WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface brightness emission

  1. IRAS surface brightness maps of visible reflection nebulae: evidence for non-equilibrium infrared emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelaz, M.W.; Werner, M.W.; Sellgren, K.

    1986-01-01

    Surface brightness maps at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns of 16 visible reflection nebulae were extracted from the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) database. The maps were produced by coadding IRAS survey scans over areas centered on the illuminating stars, and have spatial resolutions of 0.9' x 4' at 12 and 25 microns, 1.8' x 4.5' at 60 microns, and 3.6' x 5' at 100 microns. Extended emission in the four IRAS bandpasses was detected in fourteen of the reflection nebulae. The IRAS data were used to measure the flux of the infrared emission associated with each source. The energy distributions show that the 12 micron flux is greater than the 25 micron flux in 11 of the nebulae, and the peak flux occurs in the 60 or 100 micron bandpass in all 16 nebular. The 60 and 100 micron flux can be approximated by blackbodies with temperatures between 30 and 50 K, consistent with temperatures expected from extrapolation of greybody fits to the 60 and 100 micron data. The excess 12 and 25 micron emission is attributed to a nonequilibrium process such as emission from thermal fluctuations of very small grains excited by single ultraviolet photons, or emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) excited by ultraviolet radiation. The common features of the energy distributions of the 16 reflection nebulae, also seen in the reflection nebulae associated with the Pleiades, suggest that PAHs or very small grains may be found in most reflection nebulae

  2. Stunningly bright optical emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinke, Craig O.

    2017-12-01

    The detection of bright, rapid optical pulsations from pulsar PSR J1023+0038 have provided a surprise for researchers working on neutron stars. This discovery poses more questions than it answers and will spur on future work and instrumentation.

  3. Giant Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Alka; Kantharia, Nimisha G.; Das, Mousumi

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we present radio observations of the giant low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies made using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). LSB galaxies are generally large, dark matter dominated spirals that have low star formation efficiencies and large HI gas disks. Their properties suggest that they are less evolved compared to high surface brightness galaxies. We present GMRT emission maps of LSB galaxies with an optically-identified active nucleus. Using our radio data and archival near-infrared (2MASS) and near-ultraviolet (GALEX) data, we studied morphology and star formation efficiencies in these galaxies. All the galaxies show radio continuum emission mostly associated with the centre of the galaxy.

  4. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies: Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.; Ohio State Univ., Columbus

    1988-01-01

    Using measurements from IRAS correlations are found between optical surface brightness and both infrared-to-optical flux ratio and infrared colour temperature, in the sense that galaxies with high surface brightness have higher FIR emission and higher temperatures. (author)

  5. Discovery of megaparsec-scale, low surface brightness nonthermal emission in merging galaxy clusters using the green bank telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnsworth, Damon; Rudnick, Lawrence [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Brown, Shea [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, 203 Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Brunetti, Gianfranco [INAF/Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-12-20

    We present results from a study of 12 X-ray bright clusters at 1.4 GHz with the 100 m Green Bank Telescope. After subtraction of point sources using existing interferometer data, we reach a median (best) 1σ rms sensitivity level of 0.01 (0.006) μJy arcsec{sup –2}, and find a significant excess of diffuse, low surface brightness emission in 11 of 12 Abell clusters observed. We also present initial results at 1.4 GHz of A2319 from the Very Large Array. In particular, we find: (1) four new detections of diffuse structures tentatively classified as two halos (A2065, A2069) and two relics (A2067, A2073); (2) the first detection of the radio halo in A2061 at 1.4 GHz, which qualifies this as a possible ultra-steep spectrum halo source with a synchrotron spectral index of α ∼ 1.8 between 327 MHz and 1.4 GHz; (3) a ∼2 Mpc radio halo in the sloshing, minor-merger cluster A2142; (4) a >2× increase of the giant radio halo extent and luminosity in the merging cluster A2319; (5) a ∼7× increase to the integrated radio flux and >4× increase to the observed extent of the peripheral radio relic in A1367 to ∼600 kpc, which we also observe to be polarized on a similar scale; (6) significant excess emission of ambiguous nature in three clusters with embedded tailed radio galaxies (A119, A400, A3744). Our radio halo detections agree with the well-known X-ray/radio luminosity correlation, but they are larger and fainter than current radio power correlation studies would predict. The corresponding volume-averaged synchrotron emissivities are 1-2 orders of magnitude below the characteristic value found in previous studies. Some of the halo-like detections may be some type of previously unseen, low surface brightness radio halo or blend of unresolved shock structures and sub-Mpc-scale turbulent regions associated with their respective cluster merging activity. Four of the five tentative halos contain one or more X-ray cold fronts, suggesting a possible connection between gas

  6. SURFACE PHOTOMETRY OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBLOK, WJG; VANDERHULST, JM; BOTHUN, GD

    1995-01-01

    Low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are galaxies dominated by an exponential disc whose central surface brightness is much fainter than the value of mu(B)(0) = 21.65 +/- 0.30 mag arcsec(-2) found by Freeman. In this paper we present broadband photometry of a sample of 21 late-type LSB galaxies.

  7. Electron beam brightness with field immersed emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.K.; Neil, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    The beam quality or brightness of an electron beam produced with field immersed emission is studied with two models. First, an envelope formulation is used to determine the scaling of brightness with current, magnetic field and cathode radius, and examine the equilibrium beam radius. Second, the DPC computer code is used to calculate the brightness of two electron beam sources

  8. Surface-plasmon resonance-enhanced multiphoton emission of high-brightness electron beams from a nanostructured copper cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R K; To, H; Andonian, G; Feng, J; Polyakov, A; Scoby, C M; Thompson, K; Wan, W; Padmore, H A; Musumeci, P

    2013-02-15

    We experimentally investigate surface-plasmon assisted photoemission to enhance the efficiency of metallic photocathodes for high-brightness electron sources. A nanohole array-based copper surface was designed to exhibit a plasmonic response at 800 nm, fabricated using the focused ion beam milling technique, optically characterized and tested as a photocathode in a high power radio frequency photoinjector. Because of the larger absorption and localization of the optical field intensity, the charge yield observed under ultrashort laser pulse illumination is increased by more than 100 times compared to a flat surface. We also present the first beam characterization results (intrinsic emittance and bunch length) from a nanostructured photocathode.

  9. Low surface brightness spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanishin, W.

    1980-01-01

    This dissertation presents an observational overview of a sample of low surface brightness (LSB) spiral galaxies. The sample galaxies were chosen to have low surface brightness disks and indications of spiral structure visible on the Palomar Sky Survey. They are of sufficient angular size (diameter > 2.5 arcmin), to allow detailed surface photometry using Mayall 4-m prime focus plates. The major findings of this dissertation are: (1) The average disk central surface brightness of the LSB galaxies is 22.88 magnitude/arcsec 2 in the B passband. (2) From broadband color measurements of the old stellar population, we infer a low average stellar metallicity, on the order of 1/5 solar. (3) The spectra and optical colors of the HII regions in the LSB galaxies indicate a lack of hot ionizing stars compared to HII regions in other late-type galaxies. (4) The average surface mass density, measured within the radius containing half the total mass, is less than half that of a sample of normal late-type spirals. (5) The average LSB galaxy neutral hydrogen mass to blue luminosity ratio is about 0.6, significantly higher than in a sample of normal late-type galaxies. (6) We find no conclusive evidence of an abnormal mass-to-light ratio in the LSB galaxies. (7) Some of the LSB galaxies exhibit well-developed density wave patterns. (8) A very crude calculation shows the lower metallicity of the LSB galaxies compared with normal late-type spirals might be explained simply by the deficiency of massive stars in the LSB galaxies

  10. Does low surface brightness mean low density?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBlok, WJG; McGaugh, SS

    1996-01-01

    We compare the dynamical properties of two galaxies at identical positions on the Tully-Fisher relation, but with different surface brightnesses. We find that the low surface brightness galaxy UGC 128 has a higher mass-to-light ratio, and yet has lower mass densities than the high surface brightness

  11. The lowest surface brightness disc galaxy known

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.I.; Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The discovery of a galaxy with a prominent bulge and a dominant extremely low surface brightness disc component is reported. The profile of this galaxy is very similar to the recently discovered giant low surface brightness galaxy Malin 1. The disc central surface brightness is found to be ∼ 26.4 Rμ, some 1.5 mag fainter than Malin 1 and thus by far the lowest yet observed. (author)

  12. Bright emission lines in new Seyfert galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasev, V.L.; Denisiuk, E.K.; Lipovetskii, V.A.; Shapovalova, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    Observational data are given on bright emission lines (H-alpha, H-beta, and forbidden N II, S II, and O III) for 14 recently discovered Seyfert galaxies. The investigated objects can be divided into three groups, which correspond approximately to the first (5 objects), the intermediate (4 objects), and the second (4 objects) Seyfert types. Attention is drawn to the properties of the galaxy Markaryan 1018, which has features of both the first and the second type and is distinguished by the weakness of its emission lines, which is probably due to a gas deficit. 7 references

  13. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1983-01-01

    It is proposed that Freeman's discovery that the extrapolated central surface brightness of spiral galaxies is approximately constant can be simply explained if the galaxies contain a spheroidal component which dominates the light in their outer isophotes. Calculations of an effective central surface brightness indicate a wide spread of values. This requires either a wide spread in disc properties or significant spheroidal components or, most probably, both. (author)

  14. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.; Phillipps, S.

    1985-01-01

    The intrinsic surface brightness Ssub(e) of 500 disc galaxies (0<=T<=9) drawn from the Second Reference Catalogue is computed and it is shown that Ssub(e) does not correlate significantly with Msub(B), (B-V) or type. This is consistent with the notion that there is a heavy selection bias in favour of disc galaxies with that particular surface brightness which allows inclusion in the catalogue over the largest volume of space. (author)

  15. Do Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Host Stellar Bars?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Sánchez García, Osbaldo, E-mail: b.cervantes@irya.unam.mx, E-mail: o.sanchez@irya.unam.mx [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Morelia, A.P. 3-72, C.P. 58089 Michoacán, México (Mexico)

    2017-09-20

    With the aim of assessing if low surface brightness galaxies host stellar bars and by studying the dependence of the occurrence of bars as a function of surface brightness, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to construct a large volume-limited sample of galaxies and then segregate these galaxies as having low or high surface brightness in terms of their central surface brightness. We find that the fraction of low surface brightness galaxies hosting strong bars is systematically lower than that found for high surface brightness galaxies. The dependence of the bar fraction on the central surface brightness is mostly driven by a correlation of the surface brightness with the spin and the gas richness of the galaxies, showing only a minor dependence on the surface brightness. We also find that the length of the bars is strongly dependent on the surface brightness, and although some of this dependence is attributed to the gas content, even at a fixed gas-to-stellar mass ratio, high surface brightness galaxies host longer bars than their low surface brightness counterparts, which we attribute to an anticorrelation of the surface brightness with the spin.

  16. Do Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Host Stellar Bars?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Sánchez García, Osbaldo

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of assessing if low surface brightness galaxies host stellar bars and by studying the dependence of the occurrence of bars as a function of surface brightness, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to construct a large volume-limited sample of galaxies and then segregate these galaxies as having low or high surface brightness in terms of their central surface brightness. We find that the fraction of low surface brightness galaxies hosting strong bars is systematically lower than that found for high surface brightness galaxies. The dependence of the bar fraction on the central surface brightness is mostly driven by a correlation of the surface brightness with the spin and the gas richness of the galaxies, showing only a minor dependence on the surface brightness. We also find that the length of the bars is strongly dependent on the surface brightness, and although some of this dependence is attributed to the gas content, even at a fixed gas-to-stellar mass ratio, high surface brightness galaxies host longer bars than their low surface brightness counterparts, which we attribute to an anticorrelation of the surface brightness with the spin.

  17. Star formation and the surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1985-01-01

    The (blue) surface brightness of spiral galaxies is significantly correlated with their Hα linewidth. This can be most plausibly interpreted as a correlation of surface brightness with star formation rate. There is also a significant difference in surface brightness between galaxies forming stars in a grand design spiral pattern and those with floc star formation regions. (author)

  18. IRAS surface brightness maps of reflection nebulae in the Pleiades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelaz, Michael W.; Werner, M. W.; Sellgren, K.

    1987-01-01

    Surface brightness maps at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns were made of a 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg area of the reflection nebulae in the Pleiades by coadding IRAS scans of this region. Emission is seen surrounding 17 Tau, 20 Tau, 23 Tau, and 25 Tau in all four bands, coextensive with the visible reflection nebulosity, and extending as far as 30 arcminutes from the illuminating stars. The infrared energy distributions of the nebulae peak in the 100 micron band, but up to 40 percent of the total infrared power lies in the 12 and 25 micron bands. The brightness of the 12 and 25 micron emission and the absence of temperature gradients at these wavelengths are inconsistent with the predictions of equilibrium thermal emission models. The emission at these wavelengths appears to be the result of micron nonequilibrium emission from very small grains, or from molecules consisting of 10-100 carbon atoms, which have been excited by ultraviolet radiation from the illuminating stars.

  19. Low surface brightness galaxies in the Fornax Cluster: automated galaxy surface photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.I.; Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    A sample is presented of low surface brightness galaxies (with extrapolated central surface brightness fainter than 22.0 Bμ) in the Fornax Cluster region which has been measured by the APM machine. Photometric parameters, namely profile shape, scale length, central brightness and total magnitude, are derived for the sample galaxies and correlations between the parameters of low surface brightness dwarf galaxies are discussed, with particular reference to the selection limits. Contrary to previous authors we find no evidence for a luminosity-surface brightness correlation in the sense of lower surface brightness galaxies having lower luminosities and scale sizes. In fact, the present data suggest that it is the galaxies with the largest scale lengths which are more likely to be of very low surface brightness. In addition, the larger scale length galaxies occur preferentially towards the centre of the Cluster. (author)

  20. Low surface brightness galaxies in the cluster A1367

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.I.; Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    We have obtained deep CCD frames of apparently blank regions of sky in the hope of detecting very low surface brightness (LSB) objects in the cluster A1367. We discuss our data reduction, and image detection and selection techniques. If the galaxies detected are actually cluster members then they are dwarfs and the conclusions of a previous paper on the Fornax cluster are essentially confirmed. One area of variance is that the lowest surface brightness galaxies do not appear to be preferentially concentrated towards the cluster centre. This can be explained by there being a much larger density of dwarf galaxies over this bright galaxy-rich region of the universe. We find over our small area approximately four times as many LSB galaxies as would be expected from our Fornax data. We speculate on the possible origin and likely intensity of intergalactic light within clusters. (author)

  1. A surface brightness analysis of eight RR Lyrae stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, S.L.; Barnes, T.G. III; Moffett, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have used a surface brightness, (V-R) relation to analyze new contemporaneous photometry and radial velocity data for 6 RR-ab type stars and to re-analyze previously published data for RR Lyrae and X Arietis. Systematic effects were found in the surface brightness at phases near minimum radius. Excluding these phases, they determine the slope of the surface brightness relation and the mean radius for each star. They also find a zero point which includes both a distance term and the zero point of the surface brightness relation. The sample includes stars with Preston's metallicity indicator ΔS = 0 to 9, with periods ranging from 0.397 days to 0.651 days. Their results indicate a log(R/R solar ) vs. log P relation in the sense that stars with longer periods have larger radii, in agreement with theoretical predictions. Their radii are consistent with bolometric magnitudes in the range 0.2 - 0.8 magnitude but accurate magnitudes must await a reliable T e - color calibration

  2. The morphology and surface brightness of extragalactic jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicknell, G.V.

    1983-01-01

    The problems associated with laminar flow models are reviewed, and an analogy between laboratory jets and astrophysical jets is given. The relationship between surface brightness and the jet full width half maximum is not in general as predicted by simple magnetohydrodynamic models. An alternative turbulent model is presented

  3. The surface brightness of 1550 galaxies in Fornax: automated galaxy surface photometry: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.J.; Kibblewhite, E.J.; Cawson, M.G.M.

    1987-01-01

    A survey of a complete sample of galaxies in the region of the Fornax cluster is presented. Measurements with the Automatic Plate Measuring machine are used to derive the observed distribution of galaxy surface brightness for 1550 objects. Corrections for surface brightness dependent selection effects are then made in order to estimate the true distribution. It is found that the sample (with 16.6 ≤ Msub(APM) ≤ 19.1) is divided into two distinct populations. The 'normal' galaxies with extrapolated central surface brightness Ssub(x) ≤ 22.5 Bμ form a uniformly distributed background of field galaxies. Low surface brightness galaxies (Ssub(x) ≥ 22.5 Bμ), on the other hand, are strongly clumped about the cluster centre. There appear to be few low surface brightness field galaxies. (author)

  4. Low-Surface-Brightness Galaxies: Hidden Galaxies Revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothun, G.; Impey, C.; McGaugh, S.

    1997-07-01

    In twenty years, low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies have evolved from being an idiosyncratic notion to being one of the major baryonic repositories in the Universe. The story of their discovery and the characterization of their properties is told here. Their recovery from the noise of the night sky background is a strong testament to the severity of surface brightness selection effects. LSB galaxies have a number of remarkable properties which distinguish them from the more familiar Hubble Sequence of spirals. The two most important are 1) they evolve at a significantly slower rate and may well experience star formation outside of the molecular cloud environment, 2) they are embedded in dark matter halos which are of lower density and more extended than the halos around high surface brightness (HSB) disk galaxies. Compared to HSB disks, LSB disks are strongly dark matter dominated at all radii and show a systematic increase in $M/L$ with decreasing central surface brightness. In addition, the recognition that large numbers of LSB galaxies actually exist has changed the form of the galaxy luminosity function and has clearly increased the space density of galaxies at z =0. Recent CCD surveys have uncovered a population of red LSB disks that may be related to the excess of faint blue galaxies detected at moderate redshifts. LSB galaxies offer us a new window into galaxy evolution and formation which is every bit as important as those processes which have produced easy to detect galaxies. Indeed, the apparent youth of some LSB galaxies suggest that galaxy formation is a greatly extended process. While the discovery of LSB galaxies have lead to new insights, it remains unwise to presume that we now have a representative sample which encompasses all galaxy types and forms. (SECTION: Invited Review Paper)

  5. Thermal measurements of dark and bright surface features on Vesta as derived from Dawn/VIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Federico; Capria, Maria Teresa; De Sanctis, M.C.; Combe, J.-Ph.; Zambon, F.; Nathues, A.; Schröder, S.E.; Li, J.-Y.; Palomba, E.; Longobardo, A.; Blewett, D.T.; Denevi, B.W.; Palmer, E.; Capaccioni, F.; Ammannito, E.; Titus, Timothy N.; Mittlefehldt, D.W.; Sunshine, J.M.; Russell, C.T.; Raymond, C.A.; Dawn/VIR Team,

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing data acquired during Dawn’s orbital mission at Vesta showed several local concentrations of high-albedo (bright) and low-albedo (dark) material units, in addition to spectrally distinct meteorite impact ejecta. The thermal behavior of such areas seen at local scale (1-10 km) is related to physical properties that can provide information about the origin of those materials. We use Dawn’s Visible and InfraRed (VIR) mapping spectrometer hyperspectral data to retrieve surface temperatures and emissivities, with high accuracy as long as temperatures are greater than 220 K. Some of the dark and bright features were observed multiple times by VIR in the various mission phases at variable spatial resolution, illumination and observation angles, local solar time, and heliocentric distance. This work presents the first temperature maps and spectral emissivities of several kilometer-scale dark and bright material units on Vesta. Results retrieved from the infrared data acquired by VIR show that bright regions generally correspond to regions with lower temperature, while dark regions correspond to areas with higher temperature. During maximum daily insolation and in the range of heliocentric distances explored by Dawn, i.e. 2.23-2.54 AU, the warmest dark unit found on Vesta rises to a temperature of 273 K, while bright units observed under comparable conditions do not exceed 266 K. Similarly, dark units appear to have higher emissivity on average compared to bright units. Dark-material units show a weak anticorrelation between temperature and albedo, whereas the relation is stronger for bright material units observed under the same conditions. Individual features may show either evanescent or distinct margins in the thermal images, as a consequence of the cohesion of the surface material. Finally, for the two categories of dark and bright materials, we were able to highlight the influence of heliocentric distance on surface temperatures, and estimate an

  6. The distribution of star formation and metals in the low surface brightness galaxy UGC 628

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. E.; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Wang, Sharon X.

    2015-09-01

    We introduce the MUSCEL Programme (MUltiwavelength observations of the Structure, Chemistry and Evolution of LSB galaxies), a project aimed at determining the star-formation histories of low surface brightness galaxies. MUSCEL utilizes ground-based optical spectra and space-based UV and IR photometry to fully constrain the star-formation histories of our targets with the aim of shedding light on the processes that led low surface brightness galaxies down a different evolutionary path from that followed by high surface brightness galaxies, such as our Milky Way. Here we present the spatially resolved optical spectra of UGC 628, observed with the VIRUS-P IFU at the 2.7-m Harlen J. Smith Telescope at the McDonald Observatory, and utilize emission-line diagnostics to determine the rate and distribution of star formation as well as the gas-phase metallicity and metallicity gradient. We find highly clustered star formation throughout UGC 628, excluding the core regions, and a log(O/H) metallicity around -4.2, with more metal-rich regions near the edges of the galactic disc. Based on the emission-line diagnostics alone, the current mode of star formation, slow and concentrated in the outer disc, appears to have dominated for quite some time, although there are clear signs of a much older stellar population formed in a more standard inside-out fashion.

  7. A new, bright and hard aluminum surface produced by anodization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Fengyan; Hu, Bo; Tay, See Leng; Wang, Yuxin; Xiong, Chao; Gao, Wei

    2017-07-01

    Anodized aluminum (Al) and Al alloys have a wide range of applications. However, certain anodized finishings have relatively low hardness, dull appearance and/or poor corrosion resistance, which limited their applications. In this research, Al was first electropolished in a phosphoric acid-based solution, then anodized in a sulfuric acid-based solution under controlled processing parameters. The anodized specimen was then sealed by two-step sealing method. A systematic study including microstructure, surface morphology, hardness and corrosion resistance of these anodized films has been conducted. Results show that the hardness of this new anodized film was increased by a factor of 10 compared with the pure Al metal. Salt spray corrosion testing also demonstrated the greatly improved corrosion resistance. Unlike the traditional hard anodized Al which presents a dull-colored surface, this newly developed anodized Al alloy possesses a very bright and shiny surface with good hardness and corrosion resistance.

  8. Unveiling the Low Surface Brightness Stellar Peripheries of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Annette M. N.

    2018-01-01

    The low surface brightness peripheral regions of galaxies contain a gold mine of information about how minor mergers and accretions have influenced their evolution over cosmic time. Enormous stellar envelopes and copious amounts of faint tidal debris are natural outcomes of the hierarchical assembly process and the search for and study of these features, albeit highly challenging, offers the potential for unrivalled insight into the mechanisms of galaxy growth. Over the last two decades, there has been burgeoning interest in probing galaxy outskirts using resolved stellar populations. Wide-field surveys have uncovered vast tidal debris features and new populations of very remote globular clusters, while deep Hubble Space Telescope photometry has provided exquisite star formation histories back to the earliest epochs. I will highlight some recent results from studies within and beyond the Local Group and conclude by briefly discussing the great potential of future facilities, such as JWST, Euclid, LSST and WFIRST, for major breakthroughs in low surface brightness galaxy periphery science.

  9. Suzaku observations of low surface brightness cluster Abell 1631

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babazaki, Yasunori; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Ota, Naomi; Sasaki, Shin; Böhringer, Hans; Chon, Gayoung; Pratt, Gabriel W.; Matsumoto, Hironori

    2018-06-01

    We present analysis results for a nearby galaxy cluster Abell 1631 at z = 0.046 using the X-ray observatory Suzaku. This cluster is categorized as a low X-ray surface brightness cluster. To study the dynamical state of the cluster, we conduct four-pointed Suzaku observations and investigate physical properties of the Mpc-scale hot gas associated with the A 1631 cluster for the first time. Unlike relaxed clusters, the X-ray image shows no strong peak at the center and an irregular morphology. We perform spectral analysis and investigate the radial profiles of the gas temperature, density, and entropy out to approximately 1.5 Mpc in the east, north, west, and south directions by combining with the XMM-Newton data archive. The measured gas density in the central region is relatively low (a few ×10-4 cm-3) at the given temperature (˜2.9 keV) compared with X-ray-selected clusters. The entropy profile and value within the central region (r clusters. These features are also observed in another low surface brightness cluster, Abell 76. The spatial distributions of galaxies and the hot gas appear to be different. The X-ray luminosity is relatively lower than that expected from the velocity dispersion. A post-merger scenario may explain the observed results.

  10. Suzaku observations of low surface brightness cluster Abell 1631

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babazaki, Yasunori; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Ota, Naomi; Sasaki, Shin; Böhringer, Hans; Chon, Gayoung; Pratt, Gabriel W.; Matsumoto, Hironori

    2018-04-01

    We present analysis results for a nearby galaxy cluster Abell 1631 at z = 0.046 using the X-ray observatory Suzaku. This cluster is categorized as a low X-ray surface brightness cluster. To study the dynamical state of the cluster, we conduct four-pointed Suzaku observations and investigate physical properties of the Mpc-scale hot gas associated with the A 1631 cluster for the first time. Unlike relaxed clusters, the X-ray image shows no strong peak at the center and an irregular morphology. We perform spectral analysis and investigate the radial profiles of the gas temperature, density, and entropy out to approximately 1.5 Mpc in the east, north, west, and south directions by combining with the XMM-Newton data archive. The measured gas density in the central region is relatively low (a few ×10-4 cm-3) at the given temperature (˜2.9 keV) compared with X-ray-selected clusters. The entropy profile and value within the central region (r < 0.1 r200) are found to be flatter and higher (≳400 keV cm2). The observed bolometric luminosity is approximately three times lower than that expected from the luminosity-temperature relation in previous studies of relaxed clusters. These features are also observed in another low surface brightness cluster, Abell 76. The spatial distributions of galaxies and the hot gas appear to be different. The X-ray luminosity is relatively lower than that expected from the velocity dispersion. A post-merger scenario may explain the observed results.

  11. Characterizing bars in low surface brightness disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Wesley; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we use B-band, I-band, and 3.6 μm azimuthal light profiles of four low surface brightness galaxies (LSBs; UGC 628, F568-1, F568-3, F563-V2) to characterize three bar parameters: length, strength, and corotation radius. We employ three techniques to measure the radius of the bars, including a new method using the azimuthal light profiles. We find comparable bar radii between the I-band and 3.6 μm for all four galaxies when using our azimuthal light profile method, and that our bar lengths are comparable to those in high surface brightness galaxies (HSBs). In addition, we find the bar strengths for our galaxies to be smaller than those for HSBs. Finally, we use Fourier transforms of the B-band, I-band, and 3.6 μm images to characterize the bars as either `fast' or `slow' by measuring the corotation radius via phase profiles. When using the B- and I-band phase crossings, we find three of our galaxies have faster than expected relative bar pattern speeds for galaxies expected to be embedded in centrally dense cold dark matter haloes. When using the B-band and 3.6 μm phase crossings, we find more ambiguous results, although the relative bar pattern speeds are still faster than expected. Since we find a very slow bar in F563-V2, we are confident that we are able to differentiate between fast and slow bars. Finally, we find no relation between bar strength and relative bar pattern speed when comparing our LSBs to HSBs.

  12. SURFACE BRIGHTNESS PROFILES OF DWARF GALAXIES. I. PROFILES AND STATISTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Kimberly A.; Hunter, Deidre A.; Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2013-01-01

    Radial surface brightness profiles of spiral galaxies are classified into three types: (I) single exponential, or the light falls off with one exponential to a break before falling off (II) more steeply, or (III) less steeply. Profile breaks are also found in dwarf disks, but some dwarf Type IIs are flat or increasing out to a break before falling off. Here we re-examine the stellar disk profiles of 141 dwarfs: 96 dwarf irregulars (dIms), 26 Blue Compact Dwarfs (BCDs), and 19 Magellanic-type spirals (Sms). We fit single, double, or even triple exponential profiles in up to 11 passbands: GALEX FUV and NUV, ground-based UBVJHK and Hα, and Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 μm. We find that more luminous galaxies have brighter centers, larger inner and outer scale lengths, and breaks at larger radii; dwarf trends with M B extend to spirals. However, the V-band break surface brightness is independent of break type, M B , and Hubble type. Dwarf Type II and III profiles fall off similarly beyond the breaks but have different interiors and IIs break ∼twice as far as IIIs. Outer Type II and III scale lengths may have weak trends with wavelength, but pure Type II inner scale lengths clearly decrease from the FUV to visible bands whereas Type III inner scale lengths increase with redder bands. This suggests the influence of different star formation histories on profile type, but nonetheless the break location is approximately the same in all passbands. Dwarfs continue trends between profile and Hubble types such that later-type galaxies have more Type II but fewer Type I and III profiles than early-type spirals. BCDs and Sms are over-represented as Types III and II, respectively, compared to dIms

  13. Bright galaxies in the Fornax cluster. Automated galaxy surface photometry: Pt. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.J.; Phillipps, S.; Davies, J.L.; Cawson, M.G.M.; Kibblewhite, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    We have determined surface-brightness profiles for all galaxies down to magnitude B = 16 in the central region of the Fornax cluster. Using existing redshift data, we have determined the distributions of surface brightness for both the whole sample and for cluster disc galaxies only. Although both distributions peak at extrapolated central surface brightness ∼ 21.7B mag/arcsec 2 (the canonical result), it is shown that they are, in fact, consistent with very broad distributions of disc central surface brightness once selection effects and the effects of bulge contamination of the profile are taken into account. (author)

  14. A MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF THE HIGH SURFACE BRIGHTNESS HOT SPOT IN PKS 1421-490

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, L. E. H.; Bicknell, G. V.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Jauncey, D. L.; Gelbord, J.; Schwartz, D. A.; Birkinshaw, M.; Worrall, D. M.; Marshall, H. L.; Georganopoulos, M.; Perlman, E. S.; Murphy, D. W.

    2009-01-01

    Long Baseline Array imaging of the z = 0.663 broadline radio galaxy PKS 1421-490 reveals a 400 pc diameter high surface brightness hot spot at a projected distance of ∼40 kpc from the active galactic nucleus. The isotropic X-ray luminosity of the hot spot, L 2-10keV = 3 x 10 44 ergs s -1 , is comparable to the isotropic X-ray luminosity of the entire X-ray jet of PKS 0637-752, and the peak radio surface brightness is hundreds of times greater than that of the brightest hot spot in Cygnus A. We model the radio to X-ray spectral energy distribution using a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model with a near equipartition magnetic field strength of 3 mG. There is a strong brightness asymmetry between the approaching and receding hotspots and the hot spot spectrum remains flat (α ∼ 0.5) well beyond the predicted cooling break for a 3 mG magnetic field, indicating that the hotspot emission may be Doppler beamed. A high plasma velocity beyond the terminal jet shock could be the result of a dynamically important magnetic field in the jet. There is a change in the slope of the hotspot radio spectrum at GHz frequencies, which we model by incorporating a cutoff in the electron energy distribution at γ min ∼ 650, with higher values implied if the hotspot emission is Doppler beamed. We show that a sharp decrease in the electron number density below a Lorentz factor of 650 would arise from the dissipation of bulk kinetic energy in an electron/proton jet with a Lorentz factor Γ jet ∼> 5.

  15. Energy and Emission Characteristics of a Short-Arc Xenon Flash Lamp Under "Saturated" Optical Brightness Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrukov, A. S.; Kireev, S. G.; Kozlov, N. P.; Shashkovskii, S. G.

    2017-09-01

    We present the results of a study of the electrical, energy, and spectral brightness characteristics of an experimental three-electrode high-pressure xenon flash lamp under conditions ensuring close to maximum possible spectral brightness for the xenon emission. We show that under saturated optical brightness conditions (brightness temperature in the visible region of the spectrum 30,000 K), emission of a pulsed discharge in xenon is quite different from the emission from an ideal blackbody: the maximum brightness temperatures are 24,000 K in the short-wavelength UV region and 19,000 K in the near IR range. The relative fraction of UV radiation in the emission spectrum of the lamp is >50%, which lets us consider such lamps as promising broadband sources of radiation with high spectral brightness for many important practical applications.

  16. Observation of near-infrared surface brightness of the large Magellanic cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Satio; Koizumi, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Toshio; Murakami, Hiroshi; Uyama, Kiichiro.

    1981-01-01

    The near-infrared surface brightness of the large Magellanic cloud was observed by an infrared telescope carried by a balloon. The balloon flight was made at Australian Balloon Launching Station. The brightness distribution of 2.4 Mu m radiation was obtained. A part of Bar was bright, and the expansion of the contour at the east end of Bar corresponded to the 30 Dor region. Many near-infrared sources distribute in this region. Discussions on the color and brightness of the center of Bar and the 30 Dor region are presented. (Kato, T.)

  17. FTIR Emission spectroscopy of surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Woerkom, P. C. M.

    A number of vibrational spectroscopic techniques are available For the study of surfaces, such as ATR, IR reflection-absorption, IR emission, etc. Infrared emission is hardly used, although interesting applications are possible now due to the high sensitivity of Fourier transform IR (FTIR) spectrometers. Two examples, where infrared emission measurements are very fruitful, will be given. One is the investigation of the curing behaviour of organic coatings, the other is the in situ study of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions. Undoubtedly, infrared emission measurements offer a number of specific advantages in some cases. Especially the less critical demands on the sample preparation are important.

  18. Beam brightness from a relativistic, field-emission diode with a velvet covered cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekefi, G.; Shefer, R.E.; Tasker, S.C.

    1985-08-01

    The beam emittance and brightness from a mildly relativistic (200 to 400 kV) high current density (0.5 to 3.5kA/cm 2 ) planar, field emission diode provided with a velvet covered cathode have been studied experimentally as a function of the applied electric field (100 to 600kV/cm). Transverse beam spreading has been measured using a conventional pinhole arrangement followed by a fluorescent screen and open shutter camera. Good turn-on, and a high normalized beam brightness (B/sub n/ = 300kA/cm 2 -rad 2 ) have been observed. The results are compared with those obtained with a graphite cathode. 11 refs., 6 figs

  19. Bright and durable field emission source derived from refractory taylor cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Gregory

    2016-12-20

    A method of producing field emitters having improved brightness and durability relying on the creation of a liquid Taylor cone from electrically conductive materials having high melting points. The method calls for melting the end of a wire substrate with a focused laser beam, while imposing a high positive potential on the material. The resulting molten Taylor cone is subsequently rapidly quenched by cessation of the laser power. Rapid quenching is facilitated in large part by radiative cooling, resulting in structures having characteristics closely matching that of the original liquid Taylor cone. Frozen Taylor cones thus obtained yield desirable tip end forms for field emission sources in electron beam applications. Regeneration of the frozen Taylor cones in-situ is readily accomplished by repeating the initial formation procedures. The high temperature liquid Taylor cones can also be employed as bright ion sources with chemical elements previously considered impractical to implement.

  20. Spectrophotometry of four galaxies of high surface brightness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakelyan, M.A.; Magtesyan, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    Spectrophotometry has been performed for the emission lines in the nuclei of Arakelyan galaxies Nos. 428, 449, 454, 532. In the first two objects, H II clouds occur roughly-equal2 kpc out from the nucleus. No. 449 may contain another cloud moving at roughly-equal1500 km/sec radial velocity. radial

  1. Bright emissive core-shell spherical microparticles for shock compression spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, James M.; Banishev, Alexandr A.; Dlott, Dana D.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were performed to study the response to shock compression of rhodamine 6G (R6G) dye encapsulated in 1.25 μm diameter silica microspheres. When R6G was encapsulated in microspheres, the emission intensity under steady-state irradiation (the brightness) was 3.4 times greater than the same dye in solution (the free dye). At least part of the brightness improvement was caused by an enhanced radiative rate. When the microspheres were embedded in poly-methylmethacrylate subjected to planar shocks in the 3–8.4 GPa range by laser-driven flyer plates, the dye emission redshifted and lost intensity. The dye emission redshift represents an instantaneous response to changes in the local density. In free dye samples, the shock-induced intensity loss had considerably slower rise times and fall times than the redshift. When dye was encapsulated in microspheres, the time dependence of the intensity loss matched the redshift almost exactly over a range of shock pressures and durations. The faster response to shock of dye in silica microspheres was explained by dye photophysics. The microsphere environment decreased the singlet state lifetime, which decreased the rise time, and it also decreased the triplet state lifetime, which decreased the fall time. Since it is much easier and more convenient to make measurements of intensity rather than spectral shift, these microspheres represent a substantial improvement in optical sensors to monitor shock compression of microstructured materials.

  2. Extremely Bright GRB 160625B with Multiple Emission Episodes: Evidence for Long-term Ejecta Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lü, Hou-Jun; Lü, Jing; Zhong, Shu-Qing; Huang, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Hai-Ming; Lan, Lin; Lu, Rui-Jing; Liang, En-Wei [Guangxi Key Laboratory for Relativistic Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Xie, Wei, E-mail: lhj@gxu.edu.edu, E-mail: lew@gxu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2017-11-01

    GRB 160625B is an extremely bright GRB with three distinct emission episodes. By analyzing its data observed with the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi mission, we find that a multicolor blackbody (mBB) model can be used to fit very well the spectra of the initial short episode (Episode I) within the hypothesis of photosphere emission of a fireball model. The time-resolved spectra of its main episode (Episode II), which was detected with both GBM and LAT after a long quiescent stage (∼180 s) following the initial episode, can be fitted with a model comprising an mBB component plus a cutoff power-law (CPL) component. This GRB was detected again in the GBM and LAT bands with a long extended emission (Episode III) after a quiescent period of ∼300 s. The spectrum of Episode III is adequately fitted with CPL plus single power-law models, and no mBB component is required. These features may imply that the emission of the three episodes are dominated by distinct physics processes, i.e., Episode I is possible from the cocoon emission surrounding the relativistic jet, Episode II may be from photosphere emission and internal shock of the relativistic jet, and Episode III is contributed by internal and external shocks of the relativistic jet. On the other hand, both X-ray and optical afterglows are consistent with the standard external shocks model.

  3. Giant Low Surface Brightness Galaxies: Evolution in Isolation M. Das

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rich in neutral hydrogen gas but low in star formation and hence low in surface ... The LSB dwarfs and irregulars form the larger fraction of LSB galax- ies. Studies ...... Navarro, J. F., Frenk, C. S., White, S. D. M. 1996, ApJ, 462, 563. Norman ...

  4. The visibility of galaxies as a function of central surface brightness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.; Phillipps, S.

    1983-01-01

    The likelihood of a galaxy with given intrinsic profile appearing in a photograph catalogue with limiting criteria on apparent magnitude and angular size will depend on the maximum distance at which such a galaxy can lie and still obey both criteria. It is demonstrated that the corresponding volume in which the galaxy will be visible is a sensitive function of the galaxy's central surface brightness as well as its absolute magnitude. Before the observed concentrations around preferred values of surface brightness can be regarded as real, it will be necessary to make allowance for this selection effect. (author)

  5. PAH EMISSION AT THE BRIGHT LOCATIONS OF PDRs: THE grandPAH HYPOTHESIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, H.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J.; Werner, M. W.; Livingston, J.

    2015-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission observed in the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra of bright mid-IR locations of NGC 7023, NGC 2023, and NGC 1333 was analyzed. These objects show large variations in PAH band ratios when studied through spectral mapping. Nevertheless, the mid-IR spectra at these bright spots show a remarkably similar PAH emission. We used the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database to fit the observations and analyze the derived PAH populations. Our results show that PAH emission in the 5–15 μm range appears to be rather insensitive to variations of the radiation field. Similar PAH populations of neutral small to medium-sized PAHs (∼50%), with ionized species contributing in slightly less than 50%, provide very good fits. Analyzing the degeneracy of the results shows that subtle (but intrinsic) variations in the emission properties of individual PAHs lead to observable differences in the resulting spectra. On top of this, we found that variations of <30% in the PAH abundances would lead to noticeable spectral differences between the three photodissociation regions (PDRs). Therefore, PAH populations must be remarkably similar at these different lines of sight. To account for this, we suggest the concept of grandPAHs as a unique mixture of the most stable PAHs emitting at these spots. Using NGC 7023 as an example, the grandPAHs refer to the robust PAH population that results from the intense processing of PAHs at the border limit between the PDR and the molecular cloud, where, due to the UV radiation that destroys the PAH population, the abundance of PAHs starts decreasing as we move toward the star

  6. PAH EMISSION AT THE BRIGHT LOCATIONS OF PDRs: THE grandPAH HYPOTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, H.; Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Werner, M. W.; Livingston, J., E-mail: heandrew@strw.leidenuniv.nl, E-mail: Christiaan.Boersma@nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MC 264-767, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission observed in the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra of bright mid-IR locations of NGC 7023, NGC 2023, and NGC 1333 was analyzed. These objects show large variations in PAH band ratios when studied through spectral mapping. Nevertheless, the mid-IR spectra at these bright spots show a remarkably similar PAH emission. We used the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database to fit the observations and analyze the derived PAH populations. Our results show that PAH emission in the 5–15 μm range appears to be rather insensitive to variations of the radiation field. Similar PAH populations of neutral small to medium-sized PAHs (∼50%), with ionized species contributing in slightly less than 50%, provide very good fits. Analyzing the degeneracy of the results shows that subtle (but intrinsic) variations in the emission properties of individual PAHs lead to observable differences in the resulting spectra. On top of this, we found that variations of <30% in the PAH abundances would lead to noticeable spectral differences between the three photodissociation regions (PDRs). Therefore, PAH populations must be remarkably similar at these different lines of sight. To account for this, we suggest the concept of grandPAHs as a unique mixture of the most stable PAHs emitting at these spots. Using NGC 7023 as an example, the grandPAHs refer to the robust PAH population that results from the intense processing of PAHs at the border limit between the PDR and the molecular cloud, where, due to the UV radiation that destroys the PAH population, the abundance of PAHs starts decreasing as we move toward the star.

  7. X-ray surface brightness of Kepler's supernova remnant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.L.; Long, K.S.

    1983-01-01

    We have observed Kepler's supernova remnant (SNR) with the imaging instruments on board the Einstein Observatory. The 0.15-4.5 keV flux incident on the Earth is 1.2 x 10 - 10 ergs cm - 2 s - 1 ; the flux corrected for interstellar absorption is 3.4 x 10 - 10 ergs cm - 2 s - 1 (L/sub x/ = 1.0 x 10 36 ergs s - 1 at D = 5 kpc) if the absorbing column density is N/sub H/ = 2.8 x 10 21 cm - 2 . The remnant is circular and shows a strong shell which is at least 5 times brighter in the north than in the south. The X-ray observations do not unambiguously determine whether the remnant is in the adiabatic or the free expansion phase. If the remnant is in the adiabatic phase, the density of the interstellar medium (ISM) ( 2 /sub e/>/sup 1/2/) surrounding Kepler's SNR must be about 5 cm - 3 . If the remnant is in the free expansion phase, where most of the emission arises from shock-heated ejecta, the ISM density must still be relatively high, n/sub i/> or approx. =0.1 cm - 3 . Even if the ISM is very inhomogeneous, with very many small, dense clouds, we show that the mean density of the ISM must be greater than approx.0.1 cm - 3 . In any case, the density of the x-ray emitting gas must be high ( 2 /sub e/>/sup 1/2/ > or approx. =10 cm - 3 ), and the temperature must be fairly low (T/sub e/ 7 K). The relatively high ISM density which is required is surprising in view of Kepler's distance above the galactic plane, approx.600 pc. Possibly the ISM around Kepler's SNR and around other type i SNRs is dominated by the mass lost from the presupernova star

  8. Distribution of surface brightness in Seyfert galaxies. III. Analysis of data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, V.L.; Doroshenko, V.T.; Terebizh, V.Yu.

    1987-01-01

    The observational data on the distribution of the surface brightness μ(r) in normal and Seyfert galaxies given in the first two parts of the study [1,2] are considered. The general form of μ(r) for r ≤ approximately equals 2 kpc is the same for the two groups of galaxies. The values of the parameters that characterize the central part of the spherical component are found, namely, the surface brightness μ 1 /sup (0)/, the brightness, the brightness gradient n 1 , and the color indices (U-B) 1 /sup (0)/ and (B-V) 1 /sup (0)/ at distance 1 kpc from the center. The range of variation of the basic parameters and the correlations of the parameters with each other and with the absolute magnitudes M/sub B//sup (0)/ of the galaxies find a natural explanation in the framework of the standard models of the spherical subsystems of galaxies. The relationships have approximately the same form for normal and Seyfert galaxies. The photometric characteristics of the central regions of Sy 1 and Sy 2 type galaxies are similar. The obtained results do not contradict the idea that all sufficiently bright spiral galaxies can pass through a Seyfert stage with a characteristic time of ∼10 8 yr

  9. B and R CCD surface photometry of selected low surface brightness galaxies in the region of the Fornax cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.I.; Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    The recent discoveries of large numbers of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies in clusters and of the extreme LSB giant galaxy Malin 1 are changing our view of the galactic contents of the Universe. In this paper we describe B and R band CCD photometry of a sample of LSB galaxies previously identified from photographic plates of the Fornax cluster. This sample contains some of the lowest surface brightness galaxies known, one having the same central surface brightness as Main 1. The objects in this sample have a wide range of morphologies, and galaxies of similar appearance may have very different (B-R) colours. The range of (B-R) colours for this sample (almost all of which would have been described as dE from their B band morphology alone) is as large as that of the entire Hubble sequence. (author)

  10. Extinction in the Galaxy from surface brightnesses of ESO-LV galaxies : Testing "standard" extinction maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choloniewski, J.; Valentijn, E. A.

    A new method for the determination of the extinction in the Galaxy is proposed. The method uses surface brightnesses of external galaxies in the B and R-bands. The observational data have been taken from the ESO-LV galaxy catalog. As a first application of our model we derive the ratio of R-band to

  11. The outer disks of early-type galaxies. I. Surface-brightness profiles of barred galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erwin, Peter; Pohlen, Michael; Beckman, John E.

    We present a study of 66 barred, early-type (S0-Sb) disk galaxies, focused on the disk surface brightness profile outside the bar region, with the aim of throwing light on the nature of Freeman type I and II profiles, their origins, and their possible relation to disk truncations. This paper

  12. Global Properties of M31's Stellar Halo from the SPLASH Survey. I. Surface Brightness Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Karoline M.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Beaton, Rachael L.; Bullock, James; Geha, Marla C.; Kalirai, Jason S.; Kirby, Evan N.; Majewski, Steven R.; Ostheimer, James C.; Patterson, Richard J.; Tollerud, Erik J.; Tanaka, Mikito; Chiba, Masashi

    2012-11-01

    We present the surface brightness profile of M31's stellar halo out to a projected radius of 175 kpc. The surface brightness estimates are based on confirmed samples of M31 red giant branch stars derived from Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopic observations. A set of empirical spectroscopic and photometric M31 membership diagnostics is used to identify and reject foreground and background contaminants. This enables us to trace the stellar halo of M31 to larger projected distances and fainter surface brightnesses than previous photometric studies. The surface brightness profile of M31's halo follows a power law with index -2.2 ± 0.2 and extends to a projected distance of at least ~175 kpc (~2/3 of M31's virial radius), with no evidence of a downward break at large radii. The best-fit elliptical isophotes have b/a = 0.94 with the major axis of the halo aligned along the minor axis of M31's disk, consistent with a prolate halo, although the data are also consistent with M31's halo having spherical symmetry. The fact that tidal debris features are kinematically cold is used to identify substructure in the spectroscopic fields out to projected radii of 90 kpc and investigate the effect of this substructure on the surface brightness profile. The scatter in the surface brightness profile is reduced when kinematically identified tidal debris features in M31 are statistically subtracted; the remaining profile indicates that a comparatively diffuse stellar component to M31's stellar halo exists to large distances. Beyond 90 kpc, kinematically cold tidal debris features cannot be identified due to small number statistics; nevertheless, the significant field-to-field variation in surface brightness beyond 90 kpc suggests that the outermost region of M31's halo is also comprised to a significant degree of stars stripped from accreted objects. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California

  13. Stellar populations of bulges in galaxies with a low surface-brightness disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, L.; Corsini, E. M.; Pizzella, A.; Dalla Bontà, E.; Coccato, L.; Méndez-Abreu, J.

    2015-03-01

    The radial profiles of the Hβ, Mg, and Fe line-strength indices are presented for a sample of eight spiral galaxies with a low surface-brightness stellar disc and a bulge. The correlations between the central values of the line-strength indices and velocity dispersion are consistent to those known for early-type galaxies and bulges of high surface-brightness galaxies. The age, metallicity, and α/Fe enhancement of the stellar populations in the bulge-dominated region are obtained using stellar population models with variable element abundance ratios. Almost all the sample bulges are characterized by a young stellar population, on-going star formation, and a solar α/Fe enhancement. Their metallicity spans from high to sub-solar values. No significant gradient in age and α/Fe enhancement is measured, whereas only in a few cases a negative metallicity gradient is found. These properties suggest that a pure dissipative collapse is not able to explain formation of all the sample bulges and that other phenomena, like mergers or acquisition events, need to be invoked. Such a picture is also supported by the lack of a correlation between the central value and gradient of the metallicity in bulges with very low metallicity. The stellar populations of the bulges hosted by low surface-brightness discs share many properties with those of high surface-brightness galaxies. Therefore, they are likely to have common formation scenarios and evolution histories. A strong interplay between bulges and discs is ruled out by the fact that in spite of being hosted by discs with extremely different properties, the bulges of low and high surface-brightness discs are remarkably similar.

  14. Bright Merger-nova Emission Powered by Magnetic Wind from a Newborn Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuai-Bing; Lei, Wei-Hua; Gao, He; Xie, Wei; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Ding-Xiong

    2018-01-01

    Mergers of neutron star–neutron star (NS–NS) or neutron star–black hole (NS–BH) binaries are candidate sources of gravitational waves (GWs). At least a fraction of the merger remnants should be a stellar mass BH with sub-relativistic ejecta. A collimated jet is launched via the Blandford–Znajek mechanism from the central BH to trigger a short gamma-ray burst (sGRB). At the same time, a near-isotropic wind may be driven by the Blandford–Payne mechanism (BP). In previous work, additional energy injection to the ejecta from the BP mechanism was ignored, and radioactive decay has long been thought to be the main source of the kilonova energy. In this Letter, we propose that the wind driven by the BP mechanism from the newborn BH’s disk can heat up and push the ejecta during the prompt emission phase or even at late times when there is fall-back accretion. Such a BP-powered merger-nova could be bright in the optical band even for a low-luminosity sGRB. The detection of a GW merger event with a BH clearly identified as a remnant, accompanied by a bright merger-nova, would provide robust confirmation of our model.

  15. Identification of faint central stars in extended, low-surface-brightness planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwitter, K.B.; Lydon, T.J.; Jacoby, G.H.

    1988-01-01

    As part of a larger program to study the properties of planetary nebula central stars, a search for faint central stars in extended, low-surface-brightness planetary nebulae using CCD imaging is performed. Of 25 target nebulae, central star candidates have been identified in 17, with certainties ranging from extremely probable to possible. Observed V values in the central star candidates extend to fainter than 23 mag. The identifications are presented along with the resulting photometric measurements. 24 references

  16. ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF UGC 1382 AS A GIANT LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, Lea M. Z.; Hagen, Alex [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Seibert, Mark; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Madore, Barry F. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Nyland, Kristina; Young, Lisa M. [Physics Department, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Neill, James D. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Treyer, Marie [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille, UMR 7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille (France)

    2016-08-01

    We provide evidence that UGC 1382, long believed to be a passive elliptical galaxy, is actually a giant low surface brightness (GLSB) galaxy that rivals the archetypical GLSB Malin 1 in size. Like other GLSB galaxies, it has two components: a high surface brightness disk galaxy surrounded by an extended low surface brightness (LSB) disk. For UGC 1382, the central component is a lenticular system with an effective radius of 6 kpc. Beyond this, the LSB disk has an effective radius of ∼38 kpc and an extrapolated central surface brightness of ∼26 mag arcsec{sup 2}. Both components have a combined stellar mass of ∼8 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙}, and are embedded in a massive (10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙}) low-density (<3 M {sub ⊙} pc{sup 2}) HI disk with a radius of 110 kpc, making this one of the largest isolated disk galaxies known. The system resides in a massive dark matter halo of at least 2 × 10{sup 12} M {sub ⊙}. Although possibly part of a small group, its low-density environment likely plays a role in the formation and retention of the giant LSB and HI disks. We model the spectral energy distributions and find that the LSB disk is likely older than the lenticular component. UGC 1382 has UV–optical colors typical of galaxies transitioning through the green valley. Within the LSB disk are spiral arms forming stars at extremely low efficiencies. The gas depletion timescale of ∼10{sup 11} years suggests that UGC 1382 may be a very-long-term resident of the green valley. We find that the formation and evolution of the LSB disk in UGC 1382 is best explained by the accretion of gas-rich LSB dwarf galaxies.

  17. Illuminating Low Surface Brightness Galaxies with the Hyper Suprime-Cam Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Johnny P.; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.; Macarthur, Lauren A.; Flowers, Xzavier; Goulding, Andy D.; Huang, Song; Kim, Ji Hoon; Komiyama, Yutaka; Leauthaud, Alexie; Leisman, Lukas; Lupton, Robert H.; Sifón, Cristóbal; Wang, Shiang-Yu

    2018-04-01

    We present a catalog of extended low surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs) identified in the Wide layer of the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC-SSP). Using the first ∼200 deg2 of the survey, we have uncovered 781 LSBGs, spanning red (g ‑ i ≥ 0.64) and blue (g ‑ i r eff = 2.″5–14″), our sample is likely dominated by low-redshift objects. We define LSBGs to have mean surface brightnesses {\\bar{μ }}eff}(g)> 24.3 mag arcsec‑2, which allows nucleated galaxies into our sample. As a result, the central surface brightness distribution spans a wide range of μ 0(g) = 18–27.4 mag arcsec‑2, with 50% and 95% of galaxies fainter than 24.3 and 22 mag arcsec‑2, respectively. Furthermore, the surface brightness distribution is a strong function of color, with the red distribution being much broader and generally fainter than that of the blue LSBGs, and this trend shows a clear correlation with galaxy morphology. Red LSBGs typically have smooth light profiles that are well characterized by single-component Sérsic functions. In contrast, blue LSBGs tend to have irregular morphologies and show evidence for ongoing star formation. We cross-match our sample with existing optical, H I, and ultraviolet catalogs to gain insight into the physical nature of the LSBGs. We find that our sample is diverse, ranging from dwarf spheroidals and ultradiffuse galaxies in nearby groups to gas-rich irregulars to giant LSB spirals, demonstrating the potential of the HSC-SSP to provide a truly unprecedented view of the LSBG population.

