WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface characterization computational

  1. Multi-dimensional characterization of electrostatic surface potential computation on graphics processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daga, Mayank; Feng, Wu-Chun

    2012-04-12

    Calculating the electrostatic surface potential (ESP) of a biomolecule is critical towards understanding biomolecular function. Because of its quadratic computational complexity (as a function of the number of atoms in a molecule), there have been continual efforts to reduce its complexity either by improving the algorithm or the underlying hardware on which the calculations are performed. We present the combined effect of (i) a multi-scale approximation algorithm, known as hierarchical charge partitioning (HCP), when applied to the calculation of ESP and (ii) its mapping onto a graphics processing unit (GPU). To date, most molecular modeling algorithms perform an artificial partitioning of biomolecules into a grid/lattice on the GPU. In contrast, HCP takes advantage of the natural partitioning in biomolecules, which in turn, better facilitates its mapping onto the GPU. Specifically, we characterize the effect of known GPU optimization techniques like use of shared memory. In addition, we demonstrate how the cost of divergent branching on a GPU can be amortized across algorithms like HCP in order to deliver a massive performance boon. We accelerated the calculation of ESP by 25-fold solely by parallelization on the GPU. Combining GPU and HCP, resulted in a speedup of at most 1,860-fold for our largest molecular structure. The baseline for these speedups is an implementation that has been hand-tuned SSE-optimized and parallelized across 16 cores on the CPU. The use of GPU does not deteriorate the accuracy of our results.

  2. Computer aided surface representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhill, R E

    1987-11-01

    The aims of this research are the creation of new surface forms and the determination of geometric and physical properties of surfaces. The full sweep from constructive mathematics through the implementation of algorithms and the interactive computer graphics display of surfaces is utilized. Both three-dimensional and multi- dimensional surfaces are considered. Particular emphasis is given to the scientific computing solution of Department of Energy problems. The methods that we have developed and that we are proposing to develop allow applications such as: Producing smooth contour maps from measured data, such as weather maps. Modeling the heat distribution inside a furnace from sample measurements. Terrain modeling based on satellite pictures. The investigation of new surface forms includes the topics of triangular interpolants, multivariate interpolation, surfaces defined on surfaces and monotone and/or convex surfaces. The geometric and physical properties considered include contours, the intersection of surfaces, curvatures as a interrogation tool, and numerical integration.

  3. Characterization of solid surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kane, Philip F; Larrabee, Graydon B

    1974-01-01

    .... A comprehensive review of surface analysis, this important volume surveys both principles and techniques of surface characterization, describes instrumentation, and suggests the course of future research...

  4. Computer aided surface representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1989-02-09

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation and display of surfaces, interpolating to given information, in three or more dimensions. In a typical problem, we wish to create a surface from some discrete information. If this information is itself on another surface, the problem is to determine a surface defined on a surface,'' which is discussed below. Often, properties of an already constructed surface are desired: such geometry processing'' is described below. The Summary of Proposed Research from our original proposal describes the aims of this research project. This Summary and the Table of Contents from the original proposal are enclosed as an Appendix to this Progress Report. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through algorithms and computer graphics displays is utilized in the research. The wide range of activity, directed in both theory and applications, makes this project unique. Last month in the first Ardent Titan delivered in the State of Arizona came to our group, funded by the DOE and Arizona State University. Although the Titan is a commercial product, its newness requires our close collaboration with Ardent to maximize results. During the past year, four faculty members and several graduate research assistants have worked on this DOE project. The gaining of new professionals is an important aspect of this project. A listing of the students and their topics is given in the Appendix. The most significant publication during the past year is the book, Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design, by Dr. Gerald Farin. This 300 page volume helps fill a considerable gap in the subject and includes many new results on Bernstein-Bezier curves and surfaces.

  5. Computer representation of molecular surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Max, N.L.

    1981-01-01

    This review article surveys recent work on computer representation of molecular surfaces. Several different algorithms are discussed for producing vector or raster drawings of space-filling models formed as the union of spheres. Other smoother surfaces are also considered

  6. Computational Complexity of Combinatorial Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, Gert; Yap, Chee K.

    1990-01-01

    We investigate the computational problems associated with combinatorial surfaces. Specifically, we present an algorithm (based on the Brahana-Dehn-Heegaard approach) for transforming the polygonal schema of a closed triangulated surface into its canonical form in O(n log n) time, where n is the

  7. Surface characterization protocol for precision aspheric optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarepaka, RamaGopal V.; Sakthibalan, Siva; Doodala, Somaiah; Panwar, Rakesh S.; Kotaria, Rajendra

    2017-10-01

    In Advanced Optical Instrumentation, Aspherics provide an effective performance alternative. The aspheric fabrication and surface metrology, followed by aspheric design are complementary iterative processes for Precision Aspheric development. As in fabrication, a holistic approach of aspheric surface characterization is adopted to evaluate actual surface error and to aim at the deliverance of aspheric optics with desired surface quality. Precision optical surfaces are characterized by profilometry or by interferometry. Aspheric profiles are characterized by contact profilometers, through linear surface scans to analyze their Form, Figure and Finish errors. One must ensure that, the surface characterization procedure does not add to the resident profile errors (generated during the aspheric surface fabrication). This presentation examines the errors introduced post-surface generation and during profilometry of aspheric profiles. This effort is to identify sources of errors and is to optimize the metrology process. The sources of error during profilometry may be due to: profilometer settings, work-piece placement on the profilometer stage, selection of zenith/nadir points of aspheric profiles, metrology protocols, clear aperture - diameter analysis, computational limitations of the profiler and the software issues etc. At OPTICA, a PGI 1200 FTS contact profilometer (Taylor-Hobson make) is used for this study. Precision Optics of various profiles are studied, with due attention to possible sources of errors during characterization, with multi-directional scan approach for uniformity and repeatability of error estimation. This study provides an insight of aspheric surface characterization and helps in optimal aspheric surface production methodology.

  8. Theoretical characterization of the potential energy surface for the reversible reaction H + O2 yields HO2(asterisk) yields OH + O. III - Computed points to define a global potential energy surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Duchovic, Ronald J.

    1991-01-01

    Computed energies and geometries are reported which, combined with previously published calculations, permit a global representation of the potential energy surface for the reaction H + O2 yields HO2(asterisk) yields OH + O. These new calculations characterize the potential energy surface (PES) for all H atom angles of approach to O2 and for the region of the inner repulsive wall. The region of the T-shaped H-O2 exchange saddle point is connected with the constrained energy minimum (CEM) path, and a new collinear H-O2 exchange saddle point is characterized which lies only 9 kcal/mol above the H + O2 asymptote. A vibrational analysis which utilizes local cubic and quartic polynomial representations of the PES along the CEM path has been carried out. Optimal geometries, energies, and harmonic frequencies are reported along with anharmonic analyses for the O2 and OH asymptotes and for the HO2 minimum region of the PES.

  9. Computational approach to Riemann surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This volume offers a well-structured overview of existent computational approaches to Riemann surfaces and those currently in development. The authors of the contributions represent the groups providing publically available numerical codes in this field. Thus this volume illustrates which software tools are available and how they can be used in practice. In addition examples for solutions to partial differential equations and in surface theory are presented. The intended audience of this book is twofold. It can be used as a textbook for a graduate course in numerics of Riemann surfaces, in which case the standard undergraduate background, i.e., calculus and linear algebra, is required. In particular, no knowledge of the theory of Riemann surfaces is expected; the necessary background in this theory is contained in the Introduction chapter. At the same time, this book is also intended for specialists in geometry and mathematical physics applying the theory of Riemann surfaces in their research. It is the first...

  10. A computer-aided surface roughness measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, F.J.; Schankula, M.H.

    1983-11-01

    A diamond stylus profilometer with computer-based data acquisitions/analysis system is being used to characterize surfaces of reactor components and materials, and to examine the effects of surface topography on thermal contact conductance. The current system is described; measurement problems and system development are discussed in general terms and possible future improvements are outlined

  11. Crystal structure, Hirshfeld surfaces computational study and physicochemical characterization of the hybrid material (C7H10N)2[SnCl6]·H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    BelhajSalah, S.; Abdelbaky, Mohammed S. M.; García-Granda, Santiago; Essalah, K.; Ben Nasr, C.; Mrad, M. L.

    2018-01-01

    A novel hybrid compound, bis(4-methylanilinium)hexachlorostannate(IV) monohydrate, formulated as (C7H10N)2[SnCl6]·H2O, has been prepared and characterized by powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), Hirshfeld surface analysis, infrared spectroscopy (IR), optical study, differential thermal analysis(DTA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis (XPS). The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with a = 13.093(1)Å, b = 7.093(6)Å, c = 24.152(2)Å, β = 98.536(4)⁰ and V = 2218.4(4) Å3. Their crystal structure exhibits alternating inorganic layers parallel to the (ab) plane at z = n/2. The different entities, [SnCl6]2-, organic cations and water molecules, are connected via hydrogen bonds to form a three-dimensional network. The powder XRD data confirms the phase purity of the crystalline sample. The intermolecular interactions were investigated by Hirshfeld surfaces. The vibrational absorption bands were identified by IR spectroscopy and have been discussed. The optical properties of the crystal were studied by using optical absorption, UV-visible absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy studies. The compound was also characterized by DTA to determine its thermal behavior with respect to the temperature. Finally, XPS technique is reported for analyzing the surface chemistry of this compound.

  12. Films made of cellulose nanofibrils: surface modification by adsorption of a cationic surfactant and characterization by computer-assisted electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syverud, K.; Xhanari, K.; Chinga-Carrasco, G.; Yu, Y.; Stenius, P.

    2011-01-01

    Films made of nanofibrils were modified by adsorption of a cationic surfactant directly on the film surfaces. The nanofibrils were prepared by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation and mechanical fibrillation, and were relatively homogeneous in size. The average nanofibril diameter and surface porosity was quantified based on computer-assisted field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The cationic surfactant used in the adsorption was n-hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB). The adsorption of CTAB was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analyses. It was shown that the adsorbed layer of CTAB increased the hydrophobicity, without affecting the tensile index significantly. This capability, combined with the antiseptic properties of CTAB, may be a major advantage for several applications.

  13. Surface electrostatics: theory and computations

    KAUST Repository

    Chatzigeorgiou, G.

    2014-02-05

    The objective of this work is to study the electrostatic response of materials accounting for boundary surfaces with their own (electrostatic) constitutive behaviour. The electric response of materials with (electrostatic) energetic boundary surfaces (surfaces that possess material properties and constitutive structures different from those of the bulk) is formulated in a consistent manner using a variational framework. The forces and moments that appear due to bulk and surface electric fields are also expressed in a consistent manner. The theory is accompanied by numerical examples on porous materials using the finite-element method, where the influence of the surface electric permittivity on the electric displacement, the polarization stress and the Maxwell stress is examined.

  14. Computing Visible-Surface Representations,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Terzopoulos N00014-75-C-0643 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AMC ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA A...Massachusetts Institute of lechnolog,. Support lbr the laboratory’s Artificial Intelligence research is provided in part by the Advanced Rtccarcl Proj...dynamically maintaining visible surface representations. Whether the intention is to model human vision or to design competent artificial vision systems

  15. Computation of surface roughness using optical correlation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The laser speckle photography is used to calculate the average surface roughness from the autocorrelation function of the aluminum diffuse objects. The computed results of surface roughness obtained from the profile shapes of the autocorrelation function of the diffuser show good agreement with the results obtained by ...

  16. Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephen P.

    1988-01-01

    The minimum energy path for the addition of a hydrogen atom to N2 is characterized in CASSCF/CCI calculations using the (4s3p2d1f/3s2p1d) basis set, with additional single point calculations at the stationary points of the potential energy surface using the (5s4p3d2f/4s3p2d) basis set. These calculations represent the most extensive set of ab initio calculations completed to date, yielding a zero point corrected barrier for HN2 dissociation of approx. 8.5 kcal mol/1. The lifetime of the HN2 species is estimated from the calculated geometries and energetics using both conventional Transition State Theory and a method which utilizes an Eckart barrier to compute one dimensional quantum mechanical tunneling effects. It is concluded that the lifetime of the HN2 species is very short, greatly limiting its role in both termolecular recombination reactions and combustion processes.

  17. Surface computing and collaborative analysis work

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Judith; Gossage, Stevenson; Hack, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Large surface computing devices (wall-mounted or tabletop) with touch interfaces and their application to collaborative data analysis, an increasingly important and prevalent activity, is the primary topic of this book. Our goals are to outline the fundamentals of surface computing (a still maturing technology), review relevant work on collaborative data analysis, describe frameworks for understanding collaborative processes, and provide a better understanding of the opportunities for research and development. We describe surfaces as display technologies with which people can interact directly, and emphasize how interaction design changes when designing for large surfaces. We review efforts to use large displays, surfaces or mixed display environments to enable collaborative analytic activity. Collaborative analysis is important in many domains, but to provide concrete examples and a specific focus, we frequently consider analysis work in the security domain, and in particular the challenges security personne...

  18. Constant Width Planar Computation Characterizes ACC0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    We obtain a characterization of ACC 0 in terms of a natural class of constant width circuits, namely in terms of constant width polynomial size planar circuits. This is shown via a characterization of the class of acyclic digraphs which can be embedded on a cylinder surface in such a way that all...

  19. Constant Width Planar Computation Characterizes ACC0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt

    2006-01-01

    We obtain a characterization of ACC0 in terms of a natural class of constant width circuits, namely in terms of constant width polynomial size planar circuits. This is shown via a characterization of the class of acyclic digraphs which can be embedded on a cylinder surface in such a way that all...

  20. Computational approach to compact Riemann surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauendiener, Jörg; Klein, Christian

    2017-01-01

    A purely numerical approach to compact Riemann surfaces starting from plane algebraic curves is presented. The critical points of the algebraic curve are computed via a two-dimensional Newton iteration. The starting values for this iteration are obtained from the resultants with respect to both coordinates of the algebraic curve and a suitable pairing of their zeros. A set of generators of the fundamental group for the complement of these critical points in the complex plane is constructed from circles around these points and connecting lines obtained from a minimal spanning tree. The monodromies are computed by solving the defining equation of the algebraic curve on collocation points along these contours and by analytically continuing the roots. The collocation points are chosen to correspond to Chebychev collocation points for an ensuing Clenshaw-Curtis integration of the holomorphic differentials which gives the periods of the Riemann surface with spectral accuracy. At the singularities of the algebraic curve, Puiseux expansions computed by contour integration on the circles around the singularities are used to identify the holomorphic differentials. The Abel map is also computed with the Clenshaw-Curtis algorithm and contour integrals. As an application of the code, solutions to the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation are computed on non-hyperelliptic Riemann surfaces.

  1. Radioactive Ions for Surface Characterization

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The collaboration has completed a set of pilot experiments with the aim to develop techniques for using radioactive nuclei in surface physics. The first result was a method for thermal deposition of isolated atoms (Cd, In, Rb) on clean metallic surfaces. \\\\ \\\\ Then the diffusion history of deposited Cd and In atoms on two model surfaces, Mo(110) and Pd(111), was followed through the electric field gradients (efg) acting at the probe nuclei as measured with the Perturbed Angular Correlation technique. For Mo(110) a rather simple history of the adatoms was inferred from the experiments: Atoms initially landing at terrace sites diffuse from there to ledges and then to kinks, defects always present at real surfaces. The next stage is desorption from the surface. For Pd a scenario that goes still further was found. Following the kink stage the adatoms get incorporated into ledges and finally into the top surface layer. For all these five sites the efg's could be measured.\\\\ \\\\ In preparation for a further series o...

  2. Optical Characterization of Nanostructured Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft

    Micro- and nanostructured surfaces are interesting due to the unique properties they add to the bulk material. One example is structural colors, where the interaction between surface structures and visible light produce bright color effects without the use of paints or dyes. Several research groups...... modeling to evaluate the dimensions of subwavelength gratings, by correlating the reflected light measured from the structures with a database of simulations. A new method is developed and termed color scatterometry, since compared to typical spectroscopic scatterometry, which evaluates the full reflection...... spectrum; the new method only evaluates the color of the reflected light using a standard RGB color camera. Color scatterometry provides the combined advantages of spectroscopic scatterometry, which provides fast evaluations, and imaging scatterometry that provides an overview image from which small...

  3. Multiscale Characterization of Joint Surface Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigon, Benoit; Englert, Andreas; Pascal, Christophe; Saintot, Aline

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies provided detailed characterizations of fault (i.e., shear fracture) roughness at different length scales. Similar investigation for joints (i.e., tensile fractures) are seldom and not as detailed. The present study aims at characterizing joint plumose patterns. We investigated the scale-dependent surface roughness properties of S-type plumoses. Joint surface measurements at relatively large scales were carried out with Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology. Joint surface measurements at the microscopic scale were carried out based on a noncontact optical method, using a Keyence VHX-2000D microscope. Three parameters were used to characterize fracture surface elevation, standard deviation, Hurst exponent, and correlation length through 3 scale length orders of magnitude. Our study showed that standard deviation and correlation length decrease with scale, similarly to previous findings on faults. In addition, the range of Hurst exponents as a function of scale for the studied joint surface agrees well with those previously found for faults. However, directional analysis showed that correlation length and Hurst exponent of joint surfaces at scales smaller than 1 dm differ significantly from the ones of fault surfaces. In contrast to fault surface ornaments that are mainly characterized by linear structures, plumose structures show marked variability in orientation and anisotropy as a function of position on the joint surface.

  4. Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephen P.

    1994-01-01

    Quantum mechanical methods have been used to compute potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions. The reactions studied were among those believed to be important to the NASP and HSR programs and included the recombination of two H atoms with several different third bodies; the reactions in the thermal Zeldovich mechanism; the reactions of H atom with O2, N2, and NO; reactions involved in the thermal De-NO(x) process; and the reaction of CH(squared Pi) with N2 (leading to 'prompt NO'). These potential energy surfaces have been used to compute reaction rate constants and rates of unimolecular decomposition. An additional application was the calculation of transport properties of gases using a semiclassical approximation (and in the case of interactions involving hydrogen inclusion of quantum mechanical effects).

  5. Surface characterization based upon significant topographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, J; Grime, D; Blateyron, F, E-mail: fblateyron@digitalsurf.fr [Digital Surf, 16 rue Lavoisier, F-25000 Besancon (France)

    2011-08-19

    Watershed segmentation and Wolf pruning, as defined in ISO 25178-2, allow the detection of significant features on surfaces and their characterization in terms of dimension, area, volume, curvature, shape or morphology. These new tools provide a robust way to specify functional surfaces.

  6. Surface characterization based upon significant topographic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, J; Grime, D; Blateyron, F

    2011-01-01

    Watershed segmentation and Wolf pruning, as defined in ISO 25178-2, allow the detection of significant features on surfaces and their characterization in terms of dimension, area, volume, curvature, shape or morphology. These new tools provide a robust way to specify functional surfaces.

  7. Fractal characterization of the coal surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklúšová Viera

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to point up to the characterization of the brown coal using the fractal theory. On the base of BET measurements on the adsorption surface, the surface fractal dimension of crushed and milled coal samples have been determined. These values of the fractal dimension are used in the estimation of the processes by the energy input.

  8. Avian influenza A (H9N2: computational molecular analysis and phylogenetic characterization of viral surface proteins isolated between 1997 and 2009 from the human population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Muhammad

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background H9N2 avian influenza A viruses have become panzootic in Eurasia over the last decade and have caused several human infections in Asia since 1998. To study their evolution and zoonotic potential, we conducted an in silico analysis of H9N2 viruses that have infected humans between 1997 and 2009 and identified potential novel reassortments. Results A total of 22 hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences were retrieved from the NCBI flu database. It was identified that mature peptide sequences of HA genes isolated from humans in 2009 had glutamine at position 226 (H3 of the receptor binding site, indicating a preference to bind to the human α (2-6 sialic acid receptors, which is different from previously isolated viruses and studies where the presence of leucine at the same position contributes to preference for human receptors and presence of glutamine towards avian receptors. Similarly, strains isolated in 2009 possessed new motif R-S-N-R in spite of typical R-S-S-R at the cleavage site of HA, which isn't reported before for H9N2 cases in humans. Other changes involved loss, addition, and variations in potential glycosylation sites as well as in predicted epitopes. The results of phylogenetic analysis indicated that HA and NA gene segments of H9N2 including those from current and proposed vaccine strains belong to two different Eurasian phylogenetic lineages confirming possible genetic reassortments. Conclusions These findings support the continuous evolution of avian H9N2 viruses towards human as host and are in favor of effective surveillance and better characterization studies to address this issue.

  9. Technology for Increasing Geothermal Energy Productivity. Computer Models to Characterize the Chemical Interactions of Goethermal Fluids and Injectates with Reservoir Rocks, Wells, Surface Equiptment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy Moller Weare

    2006-07-25

    This final report describes the results of a research program we carried out over a five-year (3/1999-9/2004) period with funding from a Department of Energy geothermal FDP grant (DE-FG07-99ID13745) and from other agencies. The goal of research projects in this program were to develop modeling technologies that can increase the understanding of geothermal reservoir chemistry and chemistry-related energy production processes. The ability of computer models to handle many chemical variables and complex interactions makes them an essential tool for building a fundamental understanding of a wide variety of complex geothermal resource and production chemistry. With careful choice of methodology and parameterization, research objectives were to show that chemical models can correctly simulate behavior for the ranges of fluid compositions, formation minerals, temperature and pressure associated with present and near future geothermal systems as well as for the very high PT chemistry of deep resources that is intractable with traditional experimental methods. Our research results successfully met these objectives. We demonstrated that advances in physical chemistry theory can be used to accurately describe the thermodynamics of solid-liquid-gas systems via their free energies for wide ranges of composition (X), temperature and pressure. Eight articles on this work were published in peer-reviewed journals and in conference proceedings. Four are in preparation. Our work has been presented at many workshops and conferences. We also considerably improved our interactive web site (geotherm.ucsd.edu), which was in preliminary form prior to the grant. This site, which includes several model codes treating different XPT conditions, is an effective means to transfer our technologies and is used by the geothermal community and other researchers worldwide. Our models have wide application to many energy related and other important problems (e.g., scaling prediction in petroleum

  10. Technology for Increasing Geothermal Energy Productivity. Computer Models to Characterize the Chemical Interactions of Geothermal Fluids and Injectates with Reservoir Rocks, Wells, Surface Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nancy Moller Weare

    2006-01-01

    This final report describes the results of a research program we carried out over a five-year (3/1999-9/2004) period with funding from a Department of Energy geothermal FDP grant (DE-FG07-99ID13745) and from other agencies. The goal of research projects in this program were to develop modeling technologies that can increase the understanding of geothermal reservoir chemistry and chemistry-related energy production processes. The ability of computer models to handle many chemical variables and complex interactions makes them an essential tool for building a fundamental understanding of a wide variety of complex geothermal resource and production chemistry. With careful choice of methodology and parameterization, research objectives were to show that chemical models can correctly simulate behavior for the ranges of fluid compositions, formation minerals, temperature and pressure associated with present and near future geothermal systems as well as for the very high PT chemistry of deep resources that is intractable with traditional experimental methods. Our research results successfully met these objectives. We demonstrated that advances in physical chemistry theory can be used to accurately describe the thermodynamics of solid-liquid-gas systems via their free energies for wide ranges of composition (X), temperature and pressure. Eight articles on this work were published in peer-reviewed journals and in conference proceedings. Four are in preparation. Our work has been presented at many workshops and conferences. We also considerably improved our interactive web site (geotherm.ucsd.edu), which was in preliminary form prior to the grant. This site, which includes several model codes treating different XPT conditions, is an effective means to transfer our technologies and is used by the geothermal community and other researchers worldwide. Our models have wide application to many energy related and other important problems (e.g., scaling prediction in petroleum

  11. Synthesis, characterization, Hirshfeld surface and theoretical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ALI HARCHANI

    2017-09-06

    Sep 6, 2017 ... model. The PM3 and PM6 semiempirical models were parameterized for most transition metals, and they usually provided good results.13 Hirshfeld surfaces computational analysis and associated 2D fingerprint plots14 were carried out using the Crystal Explorer 3.1 software15 and TONTO16 system. 3.

  12. Surface science tools for nanomaterials characterization

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Fourth volume of a 40volume series on nano science and nanotechnology, edited by the renowned scientist Challa S.S.R. Kumar. This handbook gives a comprehensive overview about Surface Science Tools for Nanomaterials Characterization. Modern applications and state-of-the-art techniques are covered and make this volume an essential reading for research scientists in academia and industry.

  13. Scattered surface charge density: A tool for surface characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Naydenov, Borislav

    2011-11-28

    We demonstrate the use of nonlocal scanning tunneling spectroscopic measurements to characterize the local structure of adspecies in their states where they are significantly less perturbed by the probe, which is accomplished by mapping the amplitude and phase of the scattered surface charge density. As an example, we study single-H-atom adsorption on the n-type Si(100)-(4 × 2) surface, and demonstrate the existence of two different configurations that are distinguishable using the nonlocal approach and successfully corroborated by density functional theory. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  14. Computer simulation, nuclear techniques and surface analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis, A. D.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is about computer simulation and surface analysis by nuclear techniques, which are non-destructive. The “energy method of analysis” for nuclear reactions is used. Energy spectra are computer simulated and compared with experimental data, giving target composition and concentration profile information. Details of prediction stages are given for thick flat target yields. Predictions are made for non-flat targets having asymmetric triangular surface contours. The method is successfully applied to depth profiling of 12C and 18O nuclei in thick targets, by deuteron (d,p and proton (p,α induced reactions, respectively.

    Este artículo trata de simulación por ordenador y del análisis de superficies mediante técnicas nucleares, que son no destructivas. Se usa el “método de análisis en energía” para reacciones nucleares. Se simulan en ordenador espectros en energía que se comparan con datos experimentales, de lo que resulta la obtención de información sobre la composición y los perfiles de concentración de la muestra. Se dan detalles de las etapas de las predicciones de espectros para muestras espesas y planas. Se hacen predicciones para muestras no planas que tienen contornos superficiales triangulares asimétricos. Este método se aplica con éxito en el cálculo de perfiles en profundidad de núcleos de 12C y de 18O en muestras espesas a través de reacciones (d,p y (p,α inducidas por deuterones y protones, respectivamente.

  15. A surface code quantum computer in silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Charles D; Peretz, Eldad; Hile, Samuel J; House, Matthew G; Fuechsle, Martin; Rogge, Sven; Simmons, Michelle Y; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L

    2015-10-01

    The exceptionally long quantum coherence times of phosphorus donor nuclear spin qubits in silicon, coupled with the proven scalability of silicon-based nano-electronics, make them attractive candidates for large-scale quantum computing. However, the high threshold of topological quantum error correction can only be captured in a two-dimensional array of qubits operating synchronously and in parallel-posing formidable fabrication and control challenges. We present an architecture that addresses these problems through a novel shared-control paradigm that is particularly suited to the natural uniformity of the phosphorus donor nuclear spin qubit states and electronic confinement. The architecture comprises a two-dimensional lattice of donor qubits sandwiched between two vertically separated control layers forming a mutually perpendicular crisscross gate array. Shared-control lines facilitate loading/unloading of single electrons to specific donors, thereby activating multiple qubits in parallel across the array on which the required operations for surface code quantum error correction are carried out by global spin control. The complexities of independent qubit control, wave function engineering, and ad hoc quantum interconnects are explicitly avoided. With many of the basic elements of fabrication and control based on demonstrated techniques and with simulated quantum operation below the surface code error threshold, the architecture represents a new pathway for large-scale quantum information processing in silicon and potentially in other qubit systems where uniformity can be exploited.

  16. Cellulose whiskers: preparation, characterization and surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taipina, Marcia O.; Ferrarezi, Marcia M.F.; Goncalves, Maria C.

    2011-01-01

    The main objectives of this work were to produce cellulose whiskers (from cotton fibers) by acid hydrolysis and subsequently modify the surface of these whiskers with 3-iso-cyanate-propyltrietoxy-silane. Cellulose whiskers structures were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared and their morphologies were investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Due to the hydrophilic nature of native cellulose, the formation of cellulose whisker nanocomposites is limited to water-soluble polymers. The applied methodology for surface modification of the whiskers allowed to obtain nanofibers with surface features more appropriate to allow the adhesion at fiber-matrix interface, which may result in a better performance of these fibers as reinforcing agents of hydrophobic polymer matrices. (author)

  17. Computer simulation of surface and film processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiller, W. A.; Halicioglu, M. T.

    1984-01-01

    All the investigations which were performed employed in one way or another a computer simulation technique based on atomistic level considerations. In general, three types of simulation methods were used for modeling systems with discrete particles that interact via well defined potential functions: molecular dynamics (a general method for solving the classical equations of motion of a model system); Monte Carlo (the use of Markov chain ensemble averaging technique to model equilibrium properties of a system); and molecular statics (provides properties of a system at T = 0 K). The effects of three-body forces on the vibrational frequencies of triatomic cluster were investigated. The multilayer relaxation phenomena for low index planes of an fcc crystal was analyzed also as a function of the three-body interactions. Various surface properties for Si and SiC system were calculated. Results obtained from static simulation calculations for slip formation were presented. The more elaborate molecular dynamics calculations on the propagation of cracks in two-dimensional systems were outlined.

  18. Infrared active thermography for surface layer characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerok, A.; Fomichev, S.; Farcage, D.; Sortais, C.; Courtois, X.

    2006-05-01

    Deposited layer characterization was stated as the main goal of our studies for 2006. The investigations by DRFC/SIPP/GCFP (CEA Cadarache) were performed with the procedure of surface temperature measurements based on infrared thermography with synchronous demodulation (Lock-in Thermography). It was applied to provide the temperature surface monitoring during the modulated heating by illumination. The obtained 2D-cartography revealed the zones with a weak heat transfer resulting from a low layer/surface adhesion or poor layer thermal conductivity. The obtained lock-in cartography data should be regarded only as qualitative. For deposited layers characterization (layer depth, adhesion with the substrate), the active laser pyrometer measurements with the developed experimental device were made in LILM laboratory (CEA Saclay). Active surface pyrometry with repetitive laser heating can provide both qualitative and quantitative data on the first layer and the interface with the substrate. A 3D-numerical model of graphite deposited layer heating by a pulsed high repetition rate laser beam was developed to determine the heated surface temperature with a high temporal and spatial resolution. The theoretical data obtained with 3D-numerical model for surface heating were compared with the experimental results. It was demonstrated that for the given optical and thermo-physical parameters of materials, the theoretical temperatures may be fitted with the experimental results to assess certain unknown parameters of the layer (thermal contact resistance, diffusivity, thickness, porosity, ). Based on the comparison of the obtained experimental and theoretical results, the deposited layer characterization was made. The results of the investigations on Active Laser Pyrometry and Lock-in Thermography demonstrated that the methods can provide qualitative and quantitative data on the deposited layer and on the layer/substrate interface. The correlation and cross-check of the results

  19. Characterizing the statistical properties of protein surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Ji Hyun; Bitbol, Anne-Florence; Bialek, William

    Proteins and their interactions form the body of the signaling transduction pathway in many living systems. In order to ensure the accuracy as well as the specificity of signaling, it is crucial that proteins recognize their correct interaction partners. How difficult, then, is it for a protein to discriminate its correct interaction partner(s) from the possibly large set of other proteins it may encounter in the cell? An important ingredient of recognition is shape complementarity. The ensemble of protein shapes should be constrained by the need for maintaining functional interactions while avoiding spurious ones. To address this aspect of protein recognition, we consider the ensemble of proteins in terms of the shapes of their surfaces. We take into account the high-resolution structures of E.coli non-DNA-binding cytoplasmic proteins, retrieved from the Protein Data Bank. We aim to characterize the statistical properties of the protein surfaces at two levels: First, we study the intrinsic dimensionality at the level of the ensemble of the surface objects. Second, at the level of the individual surfaces, we determine the scale of shape variation. We further discuss how the dimensionality of the shape space is linked to the statistical properties of individual protein surfaces. Jhb and WB acknowledge support from National Science Foundation Grants PHY-1305525 and PHY-1521553. AFB acknowledges support from the Human Frontier Science Program.

  20. Characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, L.C.; Ishida, Takanobu.

    1991-12-01

    The characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces has been accomplished through the use of four major electrochemical techniques. These were chronoamperometry, chronopotentiommetry, cyclic voltammetry, and linear sweep voltammetry. A systematic study on the under-potential deposition of several transition metals has been performed. The most interesting of these were: Ag, Cu, Cd, and Pb. It was determined, by subjecting the platinum electrode surface to a single potential scan between {minus}0.24 and +1.25 V{sub SCE} while stirring the solution, that the electrocatalytic activity would be regenerated. As a consequence of this study, a much simpler method for producing ultra high purity water from acidic permanganate has been developed. This method results in water that surpasses the water produced by pyrocatalytic distillation. It has also been seen that the wettability of polycrystalline platinum surfaces is greatly dependent on the quantity of oxide present. Oxide-free platinum is hydrophobic and gives a contact angle in the range of 55 to 62 degrees. We have also modified polycrystalline platinum surface with the electrically conducting polymer poly-{rho}-phenylene. This polymer is very stable in dilute sulfuric acid solutions, even under applied oxidative potentials. It is also highly resistant to electrochemical hydrogenation. The wettability of the polymer modified platinum surface is severely dependent on the choice of supporting electrolyte chosen for the electrochemical polymerization. Tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate produces a film that is as hydrophobic as Teflon, whereas tetraethylammonium perchlorate produces a film that is more hydrophilic than oxide-free platinum.

  1. Characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, Leonard C. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Stony Brook, NY (United States); Ishida, Takanobu [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1991-12-01

    The characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces has been accomplished through the use of four major electrochemical techniques. These were chronoamperometry, chronopotentiommetry, cyclic voltammetry, and linear sweep voltammetry. A systematic study on the under-potential deposition of several transition metals has been performed. The most interesting of these were: Ag, Cu, Cd, and Pb. It was determined, by subjecting the platinum electrode surface to a single potential scan between -0.24 and +1.25 VSCE while stirring the solution, that the electrocatalytic activity would be regenerated. As a consequence of this study, a much simpler method for producing ultra high purity water from acidic permanganate has been developed. This method results in water that surpasses the water produced by pyrocatalytic distillation. It has also been seen that the wettability of polycrystalline platinum surfaces is greatly dependent on the quantity of oxide present. Oxide-free platinum is hydrophobic and gives a contact angle in the range of 55 to 62 degrees. We have also modified polycrystalline platinum surface with the electrically conducting polymer poly-ρ-phenylene. This polymer is very stable in dilute sulfuric acid solutions, even under applied oxidative potentials. It is also highly resistant to electrochemical hydrogenation. The wettability of the polymer modified platinum surface is severely dependent on the choice of supporting electrolyte chosen for the electrochemical polymerization. Tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate produces a film that is as hydrophobic as Teflon, whereas tetraethylammonium perchlorate produces a film that is more hydrophilic than oxide-free platinum.

  2. Nanoscale surface characterization using laser interference microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatyev, Pavel S.; Skrynnik, Andrey A.; Melnik, Yury A.

    2018-03-01

    Nanoscale surface characterization is one of the most significant parts of modern materials development and application. The modern microscopes are expensive and complicated tools, and its use for industrial tasks is limited due to laborious sample preparation, measurement procedures, and low operation speed. The laser modulation interference microscopy method (MIM) for real-time quantitative and qualitative analysis of glass, metals, ceramics, and various coatings has a spatial resolution of 0.1 nm for vertical and up to 100 nm for lateral. It is proposed as an alternative to traditional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods. It is demonstrated that in the cases of roughness metrology for super smooth (Ra >1 nm) surfaces the application of a laser interference microscopy techniques is more optimal than conventional SEM and AFM. The comparison of semiconductor test structure for lateral dimensions measurements obtained with SEM and AFM and white light interferometer also demonstrates the advantages of MIM technique.

  3. A plateau-valley separation method for multifunctional surfaces characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Kühle, A.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Turned multifunctional surfaces are a new typology of textured surfaces presenting a flat plateau region and deterministically distributed lubricant reservoirs. Existing standards are not suitable for the characterization of such surfaces, providing at times values without physical meaning. A new...

  4. Computed potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Levin, Eugene

    1993-01-01

    A new global potential energy surface (PES) is being generated for O(P-3) + H2 yields OH + H. This surface is being fit using the rotated Morse oscillator method, which was used to fit the previous POL-CI surface. The new surface is expected to be more accurate and also includes a much more complete sampling of bent geometries. A new study has been undertaken of the reaction N + O2 yields NO + O. The new studies have focused on the region of the surface near a possible minimum corresponding to the peroxy form of NOO. A large portion of the PES for this second reaction has been mapped out. Since state to state cross sections for the reaction are important in the chemistry of high temperature air, these studies will probably be extended to permit generation of a new global potential for reaction.

  5. Characterizing chemical systems with on-line computers and graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazer, J.W.; Rigdon, L.P.; Brand, H.R.; Pomernacki, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    Incorporating computers and graphics on-line to chemical experiments and processes opens up new opportunities for the study and control of complex systems. Systems having many variables can be characterized even when the variable interactions are nonlinear, and the system cannot a priori be represented by numerical methods and models. That is, large sets of accurate data can be rapidly acquired, then modeling and graphic techniques can be used to obtain partial interpretation plus design of further experimentation. The experimenter can thus comparatively quickly iterate between experimentation and modeling to obtain a final solution. We have designed and characterized a versatile computer-controlled apparatus for chemical research, which incorporates on-line instrumentation and graphics. It can be used to determine the mechanism of enzyme-induced reactions or to optimize analytical methods. The apparatus can also be operated as a pilot plant to design control strategies. On-line graphics were used to display conventional plots used by biochemists and three-dimensional response-surface plots

  6. Facet Model and Mathematical Morphology for Surface Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abidi, B.R.; Goddard, J.S.; Hunt, M.A.; Sari-Sarraf, H.

    1999-11-13

    This paper describes an algorithm for the automatic segmentation and representation of surface structures and non-uniformities in an industrial setting. The automatic image processing and analysis algorithm is developed as part of a complete on-line web characterization system of a papermaking process at the wet end. The goal is to: (1) link certain types of structures on the surface of the web to known machine parameter values, and (2) find the connection between detected structures at the beginning of the line and defects seen on the final product. Images of the pulp mixture (slurry), carried by a fast moving table, are obtained using a stroboscopic light and a CCD camera. This characterization algorithm succeeded where conventional contrast and edge detection techniques failed due to a poorly controlled environment. The images obtained have poor contrast and contain noise caused by a variety of sources. After a number of enhancement steps, conventional segmentation methods still f ailed to detect any structures and are consequently discarded. Techniques tried include the Canny edge detector, the Sobel, Roberts, and Prewitt's filters, as well as zero crossings. The facet model algorithm, is then applied to the images with various parameter settings and is found to be successful in detecting the various topographic characteristics of the surface of the slurry. Pertinent topographic elements are retained and a filtered image computed. Carefully tailored morphological operators are then applied to detect and segment regions of interest. Those regions are then selected according to their size, elongation, and orientation. Their bounding rectangles are computed and represented. Also addressed in this paper are aspects of the real time implementation of this algorithm for on-line use. The algorithm is tested on over 500 images of slurry and is found to segment and characterize nonuniformities on all 500 images.

  7. An expert system to characterize the surface morphological properties according to their functionalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigerelle, M; Mathia, T; Iost, A; Correvits, T; Anselme, K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new methodology to characterize the morphological properties of a surface in relation with its functionality (tribological properties, surface coating adhesion, brightness, wettability...). We create a software based on experimental design and surface profile recording. Using an appropriate database structure, the roughness parameters are automatically computed at different scales. The surface files are saved in a hard disk directory and roughness parameters are computed at different scales. Finally, a statistical analysis system proposes the roughness parameter (or the pair of roughness parameters) that better describe(s) the functionality of the surface and the spatial scales at which the parameter(s) is (are) the more relevant.

  8. An expert system to characterize the surface morphological properties according to their functionalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigerelle, M [Laboratoire Roberval, UMR 6253, UTC/CNRS, UTC Centre de Recherches de Royallieu BP 20529, 60205 Compiegne France stol BS1 6BE (United Kingdom); Mathia, T [Laboratoire de Tribologie et Dynamique des Systemes, UMR 5513, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 Av Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France); Iost, A [Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille, UMR CNRS 8107, Arts et Metiers ParisTech - Lille, 8, boulevard Louis XIV 59046 Lille (France); Correvits, T [Laboratoire de Metrologie. Arts et Metiers ParisTech, ENSAM, 8 boulevard Louis XIV, 59046 LILLE Cedex (France); Anselme, K, E-mail: maxence.bigerelle@utc.fr [Institut De Sciences Des Materiaux De Mulhouse, CNRS LRC 7228, 15, rue Jean Starcky, Universite De Haute-Alsace, BP 2488, 68057 Mulhouse (France)

    2011-08-19

    In this paper we propose a new methodology to characterize the morphological properties of a surface in relation with its functionality (tribological properties, surface coating adhesion, brightness, wettability...). We create a software based on experimental design and surface profile recording. Using an appropriate database structure, the roughness parameters are automatically computed at different scales. The surface files are saved in a hard disk directory and roughness parameters are computed at different scales. Finally, a statistical analysis system proposes the roughness parameter (or the pair of roughness parameters) that better describe(s) the functionality of the surface and the spatial scales at which the parameter(s) is (are) the more relevant.

  9. Computation of surface roughness using optical correlation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [13] E Marx and T V Vorburger, Appl. Opt. 29, 3613 (1990). [14] R Silvennoinen, K E Peiponen, T Asakura, Y Zhang, C Gu, K Ikonen and E J Morley,. Opt. Lasers Eng. 17, 103 (1992). [15] M Sato Kurita, M Sato and K Nakano, Int. J. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. 35, 335 (1992). [16] P Beckmann, Scattering of light by rough surfaces, ...

  10. Characterization of phosphate films on aluminum surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, B.; Ramamurthy, S.; McIntyre, N.S. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-08-01

    A thin layer of phosphate conversion coating was formed on pure aluminum in a commercial zinc-manganese phosphating bath. A number of surface analytical techniques were used to characterize the phosphate thin films formed after immersion times ranging from 30 s to 10 min. The coating contained mainly a crystalline structure with dispersed micrometer-scale cavities. The major constituents of the phosphate film were zinc, phosphorus, and oxygen; a small amount of manganese was also detected. Based on these results, a three-stage mechanism was proposed for the formation and the growth of phosphate conversion coatings on aluminum. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to evaluate the corrosion performance of phosphated and uncoated aluminum samples in 0.50 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 0.10 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions. Both types of samples exhibited a passive state in the neutral solution and general corrosion behavior in the acid solution.

  11. Response Surface Model Building Using Orthogonal Arrays for Computer Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Resit; Braun, Robert D.; Moore, Arlene A.; Lepsch, Roger A.

    1997-01-01

    This study investigates response surface methods for computer experiments and discusses some of the approaches available. Orthogonal arrays constructed for computer experiments are studied and an example application to a technology selection and optimization study for a reusable launch vehicle is presented.

  12. Near-Surface Seismic Velocity Data: A Computer Program For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A computer program (NESURVELANA) has been developed in Visual Basic Computer programming language to carry out a near surface velocity analysis. The method of analysis used includes: Algorithms design and Visual Basic codes generation for plotting arrival time (ms) against geophone depth (m) employing the ...

  13. Soil structure characterized using computed tomographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhanqi Cheng; Stephen H. Anderson; Clark J. Gantzer; J. W. Van Sambeek

    2003-01-01

    Fractal analysis of soil structure is a relatively new method for quantifying the effects of management systems on soil properties and quality. The objective of this work was to explore several methods of studying images to describe and quantify structure of soils under forest management. This research uses computed tomography and a topological method called Multiple...

  14. Mathematical and computer modeling of component surface shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyashkov, A.

    2016-04-01

    The process of shaping technical surfaces is an interaction of a tool (a shape element) and a component (a formable element or a workpiece) in their relative movements. It was established that the main objects of formation are: 1) a discriminant of a surfaces family, formed by the movement of the shape element relatively the workpiece; 2) an enveloping model of the real component surface obtained after machining, including transition curves and undercut lines; 3) The model of cut-off layers obtained in the process of shaping. When modeling shaping objects there are a lot of insufficiently solved or unsolved issues that make up a single scientific problem - a problem of qualitative shaping of the surface of the tool and then the component surface produced by this tool. The improvement of known metal-cutting tools, intensive development of systems of their computer-aided design requires further improvement of the methods of shaping the mating surfaces. In this regard, an important role is played by the study of the processes of shaping of technical surfaces with the use of the positive aspects of analytical and numerical mathematical methods and techniques associated with the use of mathematical and computer modeling. The author of the paper has posed and has solved the problem of development of mathematical, geometric and algorithmic support of computer-aided design of cutting tools based on computer simulation of the shaping process of surfaces.

  15. Experimental and Computational Characterization of Combustion Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    example, in low-pressure diamond-synthesis environments, the hydrogen atom plays a significant role in determining the growth rate and quality of...CFDC) known as UNICORN . Excellent agreement between experimental and computational data has been achieved, as documented in Figure 1. Three...14] R. J. Santoro, T. T. Yeh, J. J. Horvath, and H. G. Semerjian, “The Transport and Growth of Soot Particles in Laminar Diffusion Flames

  16. Computation Sequences: A Way to Characterize Classes of Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1983-01-01

    A computation sequence for a derivation tree specifies a way of walking through the tree evaluating all the attributes of all nodes. By requiring that each derivation tree has a computation sequence with a certain property, it is possible to give simple characterizations of well-known subclasses ...

  17. Characterization and Planning for Computer Network Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Colleges_and_Universities/North_America/United_States/New_Hampshire 5.4075 Society/ Gay ,_Lesbian,_and_Bisexual/Student/Colleges_and_Universities/North_America...at work • Taking a vacation • Planning a wedding In contrast, Distress, or “negative stress”, is characterized by feelings of unfamiliarity and...Lifestyle Choices, and Gay , Lesbian, and Bisexual. Society covers people’s relationships with each other in topics such as Relationships, Activism, Advice

  18. Surface Characterization of a Paper Web at the Wet End

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abidi, B.R.; Goddard, J.S.; Sari-Sarraf, H.

    1999-01-01

    We present an algorithm for the detection and representation of structures and non-uniformities on the surface of a paper web at the wet end (slurry). This image processing/analysis algorithm is developed as part of a complete on-line web characterization system. Images of the slurry, carried by a fast moving table, are obtained using a stroboscopic light and a CCD camera. The images have very poor contrast and contain noise from a variety of sources. Those sources include the acquisition system itself, the lighting, the vibrations of the moving table being imaged, and the scattering water from the same table's movement. After many steps of enhancement, conventional edge detection methods were still inconclusive and were discarded. The facet model algorithm, is applied to the images and is found successful in detecting the various topographic characteristics of the surface of the slurry. Pertinent topographic elements are retained and a filtered image is computed based on the general appearance and characteristics of the structures in question. Morphological operators are applied to detect and segment regions of interest. Those regions are then filtered according to their size, elongation, and orientation.Their bounding rectangles are computed and superimposed on the original image. Real time implementation of this algorithm for on-line use is also addressed in this paper. The algorithm is tested on over 500 images of slurry and is found to detect nonuniformities on all 500 images. Locating and characterizing all different size structures is also achieved on all 500 images of the web

  19. Surface Characterization of a Paper Web at the Wet End

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abidi, B.R.; Goddard, J.S.; Sari-Sarraf, H.

    1999-06-23

    We present an algorithm for the detection and representation of structures and non-uniformities on the surface of a paper web at the wet end (slurry). This image processing/analysis algorithm is developed as part of a complete on-line web characterization system. Images of the slurry, carried by a fast moving table, are obtained using a stroboscopic light and a CCD camera. The images have very poor contrast and contain noise from a variety of sources. Those sources include the acquisition system itself, the lighting, the vibrations of the moving table being imaged, and the scattering water from the same table's movement. After many steps of enhancement, conventional edge detection methods were still inconclusive and were discarded. The facet model algorithm, is applied to the images and is found successful in detecting the various topographic characteristics of the surface of the slurry. Pertinent topographic elements are retained and a filtered image is computed based on the general appearance and characteristics of the structures in question. Morphological operators are applied to detect and segment regions of interest. Those regions are then filtered according to their size, elongation, and orientation.Their bounding rectangles are computed and superimposed on the original image. Real time implementation of this algorithm for on-line use is also addressed in this paper. The algorithm is tested on over 500 images of slurry and is found to detect nonuniformities on all 500 images. Locating and characterizing all different size structures is also achieved on all 500 images of the web.

  20. Leachate characterization and assessment of surface and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The environment can be impacted negatively by leachates from these dumpsites if not properly managed. This study aimed at assessing the characteristics of municipal solid waste leachate and its contamination potential on surface and groundwater. Leachate, groundwater and surface water samples were collected from ...

  1. Egypt satellite images for land surface characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    Satellite images provide information on the land surface properties. From optical remote sensing images in the blue, green, red and near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum it is possible to identify a large number of surface features. The report briefly describes different satellite...

  2. Challenges and opportunities of modeling plasma-surface interactions in tungsten using high-performance computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Brian D.; Hammond, K. D.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Maroudas, D.

    2015-08-01

    The performance of plasma facing components (PFCs) is critical for ITER and future magnetic fusion reactors. The ITER divertor will be tungsten, which is the primary candidate material for future reactors. Recent experiments involving tungsten exposure to low-energy helium plasmas reveal significant surface modification, including the growth of nanometer-scale tendrils of "fuzz" and formation of nanometer-sized bubbles in the near-surface region. The large span of spatial and temporal scales governing plasma surface interactions are among the challenges to modeling divertor performance. Fortunately, recent innovations in computational modeling, increasingly powerful high-performance computers, and improved experimental characterization tools provide a path toward self-consistent, experimentally validated models of PFC and divertor performance. Recent advances in understanding tungsten-helium interactions are reviewed, including such processes as helium clustering, which serve as nuclei for gas bubbles; and trap mutation, dislocation loop punching and bubble bursting; which together initiate surface morphological modification.

  3. Challenges and opportunities of modeling plasma–surface interactions in tungsten using high-performance computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, Brian D.; Hammond, K.D.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Maroudas, D.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of plasma facing components (PFCs) is critical for ITER and future magnetic fusion reactors. The ITER divertor will be tungsten, which is the primary candidate material for future reactors. Recent experiments involving tungsten exposure to low-energy helium plasmas reveal significant surface modification, including the growth of nanometer-scale tendrils of “fuzz” and formation of nanometer-sized bubbles in the near-surface region. The large span of spatial and temporal scales governing plasma surface interactions are among the challenges to modeling divertor performance. Fortunately, recent innovations in computational modeling, increasingly powerful high-performance computers, and improved experimental characterization tools provide a path toward self-consistent, experimentally validated models of PFC and divertor performance. Recent advances in understanding tungsten–helium interactions are reviewed, including such processes as helium clustering, which serve as nuclei for gas bubbles; and trap mutation, dislocation loop punching and bubble bursting; which together initiate surface morphological modification

  4. Characterization of polychlorinated biphenyls in surface sediments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution and concentrations of 6 indicator polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, nos. 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180, were determined in surface sediments from the North End Lake in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Forty-two surficial sediment samples were collected from different locations covering the region that ...

  5. Characterization of high surface area silicon oxynitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lednor, P.W.; DeRuiter, R.; Emeis, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    In heterogenous catalysis, liquid or gaseous feedstocks are converted over a solid catalyst into more desirable products. Such processes form an essential part of the oil and petrochemical industries. The solid catalyst usually consists of an inorganic phase, with or without metal particles on the surface. Examples include platinum particles on gamma alumina (a reforming catalyst used in oil processing), chromium particles on silica (an ethylene polymerization catalyst) and zeolites or amorphous silica-aluminas (used as solid acids).Oxides have been widely investigated in catalysis, and silica, alumina, and aluminosilicates find application commercially on a large scale. On the other hand, non-oxide materials such as nitrides, carbides and borides have been relatively little investigated. The main reason for this has been the lack of routes to the high surface area forms usually required in catalysis. However, this situation has changed significantly in recent years, due to the interest in high surface area non-oxides as precursors to fully dense ceramics; in this paper, the authors have reviewed synthetic routes to high surface area non-oxides

  6. Characterization of multifunctional surfaces during fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Friis, Kasper Storgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    The multifunctional surfaces herein studied are intended for carrying high loads as well as providing lubrication. They are produced by hard turning, creating a periodic pattern that will constitute the lubricant channels, followed by accurate Robot Assisted Polishing to smooth the tops of the cu...

  7. Formation and surface characterization of nanostructured Al2O3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Page 1. Electronic Supplementary Material. Graphical abstract. Formation and surface characterization of nanostructured Al2O3–TiO2 coatings by Vairamuthu Raj and Mohamed Sirajudeen Mumjitha. (pp 1411–1418).

  8. Surface Sensitive Techniques for Advanced Characterization of Luminescent Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrik C. Swart

    2017-01-01

    The important role of surface sensitive characterization techniques such as Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), time of flight scanning ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) for the characterization of different phosphor materials is discussed in this short review by giving selective examples from previous obtained results. AES is used to monitor surface reactions during electron bombardment and al...

  9. Integrating aerodynamic surface modeling for computational fluid dynamics with computer aided structural analysis, design, and manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Scott A.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the development of a NASA Geometry Exchange Specification for transferring aerodynamic surface geometry between LeRC systems and grid generation software used for computational fluid dynamics research. The proposed specification is based on a subset of the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). The presentation will include discussion of how the NASA-IGES standard will accommodate improved computer aided design inspection methods and reverse engineering techniques currently being developed. The presentation is in viewgraph format.

  10. Synthesis, surface characterization and optical properties of 3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3-Thiopropionic acid (TPA) capped ZnS:Cu nanocrystals have been successfully synthesized by simple aqueous method. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed the particle size to be 4.2 nm. Surface characterization of the nanocrystals by FTIR spectroscopy has been done and the structure for surface bound TPA ...

  11. Synthesis, surface characterization and optical properties of 3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3-Thiopropionic acid (TPA) capped ZnS:Cu nanocrystals have been successfully synthesized by simple aqueous method. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed the particle size to be 4.2 nm. Surface characterization of the nanocrystals by FTIR spectroscopy has been done and the structure for surface bound TPA ...

  12. Topographic characterization of nanostructures on curved polymer surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Petersen, Jan C.; Taboryski, Rafael J.

    2014-01-01

    method with a portable instrument that can be used in a production environment, and topographically characterize nanometer-scale surface structures on both flat and curved surfaces. To facilitate the commercialization of injection moulded polymer parts featuring nanostructures, it is pivotal...

  13. Characterization of silicon carbide and nitride powder surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, M.N.; Boiteux, Y.; DeLohgne, L.C.

    1985-01-01

    The surfaces of SiC and Si 3 N 4 powders have been characterized using high resolution TEM, XPS and SIMS techniques. XPS is shown to be a powerful technique once a valid means of referencing the peaks is found. Attempts to manipulate the silica layer and its effect on surface properties are discussed

  14. Experimental characterization of micromilled surfaces by large range AFM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bariani, Paolo; Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2004-01-01

    of workpiece material, particularly when sub-micrometer chip thicknesses are considered and when machining hard materials. Quantification of surface topography is of fundamental importance for the evaluation of the generated surface; high resolution and wide measuring range being highly desirable...... for the evaluation of the distinctive behaviour of the ball end mill. The combination of the two demands is to date not matched by any measuring instrument. The paper describes an experimental investigation of surface topography of such micromachined surfaces. Accurate characterization of fine surface details...

  15. Surface modification and characterization Collaborative Research Center at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Surface Modification and Characterization Collaborative Research Center (SMAC/CRC) is a unique facility for the alteration and characterization of the near-surface properties of materials. The SMAC/CRC facility is equipped with particle accelerators and high-powered lasers which can be used to improve the physical, electrical, and/or chemical properties of solids and to create unique new materials not possible to obtain with conventional ''equilibrium'' processing techniques. Surface modification is achieved using such techniques as ion implantation doping, ion beam mixing, laser mixing, ion deposition, and laser annealing

  16. Computational challenges about nano structures and bio systems at surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Felice, R.; Corni, S.; Molinari, E.

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between nano-objects and extended solid surfaces is of paramount importance in the context of nano science and nano technology. It plays a role both in investigating the properties of nano scale materials and in exploiting such properties. We overview selected examples inspired by experimental facts. We focus on bio-nano cases such as the adsorption of small polypeptides and nucleotides on metal surfaces, including the role of an aqueous environment. We highlight evidences that call for interpretation, computational approaches based on density functional theory and molecular dynamics that are currently available to face the open problems, and desired theoretical/ computational developments that may increase the potentialities of theory to guide and interpret technology progress.

  17. Characterization of Pectin Nanocoatings at Polystyrene and Titanium Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurzawska, Katarzyna; Dirscherl, Kai; Yihua, Yu

    2013-01-01

    The titanium implant surface plays a crucial role for implant incorporation into bone. A new strategy to improve implant integration in a bone is to develop surface nanocoatings with plant-derived polysaccharides able to increase adhesion of bone cells to the implant surface. The aim of the present...... study was to physically characterize and compare polystyrene and titanium surfaces nanocoated with different Rhamnogalacturonan-Is (RG-I) and to visualize RG-I nanocoatings. RG-Is from potato and apple were coated on aminated surfaces of polystyrene, titianium discs and titanium implants...... wettability, without any major effect on surface roughness (Sa, Sdr). Furthermore, we demonstrated that it is possible to visualize the pectin RG-Is molecules and even the nanocoatings on titanium surfaces, which have not been presented before. The comparison between polystyrene and titanium surface showed...

  18. Computational model of surface ablation from tokamak disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehst, D.; Hassanein, A.

    1993-10-01

    Energy transfer to material surfaces is dominated by photon radiation through low temperature plasma vapors if tokamak disruptions are due to low kinetic energy particles ( < 100 eV). Simple models of radiation transport are derived and incorporated into a fast-running computer routine to model this process. The results of simulations are in fair agreement with plasma gun erosion tests on several metal targets

  19. Computer simulation of RBS spectra from samples with surface roughness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malinský, Petr; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Macková, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 371, MAR (2016), s. 101-105 ISSN 0168-583X. [22nd International conference on Ion Beam Analysis (IBA). Opatija, 14.06.2015-19.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019; GA ČR GA15-01602S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : computer simulation * Rutherford backscattering * surface roughness Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2016

  20. Surface Sensitive Techniques for Advanced Characterization of Luminescent Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Hendrik C

    2017-08-04

    The important role of surface sensitive characterization techniques such as Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), time of flight scanning ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) for the characterization of different phosphor materials is discussed in this short review by giving selective examples from previous obtained results. AES is used to monitor surface reactions during electron bombardment and also to determine the elemental composition of the surfaces of the materials, while XPS and TOF-SIMS are used for determining the surface chemical composition and valence state of the dopants. The role of XPS to determine the presence of defects in the phosphor matrix is also stated with the different examples. The role of HRTEM in combination with Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) for nanoparticle characterization is also pointed out.

  1. Surface Sensitive Techniques for Advanced Characterization of Luminescent Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik C. Swart

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The important role of surface sensitive characterization techniques such as Auger electron spectroscopy (AES, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS, time of flight scanning ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS and High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM for the characterization of different phosphor materials is discussed in this short review by giving selective examples from previous obtained results. AES is used to monitor surface reactions during electron bombardment and also to determine the elemental composition of the surfaces of the materials, while XPS and TOF-SIMS are used for determining the surface chemical composition and valence state of the dopants. The role of XPS to determine the presence of defects in the phosphor matrix is also stated with the different examples. The role of HRTEM in combination with Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS for nanoparticle characterization is also pointed out.

  2. Biological and environmental surface interactions of nanomaterials: characterization, modeling, and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ran; Riviere, Jim E

    2017-05-01

    The understanding of nano-bio interactions is deemed essential in the design, application, and safe handling of nanomaterials. Proper characterization of the intrinsic physicochemical properties, including their size, surface charge, shape, and functionalization, is needed to consider the fate or impact of nanomaterials in biological and environmental systems. The characterizations of their interactions with surrounding chemical species are often hindered by the complexity of biological or environmental systems, and the drastically different surface physicochemical properties among a large population of nanomaterials. The complexity of these interactions is also due to the diverse ligands of different chemical properties present in most biomacromolecules, and multiple conformations they can assume at different conditions to minimize their conformational free energy. Often these interactions are collectively determined by multiple physical or chemical forces, including electrostatic forces, hydrogen bonding, and hydrophobic forces, and calls for multidimensional characterization strategies, both experimentally and computationally. Through these characterizations, the understanding of the roles surface physicochemical properties of nanomaterials and their surface interactions with biomacromolecules can play in their applications in biomedical and environmental fields can be obtained. To quantitatively decipher these physicochemical surface interactions, computational methods, including physical, statistical, and pharmacokinetic models, can be used for either analyses of large amounts of experimental characterization data, or theoretical prediction of the interactions, and consequent biological behavior in the body after administration. These computational methods include molecular dynamics simulation, structure-activity relationship models such as biological surface adsorption index, and physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2017

  3. VASCo: computation and visualization of annotated protein surface contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thallinger Gerhard G

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural data from crystallographic analyses contain a vast amount of information on protein-protein contacts. Knowledge on protein-protein interactions is essential for understanding many processes in living cells. The methods to investigate these interactions range from genetics to biophysics, crystallography, bioinformatics and computer modeling. Also crystal contact information can be useful to understand biologically relevant protein oligomerisation as they rely in principle on the same physico-chemical interaction forces. Visualization of crystal and biological contact data including different surface properties can help to analyse protein-protein interactions. Results VASCo is a program package for the calculation of protein surface properties and the visualization of annotated surfaces. Special emphasis is laid on protein-protein interactions, which are calculated based on surface point distances. The same approach is used to compare surfaces of two aligned molecules. Molecular properties such as electrostatic potential or hydrophobicity are mapped onto these surface points. Molecular surfaces and the corresponding properties are calculated using well established programs integrated into the package, as well as using custom developed programs. The modular package can easily be extended to include new properties for annotation. The output of the program is most conveniently displayed in PyMOL using a custom-made plug-in. Conclusion VASCo supplements other available protein contact visualisation tools and provides additional information on biological interactions as well as on crystal contacts. The tool provides a unique feature to compare surfaces of two aligned molecules based on point distances and thereby facilitates the visualization and analysis of surface differences.

