid state tunnel junctions and measured the energy loss due to atomic displacement and electronic excitations. Each tunnel junction consists of an ultrathin film metal–oxide–semiconductor device which can be biased to create a band of hot...... shows that the primary energy loss mechanism is the atomic displacement of Au atoms in the thin film of the metal–oxide–semiconductor device. We propose that neutral particle detection of the scattered flux from a biased device could be a route to hot electron mediated charge exchange....

  1. Intrinsic Charge Trapping Observed as Surface Potential Variations in diF-TES-ADT Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Benjamin C; McAfee, Terry; Conrad, Brad R; Loth, Marsha A; Anthony, John E; Ade, Harald W; Dougherty, Daniel B

    2016-08-24

    Spatial variations in surface potential are measured with Kelvin probe force microscopy for thin films of 2,8-difluoro-5,11-bis(triethylsilylethynyl)anthradithiophenes (diF-TES-ADT) grown on SiO2 and silane-treated SiO2 substrates by organic molecular beam deposition. The variations are observed both between and within grains of the polycrystalline organic film and are quantitatively different than electrostatic variations on the substrate surfaces. The skewness of surface potential distributions is larger on SiO2 than on HMDS-treated substrates. This observation is attributed to the impact of substrate functionalization on minimizing intrinsic crystallographic defects in the organic film that can trap charge.

  2. Guide Wire Entrapment during Central Venous Catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Woo Kim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We experienced a case of venous vessel wall entrapment between the introducer needle and the guide wire during an attempt to perform right internal jugular vein (IJV catheterization. The guide wire was introduced with no resistance but could not be withdrawn. We performed ultrasonography and C-arm fluoroscopy to confirm the entrapment location. We assumed the introducer needle penetrated the posterior vessel wall during the puncture and that only the guide wire entered the vein; an attempt to retract the wire pinched the vein wall between the needle tip and the guide wire. Careful examination with various diagnostic tools to determine the exact cause of entrapment is crucial for reducing catastrophic complications and achieving better outcomes during catheterization procedures.

  3. A study of charge transfer kinetics in dye-sensitized surface conductivity solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Dennis

    2011-05-15

    The efficiency of the quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell developed by Junghaenel and Tributsch, the so-called Nano Surface Conductivity Solar Cell (NSCSC), was improved from 2% to 3.5% introducing a compact TiO{sub 2} underlayer, modifying the surface of the mesoporous TiO{sub 2} electrode, optimizing the deposition process of the electrolyte film, and replacing the platinum counter electrode by a carbon layer. Space-resolved photocurrent images revealed the importance of a homogeneous distribution of the electrolyte film. An uneven dispersion led to localized areas of high and low photocurrents, whereas the latter were attributed to an insufficient concentration of the redox couple. Impedance spectroscopy was performed on cells containing different concentrations of the redox couple. By modeling the spectra using an equivalent circuit with a transmission line of resistive and capacitive elements, the characteristic parameters of electron transport in the TiO{sub 2}, such as diffusion length and electron lifetime were obtained. The measurements indicated that the transport of the positive charge to the counter electrode is the main process limiting the efficiency of the cells. Excess charge carrier decay in functioning devices was analyzed by contactless transient photoconductance measurements in the microwave frequency range (TRMC). The lifetime of the photogenerated charge carriers was observed to decrease with increasing applied potential, reaching its maximum close to the opencircuit potential of the cell, where the photocurrent density was minimal, i.e. the potential dependent decay observed was limited by the injection of electrons into the front contact. The functioning of this NSCSC indicated that the transport of the positive charge occurs by solid-state diffusion at the surface of the TiO{sub 2} particles. TRMC measurements on subset devices in the form of sensitized TiO{sub 2} layers revealed charge carrier kinetics strongly dependent on the

  4. Effect of surface bilayer charges on the magnetic field around ionic channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes Soares, Marília Amável [Post-graduation in Computational Sciences, Rio de Janeiro State University (Brazil); Cortez, Celia Martins, E-mail: ccortezs@ime.uerj.br [Post-graduation in Computational Sciences, Rio de Janeiro State University (Brazil); Department of Applied Mathematics, Rio de Janeiro State University (Brazil); Oliveira Cruz, Frederico Alan de [Post-graduation in Computational Sciences, Rio de Janeiro State University (Brazil); Department of Physics, Rural Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva, Dilson [Post-graduation in Computational Sciences, Rio de Janeiro State University (Brazil); Department of Applied Mathematics, Rio de Janeiro State University (Brazil)

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present a physic-mathematical model for representing the ion transport through membrane channels, in special Na{sup +} and K{sup +}-channels, and discuss the influence of surface bilayer charges on the magnetic field behavior around the ionic current. The model was composed of a set of equations, including: a nonlinear differential Poisson-Boltzmann equation which usually allows to estimate the surface potentials and electric potential profile across membrane; equations for the ionic flux through channel and the ionic current density based on Armstrong's model for Na{sup +} and K{sup +} permeability and other Physics concepts; and a magnetic field expression derived from the classical Ampère equation. Results from computational simulations using the finite element method suggest that the ionic permeability is strongly dependent of surface bilayer charges, the current density through a K{sup +}-channel is very less sensible to temperature changes than the current density through a Na{sup +}- channel, active Na{sup +}-channels do not directly interfere with the K{sup +}-channels around, and vice-versa, since the magnetic perturbation generated by an active channel is of short-range.

  5. Molecular dynamics study of salt–solution interface: Solubility and surface charge of salt in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Liang, Yunfeng, E-mail: y-liang@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: matsuoka@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Matsuoka, Toshifumi, E-mail: y-liang@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: matsuoka@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Environment and Resource System Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Sakka, Tetsuo [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2014-04-14

    The NaCl salt–solution interface often serves as an example of an uncharged surface. However, recent laser-Doppler electrophoresis has shown some evidence that the NaCl crystal is positively charged in its saturated solution. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have investigated the NaCl salt–solution interface system, and calculated the solubility of the salt using the direct method and free energy calculations, which are kinetic and thermodynamic approaches, respectively. The direct method calculation uses a salt–solution combined system. When the system is equilibrated, the concentration in the solution area is the solubility. In the free energy calculation, we separately calculate the chemical potential of NaCl in two systems, the solid and the solution, using thermodynamic integration with MD simulations. When the chemical potential of NaCl in the solution phase is equal to the chemical potential of the solid phase, the concentration of the solution system is the solubility. The advantage of using two different methods is that the computational methods can be mutually verified. We found that a relatively good estimate of the solubility of the system can be obtained through comparison of the two methods. Furthermore, we found using microsecond time-scale MD simulations that the positively charged NaCl surface was induced by a combination of a sodium-rich surface and the orientation of the interfacial water molecules.

  6. Altering protein surface charge with chemical modification modulates protein–gold nanoparticle aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, Jennifer A.; Bryant, Erika L.; Kadali, Shyam B.; Wong, Michael S.; Colvin, Vicki L.; Matthews, Kathleen S.; Calabretta, Michelle K.

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) can interact with a wide range of molecules including proteins. Whereas significant attention has focused on modifying the nanoparticle surface to regulate protein–AuNP assembly or influence the formation of the protein “corona,” modification of the protein surface as a mechanism to modulate protein–AuNP interaction has been less explored. Here, we examine this possibility utilizing three small globular proteins—lysozyme with high isoelectric point (pI) and established interactions with AuNP; α-lactalbumin with similar tertiary fold to lysozyme but low pI; and myoglobin with a different globular fold and an intermediate pI. We first chemically modified these proteins to alter their charged surface functionalities, and thereby shift protein pI, and then applied multiple methods to assess protein–AuNP assembly. At pH values lower than the anticipated pI of the modified protein, AuNP exposure elicits changes in the optical absorbance of the protein–NP solutions and other properties due to aggregate formation. Above the expected pI, however, protein–AuNP interaction is minimal, and both components remain isolated, presumably because both species are negatively charged. These data demonstrate that protein modification provides a powerful tool for modulating whether nanoparticle–protein interactions result in material aggregation. The results also underscore that naturally occurring protein modifications found in vivo may be critical in defining nanoparticle–protein corona compositions.

  7. Memory effect on energy losses of charged particles moving parallel to solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwei, C.M.; Tu, Y.H.; Hsu, Y.H.; Tung, C.J.

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical derivations were made for the induced potential and the stopping power of a charged particle moving close and parallel to the surface of a solid. It was illustrated that the induced potential produced by the interaction of particle and solid depended not only on the velocity but also on the previous velocity of the particle before its last inelastic interaction. Another words, the particle kept a memory on its previous velocity, v , in determining the stopping power for the particle of velocity v. Based on the dielectric response theory, formulas were derived for the induced potential and the stopping power with memory effect. An extended Drude dielectric function with spatial dispersion was used in the application of these formulas for a proton moving parallel to Si surface. It was found that the induced potential with memory effect lay between induced potentials without memory effect for constant velocities v and v. The memory effect was manifest as the proton changes its velocity in the previous inelastic interaction. This memory effect also reduced the stopping power of the proton. The formulas derived in the present work can be applied to any solid surface and charged particle moving with arbitrary parallel trajectory either inside or outside the solid

  8. Controlling charges distribution at the surface of a single GaN nanowire by in-situ strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Effect of the strain on the charge distribution at the surface of a GaN semiconductor nanowire (NW has been investigated inside transmission electron microscope (TEM by in-situ off-axis electron holography. The outer and inner surfaces of the NW bent axially under compression of two Au electrodes were differently strained, resulting in difference of their Fermi levels. Consequently, the free electrons flow from the high Fermi level to the low level until the two Fermi levels aligned in a line. The potential distributions induced by charge redistribution in the two vacuum sides of the bent NW were examined respectively, and the opposite nature of the bounded charges on the outer and inner surfaces of the bent NW was identified. The results provide experimental evidence that the charge distribution at the surfaces of a single GaN NW can be controlled by different strains created along the NW.

  9. Multiple charge density wave states at the surface of TbT e3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ling; Kraft, Aaron M.; Sharma, Bishnu; Singh, Manoj; Walmsley, Philip; Fisher, Ian R.; Boyer, Michael C.

    2016-11-01

    We studied TbT e3 using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) in the temperature range of 298-355 K. Our measurements detect a unidirectional charge density wave (CDW) state in the surface Te layer with a wave vector consistent with that of the bulk qCDW=0.30 ±0.01 c* . However, unlike previous STM measurements, and differing from measurements probing the bulk, we detect two perpendicular orientations for the unidirectional CDW with no directional preference for the in-plane crystal axes (a or c axis) and no noticeable difference in wave vector magnitude. In addition, we find regions in which the bidirectional CDW states coexist. We propose that observation of two unidirectional CDW states indicates a decoupling of the surface Te layer from the rare-earth block layer below, and that strain variations in the Te surface layer drive the local CDW direction to the specific unidirectional or, in rare occurrences, bidirectional CDW orders observed. This indicates that similar driving mechanisms for CDW formation in the bulk, where anisotropic lattice strain energy is important, are at play at the surface. Furthermore, the wave vectors for the bidirectional order we observe differ from those theoretically predicted for checkerboard order competing with stripe order in a Fermi-surface nesting scenario, suggesting that factors beyond Fermi-surface nesting drive CDW order in TbT e3 . Finally, our temperature-dependent measurements provide evidence for localized CDW formation above the bulk transition temperature TCDW.

  10. Characterizing the surface charge of clay minerals with Atomic Force Microscope (AFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Guo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The engineering properties of clayey soils, including fluid permeability, erosion resistance and cohesive strength, are quite different from those of non-cohesive soils. This is mainly due to their small platy particle shape and the surrounding diffuse double layer structure. By using the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM, the surface topography and the interaction force between the silicon dioxide tip and the kaolinite/montmorillonite clay minerals have been measured in the 1.0 mM NaCl solution at neutral pH. From this, the surface potential of the clay minerals is determined by mathematical regression analyses using the DLVO model. The length/thickness ratio of kaolinite and montmorillonite particles measured ranges from 8.0 to 15.0. The surface potential and surface charge density vary with particles. The average surface potential of montmorillonite is −62.8 ± 10.6 mV, and the average surface potential of kaolinite is −40.9 ± 15.5 mV. The measured results help to understand the clay sediment interaction, and will be used to develop interparticle force model to simulate sediment transport during erosion process.

  11. Instantaneous generation of charge-separated state on TiO₂ surface sensitized with plasmonic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Run; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2014-03-19

    Photoexcitation of the plasmon band in metallic nanoparticles adsorbed on a TiO2 surface initiates many important photovoltaic and photocatalytic processes. The traditional view on the photoinduced charge separation involves excitation of a surface plasmon, its subsequent dephasing into electron-hole pairs, followed by electron transfer (ET) from the metal nanoparticle into TiO2. We use nonadiabatic molecular dynamics combined with time-domain density functional theory to demonstrate that an electron appears inside TiO2 immediately upon photoexcitation with a high probability (~50%), bypassing the intermediate step of electron-hole thermalization inside the nanoparticle. By providing a detailed, atomistic description of the charge separation, energy relaxation, and electron-hole recombination processes, the simulation rationalizes why the experimentally observed ultrafast photoinduced ET in an Au-TiO2 system is possible in spite of the fast energy relaxation. The simulation shows that the photogenerated plasmon is highly delocalized onto TiO2, and thus, it is shared by the electron donor and acceptor materials. In the 50% of the cases remaining after the instantaneous photogeneration of the charge-separated state, the electron injects into TiO2 on a sub-100 fs time scale by the nonadiabatic mechanism due to high density of acceptor states. The electron-phonon relaxation parallels the injection and is slower, resulting in a transient heating of the TiO2 surface by 40 K. Driven by entropy, the electron moves further into TiO2 bulk. If the electron remains trapped at the TiO2 surface, it recombines with the hole on a picosecond time scale. The obtained ET and recombination times are in excellent agreement with the experiment. The delocalized plasmon state observed in our study establishes a novel concept for plasmonic photosensitization of wide band gap semiconductors, leading to efficient conversion of photons to charge carriers and to hybrid materials with a wide

  12. Effect of valence nucleons on RMS charge radii and surface thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeli, I. (Kossuth Univ., Debrecen (Hungary). Inst. of Experimental Physics)

    1991-04-01

    The nucleonic promiscuity factor P = N{sub p}N{sub n}/(N{sub p} + N{sub n}), where N{sub p}(N{sub n}) is the number of valence protons (neutrons) or holes, is shown to be a useful and physically meaningful parameter in the description of RMS charge radii. The empirically found mass number dependence of the P-dependent contribution to radii is in agreement with the qualitative theoretical expectation for the average strength of the isoscalar p-n interaction. A significant correlation between surface diffusivity and promiscuity as well as between diffusivity and radius is pointed out. (author).

  13. Manipulation of K center charge states in silicon nitride films to achieve excellent surface passivation for silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivek; Tracy, Clarence; Schroder, Dieter; Herasimenka, Stanislau; Dauksher, William; Bowden, Stuart

    2014-02-01

    High quality surface passivation (Seff textured p- and n-type solar grade Czochralski silicon substrates by externally injecting and storing positive or negative charges (>±8 × 1012 cm-2) into a dual layer stack of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) Silicon Nitride (SiNx)/PECVD Silicon Oxide (SiO2) films using a corona charging tool. We demonstrate long term stability and uniform charge distribution in the SiNx film by manipulating the charge on K center defects while negating the requirement of a high temperature thermal oxide step.

  14. Evaluation of the In Vitro Effect of Gold Nanorod Aspect Ratio, Surface Charge and Chemistry on Cellular Association and Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-28

    Nanorods. Analytical Chemistry , 79(2), 572-579. doi: 10.1021/ac061730d 22 LIST OF ACRONYMS ATCC American Type Culture Collection AR Aspect...EVALUATION OF THE IN VITRO EFFECTOF GOLD NANOROD ASPECT RATIO, SURFACE CHARGE AND CHEMISTRY ON CELLULAR ASSOCIATION AND CYTOTOXICITY...July 2012 – Jan 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EVALUATION OF THE IN VITRO EFFECT OF GOLD NANOROD ASPECT RATIO, SURFACE CHARGE AND CHEMISTRY ON

  15. Energy dissipation of highly charged ions interacting with solid surfaces; Energieeintrag langsamer hochgeladener Ionen in Festkoerperoberflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, D.

    2006-07-01

    Motivated by the incomplete scientific description of the relaxation of highly charged ions in front of solid surfaces and their energy balance, this thesis describes an advanced complementary study of determining deposited fractions and re-emitted fractions of the potential energy of highly charged ions. On one side, a calorimetric measurement setup is used to determine the retained potential energy and on the other side, energy resolved electron spectroscopy is used for measuring the reemitted energy due to secondary electron emission. In order to study the mechanism of energy retention in detail, materials with different electronic structures are investigated: Cu, n-Si, p-Si and SiO{sub 2}. In the case of calorimetry, a linear relationship between the deposited potential energy and the inner potential energy of the ions was determined. The total potential energy which stays in the solid remains almost constant at about (80 {+-} 10) %. Comparing the results of the Cu, n-Si and p-Si targets, no significant difference could be shown. Therefore we conclude that the difference in energy deposition between copper, n-doped Si and p-doped Si is below 10 %, which is significantly lower than using SiO{sub 2} targets. For this purpose, electron spectroscopy provides a complementary result. For Cu and Si surfaces, an almost linear increase of the re-emitted energy with increasing potential energy of the ion up to Ar{sup 7+} was also observed. The ratio of the re-emitted energy is about (10 {+-} 5) % of the total potential energy of the incoming ion, almost independent of the ion charge state. In contrast, an almost vanishing electron emission was observed for SiO{sub 2} and for charge states below q=7. For Ar{sup 8+} and Ar{sup 9+}, the electron emission increased due to the contribution of the projectile LMM Auger electrons and the re-emitted energy amounts up to 20 % for Cu and Si and around 10 % for SiO{sub 2}. These results are in good agreement with the calorimetric

  16. Layer-dependent surface potential of phosphorene and anisotropic/layer-dependent charge transfer in phosphorene-gold hybrid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Zhu, Yi; Yan, Han; Pei, Jiajie; Myint, Ye Win; Zhang, Shuang; Lu, Yuerui

    2016-01-07

    The surface potential and the efficiency of interfacial charge transfer are extremely important for designing future semiconductor devices based on the emerging two-dimensional (2D) phosphorene. Here, we directly measured the strong layer-dependent surface potential of mono- and few-layered phosphorene on gold, which is consistent with the reported theoretical prediction. At the same time, we used an optical way photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy to probe charge transfer in the phosphorene-gold hybrid system. We firstly observed highly anisotropic and layer-dependent PL quenching in the phosphorene-gold hybrid system, which is attributed to the highly anisotropic/layer-dependent interfacial charge transfer.

  17. Creation of surface nanostructures in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} by slow highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Said, A.S., E-mail: a.s.el-said@hzdr.de [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Nuclear and Radiation Physics Lab, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, 35516 Mansoura (Egypt); Wilhelm, R.A. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Heller, R.; Akhmadaliev, Sh.; Facsko, S. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystals were irradiated with slow highly charged Xe ions of various charge states from an EBIT (Electron Beam Ion Trap) source at the Dresden two source facility. The irradiations were performed at room temperature and under normal incidence. Scanning force microscopy (SFM) was utilized to investigate the topography of the irradiated surfaces. The measurements showed that above a potential energy threshold, each ion creates a nanohillock protruding from the surface. These structures are compared to those created by swift heavy ions (SHI). The results are discussed in terms of potential energy deposition of highly charged ions (HCI) and electronic energy loss of SHI.

  18. Effect of hydrogen charging on the stability of SAE 10B22 steel surface in alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modiano, S.; Carreno, J.A.; Fugivara, C.S.; Benedetti, A.V.; Mattos, O.R.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of hydrogen charging into a quenched and tempered boron steel membrane electrode (SAE 10B22) was studied using borate buffer (pH 8.4) and NaOH solutions (pH 12.7), with or without the addition of 0.01 M EDTA. At the hydrogen input side, hydrogen charging influenced cyclic voltammograms increasing the anodic charge of iron(II) hydroxide formation, and decreasing the donor density of passive films. These results suggest that the hydrogen ingress caused instability of metallic surface, increasing the surface area activity

  19. Negatively charged ions on Mg(0001) surfaces: appearance and origin of attractive adsorbate-adsorbate interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Su-Ting; Todorova, Mira; Freysoldt, Christoph; Neugebauer, Jörg

    2014-09-26

    Adsorption of electronegative elements on a metal surface usually leads to an increase in the work function and decrease in the binding energy as the adsorbate coverage rises. Using density-functional theory calculations, we show that Cl adsorbed on a Mg(0001) surface complies with these expectations, but adsorption of {N,O,F} causes a decrease in the work function and an increase in the binding energy. Analyzing the electronic structure, we show that the presence of a highly polarizable electron spill-out in front of Mg(0001) causes this unusual adsorption behavior and is responsible for the appearance of a hitherto unknown net-attractive lateral electrostatic interaction between same charged adsorbates.

  20. Dirac spin-orbit torques and charge pumping at the surface of topological insulators

    KAUST Repository

    Ndiaye, Papa Birame

    2017-07-07

    We address the nature of spin-orbit torques at the magnetic surfaces of topological insulators using the linear-response theory. We find that the so-called Dirac torques in such systems possess a different symmetry compared to their Rashba counterpart, as well as a high anisotropy as a function of the magnetization direction. In particular, the damping torque vanishes when the magnetization lies in the plane of the topological-insulator surface. We also show that the Onsager reciprocal of the spin-orbit torque, the charge pumping, induces an enhanced anisotropic damping. Via a macrospin model, we numerically demonstrate that these features have important consequences in terms of magnetization switching.

  1. InN/GaN quantum dot superlattices: Charge-carrier states and surface electronic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanouni, F.; Brezini, A.; Djenane, M.; Zou, Q.

    2018-03-01

    We have theoretically investigated the electron energy spectra and surface states energy in the three dimensionally ordered quantum dot superlattices (QDSLs) made of InN and GaN semiconductors. The QDSL is assumed in this model to be a matrix of GaN containing cubic dots of InN of the same size and uniformly distributed. For the miniband’s structure calculation, the resolution of the effective mass Schrödinger equation is done by decoupling it in the three directions within the framework of Kronig-Penney model. We found that the electrons minibands in infinite ODSLs are clearly different from those in the conventional quantum-well superlattices. The electrons localization and charge-carrier states are very dependent on the quasicrystallographic directions, the size and the shape of the dots which play a role of the artificial atoms in such QD supracrystal. The energy spectrum of the electron states localized at the surface of InN/GaN QDSL is represented by Kronig-Penney like-model, calculated via direct matching procedure. The calculation results show that the substrate breaks symmetrical shape of QDSL on which some localized electronic surface states can be produced in minigap regions. Furthermore, we have noticed that the surface states degeneracy is achieved in like very thin bands located in the minigaps, identified by different quantum numbers nx, ny, nz. Moreover, the surface energy bands split due to the reduction of the symmetry of the QDSL in z-direction.

  2. Dynamics of the central entrapped bubble during drop impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Zhen; Channa, Murad Ali; Thoraval, Marie-Jean

    2017-11-01

    When a drop impacts onto a liquid surface, it entraps a thin central air disk. The air is then brought towards the axis of symmetry by surface tension. This contraction dynamics is very challenging to capture, due to the small length scales (a few micrometers thin air disk) and time scales (contracting in a few hundred microseconds). We use the open source two-phase flow codes Gerris and Basilisk to study this air entrapment phenomenon. The effects of liquid properties such as viscosity and surface tension, and of the impact velocity were investigated. We focus on the morphology of the contracting air disk. The bubble is expected to contract into a single spherical bubble. However, in some cases, the air can be stretched vertically by the liquid inertia and split into two smaller bubbles. The convergence of capillary waves on the air disk towards the axis of symmetry can also make it rupture at the center, thus forming a toroidal bubble. In other cases, vorticity shedding can deform the contracting bubble, leading to more complex structures. A parameter space analysis based on the Reynolds and Weber numbers was then done to classify the different regimes and explain the transitions. Full affiliation:State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures,Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Environment and Control for Flight Vehicle,International Center for Applied Mechanics,School of Aerospace,Xi'an Jiaotong University.

  3. Boron Nitride Nanoporous Membranes with High Surface Charge by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Matthieu; Koonkaew, Boonprakrong; Balme, Sebastien; Utke, Ivo; Picaud, Fabien; Iatsunskyi, Igor; Coy, Emerson; Miele, Philippe; Bechelany, Mikhael

    2017-05-17

    In this work, we report the design and the fine-tuning of boron nitride single nanopore and nanoporous membranes by atomic layer deposition (ALD). First, we developed an ALD process based on the use of BBr 3 and NH 3 as precursors in order to synthesize BN thin films. The deposited films were characterized in terms of thickness, composition, and microstructure. Next, we used the newly developed process to grow BN films on anodic aluminum oxide nanoporous templates, demonstrating the conformality benefit of BN prepared by ALD, and its scalability for the manufacturing of membranes. For the first time, the ALD process was then used to tune the diameter of fabricated single transmembrane nanopores by adjusting the BN thickness and to enable studies of the fundamental aspects of ionic transport on a single nanopore. At pH = 7, we estimated a surface charge density of 0.16 C·m -2 without slip and 0.07 C·m -2 considering a reasonable slip length of 3 nm. Molecular dynamics simulations performed with experimental conditions confirmed the conductivities and the sign of surface charges measured. The high ion transport results obtained and the ability to fine-tune nanoporous membranes by such a scalable method pave the way toward applications such as ionic separation, energy harvesting, and ultrafiltration devices.

  4. Measurement of the electric potential at the surface of nonuniformly charged polypropylene nonwoven media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatihou, Ali; Zouzou, Noureddine; Iuga, Gheorghe; Dascalescu, Lucian

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to establish the conditions in which the vibrating capacitive probe of an electrostatic voltmeter could be employed for mapping the electric potential at the surface of non-uniformly charged insulating bodies. A first set of experiments are performed on polypropylene non-woven media (thickness: 0.4 mm; fiber diameter: 20 μm) in ambient air. In a second set of experiments the non-uniformity of charge is simulated using five copper strips (width: 2 mm or 3 mm; distance between strips: 2 mm). All the strips are connected to a high-voltage supply (Vs = 1000 V). The sample carrier is attached to a computer-controlled positioning system that transfers it under the capacitive probe (TREK, model 3451) of an electrostatic voltmeter (TREK, model 1341B). The measurements are performed at various relative speeds Vb between the sample and the probe, and for various sample rates Fe. A first set of experiments point out that the electric potential displayed by the electrostatic voltmeter depends on the spacing h between the sample and the probe. The diameter D of the spot “seen” by the probe is approximately D ≈ 8h/3. From the second set of experiments performed with the test plate, it can be concluded that the surface potential can be measured with the media in motion, but the accuracy is limited by the spatial resolution defined by k = Vb/Fe.

  5. Comparisons Between Model Predictions and Spectral Measurements of Charged and Neutral Particles on the Martian Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Zeitlin, Cary; Hassler, Donald M.; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Boettcher, Stephan; Boehm, Eckart; Guo, Jingnan; hide

    2014-01-01

    Detailed measurements of the energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars have been made by the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Curiosity rover since August 2012. RAD is a particle detector that measures the energy spectrum of charged particles (10 to approx. 200 MeV/u) and high energy neutrons (approx 8 to 200 MeV). The data obtained on the surface of Mars for 300 sols are compared to the simulation results using the Badhwar-O'Neill galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment model and the high-charge and energy transport (HZETRN) code. For the nuclear interactions of primary GCR through Mars atmosphere and Curiosity rover, the quantum multiple scattering theory of nuclear fragmentation (QMSFRG) is used. For describing the daily column depth of atmosphere, daily atmospheric pressure measurements at Gale Crater by the MSL Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) are implemented into transport calculations. Particle flux at RAD after traversing varying depths of atmosphere depends on the slant angles, and the model accounts for shielding of the RAD "E" dosimetry detector by the rest of the instrument. Detailed comparisons between model predictions and spectral data of various particle types provide the validation of radiation transport models, and suggest that future radiation environments on Mars can be predicted accurately. These contributions lend support to the understanding of radiation health risks to astronauts for the planning of various mission scenarios

  6. Non-isothermal electro-osmotic flow in a microchannel with charge-modulated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Oscar; Sanchez, Salvador; Mendez, Federico

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we present an theoretical analysis of a nonisothermal electro-osmotic flow of a Newtonian fluid over charge-modulated surfaces in a microchannel. Here, the heating in the microchannel is due to the Joule effect caused by the imposition of an external electric field. The study is conducted through the use of perturbation techniques and is validated by means of numerical simulations. We consider that both, viscosity and electrical conductivity of the fluid are temperature-dependent; therefore, in order to determine the heat transfer process and the corresponding effects on the flow field, the governing equations of continuity, momentum, energy and electric potential have to be solved in a coupled manner. The principal obtained results evidence that the flow patterns are perturbed in a noticeable manner in comparison with the isothernal case. Our results may be used for increasing microfluidics mixing by conjugating thermal effects with the use of charge-modulated surfaces. This work has been supported by the research grants no. 220900 of Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT) and 20150919 of SIP-IPN at Mexico. F. Méndez acknowledges also the economical support of PAPIIT-UNAM under contract number IN112215.

  7. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome misdiagnosed as chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After 6 months of rehabilitation he started playing rugby again, but the pain and discomfort in his ... machine equipped with a 5 - 7.5 MHz linear-array transducer. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome ... The syndrome usually affects young athletes who undertake vigorous exercise leading to muscle hypertrophy of the.

  8. High performance electrophoresis system for site-specific entrapment of nanoparticles in a nanoarray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin-Hee; Lakshmana, Sudheendra; Kim, Hee-Joo; Hass, Elizabeth A.; Gee, Shirley; Hammock, Bruce D.; Kennedy, Ian

    2010-02-01

    A nanoarray, integrated with an electrophoretic system, was developed to trap nanoparticles into their corresponding nanowells. This nanoarray overcomes the complications of losing the function and activity of the protein binding to the surface in conventional microarrays by using minimum amounts of sample. The nanoarray is also superior to other biosensors that use immunoassays in terms of lowering the limit of detection to the femto- or atto-molar level. In addition, our electrophoretic particle entrapment system (EPES) is able to effectively trap the nanoparticles using a low trapping force for a short duration. Therefore, good conditions for biological samples conjugated with particles can be maintained. The channels were patterned onto a bi-layer consisting of a PMMA and LOL coating on conductive indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass slide by using e-beam lithography. The suspensions of 170 nm-nanoparticles then were added to the chip that was connected to a positive voltage. On top of the droplet, another ITO-coated-glass slide was covered and connected to a ground terminal. Negatively charged fluorescent nanoparticles (blue emission) were selectively trapped onto the ITO surface at the bottom of the wells by following electric field lines. Numerical modeling was performed by using commercially available software, COMSOL Multiphysics to provide better understanding about the phenomenon of electrophoresis in a nanoarray. Simulation results are also useful for optimally designing a nanoarray for practical applications.

  9. The role of surface charge density in cationic liposome-promoted dendritic cell maturation and vaccine-induced immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yifan; Zhuang, Yan; Xie, Xiaofang; Wang, Ce; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Dongmei; Zeng, Jianqiang; Cai, Lintao

    2011-05-01

    Cationic liposomes have emerged as a novel adjuvant and antigen delivery system to enhance vaccine efficacy. However, the role of surface charge density in cationic liposome-regulated immune responses has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we prepared a series of DOTAP/DOPC cationic liposomes with different surface densities by incorporating varying amounts of DOPC (a neutral lipid) into DOTAP (a cationic lipid). The results showed that DOTAP/DOPC cationic liposome-regulated immune responses relied on the surface charge density, and might occur through ROS signaling. The liposomes with a relatively high charge density, such as DOTAP/DOPC 5 : 0 and 4 : 1 liposomes, potently enhanced dendritic cell maturation, ROS generaion, antigen uptake, as well as the production of OVA-specific IgG2a and IFN-γ. In contrast, low-charge liposomes, such as DOTAP/DOPC 1 : 4 liposome, failed to promote immune responses even at high concentrations, confirming that the immunoregulatory effect of cationic liposomes is mostly attributable to their surface charge density. Moreover, the DOTAP/DOPC 1 : 4 liposome suppressed anti-OVA antibody responses in vivo. Overall, maintaining an appropriate surface charge is crucial for optimizing the adjuvant effect of cationic liposomes and enhancing the efficacy of liposome-based vaccines.

  10. Surface-charge-induced orientation of interfacial water suppresses heterogeneous ice nucleation on α-alumina (0001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmonem, Ahmed; Backus, Ellen H. G.; Hoffmann, Nadine; Sánchez, M. Alejandra; Cyran, Jenée D.; Kiselev, Alexei; Bonn, Mischa

    2017-06-01

    Surface charge is one of the surface properties of atmospheric aerosols, which has been linked to heterogeneous ice nucleation and hence cloud formation, microphysics, and optical properties. Despite the importance of surface charge for ice nucleation, many questions remain on the molecular-level mechanisms at work. Here, we combine droplet-freezing assay studies with vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy to correlate interfacial water structure to surface nucleation strength. We study immersion freezing of aqueous solutions of various pHs on the atmospherically relevant aluminum oxide α-Al2O3 (0001) surface using an isolated droplet on the surface. The high-pH solutions freeze at temperatures higher than that of the low-pH solution, while the neutral pH has the highest freezing temperature. On the molecular level, the SFG spectrum of the interfacial water changes substantially upon freezing. At all pHs, crystallization leads to a reduction of intensity of the 3400 cm-1 water resonance, while the 3200 cm-1 intensity drops for low pH but increases for neutral and high pHs. We find that charge-induced surface templating suppresses nucleation, irrespective of the sign of the surface charge. Heterogeneous nucleation is most efficient for the nominally neutral surface.

  11. On the molecular mechanism of surface charge amplification and related phenomena at aqueous polyelectrolyte-graphene interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Simonson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this communication we illustrate the occurrence of a recently reported new phenomenon of surface-charge amplification, SCA, (originally dubbed overcharging, OC, [Jimenez-Angeles F. and Lozada-Cassou M., J. Phys. Chem. B, 2004, 108, 7286] by means of molecular dynamics simulation of aqueous electrolytes solutions involving multivalent cations in contact with charged graphene walls and the presence of short-chain lithium polystyrene sulfonates where the solvent water is described explicitly with a realistic molecular model. We show that the occurrence of SCA in these systems, in contrast to that observed in primitive models, involves neither contact co-adsorption of the negatively charged macroions nor divalent cations with a large size and charge asymmetry as required in the case of implicit solvents. In fact the SCA phenomenon hinges around the preferential adsorption of water (over the hydrated ions with an average dipolar orientation such that the charges of the water's hydrogen and oxygen sites induce magnification rather than screening of the positive-charged graphene surface, within a limited range of surface-charge density.

  12. Mathematical Heat Transfer Model of Surface Quenching Process for Hot Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jing; Wang, Qian; Li, Yugang; Zhang, Shaoda; Yan, Chen

    Online surface quenching technology has been developed for the hot charging process to prevent the surface cracks in high strength low-alloy steel slabs. In this paper, a two-dimensional heat transfer model of surface quenching process was presented. This finite element model includes nonlinear thermodynamic properties, by which the slab temperature distributions were computed. The model predicted temperatures show reasonable agreement with the measurements. The effects of the water flow rate and slab movement velocity on temperature variation during the quenching and subsequent tempering process were investigated. The result shows that the temperature drop increases but the tempering temperature changes slightly with increasing water flow rate and decreasing slab velocity. Keeping the slab movement velocity at 1.2-2.1m/min and the water flow rate at 55-70m3/h, the slab surface experiences a temperature drop of 400-600°C firstly, then recovers above 650°C, the quenching and energy-saving effect are remarkable.

  13. Proton migration along the membrane surface in the absence of charged or titratable groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, A.