  18. SURFACE BRIGHTNESS PROFILES OF DWARF GALAXIES. II. COLOR TRENDS AND MASS PROFILES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Kimberly A. [Penn State Mont Alto, 1 Campus Drive, Mont Alto, PA 17237 (United States); Hunter, Deidre A. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Elmegreen, Bruce G., E-mail: kah259@psu.edu, E-mail: dah@lowell.edu, E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In this second paper of a series, we explore the B  −  V , U  −  B , and FUV−NUV radial color trends from a multi-wavelength sample of 141 dwarf disk galaxies. Like spirals, dwarf galaxies have three types of radial surface brightness profiles: (I) single exponential throughout the observed extent (the minority), (II) down-bending (the majority), and (III) up-bending. We find that the colors of (1) Type I dwarfs generally become redder with increasing radius, unlike spirals which have a blueing trend that flattens beyond ∼1.5 disk scale lengths, (2) Type II dwarfs come in six different “flavors,” one of which mimics the “U” shape of spirals, and (3) Type III dwarfs have a stretched “S” shape where the central colors are flattish, become steeply redder toward the surface brightness break, then remain roughly constant beyond, which is similar to spiral Type III color profiles, but without the central outward bluing. Faint (−9 >  M{sub B}  > −14) Type II dwarfs tend to have continuously red or “U” shaped colors and steeper color slopes than bright (−14 >  M{sub B}  > −19) Type II dwarfs, which additionally have colors that become bluer or remain constant with increasing radius. Sm dwarfs and BCDs tend to have at least some blue and red radial color trend, respectively. Additionally, we determine stellar surface mass density (Σ) profiles and use them to show that the break in Σ generally remains in Type II dwarfs (unlike Type II spirals) but generally disappears in Type III dwarfs (unlike Type III spirals). Moreover, the break in Σ is strong, intermediate, and weak in faint dwarfs, bright dwarfs, and spirals, respectively, indicating that Σ may straighten with increasing galaxy mass. Finally, the average stellar surface mass density at the surface brightness break is roughly 1−2  M {sub ⊙} pc{sup −2} for Type II dwarfs but higher at 5.9  M {sub ⊙} pc{sup −2} or 27  M {sub ⊙} pc{sup −2} for

  19. SIMULTANEOUS MULTI-BAND DETECTION OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES WITH MARKOVIAN MODELING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollmer, B.; Bonnarel, F.; Louys, M.; Perret, B.; Petremand, M.; Lavigne, F.; Collet, Ch.; Van Driel, W.; Sabatini, S.; MacArthur, L. A.

    2013-01-01

    We present to the astronomical community an algorithm for the detection of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies in images, called MARSIAA (MARkovian Software for Image Analysis in Astronomy), which is based on multi-scale Markovian modeling. MARSIAA can be applied simultaneously to different bands. It segments an image into a user-defined number of classes, according to their surface brightness and surroundings—typically, one or two classes contain the LSB structures. We have developed an algorithm, called DetectLSB, which allows the efficient identification of LSB galaxies from among the candidate sources selected by MARSIAA. The application of the method to two and three bands simultaneously was tested on simulated images. Based on our tests, we are confident that we can detect LSB galaxies down to a central surface brightness level of only 1.5 times the standard deviation from the mean pixel value in the image background. To assess the robustness of our method, the method was applied to a set of 18 B- and I-band images (covering 1.3 deg 2 in total) of the Virgo Cluster to which Sabatini et al. previously applied a matched-filter dwarf LSB galaxy search algorithm. We have detected all 20 objects from the Sabatini et al. catalog which we could classify by eye as bona fide LSB galaxies. Our method has also detected four additional Virgo Cluster LSB galaxy candidates undetected by Sabatini et al. To further assess the completeness of the results of our method, both MARSIAA, SExtractor, and DetectLSB were applied to search for (1) mock Virgo LSB galaxies inserted into a set of deep Next Generation Virgo Survey (NGVS) gri-band subimages and (2) Virgo LSB galaxies identified by eye in a full set of NGVS square degree gri images. MARSIAA/DetectLSB recovered ∼20% more mock LSB galaxies and ∼40% more LSB galaxies identified by eye than SExtractor/DetectLSB. With a 90% fraction of false positives from an entirely unsupervised pipeline, a completeness of 90% is

  20. Bright patches on chernozems - from space to surface and soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanova, Anna; Burian, Libor; Holec, Juraj; Minár, Jozef

    2016-04-01

    located in areas with slope gradient between 3 and 6°, which is consider as the higher slope in this part of the hilly land. In 1949 the distribution of bright patches was more strongly related to higher slope gradient, the convex forms of profile curvature, and upslope position than in 2004. In the studied catchment, 34 soil profiles were described in the bright patches (identified in 2004), and 73% of them were situated on the convex forms of profile curvature. The most of the profiles were eroded (88%), the mean soil loss was 0.36 m (in the comparison with the reference soil profile), and in 55% of described soil profiles the entire mollic horizon was removed. The typical surface horizon contained 2.3% of humus and 21% of carbonates. The soil profiles were further compared with these situated in the areas neighbouring with the bright patches, and soil profiles on two valley cross-sections, in order to understand the soil redistribution in the catchment, and describe the differences between the bright and black patches in the chernozem landscape. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract ESF-EC-0006-07 and APVV-0625-11; Anna Smetanová has received the support of the AgreenSkills fellowship (under grant agreement n°267196).

  1. Development of a high brightness ultrafast Transmission Electron Microscope based on a laser-driven cold field emission source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdellier, F; Caruso, G M; Weber, S; Kociak, M; Arbouet, A

    2018-03-01

    We report on the development of an ultrafast Transmission Electron Microscope based on a cold field emission source which can operate in either DC or ultrafast mode. Electron emission from a tungsten nanotip is triggered by femtosecond laser pulses which are tightly focused by optical components integrated inside a cold field emission source close to the cathode. The properties of the electron probe (brightness, angular current density, stability) are quantitatively determined. The measured brightness is the largest reported so far for UTEMs. Examples of imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy using ultrashort electron pulses are given. Finally, the potential of this instrument is illustrated by performing electron holography in the off-axis configuration using ultrashort electron pulses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Survey for Low Surface Brightness Dwarf Galaxies Around M31

    OpenAIRE

    Armandroff, Taft E.; Davies, James E.; Jacoby, George H.

    1998-01-01

    By applying a digital filtering technique to 1550 square degrees of the POSS-II in the vicinity of M31, we found two previously unidentified very low surface brightness dwarf galaxies which we designate And V and VI. Follow-up imaging with the KPNO 4-m telescope resolved these into stars easily. The V- and I- band images of And V indicate a distance similar to that of M31, and approximately -1.5. All evidence strongly supports its classification as a dwarf spheroidal companion to M31. Data f...

  3. Calibrating the Type Ia Supernova Distance Scale Using Surface Brightness Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Cicely; Jensen, Joseph B.; Blakeslee, John; Milne, Peter; Garnavich, Peter M.; Brown, Peter

    2018-06-01

    We have observed 20 supernova host galaxies with HST WFC3/IR in the F110W filter, and prepared the data for Surface Brightness Fluctuation (SBF) distance measurements. The purpose of this study is to determine if there are any discrepancies between the SBF distance scale and the type-Ia SN distance scale, for which local calibrators are scarce. We have now measured SBF magnitudes to all early-type galaxies that have hosted SN Ia within 80 Mpc for which SBF measurements are possible. SBF is the only distance measurement technique with statistical uncertainties comparable to SN Ia that can be applied to galaxies out to 80 Mpc.

  4. Electron emission at the rail surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornhill, L.; Battech, J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the authors examine the processes by which current is transferred from the cathode rail to the plasma armature in an arc-driven railgun. Three electron emission mechanisms are considered, namely thermionic emission, field-enhanced thermionic emission (or Schottky emission), and photoemission. The author's calculations show that the dominant electron emission mechanism depends, to a great extent, on the work function of the rail surface, the rail surface temperature, the electric field at the rail surface, and the effective radiation temperature of the plasma. For conditions that are considered to be typical of a railgun armature, Schottky emission is the dominant electron emission mechanism, providing current densities on the order of 10 9 A/m 2

  5. Detecting edges in the X-ray surface brightness of galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, J. S.; Fabian, A. C.; Russell, H. R.; Walker, S. A.; Blundell, K. M.

    2016-08-01

    The effects of many physical processes in the intracluster medium of galaxy clusters imprint themselves in X-ray surface brightness images. It is therefore important to choose optimal methods for extracting information from and enhancing the interpretability of such images. We describe in detail a gradient filtering edge detection method that we previously applied to images of the Centaurus cluster of galaxies. The Gaussian gradient filter measures the gradient in the surface brightness distribution on particular spatial scales. We apply this filter on different scales to Chandra X-ray observatory images of two clusters with active galactic nucleus feedback, the Perseus cluster and M 87, and a merging system, A 3667. By combining filtered images on different scales using radial filters spectacular images of the edges in a cluster are produced. We describe how to assess the significance of features in filtered images. We find the gradient filtering technique to have significant advantages for detecting many kinds of features compared to other analysis techniques, such as unsharp masking. Filtering cluster images in this way in a hard energy band allows shocks to be detected.

  6. THE STABILITY OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS DISKS BASED ON MULTI-WAVELENGTH MODELING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLachlan, J. M.; Wood, K.; Matthews, L. D.; Gallagher, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the structure and composition of the dusty interstellar medium (ISM) of low surface brightness (LSB) disk galaxies, we have used multi-wavelength photometry to construct spectral energy distributions for three low-mass, edge-on LSB galaxies (V rot = 88-105 km s -1 ). We use Monte Carlo radiation transfer codes that include the effects of transiently heated small grains and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules to model and interpret the data. We find that, unlike the high surface brightness galaxies previously modeled, the dust disks appear to have scale heights equal to or exceeding their stellar scale heights. This result supports the findings of previous studies that low-mass disk galaxies have dust scale heights comparable to their stellar scale heights and suggests that the cold ISM of low-mass, LSB disk galaxies may be stable against fragmentation and gravitational collapse. This may help to explain the lack of observed dust lanes in edge-on LSB galaxies and their low current star formation rates. Dust masses are found in the range (1.16-2.38) x 10 6 M sun , corresponding to face-on (edge-on), V-band, optical depths 0.034 ∼ face ∼ eq ∼< 1.99).

  7. Automated detection of very Low Surface Brightness galaxies in the Virgo Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prole, D. J.; Davies, J. I.; Keenan, O. C.; Davies, L. J. M.

    2018-04-01

    We report the automatic detection of a new sample of very low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies, likely members of the Virgo cluster. We introduce our new software, DeepScan, that has been designed specifically to detect extended LSB features automatically using the DBSCAN algorithm. We demonstrate the technique by applying it over a 5 degree2 portion of the Next-Generation Virgo Survey (NGVS) data to reveal 53 low surface brightness galaxies that are candidate cluster members based on their sizes and colours. 30 of these sources are new detections despite the region being searched specifically for LSB galaxies previously. Our final sample contains galaxies with 26.0 ≤ ⟨μe⟩ ≤ 28.5 and 19 ≤ mg ≤ 21, making them some of the faintest known in Virgo. The majority of them have colours consistent with the red sequence, and have a mean stellar mass of 106.3 ± 0.5M⊙ assuming cluster membership. After using ProFit to fit Sérsic profiles to our detections, none of the new sources have effective radii larger than 1.5 Kpc and do not meet the criteria for ultra-diffuse galaxy (UDG) classification, so we classify them as ultra-faint dwarfs.

  8. SIMULTANEOUS MULTI-BAND DETECTION OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES WITH MARKOVIAN MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollmer, B.; Bonnarel, F.; Louys, M. [CDS, Observatoire Astronomique, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Perret, B.; Petremand, M.; Lavigne, F.; Collet, Ch. [LSIIT, Universite de Strasbourg, 7, Rue Rene Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg (France); Van Driel, W. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon (France); Sabatini, S. [INAF/IASF-Roma, via Fosso de Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); MacArthur, L. A., E-mail: Bernd.Vollmer@astro.unistra.fr [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2013-02-01

    We present to the astronomical community an algorithm for the detection of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies in images, called MARSIAA (MARkovian Software for Image Analysis in Astronomy), which is based on multi-scale Markovian modeling. MARSIAA can be applied simultaneously to different bands. It segments an image into a user-defined number of classes, according to their surface brightness and surroundings-typically, one or two classes contain the LSB structures. We have developed an algorithm, called DetectLSB, which allows the efficient identification of LSB galaxies from among the candidate sources selected by MARSIAA. The application of the method to two and three bands simultaneously was tested on simulated images. Based on our tests, we are confident that we can detect LSB galaxies down to a central surface brightness level of only 1.5 times the standard deviation from the mean pixel value in the image background. To assess the robustness of our method, the method was applied to a set of 18 B- and I-band images (covering 1.3 deg{sup 2} in total) of the Virgo Cluster to which Sabatini et al. previously applied a matched-filter dwarf LSB galaxy search algorithm. We have detected all 20 objects from the Sabatini et al. catalog which we could classify by eye as bona fide LSB galaxies. Our method has also detected four additional Virgo Cluster LSB galaxy candidates undetected by Sabatini et al. To further assess the completeness of the results of our method, both MARSIAA, SExtractor, and DetectLSB were applied to search for (1) mock Virgo LSB galaxies inserted into a set of deep Next Generation Virgo Survey (NGVS) gri-band subimages and (2) Virgo LSB galaxies identified by eye in a full set of NGVS square degree gri images. MARSIAA/DetectLSB recovered {approx}20% more mock LSB galaxies and {approx}40% more LSB galaxies identified by eye than SExtractor/DetectLSB. With a 90% fraction of false positives from an entirely unsupervised pipeline, a completeness of

  9. Shape-Controlled Synthesis of All-Inorganic CsPbBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals with Bright Blue Emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhiqin; Zhao, Suling; Xu, Zheng; Qiao, Bo; Song, Pengjie; Gao, Di; Xu, Xurong

    2016-10-26

    We developed a colloidal synthesis of CsPbBr 3 perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) at a relative low temperature (90 °C) for the bright blue emission which differs from the original green emission (∼510 nm) of CsPbBr 3 nanocubes as reported previously. Shapes of the obtained CsPbBr 3 NCs can be systematically engineered into single and lamellar-structured 0D quantum dots, as well as face-to-face stacking 2D nanoplatelets and flat-lying 2D nanosheets via tuning the amounts of oleic acid (OA) and oleylamine (OM). They exhibit sharp excitonic PL emissions at 453, 472, 449, and 452 nm, respectively. The large blue shift relative to the emission of CsPbBr 3 bulk crystal can be ascribed to the strong quantum confinement effects of these various nanoshapes. PL decay lifetimes are measured, ranging from several to tens of nanoseconds, which infers the higher ratio of exciton radiative recombination to the nonradiative trappers in the obtained CsPbBr 3 NCs. These shape-controlled CsPbBr 3 perovskite NCs with the bright blue emission will be widely used in optoelectronic applications, especially in blue LEDs which still lag behind compared to the better developed red and green LEDs.

  10. GYRO-ORBIT SIZE, BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURE LIMIT, AND IMPLAUSIBILITY OF COHERENT EMISSION BY BUNCHING IN SYNCHROTRON RADIO SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singal, Ashok K.

    2012-01-01

    We show that an upper limit on the maximum brightness temperature for a self-absorbed incoherent synchrotron radio source is obtained from the size of its gyro orbits, which in turn must lie well within the confines of the total source extent. These temperature limits are obtained without recourse to inverse Compton effects or the condition of equipartition of energy between magnetic fields and relativistic particles. For radio variables, the intra-day variability implies brightness temperatures ∼10 19 K in the comoving rest frame of the source. This, if interpreted purely due to an incoherent synchrotron emission, would imply gyroradii >10 28 cm, the size of the universe, while from the causality arguments the inferred maximum size of the source in such a case is ∼ 15 cm. Such high brightness temperatures are sometimes modeled in the literature as some coherent emission process where bunches of non-thermal particles are somehow formed that radiate in phase. We show that, unlike in the case of curvature radiation models proposed in pulsars, in the synchrotron radiation mechanism the oppositely charged particles would contribute together to the coherent phenomenon without the need to form separate bunches of the opposite charges. At the same time we show that bunches would disperse over dimensions larger than a wavelength in time shorter than the gyro orbital period (∼< 0.1 s). Therefore, a coherent emission by bunches cannot be a plausible explanation of the high brightness temperatures inferred in extragalactic radio sources showing variability over a few hours or longer.

  11. MOIRCS DEEP SURVEY. V. A UNIVERSAL RELATION FOR STELLAR MASS AND SURFACE BRIGHTNESS OF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Takashi; Kajisawa, Masaru; Yamada, Toru; Akiyama, Masayuki; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Onodera, Masato; Konishi, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    We present a universal linear correlation between the stellar mass and surface brightness (SB) of galaxies at 0.3 -2.0∼-0.8 , in addition to dimming as (1 + z) 4 by the cosmological expansion effect. The brightening depends on galaxy color and stellar mass. The blue population (rest-frame U - V -0.8±0.3 in the rest-V band. On the other hand, the red population (U - V>0) and the massive galaxies (M * >10 10 M sun ) show stronger brightening, (1 + z) -1.5±0.1 . By comparison with galaxy evolution models, the phenomena are well understood by the pure luminosity evolution of galaxies out to z ∼ 3.

  12. Secondary electron emission from textured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, C. E.; Patino, M. I.; Wirz, R. E.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a Monte Carlo model is used to investigate electron induced secondary electron emission for varying effects of complex surfaces by using simple geometric constructs. Geometries used in the model include: vertical fibers for velvet-like surfaces, tapered pillars for carpet-like surfaces, and a cage-like configuration of interlaced horizontal and vertical fibers for nano-structured fuzz. The model accurately captures the secondary electron emission yield dependence on incidence angle. The model shows that unlike other structured surfaces previously studied, tungsten fuzz exhibits secondary electron emission yield that is independent of primary electron incidence angle, due to the prevalence of horizontally-oriented fibers in the fuzz geometry. This is confirmed with new data presented herein of the secondary electron emission yield of tungsten fuzz at incidence angles from 0-60°.

  13. High-energy emission from bright gamma-ray bursts using Fermi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissaldi, Elisabetta

    2010-05-25

    Among the scientific objectives of one of the present NASA missions, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (FGST), is the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Fermi's payload comprises two science instruments, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM). GBM was designed to detect and localize bursts for the Fermi mission. By means of an array of 12 NaI(Tl) (8 keV to 1 MeV) and two BGO (0.2 to 40 MeV) scintillation detectors, GBM extends the energy range (20 MeV to > 300 GeV) of the LAT instrument into the traditional range of current GRB databases. The physical detector response of the GBM instrument to GRBs has been determined with the help of Monte Carlo simulations, which are supported and verified by on-ground individual detector calibration measurements. The GBM detectors have been calibrated from 10 keV to 17.5 MeV using various gamma sources, and the detector response has been derived by simulations over the entire energy range (8 keV to 40 MeV) using GEANT. The GBM instrument has been operating successfully in orbit since June 11, 2008. The total trigger count from the time GBM triggering was enabled in July 2008 through December 2009 is 655, and about 380 of these triggers were classified as GRBs. Moreover, GBM detected several bursts in common with the LAT. These amazing detections mainly fulfill the primary science goal of GBM, which is the joint analysis of spectra and time histories of GRBs observed by both Fermi instruments. For every trigger, GBM provides near-real time on-board burst locations to permit repointing of the spacecraft and to obtain LAT observations of delayed emission from bursts. GBM and LAT refined locations are rapidly disseminated to the scientific community, often permitting extensive multiwavelength follow-up observations by NASA's Swift mission or other space- based observatories, and by numerous ground-based telescopes, thus allowing redshift determinations. Calculations of LAT upper limits are

  14. High-energy emission from bright gamma-ray bursts using Fermi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bissaldi, Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    Among the scientific objectives of one of the present NASA missions, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (FGST), is the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Fermi's payload comprises two science instruments, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM). GBM was designed to detect and localize bursts for the Fermi mission. By means of an array of 12 NaI(Tl) (8 keV to 1 MeV) and two BGO (0.2 to 40 MeV) scintillation detectors, GBM extends the energy range (20 MeV to > 300 GeV) of the LAT instrument into the traditional range of current GRB databases. The physical detector response of the GBM instrument to GRBs has been determined with the help of Monte Carlo simulations, which are supported and verified by on-ground individual detector calibration measurements. The GBM detectors have been calibrated from 10 keV to 17.5 MeV using various gamma sources, and the detector response has been derived by simulations over the entire energy range (8 keV to 40 MeV) using GEANT. The GBM instrument has been operating successfully in orbit since June 11, 2008. The total trigger count from the time GBM triggering was enabled in July 2008 through December 2009 is 655, and about 380 of these triggers were classified as GRBs. Moreover, GBM detected several bursts in common with the LAT. These amazing detections mainly fulfill the primary science goal of GBM, which is the joint analysis of spectra and time histories of GRBs observed by both Fermi instruments. For every trigger, GBM provides near-real time on-board burst locations to permit repointing of the spacecraft and to obtain LAT observations of delayed emission from bursts. GBM and LAT refined locations are rapidly disseminated to the scientific community, often permitting extensive multiwavelength follow-up observations by NASA's Swift mission or other space- based observatories, and by numerous ground-based telescopes, thus allowing redshift determinations. Calculations of LAT upper limits are mainly based

  15. A comparison of UV surface brightness and HI surface densities for spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federman, S.R.; Strom, C.

    1990-01-01

    Shaya and Federman (1987) suggested that the ambient ultraviolet flux at 1000 A permeating a spiral galaxy controls the neutral hydrogen (HI) surface density in the galaxy. They found that the atomic envelopes surrounding small molecular clouds, because of their great number, provide the major contribution to the HI surface density over the stellar disk. The increase in HI surface density with later Hubble types was ascribed to the stronger UV fields from more high-mass stars in later Hubble types. These hypotheses are based on the observations of nearby diffuse interstellar clouds, which show a sharp atomic-to-molecular transition (Savage et al. 1977), and on the theoretical framework introduced by Federman, Glassgold, and Kwan (1979). Atomic envelopes around interstellar clouds in the solar neighborhood arise when a steady state is reached between photodissociation of H2 and the formation of H2 on grains. The photodissociation process involves photons with wavelengths between 912 A and 1108 A. Shaya and Federman used H-alpha flux as an approximate measure for the far UV flux and made their comparisons based on averages over Hubble type. Here, researchers compare, on an individual basis, UV data obtained with space-borne and balloon-borne instruments for galaxies with measurements of HI surface density (Warmels 1988a, b). The comparisons substantiate the conclusion of Shaya and Federman that the far UV field controls the HI content of spiral galaxies

  16. Assimilation of SMOS Brightness Temperatures or Soil Moisture Retrievals into a Land Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.; Reichle, Rolf H.

    2016-01-01

    Three different data products from the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission are assimilated separately into the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5) to improve estimates of surface and root-zone soil moisture. The first product consists of multi-angle, dual-polarization brightness temperature (Tb) observations at the bottom of the atmosphere extracted from Level 1 data. The second product is a derived SMOS Tb product that mimics the data at a 40 degree incidence angle from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. The third product is the operational SMOS Level 2 surface soil moisture (SM) retrieval product. The assimilation system uses a spatially distributed ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) with seasonally varying climatological bias mitigation for Tb assimilation, whereas a time-invariant cumulative density function matching is used for SM retrieval assimilation. All assimilation experiments improve the soil moisture estimates compared to model-only simulations in terms of unbiased root-mean-square differences and anomaly correlations during the period from 1 July 2010 to 1 May 2015 and for 187 sites across the US. Especially in areas where the satellite data are most sensitive to surface soil moisture, large skill improvements (e.g., an increase in the anomaly correlation by 0.1) are found in the surface soil moisture. The domain-average surface and root-zone skill metrics are similar among the various assimilation experiments, but large differences in skill are found locally. The observation-minus-forecast residuals and analysis increments reveal large differences in how the observations add value in the Tb and SM retrieval assimilation systems. The distinct patterns of these diagnostics in the two systems reflect observation and model errors patterns that are not well captured in the assigned EnKF error parameters. Consequently, a localized optimization of the EnKF error parameters is needed to further improve Tb or SM retrieval

  17. Extracting Galaxy Cluster Gas Inhomogeneity from X-Ray Surface Brightness: A Statistical Approach and Application to Abell 3667

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Hajime; Reese, Erik D.; Kitayama, Tetsu; Sasaki, Shin; Suto, Yasushi

    2008-11-01

    Our previous analysis indicates that small-scale fluctuations in the intracluster medium (ICM) from cosmological hydrodynamic simulations follow the lognormal probability density function. In order to test the lognormal nature of the ICM directly against X-ray observations of galaxy clusters, we develop a method of extracting statistical information about the three-dimensional properties of the fluctuations from the two-dimensional X-ray surface brightness. We first create a set of synthetic clusters with lognormal fluctuations around their mean profile given by spherical isothermal β-models, later considering polytropic temperature profiles as well. Performing mock observations of these synthetic clusters, we find that the resulting X-ray surface brightness fluctuations also follow the lognormal distribution fairly well. Systematic analysis of the synthetic clusters provides an empirical relation between the three-dimensional density fluctuations and the two-dimensional X-ray surface brightness. We analyze Chandra observations of the galaxy cluster Abell 3667, and find that its X-ray surface brightness fluctuations follow the lognormal distribution. While the lognormal model was originally motivated by cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, this is the first observational confirmation of the lognormal signature in a real cluster. Finally we check the synthetic cluster results against clusters from cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. As a result of the complex structure exhibited by simulated clusters, the empirical relation between the two- and three-dimensional fluctuation properties calibrated with synthetic clusters when applied to simulated clusters shows large scatter. Nevertheless we are able to reproduce the true value of the fluctuation amplitude of simulated clusters within a factor of 2 from their two-dimensional X-ray surface brightness alone. Our current methodology combined with existing observational data is useful in describing and inferring the

  18. The Star-forming Main Sequence of Dwarf Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaugh, Stacy S.; Schombert, James M.; Lelli, Federico

    2017-12-01

    We explore the star-forming properties of late-type, low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. The star-forming main sequence ({SFR}-{M}* ) of LSB dwarfs has a steep slope, indistinguishable from unity (1.04 ± 0.06). They form a distinct sequence from more massive spirals, which exhibit a shallower slope. The break occurs around {M}* ≈ {10}10 {M}⊙ , and can also be seen in the gas mass—stellar mass plane. The global Kennicutt-Schmidt law ({SFR}-{M}g) has a slope of 1.47 ± 0.11 without the break seen in the main sequence. There is an ample supply of gas in LSB galaxies, which have gas depletion times well in excess of a Hubble time, and often tens of Hubble times. Only ˜ 3 % of this cold gas needs be in the form of molecular gas to sustain the observed star formation. In analogy with the faint, long-lived stars of the lower stellar main sequence, it may be appropriate to consider the main sequence of star-forming galaxies to be defined by thriving dwarfs (with {M}* {10}10 {M}⊙ ) are weary giants that constitute more of a turn-off population.

  19. CONSTRAINING THE NFW POTENTIAL WITH OBSERVATIONS AND MODELING OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXY VELOCITY FIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; McGaugh, Stacy S.; Mihos, J. Christopher

    2009-01-01

    We model the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) potential to determine if, and under what conditions, the NFW halo appears consistent with the observed velocity fields of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. We present mock DensePak Integral Field Unit (IFU) velocity fields and rotation curves of axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric potentials that are well matched to the spatial resolution and velocity range of our sample galaxies. We find that the DensePak IFU can accurately reconstruct the velocity field produced by an axisymmetric NFW potential and that a tilted-ring fitting program can successfully recover the corresponding NFW rotation curve. We also find that nonaxisymmetric potentials with fixed axis ratios change only the normalization of the mock velocity fields and rotation curves and not their shape. The shape of the modeled NFW rotation curves does not reproduce the data: these potentials are unable to simultaneously bring the mock data at both small and large radii into agreement with observations. Indeed, to match the slow rise of LSB galaxy rotation curves, a specific viewing angle of the nonaxisymmetric potential is required. For each of the simulated LSB galaxies, the observer's line of sight must be along the minor axis of the potential, an arrangement that is inconsistent with a random distribution of halo orientations on the sky.

  20. Surface spectral emissivity derived from MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Minnis, Patrick; Smith, William L.; Young, David F.

    2003-04-01

    Surface emissivity is essential for many remote sensing applications including the retrieval of the surface skin temperature from satellite-based infrared measurements, determining thresholds for cloud detection and for estimating the emission of longwave radiation from the surface, an important component of the energy budget of the surface-atmosphere interface. In this paper, data from the Terra MODIS (MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) taken at 3.7, 8.5, 10.8, 12.0 micron are used to simultaneously derive the skin temperature and the surface emissivities at the same wavelengths. The methodology uses separate measurements of the clear-sky temperatures that are determined by the CERES (Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System) scene classification in each channel during the daytime and at night. The relationships between the various channels at night are used during the day when solar reflectance affects the 3.7 micron data. A set of simultaneous equations is then solved to derive the emissivities. Global results are derived from MODIS. Numerical weather analyses are used to provide soundings for correcting the observed radiances for atmospheric absorption. These results are verified and will be available for remote sensing applications.

  1. Spectral emissivity of surface blackbody calibrators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik

    2007-01-01

    The normal spectral emissivity of commercial infrared calibrators is compared with measurements of anodized aluminum samples and grooved aluminum surfaces coated with Pyromark. Measurements performed by FTIR spectroscopy in the wavelength interval from 2 to 20 mu m and at temperatures between 5...

  2. Difference in Dwarf Galaxy Surface Brightness Profiles as a Function of Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngdae; Park, Hong Soo; Kim, Sang Chul; Moon, Dae-Sik; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kim, Dong-Jin; Cha, Sang-Mok

    2018-05-01

    We investigate surface brightness profiles (SBPs) of dwarf galaxies in field, group, and cluster environments. With deep BV I images from the Korea Microlensing Telescope Network Supernova Program, SBPs of 38 dwarfs in the NGC 2784 group are fitted by a single-exponential or double-exponential model. We find that 53% of the dwarfs are fitted with single-exponential profiles (“Type I”), while 47% of the dwarfs show double-exponential profiles; 37% of all dwarfs have smaller sizes for the outer part than the inner part (“Type II”), while 10% have a larger outer than inner part (“Type III”). We compare these results with those in the field and in the Virgo cluster, where the SBP types of 102 field dwarfs are compiled from a previous study and the SBP types of 375 cluster dwarfs are measured using SDSS r-band images. As a result, the distributions of SBP types are different in the three environments. Common SBP types for the field, the NGC 2784 group, and the Virgo cluster are Type II, Type I and II, and Type I and III profiles, respectively. After comparing the sizes of dwarfs in different environments, we suggest that since the sizes of some dwarfs are changed due to environmental effects, SBP types are capable of being transformed and the distributions of SBP types in the three environments are different. We discuss possible environmental mechanisms for the transformation of SBP types. Based on data collected at KMTNet Telescopes and SDSS.

  3. Error sources in the retrieval of aerosol information over bright surfaces from satellite measurements in the oxygen A band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Swadhin; de Graaf, Martin; Sneep, Maarten; de Haan, Johan F.; Stammes, Piet; Sanders, Abram F. J.; Tuinder, Olaf; Pepijn Veefkind, J.; Levelt, Pieternel F.

    2018-01-01

    Retrieving aerosol optical thickness and aerosol layer height over a bright surface from measured top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectrum in the oxygen A band is known to be challenging, often resulting in large errors. In certain atmospheric conditions and viewing geometries, a loss of sensitivity to aerosol optical thickness has been reported in the literature. This loss of sensitivity has been attributed to a phenomenon known as critical surface albedo regime, which is a range of surface albedos for which the top-of-atmosphere reflectance has minimal sensitivity to aerosol optical thickness. This paper extends the concept of critical surface albedo for aerosol layer height retrievals in the oxygen A band, and discusses its implications. The underlying physics are introduced by analysing the top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectrum as a sum of atmospheric path contribution and surface contribution, obtained using a radiative transfer model. Furthermore, error analysis of an aerosol layer height retrieval algorithm is conducted over dark and bright surfaces to show the dependence on surface reflectance. The analysis shows that the derivative with respect to aerosol layer height of the atmospheric path contribution to the top-of-atmosphere reflectance is opposite in sign to that of the surface contribution - an increase in surface brightness results in a decrease in information content. In the case of aerosol optical thickness, these derivatives are anti-correlated, leading to large retrieval errors in high surface albedo regimes. The consequence of this anti-correlation is demonstrated with measured spectra in the oxygen A band from the GOME-2 instrument on board the Metop-A satellite over the 2010 Russian wildfires incident.

  4. Bright radio emission from an ultraluminous stellar-mass microquasar in M 31

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middleton, M.J.; Miller Jones, J.C.A.; Markoff, S.; Fender, R.; Henze, M.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Scaife, A.M.M.; Roberts, T.P.; Walton, D.; Carpenter, J.; Macquart, J.-P.; Bower, G.C.; Gurwell, G.; Pietsch, W.; Haberl, F.; Harris, J.; Daniel, M.; Miah, J.; Done, C.; Morgan, J.S.; Dickinson, H.; Charles, P.; Burwitz, V.; Della Valle, M.; Freyberg, M.; Greiner, J.; Hernanz, M.; Hartmann, D.H.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Riffeser, A.; Sala, G.; Seitz, S.; Reig, P.; Rau, A.; Orio, M.; Titterington, D.; Grainge, K.

    2013-01-01

    A subset of ultraluminous X-ray sources (those with luminosities of less than 1040 erg s−1; ref. 1) are thought to be powered by the accretion of gas onto black holes with masses of ~5-20 , probably by means of an accretion disk2, 3. The X-ray and radio emission are coupled in such Galactic sources;

  5. Simulated X-ray galaxy clusters at the virial radius: Slopes of the gas density, temperature and surface brightness profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncarelli, M.; Ettori, S.; Dolag, K.; Moscardini, L.; Borgani, S.; Murante, G.

    2006-12-01

    Using a set of hydrodynamical simulations of nine galaxy clusters with masses in the range 1.5 × 1014 matter of tension between simulated and observed properties, and up to the virial radius and beyond, where present observations are unable to provide any constraints. We have modelled the radial profiles between 0.3R200 and 3R200 with power laws with one index, two indexes and a rolling index. The simulated temperature and [0.5-2] keV surface brightness profiles well reproduce the observed behaviours outside the core. The shape of all these profiles in the radial range considered depends mainly on the activity of the gravitational collapse, with no significant difference among models including extraphysics. The profiles steepen in the outskirts, with the slope of the power-law fit that changes from -2.5 to -3.4 in the gas density, from -0.5 to -1.8 in the gas temperature and from -3.5 to -5.0 in the X-ray soft surface brightness. We predict that the gas density, temperature and [0.5-2] keV surface brightness values at R200 are, on average, 0.05, 0.60, 0.008 times the measured values at 0.3R200. At 2R200, these values decrease by an order of magnitude in the gas density and surface brightness, by a factor of 2 in the temperature, putting stringent limits on the detectable properties of the intracluster-medium (ICM) in the virial regions.

  6. Dynamic Inversion of Global Surface Microwave Emissivity Using a 1DVAR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sid-Ahmed Boukabara

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A variational inversion scheme is used to extract microwave emissivity spectra from brightness temperatures over a multitude of surface types. The scheme is called the Microwave Integrated Retrieval System and has been implemented operationally since 2007 at NOAA. This study focuses on the Advance Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU/MHS pair onboard the NOAA-18 platform, but the algorithm is applied routinely to multiple microwave sensors, including the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS on Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP, Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMI/S on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP flight units, as well as to the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM Microwave Imager (GMI, to name a few. The emissivity spectrum retrieval is entirely based on a physical approach. To optimize the use of information content from the measurements, the emissivity is extracted simultaneously with other parameters impacting the measurements, namely, the vertical profiles of temperature, moisture and cloud, as well as the skin temperature and hydrometeor parameters when rain or ice are present. The final solution is therefore a consistent set of parameters that fit the measured brightness temperatures within the instrument noise level. No ancillary data are needed to perform this dynamic emissivity inversion. By allowing the emissivity to be part of the retrieved state vector, it becomes easy to handle the pixel-to-pixel variation in the emissivity over non-oceanic surfaces. This is particularly important in highly variable surface backgrounds. The retrieved emissivity spectrum by itself is of value (as a wetness index for instance, but it is also post-processed to determine surface geophysical parameters. Among the parameters retrieved from the emissivity using this approach are snow cover, snow water equivalent and effective grain size over snow-covered surfaces, sea-ice concentration and age from ice

  7. MILAGRO OBSERVATIONS OF MULTI-TeV EMISSION FROM GALACTIC SOURCES IN THE FERMI BRIGHT SOURCE LIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Linnemann, J. T.; Allen, B. T.; Chen, C.; Aune, T.; Berley, D.; Goodman, J. A.; Christopher, G. E.; Kolterman, B. E.; Mincer, A. I.; Nemethy, P.; DeYoung, T.; Dingus, B. L.; Hoffman, C. M.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Gonzalez, M. M.; Hays, E.; McEnery, J. E.; Huentemeyer, P. H.; Morgan, T.

    2009-01-01

    We present the result of a search of the Milagro sky map for spatial correlations with sources from a subset of the recent Fermi Bright Source List (BSL). The BSL consists of the 205 most significant sources detected above 100 MeV by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We select sources based on their categorization in the BSL, taking all confirmed or possible Galactic sources in the field of view of Milagro. Of the 34 Fermi sources selected, 14 are observed by Milagro at a significance of 3 standard deviations or more. We conduct this search with a new analysis which employs newly optimized gamma-hadron separation and utilizes the full eight-year Milagro data set. Milagro is sensitive to gamma rays with energy from 1 to 100 TeV with a peak sensitivity from 10 to 50 TeV depending on the source spectrum and declination. These results extend the observation of these sources far above the Fermi energy band. With the new analysis and additional data, multi-TeV emission is definitively observed associated with the Fermi pulsar, J2229.0+6114, in the Boomerang pulsar wind nebula (PWN). Furthermore, an extended region of multi-TeV emission is associated with the Fermi pulsar, J0634.0+1745, the Geminga pulsar.

  8. Updated Spitzer emission spectroscopy of bright transiting hot Jupiter HD 189733b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorov, Kamen O. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Grillmair, Carl J., E-mail: todorovk@phys.ethz.ch [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Mail Stop 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We analyze all existing secondary eclipse time series spectroscopy of hot Jupiter HD 189733b acquired with the now defunct Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) instrument. We describe the novel approaches we develop to remove the systematic effects and extract accurate secondary eclipse depths as a function of wavelength in order to construct the emission spectrum of the exoplanet. We compare our results with a previous study by Grillmair et al. that did not examine all data sets available to us. We are able to confirm the detection of a water feature near 6 μm claimed by Grillmair et al. We compare the planetary emission spectrum to three model families—based on isothermal atmosphere, gray atmosphere, and two realizations of the complex radiative transfer model by Burrows et al., adopted in Grillmair et al.'s study. While we are able to reject the simple isothermal and gray models based on the data at the 97% level just from the IRS data, these rejections hinge on eclipses measured within a relatively narrow wavelength range, between 5.5 and 7 μm. This underscores the need for observational studies with broad wavelength coverage and high spectral resolution, in order to obtain robust information on exoplanet atmospheres.

  9. ON THE BRIGHT LOOP TOP EMISSION IN POST-ERUPTION ARCADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rohit [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Tripathi, Durgesh; Ghosh, Avyarthana [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Isobe, Hiroaki [Graduate School of Advanced Integrated Studies in Human Survivability, Kyoto University, 1 Yoshida-Nakaadachi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 603-8306 (Japan)

    2016-05-20

    Observations of post-eruption arcades (PEAs) in X-rays and EUV reveal strong localized brightenings at the loop top regions. The origins of these brightenings and their dynamics are not well understood to date. Here, we study the dynamics of PEAs using one-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling, focusing on understanding the formation of localized brightening. Our findings suggest that these brightenings are the result of collisions between the counter-streaming chromospheric evaporation from both the footpoints. We perform forward modeling of the emission observed in simulated results in various spectral lines observed by the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope on board Hinode . The forward-modeled intensities in various spectral lines are in close agreement with a flare observed on 2006 December 17 by EIS.

  10. Consistency with synchrotron emission in the bright GRB 160625B observed by Fermi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravasio, M. E.; Oganesyan, G.; Ghirlanda, G.; Nava, L.; Ghisellini, G.; Pescalli, A.; Celotti, A.

    2018-05-01

    We present time-resolved spectral analysis of prompt emission from GRB 160625B, one of the brightest bursts ever detected by Fermi in its nine years of operations. Standard empirical functions fail to provide an acceptable fit to the GBM spectral data, which instead require the addition of a low-energy break to the fitting function. We introduce a new fitting function, called 2SBPL, consisting of three smoothly connected power laws. Fitting this model to the data, the goodness of the fits significantly improves and the spectral parameters are well constrained. We also test a spectral model that combines non-thermal and thermal (black body) components, but find that the 2SBPL model is systematically favoured. The spectral evolution shows that the spectral break is located around Ebreak 100 keV, while the usual νFν peak energy feature Epeak evolves in the 0.5-6 MeV energy range. The slopes below and above Ebreak are consistent with the values -0.67 and -1.5, respectively, expected from synchrotron emission produced by a relativistic electron population with a low-energy cut-off. If Ebreak is interpreted as the synchrotron cooling frequency, the implied magnetic field in the emitting region is 10 Gauss, i.e. orders of magnitudes smaller than the value expected for a dissipation region located at 1013-14 cm from the central engine. The low ratio between Epeak and Ebreak implies that the radiative cooling is incomplete, contrary to what is expected in strongly magnetized and compact emitting regions.

  11. Rough surface mitigates electron and gas emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molvik, A.

    2004-01-01

    Heavy-ion beams impinging on surfaces near grazing incidence (to simulate the loss of halo ions) generate copious amounts of electrons and gas that can degrade the beam. We measured emission coefficients of η e (le) 130 and η 0 ∼ 10 4 respectively, with 1 MeV K + incident on stainless steel. Electron emission scales as η e ∝ 1/cos(θ), where θ is the ion angle of incidence relative to normal. If we were to roughen a surface by blasting it with glass beads, then ions that were near grazing incidence (90 o ) on smooth surface would strike the rims of the micro-craters at angles closer to normal incidence. This should reduce the electron emission: the factor of 10 reduction, Fig. 1(a), implies an average angle of incidence of 62 o . Gas desorption varies more slowly with θ (Fig. 1(b)) decreasing a factor of ∼2, and along with the electron emission is independent of the angle of incidence on a rough surface. In a quadrupole magnet, electrons emitted by lost primary ions are trapped near the wall by the magnetic field, but grazing incidence ions can backscatter and strike the wall a second time at an azimuth where magnetic field lines intercept the beam. Then, electrons can exist throughout the beam (see the simulations of Cohen, HIF News 1-2/04). The SRIM (TRIM) Monte Carlo code predicts that 60-70% of 1 MeV K + ions backscatter when incident at 88-89 o from normal on a smooth surface. The scattered ions are mostly within ∼10 o of the initial direction but a few scatter by up to 90 o . Ion scattering decreases rapidly away from grazing incidence, Fig. 1(c ). At 62 deg. the predicted ion backscattering (from a rough surface) is 3%, down a factor of 20 from the peak, which should significantly reduce electrons in the beam from lost halo ions. These results are published in Phys. Rev. ST - Accelerators and Beams

  12. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS). XVIII. Measurement and Calibration of Surface Brightness Fluctuation Distances for Bright Galaxies in Virgo (and Beyond)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantiello, Michele; Blakeslee, John P.; Ferrarese, Laura; Côté, Patrick; Roediger, Joel C.; Raimondo, Gabriella; Peng, Eric W.; Gwyn, Stephen; Durrell, Patrick R.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles

    2018-04-01

    We describe a program to measure surface brightness fluctuation (SBF) distances to galaxies observed in the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS), a photometric imaging survey covering 104 deg2 of the Virgo cluster in the u*, g, i, and z bandpasses with the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope. We describe the selection of the sample galaxies, the procedures for measuring the apparent i-band SBF magnitude {\\overline{m}}i, and the calibration of the absolute Mibar as a function of observed stellar population properties. The multiband NGVS data set provides multiple options for calibrating the SBF distances, and we explore various calibrations involving individual color indices as well as combinations of two different colors. Within the color range of the present sample, the two-color calibrations do not significantly improve the scatter with respect to wide-baseline, single-color calibrations involving u*. We adopt the ({u}* -z) calibration as a reference for the present galaxy sample, with an observed scatter of 0.11 mag. For a few cases that lack good u* photometry, we use an alternative relation based on a combination of (g-i) and (g-z) colors, with only a slightly larger observed scatter of 0.12 mag. The agreement of our measurements with the best existing distance estimates provides confidence that our measurements are accurate. We present a preliminary catalog of distances for 89 galaxies brighter than B T ≈ 13.0 mag within the survey footprint, including members of the background M and W Clouds at roughly twice the distance of the main body of the Virgo cluster. The extension of the present work to fainter and bluer galaxies is in progress.

  13. Negative secondary ion emission from oxidized surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnaser, H.; Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H.

    1984-01-01

    The emission of negative secondary ions from 23 elements was studied for 10 keV O 2 + and 10 keV In + impact at an angle of incidence of 45 0 . Partial oxidation of the sample surfaces was achieved by oxygen bombardment and/or by working at a high oxygen partial pressure. It was found that the emission of oxide ions shows an element-characteristic pattern. For the majority of the elements investigated these features are largely invariant against changes of the surface concentration of oxygen. For the others admission of oxygen strongly changes the relative intensities of oxide ions: a strong increase of MO 3 - signals (M stands for the respective element) is accompanied by a decrease of MO - and M - intensities. Different primary species frequently induce changes of both the relative and the absolute negative ion intensities. Carbon - in contrast to all other elements - does not show any detectable oxide ion emission but rather intense cluster ions Csub(n) - (detected up to n=12) whose intensities oscillate in dependence on n. (orig./RK)

  14. Field Measurements of PCB emissions from Building Surfaces Using a New Portable Emission Test Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Haven, Rune; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to measure PCB-emission rates from indoor surfaces on-site in contaminated buildings using a newly developed portable emission test cell. Emission rates were measured from six different surfaces; three untreated surfaces and three remediated surfaces in a contaminated...

  15. GALAXY HALO TRUNCATION AND GIANT ARC SURFACE BRIGHTNESS RECONSTRUCTION IN THE CLUSTER MACSJ1206.2-0847

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichner, Thomas; Seitz, Stella; Monna, Anna [Universitaets-Sternwarte Muenchen, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Muenchen (Germany); Suyu, Sherry H. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Halkola, Aleksi [Institute of Medical Engineering, University of Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160 23562 Luebeck (Germany); Umetsu, Keiichi [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Zitrin, Adi [Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, ZAH, Albert-Ueberle-Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Coe, Dan; Postman, Marc; Koekemoer, Anton; Bradley, Larry [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States); Rosati, Piero [ESO-European Southern Observatory, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Grillo, Claudio; Host, Ole [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Balestra, Italo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Zheng, Wei; Lemze, Doron [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Broadhurst, Tom [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Moustakas, Leonidas [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 169-327, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Molino, Alberto [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), C/Camino Bajo de Huetor 24, Granada E-18008 (Spain); and others

    2013-09-10

    In this work, we analyze the mass distribution of MACSJ1206.2-0847, particularly focusing on the halo properties of its cluster members. The cluster appears relaxed in its X-ray emission, but has a significant amount of intracluster light that is not centrally concentrated, suggesting that galaxy-scale interactions are still ongoing despite the overall relaxed state. The cluster lenses 12 background galaxies into multiple images and one galaxy at z = 1.033 into a giant arc and its counterimage. The multiple image positions and the surface brightness (SFB) distribution of the arc, which is bent around several cluster members, are sensitive to the cluster galaxy halo properties. We model the cluster mass distribution with a Navarro-Frenk-White profile and the galaxy halos with two parameters for the mass normalization and the extent of a reference halo assuming scalings with their observed near-infrared light. We match the multiple image positions at an rms level of 0.''85 and can reconstruct the SFB distribution of the arc in several filters to a remarkable accuracy based on this cluster model. The length scale where the enclosed galaxy halo mass is best constrained is about 5 effective radii-a scale in between those accessible to dynamical and field strong-lensing mass estimates on the one hand and galaxy-galaxy weak-lensing results on the other hand. The velocity dispersion and halo size of a galaxy with m{sub 160W,AB} = 19.2 and M{sub B,Vega} = -20.7 are {sigma} = 150 km s{sup -1} and r Almost-Equal-To 26 {+-} 6 kpc, respectively, indicating that the halos of the cluster galaxies are tidally stripped. We also reconstruct the unlensed source, which is smaller by a factor of {approx}5.8 in area, demonstrating the increase in morphological information due to lensing. We conclude that this galaxy likely has star-forming spiral arms with a red (older) central component.

  16. Studying the ICM in clusters of galaxies via surface brightness fluctuations of the cosmic X-ray background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodzig, Alexander; Gilfanov, Marat; Hütsi, Gert; Sunyaev, Rashid

    2018-02-01

    We study surface brightness fluctuations of the cosmic X-ray background (CXB) using Chandra data of XBOOTES. After masking out resolved sources we compute the power spectrum of fluctuations of the unresolved CXB for angular scales from {≈ } 2 arcsec to ≈3°. The non-trivial large-scale structure (LSS) signal dominates over the shot noise of unresolved point sources on angular scales above {˜ } 1 arcmin and is produced mainly by the intracluster medium (ICM) of unresolved clusters and groups of galaxies, as shown in our previous publication. The shot-noise-subtracted power spectrum of CXB fluctuations has a power-law shape with the slope of Γ = 0.96 ± 0.06. Their energy spectrum is well described by the redshifted emission spectrum of optically thin plasma with the best-fitting temperature of T ≈ 1.3 keV and the best-fitting redshift of z ≈ 0.40. These numbers are in good agreement with theoretical expectations based on the X-ray luminosity function and scaling relations of clusters. From these values we estimate the typical mass and luminosity of the objects responsible for CXB fluctuations, M500 ∼ 1013.6 M⊙ h-1 and L0.5-2.0 keV ∼ 1042.5 erg s-1. On the other hand, the flux-weighted mean temperature and redshift of resolved clusters are T ≈ 2.4 keV and z ≈ 0.23 confirming that fluctuations of unresolved CXB are caused by cooler (i.e. less massive) and more distant clusters, as expected. We show that the power spectrum shape is sensitive to the ICM structure all the way to the outskirts, out to ∼few × R500. We also searched for possible contribution of the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) to the observed CXB fluctuations. Our results underline the significant diagnostic potential of the CXB fluctuation analysis in studying the ICM structure in clusters.

  17. GALAXY HALO TRUNCATION AND GIANT ARC SURFACE BRIGHTNESS RECONSTRUCTION IN THE CLUSTER MACSJ1206.2-0847

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichner, Thomas; Seitz, Stella; Monna, Anna; Suyu, Sherry H.; Halkola, Aleksi; Umetsu, Keiichi; Zitrin, Adi; Coe, Dan; Postman, Marc; Koekemoer, Anton; Bradley, Larry; Rosati, Piero; Grillo, Claudio; Høst, Ole; Balestra, Italo; Zheng, Wei; Lemze, Doron; Broadhurst, Tom; Moustakas, Leonidas; Molino, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we analyze the mass distribution of MACSJ1206.2-0847, particularly focusing on the halo properties of its cluster members. The cluster appears relaxed in its X-ray emission, but has a significant amount of intracluster light that is not centrally concentrated, suggesting that galaxy-scale interactions are still ongoing despite the overall relaxed state. The cluster lenses 12 background galaxies into multiple images and one galaxy at z = 1.033 into a giant arc and its counterimage. The multiple image positions and the surface brightness (SFB) distribution of the arc, which is bent around several cluster members, are sensitive to the cluster galaxy halo properties. We model the cluster mass distribution with a Navarro-Frenk-White profile and the galaxy halos with two parameters for the mass normalization and the extent of a reference halo assuming scalings with their observed near-infrared light. We match the multiple image positions at an rms level of 0.''85 and can reconstruct the SFB distribution of the arc in several filters to a remarkable accuracy based on this cluster model. The length scale where the enclosed galaxy halo mass is best constrained is about 5 effective radii—a scale in between those accessible to dynamical and field strong-lensing mass estimates on the one hand and galaxy-galaxy weak-lensing results on the other hand. The velocity dispersion and halo size of a galaxy with m 160W,AB = 19.2 and M B,Vega = –20.7 are σ = 150 km s –1 and r ≈ 26 ± 6 kpc, respectively, indicating that the halos of the cluster galaxies are tidally stripped. We also reconstruct the unlensed source, which is smaller by a factor of ∼5.8 in area, demonstrating the increase in morphological information due to lensing. We conclude that this galaxy likely has star-forming spiral arms with a red (older) central component

  18. Evidence of organic luminescent centers in sol-gel-synthesized yttrium aluminum borate matrix leading to bright visible emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burner, Pauline; Salauen, Mathieu; Ibanez, Alain; Gautier-Luneau, Isabelle [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Inst NEEL, Grenoble (France); CNRS, Inst NEEL, Grenoble (France); Sontakke, Atul D.; Viana, Bruno [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech - CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris (France); Bardet, Michel [Universite Grenoble Alpes, CEA, CNRS, INAC, MEM, Grenoble (France); Mouesca, Jean-Marie; Gambarelli, Serge; Maurel, Vincent [Universite Grenoble Alpes, CEA, CNRS, INAC, SyMMES, Grenoble (France); Barra, Anne-Laure [Laboratoire National des Champs Magnetiques Intenses, UPR CNRS 3228, Universite Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble (France); Ferrier, Alban [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech - CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris (France); Sorbonne Universites UPMC Universites Paris 06, Paris (France)

    2017-11-06

    Yttrium aluminum borate (YAB) powders prepared by sol-gel process have been investigated to understand their photoluminescence (PL) mechanism. The amorphous YAB powders exhibit bright visible PL from blue emission for powders calcined at 450 C to broad white PL for higher calcination temperature. Thanks to {sup 13}C labelling, NMR and EPR studies show that propionic acid initially used to solubilize the yttrium nitrate is decomposed into aromatic molecules confined within the inorganic matrix. DTA-TG-MS analyses show around 2 wt % of carbogenic species. The PL broadening corresponds to the apparition of a new band at 550 nm, associated with the formation of aromatic species. Furthermore, pulsed ENDOR spectroscopy combined with DFT calculations enables us to ascribe EPR spectra to free radicals derived from small (2 to 3 rings) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). PAH molecules are thus at the origin of the PL as corroborated by slow afterglow decay and thermoluminescence experiments. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Impulsive and long duration high-energy gamma-ray emission from the very bright 2012 March 7 solar flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajello, M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Charles, E. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Baldini, L. [Università di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D.; Buson, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bissaldi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, and Università di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bonamente, E.; Cecchi, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica " M. Merlin" dell' Università e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruel, P. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Buehler, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Caraveo, P. A., E-mail: nicola.omodei@stanford.edu, E-mail: vahep@stanford.edu, E-mail: melissa.pesce.rollins@pi.infn.it [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, I-20133 Milano (Italy); and others

    2014-07-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) detected gamma-rays up to 4 GeV from two bright X-class solar flares on 2012 March 7, showing both an impulsive and temporally extended emission phases. The gamma-rays appear to originate from the same active region as the X-rays associated with these flares. The >100 MeV gamma-ray flux decreases monotonically during the first hour (impulsive phase) followed by a slower decrease for the next 20 hr. A power law with a high-energy exponential cutoff can adequately describe the photon spectrum. Assuming that the gamma rays result from the decay of pions produced by accelerated protons and ions with a power-law spectrum, we find that the index of that spectrum is ∼3, with minor variations during the impulsive phase. During the extended phase the photon spectrum softens monotonically, requiring the proton index varying from ∼4 to >5. The >30 MeV proton flux observed by the GOES satellites also shows a flux decrease and spectral softening, but with a harder spectrum (index ∼2-3). Based on these observations, we explore the relative merits of prompt or continuous acceleration scenarios, hadronic or leptonic emission processes, and acceleration at the solar corona or by the fast coronal mass ejections. We conclude that the most likely scenario is continuous acceleration of protons in the solar corona that penetrate the lower solar atmosphere and produce pions that decay into gamma rays. However, acceleration in the downstream of the shock cannot be definitely ruled out.