  4. Computational Reduction of Specimen Noise to Enable Improved Thermography Characterization of Flaws in Graphite Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfree, William P.; Howell, Patricia A.; Zalameda, Joseph N.

    2014-01-01

    Flaw detection and characterization with thermographic techniques in graphite polymer composites are often limited by localized variations in the thermographic response. Variations in properties such as acceptable porosity, fiber volume content and surface polymer thickness result in variations in the thermal response that in general cause significant variations in the initial thermal response. These result in a "noise" floor that increases the difficulty of detecting and characterizing deeper flaws. A method is presented for computationally removing a significant amount of the "noise" from near surface porosity by diffusing the early time response, then subtracting it from subsequent responses. Simulations of the thermal response of a composite are utilized in defining the limitations of the technique. This method for reducing the data is shown to give considerable improvement characterizing both the size and depth of damage. Examples are shown for data acquired on specimens with fabricated delaminations and impact damage.

  5. Lectures on Modification, Characterization and Modeling of Surfaces. Vol. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The field of surfaces and thin films is now so broad that has applications in protective coatings, electronic devices, displays, sensors, optical equipment, bio-compatible coatings for surgical implants, odontological and cardiovascular use, and numerous other technologies that depend on the deposition processes. Even though there exist well established methods for both, production and characterization of high-quality surfaces, the interest in finding alternative methods more reliable and less expensive is one of the challenges of present technologies. In this special issue the attention is focused on some areas concerning surface modification, characterization and modeling of surfaces. The volume contains reviews and articles on plasma processing, nitriding, nitrocarburising, diamond-like films, laser and ion-beam surface modification,texture in films and coatings, nuclear techniques in surface analysis, electron spectroscopies, ion scattering spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, STM and AFM applications to surface science, nano structure preparation magnetic and electric properties, surface modeling, calculation of electric and magnetic properties, statistical thermodynamics of surfaces

  6. Characterization of polymer surface structure and surface mechanical behaviour by sum frequency generation surface vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opdahl, Aric; Koffas, Telly S; Amitay-Sadovsky, Ella; Kim, Joonyeong; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2004-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used to study polymer surface structure and surface mechanical behaviour, specifically to study the relationships between the surface properties of polymers and their bulk compositions and the environment to which the polymer is exposed. The combination of SFG surface vibrational spectroscopy and AFM has been used to study surface segregation behaviour of polyolefin blends at the polymer/air and polymer/solid interfaces. SFG surface vibrational spectroscopy and AFM experiments have also been performed to characterize the properties of polymer/liquid and polymer/polymer interfaces, focusing on hydrogel materials. A method was developed to study the surface properties of hydrogel contact lens materials at various hydration conditions. Finally, the effect of mechanical stretching on the surface composition and surface mechanical behaviour of phase-separated polyurethanes, used in biomedical implant devices, has been studied by both SFG surface vibrational spectroscopy and AFM. (topical review)

  7. Identification and characterization of the surface proteins of Clostridium difficile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dailey, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    Several clostridial proteins were detected on the clostridial cell surface by sensitive radioiodination techniques. Two major proteins and six minor proteins comprised the radioiodinated proteins on the clostridial cell surface. Cellular fractionation of surface radiolabeled C. difficile determined that the radioiodinated proteins were found in the cell wall fraction of C. difficile and surprisingly were also present in the clostridial membrane. Furthermore, an interesting phenomenon of disulfide-crosslinking of the cell surface proteins of C. difficile was observed. Disulfide-linked protein complexes were found in both the membrane and cell wall fractions. In addition, the cell surface proteins of C. difficile were found to be released into the culture medium. In attempts to further characterize the clostridial proteins recombinant DNA techniques were employed. In addition, the role of the clostridial cell surface proteins in the interactions of C. difficile with human PMNs was also investigated.

  8. Preparation of surface enhanced Raman substrate and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Wang, J. Y.; Wang, J. Q.

    2017-10-01

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a fast, convenient and highly sensitive detection technique, and preparing the good effect and repeatable substrate is the key to realize the trace amount and quantitative detection in the field of food safety detection. In this paper, a surface enhanced Raman substrate based on submicrometer silver particles structure was prepared by chemical deposition method, and characterized its structure and optical properties.

  9. New horizons in selective laser sintering surface roughness characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetterli, M.; Schmid, M.; Knapp, W.; Wegener, K.

    2017-12-01

    Powder-based additive manufacturing of polymers and metals has evolved from a prototyping technology to an industrial process for the fabrication of small to medium series of complex geometry parts. Unfortunately due to the processing of powder as a basis material and the successive addition of layers to produce components, a significant surface roughness inherent to the process has been observed since the first use of such technologies. A novel characterization method based on an elastomeric pad coated with a reflective layer, the Gelsight, was found to be reliable and fast to characterize surfaces processed by selective laser sintering (SLS) of polymers. With help of this method, a qualitative and quantitative investigation of SLS surfaces is feasible. Repeatability and reproducibility investigations are performed for both 2D and 3D areal roughness parameters. Based on the good results, the Gelsight is used for the optimization of vertical SLS surfaces. A model built on laser scanning parameters is proposed and after confirmation could achieve a roughness reduction of 10% based on the S q parameter. The Gelsight could be successfully identified as a fast, reliable and versatile surface topography characterization method as it applies to all kind of surfaces.

  10. Computer analysis of transient heat transfer from coated surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, A.; Holmes, D.

    1983-01-01

    The transient thermal response of internally heated, coated surfaces in contact with liquid helium was investigated with a previously developed computer model. The coatings were found to affect the time required to initiate film boiling or to quench a superconductor in the substrate. The energy which can be absorbed without an unacceptably large temperature rise depends most strongly upon the coating thermal property group (kpC /SUB p/ ) /SUP 1/2/ and on the peak nucleate boiling heat flux. Dielectric materials for electrical insulation usually have low thermal property group values, but a new class of ceramic materials shows great promise for application with superconducting devices as electrical insulations with good thermal properties. Coating materials with thermal property group values greater than that of OFHC copper at liquid helium temperatures provide the same thermal stability as a bare copper surface exposed to the helium bath. Possible applications of the new materials to potted windings are also discussed

  11. Computed Potential Energy Surfaces and Minimum Energy Pathways for Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Langhoff, S. R. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Computed potential energy surfaces are often required for computation of such parameters as rate constants as a function of temperature, product branching ratios, and other detailed properties. For some dynamics methods, global potential energy surfaces are required. In this case, it is necessary to obtain the energy at a complete sampling of all the possible arrangements of the nuclei, which are energetically accessible, and then a fitting function must be obtained to interpolate between the computed points. In other cases, characterization of the stationary points and the reaction pathway connecting them is sufficient. These properties may be readily obtained using analytical derivative methods. We have found that computation of the stationary points/reaction pathways using CASSCF/derivative methods, followed by use of the internally contracted CI method to obtain accurate energetics, gives usefull results for a number of chemically important systems. The talk will focus on a number of applications including global potential energy surfaces, H + O2, H + N2, O(3p) + H2, and reaction pathways for complex reactions, including reactions leading to NO and soot formation in hydrocarbon combustion.

  12. Numerical Experiments on the Computation of Ground Surface Temperature in an Atmospheric Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    computation of the ground surface temperature. It is hoped that this discussion will contribute to the improvement of the accuracy of computed ground surface temperature in the simulation of climatic changes .

  13. Bulk and surface characterization of novel photoresponsive polymeric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, Shivshankar

    This dissertation presents a detailed characterization of two important classes of photoresponsive polymers-polydiacetylenes (PDAs) and azopolymers. Bulk and surface characterization techniques were used to evaluate the structure-property relationships of the PDAs and surface characterization, in particular-atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to characterize the azopolymers. PDAs from bis-alkylurethanes of 5,7 dodecadiyn 1,12-diol (viz.,) ETCD, IPUDO and PUDO are of particular interest in view of reports of reversible thermochromic and photochromic phase transitions in these materials. Thermochromism in the above PDAs is associated with a first order phase transition involving expansion of the crystallographic unit cell, the preservation of the urethane hydrogen bonding and possibly some relief of mechanical strain upon heating. Insights into thermochromism obtained from studies of nonthermochromic forms of PDA-ETCD are discussed. Some of the bulk characterization experiments reported In the literature are repeated. The motivation to investigate the surface morphology of the PDA single crystals using AFM was derived from Raman spectroscopy studies of various PDAs in which dispersion of the Raman spectrum indicating surface heterogeneity was observed. Micron scale as well as molecularly resolved images were obtained The micron scale images indicated a variable surface of the crystals. The molecularly resolved images showed a well defined 2-D lattice and are interpreted in terms of known crystallographic data. The surface parameters obtained from AFM measurements are similar to those determined from X-ray diffraction. During an attempt of AFM imaging of IPUDO crystals exposed to 254 nm ultraviolet light, it was observed that these crystals undergo a "macroscopic shattering". In the interest of rigorously defining conditions for photochromism, this research has undertaken a combined study of the surface morphology of the above mentioned PDA crystals by AFM and the

  14. Characterization of novel silane coatings on titanium implant surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matinlinna, Jukka P; Tsoi, James Kit‐Hon; de Vries, Jacob; Busscher, Hendrik

    Objectives This in vitro study describes and characterizes a developed novel method to produce coatings on Ti. Hydrophobic coatings on substrates are needed in prosthetic dentistry to promote durable adhesion between luting resin cements and coated Ti surfaces. In implant dentistry the hydrophobic

  15. Formation and surface characterization of nanostructured Al2O3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    1411. Formation and surface characterization of nanostructured Al2O3–TiO2 coatings. VAIRAMUTHU RAJ* and MOHAMED SIRAJUDEEN MUMJITHA. Advanced Materials ... of the coatings (thickness, growth rate, coating ratio) showed a linear regime with current density and electro- ..... Electronic Supplementary Material.

  16. Material, Mechanical, and Tribological Characterization of Laser-Treated Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Kumar, Aditya; Bhushan, Bharat; Aleem, B. J. Abdul

    2014-10-01

    Laser treatment under nitrogen assisting gas environment of cobalt-nickel-chromium-tungsten-based superalloy and high-velocity oxygen-fuel thermal spray coating of nickel-chromium-based superalloy on carbon steel was carried out to improve mechanical and tribological properties. Superalloy surface was preprepared to include B4C particles at the surface prior to the laser treatment process. Material and morphological changes in the laser-treated samples were examined using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Residual stresses present at the surface region of the laser-treated layer were determined from the XRD data. The microhardness of the laser-treated surface was measured by indentation tests. Fracture toughness of the coating surfaces before and after laser treatment were also measured using overload indentation tests. Macrowear and macrofriction characterization were carried out using pin-on-disk tests.

  17. Surface modification and characterization of magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate nanowhiskers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Chuanhui [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Li Xianguo, E-mail: chuanhuigao@foxmail.com [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Feng Lijuan; Lu Shaoyan; Liu Jinyan [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China)

    2010-03-01

    In order to enhance the compatibility with plastic polymers, magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate (MHSH) nanowhiskers were modified through grafting methyl methacrylate (MMA) on the surface of the nanowhiskers by emulsion polymerization. The influences of the reaction time, MMA monomer content, adding speed of monomer and the reaction temperature on the grafting ratio were investigated. Thermogravimetry (TG), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and surface contact angle measurement were used to characterize the effect of surface modification. The results showed that the MHSH nanowhiskers were uniformly coated by polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), and a well-defined core-shell hybrid structure of MHSH/PMMA was obtained. The surface contact angle of the hybrid whiskers increased to 87.32 deg. from 12.71 deg. and the whiskers surface was changed from hydrophilic to lipophilic.

  18. Fabrication and characterization of multi-level hierarchical surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Lee, Hyungoo

    2012-01-01

    A nanostructured surface may exhibit low adhesion or high adhesion depending upon fibrillar density, and it presents the possibility of realizing eco-friendly surface structures with desirable adhesion by mimicking the mechanics of fibrillar adhesive surfaces of biological systems. The current research uses a patterning technique to fabricate smart adhesion surfaces: one-, two- and three-level hierarchical synthetic adhesive structure surfaces with various fibrillar densities and diameters. The contact angles and contact angle hysteresis were measured to characterize the wettability. A conventional and a glass ball attached to an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip were used to obtain the adhesive forces via force-distance curves and to study the buckling behavior of a single fiber on the hierarchical structures.

  19. Characterization of the damage produced on different materials surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellavale Clara, Hector Damian

    2004-01-01

    In the present work the characterization techniques of surfaces ULOI and RIMAPS have been applied on laboratory samples made from aluminium, stainless steel and material based on fiberglass.The resultant surfaces of, chemical etching with corrosive agents Keller and Tucker, mechanic damage from the wear and tear of abrasive paper and sandrubbing with alumina particles, are analyzed to different level of damage.The systematic application of the above mentioned techniques is carried out with the objective of finding information, which allows to characterize the superficial damage, both in its incipient state as in the extreme situation revealed by the presence of etch pits. Important results have been obtained, in the characterization of the incipient stage of the chemical etching, using the curves of the normalized area.In addition, it was possible to verify the capacity of the techniques in the early detection of the preferential directions generated by the etch pits

  20. Fractal and Lacunarity Analyses: Quantitative Characterization of Hierarchical Surface Topographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Edwin J Y; Servio, Phillip; Kietzig, Anne-Marie

    2016-02-01

    Biomimetic hierarchical surface structures that exhibit features having multiple length scales have been used in many technological and engineering applications. Their surface topographies are most commonly analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which only allows for qualitative visual assessments. Here we introduce fractal and lacunarity analyses as a method of characterizing the SEM images of hierarchical surface structures in a quantitative manner. Taking femtosecond laser-irradiated metals as an example, our results illustrate that, while the fractal dimension is a poor descriptor of surface complexity, lacunarity analysis can successfully quantify the spatial texture of an SEM image; this, in turn, provides a convenient means of reporting changes in surface topography with respect to changes in processing parameters. Furthermore, lacunarity plots are shown to be sensitive to the different length scales present within a hierarchical structure due to the reversal of lacunarity trends at specific magnifications where new features become resolvable. Finally, we have established a consistent method of detecting pattern sizes in an image from the oscillation of lacunarity plots. Therefore, we promote the adoption of lacunarity analysis as a powerful tool for quantitative characterization of, but not limited to, multi-scale hierarchical surface topographies.

  1. Cardiac motion extraction and characterization in multislice computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, A.

    2005-12-01

    Cardiac kinetics analysis is of a great diagnostic interest in the fight against cardiovascular pathologies. Two methods are proposed in order to estimate cardiac motion from dynamic sequences of three-dimensional volumes acquired in multislice computed tomography. These methods both lie on a feature matching process, carried out within a Markovian framework and according to a multi-resolution scheme. The first method, estimating the correspondences between pre-segmented surfaces, is dependent on the temporal coherence of this segmentation. The second method estimates the correspondences between, on the one hand, a segmented surface and, on the other hand, the original data volume corresponding to the next moment. The motion estimation and the segmentation are then carried out, on the whole sequence, during a single process. Both methods are validated on simulated and real data. (author)

  2. Surface characterization of industrial flexible polyvinyl(chloride) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesne, Bertrand; Reverdy-Bruas, Nadège; Beneventi, Davide; Chaussy, Didier; Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur

    2014-03-01

    Surface properties of industrial coated plasticized PVC flooring films have been investigated, with the aim of establishing possible additives migration, which causes chemical surface modification of the film and consequently its adhesion behavior. The storage period, from the production time to the converting operations (printing, laminating…) can also promote the additives migration. The surface of these films was extracted with acetone and water and the organic fraction was identified by surface tension, FTIR and GC/MS. These techniques established clearly that the extracted molecules are issuing from the plasticizers. Virgin and aged films were characterized by contact angle measurement and the surface chemistry was directly studied by XPS analyses. The first technique showed stable wettability properties of the films during storage. The contact angle of water droplet was found to decrease step wisely indicating that some surfactant-type molecules were extracted during the measurements, as confirmed by surface tension measurements. XPS established that a higher concentration of the chlorine-free additives was localized on the surface, which points out a probable enrichment of the surface by the plasticizers and the other additives. This suggests that migration kinetic of plasticizers is very high during the production, because of the high processing temperature.

  3. Characterizing the effects of regolith surface roughness on photoemission from surfaces in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, A.; Horanyi, M.; Wang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Surfaces of airless bodies and spacecraft in space are exposed to a variety of charging environments. A balance of currents due to plasma bombardment, photoemission, electron and ion emission and collection, and secondary electron emission determines the surface's charge. Photoelectron emission is the dominant charging process on sunlit surfaces in the inner solar system due to the intense solar UV radiation. This can result in a net positive surface potential, with a cloud of photoelectrons immediately above the surface, called the photoelectron sheath. Conversely, the unlit side of the body will charge negatively due the collection of the fast-moving solar wind electrons. The interaction of charged dust grains with these positively and negatively charged surfaces, and within the photoelectron and plasma sheaths may explain the occurrence of dust lofting, levitation and transport above the lunar surface. The surface potential of exposed objects is also dependent on the material properties of their surfaces. Composition and particle size primarily affect the quantum efficiency of photoelectron generation; however, surface roughness can also control the charging process. In order to characterize these effects, we have conducted laboratory experiments to examine the role of surface roughness in generating photoelectrons in dedicated laboratory experiments using solid and dusty surfaces of the same composition (CeO2), and initial comparisons with JSC-1 lunar simulant. Using Langmuir probe measurements, we explore the measured potentials above insulating surfaces exposed to UV and an electric field, and we show that the photoemission current from a dusty surface is largely reduced due to its higher surface roughness, which causes a significant fraction of the emitted photoelectrons to be re-absorbed within the surface. We will discuss these results in context of similar situations on planetary surfaces.

  4. Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces and computational methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, R. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project involves the development, implementation, and application of theoretical methods for the calculation and characterization of potential energy surfaces involving molecular species that occur in hydrocarbon combustion. These potential energy surfaces require an accurate and balanced treatment of reactants, intermediates, and products. This difficult challenge is met with general multiconfiguration self-consistent-field (MCSCF) and multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction (MRSDCI) methods. In contrast to the more common single-reference electronic structure methods, this approach is capable of describing accurately molecular systems that are highly distorted away from their equilibrium geometries, including reactant, fragment, and transition-state geometries, and of describing regions of the potential surface that are associated with electronic wave functions of widely varying nature. The MCSCF reference wave functions are designed to be sufficiently flexible to describe qualitatively the changes in the electronic structure over the broad range of geometries of interest. The necessary mixing of ionic, covalent, and Rydberg contributions, along with the appropriate treatment of the different electron-spin components (e.g. closed shell, high-spin open-shell, low-spin open shell, radical, diradical, etc.) of the wave functions, are treated correctly at this level. Further treatment of electron correlation effects is included using large scale multireference CI wave functions, particularly including the single and double excitations relative to the MCSCF reference space. This leads to the most flexible and accurate large-scale MRSDCI wave functions that have been used to date in global PES studies.

  5. Surface characterization of self-assembled N-Cu nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristina, Lucila J.; Moreno-Lopez, Juan C. [Laboratorio de Superficies e Interfaces, Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, (S3000GLN) Santa Fe (Argentina); Sferco, Silvano J. [Laboratorio de Superficies e Interfaces, Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, (S3000GLN) Santa Fe (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Bioquimica y Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Ciudad Universitaria, C.C. 242, (S3000ZAA) Santa Fe (Argentina); Passeggi, Mario C.G.; Vidal, Ricardo A. [Laboratorio de Superficies e Interfaces, Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, (S3000GLN) Santa Fe (Argentina); Ferron, Julio, E-mail: jferron@intec.unl.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Superficies e Interfaces, Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, (S3000GLN) Santa Fe (Argentina); Departamento de Materiales, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829,(S3000AOM) Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2012-01-01

    We report on the process of low energy N{sub 2}{sup +} implantation and annealing of a Cu(0 0 1) surface. Through AES we study the N diffusion process as a function of the substrate temperature. With STM and LEIS we characterize the surface morphology and the electronic structure is analyzed with ARUPS. Under annealing (500 < T < 700 K) N migrates to the surface and reacts forming a Cu{sub x}N compound that decomposes at temperatures above 700 K. LEIS measurements show that N locates on the four-fold hollow sites of the Cu(0 0 1) surface in a c(2 Multiplication-Sign 2) arrangement. Finally, a gap along the [0 0 1] azimuthal direction is determined by ARUPS. DFT calculations provide support to our conclusions.

  6. Surface Characterization of Nanoparticles: Critical Needs and Significant Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, Donald R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing recognition that nanoparticles and other nanostructured materials are sometimes inadequately characterized and that this may limit or even invalidate some of the conclusions regarding particle properties and behavior. A number of international organizations are working to establish the essential measurement requirements that enable adequate understanding of nanoparticle properties for both technological applications and for environmental health issues. Our research on the interaction of iron metal-core oxide-shell nanoparticles with environmental contaminants and studies of the behaviors of ceria nanoparticles, with a variety of medical, catalysis and energy applications, have highlighted a number of common nanoparticle characterization challenges that have not been fully recognized by parts of the research community. This short review outlines some of these characterization challenges based on our research observations and using other results reported in the literature. Issues highlighted include: (1) the importance of surfaces and surface characterization, (2) nanoparticles are often not created equal - subtle differences in synthesis and processing can have large impacts; (3) nanoparticles frequently change with time having lifetime implications for products and complicating understanding of health and safety impacts; (4) the high sensitivity of nanoparticles to their environment complicates characterization and applications in many ways; (5) nanoparticles are highly unstable and easily altered (damaged) during analysis.

  7. Combining Surface Analytical and Computational Techniques to Investigate Orientation Effects of Immobilized Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Elisa Turla

    Controlling how proteins are immobilized (e.g. controlling their orientation and conformation) is essential for developing and optimizing the performance of in vitro protein-binding devices, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The objective of this work is to develop new methodologies to study proteins and complex mixtures of proteins immobilized onto surfaces. The focus of this study was to control and characterize the orientation of protein G B1, an IgG antibody-binding domain of protein G, on well-defined surfaces as well as measure the effect of protein G B1 orientation on IgG antibody binding using a variety of surface analytical and computational techniques. The surface sensitivity of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used to distinguish between different proteins and their orientation by monitoring the changes in intensity of characteristic amino acid mass fragments. Amino acids distributed asymmetrically were used to calculate peak intensity ratios from ToF-SIMS data to determine the orientation of five different cysteine mutants of protein G B1 covalently attached to a maleimide surface. To study the effect of protein orientation on antibody binding, we formed multilayer protein films by binding IgG to protein G B1 films. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) detected protein coverages of 69-130 ng/cm2 (theoretical mass of a monolayer of protein G B1 is 110-160 ng/cm2). QCM-D and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis revealed that packing density along with orientation affected the antibody binding process. Spectra from ToF-SIMS using large Ar gas cluster ion sources distinguished between different proteins in multilayer protein systems. A Monte Carlo algorithm was developed to predict protein orientation on surfaces. Two distinct orientations of protein G B1 adsorbed onto a hydrophobic surface were found and characterized as two mutually exclusive sets of amino acids on the outermost

  8. Fast Characterization of Moving Samples with Nano-Textured Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten Hannibal; Hansen, Poul-Erik; Zalkovskij, Maksim

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of structures using conventional optical microscopy is restricted by the diffraction limit. Techniques like atomic force and scanning electron microscopy can investigate smaller structures but are very time consuming. We show that using scatterometry, a technique based on optical...... diffraction, integrated into a commercial light microscope we can characterize nano-textured surfaces in a few milliseconds. The adapted microscope has two detectors, a CCD camera used to easily find an area of interest and a spectrometer for the measurements. We demonstrate that the microscope has...

  9. Kinetic computer modeling of microwave surface-wave plasma production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganachev, Ivan P.

    2004-01-01

    Kinetic computer plasma modeling occupies an intermediate position between the time consuming rigorous particle dynamic simulation and the fast but rather rough cold- or warm-plasma fluid models. The present paper reviews the kinetic modeling of microwave surface-wave discharges with accent on recent kinetic self-consistent models, where the external input parameters are reduced to the necessary minimum (frequency and intensity of the applied microwave field and pressure and geometry of the discharge vessel). The presentation is limited to low pressures, so that Boltzmann equation is solved in non-local approximation and collisional electron heating is neglected. The numerical results reproduce correctly the bi-Maxwellian electron energy distribution functions observed experimentally. (author)

  10. Fabrication and characterization of fully depleted surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, A.

    2010-01-01

    Fabrication of fully depleted surface barrier type thin detectors needs thin silicon wafer of 20 - 30 μm thickness and flatness of ± 1 μm. Process has been developed for thinning silicon wafers to achieve thickness up to 20 - 30 μm from thicker (0.5 - 0.8 mm) silicon samples. These samples were used to fabricate fully depleted surface barrier detectors using Au contacts on n-type silicon. The detectors were characterized by measuring forward and reverse I-V characteristics and alpha energy spectra of Am-Pu source. (author)

  11. Characterization of Sea Lettuce Surface Functional Groups by Potentiometric Titrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebling, A. M.; Schijf, J.

    2008-12-01

    In pursuit of our ultimate goal to better understand the prodigious capacity of the marine macroalga Ulva lactuca (sea lettuce) for adsorbing a broad range of dissolved trace metals from seawater, we performed an initial characterization of its surface functional groups. Specifically, the number of distinct functional groups as well as their individual bulk concentrations and acid dissociation constants (pKas) were determined by potentiometric titrations in NaCl solutions of various ionic strengths (I = 0.01-5.0 M), under inert nitrogen atmosphere at 25°C. Depending on the ionic strength, Ulva samples were manually titrated down to pH 2 or 3 with 1 N HCl and then up to pH 10 with 1 N NaOH in steps of 0.1-0.2 units, continuously monitoring pH with a glass combination electrode. Titrations of a dehydrated Ulva standard reference material (BCR-279) were compared with fresh Ulva tissue cultured in our laboratory. A titration in filtered natural seawater was also compared with one in an NaCl solution of equal ionic strength. Equilibrium constants for the ionization of water in NaCl solutions as a function of ionic strength were obtained from the literature. Fits to the titration data ([H]T vs. pH) were performed with the FITEQL4.0 computer code using non-electrostatic 3-, 4-, and 5-site models, either by fixing ionic strength at its experimental value or by allowing it to be extrapolated to zero, while considering all functional group pKas and bulk concentrations as adjustable parameters. Since pKas and bulk concentrations were found to be strongly correlated, the latter were also fixed in some cases to further constrain the pKas. Whereas these calculations are currently ongoing, preliminary results point to three, possibly four, functional groups with pKas of about 4.1, 6.3, and 9.5 at I = 0. Bulk concentrations of the three groups are very similar, about 5-6×10-4 mol/g based on dry weight, which suggests that all are homogeneously distributed over the surface and

  12. Electrochemical characterization of organosilane-functionalized nanostructured ITO surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruna, R., E-mail: rpruna@el.ub.edu; Palacio, F.; López, M. [SIC, Departament d' Enginyeries: Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Pérez, J. [Nanobioengineering Group, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), Baldiri Reixac 15-21, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Mir, M. [Nanobioengineering Group, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), Baldiri Reixac 15-21, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Monforte de Lemos 3-5 Pabellón 11, E-28029 Madrid (Spain); Blázquez, O.; Hernández, S.; Garrido, B. [MIND-IN" 2UB, Departament d' Enginyeries: Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-08-08

    The electroactivity of nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO) has been investigated for its further use in applications such as sensing biological compounds by the analysis of redox active molecules. ITO films were fabricated by using electron beam evaporation at different substrate temperatures and subsequently annealed for promoting their crystallization. The morphology of the deposited material was monitored by scanning electron microscopy, confirming the deposition of either thin films or nanowires, depending on the substrate temperature. Electrochemical surface characterization revealed a 45 % increase in the electroactive surface area of nanostructured ITO with respect to thin films, one third lower than the geometrical surface area variation determined by atomic force microscopy. ITO surfaces were functionalized with a model organic molecule known as 6-(ferrocenyl)hexanethiol. The chemical attachment was done by means of a glycidoxy compound containing a reactive epoxy group, the so-called 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy-silane. ITO functionalization was useful for determining the benefits of nanostructuration on the surface coverage of active molecules. Compared to ITO thin films, an increase in the total peak height of 140 % was observed for as-deposited nanostructured electrodes, whereas the same measurement for annealed electrodes resulted in an increase of more than 400 %. These preliminary results demonstrate the ability of nanostructured ITO to increase the surface-to-volume ratio, conductivity and surface area functionalization, features that highly benefit the performance of biosensors.

  13. Electrochemical characterization of organosilane-functionalized nanostructured ITO surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruna, R.; Palacio, F.; López, M.; Pérez, J.; Mir, M.; 2UB, Departament d'Enginyeries: Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain))" data-affiliation=" (MIND-IN2UB, Departament d'Enginyeries: Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain))" >Blázquez, O.; 2UB, Departament d'Enginyeries: Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain))" data-affiliation=" (MIND-IN2UB, Departament d'Enginyeries: Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain))" >Hernández, S.; 2UB, Departament d'Enginyeries: Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain))" data-affiliation=" (MIND-IN2UB, Departament d'Enginyeries: Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain))" >Garrido, B.

    2016-01-01

    The electroactivity of nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO) has been investigated for its further use in applications such as sensing biological compounds by the analysis of redox active molecules. ITO films were fabricated by using electron beam evaporation at different substrate temperatures and subsequently annealed for promoting their crystallization. The morphology of the deposited material was monitored by scanning electron microscopy, confirming the deposition of either thin films or nanowires, depending on the substrate temperature. Electrochemical surface characterization revealed a 45 % increase in the electroactive surface area of nanostructured ITO with respect to thin films, one third lower than the geometrical surface area variation determined by atomic force microscopy. ITO surfaces were functionalized with a model organic molecule known as 6-(ferrocenyl)hexanethiol. The chemical attachment was done by means of a glycidoxy compound containing a reactive epoxy group, the so-called 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy-silane. ITO functionalization was useful for determining the benefits of nanostructuration on the surface coverage of active molecules. Compared to ITO thin films, an increase in the total peak height of 140 % was observed for as-deposited nanostructured electrodes, whereas the same measurement for annealed electrodes resulted in an increase of more than 400 %. These preliminary results demonstrate the ability of nanostructured ITO to increase the surface-to-volume ratio, conductivity and surface area functionalization, features that highly benefit the performance of biosensors.

  14. Asteroid surface materials: mineralogical characterizations from reflectance spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffey, M.J.; McCord, T.B.

    1978-01-01

    The interpretation of diagnostic parameters in the spectral reflectance data for asteroids provides a means of characterizing the mineralogy and petrology of asteroid surface materials. An interpretive technique based on a quantitative understanding of the functional relationship between the optical properties of a mineral assemblage and its mineralogy, petrology and chemistry can provide a considerably more sophisticated characterization of a single material than any matching or classification technique for those objects bright enough to allow spectral reflectance measurements. Albedos derived from radiometry and polarization data for individual asteroids can be used with spectral data to establish the spectral albedo, to define the optical density of the surface material and, in general to constrain mineralogical interpretations. (Auth.)

  15. From experiment to design -- Fault characterization and detection in parallel computer systems using computational accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Keun Soo

    This dissertation summarizes experimental validation and co-design studies conducted to optimize the fault detection capabilities and overheads in hybrid computer systems (e.g., using CPUs and Graphics Processing Units, or GPUs), and consequently to improve the scalability of parallel computer systems using computational accelerators. The experimental validation studies were conducted to help us understand the failure characteristics of CPU-GPU hybrid computer systems under various types of hardware faults. The main characterization targets were faults that are difficult to detect and/or recover from, e.g., faults that cause long latency failures (Ch. 3), faults in dynamically allocated resources (Ch. 4), faults in GPUs (Ch. 5), faults in MPI programs (Ch. 6), and microarchitecture-level faults with specific timing features (Ch. 7). The co-design studies were based on the characterization results. One of the co-designed systems has a set of source-to-source translators that customize and strategically place error detectors in the source code of target GPU programs (Ch. 5). Another co-designed system uses an extension card to learn the normal behavioral and semantic execution patterns of message-passing processes executing on CPUs, and to detect abnormal behaviors of those parallel processes (Ch. 6). The third co-designed system is a co-processor that has a set of new instructions in order to support software-implemented fault detection techniques (Ch. 7). The work described in this dissertation gains more importance because heterogeneous processors have become an essential component of state-of-the-art supercomputers. GPUs were used in three of the five fastest supercomputers that were operating in 2011. Our work included comprehensive fault characterization studies in CPU-GPU hybrid computers. In CPUs, we monitored the target systems for a long period of time after injecting faults (a temporally comprehensive experiment), and injected faults into various types of

  16. Surface characterization of nickel titanium orthodontic arch wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Manu; Seema, Saraswathy; Tiwari, Brijesh; Sharma, Himanshu S.; Londhe, Sanjay; Arora, Vimal

    2015-01-01

    Background Surface roughness of nickel titanium orthodontic arch wires poses several clinical challenges. Surface modification with aesthetic/metallic/non metallic materials is therefore a recent innovation, with clinical efficacy yet to be comprehensively evaluated. Methods One conventional and five types of surface modified nickel titanium arch wires were surface characterized with scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis, Raman spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy and 3D profilometry. Root mean square roughness values were analyzed by one way analysis of variance and post hoc Duncan's multiple range tests. Results Study groups demonstrated considerable reduction in roughness values from conventional in a material specific pattern: Group I; conventional (578.56 nm) > Group V; Teflon (365.33 nm) > Group III; nitride (301.51 nm) > Group VI (i); rhodium (290.64 nm) > Group VI (ii); silver (252.22 nm) > Group IV; titanium (229.51 nm) > Group II; resin (158.60 nm). It also showed the defects with aesthetic (resin/Teflon) and nitride surfaces and smooth topography achieved with metals; titanium/silver/rhodium. Conclusions Resin, Teflon, titanium, silver, rhodium and nitrides were effective in decreasing surface roughness of nickel titanium arch wires albeit; certain flaws. Findings have clinical implications, considering their potential in lessening biofilm adhesion, reducing friction, improving corrosion resistance and preventing nickel leach and allergic reactions. PMID:26843749

  17. Using computational fluid dynamics to characterize and improve bioreactor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, William J

    2008-04-01

    CFD (computational fluid dynamics) has been used to model upstream bioprocessing steps such as fermentation and homogenization. The focus of these studies has oftentimes been to characterize single-phase (liquid) flow and hydrodynamic shear. In the actual bioprocessing operations, however, there are at least two phases (cells and liquid) present. In the bioreactor, the gas bubbles constitute a third phase. More recent CFD models have considered the momentum and mass transfer that occurs between the phases. This review summarizes studies from the biochemical and biomedical literature relating to the use of CFD to model the performance of a variety of bioreactor types. Particular emphasis will be placed on describing current methods for handling multi-phase flow involving animal cells and/or gas bubbles.

  18. Characterization of EGF coupling to aminated silicone rubber surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenkler, Bettina J; Sheardown, Heather

    2006-12-20

    Tethering of growth factors to biomaterial substrates via a polyethylene glycol (PEG) spacer has been established as a means of controlling dosage and conformation of the protein at the material surface, while retaining biological activity. However, the extent of modification through a comparison of bound versus unbound protein has not generally been characterized. In this work, covalent tethering of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to allylamine plasma modified polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates is characterized to determine the nature of the bound growth factor and to optimize the conditions for the reaction. Tethering is achieved via conjugation of EGF with homobifunctional N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester of PEG-butanoic acid (SBA2-PEG) in solution, followed by exposure of the pegylated EGF to the aminated surfaces (solution first reaction). SDS-PAGE analysis indicates that a low ratio of EGF:PEG is required to maximize the yield of the EGF-PEG reaction; a relatively short reaction time is needed to limit hydrolysis of the NHS ester. With increasing amounts of PEG and a higher reaction time, a higher fraction of the EGF can be covalently tethered to the surfaces, as shown by binding of 125I-labeled EGF and subsequent washing with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to remove adsorbed protein. However, even under the optimal reaction conditions established by the SDS-PAGE analysis, higher molecular weight EGF-PEG complexes are observed by SDS-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). The presence of these complexes, as well as unreacted growth factor, can lead to a surface of heterogeneous composition. While these surfaces were found to have biological activity, stimulating the adhesion and growth of corneal epithelial cells versus PDMS controls, further optimization of reaction conditions, including the use of a homobifunctional PEG linker and possibly separation of reaction species are required to achieve a uniformly active and well

  19. Surface characterization and surface electronic structure of organic quasi-one-dimensional charge transfer salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sing, M.; Schwingenschlögl, U.; Claessen, R.

    2003-01-01

    We have thoroughly characterized the surfaces of the organic charge-transfer salts TTF-TCNQ and (TMTSF)(2)PF6 which are generally acknowledged as prototypical examples of one-dimensional conductors. In particular x-ray-induced photoemission spectroscopy turns out to be a valuable nondestructive d...

  20. Computed tomographic beam-hardening artefacts: mathematical characterization and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyoung Suk; Chung, Yong Eun; Seo, Jin Keun

    2015-06-13

    This paper presents a mathematical characterization and analysis of beam-hardening artefacts in X-ray computed tomography (CT). In the field of dental and medical radiography, metal artefact reduction in CT is becoming increasingly important as artificial prostheses and metallic implants become more widespread in ageing populations. Metal artefacts are mainly caused by the beam-hardening of polychromatic X-ray photon beams, which causes mismatch between the actual sinogram data and the data model being the Radon transform of the unknown attenuation distribution in the CT reconstruction algorithm. We investigate the beam-hardening factor through a mathematical analysis of the discrepancy between the data and the Radon transform of the attenuation distribution at a fixed energy level. Separation of cupping artefacts from beam-hardening artefacts allows causes and effects of streaking artefacts to be analysed. Various computer simulations and experiments are performed to support our mathematical analysis. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Computational Biology Methods for Characterization of Pluripotent Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent cells are a powerful tool for regenerative medicine and drug discovery. Several techniques have been developed to induce pluripotency, or to extract pluripotent cells from different tissues and biological fluids. However, the characterization of pluripotency requires tedious, expensive, time-consuming, and not always reliable wet-lab experiments; thus, an easy, standard quality-control protocol of pluripotency assessment remains to be established. Here to help comes the use of high-throughput techniques, and in particular, the employment of gene expression microarrays, which has become a complementary technique for cellular characterization. Research has shown that the transcriptomics comparison with an Embryonic Stem Cell (ESC) of reference is a good approach to assess the pluripotency. Under the premise that the best protocol is a computer software source code, here I propose and explain line by line a software protocol coded in R-Bioconductor for pluripotency assessment based on the comparison of transcriptomics data of pluripotent cells with an ESC of reference. I provide advice for experimental design, warning about possible pitfalls, and guides for results interpretation.

  2. Pulmonary nodule characterization, including computer analysis and quantitative features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholmai, Brian J; Koo, Chi Wan; Johnson, Geoffrey B; White, Darin B; Raghunath, Sushravya M; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Moynagh, Michael R; Lindell, Rebecca M; Hartman, Thomas E

    2015-03-01

    Pulmonary nodules are commonly detected in computed tomography (CT) chest screening of a high-risk population. The specific visual or quantitative features on CT or other modalities can be used to characterize the likelihood that a nodule is benign or malignant. Visual features on CT such as size, attenuation, location, morphology, edge characteristics, and other distinctive "signs" can be highly suggestive of a specific diagnosis and, in general, be used to determine the probability that a specific nodule is benign or malignant. Change in size, attenuation, and morphology on serial follow-up CT, or features on other modalities such as nuclear medicine studies or MRI, can also contribute to the characterization of lung nodules. Imaging analytics can objectively and reproducibly quantify nodule features on CT, nuclear medicine, and magnetic resonance imaging. Some quantitative techniques show great promise in helping to differentiate benign from malignant lesions or to stratify the risk of aggressive versus indolent neoplasm. In this article, we (1) summarize the visual characteristics, descriptors, and signs that may be helpful in management of nodules identified on screening CT, (2) discuss current quantitative and multimodality techniques that aid in the differentiation of nodules, and (3) highlight the power, pitfalls, and limitations of these various techniques.

  3. Honey characterization using computer vision system and artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Sahameh; Minaei, Saeid; Moghaddam-Charkari, Nasrollah; Barzegar, Mohsen

    2014-09-15

    This paper reports the development of a computer vision system (CVS) for non-destructive characterization of honey based on colour and its correlated chemical attributes including ash content (AC), antioxidant activity (AA), and total phenolic content (TPC). Artificial neural network (ANN) models were applied to transform RGB values of images to CIE L*a*b* colourimetric measurements and to predict AC, TPC and AA from colour features of images. The developed ANN models were able to convert RGB values to CIE L*a*b* colourimetric parameters with low generalization error of 1.01±0.99. In addition, the developed models for prediction of AC, TPC and AA showed high performance based on colour parameters of honey images, as the R(2) values for prediction were 0.99, 0.98, and 0.87, for AC, AA and TPC, respectively. The experimental results show the effectiveness and possibility of applying CVS for non-destructive honey characterization by the industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biophysical and computational characterization of vandetanib-lysozyme interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Md. Zahirul; Hamzah, Nur Aziean Binti; Ghani, Hamidah; Mohamad, Saharuddin B.; Alias, Zazali; Tayyab, Saad

    2018-01-01

    Interaction of an anticancer drug, vandetanib (VDB) with a ligand transporter, lysozyme (LYZ) was explored using multispectroscopic techniques, such as fluorescence, absorption and circular dichroism along with computational analysis. Fluorescence data and absorption results confirmed VDB-LYZ complexation. VDB-induced quenching was characterized as static quenching based on inverse correlation of KSV with temperature as well as kq values. The complex was characterized by the weak binding constant (Ka = 4.96-3.14 × 103 M-1). Thermodynamic data (ΔS = + 12.82 J mol-1 K-1; ΔH = - 16.73 kJ mol-1) of VDB-LYZ interaction revealed participation of hydrophobic and van der Waals forces along with hydrogen bonds in VDB-LYZ complexation. Microenvironmental perturbations around tryptophan and tyrosine residues as well as secondary and tertiary structural alterations in LYZ upon addition of VDB were evident from the 3-D fluorescence, far- and near-UV CD spectral analyses, respectively. Interestingly, addition of VDB to LYZ significantly increased protein's thermostability. Molecular docking results suggested the location of VDB binding site near the LYZ active site while molecular dynamics simulation results suggested stability of VDB-LYZ complex. Presence of Mg2+, Ba2+ and Zn2+ was found to interfere with VDB-LYZ interaction.

  5. Surface characterization of low-temperature grown yttrium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Mirosław; Lisowski, Wojciech; Pisarek, Marcin; Nikiforow, Kostiantyn; Jablonski, Aleksander

    2018-04-01

    The step-by-step growth of yttrium oxide layer was controlled in situ using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The O/Y atomic concentration (AC) ratio in the surface layer of finally oxidized Y substrate was found to be equal to 1.48. The as-grown yttrium oxide layers were then analyzed ex situ using combination of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), elastic-peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to characterize their surface chemical composition, electron transport phenomena and surface morphology. Prior to EPES measurements, the Y oxide surface was pre-sputtered by 3 kV argon ions, and the resulting AES-derived composition was found to be Y0.383O0.465C0.152 (O/Y AC ratio of 1.21). The SEM images revealed different surface morphology of sample before and after Ar sputtering. The oxide precipitates were observed on the top of un-sputtered Y oxide layer, whereas the oxide growth at the Ar ion-sputtered surface proceeded along defects lines normal to the layer plane. The inelastic mean free path (IMFP) characterizing electron transport was evaluated as a function of energy in the range of 0.5-2 keV from the EPES method. Two reference materials (Ni and Au) were used in these measurements. Experimental IMFPs determined for the Y0.383O0.465C0.152 and Y2O3 surface compositions, λ, were uncorrected for surface excitations and approximated by the simple function λ = kEp at electron energies E between 500 eV and 2000 eV, where k and p were fitted parameters. These values were also compared with IMFPs resulting from the TPP-2 M predictive equation for both oxide compositions. The fitted functions were found to be reasonably consistent with the measured and predicted IMFPs. In both cases, the average value of the mean percentage deviation from the fits varied between 5% and 37%. The IMFPs measured for Y0.383O0.465C0.152 surface composition were found to be similar to the IMFPs for Y2O3.

  6. Characterization of electronics devices for computed tomography dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoal, Cinthia Marques Magalhaes

    2012-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an examination of high diagnostic capability that delivers high doses of radiation compared with other diagnostic radiological examinations. The current CT dosimetry is mainly made by using a 100 mm long ionization chamber. However, it was verified that this extension, which is intended to collect ali scattered radiation of the single slice dose profile in CT, is not enough. An alternative dosimetry has been suggested by translating smaller detectors. In this work, commercial electronics devices of small dimensions were characterized for CT dosimetry. The project can be divided in five parts: a) pre-selection of devices; b) electrical characterization of selected devices; e) dosimetric characterization in Iaboratory, using radiation qualities specific to CT, and in a tomograph; d) evaluation of the dose profile in CT scanner (free in air and in head and body dosimetric phantom); e) evaluation of the new MSAD detector in a tomograph. The selected devices were OP520 and OP521 phototransistors and BPW34FS photodiode. Before the dosimetric characterization, three configurations of detectors, with 4, 2 and 1 OP520 phototransistor working as a single detector, were evaluated and the configuration with only one device was the most adequate. Hence, the following tests, for all devices, were made using the configuration with only one device. The tests of dosimetric characterization in laboratory and in a tomograph were: energy dependence, response as a function of air kerma (laboratory) and CTDI 100 (scanner), sensitivity variation and angular dependence. In both characterizations, the devices showed some energy dependence, indicating the need of correction factors depending on the beam energy; their response was linear with the air kerma and the CTDI 100 ; the OP520 phototransistor showed the largest variation in sensitivity with the irradiation and the photodiode was the most stable; the angular dependence was significant in the laboratory and

  7. Computer Modeling of Planetary Surface Temperatures in Introductory Astronomy Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Timothy; Goodman, J.

    2013-01-01

    Barker, T., and Goodman, J. C., Wheaton College, Norton, MA Computer modeling is an essential part of astronomical research, and so it is important that students be exposed to its powers and limitations in the first (and, perhaps, only) astronomy course they take in college. Building on the ideas of Walter Robinson (“Modeling Dynamic Systems,” Springer, 2002) we have found that STELLA software (ISEE Systems) allows introductory astronomy students to do sophisticated modeling by the end of two classes of instruction, with no previous experience in computer programming or calculus. STELLA’s graphical interface allows students to visualize systems in terms of “flows” in and out of “stocks,” avoiding the need to invoke differential equations. Linking flows and stocks allows feedback systems to be constructed. Students begin by building an easily understood system: a leaky bucket. This is a simple negative feedback system in which the volume in the bucket (a “stock”) depends on a fixed inflow rate and an outflow that increases in proportion to the volume in the bucket. Students explore how changing inflow rate and feedback parameters affect the steady-state volume and equilibration time of the system. This model is completed within a 50-minute class meeting. In the next class, students are given an analogous but more sophisticated problem: modeling a planetary surface temperature (“stock”) that depends on the “flow” of energy from the Sun, the planetary albedo, the outgoing flow of infrared radiation from the planet’s surface, and the infrared return from the atmosphere. Students then compare their STELLA model equilibrium temperatures to observed planetary temperatures, which agree with model ones for worlds without atmospheres, but give underestimates for planets with atmospheres, thus introducing students to the concept of greenhouse warming. We find that if we give the students part of this model at the start of a 50-minute class they are

  8. Characterization and conditioning of SSPX plasma facing surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchenauer, D.A.; Mills, B.E.; Wood, R.; Woodruff, S.; Hill, D.N.; Hooper, E.B.; Cowgill, D.F.; Clift, M.W.; Yang, N.Y.

    2001-01-01

    The Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) will examine the confinement properties of spheromak plasmas sustained by DC helicity injection. Understanding the plasma-surface interactions is an important component of the experimental program since the spheromak plasma is in close contact with a stabilizing wall (flux conserver) and is maintained by a high current discharge in the coaxial injector region. Peak electron temperatures in the range of 400 eV are expected, so the copper plasma facing surfaces in SSPX have been coated with tungsten to minimize sputtering and plasma contamination. Here, we report on the characterization and conditioning of these surfaces used for the initial studies of spheromak formation in SSPX. The high pressure plasma-sprayed tungsten facing the SSPX plasma was characterized in situ using β-backscattering and ex situ using laboratory measurements on similarly prepared samples. Measurements showed that water can be desorbed effectively through baking while the removal rates of volatile impurity gases during glow discharge and shot conditioning indicated a large source of carbon and oxygen in the porous coating

  9. Surface microstructure of bitumen characterized by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaokong; Burnham, Nancy A; Tao, Mingjiang

    2015-04-01

    Bitumen, also called asphalt binder, plays important roles in many industrial applications. It is used as the primary binding agent in asphalt concrete, as a key component in damping systems such as rubber, and as an indispensable additive in paint and ink. Consisting of a large number of hydrocarbons of different sizes and polarities, together with heteroatoms and traces of metals, bitumen displays rich surface microstructures that affect its rheological properties. This paper reviews the current understanding of bitumen's surface microstructures characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Microstructures of bitumen develop to different forms depending on crude oil source, thermal history, and sample preparation method. While some bitumens display surface microstructures with fine domains, flake-like domains, and dendrite structuring, 'bee-structures' with wavy patterns several micrometers in diameter and tens of nanometers in height are commonly seen in other binders. Controversy exists regarding the chemical origin of the 'bee-structures', which has been related to the asphaltene fraction, the metal content, or the crystallizing waxes in bitumen. The rich chemistry of bitumen can result in complicated intermolecular associations such as coprecipitation of wax and metalloporphyrins in asphaltenes. Therefore, it is the molecular interactions among the different chemical components in bitumen, rather than a single chemical fraction, that are responsible for the evolution of bitumen's diverse microstructures, including the 'bee-structures'. Mechanisms such as curvature elasticity and surface wrinkling that explain the rippled structures observed in polymer crystals might be responsible for the formation of 'bee-structures' in bitumen. Despite the progress made on morphological characterization of bitumen using AFM, the fundamental question whether the microstructures observed on bitumen surfaces represent its bulk structure remains to be addressed. In addition

  10. Computational optimization of biodiesel combustion using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganji Prabhakara Rao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work focuses on optimization of biodiesel combustion phenomena through parametric approach using response surface methodology. Physical properties of biodiesel play a vital role for accurate simulations of the fuel spray, atomization, combustion, and emission formation processes. Typically methyl based biodiesel consists of five main types of esters: methyl palmitate, methyl oleate, methyl stearate, methyl linoleate, and methyl linolenate in its composition. Based on the amount of methyl esters present the properties of pongamia bio-diesel and its blends were estimated. CONVERGETM computational fluid dynamics software was used to simulate the fuel spray, turbulence and combustion phenomena. The simulation responses such as indicated specific fuel consumption, NOx, and soot were analyzed using design of experiments. Regression equations were developed for each of these responses. The optimum parameters were found out to be compression ratio – 16.75, start of injection – 21.9° before top dead center, and exhaust gas re-circulation – 10.94%. Results have been compared with baseline case.

  11. Laser surface textured titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V): Part 1 – Surface characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleging, Wilhelm [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IAM-AWP, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility, H.-von-Helmholtz-Pl. 1, 76344 Egg.-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Kumari, Renu [Department of Metal. and Maters. Eng., I. I. T. Kharagpur, WB 721302 (India); Besser, Heino [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IAM-AWP, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Scharnweber, Tim [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IBG-1, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta, E-mail: jyotsna@metal.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Metal. and Maters. Eng., I. I. T. Kharagpur, WB 721302 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Texturing of Ti–6Al–4V with linear and dimple patterns are developed with ArF laser. • Linear textures have width of 25 μm and are at an interval of 20 μm. • Dimple textures are equi-spaced and have a diameter of 60 μm. • Significant refinement of microstructure in textured zone as compared to substrate. • Increased wettability of the textured surface against simulated body fluid. - Abstract: In the present study, a detailed study of the characterization of laser-surface textured titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) with line and dimple geometry developed by using an ArF excimer laser operating at a wavelength of 193 nm with a pulse length of 5 ns is undertaken. The characterization of the textured surface (both the top surface and cross section) is carried out by scanning electron microscopy, electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) technique and X-ray diffraction techniques. There is refinement of microstructure along with presence of titanium oxides (rutile, anatase and few Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase) in the textured surface as compared to as-received one. The area fractions of linear texture and dimple texture measured by image analysis software are 45% and 20%, respectively. The wettability is increased after laser texturing. The total surface energy is decreased due to linear (29.6 mN/m) texturing and increased due to dimple (67.6 mN/m) texturing as compared to as-received Ti–6Al–4V (37 mN/m). The effect of polar component is more in influencing the surface energy of textured surface.

  12. Microanalytical characterization of surface decoration in Majolica pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, R.; Schalm, O.; Janssens, K.; Arrazcaeta, R.; Espen, P. van

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the characterization of the surface finishing works in archaeological pottery fragments belonging to several Majolica types. The homogeneity, thickness and inclusions of both ground glaze and color decorations were, among other characteristics, inspected by scanning electron microscopy X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX). The identification of the main constituents in the decoration motifs was performed by means of scanning micro X-ray fluorescence analysis. Additionally, compositional classification based on non-destructive quantitative analysis of the ground glaze was performed

  13. Comparison of optical methods for surface roughness characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Hansen, Poul Erik; Pilny, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    We report a study of the correlation between three optical methods for characterizing surface roughness: a laboratory scatterometer measuring the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF instrument), a simple commercial scatterometer (rBRDF instrument), and a confocal optical profiler...... of the scattering angle distribution (Aq). The twenty-two investigated samples were manufactured with several methods in order to obtain a suitable diversity of roughness patterns.Our study shows a one-to-one correlation of both the Rq and the Rdq roughness values when obtained with the BRDF and the confocal...

  14. Raman and Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering for Biofilm Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Keleştemur

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are a communal way of living for microorganisms in which microorganism cells are surrounded by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS. Most microorganisms can live in biofilm form. Since microorganisms are everywhere, understanding biofilm structure and composition is crucial for making the world a better place to live, not only for humans but also for other living creatures. Raman spectroscopy is a nondestructive technique and provides fingerprint information about an analyte of interest. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is a form of this technique and provides enhanced scattering of the analyte that is in close vicinity of a nanostructured noble metal surface such as silver or gold. In this review, the applications of both techniques and their combination with other biofilm analysis techniques for characterization of composition and structure of biofilms are discussed.

  15. Molecular characterization of water and surfactant AOT at nanoemulsion surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Jennifer K; Carpenter, Andrew P; Ciszewski, Regina K; Schabes, Brandon K; Kittredge, Clive T; Moore, Fred G; Richmond, Geraldine L

    2017-12-19

    Nanoemulsions and microemulsions are environments where oil and water can be solubilized in one another to provide a unique platform for many different biological and industrial applications. Nanoemulsions, unlike microemulsions, have seen little work done to characterize molecular interactions at their surfaces. This study provides a detailed investigation of the near-surface molecular structure of regular (oil in water) and reverse (water in oil) nanoemulsions stabilized with the surfactant dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT). Vibrational sum-frequency scattering spectroscopy (VSFSS) is used to measure the vibrational spectroscopy of these AOT stabilized regular and reverse nanoemulsions. Complementary studies of AOT adsorbed at the planar oil-water interface are conducted with vibrational sum-frequency spectroscopy (VSFS). Jointly, these give comparative insights into the orientation of interfacial water and the molecular characterization of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions of AOT at the different oil-water interfaces. Whereas the polar region of AOT and surrounding interfacial water molecules display nearly identical behavior at both the planar and droplet interface, there is a clear difference in hydrophobic chain ordering even when possible surface concentration differences are taken into account. This chain ordering is found to be invariant as the nanodroplets grow by Ostwald ripening and also with substitution of different counterions (Na:AOT, K:AOT, and Mg:AOT) that consequently also result in different sized nanoparticles. The results paint a compelling picture of surfactant assembly at these relatively large nanoemulsion surfaces and allow for an important comparison of AOT at smaller micellar (curved) and planar oil-water interfaces.

  16. Surface characterization and clinical review of two commercially available implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Silvia; Jimbo, Ryo; Andersson, Martin; Bryington, Matthew; Albrektsson, Tomas

    2013-10-01

    To characterize topographically and chemically the surfaces of 2 commercially available implants. Furthermore, to gather an overview of the clinical results of these implant systems. Two commercially available oral implants were analyzed using optical interferometry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. In addition, a literature search for all the clinical articles on the same implants was performed. No significant differences of topographical parameters were found between the 2 implants, except for the hybrid parameter Sdr presenting significant higher values for the Ankylos implants. Both surfaces had a homogenous microporosity. At higher magnifications of scanning electron microscope images, evenly distributed nanostructures (approximately 10 nm) were visible. Chemically, mainly titanium, oxygen and carbon were detected. Fifty-six clinical articles were included for the review. The implant survival rates (minimum follow-up: 5 years) ranged between 87.7% and 100%. The examined commercially available implants showed a moderately rough surface, with a homogenous microporosity. Nanofeatures were detected on the surface of both implants. The clinical performances of these implants were comparable to that of other commercialized implant systems.

  17. Surface characterization and stability of an epoxy resin surface modified with polyamines grafted on polydopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, David; Vercammen, Yannick; Van Vaeck, Luc; Vanderleyden, Els; Dubruel, Peter; Vanfleteren, Jan

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports on polydopamine and polyamine surface modifications of an etched epoxy cresol novolac (ECN) resin using the 'grafting to' method. Three different polyamines are used for the grafting reactions: branched polyethyleneimine (B-PEI), linear polyethyleneimine (L-PEI) and diethylenetriamine (DETA). These modifications are compared to control materials prepared via direct deposition of polyamines. The stability of the modifications toward a concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl) environment is evaluated. The modified surfaces are characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight static secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-S-SIMS).

  18. Characterization of metallic surfaces in phosphorous-bronze ordered packings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandru, Claudia; Titescu, Gh.

    1997-01-01

    Copper and its alloys, particularly the phosphorous bronze, are characterized by a high water wettability as compared with other materials. This feature led to utilization of phosphorous bronze in fabrication of contact elements, a packing type equipping the distillation columns. For heavy water separation by isotopic distillation under vacuum, ordered packings of phosphorous bronze networks were fabricated. The superior performances of these packings are determined by the material and also by the geometrical form and the state of the metallic surface. Thus, a procedure of evaluating the wettability has been developed, based on tests of the network material. The results of the tests constitute a criterion of rating the functional performances of packings, particularly of their efficiencies. Also, investigation techniques of the chemical composition and of the thickness of superficial layer on the packing were developed. It was found that the packing surface presents a layer of about 5-20 μm formed mainly by oxides of copper, tin, and, depending on the packing treatment, of oxides of other elements coming from the treatment agent. The paper presents characterization of phosphorous bronze treated with potassium permanganate, a specific treatment for improving the functional performances of the packings used in the heavy water concentration and re-concentration installations

  19. Surface characterization of GSH-CdTe quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautier, J.L., E-mail: juan.gautier@usach.cl [Departamento de Química de los Materiales, Facultad de Química y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Av. L. B. O' Higgins 3363, Santiago (Chile); Monrás, J.P. [Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Química y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Av. L. B. O' Higgins 3363, Santiago (Chile); Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackena 20, Santiago (Chile); Osorio-Román, I.O. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Química, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. V. Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Vásquez, C.C. [Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Química y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Av. L. B. O' Higgins 3363, Santiago (Chile); Bravo, D. [Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackena 20, Santiago (Chile); Herranz, T.; Marco, J.F. [Instituto de Química Física “Rocasolano” CSIC, c/Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2013-06-15

    The surface characterization of CdTe QDs synthesized by a novel procedure using glutathione (GSH), low temperatures (60–90 °C) and K{sub 2}TeO{sub 3} as the –Te precursor is reported. Fluorescence of the produced QDs is stable in the pH range 6–13 and QDs inside eukaryotic cells are highly fluorescent. The surface composition of GSH-CdTe QDs with different spectroscopic properties and particle size distributions was determined by XPS. The XPS analysis indicated that the QDs are essentially CdTe, although all nanoparticles contain 12–24% of CdO (and in one case also TeO{sub 2}). GSH decomposes with reaction time releasing small amounts of S{sup −2} ions that react with Cd(Te) to yield Cd(Te)S in a smaller amount than that of CdTe. Finally, the use of QDs in fluorescence mediated immunodetection of bacterial pathogens has been evaluated. - Highlights: • Stable CdTe QDs of different sizes were synthesized by reacting thiol GSH and K{sub 2}TeO{sub 3} at 90 °C. • XPS analysis shows that the QDs contain CdTe, Cd(Te)S and CdO at the surface. • Small amounts of TeO{sub 2} were also observed. • Sulphur allows the binding of the QDs at biomolecules.