    2011-01-01

    Proton diffusion along membrane surfaces is thought to be essential for many cellular processes such as energy transduction. For example, proton diffusion along membrane surfaces is considered to be the dominant mechanism of proton exchange between membrane sites of high and low proton concentrations. For the investigation of this mechanism, kinetic experiments on proton diffusion are evaluated to determine the ability of lipid membranes to retain protons on their surfaces. Experiments on different lipid bilayer membranes (DPhPC, DPhPE and GMO) are performed under the influence of two types of mobile buffer molecules (Capso, NH4CL). During these experiments the surface diffusion of photolytically released protons is visualized in terms of fluorescence changes of a lipid bound pH-sensitive dye (DHPE +fluorescein). The protons under investigation are released by flash photolysis of a hydrophobic caged compound (DMCM, caged diethyl phosphate). The experimental data confirm the existence of an energy barrier, which prevents the protons from escaping into the bulk. So far this effect was attributed to the proton binding to titrateable groups (e.g. ethanolamine) or electrostatic forces created by charged moieties (e.g. phosphate groups) on the membrane/water interface. However, upon removal of the titrateable groups and charged moieties from the membrane surface, a significant energy barrier remained as indicated by the experiments with glycerol monooleate (GMO) bilayers. To estimate the size of the barrier a semi-analytical model is presented that describes the two and three dimensional proton diffusion and the related physical and chemical processes. Common models describe surface proton diffusion as a series of subsequent hopping processes between membrane-anchored buffer molecules. Our experiments provide evidence for an alternative model. We released membrane-bound caged protons by UV flashes and monitored their arrival at distant sites s by fluorescence

  14. Influence of Surface Charge/Potential of a Gold Electrode on the Adsorptive/Desorptive Behaviour of Fibrinogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dargahi, Mahdi; Konkov, Evgeny; Omanovic, Sasha

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Adsorptive/desorptive behavior of fibrinogen (FG) on an electrochemically-polarized gold substrate is reported. • The adsorption affinity of FG (afFG) is constant on a negatively-charged substrate surface. • The afFG increases linearly with an increase in positive substrate surface charge. • The FG adsorption kinetics is strongly dependant on substrate surface charge. • The adsorbed FG layer can be desorbed by electrochemical evolution of hydrogen and oxygen. - Abstract: The effect of gold substrate surface charge (potential) on adsorptive/desorptive behaviour of fibrinogen (FG) was studied by employing differential capacitance (DC) and polarization modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS), in terms of FG adsorption thermodynamics, kinetics, and desorption kinetics. The gold substrate surface charge was modulated in-situ within the electrochemical double-layer region by means of electrochemical potentiostatic polarization in a FG-containing electrolyte, thus avoiding the interference of other physico-chemical properties of the gold surface on FG’s interfacial behaviour. The FG adsorption equilibrium was modeled using the Langmuir isotherm. Highly negative values of apparent Gibbs free energy of adsorption (ranging from from −52.1 ± 0.4 to −55.8 ± 0.8 kJ mol −1 , depending on the FG adsorption potential) indicated a highly spontaneous and strong adsorption of FG onto the gold surface. The apparent Gibbs free energy of adsorption was found to be independent of surface charge when the surface was negatively charged. However, when the gold surface was positively charged, the apparent Gibbs free energy of adsorption exhibited a pronounced linear relationship with the surface charge, shifting to more negative values with an increase in positive electrode potential. The adsorption kinetics of FG was also found to be dependent on gold surface charge in a similar manner to the apparent Gibbs free energy of adsorption

  15. Funneling effect of alpha particles on the charge collection efficiency in N type silicon surface barrier detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boorboor, S.; Feghhi, S.A.H.; Jafari, H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Field funneling due to SEE in microelectronic device affects the charge collection efficiency. • Charge collection efficiency from alpha particles in a N type SSB device was calculated. • GEANT4, a Monte Carlo code and ATLAS, a numerical code have been used. • The simulation results have been validated through comparison with the experimental results. - Abstract: There are three different mechanisms of charge collection in a semiconductor charge particle detector, such as the drift of carriers in depletion zone, the drift of carriers in an extended electrical field along the ion track or funneling effect and the diffusion of carriers. In this work, the funneling effect on charge collection efficiency due to alpha particle track in a N type silicon surface barrier detector has been investigated. GEANT4, as Monte Carlo code, has been used for estimation of the deposit energy distribution in the component. In addition, the semiconductor device simulator, ATLAS, has been used in calculation of charge collection efficiency. The simulation results have been validated through comparison with the available experimental results. The calculated charge collection efficiency has good agreement with experiment. Without considering the funneling effect and diffusion, the calculation results underestimate the charge collection efficiency within 60%. Our overall results were indicative of the fact that considering funneling effect, considerably improves the accuracy of the charge collection efficiency estimation

  16. A space-charge treatment of the increased concentration of reactive species at the surface of a ceria solid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurhelle, Alexander F.; Souza, Roger A. de [Institute of Physical Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Tong, Xiaorui; Mebane, David S. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Klein, Andreas [Institute of Materials Science, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2017-11-13

    A space-charge theory applicable to concentrated solid solutions (Poisson-Cahn theory) was applied to describe quantitatively as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure published data obtained by in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for the concentration of Ce{sup 3+} (the reactive species) at the surface of the oxide catalyst Ce{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}. In contrast to previous theoretical treatments, these calculations clearly indicate that the surface is positively charged and compensated by an attendant negative space-charge zone. The high space-charge potential that develops at the surface (>0.8 V) is demonstrated to be hardly detectable by XPS measurements because of the short extent of the space-charge layer. This approach emphasizes the need to take into account defect interactions and to allow deviations from local charge neutrality when considering the surfaces of oxide catalysts. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Membrane effects of Vitamin E deficiency: bioenergetic and surface-charge-density studies of skeletal muscle and liver mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilha, A.T.; Packer, L.; Szyszlo Davies, J.M.; Racanelli, T.L.; Davies, K.J.A.

    1981-12-01

    Vitamin E (dl-..cap alpha..-tocopherol) deficiency in rats increased the sensitivity of liver and muscle mitochondria to damage during incubation at various temperatures, irradiation with visible light, or steady state respiration with substrates. In all cases, vitamin E deficient mitochondria exhibited increased lipid peroxidation, reduced transmembrane potential, decreased respiratory coupling, and lower rates of electron transport, compared to control mitochondria. Muscle mitochondria always showed greater negative inner membrane surface charge density, and were also more sensitive to damage than were liver mitochondria. Vitamin E deficient mitochondria also showed slightly more negative inner membrane surface charge density compared to controls. The relationship between greater negative surface potential and increased sensitivity to damage observed, provides for a new and sensitive method to further probe the role of surface charge in membrane structure and function. Implications of these new findings for the well known human muscle myopathies and those experimentally induced by Vitamin E deficiency in animals, are discussed.

  18. Daylight-driven photocatalytic degradation of ionic dyes with negatively surface-charged In2S3 nanoflowers: dye charge-dependent roles of reactive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Suxiang; Cai, Lejuan; Li, Dapeng; Fa, Wenjun; Zhang, Yange; Zheng, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Even though dye degradation is a successful application of semiconductor photocatalysis, the roles of reactive species in dye degradation have not received adequate attention. In this study, we systematically investigated the degradation of two cationic dyes (rhodamine B and methylene blue) and two anionic dyes (methyl orange and orange G) over negatively surface-charged In2S3 nanoflowers synthesized at 80 °C under indoor daylight lamp irradiation. It is notable to find In2S3 nanoflowers were more stable in anionic dyes degradation compared to that in cationic dyes removal. The active species trapping experiments indicated photogenerated electrons were mainly responsible for cationic dyes degradation, but holes were more important in anionic dyes degradation. A surface-charge-dependent role of reactive species in ionic dye degradation was proposed for revealing such interesting phenomenon. This study would provide a new insight for preparing highly efficient daylight-driven photocatalyst for ionic dyes degradation.

  19. Surface charge-conversion polymeric nanoparticles for photodynamic treatment of urinary tract bacterial infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shijie; Shao, Chen; Qiao, Shenglin; Li, Lili; Qi, Guobin; Lin, Yaoxin; Qiao, Zengying; Wang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are typical bacterial infections which result in a number of economic burdens. With increasing antibiotic resistance, it is urgent that new approaches are explored that can eliminate pathogenic bacteria without inducing drug resistance. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new promising tactic. It is a gentle in situ photochemical reaction in which a photosensitizer (PS) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) under laser irradiation. In this work, we have demonstrated Chlorin e6 (Ce6) encapsulated charge-conversion polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) for efficiently targeting and killing pathogenic bacteria in a weakly acidic urinary tract infection environment. Owing to the surface charge conversion of NPs in an acidic environment, the NPs exhibited enhanced recognition for Gram-positive (ex. S. aureus) and Gram-negative (ex. E. coli) bacteria due to the charge interaction. Also, those NPs showed significant antibacterial efficacy in vitro with low cytotoxicity. The MIC value of NPs to E. coli is 17.91 μg ml −1 , compared with the free Ce6 value of 29.85 μg ml −1 . Finally, a mouse acute cystitis model was used to assess the photodynamic therapy effects in urinary tract infections. A significant decline (P < 0.05) in bacterial cells between NPs and free Ce6 occurred in urine after photodynamic therapy treatment. And the plated counting results revealed a remarkable bacterial cells drop (P < 0.05) in the sacrificed bladder tissue. Above all, this nanotechnology strategy opens a new door for the treatment of urinary tract infections with minimal side effects. (paper)

  20. Surface charge-conversion polymeric nanoparticles for photodynamic treatment of urinary tract bacterial infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shijie; Qiao, Shenglin; Li, Lili; Qi, Guobin; Lin, Yaoxin; Qiao, Zengying; Wang, Hao; Shao, Chen

    2015-12-01

    Urinary tract infections are typical bacterial infections which result in a number of economic burdens. With increasing antibiotic resistance, it is urgent that new approaches are explored that can eliminate pathogenic bacteria without inducing drug resistance. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new promising tactic. It is a gentle in situ photochemical reaction in which a photosensitizer (PS) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) under laser irradiation. In this work, we have demonstrated Chlorin e6 (Ce6) encapsulated charge-conversion polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) for efficiently targeting and killing pathogenic bacteria in a weakly acidic urinary tract infection environment. Owing to the surface charge conversion of NPs in an acidic environment, the NPs exhibited enhanced recognition for Gram-positive (ex. S. aureus) and Gram-negative (ex. E. coli) bacteria due to the charge interaction. Also, those NPs showed significant antibacterial efficacy in vitro with low cytotoxicity. The MIC value of NPs to E. coli is 17.91 μg ml-1, compared with the free Ce6 value of 29.85 μg ml-1. Finally, a mouse acute cystitis model was used to assess the photodynamic therapy effects in urinary tract infections. A significant decline (P < 0.05) in bacterial cells between NPs and free Ce6 occurred in urine after photodynamic therapy treatment. And the plated counting results revealed a remarkable bacterial cells drop (P < 0.05) in the sacrificed bladder tissue. Above all, this nanotechnology strategy opens a new door for the treatment of urinary tract infections with minimal side effects.

  1. Anatomical study of middle cluneal nerve entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konno T

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomoyuki Konno,1 Yoichi Aota,2 Tomoyuki Saito,1 Ning Qu,3 Shogo Hayashi,3 Shinichi Kawata,3 Masahiro Itoh3 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yokohama City University, 2Department of Spine and Spinal Cord, Yokohama Brain and Spine Center, Yokohama City, 3Department of Anatomy, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan Object: Entrapment of the middle cluneal nerve (MCN under the long posterior sacroiliac ligament (LPSL is a possible, and underdiagnosed, cause of low-back and/or leg symptoms. To date, detailed anatomical studies of MCN entrapment are few. The purpose of this study was to ascertain, using cadavers, the relationship between the MCN and LPSL and to investigate MCN entrapment. Methods: A total of 30 hemipelves from 20 cadaveric donors (15 female, 5 male designated for education or research, were studied by gross anatomical dissection. The age range of the donors at death was 71–101 years with a mean of 88 years. Branches of the MCN were identified under or over the gluteus maximus fascia caudal to the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS and traced laterally as far as their finest ramification. Special attention was paid to the relationship between the MCN and LPSL. The distance from the branch of the MCN to the PSIS and to the midline and the diameter of the MCN were measured. Results: A total of 64 MCN branches were identified in the 30 hemipelves. Of 64 branches, 10 (16% penetrated the LPSL. The average cephalocaudal distance from the PSIS to where the MCN penetrated the LPSL was 28.5±11.2 mm (9.1–53.7 mm. The distance from the midline was 36.0±6.4 mm (23.5–45.2 mm. The diameter of the MCN branch traversing the LPSL averaged 1.6±0.5 mm (0.5–3.1 mm. Four of the 10 branches penetrating the LPSL had obvious constriction under the ligament. Conclusion: This is the first anatomical study illustrating MCN entrapment. It is likely that MCN entrapment is not a rare clinical entity. Keywords: middle cluneal nerve, sacroiliac joint

  2. Determination of surface charge density of α-alumina by acid-base titration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin W. Ntalikwa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The surface charge density (σo of colloidal alpha alumina suspended in various 1:1 electrolytes was measured using acid-base titration. An autotitrator capable of dispensing accurately 25 plus or minus 0.1 μL of titrant was used. The pH and temperature in the titration cell were monitored using single junction electrodes and platinum resistance thermometers, respectively. A constant supply of nitrogen gas in the cell was used to maintain inert conditions. The whole set up was interfaced with a computer for easy data acquisition. It was observed that the material exhibits a point of zero charge (PZC, this occurred at pH of 7.8 plus or minus 0.1, 7.6 plus or minus 0.2, 8.5 plus or minus 0.1, 8.3 plus or minus 0.1 for NaCl, NaNO3, CsCl and CsNO3 systems, respectively. It was also observed that below PZC, σo increases with increase in electrolyte concentration (Co whereas above PZC, σo decreases with increase in Co. It was concluded that σo of this material is a function of pH and Co and that its polarity can be varied through zero by varying these parameters.

  3. Charge carrier dynamics and surface plasmon interaction in gold nanorod-blended organic solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Aniket; Gupta, Neeraj; Lochan, Abhiram; Sharma, G. D.; Chand, Suresh; Kumar, Mahesh; Singh, Rajiv K.

    2016-08-01

    The inclusion of plasmonic nanoparticles into organic solar cell enhances the light harvesting properties that lead to higher power conversion efficiency without altering the device configuration. This work defines the consequences of the nanoparticle overloading amount and energy transfer process between gold nanorod and polymer (active matrix) in organic solar cells. We have studied the hole population decay dynamics coupled with gold nanorods loading amount which provides better understanding about device performance limiting factors. The exciton and plasmon together act as an interacting dipole; however, the energy exchange between these two has been elucidated via plasmon resonance energy transfer (PRET) mechanism. Further, the charge species have been identified specifically with respect to their energy levels appearing in ultrafast time domain. The specific interaction of these charge species with respective surface plasmon resonance mode, i.e., exciton to transverse mode of oscillation and polaron pair to longitudinal mode of oscillations, has been explained. Thus, our analysis reveals that PRET enhances the carrier population density in polymer via non-radiative process beyond the concurrence of a particular plasmon resonance oscillation mode and polymer absorption range. These findings give new insight and reveal specifically the factors that enhance and control the performance of gold nanorods blended organic solar cells. This work would lead in the emergence of future plasmon based efficient organic electronic devices.

  4. Charge carrier dynamics and surface plasmon interaction in gold nanorod-blended organic solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, Aniket; Lochan, Abhiram; Chand, Suresh; Kumar, Mahesh; Singh, Rajiv K.; Gupta, Neeraj; Sharma, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of plasmonic nanoparticles into organic solar cell enhances the light harvesting properties that lead to higher power conversion efficiency without altering the device configuration. This work defines the consequences of the nanoparticle overloading amount and energy transfer process between gold nanorod and polymer (active matrix) in organic solar cells. We have studied the hole population decay dynamics coupled with gold nanorods loading amount which provides better understanding about device performance limiting factors. The exciton and plasmon together act as an interacting dipole; however, the energy exchange between these two has been elucidated via plasmon resonance energy transfer (PRET) mechanism. Further, the charge species have been identified specifically with respect to their energy levels appearing in ultrafast time domain. The specific interaction of these charge species with respective surface plasmon resonance mode, i.e., exciton to transverse mode of oscillation and polaron pair to longitudinal mode of oscillations, has been explained. Thus, our analysis reveals that PRET enhances the carrier population density in polymer via non-radiative process beyond the concurrence of a particular plasmon resonance oscillation mode and polymer absorption range. These findings give new insight and reveal specifically the factors that enhance and control the performance of gold nanorods blended organic solar cells. This work would lead in the emergence of future plasmon based efficient organic electronic devices.

  5. Charge transfer dynamics from adsorbates to surfaces with single active electron and configuration interaction based approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan, E-mail: r.ramakrishnan@unibas.ch [Institute of Physical Chemistry, National Center for Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials (MARVEL), Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 80, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Nest, Mathias [Theoretische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstr. 4, 85747 Garching (Germany)

    2015-01-13

    Highlights: • We model electron dynamics across cyano alkanethiolates attached to gold cluster. • We present electron transfer time scales from TD-DFT and TD-CI based simulations. • Both DFT and CI methods qualitatively predict the trend in time scales. • TD-CI predicts the experimental relative time scale very accurately. - Abstract: We employ wavepacket simulations based on many-body time-dependent configuration interaction (TD-CI), and single active electron theories, to predict the ultrafast molecule/metal electron transfer time scales, in cyano alkanethiolates bonded to model gold clusters. The initial states represent two excited states where a valence electron is promoted to one of the two virtual π{sup ∗} molecular orbitals localized on the cyanide fragment. The ratio of the two time scales indicate the efficiency of one charge transfer channel over the other. In both our one-and many-electron simulations, this ratio agree qualitatively with each other as well as with the previously reported experimental time scales (Blobner et al., 2012), measured for a macroscopic metal surface. We study the effect of cluster size and the description of electron correlation on the charge transfer process.

  6. Controlling DNA Translocation Speed through Solid-State Nanopores by Surface Charge Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, Amit

    2013-03-01

    The Nanopore method is an emerging technique, which extends gel-electrophoresis to the single-molecule level and allows the analysis of DNAs, RNAs and DNA-protein complexes. The strength of the technique stems from two fundamental facts: First, nanopores due to their nanoscale size can be used to uncoil biopolymers, such as DNA or RNA and slide them in a single file manner that allows scanning their properties. Consequently, the method can be used to probe short as well as extremely long biopolymers, such as genomic DNA with high efficiency. Second, electrostatic focusing of charged biopolymers into the nanopore overcomes thermally driven diffusion, thus facilitating an extremely efficient end-threading (or capture) of DNA. Thus, nanopores can be used to detect minute DNA copy numbers, circumventing costly molecular amplification such as Polymerase Chain Reaction. A critical factor, which determines the ability of nanopore to distinguish fine properties within biopolymers, such as the location of bound small-molecules, proteins, or even the nucleic acid's sequence, is the speed at which molecules are translocated through the pore. When the translocation speed is too high the electrical noise masks the desired signal, thus limiting the utility of the method. Here I will discuss new experimental results showing that modulating the surface charge inside the pore can effectively reduce the translocation speed through solid-state nanopores fabricated in thin silicon nitride membranes. I will present a simple physical model to account for these results.

  7. Nanocapsule of cationic liposomes obtained using "in situ" acrylic acid polymerization: stability, surface charge and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarioti, Giovana Danieli; Lubambo, Adriana; Feitosa, Judith P A; Sierakowski, Maria Rita; Bresolin, Tania M B; de Freitas, Rilton Alves

    2011-10-15

    In this work, didecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) (2.5:1) were used to prepare liposomes coated with polyacrylic acid (PAA) using "in situ" polymerization with 2.5, 5 and 25 mM of acrylic acid (AA). The PAA concentrations were chosen to achieve partially to fully covered capsules, and the polymerization reaction was observed with real-time monitoring using dynamic light scattering (NanoDLS). The DDAB:DOPE liposomes showed stability in the tested temperature range (25-70°C), whereas the results confirmed the success of the polymerization according to superficial charge (zeta potential of +66.7±1.2 mV) results and AFM images. For the liposomes that were fully coated with PAA (zeta potential of +0.3±3.9 mV), cytotoxicity was independent of the concentration of albumin. Cationic liposomes and nanocapsules of the stable liposomes coated with PAA were obtained by controlling the surface charge, which was the most important factor related to cytotoxicity. Thus, a potential, safe drug nanocarrier was successfully developed in this work. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fermi Surface Evolution Across Multiple Charge Density Wave Transitions in ErTe3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.G.; /SLAC, SSRL /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.; Brouet, V.; /Orsay, LPS; He, R.; /SLAC, SSRL /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.; Lu, D.H.; /SLAC, SSRL; Ru, N.; Chu, J.-H.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.; Shen, Z.-X.; /SLAC, SSRL /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.

    2010-02-15

    The Fermi surface (FS) of ErTe{sub 3} is investigated using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Low temperature measurements reveal two incommensurate charge density wave (CDW) gaps created by perpendicular FS nesting vectors. A large {Delta}{sub 1} = 175 meV gap arising from a CDW with c* - q{sub CDW1} {approx} 0.70(0)c* is in good agreement with the expected value. A second, smaller {Delta}{sub 2} = 50 meV gap is due to a second CDW with a* - q{sub CDW2} {approx} 0.68(5)a*. The temperature dependence of the FS, the two gaps and possible interaction between the CDWs are examined.

  9. Potential and Kinetic Electron Emissions from HOPG Surface Irradiated by Highly Charged Xenon and Neon Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Yu, Wang; Yong-Tao, Zhao; Jian-Rong, Sun; De-Hui, Li; Jin-Yu, Li; Ping-Zhi, Wang; Guo-Qing, Xiao; Abdul, Qayyum

    2011-01-01

    Highly charged 129 Xe q+ (q = 10−30) and 40 Ne q+ (q = 4−8) ion-induced secondary electron emissions on the surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) are reported. The total secondary electron yield is measured as a function of the potential energy of incident ions. The experimental data are used to separate contributions of kinetic and potential electron yields. Our results show that about 4.5% and 13.2% of ion's potential energies are consumed in potential electron emission due to different Xe q+ -HOPG and Ne q+ -HOPG combinations. A simple formula is introduced to estimate the fraction of ion's potential energy for potential electron emission. (atomic and molecular physics)

  10. Role of plasma membrane surface charges in dictating the feasibility of membrane-nanoparticle interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shayandev; Jing, Haoyuan; Sachar, Harnoor Singh; Das, Siddhartha

    2017-12-01

    Receptor-ligand (R-L) binding mediated interactions between the plasma membrane (PM) and a nanoparticle (NP) require the ligand-functionalized NPs to come to a distance of separation (DOS) of at least dRL (length of the R-L complex) from the receptor-bearing membranes. In this letter, we establish that the membrane surface charges and the surrounding ionic environment dictate whether or not the attainment of such a critical DOS is possible. The negatively charged membrane invariably induces a negative electrostatic potential at the NP surface, repelling the NP from the membrane. This is countered by the attractive influences of the thermal fluctuations and van der Waals (vdw) interactions that drive the NP close to the membrane. For a NP approaching the membrane from a distance, the ratio of the repulsive (electrostatic) and attractive (thermal and vdW) effects balances at a critical NP-membrane DOS of dg,c. For a given set of parameters, there can be two possible values of dg,c, namely, dg,c,1 and dg,c,2 with dg,c,1 ≫ dg,c,2. We establish that any R-L mediated NP-membrane interaction is possible only if dRL > dg,c,1. Therefore, our study proposes a design criterion for engineering ligands for a NP that will ensure the appropriate length of the R-L complex in order to ensure the successful membrane-NP interaction in the presence of a given electrostatic environment. Finally, we discuss the manner in which our theory can help designing ligand-grafted NPs for targeted drug delivery, design biomimetics NPs, and also explain various experimental results.

  11. X-ray emission in collisions of highly charged I, Pr, Ho, and Bi ions with a W surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, H.; Tona, M.; Ohtani, S.; Sun, J.; Nakamura, N.; Yamada, C.; Yoshiyasu, N.; Sakurai, M.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray emission yields, which are defined as the total number of emitted x-ray photons per incident ion, and dissipated fractions of potential energies through x-ray emission have been measured for slow highly charged ions of I, Pr, Ho, and Bi colliding with a W surface. A larger amount of potential energy was consumed for the x-ray emission with increasing the atomic number and the charge state. The present measurements show that x-ray emission is one of the main decay channels of hollow atoms produced in collisions of very highly charged ions of heavy elements

  12. Shopping cart injuries, entrapment, and childhood fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lisbeth; Charlwood, Cheryl; Byard, Roger W

    2008-09-01

    Shopping carts may be associated with a variety of injuries, particularly in toddlers and young children. These usually relate to falls from carts or to tip-overs. Injuries that are sustained include hematomas/contusions, abrasions, lacerations, fractures, and fingertip amputations. Fatal episodes are uncommon and are usually due to blunt craniocerebral trauma from falls. A case involving a 19-month-old girl is reported who became entrapped when she inserted her head through the side frame of a cart that had been removed from a supermarket and left at her home address. Death was caused by neck compression. Although rare, the potential for lethal entrapment during unsupervised play means that the presence of stray shopping carts at private residences and in public places, including playgrounds and parks, is of concern. Strategies, such as coin deposits, should be encouraged to assist in the return of such carts to supermarkets.

  13. Investigation of air entrapment and weld line defects in micro injection moulded thermoplastic elastomer micro rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasnaes, F.B.; Tosello, Guido; Calaon, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    The micro injection moulding (μIM) process for the production of micro rings in thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) was investigated and optimized. The objective was to minimize the formation of air entrapments and the depth of micro weld line created on the surface of the TPE micro moulded rings....... The defects were investigated by both experiments and numerical simulations of the μIM process. The results obtained from the simulation software were verified by comparison with the actual moulded parts. It was found that the simulation was accurate in the prediction of air entrapments and weld line...... placement. The μIM processing parameters had a large influence on the weld line depth and the air entrapment. In particular, it was found that low settings of the injection speed and of the clamping force increased the air evacuation from the cavity, thus minimizing the weld line depth and the presence...

  14. Optimizing the Production of Biodiesel Using Lipase Entrapped in Biomimetic Silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I-Ching Kuan; Chia-Chi Lee; Bing-Hong Tsai; Shiow-Ling Lee; Wei-Ting Lee; Chi-Yang Yu [Department of Bioengineering, Tatung Univ., Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-04-15

    We entrapped lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia in polyallylamine-mediated biomimetic silica, and then applied entrapped lipase to the synthesis of biodiesel with soybean oil or waste cooking oil as a feedstock. The effects of reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio (methanol/oil) and n-hexane content (w/w of oil) were evaluated using response surface methodology (RSM) combined with Box-Behnken design. The optimal reaction conditions for soybean oil were 43.6 deg C, substrate molar ratio of 4.3%, and 75% n-hexane. The predicted and experimental values of biodiesel conversion were 79% and 76%, respectively. The optimal reaction conditions for waste cooking oil were 43.3 deg C, substrate molar ratio of 5%, and 38% n-hexane. The predicted and experimental values of conversion were 68% and 67%, respectively. The conversion efficiency remained the same even after 1-month storage of entrapped lipase at 4 deg C or room temperature.

  15. Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome: management challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrona E

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleni Chrona,1,2 Georgia Kostopanagiotou,1 Dimitrios Damigos,3 Chrysanthi Batistaki1 1Second Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, “Attikon” Hospital, Athens, 2Department of Anesthesiology, General Hospital of “Ag. Panteleimon,” Piraeus, 3Department of Medical Psychology, Medical School of Ioannina, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece Abstract: Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES is a commonly underdiagnosed and undertreated chronic state of pain. This syndrome is characterized by the entrapment of the cutaneous branches of the lower thoracoabdominal intercostal nerves at the lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle, which causes severe, often refractory, chronic pain. This narrative review aims to identify the possible therapeutic strategies for the management of the syndrome. Seventeen studies about ACNES therapy were reviewed; of them, 15 were case–control studies, case series, or case reports, and two were randomized controlled trials. The presently available management strategies for ACNES include trigger point injections (diagnostic and therapeutic, ultrasound-guided blocks, chemical neurolysis, and surgical ­neurectomy, in combination with systemic medication, as well as some emerging techniques, such as radiofrequency ablation and neuromodulation. An increased awareness of the syndrome and the use of specific diagnostic criteria for its recognition are required to facilitate an early and successful management. This review compiles the proposed ­management strategies for ACNES. Keywords: anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome, intercostal, neuralgia, management

  16. A similarity solution for oil lens redistribution including capillary forces and oil entrapment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijke, van J.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    1997-01-01

    Redistribution of a LNAPL lens (oil) at the phreatic surface is described using a multi-phase flow model, with emphasis on the effect of oil entrapment by water. The flow process is analyzed under the assumption that the vertical capillary and gravitational forces balance. Vertical integration leads

  17. Investigation of air entrapment and weld line defects in micro injection moulded thermoplastic elastomer micro rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasnaes, F.B.; Tosello, Guido; Calaon, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    The micro injection moulding (μIM) process for the production of micro rings in thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) was investigated and optimized. The objective was to minimize the formation of air entrapments and the depth of micro weld line created on the surface of the TPE micro moulded rings...

  18. Entrapped elemental selenium nanoparticles affect physicochemical properties of selenium fed activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rohan; Seder-Colomina, Marina; Jordan, Norbert; Dessi, Paolo; Cosmidis, Julie; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Weiss, Stephan; Farges, François; Lens, Piet N L

    2015-09-15

    Selenite containing wastewaters can be treated in activated sludge systems, where the total selenium is removed from the wastewater by the formation of elemental selenium nanoparticles, which are trapped in the biomass. No studies have been carried out so far on the characterization of selenium fed activated sludge flocs, which is important for the development of this novel selenium removal process. This study showed that more than 94% of the trapped selenium in activated sludge flocs is in the form of elemental selenium, both as amorphous/monoclinic selenium nanospheres and trigonal selenium nanorods. The entrapment of the elemental selenium nanoparticles in the selenium fed activated sludge flocs leads to faster settling rates, higher hydrophilicity and poorer dewaterability compared to the control activated sludge (i.e., not fed with selenite). The selenium fed activated sludge showed a less negative surface charge density as compared to the control activated sludge. The presence of trapped elemental selenium nanoparticles further affected the spatial distribution of Al and Mg in the activated sludge flocs. This study demonstrated that the formation and subsequent trapping of elemental selenium nanoparticles in the activated sludge flocs affects their physicochemical properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Observation of the charge distribution on the surface of polypropylene with spherulites charged by contact with mercury; Kyushoka polypropylene no suigin tono sesshoku taiden ni yoru hyomen denka bunpu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, T.; Kubota, K.; Murata, Y. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-06-12

    The surface charge distribution of polypropylene with spherulites was investigated using charged sub-micron solid particles after the surface was charged by contact with mercury. The charge polarity of the sample surface after contact was negative and that of solid particles was positive. We observed that many particles accumulated in the interface region between spherulites as well as that between spherulites and outer non-spherulitic region, and also in the non-spherulitic region. These results can be explained by means of distribution of electron traps. (author)

  20. Surface oxide net charge of a titanium alloy: comparison between effects of treatment with heat or radiofrequency plasma glow discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Daniel E; Rapuano, Bruce E; Schniepp, Hannes C

    2011-01-01

    In the current study, we have compared the effects of heat and radiofrequency plasma glow discharge (RFGD) treatment of a Ti6Al4V alloy on the physico-chemical properties of the alloy's surface oxide. Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) disks were passivated alone, heated to 600 °C, or RFGD plasma treated in pure oxygen. RFGD treatment did not alter the roughness, topography, elemental composition or thickness of the alloy's surface oxide layer. In contrast, heat treatment altered oxide topography by creating a pattern of oxide elevations approximately 50-100 nm in diameter. These nanostructures exhibited a three-fold increase in roughness compared to untreated surfaces when RMS roughness was calculated after applying a spatial high-pass filter with a 200 nm-cutoff wavelength. Heat treatment also produced a surface enrichment in aluminum and vanadium oxides. Both RFGD and heat treatment produced similar increases in oxide wettability. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements of metal surface oxide net charge signified by a long-range force of attraction to or repulsion from a (negatively charged) silicon nitride AFM probe were also obtained for all three experimental groups. Force measurements showed that the RFGD-treated Ti6Al4V samples demonstrated a higher net positive surface charge at pH values below 6 and a higher net negative surface charge at physiological pH (pH values between 7 and 8) compared to control and heat-treated samples. These findings suggest that RFGD treatment of metallic implant materials can be used to study the role of negatively charged surface oxide functional groups in protein bioactivity, osteogenic cell behavior and osseointegration independently of oxide topography. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Two-dimensional potential and charge distributions of positive surface streamer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Daiki; Matsuoka, Shigeyasu; Kumada, Akiko; Hidaka, Kunihiko

    2009-01-01

    Information on the potential and the field profile along a surface discharge is required for quantitatively discussing and clarifying the propagation mechanism. The sensing technique with a Pockels crystal has been developed for directly measuring the potential and electric field distribution on a dielectric material. In this paper, the Pockels sensing system consists of a pulse laser and a CCD camera for measuring the instantaneous two-dimensional potential distribution on a 25.4 mm square area with a 50 μm sampling pitch. The temporal resolution is 3.2 ns which is determined by the pulse width of the laser emission. The transient change in the potential distribution of a positive surface streamer propagating in atmospheric air is measured with this system. The electric field and the charge distributions are also calculated from the measured potential profile. The propagating direction component of the electric field near the tip of the propagating streamer reaches 3 kV mm -1 . When the streamer stops, the potential distribution along a streamer forms an almost linear profile with the distance from the electrode, and its gradient is about 0.5 kV mm -1 .

  2. Extracellular Polymeric Substances Govern the Surface Charge of Biogenic Elemental Selenium Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Jain, Rohan

    2015-02-03

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. The origin of the organic layer covering colloidal biogenic elemental selenium nanoparticles (BioSeNPs) is not known, particularly in the case when they are synthesized by complex microbial communities. This study investigated the presence of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on BioSeNPs. The role of EPS in capping the extracellularly available BioSeNPs was also examined. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and colorimetric measurements confirmed the presence of functional groups characteristic of proteins and carbohydrates on the BioSeNPs, suggesting the presence of EPS. Chemical synthesis of elemental selenium nanoparticles in the presence of EPS, extracted from selenite fed anaerobic granular sludge, yielded stable colloidal spherical selenium nanoparticles. Furthermore, extracted EPS, BioSeNPs, and chemically synthesized EPS-capped selenium nanoparticles had similar surface properties, as shown by ζ-potential versus pH profiles and isoelectric point measurements. This study shows that the EPS of anaerobic granular sludge form the organic layer present on the BioSeNPs synthesized by these granules. The EPS also govern the surface charge of these BioSeNPs, thereby contributing to their colloidal properties, hence affecting their fate in the environment and the efficiency of bioremediation technologies.

  3. Wafer Surface Charge Reversal as a Method of Simplifying Nanosphere Lithography for Reactive Ion Etch Texturing of Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Inns

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A simplified nanosphere lithography process has been developed which allows fast and low-waste maskings of Si surfaces for subsequent reactive ion etching (RIE texturing. Initially, a positive surface charge is applied to a wafer surface by dipping in a solution of aluminum nitrate. Dipping the positive-coated wafer into a solution of negatively charged silica beads (nanospheres results in the spheres becoming electrostatically attracted to the wafer surface. These nanospheres form an etch mask for RIE. After RIE texturing, the reflection of the surface is reduced as effectively as any other nanosphere lithography method, while this batch process used for masking is much faster, making it more industrially relevant.

  4. Mécanismes d'écoulement des charges à la surface des polymères granulaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kachi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Les forces électriques s’exerçant sur des polymères granulaires chargés sont mises à profit dans plusieurs processus électrostatiques. La dynamique de charges de surface de ces matériaux est très importante pour ce type de processus. Le but de ce papier est d’analyser l’écoulement des charges à la surface de couches compactes de polymères granulaires, en interprétant les mesures sans contact réalisées par trois sondes de potentiel, de champ et de charge, ayant chacune une taille différente. Des mesures du profile de potentiel à différents instants sont également réalisées afin d’expliquer les différences entre les vitesses de déclin de potentiel, de champ et de charge mesurées par les trois sondes. Les résultats mettent en évidence un écoulement transversal et longitudinal de la charge surfacique.

  5. Advanced portrayal of SMIL coating by allying CZE performance with in-capillary topographic and charge-related surface characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, Lorenz G. [Division of Chemistry and Bioanalytics, University Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Innovative Tools for the Characterization of Biosimilars, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Leitner, Michael; Traxler, Lukas [Institute of Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Gruberstrasse 40, 4020 Linz (Austria); Bonazza, Klaus [Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/164, 1060 Vienna (Austria); Leclercq, Laurent; Cottet, Hervé [Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron (IBMM), UMR 5247, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Montpellier, Place Eugène Bataillon, CC 1706, 34095 Montpellier (France); Friedbacher, Gernot [Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/164, 1060 Vienna (Austria); Ebner, Andreas [Institute of Biophysics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Gruberstrasse 40, 4020 Linz (Austria); Stutz, Hanno, E-mail: hanno.stutz@sbg.ac.at [Division of Chemistry and Bioanalytics, University Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Innovative Tools for the Characterization of Biosimilars, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria)

    2017-01-25

    A successive multiple ionic polymer layer (SMIL) coating composed of four layers improved the capillary electrophoretic separation of a recombinant major birch pollen allergen and closely related variants when poly(acrylamide-co-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propansulfonate) (55% PAMAMPS) replaced dextran sulfate as terminal SMIL layer. 55% PAMAMPS decelerated the electroosmotic flow (EOF) due to its lower charge density. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to investigate SMIL properties directly on the inner capillary surface and to relate them to EOF measurements and results of associated CZE separations of a mixture of model proteins and peptides that were performed in the same capillary. For the first time, AFM-based biosensing topography and recognition imaging mode (TREC) under liquid conditions was applied for a sequential characterization of the inner surface of a SMIL coated capillary after selected treatments including pristine SMIL, SMIL after contact with the model mixture, after alkaline rinsing, and the replenishment of the terminal polyelectrolyte layer. A cantilever with tip-tethered avidin was used to determine the charge homogeneity of the SMIL surface in the TREC mode. SMIL coated rectangular capillaries with 100 μm internal diameter assured accessibility of the inner surface for this cantilever type. Observed changes in CZE performance and EOF mobility during capillary treatment were also reflected by alterations in surface roughness and charge distribution of the SMIL coating. A renewal of the terminal SMIL layer restored the original surface properties of SMIL and the separation performance. The alliance of the novel TREC approach and CZE results allows for an improved understanding and a comprehensive insight in effects occurring on capillary coatings. - Highlights: • SMIL coating with a terminal layer of reduced charge density improves CZE separation. • Capillaries with rectangular diameter allow for in-capillary TREC-AFM measurement.

  6. Solvent Role in the Formation of Electric Double Layers with Surface Charge Regulation: A Bystander or a Key Participant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleharty, Mark E.; van Swol, Frank; Petsev, Dimiter N.

    2016-01-01

    The charge formation at interfaces involving electrolyte solutions is due to the chemical equilibrium between the surface reactive groups and the potential determining ions in the solution (i.e., charge regulation). In this Letter we report our findings that this equilibrium is strongly coupled to the precise molecular structure of the solution near the charged interface. The neutral solvent molecules dominate this structure due to their overwhelmingly large number. Treating the solvent as a structureless continuum leads to a fundamentally inadequate physical picture of charged interfaces. We show that a proper account of the solvent effect leads to an unexpected and complex system behavior that is affected by the molecular and ionic excluded volumes and van der Waals interactions.

  7. Effect of surface charge on the colloidal stability and in vitro uptake of carboxymethyl dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala, Vanessa; Herrera, Adriana P.; Latorre-Esteves, Magda; Torres-Lugo, Madeline [University of Puerto Rico, Department of Chemical Engineering (United States); Rinaldi, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.rinaldi@bme.ufl.edu [University of Florida, J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Nanoparticle physicochemical properties such as surface charge are considered to play an important role in cellular uptake and particle-cell interactions. In order to systematically evaluate the role of surface charge on the uptake of iron oxide nanoparticles, we prepared carboxymethyl-substituted dextrans with different degrees of substitution, ranging from 38 to 5 groups per chain, and reacted them using carbodiimide chemistry with amine-silane-coated iron oxide nanoparticles with narrow size distributions in the range of 33-45 nm. Surface charge of carboxymethyl-substituted dextran-coated nanoparticles ranged from -50 to 5 mV as determined by zeta potential measurements, and was dependent on the number of carboxymethyl groups incorporated in the dextran chains. Nanoparticles were incubated with CaCo-2 human colon cancer cells. Nanoparticle-cell interactions were observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and uptake was quantified by elemental analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Mechanisms of internalization were inferred using pharmacological inhibitors for fluid-phase, clathrin-mediated, and caveola-mediated endocytosis. Results showed increased uptake for nanoparticles with greater negative charge. Internalization patterns suggest that uptake of the most negatively charged particles occurs via non-specific interactions.