  20. Galaxy Size Evolution at High Redshift and Surface Brightness Selection Effects: Constraints from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Broadhurst, T. J.; Franx, M.

    2004-08-01

    We use the exceptional depth of the Ultra Deep Field (UDF) and UDF-parallel Advanced Camera for Surveys fields to study the sizes of high-redshift (z~2-6) galaxies and address long-standing questions about possible biases in the cosmic star formation rate due to surface brightness dimming. Contrasting B-, V-, and i-dropout samples culled from the deeper data with those obtained from the shallower Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey fields, we demonstrate that the shallower data are essentially complete at bright magnitudes to z~0.4", >~3 kpc) low surface brightness galaxies are rare. A simple comparison of the half-light radii of the Hubble Deep Field-North + Hubble Deep Field-South U-dropouts with B-, V-, and i-dropouts from the UDF shows that the sizes follow a (1+z)-1.05+/-0.21 scaling toward high redshift. A more rigorous measurement compares different scalings of our U-dropout sample with the mean profiles for a set of intermediate-magnitude (26.0dropouts from the UDF. The best fit is found with a (1+z)-0.94+0.19-0.25 size scaling (for fixed luminosity). This result is then verified by repeating this experiment with different size measures, low-redshift samples, and magnitude ranges. Very similar scalings are found for all comparisons. A robust measurement of size evolution is thereby demonstrated for galaxies from z~6 to 2.5 using data from the UDF. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  1. CARMA SURVEY TOWARD INFRARED-BRIGHT NEARBY GALAXIES (STING). III. THE DEPENDENCE OF ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR GAS SURFACE DENSITIES ON GALAXY PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Tony; Xue, Rui; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Fisher, David B.; Vogel, Stuart N.; Leroy, Adam K.; Blitz, Leo; Rosolowsky, Erik; Bigiel, Frank; Ott, Jürgen; Rahman, Nurur; Walter, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the correlation between CO and H I emission in 18 nearby galaxies from the CARMA Survey Toward IR-Bright Nearby Galaxies (STING) at sub-kpc and kpc scales. Our sample, spanning a wide range in stellar mass and metallicity, reveals evidence for a metallicity dependence of the H I column density measured in regions exhibiting CO emission. Such a dependence is predicted by the equilibrium model of McKee and Krumholz, which balances H 2 formation and dissociation. The observed H I column density is often smaller than predicted by the model, an effect we attribute to unresolved clumping, although values close to the model prediction are also seen. We do not observe H I column densities much larger than predicted, as might be expected were there a diffuse H I component that did not contribute to H 2 shielding. We also find that the H 2 column density inferred from CO correlates strongly with the stellar surface density, suggesting that the local supply of molecular gas is tightly regulated by the stellar disk

  2. Ho-doped SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} multifunctional ceramics with bright green emission and good electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Lei; Hao, Jigong; Li, Wei [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng (China); Xu, Zhijun; Chu, Ruiqing [School of Environmental and Materials Engineering, Yantai University, Yantai (China)

    2017-10-15

    Ho{sup 3+}-doped SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} multifunctional ferroelectric ceramics with bright green light emission and good electrical properties were fabricated in this work. Under blue light excitation, samples showed bright green light with two typical emission bands: a strong green emission centered at 545 nm corresponding to the intra f-f transition from the excited {sup 5}S{sub 2} to the ground state {sup 5}I{sub 8} and a relatively weak red emission located 653 nm induced by the {sup 5}F{sub 5} → {sup 5}I{sub 8} transition of Ho{sup 3+}. Due to the concentration quenching effect, the intensity of emission was strongly dependent on the doping concentration. Furthermore, the electrical properties have improved by Ho{sup 3+} doping. At x = 0.004, samples exhibit optimal electrical properties with high Curie temperature (T{sub c} = 441 C) and large 2P{sub r} and d{sub 33} values (2P{sub r} = 15.54 μC cm{sup -2}, d{sub 33} = 19 pC/N). These results demonstrate that the SBN-xHo ceramics possess excellent multifunctional properties to achieve a variety of applications. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. The abundance properties of nearby late-type galaxies. II. The relation between abundance distributions and surface brightness profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilyugin, L. S.; Grebel, E. K.; Zinchenko, I. A.; Kniazev, A. Y.

    2014-01-01

    The relations between oxygen abundance and disk surface brightness (OH–SB relation) in the infrared W1 band are examined for nearby late-type galaxies. The oxygen abundances were presented in Paper I. The photometric characteristics of the disks are inferred here using photometric maps from the literature through bulge-disk decomposition. We find evidence that the OH–SB relation is not unique but depends on the galactocentric distance r (taken as a fraction of the optical radius R 25 ) and on the properties of a galaxy: the disk scale length h and the morphological T-type. We suggest a general, four-dimensional OH–SB relation with the values r, h, and T as parameters. The parametric OH–SB relation reproduces the observed data better than a simple, one-parameter relation; the deviations resulting when using our parametric relation are smaller by a factor of ∼1.4 than that of the simple relation. The influence of the parameters on the OH–SB relation varies with galactocentric distance. The influence of the T-type on the OH–SB relation is negligible at the centers of galaxies and increases with galactocentric distance. In contrast, the influence of the disk scale length on the OH–SB relation is at a maximum at the centers of galaxies and decreases with galactocentric distance, disappearing at the optical edges of galaxies. Two-dimensional relations can be used to reproduce the observed data at the optical edges of the disks and at the centers of the disks. The disk scale length should be used as a second parameter in the OH–SB relation at the center of the disk while the morphological T-type should be used as a second parameter in the relation at optical edge of the disk. The relations between oxygen abundance and disk surface brightness in the optical B and infrared K bands at the center of the disk and at optical edge of the disk are also considered. The general properties of the abundance–surface brightness relations are similar for the three

  4. Tracing the stellar component of low surface brightness Milky Way dwarf galaxies to their outskirts. I. Sextans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuéndez, L.; Battaglia, G.; Irwin, M.; Bermejo-Climent, J. R.; McMonigal, B.; Bate, N. F.; Lewis, G. F.; Conn, A. R.; de Boer, T. J. L.; Gallart, C.; Guglielmo, M.; Ibata, R.; McConnachie, A.; Tolstoy, E.; Fernando, N.

    2018-01-01

    Aims: We present results from deep and very spatially extended CTIO/DECam g and r photometry (reaching out to 2 mag below the oldest main-sequence turn-off and covering 20 deg2) around the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy. We aim to use this dataset to study the structural properties of Sextans overall stellar population and its member stars in different evolutionary phases, as well as to search for possible signs of tidal disturbance from the Milky Way, which would indicate departure from dynamical equilibrium. Methods: We performed the most accurate and quantitative structural analysis to-date of Sextans' stellar components by applying Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov chain methods to the individual stars' positions. Surface density maps are built by statistically decontaminating the sample through a matched filter analysis of the colour-magnitude diagram, and then analysed for departures from axisymmetry. Results: Sextans is found to be significantly less spatially extended and more centrally concentrated than early studies suggested. No statistically significant distortions or signs of tidal disturbances were found down to a surface brightness limit of 31.8 mag/arcsec2 in V-band. We identify an overdensity in the central regions that may correspond to previously reported kinematic substructure(s). In agreement with previous findings, old and metal-poor stars such as Blue Horizontal Branch stars cover a much larger area than stars in other evolutionary phases, and bright Blue Stragglers (BSs) are less spatially extended than faint ones. However, the different spatial distribution of bright and faint BSs appears consistent with the general age and metallicity gradients found in Sextans' stellar component. This is compatible with Sextans BSs having formed by evolution of binaries and not necessarily due to the presence of a central disrupted globular cluster, as suggested in the literature. We provide structural parameters for the various populations analysed and make

  5. A study of the H I and optical properties of Low Surface Brightness galaxies: spirals, dwarfs, and irregulars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, M.; van Driel, W.; Das, M.; Martin, J.-M.

    2018-06-01

    We present a study of the H I and optical properties of nearby (z ≤ 0.1) Low Surface Brightness galaxies (LSBGs). We started with a literature sample of ˜900 LSBGs and divided them into three morphological classes: spirals, irregulars, and dwarfs. Of these, we could use ˜490 LSBGs to study their H I and stellar masses, colours, and colour-magnitude diagrams, and local environment, compare them with normal, High Surface Brightness (HSB) galaxies and determine the differences between the three morphological classes. We found that LSB and HSB galaxies span a similar range in H I and stellar masses, and have a similar M_{H I}/M⋆-M⋆ relationship. Among the LSBGs, as expected, the spirals have the highest average H I and stellar masses, both of about 109.8 M⊙. The LSGBs' (g - r) integrated colour is nearly constant as function of H I mass for all classes. In the colour-magnitude diagram, the spirals are spread over the red and blue regions whereas the irregulars and dwarfs are confined to the blue region. The spirals also exhibit a steeper slope in the M_{H I}/M⋆-M⋆ plane. Within their local environment, we confirmed that LSBGs are more isolated than HSB galaxies, and LSB spirals more isolated than irregulars and dwarfs. Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical tests on the H I mass, stellar mass, and number of neighbours indicate that the spirals are a statistically different population from the dwarfs and irregulars. This suggests that the spirals may have different formation and H I evolution than the dwarfs and irregulars.

  6. USING Hα MORPHOLOGY AND SURFACE BRIGHTNESS FLUCTUATIONS TO AGE-DATE STAR CLUSTERS IN M83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, Bradley C.; Mutchler, Max; Stankiewicz, Matt; Bond, Howard E.; Chandar, Rupali; Kim, Hwihyun; Kaleida, Catherine; Calzetti, Daniela; Saha, Abhijit; O'Connell, Robert; Balick, Bruce; Carollo, Marcella; Disney, Michael J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.; Hall, Donald N. B.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Kimble, Randy A.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Paresce, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We use new WFC3 observations of the nearby grand-design spiral galaxy M83 to develop two independent methods for estimating the ages of young star clusters. The first method uses the physical extent and morphology of Hα emission to estimate the ages of clusters younger than τ ∼ 10 Myr. It is based on the simple premise that the gas in very young (τ V 10 Myr) clusters. A by-product of this study is the identification of 22 'single-star' H II regions in M83, with central stars having ages ∼4 Myr.

  7. The way we measure: comparison of methods to derive radial surface brightness profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S. P. C.; van der Kruit, P. C.; de Jong, R. S.

    The breaks and truncations in the luminosity profile of face-on spiral galaxies offer valuable insights in their formation history. The traditional method of deriving the surface photometry profile for face-on galaxies is to use elliptical averaging. In this paper, we explore the question whether

  8. One-pot and ultrafast synthesis of nitrogen and phosphorus co-doped carbon dots possessing bright dual wavelength fluorescence emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiangcheng; Brückner, Christian; Lei, Yu

    2015-10-01

    Very brief microwave heating of aniline, ethylene diamine, and phosphoric acid in water at ambient pressure generated nitrogen and phosphorus co-doped carbon dots (N,P-CDs) that exhibit bright dual blue (centred at 450 nm; 51% quantum yield) and green (centred at 510 nm, 38% quantum yield) fluorescence emission bands. The N,P-CDs were characterized using TEM, XRD, XPS, IR, UV-vis, and fluorescence spectroscopy, demonstrating their partially crystalline carbon, partially amorphous structures, and the incorporation of O, N, and P into the carbogenic scaffold. The N,P-CDs demonstrated excitation-dependent and nearly pH-independent emission properties. The unique dual emission properties lay the foundation for the use of N,P-CDs in ratiometric sensing applications.Very brief microwave heating of aniline, ethylene diamine, and phosphoric acid in water at ambient pressure generated nitrogen and phosphorus co-doped carbon dots (N,P-CDs) that exhibit bright dual blue (centred at 450 nm; 51% quantum yield) and green (centred at 510 nm, 38% quantum yield) fluorescence emission bands. The N,P-CDs were characterized using TEM, XRD, XPS, IR, UV-vis, and fluorescence spectroscopy, demonstrating their partially crystalline carbon, partially amorphous structures, and the incorporation of O, N, and P into the carbogenic scaffold. The N,P-CDs demonstrated excitation-dependent and nearly pH-independent emission properties. The unique dual emission properties lay the foundation for the use of N,P-CDs in ratiometric sensing applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed experimental section, XRD, FTIR, explosive sensing and the applications results. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05549k

  9. Surface renewal as a significant mechanism for dust emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wind tunnel experiments of dust emissions from different soil surfaces are carried out to better understand dust emission mechanisms. The effects of surface renewal on aerodynamic entrainment and saltation bombardment are analyzed in detail. It is found that flow conditions, surface particle motions (saltation and creep, soil dust content and ground obstacles all strongly affect dust emission, causing its rate to vary over orders of magnitude. Aerodynamic entrainment is highly effective, if dust supply is unlimited, as in the first 2–3 min of our wind tunnel runs. While aerodynamic entrainment is suppressed by dust supply limits, surface renewal through the motion of surface particles appears to be an effective pathway to remove the supply limit. Surface renewal is also found to be important to the efficiency of saltation bombardment. We demonstrate that surface renewal is a significant mechanism affecting dust emission and recommend that this mechanism be included in future dust models.

  10. ON THE NATURE OF X-RAY SURFACE BRIGHTNESS FLUCTUATIONS IN M87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arévalo, P. [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Gran Bretana N 1111, Playa Ancha, Valparaíso (Chile); Churazov, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Zhuravleva, I. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Forman, W. R.; Jones, C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-02-10

    X-ray images of galaxy clusters and gas-rich elliptical galaxies show a wealth of small-scale features that reflect fluctuations in density and/or temperature of the intracluster medium. In this paper we study these fluctuations in M87/Virgo to establish whether sound waves/shocks, bubbles, or uplifted cold gas dominate the structure. We exploit the strong dependence of the emissivity on density and temperature in different energy bands to distinguish between these processes. Using simulations we demonstrate that our analysis recovers the leading type of fluctuation even in the presence of projection effects and temperature gradients. We confirm the isobaric nature of cool filaments of gas entrained by buoyantly rising bubbles, extending to 7′ to the east and southwest, and the adiabatic nature of the weak shocks at 40″ and 3′ from the center. For features of ∼5–10 kpc, we show that the central 4′ × 4′ region is dominated by cool structures in pressure equilibrium with the ambient hotter gas while up to 30% of the variance in this region can be ascribed to adiabatic fluctuations. The remaining part of the central 14′ × 14′ region, excluding the arms and shocks described above, is dominated by apparently isothermal fluctuations (bubbles) with a possible admixture (at the level of ∼30%) of adiabatic (sound waves) and by isobaric structures. Larger features, of about 30 kpc, show a stronger contribution from isobaric fluctuations. The results broadly agree with a model based on feedback from an active galactic nucleus mediated by bubbles of relativistic plasma.

  11. Field emission from the surface of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knápek, Alexandr, E-mail: knapek@isibrno.cz [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR, v.v.i., Královopolská 147, Brno (Czech Republic); Sobola, Dinara; Tománek, Pavel [Department of Physics, FEEC, Brno University of Technology, Technická 8, Brno (Czech Republic); Pokorná, Zuzana; Urbánek, Michal [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR, v.v.i., Královopolská 147, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • HOPG shreds were created and analyzed in the UHV conditions. • Current-voltage measurements have been done to confirm electron tunneling, based on the Fowler-Nordheim theory. • Surface was characterized by other surface evaluation methods, in particular by: SNOM, SEM and AFM. - Abstract: This paper deals with the electrical characterization of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface based on field emission of electrons. The effect of field emission occurs only at disrupted surface, i.e. surface containing ripped and warped shreds of the uppermost layers of graphite. These deformations provide the necessary field gradients which are required for measuring tunneling current caused by field electron emission. Results of the field emission measurements are correlated with other surface characterization methods such as scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) or atomic force microscopy.

  12. Field emission from the surface of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knápek, Alexandr; Sobola, Dinara; Tománek, Pavel; Pokorná, Zuzana; Urbánek, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • HOPG shreds were created and analyzed in the UHV conditions. • Current-voltage measurements have been done to confirm electron tunneling, based on the Fowler-Nordheim theory. • Surface was characterized by other surface evaluation methods, in particular by: SNOM, SEM and AFM. - Abstract: This paper deals with the electrical characterization of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface based on field emission of electrons. The effect of field emission occurs only at disrupted surface, i.e. surface containing ripped and warped shreds of the uppermost layers of graphite. These deformations provide the necessary field gradients which are required for measuring tunneling current caused by field electron emission. Results of the field emission measurements are correlated with other surface characterization methods such as scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) or atomic force microscopy.

  13. Density wave induced star formation: The optical surface brightness of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bash, F.N.

    1979-01-01

    A model for the galactic orbits of molecular clouds has been devised. The molecular clouds are assumed to be launched from the two-armed spiral-shock wave, to orbit in the Galaxy like ballistic particles with gravitational perturbations due to the density-wave spiral-potential, and each cloud is assumed to produce a cluster of stars. Each cloud radiates detectable 12 C 16 O (J=0→1) spectral line radiation from birth for 40 million years. Stars are seen in the cloud about 25 million years after birth, and the star cluster is assumed to continue in ballistic orbit around the Galaxy.The model has been tested by comparing its predicted velocity-longitude diagram for CO against that observed for the Galaxy and by comparing the model's predicted distribution of light in the UBV photometric bands against observed surface photometry for Sb and SC galaxies. The interpolation of the initial velocities in the model was corrected, and the model was examined to see whether preshock or postshock initial velocities better fit the observations. The model gives very good general agreement and reproduces many of the features observed in the CO velocity-longitude diagram

  14. Electron emission during multicharged ion-metal surface interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A.; Havener, C.C.; Hughes, I.G.; Overbury, S.H.; Robinson, M.T.; Zehner, D.M.; Meyer, F.W.

    1992-01-01

    The electron emission during multicharged ion-metal surface interactions will be discussed. The interactions lead to the emission of a significant number of electrons. Most of these electrons have energies below 30 eV. For incident ions with innershell vacancies the emission of Auger electrons that fill these vacancies has been found to occur mainly below the surface. We will present recently measured electron energy distributions which will be used to discuss the mechanisms that lead to the emission of Auger and of low-energy electrons

  15. Soil hydraulic parameters and surface soil moisture of a tilled bare soil plot inversely derived from l-band brightness temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Dimitrov, Marin

    2014-01-01

    We coupled a radiative transfer model and a soil hydrologic model (HYDRUS 1D) with an optimization routine to derive soil hydraulic parameters, surface roughness, and soil moisture of a tilled bare soil plot using measured brightness temperatures at 1.4 GHz (L-band), rainfall, and potential soil evaporation. The robustness of the approach was evaluated using five 28-d data sets representing different meteorological conditions. We considered two soil hydraulic property models: the unimodal Mualem-van Genuchten and the bimodal model of Durner. Microwave radiative transfer was modeled by three different approaches: the Fresnel equation with depth-averaged dielectric permittivity of either 2-or 5-cm-thick surface layers and a coherent radiative transfer model (CRTM) that accounts for vertical gradients in dielectric permittivity. Brightness temperatures simulated by the CRTM and the 2-cm-layer Fresnel model fitted well to the measured ones. L-band brightness temperatures are therefore related to the dielectric permittivity and soil moisture in a 2-cm-thick surface layer. The surface roughness parameter that was derived from brightness temperatures using inverse modeling was similar to direct estimates from laser profiler measurements. The laboratory-derived water retention curve was bimodal and could be retrieved consistently for the different periods from brightness temperatures using inverse modeling. A unimodal soil hydraulic property function underestimated the hydraulic conductivity near saturation. Surface soil moisture contents simulated using retrieved soil hydraulic parameters were compared with in situ measurements. Depth-specific calibration relations were essential to derive soil moisture from near-surface installed sensors. © Soil Science Society of America 5585 Guilford Rd., Madison, WI 53711 USA.

  16. Analytical Retrieval of Global Land Surface Emissivity Maps at AMSR-E passive microwave frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, H.; Temimi, M.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2009-12-01

    Land emissivity is a crucial boundary condition in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) modeling. Land emissivity is also a key indicator of land surface and subsurface properties. The objective of this study, supported by NOAA-NESDIS, is to develop global land emissivity maps using AMSR-E passive microwave measurements along with several ancillary data. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) database has been used to obtain several inputs for the proposed approach such as land surface temperature, cloud mask and atmosphere profile. The Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) has been used to estimate upwelling and downwelling atmospheric contributions. Although it is well known that correction of the atmospheric effect on brightness temperature is required at higher frequencies (over 19 GHz), our preliminary results have shown that a correction at 10.7 GHz is also necessary over specific areas. The proposed approach is based on three main steps. First, all necessary data have been collected and processed. Second, a global cloud free composite of AMSR-E data and corresponding ancillary images is created. Finally, monthly composting of emissivity maps has been performed. AMSR-E frequencies at 6.9, 10.7, 18.7, 36.5 and 89.0 GHz have been used to retrieve the emissivity. Water vapor information obtained from ISCCP (TOVS data) was used to calculate upwelling, downwelling temperatures and atmospheric transmission in order to assess the consistency of those derived from the CRTM model. The frequent land surface temperature (LST) determination (8 times a day) in the ISCCP database has allowed us to assess the diurnal cycle effect on emissivity retrieval. Differences in magnitude and phase between thermal temperature and low frequencies microwave brightness temperature have been noticed. These differences seem to vary in space and time. They also depend on soil texture and thermal inertia. The proposed methodology accounts for these factors and

  17. Rear surface light emission measurements from laser-produced shock waves in clear and Al-coated polystyrene targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, E. A.; Deniz, A. V.; Schmitt, A. J.; Stamper, J. A.; Obenschain, S. P.; Lehecka, T.; Mostovych, A. N.; Seely, J.

    1999-08-01

    The Nike KrF laser, with its very uniform focal distributions, has been used at intensities near 10 14 W/cm 2 to launch shock waves in polystyrene targets. The rear surface visible light emission differed between clear polystyrene (CH) targets and targets with a thin (125 nm) Al coating on the rear side. The uncoated CH targets showed a relatively slowly rising emission followed by a sudden fall when the shock emerges, while the Al-coated targets showed a rapid rise in emission when the shock emerges followed by a slower fall, allowing an unambiguous determination of the time the shock arrived at the rear surface. A half-aluminized target allowed us to observe this difference in a single shot. The brightness temperature of both the aluminized targets and the non-aluminized targets was slightly below but close to rear surface temperature predictions of a hydrodynamic code. A discussion of preheat effects is given.

  18. Emissivity Measurements of Foam-Covered Water Surface at L-Band for Low Water Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Bo Wei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For a foam-covered sea surface, it is difficult to retrieve sea surface salinity (SSS with L-band brightness temperature (1.4 GHz because of the effect of a foam layer with wind speeds stronger than 7 m/s, especially at low sea surface temperature (SST. With foam-controlled experiments, emissivities of a foam-covered water surface at low SST (−1.4 °C to 1.7 °C are measured for varying SSS, foam thickness, incidence angle, and polarization. Furthermore, a theoretical model of emissivity is introduced by combining wave approach theory with the effective medium approximation method. Good agreement is obtained upon comparing theoretical emissivities with those of experiments. The results indicate that foam parameters have a strong influence on increasing emissivity of a foam-covered water surface. Increments of experimental emissivities caused by foam thickness of 1 cm increase from about 0.014 to 0.131 for horizontal polarization and 0.022 to 0.150 for vertical polarization with SSS increase and SST decrease. Contributions of the interface between the foam layer and water surface to the foam layer emissivity increments are discussed for frequencies between 1 and 37 GHz.

  19. Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) Observations of Brightness Temperatures and Ocean Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate During NASA's GRIP and HS3 Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy L.; James, M. W.; Roberts, J. B.; Jones, W. L.; Biswas, S.; Ruf, C. S.; Uhlhorn, E. W.; Atlas, R.; Black, P.; Albers, C.

    2012-01-01

    HIRAD flew on high-altitude aircraft over Earl and Karl during NASA s GRIP (Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes) campaign in August - September of 2010, and plans to fly over Atlantic tropical cyclones in September of 2012 as part of the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) mission. HIRAD is a new C-band radiometer using a synthetic thinned array radiometer (STAR) technology to obtain spatial resolution of approximately 2 km, out to roughly 30 km each side of nadir. By obtaining measurements of emissions at 4, 5, 6, and 6.6 GHz, observations of ocean surface wind speed and rain rate can be retrieved. The physical retrieval technique has been used for many years by precursor instruments, including the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which has been flying on the NOAA and USAF hurricane reconnaissance aircraft for several years to obtain observations within a single footprint at nadir angle. Results from the flights during the GRIP and HS3 campaigns will be shown, including images of brightness temperatures, wind speed, and rain rate. Comparisons will be made with observations from other instruments on the campaigns, for which HIRAD observations are either directly comparable or are complementary. Features such as storm eye and eye-wall, location of storm wind and rain maxima, and indications of dynamical features such as the merging of a weaker outer wind/rain maximum with the main vortex may be seen in the data. Potential impacts on operational ocean surface wind analyses and on numerical weather forecasts will also be discussed.

  20. THE CASE AGAINST WARM OR SELF-INTERACTING DARK MATTER AS EXPLANATIONS FOR CORES IN LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Martinez, Gregory D.; Bullock, James S.; Kaplinghat, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Warm dark matter (WDM) and self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) are often motivated by the inferred cores in the dark matter halos of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. We test thermal WDM, non-thermal WDM, and SIDM using high-resolution rotation curves of nine LSB galaxies. We fit these dark matter models to the data and determine the halo core radii and central densities. While the minimum core size in WDM models is predicted to decrease with halo mass, we find that the inferred core radii increase with halo mass and also cannot be explained with a single value of the primordial phase-space density. Moreover, if the core size is set by WDM particle properties, then even the smallest cores we infer would require primordial phase-space density values that are orders of magnitude smaller than lower limits obtained from the Lyα forest power spectra. We also find that the dark matter halo core densities vary by a factor of about 30 from system to system while showing no systematic trend with the maximum rotation velocity of the galaxy. This strongly argues against the core size being directly set by large self-interactions (scattering or annihilation) of dark matter. We therefore conclude that the inferred cores do not provide motivation to prefer WDM or SIDM over other dark matter models.

  1. Microwave emission measurements of sea surface roughness, soil moisture, and sea ice structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloersen, P.; Wilheit, T. T.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1972-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the microwave radiometers to be carried aboard the Nimbus 5 and 6 satellites and proposed for one of the earth observatory satellites, remote measurements of microwave radiation at wavelengths ranging from 0.8 to 21 cm have been made of a variety of the earth's surfaces from the NASA CV-990 A/C. Brightness temperatures of sea water surfaces of varying roughness, of terrain with varying soil moisture, and of sea ice of varying structure were observed. In each case, around truth information was available for correlation with the microwave brightness temperature. The utility of passive microwave radiometry in determining ocean surface wind speeds, at least for values higher than 7 meters/second has been demonstrated. In addition, it was shown that radiometric signatures can be used to determine soil moisture in unvegetated terrain to within five percentage points by weight. Finally, it was demonstrated that first year thick, multi-year, and first year thin sea ice can be distinguished by observing their differing microwave emissivities at various wavelengths.

  2. RESOLVING THE BRIGHT HCN(1–0) EMISSION TOWARD THE SEYFERT 2 NUCLEUS OF M51: SHOCK ENHANCEMENT BY RADIO JETS AND WEAK MASING BY INFRARED PUMPING?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, Satoki; Trung, Dinh-V-; Boone, Frédéric; Krips, Melanie; Lim, Jeremy; Muller, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    We present high angular resolution observations of the HCN(1-0) emission (at ∼1'' or ∼34 pc), together with CO J = 1-0, 2-1, and 3-2 observations, toward the Seyfert 2 nucleus of M51 (NGC 5194). The overall HCN(1-0) distribution and kinematics are very similar to that of the CO lines, which have been indicated as the jet-entrained molecular gas in our past observations. In addition, high HCN(1-0)/CO(1-0) brightness temperature ratio of about unity is observed along the jets, similar to that observed at the shocked molecular gas in our Galaxy. These results strongly indicate that both diffuse and dense gases are entrained by the jets and outflowing from the active galactic nucleus. The channel map of HCN(1-0) at the systemic velocity shows a strong emission right at the nucleus, where no obvious emission has been detected in the CO lines. The HCN(1-0)/CO(1-0) brightness temperature ratio at this region reaches >2, a value that cannot be explained considering standard physical/chemical conditions. Based on our calculations, we suggest infrared pumping and possibly weak HCN masing, but still requiring an enhanced HCN abundance for the cause of this high ratio. This suggests the presence of a compact dense obscuring molecular gas in front of the nucleus of M51, which remains unresolved at our ∼1'' (∼34 pc) resolution, and consistent with the Seyfert 2 classification picture

  3. RESOLVING THE BRIGHT HCN(1–0) EMISSION TOWARD THE SEYFERT 2 NUCLEUS OF M51: SHOCK ENHANCEMENT BY RADIO JETS AND WEAK MASING BY INFRARED PUMPING?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushita, Satoki [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Trung, Dinh-V- [Institute of Physics, Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology, 10, Daotan, BaDinh, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Boone, Frédéric [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Krips, Melanie [Institute de Radio Astronomie Millimétrique, 300 Rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint Martin d' Hères (France); Lim, Jeremy [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Muller, Sebastien [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-43992 Onsala (Sweden)

    2015-01-20

    We present high angular resolution observations of the HCN(1-0) emission (at ∼1'' or ∼34 pc), together with CO J = 1-0, 2-1, and 3-2 observations, toward the Seyfert 2 nucleus of M51 (NGC 5194). The overall HCN(1-0) distribution and kinematics are very similar to that of the CO lines, which have been indicated as the jet-entrained molecular gas in our past observations. In addition, high HCN(1-0)/CO(1-0) brightness temperature ratio of about unity is observed along the jets, similar to that observed at the shocked molecular gas in our Galaxy. These results strongly indicate that both diffuse and dense gases are entrained by the jets and outflowing from the active galactic nucleus. The channel map of HCN(1-0) at the systemic velocity shows a strong emission right at the nucleus, where no obvious emission has been detected in the CO lines. The HCN(1-0)/CO(1-0) brightness temperature ratio at this region reaches >2, a value that cannot be explained considering standard physical/chemical conditions. Based on our calculations, we suggest infrared pumping and possibly weak HCN masing, but still requiring an enhanced HCN abundance for the cause of this high ratio. This suggests the presence of a compact dense obscuring molecular gas in front of the nucleus of M51, which remains unresolved at our ∼1'' (∼34 pc) resolution, and consistent with the Seyfert 2 classification picture.

  4. Inferring Land Surface Model Parameters for the Assimilation of Satellite-Based L-Band Brightness Temperature Observations into a Soil Moisture Analysis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission provides global measurements of L-band brightness temperatures at horizontal and vertical polarization and a variety of incidence angles that are sensitive to moisture and temperature conditions in the top few centimeters of the soil. These L-band observations can therefore be assimilated into a land surface model to obtain surface and root zone soil moisture estimates. As part of the observation operator, such an assimilation system requires a radiative transfer model (RTM) that converts geophysical fields (including soil moisture and soil temperature) into modeled L-band brightness temperatures. At the global scale, the RTM parameters and the climatological soil moisture conditions are still poorly known. Using look-up tables from the literature to estimate the RTM parameters usually results in modeled L-band brightness temperatures that are strongly biased against the SMOS observations, with biases varying regionally and seasonally. Such biases must be addressed within the land data assimilation system. In this presentation, the estimation of the RTM parameters is discussed for the NASA GEOS-5 land data assimilation system, which is based on the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and the Catchment land surface model. In the GEOS-5 land data assimilation system, soil moisture and brightness temperature biases are addressed in three stages. First, the global soil properties and soil hydraulic parameters that are used in the Catchment model were revised to minimize the bias in the modeled soil moisture, as verified against available in situ soil moisture measurements. Second, key parameters of the "tau-omega" RTM were calibrated prior to data assimilation using an objective function that minimizes the climatological differences between the modeled L-band brightness temperatures and the corresponding SMOS observations. Calibrated parameters include soil roughness parameters, vegetation structure parameters

  5. Enabling HST UV Exploration of the Low Surface Brightness Universe: A Pilot Study with the WFC3 X Filter Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilker, David

    2017-08-01

    We request 17 orbits to conduct a pilot study to examine the effectiveness of the WFC3/UVIS F300X filter for studying fundamental problems in star formation in the low density regime. In principle, the broader bandpass and higher throughput of F300X can halve the required observing time relative to F275W, the filter of choice for studying young stellar populations in nearby galaxies. Together with F475W and F600LP, this X filter set may be as effective as standard UVIS broadband filters for characterizing the physical properties of such populations. We will observe 5 low surface brightness targets with a range of properties to test potential issues with F300X: the red tail to 4000A and a red leak beyond, ghosts, and the wider bandpass. Masses and ages of massive stars, young star clusters, and clumps derived from photometry from the X filter set will be compared with corresponding measurements from standard filters. Beyond testing, our program will provide the first sample spanning a range of LSB galaxy properties for which HST UV imaging will be obtained, and a glimpse into the ensemble properties of the quanta of star formation in these strange environments. The increased observing efficiency would make more tractable programs which require several tens to hundreds of orbits to aggregate sufficient numbers of massive stars, young star clusters, and clumps to build statistical samples. We are hopeful that our pilot observations will broadly enable high-resolution UV imaging exploration of the low density frontier of star formation while HST is still in good health.

  6. An assessment of the land surface emissivity in the 8 - 12 micrometer window determined from ASTER and MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmugge, T.; Hulley, G.; Hook, S.

    2009-04-01

    The land surface emissivity is often overlooked when considering surface properties that effect the energy balance. However, knowledge of the emissivity in the window region is important for determining the longwave radiation balance and its subsequent effect on surface temperature. The net longwave radiation (NLR) is strongly affected by the difference between the temperature of the emitting surface and the sky brightness temperature, this difference will be the greatest in the window region. Outside the window region any changes in the emitted radiation by emissivity variability are mostly compensated for by changes in the reflected sky brightness. The emissivity variability is typically greatest in arid regions where the exposed soil and rock surfaces display the widest range of emissivity. For example, the dune regions of North Africa have emissivities of 0.7 or less in the 8 to 9 micrometer wavelength band due to the quartz sands of the region, which can produce changes in NLR of more than 10 w/m*m compared to assuming a constant emissivity. The errors in retrievals of atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles from hyperspectral infrared radiances, such as those from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the NASA Aqua satellite result from using constant or inaccurate surface emissivities, particularly over arid and semi-arid regions here the variation in emissivity is large, both spatially and spectrally. The multispectral thermal infrared data obtained from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) radiometer and MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensors on NASA's Terra satellite have been shown to be of good quality and provide a unique new tool for studying the emissivity of the land surface. ASTER has 5 channels in the 8 to 12 micrometer waveband with 90 m spatial resolution, when the data are combined with the Temperature Emissivity Separation (TES) algorithm the surface emissivity over this wavelength region

  7. Surface magnetism studied by polarized light emission after He+ scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manske, J; Dirska, M; Lubinski, G; Schleberger, M; Narmann, A; Hoekstra, R

    Surface magnetism is studied by means of an ion beam of low energy (2-15 keV) scattered off the surface under grazing incidence conditions. During the scattering, a small fraction of the ions is neutralized into excited states which decay subsequently by light emission. The circular polarization of

  8. Suppressed speckle contrast of blue light emission out of white lamp with phosphors excited by blue laser diodes for high-brightness lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Junichi; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Takeda, Yuji; Ueno, Misaki; Kawasaki, Yoji; Matsuba, Yoshiaki; Heike, Atsushi

    2012-11-01

    The speckle contrast of blue light emission out of high-brightness white lamps using phosphors excited by InGaN/GaN blue laser diodes is evaluated as a measure of coherence. As a result, speckle contrast of as low as 1.7%, the same level as a blue light emitting diode, is obtained. This implies that the original blue laser light can be converted into incoherent light through lamp structures without any dynamic mechanisms. This unique speckle-free performance is considered to be realized by multiple scattering inside the lamp structure, the multi-longitudinal mode operation of the blue laser diodes, and the use of multiple laser diodes. Such almost-incoherent white lamps can be applied for general lighting without any nuisance of speckle noise and should be categorized as lamps rather than lasers in terms of laser safety regulation.

  9. Analysis of SMOS brightness temperature and vegetation optical depth data with coupled land surface and radiative transfer models in Southern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Schlenz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS L1c brightness temperature and L2 optical depth data are analysed with a coupled land surface (PROMET and radiative transfer model (L-MEB. The coupled models are validated with ground and airborne measurements under contrasting soil moisture, vegetation and land surface temperature conditions during the SMOS Validation Campaign in May and June 2010 in the SMOS test site Upper Danube Catchment in southern Germany. The brightness temperature root-mean-squared errors are between 6 K and 9 K. The L-MEB parameterisation is considered appropriate under local conditions even though it might possibly be further optimised. SMOS L1c brightness temperature data are processed and analysed in the Upper Danube Catchment using the coupled models in 2011 and during the SMOS Validation Campaign 2010 together with airborne L-band brightness temperature data. Only low to fair correlations are found for this comparison (R between 0.1–0.41. SMOS L1c brightness temperature data do not show the expected seasonal behaviour and are positively biased. It is concluded that RFI is responsible for a considerable part of the observed problems in the SMOS data products in the Upper Danube Catchment. This is consistent with the observed dry bias in the SMOS L2 soil moisture products which can also be related to RFI. It is confirmed that the brightness temperature data from the lower SMOS look angles and the horizontal polarisation are less reliable. This information could be used to improve the brightness temperature data filtering before the soil moisture retrieval. SMOS L2 optical depth values have been compared to modelled data and are not considered a reliable source of information about vegetation due to missing seasonal behaviour and a very high mean value. A fairly strong correlation between SMOS L2 soil moisture and optical depth was found (R = 0.65 even though the two variables are considered independent in the

  10. AXIAL RATIO OF EDGE-ON SPIRAL GALAXIES AS A TEST FOR BRIGHT RADIO HALOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singal, J.; Jones, E.; Dunlap, H.; Kogut, A.

    2015-01-01

    We use surface brightness contour maps of nearby edge-on spiral galaxies to determine whether extended bright radio halos are common. In particular, we test a recent model of the spatial structure of the diffuse radio continuum by Subrahmanyan and Cowsik which posits that a substantial fraction of the observed high-latitude surface brightness originates from an extended Galactic halo of uniform emissivity. Measurements of the axial ratio of emission contours within a sample of normal spiral galaxies at 1500 MHz and below show no evidence for such a bright, extended radio halo. Either the Galaxy is atypical compared to nearby quiescent spirals or the bulk of the observed high-latitude emission does not originate from this type of extended halo. (letters)

  11. Photoelectron emission from metal surfaces by ultrashort laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraggi, M. N.; Gravielle, M. S.; Silkin, V. M.

    2006-01-01

    Electron emission from metal surfaces produced by short laser pulses is studied within the framework of the distorted-wave formulation. The proposed approach, named surface-Volkov (SV) approximation, makes use of the band-structure based (BSB) model and the Volkov phase to describe the interaction of the emitted electron with the surface and the external electric field, respectively. The BSB model provides a realistic representation of the surface, based on a model potential that includes the main features of the surface band structure. The SV method is applied to evaluate the photoelectron emission from the valence band of Al(111). Angular and energy distributions are investigated for different parameters of the laser pulse, keeping in all cases the carrier frequency larger than the plasmon one

  12. High brightness extreme ultraviolet (at 13.5 nm) emission from time-of-flight controlled discharges with coaxial fuel injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokai, Tomonao; Horioka, Kazuhiko; Hotta, Eiki; Yokoyama, Takuma; Sato, Hiroto; Zhidkov, Alexei

    2008-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission from discharge produced plasma with the coaxial injection of fuel vapor (tin and lithium) produced by laser ablation is experimentally studied. Multiple plasma pinches preceding a strong and long recombination radiation of EUV are observed in the first half cycle of a sinusoidal discharge current. Due to the time-of-flight control type of the discharge, the shape of pinch radiation pulses is almost identical. With the coaxial injection of time-of-flight controlled discharges, the highest brightness of EUV emission (maximum extracted energy of 244.3 mJ/2π sr per pulse with the emitter size of ∼1x0.3 mm 2 in full width at half maximum) is provided with efficiency exceeding 2% of deposited energy into the plasma (or 1% of dissipated energy in the discharge) due to a much better matching with the optimal plasma parameters in the recombination regime and a decrease in the off-duty factor. Stability of emitting plasma of the repetitive pinches is essentially improved with use of a second laser pulse

  13. Surface charge compensation for a highly charged ion emission microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.W.; Hamza, A.V.; Newman, M.W.; Holder, J.P.; Schneider, D.H.G.; Schenkel, T.

    2003-01-01

    A surface charge compensation electron flood gun has been added to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) highly charged ion (HCI) emission microscope. HCI surface interaction results in a significant charge residue being left on the surface of insulators and semiconductors. This residual charge causes undesirable aberrations in the microscope images and a reduction of the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) mass resolution when studying the surfaces of insulators and semiconductors. The benefits and problems associated with HCI microscopy and recent results of the electron flood gun enhanced HCI microscope are discussed

  14. Ion induced optical emission for surface and depth profile analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, C.W.

    1977-01-01

    Low-energy ion bombardment of solid surfaces results in the emission of infrared, visible, and ultraviolet radiation produced by inelastic ion-solid collision processes. The emitted optical radiation provides important insight into low-energy particle-solid interactions and provides the basis for an analysis technique which can be used for surface and depth profile analysis with high sensitivity. The different kinds of collision induced optical radiation emitted as a result of low-energy particle-solid collisions are reviewed. Line radiation arising from excited states of sputtered atoms or molecules is shown to provide the basis for surface and depth profile analysis. The spectral characteristics of this type of radiation are discussed and applications of the ion induced optical emission technique are presented. These applications include measurements of ion implant profiles, detection sensitivities for submonolayer quantities of impurities on elemental surfaces, and the detection of elemental impurities on complex organic substrates

  15. Variability of emissivity and surface temperature over a sparsely vegetated surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humes, K.S.; Kustas, W.P.; Moran, M.S.; Nichols, W.D.; Weltz, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Radiometric surface temperatures obtained from remote sensing measurements are a function of both the physical surface temperature and the effective emissivity of the surface within the band pass of the radiometric measurement. For sparsely vegetated areas, however, a sensor views significant fractions of both bare soil and various vegetation types. In this case the radiometric response of a sensor is a function of the emissivities and kinetic temperatures of various surface elements, the proportion of those surface elements within the field of view of the sensor, and the interaction of radiation emitted from the various surface components. In order to effectively utilize thermal remote sensing data to quantify energy balance components for a sparsely vegetated area, it is important to examine the typical magnitude and degree of variability of emissivity and surface temperature for such surfaces. Surface emissivity measurements and ground and low-altitude-aircraft-based surface temperature measurements (8-13 micrometer band pass) made in conjunction with the Monsoon '90 field experiment were used to evaluate the typical variability of those quantities during the summer rainy season in a semiarid watershed. The average value for thermal band emissivity of the exposed bare soil portions of the surface was found to be approximately 0.96; the average value measured for most of the varieties of desert shrubs present was approximately 0.99. Surface composite emissivity was estimated to be approximately 0.98 for both the grass-dominated and shrub-dominated portions of the watershed. The spatial variability of surface temperature was found to be highly dependent on the spatial scale of integration for the instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of the instrument, the spatial scale of the total area under evaluation, and the time of day

  16. Global Occurrence and Emission of Rotaviruses to Surface Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M. Kiulia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Group A rotaviruses (RV are the major cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children globally. Waterborne transmission of RV and the presence of RV in water sources are of major public health importance. In this paper, we present the Global Waterborne Pathogen model for RV (GloWPa-Rota model to estimate the global distribution of RV emissions to surface water. To our knowledge, this is the first model to do so. We review the literature to estimate three RV specific variables for the model: incidence, excretion rate and removal during wastewater treatment. We estimate total global RV emissions to be 2 × 1018 viral particles/grid/year, of which 87% is produced by the urban population. Hotspot regions with high RV emissions are urban areas in densely populated parts of the world, such as Bangladesh and Nigeria, while low emissions are found in rural areas in North Russia and the Australian desert. Even for industrialized regions with high population density and without tertiary treatment, such as the UK, substantial emissions are estimated. Modeling exercises like the one presented in this paper provide unique opportunities to further study these emissions to surface water, their sources and scenarios for improved management.

  17. Surface-electronic-state effects in electron emission from the Be(0001) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archubi, C. D.; Gravielle, M. S.; Silkin, V. M.

    2011-01-01

    We study the electron emission produced by swift protons impinging grazingly on a Be(0001) surface. The process is described within a collisional formalism using the band-structure-based (BSB) approximation to represent the electron-surface interaction. The BSB model provides an accurate description of the electronic band structure of the solid and the surface-induced potential. Within this approach we derive both bulk and surface electronic states, with these latter characterized by a strong localization at the crystal surface. We found that such surface electronic states play an important role in double-differential energy- and angle-resolved electron emission probabilities, producing noticeable structures in the electron emission spectra.

  18. Surface-electronic-state effects in electron emission from the Be(0001) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archubi, C. D. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, casilla de correo 67, sucursal 28, C1428EGA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gravielle, M. S. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, casilla de correo 67, sucursal 28, C1428EGA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Silkin, V. M. [Donostia International Physics Center, E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apartado 1072, E-20080 San Sebastian (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, E-48011 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    We study the electron emission produced by swift protons impinging grazingly on a Be(0001) surface. The process is described within a collisional formalism using the band-structure-based (BSB) approximation to represent the electron-surface interaction. The BSB model provides an accurate description of the electronic band structure of the solid and the surface-induced potential. Within this approach we derive both bulk and surface electronic states, with these latter characterized by a strong localization at the crystal surface. We found that such surface electronic states play an important role in double-differential energy- and angle-resolved electron emission probabilities, producing noticeable structures in the electron emission spectra.

  19. Mechanism of negative ion emission from surfaces of ferroelectrics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šroubek, Zdeněk

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 606, 15-16 (2012), s. 1327-1330 ISSN 0039-6028 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Surface of ferroelectrics * Ion emission Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.838, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0039602812001525#gts0005

  20. Electron emission from tungsten surface induced by neon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhongfeng; Zeng, Lixia; Zhao, Yongtao; Liu, Xueliang; Xiao, Guoqing; Li, Fuli; Cheng, Rui; Zhang, Xiaoan; Ren, Jieru; Zhou, Xianming; Wang, Xing; Lei, Yu; Li, Yongfeng; Yu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The electron emission from W surface induced by Ne q+ has been measured. For the same charge state, the electron yield gradually increases with the projectile velocity. Meanwhile, the effect of the potential energy of projectile has been found obviously. Our results give the critical condition for ''trampoline effect''

  1. Electron emission from tungsten surface induced by neon ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhongfeng; Zeng, Lixia; Zhao, Yongtao; Cheng, Rui; Zhang, Xiaoan; Ren, Jieru; Zhou, Xianming; Wang, Xing; Lei, Yu; Li, Yongfeng; Yu, Yang; Liu, Xueliang; Xiao, Guoqing; Li, Fuli

    2014-04-01

    The electron emission from W surface induced by Neq+ has been measured. For the same charge state, the electron yield gradually increases with the projectile velocity. Meanwhile, the effect of the potential energy of projectile has been found obviously. Our results give the critical condition for "trampoline effect".

  2. VNIR Reflectance and MIR Emissivity Spectra of Ordinary Chondrite Meteorites Under Simulated Asteroid Surface Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemma, M.; Shirley, K.; Glotch, T. D.; Ebel, D. S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Recent missions have revealed much about the nature of many Near-Earth asteroids, including the NEAR-Shoemaker target 433 Eros and Hayabusa target 25142 Itokawa. Both asteroids appear to have mineralogy consistent with ordinary chondrite meteorites. Laboratory spectral analysis of well-constrained meteorite samples can be employed as a reference tool to characterize and constrain data from current and future asteroid studies. A sample set of ordinary chondrite meteorites was chosen from the collection at the American Museum of Natural History. Six meteorites, spanning groups H, L, and LL, were prepared at four different size fractions (25-63 μm, 63-90 μm, 90-125 μm, 125-250 μm) in an attempt to mimic regolith known to exist on asteroids such as 433 Eros and 25142 Itokawa. At the Center for Planetary Exploration at Stony Brook University, spectra of the ordinary chondrite material were measured under simulated asteroid surface conditions ( 10-6 mbar, 150 K chamber temperature, low intensity illumination). The samples were used in two experiments: one measuring visible and near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra at a series of temperatures, and the other measuring mid-infrared (MIR) emissivity spectra. The emissivity measurements require accurate simulation of the thermal environment within asteroid regolith, achieved by inducing a thermal gradient within the sample that results in a surface brightness temperature around 323 K (similar to the surface of 25142 Itokawa). Mid-IR emissivity spectra were collected for each sample at a surface temperature of 323 K, and reflectance spectra were collected in increments of 10 K, over the range 283 K to 373 K. Preliminary VNIR spectra show spreads similar to those seen in Hinrichs and Lucey (2002). Preliminary MIR emissivity spectra suggest that under asteroid surface conditions, the position of the Christiansen feature shifts to shorter wavelengths and emissivity is lower in the Reststrahlen bands when compared to

  3. Variations of brightness and Ca 2 emission of the xi Boo AB and HD 1835 dWarf G stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuganov, P.F.

    1983-01-01

    75 photoelectric UBV-observations of xi Boo AB were obtained during 45 nights in 1980. Real light variations of several thousandths of magnitude are revealed. Moreover, the variations observed in two nights were resembling flares. Both recent and published data on HD 1835 together with Wilson's observations of H and K Ca II lines in the spectra of xi Boo A, xi Boo B and HD 1835 are used for the search of periodicities. The periodicities are present in variations of light and Ca II -emission. Periodicities are more prominent in light variations (periods are 10 days for xi Boo AB and 7.66 days for HD 1835). In H and K Ca II lines the duration of cycles is different but the basic period is the same as in light variations. Therefore, the basic period (interpreted as the period of star roration) can be revealed only from a very long run of H and K Ca II observations (approximately 150). Light variations of xi Boo AB are probably due to the A-component since the basic period of Ca II-variations in xi Boo A is approximately the same (10 days). The basic period of Ca II-variations in xi Boo B is considerably larger.

  4. Variations of brightness and Ca 2 emission of the xi Boo AB and HD 1835 dWarf G stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuganov, P.F.

    1983-01-01

    75 photoelectric UBV-observations of xi Boo AB were obtained during 45 nights in 1980. Real light variations of several thousandths of magnitude are revealed. Moreover, the variations observed in two nights were resembling flares. Both recent and published data on HD 1835 together with Wilson's observations of H and K Ca II lines in the spectra of xi Boo A, xi Boo B and HD 1835 are used for the search of periodicities. The periodicities are present in variations of light and Ca II -emission. Periodicities are more prominent in light variations (periods are 10 days for xi Boo AB and 7.66 days for HD 1835). In H and K Ca II lines the dura-- tion of cycles is different but the basic period is the same as in light variations. Therefore, the basic period (interpreted as the period of star roration) can be revealed only from a very long run of H and K Ca II observations (approximately 150). Light variations of xi Boo AB are probably due to the A-component since the basic period of Ca II-variations in xi Boo A is approximately the same (10 days). The basic period of Ca II-variations in xi Boo B is considerably larger;

  5. DETERMINING QUASAR BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTIONS FROM THEIR BROAD EMISSION LINES: APPLICATION TO THE BRIGHT QUASAR SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Fan Xiaohui; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    We describe a Bayesian approach to estimating quasar black hole mass functions (BHMF) using the broad emission lines to estimate black hole mass. We show how using the broad-line mass estimates in combination with statistical techniques developed for luminosity function estimation (e.g., the 1/V a correction) leads to statistically biased results. We derive the likelihood function for the BHMF based on the broad-line mass estimates, and derive the posterior distribution for the BHMF, given the observed data. We develop our statistical approach for a flexible model where the BHMF is modeled as a mixture of Gaussian functions. Statistical inference is performed using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, and we describe a Metropolis-Hastings algorithm to perform the MCMC. The MCMC simulates random draws from the probability distribution of the BHMF parameters, given the data, and we use a simulated data set to show how these random draws may be used to estimate the probability distribution for the BHMF. In addition, we show how the MCMC output may be used to estimate the probability distribution of any quantities derived from the BHMF, such as the peak in the space density of quasars. Our method has the advantage that it is able to constrain the BHMF even beyond the survey detection limits at the adopted confidence level, accounts for measurement errors and the intrinsic uncertainty in broad-line mass estimates, and provides a natural way of estimating the probability distribution of any quantities derived from the BHMF. We conclude by using our method to estimate the local active BHMF using the z BH ∼> 10 8 M sun . Our analysis implies that at a given M BH , z < 0.5 broad-line quasars have a typical Eddington ratio of ∼0.4 and a dispersion in Eddington ratio of ∼<0.5 dex.