  20. Surface characterization of GSH-CdTe quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, J.L.; Monrás, J.P.; Osorio-Román, I.O.; Vásquez, C.C.; Bravo, D.; Herranz, T.; Marco, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    The surface characterization of CdTe QDs synthesized by a novel procedure using glutathione (GSH), low temperatures (60–90 °C) and K 2 TeO 3 as the –Te precursor is reported. Fluorescence of the produced QDs is stable in the pH range 6–13 and QDs inside eukaryotic cells are highly fluorescent. The surface composition of GSH-CdTe QDs with different spectroscopic properties and particle size distributions was determined by XPS. The XPS analysis indicated that the QDs are essentially CdTe, although all nanoparticles contain 12–24% of CdO (and in one case also TeO 2 ). GSH decomposes with reaction time releasing small amounts of S −2 ions that react with Cd(Te) to yield Cd(Te)S in a smaller amount than that of CdTe. Finally, the use of QDs in fluorescence mediated immunodetection of bacterial pathogens has been evaluated. - Highlights: • Stable CdTe QDs of different sizes were synthesized by reacting thiol GSH and K 2 TeO 3 at 90 °C. • XPS analysis shows that the QDs contain CdTe, Cd(Te)S and CdO at the surface. • Small amounts of TeO 2 were also observed. • Sulphur allows the binding of the QDs at biomolecules

  1. Free surface BCP self-assembly process characterization with CDSEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Shimon; Weinberg, Yakov; Adan, Ofer; Klinov, Michael; Argoud, Maxime; Claveau, Guillaume; Tiron, Raluca

    2016-03-01

    A simple and common practice to evaluate Block copolymers (BCP) self-assembly performances, is on a free surface wafer. With no guiding pattern the BCP designed to form line space pattern for example, spontaneously rearranges to form a random fingerprint type of a pattern. The nature of the rearrangement is dictated by the physical properties of the BCP moieties, wafer surface treatment and the self-assembly process parameters. Traditional CDSEM metrology algorithms are designed to measure pattern with predefined structure, like linespace or oval via holes. Measurement of pattern with expected geometry can reduce measurement uncertainty. Fingerprint type of structure explored in this dissertation, poses a challenge for CD-SEM measurement uncertainty and offers an opportunity to explore 2D metrology capabilities. To measure this fingerprints we developed a new metrology approach that combines image segmentation and edge detection to measure 2D pattern with arbitrary rearrangement. The segmentation approach enabled to quantify the quality of the BCP material and process, detecting 2D attributes such as: CD and CDU at one axis, and number of intersections, length and number of PS fragments, etched PMMA spaces and donut shapes numbers on the second axis. In this paper we propose a 2D metrology to measure arbitrary BCP pattern on a free surface wafer. We demonstrate experimental results demonstrating precision data, and characterization of PS-b-PMMA BCP, intrinsic period L0 = 38nm (Arkema), processed at different bake time and temperatures.

  2. Characterizing the collision of potassium atoms with a siloxane coated glass surface using spectroscopic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgus, Tyler Christophe

    2001-07-01

    We have developed a series of three experiments to characterize the collisions between potassium atoms and a siloxane coated non-stick surface on a glass substrate. The first experiment looks at the aggregate effect of multiple collisions of the potassium atoms with the surface. The atoms are observed spectroscopically. The spectroscopic information allows for the calculation of the flux, average velocity, and density of the potassium atoms. These quantities are also calculated with a computer model. The parameters of the model are the probability that a potassium atom will stick to the surface during a collision, and the probabilities that the collision is specular or diffuse. The second experiment uses the photo-desorption effect to create a spatially peaked non-equilibrium density distribution. The rate of decay of this distribution is fit with a computer model whose free parameter is proportional to the probability that an atom will stick to the siloxane coated wall during a collision. The third experiment is designed to observe the results of a single collision with a siloxane coated surface. Again, the potassium atoms are observed spectroscopically, the Doppler effect providing velocity resolution. The intensity of the fluorescence is related to the velocity-density distribution. The density is then theoretically modeled using the same simple kernel, accounting for contributions to the density from the potassium source, specular collisions, and diffuse collisions.

  3. Characterizing and Implementing Efficient Primitives for Privacy-Preserving Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    4 Efficient Mobile Oblivious Computation ( EMOC ) .................................................................... 4 Memory...Assumptions and Procedures  Efficient Mobile Oblivious Computation ( EMOC )  Mobile applications increasingly require users to surrender private...In this effort, we developed Efficient Mobile Oblivious Computation ( EMOC ), a set of SFE protocols customized for the mobile platform. Using

  4. Characterization and Epidemiology of the Carpal Boss Utilizing Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiney, Christopher; Porrino, Jack; Richardson, Michael L; Mulcahy, Hyojeong; Chew, Felix S

    2017-02-01

    Background  The carpal boss is an osseous protuberance occurring variably along the dorsum of the second or third metacarpal base, lacking a standardized definition. Aim  We sought to characterize the dorsal second and third carpometacarpal joints in the general population on computed tomography (CT) to better define this variant anatomy. Patients and Methods  A total of 129 wrist CT studies were reviewed. Note was made of the dorsal second/third carpometacarpal osseous anatomy, the presence of regional bursitis or tenosynovitis, and relationship of the extensor carpi radialis brevis attachment to the base of the third metacarpal. Results  Out of the 129 wrists, 106 (82.2%) demonstrated a dorsal protuberance arising from the base of the third metacarpal, in isolation. Out of the 129 wrists, 14 (10.9%) lacked a dorsal protuberance or nonunited ossicle at the level of the second or third carpometacarpal joint. Out of the 129 wrists, 9 (7%) wrists demonstrated more complex anatomy-8 wrists (6.2%) with a dorsal protuberance at the base of the third metacarpal seen in combination with an adjacent nonunited ossicle and/or dorsal protuberance arising from the capitate, and 1 wrist (0.8%) with an isolated ossicle at the base of the third metacarpal. Of these nine wrists, eight (6.2%) demonstrated arthritis at the resultant pseudoarticulation(s). Conclusion  The majority of wrists demonstrated an isolated protuberance arising from the dorsal base of the third metacarpal, with a small minority with a nonunited ossicle at this level and/or dorsal protuberance of the capitate. The presence of secondary arthritis (8 out of 129 wrists, 6.2%) may reflect a pain generator. Level of Evidence  Cross-sectional study; level 2.

  5. Planetary surface characterization from dual-polarization radar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkki, Anne; Planetary Radar Team of the Arecibo Observatory

    2017-10-01

    We present a new method to investigate the physical properties of planetary surfaces using dual-polarization radar measurements. The number of radar observations has increased radically during the last five years, allowing us to compare the radar scattering properties of different small-body populations and compositional types. There has also been progress in the laboratory studies of the materials that are relevant to asteroids and comets.In a typical planetary radar measurement a circularly polarized signal is transmitted using a frequency of 2380 MHz (wavelength of 12.6 cm) or 8560 MHz (3.5 cm). The echo is received simultaneously in the same circular (SC) and the opposite circular (OC) polarization as the transmitted signal. The delay and doppler frequency of the signal give highly accurate astrometric information, and the intensity and the polarization are suggestive of the physical properties of the target's near-surface.The radar albedo describes the radar reflectivity of the target. If the effective near-surface is smooth and homogeneous in the wavelength-scale, the echo is received fully in the OC polarization. Wavelength-scale surface roughness or boulders within the effective near-surface volume increase the received echo power in both polarizations. However, there is a lack in the literature describing exactly how the physical properties of the target affect the radar albedo in each polarization, or how they can be derived from the radar measurements.To resolve this problem, we utilize the information that the diffuse components of the OC and SC parts are correlated when the near-surface contains wavelength-scale scatterers such as boulders. A linear least-squares fit to the detected values of OC and SC radar albedos allows us to separate the diffusely scattering part from the quasi-specular part. Combined with the spectro-photometric information of the target and laboratory studies of the permittivity-density dependence, the method provides us with a

  6. Characterizing bars in low surface brightness disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Wesley; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we use B-band, I-band, and 3.6 μm azimuthal light profiles of four low surface brightness galaxies (LSBs; UGC 628, F568-1, F568-3, F563-V2) to characterize three bar parameters: length, strength, and corotation radius. We employ three techniques to measure the radius of the bars, including a new method using the azimuthal light profiles. We find comparable bar radii between the I-band and 3.6 μm for all four galaxies when using our azimuthal light profile method, and that our bar lengths are comparable to those in high surface brightness galaxies (HSBs). In addition, we find the bar strengths for our galaxies to be smaller than those for HSBs. Finally, we use Fourier transforms of the B-band, I-band, and 3.6 μm images to characterize the bars as either `fast' or `slow' by measuring the corotation radius via phase profiles. When using the B- and I-band phase crossings, we find three of our galaxies have faster than expected relative bar pattern speeds for galaxies expected to be embedded in centrally dense cold dark matter haloes. When using the B-band and 3.6 μm phase crossings, we find more ambiguous results, although the relative bar pattern speeds are still faster than expected. Since we find a very slow bar in F563-V2, we are confident that we are able to differentiate between fast and slow bars. Finally, we find no relation between bar strength and relative bar pattern speed when comparing our LSBs to HSBs.

  7. The Study of Surface Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Its Design, Efficiency, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Su, Jia-Han

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a Surface Computer Supported Cooperative Work paradigm is proposed. Recently, multitouch technology has become widely available for human-computer interaction. We found it has great potential to facilitate more awareness of human-to-human interaction than personal computers (PCs) in colocated collaborative work. However, other…

  8. Characterizing developing adverse pressure gradient flows subject to surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzek, Brian; Chao, Donald; Turan, Özden; Castillo, Luciano

    2010-04-01

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the effects of surface roughness and adverse pressure gradient (APG) on the development of a turbulent boundary layer. Hot-wire anemometry measurements were carried out using single and X-wire probes in all regions of a developing APG flow in an open return wind tunnel test section. The same experimental conditions (i.e., T ∞, U ref, and C p) were maintained for smooth, k + = 0, and rough, k + = 41-60, surfaces with Reynolds number based on momentum thickness, 3,000 carefully designed such that the x-dependence in the flow field was known. Despite this fact, only a very small region of the boundary layer showed a balance of the various terms in the integrated boundary layer equation. The skin friction computed from this technique showed up to a 58% increase due to the surface roughness. Various equilibrium parameters were studied and the effect of roughness was investigated. The generated flow was not in equilibrium according to the Clauser (J Aero Sci 21:91-108, 1954) definition due to its developing nature. After a development region, the flow reached the equilibrium condition as defined by Castillo and George (2001), where Λ = const, is the pressure gradient parameter. Moreover, it was found that this equilibrium condition can be used to classify developing APG flows. Furthermore, the Zagarola and Smits (J Fluid Mech 373:33-79, 1998a) scaling of the mean velocity deficit, U ∞δ*/δ, can also be used as a criteria to classify developing APG flows which supports the equilibrium condition of Castillo and George (2001). With this information a ‘full APG region’ was defined.

  9. Surface, interface and bulk materials characterization using Indus synchrotron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase, Deodatta M.

    2014-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation sources, providing intense, polarized and stable beams of ultra violet, soft and hard x-ray photons, are having great impact on physics, chemistry, biology, materials science and other areas research. In particular synchrotron radiation has revolutionized materials characterization techniques by enhancing its capabilities for investigating the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of solids. The availability of synchrotron sources and necessary instrumentation has led to considerable improvements in spectral resolution and intensities. As a result, application scope of different materials characterization techniques has tremendously increased particularly in the analysis of solid surfaces, interfaces and bulk materials. The Indian synchrotron storage ring, Indus-1 and Indus-2 are in operation at RRCAT, Indore. The UGC-DAE CSR with the help of university scientist had designed and developed an angle integrated photoelectron spectroscopy (AlPES) beam line on Indus-1 storage ring of 450 MeV and polarized light beam line for soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (SXAS) on Indus-2 storage ring of 2.5 GeV. (author)

  10. Interfacial characterization and analytical applications of chemically-modified surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianhong [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1998-02-23

    The goal of this work is to explore several new strategies and approaches to the surface modification and the microscopic characterization of interfaces in the areas mainly targeting sensor technologies that are of interest to environmental control or monitoring, and scanning probe microscopies techniques that can monitor interfacial chemical reactions in real time. Centered on the main theme, four specific topics are presented as four chapters in this dissertation following the general introduction. Chapter 1 describes the development of two immobilization schemes for covalently immobilizing fluoresceinamine at cellulose acetate and its application as a pH sensing film. Chapter 2 investigates the applicability of SFM to following the base-hydrolysis of a dithio-bis(succinimidylundecanoate) monolayer at gold in situ. Chapter 3 studies the mechanism for the accelerated rate of hydrolysis of the dithio-bis(succinimidylundecanoate) monolayer at Au(111) surface. Chapter 4 focuses on the development of an electrochemical approach to the elimination of chloride interference in Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) analysis of waste water. The procedures, results and conclusions are described in each chapter. This report contains the introduction, references, and general conclusions. Chapters have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base. 95 refs.

  11. Characterization of nanoparticle formation and aggregation on mineral surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn Waychunas; Young-Shin Jun

    2007-01-01

    The research effort in the Waychunas group is focused on the characterization and measurement of processes at the mineral-water interfaces specifically related to the onset of precipitation. This effort maps into one of the main project groups with the Penn State University EMSI (CEKA) known as PIG (Precipitation Interest Group), and involves collaborations with several members of that group. Both synchrotron experimentation and technique development are objectives, with the goals of allowing precipitation from single molecule attachment to sub-monolayer coverage to be detected and analyzed. The problem being addressed is the change in reactivity of mineral interfaces due to passivation or activation by precipitates or sorbates. In the case of passivation, fewer active sites may be involved in reactions with environmental fluids, while in the activated case the precipitate may be much more reactive than the substrate, or result in the creation of a higher density of active sites. We approach this problem by making direct measurements of several types of precipitation reactions: iron-aluminum oxide formation on quartz and other substrates from both homogeneous (in solution) nucleation, and heterogeneous (on the surface) nucleation; precipitation and sorption of silicate monomers and polymers on Fe oxide surfaces; and development of grazing-incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) as a tool for in-situ measurement of precipitate growth, morphology and aggregation. We expect that these projects will produce new fundamental information on reactive interface growth, passivation and activation, and be applicable to a wide range of environmental interfaces

  12. Trimming of curved surfaces in computer-aided design

    OpenAIRE

    Makarov, A.

    2008-01-01

    The work examines methods of free-form surfaces limitation by arbitrary contour in CAD/CAM systems. Algorithms of surfaces contour trimming in automatic and automated modes are described. The article represents results of the algorithm realization in CAD/CAM system SPOP-3.

  13. Computer systems and software description for gas characterization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, C.V.

    1997-01-01

    The Gas Characterization System Project was commissioned by TWRS management with funding from TWRS Safety, on December 1, 1994. The project objective is to establish an instrumentation system to measure flammable gas concentrations in the vapor space of selected watch list tanks, starting with tank AN-105 and AW-101. Data collected by this system is meant to support first tank characterization, then tank safety. System design is premised upon Characterization rather than mitigation, therefore redundancy is not required

  14. Selective metallization of polymers using laser induced surface activation (LISA)—characterization and optimization of porous surface topography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Grave, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    was performed on the laser-machined polymer using an Alicona InfiniteFocus® microscope. Based on previous experiments, bearing area curve and its parameters are chosen to characterize the surface. In this paper, by comparison of plateable and non-plateable surfaces, and two types of plateable surface made...

  15. Surface and Electrical Characterization of Conjugated Molecular Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Abel Tesfahun

    This thesis describes the surface and electrical characterization of ultrathin organic films and interfaces. These films were synthesized on the surface of gold by utilizing layer by layer synthesis via imine condensation. Film growth by imine click (condensation) chemistry is particularly useful for molecular electronics experiments because it provides a convenient means to obtain and extend ?-conjugation in the growth direction. However, in the context of film growth from a solid substrate, the reaction yield per step has not been characterized previously, though it is critically important. To address these issues, my research focused on a comprehensive characterization of oligophenyleneimine (OPI) wires via Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). In addition, we had the unique opportunity of developing the first of its kind implementation of nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) to probe the intensity of carbon atoms after each addition step. Overall the combination of various techniques indicated that film growth proceeds in a quantitative manner. Furthermore, the NRA experiment was optimized to measure the carbon content in self-assembled monolayers of alkyl thiols. The results indicated well-resolved coverage values for ultrathin films with consecutive steps of 2 carbon atoms per molecule. Another fundamental problem in molecular electronics is the vast discrepancy in the values of measured resistance per molecule between small and large area molecular junctions. In collaboration with researchers at the National University of Singapore, we addressed these issues by comparing the electrical properties of OPI wires with the eutectic gallium indium alloy (EGaIn) junction (1000 mum2), and conducting probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM) junction (50 nm2). Our results showed that intensive (i.e., area

  16. Navier-Stokes Computations With One-Equation Turbulence Model for Flows Along Concave Wall Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi R.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents the use of a time-marching three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equation numerical solver with a one-equation turbulence model to simulate the flow fields developed along concave wall surfaces without and with a downstream extension flat wall surface. The 3-D Navier- Stokes numerical solver came from the NASA Glenn-HT code. The one-equation turbulence model was derived from the Spalart and Allmaras model. The computational approach was first calibrated with the computations of the velocity and Reynolds shear stress profiles of a steady flat plate boundary layer flow. The computational approach was then used to simulate developing boundary layer flows along concave wall surfaces without and with a downstream extension wall. The author investigated the computational results of surface friction factors, near surface velocity components, near wall temperatures, and a turbulent shear stress component in terms of turbulence modeling, computational mesh configurations, inlet turbulence level, and time iteration step. The computational results were compared with existing measurements of skin friction factors, velocity components, and shear stresses of the developing boundary layer flows. With a fine computational mesh and a one-equation model, the computational approach could predict accurately the skin friction factors, near surface velocity and temperature, and shear stress within the flows. The computed velocity components and shear stresses also showed the vortices effect on the velocity variations over a concave wall. The computed eddy viscosities at the near wall locations were also compared with the results from a two equation turbulence modeling technique. The inlet turbulence length scale was found to have little effect on the eddy viscosities at locations near the concave wall surface. The eddy viscosities, from the one-equation and two-equation modeling, were comparable at most stream-wise stations. The present one

  17. Accurate measurement of surface areas of anatomical structures by computer-assisted triangulation of computed tomography images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allardice, J.T.; Jacomb-Hood, J.; Abulafi, A.M.; Williams, N.S. (Royal London Hospital (United Kingdom)); Cookson, J.; Dykes, E.; Holman, J. (London Hospital Medical College (United Kingdom))

    1993-05-01

    There is a need for accurate surface area measurement of internal anatomical structures in order to define light dosimetry in adjunctive intraoperative photodynamic therapy (AIOPDT). The authors investigated whether computer-assisted triangulation of serial sections generated by computed tomography (CT) scanning can give an accurate assessment of the surface area of the walls of the true pelvis after anterior resection and before colorectal anastomosis. They show that the technique of paper density tessellation is an acceptable method of measuring the surface areas of phantom objects, with a maximum error of 0.5%, and is used as the gold standard. Computer-assisted triangulation of CT images of standard geometric objects and accurately-constructed pelvic phantoms gives a surface area assessment with a maximum error of 2.5% compared with the gold standard. The CT images of 20 patients' pelves have been analysed by computer-assisted triangulation and this shows the surface area of the walls varies from 143 cm[sup 2] to 392 cm[sup 2]. (Author).

  18. Database organization for computer-aided characterization of laser diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyedokun, Z.O.

    1988-01-01

    Computer-aided data logging involves a huge amount of data which must be properly managed for optimized storage space, easy access, retrieval and utilization. An organization method is developed to enhance the advantages of computer-based data logging of the testing of the semiconductor injection laser which optimize storage space, permit authorized user easy access and inhibits penetration. This method is based on unique file identification protocol tree structure and command file-oriented access procedures

  19. Characterization of microchannel anechoic corners formed by surface acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destgeer, Ghulam; Alam, Ashar; Ahmed, Husnain; Park, Jinsoo; Jung, Jin Ho; Park, Kwangseok; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2018-02-01

    Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) generated in a piezoelectric substrate couple with a liquid according to Snell's law such that a compressional acoustic wave propagates obliquely at a Rayleigh angle ( θ t) inside the microchannel to form a region devoid of a direct acoustic field, which is termed a microchannel anechoic corner (MAC). In the present study, we used microchannels with various heights and widths to characterize the width of the MAC region formed by a single travelling SAW. The attenuation of high-frequency SAWs produced a strong acoustic streaming flow that moved the particles in and out of the MAC region, whereas reflections of the acoustic waves within the microchannel resulted in standing acoustic waves that trapped particles at acoustic pressure nodes located within or outside of the MAC region. A range of actuation frequencies and particle diameters were used to investigate the effects of the acoustic streaming flow and the direct acoustic radiation forces by the travelling as well as standing waves on the particle motion with respect to the MAC region. The width of the MAC ( w c), measured experimentally by tracing the particles, increased with the height of the microchannel ( h m) according to a simple trigonometric equation w c = h m × tan ( θ t ).

  20. Surface characterization and direct bioelectrocatalysis of multicopper oxidases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivnitski, Dmitri M.; Khripin, Constantine; Luckarift, Heather R.; Johnson, Glenn R.; Atanassov, Plamen

    2010-01-01

    Multicopper oxidases (MCO) have been extensively studied as oxygen reduction catalysts for cathodic reactions in biofuel cells. Theoretically, direct electron transfer between an enzyme and electrode offers optimal energy conversion efficiency providing that the enzyme/electrode interface can be engineered to establish efficient electrical communication. In this study, the direct bioelectrocatalysis of three MCO (Laccase from Trametes versicolor, bilirubin oxidase (BOD) from the fungi Myrothecium verrucaria and ascorbate oxidase (AOx) from Cucurbita sp.) was investigated and compared as oxygen reduction catalysts. Protein film voltammetry and electrochemical characterization of the MCO electrodes showed that DET had been successfully established in all cases. Atomic force microscopy imaging and force measurements indicated that enzyme was immobilized as a monolayer on the electrode surface. Evidence for three clearly separated anodic and cathodic redox events related to the Type 1 (T1) and the trinculear copper centers (T2, T3) of various MCO was observed. The redox potential of the T1 center was strongly modulated by physiological factors including pH, anaerobic and aerobic conditions and the presence of inhibitors.

  1. Surface characterization and direct bioelectrocatalysis of multicopper oxidases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivnitski, Dmitri M., E-mail: ivnitski@unm.ed [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque 87131 (United States)] [Air Force Research Laboratory, AFRL/RXQL, Microbiology and Applied Biochemistry, Tyndall Air Force Base, FL 32403 (United States); Khripin, Constantine [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque 87131 (United States); Luckarift, Heather R. [Air Force Research Laboratory, AFRL/RXQL, Microbiology and Applied Biochemistry, Tyndall Air Force Base, FL 32403 (United States)] [Universal Technology Corporation, 1270 N. Fairfield Road, Dayton, OH 45432 (United States); Johnson, Glenn R. [Air Force Research Laboratory, AFRL/RXQL, Microbiology and Applied Biochemistry, Tyndall Air Force Base, FL 32403 (United States); Atanassov, Plamen, E-mail: plamen@unm.ed [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque 87131 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Multicopper oxidases (MCO) have been extensively studied as oxygen reduction catalysts for cathodic reactions in biofuel cells. Theoretically, direct electron transfer between an enzyme and electrode offers optimal energy conversion efficiency providing that the enzyme/electrode interface can be engineered to establish efficient electrical communication. In this study, the direct bioelectrocatalysis of three MCO (Laccase from Trametes versicolor, bilirubin oxidase (BOD) from the fungi Myrothecium verrucaria and ascorbate oxidase (AOx) from Cucurbita sp.) was investigated and compared as oxygen reduction catalysts. Protein film voltammetry and electrochemical characterization of the MCO electrodes showed that DET had been successfully established in all cases. Atomic force microscopy imaging and force measurements indicated that enzyme was immobilized as a monolayer on the electrode surface. Evidence for three clearly separated anodic and cathodic redox events related to the Type 1 (T1) and the trinculear copper centers (T2, T3) of various MCO was observed. The redox potential of the T1 center was strongly modulated by physiological factors including pH, anaerobic and aerobic conditions and the presence of inhibitors.

  2. Unmanned Surface Vehicle Human-Computer Interface for Amphibious Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    FIGURES Figure 1. MOCU Baseline HCI using Both Aerial Photo and Digital Nautical Chart ( DNC ) Maps to Control and Monitor Land, Sea, and Air...Action DNC Digital Nautical Chart FNC Future Naval Capability HCI Human-Computer Interface HRI Human-Robot Interface HSI Human-Systems Integration...Digital Nautical Chart ( DNC ) Maps to Control and Monitor Land, Sea, and Air Vehicles. 3.2 BASELINE MOCU HCI The Baseline MOCU interface is a tiled

  3. Characterization of Surface Heterogeneity among Asteroid Taxonomic Classes according to Sloan Digital Sky Survey Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkham, Sunny; Ziffer, Julie; Nelson, Tyler

    2016-10-01

    This research characterizes the extent of surface heterogeneity among asteroid classes by the extent of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) color variance within multiple observations of the same asteroid. The SDSS MOC4 database includes data from 220,101 observations of 104,449 unique objects. The amount of multiple observations of one target makes it ideal for statistically analyzing the surface inhomogeneity of asteroid surfaces. Information from the SDSS MOC4 database (below an error threshold determined from standard error propagation techniques and the interquartile range) is combined with information from the classification in Carvano et al. (2010) to analyze asteroid surface heterogeneity based on taxonomic class. Individual observations are grouped by asteroid, and asteroids are grouped by class. The standard deviation of each normalized SDSS color (i.e. u-r, g-r, r-i, r-z) for each asteroid with multiple observations is calculated. The mean of the standard deviations is then computed for a given class. Comparison of the size of the average standard deviation to the size of the error determines the extent of true variance within a normalized color in a class. The effect of phase angles on SDSS data, as discussed in Carvano et al. (2015), are considered. Additionally, implications for space weathering and evolutionary relationships between taxonomic classes are explored.

  4. Computer numeric control subaperture aspheric surface polishing—microroughness evaluation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procháska, František; Polák, Jaroslav; Matoušek, O.; Tomka, David

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 9 (2014), 092011-092011 ISSN 0091-3286 R&D Project s: GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0079 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : aspheric polishing * optic surface microroughness evaluation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.954, year: 2014 http://opticalengineering.spiedigitallibrary.org/article.aspx?articleid=1901511

  5. Computational design of surfaces, nanostructures and optoelectronic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Kamal

    Properties of engineering materials are generally influenced by defects such as point defects (vacancies, interstitials, substitutional defects), line defects (dislocations), planar defects (grain boundaries, free surfaces/nanostructures, interfaces, stacking faults) and volume defects (voids). Classical physics based molecular dynamics and quantum physics based density functional theory can be useful in designing materials with controlled defect properties. In this thesis, empirical potential based molecular dynamics was used to study the surface modification of polymers due to energetic polyatomic ion, thermodynamics and mechanics of metal-ceramic interfaces and nanostructures, while density functional theory was used to screen substituents in optoelectronic materials. Firstly, polyatomic ion-beams were deposited on polymer surfaces and the resulting chemical modifications of the surface were examined. In particular, S, SC and SH were deposited on amorphous polystyrene (PS), and C2H, CH3, and C3H5 were deposited on amorphous poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using molecular dynamics simulations with classical reactive empirical many-body (REBO) potentials. The objective of this work was to elucidate the mechanisms by which the polymer surface modification took place. The results of the work could be used in tailoring the incident energy and/or constituents of ion beam for obtaining a particular chemistry inside the polymer surface. Secondly, a new Al-O-N empirical potential was developed within the charge optimized many body (COMB) formalism. This potential was then used to examine the thermodynamic stability of interfaces and mechanical properties of nanostructures composed of aluminum, its oxide and its nitride. The potentials were tested for these materials based on surface energies, defect energies, bulk phase stability, the mechanical properties of the most stable bulk phase, its phonon properties as well as with a genetic algorithm based evolution theory of

  6. Linking Experimental Characterization and Computational Modeling in Microstructural Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirel, Melik Cumhar [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2002-06-01

    It is known that by controlling microstructural development, desirable properties of materials can be achieved. The main objective of our research is to understand and control interface dominated material properties, and finally, to verify experimental results with computer simulations. In order to accomplish this objective, we studied the grain growth in detail with experimental techniques and computational simulations. We obtained 5170-grain data from an Aluminum-film (120μm thick) with a columnar grain structure from the Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) measurements. Experimentally obtained starting microstructure and grain boundary properties are input for the three-dimensional grain growth simulation. In the computational model, minimization of the interface energy is the driving force for the grain boundary motion. The computed evolved microstructure is compared with the final experimental microstructure, after annealing at 550 ºC. Two different measures were introduced as methods of comparing experimental and computed microstructures. Modeling with anisotropic mobility explains a significant amount of mismatch between experiment and isotropic modeling. We have shown that isotropic modeling has very little predictive value. Microstructural evolution in columnar Aluminum foils can be correctly modeled with anisotropic parameters. We observed a strong similarity between grain growth experiments and anisotropic three-dimensional simulations.

  7. Linking Experimental Characterization and Computational Modeling in Microstructural Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirel, Melik Cumhur [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-06-01

    It is known that by controlling microstructural development, desirable properties of materials can be achieved. The main objective of our research is to understand and control interface dominated material properties, and finally, to verify experimental results with computer simulations. In order to accomplish this objective, we studied the grain growth in detail with experimental techniques and computational simulations. We obtained 5170-grain data from an Aluminum-film (120μm thick) with a columnar grain structure from the Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) measurements. Experimentally obtained starting microstructure and grain boundary properties are input for the three-dimensional grain growth simulation. In the computational model, minimization of the interface energy is the driving force for the grain boundary motion. The computed evolved microstructure is compared with the final experimental microstructure, after annealing at 550 ºC. Two different measures were introduced as methods of comparing experimental and computed microstructures. Modeling with anisotropic mobility explains a significant amount of mismatch between experiment and isotropic modeling. We have shown that isotropic modeling has very little predictive value. Microstructural evolution in columnar Aluminum foils can be correctly modeled with anisotropic parameters. We observed a strong similarity

  8. Average local ionization energies computed on the surfaces of some strained molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.S.; Seminario, J.M.; Politzer, P.; Sjoberg, P.

    1990-01-01

    An ab initio self-consistent-field molecular orbital (SCF-MO) procedure has been used to compute the average local ionization energies [bar I(r)] of some strained molecules on three-dimensional surfaces defined by the contour of electronic density equal to 0.002 electrons/bohr 3 . bar I(r) is rigorously defined within the framework of SCF-MO theory and can be interpreted as the average energy needed to ionize an electron at any point in the space of a molecule. Thus, the positions of the smallest (bar IOr) values (bar I S,min ) on the surfaces of molecules are the sites expected to be the most reactive to electrophiles. We find bar I S,min near the C-C bond midpoints of saturated three-membered, but not four-membered hydrocarbon rings. These bar I S,min are interpreted as reflecting the σ-aromatic character of the former. Our (bar IOr) data effectively provide a fingerprint characterizing saturated three-membered rings, which is useful, for example, in analyzing molecules such as [1.1.1]propellane. Our results for the latter are consistent with the interpretation of it having a biradical character, as has been suggested earlier

  9. Computational identification and characterization of novel microRNA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2001). Computational prediction of putative targets for the newly verified miRNAs. The potential targets of newly verified miRNAs were predicted using the same strategy as reported previously. (Barozai 2012). Then, all the newly verified mature miRNA sequences were subjected to the NCBI BLASTN program.

  10. Moulding process characterization of paper bottles using computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents an approach of evaluating the moulding process for production of paper bottlesusing Computed Tomography (CT). Moulded Pulp Products (MPP) are made of a formed, dewateredand dried mixture of pulp fibers and water. Modern industrial pulp moulding is datedback to the year 1903 when...

  11. Surface mineralization and characterization of tobacco mosaic virus biotemplated nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Alexander S.

    The genetically engineered tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) has been utilized as a biotemplate in the formation of nanoparticles with the intent of furthering the understanding of the biotemplated nanoparticles formed in the absence of an external reducing agent. Specifically, the work aims to provide better knowledge of the final particle characteristics and how these properties could be altered to better fit the need of functional devices. Three achievements have been accomplished including a method for controlling final particle size, characterizing the resistivity of palladium coated TMV, and the application of TMV as an additive in nanometric calcium carbonate synthesis. Until the last 5 years, formation of metal nanoparticles on the surface of TMV has always occurred with the addition of an external reducing agent. The surface functionalities of genetically engineered TMV allow for the reduction of palladium in the absence of an external reducing agent. This process has been furthered to understand how palladium concentration affects the final coating uniformity and thickness. By confirming an ideal ratio of palladium and TMV concentrations, a uniform coat of palladium is formed around the viral nanorod. Altering the number of palladium coating cycles at these concentrations allows for a controllable average diameter of the final nanorods. The average particle diameter was determined by small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis by comparing the experimental results to the model of scattering by an infinitely long cylinder. The SAXS results were confirmed through transmission electron microscopy images of individual Pd-TMV nanorods. Secondly, methodologies to determine the electrical resistivity of the genetically engineered TMV biotemplated palladium nanoparticles were created to provide valuable previously missing information. Two fairly common nanoelectronic characterization techniques were combined to create the novel approach to obtain the desired

  12. Spinorial characterizations of surfaces into 3-dimensional psuedo-Riemannian space forms

    OpenAIRE

    Lawn , Marie-Amélie; Roth , Julien

    2011-01-01

    9 pages; We give a spinorial characterization of isometrically immersed surfaces of arbitrary signature into 3-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian space forms. For Lorentzian surfaces, this generalizes a recent work of the first author in $\\mathbb{R}^{2,1}$ to other Lorentzian space forms. We also characterize immersions of Riemannian surfaces in these spaces. From this we can deduce analogous results for timelike immersions of Lorentzian surfaces in space forms of corresponding signature, as well ...

  13. Synthesis, spectroscopic and computational characterization of the tautomerism of pyrazoline derivatives from chalcones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Fábio Balbino; Dantas, Juliana Arantes; Amorim, Stefany; Andrade, Gustavo F. S.; Costa, Luiz Antônio Sodré; Couri, Mara Rubia Costa

    2016-01-01

    In the present study a series of novel pyrazolines derivatives has been synthesized, and their structures assigned on the basis of FT-Raman, 1H and 13C NMR spectral data and computational DFT calculations. A joint computational study using B3LYP/6-311G(2d,2p) density functional theory and FT-Raman investigation on the tautomerism of 3-(4-substituted-phenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(4-substituted-phenyl)pyrazole-1-carbothioamide and 3-(4-substituted-phenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(4-substituted-phenyl)pyrazole-1-carboxamide are presented. The structures were characterized as a minimum in the potential energy surface using DFT. The calculated Raman and NMR spectra were of such remarkable agreement to the experimental results that the equilibrium between tautomeric forms has been discussed in detail. Our study suggests the existence of tautomers, the carboxamide/carbothioamide group may tautomerize, in the solid state or in solution. Thermodynamic data calculated suggests that the R(Cdbnd S)NH2 and R(Cdbnd O)NH2 species are more stable than the R(Cdbnd NH)SH and R(Cdbnd NH)OH species. Additionally, results found for the 1H NMR shifting, pointed out to which structure is present.

  14. Characterization of holding brake friction pad surface after pin-on-plate wear test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drago, N.; Gonzalez Madruga, D.; De Chiffre, L.

    2018-01-01

    This article concerns the metrological characterization of the surface on a holding brake friction material pin after a pin-on-plate (POP) wear test. The POP test induces the formation of surface plateaus that affect brake performances such as wear, friction, noise and heat. Three different...... materials’ surfaces have been characterized after wear from data obtained with a focus variation 3D microscope. A new surface characterization approach with plateau identification is proposed, using the number of plateau on the surface, equivalent diameter, length and breadth as measurands...

  15. In silico characterization of antifreeze proteins using computational ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, seventeen different fish Antifreeze Proteins (AFPs) retrieved from Swiss-Prot database are analysed and characterized using In silico tools. ... Department of Chemistry, Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi Viswa Maha Vidyalaya (Deemed University), Enathur, Kanchipuram 631 561; EXCEL and Polymer ...

  16. Characterization of Meta-Materials Using Computational Electromagnetic Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Manohar; Shin, Joon

    2005-01-01

    An efficient and powerful computational method is presented to synthesize a meta-material to specified electromagnetic properties. Using the periodicity of meta-materials, the Finite Element Methodology (FEM) is developed to estimate the reflection and transmission through the meta-material structure for a normal plane wave incidence. For efficient computations of the reflection and transmission over a wide band frequency range through a meta-material a Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) approach is also developed. Using the Nicholson-Ross method and the Genetic Algorithms, a robust procedure to extract electromagnetic properties of meta-material from the knowledge of its reflection and transmission coefficients is described. Few numerical examples are also presented to validate the present approach.

  17. Characterization of neutrophil adhesion to different titanium surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Topographic roughness was demonstrated as higher for SLA treated surfaces, measured by atomic force microscopy and elemental analysis was performed by energy dispersive X-ray, showing a similar composition for both surfaces. The adhesion of neutrophils to the `rough' Ti surface was initially stronger than adhesion ...

  18. Superparamagnetic bead interactions with functionalized surfaces characterized by an immunomicroarray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skottrup, Peter Durand; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Moresco, Jacob Lange

    2010-01-01

    an immunomicroarray for systematic studies of the binding properties of 10 different micro-/nano-sized streptavidin-functionalized beads to a biotin substrate immobilized on SiO2 with or without surface modification SiO2 surface cleaning, immobilized substrate concentration and surface blocking conditions were...

  19. Characterization of a new computer-ready photon counting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andor, Gyorgy

    1998-08-01

    The photon-counting system seems to be the best solution for extremely low optical power measurements. The Hamamatsu HC135 photon counting module has a built-in high-voltage power supply amplifier, discriminator, micro-controller with an RS232 serial output. It requires only a +5V supply voltage and an IBM PC or compatible computer to run. The system is supplied with an application software. This talk is about the testing of the device.

  20. Synthesis, characterization and computational study of the newly synthetized sulfonamide molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, P. Krishna; Suneetha, V.; Armaković, Stevan; Armaković, Sanja J.; Suchetan, P. A.; Giri, L.; Rao, R. Sreenivasa

    2018-02-01

    A new compound N-(2,5-dimethyl-4-nitrophenyl)-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide (NDMPMBS) has been derived from 2,5-dimethyl-4-nitroaniline and 4-methylbenzene-1-sulfonyl chloride. Structure was characterized by SCXRD studies and spectroscopic tools. Compound crystallized in the monoclinic crystal system with P21/c space group a = 10.0549, b = 18.967, c = 8.3087, β = 103.18 and Z = 4. Type and nature of intermolecular interaction in crystal state investigated by 3D-Hirshfeld surface and 2D-finger print plots revealed that title compound stabilized by several interactions. The structural and electronic properties of title compound have been calculated at DFT/B3LYP/6-311G++(d,p) level of theory. Computationally obtained spectral data was compared with experimental results, showing excellent mutual agreement. Assignment of each vibrational wave number was done on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED). Investigation of local reactivity descriptors encompassed visualization of molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and average local ionization energy (ALIE) surfaces, visualization of Fukui functions, natural bond order (NBO) analysis, bond dissociation energies for hydrogen abstraction (H-BDE) and radial distribution functions (RDF) after molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. MD simulations were also used in order to investigate interaction of NDMPMBS molecule with 1WKR and 3ETT proteins protein.

  1. Characterization of the MCNPX computer code in micro processed architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Helder C.; Dominguez, Dany S.; Orellana, Esbel T.V.; Milian, Felix M.

    2009-01-01

    The MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle extended) can be used to simulate the transport of several types of nuclear particles, using probabilistic methods. The technique used for MCNPX is to follow the history of each particle from its origin to its extinction that can be given by absorption, escape or other reasons. To obtain accurate results in simulations performed with the MCNPX is necessary to process a large number of histories, which demand high computational cost. Currently the MCNPX can be installed in virtually all computing platforms available, however there is virtually no information on the performance of the application in each. This paper studies the performance of MCNPX, to work with electrons and photons in phantom Faux on two platforms used by most researchers, Windows and Li nux. Both platforms were tested on the same computer to ensure the reliability of the hardware in the measures of performance. The performance of MCNPX was measured by time spent to run a simulation, making the variable time the main measure of comparison. During the tests the difference in performance between the two platforms MCNPX was evident. In some cases we were able to gain speed more than 10% only with the exchange platforms, without any specific optimization. This shows the relevance of the study to optimize this tool on the platform most appropriate for its use. (author)

  2. Numerical characterization of nonlinear dynamical systems using parallel computing: The role of GPUS approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazanaro, Filipe I.; Soriano, Diogo C.; Suyama, Ricardo; Madrid, Marconi K.; Oliveira, José Raimundo de; Muñoz, Ignacio Bravo; Attux, Romis

    2016-08-01

    The characterization of nonlinear dynamical systems and their attractors in terms of invariant measures, basins of attractions and the structure of their vector fields usually outlines a task strongly related to the underlying computational cost. In this work, the practical aspects related to the use of parallel computing - specially the use of Graphics Processing Units (GPUS) and of the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) - are reviewed and discussed in the context of nonlinear dynamical systems characterization. In this work such characterization is performed by obtaining both local and global Lyapunov exponents for the classical forced Duffing oscillator. The local divergence measure was employed by the computation of the Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSS), revealing the general organization of the flow according to the obtained separatrices, while the global Lyapunov exponents were used to characterize the attractors obtained under one or more bifurcation parameters. These simulation sets also illustrate the required computation time and speedup gains provided by different parallel computing strategies, justifying the employment and the relevance of GPUS and CUDA in such extensive numerical approach. Finally, more than simply providing an overview supported by a representative set of simulations, this work also aims to be a unified introduction to the use of the mentioned parallel computing tools in the context of nonlinear dynamical systems, providing codes and examples to be executed in MATLAB and using the CUDA environment, something that is usually fragmented in different scientific communities and restricted to specialists on parallel computing strategies.

  3. Computational Study of Droplet Trains Impacting a Smooth Solid Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markt, David, Jr.; Pathak, Ashish; Raessi, Mehdi; Lee, Seong-Young; Zhao, Emma

    2017-11-01

    The study of droplet impingement is vital to understanding the fluid dynamics of fuel injection in modern internal combustion engines. One widely accepted model was proposed by Yarin and Weiss (JFM, 1995), developed from experiments of single trains of ethanol droplets impacting a substrate. The model predicts the onset of splashing and the mass ejected upon splashing. In this study, using an in-house 3D multiphase flow solver, the experiments of Yarin and Weiss were computationally simulated. The experimentally observed splashing threshold was captured by the simulations, thus validating the solver's ability to accurately simulate the splashing dynamics. Then, we performed simulations of cases with multiple droplet trains, which have high relevance to dense fuel sprays, where droplets impact within the spreading diameters of their neighboring droplets, leading to changes in splashing dynamics due to interactions of spreading films. For both single and multi-train simulations the amount of splashed mass was calculated as a function of time, allowing a quantitative comparison between the two cases. Furthermore, using a passive scalar the amount of splashed mass per impinging droplet was also calculated. This work is supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the Department of Defense, Tank and Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC), under Award Number DE-EE0007292.

  4. Control and characterization of textured, hydrophobic ionomer surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueyuan

    Polymer thin films are of increasing interest in many industrial and technological applications. Superhydrophobic, self-cleaning surfaces have attracted a lot of attention for their application in self-cleaning, anti-sticking coatings, stain resistance, or anti-contamination surfaces in diverse technologies, including medical, transportation, textiles, electronics and paints. This thesis focuses on the preparation of nanometer to micrometer-size particle textured surfaces which are desirable for super water repellency. Textured surfaces consisting of nanometer to micrometer-sized lightly sulfonated polystyrene ionomer (SPS) particles were prepared by rapid evaporation of the solvent from a dilute polymer solution cast onto silica. The effect of the solvent used to spin coat the film, the molecular weight of the ionomer, and the rate of solvent evaporation were investigated. The nano-particle or micron-particle textured ionomer surfaces were prepared by either spin coating or solution casting ionomer solutions at controlled evaporation rates. The surface morphologies were consistent with a spinodal decomposition mechanism where the surface first existed as a percolated-like structure and then ripened into droplets if molecular mobility was retained for sufficient time. The SPS particles or particle aggregates were robust and resisted deformation even after annealing at 120°C for one week. The water contact angles on as-prepared surfaces were relatively low, ~ 90° since the polar groups in ionomer reduce the surface hydrophobicity. After chemical vapor deposition of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane, the surface contact angles increased to ~ 109° on smooth surfaces and ~140° on the textured surfaces. Water droplets stuck to these surfaces even when tilted 90 degrees. Superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared by spraying coating ionomer solutions and Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane onto textured surfaces. The

  5. Methodology for characterizing modeling and discretization uncertainties in computational simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALVIN,KENNETH F.; OBERKAMPF,WILLIAM L.; RUTHERFORD,BRIAN M.; DIEGERT,KATHLEEN V.

    2000-03-01

    This research effort focuses on methodology for quantifying the effects of model uncertainty and discretization error on computational modeling and simulation. The work is directed towards developing methodologies which treat model form assumptions within an overall framework for uncertainty quantification, for the purpose of developing estimates of total prediction uncertainty. The present effort consists of work in three areas: framework development for sources of uncertainty and error in the modeling and simulation process which impact model structure; model uncertainty assessment and propagation through Bayesian inference methods; and discretization error estimation within the context of non-deterministic analysis.

  6. A novel technique for the visualization of tablet punch surfaces: Characterization of surface modification, wear and sticking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Karawi, Claudia; Kaiser, Thomas; Leopold, Claudia S

    2017-09-15

    The surface quality of tablets is strongly related to the surface quality of the tablet punch. Therefore, regular control of the punch surfaces is needed to determine the surface properties, the wear status and sticking tendency of the punches. The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate a new technique to visualize and evaluate tablet punch surfaces using high-resolution impression molding combined with 3D surface analysis. Standardized 3D surface texture parameters were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) to characterized differently surface-modified punches, punches with different wear status and the sticking pattern on the punch surfaces. It could be shown that the presented technique was precise enough to differentiate between differently coated and texturized punches, to evaluate the abrasive wear status of the investigated punches, and to visualize and assess punch tip sticking behavior. In conclusion, this novel technique may serve as a valuable tool for systematic punch surface characterization, wear status check-up and optimization of the punch surface quality e.g. for improvement of the anti-sticking behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Probabilistic Damage Characterization Using the Computationally-Efficient Bayesian Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, James E.; Hochhalter, Jacob D.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a computationally-ecient approach for damage determination that quanti es uncertainty in the provided diagnosis. Given strain sensor data that are polluted with measurement errors, Bayesian inference is used to estimate the location, size, and orientation of damage. This approach uses Bayes' Theorem to combine any prior knowledge an analyst may have about the nature of the damage with information provided implicitly by the strain sensor data to form a posterior probability distribution over possible damage states. The unknown damage parameters are then estimated based on samples drawn numerically from this distribution using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling algorithm. Several modi cations are made to the traditional Bayesian inference approach to provide signi cant computational speedup. First, an ecient surrogate model is constructed using sparse grid interpolation to replace a costly nite element model that must otherwise be evaluated for each sample drawn with MCMC. Next, the standard Bayesian posterior distribution is modi ed using a weighted likelihood formulation, which is shown to improve the convergence of the sampling process. Finally, a robust MCMC algorithm, Delayed Rejection Adaptive Metropolis (DRAM), is adopted to sample the probability distribution more eciently. Numerical examples demonstrate that the proposed framework e ectively provides damage estimates with uncertainty quanti cation and can yield orders of magnitude speedup over standard Bayesian approaches.

  8. Multitechnique characterization of CPTi surfaces after electro discharge machining (EDM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinelis, Spiros; Al Jabbari, Youssef S; Thomas, Andrew; Silikas, Nick; Eliades, George

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to comparatively assess the surface roughness parameters, the hardness, and the elemental and molecular alterations induced on CPTi surfaces after conventional finishing and finishing with electro discharge machining (EDM). A completed cast model of an arch that received four implants was used for the preparation of two grade II CPTi castings. One framework was conventionally finished (CF), whereas the other was subjected to EDM finishing. The surface morphology was imaged employing SEM. 3D surface parameters (S a, S q, S z, S ds, S dr, and S ci) were calculated by optical profilometry. The elemental composition of the treated surfaces was determined by energy dispersive X-ray analysis, whereas the elemental and chemical states of the outmost layer were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry. Surface hardness was also tested with a Knoop indenter. The results of surface roughness parameters, elemental analysis, and hardness were compared using unpaired t test (a = 0.05). The EDM group demonstrated a rougher surface, with a significant uptake of C and Cu. The CF surface mainly consisted of TiO2. On EDM surface though, Ti was probed in different chemicals states (TiO2, Ti2O3, TiC and metallic Ti) and Cu was traced as Cu2O and CuO. Hardness after EDM was almost ten times higher than CF. EDM significantly affected surface roughness, chemical state, and hardness properties of grade II CPTi castings in comparison with CF. The morphological and elemental alterations of EDM-treated CPTi surfaces may strongly contribute to the reduced corrosion resistance documented for this procedure. The degradation of electrochemical properties may have further biological implications through ionic release in the oral environment.

  9. Surface Characterization for High Purity Fe-Cr Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Iwai, H.; Oiwa, R.; Takaki, S.; Abiko, K.

    1995-01-01

    Fe-50mass%Cr was prepared in a cold crucible furnace with induction heating, then refined by floating-zone melting (FZM). The chemistries on the surface before and after FZM were compared by XPS measurement. C and O were observed on top surfaces both before and after as a hydrocarbon, carbonyl group and carboxyl group which are adsorbed chemical components. The other impurities were observed on the surface in both cases ; however, the number and level of impurities on the surface after FZM we...

  10. Experimental and computing strategies in advanced material characterization problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolzon, G. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy gabriella.bolzon@polimi.it (Italy)

    2015-10-28

    The mechanical characterization of materials relies more and more often on sophisticated experimental methods that permit to acquire a large amount of data and, contemporarily, to reduce the invasiveness of the tests. This evolution accompanies the growing demand of non-destructive diagnostic tools that assess the safety level of components in use in structures and infrastructures, for instance in the strategic energy sector. Advanced material systems and properties that are not amenable to traditional techniques, for instance thin layered structures and their adhesion on the relevant substrates, can be also characterized by means of combined experimental-numerical tools elaborating data acquired by full-field measurement techniques. In this context, parameter identification procedures involve the repeated simulation of the laboratory or in situ tests by sophisticated and usually expensive non-linear analyses while, in some situation, reliable and accurate results would be required in real time. The effectiveness and the filtering capabilities of reduced models based on decomposition and interpolation techniques can be profitably used to meet these conflicting requirements. This communication intends to summarize some results recently achieved in this field by the author and her co-workers. The aim is to foster further interaction between engineering and mathematical communities.

  11. Computed tomography with image intensifier: imaging and characterization of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.V.; Cesareo, R.; Brunetti, A.

    1999-01-01

    Computed tomographic images, nondestructive evaluation of materials of ceramics, electrical insulators, wood and other samples obtained, using a new tomographic system based on an image intensifier replacing earlier system (Cesareo et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 356 (1995) 573). It consists of a charge coupled device camera and an acquisition board. The charge coupled device and the acquisition board allows image processing, filtration and restoration. A reconstruction programme, written in PASCAL is able to give the reconstruction matrix of the linear attenuation coefficients, and simulates the matrix and the related tomography. The flux emitted by the tube is filtered using appropriate filters at chosen energy and reasonable monochromacy is achieved for all the images. The effect of collimators is also studied at various energies with filters and the optimum value is used for better image quality

  12. Characterization and Computational Modeling of Minor Phases in Alloy LSHR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Herng-Jeng; Olson, Gregory; Gabb, Timothy; Garg, Anita; Miller, Derek

    2012-01-01

    The minor phases of powder metallurgy disk superalloy LSHR were studied. Samples were consistently heat treated at three different temperatures for long times to approach equilibrium. Additional heat treatments were also performed for shorter times, to assess minor phase kinetics in non-equilibrium conditions. Minor phases including MC carbides, M23C6 carbides, M3B2 borides, and sigma were identified. Their average sizes and total area fractions were determined. CALPHAD thermodynamics databases and PrecipiCalc(TradeMark), a computational precipitation modeling tool, were employed with Ni-base thermodynamics and diffusion databases to model and simulate the phase microstructural evolution observed in the experiments with an objective to identify the model limitations and the directions of model enhancement.

  13. Preparation and characterization of low-defect surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, T.O.

    1991-12-01

    Silver crystal surfaces with low defect densities were prepared electrochemically from aqueous solutions using capillary-growth techniques. These surfaces had low rates for the nucleation of new silver layers. The impedance of these inert silver/aqueous silver nitrate interfaces was used to determine silver adatom concentration and water dipole reorientation energetics.

  14. Surface characterization of amorphous and crystallized Fe 80B 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, D. R.; Overbury, S. H.; Zehner, D. M.; Budai, J. D.; Brower, W. E.

    1986-11-01

    Recent studies of catalysis by amorphous metals have prompted an interest in their surface properties. We have utilized Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy alkali ion scattering to study the surface composition, electronic properties and topography of amorphous and crystallized Fe 80B 20 ribbons. The majorresults are that the surface stoichiometry is approximately that of the bulk, unaltered by segregation. Bulk crystallization results in the diffusion of impurities to the surface, but does not change the Fe/B ratio. A small shift in the B1s core level binding energy was observed on crystalline, annealed surfaces relative to amorphous or sputtered surfaces, but no shifts were observed in the iron core level energies. A weak feature due to the B2p levels was observed in the valence band spectra from sputtered surfaces. The surfaces exhibit atomic scale roughness which is not altered by bulk crystallization. Finally, there were no observable differences in the structure, composition or electronic properties between the two sides of the ribbons.

  15. Surface characterization of polyethylene terephthalate/silica nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvinzadeh, Mazeyar, E-mail: mparvinzadeh@gmail.com [Department of Textile, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradian, Siamak [Department of Polymer and Color Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidi, Abosaeed [Department of Textile, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yazdanshenas, Mohamad-Esmail [Department of Textile, Islamic Azad University, Yazd Branch, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) based nanocomposites containing hydrophilic (i.e. Aerosil 200 or Aerosil TT 600) or hydrophobic (i.e. Aerosil R 972) nano-silica were prepared by melt compounding. Influence of nano-silica type on surface properties of the resultant nanocomposites was investigated by the use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle measurement (CAM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and reflectance spectroscopy (RS). The possible interaction between nano-silica particles and PET functional groups at bulk and surface were elucidated by transmission FTIR and FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, respectively. AFM studies of the resultant nanocomposites showed increased surface roughness compared to pure PET. Contact angle measurements of the resultant PET composites demonstrated that the wettability of such composites depends on surface treatment of the particular nano-silica particles used. SEM images illustrated that hydrophilic nano-silica particles tended to migrate to the surface of the PET matrix.

  16. Characterization of magnetron sputtered surface coatings by AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahler, C.; Endstrasser, N.; Jaksch, S.; Scheier, P.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Surface coatings produced by magnetron sputtering are investigated by STM and AES. Thin films of silicon nanoparticles are deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces by magnetron sputtering. These silicon nanoparticle films are manipulated by means of a variable temperature UHV-STM, to realize lithography on the nanometer scale. Several factors affect the stability of the films and thereby the lifetime of the produced surface structures. To investigate the influence of these parameters, various methods like AFM, AES and XPS have to be applied. The dependence of the surface stability on the grade of oxidation is determined from the ratio between silicon and oxygen. This can be achieved by Auger electron spectroscopy. Our Auger spectrometer was modified in order to allow measuring the time development of the Auger spectrum during the oxidation process. Chemical images are generated by collecting an Auger spectrum at every spot as the primary electron beam is rastered across the sample surface. (author)

  17. Characterization of surface processes on mineral surfaces in aqueous solutions. Annual report for fiscal year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leckie, J.O.

    1993-11-01

    Performance assessments by Los Alamos National Laboratory for the DOE's Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) are being done investigating the environmental risk related to long-term disposal of hazardous wastes resulting from the use of radioactive materials that must subsequently be isolated from the environment. The YMP site, located in southwestern Nevada, is intended for the storage of high-level wastes generated by nuclear energy-related activities, including spent fuel and waste from reprocessed fuel rods. The work covered by this contract is necessary for producing a defensible model and dataset, and may be critical for evaluation of repository compliance. This work, performed by the Environmental Engineering and Science research group at Stanford University, will quantify the adsorption of uranyl on various minerals. The project's principle objective is to provide sorption coefficients for uranyl and other ions of interest to predict radionuclide movements form the repository to accessible environments. This adsorption data is essential for the unambiguous interpretation of field experiments and observations. In this report, details of the activity and progress made with respect to the study of uranyl adsorption on mineral surfaces is presented and discussed

  18. Computer assisted characterization of cervical intervertebral disc degeneration in MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulou, S.; Boniatis, I.; Costaridou, L.; Cavouras, D.; Panagiotopoulos, E.; Panayiotakis, G.

    2009-05-01

    A texture-based pattern recognition system is proposed for the automatic characterization of cervical intervertebral disc degeneration from saggital magnetic resonance images of the spine. A case sample of 50 manually segmented ROIs, corresponding to 25 normal and 25 degenerated discs, was analyzed and textural features were generated from each disc-ROI. Student's t-test verified the existence of statistically significant differences between textural feature values generated from normal and degenerated discs. This finding is indicative of disc image texture differentiation due to the degeneration of the disc. The generated features were employed in the design of a pattern recognition system based on the Least Squares Minimum Distance classifier. The system achieved a classification accuracy of 94{%} and it may be of value to physicians for the assessment of cervical intervertebral disc degeneration in MRI.

  19. Rh-Based Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalysts: Characterization and Computational Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Karl O.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Rousseau, Roger J.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Varga, Tamas; Colby, Robert J.; Jaffe, John E.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Mei, Donghai; Windisch, Charles F.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Lemmon, Teresa L.; Gray, Michel J.; Hart, Todd R.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting a program focused on developing a process for the conversion of biomass to bio-based fuels and co-products. Biomass-derived syngas is converted thermochemically within a temperature range of 240 to 330°C and at elevated pressure (e.g., 1200 psig) over a catalyst. Ethanol is the desired reaction product, although other side compounds are produced, including C3 to C5 alcohols; higher (i.e., greater than C1) oxygenates such as methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, acetic acid and acetaldehyde; and higher hydrocarbon gases such as methane, ethane/ethene, propane/propene, etc. Saturated hydrocarbon gases (especially methane) are undesirable because they represent a diminished yield of carbon to the desired ethanol product and represent compounds that must be steam reformed at high energy cost to reproduce CO and H2. Ethanol produced by the thermochemical reaction of syngas could be separated and blended directly with gasoline to produce a liquid transportation fuel. Additionally, higher oxygenates and unsaturated hydrocarbon side products such as olefins also could be further processed to liquid fuels. The goal of the current project is the development of a Rh-based catalyst with high activity and selectivity to C2+ oxygenates. This report chronicles an effort to characterize numerous supports and catalysts to identify particular traits that could be correlated with the most active and/or selective catalysts. Carbon and silica supports and catalysts were analyzed. Generally, analyses provided guidance in the selection of acceptable catalyst supports. For example, supports with high surface areas due to a high number of micropores were generally found to be poor at producing oxygenates, possibly because of mass transfer limitations of the products formed out of the micropores. To probe fundamental aspects of the complicated reaction network of CO with H2, a computational/ theoretical investigation using quantum mechanical and ab

  20. Surface and subsurface layers characterization in artworks using conoscopic laser holography and acoustic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioro, Giacomo; Apostolidis, Georgios; Karagiannis, Georgios; Galeotti, Monica; Daffara, Claudia

    2017-07-01

    The characterization of the surface morphology and the material layers stratigraphy is a pivotal step in several stages of the conservation process of the artwork. Generally, optimal characterization of the surface cannot be achieved using a single technique but is not always possible to find techniques that can be coupled effectively. Surface maps were retrieved using acoustic microscopy and conoscopic laser holography over a set of reference samples. The surface maps compared for showing possible way to better characterize the surface morphology when their information is combined. The final data give us a more complete surface and subsurface digitalization while the results obtained are discussed highlighting the main pros and cons of the two techniques. Thus besides having insights on the effectiveness and on the performance of the processes, it is also evident that uncertainties associated with the measurement can be overcome and a single more accurate representation of the surface can be derived using both scanning methods.

  1. Spinorial Characterizations of Surfaces into 3-dimensional Pseudo-Riemannian Space Forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawn, Marie-Amélie; Roth, Julien

    2011-01-01

    We give a spinorial characterization of isometrically immersed surfaces of arbitrary signature into 3-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian space forms. This generalizes a recent work of the first author for spacelike immersed Lorentzian surfaces in ℝ 2,1 to other Lorentzian space forms. We also characterize immersions of Riemannian surfaces in these spaces. From this we can deduce analogous results for timelike immersions of Lorentzian surfaces in space forms of corresponding signature, as well as for spacelike and timelike immersions of surfaces of signature (0, 2), hence achieving a complete spinorial description for this class of pseudo-Riemannian immersions.

  2. Analytical methods for the characterization of surface finishing in bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardini, I.; Zendri, E.; Biscontin, G.; Brunetin, A.