  8. Buffer-eliminated, charge-neutral epitaxial graphene on oxidized 4H-SiC (0001) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirikumara, Hansika I., E-mail: hansi.sirikumara@siu.edu; Jayasekera, Thushari, E-mail: thushari@siu.edu [Department of Physics, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 62901 (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Buffer-eliminated, charge-neutral epitaxial graphene (EG) is important to enhance its potential in device applications. Using the first principles Density Functional Theory calculations, we investigated the effect of oxidation on the electronic and structural properties of EG on 4H-SiC (0001) surface. Our investigation reveals that the buffer layer decouples from the substrate in the presence of both silicate and silicon oxy-nitride at the interface, and the resultant monolayer EG is charge-neutral in both cases. The interface at 4H-SiC/silicate/EG is characterized by surface dangling electrons, which opens up another route for further engineering EG on 4H-SiC. Dangling electron-free 4H-SiC/silicon oxy-nitride/EG is ideal for achieving charge-neutral EG.

  9. Reversible redox reaction and water configuration on a positively charged platinum surface: first principles molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeshoji, Tamio; Otani, Minoru; Hamada, Ikutaro; Okamoto, Yasuharu

    2011-12-07

    The water dissociation reaction and water molecule configuration on a positively charged platinum (111) surface were investigated by means of first principles molecular dynamics under periodic boundary conditions. Water molecules on the Pt surface were mostly in the O-down orientation but some H-down structures were also found. OH(-) ion, generated by removing H from H(2)O in the bulk region, moved to the Pt surface, on which a positive charge is induced, by a Grotthuss-like proton-relay mechanism and adsorbed on it as OH(Pt). Hydrogen atom exchange between OH(Pt) and a near-by water molecule frequently occurred on the Pt surface and had a low activation energy of the same order as room temperature energy. When a positive charge (7 μC cm(-2)) was added to the Pt surface, H(3)O(+) and OH(Pt) were generated from 2H(2)O on the Pt. This may be coupled with an electron transfer to the Pt electrode [2H(2)O → H(3)O(+) + OH(Pt) + e(-)]. The opposite reaction was also observed on the same charged surface during a simulation of duration about 10 ps; it is a reversible redox reaction. When further positive charge (14 μC cm(-2)) was added, the reaction shifted to the right hand side completely. Thus, this one-electron transfer reaction, which is a part of the oxygen electrode reaction in fuel cells and water electrolysis, was confirmed to be a low activation energy process.

  10. Systematic investigation of the barrier discharge operation in helium, nitrogen, and mixtures: discharge development, formation and decay of surface charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschiersch, R.; Bogaczyk, M.; Wagner, H.-E.

    2014-09-01

    As a logical extension to previous investigations of the barrier discharge (BD) in helium and nitrogen, the present work reports on the operation in any mixtures of both pure gases. Using a well-established plane-parallel discharge cell configuration allows to study the influence of the He/N2 mixing ratio on the formation of different discharge modes. Their characterization was made by measuring the discharge emission development together with the formation and decay of surface charges on a bismuth silicon oxide (Bi12SiO20, BSO) crystal. This was realized by the simultaneous application of the spatio-temporally resolved optical emission spectroscopy, and the electro-optic Pockels effect in combination with a CCD high speed camera. The existence diagram for diffuse and filamentary BDs was determined by varying the amplitude and shape of the applied voltage. Over the entire range of the He/N2 ratio, the diffuse mode can be operated at moderate voltage amplitudes whereas filamentation occurs at significant overvoltage and is favoured by a high voltage slew rate. Irrespective of the discharge mode, the overall charge transfer during a discharge breakdown is found to be in excellent agreement with the amount of accumulated surface charges. An exponential decay of the surface charge deposited on the BSO crystal is induced by LED illumination beyond a typical discharge cycle. During the decay process, a broadening of the radial profiles of positive as well as negative surface charge spots originating from previous microdischarges is observed. The investigations contribute to a better understanding of the charge accumulation at a dielectric.

  11. Continuous agglomerate model for identifying the solute- indifferent part of colloid nanoparticle's surface charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfimov, A V; Aryslanova, E M; Chivilikhin, S A

    2016-01-01

    This work proposes an explicit analytical model for the surface potential of a colloidal nano-agglomerate. The model predicts that when an agglomerate reaches a certain critical size, its surface potential becomes independent of the agglomerate radius. The model also provides a method for identifying and quantifying the solute-indifferent charge in nanocolloids, that allows to assess the stability of toxicologically significant parameters of the system. (paper)

  12. Poly-l-lysine-Coated Silver Nanoparticles as Positively Charged Substrates for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsich, L.; Bonifacio, A.; Mandal, S.; Krol, S.; Beleites, C.; Sergo, V.

    2012-01-01

    Positively charged nanoparticles to be used as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) were prepared by coating citrate-reduced silver nanoparticles with the cationic polymer poly-l-lysine. The average diameter of the coated nanoparticles is 75 nm, and their zeta potential is +62.3

  13. Evolution of Surface Temperature of a 13 Amp Hour Nano Lithium-Titanate Battery Cell under Fast Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed Madani, Seyed; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2017-01-01

    is to study the surface temperature evolution of a 13 Ah Nano Lithium-Titanate battery cell for the usage of rechargeable energy storage system under fast charging conditions. The nominal voltage of the cell is 2.26V and the nominal capacity is 13.4 Ah. In this research, contact thermocouples were employed...

  14. Tailoring the surface charge of an ultrafiltration hollow fiber by addition of a polyanion to the coagulation bore liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopec, K.K.; Dutczak, S.M.; Wessling, Matthias; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report a new in-line method to tailor the surface properties of porous ultrafiltration membranes in a one-step spinning process. A highly charged polyimide P84 hollow fiber membrane can be obtained by dissolving as less as 3% of sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) in the

  15. Ionic self-assembly of porphyrin nanostructures on the surface of charge-altered track-etched membranes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mongwaketsi, N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available and Sn(IV) tetrakis(4-pyridyl)porphyrin were used to synthesize ionic self-assembled porphyrin nanorods. The track-etched membranes surface charge was changed from negative to positive using polyethyleneimine. The porphyrin nanorods were either filtered...

  16. Investigating the parameters affecting the adsorption of amino acids onto AgCl nanoparticles with different surface charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absalan, Ghodratollah; Ghaemi, Maryam

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, adsorption behaviors of typical neutral (alanine), acidic (glutamic acid) and basic (lysine) amino acids onto the surfaces of neutral as well as positively and negatively charged silver chloride nanoparticles were examined. Silver chloride nanoparticles with different charges and different water content were synthesized by reverse micelle method. The adsorptions of the above mentioned amino acids onto the surfaces of differently charged silver chloride nanoparticles were found to depend strongly on various parameters including pH of the aqueous solution, type of amino acid, water to surfactant mole ratio, and type of charges on the surfaces of silver chloride nanoparticles. It was found that the interaction of -NH(3) (+) groups of the amino acids with silver ion could be a driving force for adsorption of amino acids. Alanine and Glutamic acid showed almost similar trend for being adsorbed on the surface of silver chloride nanoparticles. Electrostatic interaction, hydrophobicity of both nanoparticle and amino acid, complex formation between amine group and silver ion, interaction between protonated amine and silver ion as well as the number of nanoparticles per unit volume of solution were considered for interpreting the observed results.

  17. Charge modification of the endothelial surface layer modulates the permeability barrier of isolated rat mesenteric small arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haaren, Paul M. A.; VanBavel, Ed; Vink, Hans; Spaan, Jos A. E.

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesized that modulation of the effective charge density of the endothelial surface layer ( ESL) results in altered arterial barrier properties to transport of anionic solutes. Rat mesenteric small arteries ( diameter similar to 190 mu m) were isolated, cannulated, perfused, and superfused

  18. Electronic coupling effects and charge transfer between organic molecules and metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forker, Roman

    2010-07-01

    We employ a variant of optical absorption spectroscopy, namely in situ differential reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), for an analysis of the structure-properties relations of thin epitaxial organic films. Clear correlations between the spectra and the differently intense coupling to the respective substrates are found. While rather broad and almost structureless spectra are obtained for a quaterrylene (QT) monolayer on Au(111), the spectral shape resembles that of isolated molecules when QT is grown on graphite. We even achieve an efficient electronic decoupling from the subjacent Au(111) by inserting an atomically thin organic spacer layer consisting of hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC) with a noticeably dissimilar electronic behavior. These observations are further consolidated by a systematic variation of the metal substrate (Au, Ag, and Al), ranging from inert to rather reactive. For this purpose, 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) is chosen to ensure comparability of the molecular film structures on the different metals, and also because its electronic alignment on various metal surfaces has previously been studied with great intensity. We present evidence for ionized PTCDA at several interfaces and propose the charge transfer to be related to the electronic level alignment governed by interface dipole formation on the respective metals. (orig.)

  19. Selective Surface Charge Sign Reversal on Metallic Carbon Nanotubes for Facile Ultrahigh Purity Nanotube Sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Nguyen, Tuan Dat; Cao, Qing; Wang, Yilei; Tan, Marcus Y C; Chan-Park, Mary B

    2016-03-22

    Semiconducting (semi-) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) must be purified of their metallic (met-) counterparts for most applications including nanoelectronics, solar cells, chemical sensors, and artificial skins. Previous bulk sorting techniques are based on subtle contrasts between properties of different nanotube/dispersing agent complexes. We report here a method which directly exploits the nanotube band structure differences. For the heterogeneous redox reaction of SWNTs with oxygen/water couple, the aqueous pH can be tuned so that the redox kinetics is determined by the availability of nanotube electrons only at/near the Fermi level, as predicted quantitatively by the Marcus-Gerischer (MG) theory. Consequently, met-SWNTs oxidize much faster than semi-SWNTs and only met-SWNTs selectively reverse the sign of their measured surface zeta potential from negative to positive at the optimized acidic pH when suspended with nonionic surfactants. By passing the redox-reacted nanotubes through anionic hydrogel beads, we isolate semi-SWNTs to record high electrically verified purity above 99.94% ± 0.04%. This facile charge sign reversal (CSR)-based sorting technique is robust and can sort SWNTs with a broad diameter range.

  20. Toward a Molecular Understanding of Protein Solubility: Increased Negative Surface Charge Correlates with Increased Solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Ryan M.; Shende, Varad R.; Motl, Nicole; Pace, C. Nick; Scholtz, J. Martin

    2012-01-01

    Protein solubility is a problem for many protein chemists, including structural biologists and developers of protein pharmaceuticals. Knowledge about how intrinsic factors influence solubility is limited due to the difficulty of obtaining quantitative solubility measurements. Solubility measurements in buffer alone are difficult to reproduce, because gels or supersaturated solutions often form, making it impossible to determine solubility values for many proteins. Protein precipitants can be used to obtain comparative solubility measurements and, in some cases, estimations of solubility in buffer alone. Protein precipitants fall into three broad classes: salts, long-chain polymers, and organic solvents. Here, we compare the use of representatives from two classes of precipitants, ammonium sulfate and polyethylene glycol 8000, by measuring the solubility of seven proteins. We find that increased negative surface charge correlates strongly with increased protein solubility and may be due to strong binding of water by the acidic amino acids. We also find that the solubility results obtained for the two different precipitants agree closely with each other, suggesting that the two precipitants probe similar properties that are relevant to solubility in buffer alone. PMID:22768947

  1. Mechanical Properties of Surface-Charged Poly(Methyl Methacrylate as Denture Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang E. Park

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the mechanical properties of a new surface-modified denture resin for its suitability as denture base material. This experimental resin is made by copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MA to poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA to produce a negative charge. Four experimental groups consisted of Orthodontic Dental Resin (DENTSPLY Caulk as a control and three groups of modified PMMA (mPMMA produced at differing ratios of methacrylic acid (5 : 95, 10 : 90, and 20 : 80 MA : MMA. A 3-point flexural test using the Instron Universal Testing Machine (Instron Corp. measured force-deflection curves and a complete stress versus strain history to calculate the transverse strength, transverse deflection, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity. Analysis of Variance and Scheffe Post-test were performed on the data. Resins with increased methacrylic acid content exhibited lower strength values for the measured physical properties. The most significant decrease occurred as the methacrylic acid content was increased to 20% mPMMA. No significant differences at P<.05 were found in all parameters tested between the Control and 5% mPMMA.

  2. Behaviour of total surface charge in SiO2-Si system under short-pulsed ultraviolet irradiation cycles characterised by surface photo voltage technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ban-Hong; Lee, Wah-Pheng; Yow, Ho-Kwang; Tou, Teck-Yong

    2009-01-01

    Effects of time-accumulated ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and surface treatment on thermally oxidized p-type silicon wafers were investigated by using the surface photo voltage (SPV) technique via the direct measurement of the total surface charge, Q SC . The rise and fall times of Q sc curves, as a function of accumulated UV irradiation, depended on the thermal oxide thickness. A simple model was proposed to explain the time-varying characteristics of Q sc based on the UV-induced bond breaking of SiOH and SiH, and photoemission of bulk electrons to wafer surface where O 2 - charges were formed. While these mechanisms resulted in charge variations and hence in Q sc , these could be removed by rinsing the silicon wafers in de-ionized water followed by spin-dry or blow-dry by an ionizer fan. Empirical parameters were used in the model simulations and curve-fitting of Q SC . The simulated results suggested that initial changes in the characteristic behaviour of Q sc were mainly due to the net changes in the positive and negative charges, but subsequently were dominated by the accumulation of O 2 - during the UV irradiation.

  3. Entrapment and escape of liquid lubricant in metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Bay, Niels; Eriksen, Morten

    1999-01-01

    Using a transparent tool entrapment, compression and eventual escape of liquid lubricant in surface pockets is observed in plane strip drawing. The two mechanisms of lubricant escape. Micro Plasto HydroDynamic and Hydrostatic Lubrication (MPHDL and MPHSL), are observed and quantified experimentally...... with Varying viscosity, speed, reduction, workpiece material, back tension and friction. The mechanisms are influenced by all these parameters in an explicable way. Theoretical models of the escape mechanisms are established combining continuum mechanic analyses of the die pressure distribution with a fluid...... mechanic analysis of the lubricant escape. Oscillations in the drawing force are caused by the local escape of lubricant. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved....

  4. Inhibition of charge recombination for enhanced dye-sensitized solar cells and self-powered UV sensors by surface modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Liang, E-mail: chuliang@njupt.edu.cn [Advanced Energy Technology Center, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (NUPT), Nanjing 210046 (China); Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO)-School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan 430074 (China); Qin, Zhengfei; Liu, Wei [School of Materials Science and Engineering (SMSE), Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (NUPT), Nanjing 210046 (China); Ma, Xin’guo, E-mail: maxg2013@sohu.com [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for High-efficiency Utilization of Solar Energy, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan 430068 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Inhibition of charge recombination was utilized to prolong electrode lifetime in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and self-powered UV sensors based on TiO{sub 2}-modified SnO{sub 2} photoelectrodes. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open-circuit voltage decay measurements indicated that the electron lifetime was significantly prolonged in DSSCs after TiO{sub 2} modification. And in self-powered UV sensors, the sensitivity and response time were enhanced. - Highlights: • The surface modification to inhibit charge recombination was utilized in photovoltaic devices. • Inhibition of charge recombination can prolong electrode lifetime in photovoltaic devices. • Enhanced DSSCs and self-powered UV sensors based on SnO{sub 2} photoelectrodes were obtained by TiO{sub 2} modification. - Abstract: The surface modification to inhibit charge recombination was utilized in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and self-powered ultraviolet (UV) sensors based on SnO{sub 2} hierarchical microspheres by TiO{sub 2} modification. For DSSCs with SnO{sub 2} photoelectrodes modified by TiO{sub 2}, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) was improved from 1.40% to 4.15% under standard AM 1.5G illumination (100 mW/cm{sup 2}). The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open-circuit voltage decay measurements indicated that the charge recombination was effectively inhibited, resulting in long electron lifetime. For UV sensors with SnO{sub 2} photoelectrodes modified by TiO{sub 2} layer, the self-powered property was more obvious, and the sensitivity and response time were enhanced from 91 to 6229 and 0.15 s to 0.055 s, respectively. The surface modification can engineer the interface energy to inhibit charge recombination, which is a desirable approach to improve the performance of photoelectric nanodevice.

  5. Drop impact entrapment of bubble rings

    KAUST Repository

    Thoraval, M.-J.

    2013-04-29

    We use ultra-high-speed video imaging to look at the initial contact of a drop impacting on a liquid layer. We observe experimentally the vortex street and the bubble-ring entrapments predicted numerically, for high impact velocities, by Thoraval et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 108, 2012, article 264506). These dynamics mainly occur within 50 -s after the first contact, requiring imaging at 1 million f.p.s. For a water drop impacting on a thin layer of water, the entrapment of isolated bubbles starts through azimuthal instability, which forms at low impact velocities, in the neck connecting the drop and pool. For Reynolds number Re above -12 000, up to 10 partial bubble rings have been observed at the base of the ejecta, starting when the contact is -20% of the drop size. More regular bubble rings are observed for a pool of ethanol or methanol. The video imaging shows rotation around some of these air cylinders, which can temporarily delay their breakup into micro-bubbles. The different refractive index in the pool liquid reveals the destabilization of the vortices and the formation of streamwise vortices and intricate vortex tangles. Fine-scale axisymmetry is thereby destroyed. We show also that the shape of the drop has a strong influence on these dynamics. 2013 Cambridge University Press.

  6. Medical image of the week: lung entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natt B

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 74-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer 10 years ago treated with lumpectomy and radiation presented for evaluation of shortness of breath. She was diagnosed with left sided pleural effusion which was recurrent requiring multiple thoracenteses. There was increased pleural fludeoxyglucose (FDG uptake on PET-CT indicative of recurrent metastatic disease. She underwent a medical pleuroscopy since the pleural effusion analysis did not reveal malignant cells although the suspicion was high and tunneled pleural catheter placement as adjuvant chemotherapy was initiated. Figure 1 shows a pleurscopic view of the collapsed left lung and the effusion in the left hemi thorax. Figure 2 shows extensive involvement of the visceral pleura with metastatic disease preventing complete lung inflation. Figure 3 shows persistent pneumothorax-ex-vacuo despite pleural catheter placement confirming the diagnosis of entrapment. Incomplete lung inflation can be due to pleural disease, endobronchial lesions or chronic telecasts. Lung entrapment and trapped lung ...

  7. Grazing incidence collisions of ions and atoms with surfaces: from charge exchange to atomic diffraction; Collisions rasantes d'ions ou d'atomes sur les surfaces: de l'echange de charge a la diffraction atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, P

    2006-09-15

    This thesis reports two studies about the interaction with insulating surfaces of keV ions or atoms under grazing incidence. The first part presents a study of charge exchange processes occurring during the interaction of singly charged ions with the surface of NaCl. In particular, by measuring the scattered charge fraction and the energy loss in coincidence with electron emission, the neutralization mechanism is determined for S{sup +}, C{sup +}, Xe{sup +}, H{sup +}, O{sup +}, Kr{sup +}, N{sup +}, Ar{sup +}, F{sup +}, Ne{sup +} and He{sup +}. These results show the importance of the double electron capture as neutralization process for ions having too much potential energy for resonant capture and not enough for Auger neutralization. We have also studied the ionisation of the projectile and of the surface, and the different Auger-like neutralization processes resulting in electron emission, population of conduction band or excited state. For oxygen scattering, we have measured an higher electron yield in coincidence with scattered negative ion than with scattered atom suggesting the transient formation above the surface of the oxygen doubly negative ion. The second study deals with the fast atom diffraction, a new phenomenon observed for the first time during this work. Due to the large parallel velocity, the surface appears as a corrugated wall where rows interfere. Similarly to the Thermal Atom Scattering the diffraction pattern corresponds to the surface potential and is sensitive to vibrations. We have study the H-NaCl and He-LiF atom-surface potentials in the 20 meV - 1 eV range. This new method offers interesting perspectives for surface characterisation. (author)

  8. Electrochemical Surface Potential due to Classical Point Charge Models Drives Anion Adsorption to the Air-Water Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, Marcel D.; Stern, Abraham C.; Levin, Yan; Tobias, Douglas J.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2012-06-07

    Herein, we present research that suggests that the underlying physics that drive simple empirical models of anions (e.g. point charge, no polarization) to the air-water interface, with water described by SPC/E, or related partial charge models is different than when both ions and water are modeled with quantum mechanical based interactions. Specifically, we will show that the driving force of ions to the air-water interface for point charge models results from both cavitation and the negative electrochemical surface potential. We will demonstrate that we can fully characterize the role of the free energy due to the electrochemical surface potential computed from simple empirical models and its role in ionic adsorption within the context of dielectric continuum theory (DCT). Our research suggests that a significant part of the electrochemical surface potential in empirical models appears to be an artifact of the failure of point charge models in the vicinity of a broken symmetry. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy‘s (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is operated for the Department of Energy by Battelle.

  9. The impact of membrane surface charges on the ion transport in MoS2 nanopore power generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhuo; Zhang, Yan; Hayashida, Tomoki; Ji, Ziwei; He, Yuhui; Tsutsui, Makusu; Miao, Xiang Shui; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2017-12-01

    Recent experiments demonstrated giant osmotic effects induced in a single-atomic-layer MoS2 nanopore by imposing a KCl concentration bias, thereby highlighting the prospect of ultrathin nanopores as power generators. In this work, we report on an electrokinetic analysis of the ionic transport in the MoS2 nanopore system. By taking membrane surface chemistry into account, we found profound roles of surface charges in and out of the nanopore on the cross-pore ion transport, which shed light on the intriguing experimental observations of a high pore conductance with a large open-circuit voltage in the MoS2 system. The present work establishes a theoretical model capable of dealing with ultrathin membrane surface charges for evaluating the energy conversion performance of nanopore power generators constructed with two-dimensional materials.

  10. Electrostatic Deformation of Liquid Surfaces by a Charged Rod and a Van De Graaff Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slisko, Josip; García-Molina, Rafael; Abril, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Authors of physics textbooks frequently use the deflection of a thin, vertically falling water jet by a charged balloon, comb, or rod as a visually appealing and conceptually relevant example of electrostatic attraction. Nevertheless, no attempts are made to explore whether these charged bodies could cause visible deformation of a horizontal water…

  11. Examination and Manipulation of Protein Surface Charge in Solution with Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Deborah S.; Van Ryswyk, Hal

    2014-01-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is a powerful tool for examining the charge of proteins in solution. The charge can be manipulated through choice of solvent and pH. Furthermore, solution-accessible, protonated lysine side chains can be specifically tagged with 18-crown-6 ether to form noncovalent adducts. Chemical derivatization…

  12. Surface Adsorption of Oppositely Charged SDS:C(12)TAB Mixtures and the Relation to Foam Film Formation and Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauser, Heiko; Uhlig, Martin; Miller, Reinhard; von Klitzing, Regine

    2015-10-08

    The complexation, surface adsorption, and foam film stabiliztation of the oppositely charged surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (C12TAB), is analyzed. The SDS:C12TAB mixing ratio is systematically varied to investigate whether the adsorption of equimolar or irregular catanionic surfactant complexes, and thus a variation in surface charge (i.e., surface excess of either SDS or C12TAB), governs foam film properties. Surface tension measurements indicate that SDS and C12TAB interact electrostatically in order to form stoichometric catanionic surfactant complexes and enhance surface adsorption. On the other hand it can be demonstrated that the SDS:C12TAB mixing ratio and, thus, a change in surface charge and composition plays a decisive role in foam film stabilization. The present study demonstrates that varying the mixing ratio between SDS and C12TAB offers a tool for tailoring surface composition and foam film properties, which are therefore not exclusively mediated by the presence of equimolar catanionic surfactant complexes. The SDS:C12TAB net amount and mixing ratio determine the type, stability, and thinning behavior of the corresponding foam film. These observations indicate the formation of a mixed surface layer, composed of the catanionic surfactant species surrounded by either free SDS or C12TAB molecules in excess. Furthermore, a systematic variation in CBF-NBF transition kinetics is rationalized on the basis of a microscopic phase transition within the foam films. Fundamental knowlegde gained from this research gives insight into the surface adsorption and foam film formation of catanionic surfactant mixtures. The study helps researchers to understand basic mechanisms of foam film stabilization and to use resources more efficiently.

  13. Atomistic simulation of charge effects: From tunable thin film growth to isolation of surface states with spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Wenmei

    This dissertation revitalizes the importance of surface charge effects in semiconductor nanostructures, in particular in the context of thin film growth and exotic electronic structures under delicate spin-orbit coupling. A combination of simulation techniques, including density functional theory calculation, kinetic Monte Carlo method, nonequilibrium Green's function method, and tight binding method, were employed to reveal the underlying physical mechanisms of four topics: (1) Effects of Li doping on H-diffusion in MgH 2 for hydrogen storage. It addresses both the effect of Fermi level tuning by charged dopant and the effect of dopant-defect interaction, and the latter was largely neglected in previous works; (2) Tuning nucleation density of the metal island with charge doping of the graphene substrate. It is the first time that the surface charge doping effect is proposed and studied as an effective approach to tune the kinetics of island nucleation at the early stage of thin film growth; (3) Complete isolation of Rashba surface states on the saturated semiconductor surface. It shows that the naturally saturated semiconductor surface of InSe(0001) with Au single layer film provides a mechanism for the formation of Rashba states with large spin splitting; it opens up an innovative route to obtaining ideal Rashba states without the overwhelming bulk spin-degenerate carriers in spin-dependent transport; (4) Formation of large band gap quantum spin Hall state on Si surface. This study reveals the importance of atomic orbital composition in the formation of a topological insulator, and shows promisingly the possible integration of topological insulator technology into Si-based modern electronic devices.

  14. Effects of external surface charges on the enhanced piezoelectric potential of ZnO and AlN nanowires and nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Min Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We theoretically investigate external surface charge effects on piezoelectric potential of ZnO and AlN nanowires (NWs and nanotubes (NTs under uniform compression. The free carrier depletion caused by negative surface charges via surface functionalization on vertically compressed ZnO and AlN NWs/NTs is simulated using finite element calculation; this indicates the enhancement of piezoelectric potential is due to the free carriers (electrons being fully depleted at the critical surface charge density. Numerical simulations reveal that full coverage of surface charges surrounding the NTs increases the piezoelectric output potential exponentially within a relatively smaller range of charge density compared to the case of NWs for a typical donor concentration (∼1017 cm−3. The model can be used to design functional high-power semiconducting piezoelectric nanogenerators.

  15. Nose to brain delivery in rats: Effect of surface charge of rhodamine B labeled nanocarriers on brain subregion localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, A; Musumeci, T; Serapide, M F; Pellitteri, R; Uchegbu, I F; Puglisi, G

    2017-06-01

    Nose to brain delivery and nanotechnology are the combination of innovative strategies for molecules to reach the brain and to bypass blood brain barriers. In this work we investigated the fate of two rhodamine B labeled polymeric nanoparticles (Z-ave <250nm) of opposite surface charge in different areas of the brain after intranasal administration in rats. A preliminary screening was carried out to select the suitable positive (chitosan/poly-l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanocarrier through photon correlation spectroscopy and turbiscan. Physico-chemical and technological characterizations of poly-l-lactide-co-glycolide (negative) and chitosan/poly-l-lactide-co-glycolide (positive) fluorescent labeled nanoparticles were performed. The animals were allocated to three groups receiving negative and positive polymeric nanoparticles via single intranasal administration or no treatment. The localization of both nanocarriers in different brain areas was detected using fluorescent microscopy. Our data revealed that both nanocarriers reach the brain and are able to persist in the brain up to 48h after intranasal administration. Surface charge influenced the involved pathways in their translocation from the nasal cavity to the central nervous system. The positive charge of nanoparticles slows down brain reaching and the trigeminal pathway is involved, while the olfactory pathway may be responsible for the transport of negatively charged nanoparticles, and systemic pathways are not excluded. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A new diagnostic approach to popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Charles; Kennedy, Dominic; Bastian-Jordan, Matthew; Hislop, Matthew; Cramp, Brendan; Dhupelia, Sanjay [Queensland X-Ray, Sunnybank, Queensland, 4109 (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    A new method of diagnosing and defining functional popliteal artery entrapment syndrome is described. By combining ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging techniques with dynamic plantarflexion of the ankle against resistance, functional entrapment can be demonstrated and the location of the arterial occlusion identified. This combination of imaging modalities will also define muscular anatomy for guiding intervention such as surgery or Botox injection.

  17. Cochlear vertebral entrapment syndrome: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Chinghsiung; Lin Shinnkuang E-mail: sk1943@adm.cgmh.org.tw; Chang Yeujhy

    2001-11-01

    The authors describe a patient with isolated involvement of vestibulocochlear nerve by a huge vascular loop from vertebral dolichoectasia. No other neurological deficit was found except for unilateral hearing loss. Abnormal brainstem auditory evoked potential study indicated a retrocochlear lesion. The brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies demonstrated an abnormally enhanced vascular lesion impinged on the left porus acusticus with a displacement of the brainstem to the right. There was no infarction in the brainstem. A cerebral angiography demonstrated a megadolichoectatic horizontal loop at the intracranial portion of the left vertebral artery. There was no thrombus or atherosclerosis in the vertebrobasilar system. A mechanical compression by a vascular loop is the only possible pathogenesis for hearing loss. The authors diagnose this condition as cochlear vertebral entrapment syndrome.

  18. Charge reversal and surface charge amplification in asymmetric valence restricted primitive model planar electric double layers in the modified Poisson-Boltzmann theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Bhuiyan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The modified Poisson-Boltzmann theory of the restricted primitive model double layer is revisited and recast in a fresh, slightly broader perspective. Derivation of relevant equations follow the techniques utilized in the earlier MPB4 and MPB5 formulations and clarifies the relationship between these. The MPB4, MPB5, and a new formulation of the theory are employed in an analysis of the structure and charge reversal phenomenon in asymmetric 2:1/1:2 valence electrolytes. Furthermore, polarization induced surface charge amplification is studied in 3:1/1:3 systems. The results are compared to the corresponding Monte Carlo simulations. The theories are seen to predict the "exact" simulation data to varying degrees of accuracy ranging from qualitative to almost quantitative. The results from a new version of the theory are found to be of comparable accuracy as the MPB5 results in many situations. However, in some cases involving low electrolyte concentrations, theoretical artifacts in the form of un-physical "shoulders" in the singlet ionic distribution functions are observed.

  19. Suppression of surface charge accumulation on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-filled epoxy resin insulator under dc voltage by direct fluorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Boya; Zhang, Guixin, E-mail: guixin@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Li, Chuanyang; He, Jinliang [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Qiang [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Mechatronic Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); An, Zhenlian [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Surface charge accumulation on insulators under high dc voltage is a major factor that may lead to the reduction of insulation levels in gas insulated devices. In this paper, disc insulators made of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-filled epoxy resin were surface fluorinated using a F{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixture (12.5% F{sub 2}) at 50 °C and 0.1 MPa for different durations of 15 min, 30 min and 60 min. A dc voltage was applied to the insulator for 30 min and the charge density on its surface was measured by an electrostatic probe. The results revealed significant lower surface charge densities on the fluorinated insulators in comparison with the original one. Surface conductivity measurements indicated a higher surface conductivity by over three orders of magnitude after fluorination, which would allow the charges to transfer along the surface and thus may suppress their accumulation. Further, attenuated total reflection infrared analysis and surface morphology observations of the samples revealed that the introduction of fluoride groups altered the surface physicochemical properties. These structure changes, especially the physical defects reduced the depth of charge traps in the surface layer, which was verified by the measurement of energy distributions of the electron and hole traps based on the isothermal current theory. The results in this paper demonstrate that fluorination can be a promising and effective method to suppress surface charge accumulation on epoxy insulators in gas insulated devices.

  20. Effect of the surface charge of artificial model membranes on the aggregation of amyloid β-peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté, Raimon; Espargaró, Alba; Barbosa-Barros, Lucyanna; Ventura, Salvador; Estelrich, Joan

    2012-08-01

    The neurotoxicity effect of the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide, the primary constituent of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease, occurs through interactions with neuronal membranes. Here, we attempt to clarify the mechanisms and consequences of the interaction of Aβ with lipid membranes. We have used liposomes as a model of biological membrane, and have devoted particular attention to the bilayer charge effect. Our results show that insertion and surface association of peptide with membrane, increased in a membrane charge-dependent manner, lead to a reduction of Aβ soluble species, lag time elongation and an increase in the inter-molecular β-sheet ratio of amyloid fibrils. In addition, our findings suggest that the fine balance between peptide insertion and surface association modulates Aβ aggregation, influencing the amyloid fibrils concentration as well as their morphology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of inorganic and organic depressants on the cationic flotation and surface charge of rhodonite-rhodochrosite

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Renata Santos; Lima, Rosa Malena Fernandes; Leão, Versiane Albis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Silicates (rhodonite, tephroite, spessartine) and the carbonate (rhodochrosite) of manganese are of economic interest in silicate-carbonated manganese ores. The recovery of both mineral classes by flotation constitutes a challenge; rhodochrosite is a slightly soluble mineral that can release Mn2+ ions in pulp. In this work, the effects of inorganic and organic depressants on the cationic flotation at pH 10 with ether amine acetate and the surface charges of rhodonite and rhodochrosit...

  2. Adsorption of cellular peptides of Microcystis aeruginosa and two herbicides onto activated carbon. Effect of surface charge and interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hnaťuková, Petra; Kopecká, Ivana; Pivokonský, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 11 (2011), s. 3359-3368 ISSN 0043-1354 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600902; GA ČR GPP105/10/P515 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : cellular organic matter * granular activated carbon * molecular weight distribution * surface charge * cyanobacterial peptides Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 4.865, year: 2011

  3. The effects of surface-charged submicron polystyrene particles on the structure and performance of PSF forward osmosis membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hao-Ran; Fu, Jia-Bei; Cao, Gui-Ping; Hu, Nian; Lu, Hui; Liu, Hui-Qing; Chen, Peng-Peng; Yu, Jie

    2018-04-01

    Monodisperse surface-charged submicron polystyrene particles were designed, synthesized, and blended into polysulfone (PSF) support layer to prepare forward osmosis (FO) membrane with high performance. The membrane incorporated with particles were characterized with respect to morphology, porosity, and internal osmotic pressure (IOP). Results showed that the polymer particles not only increased the hydrophilicity and porosity of support layer, but also generated considerable IOP, which helped markedly decreasing the structure parameter from 1550 to 670 μm. The measured mass transfer parameters further confirmed the beneficial effects of the surface-charged submicron polymer particles on the performance of FO membrane. For instance, the water permeability coefficient (5.37 L m-2 h-1 bar-1) and water flux (49.7 L m-2 h-1) of the FO membrane incorporated with 5 wt% particles were almost twice as much as that of FO membrane without incorporation. This study suggests that monodisperse surface-charged submicron polymer particles are potential modifiers for improving the performance of FO membranes.

  4. High-resolution peptide mapping separations with MS-friendly mobile phases and charge-surface-modified C18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, Matthew A; Koza, Stephan M; McCall, Scott A; Alden, Bonnie A; Iraneta, Pamela C; Fountain, Kenneth J

    2013-07-16

    Ionic analytes, such as peptides, can be challenging to separate by reverse-phase chromatography with optimal efficiency. They tend, for instance, to exhibit poor peak shapes, particularly when eluted with mobile phases preferred for electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. We demonstrate that a novel charged-surface C18 stationary phase alleviates some of the challenges associated with reverse-phase peptide separations. This column chemistry, known as CSH (charged-surface hybrid) C18, improves upon an already robust organosilica hybrid stationary phase, BEH (ethylene-bridged hybrid) C18. Based on separations of a nine-peptide standard, CSH C18 was found to exhibit improved loadability, greater peak capacities, and unique selectivity compared to BEH C18. Its performance was also seen to be significantly less dependent on TFA-ion pairing, making it ideal for MS applications where high sensitivity is desired. These performance advantages were evaluated through application to peptide mapping, wherein CSH C18 was found to aid the development of a high-resolution, high-sensitivity LC-UV-MS peptide mapping method for the therapeutic antibody, trastuzumab. From these results, the use of a C18 stationary phase with a charged surface, such as CSH C18, holds significant promise for facilitating challenging peptide analyses.