  6. Critical issues in enhancing brightness in thin film phosphors for flat-panel display applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.K.; Chen, Z.; Kumar, D.; Cho, K.; Ollinger, M.

    2002-01-01

    Thin film phosphors have potential applications in field emission flat-panel displays. However, they are limited by the lower cathodoluminescent brightness in comparison to phosphor powders. In this paper, we have investigated the critical parameters that need to be optimized to increase the brightness of phosphor thin films. Specifically, we studied the role of surface roughness and optical properties of the substrate on the brightness of the phosphor films. Thin Y 2 O 3 :Eu phosphor films were deposited on various substrates (lanthanum aluminate, quartz, sapphire, and silicon) with thicknesses varying from 50 to 500 nm. A model that accounts for diffuse and specular or scattering effects has been developed to understand the effects of the microstructure on the emission characteristics of the cathodoluminescent films. The results from the model show that both the optical properties of the substrate and the surface roughness of the films play a critical role in controlling the brightness of laser deposited phosphor films

  7. Surface brightness and color distributions in blue compact dwarf galaxies. I. Haro 2, an extreme example of a star-forming young elliptical galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loose, H.H.; Thuan, T.X.; Virginia Univ., Charlottesville, VA)

    1986-01-01

    The first results of a large-scale program to study the morphology and structure of blue compact dwarf galaxies from CCD observations are presented. The observations and reduction procedures are described, and surface brightness and color profiles are shown. The results are used to discuss the morphological type of Haro 2 and its stellar populations. It is found that Haro 2 appears to be an extreme example of an elliptical galaxy undergoing intense star formation in its central regions, and that the oldest stars it contains were made only about four million yr ago. The missing mass problem of Haro 2 is also discussed. 28 references

  8. Laser method of acoustical emission control from vibrating surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyka, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    For limitation of the noise in environment, the necessity occurs of determining and location of sources of sounds emitted from surfaces of many machines and devices, assuring in effect the possibility of suitable constructional changes implementation, targeted at decreasing of their nuisance. In the paper, the results of tests and calculations are presented for plane surface sources emitting acoustic waves. The tests were realized with the use of scanning laser vibrometer which enabled remote registration and the spectral analysis of the surfaces vibrations. The known hybrid digital method developed for determination of sound wave emission from such surfaces divided into small finite elements was slightly modified by distinguishing the phase correlations between such vibrating elements. The final method being developed may find use in wide range of applications for different forms of vibrations of plane surfaces.

  9. Water-soluble multidentate polymers compactly coating Ag2S quantum dots with minimized hydrodynamic size and bright emission tunable from red to second near-infrared region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Rijun; Wan, Ajun; Liu, Xifeng; Yuan, Wen; Jin, Hui

    2014-05-21

    Hydrodynamic size-minimized quantum dots (QDs) have outstanding physicochemical properties for applications in multicolor molecular and cellular imaging at the level of single molecules and nanoparticles. In this study, we have reported the aqueous synthesis of Ag2S QDs by using thiol-based multidentate polymers as capping reagents. By regulating the composition of the precursors (AgNO3 and sulfur-N2H4·H2O complex) and multidentate polymers (poly(acrylic acid)-graft-cysteamine-graft-ethylenediamine), as well as the reaction time, Ag2S QDs (2.6-3.7 nm) are prepared, displaying tunable photoluminescence (PL) emission from red to the second near-infrared region (687-1096 nm). The small hydrodynamic thickness (1.6-1.9 nm) of the multidentate polymers yields a highly compact coating for the QDs, which results in the bright fluorescent QDs with high PL quantum yields (QYs: 14.2-16.4%). Experimental results confirm that the QDs have high PL stability and ultralow cytotoxicity, as well as high PLQYs and small hydrodynamic sizes (4.5-5.6 nm) similar to fluorescent proteins (27-30 kDa), indicating the feasibility of highly effective PL imaging in cells and living animals.

  10. Dual modal ultra-bright nanodots with aggregation-induced emission and gadolinium-chelation for vascular integrity and leakage detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guangxue; Li, Jackson Liang Yao; Claser, Carla; Balachander, Akhila; Tan, Yingrou; Goh, Chi Ching; Kwok, Immanuel Weng Han; Rénia, Laurent; Tang, Ben Zhong; Ng, Lai Guan; Liu, Bin

    2018-01-01

    The study of blood brain barrier (BBB) functions is important for neurological disorder research. However, the lack of suitable tools and methods has hampered the progress of this field. Herein, we present a hybrid nanodot strategy, termed AIE-Gd dots, comprising of a fluorogen with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics as the core to provide bright and stable fluorescence for optical imaging, and gadolinium (Gd) for accurate quantification of vascular leakage via inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In this report, we demonstrate that AIE-Gd dots enable direct visualization of brain vascular networks under resting condition, and that they form localized punctate aggregates and accumulate in the brain tissue during experimental cerebral malaria, indicative of hemorrhage and BBB malfunction. With its superior detection sensitivity and multimodality, we hereby propose that AIE-Gd dots can serve as a better alternative to Evans blue for visualization and quantification of changes in brain barrier functions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Color constancy in a scene with bright colors that do not have a fully natural surface appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Kazuho; Uchikawa, Keiji

    2014-04-01

    Theoretical and experimental approaches have proposed that color constancy involves a correction related to some average of stimulation over the scene, and some of the studies showed that the average gives greater weight to surrounding bright colors. However, in a natural scene, high-luminance elements do not necessarily carry information about the scene illuminant when the luminance is too high for it to appear as a natural object color. The question is how a surrounding color's appearance mode influences its contribution to the degree of color constancy. Here the stimuli were simple geometric patterns, and the luminance of surrounding colors was tested over the range beyond the luminosity threshold. Observers performed perceptual achromatic setting on the test patch in order to measure the degree of color constancy and evaluated the surrounding bright colors' appearance mode. Broadly, our results support the assumption that the visual system counts only the colors in the object-color appearance for color constancy. However, detailed analysis indicated that surrounding colors without a fully natural object-color appearance had some sort of influence on color constancy. Consideration of this contribution of unnatural object color might be important for precise modeling of human color constancy.

  12. Is X-ray emissivity constant on magnetic flux surfaces?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granetz, R.S.; Borras, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge of the elongations and shifts of internal magnetic flux surfaces can be used to determine the q profile in elongated tokamak plasmas. X-ray tomography is thought to be a reasonable technique for independently measuring internal flux surface shapes, because it is widely believed that X-ray emissivity should be constant on a magnetic flux surface. In the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, the X-ray tomography diagnostic system consists of four arrays of 38 chords each. A comparison of reconstructed X-ray contours with magnetic flux surfaces shows a small but consistent discrepancy in the radial profile of elongation. Numerous computational tests have been performed to verify these findings, including tests of the sensitivity to calibration and viewing geometry errors, the accuracy of the tomography reconstruction algorithms, and other subtler effects. We conclude that the discrepancy between the X-ray contours and the magnetic flux surfaces is real, leading to the conclusion that X-ray emissivity is not exactly constant on a flux surface. (orig.)

  13. Diminished Mercury Emission From Water Surfaces by Duckweed (Lemna minor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenberg, J. L.; Peters, S. C.

    2007-12-01

    Aquatic plants of the family Lemnaceae (generally referred to as duckweeds) are a widely distributed type of floating vegetation in freshwater systems. Under suitable conditions, duckweeds form a dense vegetative mat on the water surface, which reduces light penetration into the water column and decreases the amount of exposed water surface. These two factors would be expected to reduce mercury emission by limiting a) direct photoreduction of Hg(II), b) indirect reduction via coupled DOC photooxidation-Hg(II) reduction, and c) gas diffusion across the water-air interface. Conversely, previous studies have demonstrated transpiration of Hg(0) by plants, so it is therefore possible that the floating vegetative mat would enhance emission via transpiration of mercury vapor. The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether duckweed limits mercury flux to the atmosphere by shading and the formation of a physical barrier to diffusion, or whether it enhances emission from aquatic systems via transpiration of Hg(0). Deionized water was amended with mercury to achieve a final concentration of approximately 35 ng/L and allowed to equilibrate prior to the experiment. Experiments were conducted in rectangular polystyrene flux chambers with measured UV-B transmittance greater than 60% (spectral cutoff approximately 290 nm). Light was able to penetrate the flux chamber from the sides as well as the top throughout the experiment, limiting the effect of shading by duckweed on the water surface. Flux chambers contained 8L of water with varying percent duckweed cover, and perforated plastic sheeting was used as an abiotic control. Exposures were conducted outside on days with little to no cloud cover. Real time mercury flux was measured using atomic absorption (Mercury Instruments UT-3000). Total solar and ultraviolet radiation, as well as a suite of meteorological parameters, were also measured. Results indicate that duckweed diminishes mercury emission from the water surface

  14. Carbon dioxide emission from raised bog surface after peat extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turbiak Janusz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on CO2 emission from a raised bog after completion of peat extraction was performed in 2011–2013. CO2 emissions were determined by the chamber method. Twenty years after the termination of peat extraction, the bog surface was almost entirely devoid of plants. CO2 emission from the bog varied depending on temperature and water conditions and was 418 mg·m−2·h−1 on average during the research period. CO2 losses on the raised bog were on average 19.7 Mg·ha−1·year−1 during the research period which corresponded to a carbon loss of 5.37 Mg·ha−1·year−1 or mineralisation of 9.6 Mg·ha−1·year−1 of organic mass of 56% carbon content. It is possible to reduce organic mass losses and CO2 emission to the atmosphere from the bog surface after peat extraction has been terminated by reconstruction of initial water conditions, i.e. retaining a high ground water level and restoration of aquatic plant communities.

  15. Photon emission produced by particle-surface collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, C.W.; Tolk, N.H.

    1976-02-01

    Visible, ultraviolet, and infrared optical emission results from low-energy (20 eV-10 keV) particle-surface collisions. Several distinct kinds of collision induced optical radiation are discussed which provide fundamental information on particle-solid collision processes. Line radiation arises from excited states of sputtered surface constituents and backscattered beam particles. This radiation uniquely identifies the quantum state of sputtered or reflected particles, provides a method for identifying neutral atoms sputtered from the surface, and serves as the basis for a sensitive surface analysis technique. Broadband radiation from the bulk of the solid is attributed to the transfer of projectile energy to the electrons in the solid. Continuum emission observed well in front of transition metal targets is believed to arise from excited atom clusters (diatomic, triatomic, etc.) ejected from the solid in the sputtering process. Application of sputtered atom optical radiation for surface and depth profile analysis is demonstrated for the case of submonolayer quantities of chromium on silicon and aluminum implanted in SiO 2

  16. Electron emission during multicharged ion-surface interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A.; Havener, C.C.; Meyer, F.W.; Zehner, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Recent measurements of electron spectra for slow multicharged N ion-surface collisions are presented. The emphasis is on potential emission, i.e. the electron emission related to the neutralization of the ions. When using N ions that carry a K shell vacancy into the collision, characteristic K Auger electron emission from the projectiles is observed, as well as, for specific surfaces, target atom Auger transitions (resulting from vacancy transfer). Measurements of the intensity of these Auger transitions as a function of the time the ions spend above the surface can serve as a useful probe of the timescales characterizing the relevant neutralization processes. This technique is elucidated with the help of some computer simulations. It is shown that neutralization timescales required in the atomic ladder picture, in which neutralization takes place by resonant capture followed by purely intra-atomic Auger transitions, are too long to explain our experimental results. The introduction of additional neutralization/de-excitation mechanisms in the simulations leads to much better agreement with the experiments

  17. Salt Efflorescence Effects on Soil Surface Erodibility and Dust Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pelt, R. S.; Zhang, G.

    2017-12-01

    Soluble salts resulting from weathering of geological materials often form surface crusts or efflorescences in areas with shallow saline groundwater. In many cases, the affected areas are susceptible to wind erosion due to their lack of protective vegetation and their flat topography. Fugitive dusts containing soluble salts affect the biogeochemistry of deposition regions and may result in respiratory irritation during transport. We created efflorescent crusts on soil trays by surface evaporation of single salt solutions and bombarded the resultant efflorescences with quartz abrader sand in a laboratory wind tunnel. Four replicate trays containing a Torrifluvent soil affected by one of nine salts commonly found in arid and semiarid streams were tested and the emissions were captured by an aspirated multi-stage deposition and filtering system. We found that in most cases the efflorescent crust reduced the soil surface erodibility but also resulted in the emission of salt rich dust. Two of the salts, sodium thiosulfate and calcium chloride, resulted in increased soil volume and erodibility. However, one of the calcium chloride replicates was tested after an outbreak of humid air caused hygroscopic wetting of the soil and it became indurated upon drying greatly decreasing the erodibility. Although saline affected soils are not used for agricultural production and degradation is not a great concern, the release of salt rich dust is an area of environmental concern and steps to control the dust emissions from affected soils should be developed. Future testing will utilize suites of salts found in streams of arid and semiarid regions.

  18. Tunable surface plasmon instability leading to emission of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumbs, Godfrey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P de Manuel Lardizabal, 4, 20018 San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Iurov, Andrii, E-mail: aiurov@chtm.unm.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Huang, Danhong [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico 87117 (United States); Pan, Wei [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2015-08-07

    We propose a new approach for energy conversion from a dc electric field to tunable terahertz emission based on hybrid semiconductors by combining two-dimensional (2D) crystalline layers and a thick conducting material with possible applications for chemical analysis, security scanning, medical (single-molecule) imaging, and telecommunications. The hybrid nano-structure may consist of a single or pair of sheets of graphene, silicene, or a 2D electron gas. When an electric current is passed through a 2D layer, we discover that two low-energy plasmon branches exhibit a characteristic loop in their dispersion before they merge into an unstable region beyond a critical wave vector q{sub c}. This finite q{sub c} gives rise to a wavenumber cutoff in the emission dispersion of the surface plasmon induced instability and emission of radiation (spiler). However, there is no instability for a single driven layer far from the conductor, and the instability of an isolated pair of 2D layers occurs without a wavenumber cutoff. The wavenumber cutoff is found to depend on the conductor electron density, layer separation, distances of layers from the conductor surface, and the driving-current strength.

  19. Emissions of Photonic Crystal Waveguides with Discretely Modulated Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong-Hua, Tang; Li-Xue, Chen; Yan, Liu; Xiu-Dong, Sun; Wei-Qiang, Ding

    2009-01-01

    Transmission properties of photonic crystal (PC) waveguides with discretely modulated exit surfaces are investigated numerically using the unite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Unlike the case of periodically modulated surfaces, where the transmission beam tends to be a single and directional beam, when the exit surfaces are modulated only at several discrete points, the emission power tends to split into multiple and directional beams. We explain this phenomenon using a multiple point source interference model. Based on these results, we propose a 1-to-N beam splitter, and numerically realized high efficiency coupling between a PC sub-wavelength waveguide and three traditional dielectric waveguides with a total efficiency larger than 92%. This simple, easy fabrication, and controllable mechanism may find more potential applications in integrated optical circuits. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  20. Inverse compton emission of gamma rays near the pulsar surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, M.

    1981-01-01

    The physical conditions near pulsar surface that might give rise to gamma ray emission from Crab and Vela pulsars are not yet well understood. Here I suggest that, in the context of the vacuum discharge mechanism proposed by Ruderman and Sutherland (1975), gamma rays are produced by inverse Compton scattering of secondary electrons with the thermal radiation of the star surface as well as for curvature and synchotron radiation. It is found that inverse Compton scattering is relevant if the neutron star surface temperature is greater than 10 6 K or of the polar cap temperature is of the order of 5 x 10 6 K. Inverse Compton scattering in anisotropic photon fields and Klein-Nishina regime is here carefully considered. (orig.)

  1. Soil hydraulic parameters and surface soil moisture of a tilled bare soil plot inversely derived from l-band brightness temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Dimitrov, Marin; Vanderborght, Jan P.; Kostov, K. G.; Jadoon, Khan; Weihermü ller, Lutz; Jackson, Thomas J.; Bindlish, Rajat; Pachepsky, Ya A.; Schwank, Mike; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-01-01

    model (CRTM) that accounts for vertical gradients in dielectric permittivity. Brightness temperatures simulated by the CRTM and the 2-cm-layer Fresnel model fitted well to the measured ones. L-band brightness temperatures are therefore related

  2. Trace moisture emissions from heated metal surfaces in hydrogen service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, Hans H.; Yao Jianlong; Raynor, Mark W.

    2004-01-01

    The formation of trace moisture by exposure of dry heated surfaces of 316 L stainless-steel, Restek Silcosteel registered , and nickel 1/8 in. outer diameter line segments to purified Ar and H 2 was studied using atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry at flow rates of 2 slpm. Prior to H 2 exposure, adsorbed moisture was removed by heating incrementally to 500 deg. C in an argon matrix, where the Restek Silcosteel registered material released a maximum of 50 ppb moisture at 300 deg. C and moisture spikes from the Ni and stainless-steel surfaces reached several 100 ppb. Upon exposure to H 2 , persistent low ppb moisture emissions due to the reduction of surface oxide species were observed at temperatures as low as 100 deg. C. Spikes at 300-500 deg. C ranged from ∼100 ppb for the stainless-steel lines to 400 ppb for the Restek Silcosteel registered material. The observed moisture emissions have to be considered as a potential contamination source for high-purity processes utilizing H 2 purge at elevated temperatures

  3. Optical emission from low-energy ion-surface collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, C.W.; Thomas, E.W.; Van der Weg, W.F.; Tolk, N.H.

    1977-01-01

    Impact of energetic heavy particles on surfaces gives rise to emission of optical radiation from reflected particles, sputtered particles and also from excited states of the solid. The present status of research in this area is reviewed with emphasis on understanding the basic mechanisms which give rise to formation of excited states. The spectral line shape from ejected atoms may be analyzed to provide information on the distribution of speeds and directions of the excited species; the line intensity provides a measure of the probability for creating the state. Formation of excited species is related both to the collision processes within the solid and also to the interaction of the recoiling ejected species with the target surface. Most ejected species are atomic but important examples of ejected molecules are also discussed. Luminescence induced in the solid itself is related to recombination of electron hole pairs and is related significantly to the presence of defects

  4. Qualitative internal surface roughness classification using acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hafizi Zohari; Mohd Hanif Saad

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes a novel new nondestructive method of qualitative internal surface roughness classification for pipes utilizing Acoustic Emission (AE) signal. Two different flowrate are introduced in a pipe obstructed using normally available components (e.g.: valve). The AE signal at suitable location from the obstruction are obtained and the peak amplitudes, RMS amplitude and energy of the AE signal are obtained. A dimensionless number, the Bangi Number, AB, is then calculated as a ratio of the AE parameters (peak amplitude, RMS amplitude or energy) in low flowrate measurement compared to the AE parameters in high flowrate measurement. It was observed that the Bangi Number, AB obtained can then be used to successfully discriminate between rough and smooth internal surface roughness. (author)

  5. Seasonal Surface Spectral Emissivity Derived from Terra MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun-Mack, Sunny; Chen, Yan; Minnis, Patrick; Young, DavidF.; Smith, William J., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) Project is measuring broadband shortwave and longwave radiances and deriving cloud properties form various images to produce a combined global radiation and cloud property data set. In this paper, simultaneous data from Terra MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) taken at 3.7, 8.5, 11.0, and 12.0 m are used to derive the skin temperature and the surface emissivities at the same wavelengths. The methodology uses separate measurements of clear sky temperature in each channel determined by scene classification during the daytime and at night. The relationships between the various channels at night are used during the day when solar reflectance affects the 3.7- m radiances. A set of simultaneous equations is then solved to derive the emissivities. Global monthly emissivity maps are derived from Terra MODIS data while numerical weather analyses provide soundings for correcting the observed radiances for atmospheric absorption. These maps are used by CERES and other cloud retrieval algorithms.

  6. An Hα Imaging Survey of the Low-surface-brightness Galaxies Selected from the Fall Sky Region of the 40% ALFALFA H I Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Feng-Jie; Wu, Hong; Du, Wei; Zhu, Yi-Nan; Lam, Man-I.; Zhou, Zhi-Min; He, Min; Jin, Jun-Jie; Cao, Tian-Wen; Zhao, Pin-Song; Yang, Fan; Wu, Chao-Jian; Li, Hong-Bin; Ren, Juan-Juan

    2018-03-01

    We present the observed Hα flux and derived star formation rates (SFRs) for a fall sample of low-surface-brightness galaxies (LSBGs). The sample is selected from the fall sky region of the 40% ALFALFA H I Survey–SDSS DR7 photometric data, and all the Hα images were obtained using the 2.16 m telescope, operated by the National Astronomy Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. A total of 111 LSBGs were observed and Hα flux was measured in 92 of them. Though almost all the LSBGs in our sample are H I-rich, their SFRs, derived from the extinction and filter-transmission-corrected Hα flux, are less than 1 M ⊙ yr‑1. LSBGs and star-forming galaxies have similar H I surface densities, but LSBGs have much lower SFRs and SFR surface densities than star-forming galaxies. Our results show that LSBGs deviate from the Kennicutt–Schmidt law significantly, which indicates that they have low star formation efficiency. The SFRs of LSBGs are close to average SFRs in Hubble time and support previous arguments that most of the LSBGs are stable systems and they tend to seldom contain strong interactions or major mergers in their star formation histories.

  7. Ultra-bright emission from hexagonal boron nitride defects as a new platform for bio-imaging and bio-labelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbadawi, Christopher; Tran, Trong Toan; Shimoni, Olga; Totonjian, Daniel; Lobo, Charlene J.; Grosso, Gabriele; Moon, Hyowan; Englund, Dirk R.; Ford, Michael J.; Aharonovich, Igor; Toth, Milos

    2016-12-01

    Bio-imaging requires robust ultra-bright probes without causing any toxicity to the cellular environment, maintain their stability and are chemically inert. In this work we present hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) nanoflakes which exhibit narrowband ultra-bright single photon emitters1. The emitters are optically stable at room temperature and under ambient environment. hBN has also been noted to be noncytotoxic and seen significant advances in functionalization with biomolecules2,3. We further demonstrate two methods of engineering this new range of extremely robust multicolour emitters across the visible and near infrared spectral ranges for large scale sensing and biolabeling applications.

  8. Surface emission of quark gluon plasma at RHIC and LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Wenchang; Wan Renzhou; Zhou Daicui

    2008-01-01

    Within the framework of a factorization model, we study the behaviour of nuclear modification factor in Au-Au collisions at RHIC and Pb-Pb collisions at LHC. We find that the nuclear modification factor is inversely proportional to the radius of the quark-gluon plasma and is dominated by the surface emission of hard jets. We predict the nuclear modification factor P AALHS ∼0.15 in central Pb-Pb collisions at LHC. The study shows that the factorization model can be used to describe the centrality dependence of nuclear modification factor of the high transverse momentum particles produced in heavy ion collisions at both RHIC and LHC. (authors)

  9. Photoelectric emission from negative-electron-affinity diamond (111) surfaces: Exciton breakup versus conduction-band emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandis, C.; Pate, B.B.

    1995-01-01

    We have recently reported that bound electron-hole pairs (Mott-Wannier excitons) are the dominant source of photoelectron emission from specially prepared [''as-polished'' C(111)-(1x1):H] negative-electron-affinity diamond surfaces for near-band-gap excitation up to 0.5 eV above threshold [C. Bandis and B. B. Pate, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 777 (1995)]. It was found that photoexcited excitons transport to the surface, break up, and emit their electron. In this paper, we extend the study of exciton-derived emission to include partial yield (constant final-state) analysis as well as angular distribution measurements of the photoelectric emission. In addition, we find that exciton-derived emission does not always dominate. Photoelectric emission properties of the in situ ''rehydrogenated'' (111)-(1x1):H diamond surface are characteristically different than emission observed from the as-polished (111)-(1x1):H surface. The rehydrogenated surface has additional downward band bending as compared to the as-polished surface. In confirmation of the assignment of photoelectric yield to exciton breakup emission, we find a significant enhancement of the total electron yield when the downward band bending of the hydrogenated surface is increased. The functional form of the observed total electron yield demonstrates that, in contrast to the as-polished surface, conduction-band electrons are a significant component of the observed photoelectric yield from the in situ hydrogenated (111)-(1x1):H surface. Furthermore, electron emission characteristics of the rehydrogenated surface confirms our assignment of a Fan phonon-cascade mechanism for thermalization of excitons

  10. Spectral characterization of surface emissivities in the thermal infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niclòs, Raquel; Mira, Maria; Valor, Enric; Caselles, Diego; García-Santos, Vicente; Caselles, Vicente; Sánchez, Juan M.

    2015-04-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing trends to hyperspectral sensors on board satellites in the last decades, e.g., the current EOS-MODIS and EOS-ASTER and future missions like HyspIRI, ECOSTRESS, THIRSTY and MISTIGRI. This study aims to characterize spectrally the emissive properties of several surfaces, mostly soils. A spectrometer ranging from 2 to 16 μm, D&P Model 102, has been used to measure samples with singular spectral features, e.g. a sandy soil rich in gypsum sampled in White Sands (New Mexico, USA), salt samples, powdered quartz, and powdered calcite. These samples were chosen for their role in the assessment of thermal emissivity of soils, e.g., the calcite and quartz contents are key variables for modeling TIR emissivities of bare soils, along with soil moisture and organic matter. Additionally, the existence of large areas in the world with abundance of these materials, some of them used for calibration/validation activities of satellite sensors and products, makes the chosen samples interesting. White Sands is the world's largest gypsum dune field encompassing 400 km^2; the salt samples characterize the Salar of Uyuni (Bolivia), the largest salt flat in the world (up to 10,000 km^2), as well as the Jordanian and Israeli salt evaporation ponds at the south end of the Dead Sea, or the evaporation lagoons in Aigües-Mortes (France); and quartz is omnipresent in most of the arid regions of the world such as the Algodones Dunes or Kelso Dunes (California, USA), with areas around 700 km2 and 120 km^2, respectively. Measurements of target leaving radiance, hemispherical radiance reflected by a diffuse reflectance panel, and the radiance from a black body at different temperatures were taken to obtain thermal spectra with the D&P spectrometer. The good consistency observed between our measurements and laboratory spectra of similar samples (ASTER and MODIS spectral libraries) indicated the validity of the measurement protocol. Further, our study showed the

  11. The Surface Brightness-color Relations Based on Eclipsing Binary Stars: Toward Precision Better than 1% in Angular Diameter Predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graczyk, Dariusz; Gieren, Wolfgang; Konorski, Piotr; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Storm, Jesper; Nardetto, Nicolas; Gallenne, Alexandre; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Kervella, Pierre; Kołaczkowski, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    In this study we investigate the calibration of surface brightness–color (SBC) relations based solely on eclipsing binary stars. We selected a sample of 35 detached eclipsing binaries with trigonometric parallaxes from Gaia DR1 or Hipparcos whose absolute dimensions are known with an accuracy better than 3% and that lie within 0.3 kpc from the Sun. For the purpose of this study, we used mostly homogeneous optical and near-infrared photometry based on the Tycho-2 and 2MASS catalogs. We derived geometric angular diameters for all stars in our sample with a precision better than 10%, and for 11 of them with a precision better than 2%. The precision of individual angular diameters of the eclipsing binary components is currently limited by the precision of the geometric distances (∼5% on average). However, by using a subsample of systems with the best agreement between their geometric and photometric distances, we derived the precise SBC relations based only on eclipsing binary stars. These relations have precisions that are comparable to the best available SBC relations based on interferometric angular diameters, and they are fully consistent with them. With very precise Gaia parallaxes becoming available in the near future, angular diameters with a precision better than 1% will be abundant. At that point, the main uncertainty in the total error budget of the SBC relations will come from transformations between different photometric systems, disentangling of component magnitudes, and for hot OB stars, the main uncertainty will come from the interstellar extinction determination. We argue that all these issues can be overcome with modern high-quality data and conclude that a precision better than 1% is entirely feasible.

  12. The Surface Brightness-color Relations Based on Eclipsing Binary Stars: Toward Precision Better than 1% in Angular Diameter Predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graczyk, Dariusz; Gieren, Wolfgang [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics (MAS) (Chile); Konorski, Piotr [Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Uniwersytet Warszawski, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478, Warsaw (Poland); Pietrzyński, Grzegorz [Universidad de Concepción, Departamento de Astronomia, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Storm, Jesper [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Nardetto, Nicolas [Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Nice (France); Gallenne, Alexandre [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Maxted, Pierre F. L. [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Kervella, Pierre [Unidad Mixta Internacional Franco-Chilena de Astronomía (CNRS UMI 3386), Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Kołaczkowski, Zbigniew, E-mail: darek@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: darek@ncac.torun.pl [Instytut Astronomiczny, Uniwersytet Wrocławski, Kopernika 11, 51-622 Wrocław (Poland)

    2017-03-01

    In this study we investigate the calibration of surface brightness–color (SBC) relations based solely on eclipsing binary stars. We selected a sample of 35 detached eclipsing binaries with trigonometric parallaxes from Gaia DR1 or Hipparcos whose absolute dimensions are known with an accuracy better than 3% and that lie within 0.3 kpc from the Sun. For the purpose of this study, we used mostly homogeneous optical and near-infrared photometry based on the Tycho-2 and 2MASS catalogs. We derived geometric angular diameters for all stars in our sample with a precision better than 10%, and for 11 of them with a precision better than 2%. The precision of individual angular diameters of the eclipsing binary components is currently limited by the precision of the geometric distances (∼5% on average). However, by using a subsample of systems with the best agreement between their geometric and photometric distances, we derived the precise SBC relations based only on eclipsing binary stars. These relations have precisions that are comparable to the best available SBC relations based on interferometric angular diameters, and they are fully consistent with them. With very precise Gaia parallaxes becoming available in the near future, angular diameters with a precision better than 1% will be abundant. At that point, the main uncertainty in the total error budget of the SBC relations will come from transformations between different photometric systems, disentangling of component magnitudes, and for hot OB stars, the main uncertainty will come from the interstellar extinction determination. We argue that all these issues can be overcome with modern high-quality data and conclude that a precision better than 1% is entirely feasible.

  13. [Study on Square Super-Lattice Pattern with Surface Discharge in Dielectric Barrier Discharge by Optical Emission Spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xue-jiao; Dong, Li-fang; Liu, Ying; Wang, Qian; Feng, Jian-yu

    2016-02-01

    Square super-lattice pattern with surface discharge consisting of central spots and dim spots is firstly observed in the mixture of argon and air by using a dielectric barrier discharge device with water electrodes. By observing the image, it is found that the central spot is located at the centriod of its surrounding four dim spots. The short-exposure image recorded by a high speed video camera shows that the dim spot results from the surface discharges (SDs). The brightness of the central spot and is quite different from that of the dim spot, which indicates that the plasma states of the central spot and the dim spot may be differentiated. The optical emission spectrum method is used to further study the several plasma parameters of the central spot and the dim spot in different argon content. The emission spectra of the N₂ second positive band (C³IIu --> B³ IIg) are measured, from which the molecule vibration temperatures of the central spot and the dim spot are calculated respectively. The broadening of spectral line 696.57 nm (2P₂-->1S₅) is used to study the electron densities of the central spot and the dim spot. It is found that the molecule vibration temperature and electron density of the dim spot are higher than those of the central spot in the same argon content The molecule vibration temperature and electron density of the central spot and the dim spot increase with the argon content increasing from 90% to 99.9%. The surface discharge induced by the volume discharge (VD) has the determinative effect on the formation of the dim spot The experimental results above play an important role in studying the formation mechanism of surface discharg&of square super-lattice pattern with surface discharge. In addition, the studies exert an influence on the application of surface discharge and volume discharge in different fields.

  14. Observations of C-Band Brightness Temperature and Ocean Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate in Hurricanes Earl And Karl (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy; James, Mark; Roberts, Brent J.; Biswax, Sayak; Uhlhorn, Eric; Black, Peter; Linwood Jones, W.; Johnson, Jimmy; Farrar, Spencer; Sahawneh, Saleem

    2012-01-01

    Ocean surface emission is affected by: a) Sea surface temperature. b) Wind speed (foam fraction). c) Salinity After production of calibrated Tb fields, geophysical fields wind speed and rain rate (or column) are retrieved. HIRAD utilizes NASA Instrument Incubator Technology: a) Provides unique observations of sea surface wind, temp and rain b) Advances understanding & prediction of hurricane intensity c) Expands Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer capabilities d) Uses synthetic thinned array and RFI mitigation technology of Lightweight Rain Radiometer (NASA Instrument Incubator) Passive Microwave C-Band Radiometer with Freq: 4, 5, 6 & 6.6 GHz: a) Version 1: H-pol for ocean wind speed, b) Version 2: dual ]pol for ocean wind vectors. Performance Characteristics: a) Earth Incidence angle: 0deg - 60deg, b) Spatial Resolution: 2-5 km, c) Swath: approx.70 km for 20 km altitude. Observational Goals: WS 10 - >85 m/s RR 5 - > 100 mm/hr.

  15. Predamage threshold electron emission from insulator and semiconductor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siekhaus, W.J.; Kinney, J.H.; Milam, D.

    1985-01-01

    Predamage electron emission shows a dependence on fluence, bandgap and wavelength consistent with multiphoton excitation across the bandgap and inconsistent with avalanche ionization and thermionic emission models. The electron emission scales with pulselength as 1/√T. 6 references, 8 figures, 1 table

  16. High brightness electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.; Carlsten, B.E.; Young, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of accelerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electrons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electrons as the electrons enter the first cavity. 5 figs

  17. Auger emission from solid surfaces bombarded with ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grizzi, Oscar.

    1986-01-01

    The Auger electron emission from Be, Na, Mg, Al and Si bombarded with 0,5-20 KeV noble gas ions is studied. Sharp structures of the Auger electron spectra of Na and Be were identified. A Monte Carlo program was adapted to simulate the colision cascade in the solid, inner shell excitations and Auger decays. From the comparision of experimental and simulated Auger intensities, the relative role of symmetric and asymmetric collisions in Be K- and Al L-shell excitation were evaluated. In the case of Be, the discussion of the exciting processes to higher projectile energies was extended. To this end, the simulation to early measurements of Be K X-ray yields was applied. From this analysis, information about the variations of the fluorescence yield and outer-shell occupation numbers of Be with projectile energy was obtained. The study of the shape of the sharp Auger structures and their dependence with the energy and incidence projectile angle gives information about the collisional processes, inner hole lifetimes and Auger decays. From the evaluation of the energy and angular distribution of the excited sputtered atoms and the interaction between them and the metallic-surface, the energy shift distributions in the Auger energies were obtained. From the comparison of these distributions with the experimental atomic peaks, the main causes of the broadening of these peaks were determined. (M.E.L.) [es

  18. Effect of metallic and hyperbolic metamaterial surface on electric and magnetic dipole emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, Xingjie; Naik, Gururaj V.; Kildishev, Alexander V.

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous emission patterns of electric and magnetic dipoles on different material surfaces were studied numerically and experimentally. The results show the modified behavior of electric and magnetic dipoles on metallic and HMM surfaces.......Spontaneous emission patterns of electric and magnetic dipoles on different material surfaces were studied numerically and experimentally. The results show the modified behavior of electric and magnetic dipoles on metallic and HMM surfaces....

  19. Current in heavy-current planar diode with discrete emission surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belomyttsev, S.Ya.; Korovin, S.D.; Pegel', I.V

    1999-01-01

    Dependence of current in a high-current planar diode on the size of emission centres was studied. Essential effect of emission surface microstructure on the current value in the planar diode was demonstrated. It was determined that if the distance between the emitter essentially exceeded their size then current dependence on the ratio of size to the value of the diode gap was an exponential function with 3/2 index. Current dependence on voltage obeyed the exponential law with 3/2 index up to higher voltage values in the planar diode with discrete emission surface in contrast to the case of a planar diode with homogeneous emission surface [ru

  20. AMSR-E/Aqua Monthly Global Microwave Land Surface Emissivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a global land emissivity product using passive microwave observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System...

  1. The surface emissions trap: a new approach in indoor air purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowicz, Pawel; Larsson, Lennart

    2012-11-01

    A new device for stopping or reducing potentially irritating or harmful emissions from surfaces indoors is described. The device is a surface emissions trap prototype and consists of an adsorbent sheet with a semipermeable barrier surrounded by two thin nonwoven layers. The trap may be applied directly at the source of the emissions e.g. at moisture-affected floors and walls, surfaces contaminated by chemical spills etc. This results in an immediate stop or reduction of the emitting pollutants. The trap has a very low water vapor resistance thus allowing drying of wet surfaces. In laboratory experiments typically 98% reduction of air concentrations of volatile organic compounds and a virtually total reduction of mold particle-associated mycotoxins was observed. The surface emissions trap may represent a convenient and efficient way of restoring indoor environments polluted by microbial and other moisture-associated emissions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Burkina Faso - BRIGHT II

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Millennium Challenge Corporation hired Mathematica Policy Research to conduct an independent evaluation of the BRIGHT II program. The three main research questions...

  3. Electron emission from insulator surfaces by ultra-short laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acuna, M; Gravielle, M S, E-mail: mario@iafe.uba.a, E-mail: msilvia@iafe.uba.a [Institutes de AstronomIa y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-11-01

    Photoelectron emission from insulator surfaces induced by ultra-short laser pulses is studied within a time-dependent distorted wave method. The proposed approach combines the Volkov phase, which takes into account the laser interaction, with a simple representation of the unperturbed surface states, given by the Tight-binding method. The model is applied to evaluate the photoelectron emission from a LiF(001) surface, finding effects of interference produced by the crystal lattice.

  4. Effect of metallic and hyperbolic metamaterial surfaces on electric and magnetic dipole emission transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, X.; Naik, G. V.; Kildishev, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous emission patterns of electric and magnetic dipoles on different metallic surfaces and a hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) surface were simulated using the dyadic Green’s function technique. The theoretical approach was verified by experimental results obtained by measuring angular......-dependent emission spectra of europium ions on top of different films. The results show the modified behavior of electric and magnetic dipoles on metallic and HMM surfaces. The results of numerical calculations agree well with experimental data....

  5. Selection effects in the bivariate brightness distribution for spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1986-01-01

    The joint distribution of total luminosity and characteristic surface brightness (the bivariate brightness distribution) is investigated for a complete sample of spiral galaxies in the Virgo cluster. The influence of selection and physical limits of various kinds on the apparent distribution are detailed. While the distribution of surface brightness for bright galaxies may be genuinely fairly narrow, faint galaxies exist right across the (quite small) range of accessible surface brightnesses so no statement can be made about the true extent of the distribution. The lack of high surface brightness bright galaxies in the Virgo sample relative to an overall RC2 sample (mostly field galaxies) supports the contention that the star-formation rate is reduced in the inner region of the cluster for environmental reasons. (author)

  6. BrightFocus Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About BrightFocus Foundation Featured Content BrightFocus: Investing in Science to Save Mind and Sight We're here to help. Explore ... recognition is very important. Monday, November 6, 2017 New Diagnosis? Managing a mind and sight disease is a journey. And you’ ...

  7. Evidence for ubiquitous high-equivalent-width nebular emission in z ∼ 7 galaxies: toward a clean measurement of the specific star-formation rate using a sample of bright, magnified galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, R.; Bouwens, R. J.; Labbé, I. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Zheng, W.; Lemze, D.; Ford, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bradley, L.; Coe, D.; Postman, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States); Donahue, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Moustakas, J. [Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Umetsu, K. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P. O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Zitrin, A.; Bartelmann, M. [Institut fur Theoretische Astrophysik, ZAH, Albert-Ueberle-Straß e 2, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Gonzalez, V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Benítez, N.; Jimenez-Teja, Y. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), C/Camino Bajo de Huetor 24, Granada 18008 (Spain); Broadhurst, T. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country, P. O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Grillo, C. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Infante, L. [Departamento de Astronoia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, V. Mackenna 4860, Santiago 22 (Chile); and others

    2014-03-20

    Growing observational evidence indicates that nebular line emission has a significant impact on the rest-frame optical fluxes of z ∼ 5-7 galaxies. This line emission makes z ∼ 5-7 galaxies appear more massive, with lower specific star-formation rates (sSFRs). However, corrections for this line emission have been difficult to perform reliably because of huge uncertainties on the strength of such emission at z ≳ 5.5. In this paper, we present the most direct observational evidence thus far for ubiquitous high-equivalent-width (EW) [O III] + Hβ line emission in Lyman-break galaxies at z ∼ 7, and we present a strategy for an improved measurement of the sSFR at z ∼ 7. We accomplish this through the selection of bright galaxies in the narrow redshift window z ∼ 6.6-7.0 where the Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) 4.5 μm flux provides a clean measurement of the stellar continuum light, in contrast with the 3.6 μm flux, which is contaminated by the prominent [O III] + Hβ lines. To ensure a high signal-to-noise ratio for our IRAC flux measurements, we consider only the brightest (H {sub 160} < 26 mag) magnified galaxies we have identified behind galaxy clusters. It is remarkable that the mean rest-frame optical color for our bright seven-source sample is very blue, [3.6]-[4.5] = –0.9 ± 0.3. Such blue colors cannot be explained by the stellar continuum light and require that the rest-frame EW of [O III] + Hβ is greater than 637 Å for the average source. The four bluest sources from our seven-source sample require an even more extreme EW of 1582 Å. We can also set a robust lower limit of ≳ 4 Gyr{sup –1} on the sSFR of our sample based on the mean spectral energy distribution.

  8. Influence of Local Airflow on the Pollutant Emission from Indoor Building Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2001-01-01

    This article reports the results of an investigation, based on fundamental fluid dynamics and mass transfer theory, carried out to obtain a general understanding of the mechanisms involved in the emissions from building materials in ventilated rooms. In addition, a generally applicable method...... for the prediction of surface emissions is proposed. The work focused on the emission of vapours and gases and no particulate emissions were considered. The methods used were numerical calculations by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and full-scale laboratory experiments. It was found that the emissions...

  9. An experimental study of electron transfer and emission during particle-surface interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, C.T.

    2000-09-01

    A new coincidence technique has been developed and used to study the secondary electron emission that arises during the interaction of ions with surfaces. This coincidence technique allows the secondary electron emission statistics due to the impact of singly, doubly and multiply charged ions on surfaces to be measured in coincidence with reflected particles, in specific charge states and with specific post-collision trajectories. This system has been used to study the impact of 8 keV H + ions on polycrystalline copper and aluminium targets. Under these conditions the potential emission contribution is negligible and the electron emission is almost entirely due to kinetic emission processes. The sub-surface contribution to the observed electron emission has been isolated using two newly developed models. These models provide valuable information about the depth and amount of surface penetration and on the probability for subsequent electron transport to the surface. The impact of 2 - 100 keV Xe q+ (q = 1 - 10) ions on polycrystalline copper has also been studied using this system. From the subsequent data the potential and kinetic contributions to secondary electron emission have been separated using a previously established model for potential emission. The resulting kinetic emission yield increases with increasing ion impact energy, consistent with current concepts on quasimolecular ionisation. For ions impacting at large incident angles evidence for sub-surface emission has also been observed. The degree of penetration increases with ion impact energy, consistent with current concepts on this effect. The formation of H - ions from incident H + ions has also been studied by measuring the secondary electron emission statistics in coincidence with reflected particles in specific final charge states. This preliminary data is consistent with a two-step process of Auger neutralisation followed by resonant electron capture to the affinity level. However this mechanism

  10. Effect of surface morphology and densification on the infrared emissivity of C/SiC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fuyuan; Cheng, Laifei; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Litong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The cauliflower-like microstructure improved the infrared emissivity multiply. • The infrared emissivity decreased continually with the improving surface flatness. • The densification process boosted the infrared emissivity. - Abstract: The effects of surface morphology and densification on the infrared emissivity of 2D C/SiC composites were investigated in 6–16 μm from 1000 °C to 1600 °C. As the sample surface was polished, the reflection and scattering for the electromagnetic waves of thermal radiation were reduced, causing a sustained decrease in the infrared emissivity. The space-variant polarizations caused by the cauliflower-like microstructure were enervated in the smooth surface, which enhanced the reduction trendy in the infrared emissivity. In densification process, the increasing SiC content and the growing amount of the cauliflower-like microstructure on sample surface improved the infrared emissivity of C/SiC composites, while the decreasing porosity decreased it. Due to the greater positive effects on the thermal radiation during the densification process, the infrared emissivity of C/SiC composites increased successively with density

  11. Effect of surface morphology and densification on the infrared emissivity of C/SiC composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Fuyuan, E-mail: wangfy1986@gmail.com; Cheng, Laifei; Zhang, Qing, E-mail: zhangqing@nwpu.edu.cn; Zhang, Litong

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The cauliflower-like microstructure improved the infrared emissivity multiply. • The infrared emissivity decreased continually with the improving surface flatness. • The densification process boosted the infrared emissivity. - Abstract: The effects of surface morphology and densification on the infrared emissivity of 2D C/SiC composites were investigated in 6–16 μm from 1000 °C to 1600 °C. As the sample surface was polished, the reflection and scattering for the electromagnetic waves of thermal radiation were reduced, causing a sustained decrease in the infrared emissivity. The space-variant polarizations caused by the cauliflower-like microstructure were enervated in the smooth surface, which enhanced the reduction trendy in the infrared emissivity. In densification process, the increasing SiC content and the growing amount of the cauliflower-like microstructure on sample surface improved the infrared emissivity of C/SiC composites, while the decreasing porosity decreased it. Due to the greater positive effects on the thermal radiation during the densification process, the infrared emissivity of C/SiC composites increased successively with density.

  12. Effects of fibre-form nanostructures on particle emissions from a tungsten surface in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, S.; Miyamoto, T.; Ohno, N.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of fibre-form nanostructure of a tungsten surface on both electron emission and sputtering in helium/argon plasmas are represented. Generally, a nano-fibre forest, the so-called ‘fuzz’, made of tungsten with helium gas inside is found to have the tendency of suppressing the particle emission substantially. The electron emission comes from the impact of high-energy primary electrons. In addition, a deeply biased tungsten target, which inhibits the influx of even energetic primary electrons, seems to produce an electron emission, and it may be suppressed on the way to nanostructure formation on the surface of the W target. Such an emission process is discussed here. The sputtering yield of the He-damaged tungsten surface with the fibre-form nanostructure depends on the surface morphology while the sputtering itself changes the surface morphology, so that the time evolutions of sputtering yield from the W surface with an originally well-developed nanostructure are found to show a minimum in sputtering yield, which is about a half for the fresh nanostructured tungsten and roughly one-fifth of the yield for the original flat normal tungsten surface. The surface morphology at that time is, for the first time, made clear with field emission scanning electron microscopy observation. The physical mechanism for the appearance of such a minimum in sputtering yield is discussed. (paper)

  13. Study of land surface temperature and spectral emissivity using multi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tral emissivities over a hard rock terrain using multi-sensor satellite data. The study area, of .... Georeferenced MODIS level 1B data (bands 31 and. 32) and Landsat ETM+ data .... the optical properties of the atmosphere. In the present study ...

  14. Measurement of PCB emissions from building surfaces using a novel portable emission test cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Helle Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in building materials like caulks and paints from 1930 e1970s and in some cases that caused elevated PCB concentrations in the indoor air at levels considered harmful to occupant health. PCBs are semivolatile organic compounds and capable of spreading from...... and there is a need to prioritise remediation measures on different materials. An inexpensive and portable emission test cell was developed to resemble indoor conditions in relation to the area specific ventilation rate. Emissions were measured using the test cell in the laboratory on freshly made PCB paint. Further......, the chamber was used for determining emissions from PCB-containing building materials in the field as well as remediated walls. The measurements showed that sorption of PCBs to chamber walls was insignificant after 2-4 days of exposure to the source. Over a period of two weeks emission rates did not change...

  15. Emissions of nitrous oxide and methane from surface and ground waters in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiessl, H.

    1993-01-01

    The paper provides a first estimation of the contribution of inland freshwater systems (surface waters and ground waters) to the emission of the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide and methane in Germany. These amounts are compared to other main sources for the emission of nitrous oxide and methane. (orig.) [de

  16. Structural dynamics of fore-crisis area on a heat emission surface of a fuel element's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharaevskij, I.G.; Fialko, N.M.; Sharaevskaya, E.I.

    2011-01-01

    The known theoretical and experimental data regarding the nature of dry spots evolution are reviewed and the idea regarding the mechanism of heat emission from the heated surface in fore-crisis area are defined more precisely.

  17. The Role of Intrinsic and Surface States on the Emission Properties of Colloidal CdSe and CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morello Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractTime Resolved Photoluminescence (TRPL measurements on the picosecond time scale (temporal resolution of 17 ps on colloidal CdSe and CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots (QDs were performed. Transient PL spectra reveal three emission peaks with different lifetimes (60 ps, 460 ps and 9–10 ns, from the bluest to the reddest peak. By considering the characteristic decay times and by comparing the energetic separations among the states with those theoretically expected, we attribute the two higher energy peaks to ± 1Uand ± 1L bright states of the fine structure picture of spherical CdSe QDs, and the third one to surface states emission. We show that the contribution of surface emission to the PL results to be different for the two samples studied (67% in the CdSe QDs and 32% in CdSe/ZnS QDs, confirming the decisive role of the ZnS shell in the improvement of the surface passivation.

  18. Bright Localized Near-Infrared Emission at 1-4 AU in the AB Aurigae Disk Revealed by IOTA Closure Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan-Gabet, R.; Monnier, J. D.; Berger, J.-P.; Traub, W. A.; Schloerb, F. P.; Pedretti, E.; Benisty, M.; Carleton, N. P.; Haguenauer, P.; Kern, P.; Labeye, P.; Lacasse, M. G.; Malbet, F.; Perraut, K.; Pearlman, M.; Thureau, N.

    2006-07-01

    We report on the detection of localized off-center emission at 1-4 AU in the circumstellar environment of the young stellar object AB Aurigae. We used closure-phase measurements in the near-infrared that were made at the long-baseline interferometer IOTA, the first obtained on a young stellar object using this technique. When probing sub-AU scales, all closure phases are close to zero degrees, as expected given the previously determined size of the AB Aurigae inner-dust disk. However, a clear closure-phase signal of -3.5d +/- 0.5d is detected on one triangle containing relatively short baselines, requiring a high degree of non-point symmetry from emission at larger (AU-sized) scales in the disk. We have not identified any alternative explanation for these closure-phase results, and we demonstrate that a ``disk hot spot'' model can fit our data. We speculate that such detected asymmetric near-infrared emission might arise as a result of localized viscous heating due to a gravitational instability in the AB Aurigae disk, or to the presence of a close stellar companion or accreting substellar object.

  19. Investigation of sandwich material surface created by abrasive water jet (AWJ via vibration emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hreha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research a of abrasive waterjet cutting of heterogeneous “sandwich“ material with different Young modulus of elasticity of the cutted surface geometry by means of vibration emission. In order to confirm hypothetical assumptions about direct relation between vibration emission and surface quality an experiment in heterogeneous material consisting of stainless steel (DIN 1.4006 / AISI 410 and alloy AlCuMg2 has been provided.

  20. Surface influence on convoy electron emission at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    It is studied the dependence of the production of convoy electrons induced by H + - 60 KeV with surface conditions of Al targets by in situ deposition of Na and O. The conclusion is that convoy electron production increases with the work function of the surface. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  1. Room temperature synthesis of ultra-small, near-unity single-sized lead halide perovskite quantum dots with wide color emission tunability, high color purity and high brightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lucheng; Geng, Jing; Ai, Lisha; Zhang, Ying; Xie, Renguo; Yang, Wensheng

    2016-08-01

    Phosphor with extremely narrow emission line widths, high brightness, and wide color emission tunability in visible regions is required for display and lighting applications, yet none has been reported in the literature so far. In the present study, single-sized lead halide perovskite (APbX 3; A = CH3NH3 and Cs; X = Cl, Br, and I) nanocrystalline (NC) phosphors were achieved for the first time in a one-pot reaction at room temperature (25 °C). The size-dependent samples, which included four families of CsPbBr3 NCs and exhibited sharp excitonic absorption peaks and pure band gap emission, were directly obtained by simply varying the concentration of ligands. The continuity of the optical spectrum can be successively tuned over the entire UV-visible spectral region (360-610 nm) by preparing CsPbCl3, CsPbI3, and CsPb(Y/Br)3 (Y = Cl and I) NCs with the use of CsPbBr3 NCs as templates by anion exchange while maintaining the size of NCs and high quantum yields of up to 80%. Notably, an emission line width of 10-24 nm, which is completely consistent with that of their single particles, indicates the formation of single-sized NCs. The versatility of the synthetic strategy was validated by extending it to the synthesis of single-sized CH3NH3PbX 3 NCs by simply replacing the cesium precursor by the CH3NH3 X precursor.

  2. Field emission from the surface of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knápek, Alexandr; Sobola, D.; Tománek, P.; Pokorná, Zuzana; Urbánek, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 395, FEB 15 (2017), s. 157-161 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : field emission * HOPG * scanning electron microscopy * scanning near-field optical microscopy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Nano-processes (applications on nano-scale) Impact factor: 3.387, year: 2016

  3. Application of a sawtooth surface to accelerator beam chambers with low electron emission rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suetsugu, Y.; Tsuchiya, M.; Nishidono, T.; Kato, N.; Satoh, N.; Endo, S.; Yokoyama, T.

    2003-01-01

    One of the latest problems in positron or proton accelerators is a single-beam instability due to an electron cloud around the beam. The instability, for an example, causes a beam size blow up of the positron beam and deteriorates the performance of the electron-positron collider. the seed of the electron cloud is the electrons emitted from the surface of the beam chamber, which consists of electrons due to the synchrotron radiation (photoelectrons) and sometimes those multiplied by the multipactoring. Suppressing the electron emission from the surface is, therefore, an essential way to cure the instability. Here a rough surface with a sawtooth structure (sawtooth surface) is proposed to reduce the electron emission from the surface of the beam chamber. A new rolling-tap method is developed for this study to make the sawtooth surface in a circular beam chamber with a length of several meters. The first experiment using a test chamber at a photon beam line of the KEK Photon Factory verifies its validity. The photoelectron emission from the sawtooth surface reduces by one order of magnitude compared to the usual smooth surface. In the second experiment under a bunched positron beam in the KEK B-Factory, however, the electron emission is comparable to that of a smooth surface and the behavior is quite different from the previous one. The reason is that the beam field excites the multipactoring of electrons and the decrease of the photoelectron emission by the sawtooth surface is wiped out. The sawtooth surface will be effective to reduce the electron emission under the situation with external magnetic fields or without strong beam fields where the electron multipactoring hardly occurs

  4. Effect of surface contaminants on the light emission spectrum of LiF TLDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhold, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    Recent results show the differences between the light emissions spectra from LiF Thermoluminescent Dosimeters (TLDs) for gamma vs. alpha irradiations to be due to contaminants on the surface of the TLD. The light emission spectrum for thermal neutron irradiations was observed to be identical to that for a Cs-137 gamma irradiation in Harshaw TLD-100. Further experiments with surface treatments on TLD-100 indicate trace contaminants introduced by the standard methanol cleansing rinse in reagent grade methanol to have a substantial effect on the light emission spectrum for Am-241 alpha irradiations

  5. Field emission and high voltage cleaning of particulate contaminants on extended metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, J.; Bonin, B.; Safa, H.