    2006-01-01

    The recent restoration works of Santo Stefano Church Facade (XV century) in Venice have shown traces variously saved of different kind of surface finishes. These finishes were found on the brick's surface both in the masonry and in the decorative elements. Different brick's surface and decorative tile samples were investigated using several techniques: optical microscopy, scanning electron-microscopy, thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy and reflectance Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. The evaluation of the reached results was used to understand the decorative techniques and to recognize the material employed

  3. 3D Human cartilage surface characterization by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Nicolai; Riedel, Jörn; Schmitt, Robert; Tingart, Markus; Truhn, Daniel; Pufe, Thomas; Jahr, Holger; Nebelung, Sven

    2015-10-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of cartilage degeneration is of high clinical interest. Loss of surface integrity is considered one of the earliest and most reliable signs of degeneration, but cannot currently be evaluated objectively. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an arthroscopically available light-based non-destructive real-time imaging technology that allows imaging at micrometre resolutions to millimetre depths. As OCT-based surface evaluation standards remain to be defined, the present study investigated the diagnostic potential of 3D surface profile parameters in the comprehensive evaluation of cartilage degeneration. To this end, 45 cartilage samples of different degenerative grades were obtained from total knee replacements (2 males, 10 females; mean age 63.8 years), cut to standard size and imaged using a spectral-domain OCT device (Thorlabs, Germany). 3D OCT datasets of 8  ×  8, 4  ×  4 and 1  ×  1 mm (width  ×  length) were obtained and pre-processed (image adjustments, morphological filtering). Subsequent automated surface identification algorithms were used to obtain the 3D primary profiles, which were then filtered and processed using established algorithms employing ISO standards. The 3D surface profile thus obtained was used to calculate a set of 21 3D surface profile parameters, i.e. height (e.g. Sa), functional (e.g. Sk), hybrid (e.g. Sdq) and segmentation-related parameters (e.g. Spd). Samples underwent reference histological assessment according to the Degenerative Joint Disease classification. Statistical analyses included calculation of Spearman’s rho and assessment of inter-group differences using the Kruskal Wallis test. Overall, the majority of 3D surface profile parameters revealed significant degeneration-dependent differences and correlations with the exception of severe end-stage degeneration and were of distinct diagnostic value in the assessment of surface integrity. None of the 3D

  4. Surface characterization of pretreated and microbial-treated populus cross-sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolbert, Allison K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The first objective of this thesis is to illustrate the advantages of surface characterization in biomass utilization studies. The second objective is to gain insight into the workings of potential consolidated bioprocessing microorganisms on the surface of poplar samples. The third objective is to determine the impact biomass recalcitrance has on enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial fermentation in relation to the surface chemistry.

  5. Error characterization for asynchronous computations: Proxy equation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallai, Gabriella; Mittal, Ankita; Girimaji, Sharath

    2017-11-01

    Numerical techniques for asynchronous fluid flow simulations are currently under development to enable efficient utilization of massively parallel computers. These numerical approaches attempt to accurately solve time evolution of transport equations using spatial information at different time levels. The truncation error of asynchronous methods can be divided into two parts: delay dependent (EA) or asynchronous error and delay independent (ES) or synchronous error. The focus of this study is a specific asynchronous error mitigation technique called proxy-equation approach. The aim of this study is to examine these errors as a function of the characteristic wavelength of the solution. Mitigation of asynchronous effects requires that the asynchronous error be smaller than synchronous truncation error. For a simple convection-diffusion equation, proxy-equation error analysis identifies critical initial wave-number, λc. At smaller wave numbers, synchronous error are larger than asynchronous errors. We examine various approaches to increase the value of λc in order to improve the range of applicability of proxy-equation approach.

  6. Near Surface Characterization Of Concrete Structures Using Rayleigh Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Wardany, R.; Ballivy, G.; Saleh, K.; Rhazi, J.; Gallias, J.

    2004-05-01

    The deterioration of the near surface concrete minimises the structural behaviour, capacity, and working lifespan for civil engineering structures and dams. Repair strategy and maintenance require careful examination and determination of the degraded depth. In this aim, dispersive properties of Rayleigh waves are used to detect concrete stratification and cracks. Current work focuses on an experimental study and application of multichannel Rayleigh wave methods on high concrete volumes. The method considers a wavefield in the frequency-wavenumber domain to separate existing Rayleigh modes and determine the appropriate shear wave velocity profile. The classical phase unwrapping analysis technique is also used to localise near surface cracks and defects. This new way in concrete nondestructive testing lead to a best evaluation of near surface stiffness and properties from the surface of concrete structures.

  7. Ultrafast Coherent Control and Characterization of Surface Reactions using FELs

    CERN Document Server

    Ogasawara, Hirohito; Nordlund, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    The microscopic understanding of surface chemistry requires a detailed understanding of the dynamics of elementary processes at surfaces. The ultrashort electron pulse obtained in the linear accelerator to feed the FEL can be used for generation of coherent synchrotron radiation in the low energy THz regime. With the current parameters for LCLS this corresponds to radiation with energy corresponding to excitations of low-energy vibrational modes of molecules on surfaces or phonons in substrates. The coherent radiation can coherently manipulate atoms or molecules on surfaces. In this respect a chemical reaction can be initiated by coherent atomic motion along a specific reaction coordinate. Since the THz radiation is generated from the same source as the FEL radiation full-time synchronization for pump-probe experiments will be possible. The possibility to perform time-resolved X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (XES) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements as a probe of chemical dynamics is an exciti...

  8. Characterization of electro-eroded surface of Ti alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starý, V.; Peřina, Vratislav; Bačáková, Lucie; Jirka, Ivan; Vorlíček, Vladimír; Fencl, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 100, - (2008), 012004-012004 E-ISSN 1742-6596 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/06/0226; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN101120701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : Ti alloys * surface properties * bone implants Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials

  9. Three dimensional display of the brain surface from magnetic resonance images using a personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Jin

    1991-01-01

    A new system for three dimensional display of brain surface from magnetic resonance images has been developed using a personal computer. The system consists of the personal computer with a co-processor for mathematical operation and frame memory for full color graphic display. MRI data were transferred to the computer with the floppy disks. Using the paint algorithm, extraction of brain tissue was performed semi-automatically with a manual operation. Brain surface data were displayed on a CRT by a voxel method from an arbitral direction. The result of clinical application of the system showed that the 3-dimentional display of brain surface was useful in comprehending abnormalities including atrophy and cystic lesions. In this paper, we introduce the new system and discuss clinical applicabilities. (author)

  10. General surface reconstruction for cone-beam multislice spiral computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Laigao; Liang Yun; Heuscher, Dominic J.

    2003-01-01

    A new family of cone-beam reconstruction algorithm, the General Surface Reconstruction (GSR), is proposed and formulated in this paper for multislice spiral computed tomography (CT) reconstructions. It provides a general framework to allow the reconstruction of planar or nonplanar surfaces on a set of rebinned short-scan parallel beam projection data. An iterative surface formation method is proposed as an example to show the possibility to form nonplanar reconstruction surfaces to minimize the adverse effect between the collected cone-beam projection data and the reconstruction surfaces. The improvement in accuracy of the nonplanar surfaces over planar surfaces in the two-dimensional approximate cone-beam reconstructions is mathematically proved and demonstrated using numerical simulations. The proposed GSR algorithm is evaluated by the computer simulation of cone-beam spiral scanning geometry and various mathematical phantoms. The results demonstrate that the GSR algorithm generates much better image quality compared to conventional multislice reconstruction algorithms. For a table speed up to 100 mm per rotation, GSR demonstrates good image quality for both the low-contrast ball phantom and thorax phantom. All other performance parameters are comparable to the single-slice 180 deg. LI (linear interpolation) algorithm, which is considered the 'gold standard'. GSR also achieves high computing efficiency and good temporal resolution, making it an attractive alternative for the reconstruction of next generation multislice spiral CT data

  11. Polymeric heterogeneous catalysts of transition-metal oxides: surface characterization, physicomechanical properties, and catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhi, Bui Dinh; Akhmadullin, Renat Maratovich; Akhmadullina, Alfiya Garipovna; Samuilov, Yakov Dmitrievich; Aghajanian, Svetlana Ivanova

    2013-12-16

    We investigate the physicomechanical properties of polymeric heterogeneous catalysts of transition-metal oxides, specifically, the specific surface area, elongation at break, breaking strength, specific electrical resistance, and volume resistivity. Digital microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive analysis are used to study the surfaces of the catalysts. The experimental results show that polymeric heterogeneous catalysts of transition-metal oxides exhibit high stability and can maintain their catalytic activity under extreme reaction conditions for long-term use. The oxidation mechanism of sulfur-containing compounds in the presence of polymeric heterogeneous catalysts of transition-metal oxides is confirmed. Microstructural characterization of the catalysts is performed by using X-ray computed tomography. The activity of various catalysts in the oxidation of sulfur-containing compounds is determined. We demonstrate the potential application of polymeric heterogeneous catalysts of transition-metal oxides in industrial wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A simplified approach to characterizing a kilovoltage source spectrum for accurate dose computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Yannick; Kouznetsov, Alexei; Tambasco, Mauro

    2012-06-01

    To investigate and validate the clinical feasibility of using half-value layer (HVL) and peak tube potential (kVp) for characterizing a kilovoltage (kV) source spectrum for the purpose of computing kV x-ray dose accrued from imaging procedures. To use this approach to characterize a Varian® On-Board Imager® (OBI) source and perform experimental validation of a novel in-house hybrid dose computation algorithm for kV x-rays. We characterized the spectrum of an imaging kV x-ray source using the HVL and the kVp as the sole beam quality identifiers using third-party freeware Spektr to generate the spectra. We studied the sensitivity of our dose computation algorithm to uncertainties in the beam's HVL and kVp by systematically varying these spectral parameters. To validate our approach experimentally, we characterized the spectrum of a Varian® OBI system by measuring the HVL using a Farmer-type Capintec ion chamber (0.06 cc) in air and compared dose calculations using our computationally validated in-house kV dose calculation code to measured percent depth-dose and transverse dose profiles for 80, 100, and 125 kVp open beams in a homogeneous phantom and a heterogeneous phantom comprising tissue, lung, and bone equivalent materials. The sensitivity analysis of the beam quality parameters (i.e., HVL, kVp, and field size) on dose computation accuracy shows that typical measurement uncertainties in the HVL and kVp (±0.2 mm Al and ±2 kVp, respectively) source characterization parameters lead to dose computation errors of less than 2%. Furthermore, for an open beam with no added filtration, HVL variations affect dose computation accuracy by less than 1% for a 125 kVp beam when field size is varied from 5 × 5 cm(2) to 40 × 40 cm(2). The central axis depth dose calculations and experimental measurements for the 80, 100, and 125 kVp energies agreed within 2% for the homogeneous and heterogeneous block phantoms, and agreement for the transverse dose profiles was within 6

  13. Characterization, modeling and simulation of fused deposition modeling fabricated part surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufik, Mohammad; Jain, Prashant K.

    2017-12-01

    Surface roughness is generally used for characterization, modeling and simulation of fused deposition modeling (FDM) fabricated part surfaces. But the average surface roughness is not able to provide the insight of surface characteristics with sharp peaks and deep valleys. It deals in the average sense for all types of surfaces, including FDM fabricated surfaces with distinct surface profile features. The present research work shows that kurtosis and skewness can be used for characterization, modeling and simulation of FDM surfaces because these roughness parameters have the ability to characterize a surface with sharp peaks and deep valleys. It can be critical in certain application areas in tribology and biomedicine, where the surface profile plays an important role. Thus, in this study along with surface roughness, skewness and kurtosis are considered to show a novel strategy to provide new transferable knowledge about FDM fabricated part surfaces. The results suggest that the surface roughness, skewness and kurtosis are significantly different at 0° and in the range (0°, 30°], [30°, 90°] of build orientation.

  14. Ultrafast Coherent Control and Characterization of Surface Reactions using FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogasawara, Hirohito

    2005-01-01

    The microscopic understanding of reactions at surfaces requires an in-depth knowledge of the dynamics of elementary processes on an ultrafast timescale. This can be accomplished using an ultrafast excitation to initiate a chemical reaction and then probe the progression of the reaction with an ultrashort x-ray pulse from the FEL. There is a great potential to use atom-specific spectroscopy involving core levels to probe the chemical nature, structure and bonding of species on surfaces. The ultrashort electron pulse obtained in the linear accelerator to feed the X-ray FEL can also be used for generation of coherent synchrotron radiation in the low energy THz regime to be used as a pump. This radiation has an energy close to the thermal excitations of low-energy vibrational modes of molecules on surfaces and phonons in substrates. The coherent THz radiation will be an electric field pulse with a certain direction that can collectively manipulate atoms or molecules on surfaces. In this respect a chemical reaction can be initiated by collective atomic motion along a specific reaction coordinate. If the coherent THz radiation is generated from the same source as the X-ray FEL radiation, full-time synchronization for pump-probe experiments will be possible. The combination of THz and X-ray spectroscopy could be a unique opportunity for FEL facilities to conduct ultrafast chemistry studies at surfaces

  15. Electrochemical characterization of GaN surface states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnerl, Andrea; Garrido, Jose A.; Stutzmann, Martin

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we present a systematic study of the electrochemical properties of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition and hybrid vapor phase epitaxy grown n-type GaN in aqueous electrolytes. For this purpose, we perform cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy measurements over a wide range of potentials and frequencies, using a pure aqueous electrolyte and adding two different types of redox couples, as well as applying different surface treatments to the GaN electrodes. For Ga-polar GaN electrodes, the charge transfer to an electrolyte is dominated by surface states, which are not related to dislocations and are independent of the specific growth technique. These surface states can be modified by the surface treatment; they are generated by etching in HCl and are passivated by oxidation. Different surface defect states are present on N-polar GaN electrodes which do not significantly contribute to the charge transfer across the GaN/electrolyte interface.

  16. Computation of stress on the surface of a soft homogeneous arbitrarily shaped particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minglin; Ren, Kuan Fang; Wu, Yueqian; Sheng, Xinqing

    2014-04-01

    Prediction of the stress on the surface of an arbitrarily shaped particle of soft material is essential in the study of elastic properties of the particles with optical force. It is also necessary in the manipulation and sorting of small particles with optical tweezers, since a regular-shaped particle, such as a sphere, may be deformed under the nonuniform optical stress on its surface. The stress profile on a spherical or small spheroidal soft particle trapped by shaped beams has been studied, however little work on computing the surface stress of an irregular-shaped particle has been reported. We apply in this paper the surface integral equation with multilevel fast multipole algorithm to compute the surface stress on soft homogeneous arbitrarily shaped particles. The comparison of the computed stress profile with that predicted by the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory for a water droplet of diameter equal to 51 wavelengths in a focused Gaussian beam show that the precision of our method is very good. Then stress profiles on spheroids with different aspect ratios are computed. The particles are illuminated by a Gaussian beam of different waist radius at different incidences. Physical analysis on the mechanism of optical stress is given with help of our recently developed vectorial complex ray model. It is found that the maximum of the stress profile on the surface of prolate spheroids is not only determined by the reflected and refracted rays (orders p =0,1) but also the rays undergoing one or two internal reflections where they focus. Computational study of stress on surface of a biconcave cell-like particle, which is a typical application in life science, is also undertaken.

  17. Theory for computing the field scattered from a smooth inflected surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, R. L.; Dominek, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    A theory is described for computing the reflected or scattered field from a smooth body with inflection points. These inflections occur in certain directions at each surface point for which the total (Gaussian) curvature is zero or negative. For surface illumination in one of these critical directions, the usual reflection formulas obtained by the high-frequency approximation are inapplicable, and a shadow zone exists in the reflected field. Scattering into the shadow zone is treated, as well as specular reflection. This theory should have a variety of applications such as for certain optics problems, computer graphics modeling of three-dimensional shapes, and the design and analysis of specialized microwave reflector antennas.

  18. Identification and characterization of Vibrio cholerae surface proteins by radioiodination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, K.; Parker, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    Whole cells and isolated outer membrane from Vibrio cholerae (Classical, Inaba) were radiolabeled with Iodogen or Iodo-beads as catalyst. Radiolabeling of whole cells was shown to be surface specific by sodium dodecyl sulfate-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whole cells and cell fractions. Surface-labeled whole cells regularly showed 16 distinguishable protein species, of which nine were found in radiolabeled outer membrane preparations obtained by a lithium chloride- lithium acetate procedure. Eight of these proteins were found in outer membranes prepared by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and Triton X-100 extraction of radiolabeled whole cells. The mobility of several proteins was shown to be affected by temperature, and the major protein species exposed on the cell surface was shown to consist of at least two different peptides

  19. Detection and characterization of near surface structures using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A geophysical investigation was carried out at Shika, using seismic refraction method. The aim was to delineate, map and characterize the different strata of the subsurface within the flanks of a dam. In order to achieve this aim, varying geometric spreads were used with geophone spacings of 5m, 4m, 3m and 2m ...

  20. Structural and surface compositional characterization of silver thin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silver thin films were deposited on microscope glass slides by the electroless Solution Growth Technique (SGT). The films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The films were found to exhibit a random orientation with peak positions ...

  1. Spatial characterization of nanotextured surfaces by visual color imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Murthy, Swathi; Madsen, Morten H.

    2016-01-01

    We present a method using an ordinary color camera to characterize nanostructures from the visual color of the structures. The method provides a macroscale overview image from which micrometer-sized regions can be analyzed independently, hereby revealing long-range spatial variations...

  2. Computational Treatments of Cavitation Effects in Near-Free-Surface Underwater Shock Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Sprague

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid cavitation constitutes an expensive computational nuisance in underwater-shock response calculations for structures at or just below the free surface. In order to avoid the use of a large array of cavitating acoustic finite elements (CAFE, various wet-surface approximations have been proposed. This paper examines the performance of two such approximations by comparing results produced by them for 1-D canonical problems with corresponding results produced by more rigorous CAFE computations. It is found that the fundamental limitation of wet-surface approximations is their inability to capture fluid-accretion effects. As an alternative, truncated CAFE fluid meshes with plane-wave radiation boundaries are shown to give good results. In fact, a single layer of CAFE is found to be comparable in accuracy to the better of the wet-surface approximations. The paper concludes with an examination of variations in CAFE modeling.

  3. A computer program for fitting smooth surfaces to an aircraft configuration and other three dimensional geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craidon, C. B.

    1975-01-01

    A computer program that uses a three-dimensional geometric technique for fitting a smooth surface to the component parts of an aircraft configuration is presented. The resulting surface equations are useful in performing various kinds of calculations in which a three-dimensional mathematical description is necessary. Programs options may be used to compute information for three-view and orthographic projections of the configuration as well as cross-section plots at any orientation through the configuration. The aircraft geometry input section of the program may be easily replaced with a surface point description in a different form so that the program could be of use for any three-dimensional surface equations.

  4. Surface Characterization for Land-Atmosphere Studies of CLASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, T. J.; Kustas, W.; Torn, M. S.; Meyers, T.; Prueger, J.; Fischer, M. L.; Avissar, R.; Yueh, S.; Anderson, M.; Miller, M.

    2006-12-01

    The Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign will focus on interactions between the land surface, convective boundary layer, and cumulus clouds. It will take place in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) area of the U.S, specifically within the US DOE ARM Climate Research Facility. The intensive observing period will be June of 2007, which typically covers the winter wheat harvest in the region. This region has been the focus of several related experiments that include SGP97, SGP99, and SMEX03. For the land surface, some of the specific science questions include 1) how do spatial variations in land cover along this trajectory modulate the cloud structure and the low-level water vapor budget, 2) what are the relationships between land surface characteristics (i.e., soil texture, vegetation type and fractional cover) and states (particularly soil moisture and surface temperature) and the resulting impact of the surface energy balance on boundary layer and cloud structure and dynamics and aerosol loading; and 3) what is the interplay between cumulus cloud development and surface energy balance partitioning between latent and sensible heat, and implications for the carbon flux? Most of these objectives will require flux and state measurements throughout the dominant land covers and distributed over the geographic domain. These observations would allow determining the level of up- scaling/aggregation required in order to understand the impact of landscape changes affecting energy balance/flux partitioning and impact on cloud/atmospheric dynamics. Specific contributions that are planned to be added to CLASIC include continuous tower-based monitoring of surface fluxes for key land cover types prior to, during, and post-IOP, replicate towers to quantify flux variance within each land cover, boundary layer properties and fluxes from a helicopter-based system, airplane- and satellite-based flux products throughout the region, aircraft- and tower-based concentration data for

  5. Computed Potential Energy Surfaces and Minimum Energy Pathway for Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Langhoff, S. R. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Computed potential energy surfaces are often required for computation of such observables as rate constants as a function of temperature, product branching ratios, and other detailed properties. We have found that computation of the stationary points/reaction pathways using CASSCF/derivative methods, followed by use of the internally contracted CI method with the Dunning correlation consistent basis sets to obtain accurate energetics, gives useful results for a number of chemically important systems. Applications to complex reactions leading to NO and soot formation in hydrocarbon combustion are discussed.

  6. Electrochemical and surface characterization of a nickel-titanium alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, Dirk; Veldhuizen, AG; de Vries, J; Busscher, HJ; Uges, DRA; van Horn, James

    1998-01-01

    For clinical implantation purposes of shape memory metals the nearly equiatomic nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy is generally used. In this study, the corrosion properties and surface characteristics of this alloy were investigated and compared with two reference controls, AISI 316 LVM stainless steel

  7. Characterization of neutrophil adhesion to different titanium surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ing blood; however, direct contact between the oxide layer of the implant and neutrophils has not been completely described. The aim of the present study is to compare ... Titanium surfaces; neutrophil morphology; adhesion molecules; inflammatory response; flow cytome- try; scanning electron microscopy. 1. Introduction.

  8. Investigation on the micromilled surface characterization through replica technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baruffi, Federico; Parenti, P.; Cacciatore, F.

    2016-01-01

    with quality control and tolerances to meet the parts functionality. However, in many cases, the reduced accessibility caused by the part complex features (e.g. microcavities, micro-holes, deep-cores) prevents from performing a direct measurement of the surface, using both contactand non-contact techniques...

  9. Industrial characterization of nano-scale roughness on polished surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Hansen, Poul-Erik; Pilny, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    We report a correlation between the scattering value “Aq” and the ISO standardized roughness parameter Rq. The Aq value is a measure for surface smoothness, and can easily be determined from an optical scattering measurement. The correlation equation extrapolates the Aq value from a narrow measur...

  10. Geochemical characterization of surface water and spring water in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The time series data on solute chemistry suggest that the hydrochemical processes controlling the chemistry of spring waters is more complex than the surface water. This is attributed to more time available for infiltrating water to interact with the diverse host lithology. Total dissolved solids (TDS), in general, increases with ...

  11. Investigations of surface characterization of silicone rubber due to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. In the present work, tracking phenomena has been studied with silicone rubber material under the. a.c. and d.c. voltages following IEC-587 standards. The surface condition of the tracked zone was analysed using wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA).

  12. Geochemical characterization of surface water and spring water in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results show that some karst springs are recharged by surface water; Achabalnag by the. Bringi stream and ... and silicate weathering were found to be the main processes controlling the chemistry of the spring waters and calcite dissolution as ...... India 30. 1–70. Gunn J 2007 Contributory zone definition for groundwa-.

  13. Surface characterization of silver and palladium modified glassy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Abstract. In this work, the influence of silver and palladium on the surface of undoped, boron doped and phosphorus doped glassy carbon has been studied. The silver and palladium concentrations in solution, after metal deposition, were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The morphology of metal coatings.

  14. Characterizing adsorption of associating surfactants on carbonates surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Guoqing; Puerto, Maura; Wehowsky, Anna; Miller, Clarence; Hirasaki, George J; Biswal, Sibani L

    2018-03-01

    The adsorption of anionic surfactants onto positively charged carbonate minerals is typically high due to electrostatic interactions. By blending anionic surfactants with cationic or zwitterionic surfactants, which naturally form surfactant complexes, surfactant adsorption is expected to be influenced by a competition between surfactant complexes and surfactant-surface interactions. The adsorption behavior of surfactant blends known to form complexes was investigated. The surfactants probed include an anionic C 15-18 internal olefin sulfonate (IOS), a zwitterionic lauryl betaine (LB), and an anionic C 13 -alcohol polyethylene glycol ether carboxylic acid (L38). An analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) was developed to measure three individual surfactant concentrations from a blended surfactant solution. The adsorption of the individual surfactants and surfactant blends were systematically investigated on different mineral surfaces using varying brine solutions. LB adsorption on calcite surfaces was found to be significantly increased when blended with IOS or L38 since it forms surfactant complexes that partition to the surface. However, the total adsorption of the LB-IOS-L38 solution on dolomite decreased from 3.09 mg/m 2 to 1.97 mg/m 2 when blended together compared to summing the adsorption values of individual surfactants, which highlights the importance of mixed surfactant association. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Meteoroid Impact Ejecta Detection by Nanosatellites for Asteroid Surface Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, N.; Close, S.; Goel, A.

    2015-12-01

    Asteroids are constantly bombarded by much smaller meteoroids at extremely high speeds, which results in erosion of the material on the asteroid surface. Some of this material is vaporized and ionized, forming a plasma that is ejected into the environment around the asteroid where it can be detected by a constellation of closely orbiting nanosatellites. We present a concept to leverage this natural phenomenon and to analyze this excavated material using low-power plasma sensors on nanosatellites in order to determine the composition of the asteroid surface. This concept would enable a constellation of nanosatellites to provide useful data complementing existing techniques such as spectroscopy, which require larger and more power-hungry sensors. Possible mission architectures include precursor exploratory missions using nanosatellites to survey and identify asteroid candidates worthy of further study by a large spacecraft, or simultaneous exploration by a nanosatellite constellation with a larger parent spacecraft to decrease the time required to cover the entire asteroid surface. The use of meteoroid impact plasma to analyze the surface composition of asteroids will not only produce measurements that have not been previously obtained, including the molecular composition of the surface, but will also yield a better measurement of the meteoroid flux in the vicinity of the asteroid. Current meteoroid models are poorly constrained beyond the orbit of Mars, due to scarcity of data. If this technology is used to survey asteroids in the main belt, it will offer a dramatic increase in the availability of meteoroid flux measurements in deep space, identifying previously unknown meteoroid streams and providing additional data to support models of solar system dust dynamics.

  16. Surface Characterization of Polymer Blends by XPS and ToF-SIMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Ming Chan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The surface properties of polymer blends are important for many industrial applications. The physical and chemical properties at the surface of polymer blends can be drastically different from those in the bulk due to the surface segregation of the low surface energy component. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and time-of-flight secondary mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS have been widely used to characterize surface and bulk properties. This review provides a brief introduction to the principles of XPS and ToF-SIMS and their application to the study of the surface physical and chemical properties of polymer blends.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Surface Functionalized Nanobiocomposite by Nano Hydroxyapatite

    OpenAIRE

    M. Meskinfam; M. S. Sadjadi; H. Jazdarreh

    2012-01-01

    In this study, synthesis of biomemitic patterned nano hydroxyapatite-starch biocomposites using different concentration of starch to evaluate effect of polymer alteration on biocomposites structural properties has been reported. Formation of hydroxyapatite nano particles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Size and morphology of the samples were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM...

  18. Soil surface roughness modeling: limit of global characterization in remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimi-Chiadjeu, O.; Vannier, E.; Dusséaux, R.; Taconet, O.

    2013-10-01

    Many scientists use a global characterization of bare soil surface random roughness. Surface roughness is often characterized by statistical parameters deduced from its autocorrelation function. Assuming an autocorrelation model and a Gaussian height distribution, some authors have developed algorithms for numerical generation of soil surfaces that have the same statistical properties. This approach is widespread and does not take into account morphological aspects of the soil surface micro-topography. Now a detail surface roughness analysis reveals that the micro-topography is structured by holes, aggregates and clods. In the present study, we clearly show that when describing surface roughness as a whole, some information related to morphological aspects is lost. Two Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of a same natural seedbed surface were recorded by stereo photogrammetry. After estimating global parameters of these natural surfaces, we generated numerical surfaces of the same average characteristics by linear filtering. Big aggregates and clods were then captured by a contour-based approach. We show that the two-dimensional autocorrelation functions of generated surfaces and of the two agricultural surfaces are close together. Nevertheless, the number and shape of segmented object contours change from generated surfaces to the natural surfaces. Generated surfaces show fewer and bigger segmented objects than in the natural case. Moreover, the shape of some segmented objects is unrealistic in comparison to real clods, which have to be convex and of low circularity.

  19. Biological characterization of implant surfaces - in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira Soares

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectiveEvaluate the biological performance of titanium alloys grade IV under different surface treatments: sandblasting and double etching (Experimental surface 1; Exp1, NEODENT; surface with wettability increase (Experimental surface 2; Exp2, NEODENT on response of preliminary differentiation and cell maturation.Material and methodImmortalized osteoblast cells were plated on Exp1 and Exp2 titanium discs. The polystyrene plate surface without disc was used as control group (C. Cell viability was assessed by measuring mitochondrial activity (MTT at 4 and 24 h (n = 5, cell attachment was performed using trypan blue exclusion within 4 hours (n = 5, serum total protein and alkaline phosphatase normalization was performed at 4, 7 and 14 days (n = 5. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey test.ResultThe values of cell viability were: 4h: C– 0.32±0.01A; Exp1– 0.34±0.08A; Exp2– 0.29±0.03A. 24h: C– 0.43±0.02A; Exp1– 0.39±0.01A; Exp2– 0.37±0.03A. The cell adhesion counting was: C– 85±10A; Exp1- 35±5B; Exp2– 20±2B. The amounts of serum total protein were 4d: C– 40±2B; Exp1– 120±10A; Exp2– 130±20A. 7d: C– 38±2B; Exp1– 75±4A; Exp2– 70±6A. 14 d: C– 100±3A; Exp1– 130±5A; Exp2– 137±9A. The values of alkaline phosphatase normalization were: 4d: C– 2.0±0.1C; Exp1– 5.1±0.8B; Exp2– 9.8±2.0A. 7d: C– 1.0±0.01C; Exp1– 5.3±0.5A; Exp2– 3.0±0.3B. 14 d: C– 4.1±0.3A; Exp1– 4.4±0.8A; Exp2– 2.2±0.2B. Different letters related to statistical differences.ConclusionThe surfaces tested exhibit different behavior at dosage of alkaline phosphatase normalization showing that the Exp2 is more associated with induction of cell differentiation process and that Exp1 is more related to the mineralization process.

  20. Computational Methods for Protein Structure Prediction and Modeling Volume 1: Basic Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Ying; Liang, Jie

    2007-01-01

    Volume one of this two volume sequence focuses on the basic characterization of known protein structures as well as structure prediction from protein sequence information. The 11 chapters provide an overview of the field, covering key topics in modeling, force fields, classification, computational methods, and struture prediction. Each chapter is a self contained review designed to cover (1) definition of the problem and an historical perspective, (2) mathematical or computational formulation of the problem, (3) computational methods and algorithms, (4) performance results, (5) existing software packages, and (6) strengths, pitfalls, challenges, and future research directions.

  1. Ion Beam Methods for the Surface Characterization of Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    These surface spectroscopies are useful in many areas of polymer technology including synthesis, extrusion and forming, and long time durability and...Pure and Applied Chemistry Meeting on Polymer Degradation held at Durham University, Durham, England, in July 1981. The author thanks Dr. W. J. Feast...25 7 SIMS Data in Mass Range 160-330 from Teflon Using Charge Neutralization (Ref. 19) 26 8 (a) ISS/SIMS Data for Polypropylene Using 3He+ at 2500 eV

  2. Synthesis, characterization, and selective surface functionalization of structured nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, open questions in the field of nanomaterials are investigated and answered. These topics are focused on the study of doping agents in the crystal lattice of semiconductor nanoparticles, the use of oleic acid coated iron oxide nanoparticles for applications in biological systems, and the regioselective surface functionalization of gold nanoparticles for a controlled linkage of single particles. In order to better understand the spin properties of dopants in the core of sem...

  3. THE INTEGRATED USE OF COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY, SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY, AND VIRTUAL REALITY TO PREDICT THE CHEMICAL REACTIVITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL SURFACES

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the last decade three new techniques scanning probe microscopy (SPM), virtual reality (YR) and computational chemistry ave emerged with the combined capability of a priori predicting the chemically reactivity of environmental surfaces. Computational chemistry provides the cap...

  4. Surface characterization of arsenopyrite during chemical and biological oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Sha; Gu, Guohua; Xu, Baoke; Li, Lijuan; Wu, Bichao

    2018-01-16

    The surface properties of arsenopyrite during chemical and biological oxidation were investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction (S-XRD), X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), accompanying with leaching behaviors elucidation. The moderate thermophile S. thermosulfidooxdians was used as the bioleaching microorganism. Leaching experiments showed that only 16.26% and 44.37% of total arsenic extractions were obtained for sterile acid and culture medium controls, whereas 79.20% of total arsenic was recovered at the end of bioleaching. SEM indicated that new products were layered on the surface of arsenopyrite after chemical and biological oxidation. As displayed in S-XRD patterns, scorodite and elemental sulfur were formed after acid leaching, while only elemental sulfur was detected in the residue leached by acid culture medium. During bioleaching, elemental sulfur was produced from day 4 and jarosite was produced from day 9. The results of iron and arsenic L-edge XANES were in good consistence with S-XRD. The accumulation of scorodite and jarosite on arsenopyrite surface should be the main reason for the hindered dissolution of arsenopyrite during acid leaching and bioleaching. These studies are pretty meaningful for better understanding the oxidation mechanism of arsenopyrite and evaluating arsenic risk to the environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Asteroid Spectral Imaging Mission (ASPECT) CubeSat to characterize resources on asteroid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohout, T.; Näsilä, A.; Tikka, T.; Granvik, M.; Kestilä, A.; Penttilä, A.; Kuhno, J.; Muinonen, K.; Viherkanto, K.

    2017-09-01

    ASPECT is a 3U CubeSat with a VIS-NIR spectral imager. It can characterize composition of asteroid surfaces and identify areas and objects with desired properties for sample return or in-space resource utilization.

  6. High Sensitivity Semiconductor Sensor Skins for Multi-Axis Surface Pressure Characterization, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA Phase II SBIR program would fabricate high sensitivity semiconductor nanomembrane 'sensor skins' capable of multi-axis surface pressure characterization on...

  7. High Sensitivity Semiconductor Sensor Skins for Multi-Axis Surface Pressure Characterization, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA Phase I SBIR program would fabricate high sensitivity semiconductor nanomembrane 'sensor skins' capable of multi-axis surface pressure characterization on...

  8. Map of natural gamma radiation in Spain: radiometric characterization of different types of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Mahou, E.; Fernandez Amigot, J.A.; Botas Medina, J.

    1997-01-01

    The gamma radioactivity flowing from ground and rocks is due to the presence in these of uranium, thorium and potassium-40. The method of radiometric characterization depends on the purpose of the undertaking. Radiometric characterization can be realized on big surfaces (tens or hundreds of square kilometres studied on a national scale), medium size surfaces (50 to 1000 square kilometres, for example, in epidemiological or biological studies in areas with a determined radiometric background) small surfaces of less than 50 square kilometres (industrial sites, pre-operational studies, etc.). This article considers aspects of radiometric characterization on surfaces of interest and describes the contribution of the MARNA (Natural Provisional Radiation Map of Spain) Project selection and radiometric characterization

  9. Fusion of THEMIS and TES for Accurate Mars Surface Characterization, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In a recent NASA ROSES solicitation, NASA has expressed strong interest in improving surface characterization of Mars using orbital imagers. Thermal Emission Imaging...

  10. Spectroscopic characterization of the on-surface induced (cyclo) dehydrogenation of a N-heteroaromatic compound on noble metal surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palacio, I.; Pinardi, A. L.; Martínez, J. I.; Preobrajenski, A.; Cossaro, A.; Jančařík, Andrej; Stará, Irena G.; Starý, Ivo; Méndez, J.; Martín-Gago, J.A.; López, M.F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 33 (2017), s. 22454-22461 ISSN 1463-9076 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : dibenzohelicene * on-surface (cyclo)dehydrogenation * spectroscopic characterization Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 4.123, year: 2016

  11. The Actuator Surface Model: A New Navier-Stokes Based Model for Rotor Computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhang, J.H.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new numerical technique for simulating two-dimensional wind turbine flow. The method, denoted as the 2D actuator surface technique, consists of a two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver in which the pressure distribution is represented by body forces that are distributed along...... the chord of the airfoils. The distribution of body force is determined from a set of predefined functions that depend on angle of attack and airfoil shape. The predefined functions are curve fitted using pressure distributions obtained either from viscous-inviscid interactive codes or from full Navier-Stokes...... simulations. The actuator surface technique is evaluated by computing the two-dimensional flow past a NACA 0015 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 10(6) and an angle of attack of 10 deg and by comparing the computed streamlines with the results from a traditional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computation...

  12. Characterization of silicon surface states at clean and copper contaminated condition via transient capacitance measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lihui; Xie, Meng; Yu, Xuegong; Yang, Deren

    2017-10-01

    Silicon surface is one of the dominant recombination sites for silicon solar cells. Generally, the recombination ability of silicon surface is characterized in terms of surface recombination velocity. However, silicon surface actually contain a series of donor and acceptor levels across the silicon band gap, and therefore the surface recombination velocity is too general to provide detailed information of the silicon surface states. In this paper, we used the measured transient capacitance data to extract the detailed information (like defect energy levels, defect densities, and capture cross sections) of the silicon surface states. Furthermore, the influence of copper contamination on silicon surface states was examined, and it was found that copper contamination can change the localized energy levels of "clean" silicon surface states to the band-like energy levels, meanwhile the defect densities and capture cross sections were both enlarged.

  13. Characterization of metal additive manufacturing surfaces using synchrotron X-ray CT and micromechanical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantzos, C. A.; Cunningham, R. W.; Tari, V.; Rollett, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Characterizing complex surface topologies is necessary to understand stress concentrations created by rough surfaces, particularly those made via laser power-bed additive manufacturing (AM). Synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography (μ XCT ) of AM surfaces was shown to provide high resolution detail of surface features and near-surface porosity. Using the CT reconstructions to instantiate a micromechanical model indicated that surface notches and near-surface porosity both act as stress concentrators, while adhered powder carried little to no load. Differences in powder size distribution had no direct effect on the relevant surface features, nor on stress concentrations. Conventional measurements of surface roughness, which are highly influenced by adhered powder, are therefore unlikely to contain the information relevant to damage accumulation and crack initiation.

  14. A Computational Study of Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability with Surface Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Marianne; Velechovsky, Jan; Jibben, Zach; Masser, Thomas; LANL Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    We have added the capability to model surface tension in our adaptive mesh refinement compressible flow solver, xRage. Our surface tension capability employs the continuum surface force to model surface tension and the height function method to compute curvatures. We have verified our model implementation for the static and oscillating droplets test cases and the linear regime of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. With this newly added capability, we have performed a numerical study of the effects of surface tension on single-mode and multi-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. This work was performed under the auspices of the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy at Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52 - 06NA25396.

  15. Land Surface Albedos Computed from BRF Measurements with a Study of Conversion Formulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aku Riihelä

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Land surface hemispherical albedos of several targets have been resolved using the bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF library of the Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI. The library contains BRF data measured by FGI during the years 2003–2009. Surface albedos are calculated using selected BRF datasets from the library. Polynomial interpolation and extrapolation have been used in computations. Several broadband conversion formulae generally used for satellite based surface albedo retrieval have been tested. The albedos were typically found to monotonically increase with increasing zenith angle of the Sun. The surface albedo variance was significant even within each target category / surface type. In general, the albedo estimates derived using diverse broadband conversion formulas and estimates obtained by direct integration of the measured spectra were in line.

  16. Characterization of groundwater flow for near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-02-01

    The main objective of this report is to provide a description of the site investigation techniques and modelling approaches that can be used to characterise the flow of subsurface water at near surface disposal facilities in relation to the various development stages of the repositories. As one of the main goals of defining groundwater flow is to establish the possible contaminant migration, certain aspects related to groundwater transport are also described. Secondary objectives are to discuss the implications of various groundwater conditions with regard to the performance of the isolation systems

  17. Characterization of sea surface chemical contamination after shipping accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitart, Carlos; Frickers, Patricia; Horrillo-Caraballo, Jose; Law, Robin J; Readman, James W

    2008-04-01

    A contamination survey was conducted after the beaching of the stricken cargo ship MSC Napoli in Lyme Bay on the south coast of Devon (UK). A grid of 22 coastal and offshore stations was sampled to investigate the extent of spilled oil and to screen for chemical contamination, as well as to evaluate the behavior of the oil at the air-sea interface. Samples were collected from the sea surface microlayer (SML) and from subsurface waters (SSW) at each station. The fuel oil spilled (IFO 380) was also analyzed. The determination of oil-related hydrocarbons (aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), terpanes, and steranes) and the screening for other harmful chemicals on the inventory of the MSC Napoli in the seawater samples, was performed by PTV-GC/ MS using large volume injection (LVI) techniques. Screening did not reveal the presence of any harmful chemicals other than petroleum-related compounds. Results afforded investigation of oil sources and spatial distributions of total PAH concentrations and enrichments in the sea surface microlayer (SML). Rather than a single source, oil fingerprinting analyses of the samples revealed a mixture of three types of oil: heavy fuel oil, lubricating oil, and a lighter oil (probably diesel oil). Enrichment factors (EF) in the SML (EF = C(SML)/C(SSW)) were calculated and, in the vicinity of the ship, approached 2000, declining with distance away from the wreck. These factors represent approximately a 1000-fold enrichment over typical coastal total PAH enrichments in the SML and reflected a clear petrogenic origin of the contamination (as demonstrated, for example, by a Fl/Pgamma ratio water column diffusion) of the oil-related hydrocarbons in the sea surface were investigated. Essentially, near the wreck, the SML was highly enriched in oil forming a visible sheen, both disrupting the normal air-seawater exchange processes and generating a downward diffusion flux of contaminants from the SML to the SSW. This

  18. Surface Characterization of the LCLS RF Gun Cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachmann, Axel; Decker, Franz-Josef; Ding, Yuantao; Dowell, David; Emma, Paul; Frisch, Josef; Gilevich, Sasha; Hays, Gregory; Hering, Philippe; Huang, Zhirong; Iverson, Richard; Loos, Henrik; Miahnahri, Alan; Nordlund, Dennis; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Pianetta, Piero; Turner, James; Welch, James; White, William; Wu, Juhao; Xiang, Dao

    2012-01-01

    The first copper cathode installed in the LCLS RF gun was used during LCLS commissioning for more than a year. However, after high charge operation (> 500 pC), the cathode showed a decline of quantum efficiency within the area of drive laser illumination. They report results of SEM, XPS and XAS studies that were carried out on this cathode after it was removed from the gun. X-ray absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal surface contamination by various hydrocarbon compounds. In addition they report on the performance of the second installed cathode with emphasis on the spatial distribution of electron emission.

  19. Chemical and Molecular Characterization of Biofilm on Metal Surfaces

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.

    in seawater. Biofouling 17, 129 145. Cowie, G.L., Hedges, J.I., 1984. Carbohydrates sources in a coastal marine environment. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 48, 2075 2087. Cowie, G.L., Hedges, J.I., Prahl, F.G., deLange, G.J., 1995. Elemental... to assess development of conditioning film and biofilm on metal surfaces (Bhosle et al., 1989; Bhosle et al., 1990; Sonak and Bhosle, 1995; Bhosle and Wagh, 1997, D?Souza and Bhosle, 2003). This chapter is a compilation of relevant information...

  20. Aerodynamic heating and surface temperatures on vehicles for computer-aided design studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejarnette, F. R.; Kania, L. A.; Chitty, A.

    1983-01-01

    A computer subprogram has been developed to calculate aerodynamic and radiative heating rates and to determine surface temperatures by integrating the heating rates along the trajectory of a vehicle. Convective heating rates are calculated by applying the axisymmetric analogue to inviscid surface streamlines and using relatively simple techniques to calculate laminar, transitional, or turbulent heating rates. Options are provided for the selection of gas model, transition criterion, turbulent heating method, Reynolds Analogy factor, and entropy-layer swallowing effects. Heating rates are compared to experimental data, and the time history of surface temperatures are given for a high-speed trajectory. The computer subprogram is developed for preliminary design and mission analysis where parametric studies are needed at all speeds.

  1. Advanced approaches to characterize the human intestinal microbiota by computational meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikkilä, J.; Vos, de W.M.

    2010-01-01

    GOALS: We describe advanced approaches for the computational meta-analysis of a collection of independent studies, including over 1000 phylogenetic array datasets, as a means to characterize the variability of human intestinal microbiota. BACKGROUND: The human intestinal microbiota is a complex

  2. Computational fluid dynamics characterization of a novel mixed cell raceway design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed on a new type of mixed cell raceway (MCR) that incorporates longitudinal plug flow using inlet and outlet weirs for the primary fraction of the total flow. As opposed to regular MCR wherein vortices are entirely characterized by the boundary ...

  3. Surface characterization and wear behaviour of laser surface melted AISI 316L stainless steel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns an in depth investigation of the influence of laser surface melting of AISI 316L stainless steel using Ar and N2 as shrouding atmosphere. Laser surface melting has been carried out using a 5 kW continuous wave (CW) fibre...

  4. Physical characterization of asteroid surfaces from photometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfenstein, P.; Veverka, J.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of using photometric models like Hapke's (1981, 1984, 1986) equation for deriving physical properties of asteroids from photometric observations is discussed. Using data for Ceres and Vesta, it is shown that the incomplete phase-angle coverage limits the reliable determination of Hapke's photometric parameters from asteroid disk-integrated phase curves (the second limitation is the nonsphericity of many asteroids). However, within this limitations, certain trends among asteroids can be compared. It is shown that there is a general similarity among the Hapke's parameters other than the h parameter, which characterizes the width of the opposition surge in terms of soil structure (porosity, particle-size distribution, and the rate of compaction with depth), derived for similar objects, e.g., average C asteroids and Ceres, and average S asteroids, 1982 Apollo, and Vesta.

  5. Characterization and flip angle calibration of 13C surface coils for hyperpolarization studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rie Beck; Gutte, Henrik; Larsen, Majbrit M E

    The aim of the present work is to address the challenge of optimal The aim of the present work is to address the challenge of optimal flflip angle calibration of ip angle calibration of C surface coils in C surface coils in hyperpolarization studies. To this end, we characterize the spatial pro h...

  6. Functional properties of bio-inspired surfaces: characterization and technological applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Favret, Eduardo A; Fuentes, Néstor O

    2009-01-01

    ... technological materials. It analyses how such surfaces can be described and characterized using microscopic techniques and thus reproduced, encompassing the important areas of current surface replication techniques and the associated acquisition of good master structures. It is well known that biological systems have the ability to sense, ...

  7. Captive bubble and sessile drop surface characterization of a submerged aquatic plant, Hydrilla verticillata

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface energy parameters of the invasive aquatic weed, Hydrilla verticillata, were determined using contact angle measurements using two different methods. The abaxial and adaxial surfaces of the leaves and stem were characterized for the weed while submerged in water using captive air and octa...

  8. Characterization Investigation Study: Volume 3, Radiological survey of surface soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solow, A.J.; Phoenix, D.R.

    1987-12-01

    The Feed Materials Production Center was constructed to produce high purity uranium metal for use at various Department of Energy facilities. The waste products from these operations include general uncontaminated scrap and refuse, contaminated and uncontaminated metal scrap, waste oils, low-level radioactive waste, co-contaminated wastes, mixed waste, toxic waste, sludges from water treatment, and fly ash from the steam plant. This material is estimated to total more than 350,000 cubic meters. Other wastes stored in this area include laboratory chemicals and other combustible materials in the burn pit; fine waste stream sediments in the clear well; fly ash and waste oils in the two fly ash areas; lime-alum sludges and boiler plant blowdown in the lime sludge ponds; and nonradioactive sanitary waste, construction rubble, and asbestos in the sanitary landfill. A systematic survey of the surface soils throughout the Waste Storage Area, associated on-site drainages, and the fly ash piles was conducted using a Field Instrument for Detecting Low-Energy Radiation (FIDLER). Uranium is the most prevalent radioactive element in surface soil; U-238 is the principal radionuclide, ranging from 2.2 to 1790 pCi/g in the general Waste Storage Area. The maximum values for the next highest activity concentrations in the same area were 972 pCi/g for Th-230 and 298 pCi/g for U-234. Elevated activity concentrations of Th-230 were found along the K-65 slurry line, the maximum at 3010 pCi/g. U-238 had the highest value of 761 pCi/g in the drainage just south of pit no. 5. The upper fly ash area had the highest radionuclide activity concentrations in the surface soils with the maximum values for U-238 at 8600 pCi/g, U-235 at 2190 pCi/g, U-234 at 11,400 pCi/g, Tc-99 at 594 pCi/g, Ra-226 at 279 pCi/g, and Th-230 at 164 pCi/g.

  9. Characterization of lunar surface materials for use in construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Burns, Jack O.

    1992-01-01

    The Workshop on the Concept of a Common Lunar Lander, which was held at the NASA Johnson Space Center on July 1 and 2, 1991, discussed potential payloads to be placed on the Moon by a common, generic, unmanned, vehicle beginning late in this decade. At this workshop, a variety of payloads were identified including a class of one-meter (and larger) optical telescopes to operate on the lunar surface. These telescopes for lunar-based astronomy are presented in an earlier section of this report. The purpose of this section is to suggest that these and other payloads for the Common Lunar Lander be used to facilitate technology development for the proposed 16-meter Aperture UV/Visible/IR Large Lunar Telescope (LLT) and a large optical aperture-synthesis instrument analogous to the Very Large Array of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

  10. Preparation, surface modification and microwave characterization of magnetic iron fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie Yan [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)]. E-mail: nieyanko@yahoo.com.cn; He Huahui [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhao Zhenshen [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Gong Rongzhou [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yu Hongbin [Department of optoelectronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2006-11-15

    In this paper, magnetic iron fibers of 3-10 {mu}m diameter and an adjustable aspect ratio were synthesized successfully by a method involving pyrolysis of carbonyl under a magnetic field. A surface modification technology was also investigated. The electromagnetic parameters of the iron-fiber-wax composites were measured using the transmission/reflection coaxial line method in the microwave frequency range of 2-18 GHz. The results show that the prepared iron-fiber-wax composites exhibit high magnetic loss that can be further improved after phosphating. On the other hand, the complex permittivity was significantly decreased after phosphating. As a result, this kind of iron fiber may be useful for thin and lightweight radar-absorbing materials.

  11. Surface grafted chitosan gels. Part II. Gel formation and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chao; Thormann, Esben; Claesson, Per M.

    2014-01-01

    Responsive biomaterial hydrogels attract significant attention due to their biocompatibility and degradability. In order to make chitosan based gels, we first graft one layer of chitosan to silica, and then build a chitosan/poly(acrylic acid) multilayer using the layer-by-layer approach. After...... detachment and decomposition. The chemical reaction between gluteraldehyde, the cross-linking agent, and chitosan was followed in situ using total internal reflection Raman (TIRR) spectroscopy, which provided a molecular insight into the complex reaction mechanism, as well as the means to quantify the cross......-linking density. The amount of poly(acrylic acid) trapped inside the surface grafted films was found to decrease with decreasing cross-linking density, as confirmed in situ using TIRR, and ex situ by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements on dried films. The responsiveness of the chitosan-based gels...

  12. Nanodiamond preparation and surface characterization for biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhams, Ben J.; Knowles, Helena S.; Kara, Dhiren M.; Atatüre, Mete; Bohndiek, Sarah E.

    2017-02-01

    Nanodiamonds contain stable fluorescent emitters and hence can be used for molecular fluorescence imaging and precision sensing of electromagnetic fields. The physical properties of these emitters together with their low reported cytotoxicity make them attractive for biological imaging applications. The controlled application of nanodiamonds for cellular imaging requires detailed understanding of surface chemistry, size ranges and aggregation, as these can all influence cellular interactions. We compared these characteristics for graphitic and oxidized nanodiamonds. Oxidation is generally used for surface functionalization, and was optimized by Thermogravimetric Analysis, achieved by 445+/-5°C heating in air for 5 hours, then confirmed via Raman and Infrared spectroscopies. Size ranges and aggregation were assessed using Atomic Force Microscopy and Dynamic Light Scattering. Biocompatibility in breast cancer cell lines was measured using a proliferation assay. Heating at 445+/-5°C reduced the Raman signal of graphitic carbon (1575 cm-1) as compared to that of diamond (1332 cm-1) from 0.31+/-0.07 Raman intensity units to 0.07+/-0.04. This temperature was substantially below the onset of major mass loss (observed at 535+/-1°C) and therefore achieved cost efficiency, convenience and high yield. Graphitic and oxidized nanodiamonds formed aggregates in water, with a mean particle size of 192+/-4nm and 166+/-2nm at a concentration of 66μg/mL. We then applied the graphitic and oxidized nanodiamonds to cells in culture at 1μg/mL and found no significant change in the proliferation rate (-5+/-2% and -1+/-3% respectively). Nanodiamonds may therefore be suitable for development as a novel transformative tool in the life sciences.

  13. Surface characterization and corrosion behavior of micro-arc oxidized Ti surface modified with hydrothermal treatment and chitosan coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neupane, Madhav Prasad; Park, Il Song; Lee, Min Ho

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we describe the surface modification of commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) by a composite/multilayer coating approach for biomedical applications. CP-Ti samples were treated by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and subsequently some of the samples were coated with chitosan (Chi) by dip coating method, while others were subjected to hydrothermal treatment (HT) followed by chitosan coating. The MAO, MAO/Chi, and MAO/HT/Chi coated Ti were characterized and their characteristics were compared with CP-Ti. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the structural and morphological characteristics. The average surface roughness was determined using a surface profilometer. The corrosion resistance of untreated and surface modified Ti in commercial saline at 298 K was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization test. The results indicated that the chitosan coating is very well integrated with the MAO and MAO/HT coating by physically interlocking itself with the coated layer and almost sealed all the pores. The surface roughness of hydrothermally treated and chitosan coated MAO film was superior evidently to that with other sample groups. The corrosion studies demonstrated that the MAO, hydrothermally treated and chitosan coated sample enhanced the corrosion resistance of titanium. The result indicates that fabrication of hydrothermally treated MAO surface coatings with chitosan is a significant approach to protect the titanium from corrosion, hence enhancing the potential use of titanium as bio-implants. - Highlights: • Micro-arc oxidized (MAO) and hydrothermally treated (HT) Ti surfaces are coated with chitosan (Chi). • The MAO/HT/Chi surface exhibits pores sealing and enhanced the surface roughness. • The MAO/HT/Chi surface significantly increase the corrosion resistance. • The MAO/HT/Chi can be a potential surface of titanium for bio-implants

  14. Preparation, characterization, and surface modification of silver nanoparticles in formamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Anjana; Kapoor, Sudhir; Mukherjee, Tulsi

    2005-04-28

    The reduction of silver ions in formamide is shown to take place spontaneously at room temperature without addition of any reductant. The growth of Ag particles was found to be dependent on Ag+ ion concentration. In the absence of any stabilizer, deposition of silver film on the glass walls of the container takes place. However, in the presence of poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) or colloidal silica (SiO2), which are capable of stabilizing silver nanoparticles by complexing and providing support, a clear dispersion was obtained. The formation of the silver nanoparticles under different conditions was investigated through UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry, gas chromatography, and also electron and atomic force microscopic techniques. Atomic force microscopy results for silver films prepared in the absence of any stabilizer showed the formation of polygonal particles with sizes around 100 nm. Transmission electron microscopy results showed that the prepared silver particles in the presence of PVP were around 20 nm. The Ag nanoparticles get oxidized in the presence of chloroform and toluene. Surface modification of silver film was done in the presence of the tetrasodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraaceticacid (Na4EDTA). It was shown that the reactivity of the silver film increased in its presence. The Fermi potential of silver particles in the presence of Na4EDTA seems to lie between -0.33 and -0.446 V vs NHE.

  15. Characterization of Major Surface Protease Homologues of Trypanosoma congolense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Marcoux

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosomes encode a family of proteins known as Major Surface Metalloproteases (MSPs. We have identified six putative MSPs encoded within the partially sequenced T. congolense genome. Phylogenic analysis indicates that T. congolense MSPs belong to five subfamilies that are conserved among African trypanosome species. Molecular modeling, based on the known structure of Leishmania Major GP63, reveals subfamily-specific structural variations around the putative active site despite conservation of overall structure, suggesting that each MSP subfamily has evolved to recognize distinct substrates. We have cloned and purified a protein encoding the amino-terminal domain of the T. congolense homologue TcoMSP-D (most closely related to Leishmania GP63. We detect TcoMSP-D in the serum of T. congolense-infected mice. Mice immunized with the amino-terminal domain of TcoMSP-D generate a persisting IgG1 antibody response. Surprisingly, a low-dose challenge of immunized mice with T. congolense significantly increases susceptibility to infection, indicating that immunity to TcoMSP-D is a factor affecting virulence.

  16. Model-Driven Development for scientific computing. Computations of RHEED intensities for a disordered surface. Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniluk, Andrzej

    2010-03-01

    Scientific computing is the field of study concerned with constructing mathematical models, numerical solution techniques and with using computers to analyse and solve scientific and engineering problems. Model-Driven Development (MDD) has been proposed as a means to support the software development process through the use of a model-centric approach. This paper surveys the core MDD technology that was used to develop an application that allows computation of the RHEED intensities dynamically for a disordered surface. New version program summaryProgram title: RHEED1DProcess Catalogue identifier: ADUY_v4_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADUY_v4_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 31 971 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 039 820 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Embarcadero C++ Builder Computer: Intel Core Duo-based PC Operating system: Windows XP, Vista, 7 RAM: more than 1 GB Classification: 4.3, 7.2, 6.2, 8, 14 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADUY_v3_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 180 (2009) 2394 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: No Nature of problem: An application that implements numerical simulations should be constructed according to the CSFAR rules: clear and well-documented, simple, fast, accurate, and robust. A clearly written, externally and internally documented program is much easier to understand and modify. A simple program is much less prone to error and is more easily modified than one that is complicated. Simplicity and clarity also help make the program flexible. Making the program fast has economic benefits. It also allows flexibility because some of the features that make a program efficient can be traded off for

  17. A new practical method to reconstruct cerebral surface anatomical images for computer-assisted neurosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Shin; Kato, Amami; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Taneda, Mamoru; Hayakawa, Toru (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1994-03-01

    Authors have developed a new, practical method to reconstruct cerebral surface anatomical images for better surgical orientation and surgical planning. Using a personal computer and a commercially available image handling software, an area encompassing the surface gyri and sulci is selected from the most superficial slice of T1-weighted MR images, after which this selected area, on adjusting the alignment, is overlayed onto the next superficial slice. By repeating this procedure for 4 to 7 times, the brain surface image obtained clearly displays the gyri and sulci. A vascular image of the cerebral surface can also be obtained by this same method by using T2-weighted images or MR angiograms. Then, by combining both the brain surface and vascular images, an anatomically reconstructed image of the cerebral surface is achieved. The outlines of the lesion or ventricles can also be added, if necessary, and the entire procedure takes an hour or less. The authors believe that this method is superior to conventional surface anatomy scanning for discriminating anatomical structures close to a lesion. This surface anatomical imaging method has been used for the surgical planning and its use helped to minimize surgical damage to the eloquent areas. (author).

  18. Nanostructure-Enhanced Surface Acoustic Waves Biosensor and Its Computational Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guigen Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface acoustic wave (SAW devices are considered to be very promising in providing a high-performance sensing platform with wireless and remote operational capabilities. In this review, the basic principles of SAW devices and Love-mode SAW-based biosensors are discussed first to illustrate the need for surface enhancement for the active area of a SAW sensor. Then some of the recent efforts made to incorporate nanostructures into SAW sensors are summarized. After that, a computational approach to elucidate the underlying mechanism for the operations of a Love-mode SAW biosensor with nanostructured active surface is discussed. Finally, a modeling example for a Love-mode SAW sensor with skyscraper nanopillars added to in its active surface along with some selected results is presented.

  19. Recycling of WEEE: Characterization of spent printed circuit boards from mobile phones and computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Luciana Harue; Tavares de Moraes, Viviane; Crocce Romano Espinosa, Denise; Soares Tenorio, Jorge Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → This paper presents new and important data on characterization of wastes of electric and electronic equipments. → Copper concentration is increasing in mobile phones and remaining constant in personal computers. → Printed circuit boards from mobile phones and computers would not be mixed prior treatment. - Abstract: This paper presents a comparison between printed circuit boards from computers and mobile phones. Since printed circuits boards are becoming more complex and smaller, the amount of materials is constantly changing. The main objective of this work was to characterize spent printed circuit boards from computers and mobile phones applying mineral processing technique to separate the metal, ceramic, and polymer fractions. The processing was performed by comminution in a hammer mill, followed by particle size analysis, and by magnetic and electrostatic separation. Aqua regia leaching, loss-on-ignition and chemical analysis (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy - ICP-OES) were carried out to determine the composition of printed circuit boards and the metal rich fraction. The composition of the studied mobile phones printed circuit boards (PCB-MP) was 63 wt.% metals; 24 wt.% ceramics and 13 wt.% polymers; and of the printed circuit boards from studied personal computers (PCB-PC) was 45 wt.% metals; 27 wt.% polymers and ceramics 28 wt.% ceramics. The chemical analysis showed that copper concentration in printed circuit boards from personal computers was 20 wt.% and in printed circuit boards from mobile phones was 34.5 wt.%. According to the characteristics of each type of printed circuit board, the recovery of precious metals may be the main goal of the recycling process of printed circuit boards from personal computers and the recovery of copper should be the main goal of the recycling process of printed circuit boards from mobile phones. Hence, these printed circuit boards would not be mixed prior treatment. The results

  20. Materials-by-design: computation, synthesis, and characterization from atoms to structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Jingjie; Jung, Gang Seob; Martín-Martínez, Francisco J.; Ling, Shengjie; Gu, Grace X.; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.