  5. Near-neutral surface charge and hydrophilicity prevent mineral encrustation of Fe-oxidizing micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, G; Chan, C S

    2013-03-01

    Microbial survival in mineralizing environments depends on the ability to evade surface encrustation by minerals, which could obstruct nutrient uptake and waste output. Some organisms localize mineral precipitation away from the cell; however, cell surface properties - charge and hydrophobicity - must also play a role in preventing surface mineralization. This is especially relevant for iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB), which face an encrustation threat from both biotic and abiotic mineralization. We used electron microscopy and surface characterization techniques to study the surfaces of two stalk-forming neutrophilic FeOB: the marine Zetaproteobacterium Mariprofundus ferrooxydans PV-1 and the recently isolated freshwater Betaproteobacterium Gallionellales strain R-1. Both organisms lack detectable iron on cell surfaces. Live and azide-inhibited M. ferrooxydans PV-1 cells had small negative zeta potentials (-0.34 to -2.73 mV), over the pH range 4.2-9.4; Gallionellales strain R-1 cells exhibited an even smaller zeta potential (-0.10 to -0.19 mV) over pH 4.2-8.8. Cells have hydrophilic surfaces, according to water contact angle measurements and microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons tests. Thermodynamic and extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) calculations showed that as low charge causes low electrostatic attraction, hydrophilic repulsion dominates cell-mineral interactions. Therefore, we conclude that surface properties help enable these FeOB to survive in highly mineralizing environments. Given both mineral-repelling surface properties and the ability to sequester Fe(III) biominerals in an organomineral stalk, these two FeOB have a well-coordinated system to localize both biotic and abiotic mineral distribution. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Conformational response of the phosphatidylcholine headgroup to bilayer surface charge: torsion angle constraints from dipolar and quadrupolar couplings in bicelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semchyschyn, Darlene J; Macdonald, Peter M

    2004-02-01

    The effects of bilayer surface charge on the conformation of the phosphocholine group of phosphatidylcholine were investigated using a torsion angle analysis of quadrupolar and dipolar splittings in, respectively, (2)H and (13)C NMR spectra of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) labelled in the phosphocholine group with either deuterons (POPC-alpha-d(2), POPC-beta-d(2) and POPC-gamma-d(9)) or carbon-13 (POPC-alpha-(13)C and POPC-alphabeta-(13)C(2)) and incorporated into magnetically aligned bicelles containing various amounts of either the cationic amphiphile 1,2-dimyristoyl-3-trimethylammoniumpropane (DMTAP) or the anionic amphiphile 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DMPG). Three sets of quadrupolar splittings, one from each of the three deuteron labelling positions, and three sets of dipolar splittings ((13)C(alpha)-(31)P, (13)C(alpha)-(13)C(beta), (13)C(beta)-(14)N), were measured at each surface charge, along with the (31)P residual chemical shift anisotropy. The torsion angle analysis assumed fast anisotropic rotation of POPC about its long molecular axis, thus projecting all NMR interactions onto that director axis of motion. Dipolar, quadrupolar and chemical shift anisotropies were calculated as a function of the phosphocholine internal torsion angles by first transforming into a common reference frame affixed to the phosphocholine group prior to motional averaging about the director axis. A comparison of experiment and calculation provided the two order parameters specifying the director orientation relative to the molecule, plus the torsion angles alpha(3), alpha(4) and alpha(5). Surface charge was found to have little effect on the torsion angle alpha(5) (rotations about C(alpha)-C(beta)), but to have large and inverse effects on torsion angles alpha(3) [rotations about P-O(11)] and alpha(4) [rotations about O(11)-C(alpha)], yielding a net upwards tilt of the P-N vector in the presence of cationic surface charge, and a

  7. The Effect of Charge at the Surface of Silver Nanoparticles on Antimicrobial Activity against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria: A Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbaszadegan, A.; Ghahramani, Y.; Nabavizadeh, M.; Gholami, A.; Hemmateenejad, I.; Dorostkar, S.; Sharghi, H.

    2014-01-01

    The bactericidal efficiency of various positively and negatively charged silver nanoparticles has been extensively evaluated in literature, but there is no report on efficacy of neutrally charged silver nanoparticles. The goal of this study is to evaluate the role of electrical charge at the surface of silver nanoparticles on antibacterial activity against a panel of microorganisms. Three different silver nanoparticles were synthesized by different methods, providing three different electrical surface charges (positive, neutral, and negative). The antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles was tested against gram-positive (i.e., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus pyogenes) and gram-negative (i.e., Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris) bacteria. Well diffusion and micro-dilution tests were used to evaluate the bactericidal activity of the nanoparticles. According to the obtained results, the positively-charged silver nanoparticles showed the highest bactericidal activity against all microorganisms tested. The negatively charged silver nanoparticles had the least and the neutral nanoparticles had intermediate antibacterial activity. The most resistant bacteria were Proteus vulgaris. We found that the surface charge of the silver nanoparticles was a significant factor affecting bactericidal activity on these surfaces. Although the positively charged nanoparticles showed the highest level of effectiveness against the organisms tested, the neutrally charged particles were also potent against most bacterial species.

  8. Multilayer Coating of Tetrandrine-loaded PLGA nanoparticles: Effect of surface charges on cellular uptake rate and drug release profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Rui; Li, Ke; Chen, Zhe; Shi, Chen

    2016-02-01

    The effect of surface charges on the cellular uptake rate and drug release profile of tetrandrine-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (TPNs) was studied. Stabilizer-free nanoprecipitation method was used in this study for the synthesis of TPNs. A typical layer-by-layer approach was applied for multi-coating particles' surface with use of poly(styrene sulfonate) sodium salt (PSS) as anionic layer and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) as cationic layer. The modified TPNs were characterized by different physicochemical techniques such as Zeta sizer, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The drug loading efficiency, release profile and cellular uptake rate were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography and confocal laser scanning microscopy, respectively. The resultant PSS/PAH/PSS/PAH/TPNs (4 layers) exhibited spherical-shaped morphology with the average size of 160.3±5.165 nm and zeta potential of-57.8 mV. The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading efficiency were 57.88% and 1.73%, respectively. Multi-layer coating of polymeric materials with different charges on particles' surface could dramatically influence the drug release profile of TPNs (4 layers vs. 3 layers). In addition, variable layers of surface coating could also greatly affect the cellular uptake rate of TPNs in A549 cells within 8 h. Overall, by coating particles' surface with those different charged polymers, precise control of drug release as well as cellular uptake rate can be achieved simultaneously. Thus, this approach provides a new strategy for controllable drug delivery.

  9. Improving the visible light photoactivity of In2S3-graphene nanocomposite via a simple surface charge modification approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min-Quan; Weng, Bo; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2013-08-20

    We report an efficient and easily accessible self-assembly route to synthesize In2S3-GR nanocomposites via electrostatic interaction of positively charged In2S3 nanoparticles with negatively charged graphene oxide (GO) followed by a hydrothermal process for reduction of GO to graphene (GR). The as-synthesized In2S3-GR nanocomposites exhibit much higher visible light photocatalytic activity toward selective reduction of nitroaromatic compounds in water than bare In2S3 nanoparticles and In2S3-GR-H that is obtained from the simple "hard" integration of GR nanosheets with solid In2S3 nanoparticles without modification of surface charge. On the basis of the joint characterizations and structure-photoactivity correlation it is disclosed that the enhanced photocatalytic performance of In2S3-GR is mainly ascribed to the more efficient interfacial contact between In2S3 and the GR nanosheets than In2S3-GR-H, which would amplify the use of electron conductivity and mobility of GR to improve the lifetime and transfer of photogenerated charge carriers more efficiently and thus boost the photoactivity more effectively. This work highlights the significant effect of preparation methods on the photoactivity of GR-semiconductor nanocomposites. It is expected that such a simple electrostatic self-assembly strategy could aid to rationally fabricate more efficient GR-semiconductor nanocomposites with improved interfacial contact and photocatalytic performance toward various photocatalytic selective transformations.

  10. Analysis of charge injection and contact resistance as a function of electrode surface treatment in ambipolar polymer transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon Jeng; Kim, Chaewon; Jung, Seok-Heon; Di Pietro, Riccardo; Lee, Jin-Kyun; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Miso; Lee, Mi Jung

    2018-01-01

    Ambipolar organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have both of hole and electron enhancements in charge transport. The characteristics of conjugated diketopyrrolopyrrole ambipolar OFETs depend on the metal-contact surface treatment for charge injection. To investigate the charge-injection characteristics of ambipolar transistors, these devices are processed via various types of self-assembled monolayer treatments and annealing. We conclude that treatment by the self-assembled monolayer 1-decanethiol gives the best enhancement of electron charge injection at both 100 and 300 °C annealing temperature. In addition, the contact resistance is calculated by using two methods: One is the gated four-point probe (gFPP) method that gives the voltage drop between channels, and the other is the simultaneous contact resistance extraction method, which extracts the contact resistance from the general transfer curve. We confirm that the gFPP method and the simultaneous extraction method give similar contact resistance, which means that we can extract contact resistance from the general transfer curve without any special contact pattern. Based on these characteristics of ambipolar p- and n-type transistors, we fabricate inverter devices with only one active layer. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Effect of surface charge and agglomerate degree of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on KB cellular uptake in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yuqing; Zhang, Yu; Xia, Jingguang; Ma, Ming; He, Shiying; Nie, Fang; Gu, Ning

    2009-10-15

    We synthesized three types of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs), which were meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) coated MNPs (DMSA@MNPs, 17.3+/-4.8 nm, negative charge), chitosan (CS) coated MNPs (CS@MNPs, 16.5+/-6.1 nm, positive charge) and magnetic nanoparticles agglomerates, formed by electronic aggregation between DMSA@MNPs and CS (CS-DMSA@MNPs, 85.7+/-72.9 nm, positive charge) respectively. The interactions of these MNPs with Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cell KB were investigated. The results showed that cellular uptakes of MNPs were on the dependence of incubation time, nanoparticles concentration and nanoparticles properties such as surface charge, size, etc. The cellular uptake was enhanced with the increase of incubation time and nanoparticles concentration. Although all MNPs could enter to cells, we observed apparent differences in the magnitude of nanoparticles uptaken. The cellular uptake of CS-DMSA@MNPs by KB cells was the highest and that of DMSA@MNPs was the lowest among the three types of MNPs. The same conclusions were drawn via the reduction of water proton relaxation times T(2)(*), resulting from the different iron load of labeled cells using a 1.5T clinical MR imager. The finding of this study will have implications in the chemical design of nanomaterials for biomedical applications.

  12. Ion adsorption on oxides : surface charge formation and cadmium binding on rutile and hematite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkink, L.G.J.

    1987-01-01

    The adsorption of charge-determining (H +and OH -) and cadmium ions on rutile (TiO 2 ) and hematite (α-Fe

  13. Acceptor-compensated charge transport and surface chemical reactions in Au-implanted SnO₂ nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoch, Akash; Sun, Gun-Joo; Choi, Sun-Woo; Hishita, Shunichi; Kulish, Vadym V; Wu, Ping; Kim, Sang Sub

    2014-04-09

    A new deep acceptor state is identified by density functional theory calculations, and physically activated by an Au ion implantation technique to overcome the high energy barriers. And an acceptor-compensated charge transport mechanism that controls the chemical sensing performance of Au-implanted SnO2 nanowires is established. Subsequently, an equation of electrical resistance is set up as a function of the thermal vibrations, structural defects (Au implantation), surface chemistry (1 ppm NO2), and solute concentration. We show that the electrical resistivity is affected predominantly not by the thermal vibrations, structural defects, or solid solution, but the surface chemistry, which is the source of the improved chemical sensing. The response and recovery time of chemical sensing is respectively interpreted from the transport behaviors of major and minor semiconductor carriers. This acceptor-compensated charge transport mechanism provides novel insights not only for sensor development but also for research in charge and chemical dynamics of nano-semiconductors.

  14. High reduction of interfacial charge recombination in colloidal quantum dot solar cells by metal oxide surface passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jin; Kuga, Yuki; Mora-Seró, Iván; Toyoda, Taro; Ogomi, Yuhei; Hayase, Shuzi; Bisquert, Juan; Shen, Qing

    2015-03-12

    Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells based on colloidal QDs and metal oxide nanowires (NWs) possess unique and outstanding advantages in enhancing light harvesting and charge collection in comparison to planar architectures. However, the high surface area of the NW structure often brings about a large amount of recombination (especially interfacial recombination) and limits the open-circuit voltage in BHJ solar cells. This problem is solved here by passivating the surface of the metal oxide component in PbS colloidal quantum dot solar cells (CQDSCs). By coating thin TiO2 layers onto ZnO-NW surfaces, the open-circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency have been improved by over 40% in PbS CQDSCs. Characterization by transient photovoltage decay and impedance spectroscopy indicated that the interfacial recombination was significantly reduced by the surface passivation strategy. An efficiency as high as 6.13% was achieved through the passivation approach and optimization for the length of the ZnO-NW arrays (device active area: 16 mm2). All solar cells were tested in air, and exhibited excellent air storage stability (without any performance decline over more than 130 days). This work highlights the significance of metal oxide passivation in achieving high performance BHJ solar cells. The charge recombination mechanism uncovered in this work could shed light on the further improvement of PbS CQDSCs and/or other types of solar cells.

  15. Connecting membrane fluidity and surface charge to pore-forming antimicrobial peptides resistance by an ANN-based predictive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehla, Jitender; Sood, S K

    2013-05-01

    Efficiency of antibacterial chemotherapy is gradually more challenged by the emergence of pathogenic strains exhibiting high levels of antibiotic resistance. Pore-forming antimicrobial peptides (PF-AMPs) such as alamethicin (Alm) are therefore in the focus of extensive research efforts. In the present study, an artificial neural network (ANN)-based quantitative structure-activity relationship (SAR) modeling of membrane phospholipids vs. PF-AMPs, in context to membrane fluidity and surface charge, was carried out. We observed that the potency of PF-AMPs depends on the fatty acyl chain and polar head group of phospholipids. Alm showed surface interactions with zwitterionic phospholipids however could penetrate deeper inside the hydrophobic core of anionic membranes. Here, the resistance developed in bacterial cells was coupled to membrane fluidity and surface charge, and simultaneously, these principles could be applied for combating resistance against PF-AMPs. The correlation coefficient between observed CR and predicted CR using ANN was found to be 0.757. Thus, ANN could be used as a reliable modeling method for predicting CR, given the structure of the biomimetic membrane in terms of membrane fluidity and surface charge. Fully explored mechanisms of resistance, a forward modeling step in the design cycle of AMPs, can be cross-linked to the inward modeling using ANN to complete the peptide design cycle. The SAR between membrane phospholipids and PF-AMPs could furnish valuable information regarding their design to provide us efficacious peptides against premier pathogens. So far, this is the only report available to predict and quantify interactions of PF-AMPs with membrane phospholipids.

  16. Determination of charged particles and their polarity in XLPE by temperature gradient thermally stimulated surface potential measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Kato, Keizo; Kook, Sang-Hoon; Hino, Taro

    1985-01-01

    By the thermally stimulated surface potential measurement with a temperature gradient in the insulator specimen, various information not possible by the uniform heating is obtained. Determination of polarity of the carriers is capable of providing a knowledge on space charge in power cables, for example. For the cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) film as cable insulation, polarity of the carriers trapped in it was determined, thereby demonstrating effectiveness of the method. The determination of polarity of mobile ions forming polarization of the ion space charge was also studied. In the ion C-peak appearing in the thermally stimulated current are involved straight-polarity mobile ions, and in the trap D-peak, hole carriers. (Mori, K.)

  17. Charge transfer effects on the Fermi surface of Ba0.5K 0.5Fe2As2

    KAUST Repository

    Nazir, Safdar

    2011-01-31

    Ab-initio calculations within density functional theory are performed to obtain a more systematic understanding of the electronic structure of iron pnictides. As a prototypical compound we study Ba0.5K 0.5Fe2As2 and analyze the changes of its electronic structure when the interaction between the Fe2As 2 layers and their surrounding is modified. We find strong effects on the density of states near the Fermi energy as well as the Fermi surface. The role of the electron donor atoms in iron pnictides thus cannot be understood in a rigid band picture. Instead, the bonding within the Fe2As 2 layers reacts to a modified charge transfer from the donor atoms by adapting the intra-layer Fe-As hybridization and charge transfer in order to maintain an As3- valence state. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Niosomal carriers enhance oral bioavailability of carvedilol: effects of bile salt-enriched vesicles and carrier surface charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzani, Gelareh; Haeri, Azadeh; Daeihamed, Marjan; Bakhtiari-Kaboutaraki, Hamid; Dadashzadeh, Simin

    2015-01-01

    Carvedilol (CRV) is an antihypertensive drug with both alpha and beta receptor blocking activity used to preclude angina and cardiac arrhythmias. To overcome the low, variable oral bioavailability of CRV, niosomal formulations were prepared and characterized: plain niosomes (without bile salts), bile salt-enriched niosomes (bilosomes containing various percentages of sodium cholate or sodium taurocholate), and charged niosomes (negative, containing dicetyl phosphate and positive, containing hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide). All formulations were characterized in terms of encapsulation efficiency, size, zeta potential, release profile, stability, and morphology. Various formulations were administered orally to ten groups of Wistar rats (n=6 per group). The plasma levels of CRV were measured by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and pharmacokinetic properties of different formulations were characterized. Contribution of lymphatic transport to the oral bioavailability of niosomes was also investigated using a chylomicron flow-blocking approach. Of the bile salt-enriched vesicles examined, bilosomes containing 20% sodium cholate (F2) and 30% sodium taurocholate (F5) appeared to give the greatest enhancement of intestinal absorption. The relative bioavailability of F2 and F5 formulations to the suspension was estimated to be 1.84 and 1.64, respectively. With regard to charged niosomes, the peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) of CRV for positively (F7) and negatively charged formulations (F10) were approximately 2.3- and 1.7-fold higher than after a suspension. Bioavailability studies also revealed a significant increase in extent of drug absorption from charged vesicles. Tissue histology revealed no signs of inflammation or damage. The study proved that the type and concentration of bile salts as well as carrier surface charge had great influences on oral bioavailability of niosomes. Blocking the lymphatic absorption pathway

  19. Drop impact splashing and air entrapment

    KAUST Repository

    Thoraval, Marie-Jean

    2013-03-01

    Drop impact is a canonical problem in fluid mechanics, with numerous applications in industrial as well as natural phenomena. The extremely simple initial configuration of the experiment can produce a very large variety of fast and complex dynamics. Scientific progress was made in parallel with major improvements in imaging and computational technologies. Most recently, high-speed imaging video cameras have opened the exploration of new phenomena occurring at the micro-second scale, and parallel computing allowed realistic direct numerical simulations of drop impacts. We combine these tools to bring a new understanding of two fundamental aspects of drop impacts: splashing and air entrapment. The early dynamics of a drop impacting on a liquid pool at high velocity produces an ejecta sheet, emerging horizontally in the neck between the drop and the pool. We show how the interaction of this thin liquid sheet with the air, the drop or the pool, can produce micro-droplets and bubble rings. Then we detail how the breakup of the air film stretched between the drop and the pool for lower impact velocities can produce a myriad of micro-bubbles.

  20. Surface potential, charging and local current transport of individual Ge quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singha, R.K. [Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Manna, S.; Bar, R.; Das, S. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology-Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Ray, S.K., E-mail: physkr@phy.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology-Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: We have elaborately explained the individual Ge QD charging phenomena and current transport, which is very important to understand the Ge/Si nano devices. This paper will give a flavor to properly understand these phenomena linked together along with the photocurrent mechanism which is related to the Ge/Si valence band offset. • Both the CAFM and KPFM techniques point out the functionality of doping nature of the underneath Si substrate on the aforementioned characteristics of Ge QDs. • Analysis of the surface potential mapping using KPFM technique yields an approximate valence band offset measurement which is required to understand the intra-valence transition of holes for the realization of long wavelength infrared photodetector. • KPFM and CAFM can be utilized to explore the charging/discharging phenomena of dots and their composition variations. • Current-voltage (I–V) characteristics of the individual Ge QD strongly depends on the individual QD size. • Energy band diagrams for diamond tip and Ge QD shows the higher barrier for electrons and lower barrier for holes allowing the easy tunneling for holes to dominate the transport. - Abstract: It is fundamentally important to understand the nanoscale electronic properties of a single quantum dot (QD) contrary to an ensemble of QDs. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) are two important tools, which could be employed to probe surface potential, charging phenomena, and current transport mechanism of individual QD. We demonstrate the aforementioned characteristics of self-assembled Ge QDs, which was grown on Si substrates by solid source molecular beam epitaxy driven by the Stranski-Krastanov method. Study reveals that each Ge QD acts as charge storage node even at zero applied bias. The shape, size and density of QDs could be well probed by CAFM and KPFM, whereas QD facets could be better resolved by the conductive tip. The CAFM investigation

  1. Controlling surface charge and spin density oscillations by Dirac plasmon interaction in thin topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyli, M. Ameen; Hrtoň, M.; Nechaev, I. A.; Nikitin, A. Y.; Echenique, P. M.; Silkin, V. M.; Aizpurua, J.; Esteban, R.

    2018-03-01

    Thin topological insulator (TI) films support optical and acoustic plasmonic modes characterized by effective net charge or net spin density, respectively. We combine many-body and electromagnetic calculations to study how these modes can be selectively excited at films and nanodisks at infrared and THz frequencies. We first discuss the excitation of propagating plasmons in a thin film by a point dipolar source. We emphasize how changing the distance between the dipolar source and the film allows us to control the relative strength of the acoustic and optical plasmons and thus to excite net-spin or net-charge waves on demand. The acoustic and optical modes in a nanodisk structure can be efficiently tuned by changing the size of the disk or by applying electrostatic gating. Furthermore, these modes can be confined to regions of dimensions much smaller than the wavelength. The control of the excitation of acoustic and optical modes indicates that thin topological insulators are a promising system to manipulate the spin and charge properties of the plasmonic response, with potential applications in fast, compact, and electrically-controlled spintronic devices.

  2. Surface-treated carbon electrodes with modified potential of zero charge for capacitive deionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tingting; Wang, Gang; Zhan, Fei; Dong, Qiang; Ren, Qidi; Wang, Jianren; Qiu, Jieshan

    2016-04-15

    The potential of zero charge (Epzc) of electrodes can greatly influence the salt removal capacity, charge efficiency and cyclic stability of capacitive deionization (CDI). Thus optimizing the Epzc of CDI electrodes is of great importance. A simple strategy to negatively shift the Epzc of CDI electrodes by modifying commercial activated carbon with quaternized poly (4-vinylpyridine) (AC-QPVP) is reported in this work. The Epzc of the prepared AC-QPVP composite electrode is as negative as -0.745 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Benefiting from the optimized Epzc of electrodes, the asymmetric CDI cell which consists of the AC-QPVP electrode and a nitric acid treated activated carbon (AC-HNO3) electrode exhibits excellent CDI performance. For inverted CDI, the working potential window of the asymmetric CDI cell can reach 1.4 V, and its salt removal capacity can be as high as 9.6 mg/g. For extended voltage CDI, the salt removal capacity of the asymmetric CDI cell at 1.2/-1.2 V is 20.6 mg/g, which is comparable to that of membrane CDI using pristine activated carbon as the electrodes (19.5 mg/g). The present work provides a simple method to prepare highly positively charged CDI electrodes and may pave the way for the development of high-performance CDI cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Radial nerve entrapement in osseous tunnel without clinical symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnima Patni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrapment of a nerve in the callus of a healing fracture is not a common entity, but it does exist. The entrapment usually presents without neurological deficit. It is difficult to suspect the radial nerve injury if we need to operate on the same site. We present a case of entrapment of radial nerve in the callus of a supracondylar humerus fracture with cubitus varus deformity. The surgery for correction of the deformity led to the damage of the nerve. In retrospect a careful assessment of the x-rays showed two 3-4 mm diameter holes. Awareness of this finding would have given us sufficient indication of nerve entrapment to prevent this mishap.

  4. Characterization of ancient Indian iron and entrapped slag ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    year old Indian iron using microprobe techniques (EDS, XRD and PIXE). Several different local locations in the iron matrix and in the entrapped slag inclusions were analyzed. The P content of the metallic iron matrix was very heterogeneous.

  5. Influence of carbonate intercalation in the surface-charging behavior of Zn-Cr layered double hydroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, R., E-mail: rrojas@mail.fcq.unc.edu.ar [INFIQC, Departamento de Fisicoquimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Barriga, C. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica e Ingenieria Quimica, Edificio Marie Curie, Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba (Spain); De Pauli, C.P. [INFIQC, Departamento de Fisicoquimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Avena, M.J. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Avenida Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2010-01-15

    The influence of interlayer composition in the surface charge and reactivity of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) has been explored. With this purpose, a chloride-intercalated Zn-Cr-LDH has been synthesized by the constant pH coprecipitation method and afterwards exchanged with carbonate to obtain solids with different Cl{sup -}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ratios. The solids structure has been characterized by elemental chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy, while its surface-charging behavior and reactivity have been studied by acid-base potentiometric titrations and electrophoretic mobility determinations. The chloride-intercalated sample shows an increasing hydroxyl adsorption with increasing pH and decreasing support electrolyte concentration and the particles present positive electrophoretic mobility in the measured pH range. As carbonate content increases in the samples, the total OH{sup -} uptake diminishes and the samples show an isoelectric point at pH around 10. When the gallery is totally occupied by carbonate anions, the OH uptake vs. pH curves registered at different electrolyte concentrations merge at around pH 10. A LDH-water interface model has been used to give an interpretation to the experimental data. The model indicates that as carbonate content increases, the sample behavior becomes similar to that of a metal (hydr)oxide and that surface (bi)carbonate anions undergo acid-base reactions.

  6. Effect of pullulan nanoparticle surface charges on HSA complexation and drug release behavior of HSA-bound nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Tao

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle (NP compositions such as hydrophobicity and surface charge are vital to determine the presence and amount of human serum albumin (HSA binding. The HSA binding influences drug release, biocompatibility, biodistribution, and intercellular trafficking of nanoparticles (NPs. Here, we prepared 2 kinds of nanomaterials to investigate HSA binding and evaluated drug release of HSA-bound NPs. Polysaccharides (pullulan carboxyethylated to provide ionic derivatives were then conjugated to cholesterol groups to obtain cholesterol-modified carboxyethyl pullulan (CHCP. Cholesterol-modified pullulan (CHP conjugate was synthesized with a similar degree of substitution of cholesterol moiety to CHCP. CHCP formed self-aggregated NPs in aqueous solution with a spherical structure and zeta potential of -19.9 ± 0.23 mV, in contrast to -1.21 ± 0.12 mV of CHP NPs. NPs could quench albumin fluorescence intensity with maximum emission intensity gradually decreasing up to a plateau at 9 to 12 h. Binding constants were 1.12 × 10(5 M(-1 and 0.70 × 10(5 M(-1 to CHP and CHCP, respectively, as determined by Stern-Volmer analysis. The complexation between HSA and NPs was a gradual process driven by hydrophobic force and inhibited by NP surface charge and shell-core structure. HSA conformation was altered by NPs with reduction of α-helical content, depending on interaction time and particle surface charges. These NPs could represent a sustained release carrier for mitoxantrone in vitro, and the bound HSA assisted in enhancing sustained drug release.

  7. Environmental controls of wood entrapment in upper Midwestern streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Eric C.; Finlay, Jacques; Johnson, Lucinda; Newman, Raymond; Stefan, Heinz; Vondracek, Bruce C.

    2011-01-01

    Wood deposited in streams provides a wide variety of ecosystem functions, including enhancing habitat for key species in stream food webs, increasing geomorphic and hydraulic heterogeneity and retaining organic matter. Given the strong role that wood plays in streams, factors that influence wood inputs, retention and transport are critical to stream ecology. Wood entrapment, the process of wood coming to rest after being swept downstream at least 10 m, is poorly understood, yet important for predicting stream function and success of restoration efforts. Data on entrapment were collected for a wide range of natural wood pieces (n = 344), stream geomorphology and hydraulic conditions in nine streams along the north shore of Lake Superior in Minnesota. Locations of pieces were determined in summer 2007 and again following an overbank stormflow event in fall 2007. The ratio of piece length to effective stream width (length ratio) and the weight of the piece were important in a multiple logistic regression model that explained 25% of the variance in wood entrapment. Entrapment remains difficult to predict in natural streams, and often may simply occur wherever wood pieces are located when high water recedes. However, this study can inform stream modifications to discourage entrapment at road crossings or other infrastructure by applying the model formula to estimate the effective width required to pass particular wood pieces. Conversely, these results could also be used to determine conditions (e.g. pre-existing large, stable pieces) that encourage entrapment where wood is valued for ecological functions.

  8. First-Principle Framework for Total Charging Energies in Electrocatalytic Materials and Charge-Responsive Molecular Binding at Gas-Surface Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xin; Tahini, Hassan A; Seal, Prasenjit; Smith, Sean C

    2016-05-04

    Heterogeneous charge-responsive molecular binding to electrocatalytic materials has been predicted in several recent works. This phenomenon offers the possibility of using voltage to manipulate the strength of the binding interaction with the target gas molecule and thereby circumvent thermochemistry constraints, which inhibit achieving both efficient binding and facile release of important targets such as CO2 and H2. Stability analysis of such charge-induced molecular adsorption has been beyond the reach of existing first-principle approaches. Here, we draw on concepts from semiconductor physics and density functional theory to develop a first principle theoretical approach that allows calculation of the change in total energy of the supercell due to charging. Coupled with the calculated adsorption energy of gas molecules at any given charge, this allows a complete description of the energetics of the charge-induced molecular adsorption process. Using CO2 molecular adsorption onto negatively charged h-BN (wide-gap semiconductor) and g-C4N3 (half metal) as example cases, our analysis reveals that - while adsorption is exothermic after charge is introduced - the overall adsorption processes are not intrinsically spontaneous due to the energetic cost of charging the materials. The energies needed to overcome the barriers of these processes are 2.10 and 0.43 eV for h-BN and g-C4N3, respectively. This first principle approach opens up new pathways for a more complete description of charge-induced and electrocatalytic processes.

  9. La modified TiO{sub 2} photoanode and its effect on DSSC performance: A comparative study of doping and surface treatment on deep and surface charge trapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ako, Rajour Tanyi [Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, BE1410, Negara Brunei Darussalam (Brunei Darussalam); Ekanayake, Piyasiri, E-mail: piyasiri.ekanayake@ubd.edu.bn [Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, BE1410, Negara Brunei Darussalam (Brunei Darussalam); Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences (CAMES), Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, BE1410, Negara Brunei Darussalam (Brunei Darussalam); Tan, Ai Ling [Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, BE1410, Negara Brunei Darussalam (Brunei Darussalam); Young, David James [Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, BE1410, Negara Brunei Darussalam (Brunei Darussalam); Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC, Queensland, 4558 (Australia); Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), Agency for Science, Technology and Research - A*STAR, #08-03, 2 Fusionopolis Way, Innovis, 138634 (Singapore)

    2016-04-01

    The effect of Lanthanum ions (La{sup 3+}) on charge trapping in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) photoanodes has been investigated with doped and surface-treated TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Doped nanoparticles consisting of 0.5 mol.% Mg and La co-doped TiO{sub 2}, 0.5 mol.% Mg doped TiO{sub 2} and pure TiO{sub 2} were synthesized by the sol gel method. Surface-treated nanoparticles of Mg doped TiO{sub 2} and pure TiO{sub 2} were prepared by ball milling in 0.05 M aqueous La{sup 3+} solution. All materials were analyzed by XRD, XPS and UV–Vis DRS. Cell performance, surface free energy state changes and electron injection efficiency of DSSCs based on these nanoparticles were evaluated using current –voltage measurements, EIS and Incident photon to current conversion efficiency. Doped materials had La and Mg ions incorporated into the TiO{sub 2} lattice, while no lattice changes were observed for the surface-treated materials. Less visible light was absorbed by treated oxides compared with doped oxide samples. The overall power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of DSSC photoanodes based on doped materials were twice those of photoanodes fabricated from treated nanoparticles. Doping establishes deep traps that reduce the recombination of electron–hole (e–h) pairs. Conversely, the presence of absorbed oxygen in treated materials enhances e–h recombination with electrolyte at surface trap sites. - Highlights: • DSSC performance is investigated using photoanodes of doped and La{sup 3+} surface treated TiO{sub 2}. • TiO{sub 2} and Mg–TiO{sub 2} treated with La{sup 3+} absorbed less visible light. • A high concentration of absorbed oxygen on surface treated oxides reduced band bending. • Increased surface free energy in the modified DSSC anodes is caused more by Mg{sup 2+} at Ti{sup 4+} than by La{sup 3+} at the surfaces. • Near surface charge traps due to La{sup 3+} treatment promotes e–h recombination.

  10. Photoinduced charge dissociation and transport at P3HT/ITO interfaces: studied by modulated surface spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rujisamphan, Nopporn; Supasai, Thidarat; Dittrich, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Results of a temperature dependence study of photoinduced charge separation across P3HT nanocrystals at P3HT/ITO interfaces have been investigated by modulated surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy in a fixed capacitor arrangement. The SPV measurements were correlated with the crystalline sizes of P3HT nanocrystals determined by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD). The crystalline sizes of P3HT nanocrystals were varied systematically by progressive heating/cooling cycles identical for SPV and GIXRD measurements. Photovoltage signals, indication of photoinduced charge dissociation in space, at the P3HT/ITO interface were collected, and electrons were separated across the first monolayer of P3HT nanocrystals at the P3HT/ITO interface due to band bending. The activation energies for quenching of the in-phase and phase-shifted by 90 SPV signals were 0.7 and 0.6 eV, respectively. Thermal activation of the formation of P3HT nanocrystals was of the same order as the enthalpy of fusion of ideal crystals from regioregular P3HT. A schematic drawing of photoinduced charge separation at the P3HT/ITO is proposed. (orig.)

  11. Photoinduced charge dissociation and transport at P3HT/ITO interfaces: studied by modulated surface spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rujisamphan, Nopporn [King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Bangkok (Thailand); Institute of Heterogeneous Materials, Helmholtz Center Berlin for Materials and Energy, Berlin (Germany); Supasai, Thidarat [Kasetsart University, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Bangkok (Thailand); Dittrich, Thomas [Institute of Heterogeneous Materials, Helmholtz Center Berlin for Materials and Energy, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Results of a temperature dependence study of photoinduced charge separation across P3HT nanocrystals at P3HT/ITO interfaces have been investigated by modulated surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy in a fixed capacitor arrangement. The SPV measurements were correlated with the crystalline sizes of P3HT nanocrystals determined by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD). The crystalline sizes of P3HT nanocrystals were varied systematically by progressive heating/cooling cycles identical for SPV and GIXRD measurements. Photovoltage signals, indication of photoinduced charge dissociation in space, at the P3HT/ITO interface were collected, and electrons were separated across the first monolayer of P3HT nanocrystals at the P3HT/ITO interface due to band bending. The activation energies for quenching of the in-phase and phase-shifted by 90 SPV signals were 0.7 and 0.6 eV, respectively. Thermal activation of the formation of P3HT nanocrystals was of the same order as the enthalpy of fusion of ideal crystals from regioregular P3HT. A schematic drawing of photoinduced charge separation at the P3HT/ITO is proposed. (orig.)

  12. Crystal structure of the gamma-2 herpesvirus LANA DNA binding domain identifies charged surface residues which impact viral latency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Correia

    Full Text Available Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA mediates γ2-herpesvirus genome persistence and regulates transcription. We describe the crystal structure of the murine gammaherpesvirus-68 LANA C-terminal domain at 2.2 Å resolution. The structure reveals an alpha-beta fold that assembles as a dimer, reminiscent of Epstein-Barr virus EBNA1. A predicted DNA binding surface is present and opposite this interface is a positive electrostatic patch. Targeted DNA recognition substitutions eliminated DNA binding, while certain charged patch mutations reduced bromodomain protein, BRD4, binding. Virus containing LANA abolished for DNA binding was incapable of viable latent infection in mice. Virus with mutations at the charged patch periphery exhibited substantial deficiency in expansion of latent infection, while central region substitutions had little effect. This deficiency was independent of BRD4. These results elucidate the LANA DNA binding domain structure and reveal a unique charged region that exerts a critical role in viral latent infection, likely acting through a host cell protein(s.

  13. Intense charge transfer surface based on graphene and thymine-Hg(II)-thymine base pairs for detection of Hg(2.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiao; Lu, Liping; Kang, Tianfang; Cheng, Shuiyuan

    2016-03-15

    In this article, we developed an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensor with a high-intensity charge transfer interface for Hg(2+) detection based on Hg(II)-induced DNA hybridization. The sensor was fabricated by the following simple method. First, graphene oxide (GO) was electrochemically reduced onto a glassy carbon electrode through cyclic voltammetry. Then, amino-labeled double-stranded (ds)DNA was assembled on the electrode surface using 1-pyrenebutyric acid N-hydroxysuccinimide as a linker between GO and DNA. The other terminal of dsDNA, which was labeled with biotin, was linked to CdSe quantum dots via biotin-avidin interactions. Reduced graphene oxide has excellent electrical conductivity. dsDNA with T-Hg(II)-T base pairs exhibited more facile charge transfer. They both accelerate the electron transfer performance and sensitivity of the sensor. The increased ECL signals were logarithmically linear with the concentration of Hg(II) when Hg(2+) was present in the detection solution. The linear range of the sensor was 10(-11) to 10(-8)mol/L (R=0.9819) with a detection limit of 10(-11)mol/L. This biosensor exhibited satisfactory results when it was used to detect Hg(II) in real water samples. The biosensor with high-intense charge transfer performance is a prospect avenue to pursue more and more sensitive detection method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of the surface charge density on the creep of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhmakin, Yu. D.; Rybyanets, V. A.; Nevskii, S. A.; Gromov, V. E.

    2015-01-01

    The creep of polycrystalline copper under the action of high and low electric potentials is studied. At potentials of ±4 kV and ±5 V, the steady-state creep rate decreases, and the effect in the former case is weaker than in the latter by a factor of 2.5. This difference is caused by the fact that the charge density in the sample-capacitor bank system at the high electric potentials is lower than at the low potentials.

  15. Surface complexation of carbonate on goethite: IR spectroscopy, structure & charge distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, T.; Rahnemaie, R.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2004-01-01

    The adsorption of carbonate on goethite has been evaluated, focussing on the relation between the structure of the surface complex and corresponding adsorption characteristics, like pH dependency and proton co-adsorption. The surface structure of adsorbed CO3-2 has been assessed with (1) a

  16. Effects of charge design features on parameters of acoustic and seismic waves and cratering, for SMR chemical surface explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitterman, Y.