    1996-01-01

    The vacuum insulation properties of extended metallic surfaces depends strongly on their cleanliness. The usual technique to reduce electronic field emission from such surfaces consists in exposing them to very high electric fields during limited periods of time. This kind of processing also reduces the occurrence of vacuum breakdown. The processing of the surface is generally believed to be due to a thermomechanical destruction of the emitting sites, initiated by the emission itself. Comparison of the electric forces vs adherence forces which act on dust particles lying on the surface shows that the processing could also be due simply to the mechanical removal of the dust particles, with a subsequent reduction of field emission from the contaminated surface. (author)

  6. Temporal Arctic longwave surface emissivity feedbacks in the Community Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C.; Feldman, D.; Huang, X.; Flanner, M.; Yang, P.; Chen, X.

    2017-12-01

    We have investigated how the inclusion of realistic and consistent surface emissivity in both land-surface and atmospheric components of the CESM coupled-climate model affects a wide range of climate variables. We did this by replacing the unit emissivity values in RRTMG_LW for water, fine-grained snow, and desert scenes with spectral emissivity values, and by replacing broadband emissivity values in surface components with the Planck-curve weighted counterparts. We find that this harmonized treatment of surface emissivity within CESM can be important for reducing high-latitude temperature biases. We also find that short-term effects of atmospheric dynamics and spectral information need to be considered to understand radiative effects in higher detail, and are possible with radiative kernels computed for every grid and time point for the entire model integration period. We find that conventional climatological feedback calculations indicate that sea-ice emissivity feedback is positive in sign, but that the radiative effects of the difference in emissivity between frozen and unfrozen surfaces exhibit seasonal dependence. Furthermore, this seasonality itself exhibits meridional asymmetry due to differences in sea-ice response to climate forcing between the Arctic and the Antarctic. In the Arctic, this seasonal, temporally higher order analysis exhibits increasing outgoing surface emissivity radiative response in a warming climate. While the sea-ice emissivity feedback and seasonal sea-ice emissivity radiative response amplitudes are a few percent of surface albedo feedbacks, the feedback analysis methods outlined in this work demonstrate that spatially and temporally localized feedback analysis can give insight into the mechanisms at work on those scales which differ in amplitude and sign from conventional climatological analyses. We note that the inclusion of this realistic physics leads to improved agreement between CESM model results and Arctic surface

  7. Nanocrystals of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskites (CsPbX₃, X = Cl, Br, and I): Novel Optoelectronic Materials Showing Bright Emission with Wide Color Gamut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protesescu, Loredana; Yakunin, Sergii; Bodnarchuk, Maryna I; Krieg, Franziska; Caputo, Riccarda; Hendon, Christopher H; Yang, Ruo Xi; Walsh, Aron; Kovalenko, Maksym V

    2015-06-10

    Metal halides perovskites, such as hybrid organic-inorganic CH3NH3PbI3, are newcomer optoelectronic materials that have attracted enormous attention as solution-deposited absorbing layers in solar cells with power conversion efficiencies reaching 20%. Herein we demonstrate a new avenue for halide perovskites by designing highly luminescent perovskite-based colloidal quantum dot materials. We have synthesized monodisperse colloidal nanocubes (4-15 nm edge lengths) of fully inorganic cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, and I or mixed halide systems Cl/Br and Br/I) using inexpensive commercial precursors. Through compositional modulations and quantum size-effects, the bandgap energies and emission spectra are readily tunable over the entire visible spectral region of 410-700 nm. The photoluminescence of CsPbX3 nanocrystals is characterized by narrow emission line-widths of 12-42 nm, wide color gamut covering up to 140% of the NTSC color standard, high quantum yields of up to 90%, and radiative lifetimes in the range of 1-29 ns. The compelling combination of enhanced optical properties and chemical robustness makes CsPbX3 nanocrystals appealing for optoelectronic applications, particularly for blue and green spectral regions (410-530 nm), where typical metal chalcogenide-based quantum dots suffer from photodegradation.

  8. Aqueous synthesis of high bright Ag{sub 2}Se−ZnSe quantum dots with tunable near-infrared emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Che, Dongchen; Ding, Di [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201602 (China); Wang, Hongzhi, E-mail: wanghz@dhu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201602 (China); Zhang, Qinghong [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201602 (China); Li, Yaogang, E-mail: yaogang_li@dhu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center of Advanced Glass Manufacturing Technology, Ministry of Education, Donghua University, Shanghai 201602 (China)

    2016-09-05

    Efficient aqueous synthetic methods for near-infrared quantum dots as bioimaging agents are urgently required. In this work, a simple and fast synthesis of highly luminescent, near-infrared Ag{sub 2}Se quantum dots (QDs) in aqueous media is reported. The method avoids high temperature, pressure and organic solvents to directly generate water-dispersible Ag{sub 2}Se QDs. The photoluminescence emission of Ag{sub 2}Se QDs ranges from 835 to 940 nm by different Ag:Se molar ratio. Using the ZnSe as a shell, the quantum yield reaches up to 42%. The Ag{sub 2}Se−ZnSe QDs with high quantum yield, near-infrared and low cytotoxic could be used as good cell labels, showing great potential applications in bio-imaging. - Highlights: • Ag{sub 2}Se−ZnSe nanocrystals are prepared directly in aqueous media at low temperature. • Ag{sub 2}Se−ZnSe nanocrystals show excellent water solubility and colloidal stability. • Ag{sub 2}Se nanocrystals exhibit tunable near-infrared emission with ultrasmall size. • Ag{sub 2}Se−ZnSe nanocrystals show high quantum yield with low cytotoxicity. • Ag{sub 2}Se−ZnSe nanocrystals are stable over a month at room temperature in the air.

  9. ALMA constraints on star-forming gas in a prototypical z = 1.5 clumpy galaxy: the dearth of CO(5-4) emission from UV-bright clumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibinel, A.; Daddi, E.; Bournaud, F.; Sargent, M. T.; le Floc'h, E.; Magdis, G. E.; Pannella, M.; Rujopakarn, W.; Juneau, S.; Zanella, A.; Duc, P.-A.; Oesch, P. A.; Elbaz, D.; Jagannathan, P.; Nyland, K.; Wang, T.

    2017-08-01

    We present deep ALMA CO(5-4) observations of a main-sequence, clumpy galaxy at z = 1.5 in the HUDF. Thanks to the ˜0{^''.}5 resolution of the ALMA data, we can link stellar population properties to the CO(5-4) emission on scales of a few kiloparsec. We detect strong CO(5-4) emission from the nuclear region of the galaxy, consistent with the observed LIR-L^' }_CO(5-4) correlation and indicating ongoing nuclear star formation. The CO(5-4) gas component appears more concentrated than other star formation tracers or the dust distribution in this galaxy. We discuss possible implications of this difference in terms of star formation efficiency and mass build-up at the galaxy centre. Conversely, we do not detect any CO(5-4) emission from the UV-bright clumps. This might imply that clumps have a high star formation efficiency (although they do not display unusually high specific star formation rates) and are not entirely gas dominated, with gas fractions no larger than that of their host galaxy (˜50 per cent). Stellar feedback and disc instability torques funnelling gas towards the galaxy centre could contribute to the relatively low gas content. Alternatively, clumps could fall in a more standard star formation efficiency regime if their actual star formation rates are lower than generally assumed. We find that clump star formation rates derived with several different, plausible methods can vary by up to an order of magnitude. The lowest estimates would be compatible with a CO(5-4) non-detection even for main-sequence like values of star formation efficiency and gas content.

  10. Synchrotron Emission on the Largest Scales: Radio Detection of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Shocks and turbulence generated during large-scale structure formation are predicted to produce large-scale, low surface-brightness synchrotron emission. On the largest scales, this emission is globally correlated with the thermal baryon distribution, and constitutes the 'syn- chrotron cosmic-web'. I present the ...

  11. The Chandra M10l Megasecond: Diffuse Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, K. D.; Snowden, S. L.

    2009-01-01

    Because MIOl is nearly face-on, it provides an excellent laboratory in which to study the distribution of X-ray emitting gas in a typical late-type spiral galaxy. We obtained a Chandra observation with a cumulative exposure of roughly 1 Ms to study the diffuse X-ray emission in MlOl. The bulk of the X-ray emission is correlated with the star formation traced by the FUV emission. The global FUV/Xray correlation is non-linear (the X-ray surface brightness is roughly proportional to the square root of the FUV surface brightness) and the small-scale correlation is poor, probably due to the delay between the FUV emission and the X-ray production ill star-forming regions. The X-ray emission contains only minor contributions from unresolved stars (approximates less than 3%), unresolved X-ray point sources (approximates less than 4%), and individual supernova remnants (approximates 3%). The global spectrum of the diffuse emission can be reasonably well fitted with a three component thermal model, but the fitted temperatures are not unique; many distributions of emission measure can produce the same temperatures when observed with the current CCD energy resolution. The spectrum of the diffuse emission depends on the environment; regions with higher X-ray surface brightnesses have relatively stronger hard components, but there is no significant evidence that the temperatures of the emitting components increase with surface brightness.

  12. Electron emission and energy loss in grazing collisions of protons with insulator surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravielle, M. S.; Miraglia, J. E.; Aldazabal, I.; Arnau, A.; Ponce, V. H.; Aumayr, F.; Lederer, S.; Winter, H.

    2007-01-01

    Electron emission from LiF, KCl, and KI crystal surfaces during grazing collisions of swift protons is studied using a first-order distorted-wave formalism. Owing to the localized character of the electronic structure of these surfaces, we propose a model that allows us to describe the process as a sequence of atomic transitions from different target ions. Experimental results are presented for electron emission from LiF and KI and energy loss from KI surfaces. Calculations show reasonable agreement with these experimental data. The role played by the charge of the incident particle is also investigated

  13. Electron emission from MOS electron emitters with clean and cesium covered gold surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunver; Thomsen, Lasse Bjørchmar; Johansson, Martin

    2009-01-01

    MOS (metal-oxide-semiconductor) electron emitters consisting of a Si substrate, a SiO2 tunnel barrier and a Ti (1 nm)/Au(7 nm) top-electrode, with an active area of 1 cm(2) have been produced and studied with surface science techniques under UHV (ultra high vacuum) conditions and their emission...... characteristics have been investigated. It is known, that deposition of an alkali metal on the emitting surface lowers the work function and increases the emission efficiency. For increasing Cs coverages the surface has been characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (ISS...

  14. Brightness masking is modulated by disparity structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelekanos, Vassilis; Ban, Hiroshi; Welchman, Andrew E

    2015-05-01

    The luminance contrast at the borders of a surface strongly influences surface's apparent brightness, as demonstrated by a number of classic visual illusions. Such phenomena are compatible with a propagation mechanism believed to spread contrast information from borders to the interior. This process is disrupted by masking, where the perceived brightness of a target is reduced by the brief presentation of a mask (Paradiso & Nakayama, 1991), but the exact visual stage that this happens remains unclear. In the present study, we examined whether brightness masking occurs at a monocular-, or a binocular-level of the visual hierarchy. We used backward masking, whereby a briefly presented target stimulus is disrupted by a mask coming soon afterwards, to show that brightness masking is affected by binocular stages of the visual processing. We manipulated the 3-D configurations (slant direction) of the target and mask and measured the differential disruption that masking causes on brightness estimation. We found that the masking effect was weaker when stimuli had a different slant. We suggest that brightness masking is partly mediated by mid-level neuronal mechanisms, at a stage where binocular disparity edge structure has been extracted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Emission of positive oxygen ions from ion bombardment of adsorbate-covered metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaurin, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    During ion bombardment of metal surfaces, collision cascades can result in the emission of sputtered secondary ions. Recent experiments, however, have suggested that the emission of positive ions of electronegative adsorbates can result from electronic processes rather than from processes involving elastic collisions. This dissertation presents the results of experiments studying the emission of positive oxygen ions from oxygen- and carbon-monoxide-covered transition metal surfaces during bombardment by 25-250 keV ions of neon, argon, and krypton. The systems studied may be grouped into four categories. For a nickel substrate with adsorbed oxygen, the emission of positive oxygen ions proceeds through collision cascades. For titanium and niobium with adsorbed oxygen, the emission of positive oxygen ions is proportional to the primary ion velocity, consistent with emission from electronic processes; for a given primary ion velocity, the oxygen ion yield is independent of primary ion species. For substrates of molybdenum and tungsten, the oxygen yield is proportional to primary ion velocity, but the yield also depends on the primary ion species for a given primary ion velocity in a manner that is consistent with emission resulting from electronic processes. For these two groups, except for titanium, the yields during neon ion bombardment do not extrapolate (assuming linearity with primary ion velocity) to a nonzero value at zero beam velocity. The magnitude of the oxygen ion yields from these targets is not consistent with that expected if the emission were induced by secondary electrons emitted during the ion bombardment

  16. Diagnostics for high-brightness beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Special techniques are required for beam diagnostics on high-brightness particle beams. Examples of high-brightness beams include low-emittance proton linacs (either pulsed or CW), electron linacs suitable for free-electron-laser applications, and future linear colliders. Non-interceptive and minimally-interceptive techniques for measuring beam current, position, profile, and transverse and longitudinal emittance will be reviewed. Included will be stripline, wire scanner, laser neutralization, beam-beam scattering, interceptive microgratings, spontaneous emission, optical transition radiation, and other techniques. 24 refs

  17. Multimodel Surface Temperature Responses to Removal of U.S. Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, A. J.; Westervelt, D. M.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Fiore, A. M.; Shindell, D.; Correa, G.; Faluvegi, G.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2018-03-01

    Three Earth System models are used to derive surface temperature responses to removal of U.S. anthropogenic SO2 emissions. Using multicentury perturbation runs with and without U.S. anthropogenic SO2 emissions, the local and remote surface temperature changes are estimated. In spite of a temperature drift in the control and large internal variability, 200 year simulations yield statistically significant regional surface temperature responses to the removal of U.S. SO2 emissions. Both local and remote surface temperature changes occur in all models, and the patterns of changes are similar between models for northern hemisphere land regions. We find a global average temperature sensitivity to U.S. SO2 emissions of 0.0055 K per Tg(SO2) per year with a range of (0.0036, 0.0078). We examine global and regional responses in SO4 burdens, aerosol optical depths (AODs), and effective radiative forcing (ERF). While changes in AOD and ERF are concentrated near the source region (United States), the temperature response is spread over the northern hemisphere with amplification of the temperature increase toward the Arctic. In all models, we find a significant response of dust concentrations, which affects the AOD but has no obvious effect on surface temperature. Temperature sensitivity to the ERF of U.S. SO2 emissions is found to differ from the models' sensitivity to radiative forcing of doubled CO2.

  18. Acoustic emission-based in-process monitoring of surface generation in robot-assisted polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Bissacco, Giuliano; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The applicability of acoustic emission (AE) measurements for in-process monitoring of surface generation in the robot-assisted polishing (RAP) was investigated. Surface roughness measurements require interruption of the process, proper surface cleaning and measurements that sometimes necessitate...... automatic detection of optimal process endpoint allow intelligent process control, creating fundamental elements in development of robust fully automated RAP process for its widespread industrial application....... removal of the part from the machine tool. In this study, stabilisation of surface roughness during polishing rotational symmetric surfaces by the RAP process was monitored by AE measurements. An AE sensor was placed on a polishing arm in direct contact with a bonded abrasive polishing tool...

  19. Study of electronic field emission from large surfaces under static operating conditions and hyper-frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luong, M.

    1997-09-01

    The enhanced electronic field emission from large area metallic surfaces lowers performances of industrial devices that have to sustain high electric field under vacuum. Despite of numerous investigations in the past, the mechanisms of such an emission have never been well clarified. Recently, research in our laboratory has pointed out the importance played by conducting sites (particles and protrusions). A refined geometrical model, called superposed protrusions model has been proposed to explain the enhanced emission by local field enhancement. As a logical continuation, the present work aims at testing this model and, in the same time, investigating the means to suppress the emission where it is undesirable. Thus, we have showed: the cause of current fluctuations in a continuous field regime (DC), the identity of emission characteristics (β, A e ) in both radiofrequency (RF) and DC regimes, the effectiveness of a thermal treatment by extern high density electronic bombardment, the effectiveness of a mechanical treatment by high pressure rinsing with ultra pure water, the mechanisms and limits of an in situ RF processing. Furthermore, the electronic emission from insulating particles has also been studied concurrently with a spectral analysis of the associated luminous emission. Finally, the refined geometrical model for conducting sites is reinforced while another model is proposed for some insulating sites. Several emission suppressing treatments has been explored and validated. At last, the characteristic of a RF pulsed field emitted electron beam has been checked for the first time as a possible application of such a field emission. (author)

  20. Edge integration and the perception of brightness and darkness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vladusich, T.; Lucassen, M.P.; Cornelissen, F.W.

    2006-01-01

    How do induced brightness and darkness signals from local and remote surfaces interact to determine the final achromatic color percept of a target surface? An emerging theory of achromatic color perception posits that brightness and darkness percepts are computed by weighting and summing the

  1. Brightness and transparency in the early visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela, Viljami R; Vanni, Simo

    2013-06-24

    Several psychophysical studies have shown that transparency can have drastic effects on brightness and lightness. However, the neural processes generating these effects have remained unresolved. Several lines of evidence suggest that the early visual cortex is important for brightness perception. While single cell recordings suggest that surface brightness is represented in the primary visual cortex, the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have been discrepant. In addition, the location of the neural representation of transparency is not yet known. We investigated whether the fMRI responses in areas V1, V2, and V3 correlate with brightness and transparency. To dissociate the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to brightness from the response to local border contrast and mean luminance, we used variants of White's brightness illusion, both opaque and transparent, in which luminance increments and decrements cancel each other out. The stimuli consisted of a target surface and a surround. The surround luminance was always sinusoidally modulated at 0.5 Hz to induce brightness modulation to the target. The target luminance was constant or modulated in counterphase to null brightness modulation. The mean signal changes were calculated from the voxels in V1, V2, and V3 corresponding to the retinotopic location of the target surface. The BOLD responses were significantly stronger for modulating brightness than for stimuli with constant brightness. In addition, the responses were stronger for transparent than for opaque stimuli, but there was more individual variation. No interaction between brightness and transparency was found. The results show that the early visual areas V1-V3 are sensitive to surface brightness and transparency and suggest that brightness and transparency are represented separately.

  2. Synthesis of Carbon Dots with Multiple Color Emission by Controlled Graphitization and Surface Functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xiang; Qu, Dan; Yang, Dongxue; Nie, Bing; Zhao, Yikang; Fan, Hongyou; Sun, Zaicheng

    2018-01-01

    Multiple-color-emissive carbon dots (CDots) have potential applications in various fields such as bioimaging, light-emitting devices, and photocatalysis. The majority of the current CDots to date exhibit excitation-wavelength-dependent emissions with their maximum emission limited at the blue-light region. Here, a synthesis of multiple-color-emission CDots by controlled graphitization and surface function is reported. The CDots are synthesized through controlled thermal pyrolysis of citric acid and urea. By regulating the thermal-pyrolysis temperature and ratio of reactants, the maximum emission of the resulting CDots gradually shifts from blue to red light, covering the entire light spectrum. Specifically, the emission position of the CDots can be tuned from 430 to 630 nm through controlling the extent of graphitization and the amount of surface functional groups, COOH. The relative photoluminescence quantum yields of the CDots with blue, green, and red emission reach up to 52.6%, 35.1%, and 12.9%, respectively. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the CDots can be uniformly dispersed into epoxy resins and be fabricated as transparent CDots/epoxy composites for multiple-color- and white-light-emitting devices. This research opens a door for developing low-cost CDots as alternative phosphors for light-emitting devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Unperturbed moderator brightness in pulsed neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batkov, K.; Takibayev, A.; Zanini, L.; Mezei, F.

    2013-01-01

    The unperturbed neutron brightness of a moderator can be defined from the number of neutrons leaving the surface of a moderator completely surrounded by a reflector. Without openings for beam extraction, it is the maximum brightness that can be theoretically achieved in a moderator. The unperturbed brightness of a cylindrical cold moderator filled with pure para-H 2 was calculated using MCNPX; the moderator dimensions were optimised, for a fixed target and reflector geometry corresponding to the present concept for the ESS spallation source. This quantity does not depend on openings for beam extraction and therefore can be used for a first-round optimisation of a moderator, before effects due to beam openings are considered. We find that such an optimisation yields to a factor of 2 increase with respect to a conventional volume moderator, large enough to accommodate a viewed surface of 12×12 cm 2 : the unperturbed neutron brightness is maximum for a disc-shaped moderator of 15 cm diameter, 1.4 cm height. The reasons for this increase can be related to the properties of the scattering cross-section of para-H 2 , to the added reflector around the exit surface in the case of a compact moderator, and to a directionality effect. This large optimisation gain in the unperturbed brightness hints towards similar potentials for the perturbed neutron brightness, in particular in conjunction with advancing the optical quality of neutron delivery from the moderator to the sample, where by Liouville theorem the brightness is conserved over the beam trajectory, except for absorption and similar type losses

  4. Terahertz emission from semi-insulating GaAs with octadecanthiol-passivated surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaojun; Xu, Xinlong; Lu, Xinchao; Wang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) emission from octadecanthiol (ODT) passivated (1 0 0) surface of the semi-insulating GaAs was measured, and compared with those from the native oxidized and the fresh surfaces. It was shown that the self-assembled ODT monolayer can stabilize the GaAs (1 0 0) surface, and maintain a THz surface emission 1.4 times as efficient as the native oxidized surface under equal conditions. Surface passivation can reduce the built-in electric field in the depletion region of the GaAs (1 0 0), resulting in the suppression of the THz radiation to a different extent. Oxidation of GaAs surface reduces the THz amplitude mainly in the low-frequency region. These results indicate that GaAs can be made a more effective THz source by choosing molecular passivation technique. Conversely, the THz emission features such as polarity, amplitude, and phase from molecule-passivated surfaces may be used to characterize the attached molecules.

  5. Selection of high-brightness, laser-driven cathodes for electron accelerators and FELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oettinger, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    Very intense, low emittance pulsed beams of electrons can be generated from laser-driven cathodes either by thermionic- or photo-emission. Several hundreds of amperes of electrons per square centimeter were observed for pulse lengths up to 50 ns. A normalized beam brightness of 10 7 A/cm 2 /rad 2 has been measured. These beams can be emission-gated at the cathode surface by modulating the laser-beam. Such beam bunching will generate picosecond-to-microsecond-long pulses at the source. A variety of cathodes are described, and a method of selection for specific applications is presented

  6. Inverse modelling estimates of N2O surface emissions and stratospheric losses using a global dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. L.; Bousquet, P.; Chevallier, F.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Vermeulen, A. T.; Aalto, T.; Haszpra, L.; Meinhardt, F.; O'Doherty, S.; Moncrieff, J. B.; Popa, M.; Steinbacher, M.; Jordan, A.; Schuck, T. J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.; Wofsy, S. C.; Kort, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) levels have been steadily increasing in the atmosphere over the past few decades at a rate of approximately 0.3% per year. This trend is of major concern as N2O is both a long-lived Greenhouse Gas (GHG) and an Ozone Depleting Substance (ODS), as it is a precursor of NO and NO2, which catalytically destroy ozone in the stratosphere. Recently, N2O emissions have been recognised as the most important ODS emissions and are now of greater importance than emissions of CFC's. The growth in atmospheric N2O is predominantly due to the enhancement of surface emissions by human activities. Most notably, the intensification and proliferation of agriculture since the mid-19th century, which has been accompanied by the increased input of reactive nitrogen to soils and has resulted in significant perturbations to the natural N-cycle and emissions of N2O. There exist two approaches for estimating N2O emissions, the so-called 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' approaches. Top-down approaches, based on the inversion of atmospheric measurements, require an estimate of the loss of N2O via photolysis and oxidation in the stratosphere. Uncertainties in the loss magnitude contribute uncertainties of 15 to 20% to the global annual surface emissions, complicating direct comparisons between bottom-up and top-down estimates. In this study, we present a novel inversion framework for the simultaneous optimization of N2O surface emissions and the magnitude of the loss, which avoids errors in the emissions due to incorrect assumptions about the lifetime of N2O. We use a Bayesian inversion with a variational formulation (based on 4D-Var) in order to handle very large datasets. N2O fluxes are retrieved at 4-weekly resolution over a global domain with a spatial resolution of 3.75° x 2.5° longitude by latitude. The efficacy of the simultaneous optimization of emissions and losses is tested using a global synthetic dataset, which mimics the available atmospheric data. Lastly, using real

  7. High Brightness OLED Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, Jeffrey [OLEDWorks LLC; Kondakova, Marina [OLEDWorks LLC; Boroson, Michael [OLEDWorks LLC; Hamer, John [OLEDWorks LLC

    2016-05-25

    In this work we describe the technology developments behind our current and future generations of high brightness OLED lighting panels. We have developed white and amber OLEDs with excellent performance based on the stacking approach. Current products achieve 40-60 lm/W, while future developments focus on achieving 80 lm/W or higher.

  8. High brightness ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyfus, R.W.; Hodgson, R.T.

    1975-01-01

    A high brightness ion beam is obtainable by using lasers to excite atoms or molecules from the ground state to an ionized state in increments, rather than in one step. The spectroscopic resonances of the atom or molecule are used so that relatively long wavelength, low power lasers can be used to obtain such ion beam

  9. THE ACS FORNAX CLUSTER SURVEY. IV. DEPROJECTION OF THE SURFACE BRIGHTNESS PROFILES OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN THE VIRGO AND FORNAX CLUSTERS: INVESTIGATING THE 'CORE/POWER-LAW DICHOTOMY'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, Lisa; Ferrarese, Laura; Cote, Patrick; Blakeslee, John P.; Chen, Chin-Wei; Jordan, Andres; Infante, Leopoldo; Peng, Eric; Mei, Simona; Tonry, John L.; West, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Although early observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) pointed to a sharp dichotomy among early-type galaxies in terms of the logarithmic slope γ' of their central surface brightness profiles, several studies in the past few years have called this finding into question. In particular, recent imaging surveys of 143 early-type galaxies belonging to the Virgo and Fornax Clusters using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on board HST have not found a dichotomy in γ', but instead a systematic progression from central luminosity deficit to excess relative to the inward extrapolation of the best-fitting global Sersic model. Given that earlier studies also found that the dichotomy persisted when analyzing the deprojected density profile slopes, we investigate the distribution of the three-dimensional luminosity density profiles of the ACS Virgo and Fornax Cluster Survey galaxies. Having fitted the surface brightness profiles with modified Sersic models, we then deproject the galaxies using an Abel integral and measure the inner slopes γ 3D of the resulting luminosity density profiles at various fractions of the effective radius R e . We find no evidence of a dichotomy, but rather, a continuous variation in the central luminosity profiles as a function of galaxy magnitude. We introduce a parameter, Δ 3D , that measures the central deviation of the deprojected luminosity profiles from the global Sersic fit, showing that this parameter varies smoothly and systematically along the luminosity function.

  10. ALMA Discovery of Solar Umbral Brightness Enhancement at λ = 3 mm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, Kazumasa [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8601 (Japan); Loukitcheva, Maria [Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Boulevard, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Shimojo, Masumi [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Solanki, Sami K. [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37073 Göttingen (Germany); White, Stephen M., E-mail: k.iwai@isee.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-01

    We report the discovery of a brightness enhancement in the center of a large sunspot umbra at a wavelength of 3 mm using the Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA). Sunspots are among the most prominent features on the solar surface, but many of their aspects are surprisingly poorly understood. We analyzed a λ = 3 mm (100 GHz) mosaic image obtained by ALMA that includes a large sunspot within the active region AR12470, on 2015 December 16. The 3 mm map has a 300″ × 300″ field of view and 4.″9 × 2.″2 spatial resolution, which is the highest spatial resolution map of an entire sunspot in this frequency range. We find a gradient of 3 mm brightness from a high value in the outer penumbra to a low value in the inner penumbra/outer umbra. Within the inner umbra, there is a marked increase in 3 mm brightness temperature, which we call an umbral brightness enhancement. This enhanced emission corresponds to a temperature excess of 800 K relative to the surrounding inner penumbral region and coincides with excess brightness in the 1330 and 1400 Å slit-jaw images of the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ), adjacent to a partial lightbridge. This λ = 3 mm brightness enhancement may be an intrinsic feature of the sunspot umbra at chromospheric heights, such as a manifestation of umbral flashes, or it could be related to a coronal plume, since the brightness enhancement was coincident with the footpoint of a coronal loop observed at 171 Å.

  11. The impact of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions on surface ozone concentrations in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Ulas; Poupkou, Anastasia; Incecik, Selahattin; Markakis, Konstantinos; Kindap, Tayfun; Unal, Alper; Melas, Dimitros; Yenigun, Orhan; Topcu, Sema; Odman, M Talat; Tayanc, Mete; Guler, Meltem

    2011-03-01

    Surface ozone concentrations at Istanbul during a summer episode in June 2008 were simulated using a high resolution and urban scale modeling system coupling MM5 and CMAQ models with a recently developed anthropogenic emission inventory for the region. Two sets of base runs were performed in order to investigate for the first time the impact of biogenic emissions on ozone concentrations in the Greater Istanbul Area (GIA). The first simulation was performed using only the anthropogenic emissions whereas the second simulation was performed using both anthropogenic and biogenic emissions. Biogenic NMVOC emissions were comparable with anthropogenic NMVOC emissions in terms of magnitude. The inclusion of biogenic emissions significantly improved the performance of the model, particularly in reproducing the low night time values as well as the temporal variation of ozone concentrations. Terpene emissions contributed significantly to the destruction of the ozone during nighttime. Biogenic NMVOCs emissions enhanced ozone concentrations in the downwind regions of GIA up to 25ppb. The VOC/NO(x) ratio almost doubled due to the addition of biogenic NMVOCs. Anthropogenic NO(x) and NMVOCs were perturbed by ±30% in another set of simulations to quantify the sensitivity of ozone concentrations to the precursor emissions in the region. The sensitivity runs, as along with the model-calculated ozone-to-reactive nitrogen ratios, pointed NO(x)-sensitive chemistry, particularly in the downwind areas. On the other hand, urban parts of the city responded more to changes in NO(x) due to very high anthropogenic emissions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Land Surface Microwave Emissivities Derived from AMSR-E and MODIS Measurements with Advanced Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncet, Jean-Luc; Liang, Pan; Galantowicz, John F.; Lipton, Alan E.; Uymin, Gennady; Prigent, Catherine; Grassotti, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A microwave emissivity database has been developed with data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) and with ancillary land surface temperature (LST) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the same Aqua spacecraft. The primary intended application of the database is to provide surface emissivity constraints in atmospheric and surface property retrieval or assimilation. An additional application is to serve as a dynamic indicator of land surface properties relevant to climate change monitoring. The precision of the emissivity data is estimated to be significantly better than in prior databases from other sensors due to the precise collocation with high-quality MODIS LST data and due to the quality control features of our data analysis system. The accuracy of the emissivities in deserts and semi-arid regions is enhanced by applying, in those regions, a version of the emissivity retrieval algorithm that accounts for the penetration of microwave radiation through dry soil with diurnally varying vertical temperature gradients. These results suggest that this penetration effect is more widespread and more significant to interpretation of passive microwave measurements than had been previously established. Emissivity coverage in areas where persistent cloudiness interferes with the availability of MODIS LST data is achieved using a classification-based method to spread emissivity data from less-cloudy areas that have similar microwave surface properties. Evaluations and analyses of the emissivity products over homogeneous snow-free areas are presented, including application to retrieval of soil temperature profiles. Spatial inhomogeneities are the largest in the vicinity of large water bodies due to the large water/land emissivity contrast and give rise to large apparent temporal variability in the retrieved emissivities when satellite footprint locations vary over time. This issue will be dealt with in the future by

  13. Space-Based Diagnosis of Surface Ozone Sensitivity to Anthropogenic Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Randall V.; Fiore, Arlene M.; VanDonkelaar, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    We present a novel capability in satellite remote sensing with implications for air pollution control strategy. We show that the ratio of formaldehyde columns to tropospheric nitrogen dioxide columns is an indicator of the relative sensitivity of surface ozone to emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO(x) = NO + NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The diagnosis from these space-based observations is highly consistent with current understanding of surface ozone chemistry based on in situ observations. The satellite-derived ratios indicate that surface ozone is more sensitive to emissions of NO(x) than of VOCs throughout most continental regions of the Northern Hemisphere during summer. Exceptions include Los Angeles and industrial areas of Germany. A seasonal transition occurs in the fall when surface ozone becomes less sensitive to NOx and more sensitive to VOCs.

  14. The brightness of colour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Corney

    Full Text Available The perception of brightness depends on spatial context: the same stimulus can appear light or dark depending on what surrounds it. A less well-known but equally important contextual phenomenon is that the colour of a stimulus can also alter its brightness. Specifically, stimuli that are more saturated (i.e. purer in colour appear brighter than stimuli that are less saturated at the same luminance. Similarly, stimuli that are red or blue appear brighter than equiluminant yellow and green stimuli. This non-linear relationship between stimulus intensity and brightness, called the Helmholtz-Kohlrausch (HK effect, was first described in the nineteenth century but has never been explained. Here, we take advantage of the relative simplicity of this 'illusion' to explain it and contextual effects more generally, by using a simple Bayesian ideal observer model of the human visual ecology. We also use fMRI brain scans to identify the neural correlates of brightness without changing the spatial context of the stimulus, which has complicated the interpretation of related fMRI studies.Rather than modelling human vision directly, we use a Bayesian ideal observer to model human visual ecology. We show that the HK effect is a result of encoding the non-linear statistical relationship between retinal images and natural scenes that would have been experienced by the human visual system in the past. We further show that the complexity of this relationship is due to the response functions of the cone photoreceptors, which themselves are thought to represent an efficient solution to encoding the statistics of images. Finally, we show that the locus of the response to the relationship between images and scenes lies in the primary visual cortex (V1, if not earlier in the visual system, since the brightness of colours (as opposed to their luminance accords with activity in V1 as measured with fMRI.The data suggest that perceptions of brightness represent a robust

  15. The Boston Methane Project: Mapping Surface Emissions to Inform Atmospheric Estimation of Urban Methane Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, N.; Crosson, E.; Down, A.; Hutyra, L.; Jackson, R. B.; McKain, K.; Rella, C.; Raciti, S. M.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    Lost and unaccounted natural gas can amount to over 6% of Massachusetts' total annual greenhouse gas inventory (expressed as equivalent CO2 tonnage). An unknown portion of this loss is due to natural gas leaks in pipeline distribution systems. The objective of the Boston Methane Project is to estimate the overall leak rate from natural gas systems in metropolitan Boston, and to compare this flux with fluxes from the other primary methane emissions sources. Companion talks at this meeting describe the atmospheric measurement and modeling framework, and chemical and isotopic tracers that can partition total atmospheric methane flux into natural gas and non-natural gas components. This talk focuses on estimation of surface emissions that inform the atmospheric modeling and partitioning. These surface emissions include over 3,300 pipeline natural gas leaks in Boston. For the state of Massachusetts as a whole, the amount of natural gas reported as lost and unaccounted for by utility companies was greater than estimated landfill emissions by an order of magnitude. Moreover, these landfill emissions were overwhelmingly located outside of metro Boston, while gas leaks are concentrated in exactly the opposite pattern, increasing from suburban Boston toward the urban core. Work is in progress to estimate spatial distribution of methane emissions from wetlands and sewer systems. We conclude with a description of how these spatial data sets will be combined and represented for application in atmospheric modeling.

  16. Nanometer-scale discernment of field emission from tungsten surface with single carbon monoxide molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Soichiro; Suwa, Yuji; Katagiri, Souichi

    2017-12-01

    Unusual quantized beam fluctuations were found in the emission current from a cold-field emitter (CFE) operating in an extremely high vacuum of 10-10 Pa. To clarify the microscopic mechanism behind these fluctuations, we developed a new calculation method to evaluate the field emission from a heterogeneous surface under a strong electric field of 4 × 109 V/m by using the local potential distribution obtained by a first-principles calculation, instead of by using the work function. As a result of the first-principles calculations of a single molecule adsorbed on a tungsten surface, we found that dissociative adsorption of a carbon monoxide (CO) molecule enhances the emission current by changing the potential barrier in the area surrounding the C and O adatoms when these two atoms are placed at their most stable positions. It is also found that the migration of the O atom from the most stable position reduces the emission current. These types of enhancement and reduction of the emission current quantitatively explain the observed quantized fluctuations of the CFE emission current.

  17. White light emission from fluorescent SiC with porous surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Weifang; Ou, Yiyu; Fiordaliso, Elisabetta Maria

    2017-01-01

    We report for the frst time a NUV light to white light conversion in a N-B co-doped 6H-SiC (fuorescent SiC) layer containing a hybrid structure. The surface of fuorescent SiC sample contains porous structures fabricated by anodic oxidation method. After passivation by 20nm thick Al2O3, the photol......We report for the frst time a NUV light to white light conversion in a N-B co-doped 6H-SiC (fuorescent SiC) layer containing a hybrid structure. The surface of fuorescent SiC sample contains porous structures fabricated by anodic oxidation method. After passivation by 20nm thick Al2O3...... the bulk fuorescent SiC layer. A high color rendering index of 81.1 has been achieved. Photoluminescence spectra in porous layers fabricated in both commercial n-type and lab grown N-B co-doped 6H-SiC show two emission peaks centered approximately at 460nm and 530nm. Such bluegreen emission phenomenon can......, the photoluminescence intensity from the porous layer was signifcant enhanced by a factor of more than 12. Using a porous layer of moderate thickness (~10µm), high-quality white light emission was realized by combining the independent emissions of blue-green emission from the porous layer and yellow emission from...

  18. Estimating NOx emissions and surface concentrations at high spatial resolution using OMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D. L.; Lamsal, L. N.; Loughner, C.; Swartz, W. H.; Saide, P. E.; Carmichael, G. R.; Henze, D. K.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    In many instances, NOx emissions are not measured at the source. In these cases, remote sensing techniques are extremely useful in quantifying NOx emissions. Using an exponential modified Gaussian (EMG) fitting of oversampled Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 data, we estimate NOx emissions and lifetimes in regions where these emissions are uncertain. This work also presents a new high-resolution OMI NO2 dataset derived from the NASA retrieval that can be used to estimate surface level concentrations in the eastern United States and South Korea. To better estimate vertical profile shape factors, we use high-resolution model simulations (Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) and WRF-Chem) constrained by in situ aircraft observations to re-calculate tropospheric air mass factors and tropospheric NO2 vertical columns during summertime. The correlation between our satellite product and ground NO2 monitors in urban areas has improved dramatically: r2 = 0.60 in new product, r2 = 0.39 in operational product, signifying that this new product is a better indicator of surface concentrations than the operational product. Our work emphasizes the need to use both high-resolution and high-fidelity models in order to re-calculate vertical column data in areas with large spatial heterogeneities in NOx emissions. The methodologies developed in this work can be applied to other world regions and other satellite data sets to produce high-quality region-specific emissions estimates.

  19. Particulate Matter from the Road Surface Abrasion as a Problem of Non-Exhaust Emission Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Penkała

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with house heating and industry, emissions from road traffic (exhaust and tire, brake, car body or road surface abrasions are one of the primary sources of particulate matter (PM in the atmosphere in urban areas. Though numerous regulations and vehicle-control mechanisms have led to a significant decline of PM emissions from vehicle exhaust gases, other sources of PM remain related to road and car abrasion are responsible for non-exhaust emissions. Quantifying these emissions is a hard problem in both laboratory and field conditions. First, we must recognize the physicochemical properties of the PM that is emitted by various non-exhaust sources. In this paper, we underline the problem of information accessibility with regards to the properties and qualities of PM from non-exhaust sources. We also indicate why scarce information is available in order to find the possible solution to this ongoing issue.

  20. Monte Carlo calculation of secondary electron emission from carbon-surface by obliquely incident particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, Kaoru; Kawata, Jun; Mori, Ichiro

    1990-01-01

    Incidence angle dependences of secondary electron emission from a carbon surface by low energy electron and hydrogen atom are calculated using Monte Carlo simulations on the kinetic emission model. The calculation shows very small increase or rather decrease of the secondary electron yield with oblique incidence. It is explained in terms of not only multiple elastic collisions of incident particles with the carbon atoms but also small penetration depth of the particles comparable with the escape depth of secondary electrons. In addition, the two types of secondary electron emission are distinguished by using the secondary electron yield statistics; one is the emission due to trapped particles in the carbon, and the other is that due to backscattered particles. The high-yield component of the statistics on oblique incidence is more suppressed than those on normal incidence. (author)

  1. Modification of spontaneous emission from nanodiamond colour centres on a structured surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inam, F A; Gaebel, T; Bradac, C; Withford, M J; Rabeau, J R; Steel, M J; Stewart, L; Dawes, J M

    2011-01-01

    Colour centres in diamond are promising candidates as a platform for quantum technologies and biomedical imaging based on spins and/or photons. Controlling the emission properties of colour centres in diamond is a key requirement for the development of efficient single-photon sources having high collection efficiency. A number of groups have achieved an enhancement in the emission rate over narrow wavelength ranges by coupling single emitters in nanodiamond crystals to resonant electromagnetic structures. In this paper, we characterize in detail the spontaneous emission rates of nitrogen-vacancy centres at various locations on a structured substrate. We found a factor of 1.5 average enhancement of the total emission rate when nanodiamonds are on an opal photonic crystal surface, and observed changes in the lifetime distribution. We present a model for explaining these observations and associate the lifetime properties with dipole orientation and polarization effects.

  2. Modification of spontaneous emission from nanodiamond colour centres on a structured surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inam, F A; Gaebel, T; Bradac, C; Withford, M J; Rabeau, J R; Steel, M J [Centre for Quantum Science and Technology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Stewart, L; Dawes, J M, E-mail: james.rabeau@mq.edu.au, E-mail: michael.steel@mq.edu.au [MQ Photonics Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2011-07-15

    Colour centres in diamond are promising candidates as a platform for quantum technologies and biomedical imaging based on spins and/or photons. Controlling the emission properties of colour centres in diamond is a key requirement for the development of efficient single-photon sources having high collection efficiency. A number of groups have achieved an enhancement in the emission rate over narrow wavelength ranges by coupling single emitters in nanodiamond crystals to resonant electromagnetic structures. In this paper, we characterize in detail the spontaneous emission rates of nitrogen-vacancy centres at various locations on a structured substrate. We found a factor of 1.5 average enhancement of the total emission rate when nanodiamonds are on an opal photonic crystal surface, and observed changes in the lifetime distribution. We present a model for explaining these observations and associate the lifetime properties with dipole orientation and polarization effects.

  3. Characterization of Emissions and Residues from Simulations of the Deepwater Horizon Surface Oil Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface oil burns conducted by the U.S. Coast Guard from April to July 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico were simulated by small scale burns to characterize the pollutants, determine emission factors, and gather particulate matter for subsequent...

  4. Electron emission induced by resonant coherent interaction in ion-surface scattering at grazing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia de Abajo, F.J.; Ponce, V.H.; Echenique, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    The resonant coherent interaction of an ion with an oriented crystal surface, under grazing-incidence conditions with respect to a special direction of the crystal, gives rise to electron loss to the continuum from electronic bound states of the ion. The calculations presented below predict large probabilities for electron emission due to this mechanism. The electrons are emitted with well defined energies, expressed in terms of the condition of resonance. Furthermore, the emission takes place around certain preferential directions, which are determined by both the latter condition and the symmetry of the surface lattice. Our calculations for MeV He + ions scattered at a W(001) surface along the left-angle 100 right-angle direction with glancing angle of 0--2 mrad indicate a yield of emission close to 1. Using heavier projectiles, one obtains smaller yields, but still large enough to be measurable in some cases (e.g., ∼0.9 for 53 MeV B 4+ and an angle of incidence of 1 mrad). Besides, the initial bound state is energy shifted due to the interaction with both the crystal potential and the velocity-dependent image potential. This results in a slight shift of the peaks of emission, which suggests a possible spectroscopy for analyzing the dynamical interaction of electronic bound states with solid surfaces

  5. A model for atmospheric brightness temperatures observed by the special sensor microwave imager (SSM/I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Grant W.; Katsaros, Kristina B.

    1989-01-01

    A closed-form mathematical model for the atmospheric contribution to microwave the absorption and emission at the SSM/I frequencies is developed in order to improve quantitative interpretation of microwave imagery from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I). The model is intended to accurately predict upwelling and downwelling atmospheric brightness temperatures at SSM/I frequencies, as functions of eight input parameters: the zenith (nadir) angle, the integrated water vapor and vapor scale height, the integrated cloud water and cloud height, the effective surface temperature, atmospheric lapse rate, and surface pressure. It is shown that the model accurately reproduces clear-sky brightness temperatures computed by explicit integration of a large number of radiosonde soundings representing all maritime climate zones and seasons.

  6. The Bright Universe Cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surdin, M.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that viewed from the 'outside', our universe is a black hole. Hence the 'inside' cosmology considered is termed as the Bright Universe Cosmology. The model proposed avoids the singularities of cosmologies of the Big Bang variety, it gives a good account of the redshifts, the cosmic background radiation, the number counts; it also gives a satisfactory explanation of the 'large numbers coincidence' and of the variation in time of fundamental constants. (Auth.)

  7. Gases Emission From Surface Layers of Sand Moulds and Cores Stored Under the Humid Air Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaźnica N.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A large number of defects of castings made in sand moulds is caused by gases. There are several sources of gases: gases emitted from moulds, cores or protective coatings during pouring and casting solidification; water in moulding sands; moisture adsorbed from surroundings due to atmospheric conditions changes. In investigations of gas volumetric emissions of moulding sands amounts of gases emitted from moulding sand were determined - up to now - in dependence of the applied binders, sand grains, protective coatings or alloys used for moulds pouring. The results of investigating gas volumetric emissions of thin-walled sand cores poured with liquid metal are presented in the hereby paper. They correspond to the surface layer in the mould work part, which is decisive for the surface quality of the obtained castings. In addition, cores were stored under conditions of a high air humidity, where due to large differences in humidity, the moisture - from surroundings - was adsorbed into the surface layer of the sand mould. Due to that, it was possible to asses the influence of the adsorbed moisture on the gas volumetric emission from moulds and cores surface layers by means of the new method of investigating the gas emission kinetics from thin moulding sand layers heated by liquid metal. The results of investigations of kinetics of the gas emission from moulding sands with furan and alkyd resins as well as with hydrated sodium silicate (water glass are presented. Kinetics of gases emissions from these kinds of moulding sands poured with Al-Si alloy were compared.

  8. Kiloamp high-brightness beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporaso, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    Brightness preservation of high-current relativistic electron beams under two different types of transport is discussed. Recent progress in improving the brightness of laser-guided beams in the Advanced Test Accelerator is reviewed. A strategy for the preservation of the brightness of space-charge-dominated beams in a solenoidal transport system is presented

  9. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day (MYD21A1D.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  10. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night (MOD21A1N.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  11. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night (MYD21A1N.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  12. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day (MOD21A1D.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  13. Brightness Alteration with Interweaving Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Roncato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromatic induction is observed whenever the perceived colour of a target surface shifts towards the hue of a neighbouring surface. Some vivid manifestations may be seen in a white background where thin coloured lines have been drawn (assimilation or when lines of different colours are collinear (neon effect or adjacent (watercolour to each other. This study examines a particular colour induction that manifests in concomitance with an opposite effect of colour saturation (or anti-spread. The two phenomena can be observed when a repetitive pattern is drawn in which outline thin contours intercept wider contours or surfaces, colour spreading appear to fill the surface occupied by surfaces or thick lines whereas the background traversed by thin lines is seen as brighter or filled of a saturated white. These phenomena were first observed by Bozzi (1975 and Kanizsa (1979 in figural conditions that did not allow them to document their conjunction. Here we illustrate various manifestations of this twofold phenomenon and compare its effects with the known effects of brightness and colour induction. Some conjectures on the nature of these effects are discussed.

  14. Effect of the local morphology in the field emission properties of conducting polymer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Assis, T A; Borondo, F; Benito, R M; Losada, J C; Andrade, R F S; Miranda, J G V; De Souza, Nara C; De Castilho, C M C; De B Mota, F

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present systematic theoretical evidence of a relationship between the point local roughness exponent (PLRE) (which quantifies the heterogeneity of an irregular surface) and the cold field emission properties (indicated by the local current density and the macroscopic current density) of real polyaniline (PANI) surfaces, considered nowadays as very good candidates in the design of field emission devices. The latter are obtained from atomic force microscopy data. The electric field and potential are calculated in a region bounded by the rough PANI surface and a distant plane, both boundaries held at distinct potential values. We numerically solve Laplace’s equation subject to appropriate Dirichlet’s condition. Our results show that local roughness reveals the presence of specific sharp emitting spots with a smooth geometry, which are the main ones responsible (but not the only) for the emission efficiency of such surfaces for larger deposition times. Moreover, we have found, with a proper choice of a scale interval encompassing the experimentally measurable average grain length, a highly structured dependence of local current density on PLRE, considering different ticks of PANI surfaces. (paper)

  15. X-ray emission in slow highly charged ion-surface collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, H; Abe, T; Fujita, Y; Sun, J; Takahashi, S; Tona, M; Yoshiyasu, N; Nakamura, N; Sakurai, M; Yamada, C; Ohtani, S

    2007-01-01

    X-rays emitted in the collisions of highly charged ions with a surface have been measured to investigate dissipation schemes of their potential energies. While 8.1% of the potential energy was dissipated in the collisions of He-like I ions with a W surface, 29.1% has been dissipated in the case of He-like Bi ions. The x-ray emissions play significant roles in the dissipation of the potential energies in the interaction of highly charged heavy ions with the surface

  16. Frequency splitter based on the directional emission from surface modes in dielectric photonic crystal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasolamprou, Anna C; Zhang, Lei; Kafesaki, Maria; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate the numerical design and the experimental validation of frequency dependent directional emission from a dielectric photonic crystal structure. The wave propagates through a photonic crystal line-defect waveguide, while a surface layer at the termination of the photonic crystal enables the excitation of surface modes and a subsequent grating layer transforms the surface energy into outgoing propagating waves of the form of a directional beam. The angle of the beam is controlled by the frequency and the structure operates as a frequency splitter in the intermediate and far field region.

  17. Hydrothermal alteration of sediments associated with surface emissions from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valette-Silver, J.N.; Esquer P., I.; Elders, W.A.; Collier, P.C.; Hoagland, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the mineralogical changes associated with these hydrothermal vents was initiated with the aim of developing possible exploration tools for geothermal resources. The Cerro Prieto reservoir has already been explored by extensive deep drilling so that relationships between surface manifestations and deeper hydrothermal processes could be established directly. Approximately 120 samples of surface sediments were collected both inside and outside of the vents. The mineralogy of the altered sediments studied appears to be controlled by the type of emission. A comparison between the changes in mineralogy due to low temperature hydrothermal activity in the reservoir, seen in samples from boreholes, and mineralogical changes in the surface emission samples shows similar general trends below 180 C: increase of quartz, feldspar and illite, with subsequent disappearance of kaolinite, montmorillonite, calcite and dolomite. These mineral assemblages seem to be characteristic products of the discharge from high intensity geothermal fields.

  18. Multicharged ion-induced emission from metal- and insulator surfaces related to magnetic fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, H.P. [Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Physik

    1997-01-01

    The edge region of magnetically confined plasmas in thermonuclear fusion experiments couples the hot plasma core with the cold first wall. We consider the dependence of plasma-wall interaction processes on edge plasma properties, with particular emphasis on the role of slow multicharged ions (MCI). After a short survey on the physics of slow MCI-surface interaction we discuss recent extensive studies on MCI-induced electron emission from clean metal surfaces conducted at impact velocities << 1 a.u., from which generally reliable total electron yields can be obtained. We then demonstrate the essentially different role of the MCI charge for electron emission from metallic and insulator surfaces, respectively. Furthermore, we present recent results on slow MCI-induced `potential sputtering` of insulators which, in contrast to the well established kinetic sputtering, already occurs at very low ion impact energy and strongly increases with the MCI charge state. (J.P.N.). 55 refs.

  19. Fluxon induced surface resistance and field emission in niobium films at 1.5 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Benvenuti, Cristoforo; Darriulat, Pierre; Peck, M A; Valente, A M; Van't Hof, C A

    2001-01-01

    The surface resistance of superconducting niobium films induced by the presence of trapped magnetic flux, presumably in the form of a pinned fluxon lattice, is shown to be modified by the presence of a field emitting impurity or defect. The modification takes the form of an additional surface resistance proportional to the density of the fluxon lattice and increasing linearly with the amplitude of the microwave above a threshold significantly lower than the field emission threshold. Such an effect, a precursor of electron emission, is observed for the first time in a study using radiofrequency cavities operating at their fundamental 1.5 GHz frequency. The measured properties of the additional surface resistance severely constrain possible explanations of the observed effect. (23 refs).

  20. The night sky brightness at McDonald Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, J. K.; Roosen, R. G.; Brandt, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    Baseline observations of the night sky brightness in B and V are presented for McDonald Observatory. In agreement with earlier work by Elvey and Rudnick (1937) and Elvey (1943), significant night-to-night and same-night variations in sky brightness are found. Possible causes for these variations are discussed. The largest variation in sky brightness found during a single night is approximately a factor of two, a value which corresponds to a factor-of-four variation in airglow brightness. The data are used to comment on the accuracy of previously published surface photometry of M 81.