    2018-05-01

    In the 50 years that succeeded Richard Feynman’s exposition of the idea that there is ‘plenty of room at the bottom’ for manipulating individual atoms for the synthesis and manufacturing processing of materials, the materials-by-design paradigm is being developed gradually through synergistic integration of experimental material synthesis and characterization with predictive computational modeling and optimization. This paper reviews how this paradigm creates the possibility to develop materials according to specific, rational designs from the molecular to the macroscopic scale. We discuss promising techniques in experimental small-scale material synthesis and large-scale fabrication methods to manipulate atomistic or macroscale structures, which can be designed by computational modeling. These include recombinant protein technology to produce peptides and proteins with tailored sequences encoded by recombinant DNA, self-assembly processes induced by conformational transition of proteins, additive manufacturing for designing complex structures, and qualitative and quantitative characterization of materials at different length scales. We describe important material characterization techniques using numerous methods of spectroscopy and microscopy. We detail numerous multi-scale computational modeling techniques that complements these experimental techniques: DFT at the atomistic scale; fully atomistic and coarse-grain molecular dynamics at the molecular to mesoscale; continuum modeling at the macroscale. Additionally, we present case studies that utilize experimental and computational approaches in an integrated manner to broaden our understanding of the properties of two-dimensional materials and materials based on silk and silk-elastin-like proteins.

  1. Effect of Geometry on Electrokinetic Characterization of Solid Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhijeet; Kleinen, Jochen; Venzmer, Joachim; Gambaryan-Roisman, Tatiana

    2017-08-01

    An analytical approach is presented to describe pressure-driven streaming current (I str ) and streaming potential (U str ) generation in geometrically complex samples, for which the classical Helmholtz-Smoluchowski (H-S) equation is known to be inaccurate. The new approach is valid under the same prerequisite conditions that are used for the development of the H-S equation, that is, the electrical double layers (EDLs) are sufficiently thin and surface conductivity and electroviscous effects are negligible. The analytical methodology is developed using linear velocity profiles to describe liquid flow inside of EDLs and using simplifying approximations to describe macroscopic flow. At first, a general expression is obtained to describe the I str generated in different cross sections of an arbitrarily shaped sample. Thereafter, assuming that the generated U str varies only along the pressure-gradient direction, an expression describing the variation of generated U str along the sample length is obtained. These expressions describing I str and U str generation constitute the theoretical foundation of this work, which is first applied to a set of three nonuniform cross-sectional capillaries and thereafter to a square array of cylindrical fibers (model porous media) for both parallel and transverse fiber orientation cases. Although analytical solutions cannot be obtained for real porous substrates because of their random structure, the new theory provides useful insights into the effect of important factors such as fiber orientation, sample porosity, and sample dimensions. The solutions obtained for the model porous media are used to device strategies for more accurate zeta potential determination of porous fiber plugs. The new approach could be thus useful in resolving the long-standing problem of sample geometry dependence of zeta potential measurements.

  2. Surface ozone characterization at Larsemann Hills and Maitri, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Kaushar; Trivedi, D K; Sahu, S K

    2017-04-15

    Data are analyzed in terms of daily average ozone, its diurnal variation and its relation with meteorological parameters like dry bulb temperature (T), wet bulb temperature (T w ), atmospheric pressure and wind speed based on measurement of these parameters at two Indian Antarctic stations (Larsemann Hills, and Maitri) during 28th Indian Scientific Expedition of Antarctica (ISEA) organized during Antarctic summer of the year 2008-09. The work has been carried out to investigate summer time ozone level and its day-to-day and diurnal variability at these coastal locations and to highlight possible mechanism of ozone production and destruction. The result of the analysis indicates that daily average ozone concentration at Larsemann Hills varied from ~13 and ~20ppb with overall average value of ~16ppb and at Maitri, it varied from ~16 and ~21ppb with overall average value of ~18ppb. Photochemistry is found to partially contribute occasionally to the surface layer ozone at both the stations. Lower concentration of ozone at Maitri during beginning of the observational days may be due to destruction of ozone through activated halogens, whereas higher ozone on latter days may be due to photochemistry and advective transport from east to south-east areas. Ozone concentration during blizzard episodes at both the stations is reduced due to slow photochemical production of ozone, its photochemical removal and removal through deposition of ozone molecules on precipitation particles. Diurnal variation of ozone at Larsemann Hills and Maitri has been found to be absent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Computer aided surface representation. Progress report, June 1, 1988--May 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1989-02-09

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation and display of surfaces, interpolating to given information, in three or more dimensions. In a typical problem, we wish to create a surface from some discrete information. If this information is itself on another surface, the problem is to determine a ``surface defined on a surface,`` which is discussed below. Often, properties of an already constructed surface are desired: such ``geometry processing`` is described below. The Summary of Proposed Research from our original proposal describes the aims of this research project. This Summary and the Table of Contents from the original proposal are enclosed as an Appendix to this Progress Report. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through algorithms and computer graphics displays is utilized in the research. The wide range of activity, directed in both theory and applications, makes this project unique. Last month in the first Ardent Titan delivered in the State of Arizona came to our group, funded by the DOE and Arizona State University. Although the Titan is a commercial product, its newness requires our close collaboration with Ardent to maximize results. During the past year, four faculty members and several graduate research assistants have worked on this DOE project. The gaining of new professionals is an important aspect of this project. A listing of the students and their topics is given in the Appendix. The most significant publication during the past year is the book, Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design, by Dr. Gerald Farin. This 300 page volume helps fill a considerable gap in the subject and includes many new results on Bernstein-Bezier curves and surfaces.

  4. BEAM: A computational workflow system for managing and modeling material characterization data in HPC environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingerfelt, Eric J [ORNL; Endeve, Eirik [ORNL; Ovchinnikov, Oleg S [ORNL; Borreguero Calvo, Jose M [ORNL; Park, Byung H [ORNL; Archibald, Richard K [ORNL; Symons, Christopher T [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Messer, Bronson [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Improvements in scientific instrumentation allow imaging at mesoscopic to atomic length scales, many spectroscopic modes, and now with the rise of multimodal acquisition systems and the associated processing capability the era of multidimensional, informationally dense data sets has arrived. Technical issues in these combinatorial scientific fields are exacerbated by computational challenges best summarized as a necessity for drastic improvement in the capability to transfer, store, and analyze large volumes of data. The Bellerophon Environment for Analysis of Materials (BEAM) platform provides material scientists the capability to directly leverage the integrated computational and analytical power of High Performance Computing (HPC) to perform scalable data analysis and simulation via an intuitive, cross-platform client user interface. This framework delivers authenticated, push-button execution of complex user workflows that deploy data analysis algorithms and computational simulations utilizing the converged compute-and-data infrastructure at Oak Ridge National Laboratory s (ORNL) Compute and Data Environment for Science (CADES) and HPC environments like Titan at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). In this work we address the underlying HPC needs for characterization in the material science community, elaborate how BEAM s design and infrastructure tackle those needs, and present a small sub-set of user cases where scientists utilized BEAM across a broad range of analytical techniques and analysis modes.

  5. Computational prediction of heat transfer to gas turbine nozzle guide vanes with roughened surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, S.M.; Jones, T.V. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering Science; Lock, G.D. [Univ. of Bath (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Dancer, S.N. [Rolls-Royce PLC, Derby (United Kingdom)

    1998-04-01

    The local Mach number and heat transfer coefficient over the aerofoil surfaces and endwalls of a transonic gas turbine nozzle guide vane have been calculated. the computations were performed by solving the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations using a fully three-dimensional computational code (CFDS), which is well established at Rolls-Royce. A model to predict the effects of roughness has been incorporated into CFDS and heat transfer levels have been calculated for both hydraulically smooth and transitionally rough surfaces. The roughness influences the calculations in two ways; first the mixing length at a certain height above the surface is increased; second the wall function used to reconcile the wall condition with the first grid point above the wall is also altered. The first involves a relatively straightforward shift of the origin in the van Driest damping function description, the second requires an integration of the momentum equation across the wall layer. A similar treatment applies to the energy equation. The calculations are compared with experimental contours of heat transfer coefficient obtained using both thin-film gages and the transient liquid crystal technique. Measurements were performed using both hydraulically smooth and roughened surfaces, and at engine-representative Mach and Reynolds numbers. The heat transfer results are discussed and interpreted in terms of surface-shear flow visualization using oil and dye techniques.

  6. Surface-treated commercially pure titanium for biomedical applications: Electrochemical, structural, mechanical and chemical characterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Erika S.; Matos, Adaias O.; Beline, Thamara; Marques, Isabella S.V.; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T.; Rangel, Elidiane C.; Cruz, Nilson C.; Mesquita, Marcelo F.; Consani, Rafael X.

    2016-01-01

    Modified surfaces have improved the biological performance and biomechanical fixation of dental implants compared to machined (polished) surfaces. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the surface properties of titanium (Ti) as a function of different surface treatment. This study investigated the role of surface treatments on the electrochemical, structural, mechanical and chemical properties of commercial pure titanium (cp-Ti) under different electrolytes. Cp-Ti discs were divided into 6 groups (n = 5): machined (M—control); etched with HCl + H 2 O 2 (Cl), H 2 SO 4 + H 2 O 2 (S); sandblasted with Al 2 O 3 (Sb), Al 2 O 3 followed by HCl + H 2 O 2 (SbCl), and Al 2 O 3 followed by H 2 SO 4 + H 2 O 2 (SbS). Electrochemical tests were conducted in artificial saliva (pHs 3; 6.5 and 9) and simulated body fluid (SBF—pH 7.4). All surfaces were characterized before and after corrosion tests using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive microscopy, X-ray diffraction, surface roughness, Vickers microhardness and surface free energy. The results indicated that Cl group exhibited the highest polarization resistance (R p ) and the lowest capacitance (Q) and corrosion current density (I corr ) values. Reduced corrosion stability was noted for the sandblasted groups. Acidic artificial saliva decreased the R p values of cp-Ti surfaces and produced the highest I corr values. Also, the surface treatment and corrosion process influenced the surface roughness, Vickers microhardness and surface free energy. Based on these results, it can be concluded that acid-etching treatment improved the electrochemical stability of cp-Ti and all treated surfaces behaved negatively in acidic artificial saliva. - Highlights: • Characterization of surface treatment for biomedical implants was investigated. • Sandblasting reduced the corrosion stability of cp-Ti. • Acid etching is a promising dental implants surface treatment.

  7. Characterization and Computation of Yb/TiO₂ and Its Photocatalytic Degradation with Benzohydroxamic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xianping; Zhu, Sipin; Wang, Junyu; Wang, Chunying; Wu, Min

    2017-11-28

    Yb-doped TiO₂ (Yb/TiO₂) compositions were synthesized by sol-gel method, and the prepared materials were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-visible diffuse-reflectance spectrum (UV-Vis DRS), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and N₂ adsorption. A beneficiation reagent of benzohydroxamic acid (BHA) was used to test the photocatalytic activity of Yb/TiO₂. The characterizations indicate that the doping of Yb could inhibit the crystal growth of TiO₂, enhance the specific surface area, increase the binding energy of Ti2p, and also slightly expand the adsorption ranges to visible light. Furthermore, the computation of band structure also indicates that Yb-doped TiO₂ could make the forbidden band narrower than pure anatase TiO₂, which presents a red shift in the absorption spectrum. As a result of the photodegradation experiment on BHA, Yb/TiO₂ (0.50% in mass) sintered at 450 °C displayed the highest catalytic activity for BHA when compared with pure TiO₂ or other doped Yb/TiO₂ compositions, and more than 89.2% of the total organic carbon was removed after 120 min. Almost all anions, including Cl - , HCO₃ - , NO₃ - , and SO₄ 2- , inhibited the degradation of BHA by Yb/TiO₂, and their inhibition effects followed the order of HCO₃ - > NO₃ - > SO₄ 2- > Cl - . Cations of Na⁺, K⁺, Ca 2+ , and Mg 2+ displayed a slight suppressing effect due to the impact of Cl - coexisting in the solution. In addition, Yb/TiO₂ maintained a high photocatalytic ability with respect to BHA after four runs. It is hypothesized that ·OH is one of the main species involved in the photodegradation of BHA, and the mutual transformation of Yb 3+ and Yb 2+ could promote the separation of electron-hole pairs.

  8. Characterization and Computation of Yb/TiO2 and Its Photocatalytic Degradation with Benzohydroxamic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianping Luo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Yb-doped TiO2 (Yb/TiO2 compositions were synthesized by sol-gel method, and the prepared materials were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, UV-visible diffuse-reflectance spectrum (UV-Vis DRS, transmission electron microscope (TEM and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM, energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS, and N2 adsorption. A beneficiation reagent of benzohydroxamic acid (BHA was used to test the photocatalytic activity of Yb/TiO2. The characterizations indicate that the doping of Yb could inhibit the crystal growth of TiO2, enhance the specific surface area, increase the binding energy of Ti2p, and also slightly expand the adsorption ranges to visible light. Furthermore, the computation of band structure also indicates that Yb-doped TiO2 could make the forbidden band narrower than pure anatase TiO2, which presents a red shift in the absorption spectrum. As a result of the photodegradation experiment on BHA, Yb/TiO2 (0.50% in mass sintered at 450 °C displayed the highest catalytic activity for BHA when compared with pure TiO2 or other doped Yb/TiO2 compositions, and more than 89.2% of the total organic carbon was removed after 120 min. Almost all anions, including Cl−, HCO3−, NO3−, and SO42−, inhibited the degradation of BHA by Yb/TiO2, and their inhibition effects followed the order of HCO3− > NO3− > SO42− > Cl−. Cations of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ displayed a slight suppressing effect due to the impact of Cl− coexisting in the solution. In addition, Yb/TiO2 maintained a high photocatalytic ability with respect to BHA after four runs. It is hypothesized that ·OH is one of the main species involved in the photodegradation of BHA, and the mutual transformation of Yb3+ and Yb2+ could promote the separation of electron-hole pairs.

  9. Educational Games for Early Childhood: Using Tabletop Surface Computers for Teaching the Arabic Alphabet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Ibrahim, Zeinab; Karatsolis, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents initial evaluation regarding the use of simple educational games on tabletop surface computers to teach Kindergarten students in Qatar the Arabic alphabet. This effort is part of the “Arabiyyatii” research project, a 3-year endeavor aimed to teach 5-year-olds Modern Standard...... Arabic (MSA). The paper describes a naturalistic study design, following the activities of 18 students for a period of 9 weeks in the project. All students were native speakers of the Qatari dialect and they were early users of similar surface technologies. The paper presents three of the games available...

  10. Physical and chemical characterization methods of surfaces and interfaces; Methodes de caracterisation physico-chimique des surfaces et des interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthes-Labrousse, M.G. [Centre d`Etudes de Chimie Metallurgique, 94 - Vitry-sur-Seine (France)

    1997-12-31

    The main physical and chemical characterization techniques of surfaces and interfaces are presented. There are: Auger electron spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS and UPS), secondary ions mass spectroscopy (SIMS), infrared and Raman spectroscopies, electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS and HREELS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). For each method is given the theoretical principle, the apparatus and the main uses of the techniques. (O.M.) 27 refs.

  11. Atomic force microscopy characterization of the surface wettability of natural fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietak, Alexis; Korte, Sandra; Tan, Emelyn; Downard, Alison; Staiger, Mark P.

    2007-01-01

    Natural fibres represent a readily available source of ecologically friendly and inexpensive reinforcement in composites with degradable thermoplastics, however chemical treatments of fibres are required to prepare feasible composites. It is desirable to characterize the surface wettability of fibres after chemical treatment as the polarity of cellulose-based fibres influences compatibility with a polymer matrix. Assessment of the surface wettability of natural fibres using conventional methods presents a challenge as the surfaces are morphologically and chemically heterogeneous, rough, and can be strongly wicking. In this work it is shown that under atmospheric conditions the adhesion force between an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip and the fibre surface can estimate the water contact angle and surface wettability of the fibre. AFM adhesion force measurements are suitable for the more difficult surfaces of natural fibres and in addition allow for correlations between microstructural features and surface wettability characteristics

  12. Surface roughness effect on ultracold neutron interaction with a wall and implications for computer simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Steyerl, A.; Malik, S. S.; Desai, A. M.; Kaufman, C.

    2009-01-01

    We review the diffuse scattering and the loss coefficient in ultracold neutron reflection from slightly rough surfaces, report a surprising reduction in loss coefficient due to roughness, and discuss the possibility of transition from quantum treatment to ray optics. The results are used in a computer simulation of neutron storage in a recent neutron lifetime experiment that re-ported a large discrepancy of neutron lifetime with the current particle data value. Our partial re-analysis suggest...

  13. Characterization of Modified and Polymer Coated Alumina Surfaces by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Yehia El-Naggar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prepared, modified, and coated alumina surfaces were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR to investigate the surface properties of the individual and double modified samples. FTIR helps in reporting the changes occurred in hydroxyl groups as well as the structure changes as a result of thermal treating, hydrothermal treating, silylation treating, alkali metal treating, coating, and bonding with polymer. FTIR spectroscopy represents the strength and abundance of surface acidic OH which determine the adsorption properties of polar and nonpolar sorbents. Generally, all treated samples exhibit decrease of OH groups compared with those of parent ones producing alumina surfaces of different adsorptive powers.

  14. Descriptive and Computer Aided Drawing Perspective on an Unfolded Polyhedral Projection Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzwierzynska, Jolanta

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the herby study is to develop a method of direct and practical mapping of perspective on an unfolded prism polyhedral projection surface. The considered perspective representation is a rectilinear central projection onto a surface composed of several flat elements. In the paper two descriptive methods of drawing perspective are presented: direct and indirect. The graphical mapping of the effects of the representation is realized directly on the unfolded flat projection surface. That is due to the projective and graphical connection between points displayed on the polyhedral background and their counterparts received on the unfolded flat surface. For a significant improvement of the construction of line, analytical algorithms are formulated. They draw a perspective image of a segment of line passing through two different points determined by their coordinates in a spatial coordinate system of axis x, y, z. Compared to other perspective construction methods that use information about points, for computer vision and the computer aided design, our algorithms utilize data about lines, which are applied very often in architectural forms. Possibility of drawing lines in the considered perspective enables drawing an edge perspective image of an architectural object. The application of the changeable base elements of perspective as a horizon height and a station point location enable drawing perspective image from different viewing positions. The analytical algorithms for drawing perspective images are formulated in Mathcad software, however, they can be implemented in the majority of computer graphical packages, which can make drawing perspective more efficient and easier. The representation presented in the paper and the way of its direct mapping on the flat unfolded projection surface can find application in presentation of architectural space in advertisement and art.

  15. Surface proteome analysis and characterization of surface cell antigen (Sca or autotransporter family of Rickettsia typhi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandra T Sears

    Full Text Available Surface proteins of the obligate intracellular bacterium Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine or endemic typhus fever, comprise an important interface for host-pathogen interactions including adherence, invasion and survival in the host cytoplasm. In this report, we present analyses of the surface exposed proteins of R. typhi based on a suite of predictive algorithms complemented by experimental surface-labeling with thiol-cleavable sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin and identification of labeled peptides by LC MS/MS. Further, we focus on proteins belonging to the surface cell antigen (Sca autotransporter (AT family which are known to be involved in rickettsial infection of mammalian cells. Each species of Rickettsia has a different complement of sca genes in various states; R. typhi, has genes sca1 thru sca5. In silico analyses indicate divergence of the Sca paralogs across the four Rickettsia groups and concur with previous evidence of positive selection. Transcripts for each sca were detected during infection of L929 cells and four of the five Sca proteins were detected in the surface proteome analysis. We observed that each R. typhi Sca protein is expressed during in vitro infections and selected Sca proteins were expressed during in vivo infections. Using biotin-affinity pull down assays, negative staining electron microscopy, and flow cytometry, we demonstrate that the Sca proteins in R. typhi are localized to the surface of the bacteria. All Scas were detected during infection of L929 cells by immunogold electron microscopy. Immunofluorescence assays demonstrate that Scas 1-3 and 5 are expressed in the spleens of infected Sprague-Dawley rats and Scas 3, 4 and 5 are expressed in cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis. Sca proteins may be crucial in the recognition and invasion of different host cell types. In short, continuous expression of all Scas may ensure that rickettsiae are primed i to infect mammalian cells should the flea bite a host, ii to remain

  16. Surface Characterization and Cell Adhesion of Different Zirconia Treatments: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Wadih; Rifai, Mohamad

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the surface of zirconia subjected to different treatments and evaluate its effect on cell adhesion and proliferation. A total of 80 zirconia disks were divided into four groups (n = 20) according to the surface treatments used: group I: as-sintered (AS), no surface treatment applied; group II: abrasion treatment applied using Rocatec (ROC; 3M ESPE) system with silica-coated alumina powder of grit size 110 μm; group III: erbium, chromium:yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet (Er, Cr:YSGG) laser (LAS; BIOLASE) was used at a frequency of 20 Hz and output power of 3 W; and group IV: specimens were subjected to the selective infiltration etching (SIE) technique. Surface characterization was evaluated for the different groups (roughness, hardness, and morphology), and cell behavior (adhesion and proliferation) was tested (a = 0.05). The ROC group reported a significant increase in surface roughness (2.201 ± 0.352) and Vickers hardness (1758 ± 16.6) compared with the other surface treatments. The SIE surface-treated group reported a significantly higher number of cells (64.5 ± 2.6 and 53.5 ± 2.2 respectively) compared with the other surface-treated groups. The SIE is a promising surface treatment for zirconia that significantly enhances cell adhesion and osseointegration. The SIE treatment of zirconia implants may help in a faster and better osseointegration.

  17. A new procedure for characterizing textured surfaces with a deterministic pattern of valley features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Kühle, A; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    In recent years there has been the development of a high number of manufacturing methods for creating textured surfaces which often present deterministic patterns of valley features. Unfortunately, suitable methodologies for characterizing them are lacking. Existing standards cannot in fact...... properly characterize such surfaces, providing at times unreasonable values. In this paper, a new procedure for characterizing such surfaces is proposed, relying on advanced filtering and feature recognition and separation. Existing advanced filtering methods do not always eliminate all distortions......, therefore some modifications are investigated. In particular the robust Gaussian regression filter has been modified providing an envelope first-guess in order to always fit the mean line through the plateau region. Starting from a filtered and aligned profile, the feature thresholds recognition...

  18. Micro and nanostructural characterization of surfaces and interfaces of Portland cement mortars using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, M.F.O.; Brandao, P.R.G.

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of Portland cement mortars is very important in the study the interfaces and surfaces that make up the system grout/ceramic block. In this sense, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive (X-ray) spectrometer are important tools in investigating the morphology and chemical aspects. However, more detailed topographic information can be necessary in the characterization process. In this work, the aim was to characterize topographically surfaces and interfaces of mortars applied onto ceramic blocks. This has been accomplished by using the atomic force microscope (AFM) - MFP-3D-SA Asylum Research. To date, the results obtained from this research show that the characterization of cementitious materials with the help of AFM has an important contribution in the investigation and differentiation of hydrated calcium silicates (CSH), calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2, ettringite and calcium carbonate by providing morphological and micro topographical data, which are extremely important and reliable for the understanding of cementitious materials. (author)

  19. A computational analysis of sonic booms penetrating a realistic ocean surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, J L; Sparrow, V W

    2001-03-01

    The last decade has seen a revival of sonic boom research, a direct result of the projected market for a new breed of supersonic passenger aircraft, its design, and its operation. One area of the research involves sonic boom penetration into the ocean, one concern being the possible disturbance of marine mammals from the noise generated by proposed high-speed civil transport (HSCT) flyovers. Although theory is available to predict underwater sound levels due to a sonic boom hitting a homogeneous ocean with a flat surface, theory for a realistic ocean, one with a wavy surface and bubbles near the surface, is missing and will be presented in this paper. First, reviews are given of a computational method to calculate the underwater pressure field and the effects of a simple wavy ocean surface on the impinging sonic boom. Second, effects are described for the implementation of three additional conditions: a sonic boom/ocean "wavelength" comparison, complex ocean surfaces, and bubbles near the ocean surface. Overall, results from the model suggest that the realistic ocean features affect the penetrating proposed HSCT sonic booms by modifying the underwater sound-pressure levels only about 1 decibel or less.

  20. Site characterization field manual for near surface geologic disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCray, J.G.; Nowatzki, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    This field manual has been developed to aid states and regions to do a detailed characterization of a proposed near-surface low-level waste disposal site. The field manual is directed at planners, staff personnel and experts in one discipline to acquaint them with the requirements of other disciplines involved in site characterization. While it can provide a good review, it is not designed to tell experts how to do their job within their own discipline

  1. Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium Oocysts in Samples of Raw Surface Water and Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Lihua; Singh, Ajaib; Limor, Josef; Graczyk, Thaddeus K.; Gradus, Steve; Lal, Altaf

    2001-01-01

    Recent molecular characterizations of Cryptosporidium parasites make it possible to differentiate the human-pathogenic Cryptosporidium parasites from those that do not infect humans and to track the source of Cryptosporidium oocyst contamination in the environment. In this study, we used a small-subunit rRNA-based PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique to detect and characterize Cryptosporidium oocysts in 55 samples of raw surface water collected from several areas in t...

  2. Characterizing the geometric and electronic structure of defects in the "29" copper surface oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrien, Andrew J.; Hensley, Alyssa J. R.; Zhang, Renqin; Pronschinske, Alex; Marcinkowski, Matthew D.; McEwen, Jean-Sabin; Sykes, E. Charles H.

    2017-12-01

    The geometric and electronic structural characterization of thin film metal oxides is of fundamental importance to many fields such as catalysis, photovoltaics, and electrochemistry. Surface defects are also well known to impact a material's performance in any such applications. Here, we focus on the "29" oxide Cu2O/Cu(111) surface and we observe two common structural defects which we characterize using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and density functional theory. The defects are proposed to be O vacancies and Cu adatoms, which both show unique topographic and spectroscopic signatures. The spatially resolved electronic and charge state effects of the defects are investigated, and implications for their reactivity are given.

  3. Electronic and structural characterizations of unreconstructed {0001} surfaces and the growth of graphene overlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emtsev, Konstantin

    2009-01-01

    The present work is focused on the characterization of the clean unreconstructed SiC{0001} surfaces and the growth of graphene overlayers thereon. Electronic properties of SiC surfaces and their interfaces with graphene and few layer graphene films were investigated by means of angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction. Structural characterizations of the epitaxial graphene films grown on SiC were carried out by atomic force microscopy and low energy electron microscopy. Supplementary data was obtained by scanning tunneling microscopy. (orig.)

  4. Microstructural characterization of laser surface melted AISI M2 tool steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, J; Cabeza, M; Castro, G; Feijoo, I; Merino, P; Pena, G

    2010-09-01

    We describe the microstructure of Nd:YAG continuous wave laser surface melted high-speed steel, namely AISI M2, treated with different laser scanning speeds and beam diameters on its surface. Microstructural characterization of the remelted surface layer was performed using light optical and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The combination of the three techniques provided new insights into the substantial changes induced by laser surface melting of the steel surface layer. The advantage of the method is that it avoids the difficult and tedious work of preparing samples of this hard material for transmission electron microscopy, which is the technique normally used to study these fine microstructures. A melted zone with a dendritic structure and a partially melted zone with a heterogeneous cellular structure were observed. M(2)C carbides with different morphologies were identified in the resolidified surface layer after laser melting.

  5. Finite element analysis of laser-generated ultrasound for characterizing surface-breaking cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyun Jo

    2005-01-01

    A finite element method was used to simulate the wave propagation of laser-generated ultrasound and its interaction with surface breaking cracks in an elastic material. Thermoelastic laser line source on the material surface was approximated as a shear dipole and loaded as nodal forces in the plane-strain Finite Element (FE) model. The shear dipole-FE model was tested for the generation of ultrasound on the surface with no defect. The model was found to generate the Rayleigh surface wave. The model was then extended to examine the interaction of laser generated ultrasound with surface-breaking cracks of various depths. The crack-scattered waves were monitored to size the crack depth. The proposed model clearly reproduced the experimentally observed features that can be used to characterize the presence of surface-breaking cracks

  6. Surface modification and characterization for dispersion stability of inorganic nanometer-scaled particles in liquid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Hidehiro; Iijima, Motoyuki

    2010-01-01

    Inorganic nanoparticles are indispensable for science and technology as materials, pigments and cosmetics products. Improving the dispersion stability of nanoparticles in various liquids is essential for those applications. In this review, we discuss why it is difficult to control the stability of nanoparticles in liquids. We also overview the role of surface interaction between nanoparticles in their dispersion and characterization, e.g. by colloid probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM). Two types of surface modification concepts, post-synthesis and in situ modification, were investigated in many previous studies. Here, we focus on post-synthesis modification using adsorption of various kinds of polymer dispersants and surfactants on the particle surface, as well as surface chemical reactions of silane coupling agents. We discuss CP-AFM as a technique to analyze the surface interaction between nanoparticles and the effect of surface modification on the nanoparticle dispersion in liquids. (topical review)

  7. Surface modification and characterization for dispersion stability of inorganic nanometer-scaled particles in liquid media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidehiro Kamiya and Motoyuki Iijima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic nanoparticles are indispensable for science and technology as materials, pigments and cosmetics products. Improving the dispersion stability of nanoparticles in various liquids is essential for those applications. In this review, we discuss why it is difficult to control the stability of nanoparticles in liquids. We also overview the role of surface interaction between nanoparticles in their dispersion and characterization, e.g. by colloid probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM. Two types of surface modification concepts, post-synthesis and in situ modification, were investigated in many previous studies. Here, we focus on post-synthesis modification using adsorption of various kinds of polymer dispersants and surfactants on the particle surface, as well as surface chemical reactions of silane coupling agents. We discuss CP-AFM as a technique to analyze the surface interaction between nanoparticles and the effect of surface modification on the nanoparticle dispersion in liquids.

  8. Characterization and anti-settlement aspects of surface micro-structures from Cancer pagurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T; Regan, F; McGuinness, K; Connor, N E O’

    2014-01-01

    Tuning surface and material properties to inhibit or prevent settlement and attachment of microorganisms is of interest for applications such as antifouling technologies. Here, optimization of nano- and microscale structures on immersed surfaces can be utilized to improve cell removal while reducing adhesion strength and the likelihood of initial cellular attachment. Engineered surfaces capable of controlling cellular behaviour under natural conditions are challenging to design due to the diversity of attaching cell types in environments such as marine waters, where many variations in cell shape, size and adhesion strategy exist. Nevertheless, understanding interactions between a cell and a potential substrate for adhesion, including topographically driven settlement cues, offers a route to designing surfaces capable of controlling cell settlement. Biomimetic design of artificial surfaces, based upon microscale features from natural surfaces, can be utilized as model surfaces to understand cell–surface interactions. The microscale surface features of the carapace from the crustacean Cancer pagurus has been previously found to influence the rate of attachment of particular organisms when compared to smooth controls. However, the nature of microscale topographic features from C. pagurus have not been examined in sufficient detail to allow design of biomimetic surfaces. In this work, the spatial distribution, chemical composition, size and shape descriptors of microscale surface features from C. pagurus are characterized in detail for the first time. Additionally, the influence of topography from C. pagurus on the settlement of marine diatoms is examined under field conditions. (paper)

  9. Linear and nonlinear characterization of surfaces from a laser beam melt ablation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bube, Kevin [Institut fuer Chemie und Biologie des Meeres, Carl-von-Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Neto, Camilo Rodrigues [Institut fuer Chemie und Biologie des Meeres, Carl-von-Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); University of Sao Paulo, Av. Arlindo Bettio 1000, EACH, 03828-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Donner, Reik [Department of Physics, University of Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, D-14469 Potsdam (Germany); Schwarz, Udo [Department of Physics, University of Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, D-14469 Potsdam (Germany); Feudel, Ulrike [Institut fuer Chemie und Biologie des Meeres, Carl-von-Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2006-04-07

    We apply linear and nonlinear methods to study the properties of surfaces generated by a laser beam melt ablation process. As a result we present a characterization and ordering of the surfaces depending on the adjusted process parameters. Our findings give some insight into the performance of two widely applied multifractal analysis methods-the detrended fluctuation analysis and the wavelet transform modulus maxima method-on short real world data.

  10. Corrosion chemistry closing comments: opportunities in corrosion science facilitated by operando experimental characterization combined with multi-scale computational modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, John R

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in characterization tools, computational capabilities, and theories have created opportunities for advancement in understanding of solid-fluid interfaces at the nanoscale in corroding metallic systems. The Faraday Discussion on Corrosion Chemistry in 2015 highlighted some of the current needs, gaps and opportunities in corrosion science. Themes were organized into several hierarchical categories that provide an organizational framework for corrosion. Opportunities to develop fundamental physical and chemical data which will enable further progress in thermodynamic and kinetic modelling of corrosion were discussed. These will enable new and better understanding of unit processes that govern corrosion at the nanoscale. Additional topics discussed included scales, films and oxides, fluid-surface and molecular-surface interactions, selected topics in corrosion science and engineering as well as corrosion control. Corrosion science and engineering topics included complex alloy dissolution, local corrosion, and modelling of specific corrosion processes that are made up of collections of temporally and spatially varying unit processes such as oxidation, ion transport, and competitive adsorption. Corrosion control and mitigation topics covered some new insights on coatings and inhibitors. Further advances in operando or in situ experimental characterization strategies at the nanoscale combined with computational modelling will enhance progress in the field, especially if coupling across length and time scales can be achieved incorporating the various phenomena encountered in corrosion. Readers are encouraged to not only to use this ad hoc organizational scheme to guide their immersion into the current opportunities in corrosion chemistry, but also to find value in the information presented in their own ways.

  11. Computational study on the interactions and orientation of monoclonal human immunoglobulin G on a polystyrene surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javkhlantugs N

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Namsrai Javkhlantugs,1,2 Hexig Bayar,3 Chimed Ganzorig,1 Kazuyoshi Ueda2 1Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology and Department of Chemical Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia; 2Department of Advanced Materials Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Japan; 3The Key Laboratory of Mammalian Reproductive Biology and Biotechnology of the Ministry of Education, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China Abstract: Having a theoretical understanding of the orientation of immunoglobulin on an immobilized solid surface is important in biomedical pathogen-detecting systems and cellular analysis. Despite the stable adsorption of immunoglobulin on a polystyrene (PS surface that has been applied in many kinds of immunoassays, there are many uncertainties in antibody-based clinical and biological experimental methods. To understand the binding mechanism and physicochemical interactions between immunoglobulin and the PS surface at the atomic level, we investigated the binding behavior and interactions of the monoclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG on the PS surface using the computational method. In our docking simulation with the different arrangement of translational and rotational orientation of IgG onto the PS surface, three typical orientation patterns of the immunoglobulin G on the PS surface were found. We precisely analyzed these orientation patterns and clarified how the immunoglobulin G interacts with the PS surface at atomic scale in the beginning of the adsorption process. Major driving forces for the adsorption of IgG onto the PS surface come from serine (Ser, aspartic acid (Asp, and glutamic acid (Glu residues. Keywords: bionano interface, immunoassay, polystyrene, IgG, physical adsorption, simulation

  12. Speckle noise reduction for computer generated holograms of objects with diffuse surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeonidou, Athanasia; Blinder, David; Ahar, Ayyoub; Schretter, Colas; Munteanu, Adrian; Schelkens, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Digital holography is mainly used today for metrology and microscopic imaging and is emerging as an important potential technology for future holographic television. To generate the holographic content, computer-generated holography (CGH) techniques convert geometric descriptions of a 3D scene content. To model different surface types, an accurate model of light propagation has to be considered, including for example, specular and diffuse reflection. In previous work, we proposed a fast CGH method for point cloud data using multiple wavefront recording planes, look-up tables (LUTs) and occlusion processing. This work extends our method to account for diffuse reflections, enabling rendering of deep 3D scenes in high resolution with wide viewing angle support. This is achieved by modifying the spectral response of the light propagation kernels contained by the look-up tables. However, holograms encoding diffuse reflective surfaces depict significant amounts of speckle noise, a problem inherent to holography. Hence, techniques to improve the reduce speckle noise are evaluated in this paper. Moreover, we propose as well a technique to suppress the aperture diffraction during numerical, viewdependent rendering by apodizing the hologram. Results are compared visually and in terms of their respective computational efficiency. The experiments show that by modelling diffuse reflection in the LUTs, a more realistic yet computationally efficient framework for generating high-resolution CGH is achieved.

  13. Reactive physical vapor deposition of TixAlyN: Integrated plasma-surface modeling characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Da; Schaeffer, J.K.

    2004-01-01

    Reactive physical vapor deposition (RPVD) has been widely applied in the microelectronic industry for producing thin films. Fundamental understanding of RPVD mechanisms is needed for successful process development due to the high sensitivity of film properties on process conditions. An integrated plasma equipment-target nitridation modeling infrastructure for RPVD has therefore been developed to provide mechanistic insights and assist optimal process design. The target nitridation model computes target nitride coverage based on self-consistently derived plasma characteristics from the plasma equipment model; target sputter yields needed in the plasma equipment model are also self-consistently derived taking into account the yield-suppressing effect from nitridation. The integrated modeling infrastructure has been applied to investigating RPVD processing with a Ti 0.8 Al 0.2 compound target and an Ar/N 2 gas supply. It has been found that the process produces athermal metal neutrals as the primary deposition precursor. The metal stoichiometry in the deposited film is close to the target composition due to the predominance of athermal species in the flux that reaches the substrate. Correlations between process parameters (N 2 flow, target power), plasma characteristics, surface conditions, and deposition kinetics have been studied with the model. The deposition process is characterized by two regimes when the N 2 flow rate is varied. When N 2 is dilute relative to argon, target nitride coverage increases rapidly with increasing N 2 flow. The sputter yield and deposition rate consequently decrease. For less dilute N 2 mixtures, the sputter yield and deposition rate are stable due to the saturation of target nitridation. With increasing target power, the electron density increases nearly linearly while the variation of N generation is much smaller. Target nitridation and its suppression of the sputter yield saturate at high N 2 flow rendering these parameters

  14. Real-time, automated characterization of surfaces for alpha and beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egidi, P.V.

    1997-01-01

    A new data collection system, called ABACUS trademark, has been developed that automates and expedites the collection, conversion, and reporting of radiological survey data of surfaces. Field testing of the system by Oak Ridge National Laboratory/Environmental Technology Section is currently underway. Preliminary results are presented. The system detects, discriminates, and separately displays the results for alpha and beta contamination scans on floors and walls with a single pass. Fixed-position static counting is also possible for quantitative measuring. The system is currently configured with five 100 cm 2 dual-phosphor plastic scintillation detectors mounted in a lightweight aluminum fixture that holds the detectors in a fixed array. ABACUS trademark can be configured with other detectors if desired. Ratemeter/scalars traditionally coupled to individual detectors have been replaced by a single unit that houses the power supply and discriminator circuit boards to support up to five detectors. The system is designed to be used by a single operator. Each detector's position and data are transmitted once per second and recorded on a nearby laptop computer. The data are converted to appropriate units, color-coded, and mapped to display graphically the findings for each detector in real-time. Reports can be generated immediately following the survey. Survey data can be exported in a variety of formats. Benefits of ABACUS trademark are: (1) immediate feedback to decision makers using the observational approach to characterization or remediation, (2) thorough documentation of survey results, (3) increased statistical confidence in scans by recording counts every second, (4) reduced paperwork and elimination of transcription errors, and (5) time and cost savings for collection, conversion, mapping, evaluating, and reporting data over traditional methods

  15. Design and characterization of textured surfaces for applications in the food industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzini, G.; Romoli, L.; Blunt, L.; Gemini, L.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this work is to design, manufacture and characterize surface morphologies on AISI 316L stainless steel produced by a custom designed laser-texturing strategy. Surface textures were characterized at a micrometric dimension in terms of areal parameters compliant with ISO 25178, and correlations between these parameters and processing parameters (e.g. laser energy dose supplied to the material, repetition rate of the laser pulses and scanning velocity) were investigated. Preliminary efforts were devoted to the research of special requirements for surface morphology that, according to the commonly accepted research on the influence of surface roughness on cellular adhesion on surfaces, should discourage the formation of biofilms. The topographical characterization of the surfaces was performed with a coherence scanning interferometer. This approach showed that increasing doses of energy to the surfaces increased the global level of roughness as well as the surface complexity. Moreover, the behavior of the parameters S pk, S vk also indicates that, due to the ablation process, an increase in the energy dose causes an average increase in the height of the highest peaks and in the depth of the deepest dales. The study of the density of peaks S pd showed that none of the surfaces analyzed here seem to perfectly match the conditions dictated by the theories on cellular adhesion to confer anti-biofouling properties. However, this result seems to be mainly due to the limits of the resolving power of coherence scanning interferometry, which does not allow the resolution of sub-micrometric features which could be crucial in the prevention of cellular attachment.

  16. Validation of in-line surface characterization by light scattering in Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Bissacco, Giuliano; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    sensor on the machine in a shop floor environment. Scattered light roughness measurements of the whole surfaces were performed to investigate the measurement method suitability for 100% quality control. For comparison, the surfaces were measured with reference optical instruments in laboratory conditions....... Comparison of the scattered light measurements results taken on the machine with the reference optical roughness measurements taken in laboratory demonstrate the capability of the scattered light sensor for robust in-line surface characterization. This allows for the RAP process control by proper process...

  17. Surface characterization of alloy Ti-6Al-7Nb treated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, J.K.L.; Macedo, H.R.A.; Brito, E.M.; Brandim, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma surface modifications are subject of numerous studies to improve the quality of a given material. Titanium and its alloys are widely used in biomedical applications and plasma treatment technique is increasingly used to improve the surface properties thereof. The research have a objective in the comparative analysis of the change in microstructure of Ti-6Al-7Nb alloys after treatment of plasma nitriding. The technical are: nitriding with cathode cage (NGC) and planar discharge. The characterization was obtained by MEV (Scanning Electronic Microscope) and hardness. The results was compared about the better surface modification that meets future prospects of the biocompatibility of the alloy.(author)

  18. Computer vision system in real-time for color determination on flat surface food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Saldaña

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Artificial vision systems also known as computer vision are potent quality inspection tools, which can be applied in pattern recognition for fruits and vegetables analysis. The aim of this research was to design, implement and calibrate a new computer vision system (CVS in real-time for the color measurement on flat surface food. For this purpose was designed and implemented a device capable of performing this task (software and hardware, which consisted of two phases: a image acquisition and b image processing and analysis. Both the algorithm and the graphical interface (GUI were developed in Matlab. The CVS calibration was performed using a conventional colorimeter (Model CIEL* a* b*, where were estimated the errors of the color parameters: eL* = 5.001%, and ea* = 2.287%, and eb* = 4.314 % which ensure adequate and efficient automation application in industrial processes in the quality control in the food industry sector.

  19. Computer vision system in real-time for color determination on flat surface food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Saldaña

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial vision systems also known as computer vision are potent quality inspection tools, which can be applied in pattern recognition for fruits and vegetables analysis. The aim of this research was to design, implement and calibrate a new computer vision system (CVS in real - time f or the color measurement on flat surface food. For this purpose was designed and implemented a device capable of performing this task (software and hardware, which consisted of two phases: a image acquisition and b image processing and analysis. Both th e algorithm and the graphical interface (GUI were developed in Matlab. The CVS calibration was performed using a conventional colorimeter (Model CIEL* a* b*, where were estimated the errors of the color parameters: e L* = 5.001%, and e a* = 2.287%, and e b* = 4.314 % which ensure adequate and efficient automation application in industrial processes in the quality control in the food industry sector.

  20. Characterization of pigment-leached antifouling coatings using BET surface area measurements and mercury porosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2007-01-01

    In this work BET surface area measurements and mercury porosimetry are used to characterize leached layers formed when seawater-soluble pigments (Cu2O and ZnO) dissolve during accelerated leaching of simple antifouling coatings. Measurements on single-pigment coatings show that an increasing...

  1. Near-surface geophysical characterization of Holocene faults conducive to geothermal flow near Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudley, Colton; Dorsey, Alison; Louie, John [UNR; Schwering, Paul; Pullammanappallil, Satish

    2016-08-01

    Colton Dudley, Alison Dorsey, Paul Opdyke, Dustin Naphan, Marlon Ramos, John Louie, Paul Schwering, and Satish Pullammanappallil, 2013, Near-surface geophysical characterization of Holocene faults conducive to geothermal flow near Pyramid Lake, Nevada: presented at Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists, Pacific Section Annual Meeting, Monterey, Calif., April 19-25.

  2. Facile synthesis and characterization of rough surface V2O5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 40; Issue 6. Facile synthesis and characterization of rough surface V 2 O 5 nanomaterials for pseudo-supercapacitor electrode material with high capacitance. YIFU ZHANG YUTING HUANG. Volume 40 Issue 6 October 2017 pp 1137-1149 ...

  3. Study of the possibilities of using nuclear methods for characterizing the surface region of glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiung, P.

    1983-01-01

    Following a review of the different methods used for the analysis of surfaces, we give a detailed description of charged particle elastic backscattering and the experimental devices. We then apply this method to the study of the lixiviation of borosilicate glasses in aqueous media and to the characterization of two heavy elements, cerium and thorium and their possible interaction in simple borosilicates [fr

  4. An experimental-computer modeling study of inorganic phosphates surface adsorption on hydroxyapatite particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Manuel; Casanovas, Jordi; del Valle, Luis J; Bertran, Oscar; Revilla-López, Guillermo; Turon, Pau; Puiggalí, Jordi; Alemán, Carlos

    2015-06-07

    The adsorption of orthophosphate, pyrophosphate, triphosphate and a trisphosphonate onto hydroxyapatite has been examined using experiments and quantum mechanical calculations. Adsorption studies with FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies have been performed considering both crystalline hydroxyapatite (HAp) and amorphous calcium phosphate particles, which were specifically prepared and characterized for this purpose. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been carried out considering the (100) and (001) surfaces of HAp, which were represented using 1 × 2 × 2 and 3 × 3 × 1 slab models, respectively. The adsorption of phosphate onto the two crystallographic surfaces is very much favored from an energetic point of view, which is fully consistent with current interpretations of the HAp growing process. The structures calculated for the adsorption of pyrophosphate and triphosphate evidence that this process is easier for the latter than for the former. Thus, the adsorption of pyrophosphate is severely limited by the surface geometry while the flexibility of triphosphate allows transforming repulsive electrostatic interactions into molecular strain. On the other hand, calculations predict that the trisphosphonate only adsorbs onto the (001) surface of HAp. Theoretical predictions are fully consistent with experimental data. Thus, comparison of DFT results and spectroscopic data suggests that the experimental conditions used to prepare HAp particles promote the predominance of the (100) surface. Accordingly, experimental identification of the adsorption of trisphosphonate onto such crystalline particles is unclear while the adsorption of pyrophosphate and triphosphate is clearly observed.

  5. Characterization of the silicon nanopillar-surface filled and grafted with nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yuan; Che, Xiangchen; Que, Long

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the characterization of the silicon nanopillar-surface filled and grafted with nanomaterials. Usually a silicon nanopillar-surface contains nanopillars and air among them. The air is not a good medium to absorb and trap the incoming photons. In order to improve this capability, the air should be replaced with other material. To this end, copper sulfide–gold (CuS–Au) core–shell nanostructures and silver nanoplates are used as two representative substitutes for air among the nanopillars. Experiments find that the reflectance of the nanomaterial-coated nanopillar-surface can be reduced at least 50% compared to that of the bare nanopillar-surface. Different nanomaterial-coated nanopillar-surface can tune the optical reflectance and absorption profile, thereby trapping photons in different wavelength ranges. (paper)

  6. Characterization of metal contacts on and surfaces of cadmium zinc telluride

    CERN Document Server

    Bürger, A; Chattopadhyay, K; Shi, D; Morgan, S H; Collins, W E; James, R B

    1999-01-01

    In the past several years significant progress has been made in building a database of physical properties for detector quality Cd sub x Zn sub 1 sub - sub x Te (CZT) (x=0.1-0.2) crystal material. CZT's high efficiency combined with its room temperature operation make the material an excellent choice for imaging and spectroscopy in the 10-200 keV energy range. For detector grade material, superior crystallinity and high bulk resistivity are required. The surface preparation during the detector fabrication plays a vital role in determining the contact characteristics and the surface leakage current, which are often the dominant factors influencing its performance. This paper presents a surface and contact characterization study aimed at establishing the effects of the surface preparation steps prior to contacting (polishing and chemical etching), the choice of the metal and contact deposition technique, and the surface oxidation process. A photoconductivity mapping technique is used for studying the effects of...

  7. Microstructural characterization of superaustenitic stainless steel surface alloys formed using laser treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, K.; Deshmukh, M. B.; Khanna, A. S.; Gasser, A.

    2000-09-01

    Conventional stainless steels (SS’s) such as AISI type 304 SS are used in many industrial applications due to their excellent weldability and good mechanical properties. However, in contacts with chlorides, they suffer from localized corrosion. AISI type 304 SS was alloyed at the surface with chromium, nickel, and molybdenum using a CO2 laser carried under varying laser processing parameters. The objective is to create a surface alloy with composition and microstructure, suitable for marine environments. The surface alloys were characterized using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and revealed the presence of the austenitic phase. Analysis by SEM-energy dispersive analysis (EDAX) revealed good compositional homogeneity with molybdenum contents in the range of 3 to 15 wt.%. The dendrite arm spacing (DAS) measured at the surface and bottom of the surface alloy using an image analyzer was found to be in good correlation with calculated cooling rates.

  8. Surface area analysis of dental implants using micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicho, Kurt; Kastner, Johann; Klingesberger, Roman; Seemann, Rudolf; Enislidis, Georg; Undt, Gerhard; Wanschitz, Felix; Figl, Michael; Wagner, Arne; Ewers, Rolf

    2007-08-01

    In this study, we present and evaluate a micro-computed tomography (micro-CT)-based method for the calculation of the potential bone/implant contact area (p-BICA) on the surface of dental implants. For seven commercially available implants (Ankylos implant, Brånemark System, Frialit CELLplus, Replace((R)) Select Tapered, Straumann Solid screw, XiVE S CELLplus, 3i Osseotite XP Threaded Miniplant, the p-BICA surface is determined by means of three-dimensional X-ray computed-tomography and computer-based data processing. Measurements were repeated two times, and the stability and repeatability of the measurement method were evaluated. Our analysis revealed a p-BICA of 118 mm(2) for the XiVE S CELLplus implant, 134 mm(2) for the Ankylos, 136 mm(2) for the Frialit CELLplus, 138 mm(2) for the Brånemark System, 139 mm(2) for the Replace((R)), 159 mm(2) for the 3i Osseotite XP and 199 mm(2) for the Straumann Solid screw implant. The measurement method proved to be stable and led to reproducible results. The micro- and macrostructure of dental implants define the surface and the p-BICA. Precise determination of this parameter can be achieved by means of the micro-CT-based method as presented in this study. The value of p-BICA lies in the predictability of industrial design before preclinical and clinical testing. Based on this method, dental implant properties become comparable even if geometrical details are not disclosed by the manufacturer.

  9. Preliminary Study on Hybrid Computational Phantom for Radiation Dosimetry Based on Subdivision Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jong Hwi; Choi, Sang Hyoun; Cho, Sung Koo; Kim, Chan Hyeong

    2007-01-01

    The anthropomorphic computational phantoms are classified into two groups. One group is the stylized phantoms, or MIRD phantoms, which are based on mathematical representations of the anatomical structures. The shapes and positions of the organs and tissues in these phantoms can be adjusted by changing the coefficients of the equations in use. The other group is the voxel phantoms, which are based on tomographic images of a real person such as CT, MR and serially sectioned color slice images from a cadaver. Obviously, the voxel phantoms represent the anatomical structures of a human body much more realistically than the stylized phantoms. A realistic representation of anatomical structure is very important for an accurate calculation of radiation dose in the human body. Consequently, the ICRP recently has decided to use the voxel phantoms for the forthcoming update of the dose conversion coefficients. However, the voxel phantoms also have some limitations: (1) The topology and dimensions of the organs and tissues in a voxel model are extremely difficult to change, and (2) The thin organs, such as oral mucosa and skin, cannot be realistically modeled unless the voxel resolution is prohibitively high. Recently, a new approach has been implemented by several investigators. The investigators converted their voxel phantoms to hybrid computational phantoms based on NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines) surface, which is smooth and deformable. It is claimed that these new phantoms have the flexibility of the stylized phantom along with the realistic representations of the anatomical structures. The topology and dimensions of the anatomical structures can be easily changed as necessary. Thin organs can be modeled without affecting computational speed or memory requirement. The hybrid phantoms can be also used for 4-D Monte Carlo simulations. In this preliminary study, the external shape of a voxel phantom (i.e., skin), HDRK-Man, was converted to a hybrid computational

  10. Computed tomography for the quantitative characterization of flow through a porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auzerais, F.M.; Dussan, E.B.; Reischer, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray computer tomography (CT) has become an increasingly popular research tool in petroleum engineering for characterizing porous media. Its highly detailed images have been used to construct maps of porosity, saturation and atomic composition, and to visualize the displacement of fluids. However, extracting data necessary to characterize flow through porous media is both time consuming and dependent on the availability of extensive computational resources - - a consequence of the large size of the image files. The authors of this paper applied to known technique, based upon the ability to recognize regions with similar features, which avoids these difficulties. It allows the authors to substitute for the image, the pixel location of the boundaries of the recognized regions, reducing considerably the computer storage requirements. The authors this technique to study the dynamics of two miscible liquids of different densities flowing through a porous medium where buoyancy plays an important role. The authors' specific concern is the movement of mud filtrate as it penetrates a permeable formation in the vicinity of a recently drilled wellbore. The authors quantify the manner in which impermeable horizontal barriers influence the movement of the filtrate

  11. Educational Games for Early Childhood: Using Tabletop Surface Computers for Teaching the Arabic Alphabet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Ibrahim, Zeinab; Karatsolis, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    to the students, along with data collected from system log files and class observations. Result analysis suggests that these kinds of games could be useful in (a) enhancing students’ engagement in language learning, (b) increasing their exposure to MSA, and (c) developing their vocabulary.......This paper presents initial evaluation regarding the use of simple educational games on tabletop surface computers to teach Kindergarten students in Qatar the Arabic alphabet. This effort is part of the “Arabiyyatii” research project, a 3-year endeavor aimed to teach 5-year-olds Modern Standard...

  12. Computer modeling of the dynamics of surface tension on rotating fluids in low and microgravity environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Tsao, Y. D.; Hong, B. B.; Leslie, Fred W.

    1989-01-01

    Time-dependent evolutions of the profile of the free surface (bubble shapes) for a cylindrical container partially filled with a Newtonian fluid of constant density, rotating about its axis of symmetry, have been studied. Numerical computations have been carried out with the following situations: (1) linear functions of spin-up and spin-down in low- and microgravity environments, (2) linear functions of increasing and decreasing gravity environments at high- and low-rotating cylinder speeds, and (3) step functions of spin-up and spin-down in a low-gravity environment.

  13. Surface roughness effect on ultracold neutron interaction with a wall and implications for computer simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyerl, A.; Malik, S. S.; Desai, A. M.; Kaufman, C.

    2010-01-01

    We review the diffuse scattering and the loss coefficient in ultracold neutron reflection from slightly rough surfaces, report a surprising reduction in loss coefficient due to roughness, and discuss the possibility of transition from quantum treatment to ray optics. The results are used in a computer simulation of neutron storage in a recent neutron lifetime experiment that reported a large discrepancy of neutron lifetime with the current particle data value. Our partial reanalysis suggests the possibility of systematic effects that were not included in this publication.

  14. Curves and surfaces for computer-aided geometric design a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Farin, Gerald

    1992-01-01

    A leading expert in CAGD, Gerald Farin covers the representation, manipulation, and evaluation of geometric shapes in this the Third Edition of Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design. The book offers an introduction to the field that emphasizes Bernstein-Bezier methods and presents subjects in an informal, readable style, making this an ideal text for an introductory course at the advanced undergraduate or graduate level.The Third Edition includes a new chapter on Topology, offers new exercises and sections within most chapters, combines the material on Geometric Continuity i

  15. TAREAN: a computational tool for identification and characterization of satellite DNA from unassembled short reads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, Petr; Ávila Robledillo, Laura; Koblížková, Andrea; Vrbová, Iva; Neumann, Pavel; Macas, Jirí

    2017-07-07

    Satellite DNA is one of the major classes of repetitive DNA, characterized by tandemly arranged repeat copies that form contiguous arrays up to megabases in length. This type of genomic organization makes satellite DNA difficult to assemble, which hampers characterization of satellite sequences by computational analysis of genomic contigs. Here, we present tandem repeat analyzer (TAREAN), a novel computational pipeline that circumvents this problem by detecting satellite repeats directly from unassembled short reads. The pipeline first employs graph-based sequence clustering to identify groups of reads that represent repetitive elements. Putative satellite repeats are subsequently detected by the presence of circular structures in their cluster graphs. Consensus sequences of repeat monomers are then reconstructed from the most frequent k-mers obtained by decomposing read sequences from corresponding clusters. The pipeline performance was successfully validated by analyzing low-pass genome sequencing data from five plant species where satellite DNA was previously experimentally characterized. Moreover, novel satellite repeats were predicted for the genome of Vicia faba and three of these repeats were verified by detecting their sequences on metaphase chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Organic surfaces exposed by self-assembled organothiol monolayers: Preparation, characterization, and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Martin; Wöll, Christof

    2009-07-01

    Organic surfaces play a major role in materials science. Most surfaces that we touch in our daily lives are made from organic materials, e.g., vegetables, fruit, skin, wood, and textiles made from natural fibers. In the context of biology, organic surfaces play a prominent role too, proteins docking onto cell surfaces are a good example. To better understand the characteristics of organic surfaces, including physico-chemical properties like wettability or chemical reactivities and physical properties like friction and lubrication, a structurally well-defined model system that can be investigated with numerous analytical techniques is desirable. In the last two decades, one particular system, self-assembled monolayers or SAMs, have demonstrated their suitability for this purpose. In particular, organothiols consisting of an organic molecule with an attached SH-group are well suited to fabricating structurally well-defined adlayers of monolayer thickness on gold substrates using a simple preparation procedure. These ultrathin monolayers expose an organic surface with properties that can be tailored by varying the type of organothiol employed. After a short introduction into the preparation of SAMs, this article provides an overview of the possibilities and limitations of organic surfaces exposed by Au-thiolate SAMs. Applications are as diverse as the metallization of organic surfaces, a fundamental problem in materials science, and the fabrication of surfaces that resist the adsorption of proteins. In addition to a number of different case studies, we will also discuss the most powerful analytical techniques needed to characterize these important model systems.

  17. Characterization of AZ91 magnesium alloy and organosilane adsorption on its surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Wong, K.C.; Wong, P.C.; Kulinich, S.A.; Metson, J.B.; Mitchell, K.A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Oxide formation on a clean AZ91-Mg alloy surface has been characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), while the chemical composition of a mirror-polished sample was assessed by scanning Auger microscopy (SAM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at different microstructural regions, referred to as the grain boundary, matrix and particle regions. XPS and SAM confirmed that Mg and Al are always present in the surface regions probed, whereas bulk characterization with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis was necessary to detect the additional alloying elements, Mn and Zn. Coating by 1% solutions of BTSE, γ-GPS and γ-APS at their natural pH values gave etching of the surface Mg oxide. Adsorption occurs on the different regions, but the attachment is weak, especially because of the fragile nature of the underlying substrate. However, increasing the concentration of BTSE to 4% formed a thicker and denser coating with better prospects for substrate protection

  18. Potentialities of some surface characterization techniques for the development of titanium biomedical alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Vanzillotta

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Bone formation around a metallic implant is a complex process that involves micro- and nanometric interactions. Several surface treatments, including coatings were developed in order to obtain faster osseointegration. To understand the role of these surface treatments on bone formation it is necessary to choose adequate characterization techniques. Among them, we have selected electron microscopy, profilometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS to describe them briefly. Examples of the potentialities of these techniques on the characterization of titanium for biomedical applications were also presented and discussed. Unfortunately more than one technique is usually necessary to describe conveniently the topography (scanning electron microsocopy, profilometry and/or AFM and the chemical state (XPS of the external layer of the material surface. The employment of the techniques above described can be useful especially for the development of new materials or products.

  19. Simulation of Specular Surface Imaging Based on Computer Graphics: Application on a Vision Inspection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seulin Ralph

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at detecting surface defects on reflecting industrial parts. A machine vision system, performing the detection of geometric aspect surface defects, is completely described. The revealing of defects is realized by a particular lighting device. It has been carefully designed to ensure the imaging of defects. The lighting system simplifies a lot the image processing for defect segmentation and so a real-time inspection of reflective products is possible. To bring help in the conception of imaging conditions, a complete simulation is proposed. The simulation, based on computer graphics, enables the rendering of realistic images. Simulation provides here a very efficient way to perform tests compared to the numerous attempts of manual experiments.