    2012-04-01

    A series of experimental on-surface shots was designed and conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel at Sayarim Military Range (SMR) in Negev desert, including two large calibration explosions: about 82 tons of strong IMI explosives in August 2009, and about 100 tons of ANFO explosives in January 2011. It was a collaborative effort between Israel, CTBTO, USA and several European countries, with the main goal to provide fully controlled ground truth (GT0) infrasound sources in different weather/wind conditions, for calibration of IMS infrasound stations in Europe, Middle East and Asia. Strong boosters and the upward charge detonation scheme were applied to provide a reduced energy release to the ground and an enlarged energy radiation to the atmosphere, producing enhanced infrasound signals, for better observation at far-regional stations. The following observations and results indicate on the required explosives energy partition for this charge design: 1) crater size and local seismic (duration) magnitudes were found smaller than expected for these large surface explosions; 2) small test shots of the same charge (1 ton) conducted at SMR with different detonation directions showed clearly lower seismic amplitudes/energy and smaller crater size for the upward detonation; 3) many infrasound stations at local and regional distances showed higher than expected peak amplitudes, even after application of a wind-correction procedure. For the large-scale explosions, high-pressure gauges were deployed at 100-600 m to record air-blast properties, evaluate the efficiency of the charge design and energy generation, and provide a reliable estimation of the charge yield. Empirical relations for air-blast parameters - peak pressure, impulse and the Secondary Shock (SS) time delay - depending on distance, were developed and analyzed. The parameters, scaled by the cubic root of estimated TNT equivalent charges, were found consistent for all analyzed explosions, except of SS

  17. Exploring the entrance of proton pathways in cytochrome c oxidase from Paracoccus denitrificans: surface charge, buffer capacity and redox-dependent polarity changes at the internal surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchberg, Kristina; Michel, Hartmut; Alexiev, Ulrike

    2013-03-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), the terminal oxidase of cellular respiration, reduces molecular oxygen to water. The mechanism of proton pumping as well as the coupling of proton and electron transfer is still not understood in this redox-linked proton pump. Eleven residues at the aqueous-exposed surfaces of CcO from Paracoccus denitrificans have been exchanged to cysteines in a two-subunit base variant to yield single reactive cysteine variants. These variants are designed to provide unique labeling sites for probes to be used in spectroscopic experiments investigating the mechanism of proton pumping in CcO. To this end we have shown that all cysteine variants are enzymatically active. Cysteine positions at the negative (N-) side of the membrane are located close to the entrance of the D- and K-proton transfer pathways that connect the N-side with the catalytic oxygen reduction site. Labeling of the pH-indicator dye fluorescein to these sites allowed us to determine the surface potential at the cytoplasmic CcO surface, which corresponds to a surface charge density of -0.5 elementary charge/1000Å(2). In addition, acid-base titrations revealed values of CcO buffer capacity. Polarity measurements of the label environment at the N-side provided (i) site-specific values indicative of a hydrophilic and a more hydrophobic environment dependent on the label position, and (ii) information on a global change to a more apolar environment upon reduction of the enzyme. Thus, the redox state of the copper and heme centers inside the hydrophobic interior of CcO affect the properties at the cytoplasmic surface. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Disentangling surface, bulk, and space-charge-layer conductivity in Si(111)-(7x7)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, J.W.; Kallehauge, J.F.; Hansen, Torben Mikael

    2006-01-01

    A novel approach for extracting genuine surface conductivities is presented and illustrated using the unresolved example of Si(111)-(7x7). Its temperature-dependent conductivity was measured with a microscopic four point probe between room temperature and 100 K. At room temperature the measured......), irrespective of bulk doping. This abrupt transition is interpreted as the switching from bulk to surface conduction, an interpretation which is supported by a numerical model for the measured four point probe conductance. The value of the surface conductance is considerably lower than that of a good metal....

  19. Charge-density waves studied at the surface and at the atomic scale in NbSe3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, Christophe; Wang, Zhao-Zhong; Monceau, Pierre; Brazovskii, Serguei

    2012-01-01

    We have studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) the two charge-density wave (CDW) transitions in NbSe 3 on in situ cleaved (b,c) plane. We could identify the three types of chains existing inside a single unit cell as well as characterize how both CDWs are distributed on these elementary chains. We also followed between 5 and 140 K the temperature dependence of first-order CDW satellite spots, obtained from the Fourier transform of the STM images, to extract the surface critical temperatures (T s ). Whereas the high-temperature CDW appears to have comparable critical temperature to the bulk one, the low-T CDW transition occurs at T 2s =70–75K, more than 15 K above the bulk T 2b =59K while at exactly the same wave number. A reasonable mechanism for such an unusually high surface enhancement is a softening of transverse phonon modes involved in the CDW formation.

  20. Electrical double layer interactions between dissimilar oxide surfaces with charge regulation and Stern-Grahame layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Derek Y C; Healy, Thomas W; Supasiti, Tharatorn; Usui, S

    2006-04-01

    Models of surfaces with intrinsic ionisable amphoteric surface sites governed by the dissociation of acid-base potential determining ion species together with the capacity for the adsorption of anion and cations of the supporting electrolyte are required to describe both the results of electrokinetic and titration measurements of inorganic oxides. The Gouy-Chapman-Stern-Grahame (CGSG) model is one such model that has been widely used in the literature. The electrical double layer interaction between two dissimilar CGSG surfaces has been studied by Usui recently [S. Usui, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 280 (2004) 113] where erroneous discontinuities in the slope of the pressure-separation relation were observed. We revisit this calculation and provide a simple general methodology to analyse the electrical double layer interaction between dissimilar ionisable surfaces with ion adsorption.

  1. Surface Charge Measurement of SonoVue, Definity and Optison: A Comparison of Laser Doppler Electrophoresis and Micro-Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ja'afar, Fairuzeta; Leow, Chee Hau; Garbin, Valeria; Sennoga, Charles A; Tang, Meng-Xing; Seddon, John M

    2015-11-01

    Microbubble (MB) contrast-enhanced ultrasonography is a promising tool for targeted molecular imaging. It is important to determine the MB surface charge accurately as it affects the MB interactions with cell membranes. In this article, we report the surface charge measurement of SonoVue, Definity and Optison. We compare the performance of the widely used laser Doppler electrophoresis with an in-house micro-electrophoresis system. By optically tracking MB electrophoretic velocity in a microchannel, we determined the zeta potentials of MB samples. Using micro-electrophoresis, we obtained zeta potential values for SonoVue, Definity and Optison of -28.3, -4.2 and -9.5 mV, with relative standard deviations of 5%, 48% and 8%, respectively. In comparison, laser Doppler electrophoresis gave -8.7, +0.7 and +15.8 mV with relative standard deviations of 330%, 29,000% and 130%, respectively. We found that the reliability of laser Doppler electrophoresis is compromised by MB buoyancy. Micro-electrophoresis determined zeta potential values with a 10-fold improvement in relative standard deviation. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evidences of Changes in Surface Electrostatic Charge Distribution during Stabilization of HPV16 Virus-Like Particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F Vega

    Full Text Available The stabilization of human papillomavirus type 16 virus-like particles has been examined by means of different techniques including dynamic and static light scattering, transmission electron microscopy and electrophoretic mobility. All these techniques provide different and often complementary perspectives about the aggregation process and generation of stabilized virus-like particles after a period of time of 48 hours at a temperature of 298 K. Interestingly, static light scattering results point towards a clear colloidal instability in the initial systems, as suggested by a negative value of the second virial coefficient. This is likely related to small repulsive electrostatic interactions among the particles, and in agreement with relatively small absolute values of the electrophoretic mobility and, hence, of the net surface charges. At this initial stage the small repulsive interactions are not able to compensate binding interactions, which tend to aggregate the particles. As time proceeds, an increase of the size of the particles is accompanied by strong increases, in absolute values, of the electrophoretic mobility and net surface charge, suggesting enhanced repulsive electrostatic interactions and, consequently, a stabilized colloidal system. These results show that electrophoretic mobility is a useful methodology that can be applied to screen the stabilization factors for virus-like particles during vaccine development.

  3. Bromo-oxidation reaction in enzyme-entrapped alginate hollow microfibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, Amit; Lee, Kwang Ho; Shin, Su-Jung; Perumal, Jayakumar; Butler, Lauren; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Pyo

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors present the fabrication of an enzyme-entrapped alginate hollow fiber using a microfluidic device. Further use of enzyme-entrapped alginate hollow fibers as a biocatalytic microchemical reactor for chemical synthesis is also deliberated in this article. To ensure that there is no enzyme leaching from the fiber, fiber surfaces were coated with chitosan. To confine the mobility of reactants and products within the porous hollow fibers the entire fibers were embedded into a transparent polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix which also works as a support matrix. A vanadium-containing bromoperoxidase enzyme isolated from Corallina confusa was used as a model enzyme to demonstrate the use of these alginate hollow-fiber reactors in bromo-oxidation of phenol red to bromophenol blue at different dye flow rates. Stability of the entrapped enzyme at different temperatures and the effect of the chitosan coating on the reaction conversion were also studied. It was observed that molecules as big as 27 kDa can be retained in the matrix after coating with chitosan while molecules with molecular-weight of around 378 Da can still diffuse in and out of the matrix. The kinetic conversion rate in this microfluidic bioreactor was more than 41-fold faster when compared with the standard test-tube procedure. PMID:21799723

  4. Optimizing the Production of Biodiesel Using Lipase Entrapped in Biomimetic Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yang Yu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We entrapped lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia in polyallylamine-mediated biomimetic silica, and then applied entrapped lipase to the synthesis of biodiesel with soybean oil or waste cooking oil as a feedstock. The effects of reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio (methanol/oil and n-hexane content (w/w of oil were evaluated using response surface methodology (RSM combined with Box-Behnken design. The optimal reaction conditions for soybean oil were 43.6 °C, substrate molar ratio of 4.3%, and 75% n-hexane. The predicted and experimental values of biodiesel conversion were 79% and 76%, respectively. The optimal reaction conditions for waste cooking oil were 43.3 °C, substrate molar ratio of 5%, and 38% n-hexane. The predicted and experimental values of conversion were 68% and 67%, respectively. The conversion efficiency remained the same even after 1-month storage of entrapped lipase at 4 °C or room temperature.

  5. Fabrication of Al2O3 Nano-Structure Functional Film on a Cellulose Insulation Polymer Surface and Its Space Charge Suppression Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose insulation polymer (paper/pressboard has been widely used in high voltage direct current (HVDC transformers. One of the most challenging issues in the insulation material used for HVDC equipment is the space charge accumulation. Effective ways to suppress the space charge injection/accumulation in insulation material is currently a popular research topic. In this study, an aluminium oxide functional film was deposited on a cellulose insulation pressboard surface using reactive radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering. The sputtered thin film was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The influence of the deposited functional film on the dielectric properties and the space charge injection/accumulation behaviour was investigated. A preliminary exploration of the space charge suppression effect is discussed. SEM/EDS, XPS, and XRD results show that the nano-structured Al2O3 film with amorphous phase was successfully fabricated onto the fibre surface. The cellulose insulation pressboard surface sputtered by Al2O3 film has lower permittivity, conductivity, and dissipation factor values in the lower frequency (<103 Hz region. The oil-impregnated sputtered pressboard presents an apparent space-charge suppression effect. Compared with the pressboard sputtered with Al2O3 film for 90 min, the pressboard sputtered with Al2O3 film for 60 min had a better space charge suppression effect. Ultra-small Al2O3 particles (<10 nm grew on the surface of the larger nanoparticles. The nano-structured Al2O3 film sputtered on the fibre surface could act as a functional barrier layer for suppression of the charge injection and accumulation. This study offers a new perspective in favour of the application of insulation pressboard with a nano-structured function surface against space charge injection/accumulation in HVDC equipment.

  6. Using extremely halophilic bacteria to understand the role of surface charge and surface hydration in protein evolution, folding, and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Wouter; Deole, Ratnakar; Osu Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Halophilic Archaea accumulate molar concentrations of KCl in their cytoplasm as an osmoprotectant, and have evolved highly acidic proteomes that only function at high salinity. We examine osmoprotection in the photosynthetic Proteobacteria Halorhodospira halophila. We find that H. halophila has an acidic proteome and accumulates molar concentrations of KCl when grown in high salt media. Upon growth of H. halophila in low salt media, its cytoplasmic K + content matches that of Escherichia coli, revealing an acidic proteome that can function in the absence of high cytoplasmic salt concentrations. These findings necessitate a reassessment of two central aspects of theories for understanding extreme halophiles. We conclude that proteome acidity is not driven by stabilizing interactions between K + ions and acidic side chains, but by the need for maintaining sufficient solvation and hydration of the protein surface at high salinity through strongly hydrated carboxylates. We propose that obligate protein halophilicity is a non-adaptive property resulting from genetic drift in which constructive neutral evolution progressively incorporates weakly stabilizing K + binding sites on an increasingly acidic protein surface.

  7. Interaction of a self-emulsifying lipid drug delivery system with the everted rat intestinal mucosa as a function of droplet size and surface charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershanik, T; Benzeno, S; Benita, S

    1998-06-01

    To investigate the interaction of positively charged self-emulsifying oil formulations (SEOF) following aqueous dilution as a function of resulting emulsion droplet charge and size with rat everted intestinal mucosa, adherent mucus layer and Peyer's patches, using cyclosporine A (CsA) as a lipophilic model drug. Droplet size determination (TEM technique) and zeta-potential measurements were used to characterize the resulting emulsions. For the ex vivo interaction study, the well-known rat intestine everted sac technique was used in combination with confocal microscopy. The positively charged oil droplets formed by SEOF dilutions at ratios of 1/50 and 1/10 elicited the stronger interaction with the mucosal surface. The positive charge of the smaller droplets was more readily neutralized, and even reversed in aqueous solutions containing moderate subphysiological mucin concentrations. Parameters such as droplet size, negativity of the epithelial mucosa potential and presence of the mucus layer on the epithelial surface affected drug mucosa uptake and the adhesion of the positively charged droplets to the rat intestinal mucosa. The enhanced electrostatic interactions of positively charged droplets with the mucosal surface are mostly responsible for the preferential uptake of CsA from the positively charged droplets as compared to negatively charged droplets irrespective of the experimental conditions used. The increased uptake of the CsA from the negatively charged oil droplets was consistent with the dilution extent, as expected, whereas in the positively charged droplets, an intermediate droplet size range was identified resulting in optimum drug uptake and clearly suggesting that drug uptake was not consistent with either dilution extent or droplet size.

  8. Roughening Conjugated Polymer Surface for Enhancing the Charge Collection Efficiency of Sequentially Deposited Polymer/Fullerene Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonhee Jang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A method that enables the formation of a rough nano-scale surface for conjugated polymers is developed through the utilization of a polymer chain ordering agent (OA. 1-Chloronaphthalene (1-CN is used as the OA for the poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl (P3HT layer. The addition of 1-CN to the P3HT solution improves the chain ordering of the P3HT during the film formation process and increases the surface roughness of the P3HT film compared to the film prepared without 1-CN. The roughened surface of the P3HT film is utilized to construct a P3HT/fullerene bilayer organic photovoltaic (OPV by sequential solution deposition (SqSD without thermal annealing process. The power conversion efficiency (PCE of the SqSD-processed OPV utilizing roughened P3HT layer is 25% higher than that utilizing a plain P3HT layer. It is revealed that the roughened surface of the P3HT increases the heterojunction area at the P3HT/fullerene interface and this resulted in improved internal charge collection efficiency, as well as light absorption efficiency. This method proposes a novel way to improve the PCE of the SqSD-processed OPV, which can be applied for OPV utilizing low band gap polymers. In addition, this method allows for the reassessment of polymers, which have shown insufficient performance in the BSD process.

  9. Kinetic Electron Emission from Higly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite Surfaces Induced by Singly Charged Ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cernusca, S.; Diem, A.; Winter, H. P.; Aumayr, F.; Lörinčík, Jan; Šroubek, Zdeněk

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 193, - (2002), s. 616-620 ISSN 0168-583X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : clean metal-surface * slow * polycrystalline gold Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.158, year: 2002

  10. Full charge-density calculation of the surface energy of metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitos, Levente; Kollár, J..; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1994-01-01

    We have calculated the surface energy and the work function of the 4d metals by means of an energy functional based on a self-consistent, spherically symmetric atomic-sphere potential. In this approach the kinetic energy is calculated completely within the atomic-sphere approximation (ASA) by mea...

  11. Role of surface charge heterogeneity in Enterococcus faecalis adhesion and biofilm formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Merode, Annet

    2006-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a commensal bacterium found in the gut of most animal species. It is also a leading cause of nosocomial infections in humans and has the abllity to adhere to the surface of biomaterials and form biofilms on them. ... Zie: Summary

  12. Surface speciation of yttrium and neodymium sorbed on rutile: Interpretations using the charge distribution model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridley, M.K.; Hiemstra, T.; Machesky, M.L.; Wesolowski, D.J.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption of Y3+ and Nd3+ onto rutile has been evaluated over a wide range of pH (3-11) and surface loading conditions, as well as at two ionic strengths (0.03 and 0.3 m), and temperatures (25 and 50 degrees C). The experimental results reveal the same adsorption behavior for the two trivalent

  13. Flexible Faraday Cage with a Twist: Surface Charge on a Mobius Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Once an intriguing topological novelty known only to mathematicians, the Mobius strip has become a source of fascination and inspiration to the layperson and artist alike. Principal among its features are the two strange properties that the Mobius strip is a surface with only one side and one edge. A Mobius strip is readily formed by taking a long…

  14. Coarse-grained modeling of proline rich protein 1 (PRP-1) in bulk solution and adsorbed to a negatively charged surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skepö, Marie; Linse, Per; Arnebrant, Thomas

    2006-06-22

    Structural properties of the acidic proline rich protein PRP-1 of salivary origin in bulk solution and adsorbed onto a negatively charged surface have been studied by Monte Carlo simulations. A simple model system with focus on electrostatic interactions and short-ranged attractions among the uncharged amino acids has been used. In addition to PRP-1, some mutants were considered to assess the role of the interactions in the systems. Contrary to polyelectrolytes, the protein has a compact structure in salt-free bulk solutions, whereas at high salt concentration the protein becomes more extended. The protein adsorbs to a negatively charged surface, although its net charge is negative. The adsorbed protein displays an extended structure, which becomes more compact upon addition of salt. Hence, the conformational response upon salt addition in the adsorbed state is the opposite as compared to that in bulk solution. The conformational behavior of PRP-1 in bulk solution and at charged surfaces as well as its propensity to adsorb to surfaces with the same net charge are rationalized by the block polyampholytic character of the protein. The presence of a triad of positively charged amino acids in the C-terminal was found to be important for the adsorption of the protein.

  15. Electrical Double-Layer and Ion Bridging Forces between Symmetric and Asymmetric Charged Surfaces in the Presence of Mono- and Divalent Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Feilberg, Karen Louise; Yan, Wei

    2017-01-01

    charged (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane, and the negatively charged (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane. The interactions between the three symmetric systems, as well as between the three asymmetric combinations of surfaces, were measured and compared to calculated electrical double-layer forces....... The results demonstrated that the long-range interactions between the surfaces in all cases were dominated by double-layer forces, while short-range interactions, including adhesion, were dominated by ion bridging forces in the cases where both interaction surfaces favored adsorption of calcium ions...

  16. A charge transport study in diamond, surface passivated by high-k dielectric oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovi, Kiran Kumar, E-mail: KiranKumar.Kovi@angstrom.uu.se; Majdi, Saman; Gabrysch, Markus; Isberg, Jan [Division for Electricity, Department of Engineering Sciences, Box 534, Uppsala University, Uppsala SE-751 21 (Sweden)

    2014-11-17

    The recent progress in the growth of high-quality single-crystalline diamond films has sparked interest in the realization of efficient diamond power electronic devices. However, finding a suitable passivation is essential to improve the reliability and electrical performance of devices. In the current work, high-k dielectric materials such as aluminum oxide and hafnium oxide were deposited by atomic layer deposition on intrinsic diamond as a surface passivation layer. The hole transport properties in the diamond films were evaluated and compared to unpassivated films using the lateral time-of-flight technique. An enhancement of the near surface hole mobility in diamond films of up to 27% is observed when using aluminum oxide passivation.

  17. Critical capture distances for highly charged ions above dielectric covered metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, R.E., E-mail: russell.lake@nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Pomeroy, J.M. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Sosolik, C.E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States)

    2011-06-01

    We model the first stage of the electronic interaction between an ion and a metal surface covered with a thin dielectric layer. Specifically, we seek to answer two questions. (i) As an ion approaches the surface from far away, does the first electron that it captures originate from the exposed dielectric layer or the metal underneath it? (ii) What is the ion's distance from the metal when the first electron is captured? To answer these questions, the classical potential that an electron is subject to during the interaction is calculated. The dielectric film is treated as a continuum with simple band structure. We input the parameters from recent experiments (Co with 1.5 nm thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film) and found that (i) the first capture proceeds from the metal, and (ii) the dielectric film extends the distance threshold for first capture compared to a metal with no film.

  18. Surface Complexation Modeling in Variable Charge Soils: Prediction of Cadmium Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Marchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Intrinsic equilibrium constants for 22 representative Brazilian Oxisols were estimated from a cadmium adsorption experiment. Equilibrium constants were fitted to two surface complexation models: diffuse layer and constant capacitance. Intrinsic equilibrium constants were optimized by FITEQL and by hand calculation using Visual MINTEQ in sweep mode, and Excel spreadsheets. Data from both models were incorporated into Visual MINTEQ. Constants estimated by FITEQL and incorporated in Visual MINTEQ software failed to predict observed data accurately. However, FITEQL raw output data rendered good results when predicted values were directly compared with observed values, instead of incorporating the estimated constants into Visual MINTEQ. Intrinsic equilibrium constants optimized by hand calculation and incorporated in Visual MINTEQ reliably predicted Cd adsorption reactions on soil surfaces under changing environmental conditions.

  19. Salivary pellicles equalise surfaces' charges and modulate the virulence of Candida albicans biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley; Wilson, Melanie; Lewis, Michael; Williams, David; Senna, Plínio Mendes; Del-Bel-Cury, Altair Antoninha; da Silva, Wander José

    2016-06-01

    Numerous environmental factors influence the pathogenesis of Candida biofilms and an understanding of these is necessary for appropriate clinical management. To investigate the role of material type, pellicle and stage of biofilm development on the viability, bioactivity, virulence and structure of C. albicans biofilms. The surface roughness (SR) and surface free energy (SFE) of acrylic and titanium discs was measured. Pellicles of saliva, or saliva supplemented with plasma, were formed on acrylic and titanium discs. Candida albicans biofilms were then generated for 1.5 h, 24h, 48 h and 72 h. The cell viability in biofilms was analysed by culture, whilst DNA concentration and the expression of Candida virulence genes (ALS1, ALS3 and HWP1) were evaluated using qPCR. Biofilm metabolic activity was determined using XTT reduction assay, and biofilm structure analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Whilst the SR of acrylic and titanium did not significantly differ, the saliva with plasma pellicle increased significantly the total SFE of both surface. The number of viable microorganisms and DNA concentration increased with biofilm development, not differing within materials and pellicles. Biofilms developed on saliva with plasma pellicle surfaces had significantly higher activity after 24h and this was accompanied with higher expression of virulence genes at all periods. Induction of C. albicans virulence occurs with the presence of plasma proteins in pellicles, throughout biofilm growth. To mitigate such effects, reduction of increased plasmatic exudate, related to chronic inflammatory response, could aid the management of candidal biofilm-related infections. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. High-Surface-Area Porous Platinum Electrodes for Enhanced Charge Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Hu Yelin; Yella Aswani; Guldin Stefan; Schreier Marcel; Stellacci Francesco; Grätzel Michael; Stefik Morgan

    2014-01-01

    Cobalt based electrolytes are highly tunable and have pushed the limits of dye sensitized solar cells enabling higher open circuit voltages and new record effi ciencies. However the performance of these electrolytes and a range of other electrolytes suffer from slow electron transfer at platinum counter electrodes. High surface area platinum would enhance catalysis but pure platinum structures are too expensive in practice. Here a material effi cient host guest architecture is developed that ...

  1. Protein structural transition at negatively charged electrode surfaces. Effects of temperature and current density

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černocká, Hana; Ostatná, Veronika; Paleček, Emil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 174, AUG 2015 (2015), s. 356-360 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-15479S; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00956S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Bovine serum albumin * sensing of surface-attached protein stability * protein structural transition at Hg Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.803, year: 2015

  2. Electric Double Layer Composed of an Antagonistic Salt in an Aqueous Mixture: Local Charge Separation and Surface Phase Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabunaka, Shunsuke; Onuki, Akira

    2017-09-15

    We examine an electric double layer containing an antagonistic salt in an aqueous mixture, where the cations are small and hydrophilic but the anions are large and hydrophobic. In this situation, a strong coupling arises between the charge density and the solvent composition. As a result, the anions are trapped in an oil-rich adsorption layer on a hydrophobic wall. We then vary the surface charge density σ on the wall. For σ>0 the anions remain accumulated, but for σ<0 the cations are attracted to the wall with increasing |σ|. Furthermore, the electric potential drop Ψ(σ) is nonmonotonic when the solvent interaction parameter χ(T) exceeds a critical value χ_{c} determined by the composition and the ion density in the bulk. This leads to a first-order phase transition between two kinds of electric double layers with different σ and common Ψ. In equilibrium such two-layer regions can coexist. The steric effect due to finite ion sizes is crucial in these phenomena.

  3. Linear instabilities of a planar liquid sheet in a static electric field for intermediate relaxation and convection of surface charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Takao

    2018-04-01

    Linear temporal instabilities of a two-dimensional planar liquid sheet in a static electric field are investigated when the relaxation and convection of surface electric charges are considered. Both viscous sheet liquid and inviscid surrounding liquid are placed between two parallel sheath walls, on which an external electric field is imposed. In particular, effects of the electric Peclet number {Pe} (charge relaxation time/convection time) and the electric Euler number Λ (electric pressure/liquid inertial) on the instabilities are emphasized for the symmetric and antisymmetric deformations of the sheet. It is found that the unstable mode is composed of the aerodynamic and electric modes, which are merged with each other for the symmetric deformation and separated for the antisymmetric deformation. For the symmetric deformation, the combined mode is more destabilized with the decrease of {Pe} and the increase of Λ. On the other hand, for the antisymmetric deformation, the electric mode is more destabilized and the aerodynamic mode is left unchanged with the decrease of {Pe}, while the electric mode is more destabilized but the aerodynamic mode is more stabilized with the increase of Λ. It is also found for both symmetric and antisymmetric deformations that the instabilities are most suppressed when {σ }R≃ 1/{ε }P ({σ }R: conductivity ratio of the surrounding to the sheet liquid, {ε }P: permittivity ratio of the sheet to the surrounding liquid), whose trend of the instabilities is more enhanced with the decrease of {Pe} except for vanishingly small {Pe}.

  4. Phase behavior of charged hydrophobic colloids on flat and spherical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Colm P.

    For a broad class of two-dimensional (2D) materials, the transition from isotropic fluid to crystalline solid is described by the theory of melting due to Kosterlitz, Thouless, Halperin, Nelson and Young (KTHNY). According to this theory, long-range order is achieved via elimination of the topological defects which proliferate in the fluid phase. However, many natural and man-made 2D systems posses spatial curvature and/or non-trivial topology, which require the presence of topological defects, even at T=0. In principle, the presence of these defects could profoundly affect the phase behavior of such a system. In this thesis, we develop and characterize an experimental system of charged colloidal particles that bind electrostatically to the interface between an oil and an aqueous phase. Depending on how we prepare the sample, this fluid interface may be flat, spherical, or have a more complicated geometry. Focusing on the cases where the interface is flat or spherical, we measure the interactions between the particles, and probe various aspects of their phase behavior. On flat interfaces, this phase behavior is well-described by KTHNY theory. In spherical geometries, however, we observe spatial structures and inhomogeneous dynamics that cannot be captured by the measures traditionally used to describe flat-space phase behavior. We show that, in the spherical system, ordering is achieved by a novel mechanism: sequestration of topological defects into freely-terminating grain boundaries ("scars"), and simultaneous spatial organization of the scars themselves on the vertices of an icosahedron. The emergence of icosahedral order coincides with the localization of mobility into isolated "lakes" of fluid or glassy particles, situated at the icosahedron vertices. These lakes are embedded in a rigid, connected "continent" of locally crystalline particles.

  5. Preparation, assessment, and comparison of α-chitin nano-fiber films with different surface charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Jiang, Jie; Liu, Liang; Zheng, Ke; Yu, Shiyuan; Fan, Yimin

    2015-05-01

    Chitin nano-fibers with positive and negative charges have been, respectively, produced from partially deacetylated and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)-mediated oxidized α-chitin. The average diameters and lengths of the TEMPO-oxidized chitin nano-fibers (TOChN) were 14 ± 4.3 and 190 ± 140 nm, respectively, and the average diameters and lengths of the partially deacetylated chitin nano-fibers (DEChN) were 6 ± 1.7 and 320 ± 105 nm, respectively. A partially deacetylated chitin nano-fiber film (DEChN-F), a TEMPO-mediated and oxidized chitin nano-fiber film (TOChN-F), and a composite film (DE-TO-ChN-F) consisting of a combination of the two were prepared by drying the dispersions at 40 °C. The DEChN-F, TOChN-F, and DE-TO-ChN-F all have similar tensile strengths of approximately 90 MPa; however, the chitosan film (Chitosan-F) had a tensile strength of approximately 30 MPa. In addition, TOChN-F and DE-TO-ChN-F have a thermal weight loss at 210 °C, and DEChN-F has a thermal weight loss at 280 °C. DEChN-F was found to have antimicrobial activity with regards to Escherichia coli. Finally, the chitin nano-fiber films could be slightly degraded by cellulase, which provided a novel biological performance of the chitin nano-material.

  6. Enhancing the specificity of polymerase chain reaction by graphene oxide through surface modification: zwitterionic polymer is superior to other polymers with different charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yong; Huang, Lihong; Zhang, Zhisen; Xiong, Yunjing; Sun, Liping; Weng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Graphene oxides (GOs) with different surface characteristics, such as size, reduction degree and charge, are prepared, and their effects on the specificity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are investigated. In this study, we demonstrate that GO with a large size and high reduction degree is superior to small and nonreduced GO in enhancing the specificity of PCR. Negatively charged polyacrylic acid (PAA), positively charged polyacrylamide (PAM), neutral polyethylene glycol (PEG) and zwitterionic polymer poly(sulfobetaine) (pSB) are used to modify GO. The PCR specificity-enhancing ability increases in the following order: GO-PAA Pfu DNA polymerase. Our data demonstrate that the size, reduction degree and surface charge of GO affect the specificity of PCR. Based on our results, zwitterionic polymer-modified GO may be used as an efficient additive for enhancing the specificity of PCR. PMID:27956830

  7. Positive Charges on the Surface of Thaumatin Are Crucial for the Multi-Point Interaction with the Sweet Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Tetsuya; Kigo, Satomi; Mitsumoto, Mayuko; Ohta, Keisuke; Suzuki, Mamoru; Mikami, Bunzo; Kitabatake, Naofumi; Tani, Fumito

    2018-01-01

    Thaumatin, an intensely sweet-tasting protein, elicits sweet taste with a threshold of only 50 nM. Previous studies from our laboratory suggested that the complex model between the T1R2-T1R3 sweet receptor and thaumatin depends critically on the complementarity of electrostatic potentials. In order to further validate this model, we focused on three lysine residues (Lys78, Lys106, and Lys137), which were expected to be part of the interaction sites. Three thaumatin mutants (K78A, K106A, and K137A) were prepared and their threshold values of sweetness were examined. The results showed that the sweetness of K106A was reduced by about three times and those of K78A and K137A were reduced by about five times when compared to wild-type thaumatin. The three-dimensional structures of these mutants were also determined by X-ray crystallographic analyses at atomic resolutions. The overall structures of mutant proteins were similar to that of wild-type but the electrostatic potentials around the mutated sites became more negative. Since the three lysine residues are located in 20-40 Å apart each other on the surface of thaumatin molecule, these results suggest the positive charges on the surface of thaumatin play a crucial role in the interaction with the sweet receptor, and are consistent with a large surface is required for interaction with the sweet receptor, as proposed by the multipoint interaction model named wedge model.

  8. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of adsorbates on Cu₂O nanospheres: charge-transfer and electromagnetic enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; You, Tingting; Yin, Penggang; Shang, Yang; Zhang, Dongfeng; Guo, Lin; Yang, Shihe

    2013-04-07

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) have been investigated on the surface of Cu2O nanospheres. The SERS signals were believed to originate from the static chemical enhancement, resonant chemical enhancement and electromagnetic enhancement. The coupling between the adsorbates and the semiconductor, evidenced by the shift in absorption spectrum of modified Cu2O and the enhancement of non-totally symmetric modes of the 4-MBA and 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MPY) molecules, were invoked to explain the experimental results. Furthermore, simulations were employed to investigate the nature of the enhancement mechanisms operative between the molecules and the semiconductor. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggested a charge transfer (CT) transition process between the molecules and the Cu2O nanospheres. Three-dimensional finite-difference time domain (3D-FDTD) simulations were conducted to map out the electromagnetic field around the Cu2O nanospheres. The experimental and simulation results have revealed the promise of the Cu2O nanospheres as a good SERS substrate and the prospect of using the SERS substrate as a valuable tool for in situ investigation and assay of the adsorption behavior on semiconductor surfaces.

  9. Ion desorption phenomena induced by various types of multiply charged projectiles and by photons on solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyec, Y. Le.

    1991-01-01

    Ion desorption experiments are described in two regions of primary ion velocities corresponding to two distinct classes of interaction mechanism. At low speeds, atomic collisions take place, at higher speeds than the electron velocity, electronic collisions occur. Experiments with fast ions above 0.2 MeV/u are described, using 32 S and 235 U ions obtained in a cyclotron and a linear accelerator. Emission of H + ions from solid surfaces is measured and analyzed, and applied to the determination of the charge state of a fast ion in a solid. Experiments using single atomic and polyatomic, keV ions, and organic and CsI cluster ions as projectiles are also presented. Finally, laser desorption is discussed. (R.P.) 81 refs., 27 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Effects of bulk charged impurities on the bulk and surface transport in three-dimensional topological insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, B.; Chen, T.; Shklovskii, B. I.

    2013-01-01

    In the three-dimensional topological insulator (TI), the physics of doped semiconductors exists literally side-by-side with the physics of ultrarelativistic Dirac fermions. This unusual pairing creates a novel playground for studying the interplay between disorder and electronic transport. In this mini-review, we focus on the disorder caused by the three-dimensionally distributed charged impurities that are ubiquitous in TIs, and we outline the effects it has on both the bulk and surface transport in TIs. We present self-consistent theories for Coulomb screening both in the bulk and at the surface, discuss the magnitude of the disorder potential in each case, and present results for the conductivity. In the bulk, where the band gap leads to thermally activated transport, we show how disorder leads to a smaller-than-expected activation energy that gives way to variable-range hopping at low temperatures. We confirm this enhanced conductivity with numerical simulations that also allow us to explore different degrees of impurity compensation. For the surface, where the TI has gapless Dirac modes, we present a theory of disorder and screening of deep impurities, and we calculate the corresponding zero-temperature conductivity. We also comment on the growth of the disorder potential in passing from the surface of the TI into the bulk. Finally, we discuss how the presence of a gap at the Dirac point, introduced by some source of time-reversal symmetry breaking, affects the disorder potential at the surface and the mid-gap density of states

  11. Understanding charge transfer of Li+ and Na+ ions scattered from metal surfaces with high work function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lin; Wu Wen-Bin; Liu Pin-Yang; Xiao Yun-Qing; Li Guo-Peng; Liu Yi-Ran; Jiang Hao-Yu; Guo Yan-Ling; Chen Xi-Meng

    2016-01-01

    For Li + and Na + ions scattered from high work function metal surfaces, efficient neutralization is observed, and it cannot be explained by the conventional free electron model. In order to explain these experimental data, we investigate the velocity-dependent neutral fraction with the modified Brako–Newns (BN) model. The calculated results are in agreement with the experimental data. We find that the parallel velocity effect plays an important role in neutralizing the Li + and Na + ions for large angle scattering. The nonmonotonic velocity behavior of neutral fraction is strongly related to the distance-dependent coupling strength between the atomic level and metal states. (paper)

  12. Changes in entrapped gas content and hydraulic conductivity with pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinas, Maricris; Roy, James W; Smith, James E

    2013-01-01

    Water table fluctuations continuously introduce entrapped air bubbles into the otherwise saturated capillary fringe and groundwater zone, which reduces the effective (quasi-saturated) hydraulic conductivity, K(quasi), thus impacting groundwater flow, aquifer recharge and solute and contaminant transport. These entrapped gases will be susceptible to compression or expansion with changes in water pressure, as would be expected with water table (and barometric pressure) fluctuations. Here we undertake laboratory experiments using sand-packed columns to quantify the effect of water table changes of up to 250 cm on the entrapped gas content and the quasi-saturated hydraulic conductivity, and discuss our ability to account for these mechanisms in ground water models. Initial entrapped air contents ranged between 0.080 and 0.158, with a corresponding K(quasi) ranging between 2 and 6 times lower compared to the K(s) value. The application of 250 cm of water pressure caused an 18% to 26% reduction in the entrapped air content, resulting in an increase in K(quasi) by 1.16 to 1.57 times compared to its initial (0 cm water pressure) value. The change in entrapped air content measured at pressure step intervals of 50 cm, was essentially linear, and could be modeled according to the ideal gas law. Meanwhile, the changes in K(quasi) with compression-expansion of the bubbles because of pressure changes could be adequately captured with several current hydraulic conductivity models. © Ground Water 2012 and © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2012. Ground Water © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  13. Preferential affinity of calcium ions to charged phosphatidic acid surface from a mixed calcium/barium solution: X-ray reflectivity and fluorescence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wei; Flores, Kevin; Pleasants, Jacob; Vaknin, David

    2009-01-20

    X-ray reflectivity and fluorescence near total reflection experiments were performed to examine the affinities of divalent ions (Ca(2+) and Ba(2+)) from aqueous solution to a charged phosphatidic acid (PA) surface. A phospholipid (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate, DMPA), spread as a monolayer at the air/water interface, was used to form and control the charge density at the interface. We find that, for solutions of the pure salts (i.e., CaCl(2) and BaCl(2)), the number of bound ions per DMPA at the interface is saturated at concentrations that exceed 10(-3) M. For 1:1 Ca(2+)/Ba(2+) mixed solutions, we find that the bound Ca(2+)/Ba(2+) ratio at the interface is 4:1. If the only property determining charge accumulation near PA were the ionic charges, the concentration of mixed Ca(2+)/Ba(2+) at the interface would equal that of the bulk. Our results show a clear specific affinity of PA for Ca compared to Ba. We provide some discussion on this issue as well as some implications for biological systems. Although our results indicate an excess of counterion charge with respect to the surface charge, that is, charge inversion, the analysis of both reflectivity and fluorescence do not reveal an excess of co-ions (namely, Cl(-) or I(-)).