  1. Modelling CO2 emissions from water surface of a boreal hydroelectric reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weifeng; Roulet, Nigel T; Kim, Youngil; Strachan, Ian B; Del Giorgio, Paul; Prairie, Yves T; Tremblay, Alain

    2018-01-15

    To quantify CO 2 emissions from water surface of a reservoir that was shaped by flooding the boreal landscape, we developed a daily time-step reservoir biogeochemistry model. We calibrated the model using the measured concentrations of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (C) in a young boreal hydroelectric reservoir, Eastmain-1 (EM-1), in northern Quebec, Canada. We validated the model against observed CO 2 fluxes from an eddy covariance tower in the middle of EM-1. The model predicted the variability of CO 2 emissions reasonably well compared to the observations (root mean square error: 0.4-1.3gCm -2 day -1 , revised Willmott index: 0.16-0.55). In particular, we demonstrated that the annual reservoir surface effluxes were initially high, steeply declined in the first three years, and then steadily decreased to ~115gCm -2 yr -1 with increasing reservoir age over the estimated "engineering" reservoir lifetime (i.e., 100years). Sensitivity analyses revealed that increasing air temperature stimulated CO 2 emissions by enhancing CO 2 production in the water column and sediment, and extending the duration of open water period over which emissions occur. Increasing the amount of terrestrial organic C flooded can enhance benthic CO 2 fluxes and CO 2 emissions from the reservoir water surface, but the effects were not significant over the simulation period. The model is useful for the understanding of the mechanism of C dynamics in reservoirs and could be used to assist the hydro-power industry and others interested in the role of boreal hydroelectric reservoirs as sources of greenhouse gas emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Increasing the brightness of light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Ling

    2006-11-16

    In this work the principle of light recycling is applied to artificial light sources in order to achieve brightness enhancement. Firstly, the feasibilities of increasing the brightness of light sources via light recycling are examined theoretically, based on the fundamental laws of thermodynamics including Kirchhoff's law on radiation, Planck's law, Lambert-Beer's law, the etendue conservation and the brightness theorem. From an experimental viewpoint, the radiation properties of three different kinds of light sources including short-arc lamps, incandescent lamps and LEDs characterized by their light-generating mechanisms are investigated. These three types of sources are used in light recycling experiments, for the purpose of 1. validating the intrinsic light recycling effect in light sources, e. g. the intrinsic light recycling effect in incandescent lamps stemming from the coiled filament structure. 2. acquiring the required parameters for establishing physical models, e.g. the emissivity/absorptivity of the short-arc lamps, the intrinsic reflectivity and the external quantum efficiency of LEDs. 3. laying the foundations for designing optics aimed at brightness enhancement according to the characteristics of the sources and applications. Based on the fundamental laws and experiments, two physical models for simulating the radiance distribution of light sources are established, one for thermal filament lamps, the other for luminescent sources, LEDs. As validation of the theoretical and experimental investigation of the light recycling effect, an optical device, the Carambola, is designed for achieving deterministic and multiple light recycling. The Carambola has the function of a concentrator. In order to achieve the maximum possible brightness enhancement with the Carambola, several combinations of sources and Carambolas are modelled in ray-tracing simulations. Sources with different light-emitting mechanisms and different radiation properties

  3. Surface-plasmon-enhanced lasing emission based on polymer distributed feedback laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dingke, E-mail: dingke.zhang@gmail.com, E-mail: shijianchen@gmail.com [School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Chen, Shijian, E-mail: dingke.zhang@gmail.com, E-mail: shijianchen@gmail.com; Huang, Yingzhou; Zhang, Zhen [School of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Wang, Yanping; Ma, Dongge [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2015-01-14

    Optical losses associated with the metallic contacts necessary for charge injection are an obstacle to the development of electrically pumped organic lasers. In this work, we show that it is possible to overcome these losses by introducing surface plasmons (SPs) in a distributed feedback laser to enhance the lasing emission. We perform a detailed study of the SPs influence on the lasing emission. We experimentally show that enhanced lasing emission has been successfully achieved in the presence of a metal electrode. The laser emission is strongly dependent on the thickness of Ag layer. By optimizing the thickness of Ag layer, surface-plasmon-enhanced lasing emission has been achieved with much reduced thresholds and higher intensity. When the thickness of the Ag layer increases to 50 nm, the device exhibits ten-fold emission intensity and a fifth of excitation threshold comparing with Ag-free one. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) results show that large field intensity is built at the 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-i-propyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl) -4H-pyran:/poly(9-vinylcarbazole)Ag interface, which could lead to a strong coupling between lasing and SPs, and consequently a much enhanced laser emission at the photon energy of around 2.02 eV (615 nm). Our FDTD simulations gave an explanation of the effects of the SPs on lasing operation in the periodic structures. The use of SPs would lead to a new class of highly efficient solid-state laser sources and provide a new path to achieve electrically pumped organic lasers.

  4. Enhanced biogenic emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide following surface biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iris C.; Levine, Joel S.; Poth, Mark A.; Riggan, Philip J.

    1988-01-01

    Recent measurements indicate significantly enhanced biogenic soil emissions of both nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) following surface burning. These enhanced fluxes persisted for at least six months following the burn. Simultaneous measurements indicate enhanced levels of exchangeable ammonium in the soil following the burn. Biomass burning is known to be an instantaneous source of NO and N2O resulting from high-temperature combustion. Now it is found that biomass burning also results in significantly enhanced biogenic emissions of these gases, which persist for months following the burn.

  5. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid (MYD21A2.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Emissivity...

  6. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid (MOD21A2.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Emissivity...

  7. Bright point study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.; Harvey, K.; Bruner, M.; Kent, B.; Antonucci, E.

    1982-01-01

    Transition region and coronal observations of bright points by instruments aboard the Solar Maximum Mission and high resolution photospheric magnetograph observations on September 11, 1980 are presented. A total of 31 bipolar ephemeral regions were found in the photosphere from birth in 9.3 hours of combined magnetograph observations from three observatories. Two of the three ephemeral regions present in the field of view of the Ultraviolet Spectrometer-Polarimeter were observed in the C IV 1548 line. The unobserved ephemeral region was determined to be the shortest-lived (2.5 hr) and lowest in magnetic flux density (13G) of the three regions. The Flat Crystal Spectrometer observed only low level signals in the O VIII 18.969 A line, which were not statistically significant to be positively identified with any of the 16 ephemeral regions detected in the photosphere. In addition, the data indicate that at any given time there lacked a one-to-one correspondence between observable bright points and photospheric ephemeral regions, while more ephemeral regions were observed than their counterparts in the transition region and the corona

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle pen surfaces in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shafiqur; Borhan, Md Saidul; Swanson, Kendall

    2013-01-01

    There is a global interest to quantify and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) (e.g. methane-CH4, nitrous oxide-N2O and carbon dioxide-CO2) emissions in animal feeding operations. The goal of this study was to quantify GHG emissions from the feedlot pen surface under North Dakota climatic conditions. In this study gaseous flux from the pen surfaces was generated using a custom-made wind tunnel at different times of the year (summer, fall, winter and spring). Gaseous fluxes (air samples) were drawn in the Tedlar bags using a vacuum chamber and gas concentrations were measured using a gas chromatograph within 24 h of sampling. The CH4 concentrations and flux rates (FRs) or flux among the months were not significantly different. Overall CH4, CO2 and N2O concentrations over a 7-month period were 2.66, 452 and 0.67 ppm, respectively. Estimated overall CH4, CO and N2O FRs were 1.32, 602 and 0.90 g m(-2) d(-1), respectively. Estimated emission rates using the wind tunnel were 38 g hd(-1) d(-1), 17 kg hd(-1) d(-1) and 26 g hd(-1) d(-1) for CH4, CO2 and N2O, respectively. The emission factors for GHG estimated in the research for North Dakota climate were the first of its kind, and these emission estimates can be used as a basis for planning and implementing management practices to minimize GHG emissions.

  9. SURFACE FILMS TO SUPPRESS FIELD EMISSION IN HIGH-POWER MICROWAVE COMPONENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay l

    2014-02-07

    Results are reported on attempts to reduce the RF breakdown probability on copper accelerator structures by applying thin surface films that could suppress field emission of electrons. Techniques for application and testing of copper samples with films of metals with work functions higher than copper are described, principally for application of platinum films, since platinum has the second highest work function of any metal. Techniques for application of insulating films are also described, since these can suppress field emission and damage on account of dielectric shielding of fields at the copper surface, and on account of the greater hardness of insulating films, as compared with copper. In particular, application of zirconium oxide films on high-field portions of a 11.424 GHz SLAC cavity structure for breakdown tests are described.

  10. Silver-graphene oxide based plasmonic spacer for surface plasmon-coupled fluorescence emission enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiya, Pradeep Kumar; Srinivasan, Venkatesh; Sathish Ramamurthy, Sai

    2017-06-01

    We report the application of single layered graphene oxide (SLGO) and silver decorated SLGO (Ag-SLGO) as plasmonic spacer material for obtaining enhanced fluorescence from a Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) radiating dipole in a surface plasmon-coupled emission platform. To this end, we have decorated SLGO with biphasic silver nanoparticles using an in situ deposition technique to achieve 112-fold fluorescence enhancements.

  11. Transition absorption as a mechanism of surface photoelectron emission from metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Protsenko, Igor E.; Ikhsanov, Renat Sh

    2015-01-01

    Transition absorption of a photon by an electron passingthrough a boundary between two media with different permit-tivities is described both classically and quantum mechani-cally. Transition absorption is shown to make a substantialcontribution to photoelectron emission at a metal....../semicon-ductor interface in nanoplasmonic systems, and is put forth asa possible microscopic mechanism of the surface photoelec-tric effect in photodetectors and solar cells containing plas-monic nanoparticles....

  12. Kinetic electron emission from highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surfaces induced by singly charged ions

    CERN Document Server

    Cernusca, S; Winter, H; Aumayr, F; Loerincik, J; Sroubek, Z

    2002-01-01

    We present total electron yields determined by current measurements for normal impact of H sup + , H sub 2 sup + , H sub 3 sup + , C sup + , N sup + and O sup + ions (E<=10 keV) on a clean highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface. The kinetic energy of the projectiles has been varied from near threshold up to 10 keV. By comparing the results to similar data obtained for a polycrystalline Au surface the role of different target properties for kinetic electron emission can be analysed.

  13. Surface effects during exoelectron-emission of BeO ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, V.; Kirchner, H.H.

    1979-01-01

    Studying the behaviour of the two thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) maxima of BeO ceramics at about 270 0 C und 325 0 C it can be shown that the TSEE maximum at 270 0 C is closely connected with adsorption and desorption processes occuring on the surface of the samples. In particular, this TSEE maximum is strongly influenced as well by donor-like behaviour of adsorbed hydrogen and lithium as by acceptor-like behaviour of alcohols and nitrides of the lithium. The detailed surface processes leading to the apperance or disapperance of the TSEE maximum at 270 0 C are discussed. (orig.) [de

  14. Surface trapping phenomena in thermionic emission generating l/f noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanescu, A.

    1975-01-01

    A general expression of the power spectrum of''flicker noise'', involving stochastic trapping phenomena and calculated on the basis of a two parameter model, is applied in the case of thermoionic emission from cathode surface. The fluctuation of the work function over the cathode surface is interpreted as being due to a trapping process of foreign atoms by the cathode. Taking into account the very physical nature of the trapping mechanism, under self-consistent assumptions, a 1/f power spectrum is obtained in a certain range of frequency. The two parameter model removes some discrepancies involved in the preceding theories. (author)

  15. Photoelectron emission from LiF surfaces by ultrashort electromagnetic pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acuna, M. A.; Gravielle, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    Energy- and angle-resolved electron emission spectra produced by incidence of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses on a LiF(001) surface are studied by employing a distorted-wave method named the crystal surface-Volkov (CSV) approximation. The theory makes use of the Volkov phase to describe the action of the external electric field on the emitted electron, while the electron-surface interaction is represented within the tight-binding model. The CSV approach is applied to investigate the effects introduced by the crystal lattice when the electric field is oriented parallel to the surface plane. These effects are essentially governed by the vector potential of the external field, while the influence of the crystal orientation was found to be negligible.

  16. Improving the indoor air quality by using a surface emissions trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowicz, Pawel; Larsson, Lennart

    2015-04-01

    The surface emissions trap, an adsorption cloth developed for reducing emissions of volatile organic compounds and particulate matter from surfaces while allowing evaporation of moisture, was used to improve the indoor air quality of a school building with elevated air concentrations of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. An improvement of the perceived air quality was noticed a few days after the device had been attached on the PVC flooring. In parallel, decreased air concentrations of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol were found as well as a linear increase of the amounts of the same compound adsorbed on the installed cloth as observed up to 13 months after installation. Laboratory studies revealed that the performance of the device is not affected by differences in RH (35-85%), temperature (30-40 °C) or by accelerated aging simulating up to 10 years product lifetime, and, from a blinded exposure test, that the device efficiently blocks chemical odors. This study suggests that the device may represent a fast and efficient means of restoring the indoor air quality in a building e.g. after water damage leading to irritating and potentially harmful emissions from building material surfaces indoors.

  17. A new perspective on the infrared brightness temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CEAWMT), ... temperatures clearly discriminates the cloud pixels of deep convective and ... utilized in the modelling of the histogram of infrared brightness temperature of deep convective and ..... Henderson-Sellers A 1978 Surface type and its effect.

  18. Field and laboratory emission cell automation and control system for investigating surface chemistry reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemmer, Michael M.; Ham, Jason E.; Wells, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    A novel system [field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC) automation and control system] has been developed to deliver ozone to a surface utilizing the FLEC to simulate indoor surface chemistry. Ozone, humidity, and air flow rate to the surface were continuously monitored using an ultraviolet ozone monitor, humidity, and flow sensors. Data from these sensors were used as feedback for system control to maintain predetermined experimental parameters. The system was used to investigate the chemistry of ozone with α-terpineol on a vinyl surface over 72h. Keeping all other experimental parameters the same, volatile organic compound emissions from the vinyl tile with α-terpineol were collected from both zero and 100ppb(partsper109) ozone exposures. System stability profiles collected from sensor data indicated experimental parameters were maintained to within a few percent of initial settings. Ozone data from eight experiments at 100ppb (over 339h) provided a pooled standard deviation of 1.65ppb and a 95% tolerance of 3.3ppb. Humidity data from 17 experiments at 50% relative humidity (over 664h) provided a pooled standard deviation of 1.38% and a 95% tolerance of 2.77%. Data of the flow rate of air flowing through the FLEC from 14 experiments at 300ml/min (over 548h) provided a pooled standard deviation of 3.02ml/min and a 95% tolerance range of 6.03ml/min. Initial experimental results yielded long term emissions of ozone/α-terpineol reaction products, suggesting that surface chemistry could play an important role in indoor environments.

  19. N2O emission from plant surfaces - light stimulated and a global phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Teis; Bruhn, Dan; Ambus, Per

    2017-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important long-lived greenhouse gas and precursor of stratospheric ozone depleting mono-nitrogen oxides. The atmospheric concentration of N2O is persistently increasing; however, large uncertainties are associated with the distinct source strengths. Here we investigate for the first time N2O emission from terrestrial vegetation in response to natural solar ultra violet radiation. We conducted field site measurements to investigate N2O atmosphere exchange from grass vegetation exposed to solar irradiance with and without UV-screening. Further laboratory tests were conducted with a range of species to study the controls and possible loci of UV-induced N2O emission from plants. Plants released N2O in response to natural sunlight at rates of c. 20-50 nmol m-2 h-1, mostly due to the UV component. The emission rate is temperature dependent with a rather high activation energy indicative for an abiotic process. The prevailing zone for the N2O formation appears to be at the very surface of leaves. However, only c. 26% of the UV-induced N2O appears to originate from plant-N. Further, the process is dependent on atmospheric oxygen concentration. Our work demonstrates that ecosystem emission of the important greenhouse gas, N2O, may be up to c. 30% higher than hitherto assumed. Literature: Mikkelsen TN, Bruhn D & Ambus P. (2016). Solar UV Irradiation-Induced Production of Greenhouse Gases from Plant Surfaces: From Leaf to Earth. Progress in Botany, DOI 10.1007/124_2016_10. Bruhn D, Albert KR, Mikkelsen TN & Ambus P. (2014). UV-induced N2O emission from plants. Atmospheric Environment 99, 206-214.

  20. SECONDARY EMISSION FROM NON-SPHERICAL DUST GRAINS WITH ROUGH SURFACES: APPLICATION TO LUNAR DUST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richterová, I.; Němeček, Z.; Beránek, M.; Šafránková, J.; Pavlů, J.

    2012-01-01

    Electrons impinging on a target can release secondary electrons and/or they can be scattered out of the target. It is well established that the number of escaping electrons per primary electron depends on the target composition and dimensions, the energy, and incidence angle of the primary electrons, but there are suggestions that the target's shape and surface roughness also influence the secondary emission. We present a further modification of the model of secondary electron emission from dust grains which is applied to non-spherical grains and grains with defined surface roughness. It is shown that the non-spherical grains give rise to a larger secondary electron yield, whereas the surface roughness leads to a decrease in the yield. Moreover, these effects can be distinguished: the shape effect is prominent for high primary energies, whereas the surface roughness predominantly affects the yield at the low-energy range. The calculations use the Lunar Highlands Type NU-LHT-2M simulant as a grain material and the results are compared with previously published laboratory and in situ measurements.

  1. An assessment of surface emissivity variation effects on plasma uniformity analysis using IR cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Abigail; Showers, Melissa; Biewer, Theodore

    2017-10-01

    The Prototype-Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX) is a linear plasma device operating at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Its purpose is to test plasma source and heating concepts for the planned Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX), which has the mission to test the plasma-material interactions under fusion reactor conditions. In this device material targets will be exposed to high heat fluxes (>10 MW/m2). To characterize the heat fluxes to the target a IR thermography system is used taking up to 432 frames per second videos. The data is analyzed to determine the surface temperature on the target in specific regions of interest. The IR analysis has indicated a low level of plasma uniformity; the plasma often deposits more heat to the edge of the plate than the center. An essential parameter for IR temperature calculation is the surface emissivity of the plate (stainless steel). A study has been performed to characterize the variation in the surface emissivity of the plate as its temperature changes and its surface finish is modified by plasma exposure.

  2. Climate change impact of livestock CH4 emission in India: Global temperature change potential (GTP) and surface temperature response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Shilpi; Hiloidhari, Moonmoon; Kumari, Nisha; Naik, S N; Dahiya, R P

    2018-01-01

    Two climate metrics, Global surface Temperature Change Potential (GTP) and the Absolute GTP (AGTP) are used for studying the global surface temperature impact of CH 4 emission from livestock in India. The impact on global surface temperature is estimated for 20 and 100 year time frames due to CH 4 emission. The results show that the CH 4 emission from livestock, worked out to 15.3 Tg in 2012. In terms of climate metrics GTP of livestock-related CH 4 emission in India in 2012 were 1030 Tg CO 2 e (GTP 20 ) and 62 Tg CO 2 e (GTP 100 ) at the 20 and 100 year time horizon, respectively. The study also illustrates that livestock-related CH 4 emissions in India can cause a surface temperature increase of up to 0.7mK and 0.036mK over the 20 and 100 year time periods, respectively. The surface temperature response to a year of Indian livestock emission peaks at 0.9mK in the year 2021 (9 years after the time of emission). The AGTP gives important information in terms of temperature change due to annual CH 4 emissions, which is useful when comparing policies that address multiple gases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of Future Emissions and Climate Change on Surface Ozone over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C. T.; Westervelt, D. M.; Fiore, A. M.; Rieder, H. E.; Kinney, P.; Wang, S.; Correa, G. J. P.

    2017-12-01

    China's immense ambient air pollution problem and world-leading greenhouse gas emissions place it at the forefront of global efforts to address these related environmental concerns. Here, we analyze the impact of ECLIPSE (Evaluating the Climate and Air Quality Impacts of Short-Lived Pollutants) future emissions scenarios representative of current legislation (CLE) and maximum technically feasible emissions reductions (MFR) on surface ozone (O3) concentrations over China in the 2030s and 2050s, in the context of a changing climate. We use a suite of simulations performed with the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's AM3 global chemistry-climate model. To estimate the impact of climate change in isolation on Chinese air quality, we hold emissions of air pollutants including O3 precursors fixed at 2015 levels but allow climate (global sea surface temperatures and sea ice cover) to change according to decadal averages for the years 2026-2035 and 2046-2055 from a three-member ensemble of GFDL-CM3 simulations under the RCP8.5 high warming scenario. Evaluation of the present-day simulation (2015 CLE) with observations from 1497 chiefly urban air quality monitoring stations shows that simulated surface O3 is positively biased by 26 ppb on average over the domain of China. Previous studies, however, have shown that the modeled ozone response to changes in NOx emissions over the Eastern United States mirrors the magnitude and structure of observed changes in maximum daily average 8-hour (MDA8) O3 distributions. Therefore, we use the model's simulated changes for the 2030s and 2050s to project changes in policy-relevant MDA8 O3 concentrations. We find an overall increase in MDA8 O3 for CLE scenarios in which emissions of NOx precursors are projected to increase, and under MFR scenarios, an overall decrease, with the highest changes occurring in summertime for both 2030 and 2050 MFR. Under climate change alone, the model simulates a mean summertime decrease of 1.3 ppb

  4. Using satellite data to guide emission control strategies for surface ozone pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X.; Fiore, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Surface ozone (O3) has adverse effects on public health, agriculture and ecosystems. As a secondary pollutant, ozone is not emitted directly. Ozone forms from two classes of precursors: NOx and VOCs. We use satellite observations of formaldehyde (a marker of VOCs) and NO2 (a marker of NOx) to identify areas which would benefit more from reducing NOx emissions (NOx-limited) versus areas where reducing VOC emissions would lead to lower ozone (VOC-limited). We use a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to develop a set of threshold values that separate the NOx-limited and VOC-limited conditions. Combining these threshold values with a decadal record of satellite observations, we find that U.S. cities (e.g. New York, Chicago) have shifted from VOC-limited to NOx-limited ozone production regimes in the warm season. This transition reflects the NOx emission controls implemented over the past decade. Increasing NOx sensitivity implies that regional NOx emission control programs will improve O3 air quality more now than it would have a decade ago.

  5. Enhanced Field Emission Studies on Niobium Surfaces Relevant to High Field Superconducting Radio-Frequency Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Wang

    2002-01-01

    Enhanced field emission (EFE) presents the main impediment to higher acceleration gradients in superconducting niobium (Nb) radio frequency cavities for particle accelerators. The strength, number and sources of EFE sites strongly depend on surface preparation and handling. The main objective of this thesis project is to systematically investigate the sources of EFE from Nb, to evaluate the best available surface preparation techniques with respect to resulting field emission, and to establish an optimized process to minimize or eliminate EFE. To achieve these goals, a scanning field emission microscope (SFEM) was designed and built as an extension to an existing commercial scanning electron microscope (SEM). In the SFEM chamber of ultra high vacuum, a sample is moved laterally in a raster pattern under a high voltage anode tip for EFE detection and localization. The sample is then transferred under vacuum to the SEM chamber equipped with an energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer for individual emitting site characterization. Compared to other systems built for similar purposes, this apparatus has low cost and maintenance, high operational flexibility, considerably bigger scan area, as well as reliable performance. EFE sources from planar Nb have been studied after various surface preparation, including chemical etching and electropolishing, combined with ultrasonic or high-pressure water rinse. Emitters have been identified, analyzed and the preparation process has been examined and improved based on EFE results. As a result, field-emission-free or near field-emission-free surfaces at ∼140 MV/m have been consistently achieved with the above techniques. Characterization on the remaining emitters leads to the conclusion that no evidence of intrinsic emitters, i.e., no fundamental electric field limit induced by EFE, has been observed up to ∼140 MV/m. Chemically etched and electropolished Nb are compared and no significant difference is observed up to ∼140 MV

  6. Enhanced Field Emission Studies on Niobium Surfaces Relevant to High Field Superconducting Radio-Frequency Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tong [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2002-09-18

    Enhanced field emission (EFE) presents the main impediment to higher acceleration gradients in superconducting niobium (Nb) radiofrequency cavities for particle accelerators. The strength, number and sources of EFE sites strongly depend on surface preparation and handling. The main objective of this thesis project is to systematically investigate the sources of EFE from Nb, to evaluate the best available surface preparation techniques with respect to resulting field emission, and to establish an optimized process to minimize or eliminate EFE. To achieve these goals, a scanning field emission microscope (SFEM) was designed and built as an extension to an existing commercial scanning electron microscope (SEM). In the SFEM chamber of ultra high vacuum, a sample is moved laterally in a raster pattern under a high voltage anode tip for EFE detection and localization. The sample is then transferred under vacuum to the SEM chamber equipped with an energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer for individual emitting site characterization. Compared to other systems built for similar purposes, this apparatus has low cost and maintenance, high operational flexibility, considerably bigger scan area, as well as reliable performance. EFE sources from planar Nb have been studied after various surface preparation, including chemical etching and electropolishing, combined with ultrasonic or high-pressure water rinse. Emitters have been identified, analyzed and the preparation process has been examined and improved based on EFE results. As a result, field-emission-free or near field-emission-free surfaces at ~140 MV/m have been consistently achieved with the above techniques. Characterization on the remaining emitters leads to the conclusion that no evidence of intrinsic emitters, i.e., no fundamental electric field limit induced by EFE, has been observed up to ~140 MV/m. Chemically etched and electropolished Nb are compared and no significant difference is observed up to ~140 MV/m. To

  7. Experimental study of a high-efficiency low-emission surface combustor-heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Tian-yu; Khinkis, M.J.; Fish, F.F.

    1991-01-01

    The surface combustor-heater is a combined combustion/heat-transfer device in which the heat-exchange surfaces are embedded in a stationary bed of refractory material where gaseous fuel is burned. Because of intensive heat radiation from the hot solid particles and enhanced heat convection from the gas flow to the heat-exchange tubes, heat transfer is significantly intensified. Removing heat simultaneously with the combustion process has the benefit of reducing the combustion temperature, which suppresses NO x formation. A basic experimental study was conducted on a 60-kW bench-scale surface combustor-heater with two rows of water-cooled tube coils to evaluate its performance and explore the mechanism of combined convective-radiative heat transfer and its interaction with combustion in the porous matrix. Combustion stability in the porous matrix, heat-transfer rates, emissions, and pressure drop through the unit have been investigated for the variable parameters of operation and unit configurations. Experimental results have demonstrated that high combustion intensity (up to 2.5 MW/m 2 ), high heat-transfer rates (up to 310 kW/m 2 ), high density of energy conversion (up to 8 MW/m 3 ), as well as ultra-low emissions (NO x and CO as low as 15 vppm*) have been achieved. The excellent performance of the test unit and the extensive data obtained from the present experimental study provide the basis for further development of high-efficiency and ultra low-emission water heaters, boilers, and process heaters based on the surface combustor-heater concept. 4 refs., 16 figs

  8. Measurement of surface temperature and emissivity by a multitemperature method for Fourier-transform infrared spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik; Morgenstjerne, Axel; Rathmann, Ole

    1996-01-01

    Surface temperatures are estimated with high precision based on a multitemperature method for Fourier-transform spectrometers. The method is based on Planck's radiation law and a nonlinear least-squares fitting algorithm applied to two or more spectra at different sample temperatures and a single...... of blackbody sources are estimated with an uncertainty of 0.2-2 K. The method is demonstrated for measuring the spectral emissivity of a brass specimen and an oxidized nickel specimen. (C) 1996 Optical Society of America...... measurement at a known sample temperature, for example, at ambient temperature. The temperature of the sample surface can be measured rather easily at ambient temperature. The spectrum at ambient temperature is used to eliminate background effects from spectra as measured at other surface temperatures...

  9. Relative impacts of worldwide tropospheric ozone changes and regional emission modifications on European surface-ozone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szopa, S.; Hauglustaine, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Multi-scale models were applied to assess the surface ozone changes in 2030. Several emission scenarios are considered, ranging from (a) a pessimistic anthropogenic emission increase to (b) an optimistic decrease of emissions, and including (c) a realistic scenario that assumes the implementation of control legislations [CLE]. The two extreme scenarios lead respectively to homogeneous global increase and decrease of surface ozone, whereas low and inhomogeneous changes associated with a slight global increase of ozone are found for the CLE scenario. Over western Europe, for the CLE scenario, the benefit of European emission reduction is significantly counterbalanced by increasing global ozone levels. Considering warmer conditions over Europe and future emission modifications, the human health exposure to surface ozone is found to be significantly worsened. (authors)

  10. First results from the high-brightness x-ray spectroscopy beamline at ALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, R.C.C.; Ng, W.; Jones, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.3.1 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a windowless beamline, covering the 1-6 keV photon-energy range, designed to achieve the goal of high brightness at the sample for use in the X-ray Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy (XAMS) science, surface and interface science, biology and x-ray optical development programs at ALS. X-ray absorption and time of flight photo emission measurements in 2 - 5 keV photon energy in argon along with the flux, resolution, spot size and stability of the beamline will be discussed. Prospects for future XAMS measurements will also be presented.

  11. The Venus Emissivity Mapper - gaining a global perspective on the surface composition of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbert, Joern; Dyar, Melinda; Widemann, Thomas; Marcq, Emmanuel; Maturilli, Alessandro; Mueller, Nils; Kappel, David; Ferrari, Sabrina; D'Amore, Mario; Tsang, Constantine; Arnold, Gabriele; Smrekar, Suzanne; VEM Team

    2017-10-01

    The permanent cloud cover of Venus prohibits observations of the surface with traditional imaging techniques over much of the EM spectral range, leading to the false notion that information about the composition of Venus’ surface could only be derived from lander missions. However, harsh environmental conditions on the surface cause landed missions to be sole site, highly complex, and riskier than orbiting missions.It is now known that 5 transparency windows occur in the Venus atmosphere, ranging from 0.86 µm to 1.18 µm. Recent advances in high temperature laboratory spectroscopy at the PSL at DLR these windows are highly diagnostic for surface mineralogy. Mapping of the southern hemisphere of Venus with VIRTIS on VEX in the 1.02 µm band was a proof-of-concept for an orbital remote sensing approach to surface composition and weathering studies[1-3]. The Venus Emissivity Mapper [4] proposed for the NASA’s Venus Origins Explorer (VOX) and the ESA EnVision proposal builds on these recent advances. It is the first flight instrument specially designed with a sole focus on mapping the surface of Venus using the narrow atmospheric windows around 1 µm. Operating in situ from Venus orbit, VEM will provide a global map of surface composition as well as redox state of the surface, providing a comprehensive picture of surface-atmosphere interaction and support for landing site selection. Continuous observation of the thermal emission of the Venus will provide tight constraints on the current day volcanic activity[5]. This is complemented by measurements of atmospheric water vapor abundance as well as cloud microphysics and dynamics. These data will allow for accurate correction of atmospheric interference on the surface measurements, which provide highly valuable science on their own. A mission combining VEM with a high-resolution radar mapper such as VOX or EnVision in a low circular orbit will provide key insights into the divergent evolution of Venus.1. Smrekar, S

  12. Fourier emission infrared microspectrophotometer for surface analysis. I - Application to lubrication problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, J. L.; King, V. W.

    1979-01-01

    A far-infrared interferometer was converted into an emission microspectrophotometer for surface analysis. To cover the mid-infrared as well as the far-infrared the Mylar beamsplitter was made replaceable by a germanium-coated salt plate, and the Moire fringe counting system used to locate the moveable Michelson mirror was improved to read 0.5 micron of mirror displacement. Digital electronics and a dedicated minicomputer were installed for data collection and processing. The most critical element for the recording of weak emission spectra from small areas was, however, a reflecting microscope objective and phase-locked signal detection with simultaneous referencing to a blackbody source. An application of the technique to lubrication problems is shown.

  13. Electrom emission from slow highly charged ions interacting with a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumayr, F.; Kurz, H.; Toeglhofer, K.; Winter, H.

    1992-01-01

    Recent progress in investigating electron emission from slow highly charged ions approaching a metal surface is discussed. In particular, new informations on generation and decay of transient multiply excited ''hollow atoms'' developing during these processes have been gained from measurement of the statistics of emitted electrons (ES). ES and precise total electron yields derived from the former have been measured for normal incidence of slow (impact velocity 1/15.10 4 ms -1 ) multicharged ions N q+ (q≤6), Ne q+ (q≤10), Ar q+ (q≤16), Kr q+ (q≤10), Xe q+ (q≤10) and I q+ (q≤25) on clean polycrystalline gold. A classical over-barrier approach as recently introduced by Burgdoerfer et al. 1991 has been extended and successfully applied to model the measured impact-velocity dependences of total electron yields. In this way contributions from different electron emission mechanisms could be identified. (orig.)

  14. Investigation of Influence of Surface Nanoparticle on Emission Properties of Scandia-Doped Dispenser Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xizhu; Wang, Jinshu; Wang, Yiman; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Meiling; Gao, Zhiyuan

    2013-06-01

    The microstructure of a fully activated scandia doped dispenser (SDD) cathode has been studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The observation results display that nanoparticles appear at the growth steps and the surface of tungsten grains of the fully activated SDD cathode. To study the influence of the nanoparticles on the emission, the local electric field strengths around the nanoparticles have been calculated by Maxwell 2D code and Comsol. The calculation results show that the local electric field strengths are enhanced by 1.1 to 3.8 times to average value based on different model conditions. The highest field strength is about 1.54 × 105 V/cm at an average field strength of 40 KV/cm, which is related to a space-charge limited (SCL) current density of 100 A/cm2 in the experimental configuration. This implies the field strength is not high enough to cause field emission.

  15. Atmospheric emissions of methyl isothiocyanate and chloropicrin following soil fumigation and surface containment treatment in bare-root forest nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Wang; J. Juzwik; S.W. Fraedrich; K. Spokas; Y. Zhang; W.C. Koskinen

    2005-01-01

    Methylisothiocyanate (MITC) and chloropicrin (CP) are alternatives to methyl bromide for soil fumigation. However, surface transport of MITC emission has been cited as the cause for seedling damage in adjacent fields at several bare-root forest-tree nurseries. Field experiments were conducted at nurseries to measure air emissions of MITC and CP after fumigation....

  16. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V041

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD11C2.041 dataset was decommissioned as of March 1, 2018. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3...

  17. Surface emission of InxGa1-xN epilayers under strong optical excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, H.X.; Lin, J.Y.; Khan, M.A.; Chen, Q.; Yang, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of strong optical excitation on the properties of surface emission from an InGaN/GaN heterostructure grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition have been investigated. An intriguing feature observed was that as the excitation intensity increased the surface emission spectrum evolved abruptly from a single dominating band to two dominating bands at a critical intensity. This phenomenon has a sharp phase transition or a switching character and can be accounted for by (i) the formation of an electron endash hole plasma state in the InGaN vertical cavity under strong optical excitation, (ii) the photoreflectance effect (variation of index of refraction with excitation intensity), and (c) the Fabry endash Pacute erot interference effect in the InGaN vertical cavity. These findings are expected to have impact on the design of the laser structures, in particular on the design of the vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes based on III-nitride wide-band-gap semiconductors. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  18. Local emission spectroscopy of surface micrograins in A{sup III}B{sup V} semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukov, N. D., E-mail: ndzhukov@rambler.ru; Gluhovskoy, E. G.; Mosiyash, D. S. [Saratov State University (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    The density-of-states spectra and the parameters of levels of electron states in locally chosen surface micrograins of indium antimonide and arsenide and gallium arsenide are studied with a tunneling electron microscope in the field-emission mode of measurements. By correlating the current–voltage characteristics with the formula for the probability of emission via levels, the activation energies of the levels (ψ) and the lifetimes of electrons at the levels (τ) are determined. Two types of levels for electron localization are identified. These are levels in the micrograin bulk (ψ ≈ 0.75, 1.15, and 1.59 eV for n-InSb, n-InAs, and n-GaAs, respectively; τ ~ 10{sup –8}–10{sup –7} s) and in the surface region of an i-InSb micrograin (ψ ~ 0.73, 1.33, 1.85, 2.15, 5.1 eV; τ ≈ 5 × 10{sup –8}–3 × 10{sup –7} s). A physical model involving the Coulomb-interaction-induced localization of light electrons and their size quantization determined by the electron effective mass, energy, and concentration and by the surface curvature of the micrograin is proposed.

  19. Microscopic work function anisotropy and surface chemistry of 316L stainless steel using photoelectron emission microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, N., E-mail: nick.barrett@cea.fr [CEA, IRAMIS, SPEC, LENSIS, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Renault, O. [CEA, LETI, Minatec Campus, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Lemaître, H. [Université de Cergy-Pontoise, Rue d’Eragny, Neuville sur Oise, 95 031 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Surface Dynamics Laboratory, Institut for Fysik og Astronomi Aarhus Universitet, Ny Munkegade 120, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Bonnaillie, P. [CEA, DEN, DANS, DMN, SRMP, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Barcelo, F. [CEA, DEN, DANS, DMN, SRMA, LA2M, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Miserque, F. [CEA, DEN, DANS, DPC, SCCME, LECA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Wang, M.; Corbel, C. [Laboratoire des Solides Irradis, Ecole Polytechnique, route de Saclay, F-91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • PEEM and EBSD study of spatial variations in local work function of 316L steel. • Correlation between work function and crystal grain orientation at the surface of 316L steel. • Spatially resolved chemistry of residual oxide layer. - Abstract: We have studied the variation in the work function of the surface of sputtered cleaned 316L stainless steel with only a very thin residual oxide surface layer as a function of grain orientation using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (XPEEM) and Electron Backscattering Diffraction. The grains are mainly oriented [1 1 1] and [1 0 1]. Four distinct work function values spanning a 150 meV energy window are measured. Grains oriented [1 1 1] have a higher work function than those oriented [1 0 1]. From core level XPEEM we deduce that all grain surfaces are Cr enriched and Ni depleted whereas the Cr/Fe ratio is similar for all grains. The [1 1 1] oriented grains show evidence for a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface oxide and a higher concentration of defective oxygen sites.

  20. Some studies of lead and iron adsorption on the W(100) surface by field emission microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.P.; Roberts, E.W.

    1978-01-01

    The behaviour of lead and iron adsorbed on the W(100) surface has been studied by probe hole field emission microscopy, field desorption, and by measurement of the total energy distribution (TED) of field-emitted electrons. Lead adsorbed at 300 K which reduces the work function of W(100) can be completely removed at 78 K by field desorption below 3.2 V A -1 and the resulting surface has both the work function and TED, which are characteristic of the clean plane. Condensation at 800 K followed by field desorption, results in a plane surface of work function 4.17 eV and an altered TED. This effect is attributed to the microfacetting, which is observed by LEED. The Swanson peak in the W(100) TED which is removed by submonolayer amounts of lead re-emerges at monolayer coverage when lead adopts the (1 X 1) structure. Such behaviour is consistent with the model proposed by Kar and Soven. A spectral peak observed when lead is adsorbed on the reconstructed W(100) surface is thought to derive for the atomic 1 D state. Adsorption of iron on a W(100) surface reduces phi considerably due to dipole formation and efficiently quenches the Swanson peak. (Auth.)

  1. Microwave remote sensing of temporal variations of brightness temperature and near-surface soil water content during a watershed-scale field experiment, and its application to the estimation of soil physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattikalli, N.M.; Engman, E.T.; Jackson, T.J.; Ahuja, L.R.

    1998-01-01

    Passive microwave airborne remote sensing was employed to collect daily brightness temperature (T(B)) and near-surface (0-5 cm depth) soil water content (referred to as 'soil water content') data during June 10-18, 1992, in the Little Washita watershed, Oklahoma. A comparison of multitemporal data with the soils data revealed a direct correlation between changes in T(B) and soil water content, and soil texture. Regression relationships were developed for the ratio of percent sand to percent clay (RSC) and effective saturated hydraulic conductivity (K(sat)) in terms of T(B) and soil water content change. Validation of results indicated that both RSC and K(sat) can be estimated with adequate accuracy. The relationships are valid for the region with small variation of soil organic matter content, soils with fewer macropores, and limiting experimental conditions. However, the findings have potential to employ microwave remote sensing for obtaining quick estimates of soil properties over large areas

  2. X-ray emission in collisions of highly charged I, Pr, Ho, and Bi ions with a W surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, H.; Tona, M.; Ohtani, S.; Sun, J.; Nakamura, N.; Yamada, C.; Yoshiyasu, N.; Sakurai, M.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray emission yields, which are defined as the total number of emitted x-ray photons per incident ion, and dissipated fractions of potential energies through x-ray emission have been measured for slow highly charged ions of I, Pr, Ho, and Bi colliding with a W surface. A larger amount of potential energy was consumed for the x-ray emission with increasing the atomic number and the charge state. The present measurements show that x-ray emission is one of the main decay channels of hollow atoms produced in collisions of very highly charged ions of heavy elements

  3. Color-tunable mixed photoluminescence emission from Alq3 organic layer in metal-Alq3-metal surface plasmon structure

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Nai-Chuan; Liao, Chung-Chi; Chen, Cheng-Chang; Fan, Wan-Ting; Wu, Jin-Han; Li, Jung-Yu; Chen, Shih-Pu; Huang, Bohr-Ran; Lee, Li-Ling

    2014-01-01

    This work reports the color-tunable mixed photoluminescence (PL) emission from an Alq3 organic layer in an Au-Alq3-Au plasmonic structure through the combination of organic fluorescence emission and another form of emission that is enabled by the surface plasmons in the plasmonic structure. The emission wavelength of the latter depends on the Alq3 thickness and can be tuned within the Alq3 fluorescent spectra. Therefore, a two-color broadband, color-tunable mixed PL structure was obtained. Ob...

  4. Monte Carlo simulation of heavy ion induced kinetic electron emission from an Al surface

    CERN Document Server

    Ohya, K

    2002-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation is performed in order to study heavy ion induced kinetic electron emission from an Al surface. In the simulation, excitation of conduction band electrons by the projectile ion and recoiling target atoms is treated on the basis of the partial wave expansion method, and the cascade multiplication process of the excited electrons is simulated as well as collision cascade of the recoiling target atoms. Experimental electron yields near conventional threshold energies of heavy ions are simulated by an assumption of a lowering in the apparent surface barrier for the electrons. The present calculation derives components for electron excitations by the projectile ion, the recoiling target atoms and the electron cascades, from the calculated total electron yield. The component from the recoiling target atoms increases with increasing projectile mass, whereas the component from the electron cascade decreases. Although the components from the projectile ion and the electron cascade increase with...

  5. Impact of surface morphology on the properties of light emission in InGaN epilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristijonas Uždavinys, Tomas; Marcinkevičius, Saulius; Mensi, Mounir; Lahourcade, Lise; Carlin, Jean-François; Martin, Denis; Butté, Raphaël; Grandjean, Nicolas

    2018-05-01

    Scanning near-field optical microscopy was used to study the influence of the surface morphology on the properties of light emission and alloy composition in InGaN epitaxial layers grown on GaN substrates. A strong correlation between the maps of the photoluminescence (PL) peak energy and the gradient of the surface morphology was observed. This correlation demonstrates that the In incorporation strongly depends on the geometry of the monolayer step edges that form during growth in the step-flow mode. The spatial distribution of nonradiative recombination centers — evaluated from PL intensity maps — was found to strongly anticorrelate with the local content of In atoms in the InGaN alloy.

  6. The Diagnosis of Plasma Parameters in Surface Alloying Technique by Optical Emission Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Yabo; Zhang Yuefei; Chen Qiang; Zhang Guangqiu; Gao Yuan; Wang Jianzhong; Kui Xiaoyun

    2006-01-01

    Electron density (Ne) in a glow discharge plasma for the surface alloying technique is diagnosed by optical emission spectrometry (OES). With CH 4 as the feeding gas, Ne is obtained by comparing the Hβ spectrum according to the Stark broadening effect. It is noticed that Ne varies with the working pressures (30 Pa to 70 Pa) and cathode voltages (500 V to 1000 V), respectively. Due to an abnormal glow discharge, Ne is between 1.71x10 15 /cm 3 to 6.64x10 15 /cm 3 and increases rapidly with working gas pressures and cathode voltages. The results show that OES is a useful method to measure the plasma parameters in a surface alloying glow discharge plasma

  7. Modulating emission polarization of semiconductor quantum dots through surface plasmon of metal nanorod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mu-Tian; Liu, Shao-Ding; Wang, Qu-Quan

    2008-04-01

    We theoretically investigated the dynamics of exciton populations [ρyy(t ) and ρxx(t )] on two orthogonal polarization eigenstates (∣x⟩ and ∣y⟩) and the polarization ratio P(t )=[ρyy(t )-ρxx(t )]/[ρyy(t )+ρxx(t )] of an anisotropic InGaAs quantum dot modulated by the surface plasmon of an Au nanorod (NR). In the resonance of longitudinal surface plasmon of AuNR, the polarization ratio P(t ) increases from 0.22 to 0.99 during the excitation due to the efficient enhancement of Rabi frequency of the transition between the ∣y⟩ and vacuum states, and decreases from 0.02 to -0.92 after the excitation pulse due to the enhancement of decay rate of the ∣y⟩ state. This offers an approach to modulate the dynamic polarization ratio of radiative emissions.

  8. Two-dimensional simulation research of secondary electron emission avalanche discharge on vacuum insulator surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Libing; Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Xiangqin; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Dianhui

    2015-01-01

    Based on the secondary electron emission avalanche (SEEA) model, the SEEA discharge on the vacuum insulator surface is simulated by using a 2D PIC-MCC code developed by ourselves. The evolutions of the number of discharge electrons, insulator surface charge, current, and 2D particle distribution are obtained. The effects of the strength of the applied electric field, secondary electron yield coefficient, rise time of the pulse, length of the insulator on the discharge are investigated. The results show that the number of the SEEA electrons presents a quadratic dependence upon the applied field strength. The SEEA current, which is on the order of Ampere, is directly proportional to the field strength and secondary electron yield coefficient. Finally, the electron-stimulated outgassing is included in the simulation code, and a three-phase discharge curve is presented by the simulation, which agrees with the experimental data.

  9. Two-dimensional simulation research of secondary electron emission avalanche discharge on vacuum insulator surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Libing; Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Xiangqin; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Dianhui

    2015-01-01

    Based on the secondary electron emission avalanche (SEEA) model, the SEEA discharge on the vacuum insulator surface is simulated by using a 2D PIC-MCC code developed by ourselves. The evolutions of the number of discharge electrons, insulator surface charge, current, and 2D particle distribution are obtained. The effects of the strength of the applied electric field, secondary electron yield coefficient, rise time of the pulse, length of the insulator on the discharge are investigated. The results show that the number of the SEEA electrons presents a quadratic dependence upon the applied field strength. The SEEA current, which is on the order of Ampere, is directly proportional to the field strength and secondary electron yield coefficient. Finally, the electron-stimulated outgassing is included in the simulation code, and a three-phase discharge curve is presented by the simulation, which agrees with the experimental data

  10. [Study on plasma temperature of a large area surface discharge by optical emission spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Fang; Tong, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Bin

    2014-04-01

    A large area surface discharge was realized in air/argon gas mixture by designing a discharge device with water electrodes. By using optical emission spectrum, the variations of the molecular vibrational temperature, the mean energy of electron, and the electronic excitation temperature as a function of the gas pressure were studied. The nitrogen molecular vibrational temperature was calculated according to the emission line of the second positive band system of the nitrogen molecule (C3 pi(u) --> B 3 pi(g)). The electronic excitation temperature was obtained by using the intensity ratio of Ar I 763.51 nm (2P(6) --> 1S(5)) to Ar I 772.42 nm (2P(2) --> 1S(3)). The changes in the mean energy of electron were studied by the relative intensity ratio of the nitrogen molecular ion 391.4 nm to nitrogen 337.1 nm. It was found that the intensity of emission spectral line increases with the increase in the gas pressure, meanwhile, the outline and the ratios of different spectral lines intensity also change. The molecular vibrational temperature, the mean energy of electron, and the electronic excitation temperature decrease as the gas pressure increases from 0.75 x 10(5) Pa to 1 x 10(5) Pa.

  11. Effect of localized surface-plasmon mode on exciton transport and radiation emission in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyak, Oleksiy; Cherqui, Charles; Dunlap, David H; Piryatinski, Andrei

    2014-07-17

    We report on a general theoretical approach to study exciton transport and emission in a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) in the presence of a localized surface-plasmon (SP) mode within a metal nanoparticle interacting via near-field coupling. We derive a set of quantum mechanical equations of motion and approximate rate equations that account for the exciton, SP, and the environmental degrees of freedom. The material equations are complemented by an expression for the radiated power that depends on the exciton and SP populations and coherences, allowing for an examination of the angular distribution of the emitted radiation that would be measured in experiment. Numerical simulations for a (6,5) SWNT and cone-shaped Ag metal tip (MT) have been performed using this methodology. Comparison with physical parameters shows that the near-field interaction between the exciton-SP occurs in a weak coupling regime, with the diffusion processes being much faster than the exciton-SP population exchange. In such a case, the effect of the exciton population transfer to the MT with its subsequent dissipation (i.e., the Förster energy transfer) is to modify the exciton steady state distribution while reducing the equilibration time for excitons to reach a steady sate distribution. We find that the radiation distribution is dominated by SP emission for a SWNT-MT separation of a few tens of nanometers due to the fast SP emission rate, whereas the exciton-SP coherences can cause its rotation.

  12. Effect of sequential surface irrigations on field-scale emissions of 1,3-dichloropropene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, S R; Knuteson, J; Ernst, F F; Zheng, W; Wang, Q

    2008-12-01

    A field experiment was conducted to measure subsurface movement and volatilization of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) after shank injection to an agricultural soil. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of sprinkler irrigation on the emissions of 1,3-D to the atmosphere and is based on recent research that has shown that saturating the soil pore space reduces gas-phase diffusion and leads to reduced volatilization rates. Aerodynamic, integrated horizontal flux, and theoretical profile shape methods were used to estimate fumigant volatilization rates and total emission losses. These methods provide estimates of the volatilization rate based on measurements of wind speed, temperature, and 1,3-D concentration in the atmosphere. The volatilization rate was measured continuously for 16 days, and the daily peak volatilization rates for the three methods ranged from 18 to 60 microg m(-2) s(-1). The total 13-D mass entering the atmosphere was approximately 44-68 kg ha(-1), or 10-15% of the applied active ingredient This represents approximately 30-50% reduction in the total emission losses compared to conventional fumigant applications in field and field-plot studies. Significant reduction in volatilization of 1,3-D was observed when five surface irrigations were applied to the field, one immediately after fumigation followed by daily irrigations.

  13. Multi-source SO2 emission retrievals and consistency of satellite and surface measurements with reported emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fioletov, V.; McLinden, C.A.; Kharol, S.K.; Krotkov, N.A.; Li, C.; Joiner, J.; Moran, M.D.; Vet, R.; Visschedijk, A.J.H.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Reported sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from US and Canadian sources have declined dramatically since the 1990s as a result of emission control measures. Observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA's Aura satellite and ground-based in situ measurements are examined to verify

  14. Nitrous oxide emissions from sugarcane straw left on the soil surface in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdos, M. V.; Cerri, C. E.; Carvalho, J. L.; Cerri, C. C.

    2012-12-01

    In Brazil, the largest exporter of ethanol from sugarcane in the world, burning the dry leaves and tops in order to facilitate the harvest and transportation of the stalks is still a common practice. Burning plant residues causes emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2, CH4 and N2O, besides the release of charcoal particles into the atmosphere. Due to a combination of pressure from changes in the public opinion and economical reasons, in Brazil sugarcane harvest is changing from a burned into an unburned system. Since manual harvest of sugarcane without burning is not economically feasible, mechanical harvesters have been developed that can take the stalk and leave the residues on the field, forming a mulch, in a system called green cane management. It is expected that 80% of the cane harvested in the main producing regions in Brazil will be harvested without burning by 2014. The conversion from burning sugarcane to green management of sugarcane will have impacts on the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen in the plant soil system. The green cane management results in the deposition of large amounts of plant litter on the soil surface after harvest, ranging from 10 to 20 tons per hectare, which impact the whole production process of sugarcane, influencing yields, fertilizer management and application, soil erosion, soil organic matter dynamics as well as greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, N2O, CH4). From a GHG perspective, the conservation of sugarcane residues prevents emissions from the burning process, may promote carbon sequestration in soils and releases nitrogen during the decomposition process replacing the need for, and GHG emissions from, fossil fuel based nitrogen fertilizer sources. Measurements of soil C and N stocks and associated greenhouse gas emissions from the burned and unburned sugarcane systems and in the sugarcane expansion areas are still scarce. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to quantify the nitrous oxide

  15. Surprisingly small HONO emissions from snow surfaces at Browning Pass, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Beine

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Measured Fluxes of nitrous acid at Browning Pass, Antarctica were very low, despite conditions that are generally understood as favorable for HONO emissions, including: acidic snow surfaces, an abundance of NO3- anions in the snow surface, and abundant UV light for NO3- photolysis. Photochemical modeling suggests noon time HONO fluxes of 5–10 nmol m-2 h-1; the measured fluxes, however, were close to zero throughout the campaign. The location and state of NO3- in snow is crucial to its reactivity. The analysis of soluble mineral ions in snow reveals that the NO3- ion is probably present in aged snows as NaNO3. This is peculiar to our study site, and we suggest that this may affect the photochemical reactivity of NO3-, by preventing the release of products, or providing a reactive medium for newly formed HONO. In fresh snow, the NO3- ion is probably present as dissolved or adsorbed HNO3 and yet, no HONO emissions were observed. We speculate that HONO formation from NO3- photolysis may involve electron transfer reactions of NO2 from photosensitized organics and that fresh snows at our site had insufficient concentrations of adequate organic compounds to favor this reaction.

  16. Laboratory Measured Emission Losses of Methyl Isothiocyanate at Pacific Northwest Soil Surface Fumigation Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhou; Hebert, Vincent R; Miller, Glenn C

    2017-02-01

    Temperature is a major environmental factor influencing land surface volatilization at the time of agricultural field fumigation. Cooler fumigation soil temperatures relevant to Pacific Northwest (PNW) application practices with metam sodium/potassium should result in appreciably reduced methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) emission rates, thus minimizing off target movement and bystander inhalation exposure. Herein, a series of laboratory controlled flow-through soil column assessments were performed evaluating MITC emissions over the range of cooler temperatures (2-13°C). Assessments were also conducted at the maximum allowed label application temperature of 32°C. All assessments were conducted at registration label-specified field moisture capacity, and no more than 50% cumulative MITC loss was observed over the 2-day post-fumigation timeframe. Three-fold reductions in MITC peak fluxes at cooler PNW application temperatures were observed compared to the label maximum temperature. This study supports current EPA metam sodium/potassium label language that indicates surface fumigations during warmer soil conditions should be discouraged.

  17. Visible Color and Photometry of Bright Materials on Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, S. E.; Li, J. Y.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Hiesinger, H.; Blewett, D. T.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Keller, H. U.