  20. Biconvection flow of Carreau fluid over an upper paraboloid surface: A computational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mair Khan

    Full Text Available Present article explored the physical characteristics of biconvection effects on the MHD flow of Carreau nanofluid over upper horizontal surface of paraboloid revolution along with chemical reaction. The concept of the Carreau nanofluid was introduced the new parameterization achieve the momentum governing equation. Using similarity transformed, the governing partial differential equations are converted into the ordinary differential equations. The obtained governing equations are solved computationally by using implicit finite difference method known as the Keller box technique. The numerical solutions are obtained for the velocity, temperature, concentration, friction factor, local heat and mass transfer coefficients by varying controlling parameters i.e. Biconvection parameter, fluid parameter, Weissenberg number, Hartmann number, Prandtl number, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter, Lewis number and chemical reaction parameter. The obtained results are discussed via graphs and tables. Keywords: Biconvection, Fourier’s law, Fick’s law, Carreau nanofluid, Chemical reaction, Paraboloid surface, Implicit finite difference method

  1. A COMPUTATIONAL HYDRODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF DUISBURG TEST CASE WITH FREE SURFACE AND PROPELLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Kemal Kinaci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the effects of the free surface and the propeller on a benchmark Post-Panamax Ship, Duisburg Test Case (DTC. The experimental results are already available in the literature. The computational study carried out in this work is verified first with the experiments and then used to explain some of the physical aspects associated with viscous ship flows. There are two interesting outcomes of this work. The first one is, the existence of the propeller contributes to the pressure resistance of the ship by increasing the wave elevations along the hull and the fluid domain substantially. The second outcome is; by changing the pressure distribution along the hull and the propeller, the free surface increases the efficiency of the propulsion system. These specific outcomes are thoroughly discussed in the paper with CFD generated results and physical explanations.

  2. Modeling of edge effect in subaperture tool influence functions of computer controlled optical surfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Songlin; Zhang, Xiangchao; He, Xiaoying; Xu, Min

    2016-12-20

    Computer controlled optical surfacing requires an accurate tool influence function (TIF) for reliable path planning and deterministic fabrication. Near the edge of the workpieces, the TIF has a nonlinear removal behavior, which will cause a severe edge-roll phenomenon. In the present paper, a new edge pressure model is developed based on the finite element analysis results. The model is represented as the product of a basic pressure function and a correcting function. The basic pressure distribution is calculated according to the surface shape of the polishing pad, and the correcting function is used to compensate the errors caused by the edge effect. Practical experimental results demonstrate that the new model can accurately predict the edge TIFs with different overhang ratios. The relative error of the new edge model can be reduced to 15%.

  3. Use of a High-Resolution 3D Laser Scanner for Minefield Surface Modeling and Terrain Characterization: Temperate Region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, Sam S; Bishop, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    The use of a high-resolution, ground-based 3D laser scanner was recently evaluated for terrestrial site characterization of variable-surface minefield sites and generation of surface and terrain models...

  4. Use of a High-Resolution 3D Laser Scanner for Minefield Surface Modeling and Terrain Characterization: Temperature Region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, Sam S; Bishop, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    The use of a high-resolution, ground-based 3D laser scanner was recently evaluated for terrestrial site characterization of variable-surface minefield sites and generation of surface and terrain models...

  5. Surface-treated commercially pure titanium for biomedical applications: Electrochemical, structural, mechanical and chemical characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Erika S.; Matos, Adaias O.; Beline, Thamara [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); IBTN/Br—Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine—Brazilian Branch (Brazil); Marques, Isabella S.V. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); Sukotjo, Cortino [Department of Restorative Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Dentistry, 801 S Paulina, Chicago, IL, USA, 60612 (United States); IBTN—Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine (United States); Mathew, Mathew T. [IBTN—Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Illinois, College of Medicine at Rockford, 1601 Parkview Avenue, Rockford, IL, USA, 61107 (United States); Rangel, Elidiane C.; Cruz, Nilson C. [IBTN/Br—Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine—Brazilian Branch (Brazil); Laboratory of Technological Plasmas, Engineering College, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av Três de Março, 511, Sorocaba, São Paulo 18087-180 (Brazil); Mesquita, Marcelo F.; Consani, Rafael X. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); and others

    2016-08-01

    Modified surfaces have improved the biological performance and biomechanical fixation of dental implants compared to machined (polished) surfaces. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the surface properties of titanium (Ti) as a function of different surface treatment. This study investigated the role of surface treatments on the electrochemical, structural, mechanical and chemical properties of commercial pure titanium (cp-Ti) under different electrolytes. Cp-Ti discs were divided into 6 groups (n = 5): machined (M—control); etched with HCl + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (Cl), H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (S); sandblasted with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Sb), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} followed by HCl + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (SbCl), and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} followed by H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (SbS). Electrochemical tests were conducted in artificial saliva (pHs 3; 6.5 and 9) and simulated body fluid (SBF—pH 7.4). All surfaces were characterized before and after corrosion tests using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive microscopy, X-ray diffraction, surface roughness, Vickers microhardness and surface free energy. The results indicated that Cl group exhibited the highest polarization resistance (R{sub p}) and the lowest capacitance (Q) and corrosion current density (I{sub corr}) values. Reduced corrosion stability was noted for the sandblasted groups. Acidic artificial saliva decreased the R{sub p} values of cp-Ti surfaces and produced the highest I{sub corr} values. Also, the surface treatment and corrosion process influenced the surface roughness, Vickers microhardness and surface free energy. Based on these results, it can be concluded that acid-etching treatment improved the electrochemical stability of cp-Ti and all treated surfaces behaved negatively in acidic artificial saliva. - Highlights: • Characterization of surface treatment for biomedical implants was investigated. • Sandblasting reduced the corrosion stability of cp

  6. Recycling of WEEE: characterization of spent printed circuit boards from mobile phones and computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Luciana Harue; de Moraes, Viviane Tavares; Espinosa, Denise Crocce Romano; Tenório, Jorge Alberto Soares

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a comparison between printed circuit boards from computers and mobile phones. Since printed circuits boards are becoming more complex and smaller, the amount of materials is constantly changing. The main objective of this work was to characterize spent printed circuit boards from computers and mobile phones applying mineral processing technique to separate the metal, ceramic, and polymer fractions. The processing was performed by comminution in a hammer mill, followed by particle size analysis, and by magnetic and electrostatic separation. Aqua regia leaching, loss-on-ignition and chemical analysis (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy - ICP-OES) were carried out to determine the composition of printed circuit boards and the metal rich fraction. The composition of the studied mobile phones printed circuit boards (PCB-MP) was 63 wt.% metals; 24 wt.% ceramics and 13 wt.% polymers; and of the printed circuit boards from studied personal computers (PCB-PC) was 45 wt.% metals; 27 wt.% polymers and ceramics 28 wt.% ceramics. The chemical analysis showed that copper concentration in printed circuit boards from personal computers was 20 wt.% and in printed circuit boards from mobile phones was 34.5 wt.%. According to the characteristics of each type of printed circuit board, the recovery of precious metals may be the main goal of the recycling process of printed circuit boards from personal computers and the recovery of copper should be the main goal of the recycling process of printed circuit boards from mobile phones. Hence, these printed circuit boards would not be mixed prior treatment. The results of this paper show that copper concentration is increasing in mobile phones and remaining constant in personal computers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Computational Study of Plastic Deformation in AISI 304 Induced by Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. C.; Lu, J.; Shi, S. Q.

    2010-05-01

    As a technique of grain refinement process by plastic deformation, surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) has been developed to be one of the most effective ways to optimize the mechanical properties of various materials including pure metals and alloys. SMAT can significantly reduce grain size into nanometer regime in the surface layer of bulk materials, providing tremendous opportunities for improving physical, chemical and mechanical properties of the materials. In this work, a computational modeling of the surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) process is presented, in which Johnson-Cook plasticity model and the finite element method were employed to study the high strain rate, elastic-plastic dynamic process of ball impact on a metallic target. AISI 304 steel with low stacking fault energy was chosen as the target material. First, a random impact model was used to analyze the statistic characteristics of ball impact, and then the plastic deformation behavior and residual stress distribution in AISI 304 stainless steel during SMAT were studied. The simulation results show that the compressive residual stress and vertical deformation of the surface structures were directly affected by ball impact frequency, incident impact angle and ball diameter used in SMAT process.

  8. Characterizing Mediterranean Land Surfaces as Component of the Regional Climate System by Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolle, H.-J.; Koslowsky, D.; Menenti, M.; Nerry, F.; Otterman, Joseph; Starr, D.

    1998-01-01

    Extensive areas in the Mediterranean region are subject to land degradation and desertification. The high variability of the coupling between the surface and the atmosphere affects the regional climate. Relevant surface characteristics, such as spectral reflectance, surface emissivity in the thermal-infrared region, and vegetation indices, serve as "primary" level indicators for the state of the surface. Their spatial, seasonal and interannual variability can be monitored from satellites. Using relationships between these primary data and combining them with prior information about the land surfaces (such as topography, dominant soil type, land use, collateral ground measurements and models), a second layer of information is built up which specifies the land surfaces as a component of the regional climate system. To this category of parameters which are directly involved in the exchange of energy, momentum and mass between the surface and the atmosphere, belong broadband albedo, thermodynamic surface temperature, vegetation types, vegetation cover density, soil top moisture, and soil heat flux. Information about these parameters finally leads to the computation of sensible and latent heat fluxes. The methodology was tested with pilot data sets. Full resolution, properly calibrated and normalized NOAA-AVHRR multi-annual primary data sets are presently compiled for the whole Mediterranean area, to study interannual variability and longer term trends.

  9. Characterization of scalar mixing in dense gaseous jets using X-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnmon, Jared; Sobhani, Sadaf; Kim, Tae Wook; Kovscek, Anthony; Ihme, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    An experimental technique based on X-ray computed tomography (XCT) is used to characterize scalar mixing of a krypton jet with air at turbulent conditions. The high radiodensity of the krypton gas enables non-intrusive volumetric measurements of gas density and mixture composition based on spatial variations in X-ray attenuation. Comparisons of these measurements to both computational results from large-eddy simulations and data from previous experiments are presented, and the viability of this diagnostic technique is assessed. Important aspects of X-ray attenuation theory, XCT practice, and relevant error analysis are considered in data processing, and their impacts on the future development of this technique are discussed.

  10. Characterization of waste drums using nonintrusive active and passive computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberson, G.P.; Martz, H.E.; Decman, D.J.; Camp, D.C.; Azevedo, S.G.; Keto, E.R.

    1994-08-01

    We have developed a data acquisition scanner for gamma-ray nondestructive assay (NDA) active and passive computed tomography (A&PCT) along with associated computational techniques for image reconstruction, analysis, and display. We are using this scanner to acquire data sets of mock-waste drums at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNIL). In this paper, we discuss some issues associated with gamma-ray spectroscopy assay, NDA imaging, describe the design and construction of an NDA drum scanner and report on code development for image reconstruction. We also present representative A&PCT assay results of well characterized mock-waste drums. These preliminary results suggest that A&PCT imaging can be used to produce accurate absolute assays of radioactivity in real-waste drums.

  11. Characterization of waste drums using nonintrusive active and passive computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberson, G.P.; Martz, H.E.; Decman, D.J.; Camp, D.C.; Azevedo, S.G.; Keto, E.R.

    1994-08-01

    We have developed a data acquisition scanner for gamma-ray nondestructive assay (NDA) active and passive computed tomography (A ampersand PCT) along with associated computational techniques for image reconstruction, analysis, and display. We are using this scanner to acquire data sets of mock-waste drums at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNIL). In this paper, we discuss some issues associated with gamma-ray spectroscopy assay, NDA imaging, describe the design and construction of an NDA drum scanner and report on code development for image reconstruction. We also present representative A ampersand PCT assay results of well characterized mock-waste drums. These preliminary results suggest that A ampersand PCT imaging can be used to produce accurate absolute assays of radioactivity in real-waste drums

  12. Analysis on laser plasma emission for characterization of colloids by video-based computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Kirana Yuniati; Lumbantoruan, Hendra Damos; Isnaeni

    2016-02-01

    Laser-induced breakdown detection (LIBD) is a sensitive technique for characterization of colloids with small size and low concentration. There are two types of detection, optical and acoustic. Optical LIBD employs CCD camera to capture the plasma emission and uses the information to quantify the colloids. This technique requires sophisticated technology which is often pricey. In order to build a simple, home-made LIBD system, a dedicated computer program based on MATLAB™ for analyzing laser plasma emission was developed. The analysis was conducted by counting the number of plasma emissions (breakdowns) during a certain period of time. Breakdown probability provided information on colloid size and concentration. Validation experiment showed that the computer program performed well on analyzing the plasma emissions. Optical LIBD has A graphical user interface (GUI) was also developed to make the program more user-friendly.

  13. NEXAFS characterization of DNA components and molecular-orientation of surface-bound DNA oligomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, Newton T.; Lee, C.-Y.; Gamble, Lara J.; Fischer, Daniel A.; Castner, David G.

    2006-01-01

    Single stranded DNA oligomers (ssDNA) immobilized onto solid surfaces forms the basis for several biotechnological applications such as DNA microarrays, affinity separations, and biosensors. Surface structure of Surface-bound oligomers is expected to significantly influence their biological activity and interactions with the environment. In this study near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) is used to characterize the components of DNA (nucleobases, nucleotides and nucleosides) and the orientation information of surface-bound ssDNA. The K-edges of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen have spectra with features that are characteristic of the different chemical species present in the nucleobases of DNA. The effect of addition of the DNA sugar and phosphate components on the NEXAFS K-edge spectra was also investigated. The polarization-dependent nitrogen K-edge NEXAFS data show significant changes for different orientations of surface bound ssDNA. These results establish NEXAFS as a powerful technique for chemical and structural characterization of surface-bound DNA oligomers

  14. Optical characterization of gold chains and steps on the vicinal Si(557) surface: Theory and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Conor [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Struttura della Materia, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Department of Physics and European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF), University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); McAlinden, Niall; McGilp, John F. [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2012-06-15

    We present a joint experimental-theoretical study of the reflectance anisotropy of clean and gold-covered Si(557), a vicinal surface of Si(111) upon which gold forms quasi-one-dimensional (1D) chains parallel to the steps. By means of first-principles calculations, we analyse the close relationship between the various surface structural motifs and the optical properties. Good agreement is found between experimental and computed spectra of single-step models of both clean and Au-adsorbed surfaces. Spectral fingerprints of monoatomic gold chains and silicon step edges are identified. The role of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) on the surface optical properties is examined, and found to have little effect. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Computational Modeling of Bloch Surface Waves in One-Dimensional Periodic and Aperiodic Multilayer Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koju, Vijay

    Photonic crystals and their use in exciting Bloch surface waves have received immense attention over the past few decades. This interest is mainly due to their applications in bio-sensing, wave-guiding, and other optical phenomena such as surface field enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Improvement in numerical modeling techniques, state of the art computing resources, and advances in fabrication techniques have also assisted in growing interest in this field. The ability to model photonic crystals computationally has benefited both the theoretical as well as experimental communities. It helps the theoretical physicists in solving complex problems which cannot be solved analytically and helps to acquire useful insights that cannot be obtained otherwise. Experimentalists, on the other hand, can test different variants of their devices by changing device parameters to optimize performance before fabrication. In this dissertation, we develop two commonly used numerical techniques, namely transfer matrix method, and rigorous coupled wave analysis, in C++ and MATLAB, and use two additional software packages, one open-source and another commercial, to model one-dimensional photonic crystals. Different variants of one-dimensional multilayered structures such as perfectly periodic dielectric multilayers, quasicrystals, aperiodic multilayer are modeled, along with one-dimensional photonic crystals with gratings on the top layer. Applications of Bloch surface waves, along with new and novel aperiodic dielectric multilayer structures that support Bloch surface waves are explored in this dissertation. We demonstrate a slow light configuration that makes use of Bloch Surface Waves as an intermediate excitation in a double-prism tunneling configuration. This method is simple compared to the more usual techniques for slowing light using the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced transparency in atomic gases or doped ionic crystals operated at temperatures below 4K. Using a semi

  16. Porosity characterization of fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composite using synchrotron X-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, C.; Marrow, T. J.; Reinhard, C.; Li, B.; Zhang, C.; Wang, S.

    2016-03-01

    The pore structure and porosity of a continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composite has been characterized using high-resolution synchrotron X-ray computed tomography (XCT). Segmentation of the reconstructed tomograph images reveals different types of pores within the composite, the inter-fiber bundle open pores displaying a "node-bond" geometry, and the intra-fiber bundle isolated micropores showing a piping shape. The 3D morphology of the pores is resolved and each pore is labeled. The quantitative filtering of the pores measures a total porosity 8.9% for the composite, amid which there is about 7.1~ 9.3% closed micropores.

  17. Sequencing and Computational Approaches to Identification and Characterization of Microbial Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Singh Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent advances in sequencing technologies and computational approaches are propelling scientists ever closer towards complete understanding of human-microbial interactions. The powerful sequencing platforms are rapidly producing huge amounts of nucleotide sequence data which are compiled into huge databases. This sequence data can be retrieved, assembled, and analyzed for identification of microbial pathogens and diagnosis of diseases. In this article, we present a commentary on how the metagenomics incorporated with microarray and new sequencing techniques are helping microbial detection and characterization.

  18. Experimental and computational characterization of biological liquid crystals: a review of single-molecule bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Kilho; Yang, Jaemoon; Park, Jinsung; Yoon, Gwonchan; Soo Sohn, Young; Park, Shinsuk; Yoon, Dae Sung; Na, Sungsoo; Kwon, Taeyun

    2009-09-10

    Quantitative understanding of the mechanical behavior of biological liquid crystals such as proteins is essential for gaining insight into their biological functions, since some proteins perform notable mechanical functions. Recently, single-molecule experiments have allowed not only the quantitative characterization of the mechanical behavior of proteins such as protein unfolding mechanics, but also the exploration of the free energy landscape for protein folding. In this work, we have reviewed the current state-of-art in single-molecule bioassays that enable quantitative studies on protein unfolding mechanics and/or various molecular interactions. Specifically, single-molecule pulling experiments based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been overviewed. In addition, the computational simulations on single-molecule pulling experiments have been reviewed. We have also reviewed the AFM cantilever-based bioassay that provides insight into various molecular interactions. Our review highlights the AFM-based single-molecule bioassay for quantitative characterization of biological liquid crystals such as proteins.

  19. Three dimensional characterization of laser ablation craters using high resolution X-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galmed, A. H.; du Plessis, A.; le Roux, S. G.; Hartnick, E.; Von Bergmann, H.; Maaza, M.

    2018-01-01

    Laboratory X-ray computed tomography is an emerging technology for the 3D characterization and dimensional analysis of many types of materials. In this work we demonstrate the usefulness of this characterization method for the full three dimensional analysis of laser ablation craters, in the context of a laser induced breakdown spectroscopy setup. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy relies on laser ablation for sampling the material of interest. We demonstrate here qualitatively (in images) and quantitatively (in terms of crater cone angles, depths, diameters and volume) laser ablation crater analysis in 3D for metal (aluminum) and rock (false gold ore). We show the effect of a Gaussian beam profile on the resulting crater geometry, as well as the first visual evidence of undercutting in the rock sample, most likely due to ejection of relatively large grains. The method holds promise for optimization of laser ablation setups especially for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.

  20. Aerodynamic noise characterization of a full-scale wind turbine through high-frequency surface pressure measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bak, Christian

    2015-01-01

    wind turbine with a 80 m diameter rotor as well as measurements of an airfoil section tested in a wind tunnel. The turbine was extensively equipped in order to monitor the local inflow onto the rotating blades. Further a section of the 38 m long blade was instrumented with 50 microphones flush...... in a wind tunnel on a copy of the blade section of the full scale blade. Computational Fluid Dynamics calculations were conducted to investigate the influence of the inflow conditions on the airfoil and blade sections aerodynamics and aeroacoustics. Comparisons between measurement data and model results......The aim of this work is to investigate and characterize the high-frequency surface pressure fluctuations on a full-scale wind turbine blade and in particular the influence of the atmospheric turbulence. As these fluctuations are highly correlated to the sources of both turbulent inflow noise...

  1. Self-cleaning Foliar Surfaces Characterization using RIMAPS Technique and Variogram Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosi, Pablo E.

    2002-01-01

    Along the last ten years many important studies about characterization of self-cleaning foliar surfaces have been done and focused new interest on this kind of surfaces.These studies were possible due to the development of a novel preparation technique for this biological material that let us observe the delicate structures of a foliar surface under scanning electron microscope (S.E.M.).This technique consists of replacing the natural water of the specimen by glycerol. Digital S.E.M. images from both self-cleaning and non-self-cleaning foliar surfaces were obtained and analyzed using RIMAPS technique and Variograms method. Our results revealed the existence of a common and exclusive geometrical pattern that is found in species which present self-cleaning foliar surfaces.This pattern combines at least nine different directions.The results from the Variograms method showed that the stomata play a key role in the determination of foliar surface roughness. In addition, spectra from RIMAPS technique constitute a fingerprint of a foliar surface so they can be used to find evolutionary relationships among species.Further studies will provide more detailed information to fully elucidate the self-cleaning pattern, so it might be possible to reproduce it on an artificial surface and make it self-cleaning

  2. Surface characterization of polyethylene terephthalate films treated by ammonia low-temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Zhiwen; Ren Li; Feng Wenjiang; Zhai Zhichen; Wang Yingjun

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the surface characterization and protein adhesion behavior of polyethylene terephthalate film, low temperature ammonia plasma was used to modify the film. Effects of plasma conditions of the surface structures and properties were investigated. Results indicated that surface hydrophilicity of polyethylene terephthalate was significantly improved by ammonia plasma treatment. Ammonia plasma played the role more important than air treatment in the process of modification. Furthermore, by Fourier Transform Infrared spectra some new bonds such as -N=O and N-H which could result in the improvement of the surface hydrophilicity were successfully grafted on the film surface. Atom force microscope experiments indicated that more protein adsorbed on hydrophobic surfaces than hydrophilic ones, and the blobs arranged in a straight line at etching surface by plasma. Modified membrane after ammonia plasma treatment had a good cell affinity and could be effective in promoting the adhesion and growth of cells on the material surface. Timeliness experiments showed that the plasma treatment gave the material a certain performance only in a short period of time and the hydrophobicity recovered after 12 days.

  3. Comparative diagnostic performance of multidetector computed tomography and MRI for characterization of pancreatic cystic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Sung Min; Shin, Sang Soo; Park, Jin Gyoon; Jeong, Yong Yeon

    2015-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in characterization of pancreatic cystic lesions. We conducted a retrospective study on 34 patients with histopathologically proven cystic pancreatic lesions who underwent both preoperative MDCT and MRI. CT and MRI were independently evaluated for differentiating mucinous vs. non-mucinous lesions, differentiating aggressive vs. non-aggressive lesion, analyzing morphological features, and evaluating specific leading diagnoses. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were determined. Competency assessment of lesional morphology analysis was performed using the kappa values of the 2 tests. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MRI for differentiating mucinous vs. non-mucinous lesions were higher than CT (p = 0.03). For differentiating aggressiveness, the sensitivity of MRI was better than CT, but the specificity of CT was better than MRI. In evaluation of morphologic features, MRI showed better performance in characterization of septa and wall. Otherwise, the 2 modalities showed similarly good performance. MRI was better than CT in determining a specific diagnosis (58.8% vs. 47.2%, respectively). CT and MRI are reasonable diagnostic methods for characterization of pancreatic cystic lesions. However, MRI enables more confident assessment than CT in differentiating mucinous vs. non-mucinous lesions and characterization of the septa and wall

  4. Characterization of Surface Properties of Glass Vials Used as Primary Packaging Material for Parenterals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditter, Dominique; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Roehl, Holger; Wahl, Michael; Huwyler, Joerg; Nieto, Alejandra; Allmendinger, Andrea

    2018-01-10

    The appropriate selection of adequate primary packaging, such as the glass vial, rubber stopper, and crimp cap for parenteral products is of high importance to ensure product stability, microbiological quality (integrity) during storage as well as patient safety. A number of issues can arise when inadequate vial material is chosen, and sole compliance to hydrolytic class I is sometimes not sufficient when choosing a glass vial. Using an appropriate pre-treatment, such as surface modification or coating of the inner vial surface after the vial forming process the glass container quality is often improved and interactions of the formulation with the surface of glass may be minimized. This study aimed to characterize the inner surface of different type I glass vials (Exp33, Exp51, Siliconized, TopLyo TM and Type I plus®) at the nanoscale level. All vials were investigated topographically by colorimetric staining and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Glass composition of the surface was studied by Time-of-Flight - Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity of the inner surface was assessed by dye tests and surface energy measurements. All containers were studied unprocessed, as received from the vendor, i.e. in unwashed and non-depyrogenized condition. Clear differences were found between the different vial types studied. Especially glass vials without further surface modifications, like Exp33 and Exp51 vials, showed significant (I) vial-to-vial variations within one vial lot as well as (II) variations along the vertical axis of a single vial when studying topography and chemical composition. In addition, differences and heterogeneity in surface energy were found within a given tranche (circumferential direction) of Exp51 as well as Type I plus® vials. Most consistent quality was achieved with TopLyo TM vials. The present comprehensive characterization of surface properties of the

  5. Computational Study of Environmental Effects on Torsional Free Energy Surface of N-Acetyl-N'-methyl-L-alanylamide Dipeptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotto, Silvia; Zerbetto, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    We propose an articulated computational experiment in which both quantum mechanics (QM) and molecular mechanics (MM) methods are employed to investigate environment effects on the free energy surface for the backbone dihedral angles rotation of the small dipeptide N-Acetyl-N'-methyl-L-alanylamide. This computation exercise is appropriate for an…

  6. Modification of the cellulosic component of hemp fibers using sulfonic acid derivatives: Surface and thermal characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Michael; Mussone, Paolo G; Bressler, David C

    2015-12-10

    The aim of this study was to characterize the surface, morphological, and thermal properties of hemp fibers treated with two commercially available, inexpensive, and water soluble sulfonic acid derivatives. Specifically, the cellulosic component of the fibers were targeted, because cellulose is not easily removed during chemical treatment. These acids have the potential to selectively transform the surfaces of natural fibers for composite applications. The proposed method proceeds in the absence of conventional organic solvents and high reaction temperatures. Surface chemical composition and signature were measured using gravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). XPS data from the treated hemp fibers were characterized by measuring the reduction in O/C ratio and an increase in abundance of the C-C-O signature. FTIR confirmed the reaction with the emergence of peaks characteristic of disubstituted benzene and amino groups. Grafting of the sulfonic derivatives resulted in lower surface polarity. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that treated fibers were characterized by lower percent degradation between 200 and 300 °C, and a higher initial degradation temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of Boroaluminosilicate Glass Surface Structures by B k-edge NEXAFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R Schaut; R Lobello; K Mueller; C Pantano

    2011-12-31

    Techniques traditionally used to characterize bulk glass structure (NMR, IR, etc.) have improved significantly, but none provide direct measurement of local atomic coordination of glass surface species. Here, we used Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) as a direct measure of atomic structure at multicomponent glass surfaces. Focusing on the local chemical structure of boron, we address technique-related issues of calibration, quantification, and interactions of the beam with the material. We demonstrate that beam-induced adsorption and structural damage can occur within the timeframe of typical measurements. The technique is then applied to the study of various fracture surfaces where it is shown that adsorption and reaction of water with boroaluminosilicate glass surfaces induces structural changes in the local coordination of boron, favoring B{sup IV} species after reaction.

  8. Electrical characterization of the near-surface region of semiconductor materials by photoconductive decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Patrick J.

    As the trend in mainstream IC manufacturing continues to move towards using very thin layers of silicon and very shallow junctions, the near-surface electrical properties become more important. Likewise, in the photovoltaic industry, thin layers of amorphous silicon and shallow junction solar cells using single crystal and multi-crystalline silicon are of significant interest. For all of these applications, an effective method of in-line monitoring of near-surface electrical properties is essential. The near-surface properties of solar cell materials are of particular interest, where there is a delicate balance between having the surface textured sufficiently to minimize reflectivity, but not too excessively as to dramatically reduce carrier lifetime. As solar cell wafers are becoming thinner and bulk recombination lifetimes improve, carrier diffusion lengths will begin to exceed the thickness of the wafer. Hence, the back surface recombination velocity, which directly affects cell efficiency, becomes a critical factor. Difficulties in determining the impact of near-surface effects on carrier transport properties of thin layer semiconductors have been encountered with traditional methods of electrical characterization. The goal of this research was to investigate the near-surface electrical properties of semiconductor materials, including multi-crystalline silicon used in the photovoltaic industry, by a modified method of electrical characterization based on the photoconductive decay (PCD) effect. The project was completed in two phases. The first phase involved verification of a photoconductive decay method with a newly developed tool, in both a non-contact version and a physical contact version, with respect to capability for characterizing a shallow subsurface region of selected semiconductor materials. To evaluate the capability of the tool, the longer recombination lifetimes of single crystal wafers of indirect bandgap semiconductors Si and Ge (10--100 micros

  9. Study of measurement methods of ultrafine aerosols surface-area for characterizing occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bau, S.

    2008-12-01

    This work aims at improving knowledge on ultrafine aerosols surface-area measurement. Indeed, the development of nano-technologies may lead to occupational exposure to airborne nano-structured particles, which involves a new prevention issue. There is currently no consensus concerning what parameter (mass, surface-area, number) should be measured. However, surface-area could be a relevant metric, since it leads to a satisfying correlation with biological effects when nano-structured particles are inhaled. Hence, an original theoretical work was performed to position the parameter of surface-area in relation to other aerosol characteristics. To investigate measurement techniques of nano-structured aerosols surface-area, the experimental facility CAIMAN (Characterization of Instruments for the Measurement of Aerosols of Nano-particles) was designed and built. Within CAIMAN, it is possible to produce nano-structured aerosols with varying and controlled properties (size, concentration, chemical nature, morphology, state-of-charge), stable and reproducible in time. The generated aerosols were used to experimentally characterize the response of the instruments in study (NSAM and AeroTrak 9000 TSI, LQ1-DC Matter Engineering). The response functions measured with monodisperse aerosols show a good agreement with the corresponding theoretical curves in a large size range, from 15 to 520 nm. Furthermore, hypotheses have been formulated to explain the reasonable biases observed when measuring poly-disperse aerosols. (author)

  10. Surface and subsurface characterization of uranium contamination at the Fernald environmental management site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilk, A.J.; Perkins, R.W.; Abel, K.H.; Brodzinski, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    The past operations of uranium production and support facilities at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites have occasionally resulted in the local contamination of some surface and subsurface soils, and the three-dimensional distribution of the uranium at these sites must be thoroughly characterized before any effective remedial protocols can be established. To this end, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been tasked by the DOE's Office of Technology Development with adapting, developing, and demonstrating technologies for the measurement of uranium in surface and subsurface soils at the Fernald Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration site. These studies are detailed in this report

  11. Characterization of thiol-functionalised silica films deposited on electrode surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Cesarino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Thiol-functionalised silica films were deposited on various electrode surfaces (gold, platinum, glassy carbon by spin-coating sol-gel mixtures in the presence of a surfactant template. Film formation occurred by evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA involving the hydrolysis and (cocondensation of silane and organosilane precursors on the electrode surface. The characterization of such material was performed by IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG, elemental analysis (EA, atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and cyclic voltammetry (CV.

  12. A Collaborative Approach for Surface Inspection Using Aerial Robots and Computer Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Molina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerial robots with cameras on board can be used in surface inspection to observe areas that are difficult to reach by other means. In this type of problem, it is desirable for aerial robots to have a high degree of autonomy. A way to provide more autonomy would be to use computer vision techniques to automatically detect anomalies on the surface. However, the performance of automated visual recognition methods is limited in uncontrolled environments, so that in practice it is not possible to perform a fully automatic inspection. This paper presents a solution for visual inspection that increases the degree of autonomy of aerial robots following a semi-automatic approach. The solution is based on human-robot collaboration in which the operator delegates tasks to the drone for exploration and visual recognition and the drone requests assistance in the presence of uncertainty. We validate this proposal with the development of an experimental robotic system using the software framework Aerostack. The paper describes technical challenges that we had to solve to develop such a system and the impact on this solution on the degree of autonomy to detect anomalies on the surface.

  13. Computer-Aided Panoramic Images Enriched by Shadow Construction on a Prism and Pyramid Polyhedral Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Dzwierzynska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop an efficient and practical method of a direct mapping of a panoramic projection on an unfolded prism and pyramid polyhedral projection surface with the aid of a computer. Due to the fact that straight lines very often appear in any architectural form we formulate algorithms which utilize data about lines and draw panoramas as plots of functions in Mathcad software. The ability to draw panoramic images of lines enables drawing a wireframe image of an architectural object. The application of the multicenter projection, as well as the idea of shadow construction in the panoramic representation, aims at achieving a panoramic image close to human perception. The algorithms are universal as the application of changeable base elements of panoramic projection—horizon height, station point location, number of polyhedral walls—enables drawing panoramic images from various viewing positions. However, for more efficient and easier drawing, the algorithms should be implemented in some graphical package. The representation presented in the paper and the method of its direct mapping on a flat unfolded projection surface can find application in the presentation of architectural spaces in advertising and art when drawings are displayed on polyhedral surfaces and can be observed from multiple viewing positions.

  14. The influence of the segmentation process on 3D measurements from cone beam computed tomography-derived surface models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelbrecht, Willem P.; Fourie, Zacharias; Damstra, Janalt; Gerrits, Peter O.; Ren, Yijin

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracy of linear and angular measurements between cephalometric and anatomic landmarks on surface models derived from 3D cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with two different segmentation protocols was the aim of this study. CBCT scans were made of cadaver heads and 3D surface

  15. N and Cr ion implantation of natural ruby surfaces and their characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, K. Sudheendra; Sahoo, Rakesh K.; Dash, Tapan [CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar 751013 (India); Magudapathy, P.; Panigrahi, B.K. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Nayak, B.B.; Mishra, B.K. [CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar 751013 (India)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Cr and N ion implantation on natural rubies of low aesthetic quality. • Cr-ion implantation improves colour tone from red to deep red (pigeon eye red). • N-ion implantation at fluence of 3 × 10{sup 17} causes blue coloration on surface. • Certain extent of amorphization is observed in the case of N-ion implantation. - Abstract: Energetic ions of N and Cr were used to implant the surfaces of natural rubies (low aesthetic quality). Surface colours of the specimens were found to change after ion implantation. The samples without and with ion implantation were characterized by diffuse reflectance spectra in ultra violet and visible region (DRS-UV–Vis), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nano-indentation. While the Cr-ion implantation produced deep red surface colour (pigeon eye red) in polished raw sample (without heat treatment), the N-ion implantation produced a mixed tone of dark blue, greenish blue and violet surface colour in the heat treated sample. In the case of heat treated sample at 3 × 10{sup 17} N-ions/cm{sup 2} fluence, formation of colour centres (F{sup +}, F{sub 2}, F{sub 2}{sup +} and F{sub 2}{sup 2+}) by ion implantation process is attributed to explain the development of the modified surface colours. Certain degree of surface amorphization was observed to be associated with the above N-ion implantation.

  16. Characterization of metal contacts on and surfaces of cadmium zinc telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, A.; Chen, H.; Chattopadhyay, K.; Shi, D.; Morgan, S.H.; Collins, W.E.; James, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    In the past several years significant progress has been made in building a database of physical properties for detector quality Cd x Zn 1-x Te (CZT) (x=0.1-0.2) crystal material. CZT's high efficiency combined with its room temperature operation make the material an excellent choice for imaging and spectroscopy in the 10-200 keV energy range. For detector grade material, superior crystallinity and high bulk resistivity are required. The surface preparation during the detector fabrication plays a vital role in determining the contact characteristics and the surface leakage current, which are often the dominant factors influencing its performance. This paper presents a surface and contact characterization study aimed at establishing the effects of the surface preparation steps prior to contacting (polishing and chemical etching), the choice of the metal and contact deposition technique, and the surface oxidation process. A photoconductivity mapping technique is used for studying the effects of different surface treatments on the surface recombination

  17. Characterization of metal contacts on and surfaces of cadmium zinc telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, A.; Chen, H.; Chattopadhyay, K.; Shi, D.; Morgan, S. H.; Collins, W. E.; James, R. B.

    1999-06-01

    In the past several years significant progress has been made in building a database of physical properties for detector quality Cd xZn 1- xTe (CZT) ( x=0.1-0.2) crystal material. CZT's high efficiency combined with its room temperature operation make the material an excellent choice for imaging and spectroscopy in the 10-200 keV energy range. For detector grade material, superior crystallinity and high bulk resistivity are required. The surface preparation during the detector fabrication plays a vital role in determining the contact characteristics and the surface leakage current, which are often the dominant factors influencing its performance. This paper presents a surface and contact characterization study aimed at establishing the effects of the surface preparation steps prior to contacting (polishing and chemical etching), the choice of the metal and contact deposition technique, and the surface oxidation process. A photoconductivity mapping technique is used for studying the effects of different surface treatments on the surface recombination.

  18. Microstructural characterization of dental zinc phosphate cements using combined small angle neutron scattering and microfocus X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viani, Alberto; Sotiriadis, Konstantinos; Kumpová, Ivana; Mancini, Lucia; Appavou, Marie-Sousai

    2017-04-01

    To characterize the microstructure of two zinc phosphate cement formulations in order to investigate the role of liquid/solid ratio and composition of powder component, on the developed porosity and, consequently, on compressive strength. X-ray powder diffraction with the Rietveld method was used to study the phase composition of zinc oxide powder and cements. Powder component and cement microstructure were investigated with scanning electron microscopy. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and microfocus X-ray computed tomography (XmCT) were together employed to characterize porosity and microstructure of dental cements. Compressive strength tests were performed to evaluate their mechanical performance. The beneficial effects obtained by the addition of Al, Mg and B to modulate powder reactivity were mitigated by the crystallization of a Zn aluminate phase not involved in the cement setting reaction. Both cements showed spherical pores with a bimodal distribution at the micro/nano-scale. Pores, containing a low density gel-like phase, developed through segregation of liquid during setting. Increasing liquid/solid ratio from 0.378 to 0.571, increased both SANS and XmCT-derived specific surface area (by 56% and 22%, respectively), porosity (XmCT-derived porosity increased from 3.8% to 5.2%), the relative fraction of large pores ≥50μm, decreased compressive strength from 50±3MPa to 39±3MPa, and favored microstructural and compositional inhomogeneities. Explain aspects of powder design affecting the setting reaction and, in turn, cement performance, to help in optimizing cement formulation. The mechanism behind development of porosity and specific surface area explains mechanical performance, and processes such as erosion and fluoride release/uptake. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Fabrication and surface characterization of photopatterned encapsulated micromagnets for microrobotics and microfluidics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Leachman, William; Kershaw, Joe

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, encapsulated micromagnets with magnetic core surrounded by pure SU-8 were fabricated utilizing multilayer photolithography with a middle NdFeB magnetic composite layer. Various geometries of micromagnets were fabricated with high density magnetic core and high resolution features, showing magnetically response while still being biocompatible and chemically resistant and making them suitable for a wide range of microrobotics and microfluidics applications. Especially, crescent and C-channel micromagnets showed potential of microtransportation devices because of their interior reservoirs. Surface characterization of the micromagnets was conducted using closed-form solutions derived from the general biplanar surface characterization method. The fabrication method was evaluated and the process errors were found less than 1%.

  20. New Method to Characterize Degradation of First Surface Aluminum Reflectors: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, F.; Heller, P.; Meyen, S.; Pitz-Paal, R.; Kennedy, C.; Fernandez-Garcia, A.; Schmucker, M.

    2010-10-01

    This paper reports the development of a new optical instrument capable of characterizing the aging process of enhanced first surface aluminum reflectors for concentrating solar power (CSP) application. Samples were exposed outdoors at different sites and in accelerated exposure tests. All samples exposed outdoors showed localized corrosion spots. Degradation originated from points of damage in the protective coating, but propagated underneath the protective coating. The degraded samples were analyzed with a microscope and with a newly designed space-resolved specular reflectometer (SR)2 that is capable of optically detecting and characterizing the corrosion spots. The device measures the specular reflectance at three acceptance angles and the wavelengths with spatial resolution using a digital camera's CMOS sensor. It can be used to measure the corrosion growth rate during outdoor and accelerated exposure tests. These results will allow a correlation between the degraded mirror surface and its specular reflectance.

  1. Evaluation and characterization of fetal exposures to low frequency magnetic fields generated by laptop computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppetti, Nicola; Andreuccetti, Daniele; Bellieni, Carlo; Bogi, Andrea; Pinto, Iole

    2011-12-01

    Portable - or "laptop" - computers (LCs) are widely and increasingly used all over the world. Since LCs are often used in tight contact with the body even by pregnant women, fetal exposures to low frequency magnetic fields generated by these units can occur. LC emissions are usually characterized by complex waveforms and are often generated by the main AC power supply (when connected) and by the display power supply sub-system. In the present study, low frequency magnetic field emissions were measured for a set of five models of portable computers. For each of them, the magnetic flux density was characterized in terms not just of field amplitude, but also of the so called "weighted peak" (WP) index, introduced in the 2003 ICNIRP Statement on complex waveforms and confirmed in the 2010 ICNIRP Guidelines for low frequency fields. For the model of LC presenting the higher emission, a deeper analysis was also carried out, using numerical dosimetry techniques to calculate internal quantities (current density and in-situ electric field) with reference to a digital body model of a pregnant woman. Since internal quantities have complex waveforms too, the concept of WP index was extended to them, considering the ICNIRP basic restrictions defined in the 1998 Guidelines for the current density and in the 2010 Guidelines for the in-situ electric field. Induced quantities and WP indexes were computed using an appropriate original formulation of the well known Scalar Potential Finite Difference (SPFD) numerical method for electromagnetic dosimetry in quasi-static conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Spatial landscape model to characterize biological diversity using R statistical computing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hariom; Garg, R D; Karnatak, Harish C; Roy, Arijit

    2018-01-15

    Due to urbanization and population growth, the degradation of natural forests and associated biodiversity are now widely recognized as a global environmental concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for rapid assessment and monitoring of biodiversity on priority using state-of-art tools and technologies. The main purpose of this research article is to develop and implement a new methodological approach to characterize biological diversity using spatial model developed during the study viz. Spatial Biodiversity Model (SBM). The developed model is scale, resolution and location independent solution for spatial biodiversity richness modelling. The platform-independent computation model is based on parallel computation. The biodiversity model based on open-source software has been implemented on R statistical computing platform. It provides information on high disturbance and high biological richness areas through different landscape indices and site specific information (e.g. forest fragmentation (FR), disturbance index (DI) etc.). The model has been developed based on the case study of Indian landscape; however it can be implemented in any part of the world. As a case study, SBM has been tested for Uttarakhand state in India. Inputs for landscape ecology are derived through multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) techniques in an interactive command line environment. MCDM with sensitivity analysis in spatial domain has been carried out to illustrate the model stability and robustness. Furthermore, spatial regression analysis has been made for the validation of the output. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of atrial natriuretic peptide degradation by cell-surface peptidase activity on endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, S. J.; Whitson, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a fluid-regulating peptide hormone that promotes vasorelaxation, natriuresis, and diuresis. The mechanisms for the release of ANP and for its clearance from the circulation play important roles in modulating its biological effects. Recently, we have reported that the cell surface of an endothelial cell line, CPA47, could degrade 125I-ANP in the presence of EDTA. In this study, we have characterized this degradation of 125I-ANP. The kinetics of ANP degradation by the surface of CPA47 cells were first order, with a Km of 320 +/- 60 nM and Vmax of 35 +/- 14 pmol of ANP degraded/10 min/10(5) cells at pH 7.4. ANP is degraded by the surface of CPA47 cells over a broad pH range from 7.0-8.5. Potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor and bestatin inhibited 125I-ANP degradation, suggesting that this degradative activity on the surface of CPA47 cells has exopeptidase characteristics. The selectivity of CPA47 cell-surface degradation of ANP was demonstrated when 125I-ANP degradation was inhibited in the presence of neuropeptide Y and angiotensin I and II but not bradykinin, bombesin, endothelin-1, or substance P. The C-terminal amino acids phe26 and tyr28 were deduced to be important for ANP interaction with the cell-surface peptidase(s) based on comparison of the IC50 of various ANP analogues and other natriuretic peptides for the inhibition of ANP degradation. These data suggest that a newly characterized divalent cation-independent exopeptidase(s) that selectively recognizes ANP and some other vasoactive peptides exists on the surface of endothelial cells.

  4. Three-phase short circuit calculation method based on pre-computed surface for doubly fed induction generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J.; Liu, Q.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an improved short circuit calculation method, based on pre-computed surface to determine the short circuit current of a distribution system with multiple doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs). The short circuit current, injected into power grid by DFIG, is determined by low voltage ride through (LVRT) control and protection under grid fault. However, the existing methods are difficult to calculate the short circuit current of DFIG in engineering practice due to its complexity. A short circuit calculation method, based on pre-computed surface, was proposed by developing the surface of short circuit current changing with the calculating impedance and the open circuit voltage. And the short circuit currents were derived by taking into account the rotor excitation and crowbar activation time. Finally, the pre-computed surfaces of short circuit current at different time were established, and the procedure of DFIG short circuit calculation considering its LVRT was designed. The correctness of proposed method was verified by simulation.

  5. The characterization of the antibacterial efficacy of an electrically activated silver ion-based surface system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirwaiker, Rohan A.

    There have been growing concerns in the global healthcare system about the eradication of pathogens in hospitals and other health-critical environments. The problem has been aggravated by the overuse of antibiotics and antimicrobial agents leading to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant superbugs such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) which are difficult to kill. Lower immunity of sick patients coupled with the escalating concurrent problem of antibiotic-resistant pathogens has resulted in increasing incidences of hospital acquired (nosocomial) infections. There is an immediate need to control the transmission of such infections, primarily in healthcare environments, by creating touch-contact and work surfaces (e.g., door knobs, push plates, countertops) that utilize alternative antibacterial materials like the heavy metal, silver. Recent research has shown that it is silver in its ionic (Ag+ ) and not elemental form that is antibacterial. Thus, silver-based antibacterial surfaces have to release silver ions directly into the pathogenic environment (generally, an aqueous media) in order to be effective. This dissertation presents the study and analysis of a new silver-based surface system that utilizes low intensity direct electric current (LIDC) for generation of silver ions to primarily inhibit indirect contact transmission of infections. The broader objective of this research is to understand the design, and characterization of the electrically activated silver ion-based antibacterial surface system. The specific objectives of this dissertation include: (1) Developing a comprehensive system design, and identifying and studying its critical design parameters and functional mechanisms. (2) Evaluating effects of the critical design parameters on the antibacterial efficacy of the proposed surface system. (3) Developing a response surface model for the surface system performance. These objectives are

  6. Characterization of micro-invasive trabecular bypass stents by ex vivo perfusion and computational flow modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter KS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Kendall S Hunter,1 Todd Fjield,2 Hal Heitzmann,2 Robin Shandas,1 Malik Y Kahook3 1Department of Bioengineering, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USA; 2Glaukos Corporation, Laguna Hills, CA, USA; 3University of Colorado Hospital Eye Center, Aurora, CO, USA Abstract: Micro-invasive glaucoma surgery with the Glaukos iStent® or iStent inject® (Glaukos Corporation, Laguna Hills, CA, USA is intended to create a bypass through the trabecular meshwork to Schlemm's canal to improve aqueous outflow through the natural physiologic pathway. While the iStent devices have been evaluated in ex vivo anterior segment models, they have not previously been evaluated in whole eye perfusion models nor characterized by computational fluid dynamics. Intraocular pressure (IOP reduction with the iStent was evaluated in an ex vivo whole human eye perfusion model. Numerical modeling, including computational fluid dynamics, was used to evaluate the flow through the stents over physiologically relevant boundary conditions. In the ex vivo model, a single iStent reduced IOP by 6.0 mmHg from baseline, and addition of a second iStent further lowered IOP by 2.9 mmHg, for a total IOP reduction of 8.9 mmHg. Computational modeling showed that simulated flow through the iStent or iStent inject is smooth and laminar at physiological flow rates. Each stent was computed to have a negligible flow resistance consistent with an expected significant decrease in IOP. The present perfusion results agree with prior clinical and laboratory studies to show that both iStent and iStent inject therapies are potentially titratable, providing clinicians with the opportunity to achieve lower target IOPs by implanting additional stents. Keywords: glaucoma, iStent, trabecular bypass, intraocular pressure, ab-interno, CFD

  7. Biconvection flow of Carreau fluid over an upper paraboloid surface: A computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mair; Hussain, Arif; Malik, M. Y.; Salahuddin, T.

    Present article explored the physical characteristics of biconvection effects on the MHD flow of Carreau nanofluid over upper horizontal surface of paraboloid revolution along with chemical reaction. The concept of the Carreau nanofluid was introduced the new parameterization achieve the momentum governing equation. Using similarity transformed, the governing partial differential equations are converted into the ordinary differential equations. The obtained governing equations are solved computationally by using implicit finite difference method known as the Keller box technique. The numerical solutions are obtained for the velocity, temperature, concentration, friction factor, local heat and mass transfer coefficients by varying controlling parameters i.e. Biconvection parameter, fluid parameter, Weissenberg number, Hartmann number, Prandtl number, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter, Lewis number and chemical reaction parameter. The obtained results are discussed via graphs and tables.

  8. Computed myography: three-dimensional reconstruction of motor functions from surface EMG data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doel, Kees van den; Ascher, Uri M; Pai, Dinesh K

    2008-01-01

    We describe a methodology called computed myography to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the activation level of individual muscles by voltage measurements from an array of voltage sensors on the skin surface. A finite element model for electrostatics simulation is constructed from morphometric data. For the inverse problem, we utilize a generalized Tikhonov regularization. This imposes smoothness on the reconstructed sources inside the muscles and suppresses sources outside the muscles using a penalty term. Results from experiments with simulated and human data are presented for activation reconstructions of three muscles in the upper arm (biceps brachii, bracialis and triceps). This approach potentially offers a new clinical tool to sensitively assess muscle function in patients suffering from neurological disorders (e.g., spinal cord injury), and could more accurately guide advances in the evaluation of specific rehabilitation training regimens

  9. Computed myography: three-dimensional reconstruction of motor functions from surface EMG data

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Doel, Kees; Ascher, Uri M.; Pai, Dinesh K.

    2008-12-01

    We describe a methodology called computed myography to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the activation level of individual muscles by voltage measurements from an array of voltage sensors on the skin surface. A finite element model for electrostatics simulation is constructed from morphometric data. For the inverse problem, we utilize a generalized Tikhonov regularization. This imposes smoothness on the reconstructed sources inside the muscles and suppresses sources outside the muscles using a penalty term. Results from experiments with simulated and human data are presented for activation reconstructions of three muscles in the upper arm (biceps brachii, bracialis and triceps). This approach potentially offers a new clinical tool to sensitively assess muscle function in patients suffering from neurological disorders (e.g., spinal cord injury), and could more accurately guide advances in the evaluation of specific rehabilitation training regimens.

  10. Comparison of surface detection methods to evaluate cone beam computed tomography data for three dimensional metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzl, Ch.; Kastner, J.; Georgi, B.; Lettenbauer, H.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a well established method for non-destructive testing. In recent years the application of CT for three dimensional measurements and variance comparison became more and more important, since CT can measure both outer and inner geometries within a rather short time. Because of the much higher measurement speed and thus lower costs especially cone beam CT is an important issue of research in the field of dimensional metrology. One of the biggest challenges for the application of CT for metrology is the accurate detection of the surface between material and air or the interface between two different materials. By using a test-body various algorithms and data evaluation methods are compared and discussed within this paper. The investigated methods are: 1. Common methods: Otsu global threshold and an empirically determined best iso-surface. 2. Pipeline model: The pipeline model uses common 3D image processing filters and consists of three major steps: a.) an edge preserving diffusion filter to reduce noise without blurring the edges of the specimen. b.) A watershed segmentation filter is applied to the gradient image of the dataset to extract a fully connected binary volume. c.) The object surface is constructed using elastic surface nets. 3. Calypso R : Evaluation of inspection features by introduction of additional geometry information. The geometrical value is directly derived from the volume data without extracting a surface model, supposing a predefined geometry of a feature. For this purpose the commercial software Calypso R was used. By defining a geometrical feature e.g. a diameter or a distance optimised algorithms evaluate the CT - volume data to get the geometrical feature without a transformation to surface data. Common methods usually lead to no satisfactory results. The achieved accuracy is rather low, if the material thickness in the sample changes. The pipeline model and CT- Calypso R lead to much better results. Using

  11. N and Cr ion implantation of natural ruby surfaces and their characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. Sudheendra; Sahoo, Rakesh K.; Dash, Tapan; Magudapathy, P.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Nayak, B. B.; Mishra, B. K.

    2016-04-01

    Energetic ions of N and Cr were used to implant the surfaces of natural rubies (low aesthetic quality). Surface colours of the specimens were found to change after ion implantation. The samples without and with ion implantation were characterized by diffuse reflectance spectra in ultra violet and visible region (DRS-UV-Vis), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nano-indentation. While the Cr-ion implantation produced deep red surface colour (pigeon eye red) in polished raw sample (without heat treatment), the N-ion implantation produced a mixed tone of dark blue, greenish blue and violet surface colour in the heat treated sample. In the case of heat treated sample at 3 × 1017 N-ions/cm2 fluence, formation of colour centres (F+, F2, F2+ and F22+) by ion implantation process is attributed to explain the development of the modified surface colours. Certain degree of surface amorphization was observed to be associated with the above N-ion implantation.

  12. Characterization of rat basophilic leukemia cell surface proteins using monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonocore-Buzzelli, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    Rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells express both immunoglobulin E (IgE) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) receptors. In this study, mouse monoclonal antibodies were produced against the RBL cell and screened for their ability to precipitate specific bands from 125 I surface labeled cells. Fourteen hybridomas were selected and divided into five groups since many of the hybridomas precipitated bands of identical molecular weight. One or more of the hybridomas from each group, and the cell surface antigens they identified, were further characterized. Binding of all the monoclonal antibodies to the RBL-2H3 cell surface was saturable and of high affinity. In cross inhibition studies, two of the antibodies were found to bind to identical or neighboring epitopes, presumably on the same cell surface molecule. Binding studies using other cell populations demonstrated that the monoclonal antibodies react not only with commonly expressed rat cell surface molecules but also with molecules specifically expressed on rat mast cells and basophils. None of the antibodies were found to induce or inhibit serotonin release from the RBL cells. Western blotting showed most of the antibodies to react with bands whose molecular weights resembled those seen by immuno-precipitation. Antibodies number sign 8 and number sign 12, although from the same group, were found to react with different subunits of the same cell surface protein. Sequential immunoprecipitation and peptide mapping confirmed that the antigens defined by these antibodies were structurally related

  13. A review of the different techniques for solid surface acid-base characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chenhang; Berg, John C

    2003-09-18

    In this work, various techniques for solid surface acid-base (AB) characterization are reviewed. Different techniques employ different scales to rank acid-base properties. Based on the results from literature and the authors' own investigations for mineral oxides, these scales are compared. The comparison shows that Isoelectric Point (IEP), the most commonly used AB scale, is not a description of the absolute basicity or acidity of a surface, but a description of their relative strength. That is, a high IEP surface shows more basic functionality comparing with its acidic functionality, whereas a low IEP surface shows less basic functionality comparing with its acidic functionality. The choice of technique and scale for AB characterization depends on the specific application. For the cases in which the overall AB property is of interest, IEP (by electrokinetic titration) and H(0,max) (by indicator dye adsorption) are appropriate. For the cases in which the absolute AB property is of interest such as in the study of adhesion, it is more pertinent to use chemical shift (by XPS) and the heat of adsorption of probe gases (by calorimetry or IGC).

  14. Statistical analysis of surface lineaments and fractures for characterizing naturally fractured reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Genliang; George, S.A.; Lindsey, R.P.

    1997-08-01

    Thirty-six sets of surface lineaments and fractures mapped from satellite images and/or aerial photos from parts of the Mid-continent and Colorado Plateau regions were collected, digitized, and statistically analyzed in order to obtain the probability distribution functions of natural fractures for characterizing naturally fractured reservoirs. The orientations and lengths of the surface linear features were calculated using the digitized coordinates of the two end points of each individual linear feature. The spacing data of the surface linear features within an individual set were, obtained using a new analytical sampling technique. Statistical analyses were then performed to find the best-fit probability distribution functions for the orientation, length, and spacing of each data set. Twenty-five hypothesized probability distribution functions were used to fit each data set. A chi-square goodness-of-fit test was used to rank the significance of each fit. A distribution which provides the lowest chi-square goodness-of-fit value was considered the best-fit distribution. The orientations of surface linear features were best-fitted by triangular, normal, or logistic distributions; the lengths were best-fitted by PearsonVI, PearsonV, lognormal2, or extreme-value distributions; and the spacing data were best-fitted by lognormal2, PearsonVI, or lognormal distributions. These probability functions can be used to stochastically characterize naturally fractured reservoirs.

  15. Computational investigation of surface freezing in a molecular model of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji-Akbari, Amir; Debenedetti, Pablo G

    2017-03-28

    Water freezes in a wide variety of low-temperature environments, from meteors and atmospheric clouds to soil and biological cells. In nature, ice usually nucleates at or near interfaces, because homogenous nucleation in the bulk can only be observed at deep supercoolings. Although the effect of proximal surfaces on freezing has been extensively studied, major gaps in understanding remain regarding freezing near vapor-liquid interfaces, with earlier experimental studies being mostly inconclusive. The question of how a vapor-liquid interface affects freezing in its vicinity is therefore still a major open question in ice physics. Here, we address this question computationally by using the forward-flux sampling algorithm to compute the nucleation rate in a freestanding nanofilm of supercooled water. We use the TIP4P/ice force field, one of the best existing molecular models of water, and observe that the nucleation rate in the film increases by seven orders of magnitude with respect to bulk at the same temperature. By analyzing the nucleation pathway, we conclude that freezing in the film initiates not at the surface, but within an interior region where the formation of double-diamond cages (DDCs) is favored in comparison with the bulk. This, in turn, facilitates freezing by favoring the formation of nuclei rich in cubic ice, which, as demonstrated by us earlier, are more likely to grow and overcome the nucleation barrier. The films considered here are ultrathin because their interior regions are not truly bulk-like, due to their subtle structural differences with the bulk.

  16. Characterization of grafting density and binding efficiency of DNA and proteins on gold surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelino, Kenneth; Kannan, Balaji; Majumdar, Arun

    2005-03-01

    The surface grafting density of biomolecules is an important factor for quantitative assays using a wide range of biological sensors. We use a fluorescent measurement technique to characterize the immobilization density of thiolated probe DNA on gold and hybridization efficiency of target DNA as a function of oligonucleotide length and salt concentration. The results indicate the dominance of osmotic and hydration forces in different regimes of salt concentration, which was used to validate previous simulations and to optimize the performance of surface-stress based microcantilever biosensors. The difference in hybridization density between complementary and mismatched target sequences was also measured to understand the response of these sensors in base-pair mismatch detection experiments. Finally, two different techniques for immobilizing proteins on gold were considered and the surface densities obtained in both cases were compared.

  17. Characterization on Contacting Surfaces of MEMS Electrostatic Switches by SEM, EDXA, and XPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Afinogenov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the origin and sources of surface contamination and defects causing the failure of MEMS electrostatic switches. The morphology, and elemental and chemical compositions of the contacting surfaces, conducting paths, and other parts of switches have been characterized by means of SEM, EDXA, and XPS in order to understand the difference between the data collected for the devices that had passed the electrical conductivity test and those found to be defective. C, O, Al, Ca, Ti, Cu, and some other impurities were detected on the details of defective switches. Contrariwise, the working switches were found to be clean, at least on the level of EDXA and XPS sensitivity. The main sources of surface contamination and defects were incompletely deleted sacrificial layers, substrate materials, and electrolytes employed for Rh plating of the contacts. The negative influence of foreign microparticles, especially alumina and copper oxides, on the conductivity and porosity of contacts was highlighted.

  18. Contribution of polarimetric imaging for the characterization of fibrous surface properties at different scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourlonias, Michel; Bigué, Laurent; Bueno, Marie-Ange

    2010-01-01

    The point in using polarimetric imaging for surface characterization is highlighted in this paper. A method for the evaluation of nonwoven surface properties at microscopic and macroscopic scales is described. This method is based on a polarimetric apparatus and various image processing operations are then performed depending on the studied scale. Polarimetric imaging applied to nonwovens, particularly degree of polarization imaging, highlights texture inhomogeneities. At both scales, image processing techniques were designed to analyze surface zones of different textures. At the macroscopic scale, a basic image processing was developed in order to detect the nonwoven manufacturing process defects. Moreover at the microscopic scale, i.e. at the fiber scale, image processing was adapted to evaluate fiber orientation within nonwovens, which is known to be an important information for mechanical behavior prediction.