  14. Entrapment of subtilisin in ceramic sol-gel coating for antifouling applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regina, Viduthalai Rasheedkhan; Søhoel, Helmer; Lokanathan, Arcot Raghupathi; Bischoff, Claus; Kingshott, Peter; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    2012-11-01

    Enzymes with antifouling properties are of great interest in developing nontoxic antifouling coatings. A bottleneck in developing enzyme-based antifouling coatings is to immobilize the enzyme in a suitable coating matrix without compromising its activity and stability. Entrapment of enzymes in ceramics using the sol-gel method is known to have several advantages over other immobilization methods. The sol-gel method can be used to make robust coatings, and the aim of this study was to explore if sol-gel technology can be used to develop robust coatings harboring active enzymes for antifouling applications. We successfully entrapped a protease, subtilisin (Savinase, Novozymes), in a ceramic coating using a sol-gel method. The sol-gel formulation, when coated on a stainless steel surface, adhered strongly and cured at room temperature in less than 8 h. The resultant coating was smoother and less hydrophobic than stainless steel. Changes in the coating's surface structure, thickness and chemistry indicate that the coating undergoes gradual erosion in aqueous medium, which results in release of subtilisin. Subtilisin activity in the coating increased initially, and then gradually decreased. After 9 months, 13% of the initial enzyme activity remained. Compared to stainless steel, the sol-gel-coated surfaces with active subtilisin were able to reduce bacterial attachment of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by 2 orders of magnitude. Together, our results demonstrate that the sol-gel method is a promising coating technology for entrapping active enzymes, presenting an interesting avenue for enzyme-based antifouling solutions.

  15. Effects of adhesions of amorphous Fe and Al hydroxides on surface charge and adsorption of K+ and Cd2+ on rice roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-Dong; Wang, Hai-Cui; Zhou, Qin; Xu, Ren-Kou

    2017-11-01

    Iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) hydroxides in variable charge soils attached to rice roots may affect surface-charge properties and subsequently the adsorption and uptake of nutrients and toxic metals by the roots. Adhesion of amorphous Fe and Al hydroxides onto rice roots and their effects on zeta potential of roots and adsorption of potassium (K + ) and cadmium (Cd 2+ ) by roots were investigated. Rice roots adsorbed more Al hydroxide than Fe hydroxide because of the greater positive charge on Al hydroxide. Adhesion of Fe and Al hydroxides decreased the negative charge on rice roots, and a greater effect of the Al hydroxide. Consequently, adhesion of Fe and Al hydroxides reduced the K + and Cd 2+ adsorption by rice roots. The results of attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and desorption of K + and Cd 2+ from rice roots indicated that physical masking by Fe and Al hydroxides and diffuse-layer overlapping between the positively-charged hydroxides and negatively-charged roots were responsible for the reduction of negative charge on roots induced by adhesion of the hydroxides. Therefore, the interaction between Fe and Al hydroxides and rice roots reduced negative charge on roots and thus inhibited their adsorption of nutrient and toxic cations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Simulation Study of Near-Surface Coupling of Nuclear Devices vs. Equivalent High-Explosive Charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Kevin B [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walton, Otis R [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Benjamin, Russ [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunlop, William H [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-29

    A computational study was performed to examine the differences in near-surface ground-waves and air-blast waves generated by high-explosive energy sources and those generated by much higher energy - density low - yield nuclear sources. The study examined the effect of explosive-source emplacement (i.e., height-of-burst, HOB, or depth-of-burial, DOB) over a range from depths of -35m to heights of 20m, for explosions with an explosive yield of 1-kt . The chemical explosive was modeled by a JWL equation-of-state model for a ~14m diameter sphere of ANFO (~1,200,000kg – 1 k t equivalent yield ), and the high-energy-density source was modeled as a one tonne (1000 kg) plasma of ‘Iron-gas’ (utilizing LLNL’s tabular equation-of-state database, LEOS) in a 2m diameter sphere, with a total internal-energy content equivalent to 1 k t . A consistent equivalent-yield coupling-factor approach was developed to compare the behavior of the two sources. The results indicate that the equivalent-yield coupling-factor for air-blasts from 1 k t ANFO explosions varies monotonically and continuously from a nearly perfec t reflected wave off of the ground surface for a HOB ≈ 20m, to a coupling factor of nearly zero at DOB ≈ -25m. The nuclear air - blast coupling curve, on the other hand, remained nearly equal to a perfectly reflected wave all the way down to HOB’s very near zero, and then quickly dropped to a value near zero for explosions with a DOB ≈ -10m. The near - surface ground - wave traveling horizontally out from the explosive source region to distances of 100’s of meters exhibited equivalent - yield coupling - factors t hat varied nearly linearly with HOB/DOB for the simulated ANFO explosive source, going from a value near zero at HOB ≈ 5m to nearly one at DOB ≈ -25m. The nuclear-source generated near-surface ground wave coupling-factor remained near zero for almost all HOB’s greater than zero, and then appeared to vary nearly - linearly with depth

  17. Electro-osmosis in kaolinite with pH-dependent surface charge modelling by homogenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidarta A. Lima

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A new three-scale model to describe the coupling between pH-dependent flows and transient ion transport, including adsorption phenomena in kaolinite clays, is proposed. The kaolinite is characterized by three separate nano/micro and macroscopic length scales. The pore (micro-scale is characterized by micro-pores saturated by an aqueous solution containing four monovalent ions and charged solid particles surrounded by thin electrical double layers. The movement of the ions is governed by the Nernst-Planck equations, and the influence of the double layers upon the flow is dictated by the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski slip boundary condition on the tangential velocity. In addition, an adsorption interface condition for the Na+ transportis postulated to capture its retention in the electrical double layer. Thetwo-scalenano/micro model including salt adsorption and slip boundary condition is homogenized to the Darcy scale and leads to the derivation of macroscopic governing equations. One of the notable features of the three-scale model is there construction of the constitutive law of effective partition coefficient that governs the sodium adsorption in the double layer. To illustrate the feasibility of the three-scale model in simulating soil decontamination by electrokinetics, the macroscopic model is discretized by the finite volume method and the desalination of a kaolinite sample by electrokinetics is simulated.Neste artigo propomos um modelo em três escalas para descrever o acoplamento entre o fluxo eletroosmótico e o transporte de íons incluindo fenômenos de adsorção em uma caulinita. A argila é caracterizada por três escalas nano/micro e macroscópica. A escala microscópica é constituída por micro-poros saturados por uma solução aquosa contendo quatro íons monovalentes e partículas sólidas carregadas eletricamente circundadas por uma dupla camada elétrica fina. O movimento dos íons é governado pelas equações de Nernst-Planck e a

  18. Post coital penile ring entrapment: A report of a non-surgical extrication method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agu Thaddeus Chika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report shows how a simple but painstaking method of milking and levering in a slippery field was used to remove a thick metallic ring entrapped at the root of the penis after sexual intercourse. A ring can be removed easily from an organ if the inter-phase is made slippery. However this must be weighed against the handling difficulties posed by a wet slippery surface. With perseverance and the use of unconventional instrument, the ring was successfully extricated as a day case and without a surgical incision.

  19. Understanding charge transfer of Li+ and Na+ ions scattered from metal surfaces with high work function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Wu, Wen-Bin; Liu, Pin-Yang; Xiao, Yun-Qing; Li, Guo-Peng; Liu, Yi-Ran; Jiang, Hao-Yu; Guo, Yan-Ling; Chen, Xi-Meng

    2016-08-01

    For Li+ and Na+ ions scattered from high work function metal surfaces, efficient neutralization is observed, and it cannot be explained by the conventional free electron model. In order to explain these experimental data, we investigate the velocity-dependent neutral fraction with the modified Brako-Newns (BN) model. The calculated results are in agreement with the experimental data. We find that the parallel velocity effect plays an important role in neutralizing the Li+ and Na+ ions for large angle scattering. The nonmonotonic velocity behavior of neutral fraction is strongly related to the distance-dependent coupling strength between the atomic level and metal states. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11405078 and 11474140), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. lzujbky-2014-169 and lzujbky-2015-244), the Project sponsored by the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, the State Education Ministry, and the National Students’ Innovation and Entrepreneurship Training Program (Grant Nos. 201410730069 and 201510730078).

  20. Adsorption of Polyanion onto Large Alpha Alumina Beads with Variably Charged Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien Duc Pham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of strong polyelectrolyte, poly(styrenesulfonate, PSS, of different molecular weights onto large α-Al2O3 beads was systematically investigated as functions of pH and NaCl concentrations. The ultraviolet (UV absorption spectra of PSS at different pH and salt concentrations confirmed that the structure of PSS is independent of pH. With the change of molecular weight from 70 kg/mol (PSS 70 to 1000 kg/mol (PSS 1000, adsorption amount of PSS increases and proton coadsorption on the surface of α-Al2O3 decreases at given pH and salt concentration. It suggests that higher molecular weight of PSS was less flat conformation than lower one. The adsorption density of PSS 70 and PSS 1000 decreases with decreasing salt concentrations, indicating that both electrostatic and nonelectrostatic interactions are involved. Experimental results of both PSS 70 and PSS 1000 adsorption isotherms onto α-Al2O3 at different pH and salt concentrations can be represented well by two-step adsorption model. The effects of molecular weight and salt concentration are explained by structure of adsorbed PSS onto α-Al2O3. The influence of added SDS on the isotherms is evaluated from the sequential adsorption. The SDS uptake onto α-Al2O3 in the presence of hemimicelles can prevent the adsorption of PSS at low concentration so that adsorption of PSS reduces with preadsorbed SDS.

  1. Characterization of ancient Indian iron and entrapped slag ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    polished section of the material (ancient Indian iron with entrapped slag inclusions) was prepared after mounting the specimen in epoxy resin and polished with SiC paper. (grades 180 through 2500) and diamond paste (3 and. 1 µm). This mounted specimen was observed in Cam- bridge Stereoscan 120 scanning electron ...

  2. Characterization of ancient Indian iron and entrapped slag ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Compositional and structural information were obtained from an ancient 1600-year old Indian iron using microprobe techniques (EDS, µXRD and µPIXE). Several different local locations in the iron matrix and in the entrapped slag inclusions were analyzed. The P content of the metallic iron matrix was very hetero-.

  3. Air Entrapment and Drop Formation in Piezo Inkjet Printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bos, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Piezo drop-on-demand (DOD) inkjet printers are used in an increasing number of applications for their reliable deposition of droplets onto a substrate. Droplets of a few picoliters are ejected from an ink jet nozzle at a frequency of up to 50 kHz. However, entrapment of an air microbubble into the

  4. Debt rescheduling: the economics of entrapment under globalization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Being, by definition, the alteration of the terms of repayment of a loan with respect to the grace period permissible, the interest rates chargeable, and the overall maturity period, its adoption and application by Nigeria has not only proved dysfunctional, but also instrumental to debt perpetuation and entrapment. The paper is a ...

  5. 16 CFR 1211.7 - Inherent entrapment protection requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from the full upmost position both with and without any external entrapment protection device... that represents the most severe operating condition. Any accessories having an effect on the intended... the requirement. The means supplied to comply with the requirement in paragraph (a) of this section...

  6. Air entrapment in piezo-driven inkjet printheads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.; de Bruin, G.J.; de Bruin, Gerrit; Reinten, Hans; van den Berg, Marc; Wijshoff, Herman; Wijshoff, H.; Versluis, Michel; Lohse, Detlef

    2006-01-01

    The stability of inkjet printers is a major requirement for high-quality-printing. However, in piezo-driven inkjet printheads, air entrapment can lead to malfunctioning of the jet formation. The piezoactuator is employed to actively monitor the channel acoustics and to identify distortions at an

  7. 16 CFR 1211.8 - Secondary entrapment protection requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secondary entrapment protection requirements. 1211.8 Section 1211.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... Engineering Documents, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112, Telephone (800) 854-7179 or Global...

  8. Defect detection in slab surface: a novel dual Charge-coupled Device imaging-based fuzzy connectedness strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liming; Ouyang, Qi; Chen, Dengfu; Udupa, Jayaram K; Wang, Huiqian; Zeng, Yuebin

    2014-11-01

    To provide an accurate surface defects inspection system and make the automation of robust image segmentation method a reality in routine production line, a general approach is presented for continuous casting slab (CC-slab) surface defects extraction and delineation. The applicability of the system is not tied to CC-slab exclusively. We combined the line array CCD (Charge-coupled Device) traditional scanning imaging (LS-imaging) and area array CCD laser three-dimensional (3D) scanning imaging (AL-imaging) strategies in designing the system. Its aim is to suppress the respective imaging system's limitations. In the system, the images acquired from the two CCD sensors are carefully aligned in space and in time by maximum mutual information-based full-fledged registration schema. Subsequently, the image information is fused from these two subsystems such as the unbroken 2D information in LS-imaging and 3D depressed information in AL-imaging. Finally, on the basis of the established dual scanning imaging system the region of interest (ROI) localization by seed specification was designed, and the delineation for ROI by iterative relative fuzzy connectedness (IRFC) algorithm was utilized to get a precise inspection result. Our method takes into account the complementary advantages in the two common machine vision (MV) systems and it performs competitively with the state-of-the-art as seen from the comparison of experimental results. For the first time, a joint imaging scanning strategy is proposed for CC-slab surface defect inspection that allows a feasible way of powerful ROI delineation strategies to be applied to the MV inspection field. Multi-ROI delineation by using IRFC in this research field may further improve the results.

  9. Positive Charges on the Surface of Thaumatin Are Crucial for the Multi-Point Interaction with the Sweet Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Tetsuya; Kigo, Satomi; Mitsumoto, Mayuko; Ohta, Keisuke; Suzuki, Mamoru; Mikami, Bunzo; Kitabatake, Naofumi; Tani, Fumito

    2018-01-01

    Thaumatin, an intensely sweet-tasting protein, elicits sweet taste with a threshold of only 50 nM. Previous studies from our laboratory suggested that the complex model between the T1R2-T1R3 sweet receptor and thaumatin depends critically on the complementarity of electrostatic potentials. In order to further validate this model, we focused on three lysine residues (Lys78, Lys106, and Lys137), which were expected to be part of the interaction sites. Three thaumatin mutants (K78A, K106A, and K137A) were prepared and their threshold values of sweetness were examined. The results showed that the sweetness of K106A was reduced by about three times and those of K78A and K137A were reduced by about five times when compared to wild-type thaumatin. The three-dimensional structures of these mutants were also determined by X-ray crystallographic analyses at atomic resolutions. The overall structures of mutant proteins were similar to that of wild-type but the electrostatic potentials around the mutated sites became more negative. Since the three lysine residues are located in 20–40 Å apart each other on the surface of thaumatin molecule, these results suggest the positive charges on the surface of thaumatin play a crucial role in the interaction with the sweet receptor, and are consistent with a large surface is required for interaction with the sweet receptor, as proposed by the multipoint interaction model named wedge model. PMID:29487853

  10. Effects of the surface concentration of fixed charges in C18-bonded stationary phases on the adsorption process and on the preparative chromatography of small ionizable compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges

    2014-11-06

    The effects of the surface concentration of positive charges attached to the surface of research BEH-C 18 hybrid particles on the overloaded band profiles and the adsorption isotherms of a neutral (caffeine) and a positively charged (nortryptilinium hydrochloride) compounds were measured and investigated. The inverse method (IM) of chromatography was used to determine the isotherm parameters. Three columns were packed with endcapped BEH-C 18 particles doped with three different charge densities on their surfaces (LOW, MEDIUM and HIGH). Two other columns packed with unbonded, non-endcapped, and endcapped BEH-C 18 particles served as standard reference materials. Minor disturbance method (MDM) experiments were conducted with acetonitrile/water mixtures in order to assess qualitatively the surface densities of the fixed positive charges. A more quantitative approach based on the solution of the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation and the decrease of the experimental Henry constant was also applied. The results show that the surface concentrations of the fixed charges in the LOW, MEDIUM and HIGH columns were 0.029, 0.050, and 0.064μmol/m 2 , e.g., close to two orders of magnitude smaller than the surface density of bonded C 18 chains (2.1μmol/m 2 ). The adsorption isotherm of the ionizable compound nortryptilinium onto the BEH-C 18 columns is consistent with a two-sites adsorption model. The density of the high energy sites correlates directly to the total amount of the fixed charges and isolated silanols amidst the C 18 -bonded chains. The amount of low energy sites reflects the specific surface area of the adsorbent. The binding constants on the high- and low-energy adsorption sites are respectively ten and two times lower on the HIGH column than on the reference endcapped column. The active sites are closer to the adsorbent surface than the weak adsorption sites. Finally, a higher production rate of ionizable compounds can be achieved in preparative

  11. Protein crystallization on polymeric film surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermani, Simona; Falini, Giuseppe; Minnucci, Massimiliano; Ripamonti, Alberto

    2001-04-01

    Polymeric films containing ionizable groups, such as sulfonated polystyrene, cross-linked gelatin films with adsorbed poly- L-lysine or entrapped poly- L-aspartate and silk fibroin with entrapped poly- L-lysine or poly- L-aspartate, have been tested as heterogeneous nucleant surfaces for proteins. Concanavalin A from jack bean and chicken egg-white lysozyme were used as models. It was found that the crystallization of concanavalin A by the vapor diffusion technique, is strongly influenced by the presence of ionizable groups on the film surface. Both the induction time and protein concentration necessary for the crystal nucleation decrease whereas the nucleation density increases on going from the reference siliconized cover slip to the uncharged polymeric surfaces and even more to the charged ones. Non-specific attractive and local interactions between the protein and the film surface might promote molecular collisions and the clustering with the due symmetry for the formation of the crystal nuclei. The results suggest that the studied polymeric film surfaces could be particularly useful for the crystallization of proteins from solutions at low starting concentration, thus using small quantities of protein, and for proteins with very long crystallization time.

  12. Adhesion, growth and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on positively and negatively charged and uncharged ferroelectric crystal surfaces\

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vandrovcová, Marta; Bačáková, Lucie; Vaněk, Přemysl; Petzelt, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 135 (2016), s. 2-7 ISSN 1429-7248 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01558S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : electroactive ceramics * surface charge * cell number * bone matrix mineralization Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics; BO - Biophysics (FZU-D)

  13. Impact of Environmental Conditions (pH, Ionic Strength, And Electrolyte Type) On The Surface Charge And Aggregation Of Silver Nanoparticles Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of capping agents and environmental conditions (pH, ionic strength, and background electrolytes) on surface charge and aggregation potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) suspensions were investigated. Capping agents are chemicals used in the synthesis of nanopartic...

  14. Comment on "An explanation for the charge on water's surface" by A. Gray-Weale and J. K. Beattie, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2009, 11, 10994

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Robert; Horinek, D.; Buchner, R.; Winter, B.; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 42 (2010), s. 14362-14363 ISSN 1463-9076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : surface charge * water * dielectric decrement Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.454, year: 2010

  15. Detachment of colloidal particles from collector surfaces with different electrostatic charge and hydrophobicity by attachment to air bubbles in a parallel plate flow chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez, CG; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    1999-01-01

    The detachment of polystyrene particles adhering to collector surfaces with different electrostatic charge and hydrophobicity by attachment to a passing air bubble has been studied in a parallel plate flow chamber. Particle detachment decreased linearly with increasing air bubble velocity and

  16. Effect of chromium speciation on its sorption mechanism onto grape stalks entrapped into alginate beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Escudero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sorption of Cr(III and Cr(VI ions onto 2% grape stalk (GS powder entrapped in a biopolymeric gel matrix of calcium alginate (CA has been investigated and a mechanism for the retention of both, Cr(VI and Cr(III is proposed. Protons were found to be consumed in Cr(VI sorption/reduction and to compete with Cr(III for the sorbent active sites. Isotherm equilibrium was modelled according to Langmuir equation: maximum capacity was found to be 6.4 and 3.6 mg g−1 for Cr(III and Cr(VI, respectively. The important Ca2+ release observed when Cr(III is sorbed indicates that ion exchange is the main mechanism involved at concentrations lower than 200 mg L−1 while other mechanisms such as microprecipitation or coordination might take place for higher initial concentrations. In the case of Cr(VI, the sorption mechanism is based on the reduction to Cr(III promoted by both protons and the functional groups on the GS surface; this reduction-formed Cr(III is retained by the alginate gel matrix and by microprecipitation onto the surface of GS particles. ESR and SEM-EDX were used to identify chromium species sorbed on the solid phase. Results from this study suggest that GS entrapped in CA gel beads is an effective sorbent for both, Cr(III and Cr(VI removal from aqueous solutions.

  17. More Efficient Media Design for Enhanced Biofouling Control in a Membrane Bioreactor: Quorum Quenching Bacteria Entrapping Hollow Cylinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang H; Lee, Seonki; Lee, Kibaek; Nahm, Chang H; Kwon, Hyeokpil; Oh, Hyun-Suk; Won, Young-June; Choo, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Chung-Hak; Park, Pyung-Kyu

    2016-08-16

    Recently, membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with quorum quenching (QQ) bacteria entrapping beads have been reported as a new paradigm in biofouling control because, unlike conventional post-biofilm control methods, bacterial QQ can inhibit biofilm formation through its combined effects of physical scouring of the membrane and inhibition of quorum sensing (QS). In this study, using a special reporter strain (Escherichia coli JB525), the interaction between QS signal molecules and quorum quenching bacteria entrapping beads (QQ-beads) was elucidated through visualization of the QS signal molecules within a QQ-bead using a fluorescence microscope. As a result, under the conditions considered in this study, the surface area of QQ-media was likely to be a dominant parameter in enhancing QQ activity over total mass of entrapped QQ bacteria because QQ bacteria located near the core of a QQ-bead were unable to display their QQ activities. On the basis of this information, a more efficient QQ-medium, a QQ hollow cylinder (QQ-HC), was designed and prepared. In batch experiments, QQ-HCs showed greater QQ activity than QQ-beads as a result of their higher surface area and enhanced physical washing effect because of their larger impact area against the membrane surface. Furthermore, it was shown that such advantages of QQ-HCs resulted in more effective mitigation of membrane fouling than from QQ-beads in lab-scale continuous MBRs.

  18. Development of a laser cleaning method for the first mirror surface of the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy diagnostics on ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, A. P.; Buzinskij, O. I.; Gubsky, K. L.; Nikitina, E. A.; Savchenkov, A. V.; Tarasov, B. A.; Tugarinov, S. N.

    2015-01-01

    A set of optical diagnostics is expected for measuring the plasma characteristics in ITER. Optical elements located inside discharge chambers are exposed to an intense radiation load, sputtering due to collisions with energetic atoms formed in the charge transfer processes, and contamination due to recondensation of materials sputtered from different parts of the construction of the chamber. Removing the films of the sputtered materials from the mirrors with the aid of pulsed laser radiation is an efficient cleaning method enabling recovery of the optical properties of the mirrors. In this work, we studied the efficiency of removal of metal oxide films by pulsed radiation of a fiber laser. Optimization of the laser cleaning conditions was carried out on samples representing metal substrates polished with optical quality with deposition of films on them imitating the chemical composition and conditions expected in ITER. It is shown that, by a proper selection of modes of radiation exposure to the surface with a deposited film, it is feasible to restore the original high reflection characteristics of optical elements

  19. Surface charge-transfer complex formation of catechol on titanium(IV) oxide and the application to bio-sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yusuke; Hori, Hiroshige; Taga, Atsushi; Tada, Hiroaki

    2015-11-15

    Adsorption properties of 2-hydroxyphenol (catechol) on TiO2 particles has been studied at 298K. The adsorption proceeds from the aqueous solution with the Langmuir type behavior. Diffuse reflectance infrared spectra of the catechol-adsorbed TiO2 suggested that catechol is adsorbed on TiO2 solution via the chelation to the surface Ti ions. The adsorption induces a strong absorption in the whole visible region, of which intensity increases with an increase in the adsorption amount. Photoelectrochemical experiments and molecular orbital calculations indicate that the absorption stems from the charge-transfer (CT) transition from the HOMO of catechol to the conduction band of TiO2. Time courses for the adsorption of catechol on mesoporous TiO2 nanocrystalline film-coated glass was traced by measuring the change in the absorbance of the CT band, and analyzed on the basis of the Langmuir model. This study would present a new simple technique for sensing of important biomolecules bearing the catechol moiety. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Cheese production using kefir culture entrapped in milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kanellaki, Maria

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of kefir culture entrapped in casein and in whey protein as starter cultures for the production of Feta-type cheese. Microbiological analysis showed that counts of enterobacteria, coliforms, and staphylococci were significantly reduced due to kefir culture. In addition, the effect of kefir culture on the formation of volatile compounds, such as esters, organic acids, alcohols, carbonyl compounds, and lactones, was also investigated using the SPME GC/MS technique. Cheese samples produced with kefir culture entrapped in milk proteins presented improved profile of aroma-related compounds. Principal component analysis of the results indicated that the volatile composition of the different cheese types was dependent on the nature of the starter culture. Finally, the sensory evaluation showed that the products produced with kefir culture had a soft, fine taste, and were of improved quality.

  1. Extrication fundamentals. Proper care of the entrapped patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Jon; Dailey, Michael

    2010-04-01

    "Medic 7, Rescue 1, Engine 45, respond to an accident with entrapment." Medic 7 arrives, establishes command and sizes up the scene. It's a two-car head-on collision with one unresponsive driver entrapped by a jammed door. The driver of the other vehicle is walking around and appears uninjured. There's heavy damage to both vehicles, but most of the vehicle doors open and their side-curtain and front-end air bags have deployed. Both patients are triaged. The unresponsive driver is triaged "red" and the walking driver is triaged "green." A second ambulance is requested for the "green" patient and the first crew's efforts are focused on the "red" patient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of iron solubility and charged surface-active compounds on lipid oxidation in fatty acid ethyl esters containing association colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Rika; Johnson, David R; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2016-05-15

    The impact of iron compounds with different solubilities on lipid oxidation was studied in the presence and absence of association colloids. Iron (III) sulfate only accelerated lipid oxidation in the presence of association colloids while iron (III) oleate accelerated oxidation in the presence and absence of association colloids. Further, iron (III) oxide retarded lipid oxidation both with and without association colloids. The impact of charged association colloids on lipid oxidation in ethyl oleate was also investigated. Association colloids consisting of the anionic surface-active compound dodecyl sulphosuccinate sodium salt (AOT), cationic surface-active compound hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and nonionic surface-active compound 4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenyl-polyethylene glycol (Triton X-100) retarded, promoted, and had no effect on lipid oxidation rates, respectively. These results indicate that the polarity of metal compounds and the charge of association colloids play a big role in lipid oxidation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Transition metal atoms pathways on rutile TiO2 (110) surface: Distribution of Ti3+ states and evidence of enhanced peripheral charge accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yongqing; Bai, Zhaoqiang; Chintalapati, Sandhya; Zeng, Qingfeng; Feng, Yuan Ping

    2013-04-01

    Charge transfer between metal nanoparticles and the supported TiO2 surface is primarily important for catalytic applications as it greatly affects the catalytic activity and the thermal stability of the deposited nanoparticles on the surface. Herein, systematic spin-polarized density functional and HSE06 calculations are performed to evaluate the adsorption, diffusion, and charge state of several transition metal monomers on both stoichiometric and reduced rutile TiO2 (110) surface. Although the presence of oxygen vacancy (Ov) increases the binding of Au, Pt and Pd on the surface, it weakens the interaction thus enhancing the diffusion for Fe, Co, Ni, Ag, and Cu adatoms on the surface. For pristine reduced surface, only a small portion (around 5%) of the excess electrons occupy the topmost surface, which are mainly delocalized at the second nearest and third nearest fivefold coordinated Ti (Ti5c) atoms. Excess electrons populating at the Ti5c atoms on the basal plane can be transferred to strongly electronegative adsorbates like Au and Pt thus enabling a moderate adsorption at this site, whereas no stable adsorption is found for other less electronegative transition metal adatoms (Ag, Cu, Fe, Co, Ni, and Pd) on the reduced surface and for all the adatoms on stoichiometric surface. This result clarifies the origin of the experimental observation of the adsorption of O2 and CO molecules at Ti5c sites in connection with charge transfer. In addition, the spatial redistribution of the excess electrons around the Ov upon the adsorption of the monomers is thoroughly examined. Our finding of an accumulation of excess electrons at the Ti5c sites around the monomers explains the critical role of the perimeter interface of the deposited nanoparticles in promoting the adsorption and activation of reactants observed in experiments.

  4. Charge Storage, Conductivity and Charge Profiles of Insulators As Related to Spacecraft Charging

    OpenAIRE

    Dennison, JR; Frederickson, A. R.; Swaminathan, Prasanna

    2003-01-01

    Dissipation of charges built up near the surface of insulators due to space environment interaction is central to understanding spacecraft charging. Conductivity of insulating materials is key to determine how accumulated charge will distribute across the spacecraft and how rapidly charge imbalance will dissipate. To understand these processes requires knowledge of how charge is deposited within the insulator, the mechanisms for charge trapping and charge transport within the insulator, and h...

  5. Uterine Diverticulum With Fetal Leg Entrapment: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Nirmala; Yudin, Mark H; Berger, Howard

    2017-10-01

    Uterine anomalies causing fetal complications are very rarely encountered in obstetric practice and thus pose a diagnostic dilemma. A multigravid patient attended the clinic for an ultrasound examination in the third trimester following a recent hospital admission for abdominal pain. Ultrasound imaging revealed a large uterine diverticulum in the right cornu of the uterus with evidence of fetal leg entrapment. Because of concerns of increased soft tissue edema in the entrapped leg, the patient was delivered at 35 weeks' gestation by elective CS. The CS was complicated by uterine rupture at the diverticular portion. The neonatal course was complicated by compartment syndrome of the leg, and the infant underwent surgery on post-delivery day one with good outcome. Uterine diverticula are rare anomalies, and once they are diagnosed, the possibility of entrapment of fetal parts or placenta in pregnancy should be considered. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Formulation of resveratrol entrapped niosomes for topical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando, Daniel; Matos, María; Gutiérrez, Gemma; Pazos, Carmen

    2015-04-01

    A new approach to the formulation of resveratrol (RSV) entrapped niosomes for topical use is proposed in this work. Niosomes were formulated with Gelot 64 (G64) as surfactant, and two skin-compatible unsaturated fatty acids (oleic and linoleic acids), commonly used in pharmaceutical formulations, as penetration enhancers. Niosomes were prepared by two different methods: a thin film hydration method with minor modifications followed by a sonication stage (TFH-S), and an ethanol injection modified method (EIM). Niosomes prepared with the EIM method were in the range of 299-402 nm, while the TFH-S method produced larger niosomes in the range of 293-496 nm. Moreover, niosomes with higher RSV entrapment efficiency (EE) and better stability were generated by the EIM method. Ex vivo transdermal experiments, carried out in Franz diffusion cells on newborn pig skin, indicated that niosomes prepared by the EIM method were more effective for RSV penetration in epidermis and dermis (EDD), with values up to 21% for both penetration enhancers tested. The EIM method, which yielded the best RSV-entrapped niosomes, seems to be the most suitable for scaling up. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reappraising entrapment neuropathies--mechanisms, diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Annina B; Nee, Robert J; Coppieters, Michel W

    2013-12-01

    The diagnosis of entrapment neuropathies can be difficult because symptoms and signs often do not follow textbook descriptions and vary significantly between patients with the same diagnosis. Signs and symptoms which spread outside of the innervation territory of the affected nerve or nerve root are common. This Masterclass provides insight into relevant mechanisms that may account for this extraterritorial spread in patients with entrapment neuropathies, with an emphasis on neuroinflammation at the level of the dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord, as well as changes in subcortical and cortical regions. Furthermore, we describe how clinical tests and technical investigations may identify these mechanisms if interpreted in the context of gain or loss of function. The management of neuropathies also remains challenging. Common treatment strategies such as joint mobilisation, neurodynamic exercises, education, and medications are discussed in terms of their potential to influence certain mechanisms at the site of nerve injury or in the central nervous system. The mechanism-oriented approach for this Masterclass seems warranted given the limitations in the current evidence for the diagnosis and management of entrapment neuropathies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Air Gap Entrapped in Firefighter Protective Clothing on Thermal Resistance and Evaporative Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Hualing

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Heat and water vapor transfer behavior of thermal protective clothing is greatly influenced by the air gap entrapped in multilayer fabric system. In this study, a sweating hot plate method was used to investigate the effect of air gap position and size on thermal resistance and evaporative resistance of firefighter clothing under a range of ambient temperature and humidity. Results indicated that the presence of air gap in multilayer fabric system decreased heat and water vapor transfer abilities under normal wear. Moreover, the air gap position slightly influenced the thermal and evaporative performances of the firefighter clothing. In this study, the multilayer fabric system obtained the highest thermal resistance, when the air space was located at position B. Furthermore, the effect of ambient temperature on heat and water vapor transfer properties of the multilayer fabric system was also investigated in the presence of a specific air gap. It was indicated that ambient temperature did not influence the evaporative resistance of thermal protective clothing. A thermographic image was used to test the surface temperature of multilayer fabric system when an air gap was incorporated. These results suggested that a certain air gap entrapped in thermal protective clothing system could affect wear comfort.

  9. Solution-mediated growth of NBA-ZSM-5 crystals retarded by gel entrapment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Mamani, Wilson; Akhtar, Farid; Hedlund, Jonas; Mouzon, Johanne

    2018-04-01

    The synthesis of flat tablet-shaped ZSM-5 crystals from a gel using metakaolin as aluminosilicate source and n-butyl amine as structure directing agent was investigated. The evolution inside the solid phase was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and mass spectrometry. A kinetic study indicated that the nucleation of the majority crystals occurred concurrently with the formation of the gel upon heating the starting liquid suspension. Microstructural evidences undeniably showed that the gel precipitated on ZSM-5 crystals and mineral impurities originating from kaolin. As a result, crystal growth was retarded by gel entrapment, as indicated by the configuration and morphology of the embedded crystals. The results presented herein are harmonized with a solution-mediated nucleation and growth mechanism. Our observations differ from the autocatalytic model that suggests that the nuclei rest inside the gel until released when the gel is consumed. Our results show instead that it is crystals that formed in an early stage before entrapment inside the gel that rest inside the gel until exposed at the gel surface. These results illustrate the limitation of the classical method used in the field to determine nucleation profiles when the crystals become trapped inside the gel.

  10. 12-Crown-4-based amphipathic lipid and corresponding metal cation complexes for gene therapy applications: FT-IR characterization and surface charge determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, P.; Fino, V.; Pisani, M.; Tosi, G.; Stipa, P.; Ferraris, P.; Francescangeli, O.

    2009-02-01

    The new lipid 1,2- O-dioleyl-3- O-{2-[(12-crown-4)-methoxy]-ethyl}- sn-glycerol, 12C4L, has been synthesized. This molecule can coordinate different cations that should make the corresponding liposome a good candidate as vector of genetic material for possible applications in gene therapy. An important feature of the molecule is the possibility to modulate the net surface charge of their complexes with metal cations, which is important to provide efficient DNA transfections. The molecule and its complexes with some metal cations (Mg 2+, Ca 2+, Mn 2+) have been characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and band attributions confirmed by Density Functional Theory calculations. The net surface charge has been determined by Z potential determinations.

  11. Li insertion into Li4Ti5O12 spinel prepared by low temperature solid state route: Charge capability vs surface area

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zukalová, Markéta; Fabián, M.; Klusáčková, Monika; Klementová, Mariana; Pitňa Lásková, Barbora; Danková, Z.; Senna, M.; Kavan, Ladislav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 265 (2018), s. 480-487 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-06511S; GA MŠk LM2015087; GA MŠk 8F15003 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : Li4Ti5O12 * Charge capacity * Solid state * Li insertion * Surface area Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Electrochemistry (dry cells, batteries, fuel cells, corrosion metals, electrolysis) Impact factor: 4.798, year: 2016

  12. The evaluations of the influence of surface conductivity to the energy of particles in discharge channel and interaction force in contact charging process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alisoy, H.Z. [Department of Electric and Electronics Engineering, Inonu University, 44280 Malatya (Turkey)]. E-mail: halis@inonu.edu.tr; Alisoy, G.T. [Department of Mathematics Education, Inonu University, 44280 Malatya (Turkey); Sahin, A. [Department of Physics, Inonu University, 44280 Malatya (Turkey); Yeroglu, C. [Department of Electric and Electronics Engineering, Inonu University, 44280 Malatya (Turkey)

    2006-12-18

    In this Letter, we present some analytical expressions by using the equations of electric field, inside and outside of a cylindrical void, taking the surface conductivity into consideration. We apply the obtained expressions to the high voltage insulation and ion electron technology, such as: (i) energies of charged particles occurring in discharge channel in accordance with Townsend approach; (ii) interaction force between the dielectric particle and the electrode for DC and AC cases.

  13. Combined Effects of Surface Charge and Pore Size on Co-enhanced Permeability and Ion Selectivity through RGO-OCNT Nanofiltration Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiguang; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Fan, Xinfei; Wei, Gaoliang; Yu, Hongtao

    2018-04-04

    Nanofiltration (NF) has received much attention for wastewater treatment and desalination. However, NF membranes generally suffer from the trade-off between permeability and selectivity. In this work, the co-enhancement of permeability and ion selectivity was achieved through tuning the surface charge and pore size of oxidized carbon nanotube (OCNT) intercalated reduced graphene oxide (RGO) membranes. With the increase of OCNT content from 0 to 83%, the surface charge and the pore size are increased. The permeability increased to 10.6 L m-2 h-1 bar-1 and rejection rate reached 78.1% for Na2SO4 filtration at a transmembrane pressure of 2 bar, which were 11.8 and 1.3 times higher than those of pristine RGO membrane. The composite membrane also showed 11.1 times higher permeability (11.1 L m-2 h-1 bar-1) and 2.9 times higher rejection rate (35.3%) for NaCl filtration. The analyses based on Donnan steric pore model suggest that the increased permeability is attributed to the combined effects of enlarged pore size and increased surface charge, while the enhanced ion selectivity is mainly dependent on the electrostatic interaction between the membrane and target ions. This finding provides a new insight for the development of high-performance NF membranes in water treatment and desalination.