    2012-01-01

    The Dawn Framing Camera (FC) collected images of the surface of Vesta at a pixel scale of 70 m in the High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) phase through its clear and seven color filters spanning from 430 nm to 980 nm. The surface of Vesta displays a large diversity in its brightness and colors, evidently related to the diverse geology [1] and mineralogy [2]. Here we report a detailed investigation of the visible colors and photometric properties of the apparently bright materials on Vesta in order to study their origin. The global distribution and the spectroscopy of bright materials are discussed in companion papers [3, 4], and the synthesis results about the origin of Vestan bright materials are reported in [5].

  18. Prediction of Backscatter and Emissivity of Snow at Millimeter Wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    AD-AI16 9A MASSACHUISETTS IMST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE RESEARCH LAB OF-ETC F/6 17/9 PREDICTION OF BACKSCATTER AND EMISSIVITY OF SNOW AT MILLETER --ETC(U...emitting media such as snow. The emissivity in the Ray- leigh- Jeans approximation is then the microwave brightness tempera- ture T divided by an effective...resistivity, and thermal tempera- ture. Jean et al. (Reference 125) compared a theoretical expression for the total apparent temperature of a smooth surface

  19. A high brightness probe of polymer nanoparticles for biological imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sirong; Zhu, Jiarong; Li, Yaping; Feng, Liheng

    2018-03-01

    Conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) with high brightness in long wavelength region were prepared by the nano-precipitation method. Based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism, the high brightness property of the CPNs was realized by four different emission polymers. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) displayed that the CPNs possessed a spherical structure and an average diameter of 75 nm. Analysis assays showed that the CPNs had excellent biocompatibility, good photostability and low cytotoxicity. The CPNs were bio-modified with a cell penetrating peptide (Tat, a targeted element) through covalent link. Based on the entire wave fluorescence emission, the functionalized CPNs1-4 can meet multichannel and high throughput assays in cell and organ imaging. The contribution of the work lies in not only providing a new way to obtain a high brightness imaging probe in long wavelength region, but also using targeted cell and organ imaging.

  20. Laser induced surface structuring of Cu for enhancement of field emission properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Mahreen; Bashir, Shazia; Jalil, Sohail Abdul; Shahid Rafique, Muhammad; Hayat, Asma; Mahmood, Khaliq

    2018-02-01

    The effect of Nd:YAG (1064 nm, 10 ns, 10 Hz) laser induced surface structuring of copper (Cu) for enhancement of field emission (FE) properties has been investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis was employed to investigate the surface structural and compositional modifications. The surface structuring was explored by scanning electron microscope investigation. FE properties were studied under UHV conditions in a parallel plate configuration of planar un-irradiated Cu anode and laser irradiated Cu cathode. The Fowler-Nordheim plots were drawn to confirm the dominance of FE behavior of the measured I-V characteristics. The obtained values of turn-on field ‘E o’, field enhancement factor ‘β’ and maximum current density ‘J max’ come out to be to be in the range of 5.5-8.5 V μm-1, 1380-2730 and 147-375 μA cm-2 respectively for the Cu samples irradiated at laser irradiance ranging from 13 to 50 GW cm-2. The observed enhancement in the FE properties has been correlated with the growth of various surface structures such as ridged protrusions, cones and pores/tiny holes. The porous morphology is found to be responsible for a significant enhancement in the FE parameters.

  1. Light emission from sputtered or backscattered atoms on tungsten surfaces under ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yasuhiro; Nogami, Keisuke; Kato, Daiji; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Kenmotsu, Takahiko; Furuya, Kenji; Motohashi, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    We measured the intensity of light emission from sputtered atoms on tungsten surfaces under the irradiations of Kr"+ ion and Ar"+ ion, as a function of the perpendicular distance from the surface. Using the analysis of decay curve, we estimated the mean vertical velocity component in direction normal to the surface. We found that the estimated mean velocity had much differences according to the excited state. For example, although the estimated mean vertical velocity component normal to the surface from the 400.9 nm line((5d"5(6S)6p "7p_4→(5d"5(6S)6s "7S_3 transition) was 5.6±1.7 km/sec, that from the 386.8 nm line((5d"4(6S)6p "7D_4→(5d"5(6S)6s "7S_4 transition) was 2.8±1.0 km/sec. However, for different projectiles and energies, we found no remarkable changes in the velocity. (author)

  2. Chemical waves in the O2 + H2 reaction on a Rh(111) surface alloyed with nickel. I. Photoelectron emission microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinsky, Tim; von Boehn, Bernhard; Imbihl, Ronald

    2018-04-01

    Chemical waves that arise in the H2 + O2 reaction on a bimetallic Rh(111)/Ni surface have been studied in the 10-6 and 10-5 mbar range at T = 773 K with photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Nickel coverages of 0.3, 0.6, and 1.0 monolayers were investigated. Coadsorbed with some oxygen, Ni starts to penetrate the Rh bulk region substantially only beyond 900 K. In the 10-5 mbar range, chemical waves are characterized by three distinct gray levels in PEEM. This number reduces to only two levels in the 10-6 mbar range. In situ LEED showed the periodic appearance of a (n × 1) (n = 8, 10) pattern during chemical waves which was assigned to a 2D-Ni oxide. With in situ AES, one observes that the bright phase in PEEM correlates with a high Ni coverage and the dark phase with a low Ni coverage.

  3. Control of formaldehyde and TVOC emission from wood-based flooring composites at various manufacturing processes by surface finishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sumin

    2010-04-15

    This paper assesses the reproducibility of testing formaldehyde and TVOC emission behavior from wood flooring composites bonded by urea-formaldehyde resin at various manufacturing steps for surface finishing materials. The surface adhesion step of laminate flooring for this research was divided into two steps; HDF only and HDF with LPMs. In the case of engineered flooring, the manufacturing steps were divided into three steps; plywood only, fancy veneer bonded on plywood and UV coated on fancy veneer with plywood. Formaldehyde and VOCs emission decreased at the process of final surface finishing materials; LPMs were applied on the surface of HDF for laminate flooring. Although emissions increased when fancy veneer was bonded onto plywood in the case of engineered flooring, emission was dramatically reduced up to similar level with plywood only when final surface finishing; UV-curable coating was applied on fancy veneer. This study suggests that formaldehyde and VOCs emission from floorings can be controlled at manufacturing steps for surface finishing. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The ZTF Bright Transient Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremling, C.; Sharma, Y.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Miller, A. A.; Taggart, K.; Perley, D. A.; Gooba, A.

    2018-06-01

    As a supplement to the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF; ATel #11266) public alerts (ATel #11685) we plan to report (following ATel #11615) bright probable supernovae identified in the raw alert stream from the ZTF Northern Sky Survey ("Celestial Cinematography"; see Bellm & Kulkarni, 2017, Nature Astronomy 1, 71) to the Transient Name Server (https://wis-tns.weizmann.ac.il) on a daily basis; the ZTF Bright Transient Survey (BTS; see Kulkarni et al., 2018; arXiv:1710.04223).

  5. Directional and dynamic modulation of the optical emission of an individual GaAs nanowire using surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Jörg B; Rudolph, Daniel; Bichler, Max; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Finley, Jonathan J; Koblmüller, Gregor; Wixforth, Achim; Krenner, Hubert J

    2011-04-13

    We report on optical experiments performed on individual GaAs nanowires and the manipulation of their temporal emission characteristics using a surface acoustic wave. We find a pronounced, characteristic suppression of the emission intensity for the surface acoustic wave propagation aligned with the axis of the nanowire. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this quenching is dynamical as it shows a pronounced modulation as the local phase of the surface acoustic wave is tuned. These effects are strongly reduced for a surface acoustic wave applied in the direction perpendicular to the axis of the nanowire due to their inherent one-dimensional geometry. We resolve a fully dynamic modulation of the nanowire emission up to 678 MHz not limited by the physical properties of the nanowires.

  6. Bright infrared LEDs based on colloidal quantum-dots

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Liangfeng; Choi, Joshua J.; Stachnik, David; Bartnik, Adam C.; Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Malliaras, George G.; Hanrath, Tobias; Wise, Frank W.

    2013-01-01

    Record-brightness infrared LEDs based on colloidal quantum-dots have been achieved through control of the spacing between adjacent quantum-dots. By tuning the size of quantum-dots, the emission wavelengths can be tuned between 900nm and 1650nm. © 2013 Materials Research Society.

  7. Fate factors and emission flux estimates for emerging contaminants in surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa T. Trinh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceuticals, personal care products, hormones, and wastewater products are emerging environmental concerns for manifold reasons, including the potential of some compounds found in these products for endocrine disruption at a very low chronic exposure level. The environmental occurrences and sources of these contaminants in the water, soil, sediment and biota in European nations and the United States are well documented. This work reports a screening-level emission and fate assessment of thirty compounds, listed in the National Reconnaissance of the United States Geological Survey (USGS, 1999–2000 as the most frequently detected organic wastewater contaminants in U.S. streams and rivers. Estimations of the surface water fate factors were based on Level II and Level III multimedia fugacity models for a 1000 km2 model environment, the size of a typical county in the eastern United States. The compounds are categorized into three groups based upon the sensitivity of their predicted surface water fate factors to uncertainties in their physicochemical property values and the landscape parameters. The environmental fate factors, mass distributions, and loss pathways of all of the compounds are strongly affected by their assumed modes of entry into the environment. It is observed that for thirteen of the thirty organic wastewater contaminants most commonly detected in surface waters, conventional treatment strategies may be ineffective for their removal from wastewater effluents. The surface water fate factors predicted by the fugacity models were used in conjunction with the surface water concentrations measured in the USGS reconnaissance to obtain emission flux estimates for the compounds into U.S. streams and rivers. These include estimated fluxes of 6.8 × 10−5 to 0.30 kg/h km2 for the biomarker coprostanol; 1.7 × 10−5 to 6.5 × 10−5 kg/h km2 for the insect repellent N,N-diethyltoluamide; and 4.3 × 10−6 to 3.1 × 10−5 kg/h km2 for

  8. A new setup for the investigation of swift heavy ion induced particle emission and surface modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinerzhagen, F.; Breuer, L.; Bukowska, H.; Herder, M.; Schleberger, M.; Wucher, A. [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Duisburg-Essen and Cenide, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Bender, M.; Severin, D. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Lebius, H. [CIMAP (CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCN), 14070 Caen Cedex 5 (France)

    2016-01-15

    The irradiation with fast ions with kinetic energies of >10 MeV leads to the deposition of a high amount of energy along their trajectory (up to several ten keV/nm). The energy is mainly transferred to the electronic subsystem and induces different secondary processes of excitations, which result in significant material modifications. A new setup to study these ion induced effects on surfaces will be described in this paper. The setup combines a variable irradiation chamber with different techniques of surface characterizations like scanning probe microscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion, and neutral mass spectrometry, as well as low energy electron diffraction under ultra high vacuum conditions, and is mounted at a beamline of the universal linear accelerator (UNILAC) of the GSI facility in Darmstadt, Germany. Here, samples can be irradiated with high-energy ions with a total kinetic energy up to several GeVs under different angles of incidence. Our setup enables the preparation and in situ analysis of different types of sample systems ranging from metals to insulators. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry enables us to study the chemical composition of the surface, while scanning probe microscopy allows a detailed view into the local electrical and morphological conditions of the sample surface down to atomic scales. With the new setup, particle emission during irradiation as well as persistent modifications of the surface after irradiation can thus be studied. We present first data obtained with the new setup, including a novel measuring protocol for time-of-flight mass spectrometry with the GSI UNILAC accelerator.

  9. Bright new world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroó, Norbert; Rácz, Péter [Wigner Research Centre for Physics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, H-1525 Budapest, Pf. 49 (Hungary); Varró, Sándor [Wigner Research Centre for Physics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, H-1525 Budapest, Pf. 49 (Hungary); ELI-ALPS, ELI-Hu Nonprofit Kft., Dugonics tér 13, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary)

    2016-02-15

    Surface plasmons (SPOs) have been excited by intense femtosecond laser pulses on a gold film at room temperature and their near field has been analyzed by the intensity dependent response of an STM and by studying the spectra of multiplasmon emitted electrons. Around 80 GW/cm{sup 2} laser intensity, anomalies have been found in both cases, interpreted as the stepping in of electron pairing, transition to a diamagnetic state, and by anomalous Faraday rotation.

  10. Surface emissions of heat, water and GHGs from a NYC greenroof

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillis, W. R.; Jacobson, G.; Culligan, P.; Gaffin, S.; Carson, T.; Marasco, D.; Hsueh, D.; Rella, C.

    2012-04-01

    The budgets of heat, water, and GHGs from greenroofs in New York City, needed for adaptation and sustainable policy and infrastructure strategies, requires an accurate measure of their surface emissions. A high speed, Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) based analyzer for measuring carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and water (H2O) and an ultrasonic wind and temperature anemometer for measuring heat and momentum is used to assess greenroof performance during seasonal, diurnal, and episodic weather conditions. The flux instrument has proven capable of raw 10 Hz precision (one standard deviation) better than 110 parts-per-billion (ppbv) for carbon dioxide, better than 3 ppbv for methane and better than 6 ppmv +0.3% of reading for water vapor. In the water and heat budget, comparison and reconciliation of greenroof evapotranspiration (ET) using micrometeorological techniques, water balance, and heat balance was conducted. The water balance (month timescales), the heat balance (week timescale) show agreement to the micrometeorological surface ET (hour timescale). By using boundary layer flux measurements of ET, the fundamental performance of greenroofs on climate and weather conditions can be explored. These boundary layer measured surface fluxes provide critical information on the physiology of the built environment in New York City. Faced with sewage failures due to water management and exacerbated heating, the accurate assessment of greenroof performance on high spatial and temporal scales in required for the urban environment. Results will be presented and discussed.

  11. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM emissions from snow surfaces in northern New York.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Alexander Maxwell

    Full Text Available Snow surface-to-air exchange of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM was measured using a modified Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP dynamic flux chamber (DFC in a remote, open site in Potsdam, New York. Sampling was conducted during the winter months of 2011. The inlet and outlet of the DFC were coupled with a Tekran Model 2537A mercury (Hg vapor analyzer using a Tekran Model 1110 two port synchronized sampler. The surface GEM flux ranged from -4.47 ng m(-2 hr(-1 to 9.89 ng m(-2 hr(-1. For most sample periods, daytime GEM flux was strongly correlated with solar radiation. The average nighttime GEM flux was slightly negative and was not well correlated with any of the measured meteorological variables. Preliminary, empirical models were developed to estimate GEM emissions from snow surfaces in northern New York. These models suggest that most, if not all, of the Hg deposited with and to snow is reemitted to the atmosphere.

  12. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) emissions from snow surfaces in northern New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, J Alexander; Holsen, Thomas M; Mondal, Sumona

    2013-01-01

    Snow surface-to-air exchange of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) was measured using a modified Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) dynamic flux chamber (DFC) in a remote, open site in Potsdam, New York. Sampling was conducted during the winter months of 2011. The inlet and outlet of the DFC were coupled with a Tekran Model 2537A mercury (Hg) vapor analyzer using a Tekran Model 1110 two port synchronized sampler. The surface GEM flux ranged from -4.47 ng m(-2) hr(-1) to 9.89 ng m(-2) hr(-1). For most sample periods, daytime GEM flux was strongly correlated with solar radiation. The average nighttime GEM flux was slightly negative and was not well correlated with any of the measured meteorological variables. Preliminary, empirical models were developed to estimate GEM emissions from snow surfaces in northern New York. These models suggest that most, if not all, of the Hg deposited with and to snow is reemitted to the atmosphere.

  13. NOx removal from vehicle emissions by functionality surface of asphalt road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Meng; Liu Yanhua

    2010-01-01

    This paper reported the potential of heterogeneous photocatalysis as an advanced oxidation technology for NO x removal from vehicle emissions by using TiO 2 as a photocatalyst immobilized on the surface of asphalt road. Based on asphalt road material porous characteristic, we utilized permeability technology to make asphalt nano-TiO 2 to be environmental protection materials. And then using scanning electron microscope, we observed the penetrating effect of TiO 2 . The effect of surface friction, humidity and light intensity on NO x removal had been systematically investigated by the use of TiO 2 immobilized on the surface of asphalt road as photocatalytic environmental protection materials. In addition, the decontaminating effect was tested by contrast test in TiO 2 spraying section with non-spraying section, while the productions were used in road environment. Results of experiment revealed that decontaminating rate of the productions ranged from 6% to 12% this kind of photochemical catalysis environmental protection material has good environment purification function.

  14. Radio and X-ray emission from supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asvarova, A.I.; Novruzova, H.I.; Ahmedova, S.I.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper it was studied the statistical correlation between radio and X-ray emissions from shell-type supernova remnants (SNR). The primary aim of this study is to test the model of radio emission of shell-type SNRs presented by one of the authors. Based on this model of radio emission, by using the Monte Carlo techniques we have simulated statistical relations radio - X-ray luminosities (not surface brightnesses) which then were compared with the observations. X-ray emission is assumed to be thermal. To have a uniform statistical material it was used observational data on the SNRs in Magellanic Clouds

  15. Surface and electron emission properties of hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon films investigated by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dongping; Zhang, Sam; Ong, S.-E.; Benstetter, Guenther; Du Hejun

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we have deposited hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) films by using DC magnetron sputtering of graphite target at various r.f. bias voltages. Surface and nanoscale emission properties of these DLC films have been investigated using a combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanowear tests and conducting-AFM, by simultaneously measuring the topography and the conductivity of the samples. Nanowear tests show that these DLC films are covered with the thin (1.5-2.0 nm) graphite-like layers at surfaces. Compared to the film bulk structure, the graphite-like surface layers are more conductive. The graphite-like surface layers significantly influence the electron emission properties of these films. Low-energy carbon species can be responsible for the formation of graphite-like surface layers. Nanoscale electron emission measurements have revealed the inhomogeneous emission nature of these films. The low-field emission from these films can be attributed to the existence of sp 2 -configured nanoclusters inside the films

  16. Field emission study from an array of hierarchical micro protrusions on stainless steel surface generated by femtosecond pulsed laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.K., E-mail: anilks@barc.gov.in [Laser & Plasma Technology Division, BARC, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Suryawanshi, Sachin R.; More, M.A. [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, 411007 (India); Basu, S. [Solid State Physics Division, BARC, Mumbai, 40085 (India); Sinha, Sucharita [Laser & Plasma Technology Division, BARC, Mumbai, 400085 (India)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Array of self assembled micro-protrusions have been generated on stainless steel surfaces by femtosecond pulsed laser irradiation. • Density of the formed micro-protrusions is ∼5.6 × 105 protrusions/cm{sup 2}. • Laser treated surface is mainly composed of iron oxide and cementite phases. • Micro-structured sample has shown good field emission properties – low turn on field, high field enhancement factor and stable emission current. - Abstract: This paper reports our results on femtosecond (fs) pulsed laser induced surface micro/nano structuring of stainless steel 304 (SS 304) samples and their characterization in terms of surface morphology, formed material phases on laser irradiation and field emission studies. Our investigations reveal that nearly uniform and dense array of hierarchical micro-protrusions (density: ∼5.6 × 10{sup 5} protrusions/cm{sup 2}) is formed upon laser treatment. Typical tip diameters of the generated protrusions are in the range of 2–5 μm and these protrusions are covered with submicron sized features. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) analysis of the laser irradiated sample surface has shown formation mainly of iron oxides and cementite (Fe{sub 3}C) phases in the treated region. These laser micro-structured samples have shown good field emission properties such as low turn on field (∼4.1 V/μm), high macroscopic field enhancement factor (1830) and stable field emission current under ultra high vacuum conditions.

  17. Synergistic impacts of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions on summer surface O3 in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yu; An, Junling; Li, Jian

    2013-03-01

    A factor separation technique and an improved regional air quality model (RAQM) were applied to calculate synergistic contributions of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (AVOCs), biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to daily maximum surface 03 (O3DM) concentrations in East Asia in summer (June to August 2000). The summer averaged synergistic impacts of AVOCs and NOx are dominant in most areas of North China, with a maximum of 60 ppbv, while those of BVOCs and NOx are notable only in some limited areas with high BVOC emissions in South China, with a maximum of 25 ppbv. This result implies that BVOCs contribute much less to summer averaged O3DM concentrations than AVOCs in most areas of East Asia at a coarse spatial resolution (1 degree x 1 degree) although global emissions of BVOCs are much greater than those of AVOCs. Daily maximum total contributions of BVOCs can approach 20 ppbv in North China, but they can reach 40 ppbv in South China, approaching or exceeding those in some developed countries in Europe and North America. BVOC emissions in such special areas should be considered when 03 control measures are taken. Synergistic contributions among AVOCs, BVOCs and NOx significantly enhance O3 concentrations in the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region and decrease them in some areas in South China. Thus, the total contributions of BVOCs to O3DM vary significantly from day to day and from location to location. This result suggests that 03 control measures obtained from episodic studies could be limited for long-term applications.

  18. Experimental Investigation of Convective Heat Transfer during Night Cooling with Different Ventilation Systems and Surface Emissivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2013-01-01

    models for convection. In a full-scale test room, the heat transfer was investigated during 12 h of discharge by night-time ventilation. A total of 34 experiments have been performed, with different ventilation types (mixing and displacement), air change rates, temperature differences between the inlet...... air and the room, and floor emissivities. This extensive experimental study enabled a detailed analysis of the convective and radiative flow at the different surfaces of the room. The experimentally derived convective heat transfer coefficients (CHTC) have been compared to existing correlations....... For mixing ventilation, existing correlations did not predict accurately the convective heat transfer at the ceiling due to differences in the experimental conditions. But the use of local parameters of the air flow showed interesting results to obtain more adaptive CHTC correlations. For displacement...

  19. Surface structures for enhancement of quantum yield in broad spectrum emission nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Michael A.; McBride, James R.; Rosenthal, Sandra J.

    2014-07-22

    Disclosed are inorganic nanoparticles comprising a body comprising cadmium and/or zinc crystallized with selenium, sulfur, and/or tellurium; a multiplicity of phosphonic acid ligands comprising at least about 20% of the total surface ligand coverage; wherein the nanocrystal is capable of absorbing energy from a first electromagnetic region and capable of emitting light in a second electromagnetic region, wherein the maximum absorbance wavelength of the first electromagnetic region is different from the maximum emission wavelength of the second electromagnetic region, thereby providing a Stokes shift of at least about 20 nm, wherein the second electromagnetic region comprises an at least about 100 nm wide band of wavelengths, and wherein the nanoparticle exhibits has a quantum yield of at least about 10%. This abstract is intended as a scanning tool for purposes of searching in the particular art and is not intended to be limiting of the present invention.

  20. An updated climatology of surface dimethlysulfide concentrations and emission fluxes in the global ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, A.; Bell, T. G.; Simó, R.; Vallina, S. M.; Ballabrera-Poy, J.; Kettle, A. J.; Dachs, J.; Bopp, L.; Saltzman, E. S.; Stefels, J.; Johnson, J. E.; Liss, P. S.

    2011-03-01

    The potentially significant role of the biogenic trace gas dimethylsulfide (DMS) in determining the Earth's radiation budget makes it necessary to accurately reproduce seawater DMS distribution and quantify its global flux across the sea/air interface. Following a threefold increase of data (from 15,000 to over 47,000) in the global surface ocean DMS database over the last decade, new global monthly climatologies of surface ocean DMS concentration and sea-to-air emission flux are presented as updates of those constructed 10 years ago. Interpolation/extrapolation techniques were applied to project the discrete concentration data onto a first guess field based on Longhurst's biogeographic provinces. Further objective analysis allowed us to obtain the final monthly maps. The new climatology projects DMS concentrations typically in the range of 1-7 nM, with higher levels occurring in the high latitudes, and with a general trend toward increasing concentration in summer. The increased size and distribution of the observations in the DMS database have produced in the new climatology substantially lower DMS concentrations in the polar latitudes and generally higher DMS concentrations in regions that were severely undersampled 10 years ago, such as the southern Indian Ocean. Using the new DMS concentration climatology in conjunction with state-of-the-art parameterizations for the sea/air gas transfer velocity and climatological wind fields, we estimate that 28.1 (17.6-34.4) Tg of sulfur are transferred from the oceans into the atmosphere annually in the form of DMS. This represents a global emission increase of 17% with respect to the equivalent calculation using the previous climatology. This new DMS climatology represents a valuable tool for atmospheric chemistry, climate, and Earth System models.

  1. Soil surface Hg emission flux in coalfield in Wuda, Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhui; Liang, Handong; Liang, Ming; Chen, Yang; Zhou, Yi

    2018-03-30

    Hg emission flux from various land covers, such as forests, wetlands, and urban areas, have been investigated. China has the largest area of coalfield in the world, but data of Hg flux of coalfields, especially, those with coal fires, are seriously limited. In this study, Hg fluxes of a coalfield were measured using the dynamic flux chamber (DFC) method, coupled with a Lumex multifunctional Hg analyzer RA-915+ (Lumex Ltd., Russia). The results show that the Hg flux in Wuda coalfield ranged from 4 to 318 ng m -2  h -1 , and the average value for different areas varied, e.g., coal-fire area 99 and 177 ng m -2  h -1 ; no coal-fire area 19 and 32 ng m -2  h -1 ; and backfilling area 53 ng m -2  h -1 . Hg continued to be emitted from an underground coal seam, even if there were no phenomena, such as vents, cracks, and smog, of coal fire on the soil surface. This phenomenon occurred in all area types, i.e., coal-fire area, no coal-fire area, and backfilling area, which is universal in Wuda coalfield. Considering that many coalfields in northern China are similar to Wuda coalfield, they may be large sources of atmospheric Hg. The correlations of Hg emission flux with influence factors, such as sunlight intensity, soil surface temperature, and atmospheric Hg content, were also investigated for Wuda coalfield. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  2. Transcontinental methane measurements: Part 2. Mobile surface investigation of fossil fuel industrial fugitive emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Ira; Culling, Daniel; Schneising, Oliver; Farrell, Paige; Buchwitz, Michael; Burrows, John P.

    2013-08-01

    The potent greenhouse gas, methane, CH4, has a wide variety of anthropogenic and natural sources. Fall, continental-scale (Florida to California) surface CH4 data were collected to investigate the importance of fossil fuel industrial (FFI) emissions in the South US. A total of 6600 measurements along 7020-km of roadways were made by flame ion detection gas chromatography onboard a nearly continuously moving recreational vehicle in 2010. A second, winter survey in Southern California measured CH4 at 2 Hz with a cavity ring-down spectrometer in 2012. Data revealed strong and persistent FFI CH4 sources associated with refining, oil/gas production, a presumed major pipeline leak, and a coal loading plant. Nocturnal CH4 mixing ratios tended to be higher than daytime values for similar sources, sometimes significantly, which was attributed to day/night meteorological differences, primarily changes in the boundary layer height. The highest CH4 mixing ratio (39 ppm) was observed near the Kern River Oil Field, California, which uses steam reinjection. FFI CH4 plume signatures were distinguished as stronger than other sources on local scales. On large (4°) scales, the CH4 trend was better matched spatially with FFI activity than wetland spatial patterns. Qualitative comparison of surface data with SCIAMACHY and GOSAT satellite retrievals showed agreement of the large-scale CH4 spatial patterns. Comparison with inventory models and seasonal winds suggests for some seasons and some portions of the Gulf of Mexico a non-negligible underestimation of FFI emissions. For other seasons and locations, qualitative interpretation is not feasible. Unambiguous quantitative source attribution is more complex, requiring transport modeling.

  3. Color-tunable mixed photoluminescence emission from Alq3 organic layer in metal-Alq3-metal surface plasmon structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nai-Chuan; Liao, Chung-Chi; Chen, Cheng-Chang; Fan, Wan-Ting; Wu, Jin-Han; Li, Jung-Yu; Chen, Shih-Pu; Huang, Bohr-Ran; Lee, Li-Ling

    2014-01-01

    This work reports the color-tunable mixed photoluminescence (PL) emission from an Alq3 organic layer in an Au-Alq3-Au plasmonic structure through the combination of organic fluorescence emission and another form of emission that is enabled by the surface plasmons in the plasmonic structure. The emission wavelength of the latter depends on the Alq3 thickness and can be tuned within the Alq3 fluorescent spectra. Therefore, a two-color broadband, color-tunable mixed PL structure was obtained. Obvious changes in the Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates and the corresponding emission colors of Au-Alq3-Au samples clearly varied with the Alq3 thickness (90, 130, and 156 nm).

  4. Localized-Surface-Plasmon Enhanced the 357 nm Forward Emission from ZnMgO Films Capped by Pt Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song XM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Pt nanoparticles (NPs, which posses the wider tunable localized-surface-plasmon (LSP energy varying from deep ultraviolet to visible region depending on their morphology, were prepared by annealing Pt thin films with different initial mass-thicknesses. A sixfold enhancement of the 357 nm forward emission of ZnMgO was observed after capping with Pt NPs, which is due to the resonance coupling between the LSP of Pt NPs and the band-gap emission of ZnMgO. The other factors affecting the ultraviolet emission of ZnMgO, such as emission from Pt itself and light multi-scattering at the interface, were also discussed. These results indicate that Pt NPs can be used to enhance the ultraviolet emission through the LSP coupling for various wide band-gap semiconductors.

  5. A physics-based algorithm for retrieving land-surface emissivity and temperature from EOS/MODIS data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Z.; Li, Z.L.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have developed a physics-based land-surface temperature (LST) algorithm for simultaneously retrieving surface band-averaged emissivities and temperatures from day/night pairs of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data in seven thermal infrared bands. The set of 14 nonlinear equations in the algorithm is solved with the statistical regression method and the least-squares fit method. This new LST algorithm was tested with simulated MODIS data for 80 sets of band-averaged emissivities calculated from published spectral data of terrestrial materials in wide ranges of atmospheric and surface temperature conditions. Comprehensive sensitivity and error analysis has been made to evaluate the performance of the new LST algorithm and its dependence on variations in surface emissivity and temperature, upon atmospheric conditions, as well as the noise-equivalent temperature difference (NEΔT) and calibration accuracy specifications of the MODIS instrument. In cases with a systematic calibration error of 0.5%, the standard deviations of errors in retrieved surface daytime and nighttime temperatures fall between 0.4--0.5 K over a wide range of surface temperatures for mid-latitude summer conditions. The standard deviations of errors in retrieved emissivities in bands 31 and 32 (in the 10--12.5 microm IR spectral window region) are 0.009, and the maximum error in retrieved LST values falls between 2--3 K

  6. The Role of Meteorology and Surface Condition to Multi-Decadal Variations of Dust Emission in Sahara and Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T. L.; Bian, H.; Brown, M. E.; Remer, L. A.; Stockwell, W. R.

    2014-12-01

    North Africa is the world's largest dust source region influencing regional and global climate, human health, and even the local economy. However North Africa as a dust source is not uniform but it consists of the arid region (Sahara) and the semi-arid region (Sahel) with emission rates depending on meteorological and surface conditions. Several recent studies have shown that dust from North Africa seems to have a decreasing trend in the past three decades. The goal of this study is to better understand the controlling factors that determine the change of dust in North Africa using observational data and model simulations. First we analyze surface bareness conditions determined from a long-term satellite observed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for 1980-2008. Then we examine the key meteorological variables of precipitation and surface winds. Modeling experiments were conducted using the NASA Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model, which has been recently updated with a dynamic dust source function. Using the method we separate the dust originating from the Sahel from that of the Sahara desert. We find that the surface wind speed is the most dominant factor affecting Sahelian dust emission while vegetation has a modulating effect. We will show regional differences in meteorological variables, surface conditions, dust emission, and dust distribution and address the relationships among meteorology, surface conditions, and dust emission/loading in the past three decades (1980-2008).

  7. Atom-specific look at the surface chemical bond using x-ray emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, A.; Wassdahl, N.; Weinelt, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    CO and N{sub 2} adsorbed on the late transition metals have become prototype systems regarding the general understanding of molecular adsorption. It is in general assumed that the bonding of molecules to transition metals can be explained in terms of the interaction of the frontier HOMO and LUMO molecular orbitals with the d-orbitals. In such a picture the other molecular orbitals should remain essentially the same as in the free molecule. For the adsorption of the isoelectronic molecules CO and N{sub 2} this has led to the so called Blyholder model i.e., a synergetic {sigma} (HOMO) donor and {pi} (LUMO) backdonation bond. The authors results at the ALS show that such a picture is oversimplified. The direct observation and identification of the states related to the surface chemical bond is an experimental challenge. For noble and transition metal surfaces, the adsorption induced states overlap with the metal d valence band. Their signature is therefore often obscured by bulk substrate states. This complication has made it difficult for techniques such as photoemission and inverse photoemission to provide reliable information on the energy of chemisorption induced states and has left questions unanswered regarding the validity of the frontier orbitals concept. Here the authors show how x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES), in spite of its inherent bulk sensitivity, can be used to investigate adsorbed molecules. Due to the localization of the core-excited intermediate state, XE spectroscopy allows an atomic specific separation of the valence electronic states. Thus the molecular contributions to the surface measurements make it possible to determine the symmetry of the molecular states, i.e., the separation of {pi} and {sigma} type states. In all the authors can obtain an atomic view of the electronic states involved in the formation of the chemical bond to the surface.

  8. Staircase and saw-tooth field emission steps from nanopatterned n-type GaSb surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kildemo, M.; Le Roy, S.; Søndergård, E.

    2009-01-01

    High resolution field emission experiments from nanopatterned GaSb surfaces consisting of densely packed nanocones prepared by low ion-beam-energy sputtering are presented. Both uncovered and metal-covered nanopatterned surfaces were studied. Surprisingly, the field emission takes place by regular steps in the field emitted current. Depending on the field, the steps are either regular, flat, plateaus, or saw-tooth shaped. To the author’s knowledge, this is the first time that such results have been reported. Each discrete jump in the field emission may be understood in terms of resonant tunneling through an extended surface space charge region in an n-type, high aspect ratio, single GaSb nanocone. The staircase shape may be understood from the spatial distribution of the aspect ratio of the cones.

  9. Staircase and saw-tooth field emission steps from nanopatterned n-type GaSb surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kildemo, M.; Levinsen, Y. Inntjore; Le Roy, S.; Soenderga ring rd, E. [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondlieim (Norway); Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondlieim, Norway and AB CERN, CH- 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Laboratoire Surface du Verre et Interfaces, UMR 125 Unite Mixte de Recherche CNRS/Saint-Gobain Laboratoire, 39 Quai Lucien Lefranc, F-93303 Aubervilliers Cedex (France)

    2009-09-15

    High resolution field emission experiments from nanopatterned GaSb surfaces consisting of densely packed nanocones prepared by low ion-beam-energy sputtering are presented. Both uncovered and metal-covered nanopatterned surfaces were studied. Surprisingly, the field emission takes place by regular steps in the field emitted current. Depending on the field, the steps are either regular, flat, plateaus, or saw-tooth shaped. To the author's knowledge, this is the first time that such results have been reported. Each discrete jump in the field emission may be understood in terms of resonant tunneling through an extended surface space charge region in an n-type, high aspect ratio, single GaSb nanocone. The staircase shape may be understood from the spatial distribution of the aspect ratio of the cones.

  10. Mass transfer inside a flux hood for the sampling of gaseous emissions from liquid surfaces - Experimental assessment and emission rate rescaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Ademir A.; Lucernoni, Federico; Santos, Jane M.; Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena; Le-Minh, Nhat; Stuetz, Richard M.

    2018-04-01

    This study assesses the mass transfer of compounds inside the US EPA flux hood, one of the enclosure devices most commonly employed for the direct measurement of atmospheric emissions from liquid surfaces in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Experiments comprised the evaporation of water and the volatilisation of a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Special attention was given to the evaluation of the mass transfer coefficients in the microenvironment created by the flux hood and the effects of concentration build up in the hood's headspace. The VOCs emission rates and the water evaporation rates generally increased with the sweep air flow rate, as did the mass transfer coefficients for all compounds. The emission of compounds whose volatilisation is significantly influenced by the gas phase was greatly affected by concentration build up, whereas this effect was not significant for liquid phase-controlled compounds. The gas-film mass transfer coefficient (kG) estimated inside the US EPA flux hood was of the same order as the respective kG reported in the literature for wind tunnel-type devices, but the emission rates measured by the flux hood can be expected to be lower, due to the concentration build-up. Compared against an emission model for the passive surfaces in WWTPs, the mass transfer of acetic acid (representing a gas phase-dominated compound) inside the US EPA flux hood was equivalent to conditions of wind speeds at 10 m height (U10) of 0.27, 0.51 and 0.99 m s-1, respectively, for sweep air flow rates of 2, 5 and 10 L min-1. On the other hand, for higher wind speeds, the emission rates of gas phase-controlled compounds obtained with the flux hood can be considerably underestimated: for instance, at U10 = 5 m s-1, the emission rates of acetic acid inside the flux hood would be approximately 23, 12 and 6 times lower than the emission rates in the field, for sweep air flow rates of 2, 5 and 10 L min-1, respectively. A procedure is presented in

  11. Electron Emission by N6+ Ions Scattered at a Magnetized Iron Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solleder, B.; Lemell, C.; Burgdoerfer, J.; Tokesi, K.

    2006-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Magnetized materials are of considerable interest in the electronics industry (hard discs, spintronics, etc.). A detailed understanding of the properties of magnetized surfaces is therefore important to optimize technical applications. In the last decades, different experimental techniques have been developed to probe spin effects in magnetized materials. In this work the spin polarization of electrons emitted during the impact of N 6+ ions on a magnetized Fe surface is investigated. We study potential emission (PE) of electrons as well as secondary electron (SE) production and transport in the target with the help of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Spin dependence of electron transfer processes and of transport in the solid are included. Fig. 1 shows the results of our simulation for the energy distribution and spin polarization of emitted electrons in comparison with experimental data of Pfandzelter et al. [1] for the interaction of N 6+ ions with magnetized Fe. Electrons with energies higher than 200 eV are predominantly PE electrons, emitted close to the surface via autoionization (AI), Auger capture (AC) and Auger deexcitation (AD) channels. Low energy electrons are dominated by promoted, autoionized, and secondary electrons. The polarization of above surface electrons is determined by the high of the potential barrier separating projectile and target. At large distances, the barrier drops only slightly below the Fermi edge and enables transitions of electrons from this part of the band structure which has about 50% polarization. These electrons are transferred to high n states feeding promotion and AI processes between high lying states. Electrons emitted by these processes therefore reflect the polarization near the Fermi edge. Close to the surface, the barrier is low enough to allow for electron capture from the entire conduction band. K-Auger electrons are emitted in immediate vicinity of the surface and therefore mirror

  12. Teradiode's high brightness semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Robin K.; Chann, Bien; Burgess, James; Lochman, Bryan; Zhou, Wang; Cruz, Mike; Cook, Rob; Dugmore, Dan; Shattuck, Jeff; Tayebati, Parviz

    2016-03-01

    TeraDiode is manufacturing multi-kW-class ultra-high brightness fiber-coupled direct diode lasers for industrial applications. A fiber-coupled direct diode laser with a power level of 4,680 W from a 100 μm core diameter, BPP) of 3.5 mm-mrad and is the lowest BPP multi-kW-class direct diode laser yet reported. This laser is suitable for industrial materials processing applications, including sheet metal cutting and welding. This 4-kW fiber-coupled direct diode laser has comparable brightness to that of industrial fiber lasers and CO2 lasers, and is over 10x brighter than state-of-the-art direct diode lasers. We have also demonstrated novel high peak power lasers and high brightness Mid-Infrared Lasers.

  13. Analytical modelling of acoustic emission from buried or surface-breaking cracks under stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Khalifa, W; Jezzine, K; Hello, G; Grondel, S

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) is a non-destructive testing method used in various industries (aerospace, petrochemical and pressure-vessel industries in general, power generation, civil engineering, mechanical engineering, etc...) for the examination of large structures subjected to various stresses (e.g. mechanical loading).The energy released by a defect under stress (the AE phenomenon) can propagate as guided waves in thin structures or as surface Rayleigh waves in thick ones. Sensors (possibly permanently) are positioned at various locations on the structure under examination and are assumed to be sensitive to these waves. Then, post-processing tools typically based on signal processing and triangulation algorithms can be used to inverse these data, allowing one to estimate the position of the defect from which emanates the waves measured. The French Atomic Energy Commission is engaged in the development of tools for simulating AE examinations. These tools are based on specific models for the AE sources, for the propagation of guided or Rayleigh waves and for the behaviour of AE sensors. Here, the coupling of a fracture mechanics based model for AE source and surface/guided wave propagation models is achieved through an integral formulation relying on the elastodynamic reciprocity principle. As a first approximation, a simple piston-like model is used to predict the sensitivity of AE sensors. Predictions computed by our simulation tool are compared to results from the literature for validation purpose.

  14. Linking seasonal surface water dynamics with methane emissions and export from small, forested wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondula, K. L.; Palmer, M.

    2017-12-01

    One of the biggest uncertainties about global methane sources and sinks is attributed to uncertainties regarding wetland area and its dynamics. This is exacerbated by confusion over the role of small, shallow water bodies like Delmarva bay wetlands that could be categorized as both wetlands and ponds. These small inland water bodies are often poorly quantified due to their size, closed forest canopies, and inter- and intra-annual variability in surface water extent. We are studying wetland-rich areas on the Delmarva Peninsula in the U.S. mid-Atlantic to address this uncertainty at the scale of individual wetland ecosystems ( 1m depth). We estimated the size and temporal variability of the methane emissions source area by combining these measurements with daily estimates of the extent of surface water inundation derived from water level monitoring and a high-resolution digital elevation model. This knowledge is critical for informing land use decisions (e.g. restoring wetlands specifically for climate mitigation), the jurisdiction of environmental policies in the US, and for resolving major outstanding discrepancies in our understanding of the global methane budget.

  15. Spontaneous acoustic emission of a corrugated shock wave in the presence of a reflecting surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouchuk, J.G.; Lopez Cavada, J.

    2004-01-01

    An analytic model to study perturbation evolution in the space between a corrugated shock and a piston surface is presented. The conditions for stable oscillation patterns are obtained by looking at the poles of the exact Laplace transform. It is seen that besides the standard D'yakov-Kontorovich (DK) mode of oscillation, the shock surface can exhibit an additional finite set of discrete frequencies, due to the interaction with the piston which reflects sound waves from behind. The additional eigenmodes are excited when the shock is launched at t=0 + . The first eigenmode (the DK mode) is always present, if the Hugoniot curve has the correct slope in the V-p plane. However, the additional frequencies could be excited for strong enough shocks. The predictions of the model are verified for particular cases by studying a van der Waals gas, as in the work of Bates and Montgomery [Phys. Fluids 11, 462 (1999); Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1180 (2000)]. Only acoustic emission modes are considered

  16. On application of ion-photon emission method in spectral analysis of surface of different materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazhin, A.I.; Buravlev, Yu.M.; Ryzhov, V.N.

    1983-01-01

    Possibilities of application of ion-photom emission (IPE) method for determining element composition of the aluminium bronzes surface and profiles of distribution of hydrogen and helium implanted in metals (Mon Wn Cun Aln OKh18N10T steel) by ion bombardment have been studied. As ion source duoplasmatron which permits to obtain ions of inert (helium, argon) and active (hydrogenn oxygen) gases with current density 0.1-1 mA/cm 2 in the beam and energy from 5 to 25 keV has been applied. The photomultiplier PEM-79 has been used as a detector of optical radiation arising in the course of ion bombardment of the sample. For spectra recording the two-coordinate recorder has been used. Calibration charts which permit to determine the concentration of the investigated elements with 3-5% accuracy are obtained. The method sensitivity depends on excitation energy of transition observed in the spectrum. By known volumetric element concentration in the sample one can determine its concentration on a sUrface without resorting to a calibration chart in the coUrse of target sputtering. It has been found that the target impurity sputtering coefficient becomes nonselective to their relatiVe content. At wide incidence angles of ion beam. In contrast to other excitation methods (arc, spark) the IPE method possesses locality which constitutes 1 μm at a quite simple method of ion beam focussing (single lens)

  17. Ag-protein plasmonic architectures for surface plasmon-coupled emission enhancements and Fabry-Perot mode-coupled directional fluorescence emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiya, Pradeep Kumar; Patnaik, Sai Gourang; Srinivasan, Venkatesh; Reddy, Narendra; Manohar, Chelli Sai; Vedarajan, Raman; Mastumi, Noriyoshi; Belliraj, Siva Kumar; Ramamurthy, Sai Sathish

    2017-10-01

    We report the use of silver decorated plant proteins as spacer material for augmented surface plasmon-coupled emission (120-fold enhancement) and plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering. We extracted several proteins from different plant sources [Triticum aestivum (TA), Aegle marmelos (AM), Ricinus communis (RC), Jatropha curcas (JC) and Simarouba glauca (SG)] followed by evaluation of their optical properties and simulations to rationalize observed surface plasmon resonance. Since the properties exhibited by protein thin films is currently gaining research interest, we have also carried out simulation studies with Ag-protein biocomposites as spacer materials in metal-dielectric-metal planar microcavity architecture for guided emission of Fabry-Perot mode-coupled fluorescence.

  18. High brightness diode lasers controlled by volume Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glebov, Leonid

    2017-02-01

    Volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) recorded in photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass are holographic optical elements that are effective spectral and angular filters withstanding high power laser radiation. Reflecting VBGs are narrow-band spectral filters while transmitting VBGs are narrow-band angular filters. The use of these optical elements in external resonators of semiconductor lasers enables extremely resonant feedback that provides dramatic spectral and angular narrowing of laser diodes radiation without significant power and efficiency penalty. Spectral narrowing of laser diodes by reflecting VBGs demonstrated in wide spectral region from near UV to 3 μm. Commercially available VBGs have spectral width ranged from few nanometers to few tens of picometers. Efficient spectral locking was demonstrated for edge emitters (single diodes, bars, modules, and stacks), vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), grating coupled surface emitting lasers (GCSELs), and interband cascade lasers (ICLs). The use of multiplexed VBGs provides multiwavelength emission from a single emitter. Spectrally locked semiconductor lasers demonstrated CW power from milliwatts to a kilowatt. Angular narrowing by transmitting VBGs enables single transverse mode emission from wide aperture diode lasers having resonators with great Fresnel numbers. This feature provides close to diffraction limit divergence along a slow axis of wide stripe edge emitters. Radiation exchange between lasers by means of spatially profiled or multiplexed VBGs enables coherent combining of diode lasers. Sequence of VBGs or multiplexed VBGs enable spectral combining of spectrally narrowed diode lasers or laser modules. Thus the use of VBGs for diode lasers beam control provides dramatic increase of brightness.

  19. The Use of Satellite Data to Relate Waterbody Surface Area and Temperature to Greenhouse Gas Emissions Across a Subarctic Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, C.; Palace, M. W.; Wik, M.; Burke, S. A.; Varner, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    High latitude lakes and ponds are significant sources of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. Increased near-surface air temperature has linked these water bodies to large increases in methane emissions due to longer ice-free seasons, impacting climate change and further changing air temperature as a feedback mechanism. The impacts of changes in lake surface temperatures cannot be assessed until we know more about the baseline mechanistic biogeochemical controls that influence these emissions. Using a combination of image-based atmospheric corrections and image fusion models, thermal data from Landsat and MODIS satellites were used to characterize the temperature regimes of artic lakes in northern Sweden. This analysis provides insight into the temporal attributes of individual lakes in regard to temperature shifts and variability, as well as provides a rich temporal dataset where in situ temperature data is unavailable. Field-based measurements of temperature and associated methane release were used for calibration and correlation. This enabled the creation of emissions estimates over the broader pan-arctic landscape, including inter-seasonal and inter-annual variabilities. The result is a multi-year snapshot of temperature and emissions, allowing for future estimates of greenhouse gas emissions.

  20. A close look to subthreshold kinetic emission from clean metal surfaces: "Surface-assisted kinetic emission" and "potential excitation of plasmons"

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Winter, H. P.; Aumayr, F.; Lörinčík, Jan; Šroubek, Zdeněk

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 4 (2002), s. 548-550 ISSN 0367-6765 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/99/0881 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : electron-emission * slow ions * Al(111) Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.088, year: 2001

  1. Modeling of Diamond Field-Emitter-Arrays for high brightness photocathode applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Thomas; Huang, Chengkun; Piryatinski, Andrei; Lewellen, John; Nichols, Kimberly; Choi, Bo; Pavlenko, Vitaly; Shchegolkov, Dmitry; Nguyen, Dinh; Andrews, Heather; Simakov, Evgenya

    2017-10-01

    We propose to employ Diamond Field-Emitter-Arrays (DFEAs) as high-current-density ultra-low-emittance photocathodes for compact laser-driven dielectric accelerators capable of generating ultra-high brightness electron beams for advanced applications. We develop a semi-classical Monte-Carlo photoemission model for DFEAs that includes carriers' transport to the emitter surface and tunneling through the surface under external fields. The model accounts for the electronic structure size quantization affecting the transport and tunneling process within the sharp diamond tips. We compare this first principle model with other field emission models, such as the Child-Langmuir and Murphy-Good models. By further including effects of carrier photoexcitation, we perform simulations of the DFEAs' photoemission quantum yield and the emitted electron beam. Details of the theoretical model and validation against preliminary experimental data will be presented. Work ssupported by LDRD program at LANL.

  2. Commentary Relative to the Emission Spectrum of the Solar Atmosphere: Further Evidence for a Distinct Solar Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The chromosphere and corona of the Sun represent tenuous regions which are characterized by numerous optically thin emission lines in the ultraviolet and X-ray bands. When observed from the center of the solar disk outward, these emission lines experience modest brightening as the limb is approached. The intensity of many ultraviolet and X-ray emission lines nearly doubles when observation is extended just beyond the edge of the disk. These findings indicate that the solar body is opaque in this frequency range and that an approximately two fold greater region of the solar atmosphere is being sampled outside the limb. These observations provide strong support for the presence of a distinct solar surface. Therefore, the behavior of the emission lines in this frequency range constitutes the twenty fifth line of evidence that the Sun is comprised of condensed matter

  3. Surface modification by vacuum annealing for field emission from heavily phosphorus-doped homoepitaxial (1 1 1) diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Takatoshi; Nebel, Christoph E.; Somu, Kumaragurubaran; Shikata, Shin-ichi

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between field emission properties and C 1s core level shifts of heavily phosphorus-doped homoepitaxial (1 1 1) diamond is investigated as a function of annealing temperature in order to optimize surface carbon bonding configurations for device applications. A low field emission threshold voltage is observed from surfaces annealed at 800 deg. C for hydrogen-plasma treated surface, while a low field emission threshold voltage of wet-chemical oxidized surface is observed after annealing at 900 deg. C. The C 1s core level by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed a shoulder peak at 1 eV below the main peak over 800 and 900 deg. C annealing temperature for hydrogen-plasma treated and wet-chemical oxidized surfaces, respectively. When the shoulder peak intensity is less than 10% of the main peak intensity, lower threshold voltages are observed. This is due to the carbon-reconstruction which gives rise to a small positive electron affinity. By increasing annealing temperature, the shoulder peak ratios also increase, which indicates that a surface graphitization takes place. This leads to higher threshold voltages

  4. Surface properties and field emission characteristics of chemical vapor deposition diamond grown on Fe/Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakuri, Kenji; Yokoyama, Takahiro; Enomoto, Hirofumi; Mutsukura, Nobuki; Friedbacher, Gernot

    2001-01-01

    Electron field emission characteristics of diamond grains fabricated on iron dot-patterned silicon (Fe/Si) substrates at different methane concentrations have been investigated. The characteristics of the samples could be improved by control of the methane concentration during diamond fabrication. Etching treatment of the as-grown diamond has enhanced the emission properties both with respect to current and threshold voltage. In order to study the influence of etching effects on the field emission characteristics, the respective surfaces were studied by Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). ESCA revealed intensive graphite and FeO x peaks on the sample surface grown at high methane concentration. For the etched samples, the peaks of diamond and silicon carbide were observed, and the peaks of nondiamond carbon disappeared. The experimental results show that the etching process removes graphitic and nondiamond carbon components. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  5. Onset of surface stimulated emission at 260 nm from AlGaN multiple quantum wells

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Xiaohang; Xie, Hongen; Ponce, Fernando A.; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Dupuis, Russell D.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated onset of deep-ultraviolet (DUV) surface stimulated emission (SE) from c-plane AlGaNmultiple-quantum well(MQW)heterostructuresgrown on a sapphire substrate by optical pumping at room temperature. The onset of SE became observable at a

  6. Method for measurement of emissivity and absorptivity of highly reflective surfaces from 20 K to room temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Králík, Tomáš; Musilová, Věra; Hanzelka, Pavel; Frolec, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2016), s. 743-753 ISSN 0026-1394 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-07397S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : absorptivity * emissivity * radiative heat transfer * metallic surfaces * cryogenics * uncertainty evaluation Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 3.411, year: 2016

  7. Stimulated emission of surface plasmon polaritons by lead-sulphide quantum dots at near infra-red wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radko, Ilya P.; Nielsen, Michael Grøndahl; Albrektsen, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Amplification of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in planar metal-dielectric structure through stimulated emission is investigated using leakage-radiation microscopy configuration. The gain medium is a thin polymethylmethacrylate layer doped with lead-sulphide nanocrystals emitting at near-infrared...

  8. Effects of piston surface treatments on performance and emissions of a methanol-fueled, direct injection, stratified charge engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, B.; Green, J.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of thermal barrier coatings and/or surface treatments on the performance and emissions of a methanol-fueled, direct-injection, stratified-charge (DISC) engine. A Ricardo Hydra Mark III engine was used for this work and in previous experiments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The primary focus of the study was to examine the effects of various piston insert surface treatments on hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions. Previous studies have shown that engines of this class have a tendency to perform poorly at low loads and have high unburned fuel emissions. A blank aluminum piston was modified to employ removable piston bowl inserts. Four different inserts were tested in the experiment: aluminum, stainless steel with a 1.27-mm (0.050-in.) air gap (to act as a thermal barrier), and two stainless steel/air-gap inserts with coatings. Two stainless steel inserts were dimensionally modified to account for the coating thickness (1.27-mm) and coated identically with partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ). One of the coated inserts then had an additional seal-coat applied. The coated inserts were otherwise identical to the stainless steel/air-gap insert (i.e., they employed the same 1.27-mm air gap). Thermal barrier coatings were employed in an attempt to increase combustion chamber surface temperatures, thereby reducing wall quenching and promoting more complete combustion of the fuel in the quench zone. The seal-coat was applied to the zirconia to reduce the surface porosity; previous research suggested that despite the possibly higher surface temperatures obtainable with a ceramic coating, the high surface area of a plasma-sprayed coating may actually allow fuel to adhere to the surface and increase the unburned fuel emissions and fuel consumption.