  19. Ocular Surface and Tear Film Changes in Older Women Working with Computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ribelles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate changes in the ocular surface (OS and tear film (TF by means of questionnaire-based subjective symptoms, TF break-up time, Schirmer test, and TF analysis in women working with computers and to analyze the effects of the oral supplementation with antioxidants/omega 3 fatty acids (A/ω3 in the OS outcomes. Women aged 40–65 years (n=148 were recruited at the Administrative Offices of Valencia (Spain and distributed into two age groups, 40–52 years (AGE1; n=87 and 53–65 years (AGE2; n=61, and then subdivided according to being (or not computer users (CUG; NCUG during the workday. Homogeneous subgroups were randomly assigned (or not to the daily intake of three pills of A/ω3 for three months. At baseline and at the end of follow-up, personalized interviews and ocular examination were done. Reflex tear samples were collected from the inferior meniscus and processed for a multiplexed particle-based flow cytometry assay to measure proinflammatory molecules. Statistics were performed using the SPSS 15.0 program. The OS pathology was clinically evident in the AGE1-CUG (33% versus the AGE2-CUG (64% of women. Significantly higher interleukins-1β and -6 tear levels were found in the AGE1 versus the AGE2 women employees (P=0.006 and P=0.001, resp., as well as in the CUG versus the NCUG (P=0.001 and P=0.000, resp.. Supplementation with A/ω3 positively influenced the OS pathology as manifested by the amelioration of the clinical signs/symptoms related to computer uses. Strategies involving a safe environment and oral micronutrient supplements may be managed within eye-care standards in older women.

  20. Ocular Surface and Tear Film Changes in Older Women Working with Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribelles, Alfredo; Galbis-Estrada, Carmen; Parras, Maria A; Vivar-Llopis, Bárbara; Marco-Ramírez, Carla; Diaz-Llopis, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate changes in the ocular surface (OS) and tear film (TF) by means of questionnaire-based subjective symptoms, TF break-up time, Schirmer test, and TF analysis in women working with computers and to analyze the effects of the oral supplementation with antioxidants/omega 3 fatty acids (A/ω3) in the OS outcomes. Women aged 40-65 years (n = 148) were recruited at the Administrative Offices of Valencia (Spain) and distributed into two age groups, 40-52 years (AGE1; n = 87) and 53-65 years (AGE2; n = 61), and then subdivided according to being (or not) computer users (CUG; NCUG) during the workday. Homogeneous subgroups were randomly assigned (or not) to the daily intake of three pills of A/ω3 for three months. At baseline and at the end of follow-up, personalized interviews and ocular examination were done. Reflex tear samples were collected from the inferior meniscus and processed for a multiplexed particle-based flow cytometry assay to measure proinflammatory molecules. Statistics were performed using the SPSS 15.0 program. The OS pathology was clinically evident in the AGE1-CUG (33%) versus the AGE2-CUG (64%) of women. Significantly higher interleukins-1β and -6 tear levels were found in the AGE1 versus the AGE2 women employees (P = 0.006 and P = 0.001, resp.), as well as in the CUG versus the NCUG (P = 0.001 and P = 0.000, resp.). Supplementation with A/ω3 positively influenced the OS pathology as manifested by the amelioration of the clinical signs/symptoms related to computer uses. Strategies involving a safe environment and oral micronutrient supplements may be managed within eye-care standards in older women.

  1. A measurement-based X-ray source model characterization for CT dosimetry computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, Mitchell; Poirier, Yannick; Tambasco, Mauro

    2015-11-08

    The purpose of this study was to show that the nominal peak tube voltage potential (kVp) and measured half-value layer (HVL) can be used to generate energy spectra and fluence profiles for characterizing a computed tomography (CT) X-ray source, and to validate the source model and an in-house kV X-ray dose computation algorithm (kVDoseCalc) for computing machine- and patient-specific CT dose. Spatial variation of the X-ray source spectra of a Philips Brilliance and a GE Optima Big Bore CT scanner were found by measuring the HVL along the direction of the internal bow-tie filter axes. Third-party software, Spektr, and the nominal kVp settings were used to generate the energy spectra. Beam fluence was calculated by dividing the integral product of the spectra and the in-air NIST mass-energy attenuation coefficients by in-air dose measurements along the filter axis. The authors found the optimal number of photons to seed in kVDoseCalc to achieve dose convergence. The Philips Brilliance beams were modeled for 90, 120, and 140 kVp tube settings. The GE Optima beams were modeled for 80, 100, 120, and 140 kVp tube settings. Relative doses measured using a Capintec Farmer-type ionization chamber (0.65 cc) placed in a cylindrical polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom and irradiated by the Philips Brilliance, were compared to those computed with kVDoseCalc. Relative doses in an anthropomorphic thorax phantom (E2E SBRT Phantom) irradiated by the GE Optima were measured using a (0.015 cc) PTW Freiburg ionization chamber and compared to computations from kVDoseCalc. The number of photons required to reduce the average statistical uncertainty in dose to measurement over all 12 PMMA phantom positions was found to be 1.44%, 1.47%, and 1.41% for 90, 120, and 140 kVp, respectively. The maximum percent difference between calculation and measurement for all energies, measurement positions, and phantoms was less than 3.50%. Thirty-five out of a total of 36 simulation conditions were

  2. Clinical use of computed tomography and surface markers to assist internal fixation within the equine hoof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasiorowski, Janik C; Richardson, Dean W

    2015-02-01

    To describe clinical use of computed tomography (CT) and hoof surface markers to facilitate internal fixation within the confines of the hoof wall. Retrospective case series. Horses (n = 16) that had CT-guided internal fixation of the distal phalanx (DP) or distal sesamoid bone (DSB). Drill bit entry point and direction were planned from CT image series performed on hooves with grids of barium paste dots at proposed entry and projected exit sites. Post-implantation CT images were obtained to check screw position and length as well as fracture reduction. Imaging, reduction, and surgical and general anesthesia times were evaluated. Outcome was recorded. Screw position and length were considered near optimal in all horses, with no consequential malposition of bits or screws. Fracture reduction was evident in all cases. Preoperative planning times (at least 2 CT image acquisitions and grid creation) ranged from 10 to 20 minutes. Surgery time ranged from 45 to 90 minutes (mean, 61 minutes) and general anesthesia time ranged from 115 to 220 minutes (mean, 171 minutes). The combination of CT and surface marker grids allowed accurate positioning of screws in clinical DP and DSB fractures. The technique was simple and rapid. An aiming device is useful for the technique. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  3. Morpho-chemical characterization and surface properties of carcinogenic zeolite fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattioli, Michele, E-mail: michele.mattioli@uniurb.it [Department of Earth, Life and Environment Sciences, University of Urbino, 61029 Urbino (Italy); Giordani, Matteo [Department of Earth, Life and Environment Sciences, University of Urbino, 61029 Urbino (Italy); Dogan, Meral [Geological Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, Ankara, Turkey & Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Cangiotti, Michela; Avella, Giuseppe [Department of Earth, Life and Environment Sciences, University of Urbino, 61029 Urbino (Italy); Giorgi, Rodorico [Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, 50019 Firenze (Italy); Dogan, A. Umran [Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Department & Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Ottaviani, Maria Francesca, E-mail: maria.ottaviani@uniurb.it [Department of Earth, Life and Environment Sciences, University of Urbino, 61029 Urbino (Italy)

    2016-04-05

    Highlights: • Differently carcinogenic zeolite fibers were investigated combining physico-chemical methods. • For the first time, zeolite fibers were studied by means of the EPR technique using different spin probes. • The structural properties and the adsorption capability are function of different types and distributions of adsorption sites. • The interacting ability of erionite is higher than that of other fibrous zeolites. • The surface interacting properties may be related with the carcinogenicity of the zeolite fibers. - Abstract: Erionite belonging to the zeolite family is a human health-hazard, since it was demonstrated to be carcinogenic. Conversely, offretite family zeolites were suspected carcinogenic. Mineralogical, morphological, chemical, and surface characterizations were performed on two erionites (GF1, MD8) and one offretite (BV12) fibrous samples and, for comparison, one scolecite (SC1) sample. The specific surface area analysis indicated a larger availability of surface sites for the adsorption onto GF1, while SC1 shows the lowest one and the presence of large pores in the poorly fibrous zeolite aggregates. Selected spin probes revealed a high adsorption capacity of GF1 compared to the other zeolites, but the polar/charged interacting sites were well distributed, intercalated by less polar sites (Si–O–Si). MD8 surface is less homogeneous and the polar/charged sites are more interacting and closer to each other compared to GF1. The interacting ability of BV12 surface is much lower than that found for GF1 and MD8 and the probes are trapped in small pores into the fibrous aggregates. In comparison with the other zeolites, the non-carcinogenic SC1 shows a poor interacting ability and a lower surface polarity. These results helped to clarify the chemical properties and the surface interacting ability of these zeolite fibers which may be related to their carcinogenicity.

  4. Influence of surface roughness on mechanical properties of two computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flury, S; Peutzfeldt, A; Lussi, A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of surface roughness on surface hardness (Vickers; VHN), elastic modulus (EM), and flexural strength (FLS) of two computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) ceramic materials. One hundred sixty-two samples of VITABLOCS Mark II (VMII) and 162 samples of IPS Empress CAD (IPS) were ground according to six standardized protocols producing decreasing surface roughnesses (n=27/group): grinding with 1) silicon carbide (SiC) paper #80, 2) SiC paper #120, 3) SiC paper #220, 4) SiC paper #320, 5) SiC paper #500, and 6) SiC paper #1000. Surface roughness (Ra/Rz) was measured with a surface roughness meter, VHN and EM with a hardness indentation device, and FLS with a three-point bending test. To test for a correlation between surface roughness (Ra/Rz) and VHN, EM, or FLS, Spearman rank correlation coefficients were calculated. The decrease in surface roughness led to an increase in VHN from (VMII/IPS; medians) 263.7/256.5 VHN to 646.8/601.5 VHN, an increase in EM from 45.4/41.0 GPa to 66.8/58.4 GPa, and an increase in FLS from 49.5/44.3 MPa to 73.0/97.2 MPa. For both ceramic materials, Spearman rank correlation coefficients showed a strong negative correlation between surface roughness (Ra/Rz) and VHN or EM and a moderate negative correlation between Ra/Rz and FLS. In conclusion, a decrease in surface roughness generally improved the mechanical properties of the CAD/CAM ceramic materials tested. However, FLS was less influenced by surface roughness than expected.

  5. Characterization and extraction of the synaptic apposition surface for synaptic geometry analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan eMorales

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Geometrical features of chemical synapses are relevant to their function. Two critical components of the synaptic junction are the active zone and the postsynaptic density, as they are related to the probability of synaptic release and the number of postsynaptic receptors, respectively. Morphological studies of these structures are greatly facilitated by the use of recent electron microscopy techniques, such as combined focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM, and software tools that permit reconstruction of large numbers of synapses in three dimensions. Since the active zone and the postsynaptic density are in close apposition and have a similar surface area, they can be represented by a single surface — the synaptic apposition surface (SAS. We have developed an efficient computational technique to automatically extract this surface from synaptic junctions that have previously been three-dimensionally reconstructed from actual tissue samples imaged by automated FIB/SEM. Given its relationship with the release probability and the number of postsynaptic receptors, the surface area of the SAS is a functionally relevant measure of the size of a synapse that can complement other geometrical features like the volume of the reconstructed synaptic junction, the equivalent ellipsoid size and the Feret’s diameter.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of stable superhydrophobic surface with good friction-reducing performance on Al foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peipei [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Chen, Xinhua, E-mail: xuc0374@hotmail.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Yang, Guangbin; Yu, Laigui [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Zhang, Pingyu, E-mail: pingyu@henu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: A lotus-leaf-like hierarchical structure was successfully created on Al foil by a facile three-step solution–immersion method. As-obtained etched-immersed Al/STA rough surface contains interconnected convex–concave micro-structure and uniformly distributed nano-sheets that endow the surface with excellent superhydrophobicity (WCA: 164.2°; WSA: below 5°). Besides, the as-prepared etched-immersed Al/STA superhydrophobic surface on Al foil exhibits good friction-reducing ability and stable superhydrophobicity. - Highlights: • A stable superhydrophobic surface was created on aluminum foil by a facile three-step solution–immersion method. • A lotus-leaf-like hierarchical structure consists of interconnected convex–concave micro-structure and uniformly distributed nano-sheets has been constructed on the aluminum surface. • The superhydrophobic surfaces on aluminum substrate showing effective friction-reducing performance and self-cleaning ability. - Abstract: A lotus-leaf-like hierarchical structure with superhydrophobicity was created on Al foil by a facile three-step solution–immersion method involving etching in hydrochloric acid solution and immersing in hot water as well as surface-modification by stearic acid (denoted as STA). As-prepared etched-immersed Al/STA rough surface was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Moreover, the water contact angles and water sliding angles of as-prepared etched-immersed Al/STA rough surface were measured, and the friction-reducing performance and self-cleaning ability of the as-prepared surface were also evaluated. Results indicate that the etched-immersed Al/STA rough surface consists of interconnected convex–concave micro-structure and uniformly distributed nano-sheets. Besides, it exhibits stable superhydrophobicity and good friction-reducing ability. Namely, it has a contact angle of water as high as 164.2° and a water sliding

  7. Characterization and effect of biofouling on polyamide reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membrane surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohiuddin Md Taimur; Stewart, Philip S; Moll, David J; Mickols, William E; Nelson, Sara E; Camper, Anne K

    2011-02-01

    Biofouling is a major reason for flux decline in the performance of membrane-based water and wastewater treatment plants. Initial biochemical characterization of biofilm formation potential and biofouling on two commercially available membrane surfaces from FilmTec Corporation were investigated without filtration in laboratory rotating disc reactor systems. These surfaces were polyamide aromatic thin-film reverse osmosis (RO) (BW30) and semi-aromatic nanofiltration (NF270) membranes. Membrane swatches were fixed on removable coupons and exposed to water with indigenous microorganisms supplemented with 1.5 mg l(-1) organic carbon under continuous flow. After biofilms formed, the membrane swatches were removed for analyses. Staining and epifluorescence microscopy revealed more cells on the RO than on the NF surface. Based on image analyses of 5-μm thick cryo-sections, the accumulation of hydrated biofoulants on the RO and NF surfaces exceeded 0.74 and 0.64 μm day(-1), respectively. As determined by contact angle the biofoulants increased the hydrophobicity up to 30° for RO and 4° for NF surfaces. The initial difference between virgin RO and NO hydrophobicities was ∼5°, which increased up to 25° after biofoulant formation. The initial roughness of RO and NF virgin surfaces (75.3 nm and 8.2 nm, respectively) increased to 48 nm and 39 nm after fouling. A wide range of changes of the chemical element mass percentages on membrane surfaces was observed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The initial chemical signature on the NF surface was better restored after cleaning than the RO membrane. All the data suggest that the semi-aromatic NF surface was more biofilm resistant than the aromatic RO surface. The morphology of the biofilm and the location of active and dead cell zones could be related to the membrane surface properties and general biofouling accumulation was associated with changes in the surface chemistry of the membranes, suggesting the validity of

  8. Surface chemical and biological characterization of flax fabrics modified with silver nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paladini, F.; Picca, R.A.; Sportelli, M.C.; Cioffi, N.; Sannino, A.; Pollini, M.

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanophases are increasingly used as effective antibacterial agent for biomedical applications and wound healing. This work aims to investigate the surface chemical composition and biological properties of silver nanoparticle-modified flax substrates. Silver coatings were deposited on textiles through the in situ photo-reduction of a silver solution, by means of a large-scale apparatus. The silver-coated materials were characterized through X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), to assess the surface elemental composition of the coatings, and the chemical speciation of both the substrate and the antibacterial nanophases. A detailed investigation of XPS high resolution regions outlined that silver is mainly present on nanophases' surface as Ag 2 O. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were also carried out, in order to visualize the distribution of silver particles on the fibers. The materials were also characterized from a biological point of view in terms of antibacterial capability and cytotoxicity. Agar diffusion tests and bacterial enumeration tests were performed on Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed through the extract method on murine fibroblasts in order to verify if the presence of the silver coating affected the cellular viability and proliferation. Durability of the coating was also assessed, thus confirming the successful scaling up of the process, which will be therefore available for large-scale production. - Highlights: • Silver nanophases are increasingly used as effective antibacterial agent for biomedical applications. • Silver coatings were deposited on textiles through the in situ photo-reduction of a silver solution. • Flax fabrics were characterized from a biological and surface chemical point of view. • Scaling up of the process was confirmed

  9. Surface chemical and biological characterization of flax fabrics modified with silver nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paladini, F., E-mail: federica.paladini@unisalento.it [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Picca, R.A.; Sportelli, M.C.; Cioffi, N. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Sannino, A.; Pollini, M. [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    Silver nanophases are increasingly used as effective antibacterial agent for biomedical applications and wound healing. This work aims to investigate the surface chemical composition and biological properties of silver nanoparticle-modified flax substrates. Silver coatings were deposited on textiles through the in situ photo-reduction of a silver solution, by means of a large-scale apparatus. The silver-coated materials were characterized through X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), to assess the surface elemental composition of the coatings, and the chemical speciation of both the substrate and the antibacterial nanophases. A detailed investigation of XPS high resolution regions outlined that silver is mainly present on nanophases' surface as Ag{sub 2}O. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were also carried out, in order to visualize the distribution of silver particles on the fibers. The materials were also characterized from a biological point of view in terms of antibacterial capability and cytotoxicity. Agar diffusion tests and bacterial enumeration tests were performed on Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed through the extract method on murine fibroblasts in order to verify if the presence of the silver coating affected the cellular viability and proliferation. Durability of the coating was also assessed, thus confirming the successful scaling up of the process, which will be therefore available for large-scale production. - Highlights: • Silver nanophases are increasingly used as effective antibacterial agent for biomedical applications. • Silver coatings were deposited on textiles through the in situ photo-reduction of a silver solution. • Flax fabrics were characterized from a biological and surface chemical point of view. • Scaling up of the process was confirmed.

  10. Surface anatomy of the pulmonary fissures determined by high-resolution computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heřmanová, Zuzana; Ctvrtlík, Filip; Heřman, Miroslav

    2012-10-01

    The aim of our study was to describe the surface anatomy of the interlobar fissures using volumetric thin-section high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Retrospective assessment of HRCT examinations of 250 patients was performed. The localization of the oblique fissures was marked at three sites: posteriorly at its most superior medial limit, laterally in the midaxillary line, and inferiorly at the junction of the middle and lateral thirds of the hemithorax; posteriorly and laterally, this was to the nearest rib whilst inferiorly the position was described in relation to the diaphragm or chest wall. The localization of the horizontal fissure was marked anteriorly in relation to the nearest rib (or costal cartilage) and posteriorly where it intersected with the oblique fissure (superior, middle, or inferior third). Shapes of the fissures and differences between inspiration and expiration were also documented. Descriptive statistics were used to report the most frequent positions. The most frequent localization of the oblique fissure on the left side was posteriorly at the fourth rib (45%), laterally at the sixth rib (52%), and inferiorly in the anterior third of the hemidiaphragm (60%). The right oblique fissure was located posteriorly at the fifth rib (50%), laterally at the sixth rib (50%), and inferiorly in the anterior third of the hemidiaphragm (71%). The horizontal fissure most commonly originated in the middle third of the oblique fissure (61%) and met the anterior thoracic wall at the level of the fourth rib (51%). The most frequent shape of the left oblique fissure was linear (78%), whereas S-shaped and linear configurations (28% each) were most frequent on the right. No difference was found in the surface markings of the fissures between inspiration and expiration in 90% of cases. The considerable individual variation in the position and shape of the interlobar fissures helps to explain the variable descriptions of their surface anatomy in the

  11. Insights into cellulase-lignin non-specific binding revealed by computational redesign of the surface of green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarmeyer, Carolyn N; Smith, Matthew D; Chundawat, Shishir P S; Sammond, Deanne; Whitehead, Timothy A

    2017-04-01

    Biological-mediated conversion of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels and biochemicals is a promising avenue toward energy sustainability. However, a critical impediment to the commercialization of cellulosic biofuel production is the high cost of cellulase enzymes needed to deconstruct biomass into fermentable sugars. One major factor driving cost is cellulase adsorption and inactivation in the presence of lignin, yet we currently have a poor understanding of the protein structure-function relationships driving this adsorption. In this work, we have systematically investigated the role of protein surface potential on lignin adsorption using a model monomeric fluorescent protein. We have designed and experimentally characterized 16 model protein variants spanning the physiological range of net charge (-24 to +16 total charges) and total charge density (0.28-0.40 charges per sequence length) typical for natural proteins. Protein designs were expressed, purified, and subjected to in silico and in vitro biophysical measurements to evaluate the relationship between protein surface potential and lignin adsorption properties. The designs were comparable to model fluorescent protein in terms of thermostability and heterologous expression yield, although the majority of the designs unexpectedly formed homodimers. Protein adsorption to lignin was studied at two different temperatures using Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring and a subtractive mass balance assay. We found a weak correlation between protein net charge and protein-binding capacity to lignin. No other single characteristic, including apparent melting temperature and 2nd virial coefficient, showed correlation with lignin binding. Analysis of an unrelated cellulase dataset with mutations localized to a family I carbohydrate-binding module showed a similar correlation between net charge and lignin binding capacity. Overall, our study provides strategies to identify highly active, low

  12. Characterizing Data Discovery and End-User Computing Needs in Clinical Translational Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilana, Parmit K; Fishman, Elishema; Geraghty, Estella M; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Wolf, Fredric M; Anderson, Nick R

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present the results of a qualitative case-study seeking to characterize data discovery needs and barriers of principal investigators and research support staff in clinical translational science. Several implications for designing and implementing translational research systems have emerged through the authors' analysis. The results also illustrate the benefits of forming early partnerships with scientists to better understand their workflow processes and end-user computing practices in accessing data for research. The authors use this user-centered, iterative development approach to guide the implementation and extension of i2b2, a system they have adapted to support cross-institutional aggregate anonymized clinical data querying. With ongoing evaluation, the goal is to maximize the utility and extension of this system and develop an interface that appropriately fits the swiftly evolving needs of clinical translational scientists.

  13. Analysis of Uncertainty and Variability in Finite Element Computational Models for Biomedical Engineering: Characterization and Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangado, Nerea; Piella, Gemma; Noailly, Jérôme; Pons-Prats, Jordi; Ballester, Miguel Ángel González

    2016-01-01

    Computational modeling has become a powerful tool in biomedical engineering thanks to its potential to simulate coupled systems. However, real parameters are usually not accurately known, and variability is inherent in living organisms. To cope with this, probabilistic tools, statistical analysis and stochastic approaches have been used. This article aims to review the analysis of uncertainty and variability in the context of finite element modeling in biomedical engineering. Characterization techniques and propagation methods are presented, as well as examples of their applications in biomedical finite element simulations. Uncertainty propagation methods, both non-intrusive and intrusive, are described. Finally, pros and cons of the different approaches and their use in the scientific community are presented. This leads us to identify future directions for research and methodological development of uncertainty modeling in biomedical engineering.

  14. Computer modeling characterization, and applications of Gallium Arsenide Gunn diodes in radiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El- Basit, Wafaa Abd; El-Ghanam, Safaa Mohamed; Kamh, Sanaa Abd El-Tawab [Electronics Research Laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Women for Arts, Science and Education, Ain-Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Maksood, Ashraf Mosleh; Soliman, Fouad Abd El-Moniem Saad [Nuclear Materials Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-10-15

    The present paper reports on a trial to shed further light on the characterization, applications, and operation of radar speed guns or Gunn diodes on different radiation environments of neutron or γ fields. To this end, theoretical and experimental investigations of microwave oscillating system for outer-space applications were carried out. Radiation effects on the transient parameters and electrical properties of the proposed devices have been studied in detail with the application of computer programming. Also, the oscillation parameters, power characteristics, and bias current were plotted under the influence of different γ and neutron irradiation levels. Finally, shelf or oven annealing processes were shown to be satisfactory techniques to recover the initial characteristics of the irradiated devices.

  15. Significance of Graphitic Surfaces in Aurodicyanide Adsorption by Activated Carbon: Experimental and Computational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Dhiman; Depci, Tolga; Prisbrey, Keith; Miller, Jan D.

    Despite tremendous developments in industrial use of activated carbon (AC) for gold adsorption, specific aurodicyanide [Au(CN)2-] adsorption sites on the carbon have intrigued researchers. The graphitic structure of AC has been well established. Previously radiochemical and now, XPS and Raman characterizations have demonstrated higher site-specific gold adsorption on graphitic edges. Morphological characterizations have revealed the presence of slit-pores (5-10 Å). Molecular-dynamics-simulation (MDS) performed on graphitic slit-pores illustrated gold-cyanide ion-pair preferentially adsorbs on edges. Ab-initio simulations predicted lower barrier for electron sharing in pores with aurodic yanide, indicating tighter bonding than graphitic surface and was well supported by Gibbs energy calculations too. Interaction energy as function of the separation distance indicated tighter bonding of gold cyanide to the graphite edges than water molecules. Selective adsorption of aurodicyanide ion-pair seems to be related to low polarity of gold complex and its accommodation at graphitic edges.

  16. Real-time radiography, digital radiography, and computed tomography for nonintrusive waste drum characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, H.E.; Schneberk, D.J.; Roberson, G.P.

    1994-07-01

    We are investigating and developing the application of x-ray nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and gamma-ray nondestructive assay (NDA) methods to nonintrusively characterize 208-liter (55-gallon) mixed waste drums. Mixed wastes contain both hazardous and radioactive materials. We are investigating the use of x-ray NDE methods to verify the content of documented waste drums and determine if they can be used to identify hazardous and nonconforming materials. These NDE methods are also being used to help waste certification and hazardous waste management personnel at LLNL to verify/confirm and/or determine the contents of waste. The gamma-ray NDA method is used to identify the intrinsic radioactive source(s) and to accurately quantify its strength. The NDA method may also be able to identify some hazardous materials such as heavy metals. Also, we are exploring techniques to combine both NDE and NDA data sets to yield the maximum information from these nonintrusive, waste-drum characterization methods. In this paper, we report an our x-ray NDE R ampersand D activities, while our gamma-ray NDA activities are reported elsewhere in the proceedings. We have developed a data, acquisition scanner for x-ray NDE real-time radiography (RTR), as well as digital radiography transmission computed tomography (TCT) along with associated computational techniques for image reconstruction, analysis, and display. We are using this scanner and real-waste drums at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). In this paper, we discuss some issues associated with x-ray imaging, describe the design construction of an inexpensive NDE drum scanner, provide representative DR and TCT results of both mock- and real-waste drums, and end with a summary of our efforts and future directions. The results of these scans reveal that RTR, DR, and CT imaging techniques can be used in concert to provide valuable information about the interior of low-level-, transuranic-, and mock-waste drums without

  17. Characterization of internal surface finishing of tubes for CAREM 25 fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, N.V; Juarez, G; Bianchi, D; Flores, A; Vizcaino, P

    2012-01-01

    One of the factors that ensure the good behavior of the fuel claddings of the nuclear power reactors is the internal surface quality. In the present work has been carried out a study of the internal surface of the tube after a cold rolling process developed in the Departamento de Tecnologia de Aleaciones de Circonio and applied by FAE-SA and PPFAE-CNEA in each rolling stage to obtain the fuel claddings for the reactor CAREM 25. The inner surface has been observed by scanning electron microscopy, SEM, being the objective of this study to verify not only the good internal surface but also infer about how starting from tubes of different initial diameter reduction the quality of the final product will be affected. The manufacturing process of the tubes for this new fuel went through modifications during the development, adding intermediate chemical pickling stages in order to improve the internal surface quality of the final product. From determinations made with ultrasound, the defects charts obtained made it possible to compare the observed signals more relevant and the micrographs in these areas in order to characterize possible defects (author)

  18. Surface and microstructural characterization of commercial breeder reactor candidate alloys exposed to 7000C sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantatmula, R.P.; Brehm, W.F.

    1979-03-01

    Sodium compatibility screening tests were performed on several commercial austenitic alloys at 700 0 C for 2000 hours for applications as breeder reactor fuel cladding. The sodium-exposed surfaces were characterized by Optical Metallography, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA). Sodium exposure generally resulted in the depletion of Ni, Cr, Ti, Si, Mn and Nb, and enrichment of Fe and Mo at the surface. The average thickness of the depleted zone was 5 μm. The alloys can be divided into three groups based on corrosion rate, and each group has its own characteristic surface structure. Grain-orientation dependent striations were seen in alloys with low corrosion rates, while alloys with intermediate corrosion rates displayed micron-size nodes enriched with Fe and Mo. The high corrosion rate alloys exhibited scale-like formations on the surface with irregularly shaped holes. In addition, the data importantly point out that a ferrite layer will form at the sodium-exposed surface of these austenitic alloys after prolonged exposure

  19. Surface topographic characterization for polyamide composite injection molds made of aluminum and copper alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A; Hernández, P; Martinez, J; Pérez, J A; Mathia, T G

    2014-01-01

    In order to ensure flexibility and rapid new product development, the mold industry made use of soft materials for cavity inserts in injection molds. However, materials of this kind are prone to wear. This article analyzes the topographic characterization of the surface and wear processes in injection molds cavities. Two materials have been used to produce the cavities: aluminum alloy EN AW‐6082 T4 and copper alloy Cu Zn39 Pb3. The surface topography was measured with the use of optical interferometry profiling technology; roughness and surface parameters were determined according to ISO 4287, ISO 25178, and EUR 15178N. In order to complete this research, an experimental part with different thicknesses and shapes was designed, and cavity inserts of aluminum and copper were made. Polyamide PA6, with 30% fiberglass reinforcement, was employed in the experimental procedure. Measurements of cavity mold surfaces were performed after 9,200 cycles on each mold and at different locations on the mold. The surface measurement was made with a white light vertical scanning interferometry, also known as coherence scanning interferometry (ISO DIS 25178‐604). The results are analyzed and differences between the two types of cavity inserts materials are discussed. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Surface characterizations of laser modified biomedical grade NiTi shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pequegnat, A. [Centre for Advanced Materials Joining (CAMJ), University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Centre for Bioengineering and Biotechnology (CBB), University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Michael, A., E-mail: a2michae@uwaterloo.ca [Centre for Advanced Materials Joining (CAMJ), University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Centre for Bioengineering and Biotechnology (CBB), University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Wang, J. [Centre for Advanced Materials Joining (CAMJ), University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Centre for Bioengineering and Biotechnology (CBB), University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Lian, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Suite 140, Toronto, ON M5S 3E4 (Canada); Zhou, Y. [Centre for Advanced Materials Joining (CAMJ), University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Centre for Bioengineering and Biotechnology (CBB), University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Khan, M.I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Suite 140, Toronto, ON M5S 3E4 (Canada); Smarter Alloys, Inc., MaRS Centre, South Tower, 101 College Street, Suite 200, Toronto, ON M5G 1L7 (Canada)

    2015-05-01

    Laser processing of shape memory alloys (SMAs) promises to enable the multifunctional capabilities needed for medical device applications. Prior to clinical implementation, the surface characterisation of laser processed SMA is essential in order to understand any adverse biological interaction that may occur. The current study systematically investigated two Ni-49.8 at.% Ti SMA laser processed surface finishes, including as-processed and polished, while comparing them to a chemically etched parent material. Spectrographic characterisation of the surface included; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and Raman spectroscopy. Corrosion performance and Ni ion release were also assessed using potentiodynamic cyclic polarization testing and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), respectively. Results showed that surface defects, including increased roughness, crystallinity and presence of volatile oxide species, overshadowed any possible performance improvements from an increased Ti/Ni ratio or inclusion dissolution imparted by laser processing. However, post-laser process mechanical polishing was shown to remove these defects and restore the performance, making it comparable to chemically etched NiTi material. - Highlights: • Laser processed NiTi shape memory alloy surfaces were systematically characterized. • Chemistry, oxide thickness, composition, microstructure, and roughness were identified. • Localized superficial defects dictated corrosion and Ni ion release performance. • Mechanical polishing restored corrosion performance. • Bulk material corrosion performance was unaffected by pulsed laser process.

  1. Characterization of Human Gingival Fibroblasts on Zirconia Surfaces Containing Niobium Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Dan Cho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It was indicated that tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (TZP containing yttria (Y2O3 and niobium oxide (Nb2O5 ((Y,Nb-TZP could be an adequate dental material to be used at esthetically important sites. The (Y,Nb-TZP was also proved to possess its osteogenic potential comparable with those conventional dental implant material, titanium (Ti. The objective of the current study was to characterize cellular response of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs to smooth and rough surfaces of the (Y,Nb-TZP disc, which were obtained by polishing and sandblasting, respectively. Various microscopic, biochemical, and molecular techniques were used to investigate the disc surfaces and cellular responses for the experimental (Y,Nb-TZP and the comparing Ti groups. Sandblasted rough (Y,Nb-TZP (Zir-R discs had the highest surface roughness. HGFs cultured on polished (Y,Nb-TZP (Zir showed a rounded cell morphology and light spreading at 6 h after seeding and its proliferation rate significantly increased during seven days of culture compared to other surfaces. The mRNA expressions of type I collagen, integrin α2 and β1 were significantly stimulated for the Zir group at 24 h after seeding. The current findings, combined with the previous results, indicate that (Y,Nb-TZP provides appropriate surface condition for osseointegration at the fixture level and for peri-implant mucosal sealing at the abutment level producing a suitable candidate for dental implantation with an expected favorable clinical outcome.

  2. Characterizing Human Expertise Using Computational Metrics of Feature Diagnosticity in a Pattern Matching Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busey, Thomas; Nikolov, Dimitar; Yu, Chen; Emerick, Brandi; Vanderkolk, John

    2017-09-01

    Forensic evidence often involves an evaluation of whether two impressions were made by the same source, such as whether a fingerprint from a crime scene has detail in agreement with an impression taken from a suspect. Human experts currently outperform computer-based comparison systems, but the strength of the evidence exemplified by the observed detail in agreement must be evaluated against the possibility that some other individual may have created the crime scene impression. Therefore, the strongest evidence comes from features in agreement that are also not shared with other impressions from other individuals. We characterize the nature of human expertise by applying two extant metrics to the images used in a fingerprint recognition task and use eye gaze data from experts to both tune and validate the models. The Attention via Information Maximization (AIM) model (Bruce & Tsotsos, 2009) quantifies the rarity of regions in the fingerprints to determine diagnosticity for purposes of excluding alternative sources. The CoVar model (Karklin & Lewicki, 2009) captures relationships between low-level features, mimicking properties of the early visual system. Both models produced classification and generalization performance in the 75%-80% range when classifying where experts tend to look. A validation study using regions identified by the AIM model as diagnostic demonstrates that human experts perform better when given regions of high diagnosticity. The computational nature of the metrics may help guard against wrongful convictions, as well as provide a quantitative measure of the strength of evidence in casework. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  3. Using the Geminids to Characterize the Surface Response of an Airless Body to Meteoroid Bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, J.; Pokorny, P.; Jenniskens, P. M. M.; Horanyi, M.

    2017-12-01

    All airless bodies in the solar system are exposed to the continual bombardment by interplanetary meteoroids. These impacts can eject orders of magnitude more mass than the primary impactors, sustaining bound and/or unbound ejecta clouds that vary both spatially and temporally from changes in impactor fluxes. The dust environment in the vicinity of an airless body provides both a scientific resource and a hazard for exploration. Characterizing the spatial and temporal variability of the dust environment of airless planetary bodies provides a novel way to understand their meteoroid environment by effectively using these objects as large surface area meteoroid detectors. Additionally, were a dust detector with chemical sensing capability to be flown near such a body, it would be able to directly measure the composition of the body without requiring the mission design complexity involved in landing and sampling surface material. Paramount to understanding the current and future impact ejecta measurements is a sufficient understanding of the impact ejecta processes at the surface. In this presentation, we focus on data taken by the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), an impact ionization dust detector onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission, designed to measure impact ejecta around the Moon. We use the Geminids meteoroid shower as a well constrained input function, and via comparison to existing ground-based measurements of this shower, to "calibrate" the response of the lunar surface to meteoroid bombardment. Understanding the response of the lunar surface to meteoroid bombardment can by extension allow us to better understand the ejecta response at other regolith airless bodies in the solar system. Future missions equipped with dust detectors sent to the Moon, large Near Earth Asteroids, the Martian moons Phobos and Deimos, or many other airless bodies in the solar system would greatly improve our knowledge of their local meteoroid

  4. AFM capabilities in characterization of particles and surfaces: from angstroms to microns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostina, N; Brodsky, M; Prikhodko, S; Hoo, C M; Mecartney, M L; West, P

    2008-01-01

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM), invented 25 years ago, is now routinely employed as a surface characterization technique. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is the most widely used form of SPM, since AFM can be used in ambient conditions with minimal sample preparation. Examples of applications relevant to cosmetics include, but are not limited to, hair and skin roughness measurements and powder particle and nano-emulsion characterization. AFM is well suited for individual particle characterization, especially for measurements of volume, height, size, shape, aspect ratio, and particle surface morphology. Statistical distributions for a large set of particles can be generated through single-particle analysis techniques (i.e., ensemble-like information). AFM is better capable of resolving complex particle-size distributions than dynamic light-scattering (DLS). Single-particle analysis techniques with AFM can be more cost- and time-effective than analyses using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). However, AFM offers resolution that is comparable to or greater than SEM or transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and routinely allows direct measurements of the particle height and volume and produces images easily displayed in a quantified 3D format.

  5. Characterization of surface electrochemical reactions used in electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy and digital etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Thomas Allen

    Surface analytical techniques have been used to characterize electrochemical reactions to be used in semiconductor processing technologies. Studies have been performed using UHV-EC methodology to determine conditions for the surface limited dissolution of CdTe(100). Electrochemical conditions were identified which resulted in the reduction of the top layer of tellurium atoms, leaving behind a cadmium enriched surface. Attempts to find an electrochemical potential for the oxidative dissolution of the cadmium surface were complicated by the simultaneous oxidation of the compound CdTe. In situ scanning tunneling microscopy has also been used to characterize the formation of tellurium atomic layers formed on Au(111) and Au(100) by underpotential deposition. On Au(100), the following sequence of surface structures was observed prior to bulk electrodeposition: a p(2x2), a (2x✓10), a (2x4), and a (✓2x✓5). The transitions between these structures was observed by STM and mechanisms for the phase transitions are presented. The results are correlated to UHV-EC studies of tellurium UPD on Au(100). On Au(111), the following sequence of structures was observeḑ: a (✓3 x✓3), a (✓7x✓13), and a (3x3). The (✓3x✓3) was shown to exist with a network of domain walls, forming long range triangular and diamond shaped superstructures. Conversion of the (✓3x✓3) to higher coverage structure resulted in roughening of the underlying Au surface and a mechanism is hypothesized to explain this transition. The STM results are also correlated to low energy electron diffraction (LEED) results obtained by UHV-EC studies. The surface structures formed by reductive UPD of the chalcogenide elements and Se on both Au(100) and Au(111) are compared. Both elements initially resulted in structures consisting of isolated atoms separated by distances close to the reported van der Waals diameter. Higher coverage structures resulted in interatomic chalcogenide bonding and the structures

  6. Acidic Microenvironments in Waste Rock Characterized by Neutral Drainage: Bacteria–Mineral Interactions at Sulfide Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Dockrey

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial populations and microbe-mineral interactions were examined in waste rock characterized by neutral rock drainage (NRD. Samples of three primary sulfide-bearing waste rock types (i.e., marble-hornfels, intrusive, exoskarn were collected from field-scale experiments at the Antamina Cu–Zn–Mo mine, Peru. Microbial communities within all samples were dominated by neutrophilic thiosulfate oxidizing bacteria. However, acidophilic iron and sulfur oxidizers were present within intrusive waste rock characterized by bulk circumneutral pH drainage. The extensive development of microbially colonized porous Fe(III (oxyhydroxide and Fe(III (oxyhydroxysulfate precipitates was observed at sulfide-mineral surfaces during examination by field emission-scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (FE-SEM-EDS. Linear combination fitting of bulk extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS spectra for these precipitates indicated they were composed of schwertmannite [Fe8O8(OH6–4.5(SO41–1.75], lepidocrocite [γ-FeO(OH] and K-jarosite [KFe3(OH6(SO42]. The presence of schwertmannite and K-jarosite is indicative of the development of localized acidic microenvironments at sulfide-mineral surfaces. Extensive bacterial colonization of this porous layer and pitting of underlying sulfide-mineral surfaces suggests that acidic microenvironments can play an important role in sulfide-mineral oxidation under bulk circumneutral pH conditions. These findings have important implications for water quality management in NRD settings.

  7. Surface chemical and biological characterization of flax fabrics modified with silver nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladini, F; Picca, R A; Sportelli, M C; Cioffi, N; Sannino, A; Pollini, M

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanophases are increasingly used as effective antibacterial agent for biomedical applications and wound healing. This work aims to investigate the surface chemical composition and biological properties of silver nanoparticle-modified flax substrates. Silver coatings were deposited on textiles through the in situ photo-reduction of a silver solution, by means of a large-scale apparatus. The silver-coated materials were characterized through X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), to assess the surface elemental composition of the coatings, and the chemical speciation of both the substrate and the antibacterial nanophases. A detailed investigation of XPS high resolution regions outlined that silver is mainly present on nanophases' surface as Ag2O. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were also carried out, in order to visualize the distribution of silver particles on the fibers. The materials were also characterized from a biological point of view in terms of antibacterial capability and cytotoxicity. Agar diffusion tests and bacterial enumeration tests were performed on Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed through the extract method on murine fibroblasts in order to verify if the presence of the silver coating affected the cellular viability and proliferation. Durability of the coating was also assessed, thus confirming the successful scaling up of the process, which will be therefore available for large-scale production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Surface modification and characterization of basalt fibers as potential reinforcement of concretes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, M.; Santarelli, M. L.; González-Gaitano, G.; González-Benito, J.

    2018-01-01

    Basalt fibers were surface treated with silane coupling agents as a method to enhance the adhesion and durability of fiber-matrix interfaces in concrete based composite materials. In particular, this work has been focused on the study of basalt fibers chemical coatings with aminosilanes and their subsequent characterization. Surface treatments were carried out after removing the original sizing applied by manufacturer and pretreating them with an activation process of surface silanol regeneration. Different samples were considered to make convenient comparisons: as received fibers (commercial), calcinated fibers (without commercial sizing), activated samples (calcinated fibers subjected to an acid process for hydroxyl regeneration), and silanized fibers with γ-aminopropiltriethoxysilane, γ-aminopropilmethyldiethoxysilane and a mixture of 50% by weight of both silanes. A deep characterization was carried out in terms of structure using X-ray diffraction, XRD, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, FTIR, thermal properties by thermogravimetric analysis, TGA, coupled with single differential thermal analysis, SDTA, and morphology by scanning electron microscopy, SEM, and atomic force microscopy, AFM.

  9. Non-calcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque characterization by dual energy computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamak, Didem; Panse, Prasad; Pavlicek, William; Boltz, Thomas; Akay, Metin

    2014-05-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most prevalent cause of death worldwide. Atherosclerosis which is the condition of plaque buildup on the inside of the coronary artery wall is the main cause of CHD. Rupture of unstable atherosclerotic coronary plaque is known to be the cause of acute coronary syndrome. Vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaque has been related to a large lipid core covered by a fibrous cap. Non-invasive assessment of plaque characterization is necessary due to prognostic importance of early stage identification. The purpose of this study is to use the additional attenuation data provided by dual energy computed tomography (DECT) for plaque characterization. We propose to train supervised learners on pixel values recorded from DECT monochromatic X-ray and material basis pairs images, for more precise classification of fibrous and lipid plaques. The interaction of the pixel values from different image types is taken into consideration, as single pixel value might not be informative enough to separate fibrous from lipid. Organic phantom plaques scanned in a fabricated beating heart phantom were used as ground truth to train the learners. Our results show that support vector machines, artificial neural networks and random forests provide accurate results both on phantom and patient data.

  10. Experimental and Computational Characterization of Biological Liquid Crystals: A Review of Single-Molecule Bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungsoo Na

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative understanding of the mechanical behavior of biological liquid crystals such as proteins is essential for gaining insight into their biological functions, since some proteins perform notable mechanical functions. Recently, single-molecule experiments have allowed not only the quantitative characterization of the mechanical behavior of proteins such as protein unfolding mechanics, but also the exploration of the free energy landscape for protein folding. In this work, we have reviewed the current state-of-art in single-molecule bioassays that enable quantitative studies on protein unfolding mechanics and/or various molecular interactions. Specifically, single-molecule pulling experiments based on atomic force microscopy (AFM have been overviewed. In addition, the computational simulations on single-molecule pulling experiments have been reviewed. We have also reviewed the AFM cantilever-based bioassay that provides insight into various molecular interactions. Our review highlights the AFM-based single-molecule bioassay for quantitative characterization of biological liquid crystals such as proteins.

  11. Characterizing the Surface Roughness Length Scales of Lactose Carrier Particles in Dry Powder Inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bernice Mei Jin; Chan, Lai Wah; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2018-03-06

    Surface roughness is well recognized as a critical physical property of particulate systems, particularly in relation to adhesion, friction, and flow. An example is the surface property of carrier particles in carrier-based dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations. The numerical characterization of roughness remains rather unsatisfactory due to the lack of spatial (or length scale) information about surface features when a common amplitude parameter such as average roughness ( R a ) is used. An analysis of the roughness of lactose carrier particles at three different length scales, designed for specificity to the study of interactive mixtures in DPI, was explored in this study. Three R a parameters were used to represent the microscale, intermediate scale, and macroscale roughness of six types of surface-modified carriers. Coating of micronized lactose fines on coarse carrier particles increased their microroughness from 389 to 639 nm while the macroroughness was not affected. Roller compaction at higher roll forces led to very effective surface roughening, particularly at longer length scales. Changes in R a parameters corroborated the visual observations of particles under the scanning electron microscope. Roughness at the intermediate scale showed the best correlation with the fine particle fraction (FPF) of DPI formulations. From the range of 250 to 650 nm, every 100 nm increase in the intermediate roughness led to ∼8% increase in the FPF. However, the effect of surface roughness was greatly diminished when fine lactose (median size, 9 μm) of comparable amounts to the micronized drug were added to the formulation. The combination of roughness parameters at various length scales provided much discriminatory surface information, which then revealed the "quality" of roughness necessary for improving DPI performance.

  12. Surface characterization and biodegradation behavior of magnesium implanted poly(L-lactide/caprolactone) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokullu, Emel; Ersoy, Fulya; Yalçın, Eyyup; Öztarhan, Ahmet

    2017-11-01

    Biopolymers are great source for medical applications such as drug delivery, wound patch, artificial tissue studies etc., food packaging, cosmetic applications etc. due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. Particularly, the biodegradation ability of a biomaterial makes it even advantageous for the applications. The more tunable the biodegradation rate the more desired the biopolymers. There are many ways to tune degradation rate including surface modification. In this study ion implantation method applied to biopolymer surface to determine its effect on biodegradation rate. In this study, surface modification of poly(L-lactide/caprolactone) copolymer film is practiced via Mg-ion-implantation using a MEVVA ion source. Mg ions were implanted at a fluence of 1 × 1015 ions/cm2 and ion energy of 30 keV. Surface characterization of Mg-ion-implanted samples is examined using Atomic Force Microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, contact angle measurement and FT-IR Spectroscopy. These analyses showed that the surface become more hydrophilic and rougher after the ion implantation process which is advantageous for cell attachment on medical studies. The in vitro enzymatic degradation of Mg-implanted samples was investigated in Lipase PS containing enzyme solution. Enzymatic degradation rate was examined by mass loss calculation and it is shown that Mg-implanted samples lost more than 30% of their weight while control samples lost around 20% of their weight at the end of the 16 weeks. The evaluation of the results confirmed that Mg-ion-implantation on poly(L-lactide/caprolactone) films make the surface rougher and more hydrophilic and changes the organic structure on the surface. On the other hand, ion implantation has increased the biodegradation rate.

  13. Characterization of boron carbide particulate reinforced in situ copper surface composites synthesized using friction stir processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathiskumar, R., E-mail: sathiscit2011@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Coimbatore Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, 641 014 Tamil Nadu (India); Murugan, N., E-mail: murugan@cit.edu.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Coimbatore Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, 641 014 Tamil Nadu (India); Dinaharan, I., E-mail: dinaweld2009@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, V V College of Engineering, Tisaiyanvilai, 627 657 Tamil Nadu (India); Vijay, S.J., E-mail: vijayjoseph@karunya.edu [Centre for Research in Metallurgy (CRM), School of Mechanical Sciences, Karunya University, Coimbatore, 641 114 Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-10-15

    Friction stir processing has evolved as a novel solid state technique to fabricate surface composites. The objective of this work is to apply the friction stir processing technique to fabricate boron carbide particulate reinforced copper surface composites and investigate the effect of B{sub 4}C particles and its volume fraction on microstructure and sliding wear behavior of the same. A groove was prepared on 6 mm thick copper plates and packed with B{sub 4}C particles. The dimensions of the groove was varied to result in five different volume fractions of B{sub 4}C particles (0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 vol.%). A single pass friction stir processing was done using a tool rotational speed of 1000 rpm, travel speed of 40 mm/min and an axial force of 10 kN. Metallurgical characterization of the Cu/B{sub 4}C surface composites was carried out using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The sliding wear behavior was evaluated using a pin-on-disk apparatus. Results indicated that the B{sub 4}C particles significantly influenced the area, dispersion, grain size, microhardness and sliding wear behavior of the Cu/B{sub 4}C surface composites. When the volume fraction of B{sub 4}C was increased, the wear mode changed from microcutting to abrasive wear and wear debris was found to be finer. Highlights: • Fabrication of Cu/B{sub 4}C surface composite by friction stir processing • Analyzing the effect of B{sub 4}C particles on the properties of Cu/B4C surface composite • Increased volume fraction of B{sub 4}C particles reduced the area of surface composite. • Increased volume fraction of B{sub 4}C particles enhanced the microhardness and wear rate. • B{sub 4}C particles altered the wear mode from microcutting to abrasive.

  14. Surface characterization and influence of anodizing process on fatigue life of Al 7050 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, Majid; Chaussumier, Michel; Chieragatti, Remy; Mabru, Catherine; Rezai-Aria, Farhad

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We studied the effect of surface treatments on fatigue behaviour of 7050 alloy. → Dissolution of constituent particles in pickling solution result in pits formation. → Decrease is fatigue life caused by anodization is small. → Multi-site cracks initiation has been observed for pickled and anodized specimens. -- Abstract: The present study investigates the influence of anodizing process on fatigue life of aluminium alloy 7050-T7451 by performing axial fatigue tests at stress ratio 'R' of 0.1. Effects of pre-treatments like degreasing and pickling employed prior to anodizing on fatigue life were studied. The post-exposure surface observations were made by scanning electron microscope (SEM) to characterize the effect of each treatment before fatigue testing. The surface observations have revealed that degreasing did not change the surface topography while pickling solution resulted in the formation of pits at the surface. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to identify those constituent particles which were responsible for the pits formation. These pits are of primary concern with respect to accelerated fatigue crack initiation and subsequent anodic coating formation. The fatigue test results have shown that pickling process was detrimental in reducing the fatigue life significantly while less decrease has been observed for anodized specimens. Analyses of fracture surfaces of pickled specimens have revealed that the process completely changed the crack initiation mechanisms as compared to non-treated specimens and the crack initiation started at the pits. For most of the anodized specimens, fatigue cracks still initiated at the pits with very few cracks initiated from anodic coating. The decrease in fatigue life for pickled and anodized specimens as compared to bare condition has been attributed to decrease in initiation period and multi-site crack initiations. Multi-site crack initiation has resulted in rougher fractured surfaces for

  15. Nanoscale fabrication and characterization of chemically modified silicon surfaces using conductive atomic force microscopy in liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Christopher Reagan

    This dissertation examines the modification and characterization of hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces in organic liquids. Conductive atomic force microscope (cAFM) lithography is used to fabricate structures with sub-100 nm line width on H:Si(111) in n-alkanes, 1-alkenes, and 1-alkanes. Nanopatterning is accomplished by applying a positive (n-alkanes and 1-alkenes) or a negative (1-alkanes) voltage pulse to the silicon substrate with the cAFM tip connected to ground. The chemical and kinetic behavior of the patterned features is characterized using AFM, lateral force microscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF SIMS), and chemical etching. Features patterned in hexadecane, 1-octadecene, and undecylenic acid methyl ester exhibited chemical and kinetic behavior consistent with AFM field induced oxidation. The oxide features are formed due to capillary condensation of a water meniscus at the AFM tip-sample junction. A space-charge limited growth model is proposed to explain the observed growth kinetics. Surface modifications produced in the presence of neat 1-dodecyne and 1-octadecyne exhibited a reduced lateral force compared to the background H:Si(111) substrate and were resistant to a hydrofluoric acid etch, characteristics which indicate that the patterned features are not due to field induced oxidation and which are consistent with the presence of the methyl-terminated 1-alkyne bound directly to the silicon surface through silicon-carbon bonds. In addition to the cAFM patterned surfaces, full monolayers of undecylenic acid methyl ester (SAM-1) and undec-10-enoic acid 2-bromoethyl ester (SAM-2) were grown on H:Si(111) substrates using ultraviolet light. The structure and chemistry of the monolayers were characterized using AFM, TOF SIMS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), X-ray standing waves (XSW), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). These combined analyses provide evidence that SAM-1 and SAM-2 form dense monolayers

  16. Single-molecule characterization and engineering of the surfaces of nucleic acid sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephs, Eric Alan

    The advent of personalized medicine will require biosensors capable of reliably detecting small levels of disease biomarkers. In microarrays and sensors for nucleic acids, hybridization events between surface-tethered DNA probes and the nucleic acids of interest (targets) are transduced into a detectable signal. However, target-binding ultimately occurs as a result of molecular motions and interactions between the probe and target at the nanometer scale, and common characterization methods either lack the resolution to characterize the sensors at this scale or provide only limited information about their interactions with their nanoscale chemical environment. In this dissertation I argue that an impediment to the development of more reliable and practical biosensors is the lack of knowledge and control of the nanometer length-scale structure of biosensor surfaces, which has a profound impact on molecular recognition and reactions for detection. After reviewing the fundamental surface chemistry and structural motifs of biosensors in Chapter 1, in Chapter 2 I use electrochemical atomic force microscopy (EC-AFM) to characterize in situ a common class of model nucleic acid sensors---thiolated DNA attached to a gold electrode which has been passivated by an alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer---with single-molecule resolution. This level of detail allows me to observe both the conformations of individual probes and their spatial distribution at the nanoscale, then determine how these are affected by assembly conditions, probe structure, and interactions with co-adsorbates. I also determine how these nanoscale details affect the dynamic response of probes to electric fields, which have been commonly used in sensing schemes, and ultimately the ability of the surface-tethered probes to bind with target nucleic acids. In Chapter 3, I demonstrate and optimize the nanoscale patterning of individual DNA molecules into isolated, chemically well-defined niches on the surface

  17. Surface and charge transport characterization of polyaniline-cellulose acetate composite membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaiser, Asif A; Hyland, Margaret M; Patterson, Darrell A

    2011-02-24

    This study elucidates the charge transport processes of polyaniline (PANI) composite membranes and correlates them to the PANI deposition site and the extent of PANI surface layering on the base microporous membranes. PANI was deposited either as a surface layer or inside the pores of cellulose acetate microporous membranes using various in situ chemical polymerization techniques. The extent of PANI layering at the surface of the base membrane and its oxidation and doping states were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). PANI deposition on the membranes showed a strong dependence on the polymerization technique and polymerization time within a single technique. In XPS, the deconvolution of C 1s and N 1s core-level spectra of the composite membranes was used to quantify the extent of PANI layering at the surface along with its oxidation and doping states. PANI incompletely covered the surface of the base microporous membranes for all the employed techniques. However, the extent of the layering increased with the polymerization time in a particular technique. The charge transport through the bulk membrane and charge transfer at the membrane/electrode interface were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The data were analyzed using the equivalent circuit modeling technique. The modeling parameters revealed that PANI deposition at the surface enhanced the interfacial charge transfer but the process depended on the extent of the surface coverage of the membrane. In addition, the charge transport in the bulk membrane depended on the PANI intercalation level, which varied depending on the polymerization technique employed. In addition, the EIS of electrolyte-soaked membranes was also conducted to evaluate the effects of PANI deposition site on charge transport in the presence of an electrolyte. PANI layering at the pore walls of the base membrane from diaphragmatic polymerization

  18. Characterization and extraction of the synaptic apposition surface for synaptic geometry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Juan; Rodríguez, Angel; Rodríguez, José-Rodrigo; DeFelipe, Javier; Merchán-Pérez, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Geometrical features of chemical synapses are relevant to their function. Two critical components of the synaptic junction are the active zone (AZ) and the postsynaptic density (PSD), as they are related to the probability of synaptic release and the number of postsynaptic receptors, respectively. Morphological studies of these structures are greatly facilitated by the use of recent electron microscopy techniques, such as combined focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), and software tools that permit reconstruction of large numbers of synapses in three dimensions. Since the AZ and the PSD are in close apposition and have a similar surface area, they can be represented by a single surface—the synaptic apposition surface (SAS). We have developed an efficient computational technique to automatically extract this surface from synaptic junctions that have previously been three-dimensionally reconstructed from actual tissue samples imaged by automated FIB/SEM. Given its relationship with the release probability and the number of postsynaptic receptors, the surface area of the SAS is a functionally relevant measure of the size of a synapse that can complement other geometrical features like the volume of the reconstructed synaptic junction, the equivalent ellipsoid size and the Feret's diameter. PMID:23847474

  19. Influence of Input Hardware and Work Surface Angle on Upper Limb Posture in a Hybrid Computer Workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, David C; Riddell, Maureen F; McKinnon, Colin D; Gallagher, Kaitlin M; Callaghan, Jack P

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated the effect of work surface angle and input hardware on upper-limb posture when using a hybrid computer workstation. Offices use sit-stand and/or tablet workstations to increase worker mobility. These workstations may have negative effects on upper-limb joints by increasing time spent in non-neutral postures, but a hybrid standing workstation may improve working postures. Fourteen participants completed office tasks in four workstation configurations: a horizontal or sloped 15° working surface with computer or tablet hardware. Three-dimensional right upper-limb postures were recorded during three tasks: reading, form filling, and writing e-mails. Amplitude probability distribution functions determined the median and range of upper-limb postures. The sloped-surface tablet workstation decreased wrist ulnar deviation by 5° when compared to the horizontal-surface computer when reading. When using computer input devices (keyboard and mouse), the shoulder, elbow, and wrist were closest to neutral joint postures when working on a horizontal work surface. The elbow was 23° and 15° more extended, whereas the wrist was 6° less ulnar deviated, when reading compared to typing forms or e-mails. We recommend that the horizontal-surface computer configuration be used for typing and the sloped-surface tablet configuration be used for intermittent reading tasks in this hybrid workstation. Offices with mobile employees could use this workstation for alternating their upper-extremity postures; however, other aspects of the device need further investigation. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  20. Genome-wide identification of the regulatory targets of a transcription factor using biochemical characterization and computational genomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Emmitt R

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge in computational genomics is the development of methodologies that allow accurate genome-wide prediction of the regulatory targets of a transcription factor. We present a method for target identification that combines experimental characterization of binding requirements with computational genomic analysis. Results Our method identified potential target genes of the transcription factor Ndt80, a key transcriptional regulator involved in yeast sporulation, using the combined information of binding affinity, positional distribution, and conservation of the binding sites across multiple species. We have also developed a mathematical approach to compute the false positive rate and the total number of targets in the genome based on the multiple selection criteria. Conclusion We have shown that combining biochemical characterization and computational genomic analysis leads to accurate identification of the genome-wide targets of a transcription factor. The method can be extended to other transcription factors and can complement other genomic approaches to transcriptional regulation.

  1. Applications of computer simulation, nuclear reactions and elastic scattering to surface analysis of materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco de Carvalho, J. A.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This article involves computer simulation and surface analysis by nuclear techniques, which are non-destructive. Both the “energy method of analysis” for nuclear reactions and elastic scattering are used. Energy spectra are computer simulated and compared with experimental data, giving target composition and concentration profile information. The method is successfully applied to thick flat targets of graphite, quartz and sapphire and targets containing thin films of aluminium oxide. Depth profiles of 12C and 16O nuclei are determined using (d,p and (d,α deuteron induced reactions. Rutherford and resonance elastic scattering of (4He+ ions are also used.

    Este artículo trata de simulación por ordenador y del análisis de superficies mediante técnicas nucleares, que son no destructivas. Se usa el “método de análisis en energia” para reacciones nucleares, así como el de difusión elástica. Se simulan en ordenador espectros en energía que se comparan com datos experimentales, de lo que resulta la obención de información sobre la composición y los perfiles de concentración de la muestra. Este método se aplica con éxito em muestras espesas y planas de grafito, cuarzo y zafiro y muestras conteniendo películas finas de óxido de aluminio. Se calculan perfiles en profundidad de núcleos de 12C y de 16O a través de reacciones (d,p y (d,α inducidas por deuterones. Se utiliza también la difusión elástica de iones (4He+, tanto a Rutherford como resonante.

  2. RF Surface Impedance Characterization of Potential New Materials for SRF-based Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the development of new superconducting materials for possible use in SRF-based accelerators, it is useful to work with small candidate samples rather than complete resonant cavities. The recently commissioned Jefferson Lab RF Surface Impedance Characterization (SIC) system can presently characterize the central region of 50 mm diameter disk samples of various materials from 2 to 40 K exposed to RF magnetic fields up to 14 mT at 7.4 GHz. We report the recent measurement results of bulk Nb, thin film Nb on Cu and sapphire substrates, Nb 3 Sn sample, and thin film MgB 2 on sapphire substrate provided by colleagues at JLab and Temple University

  3. Extraction of agar from Gelidium sesquipedale (Rhodopyta) and surface characterization of agar based films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, P; Etxabide, A; Leceta, I; Peñalba, M; de la Caba, K

    2014-01-01

    The chemical structure of the agar obtained from Gelidium sesquipedale (Rhodophyta) has been determined by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Agar (AG) films with different amounts of soy protein isolate (SPI) were prepared using a thermo-moulding method, and transparent and hydrophobic films were obtained and characterized. FTIR analysis provided a detailed description of the binding groups present in the films, such as carboxylic, hydroxyl and sulfonate groups, while the surface composition was examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The changes observed by FTIR and XPS spectra suggested interactions between functional groups of agar and SPI. This is a novel approach to the characterization of agar-based films and provides knowledge about the compatibility of agar and soy protein for further investigation of the functional properties of biodegradable films based on these biopolymers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Mobile Surface Contamination Monitor II environmental radiological characterization utilizing GPS/GIS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendling, M.A.