  14. Effects of Surface Charge and Functional Groups on the Adsorption and Binding Forms of Cu and Cd on Roots of indica and japonica Rice Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Dong Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This work was designed to understand the mechanisms of adsorption of copper (Cu and cadmium (Cd on roots of indica and japonica varieties of rice. Six varieties each of indica and japonica rice were grown in hydroponics and the chemical properties of the root surface were analyzed, including surface charges and functional groups (-COO- groups as measured by the streaming potential and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR. Binding forms of heavy metals adsorbed on rice roots were identified using sequential extraction methods. In rice roots exposed to Cu and Cd solutions, Cu existed mainly in both exchangeable and complexed forms, whereas Cd existed mainly in the exchangeable form. The amounts of exchangeable Cu and Cd and total adsorbed metal cations on the roots of indica varieties were significantly greater than those on the roots of japonica varieties, and the higher negative charges and the larger number of functional groups on the roots of indica varieties were responsible for their higher adsorption capacity and greater binding strength for Cu and Cd. Surface charge and functional groups on roots play an important role in the adsorption of Cu and Cd on the rice roots.

  15. Calculation of the Induced Charge Distribution on the Surface of a Metallic Nanoparticle Due to an Oscillating Dipole Using Discrete Dipole Approximation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Fallahi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the interaction between an oscillating dipole moment and a Silver nanoparticle has been studied. Our calculations are based on Mie scattering theory and discrete dipole approximation(DDA method.At first, the resonance frequency due to excitingthe localized surface plasmons has been obtained using Mie scattering theory and then by exciting a dipole moment in theclose proximity of the nanoparticle, the induced charge distribution on the nanoparticle surface has been calculated. In our calculations, we have exploited the experimental data obtained by Johnson and Christy for dielectric function.

  16. Intra-epithelially entrapped blood vessels in ameloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siar, Chong Huat; Ishak, Ismadi; Ng, Kok Han

    2015-05-01

    The ameloblastoma is a benign but locally aggressive odontogenic neoplasm with a high recurrence rate. While significant progress has been made in our understanding regarding the role of tumoral vasculature relative to the diverse behavioral characteristics of this tumor, no attention has been paid to a distinct subset of blood vessels entrapped within its epithelial compartment. As vascular niches are known to influence tumoral growth, clarification of these vessels is important. The objectives of this study were to investigate the morphologic characteristics of intra-epithelially entrapped blood vessels (IEBVs) in ameloblastoma and to speculate on their relevance. Here, we evaluated the frequency, microvessel density (MVD), morphology, and distribution pattern of IEBVs in 77 ameloblastoma of different subtypes based on their immunoreactivity for endothelial markers (CD34, CD31, CD105), vascular tight junction protein (claudin-5), pericyte [α-smooth muscle actin (α-sma)], and vascular basement membrane (collagen IV). IEBVs were heterogeneously detected in ameloblastoma. Their mean MVD (CD34 = 15.46 ± 7.25; CD31 = 15.8 ± 5.04; CD105 = 0.82 ± 0.51) showed no significant correlation with different subtypes, and between primary and recurrent tumors (P > 0.05). These microvessels may occur as single/clusters of capillary sprouts, or formed compressed branching/non-branching slits entrapped within the epithelial compartment, and in direct apposition with polyhedral/granular neoplastic epithelial cells. They expressed proteins for endothelial tight junctions (claudin-5-positive) and pericytes (α-sma-positive) but had deficient basement membrane (collagen IV weak to absent). Aberrant expression for CD34, CD31, and CD105 in tumor epithelium was variably observed. Although rare in occurrence, identification of IEBVs in ameloblastoma could potentially represent a new paradigm for vascular assessment of this neoplasm. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John

  17. Subsartorial Entrapment of the Saphenous Nerve of a Competitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, D; Windsor, R E

    1989-01-01

    In brief: A 40-year-old bodybuilder had a six- week history of progressively worsening pain of the medial part of her right knee that did not respond to rest and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Somatosensory evoked potential readings suggested that both branches of the right saphenous nerve were entrapped. Management consisting of two intramuscular injections of bupivacaine, administrations of two different NSAIDs, and application of knee wraps around the subsartorial region resolved the patient's symptoms within five weeks. She then resumed an intensive lower-extremity exercise regimen without discomfort, in preparation for a bodybuilding competition.

  18. Towards successful bioaugmentation with entrapped cells as a soil remediation technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Dechesne, Arnaud; Binning, Philip John

    2010-01-01

    Soil remediation technologies are proposed that rely on inoculation with degrading microorganisms entrapped in protective carriers. A mathematical model developed to model entrapped cell bioaugmentation describes the 3-D diffusion-driven mass transfer of benzoate, and its mineralization by Pseudo...... but is restricted in dry conditions, as confirmed by performing cell counts. This highlights the potential of entrapped cells when they act as seeds for soil colonization....

  19. Electrostatic contribution of surface charge residues to the stability of a thermophilic protein: benchmarking experimental and predicted pKa values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ho Chan

    Full Text Available Optimization of the surface charges is a promising strategy for increasing thermostability of proteins. Electrostatic contribution of ionizable groups to the protein stability can be estimated from the differences between the pKa values in the folded and unfolded states of a protein. Using this pKa-shift approach, we experimentally measured the electrostatic contribution of all aspartate and glutamate residues to the stability of a thermophilic ribosomal protein L30e from Thermococcus celer. The pKa values in the unfolded state were found to be similar to model compound pKas. The pKa values in both the folded and unfolded states obtained at 298 and 333 K were similar, suggesting that electrostatic contribution of ionizable groups to the protein stability were insensitive to temperature changes. The experimental pKa values for the L30e protein in the folded state were used as a benchmark to test the robustness of pKa prediction by various computational methods such as H++, MCCE, MEAD, pKD, PropKa, and UHBD. Although the predicted pKa values were affected by crystal contacts that may alter the side-chain conformation of surface charged residues, most computational methods performed well, with correlation coefficients between experimental and calculated pKa values ranging from 0.49 to 0.91 (p<0.01. The changes in protein stability derived from the experimental pKa-shift approach correlate well (r = 0.81 with those obtained from stability measurements of charge-to-alanine substituted variants of the L30e protein. Our results demonstrate that the knowledge of the pKa values in the folded state provides sufficient rationale for the redesign of protein surface charges leading to improved protein stability.

  20. Interaction of slow, highly charged ions with the surface of ionic crystals; Wechselwirkung langsamer hochgeladener Ionen mit der Oberflaeche von Ionenkristallen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, Rene

    2009-08-15

    In this thesis the creation of permanent nanostructures induced by the impact of very slow (v{<=}5 x 10{sup 5} m/s) highly charged (q{<=}40) ions on the ionic crystal surfaces of CaF{sub 2} and KBr is investigated. The systematic analysis of the samples surfaces by means of atomic force microscopy supplies information on the influence of the potential as well as the kinetic projectile energy on the process of structure creation. The individual impact of highly charged ions on the KBr(001) surface can initiate the creation of mono-atomic deep pit-like structures -nanopits- with a lateral size of a few 10 nm. The volume of these pits and the corresponding number of sputtered secondary particles show a linear dependence on the projectiles potential energy. For the onset of pit formation a kinetic energy dependent threshold in the potential energy E{sup grenz}{sub pot}(E{sub kin}) could be identified. Based on the defect-mediated desorption by electrons and by including effects of defect agglomeration a consistent model for the process of pit formation was drawn. In this work the recently discovered creation of hillock-like structures by impact of highly charged ions on CaF{sub 2}(111) surfaces could be verified for lowest kinetic energies (E{sub kin}{<=}150 eV x q). For the first time the potential energy of impinging projectiles could be identified to be exclusively responsible for the creation of nanostructures. Furthermore, a shift of potential energy threshold for hillock formation was observed for very small projectile velocities. Within the framework of cooperation with the Vienna University of Technology simulations based on the inelastic thermal spike model were performed, which allowed to interlink the individual hillock formation with a local melting of the ionic lattice. The essential influence of electron emission during the interaction of the highly charged ions with the surface on the process of nanostructuring was taken into consideration by

  1. Entrapment neuropathies in the upper and lower limbs: anatomy and MRI features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qian; Jacobson, Jon A; Jamadar, David A; Gandikota, Girish; Brandon, Catherine; Morag, Yoav; Fessell, David P; Kim, Sung-Moon

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral nerve entrapment occurs at specific anatomic locations. Familiarity with the anatomy and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of nerve entrapment syndromes is important for accurate diagnosis and early treatment of entrapment neuropathies. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the normal anatomy of peripheral nerves in the upper and lower limbs and to review the MRI features of common disorders affecting the peripheral nerves, both compressive/entrapment and noncompressive, involving the suprascapular nerve, the axillary nerve, the radial nerve, the ulnar nerve, and the median verve in the upper limb and the sciatic nerve, the common peroneal nerve, the tibial nerve, and the interdigital nerves in the lower limb.

  2. Charge gradient microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofs, Andreas; Hong, Seungbum

    2018-02-06

    A method for rapid imaging of a material specimen includes positioning a tip to contact the material specimen, and applying a force to a surface of the material specimen via the tip. In addition, the method includes moving the tip across the surface of the material specimen while removing electrical charge therefrom, generating a signal produced by contact between the tip and the surface, and detecting, based on the data, the removed electrical charge induced through the tip during movement of the tip across the surface. The method further includes measuring the detected electrical charge.

  3. Doubly versus Singly Positively Charged Oxygen Ions Back-Scattering from a Silicon Surface under Dynamic O2+ Bombardment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franzreb, K.; Williams, P.; Lörinčík, Jan; Šroubek, Zdeněk

    203-204, 1/4 (2003), s. 39-42 ISSN 0169-4332 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918; CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : low-energy ion scattering * doubly charged ions * molecular orbital Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.284, year: 2003

  4. Potential sputtering of protons from hydrogen- and H sub 2 O-terminated Si(1 0 0) surfaces with slow highly charged ions

    CERN Document Server

    Kuroki, K; Yamazaki, Y

    2003-01-01

    A potential sputtering mechanism of hydrogen has been studied for impacts of slow highly charged Xe sup q sup + ions (<5 keV, q=4-12) on well-defined H-terminated and water-saturated Si(1 0 0) surfaces. It was found that the sputtering yields of protons were proportional to q supgamma (gamma approx 5) for both the Si(1 0 0)2x1-H and Si(1 0 0)1x1-H surfaces, although the absolute yield for the Si(1 0 0)1x1-H surface was 10 times larger than that for the Si(1 0 0)2x1-H surface, i.e. the sputtering efficiency per one H-Si bond for the Si(1 0 0)1x1-H surface is five times larger that for the Si(1 0 0)2x1-H surface. The proton sputtering efficiency from a H-O-Si bond was extracted from measurements of the water-saturated surface, which was approx 8 times larger than the H-Si bond of the Si(1 0 0)2x1-H surface. An effective distance of the proton from its substrate was proposed to be the key parameter to govern the yield, which also influences the energy distributions of sputtered protons. These findings are con...

  5. MR imaging and MR angiography in popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atilla, S.; Akpek, S.; Yuecel, C.; Tali, E.T.; Isik, S.; Ilgit, E.T.

    1998-01-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment (PAE) syndrome is an uncommon congenital anomaly seen in young adults causing ischemic symptoms in the lower extremities. It is the result of various types of anomalous relationships between the popliteal artery and the neighboring muscular structures. The purpose of this study was to define the role of MR imaging combined with MR angiography in the diagnosis of PAE cases. Four cases with segmental occlusion and medial displacement of popliteal artery in digital subtraction angiography (DSA) examinations were diagnosed as PAE syndrome by MR imaging and MR angiography. The DSA and MRA images are compared. All of the cases showed various degrees of abnormal intercondylar insertion of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. The MR images showed detailed anatomy of the region revealing the cause of the arterial entrapment. Subclassification of the cases were done and fat tissue filling the normal localization of the muscle was evaluated. The DSA and MRA images demonstrated the length and localization of the occluded segment and collateral vascular developments equally. It is concluded that angiographic evaluation alone in PAE syndrome might result in overlooking the underlying cause of the arterial occlusion, which in turn leads to unsuccessful therapy procedures such as balloon angioplasty. Magnetic resonance imaging combined with MR angiography demonstrates both the vascular anatomy and the variations in the muscular structures in the popliteal fossa successfully, and this combination seems to be the most effective way of evaluating young adults with ischemic symptoms suggesting PAE syndrome. (orig.)

  6. Pressure induced by Na entrapped in molten UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerici, G.; Schins, H.

    1978-01-01

    In a first approach the constraint supplied by the solidifying UO 2 -shell is evaluated. The mass of the injected sodium is assumed to have a spherical form. Its dimensions are negligible in respect to the extension of the UO 2 . Using the Von Karman Pohlhausen method for solving the Fourier equation, the temperature distributions in UO 2 and sodium are determined. The physical properties are taken to be independent of temperature. Once these temperature profiles are obtained, the pressure induced into the heated sodium by the hypothesised mechanical constraint of the rigid shell and the tangential stress produced in this shell, can be calculated. In a second approach then, a liquid-liquid contact between UO 2 and Na is considered. The interface temperature, however, is calculated by means of an adjusted initial temperature of UO 2 . Following an idea of Cho and Wright, to the actual temperature of UO 2 is added a value obtained by dividing its latent heat of fusion by its heat capacity. The thermal expansion of the sodium drop is initially delayed by the inertial constraint of the surrounding heavy UO 2 . The expansion of the liquid drop of sodium continues up to the moment where the average temperature of the entrapped sodium becomes equal to the homogeneous nucleation temperature. At this instant vaporisation starts and the process goes on described by the formation of a two-phase mixture for the sodium. In this way the interaction of an entrapped sodium drop is calculated as a superheat limited explosion

  7. Microbial Cretaceous park: biodiversity of microbial fossils entrapped in amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-González, Ana; Wierzchos, Jacek; Gutiérrez, Juan C; Alonso, Jesús; Ascaso, Carmen

    2009-05-01

    Microorganisms are the most ancient cells on this planet and they include key phyla for understanding cell evolution and Earth history, but, unfortunately, their microbial records are scarce. Here, we present a critical review of fossilized prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms entrapped in Cretaceous ambers (but not exclusively from this geological period) obtained from deposits worldwide. Microbiota in ambers are rather diverse and include bacteria, fungi, and protists. We comment on the most important microbial records from the last 25 years, although it is not an exhaustive bibliographic compilation. The most frequently reported eukaryotic microfossils are shells of amoebae and protists with a cell wall or a complex cortex. Likewise, diverse dormant stages (palmeloid forms, resting cysts, spores, etc.) are abundant in ambers. Besides, viral and protist pathogens have been identified inside insects entrapped in amber. The situation regarding filamentous bacteria and fungi is quite confusing because in some cases, the same record was identified consecutively as a member of these phylogenetically distant groups. To avoid these identification errors in the future, we propose to apply a more resolute microscopic and analytical method in amber studies. Also, we discuss the most recent findings about ancient DNA repair and bacterial survival in remote substrates, which support the real possibility of ancient DNA amplification and bacterial resuscitation from Cretaceous resins.

  8. Microbial Cretaceous park: biodiversity of microbial fossils entrapped in amber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-González, Ana; Wierzchos, Jacek; Gutiérrez, Juan C.; Alonso, Jesús; Ascaso, Carmen

    2009-05-01

    Microorganisms are the most ancient cells on this planet and they include key phyla for understanding cell evolution and Earth history, but, unfortunately, their microbial records are scarce. Here, we present a critical review of fossilized prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms entrapped in Cretaceous ambers (but not exclusively from this geological period) obtained from deposits worldwide. Microbiota in ambers are rather diverse and include bacteria, fungi, and protists. We comment on the most important microbial records from the last 25 years, although it is not an exhaustive bibliographic compilation. The most frequently reported eukaryotic microfossils are shells of amoebae and protists with a cell wall or a complex cortex. Likewise, diverse dormant stages (palmeloid forms, resting cysts, spores, etc.) are abundant in ambers. Besides, viral and protist pathogens have been identified inside insects entrapped in amber. The situation regarding filamentous bacteria and fungi is quite confusing because in some cases, the same record was identified consecutively as a member of these phylogenetically distant groups. To avoid these identification errors in the future, we propose to apply a more resolute microscopic and analytical method in amber studies. Also, we discuss the most recent findings about ancient DNA repair and bacterial survival in remote substrates, which support the real possibility of ancient DNA amplification and bacterial resuscitation from Cretaceous resins.

  9. Improved therapeutic benefits of doxorubicin by entrapment in anionic liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forssen, E A; Tökés, Z A

    1983-02-01

    When used as drug carriers, anionic liposomes can reduce the chronic cardiac toxicity and increase the antileukemic activity of doxorubicin (DXN; Adriamycin). Continuing investigations, reported here, have now established the therapeutic benefits of this mode of drug delivery. Liposome encapsulation caused a prolonged elevation in DXN plasma levels and a 2-fold reduction in the exposure of cardiac tissue to the drug. This reduction, however, was not proportional to the substantial decrease in chronic heart toxicity observed in the earlier study. In vivo studies have demonstrated that the entrapped drug retains its full activity against Sarcoma 180 and significantly increases its action against Lewis lung carcinoma, as measured by reduced tumor volume. The increased antineoplastic activity was again not proportional to the increased association of drug with tumor tissue. The effect of liposome entrapment on the immune-suppressive activity of DXN was also examined to determine if factors other than the direct delivery of drug to tumor tissue might improve the therapeutic response. The suppression of the humoral immune response and peripheral leukocyte counts by free DXN was nearly abolished when the drug was administered in the liposome form. These experiments suggest that the improved therapeutic effect of encapsulation may be the outcome of three different mechanisms: (a) altered disposition into subcellular compartments, which reduces cardiotoxicity; (b) increased plasma drug exposure to tumor cells; and (c) significant reduction in the immune suppressive activity of DXN.

  10. Thermosensitive liposomes entrapping iron oxide nanoparticles for controllable drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, L-A; Wang, Y-C; Wang, Y-J; Yang, C-S; Tsai, P-J; Lo, L-W

    2009-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles can serve as a heating source upon alternative magnetic field (AMF) exposure. Iron oxide nanoparticles can be mixed with thermosensitive nanovehicles for hyperthermia-induced drug release, yet such a design and mechanism may not be suitable for controllable drug release applications in which the tissues are susceptible to environmental temperature change such as brain tissue. In the present study, iron oxide nanoparticles were entrapped inside of thermosensitive liposomes for AMF-induced drug release while the environmental temperature was maintained at a constant level. Carboxyfluorescein was co-entrapped with the iron oxide nanoparticles in the liposomes as a model compound for monitoring drug release and environmental temperature was maintained with a water circulator jacket. These experiments have been successfully performed in solution, in phantom and in anesthetized animals. Furthermore, the thermosensitive liposomes were administered into rat forearm skeletal muscle, and the release of carboxylfluorescein triggered by the external alternative magnetic field was monitored by an implanted microdialysis perfusion probe with an on-line laser-induced fluorescence detector. In the future such a device could be applied to simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging and non-invasive drug release in temperature-sensitive applications.

  11. Effects of charge and surface ligand properties of nanoparticles on oxidative stress and gene expression within the gut of Daphnia magna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, Gustavo A.; Lohse, Samuel E.; Torelli, Marco; Murphy, Catherine; Hamers, Robert J.; Orr, Galya; Klaper, Rebecca D.

    2015-05-01

    Concern has been raised regarding the current and future release of engineered nanomaterials into aquatic environments from industry and other sources. However, not all nanomaterials may cause an environ-mental impact and identifying which nanomaterials may be of greatest concern has been difficult. It is thought that the surface groups of a functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) may play a significant role in determining their interactions with aquatic organisms, but the way in which surface properties of NPs impact their toxicity in whole organisms has been minimally explored. A major point of interaction of NPs with aquatic organisms is in the gastrointestinal tract as they ingest particulates from the water column or from the sediment. The main goal of this study was to use model gold NP (AuNPs) to evaluate the potential effects of the different surfaces groups on NPs on the gut of an aquatic model organism, Daphnia magna. In this study, we exposed daphnids to a range of AuNPs concentrations and assessed the impact of AuNP exposure in the daphnid gut by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and expression of genes associated with oxidative stress and general cellular stress: glutathione S-transferase(gst), catalase (cat), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and metallothionein1 (mt1). We found ROS formation and gene expression were impacted by both charge and the specific surface ligand used. We detected some degree of ROS production in all NP exposures, but positively charged AuNPs induced a greater ROS response. Similarly, we observed that, compared to controls, both positively charged AuNPs and only one negatively AuNP impacted expression of genes associated with cellular stress. Finally, ligand-AuNP exposures showed a different toxicity and gene expression profile than the ligand alone, indicating a NP specific effect.

  12. Matrix assisted ionization: new aromatic and nonaromatic matrix compounds producing multiply charged lipid, peptide, and protein ions in the positive and negative mode observed directly from surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Inutan, Ellen D; Wang, Beixi; Lietz, Christopher B; Green, Daniel R; Manly, Cory D; Richards, Alicia L; Marshall, Darrell D; Lingenfelter, Steven; Ren, Yue; Trimpin, Sarah

    2012-10-01

    Matrix assisted inlet ionization (MAII) is a method in which a matrix:analyte mixture produces mass spectra nearly identical to electrospray ionization without the application of a voltage or the use of a laser as is required in laserspray ionization (LSI), a subset of MAII. In MAII, the sample is introduced by, for example, tapping particles of dried matrix:analyte into the inlet of the mass spectrometer and, therefore, permits the study of conditions pertinent to the formation of multiply charged ions without the need of absorption at a laser wavelength. Crucial for the production of highly charged ions are desolvation conditions to remove matrix molecules from charged matrix:analyte clusters. Important factors affecting desolvation include heat, vacuum, collisions with gases and surfaces, and even radio frequency fields. Other parameters affecting multiply charged ion production is sample preparation, including pH and solvent composition. Here, findings from over 100 compounds found to produce multiply charged analyte ions using MAII with the inlet tube set at 450 °C are presented. Of the compounds tested, many have -OH or -NH(2) functionality, but several have neither (e.g., anthracene), nor aromaticity or conjugation. Binary matrices are shown to be applicable for LSI and solvent-free sample preparation can be applied to solubility restricted compounds, and matrix compounds too volatile to allow drying from common solvents. Our findings suggest that the physical properties of the matrix such as its morphology after evaporation of the solvent, its propensity to evaporate/sublime, and its acidity are more important than its structure and functional groups.

  13. Matrix Assisted Ionization: New Aromatic and Nonaromatic Matrix Compounds Producing Multiply Charged Lipid, Peptide, and Protein Ions in the Positive and Negative Mode Observed Directly from Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Inutan, Ellen D.; Wang, Beixi; Lietz, Christopher B.; Green, Daniel R.; Manly, Cory D.; Richards, Alicia L.; Marshall, Darrell D.; Lingenfelter, Steven; Ren, Yue; Trimpin, Sarah

    2012-10-01

    Matrix assisted inlet ionization (MAII) is a method in which a matrix:analyte mixture produces mass spectra nearly identical to electrospray ionization without the application of a voltage or the use of a laser as is required in laserspray ionization (LSI), a subset of MAII. In MAII, the sample is introduced by, for example, tapping particles of dried matrix:analyte into the inlet of the mass spectrometer and, therefore, permits the study of conditions pertinent to the formation of multiply charged ions without the need of absorption at a laser wavelength. Crucial for the production of highly charged ions are desolvation conditions to remove matrix molecules from charged matrix:analyte clusters. Important factors affecting desolvation include heat, vacuum, collisions with gases and surfaces, and even radio frequency fields. Other parameters affecting multiply charged ion production is sample preparation, including pH and solvent composition. Here, findings from over 100 compounds found to produce multiply charged analyte ions using MAII with the inlet tube set at 450 °C are presented. Of the compounds tested, many have -OH or -NH2 functionality, but several have neither (e.g., anthracene), nor aromaticity or conjugation. Binary matrices are shown to be applicable for LSI and solvent-free sample preparation can be applied to solubility restricted compounds, and matrix compounds too volatile to allow drying from common solvents. Our findings suggest that the physical properties of the matrix such as its morphology after evaporation of the solvent, its propensity to evaporate/sublime, and its acidity are more important than its structure and functional groups.

  14. Charge transfer driven surface segregation of gold atoms in 13-atom Au-Ag nanoalloys and its relevance to their structural, optical and electronic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Fuyi; Johnston, Roy L.

    2008-01-01

    The structural, optical and electronic properties of 13-atom Ag-Au nanoalloys are determined by a combination of global optimization using semi-empirical potentials and density functional theory calculations. A family of Au surface-segregated structures are found for core-shell Ag n Au 13-n (n = 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12) and hollow Ag n Au 13-n (n = 4, 6, 10, 11) clusters, whose stability is enhanced by directional charge transfer. The atomic ordering in core-shell structures is related to the electric dipole moment and odd-numbered surface Au-atom clusters have high moments. Their ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties provide a potential approach for tailoring their surface plasmonic modes

  15. Predicting and rationalizing the effect of surface charge distribution and orientation on nano-wire based FET bio-sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vico, L.; Iversen, L.; Sørensen, Martin Hedegård

    2011-01-01

    changes (e.g. a positive signal change due to a net positive protein binding to a p-type conductor) can occur for certain combinations of charge distributions and Debye lengths. The new method is applied to interpret published experimental data on Streptavidin (Ishikawa et al., ACS Nano, 2009, 3, 3969......-3976) and Nucleocapsid protein (Ishikawa et al., ACS Nano, 2009, 3, 1219-1224)....

  16. Interventions for treating fingertip entrapment injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capstick, Robert; Giele, Henk

    2014-04-30

    Fingertip entrapment injuries, which involve lacerations to the pulp and nail and often a fracture of the underlying bone, commonly occur in children, usually as the result of a crushing injury. Treatment is either conservative (wound cleaning and fingertip dressing)or surgical (repair of lacerations, reduction and stabilisation of fractures); however, no consensus currently exists regarding the most appropriate treatment modality. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of surgical and conservative interventions for fingertip entrapment injuries in children. We aimed to compare: different methods of conservative treatment; surgical versus conservative treatment; different methods of surgical treatment; and different methods of management after initial conservative or surgical treatment. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform and reference lists of articles up to 30 April 2013. We did not apply any restrictions based on language or publication status. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing interventions for treating fingertip entrapment injuries in children.The primary outcomes were fingertip function, nail growth, nail deformity and adverse events such as infection. Two authors independently screened studies for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias in each included trial and extracted data.We resolved disagreements through discussion. We included two RCTs examining a total of 191 young children, 180 of whom were included in the analyses. The two trials tested different comparisons. Both trials were at high risk of bias, particularly from lack of blinding of participants and personnel, and of outcome assessment. The trials did not record fingertip function, nail growth or nail deformity. The quality of the evidence for the reported outcomes was

  17. Low-Temperature Synthesis of Anatase TiO2 Nanoparticles with Tunable Surface Charges for Enhancing Photocatalytic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Qin, Zhenping; Guo, Hongxia; Yang, Hanxiao; Zhang, Guojun; Ji, Shulan; Zeng, Tingying

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the positively or negatively charged anatase TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized via a low temperature precipitation-peptization process (LTPPP) in the presence of poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) and poly(sodium4- styrenesulfonate) (PSS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) confirmed the anatase crystalline phase. The charges of the prepared TiO2, PEI-TiO2 and PSS-TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated by zeta potentials. The results showed that the zeta potentials of PEI-TiO2 nanoparticles can be tuned from +39.47 mV to +95.46 mV, and that of PSS-TiO2 nanoparticles can be adjusted from −56.63 mV to −119.32 mV. In comparison with TiO2, PSS-TiO2 exhibited dramatic adsorption and degradation of dye molecules, while the PEI modified TiO2 nanoparticles showed lower photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic performances of these charged nanoparticles were elucidated by the results of UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and the photoluminescence (PL) spectra, which indicated that the PSS-TiO2 nanoparticles showed a lower recombination rate of electron-hole pairs than TiO2 and PEI-TiO2. PMID:25506839

  18. Zein nanoparticles as delivery systems for covalently linked and physically entrapped folic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuacharoen, Thanida [Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Faculty of Science and Technology (Thailand); Sabliov, Cristina M., E-mail: CSabliov@agcenter.lsu.edu [Louisiana State University and LSU AgCenter, Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Zein nanoparticles covalently linked to folic acid were hypothesized to sustain the release of the folic acid in addition to targeting cancer cells overexpressing folate-binding receptors, whereas zein nanoparticles with physically entrapped folic acid would only be able to control the release of the bioactive without targeting of cancer cells. The two types of particles, folic acid covalently linked zein nanoparticles (ZN-FA nps) and zein nanoparticles with entrapped folic acid (ZN(FA) nps), were synthesized and the covalent link between folic acid and zein was assessed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR). Their size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, morphology, and loading capacity were evaluated by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and spectrophotometric technique. The release studies of the folic acid preformed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37 °C for 7 days concluded that the release of the loaded folic acid was sustained over 7 days for both systems. The cytotoxicity was investigated using a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, and the results showed that zein nanoparticles were biocompatible to HeLa (an overexpressing folate receptor cells) and A549 (a deficient folate receptor cells) cells, which have different levels of folate receptors on surface and both folic acid nanoparticle systems were able to diminish the adverse toxic effect of folic acid to cells. The increased uptake of ZN-FA nps relative to ZN(FA) nps supported the use of ZN-FA nps as targeting nanoagents to cells overexpressing folate receptors.

  19. CHANGES IN THE ELECTRICAL SURFACE CHARGE AND TRANSPLANTATION PROPERTIES OF TA3 ASCITES TUMOR CELLS DURING SHORT-TERM MAINTENANCE IN AN ISOTONIC SALT SOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenforde, T. S.; Richards, W. R.; Kelly, L. S.

    1980-12-01

    TA3 ascites tumor cells maintained in vitro as a dilute suspension in 0.9% NaCl solution (physiological saline) were found to undergo time-dependent degenerative processes leading to alterations in both membrane characteristics and tumor transplantation properties. A 30% decrease in the negative cellular surface charge density occurred within 2 hr. when TA3 cells were incubated in a 0.9% NaCl solution at 23 °C. A similar reduction in negative surface charge density occurred within 0.5 hr. when the medium was maintained at 37 °C. This time-dependent reduction in surface charge was prevented when cellular metabolism was blocked either by maintaining the medium at 4 °C. or by adding 1 mM cyanide ion to a 23 °C medium. TA3 cells incubated as a dilute suspension in 0.9% NaCl solution at 23 °C also exhibited a large 9 time-dependent reduction in proliferative capacity in isogeneic LAF1/J hosts, as indicated by an increase in the tumor dose for 50% mortality (TD50). Lowering the temperature of the medium to 4 °C was observed to slow the onset of the degenerative processes that lead to a decreased transplantability of TA3 cells. The modification in growth properties of TA3 cells maintained in vitro was found to be attributable in part to an alteration in tumor histocompatibility. This effect was demonstrated by comparing the tumor growth kinetics and TD50 values in normal hosts versus hosts that had been immunosuppressed by whole-body irradiation. Following the in vitro maintenance of TA3 cells, nigrosin dye exclusion tests were performed as a means of assessing cell viability. Evidence obtained in this series of experiments indicated that vital staining is an inadequate criterion for judging either the extent of cell membrane damage or the loss of cellular proliferative capacity.

  20. Surface degradation of Li{sub 1–x}Ni{sub 0.80}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2} cathodes: Correlating charge transfer impedance with surface phase transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallis, S. [Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Pereira, N.; Faenza, N.; Amatucci, G. G. [Energy Storage Research Group, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, North Brunswick, New Jersey 08902 (United States); Mukherjee, P.; Cosandey, F. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, North Brunswick, New Jersey 08902 (United States); Quackenbush, N. F. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Schlueter, C.; Lee, T.-L. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Yang, W. L. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Piper, L. F. J., E-mail: lpiper@binghamton.edu [Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States)

    2016-06-27

    The pronounced capacity fade in Ni-rich layered oxide lithium ion battery cathodes observed when cycling above 4.1 V (versus Li/Li{sup +}) is associated with a rise in impedance, which is thought to be due to either bulk structural fatigue or surface reactions with the electrolyte (or combination of both). Here, we examine the surface reactions at electrochemically stressed Li{sub 1–x}Ni{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2} binder-free powder electrodes with a combination of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, spatially resolving electron microscopy, and spatially averaging X-ray spectroscopy techniques. We circumvent issues associated with cycling by holding our electrodes at high states of charge (4.1 V, 4.5 V, and 4.75 V) for extended periods and correlate charge-transfer impedance rises observed at high voltages with surface modifications retained in the discharged state (2.7 V). The surface modifications involve significant cation migration (and disorder) along with Ni and Co reduction, and can occur even in the absence of significant Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and LiF. These data provide evidence that surface oxygen loss at the highest levels of Li{sup +} extraction is driving the rise in impedance.

  1. Surface degradation of Li1-xNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathodes: Correlating charge transfer impedance with surface phase transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallis, S.; Pereira, N.; Mukherjee, P.; Quackenbush, N. F.; Faenza, N.; Schlueter, C.; Lee, T.-L.; Yang, W. L.; Cosandey, F.; Amatucci, G. G.; Piper, L. F. J.

    2016-06-01

    The pronounced capacity fade in Ni-rich layered oxide lithium ion battery cathodes observed when cycling above 4.1 V (versus Li/Li+) is associated with a rise in impedance, which is thought to be due to either bulk structural fatigue or surface reactions with the electrolyte (or combination of both). Here, we examine the surface reactions at electrochemically stressed Li1-xNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 binder-free powder electrodes with a combination of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, spatially resolving electron microscopy, and spatially averaging X-ray spectroscopy techniques. We circumvent issues associated with cycling by holding our electrodes at high states of charge (4.1 V, 4.5 V, and 4.75 V) for extended periods and correlate charge-transfer impedance rises observed at high voltages with surface modifications retained in the discharged state (2.7 V). The surface modifications involve significant cation migration (and disorder) along with Ni and Co reduction, and can occur even in the absence of significant Li2CO3 and LiF. These data provide evidence that surface oxygen loss at the highest levels of Li+ extraction is driving the rise in impedance.

  2. Entrapment of the Superficial Peroneal Nerve Following a Distal Fibula Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Robert M; Salazar, Dane H

    2017-02-01

    Although peripheral nerve injury may result from fractures involving the long bones, bony entrapment of peripheral nerves is infrequently encountered. This report demonstrates a rare case of superficial peroneal nerve entrapment between 2 fracture ends of the distal fibula following a closed ankle fracture resulting from a supination-external rotation mechanism. Therapeutic, Level IV: Case report.

  3. Entrapment of platelets in the penis during and after erection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornman, M.S.; Du Plessis, D.J.; Dormehl, I.C.; Du Plessis, M.; Jacobs, D.J.; Maree, M.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the development of hypercoagulability and the deposition of fibrin in the penis during erection a study of the possible role of platelets in this process was undertaken. Platelets response was studied in 9 adult chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) using autologous in vitro indium-111-labelled platelets and sequential scintigraphy of the penis during erection. The blood pooling pattern was obtained using in vivo technetium-99m-labelled red cells in a similar investigation. A statistically significant retention of platelets occured during and after erection, wich could not be attributed to blood pooling (P < 0,05). Entrapment of platelets could lead to enhanced activation, and might play a significant role in hypercoagulability and fibrin deposition during erection. Therefore platelets could be an important factor in the pathogenesis of ageing impotence

  4. Entrapment of laurel lipase in chitosan hydrogel beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagar, Hulya; Balkan, Ugur

    2017-08-01

    Laurel seed lipase was entrapped within chitosan beads with ionotropic gelatin method using tripolyphosphate (TPP) as multivalent covalent counter ion. Immobilization yield was 78%. First, optimum immobilization conditions were determined, and morphology of chitosan beads was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Optimum pH and temperature were evaluated as 6.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The immobilized beads saved about 55% of its activities at 60° while saved about 32% at 70 °C for 30 min. V max /K m values were determined as 31.75 and 2.87 using olive oil as substrate for immobilized beads and free enzyme, respectively. Immobilized beads showed the activities during 30 days at +4 °C.

  5. Entrapment of victims of spousal abuse in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Stephen Baffour

    2017-01-01

    , and partly constituted by familial relationships and identities. The study suggests that intervention initiatives in Ghana should focus on the phenomenon of conjugal violence beyond immediate victims to include families and the larger communities in which victims are embedded.......Drawing on discursive psychology and positioning theory, this study explores the influence of cultural and familial value orientations on battered women’s identity, agency and decision to leave or stay in abusive conjugal relationship in Ghana. Two semi-structured focus group discussions and four...... of familial and cultural value orientations. The primacy of family identity and victims’ apparent implicit moral obligation to preserve the social image of their extended family influence their entrapment. Participants’ discursive accounts further suggest that stay/leave decisions of battered women in Ghana...

  6. THE EXPERIENCE OF ‘ENTRAPPED GRIEF’ FOLLOWING TRAUMATIC ABORTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Finlay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some abortions can result in prolonged, complex grief reactions where the effects endure in problematic ways. Research findings suggest that such women suffer a turbulent spiral of often contradictory emotions and, if insufficiently acknowledged at the time of the abortion by self or other, this emotional turmoil can become pushed down and disenfranchised. This paper discusses the nature of this entrapped grief by reviewing the literature and reporting on some phenomenological case study research. A final section discusses integrative psychotherapy approaches to working in this area. Better understanding of the experience of traumatic abortion may enable therapists to be more present to this phenomenon, in particular the voicelessness some clients may experience, rendering them unable to process their feelings about the event and associated loss.

  7. Charge transfer and formation of reduced Ce3+ upon adsorption of metal atoms at the ceria (110) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The modification of cerium dioxide with nanoscale metal clusters is intensely researched for catalysis applications, with gold, silver, and copper having been particularly well studied. The interaction of the metal cluster with ceria is driven principally by a localised interaction between a small number of metal atoms (as small as one) and the surface and understanding the fundamentals of the interaction of metal atoms with ceria surfaces is therefore of great interest. Much attention has been focused on the interaction of metals with the (111) surface of ceria, since this is the most stable surface and can be grown as films, which are probed experimentally. However, nanostructures exposing other surfaces such as (110) show high activity for reactions including CO oxidation and require further study; these nanostructures could be modified by deposition of metal atoms or small clusters, but there is no information to date on the atomic level details of metal-ceria interactions involving the (110) surface. This paper presents the results of density functional theory (DFT) corrected for on-site Coulomb interactions (DFT+U) calculations of the adsorption of a number of different metal atoms at an extended ceria (110) surface; the metals are Au, Ag, Cu, Al, Ga, In, La, Ce, V, Cr, and Fe. Upon adsorption all metals are oxidised, transferring electron(s) to the surface, resulting in localised surface distortions. The precise details depend on the identity of the metal atom. Au, Ag, Cu each transfer one electron to the surface, reducing one Ce ion to Ce 3+ , while of the trivalent metals, Al and La are fully oxidised, but Ga and In are only partially oxidised. Ce and the transition metals are also partially oxidised, with the number of reduced Ce ions possible in this surface no more than three per adsorbed metal atom. The predicted oxidation states of the adsorbed metal atoms should be testable in experiments on ceria nanostructures modified with metal atoms.

  8. Charge transfer and formation of reduced Ce3+ upon adsorption of metal atoms at the ceria (110) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Michael

    2012-04-01

    The modification of cerium dioxide with nanoscale metal clusters is intensely researched for catalysis applications, with gold, silver, and copper having been particularly well studied. The interaction of the metal cluster with ceria is driven principally by a localised interaction between a small number of metal atoms (as small as one) and the surface and understanding the fundamentals of the interaction of metal atoms with ceria surfaces is therefore of great interest. Much attention has been focused on the interaction of metals with the (111) surface of ceria, since this is the most stable surface and can be grown as films, which are probed experimentally. However, nanostructures exposing other surfaces such as (110) show high activity for reactions including CO oxidation and require further study; these nanostructures could be modified by deposition of metal atoms or small clusters, but there is no information to date on the atomic level details of metal-ceria interactions involving the (110) surface. This paper presents the results of density functional theory (DFT) corrected for on-site Coulomb interactions (DFT+U) calculations of the adsorption of a number of different metal atoms at an extended ceria (110) surface; the metals are Au, Ag, Cu, Al, Ga, In, La, Ce, V, Cr, and Fe. Upon adsorption all metals are oxidised, transferring electron(s) to the surface, resulting in localised surface distortions. The precise details depend on the identity of the metal atom. Au, Ag, Cu each transfer one electron to the surface, reducing one Ce ion to Ce3+, while of the trivalent metals, Al and La are fully oxidised, but Ga and In are only partially oxidised. Ce and the transition metals are also partially oxidised, with the number of reduced Ce ions possible in this surface no more than three per adsorbed metal atom. The predicted oxidation states of the adsorbed metal atoms should be testable in experiments on ceria nanostructures modified with metal atoms.

  9. Theatre, Entrapment, and Globalization in Welcome to IntelStar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sir Anril Pineda Tiatco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay reflects on globalization as a phenomenon that connects and influences the world’s socio-cultural and political spheres, similar to how some academics explore the nature of the global. In particular, the essay interrogates how globalization is mediated in the theatre. The motivation in the inquiry is based on a presumption that theatre artists are also actively participating in defining what globalization means. At the same time, it comes from an assumption that theatre artists are also actively performing what it means to be global. Many artists engage with the global by either collaborating with artists of different nationalities or using globalization as a central theme in their theatre works. In reflecting on globalization, the essay analyzes Chris Martinez’s monodrama Welcome to IntelStar, staged at the Studio Theatre of the Cultural Center of the Philippines in 2006. This play proposes that globalization is a trap. In this alignment of globalization and “the trap,” the entrapment brings forth a dichotomy: the global and the local. This dichotomy is strongly imagined in the staging of IntelStar, where the local is presented as the prey or the victim in the entrapment. But in the f inal analysis, the performance mediates the sociality between the local and the global and ultimately performs an entanglement of the local and the global as a reference to an attraction and repulsion to globalization. However, in such treatment of globalization, the Studio Theatre also becomes a model of the trap where artists become the hunters and the audience members, the victims.

  10. A comparative study of the nanoscale and macroscale tribological attributes of alumina and stainless steel surfaces immersed in aqueous suspensions of positively or negatively charged nanodiamonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin K. Curtis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports a comparative study of the nanoscale and macroscale tribological attributes of alumina and stainless steel surfaces immersed in aqueous suspensions of positively (hydroxylated or negatively (carboxylated charged nanodiamonds (ND. Immersion in −ND suspensions resulted in a decrease in the macroscopic friction coefficients to values in the range 0.05–0.1 for both stainless steel and alumina, while +ND suspensions yielded an increase in friction for stainless steel contacts but little to no increase for alumina contacts. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM, atomic force microscopy (AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM measurements were employed to assess nanoparticle uptake, surface polishing, and resistance to solid–liquid interfacial shear motion. The QCM studies revealed abrupt changes to the surfaces of both alumina and stainless steel upon injection of –ND into the surrounding water environment that are consistent with strong attachment of NDs and/or chemical changes to the surfaces. AFM images of the surfaces indicated slight increases in the surface roughness upon an exposure to both +ND and −ND suspensions. A suggested mechanism for these observations is that carboxylated −NDs from aqueous suspensions are forming robust lubricious deposits on stainless and alumina surfaces that enable gliding of the surfaces through the −ND suspensions with relatively low resistance to shear. In contrast, +ND suspensions are failing to improve tribological performance for either of the surfaces and may have abraded existing protective boundary layers in the case of stainless steel contacts. This study therefore reveals atomic scale details associated with systems that exhibit starkly different macroscale tribological properties, enabling future efforts to predict and design complex lubricant interfaces.

  11. A comparative study of the nanoscale and macroscale tribological attributes of alumina and stainless steel surfaces immersed in aqueous suspensions of positively or negatively charged nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Colin K; Marek, Antonin; Smirnov, Alex I; Krim, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    This article reports a comparative study of the nanoscale and macroscale tribological attributes of alumina and stainless steel surfaces immersed in aqueous suspensions of positively (hydroxylated) or negatively (carboxylated) charged nanodiamonds (ND). Immersion in -ND suspensions resulted in a decrease in the macroscopic friction coefficients to values in the range 0.05-0.1 for both stainless steel and alumina, while +ND suspensions yielded an increase in friction for stainless steel contacts but little to no increase for alumina contacts. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements were employed to assess nanoparticle uptake, surface polishing, and resistance to solid-liquid interfacial shear motion. The QCM studies revealed abrupt changes to the surfaces of both alumina and stainless steel upon injection of -ND into the surrounding water environment that are consistent with strong attachment of NDs and/or chemical changes to the surfaces. AFM images of the surfaces indicated slight increases in the surface roughness upon an exposure to both +ND and -ND suspensions. A suggested mechanism for these observations is that carboxylated -NDs from aqueous suspensions are forming robust lubricious deposits on stainless and alumina surfaces that enable gliding of the surfaces through the -ND suspensions with relatively low resistance to shear. In contrast, +ND suspensions are failing to improve tribological performance for either of the surfaces and may have abraded existing protective boundary layers in the case of stainless steel contacts. This study therefore reveals atomic scale details associated with systems that exhibit starkly different macroscale tribological properties, enabling future efforts to predict and design complex lubricant interfaces.

  12. Influence of a charged graphene surface on the orientation and conformation of covalently attached oligonucleotides: a molecular dynamics study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kabeláč, Martin; Kroutil, O.; Předota, M.; Lankaš, Filip; Šíp, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 12 (2012), s. 4217-4229 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC204/09/J010; GA MŠk LC512; GA AV ČR IAA400550808 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/0094; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : DNA * graphene * charge density * molecular dynamics * Amber Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.829, year: 2012

  13. Surface characterisation and functionalisation of indium tin oxide anodes for improvement of charge injection in organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenas, J.; Besbes, S.; Abderrahmen, A.; Jaffrezic, N.; Ben Ouada, H.

    2008-01-01

    Wettability studies have been performed to probe the surface properties of ITO substrates, aimed to be used as hole injecting electrode in OLEDs. The elimination of organic contaminants upon the cleaning treatment (ultrasonic bath in organic solvents) leads to an increase of the free energy of the ITO surface becoming hydrophilic. The surface energy components calculated from the Van Oss model show the appearance of a basic component upon the cleaning treatment. A thermal treatment at 100 deg. C for 3 h leads to a decrease of the surface free energy due to surface dehydration. These properties are attributed to the hydroxides formed at the ITO surface inducing improved adhesion at the ITO/polymer interface. The ITO surfaces have been functionalised with a chloroethylphosphonic acid mono-layer to increase their stability. The appearance of an acid-base component leads to a dipolar character of the ITO surface. The formation of a compact layer of a spin coated poly(phenylenevinylene) derivative induces the shielding of the ITO basic character. The weakening of the near infrared absorption associated to ITO free carriers confirms the formation of a dipole layer at the interface with the molecular layer in contact with ITO. Improved injection properties, shown by the current/voltage characteristics, result from the interface modifications

  14. Correlations of Optical Absorption, Charge Trapping, and Surface Roughness of TiO2 Photoanode Layer Loaded with Neat Ag-NPs for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongwook; Jang, Jae Gyu; Lim, Joohyun; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Sung Hyun; Hong, Jong-In

    2016-08-24

    We systematically investigated the effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) on the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Neat, spherical Ag-NPs at loading levels of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 wt % were embedded into the titanium dioxide (TiO2) photoanode layer. The plasmonic effect of the Ag-NPs strongly enhanced the incident light absorption over a wide range of the visible wavelength region in addition to the inherent absorbance of the perovskite sensitizer. The low conduction energy level of the Ag-NPs compared to that of TiO2 provides trap sites for free charge carriers. Thus, the correlation between the enhancement of the optical absorption and the number of charge traps provided by the Ag-NPs is critical to determine the device performance, especially current density (Jsc) and PCE. This is confirmed by the quantitative comparison of the incident light absorption and the time-resolved photoluminescence decay according to the loading levels of the Ag-NPs in the TiO2 layer. The absorption enhancement from 380 to 750 nm in the UV-visible spectrum is proportional to the increase in the loading levels of the Ag-NPs. However, the Jsc increases with the device with 0.5 wt % Ag-NPs and gradually decreases with increases in the loading level above 0.5 wt % because of the different contributions to the absorbance and the charge trapping by different Ag-NP loading levels. In addition, the suppression of the surface roughness with dense packing by the Ag-NPs helps to improve the Jsc and the following PCE. Consequently, the PCE of the PSC with 0.5 wt % Ag-NPs is increased to 11.96%. These results are attributed to the balance between increased absorbance by the localized surface plasmon resonance and the decreased charge trapping as well as the decreased surface roughness of the TiO2 layer with the Ag-NPs.

  15. Ellipsometric and Electrochemical Characterization of Charge Transport in Electroactive Polymers and of the Surface Phase Produced by Electrochemical Activation of Glassy Carbon Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepley, Larry Joe

    1990-01-01

    In situ ellipsometry was used to study the electrodeposition of polymer films formed by oxidation of bipyrazine, polyvinylferrocene (PVF), and aniline; the deposition of a viologen-containing siloxane polymer (PQ^{2+/+}) formed by electroreduction of N,N^' -bis (-3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl) -4,4^ '-bipyridinium dichloride (I) solutions and by spin-casting solutions of I; and the oxidation-dependent swelling of spin-cast films of two structurally similar, ferrocene-containing polyamides. Electrodeposited films displayed good optical characteristics (i.e., high reflectivity, uniform coverage, and homogeneity) for thicknesses up to 400 nm in some cases. Nonideal illipsometric behavior was observed when film morphology varied with film growth. The complex refractive index, film thickness, and the viologen and ferrocene concentrations in the films were measured as a function of oxidation state, both during depositions and after transferring coated-electrodes into blank electrolyte solutions. The voltammetry of the redox polymers was studied and charge-transport modeled by finite -difference simulations of charge diffusion and diffusion coupled to dimerization/monomerization reactions. Equations were derived for linear-sweep voltammetry of a reversible couple in equilibrium with its dimer in a thin-layer cell. Ellipsometric data during electrolysis of the redox films by potential sweeps and steps were compared to theoretical curves for diffusional transport to determine the mechanism of charge transport and to optically measure its rate. The influence of redox-induced thickness changes and solvent sorption on charge transport and voltammetric behavior is described. The electrochemical activation of glassy carbon electrodes for electrolysis of aromatic molecules, such as catechol and hydroquinone, was studied by combined ellipsometric and voltammetric measurements. Ellipsometry was used to detect the anodic growth of nearly transparent layer which activated the surface. X

  16. In vitro cytotoxicity of SiO2 or ZnO nanoparticles with different sizes and surface charges on U373MG human glioblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim JE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jung-Eun Kim,1,* Hyejin Kim,1,* Seong Soo A An,2 Eun Ho Maeng,3 Meyoung-Kon Kim,4 Yoon-Jae Song1 1Department of Life Science, 2Department of Bionano Technology, Gachon University, Seongnam-Si, South Korea; 3Korea Testing and Research Institute, Seoul, South Korea; 4Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, South Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Silicon dioxide (SiO2 and zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles are widely used in various applications, raising issues regarding the possible adverse effects of these metal oxide nanoparticles on human cells. In this study, we determined the cytotoxic effects of differently charged SiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles, with mean sizes of either 100 or 20 nm, on the U373MG human glioblastoma cell line. The overall cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles against U373MG cells was significantly higher than that of SiO2 nanoparticles. Neither the size nor the surface charge of the ZnO nanoparticles affected their cytotoxicity against U373MG cells. The 20 nm SiO2 nanoparticles were more toxic than the 100 nm nanoparticles against U373MG cells, but the surface charge had little or no effect on their cytotoxicity. Both SiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles activated caspase-3 and induced DNA fragmentation in U373MG cells, suggesting the induction of apoptosis. Thus, SiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles appear to exert cytotoxic effects against U373MG cells, possibly via apoptosis. Keyword: apoptosis

  17. Charge-controlled fixation of DNA molecules on silicon surface and electro-physical properties of Au–DNA–Si interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazlov, N.V., E-mail: nikolay.bazlov@gmail.com [V.A. Fok Institute of Physics, Saint-Petersburg State University, Ulyanovskaya 1, 198504 Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Vyvenko, O.F.; Sokolov, P.A.; Kas’yanenko, N.A.; Petrov, Yu V. [V.A. Fok Institute of Physics, Saint-Petersburg State University, Ulyanovskaya 1, 198504 Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2013-02-15

    Light-induced fixation of DNA molecules on silicon surface was done and electro-physical properties of Schottky diodes with DNA on interfaces were investigated. Thymus DNA molecules were deposited on silicon from a water solution. Fixed molecular structures were observed with helium ionic microscopy and atomic force microscopy and then they were covered with thermal sputtered gold film. Obtained structures Au–DNA–(n-Si) were examined with current–voltage and frequency dependent admittance measurements. In darkness immobilizing of molecules leaded to form DNA ropes with thickness up to 10 nm and distances between them about 1 mkm. Fixation under illumination resulted in forming of single DNA mesh with thickness about 1 nm and cell size about 100 nm. Presence of molecular mesh on interface leaded to increasing of charge density controlled by metal Fermi level and improved diode quality. Presence of molecular ropes resulted in increasing of charge density controlled by semiconductor. From the estimation of interface state density values the origin of the states at the interface between DNA and silicon substrate is suggested to be DNA phosphate groups contacting or being close to the substrate surface.

  18. Using self-consistent Gibbs free energy surfaces to calculate size distributions of neutral and charged clusters for the sulfuric acid-water binary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Froyd, K. D.; Toon, O. B.

    2012-12-01

    We construct tables of reaction enthalpies and entropies for the association reactions involving sulfuric acid vapor, water vapor, and the bisulfate ion. These tables are created from experimental measurements and quantum chemical calculations for molecular clusters and a classical thermodynamic model for larger clusters. These initial tables are not thermodynamically consistent. For example, the Gibbs free energy of associating a cluster consisting of one acid molecule and two water molecules depends on the order in which the cluster was assembled: add two waters and then the acid or add an acid and a water and then the second water. We adjust the values within the tables using the method of Lagrange multipliers to minimize the adjustments and produce self-consistent Gibbs free energy surfaces for the neutral clusters and the charged clusters. With the self-consistent Gibbs free energy surfaces, we calculate size distributions of neutral and charged clusters for a variety of atmospheric conditions. Depending on the conditions, nucleation can be dominated by growth along the neutral channel or growth along the ion channel followed by ion-ion recombination.

  19. The effect of surface charge on the thermal stability and ice recrystallization inhibition activity of antifreeze protein III (AFP III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deller, R C; Carter, B M; Zampetakis, I; Scarpa, F; Perriman, A W

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of chemical cationization on the structure and function of antifreeze protein III (AFP III) over an extreme temperature range (-40°C to +90°C) using far-UV synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) and ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) assays. Chemical cationization was able to produce a modified AFP III with a net cationic charge at physiological pH that had enhanced resistance to denaturation at elevated temperatures, with no immediate negative impact on protein structure at subzero temperatures. Furthermore, cationized AFP III retained an IRI activity similar to that of native AFP III. Consequently, chemical cationization may provide a pathway to the development of more robust antifreeze proteins as supplementary cryoprotectants in the cryopreservation of clinically relevant cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Cryo-SEM method for the observation of entrapped bubbles and degree of water filling in large wet powder compacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouzon, J; Bhuiyan, I U; Forsmo, S P E; Hedlund, J

    2011-05-01

    There are generally two problems associated with cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) observations of large wet powder compacts. First, because water cannot be vitrified in such samples, formation of artefacts is unavoidable. Second, large frozen samples are difficult to fracture but also to machine into regular pieces which fit in standard holders, especially if made of hard materials like ceramics. In this article, we first describe a simple method for planning hard cryo-samples and a low-cost technique for cryo-fracture and transfer of large specimens. Subsequently, after applying the entire procedure to green pellets of iron ore produced by balling, we compare the influence of plunge- and unidirectional freezing on large entrapped bubbles throughout the samples as well as the degree of water filling at the outer surface of the pellets. By carefully investigating the presence of artefacts in large areas of the samples and by controlling the orientation of the sample during freezing and preparation, we demonstrate that unidirectional freezing enables the observation of large entrapped bubbles with minimum formation of artefacts, whereas plunge freezing is preferable for the characterization of the degree of water filling at the outer surface of wet powder compacts. The minimum formation of artefacts was due to the high packing density of the iron ore particles in the matrix. © 2010 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2010 Royal Microscopical Society.

  1. The infertility trap: how defeat and entrapment affect depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhardo, A; Moura-Ramos, M; Cunha, M; Pinto-Gouveia, J

    2016-02-01

    Does the perception of failure without a solution or way forward of infertile couples have a mediator role between the importance couples attribute to parenthood and depressive symptoms? The perception of failure without a solution or way forward, assessed by feelings of entrapment and defeat, mediates the effect of the importance of parenthood on depressive symptoms of infertile men and women. Research has documented that the heightened importance of parenthood affects infertile couples' adjustment to infertility and medical treatments. However, it remains unclear which psychological mechanisms and perceptions may underlie the association between having parenthood as a nuclear aspect of life and presenting depressive symptoms related to difficulties in accomplishing that important life goal. Although these links have been scantly addressed in infertility, previous studies have pointed to the role that perceptions of defeat and entrapment have in several psychopathological conditions. The study was cross-sectional. Couples pursuing medical treatment for their fertility problems were invited to participate by their doctors in several public and private clinics. Data collection took place between July 2009 and 2011. One hundred forty-seven infertile couples consented to participate in the study. Both couple members (147 women and 147 men) completed a set of self-report instruments for the assessment of depressive symptoms, perceptions of defeat and entrapment, importance of parenthood and rejection of a childfree lifestyle. Analyses were conducted through Structural Equation Modeling and followed a dyadic analysis strategy, allowing for controlling the interdependence of the data. The hypothesized tested model showed a very good fit to the data [(χ(2) = 68.45, P = 0.014, comparative fit index = 0.98, standardized root-mean-square residual = 0.06 and root mean square error of approximation = 0.06] and explained 67 and 58% of the variability in depressive symptoms in

  2. Spacecraft charging investigation for the CTS project. [electric insulator surface tests by electron bombardment for Communications Technology Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, N. J.; Lovell, R. R.; Gore, V.

    1975-01-01

    Results to date are presented for a program of analytical and experimental investigations to assess the impact of discharge pulses from spacecraft surfaces in the joint Canadian-American Communications Technology Satellite (CTS). All insulator surfaces tested experienced visible discharges when subjected to an electron beam with energy greater than 10 keV. Discharge rate was found to be a function of current flux. The deployable solar array sample experienced discharges under bombardment from the cell or kapton side. There was no measurable cell performance degradation due to the discharges.

  3. Surface chemistry and acid-base activity of Shewanella putrefaciens: Cell wall charging and metal binding to bacterial cell walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, Jacqueline Wilhelmien

    2006-01-01

    To gain insight into the surface chemistry of live microorganisms, pH stat experiments are combined with analyses of the time-dependent changes in solution chemistry using suspensions of live cells of Shewanella putrefaciens. The results of this study illustrate the complex response of the live

  4. Surface chemistry and acid-base activity of Shewanella putrefaciens : Cell wall charging and metal binding to bacterial cell walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    To gain insight into the surface chemistry of live microorganisms, pH stat experiments are combined with analyses of the time-dependent changes in solution chemistry using suspensions of live cells of Shewanella putrefaciens. The results of this study illustrate the complex response of the live

  5. Adsorption of charged and neutral polymer chains on silica surfaces: The role of electrostatics, volume exclusion, and hydrogen bonding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, Evan; Biesheuvel, P.M.; de Vos, Wiebe Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    We develop an off-lattice (continuum) model to describe the adsorption of neutral polymer chains and polyelectrolytes to surfaces. Our continuum description allows taking excluded volume interactions between polymer chains and ions directly into account. To implement those interactions, we use a

  6. Enhanced efficacy of nitrifying biomass by modified PVA_SB entrapment technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Sen; Duan, Xiumei; Zhou, Jiti; Cheng, Yingjun; Bhatti, Zafar

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we developed a novel technique for preparing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel as an immobilizing matrix by the addition of sodium bicarbonate. This resulted in an increase in the specific surface area of PVA_sodium bicarbonate (PVA_SB) hydrogel beads to 65.23 m(2) g(-1) hydrogel beads, which was approximately 85 and 14 % higher than those of normal PVA and PVA_sodium alginate (PVA_SA) hydrogel beads, respectively. The D e value of PVA_SB hydrogel beads was calculated as 7.49 × 10(-4) cm(2) s(-1), which was similar to the D e of PVA_SA hydrogel beads but nearly 38 % higher than that of the normal PVA hydrogel beads. After immobilization with nitrifying biomass, the oxygen uptake rate and the ammonium oxidation rate of nitrifying biomass entrapped in PVA_SB hydrogel beads were determined to be 19.53 mg O2 g MLVSS(-1) h(-1) and 10.59 mg N g MLVSS(-1) h(-1), which were 49 and 43 % higher than those of normal PVA hydrogel beads, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy observation of the PVA_SB hydrogel beads demonstrated relatively higher specific surface area and revealed loose microstructure that was considered to provide large spaces for microbial growth. This kind of structure was also considered beneficial for reducing mass transfer resistance and increasing pollutant uptake.

  7. Fish entrapment of the seawater intake of a power plant at Karachi coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moazzam, M.; Niaz Risvi, S.H.

    1980-01-01

    The study deals with the entrapment of fishes in the intake of Karachi Nuclear Power Plant. A total of 62 species of marine fishes belonging to 43 genera were observed entrapped in the seawater intake. Therapon puta, Liza waigiensis, Abudefduf septemfasciatus, and Lagoceptalus inermis were the most common. Mass mortalities of the juveniles of Sardinella sindensis were recorded in September and October of 1974, 1975, and 1977. Commercially important fishes such as sardines, mullets and anchovies, were entrapped in the intake of the power plant in considerable numbers at various times of the year. The majority of fishes removed from the screen washes of the power plants were killed by impingement. (Auth.)

  8. The Charged Particle Environment on the Surface of Mars induced by Solar Energetic Particles - Five Years of Measurements with the MSL/RAD instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehresmann, B.; Hassler, D.; Zeitlin, C.; Guo, J.; Lee, C. O.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Appel, J. K.; Boehm, E.; Boettcher, S. I.; Brinza, D. E.; Burmeister, S.; Lohf, H.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Matthiae, D.; Rafkin, S. C.; Reitz, G.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission has now been operating in Gale crater on the surface of Mars for five years. On board MSL, the Radiation Assessment Detector (MSL/RAD) is measuring the Martian surface radiation environment, providing insights on its intensity and composition. This radiation field is mainly composed of primary Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and secondary particles created by the GCRs' interactions with the Martian atmosphere and soil. However, on shorter time scales the radiation environment can be dominated by contributions from Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events. Due to the modulating effect of the Martian atmosphere shape and intensity of these SEP spectra will differ significantly between interplanetary space and the Martian surface. Understanding how SEP events influence the surface radiation field is crucial to assess associated health risks for potential human missions to Mars. Here, we present updated MSL/RAD results for charged particle fluxes measured on the surface during SEP activity from the five years of MSL operations on Mars. The presented results incorporate updated analysis techniques for the MSL/RAD data and yield the most robust particle spectra to date. Furthermore, we compare the MSL/RAD SEP-induced fluxes to measurements from other spacecraft in the inner heliosphere and, in particular, in Martian orbit. Analyzing changes of SEP intensities from interplanetary space to the Martian surface gives insight into the modulating effect of the Martian atmosphere, while comparing timing profiles of SEP events between Mars and different points in interplanetary space can increase our understanding of SEP propagation in the heliosphere.

  9. Indirect calculation of monoclonal antibodies in nanoparticles using the radiolabeling process with technetium 99 metastable as primary factor: Alternative methodology for the entrapment efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal-Neto, Edward; Cabezas, Santiago Sánchez; Sancenón, Félix; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

    2018-05-10

    The use of monoclonal antibodies (Mab) in the current medicine is increasing. Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) represents an increasingly and important modality for treating several types of cancer. In this area, the use of Mab associated with nanoparticles is a valuable strategy. However, the methodology used to calculate the Mab entrapment, efficiency and content is extremely expensive. In this study we developed and tested a novel very simple one-step methodology to calculate monoclonal antibody entrapment in mesoporous silica (with magnetic core) nanoparticles using the radiolabeling process as primary methodology. The magnetic core mesoporous silica were successfully developed and characterised. The PXRD analysis at high angles confirmed the presence of magnetic cores in the structures and transmission electron microscopy allowed to determine structures size (58.9 ± 8.1 nm). From the isotherm curve, a specific surface area of 872 m 2 /g was estimated along with a pore volume of 0.85 cm 3 /g and an average pore diameter of 3.15 nm. The radiolabeling process to proceed the indirect determination were well-done. Trastuzumab were successfully labeled (>97%) with Tc-99m generating a clear suspension. Besides, almost all the Tc-99m used (labeling the trastuzumab) remained trapped in the surface of the mesoporous silica for a period as long as 8 h. The indirect methodology demonstrated a high entrapment in magnetic core mesoporous silica surface of Tc-99m-traztuzumab. The results confirmed the potential use from the indirect entrapment efficiency methodology using the radiolabeling process, as a one-step, easy and cheap methodology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Glycosaminoglycan entrapment by fibrin in engineered heart valve tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Abraham R; Rath, Sasmita; Rafiee, Parvin; Hernandez-Espino, Mario; Din, Mahreen; George, Florence; Ramaswamy, Sharan

    2013-09-01

    Tissue engineered heart valves (TEHVs) may provide a permanent solution to congenital heart valve disease by permitting somatic valve growth in the pediatric patient. However, to date, TEHV studies have focused primarily on collagen, the dominant component of valve extracellular matrix (ECM). Temporal decreases in other ECM components, such as the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), generally decrease as cells produce more collagen under mechanically loaded states; nevertheless, GAGs represent a key component of the valve ECM, providing structural stability and hydration to the leaflets. In an effort to retain GAGs within the engineered constructs, here we investigated the utility of the protein fibrin in combination with a valve-like, cyclic flexure and steady flow (flex-flow) mechanical conditioning culture process using adult human periodontal ligament cells (PLCs). We found both fibrin and flex-flow mechanical components to be independently significant (pengineered tissues. In addition, the interaction of fibrin with flex-flow was found to be significant in the case of collagen; specifically, the combination of these environments promoted PLC collagen production resulting in a significant difference compared to dynamic and statically cultured specimens without fibrin. Histological examination revealed that the GAGs were retained by fibrin entrapment and adhesion, which were subsequently confirmed by additional experiments on native valve tissues. We conclude that fibrin in the flex-flow culture of engineered heart valve tissues: (i) augments PLC-derived collagen production; and (ii) enhances retention of GAGs within the developing ECM. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. ENTRAPMENT OF FLUORESCENT E. COLI CELLS IN ALGINATE GEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. IGNA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available By this experiment we will demonstrate the possibility to obtain genetically modifiedmicrobial strains that can be used as markers in different studies. The traittransferred in this study is the fluorescence in UV light expressed by a gene isolatedfrom jellyfish. This gene was insered into a plasmid carrying ampiciline resistanceand in the operon for arabinose fermentation. The plasmid was called pGLO. E coliHB101 K-12, ampicillin resistant colonies has been obtained. The colonies on theLB/amp/ara plate fluoresce green under UV light and the transformed colonies cangrow on ampicillin. Transformation efficiency = 362 transformed colonies/ μg DNA.The cells where immobilized by entrapment in alginate gel to study the phenomenoninvolved in cells immobilization. After immobilization in alginate gel, 5x104 cells ofE. coli pGLO / capsule and 1,4 x 105 cells of E. coli HB101/capsule has been found.Fluorescent microscopy revealed the presence of pGLO carrying cells into thecapsules. After cultivation of alginate capsules containing E. coli in LB broth, andfluorescent microscopy of the capsule sections, several observations of thephenomenon involved in continuous fermentation using biocatalysts in has beenmade. These cells grow and migrate to the cortical part of the matrix where they areimmobilized.

  12. ENTRAPMENT OF FLUORESCENT E. COLI CELLS IN ALGINATE GEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. VINTILA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available By this experiment we will demonstrate the possibility to obtain genetically modified microbial strains that can be used as markers in different studies. The trait transferred in this study is the fluorescence in UV light expressed by a gene isolated from jellyfish. This gene was insered into a plasmid carrying ampiciline resistance and in the operon for arabinose fermentation. The plasmid was called pGLO. E coli HB101 K-12, ampicillin resistant colonies has been obtained. The colonies on the LB/amp/ara plate fluoresce green under UV light and the transformed colonies can grow on ampicillin. Transformation efficiency = 362 transformed colonies/ μg DNA. The cells where immobilized by entrapment in alginate gel to study the phenomenon involved in cells immobilization. After immobilization in alginate gel, 5x104 cells of E. coli pGLO / capsule and 1,4 x 105 cells of E. coli HB101/capsule has been found. Fluorescent microscopy revealed the presence of pGLO carrying cells into the capsules. After cultivation of alginate capsules containing E. coli in LB broth, and fluorescent microscopy of the capsule sections, several observations of the phenomenon involved in continuous fermentation using biocatalysts in has been made. These cells grow and migrate to the cortical part of the matrix where they are immobilized.

  13. Particle size and surface charge affect particle uptake by human dendritic cells in an in vitro model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Camilla; Brodin, Birger; Frøkjær, Sven

    2005-01-01

    Current vaccine development includes optimization of antigen delivery to antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells (DC). Particulate systems have attracted increasing attention in the development of vaccine delivery systems. In the present study, we investigated DC uptake of model....... The polystyrene particles interacted with the DC throughout the tested diameter range of 0.04-15 microm in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The optimal particle diameter for fast and efficient acquisition by a substantial percentage of the DC was 0.5 microm and below. The surface of 1 and 0.1 microm.......5 microm and below were optimal for DC uptake; however uptake of larger particles could be greatly enhanced by rendering the particle surface positive. Whether increased particle uptake is correlated with increased immune responses, remains to be established....

  14. Narrow optical linewidths and spin pumping on charge-tunable close-to-surface self-assembled quantum dots in an ultrathin diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löbl, Matthias C.; Söllner, Immo; Javadi, Alisa; Pregnolato, Tommaso; Schott, Rüdiger; Midolo, Leonardo; Kuhlmann, Andreas V.; Stobbe, Søren; Wieck, Andreas D.; Lodahl, Peter; Ludwig, Arne; Warburton, Richard J.

    2017-10-01

    We demonstrate full charge control, narrow optical linewidths, and optical spin pumping on single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots embedded in a 162.5 -nm -thin diode structure. The quantum dots are just 88 nm from the top GaAs surface. We design and realize a p -i -n -i -n diode that allows single-electron charging of the quantum dots at close-to-zero applied bias. In operation, the current flow through the device is extremely small resulting in low noise. In resonance fluorescence, we measure optical linewidths below 2 μ eV , just a factor of 2 above the transform limit. Clear optical spin pumping is observed in a magnetic field of 0.5 T in the Faraday geometry. We present this design as ideal for securing the advantages of self-assembled quantum dots—highly coherent single-photon generation, ultrafast optical spin manipulation—in the thin diodes required in quantum nanophotonics and nanophononics applications.

  15. Thermal noise due to surface-charge effects within the Debye layer of endogenous structures in dendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poznanski, Roman R.

    2010-02-01

    An assumption commonly used in cable theory is revised by taking into account electrical amplification due to intracellular capacitive effects in passive dendritic cables. A generalized cable equation for a cylindrical volume representation of a dendritic segment is derived from Maxwell’s equations under assumptions: (i) the electric-field polarization is restricted longitudinally along the cable length; (ii) extracellular isopotentiality; (iii) quasielectrostatic conditions; and (iv) homogeneous medium with constant conductivity and permittivity. The generalized cable equation is identical to Barenblatt’s equation arising in the theory of infiltration in fissured strata with a known analytical solution expressed in terms of a definite integral involving a modified Bessel function and the solution to a linear one-dimensional classical cable equation. Its solution is used to determine the impact of thermal noise on voltage attenuation with distance at any particular time. A regular perturbation expansion for the membrane potential about the linear one-dimensional classical cable equation solution is derived in terms of a Green’s function in order to describe the dynamics of free charge within the Debye layer of endogenous structures in passive dendritic cables. The asymptotic value of the first perturbative term is explicitly evaluated for small values of time to predict how the slowly fluctuating (in submillisecond range) electric field attributed to intracellular capacitive effects alters the amplitude of the membrane potential. It was found that capacitive effects are almost negligible for cables with electrotonic lengths L>0.5 , contributes up to 10% of the signal for cables with electrotonic lengths in the range between 0.25

  16. Thermal noise due to surface-charge effects within the Debye layer of endogenous structures in dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poznanski, Roman R

    2010-02-01

    An assumption commonly used in cable theory is revised by taking into account electrical amplification due to intracellular capacitive effects in passive dendritic cables. A generalized cable equation for a cylindrical volume representation of a dendritic segment is derived from Maxwell's equations under assumptions: (i) the electric-field polarization is restricted longitudinally along the cable length; (ii) extracellular isopotentiality; (iii) quasielectrostatic conditions; and (iv) homogeneous medium with constant conductivity and permittivity. The generalized cable equation is identical to Barenblatt's equation arising in the theory of infiltration in fissured strata with a known analytical solution expressed in terms of a definite integral involving a modified Bessel function and the solution to a linear one-dimensional classical cable equation. Its solution is used to determine the impact of thermal noise on voltage attenuation with distance at any particular time. A regular perturbation expansion for the membrane potential about the linear one-dimensional classical cable equation solution is derived in terms of a Green's function in order to describe the dynamics of free charge within the Debye layer of endogenous structures in passive dendritic cables. The asymptotic value of the first perturbative term is explicitly evaluated for small values of time to predict how the slowly fluctuating (in submillisecond range) electric field attributed to intracellular capacitive effects alters the amplitude of the membrane potential. It was found that capacitive effects are almost negligible for cables with electrotonic lengths L>0.5 , contributes up to 10% of the signal for cables with electrotonic lengths in the range between 0.25thermal noise due to intracellular capacitive effects. The presence of significant thermal noise weakens the assumption of intracellular isopotentiality when approximating dendrites with compartments.

  17. Disinfection of Escherichia coli Gram negative bacteria using surface modified TiO2: optimization of Ag metallization and depiction of charge transfer mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomathi Devi, LakshmipathiNaik; Nagaraj, Basavalingaiah

    2014-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of silver deposited TiO2 (Ag-TiO2 ) against Gram negative Escherichia coli bacteria was investigated by varying the Ag metal content from 0.10 to 0.50% on the surface of TiO2 . Ag depositions by the photoreduction method were found to be stable. Surface silver metallization was confirmed by EDAX and XPS studies. Photoluminescence studies show that the charge carrier recombination is less for 0.1% Ag-TiO2 and this catalyst shows superior bactericidal activity under solar light irradiation compared to Sol gel TiO2 (SG-TiO2 ) due to the surface plasmon effect. The energy levels of deposited Ag are dependent on the Ag content and it varies from -4.64 eV to -1.30 eV with respect to the vacuum energy level based on atomic silver to bulk silver deposits. The ability of electron transfer from Ag deposit to O2 depends on the position of the energy levels. The 0.25% and 0.50% Ag depositions showed detrimental effect on bactericidal activity due to the mismatch of energy levels. The effect of the EROS (External generation of the Reactive Oxygen Species by 0.1% Ag-TiO2 ) and IROS (Interior generation of Reactive Oxygen Species within the bacteria) on the bactericidal inactivation is discussed in detail. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  18. Anisotropy of the Seebeck Coefficient in the Cuprate Superconductor YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{y}: Fermi-Surface Reconstruction by Bidirectional Charge Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Cyr-Choinière

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Seebeck coefficient S of the cuprate YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{y} is measured in magnetic fields large enough to suppress superconductivity, at hole dopings p=0.11 and p=0.12, for heat currents along the a and b directions of the orthorhombic crystal structure. For both directions, S/T decreases and becomes negative at low temperature, a signature that the Fermi surface undergoes a reconstruction due to broken translational symmetry. Above a clear