    1993-05-01

    Time, cost, and most importantly quality of data are the three factors to measure the success of field radiological characterizations. The application of coupling radiation detection instrumentation to a GPS receiver has dramatically increased the data quality achievable compared to traditional environmental radiological survey methods. Improvements in verifying adequate spatial coverage of an area while collecting data and at,the same time reducing field time requirements can be realized. Data acquired during the recent implementation of the Mobile Surface Contamination Monitor 11 (MSCM-11) will be presented to demonstrate the advantages of this system over traditional radiological survey methods. The comparison will include time and manpower requirements. Linking the complimentary GPS, GIS and radiation detection technologies on a mobile tractor based platform has provided a tool to provide radiological characterization data faster, cheaper, and better to assist in the Environmental Restoration Mission of the Hanford Site

  5. Spatiotemporal characterization of land surface temperature in Mount Kilimanjaro using satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Hurskainen, Pekka

    2014-11-01

    Mount Kilimanjaro is considered the highest free-standing mountain in the world and a symbol of the African continent. Steep slopes and high altitudes are on the backdrop of unique biophysical characteristics, in which changes between savannas, tropical cloud forests, and subalpine vegetation can be observed in relatively small distances. In the context of this complex and heterogeneous landscape, describing the interactions between climatic variables and ecosystem functions is crucial for understanding the drivers of biodiversity. However, the characterization of climatic variables, especially surface temperature, still remains a critical bottleneck for a comprehensive understanding of habitats in Kilimanjaro. This study applies satellite-based estimates of land surface temperature (LST), from 2001 to 2011, to delineate a thorough characterization of the spatiotemporal patterns of surface temperature in Mount Kilimanjaro. The ample spatial coverage and continuous observations provided by the satellite measurements allowed the detailed description of characteristics so far poorly understood or not yet described in the literature. We demonstrate that the spatial patterns of LST in this region are rather complex, in the sense that it is characterized by non-linear behaviors and strong interactions with land cover and topography. Daytime observations (measured at 10:30 am) were shown to be strongly influenced by land cover characteristics, which is responsible for defining not only the spatial patterns (e.g., lapse rate) but also the seasonal signature of LST. At nighttime measurements (10:30 pm), the influence of land cover virtually disappears and the spatial patterns are mostly driven by altitude. Moreover, this study provides a brief assessment of LST trends observed within the analyzed period.

  6. A computer vision system for rapid search inspired by surface-based attention mechanisms from human perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Johannes; Park, Jong-Han; Obermayer, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    Humans are highly efficient at visual search tasks by focusing selective attention on a small but relevant region of a visual scene. Recent results from biological vision suggest that surfaces of distinct physical objects form the basic units of this attentional process. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how such surface-based attention mechanisms can speed up a computer vision system for visual search. The system uses fast perceptual grouping of depth cues to represent the visual world at the level of surfaces. This representation is stored in short-term memory and updated over time. A top-down guided attention mechanism sequentially selects one of the surfaces for detailed inspection by a recognition module. We show that the proposed attention framework requires little computational overhead (about 11 ms), but enables the system to operate in real-time and leads to a substantial increase in search efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A possible experiment at LEUTL to characterize surface roughness Wakefield effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakefield effects due to internal vacuum chamber roughness may increase the electron beam energy spread and so have become an immediate concern for future x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) project developments such as the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and the DESY TESLA x-ray FEL. We describe a possible experiment to characterize the effects of surface roughness on an FEL driven by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) operation. Although the specific system described is not completely identical to the above-proposed projects, much useful scaling information could be obtained and applied to shorter wavelength systems

  8. Surface topography characterization using an atomic force microscope mounted on a coordinate measuring machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Hansen, H.N; Kofod, N

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the construction, testing and use of an integrated system for topographic characterization of fine surfaces on parts having relatively big dimensions. An atomic force microscope (AFM) was mounted on a manual three-coordinate measuring machine (CMM) achieving free positioning...... of the AFM probe in space. This means that the limited measuring range of the AFM (40 mu m x 40 mu m x 2.7 um) can be extended by positioning the AFM probe using the movements of the CMM axes (400 mm x 100 mm x 75 mm). Evaluation of the background noise by determining the Sa value of an optical fiat gave...

  9. Characterizing the surface heterogeneity of fire effects using multi-temporal reflective wavelength data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roy, DP

    2005-10-10

    Full Text Available of fire effects using multi-temporal reflective wavelength data D. P. Roy a; T. Landmann ba Department of Geography, College Park, and NASA Goddard, Space Flight Center, University of Maryland. Code 614.5 (B32), Greenbelt, MD 20771. USAb CSIR Environmentek... Characterizing the surface heterogeneity of fire effects using multi-temporal reflective wavelength data D. P. ROY*{ and T. LANDMANN{ {Department of Geography, University of Maryland, College Park, and NASA Goddard, Space Flight Center, Code 614.5 (B32...

  10. Surface characterization of Nb samples electropolished with real superconducting rf accelerator cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of surface characterizations of niobium (Nb samples electropolished together with a single cell superconducting radio-frequency accelerator cavity. These witness samples were located in three regions of the cavity, namely at the equator, the iris, and the beam pipe. Auger electron spectroscopy was utilized to probe the chemical composition of the topmost four atomic layers. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x ray for elemental analysis was used to observe the surface topography and chemical composition at the micrometer scale. A few atomic layers of sulfur (S were found covering the samples nonuniformly. Niobium oxide granules with a sharp geometry were observed on every sample. Some Nb-O granules appeared to also contain sulfur.

  11. SURFACE CHARACTERIZATION OF NIOBIUM SAMPLES ELECTRO-POLISHED TOGETHER WITH REAL CAVITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xin [William and Mary College; Geng, Rongli [JLAB; Funahashi, Y. [KEK; Hayano, H. [KEK; Kato, S. [KEK; Nishiwaki, M. [KEK; Saeki, T. [KEK; Sawabe, M. [KEK; Ueno, K. [KEK; Watanabe, K. [KEK; Tyagi, P. V. [GUAS/AS, Ibaraki

    2009-11-01

    We report the results of surface characterizations of niobium samples electropolished together with single cell cavities. These witness samples were located in three regions of the cavity, namely at the equator, the iris and the beam-pipe. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) was utilized to probe the chemical composition of the topmost four atomic layers. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray for elemental analysis (SEM/EDX) was used to observe the surface topography and chemical composition at the micrometer scale. A few atomic layers of sulphur (S) were found covering the samples non-uniformly. Niobium oxide granules with a sharp geometry were observed on every sample. Some Nb-O granules appeared to also contain sulphur.

  12. High resolution laser beam induced current focusing for photoactive surface characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Lorenzo, C. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Apartado de Correos 40, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)]. E-mail: concha.fernandez@uca.es; Poce-Fatou, J.A. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Apartado de Correos 40, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Alcantara, R. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Apartado de Correos 40, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Navas, J. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Apartado de Correos 40, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Martin, J. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Apartado de Correos 40, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    2006-12-15

    The micro-characterization of several surface properties of the solar cells can be accomplished using high-resolution laser beam induced current images. For obtaining these images, a very precise laser beam focusing on the photoactive surface is required. For this purpose, a methodology for obtaining the best focalization associated to the maximum of a peak curve has been developed. In this paper, a data set, obtained from the inner photoconversion properties of the system, has been evaluated with three different numerical analysis techniques: (a) derivative (b) length and (c) Fourier Transform, in order to get the finest possible peak distribution. Then, an amount of 13 analytical peak curves using the Levenberg Marquardt algorithm to find the best curve that adjusts the data distribution have been analyzed.

  13. Modification and characterization of the AISI 410 martensitic stainless steels surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bincoleto, A.V.L.; Nascente, P.A.P.

    2010-01-01

    Steam turbines are used in the generation of more than half the electric energy produced in the world nowadays. It is important the study which aims to improve the efficiency by means of the optimization of leaks and of the aerodynamic profiles, as well as to maintain the integrity of the components. The martensitic stainless steels are widely employed due to the combination of their good mechanical properties with higher corrosion resistance. However, their lower wear resistance and their poor tribological behavior limit their use, since they decrease the component life time. In order to evaluate the improvement in the performance of the AISI 410 stainless steel, several process of surface modification were employed. Five samples were produced: the first one was not treated, the second one received liquid nitriding, the third, gas nitriding, the forth, thermal aspersion of tungsten carbide, and the fifth, boronizing. The samples were characterized by optical microscopy, surface microhardness, and X-ray diffractometry. (author)

  14. Electrical characterization of chemically modified YBa2Cu3O7-x surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, B.D.; Foote, M.C.; Vasquez, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    Results on electrical characterization of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x thin-film surfaces treated with a Br/ethanol chemical etch are presented. Electrical measurements of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x /Au/Nb device structures fabricated using polycrystalline, post-annealed YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x films with Br-etched surfaces, show improvements of approximately one or two orders of magnitude in current densities and resistivities (resistance-area products) relative to unetched devices. The existence of supercurrents in these structures has been confirmed by observation of the ac Josephson effect, and by magnetic field and temperature studies of the critical currents. The Br-etch process has produced 10x10 μm 2 devices with critical current densities greater than 400 A/cm 2 and resistivities as low as 4x10 -7 Ω cm 2

  15. Polyamide microcapsules containing alginic acid: extractability of metal ions and surface characterization by XPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaki, M; Ichinose, T; Monjushiroh, H; Fukumoto, T; Watarai, H

    1998-01-01

    Polyamide microcapsules containing alginic acid as a water-soluble macromolecular ligand (Alg-MC) were prepared by the interfacial polycondensation of sebacoyldichloride with hexamethylenediamine in a w/o emulsion system. The mean diameter of the microcapsules was 1.2 microns. The extractabilities of Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Ag(I) into the Alg-MC were examined and the highest uptake was found for Cu(II). It was ascertained that not only the inner ligand solution but also the membrane can accumulate the metal ions. The surface composition of the microcapsules was characterized by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) and it was found that some functional groups of alginic acid were present at the surface penetrating the membrane.

  16. Construction of High Activity Titanium Dioxide Crystal Surface Heterostructures and Characterization of Its Basic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiao; Li, DanQi; Shen, Tingting; Lu, Cheng; Sun, Jing; Wang, Xikui

    2018-01-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalytic materials, which combine the advantages of photocatalytic materials and heterojunction, have been developed rapidly in the field of environmental pollution control. In this paper, TiO2 surface heterojunction catalysts with different catalytic activity were prepared by controlling the amount of HF, and their XRD characterization was also carried out. In addition, the optimum amount of HF was determined by photocatalytic degradation of simulated dye wastewater by methylene blue solution. And the optimal amount of catalyst and the optimal pH reaction conditions for degradation experiments were used to screen the highly reactive titania surface heterojunction system and its optimum application conditions. It provides the possibility of application in the degradation of industrial wastewater and environmental treatment.

  17. Color doppler ultrasonography and multislice computer tomography angiography in carotid plaque detection and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučaj-Ćirilović Viktorija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Beckground/Aim. Cerebrovascular diseases are the third leading cause of mortality in the world, following malignant and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, their timely and precise diagnostics is of great importance. The aim of this study was to compare duplex scan Color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU with multislice computed tomography angiography (MSCTA in detection of morphological and functional disorders at extracranial level of carotid arteries. Methods. The study included 75 patients with 150 carotid arteries examined in the period from January 2008 to April 2009. The patients were firstly examined by CDU, then MSCTA, followed by the surgery of extracranial segment of carotid arteries. In 10 patients, the obtained material was referred for histopathological (HP examination. We used both CDU and MSCT in the analysis of: plaque surface, plaque structure, degree of stenosis, and the presence of intraplaque hemorrhage. Results. The results obtained by CDU and MSCTA were first compared between themselves, and then to intraoperative findings. Retrospective analysis showed that MSCTA is more sensitive than CDU in assessment of plaque surface (for smooth plaques CDU 89% : MSCTA 97%; for plaques with irregular surface CDU 75% : MSCTA 87%; for ulcerations CDU 54% : MSCTA 87%. Regarding determination of plaque structure (mixed plaque CDU 66% : MSCTA 70%; correlation with HP findings CDU 94% : MSCTA 96% and localization (CDU 63% : MSCTA 65%, and in terms of sensitivity and specificity, both methods showed almost the same results. Also, there is no statistical difference between these two methods for the degree of stenosis (CDU 96% : MSCTA 98%. Conclusion. Atherosclerotic disease of extracranial part of carotid arteries primarily affects population of middle-aged and elderly, showing more associated risk factors. Sensitivity and specificity of CDU and MSCTA regarding plaque composition, the degree of stenosis and plaque localization are almost the same

  18. In vitro characterization of two different atmospheric plasma jet chemical functionalizations of titanium surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussano, F.; Genova, T.; Verga Falzacappa, E.; Scopece, P.; Munaron, L.; Rivolo, P.; Mandracci, P.; Benedetti, A.; Carossa, S.; Patelli, A.

    2017-07-01

    Plasma surface activation and plasma polymers deposition are promising technologies capable to modulate biologically relevant surface features of biomaterials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biological effects of two different surface modifications, i.e. amine (NH2-Ti) and carboxylic/esteric (COOH/R-Ti) functionalities obtained from 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES) and methylmethacrylate (MMA) precursors, respectively, through an atmospheric plasma jet RF-APPJ portable equipment. The coatings were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, XPS and surface energy calculations. Stability in water and after UV sterilization were also verified. The pre-osteoblastic murine cell line MC3T3-E1 was used to perform the in-vitro tests. The treated samples showed a higher quantity of adsorbed proteins and improved osteoblast cells adhesion on the surfaces compared to the pristine titanium, in particular the COOH/R-Ti led to a nearly two-fold improvement. Cell proliferation on coated samples was initially (at 24 h) lower than on titanium control, while, at 48 h, COOH/R-Ti reached the proliferation rate of pristine titanium. Cells grown on NH2-Ti were more tapered and elongated in shape with lower areas than on COOH/R-Ti enriched surfaces. Finally, NH2-Ti significantly enhanced osteocalcin production, starting from 14 days, while COOH/R-Ti had this effect only from 21 days. Notably, NH2-Ti was more efficient than COOH/R-Ti at 21 days. The amine functionality elicited the most relevant osteogenic effect in terms of osteocalcin expression, thus establishing an interesting correlation between early cell morphology and later differentiation stages. Taken together, these data encourage the use of the functionalization procedures here reported in further studies.

  19. Characterization and application of a surface modification designed for QCM-D studies of biotinylated biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilebäck, Erik; Feuz, Laurent; Uddenberg, Hans; Valiokas, Ramūnas; Svedhem, Sofia

    2011-10-15

    The rapid development of surface sensitive biosensor technologies, especially towards nanoscale devices, requires increasing control of surface chemistry to provide reliable and reproducible results, but also to take full advantage of the sensing opportunities. Here, we present a surface modification strategy to allow biotinylated biomolecules to be immobilized to gold coated sensor crystals for quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) sensing. The unique feature of QCM-D is its sensitivity to nanomechanical (viscoelastic) properties at the sensing interface. The surface modification was based on mixed monolayers of oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) disulfides, with terminal -OH or biotin groups, on gold. Mixtures containing 1% of the biotin disulfide were concluded to be the most appropriate based on the performance when streptavidin was immobilized to biotinylated sensors and the subsequent biotinylated bovine serum albumin (BSA) interaction was studied. The OEG background kept the unspecific protein binding to a minimum, even when subjected to serum solutions with a high protein concentration. Based on characterization by contact angle goniometry, ellipsometry, and infrared spectroscopy, the monolayers were shown to be well-ordered, with the OEG chains predominantly adopting a helical conformation but also partly an amorphous structure. Storage stability was concluded to depend mainly on light exposure while almost all streptavidin binding activity was retained when storing the sensors cold and dark for 8 weeks. The surface modification was also tested for repeated antibody-antigen interactions between BSA and anti-BSA (immobilized to biotinylated protein A) in QCM-D measurements lasting for >10h with intermediate basic regeneration. This proved an excellent stability of the coating and good reproducibility was obtained for 5 interaction cycles. With this kind of generic surface modification QCM-D can be used in a variety of biosensing

  20. Hydrodynamic Characterization of a Surface Storage Zone in a Natural Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval Ulloa, J. C.; Escauriaza, C. R.; Mignot, E.; Mao, L.

    2015-12-01

    Flow developed in surface storage zones in rivers is very important for many physical and biogeochemical processes. These regions are characterized by low velocities compared to the flow in the main channel and long residence times that favor the deposition of contaminants, nutrient uptake and interactions with reactive sediments. The dynamics of the turbulent flows in these zones is very complex, typically characterized by a shear layer that induces a recirculating area, with multiple large-scale coherent structures of different temporal and spatial scales. In this work we present the methodology and analysis of measurements in a natural surface storage zone. We report detailed information of a field campaign carried out in the Lluta River, located in northern Chile in the high altitude Andean environment known as the Altiplano (~4,000 masl). The area of study has great interest for the river ecosystem, since the water has high concentration levels of arsenic and other metals. The Lluta River is also a water source for many agricultural communities and urban centers located in the lower parts of the watershed. Field information obtained was: detailed topography, 3D velocity components in several points, and sediment arsenic concentration in the main channel and in the recirculating region of the natural surface storage zone. Topography was obtained through DGPS and digital image processing. The 3D velocity field was measured with an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) and surface velocity data was obtained through the LSPIV technique. Arsenic concentration was obtained by sediment sampling analysis. With this data we analyze the flow topology and characteristics features of the velocity, which constitute the controlling mechanisms of contaminant transport in the field. In addition, we contrast with preliminary results of a three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulation, to determine the influence of different parameters on the transport and mixing processes in natural

  1. Characterization of size, surface charge, and agglomeration state of nanoparticle dispersions for toxicological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jingkun; Oberdoerster, Guenter; Biswas, Pratim

    2009-01-01

    Characterizing the state of nanoparticles (such as size, surface charge, and degree of agglomeration) in aqueous suspensions and understanding the parameters that affect this state are imperative for toxicity investigations. In this study, the role of important factors such as solution ionic strength, pH, and particle surface chemistry that control nanoparticle dispersion was examined. The size and zeta potential of four TiO 2 and three quantum dot samples dispersed in different solutions (including one physiological medium) were characterized. For 15 nm TiO 2 dispersions, the increase of ionic strength from 0.001 M to 0.1 M led to a 50-fold increase in the hydrodynamic diameter, and the variation of pH resulted in significant change of particle surface charge and the hydrodynamic size. It was shown that both adsorbing multiply charged ions (e.g., pyrophosphate ions) onto the TiO 2 nanoparticle surface and coating quantum dot nanocrystals with polymers (e.g., polyethylene glycol) suppressed agglomeration and stabilized the dispersions. DLVO theory was used to qualitatively understand nanoparticle dispersion stability. A methodology using different ultrasonication techniques (bath and probe) was developed to distinguish agglomerates from aggregates (strong bonds), and to estimate the extent of particle agglomeration. Probe ultrasonication performed better than bath ultrasonication in dispersing TiO 2 agglomerates when the stabilizing agent sodium pyrophosphate was used. Commercially available Degussa P25 and in-house synthesized TiO 2 nanoparticles were used to demonstrate identification of aggregated and agglomerated samples.

  2. Aminopropyltriethoxysilane-mediated surface functionalization of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and in vitro toxicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shige; Wen, Shihui; Shen, Mingwu; Guo, Rui; Cao, Xueyan; Wang, Jianhua; Shi, Xiangyang

    2011-01-01

    We report on aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS)-mediated surface modification of nanohydroxyapatite with different surface functional groups for potential biomedical applications. In this study, nanohydroxyapatite covalently linked with APTS (n-HA-APTS) was reacted with acetic anhydride or succinic anhydride to produce neutralized (n-HA-APTS. Ac) or negatively charged (n-HA-APTS.SAH) nanohydroxyapatite, respectively. Nanohydroxyapatite formed with amine, acetyl, and carboxyl groups was extensively characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, and zeta potential measurements. In vitro 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay revealed that the slight toxicity of the amine-functionalized n-HA-APTS could be eliminated by post-functionalization of APTS amines to form acetyl and carboxyl groups. Blood compatibility assessment demonstrated that the negligible hemolytic activity of the pristine nanohydroxyapatite particles did not appreciably change after APTS-mediated surface functionalization. APTS-mediated functionalization of nanohydroxyapatite with different surface groups may be useful for further functionalization of nanohydroxyapatite with biologically active materials, thereby providing possibilities for a broad range of biomedical applications.

  3. Characterization of MHz pulse repetition rate femtosecond laser-irradiated gold-coated silicon surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatakrishnan Krishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, MHz pulse repetition rate femtosecond laser-irradiated gold-coated silicon surfaces under ambient condition were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The radiation fluence used was 0.5 J/cm2 at a pulse repetition rate of 25 MHz with 1 ms interaction time. SEM analysis of the irradiated surfaces showed self-assembled intermingled weblike nanofibrous structure in and around the laser-irradiated spots. Further TEM investigation on this nanostructure revealed that the nanofibrous structure is formed due to aggregation of Au-Si/Si nanoparticles. The XRD peaks at 32.2°, 39.7°, and 62.5° were identified as (200, (211, and (321 reflections, respectively, corresponding to gold silicide. In addition, the observed chemical shift of Au 4f and Si 2p lines in XPS spectrum of the irradiated surface illustrated the presence of gold silicide at the irradiated surface. The generation of Si/Au-Si alloy fibrous nanoparticles aggregate is explained by the nucleation and subsequent condensation of vapor in the plasma plume during irradiation and expulsion of molten material due to high plasma pressure.

  4. Characterization for DRX and FTIR of the surface of UWMWPE for critical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Keila M. de; Araujo, E.M.; Lira, H.L.; Patricio, Aline C.L.; Lima, Carlos A.P. de

    2009-01-01

    Biomaterials is the result of the application of the science of the materials to the medicine, understands a new and important spectrum of the knowledge - Science of Biomaterials. The principal aspects that determine the acting of a bio material in the human body are three: biocompatibility, mechanical properties and degradation. This work had the objective to modify and to oxidate the surface of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). It was utilized for this modification water sandpapers and for oxidation the hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). The surface of UHMWPE it was modified with water sandpapers of numbers 180, 600 and 1200 mesh and oxidated with the H 2 O 2 in different concentrations of 35 and 60%. The samples already with its modified surfaces had been submitted to the characterization using itself the following techniques: diffraction de ray-X and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. The physical modification (sanded) and chemistry (H 2 O 2 ) of the surface of UHMWPE was important because it looks for improving the interaction techniques of the implants with the bone. (author)

  5. Characterization of the Deep Water Surface Wave Variability in the California Current Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas Bôas, Ana B.; Gille, Sarah T.; Mazloff, Matthew R.; Cornuelle, Bruce D.

    2017-11-01

    Surface waves are crucial for the dynamics of the upper ocean not only because they mediate exchanges of momentum, heat, energy, and gases between the ocean and the atmosphere, but also because they determine the sea state. The surface wave field in a given region is set by the combination of local and remote forcing. The present work characterizes the seasonal variability of the deep water surface wave field in the California Current region, as retrieved from over two decades of satellite altimetry data combined with wave buoys and wave model hindcast (WaveWatch III). In particular, the extent to which the local wind modulates the variability of the significant wave height, peak period, and peak direction is assessed. During spring/summer, regional-scale wind events of up to 10 m/s are the dominant forcing for waves off the California coast, leading to relatively short-period waves (8-10 s) that come predominantly from the north-northwest. The wave climatology throughout the California Current region shows average significant wave heights exceeding 2 m during most of the year, which may have implications for the planning and retrieval methods of the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission.

  6. Characterization of thermomechanical damage on tungsten surfaces during long-duration plasma transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, David; Crosby, Tamer; Sheng, Andrew; Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    2014-01-01

    A new experimental facility constructed at UCLA for the simulation of high heat flux effects on plasma-facing materials is described. The High Energy Flux Test Facility (HEFTY) is equipped with a Praxair model SG-100 plasma gun, which is nominally rated at 80 kW of continuous operation, of which approximately 30 kW reaches the target due to thermal losses. The gun is used to impart high intermittent heat flux to metal samples mounted within a cylindrical chamber. The system is capable of delivering an instantaneous heat flux in the range of 30–300 MW/m 2 , depending on sample proximity to the gun. The duration of the plasma heat flux is in the range of 1–1000 s, making it ideal for studies of mild plasma transients of relatively long duration. Tungsten and tungsten-copper alloy metal samples are tested in these transient heat flux conditions, and the surface is characterized for damage evaluation using optical, SEM, XRD, and micro-fabrication techniques. Results from a Finite Element (FE) thermo-elastoplasticity model indicate that during the heat-up phase of a plasma transient pulse, the majority of the sample surface is under compressive stresses leading to plastic deformation of the surface. Upon sample cooling, the recovered elastic strain of cooler parts of the sample exceeds that from parts that deformed plastically, resulting in a tensile surface self-stress (residual surface stress). The intensity of the residual tensile surface stress is experimentally correlated with the onset of complex surface fracture morphology on the tungsten surface, and extending below the surface region. Micro-compression mechanical tests of W micro-pillars show that the material has significant plasticity, failing by a “barreling” mode before plasma exposure, and by normal dislocation slip and localized shear after plasma exposure. Ongoing modeling of the complex thermo-fracture process, coupled with elasto-plasticity is based on a phase field approach for distributed

  7. Characterization of structure of flaws in silicate glass surfaces by ion-exchange in lithium salt melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolitsch, A.; Richter, E.

    1978-03-01

    A method for characterization of flaws structure in silicate glass surfaces by ion-exchange in lithium salt melts is demonstrated. The possibilities and limits of the method are shown and several applications are discussed. (author)

  8. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy-SMARRT): Surface/Near Surface Indication - Characterization of Surface Anomalies from Magnetic Particle and Liquid Penetrant Indications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, John A. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States). Material Science & Engineering Dept.

    2014-02-20

    The systematic study and characterization of surface indications has never been conducted. Producers and users of castings do not have any data on which they can reliably communicate the nature of these indications or their effect on the performance of parts. Clearly, the ultimate intent of any work in this area is to eliminate indications that do in fact degrade properties. However, it may be impractical physically and/or financially to eliminate all surface imperfections. This project focused on the ones that actually degrade properties. The initial work was to identify those that degrade properties. Accurate numerical simulations of casting service performance allow designers to use the geometric flexibility of castings and the superior properties of steel to produce lighter weight and more energy efficient components for transportation systems (cars and trucks), construction, and mining. Accurate simulations increase the net melting energy efficiency by improving casting yield and reducing rework and scrap. Conservatively assuming a 10% improvement in yield, approximately 1.33 x 1012 BTU/year can be saved with this technology. In addition, CO2 emissions will be reduced by approximately 117,050 tons per year.

  9. Context based computational analysis and characterization of ARS consensus sequences (ACS of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide experimental studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveal that autonomous replicating sequence (ARS requires an essential consensus sequence (ACS for replication activity. Computational studies identified thousands of ACS like patterns in the genome. However, only a few hundreds of these sites act as replicating sites and the rest are considered as dormant or evolving sites. In a bid to understand the sequence makeup of replication sites, a content and context-based analysis was performed on a set of replicating ACS sequences that binds to origin-recognition complex (ORC denoted as ORC-ACS and non-replicating ACS sequences (nrACS, that are not bound by ORC. In this study, DNA properties such as base composition, correlation, sequence dependent thermodynamic and DNA structural profiles, and their positions have been considered for characterizing ORC-ACS and nrACS. Analysis reveals that ORC-ACS depict marked differences in nucleotide composition and context features in its vicinity compared to nrACS. Interestingly, an A-rich motif was also discovered in ORC-ACS sequences within its nucleosome-free region. Profound changes in the conformational features, such as DNA helical twist, inclination angle and stacking energy between ORC-ACS and nrACS were observed. Distribution of ACS motifs in the non-coding segments points to the locations of ORC-ACS which are found far away from the adjacent gene start position compared to nrACS thereby enabling an accessible environment for ORC-proteins. Our attempt is novel in considering the contextual view of ACS and its flanking region along with nucleosome positioning in the S. cerevisiae genome and may be useful for any computational prediction scheme.

  10. Computational Characterization of Exogenous MicroRNAs that Can Be Transferred into Human Circulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Shu

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs have been long considered synthesized endogenously until very recent discoveries showing that human can absorb dietary microRNAs from animal and plant origins while the mechanism remains unknown. Compelling evidences of microRNAs from rice, milk, and honeysuckle transported to human blood and tissues have created a high volume of interests in the fundamental questions that which and how exogenous microRNAs can be transferred into human circulation and possibly exert functions in humans. Here we present an integrated genomics and computational analysis to study the potential deciding features of transportable microRNAs. Specifically, we analyzed all publicly available microRNAs, a total of 34,612 from 194 species, with 1,102 features derived from the microRNA sequence and structure. Through in-depth bioinformatics analysis, 8 groups of discriminative features have been used to characterize human circulating microRNAs and infer the likelihood that a microRNA will get transferred into human circulation. For example, 345 dietary microRNAs have been predicted as highly transportable candidates where 117 of them have identical sequences with their homologs in human and 73 are known to be associated with exosomes. Through a milk feeding experiment, we have validated 9 cow-milk microRNAs in human plasma using microRNA-sequencing analysis, including the top ranked microRNAs such as bta-miR-487b, miR-181b, and miR-421. The implications in health-related processes have been illustrated in the functional analysis. This work demonstrates the data-driven computational analysis is highly promising to study novel molecular characteristics of transportable microRNAs while bypassing the complex mechanistic details.

  11. Computational characterization of ignition regimes in a syngas/air mixture with temperature fluctuations

    KAUST Repository

    Pal, Pinaki

    2016-07-27

    Auto-ignition characteristics of compositionally homogeneous reactant mixtures in the presence of thermal non-uniformities and turbulent velocity fluctuations were computationally investigated. The main objectives were to quantify the observed ignition characteristics and numerically validate the theory of the turbulent ignition regime diagram recently proposed by Im et al. 2015 [29] that provides a framework to predict ignition behavior . a priori based on the thermo-chemical properties of the reactant mixture and initial flow and scalar field conditions. Ignition regimes were classified into three categories: . weak (where deflagration is the dominant mode of fuel consumption), . reaction-dominant strong, and . mixing-dominant strong (where volumetric ignition is the dominant mode of fuel consumption). Two-dimensional (2D) direct numerical simulations (DNS) of auto-ignition in a lean syngas/air mixture with uniform mixture composition at high-pressure, low-temperature conditions were performed in a fixed volume. The initial conditions considered two-dimensional isotropic velocity spectrums, temperature fluctuations and localized thermal hot spots. A number of parametric test cases, by varying the characteristic turbulent Damköhler and Reynolds numbers, were investigated. The evolution of the auto-ignition phenomena, pressure rise, and heat release rate were analyzed. In addition, combustion mode analysis based on front propagation speed and computational singular perturbation (CSP) was applied to characterize the auto-ignition phenomena. All results supported that the observed ignition behaviors were consistent with the expected ignition regimes predicted by the theory of the regime diagram. This work provides new high-fidelity data on syngas ignition characteristics over a broad range of conditions and demonstrates that the regime diagram serves as a predictive guidance in the understanding of various physical and chemical mechanisms controlling auto

  12. COMPUTING

    CERN Document Server

    M. Kasemann

    Overview In autumn the main focus was to process and handle CRAFT data and to perform the Summer08 MC production. The operational aspects were well covered by regular Computing Shifts, experts on duty and Computing Run Coordination. At the Computing Resource Board (CRB) in October a model to account for service work at Tier 2s was approved. The computing resources for 2009 were reviewed for presentation at the C-RRB. The quarterly resource monitoring is continuing. Facilities/Infrastructure operations Operations during CRAFT data taking ran fine. This proved to be a very valuable experience for T0 workflows and operations. The transfers of custodial data to most T1s went smoothly. A first round of reprocessing started at the Tier-1 centers end of November; it will take about two weeks. The Computing Shifts procedure was tested full scale during this period and proved to be very efficient: 30 Computing Shifts Persons (CSP) and 10 Computing Resources Coordinators (CRC). The shift program for the shut down w...

  13. Computational study of flow anisotropy in sheared fractures with self-affine surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selzer, Michael; Schoenball, Martin; Ankit, Kumar; Nestler, Britta; Kohl, Thomas; Kühnle, Natalie; Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2013-04-01

    Characterization of the hydraulic conductivities of rock masses is imperative for the development and engineering of various underground installations like geothermal power plants, waste repositories or tunnelling. The intrinsic permeability of intact rock is extremely low; however the rock mass usually contains a dense network of fractures with a relatively high hydraulic conductivity, which determines the hydraulic properties of the rock mass. Conventionally, in order to estimate the hydraulic conductivities of fractures, the cubic law for laminar fluid flow in a parallel plate model with constant aperture is applied. However, the surface of natural fractures is rough, which strongly affects the hydraulic properties of fractures and causes deviation from the analytical result. To enhance fluid flow in a fractured rock mass, well bores in an intact rock mass are pressurized with fluid to reduce effective normal stresses on pre-existing fractures to enable shearing. The shearing motion of rock enhances hydraulic anisotropy, since the rocks become more conductive parallel to the shearing direction and less conduction perpendicular to the shearing direction. In the current work, we present a numerical study of hydraulic anisotropy introduced as a result of shearing of algorithmically generated fractures. A rough surface can be mathematically described as self-affine structure with a correlation between heights of asperities and their spatial distribution. Fractures are generated by displacing two identical fractal rough surfaces incorporating dilation to obtain an aperture distribution. To investigate the geometrical and hydraulic properties of generated fractures, we use a finite element method to solve the Reynolds equations in a simplified 2D model. We identify a regime, where a simplified hydraulic fracture model is permitted. Using the 2D model, we make a statistical study of the hydraulic anisotropy for a representative set of 1000 algorithmically generated

  14. Near-surface test facility. Phase I. Geologic site characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moak, D.J.; Wintczak, T.M.

    1980-08-01

    The report is a description of the geology and characterization of the rock mass of the area in which the Phase I qualification tests at the Near-Surface Test Facility (NSTF) are being performed. The NSTF is located on Gable Mountain within the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. It is located in the entablature of the Pomona Member, an upper flow in the Columbia River Basalt Group, and is approximately 150 feet (47.5 meters) below the surface. Core logging from the instrument boreholes coupled with joint mapping, statistics, and other test data provided the basis for a detailed characterization of the 16-foot x 20-foot x 28-foot (5-meter x 6-meter x 9-meter) rock masses surrounding Full-Scale Heater Tests No. 1 and No. 2. The Pomona entablature contains three joint sets delineated by their degree of dip, each with apertures averaging 0.25 millimeter and having no preferred strike orientation. Although joint frequencies in the study area exceed 4 joints per foot (13 per meter), the rock-mass classification rating is good.

  15. Surface feature characterization test plan: Conceptual design of a high level nuclear waste repository in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    This report presents the Surface Feature Characterization Test Plan for conceptual design. The Test Plan is part of the surface feature characterization program for conceptual design which will obtain information on site topography, hydrology, stratigraphy, and soil and rock engineering properties. The information will be obtained by the Geologic Project Manager (GPM). This Test Plan provides guidance to the GPM as to (1) the kinds of data to be collected, (2) anticipated methods, (3) the level of detail required, (4) interpretation to be made, and (5) the format for presentation. Based on this Test Plan and on conditions at the site that is selected, the GPM will develop an Activity Plan describing the methods to be used in obtaining the needed information. For each item of information, the Test Plan describes those facilities which require it for their design. The GPM can then determine the appropriate methods and level of effort for obtaining the information, taking into account its use and conditions at the selected site. 7 figs., 3 tabs

  16. PNIPAAm-grafted thermoresponsive microcarriers: Surface-initiated ATRP synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çakmak, Soner; Çakmak, Anıl S.; Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we developed novel thermoresponsive microcarriers as a powerful tool for cell culture and tissue engineering applications. For this purpose, two types of commercially available spherical microparticles (approximately 100 μm in diameter), dextran-based Sephadex® and vinyl acetate-based VA-OH (Biosynth®), were used and themoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) was grafted to the beads' surfaces by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Initially, hydroxyl groups of microbeads were reacted with 2-bromopropionyl bromide to form ATRP macroinitiator. Then, NIPAAm was successfully polymerized from the initiator attached microbeads by ATRP with CuBr/2,2′-dipyridyl, catalyst complex. Furthermore, grafted and ungrafted microbeads were characterized by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). The results of characterization studies confirmed that PNIPAAm was successfully grafted onto both dextran and vinyl acetate-based beads by means of ATRP reaction and thus, grafted microbeads gained thermoresponsive characteristics which will be evaluated for cell harvesting in further studies. Highlights: • PNIPAAm was grafted to the hydroxyl group carrying polymer beads by SI-ATRP. • Dex-g-PNIPAAm and VA-OH-g-PNIPAAm beads exhibited thermoresponsive characteristics. • They are appropriate candidates for microcarrier-facilitated cell cultures

  17. Molecular Characterization of Acanthamoeba Isolates from Surface Resting Waters in Northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil FALLAH

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic amphizoic protozoan found in different fresh water sources. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Acanthamoeba isolates from surface resting waters, in Northwest Iran.Methods: Samples were collected from twenty-two different areas, between May and Sep 2014. After filtration, samples were cultivated on non-nutrient agar. The extracted DNAs were amplified and sequenced using partial 18S rRNA in order to genotype and phylogenetic analyses.Results: Thirty-four (68% out of 50 collected samples were positive for free-living amoebae based on both culture and morphological characterizations but 28 samples were identified as Acanthamoeba spp. by PCR. Sequentially, one isolate was identified as A. lenticulata, (T5 (AN: KP940443, identity 99.7%-100%, and divergence 0.3% whilst other sequenced isolates identified Acanthamoeba spp. (AN: KP940444-45 as very similar to A. rhysodes and A. royreba with identity 100% and divergence 0%. Conclusion: Surface resting waters in Northwest Iran, were potentially contaminated with pathogenic amphizoic protozoan. Further studies will be required to determine other Acanthamoeba species and genotypes in the region.

  18. Off-site radiation exposure review project: computer-aided surface interpolation and graphical display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, T.A. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    This report presents the implementation of an iterative procedure that solves the following bivariate interpolation problem: Given N distinct points in the plane (x/sub i/, y/sub i/) and N real numbers Z/sub i/, construct a function F(x,y) that satisfies F(x/sub i/, y/sub i/) = Z/sub i/, for i = 1, ..., N. This problem can be interpreted as fitting a surface through N points in three dimensional space. The application of primary concern to the Offsite Radiation Exposure Review Project is the characterization of the radionuclide activity resulting from nuclear tests. Samples of activity were measured at various locations. The location of the sample point is represented by (x/sub i/, y/sub i/), and the magnitude of the reading is represented by Z/sub i/. The method presented in this report is constructed to be efficient on large data sets, stable on the large variations of the Z/sub i/ magnitudes, and capable of smoothly filling in areas that are void of data. This globally defined icode was initiateminednitial shock but to two later eriological invaders are Staphylococcus albus, Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus e to the same general semiclassical treatment

  19. Accuracy of linear measurements from cone-beam computed tomography-derived surface models of different voxel sizes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damstra, Janalt; Fourie, Zacharias; Huddleston Slater, James J R; Ren, Yijin

    INTRODUCTION: The aims of this study were to determine the linear accuracy of 3-dimensional surface models derived from a commercially available cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) dental imaging system and volumetric rendering software and to investigate the influence of voxel resolution on the

  20. The determination of surface of powders by BET method using nitrogen and krypton with computer calculation of the results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dembinski, W.; Zlotowski, T.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program written in FORTRAN language for calculations of final results of specific surface analysis based on BET theory has been described. Two gases - nitrogen and krypton were used. A technical description of measuring apparaturs is presented as well as theoretical basis of the calculations together with statistical analysis of the results for uranium compounds powders. (author)

  1. Segmentation process significantly influences the accuracy of 3D surface models derived from cone beam computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fourie, Zacharias; Damstra, Janalt; Schepers, Rutger H; Gerrits, Pieter; Ren, Yijin

    AIMS: To assess the accuracy of surface models derived from 3D cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with two different segmentation protocols. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven fresh-frozen cadaver heads were used. There was no conflict of interests in this study. CBCT scans were made of the heads and 3D

  2. Near Surface Seismic Hazard Characterization in the Presence of High Velocity Contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribler, G.; Mikesell, D.; Liberty, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    We present new multicomponent surface wave processing techniques that provide accurate characterization of near-surface conditions in the presence of large lateral or vertical shear wave velocity boundaries. A common problem with vertical component Rayleigh wave analysis in the presence of high contrast subsurface conditions is Rayleigh wave propagation mode misidentification due to an overlap of frequency-phase velocity domain dispersion, leading to an overestimate of shear wave velocities. By using the vertical and horizontal inline component signals, we isolate retrograde and prograde particle motions to separate fundamental and higher mode signals, leading to more accurate and confident dispersion curve picks and shear wave velocity estimates. Shallow, high impedance scenarios, such as the case with shallow bedrock, are poorly constrained when using surface wave dispersion information alone. By using a joint inversion of dispersion and horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) curves within active source frequency ranges (down to 3 Hz), we can accurately estimate the depth to high impedance boundaries, a significant improvement compared to the estimates based on dispersion information alone. We compare our approach to body wave results that show comparable estimates of bedrock topography. For lateral velocity contrasts, we observe horizontal polarization of Rayleigh waves identified by an increase in amplitude and broadening of the horizontal spectra with little variation in the vertical component spectra. The horizontal spectra offer a means to identify and map near surface faults where there is no topographic or clear body wave expression. With these new multicomponent active source seismic data processing and inversion techniques, we better constrain a variety of near surface conditions critical to the estimation of local site response and seismic hazards.

  3. Aminopropyltriethoxysilane-mediated surface functionalization of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and in vitro toxicity assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Shige Wang1, Shihui Wen2, Mingwu Shen2, Rui Guo2, Xueyan Cao2, Jianhua Wang3, Xiangyang Shi1,2,41State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, 2College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 4Centro de Química da Madeira, Universidade da Madeira, Campus da Penteada, Funchal, PortugalBackground: We report on aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS-mediated surface modification of nanohydroxyapatite with different surface functional groups for potential biomedical applications. In this study, nanohydroxyapatite covalently linked with APTS (n-HA-APTS was reacted with acetic anhydride or succinic anhydride to produce neutralized (n-HA-APTS.Ac or negatively charged (n-HA-APTS.SAH nanohydroxyapatite, respectively. Nanohydroxyapatite formed with amine, acetyl, and carboxyl groups was extensively characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, and zeta potential measurements.Results: In vitro 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay revealed that the slight toxicity of the amine-functionalized n-HA-APTS could be eliminated by post-functionalization of APTS amines to form acetyl and carboxyl groups. Blood compatibility assessment demonstrated that the negligible hemolytic activity of the pristine nanohydroxyapatite particles did not appreciably change after APTS-mediated surface functionalization.Conclusion: APTS-mediated functionalization of nanohydroxyapatite with different surface groups may be useful for further functionalization of nanohydroxyapatite with biologically active materials, thereby providing possibilities for a broad range of

  4. The effects of computed tomography scanner parameters on the quality of the reverse triangular surface model of the fibula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayat, Nasir; Ahmad, Mushtaq, E-mail: nasirhayat@uet.edu.pk [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UET, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2016-01-15

    This study investigates the effects of computed tomography (CT) parameters on the quality and size of the reverse triangular surface model with an objective of obtaining an accurate 3D triangular surface model of complex-shaped customized objects for reverse engineering and many other applications such as surgical planning and finite element analysis. For this purpose, the fibula of a human knee joint was CT scanned by changing various parameters (slice thickness, slice spacing, pixel size, X-ray tube current and helical pitch) over wide ranges. Three-dimensional triangular surface models were created from point cloud data extracted from the CT image data. To assess the influences of scanning parameters on the surface quality and accuracy, the resulting surface models were qualitatively compared based on various anatomical features. Statistical analysis was used to quantify the deviations of surface models with different scanning parameter levels from the reference CT surface model. The results show that these parameters to a varying degree affect the surface quality, reproduction of various anatomical details and size of the resulting surface model. Moreover, these parameters are highly dependent on each other. Interactive effects of these parameters have been discussed and recommendations have been made for parameter settings. The results of the study would help to improve the accuracy of the 3D surface models required for customized implants and other applications. (author)

  5. Computation of the temperatures of a fluid flowing through a pipe from temperature measurements on the pipe's outer surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, G.

    1999-01-01

    A method for computing the temperatures of a fluid flowing through a pipe on the basis of temperatures recorded at the pipe's outer surface is presented. The heat conduction in the pipe wall is described by one-dimensional heat conduction elements. Heat transfer between fluid, pipe and surrounding is allowed for. The equation system resulting from the standard finite element discretization is reformulated to enable the computation of temperature events preceding the recorded temperature in time. It is shown that the method can be used to identify the actual fluid temperature from temperature data obtained only at the outer surface of the pipe. The temperatures in the pipe wall are computed with good accuracy even in the case of a severe thermal shock. (orig.) [de

  6. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction CMS distributed computing system performed well during the 2011 start-up. The events in 2011 have more pile-up and are more complex than last year; this results in longer reconstruction times and harder events to simulate. Significant increases in computing capacity were delivered in April for all computing tiers, and the utilisation and load is close to the planning predictions. All computing centre tiers performed their expected functionalities. Heavy-Ion Programme The CMS Heavy-Ion Programme had a very strong showing at the Quark Matter conference. A large number of analyses were shown. The dedicated heavy-ion reconstruction facility at the Vanderbilt Tier-2 is still involved in some commissioning activities, but is available for processing and analysis. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Facility and Infrastructure operations have been active with operations and several important deployment tasks. Facilities participated in the testing and deployment of WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request...

  7. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview During the past three months activities were focused on data operations, testing and re-enforcing shift and operational procedures for data production and transfer, MC production and on user support. Planning of the computing resources in view of the new LHC calendar in ongoing. Two new task forces were created for supporting the integration work: Site Commissioning, which develops tools helping distributed sites to monitor job and data workflows, and Analysis Support, collecting the user experience and feedback during analysis activities and developing tools to increase efficiency. The development plan for DMWM for 2009/2011 was developed at the beginning of the year, based on the requirements from the Physics, Computing and Offline groups (see Offline section). The Computing management meeting at FermiLab on February 19th and 20th was an excellent opportunity discussing the impact and for addressing issues and solutions to the main challenges facing CMS computing. The lack of manpower is particul...

  8. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. McBride

    The Computing Project is preparing for a busy year where the primary emphasis of the project moves towards steady operations. Following the very successful completion of Computing Software and Analysis challenge, CSA06, last fall, we have reorganized and established four groups in computing area: Commissioning, User Support, Facility/Infrastructure Operations and Data Operations. These groups work closely together with groups from the Offline Project in planning for data processing and operations. Monte Carlo production has continued since CSA06, with about 30M events produced each month to be used for HLT studies and physics validation. Monte Carlo production will continue throughout the year in the preparation of large samples for physics and detector studies ramping to 50 M events/month for CSA07. Commissioning of the full CMS computing system is a major goal for 2007. Site monitoring is an important commissioning component and work is ongoing to devise CMS specific tests to be included in Service Availa...

  9. Advanced Topographic Characterization of Variously Prepared Niobium Surfaces and Linkage to RF Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) technology is widely adopted in particle accelerators. The shallow penetration (˜ 40 nm) of the RF into superconducting niobium lends great importance to SRF cavity interior surface chemistry and topography. These in turn are strongly influenced by the chemical etching "surface clean-up" that follows fabrication. The principal surface smoothing methods are buffered chemical polish (BCP) and electropolish (EP). The resulting topography is characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The power spectral density (PSD) of AFM data provides a more thorough description of the topography than a single-value roughness measurement. In this work, one dimensional average PSD functions derived from topography of BCP and EP with different controlled starting conditions and durations have been fitted with a combination of power law, K-correlation, and shifted Gaussian models to extract characteristic parameters at different spatial harmonic scales. While the simplest characterizations of these data are not new, the systematic tracking of scale-specific roughness as a function of processing is new and offers feedback for tighter process prescriptions more knowledgably targeted at beneficial niobium topography for SRF applications. Process development suffers because the cavity interior surface cannot be viewed directly without cutting out pieces, rendering the cavities unavailable for further study. Here we explore replica techniques as an alternative, providing imprints of cavity internal surface that can be readily examined. A second matter is the topography measurement technique used. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has proven successful, but too time intensive for routine use. We therefore introduce white light interferometry (WLI) approach as an alternative. We examined real surfaces and their replicas, using AFM and WLI. We find that the replica/WLI is promising to provide the large majority of desired information, so that use of the

  10. Structural and Electrical Characterization of Oxidated, Nitridated and Oxi-nitridated (100) GaAs Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Nakamura, Kazuki; Takebe, Masahide; Takemoto, Akira; Inokuma, Takao; Iiyama, Koichi; Takamiya, Saburo; Higashimine, Koichi; Ohtsuka, Nobuo; Yonezawa, Yasuto

    2003-07-01

    Oxidation by the UV & ozone process, nitridation by the nitrogen helicon-wave-excited plasma process, and the combination of these processes are applied to (100) GaAs wafers. An atomic force microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, a transmission electron microscope, photoluminescence and electrical characteristics (current-voltage and capacitance-voltage) were used to analyze the influences of these processes on the structure and composition of the surfaces and the interfaces. Metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) diodes and Schottky diodes were fabricated in order to investigate the electrical influences of these processes. The oxidation slightly disorders GaAs surfaces. Nitridation of a bare surface creates about a 2-nm-thick strongly disordered layer, which strongly deteriorates the electrical and photoluminescence characteristics. Nitridation of oxidated wafers (oxi-nitridation) forms firm amorphous GaON layers, which contain GaN, with very flat and sharp GaON/GaAs interfaces, where crystal disorder is hardly observed. It improves the current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics and the photoluminescence intensity. Results of the structural and the electrical characterizations qualitatively coincide well with each other.

  11. Deposition and characterization of noble metal onto surfaces of 304l stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras R, A.; Arganis J, C. R.; Aguilar T, J. A.; Medina A, A. L., E-mail: aida.contreras@inin.gob.m [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    Noble metal chemical addition (NMCA) plus hydrogen water chemistry is an industry-wide accepted approach for potential intergranular stress corrosion cracking mitigation of BWR internals components. NMCA is a method of applying noble metal onto BWR internals surfaces using reactor water as the transport medium that causes the deposition of noble metal from the liquid onto surfaces. In this work different platinum concentration solutions were deposited onto pre-oxidized surfaces of 304l steel at 180 C during 48 hr in an autoclave. In order to simulate the zinc water conditions, deposits of Zn and Pt-Zn were also carried out. The solutions used to obtain the deposits were: sodium hexahydroxyplatinate (IV), zinc nitrate hydrate and zinc oxide. The deposits obtained were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Finally, the electrochemical corrosion potential of pre-oxidized samples with Pt deposit were obtained and compared with the electrochemical corrosion potential of only pre-oxidized samples. (Author)

  12. Nano-scale characterization of fracture surfaces of blended epoxy resins related to fracture properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haris, Andi [Department of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Adachi, Tadaharu [Department of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)], E-mail: adachi@mech.titech.ac.jp; Araki, Wakako [Department of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2008-11-25

    The fracture surface morphologies of epoxy resins with different macromolecular structures created by blending two epoxy monomers with different molecular weights (Epikote 828 and Epikote 1001) were characterized using atomic force microscopy with different sampling intervals. A measured fracture surface parameter (roughness ratio, S{sub dr}) was quantitatively analyzed from the topographic images and then correlated to the measured fracture energy, G{sub IC}. The fracture energy increased with the content of Epikote 1001 monomer, {phi}. The nano-scale surface roughness strongly depended on {phi}, meaning that each epoxy resin can be considered to have a different material structure in several nano-scales; heterogeneity, network or crosslink, which can be observed at higher resolution, 6 nm for 3 x 3 {mu}m{sup 2} scanning area, and 2 nm for 1 x 1 {mu}m{sup 2} scanning area. The fracture property is thus sensitive to the observed nano-structure whereas the glassy modulus is not. Therefore, the combination of the viscoelastic and fracture properties can be tailored by changing the network or crosslink structure by blending monomers with different molecular weights.

  13. Characterization of Rare Earth Oxide/Gold Composites Synthesized by Control of Surface Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Zannatul; Dennis, Robert; Sardar, Dhiraj; Zhang, Maogen; Gorski, Waldemar; Nash, Kelly

    2010-10-01

    The need for novel nanosized biosensors has resulted in increase interest in nanocomposites. The challenge in development of materials is that they should offer robust and tunable characteristics (fluorescence, magnetic, thermal behaviors, etc.) while remaining biocompatible. In this study, we use small molecules to attach transition metal nanostructures (gold spheres) to select rare earth oxide (Er^3+:Y2O3) particles synthesized by a urea precipitation method. The goal is to enhance the fluorescence of the rare earth materials through surface plasmons resonance generated by the gold structure while achieving dispersibility of the particles. The attachment of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs, ˜20 nm) to the surface of rare earth nanoparticles (RENPs, ˜100 nm) is achieved by the surface modification with (3-Mercaptopropyl) trimethoxy-silane (MPTS); the average numbers of Au NPs per RENP is controlled by the composition of MPTS and Propyltrimethoxysilane (PTMS, without functional groups). Characterization of the physical properties is performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Fluorescence spectroscopy is used to compare the radiative decay rates of nanocomposites to unmodified particles. The resulting structures will be used in studies of bulk and particle polymer composites for potential biosensing and drug delivery applications.

  14. Granulometric characterization of sediments transported by surface runoff generated by moving storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. M. P. de Lima

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the combined effect of wind and rain, the importance of storm movement to surface flow has long been recognized, at scales ranging from headwater scales to large basins. This study presents the results of laboratory experiments designed to investigate the influence of moving rainfall storms on the dynamics of sediment transport by surface runoff. Experiments were carried out, using a rain simulator and a soil flume. The movement of rainfall was generated by moving the rain simulator at a constant speed in the upstream and downstream directions along the flume. The main objective of the study was to characterize, in laboratory conditions, the distribution of sediment grain-size transported by rainfall-induced overland flow and its temporal evolution. Grain-size distribution of the eroded material is governed by the capacity of flow that transports sediments. Granulometric curves were constructed using conventional hand sieving and a laser diffraction particle size analyser (material below 0.250 mm for overland flow and sediment deliveries collected at the flume outlet. Surface slope was set at 2%, 7% and 14%. Rainstorms were moved with a constant speed, upslope and downslope, along the flume or were kept static. The results of laboratory experiments show that storm movement, affecting the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall, has a marked influence on the grain-size characteristics of sediments transported by overland flow. The downstream-moving rainfall storms have higher stream power than do other storm types.

  15. Laser Scanning on Road Pavements: A New Approach for Characterizing Surface Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Bitelli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The surface layer of road pavement has a particular importance in relation to the satisfaction of the primary demands of locomotion, such as security and eco-compatibility. Among those pavement surface characteristics, the “texture” appears to be one of the most interesting with regard to the attainment of skid resistance. Specifications and regulations, providing a wide range of functional indicators, act as guidelines to satisfy the performance requirements. This paper describes an experiment on the use of laser scanner techniques on various types of asphalt for texture characterization. The use of high precision laser scanners, such as the triangulation types, is proposed to expand the analysis of road pavement from the commonly and currently used two-dimensional method to a three-dimensional one, with the aim of extending the range of the most important parameters for these kinds of applications. Laser scanners can be used in an innovative way to obtain information on areal surface layer through a single measurement, with data homogeneity and representativeness. The described experience highlights how the laser scanner is used for both laboratory experiments and tests in situ, with a particular attention paid to factors that could potentially affect the survey.

  16. Laser scanning on road pavements: a new approach for characterizing surface texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitelli, Gabriele; Simone, Andrea; Girardi, Fabrizio; Lantieri, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    The surface layer of road pavement has a particular importance in relation to the satisfaction of the primary demands of locomotion, such as security and eco-compatibility. Among those pavement surface characteristics, the "texture" appears to be one of the most interesting with regard to the attainment of skid resistance. Specifications and regulations, providing a wide range of functional indicators, act as guidelines to satisfy the performance requirements. This paper describes an experiment on the use of laser scanner techniques on various types of asphalt for texture characterization. The use of high precision laser scanners, such as the triangulation types, is proposed to expand the analysis of road pavement from the commonly and currently used two-dimensional method to a three-dimensional one, with the aim of extending the range of the most important parameters for these kinds of applications. Laser scanners can be used in an innovative way to obtain information on areal surface layer through a single measurement, with data homogeneity and representativeness. The described experience highlights how the laser scanner is used for both laboratory experiments and tests in situ, with a particular attention paid to factors that could potentially affect the survey.

  17. The Palliser Rockslide, Canadian Rocky Mountains: Characterization and modeling of a stepped failure surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturzenegger, M.; Stead, D.

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation of the prehistoric Palliser Rockslide, Rocky Mountains, Canada. Conventional aerial photograph interpretation and field mapping are complemented by terrestrial digital photogrammetry. These techniques allow quantification of the rockslide debris volume and reconstruction of the pre-slide topography. It has been estimated that the volume of rock involved in the most recent large rockslide is 8 Mm 3. Terrestrial digital photogrammetry is used in the characterization of the failure surface morphology, which is subdivided into four types of step-path geometry comprising both pre-existing discontinuities and intact rock fractures. Incorporation of these data into various rock slope stability numerical modeling methods highlights a complex failure mechanism, which includes sliding along a large scale curved failure surface, intact rock bridge fracturing and lateral confinement. A preliminary quantification of the contribution of intact rock bridges to the shear strength of the failure surface is presented in terms of the apparent cohesion, apparent tensile strength and cumulative length of the intact rock segments.

  18. Quantitative characterization of the atomic-scale structure of oxyhydroxides in rusts formed on steel surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, M.; Suzuki, S.; Kimura, M.; Suzuki, T.; Kihira, H.; Waseda, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative X-ray structural analysis coupled with anomalous X-ray scattering has been used for characterizing the atomic-scale structure of rust formed on steel surfaces. Samples were prepared from rust layers formed on the surfaces of two commercial steels. X-ray scattered intensity profiles of the two samples showed that the rusts consisted mainly of two types of ferric oxyhydroxide, α-FeOOH and γ-FeOOH. The amounts of these rust components and the realistic atomic arrangements in the components were estimated by fitting both the ordinary and the environmental interference functions with a model structure calculated using the reverse Monte Carlo simulation technique. The two rust components were found to be the network structure formed by FeO 6 octahedral units, the network structure itself deviating from the ideal case. The present results also suggest that the structural analysis method using anomalous X-ray scattering and the reverse Monte Carlo technique is very successful in determining the atomic-scale structure of rusts formed on the steel surfaces

  19. Characterization of Natural Dyes and Traditional Korean Silk Fabric by Surface Analytical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihye; Kang, Min Hwa; Lee, Kang-Bong; Lee, Yeonhee

    2013-01-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are well established surface techniques that provide both elemental and organic information from several monolayers of a sample surface, while also allowing depth profiling or image mapping to be carried out. The static TOF-SIMS with improved performances has expanded the application of TOF-SIMS to the study of a variety of organic, polymeric and biological materials. In this work, TOF-SIMS, XPS and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) measurements were used to characterize commercial natural dyes and traditional silk fabric dyed with plant extracts dyes avoiding the time-consuming and destructive extraction procedures necessary for the spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods previously used. Silk textiles dyed with plant extracts were then analyzed for chemical and functional group identification of their dye components and mordants. TOF-SIMS spectra for the dyed silk fabric showed element ions from metallic mordants, specific fragment ions and molecular ions from plant-extracted dyes. The results of TOF-SIMS, XPS and FTIR are very useful as a reference database for comparison with data about traditional Korean silk fabric and to provide an understanding of traditional dyeing materials. Therefore, this study shows that surface techniques are useful for micro-destructive analysis of plant-extracted dyes and Korean dyed silk fabric. PMID:28809257

  20. Nanophotonic force microscopy: characterizing particle-surface interactions using near-field photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Perry; Kang, Pilgyu; O'Dell, Dakota; Erickson, David

    2015-02-11

    Direct measurements of particle-surface interactions are important for characterizing the stability and behavior of colloidal and nanoparticle suspensions. Current techniques are limited in their ability to measure pico-Newton scale interaction forces on submicrometer particles due to signal detection limits and thermal noise. Here we present a new technique for making measurements in this regime, which we refer to as nanophotonic force microscopy. Using a photonic crystal resonator, we generate a strongly localized region of exponentially decaying, near-field light that allows us to confine small particles close to a surface. From the statistical distribution of the light intensity scattered by the particle we are able to map out the potential well of the trap and directly quantify the repulsive force between the nanoparticle and the surface. As shown in this Letter, our technique is not limited by thermal noise, and therefore, we are able to resolve interaction forces smaller than 1 pN on dielectric particles as small as 100 nm in diameter.