  9. Variation reduction of brightness and pH of pulp sent to a paper mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napassavong Rojanarowan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The variance of the brightness of pulp sent to the paper mill during the changing period of dry pulp grades affects the chemical control in the paper mill. This research aims to determine the mixing formula of pulp with different brightness from the EOP and D1 stages to handle this variation issue. This research uses response surface design with Central Composite Design type, regression technique and optimization technique to find the optimal setting of the mixing formula for each of the seven brightness levels to obtain the target brightness of 86% and the pH of 5.25. The mixing formulas are determined by the pulp mixing percentage and the sulfuric acid consumption. The experimental results reveal that when using higher EOP mixing ratio, the brightness decreases and the pH increases. Regarding the effect of the sulfuric acid, increasing the sulfuric acid makes the brightness and the pH decrease. After implementing the optimal formula in the production line, the mean of pulp brightness is closer to the target compared with the brightness before improvement and the brightness variation decreases without affecting the quality of other pulp grades, average of brightness decreased from 87.4% to 86.3% and standard deviation of brightness decreased from 1.09 to 0.46.

  10. A Climatology of dust emission in northern Africa using surface observations from 1984-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Sophie; Knippertz, Peter; Marsham, John

    2014-05-01

    The huge quantity of mineral dust emitted annually from northern Africa makes this area crucial to the global dust cycle. Once in the atmosphere, dust aerosols have a significant impact on the global radiation budget, clouds, the carbon cycle and can even act as a fertilizer to rain forests in South America. Current model estimates of dust production from northern Africa are uncertain. At the heart of this problem is insufficient understanding of key dust emitting processes such as haboobs (cold pools generated through evaporation of convective precipitation), low-level jets (LLJs) and dry convection (dust devils and dust plumes). Scarce observations in this region, in particular in the Sahara, make model evaluation difficult. This work uses long-term surface observations from 70 stations situated in the Sahara and Sahel to explore the diurnal, seasonal and geographical variations in dust emission events and thresholds. Quality flags are applied to each station to indicate a day-time bias or gaps in the time period 1984-2012. The frequency of dust emission (FDE) is calculated using the present weather codes (WW) of SYNOP reports, where WW = 07,08,09,30-35 and 98. Thresholds are investigated by estimating the wind speeds for which there is a 25%, 50% and 75% probability of dust emission. The 50% threshold is used to calculate strong wind frequency (SWF) and the diagnostic parameter dust uplift potential (DUP); a thresholded cubic function of wind-speed which quantifies the dust generating power of winds. Stations are grouped into 6 areas (North Algeria, Central Sahara, Egypt, West Sahel, Central Sahel and Sudan) for more in-depth analysis of these parameters. Spatially, thresholds are highest in northern Algeria and lowest in the Sahel around the latitude band 16N-21N. Annual mean FDE is anti-correlated with the threshold, showing the importance of spatial variations in thresholds for mean dust emission. The annual cycles of FDE and SWF for the 6 grouped areas are

  11. Scenarios for global emissions from air traffic. The development of regional and gridded (5 degrees x 5 degrees) emissions scenarios for aircraft and for surface sources, based on CPB scenarios and existing emission inventories for aircraft and surface sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier JGJ; LAE

    1995-01-01

    An estimate was made of present global emissions from air traffic using statistical information on fuel consumption, aircraft types and applying emission factors for various compounds. To generate scenarios for future emissions from air traffic, assumptions were used regarding the development of the

  12. Enhancing Optically Pumped Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Amplified Spontaneous Emission via Compound Surface Plasmon Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite has attracted intensive attention from researchers as the gain medium in lasing devices. However, achieving electrically driven lasing remains a significant challenge. Modifying the devices’ structure to enhance the optically pumped amplified spontaneous emission (ASE is the key issue. In this work, gold nanoparticles (Au NPs are first doped into PEDOT: PSS buffer layer in a slab waveguide device structure: Quartz/PEDOT: PSS (with or w/o Au NPs/CH3NH3PbBr3. As a result, the facile device shows a significantly enhanced ASE intensity and a narrowed full width at half maximum. Based on experiments and theoretical simulation data, the improvement is mainly a result of the compound surface plasmon resonance, including simultaneous near- and far-field effects, both of which could increase the density of excitons excited state and accelerate the radiative decay process. This method is highly significant for the design and development and fabrication of high-performance organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite lasing diodes.

  13. Sensitivity of Satellite-Based Skin Temperature to Different Surface Emissivity and NWP Reanalysis Sources Demonstrated Using a Single-Channel, Viewing-Angle-Corrected Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarino, B. R.; Minnis, P.; Yost, C. R.; Chee, T.; Palikonda, R.

    2015-12-01

    Single-channel algorithms for satellite thermal-infrared- (TIR-) derived land and sea surface skin temperature (LST and SST) are advantageous in that they can be easily applied to a variety of satellite sensors. They can also accommodate decade-spanning instrument series, particularly for periods when split-window capabilities are not available. However, the benefit of one unified retrieval methodology for all sensors comes at the cost of critical sensitivity to surface emissivity (ɛs) and atmospheric transmittance estimation. It has been demonstrated that as little as 0.01 variance in ɛs can amount to more than a 0.5-K adjustment in retrieved LST values. Atmospheric transmittance requires calculations that employ vertical profiles of temperature and humidity from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Selection of a given NWP model can significantly affect LST and SST agreement relative to their respective validation sources. Thus, it is necessary to understand the accuracies of the retrievals for various NWP models to ensure the best LST/SST retrievals. The sensitivities of the single-channel retrievals to surface emittance and NWP profiles are investigated using NASA Langley historic land and ocean clear-sky skin temperature (Ts) values derived from high-resolution 11-μm TIR brightness temperature measured from geostationary satellites (GEOSat) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR). It is shown that mean GEOSat-derived, anisotropy-corrected LST can vary by up to ±0.8 K depending on whether CERES or MODIS ɛs sources are used. Furthermore, the use of either NOAA Global Forecast System (GFS) or NASA Goddard Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) for the radiative transfer model initial atmospheric state can account for more than 0.5-K variation in mean Ts. The results are compared to measurements from the Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD), an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program ground

  14. Natural emissions under future climate condition and their effects on surface ozone in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Shu, Lei; Wang, Ti-jian; Liu, Qian; Gao, Da; Li, Shu; Zhuang, Bing-liang; Han, Yong; Li, Meng-meng; Chen, Pu-long

    2017-02-01

    The natural emissions of ozone precursors (NOx and VOCs) are sensitive to climate. Future climate change can impact O3 concentrations by perturbing these emissions. To better estimate the variation of natural emissions under different climate conditions and understand its effect on surface O3, we model the present and the future air quality over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region by running different simulations with the aid of the WRF-CALGRID model system that contains a natural emission module. Firstly, we estimate the natural emissions at present and in IPCC A1B scenario. The results show that biogenic VOC emission and soil NOx emission over YRD in 2008 is 657 Gg C and 19.1 Gg N, respectively. According to climate change, these emissions in 2050 will increase by 25.5% and 11.5%, respectively. Secondly, the effects of future natural emissions and meteorology on surface O3 are investigated and compared. It is found that the variations in meteorological fields can significantly alter the spatial distribution of O3 over YRD, with the increases of 5-15 ppb in the north and the decreases of -5 to -15 ppb in the south. However, only approximately 20% of the surface O3 increases caused by climate change can be attributed to the natural emissions, with the highest increment up to 2.4 ppb. Finally, Ra (the ratio of impacts from NOx and VOCs on O3 formation) and H2O2/HNO3 (the ratio between the concentrations of H2O2 and HNO3) are applied to study the O3 sensitivity in YRD. The results show that the transition value of H2O2/HNO3 will turn from 0.3 to 0.5 in 2008 to 0.4-0.8 in 2050. O3 formation in the YRD region will be insensitive to VOCs under future climate condition, implying more NOx need to be cut down. Our findings can help us understand O3 variation trend and put forward the reasonable and effective pollution control policies in these famous polluted areas.

  15. Impacts of global, regional, and sectoral black carbon emission reductions on surface air quality and human mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Anenberg

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As a component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5, black carbon (BC is associated with premature human mortality. BC also affects climate by absorbing solar radiation and reducing planetary albedo. Several studies have examined the climate impacts of BC emissions, but the associated health impacts have been studied less extensively. Here, we examine the surface PM2.5 and premature mortality impacts of halving anthropogenic BC emissions globally and individually from eight world regions and three major economic sectors. We use a global chemical transport model, MOZART-4, to simulate PM2.5 concentrations and a health impact function to calculate premature cardiopulmonary and lung cancer deaths. We estimate that halving global anthropogenic BC emissions reduces outdoor population-weighted average PM2.5 by 542 ng m−3 (1.8 % and avoids 157 000 (95 % confidence interval, 120 000–194 000 annual premature deaths globally, with the vast majority occurring within the source region. Most of these avoided deaths can be achieved by halving emissions in East Asia (China; 54 %, followed by South Asia (India; 31 %, however South Asian emissions have 50 % greater mortality impacts per unit BC emitted than East Asian emissions. Globally, halving residential, industrial, and transportation emissions contributes 47 %, 35 %, and 15 % to the avoided deaths from halving all anthropogenic BC emissions. These contributions are 1.2, 1.2, and 0.6 times each sector's portion of global BC emissions, owing to the degree of co-location with population globally. We find that reducing BC emissions increases regional SO4 concentrations by up to 28 % of the magnitude of the regional BC concentration reductions, due to reduced absorption of radiation that drives photochemistry. Impacts of residential BC emissions are likely underestimated since indoor PM2.5 exposure is excluded. We estimate ∼8 times

  16. Impacts of global, regional, and sectoral black carbon emission reductions on surface air quality and human mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, S. C.; Talgo, K.; Arunachalam, S.; Dolwick, P.; Jang, C.; West, J. J.

    2011-07-01

    As a component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC) is associated with premature human mortality. BC also affects climate by absorbing solar radiation and reducing planetary albedo. Several studies have examined the climate impacts of BC emissions, but the associated health impacts have been studied less extensively. Here, we examine the surface PM2.5 and premature mortality impacts of halving anthropogenic BC emissions globally and individually from eight world regions and three major economic sectors. We use a global chemical transport model, MOZART-4, to simulate PM2.5 concentrations and a health impact function to calculate premature cardiopulmonary and lung cancer deaths. We estimate that halving global anthropogenic BC emissions reduces outdoor population-weighted average PM2.5 by 542 ng m-3 (1.8 %) and avoids 157 000 (95 % confidence interval, 120 000-194 000) annual premature deaths globally, with the vast majority occurring within the source region. Most of these avoided deaths can be achieved by halving emissions in East Asia (China; 54 %), followed by South Asia (India; 31 %), however South Asian emissions have 50 % greater mortality impacts per unit BC emitted than East Asian emissions. Globally, halving residential, industrial, and transportation emissions contributes 47 %, 35 %, and 15 % to the avoided deaths from halving all anthropogenic BC emissions. These contributions are 1.2, 1.2, and 0.6 times each sector's portion of global BC emissions, owing to the degree of co-location with population globally. We find that reducing BC emissions increases regional SO4 concentrations by up to 28 % of the magnitude of the regional BC concentration reductions, due to reduced absorption of radiation that drives photochemistry. Impacts of residential BC emissions are likely underestimated since indoor PM2.5 exposure is excluded. We estimate ∼8 times more avoided deaths when BC and organic carbon (OC) emissions are halved together, suggesting

  17. Atmospheric characterization through fused mobile airborne and surface in situ surveys: methane emissions quantification from a producing oil field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Ira; Melton, Christopher; Fischer, Marc L.; Fladeland, Matthew; Frash, Jason; Gore, Warren; Iraci, Laura T.; Marrero, Josette E.; Ryoo, Ju-Mee; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Yates, Emma L.

    2018-03-01

    Methane (CH4) inventory uncertainties are large, requiring robust emission derivation approaches. We report on a fused airborne-surface data collection approach to derive emissions from an active oil field near Bakersfield, central California. The approach characterizes the atmosphere from the surface to above the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and combines downwind trace gas concentration anomaly (plume) above background with normal winds to derive flux. This approach does not require a well-mixed PBL; allows explicit, data-based, uncertainty evaluation; and was applied to complex topography and wind flows. In situ airborne (collected by AJAX - the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment) and mobile surface (collected by AMOG - the AutoMObile trace Gas - Surveyor) data were collected on 19 August 2015 to assess source strength. Data included an AMOG and AJAX intercomparison transect profiling from the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) floor into the Sierra Nevada (0.1-2.2 km altitude), validating a novel surface approach for atmospheric profiling by leveraging topography. The profile intercomparison found good agreement in multiple parameters for the overlapping altitude range from 500 to 1500 m for the upper 5 % of surface winds, which accounts for wind-impeding structures, i.e., terrain, trees, buildings, etc. Annualized emissions from the active oil fields were 31.3 ± 16 Gg methane and 2.4 ± 1.2 Tg carbon dioxide. Data showed the PBL was not well mixed at distances of 10-20 km downwind, highlighting the importance of the experimental design.

  18. The EUMETSAT OSI SAF near 50 GHz sea ice emissivity model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasums T. Tonboe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A sea ice thermal microwave emission model for 50 GHz was developed under EUMETSAT's Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI SAF programme. The model is based on correlations between the surface brightness temperature at 18, 36 and 50 GHz. The model coefficients are estimated using simulated data from a combined thermodynamic and emission model. The intention with the model is to provide a first guess sea ice surface emissivity estimate for atmospheric temperature sounding applications in the troposphere in numerical weather prediction (NWP models assimilating Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU and Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS data. The spectral gradient ratio is defined as the difference over the sum of the SSMIS brightness temperatures at 18 and 36 GHz vertical linear polarisation (GR1836. The GR1836 is related to the emissivity at the atmospheric temperature sounding channels at around 50 GHz. Furthermore, the brightness temperatures and the polarisation ratio (PR at the neighbouring 18, 36 and 50 GHz channels are highly correlated. Both the gradient ratio at 18 and 36 GHz and the PR at 36 GHz measured by SSMIS are input into the model predicting the 50 GHz emissivity for horizontal and vertical linear polarisations and incidence angles between 0° and 60° The simulated emissivity is compared to the emissivity derived with alternative methods. The fit to real AMSU observations is investigated using the different emissivity estimates for simulating the observations with atmospheric data from a regional weather prediction model.

  19. Microwave remote sensing: Active and passive. Volume 2 - Radar remote sensing and surface scattering and emission theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Moore, R. K.; Fung, A. K.

    1982-01-01

    The fundamental principles of radar backscattering measurements are presented, including measurement statistics, Doppler and pulse discrimination techniques, and associated ambiguity functions. The operation of real and synthetic aperture sidelooking airborne radar systems is described, along with the internal and external calibration techniques employed in scattering measurements. Attention is given to the physical mechanisms responsible for the scattering emission behavior of homogeneous and inhomogeneous media, through a discussion of surface roughness, dielectric properties and inhomogeneity, and penetration depth. Simple semiempirical models are presented. Theoretical models involving greater mathematical sophistication are also given for extended ocean and bare soil surfaces, and the more general case of a vegetation canopy over a rough surface.

  20. Nanoparticle Enhanced Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Effect of nanoparticles deposited on sample surface on laser ablation and plasma emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Giacomo, A.; Gaudiuso, R.; Koral, C.; Dell'Aglio, M.; De Pascale, O.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the use of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) for improving Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is discussed. In the case of conductors an emission signal enhancement up to 1–2 orders of magnitude was obtained depositing NPs on the sample surface by drying a micro-drop of colloidal solution. The basic mechanisms of Nanoparticle Enhanced LIBS (NELIBS) were studied and the main causes of this significantly large enhancement were found to be related to the effect of NPs on the laser ablation process, in terms of a faster and more efficient production of seed electrons with respect to conventional LIBS. The characteristics of NELIBS-produced plasma were investigated by emission spectroscopy and spectrally resolved images. In spite of similar plasma parameters, the NELIBS plasma was found to have larger emission volume and longer persistence than the LIBS one. A method to determine NP concentration and size was also proposed, which involved depositing NPs on non-interacting substrates, and proved the feasibility of LIBS as a fast detection tool for a preliminary characterization of NPs. - Highlights: • Effect of NPs on sample surface enables instantaneous field emission. • More efficient ablation • LIBS emission enhancement up to 1–2 orders of magnitude • Possibility of NP characterization in terms of concentration and size

  1. Low-Computation Strategies for Extracting CO2 Emission Trends from Surface-Level Mixing Ratio Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shusterman, A.; Kim, J.; Lieschke, K.; Newman, C.; Cohen, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    Global momentum is building for drastic, regulated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions over the coming decade. With this increasing regulation comes a clear need for increasingly sophisticated monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) strategies capable of enforcing and optimizing emissions-related policy, particularly as it applies to urban areas. Remote sensing and/or activity-based emission inventories can offer MRV insights for entire sectors or regions, but are not yet sophisticated enough to resolve unexpected trends in specific emitters. Urban surface monitors can offer the desired proximity to individual greenhouse gas sources, but due to the densely-packed nature of typical urban landscapes, surface observations are rarely representative of a single source. Most previous efforts to decompose these complex signals into their contributing emission processes have involved inverse atmospheric modeling techniques, which are computationally intensive and believed to depend heavily on poorly understood a priori estimates of error covariance. Here we present a number of transparent, low-computation approaches for extracting source-specific emissions estimates from signals with a variety of nearfield influences. Using observations from the first several years of the BErkeley Atmospheric CO2 Observation Network (BEACO2N), we demonstrate how to exploit strategic pairings of monitoring "nodes," anomalous wind conditions, and well-understood temporal variations to hone in on specific CO2 sources of interest. When evaluated against conventional, activity-based bottom-up emission inventories, these strategies are seen to generate quantitatively rigorous emission estimates. With continued application as the BEACO2N data set grows in time and space, these approaches offer a promising avenue for optimizing greenhouse gas mitigation strategies into the future.

  2. Role of Surface Wind and Vegetation Cover in Multi-decadal Variations of Dust Emission in the Sahara and Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong; Chin, Mian; Remer, Lorraine A.; Diehl, Thomas L.; Bian, Huisheng; Yu, Hongbin; Brown, Molly E.; Stockwell, William R.

    2016-01-01

    North Africa, the world's largest dust source, is non-uniform, consisting of a permanently arid region (Sahara), a semi-arid region (Sahel), and a relatively moist vegetated region (Savanna), each with very different rainfall patterns and surface conditions. This study aims to better understand the controlling factors that determine the variation of dust emission in North Africa over a 27-year period from 1982 to 2008, using observational data and model simulations. The results show that the model-derived Saharan dust emission is only correlated with the 10-m winds (W10m) obtained from reanalysis data, but the model-derived Sahel dust emission is correlated with both W10m and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) that is obtained from satellite. While the Saharan dust accounts for 82 of the continental North Africa dust emission (1340-1570 Tg year(exp -1) in the 27-year average, the Sahel accounts for 17 with a larger seasonal and inter-annual variation (230-380 Tg year(exp -1), contributing about a quarter of the transatlantic dust transported to the northern part of South America. The decreasing dust emission trend over the 27-year period is highly correlated with W10m over the Sahara (R equals 0.92). Over the Sahel, the dust emission is correlated with W10m (R 0.69) but is also anti-correlated with the trend of NDVI (R equals 0.65). W10m is decreasing over both the Sahara and the Sahel between 1982 and 2008, and the trends are correlated (R equals 0.53), suggesting that Saharan Sahelian surface winds are a coupled system, driving the inter-annual variation of dust emission.

  3. Helmholtz bright and boundary solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J M [Joule Physics Laboratory, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, Institute for Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); McDonald, G S [Joule Physics Laboratory, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, Institute for Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Chamorro-Posada, P [Departmento de TeorIa de la Senal y Comunicaciones e IngenierIa Telematica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Campus Miguel Delibes s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2007-02-16

    We report, for the first time, exact analytical boundary solitons of a generalized cubic-quintic nonlinear Helmholtz (NLH) equation. These solutions have a linked-plateau topology that is distinct from conventional dark soliton solutions; their amplitude and intensity distributions are spatially delocalized and connect regions of finite and zero wave-field disturbances (suggesting also the classification as 'edge solitons'). Extensive numerical simulations compare the stability properties of recently derived Helmholtz bright solitons, for this type of polynomial nonlinearity, to those of the new boundary solitons. The latter are found to possess a remarkable stability characteristic, exhibiting robustness against perturbations that would otherwise lead to the destabilizing of their bright-soliton counterparts.

  4. A New Sky Brightness Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, David L.; McKenna, D.

    2006-12-01

    A good estimate of sky brightness and its variations throughout the night, the months, and even the years is an essential bit of knowledge both for good observing and especially as a tool in efforts to minimize sky brightness through local action. Hence a stable and accurate monitor can be a valuable and necessary tool. We have developed such a monitor, with the financial help of Vatican Observatory and Walker Management. The device is now undergoing its Beta test in preparation for production. It is simple, accurate, well calibrated, and automatic, sending its data directly to IDA over the internet via E-mail . Approximately 50 such monitors will be ready soon for deployment worldwide including most major observatories. Those interested in having one should enquire of IDA about details.

  5. High-brightness injector modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewellen, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    There are many aspects to the successful conception, design, fabrication, and operation of high-brightness electron beam sources. Accurate and efficient modeling of the injector are critical to all phases of the process, from evaluating initial ideas to successful diagnosis of problems during routine operation. The basic modeling tasks will vary from design to design, according to the basic nature of the injector (dc, rf, hybrid, etc.), the type of cathode used (thermionic, photo, field emitter, etc.), and 'macro' factors such as average beam current and duty factor, as well as the usual list of desired beam properties. The injector designer must be at least aware of, if not proficient at addressing, the multitude of issues that arise from these considerations; and, as high-brightness injectors continue to move out of the laboratory, the number of such issues will continue to expand.

  6. Helmholtz bright and boundary solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, J M; McDonald, G S; Chamorro-Posada, P

    2007-01-01

    We report, for the first time, exact analytical boundary solitons of a generalized cubic-quintic nonlinear Helmholtz (NLH) equation. These solutions have a linked-plateau topology that is distinct from conventional dark soliton solutions; their amplitude and intensity distributions are spatially delocalized and connect regions of finite and zero wave-field disturbances (suggesting also the classification as 'edge solitons'). Extensive numerical simulations compare the stability properties of recently derived Helmholtz bright solitons, for this type of polynomial nonlinearity, to those of the new boundary solitons. The latter are found to possess a remarkable stability characteristic, exhibiting robustness against perturbations that would otherwise lead to the destabilizing of their bright-soliton counterparts

  7. Development of Yellow Sand Image Products Using Infrared Brightness Temperature Difference Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, J.; Kim, J.; Kwak, M.; Ha, K.

    2007-12-01

    A technique for detection of airborne yellow sand dust using meteorological satellite has been developed from various bands from ultraviolet to infrared channels. Among them, Infrared (IR) channels have an advantage of detecting aerosols over high reflecting surface as well as during nighttime. There had been suggestion of using brightness temperature difference (BTD) between 11 and 12¥ìm. We have found that the technique is highly depends on surface temperature, emissivity, and zenith angle, which results in changing the threshold of BTD. In order to overcome these problems, we have constructed the background brightness temperature threshold of BTD and then aerosol index (AI) has been determined from subtracting the background threshold from BTD of our interested scene. Along with this, we utilized high temporal coverage of geostationary satellite, MTSAT, to improve the reliability of the determined AI signal. The products have been evaluated by comparing the forecasted wind field with the movement fiend of AI. The statistical score test illustrates that this newly developed algorithm produces a promising result for detecting mineral dust by reducing the errors with respect to the current BTD method.

  8. AMSR-E/Aqua Monthly Global Microwave Land Surface Emissivity, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a global land emissivity product using passive microwave observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System...

  9. High brightness semiconductor lasers with reduced filamentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter.; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.

    1999-01-01

    High brightness semiconductor lasers have applications in spectroscopy, fiber lasers, manufacturing and materials processing, medicine and free space communication or energy transfer. The main difficulty associated with high brightness is that, because of COD, high power requires a large aperture...

  10. Field investigation to assess nutrient emission from paddy field to surface water in river catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogure, Kanami; Aichi, Masaatsu; Zessner, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    In order to maintain good river environment, it is remarkably important to understand and to control nutrient behavior such as Nitrogen and Phosphorus. Our former research dealing with nutrient emission analysis in the Tone River basin area in Japan, in addition to urban and industrial waste water, nutrient emission from agricultural activity is dominant pollution source into the river system. Japanese style agriculture produces large amount of rice and paddy field occupies large areas in Japanese river basin areas. While paddy field can deteriorate river water quality by outflow of fertilizer, it is also suggested that paddy field has water purification function. As we carried out investigation in the Tone River Basin area, data were obtained which dissolved nitrogen concentration is lower in discharging water from paddy field than inflowing water into the field. Regarding to nutrient emission impact from paddy field, sufficient data are required to discuss quantitatively seasonal change of material behavior including flooding season and dry season, difference of climate condition, soil type, and rice species, to evaluate year round comprehensive impact from paddy field to the river system. In this research, field survey in paddy field and data collection relating rice production were carried out as a preliminary investigation to assess how Japanese style paddy field contributes year round on surface water quality. Study sites are three paddy fields located in upper reach of the Tone River basin area. The fields are flooded from June to September. In 2014, field investigations were carried out three times in flooding period and twice in dry period. To understand characteristics of each paddy field and seasonal tendency accompanying weather of agricultural event, short term investigations were conducted and we prepare for further long term investigation. Each study site has irrigation water inflow and outflow. Two sites have tile drainage system under the field and

  11. Near-infrared photometry of bright elliptical galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, R. F.; Valentijn, E. A.; Jameson, R. F.

    High-quality visual-infrared color profiles have been determined for elliptical galaxies for the first time. Surface photometry in J and K is presented for 12 bright elliptical galaxies, and the results have been combined with CCD data in visual passbands. It is shown that the galaxies become bluer

  12. 150 southern compact and bright-nucleus galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairall, A.P.

    1977-01-01

    Galaxies having regions of exceptionally high surface brightness have been selected from the ESO Quick Blue Survey and investigated by 'grating photography' -direct photography plus low-dispersion slitless spectroscopy. Two new Seyfert galaxies and a peculiar multiple system have been discovered. Differences in red continua are also noted. (author)

  13. Temperature dependence of photon-enhanced thermionic emission from GaAs surface with nonequilibrium Cs overlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravlev, A.G. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Pr. Lavrentieva, 13, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova, 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Alperovich, V.L., E-mail: alper@isp.nsc.ru [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Pr. Lavrentieva, 13, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova, 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Electronic properties of Cs/GaAs surface are studied at elevated temperatures. • Heating to ∼100 °C strongly affects photoemission current and surface band bending. • For θ < 0.4 ML photoemission current relaxation is due to band bending. • A spectral proof of the PETE process is obtained at Cs/GaAs thermal cycling. - Abstract: The temperature influence on the Cs/GaAs surface electronic properties, which determine the photon-enhanced thermionic emission (PETE), is studied. It was found that heating to moderate temperatures of about 100 °C leads to substantial changes in the magnitude and shape of Cs coverage dependences of photoemission current and surface band bending, along with the changes of relaxation kinetics after Cs deposition. A spectral proof of the PETE process is obtained under thermal cycling of the Cs/GaAs surface with 0.45 monolayer (ML) of Cs.

  14. Husbandry Emissions Estimation: Fusion of Mobile Surface and Airborne Remote Sensing and Mobile Surface In Situ Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, I.; Hall, J. L.; Melton, C.; Tratt, D. M.; Chang, C. S.; Buckland, K. N.; Frash, J.; Leen, J. B.; Van Damme, M.; Clarisse, L.

    2017-12-01

    Emissions of methane and ammonia from intensive animal husbandry are important drivers of climate and photochemical and aerosol pollution. Husbandry emission estimates are somewhat uncertain because of their dependence on practices, temperature, micro-climate, and other factors, leading to variations in emission factors up to an order-of-magnitude. Mobile in situ measurements are increasingly being applied to derive trace gas emissions by Gaussian plume inversion; however, inversion with incomplete information can lead to erroneous emissions and incorrect source location. Mobile in situ concentration and wind data and mobile remote sensing column data from the Chino Dairy Complex in the Los Angeles Basin were collected near simultaneously (within 1-10 s, depending on speed) while transecting plumes, approximately orthogonal to winds. This analysis included airborne remote sensing trace gas information. MISTIR collected vertical column FTIR data simultaneously with in situ concentration data acquired by the AMOG-Surveyor while both vehicles traveled in convoy. The column measurements are insensitive to the turbulence characterization needed in Gaussian plume inversion of concentration data and thus provide a flux reference for evaluating in situ data inversions. Four different approaches were used on inversions for a single dairy, and also for the aggregate dairy complex plume. Approaches were based on differing levels of "knowledge" used in the inversion from solely the in situ platform and a single gas to a combination of information from all platforms and multiple gases. Derived dairy complex fluxes differed significantly from those estimated by other studies of the Chino complex. Analysis of long term satellite data showed that this most likely results from seasonality effects, highlighting the pitfalls of applying annualized extensions of flux measurements to a single campaign instantiation.

  15. Bright triplet excitons in caesium lead halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Michael A.; Vaxenburg, Roman; Nedelcu, Georgian; Sercel, Peter C.; Shabaev, Andrew; Mehl, Michael J.; Michopoulos, John G.; Lambrakos, Samuel G.; Bernstein, Noam; Lyons, John L.; Stöferle, Thilo; Mahrt, Rainer F.; Kovalenko, Maksym V.; Norris, David J.; Rainò, Gabriele; Efros, Alexander L.

    2018-01-01

    Nanostructured semiconductors emit light from electronic states known as excitons. For organic materials, Hund’s rules state that the lowest-energy exciton is a poorly emitting triplet state. For inorganic semiconductors, similar rules predict an analogue of this triplet state known as the ‘dark exciton’. Because dark excitons release photons slowly, hindering emission from inorganic nanostructures, materials that disobey these rules have been sought. However, despite considerable experimental and theoretical efforts, no inorganic semiconductors have been identified in which the lowest exciton is bright. Here we show that the lowest exciton in caesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, with X = Cl, Br or I) involves a highly emissive triplet state. We first use an effective-mass model and group theory to demonstrate the possibility of such a state existing, which can occur when the strong spin-orbit coupling in the conduction band of a perovskite is combined with the Rashba effect. We then apply our model to CsPbX3 nanocrystals, and measure size- and composition-dependent fluorescence at the single-nanocrystal level. The bright triplet character of the lowest exciton explains the anomalous photon-emission rates of these materials, which emit about 20 and 1,000 times faster than any other semiconductor nanocrystal at room and cryogenic temperatures, respectively. The existence of this bright triplet exciton is further confirmed by analysis of the fine structure in low-temperature fluorescence spectra. For semiconductor nanocrystals, which are already used in lighting, lasers and displays, these excitons could lead to materials with brighter emission. More generally, our results provide criteria for identifying other semiconductors that exhibit bright excitons, with potential implications for optoelectronic devices.

  16. Next generation diode lasers with enhanced brightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, S.; Rauch, S.; Irmler, L.; Rikels, J.; Killi, A.; Papastathopoulos, E.; Sarailou, E.; Zimer, H.

    2018-02-01

    High-power diode lasers are nowadays well established manufacturing tools in high power materials processing, mainly for tactile welding, surface treatment and cladding applications. Typical beam parameter products (BPP) of such lasers range from 30 to 50 mm·mrad at several kilowatts of output power. TRUMPF offers a product line of diode lasers to its customers ranging from 150 W up to 6 kW of output power. These diode lasers combine high reliability with small footprint and high efficiency. However, up to now these lasers are limited in brightness due to the commonly used spatial and coarse spectral beam combining techniques. Recently diode lasers with enhanced brightness have been presented by use of dense wavelength multiplexing (DWM). In this paper we report on TRUMPF's diode lasers utilizing DWM. We demonstrate a 2 kW and a 4 kW system ideally suited for fine welding and scanner welding applications. The typical laser efficiency is in the range of 50%. The system offers plug and play exchange of the fiber beam delivery cable, multiple optical outputs and integrated cooling in a very compact package. An advanced control system offers flexible integration in any customer's shop floor environment and includes industry 4.0 capabilities (e.g. condition monitoring and predictive maintenance).

  17. High-brightness rf linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The issue of high brightness and its ramifications in linacs driven by radio-frequency fields is discussed. A history of the RF linacs is reviewed briefly. Some current applications are then examined that are driving progress in RF linacs. The physics affecting the brightness of RF linacs is then discussed, followed by the economic feasibility of higher brightness machines

  18. TIGER Burned Brightly in JAMIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Sandra L.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    The Transition From Ignition to Flame Growth Under External Radiation in 3D (TIGER- 3D) experiment, which is slated to fly aboard the International Space Station, conducted a series of highly successful tests in collaboration with the University of Hokkaido using Japan's 10-sec JAMIC drop tower. The tests were conducted to test engineering versions of advanced flight diagnostics such as an infrared camera for detailed surface temperature measurements and an infrared spectroscopic array for gas-phase species concentrations and temperatures based on detailed spectral emissions in the near infrared. Shown in the top figure is a visible light image and in the bottom figure is an infrared image at 3.8 mm obtained during the microgravity tests. The images show flames burning across cellulose samples against a slow wind of a few centimeters per second (wind is from right to left). These flow velocities are typical of spacecraft ventilation systems that provide fresh air for the astronauts. The samples are ignited across the center with a hot wire, and the flame is allowed to spread upwind and/or downwind. As these images show, the flames prefer to spread upwind, into the fresh air, which is the exact opposite of flames on Earth, which spread much faster downwind, or with the airflow, as in forest fires.

  19. Decadal changes in global surface NOx emissions from multi-constituent satellite data assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Miyazaki

    2017-01-01

    underestimation of soil NOx sources in the emission inventories. Despite the large trends observed for individual regions, the global total emission is almost constant between 2005 (47.9 Tg N yr−1 and 2014 (47.5 Tg N yr−1.

  20. Tunable emission in surface passivated Mn-ZnS nanophosphors and its application for Glucose sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Sharma

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the tunable emission in inorganic-organic hybrid NPs which can be useful for optoelectronic and biosensing applications. In this work, Mn- ZnS nanoparticles emitting various colors, including blue and orange, were synthesized by simple chemical precipitation method using chitosan as a capping agent. Earlier reports describe that emission color characteristics in nanoparticles are tuned by varying particle size and with doping concentration. Here in this article tunable emission has been achieved by varying excitation wavelength in a single sample. This tunable emission property with high emission intensity was further achieved by changing capping concentration keeping host Mn-ZnS concentration same. Tunable emission is explained by FRET mechanism. Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE chromaticity coordinates shifts from (0.273, 0.20 and (0.344, 0.275 for same naocrystals by suitably tuning excitation energy from higher and lower ultra-violet (UV range. Synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, SEM, HRTEM, UV- Visible absorption and PL spectroscopy for structural and optical studies. Using tunable emission property, these highly emissive nanoparticles functionalized with biocompatible polymer chitosan were further used for glucose sensing applications.

  1. Inversion methods for analysis of neutron brightness measurements in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorini, G.; Gottardi, N.

    1990-02-01

    The problem of determining neutron emissivity from neutron brightness measurements in magnetic fusion plasmas is addressed. In the case of two-dimensional measurements with two orthogonal cameras, a complete, tomographic analysis of the data can in principle be performed. The results depend critically on the accuracy of the measurements and alternative solutions can be sought under the assumption of a known emissivity topology (Generalized Abel Inversion). In this work, neutron brightness data from the JET tokamak have been studied with both methods. We find that with the present experimental uncertainty (levels 10-20%) the Abel inversion method works best, while two-dimensional information cannot in general be deduced. This is confirmed by studies of the error propagation in the inversion using artificial data, which are also presented here. An important application of emissivity profile information is the determination of the plasma deuterium temperature profile, T D (R). Results are presented here from the analysis of JET data and the errors in T D (R) are discussed in some detail. It is found that, for typical JET plasma conditions, the dominant source of uncertainty arises from the high plasma impurity level and the fact that it is poorly known; these problems can be expected to be remedied and neutron brightness measurements would be expected to be very effective (especially in high density plasmas) as a T D (R) diagnostics. (author)

  2. Selective enhancement of surface-state emission and simultaneous quenching of interband transition in white-luminophor CdS nanocrystals using localized plasmon coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozel, Tuncay; Soganci, Ibrahim Murat; Nizamoglu, Sedat; Huyal, Ilkem Ozge; Mutlugun, Evren; Demir, Hilmi Volkan [Department of Physics, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Nanotechnology Research Center and Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Sapra, Sameer; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmueller, Alexander [Physical Chemistry/Electrochemistry Group, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Bergstr. 66b, Dresden 01062 (Germany)], E-mail: volkan@bilkent.edu.tr

    2008-08-15

    We propose and demonstrate the controlled modification and selective enhancement of surface-state emission in white-luminophor CdS nanocrystals (NCs) by plasmon-coupling them with proximal metal nanostructures. By carefully designing nano-Ag films to match their localized plasmon resonance spectrally with the surface-state emission peak of CdS NCs, we experimentally show that the surface-state emission is substantially enhanced in the visible wavelength, while the interband (band-edge) transition at the shorter wavelength far away from the plasmon resonance is simultaneously significantly suppressed. With such plasmon tuning and consequent strong plasmon coupling specifically for the surface-state transitions, the surface-state emission is made stronger than the band-edge emission. This corresponds to an enhancement factor of 12.7-fold in the ratio of the surface-state peak emission to the band-edge peak emission of the plasmon-coupled film sample compared with that in solution. Such a plasmonic engineering of surface-state emission in trap-rich CdS white nanoluminophors holds great promise for future solid-state lighting.

  3. Selective enhancement of surface-state emission and simultaneous quenching of interband transition in white-luminophor CdS nanocrystals using localized plasmon coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozel, Tuncay; Soganci, Ibrahim Murat; Nizamoglu, Sedat; Huyal, Ilkem Ozge; Mutlugun, Evren; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Sapra, Sameer; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmueller, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate the controlled modification and selective enhancement of surface-state emission in white-luminophor CdS nanocrystals (NCs) by plasmon-coupling them with proximal metal nanostructures. By carefully designing nano-Ag films to match their localized plasmon resonance spectrally with the surface-state emission peak of CdS NCs, we experimentally show that the surface-state emission is substantially enhanced in the visible wavelength, while the interband (band-edge) transition at the shorter wavelength far away from the plasmon resonance is simultaneously significantly suppressed. With such plasmon tuning and consequent strong plasmon coupling specifically for the surface-state transitions, the surface-state emission is made stronger than the band-edge emission. This corresponds to an enhancement factor of 12.7-fold in the ratio of the surface-state peak emission to the band-edge peak emission of the plasmon-coupled film sample compared with that in solution. Such a plasmonic engineering of surface-state emission in trap-rich CdS white nanoluminophors holds great promise for future solid-state lighting

  4. Surface ozone seasonality under global change: Influence from dry deposition and isoprene emissions at northern mid-latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, O.; Paulot, F.; Fiore, A. M.; Horowitz, L. W.; Malyshev, S.; Shevliakova, E.; Correa, G. J. P.; Lin, M.

    2017-12-01

    Identifying the contributions of nonlinear chemistry and transport to observed surface ozone seasonal cycles over land using global models relies on an accurate representation of ozone uptake by vegetation (dry deposition). It is well established that in the absence of ozone precursor emission changes, a warming climate will increase surface ozone in polluted regions, and that a rise in temperature-dependent isoprene emissions would exacerbate this "climate penalty". However, the influence of changes in ozone dry deposition, expected to evolve with climate and land use, is often overlooked in air quality projections. With a new scheme that represents dry deposition within the NOAA GFDL dynamic vegetation land model (LM3) coupled to the NOAA GFDL atmospheric chemistry-climate model (AM3), we simulate the impact of 21st century climate and land use on ozone dry deposition and isoprene emissions. This dry deposition parameterization is a version of the Wesely scheme, but uses parameters explicitly calculated by LM3 that respond to climate and land use (e.g., stomatal conductance, canopy interception of water, leaf area index). The parameterization includes a nonstomatal deposition dependence on humidity. We evaluate climatological present-day seasonal cycles of ozone deposition velocities and abundances with those observed at northern mid-latitude sites. With a set of 2010s and 2090s decadal simulations under a high climate warming scenario (RCP8.5) and a sensitivity simulation with well-mixed greenhouse gases following RCP8.5 but air pollutants held at 2010 levels (RCP8.5_WMGG), we examine changes in surface ozone seasonal cycles. We build on our previous findings, which indicate that strong reductions in anthropogenic NOx emissions under RCP8.5 cause the surface ozone seasonal cycle over the NE USA to reverse, shifting from a summer peak at present to a winter peak by 2100. Under RCP8.5_WMGG, we parse the separate effects of climate and land use on ozone dry

  5. Surface defect assisted broad spectra emission from CdSe quantum dots for white LED application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Boni; Mathew, S.; Anand, V. R.; Correya, Adrine Antony; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Mujeeb, A.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports, broadband photoluminescence from CdSe quantum dots (QDs) under the excitation of 403 nm using fluorimeter and 403 nm CW laser excitation. The broad spectrum obtained from the colloidal quantum dots was ranges from 450 nm to 800 nm. The broadness of the spectra was attributed to the merging of band edge and defect driven emissions from the QDs. Six different sizes of particles were prepared via kinetic growth method by using CdO and elemental Se as sources of Cd and Se respectively. The particle sizes were measured from TEM images. The size dependent effect on broad emission was also studied and the defect state emission was found to be predominant in very small QDs. The defect driven emission was also observed to be redshifted, similar to the band edge emission, due to quantum confinement effect. The emission corresponding to different laser power was also studied and a linear relation was obtained. In order to study the colour characteristics of the emission, CIE chromaticity coordinate, CRI and CCT of the prepared samples were measured. It is observed that, these values were tunable by the addition of suitable intensity of blue light from the excitation source to yield white light of various colour temperatures. The broad photoluminescence spectrum of the QDs, were compared with that of a commercially available white LED. It was found that the prepared QDs are good alternatives for the phosphor in phosphor converted white LEDs, to provide good spectral tunability.

  6. Denitrifiers in the surface zone are primarily responsible for the nitrous oxide emission of dairy manure compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Koki, E-mail: k_maeda@affrc.go.jp [Dairy Research Division, National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region, National Agricultural and Food Research Organization, 1 Hitsujigaoka, Sapporo 062-8555 (Japan); Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Toyoda, Sakae [Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Hanajima, Dai [Dairy Research Division, National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region, National Agricultural and Food Research Organization, 1 Hitsujigaoka, Sapporo 062-8555 (Japan); Yoshida, Naohiro [Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) productions of each compost zones were compared. ► The pile surface emitted significant fluxes of N{sub 2}O. ► The isotopic signature of N{sub 2}O from surface and NO{sub 2}{sup −} amended core were different. ► The denitrifying gene abundance was significantly higher in pile surface than the pile core. -- Abstract: During the dairy manure composting process, significant nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions occur just after the pile turnings. To understand the characteristics of this N{sub 2}O emission, samples were taken from the compost surface and core independently, and the N{sub 2}O production was monitored in laboratory incubation experiments. Equal amounts of surface and core samples were mixed to simulate the turning, and the {sup 15}N isotope ratios within the molecules of produced N{sub 2}O were analyzed by isotopomer analysis. The results showed that the surface samples emitted significant levels of N{sub 2}O, and these emissions were correlated with NO{sub x}{sup −}-N accumulation. Moreover, the surface samples and surface-core mixed samples incubated at 30 °C produced N{sub 2}O with a low site preference (SP) value (−0.9 to 7.0‰) that was close to bacteria denitrification (0‰), indicating that denitrifiers in the surface samples are responsible for this N{sub 2}O production. On the other hand, N{sub 2}O produced by NO{sub 2}{sup −}-amended core samples and surface samples incubated at 60 °C showed unrecognized isotopic signatures (SP = 11.4–20.3‰). From these results, it was revealed that the N{sub 2}O production occurring just after the turnings was mainly derived from bacterial denitrification (including nitrifier denitrification) of NO{sub x}{sup −}-N under mesophilic conditions, and surface denitrifying bacteria appeared to be the main contributor to this process.

  7. Bright Stuff on Ceres = Sulfates and Carbonates on CI Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael; Chan, Queenie H. S.; Gounelle, Matthieu; Fries, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports of the DAWN spacecraft's observations of the surface of Ceres indicate that there are bright areas, which can be explained by large amounts of the Mg sulfate hexahydrate (MgSO4•6(H2O)), although the identification appears tenuous. There are preliminary indications that water is being evolved from these bright areas, and some have inferred that these might be sites of contemporary hydro-volcanism. A heat source for such modern activity is not obvious, given the small size of Ceres, lack of any tidal forces from nearby giant planets, probable age and presumed bulk composition. We contend that observations of chondritic materials in the lab shed light on the nature of the bright spots on Ceres

  8. N2O emission from plant surfaces – light stimulated and a global phenomenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Ambus, Per

    2017-01-01

    for the first time N2O emission fromterrestrial vegetation in response to natural solar ultra violet radiation. We conducted field site measurementsto investigate N2O atmosphere exchange from grass vegetation exposed to solar irradiance with and withoutUV-screening. Further laboratory tests were conducted...... with a range of species to study the controls and possibleloci of UV-induced N2O emission from plants. Plants released N2O in response to natural sunlight at rates of c.20-50 nmol m-2 h-1, mostly due to the UV component. The emission rate is temperature dependent with a ratherhigh activation energy indicative...

  9. Incident ion charge state dependence of electron emission during slow multicharged ion-surface interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, I.G.; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A.; Havener, C.C.; Overbury, S.H.; Robinson, M.T.; Zehner, D.M.; Meyer, F.W.

    1992-01-01

    Characteristic variations in the total electron yield γ as a function of crystal azimuthal orientation are reported for slow N 2+ , N 5+ and N 6+ ions incident on a Au(011) single crystal, together with measurements of γ as a function of incident ion velocity. Kinetic electron emission is shown to arise predominantly in close collisions between incident ions and target atoms, and potential electron emission is found to be essentially constant within our present velocity range. The incident ion charge state is shown to play no role in kinetic electron emission. Extremely fast neutralization times of the order of 10 - 15 secs are needed to explain the observations

  10. Estimation of nocturnal CO2 and N2O soil emissions from changes in surface boundary layer mass storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Richard H.; Omonode, Rex A.

    2018-04-01

    Annual budgets of greenhouse and other trace gases require knowledge of the emissions throughout the year. Unfortunately, emissions into the surface boundary layer during stable, calm nocturnal periods are not measurable using most micrometeorological methods due to non-stationarity and uncoupled flow. However, during nocturnal periods with very light winds, carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) frequently accumulate near the surface and this mass accumulation can be used to determine emissions. Gas concentrations were measured at four heights (one within and three above canopy) and turbulence was measured at three heights above a mature 2.5 m maize canopy from 23 July to 10 September 2015. Nocturnal CO2 and N2O fluxes from the canopy were determined using the accumulation of mass within a 6.3 m control volume and out the top of the control volume within the nocturnal surface boundary layer. Diffusive fluxes were estimated by flux gradient method. The total accumulative and diffusive fluxes during near-calm nights (friction velocities CO2 and 0.53 nmol m-2 s-1 N2O. Fluxes were also measured using chambers. Daily mean CO2 fluxes determined by the accumulation method were 90 to 130 % of those determined using soil chambers. Daily mean N2O fluxes determined by the accumulation method were 60 to 80 % of that determined using soil chambers. The better signal-to-noise ratios of the chamber method for CO2 over N2O, non-stationary flow, assumed Schmidt numbers, and anemometer tilt were likely contributing reasons for the differences in chambers versus accumulated nocturnal mass flux estimates. Near-surface N2O accumulative flux measurements in more homogeneous regions and with greater depth are needed to confirm the conclusion that mass accumulation can be effectively used to estimate soil emissions during nearly calm nights.

  11. Local secondary-electron emission spectra of graphite and gold surfaces obtained using the Scanning Probe Energy Loss Spectrometer (SPELS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, J J; Pulisciano, A; Palmer, R E

    2009-01-01

    Secondary-electron emission (SEE) spectra have been obtained with the Scanning Probe Energy Loss Spectrometer at a tip-sample distance of only 50 nm. Such short working distances are required for the best theoretical spatial resolution (<10 nm). The SEE spectra of graphite, obtained as a function of tip bias voltage, are shown to correspond to unoccupied states in the electronic band structure. The SEE spectra of thin gold films demonstrate the capability of identifying (carbonaceous) surface contamination with this technique.

  12. Local secondary-electron emission spectra of graphite and gold surfaces obtained using the Scanning Probe Energy Loss Spectrometer (SPELS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, J J; Pulisciano, A; Palmer, R E, E-mail: R.E.Palmer@bham.ac.u [Nanoscale Physics Research Laboratory, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-25

    Secondary-electron emission (SEE) spectra have been obtained with the Scanning Probe Energy Loss Spectrometer at a tip-sample distance of only 50 nm. Such short working distances are required for the best theoretical spatial resolution (<10 nm). The SEE spectra of graphite, obtained as a function of tip bias voltage, are shown to correspond to unoccupied states in the electronic band structure. The SEE spectra of thin gold films demonstrate the capability of identifying (carbonaceous) surface contamination with this technique.

  13. Tailoring of quantum dot emission efficiency by localized surface plasmon polaritons in self-organized mesoscopic rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margapoti, Emanuela; Gentili, Denis; Amelia, Matteo; Credi, Alberto; Morandi, Vittorio; Cavallini, Massimiliano

    2014-01-21

    We report on the tailoring of quantum dot (QD) emission efficiency by localized surface plasmon polaritons in self-organized mesoscopic rings. Ag nanoparticles (NPs) with CdSe QDs embedded in a polymeric matrix are spatially organised in mesoscopic rings and coupled in a tuneable fashion by breath figure formation. The mean distance between NPs and QDs and consequently the intensity of QD photoluminescence, which is enhanced by the coupling of surface plasmons and excitons, are tuned by acting on the NP concentration.

  14. Total vertical sediment flux and PM10 emissions from disturbed Chihuahuan Desert Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desert surfaces are typically stable and represent some of the oldest landforms on Earth. For surfaces without vegetation, the evolution of a desert pavements of gravel protects the surface from erosive forces and vegetation further protects the surface in arid and semi-arid rangelands. The suscep...

  15. Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Separation from Cross-Track Infrared Sounder Data with Atmospheric Reanalysis Data and ISSTES Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ze Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS is one of the most advanced hyperspectral instruments and has been used for various atmospheric applications such as atmospheric retrievals and weather forecast modeling. However, because of the specific design purpose of CrIS, little attention has been paid to retrieving land surface parameters from CrIS data. To take full advantage of the rich spectral information in CrIS data to improve the land surface retrievals, particularly the acquisition of a continuous Land Surface Emissivity (LSE spectrum, this paper attempts to simultaneously retrieve a continuous LSE spectrum and the Land Surface Temperature (LST from CrIS data with the atmospheric reanalysis data and the Iterative Spectrally Smooth Temperature and Emissivity Separation (ISSTES algorithm. The results show that the accuracy of the retrieved LSEs and LST is comparable with the current land products. The overall differences of the LST and LSE retrievals are approximately 1.3 K and 1.48%, respectively. However, the LSEs in our study can be provided as a continuum spectrum instead of the single-channel values in traditional products. The retrieved LST and LSEs now can be better used to further analyze the surface properties or improve the retrieval of atmospheric parameters.

  16. Electron emission during interactions of multicharged N and Ar ions with Au(110) and Cu(001) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, F.W.; Overbury, S.H.; Havener, C.C.; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A.; Burgdoerfer, J.; Zehner, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    We report measurements of energy distributions of electrons emitted during interactions 10q-keV N 6+ , and Ar q+ (q=7,8,9) ions with Au(110) and Cu(001) surfaces at grazing angles. The electron energy distributions have been measured as a function of angle of incidence, observation angle, and target-crystal azimuth. For both Au and Cu targets, the projectile KLL Auger peak observed for the case of the N 6+ projectiles is seen to consist of two components whose intensities have strikingly different dependences on incident perpendicular velocity. The main component of the KLL peak is attributed to subsurface electron emission and is modeled using a Monte Carlo simulation of the projectile trajectories in the bulk. The second component, observed only for the smallest incident perpendicular velocities, is attributed to above-surface KLL Auger electron emission and is modeled using computer simulations of the resonance neutralization-autoionization cascade that occurs prior to projectile penetration of the surface. In the case of the Au target, NNV and NVV transitions, attributed to vacancy transfer from the projectile K shell to the N shell of Au, are also observed. The Monte Carlo simulation of the subsurface contribution to the electron emission is able to reproduce the observed angle-of-incidence dependence of both the projectile and the target Auger electron intensities. In addition, it shows reasonable agreement with the observed dependences of the projectile KLL intensity on observation angle and crystal azimuth

  17. The influence of surface stress on dislocation emission from sharp and blunt cracks in f.c.c. metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøtz, Jakob

    2000-01-01

    We use computer simulations to study the behaviour of atomically sharp and blunted cracks in various fee metals. The simulations use effective medium potentials which contain many-body interactions. We find that when using potentials representing platinum and gold a sharp crack is stable with res......We use computer simulations to study the behaviour of atomically sharp and blunted cracks in various fee metals. The simulations use effective medium potentials which contain many-body interactions. We find that when using potentials representing platinum and gold a sharp crack is stable...... with respect to the emission of a dislocation from the crack tip, whereas for all other metals studied the sharp crack is unstable. This result cannot be explained by existing criteria for the intrinsic ductile/brittle behaviour of crack tips, but is probably caused by surface stresses. When the crack...... is no longer atomically sharp dislocation emission becomes easier in all the studied metals. The effect is relatively strong; the critical stress intensity factor for emission to occur is reduced by up to 20%. This behaviour appears to be caused by the surface stress near the crack tip. The surface stress...

  18. High brightness beams and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the present research on attaining intense bright electron beams. Thermionic systems are briefly covered. Recent and past results from the photoinjector programs are given. The performance advantages and difficulties presently faced by researchers using photoinjectors is discussed. The progress that has been made in photocathode materials, both in lifetime and quantum efficiency, is covered. Finally, a discussion of emittance measurements of photoinjector systems and how the measurement is complicated by the non-thermal nature of the electron beam is presented

  19. High-brightness electron injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators and synchrotron light sources require pulse trains of high peak brightness and, in some applications, high-average power. Recent developments in the technology of photoemissive and thermionic electron sources in rf cavities for electron-linac injector applications offer promising advances over conventional electron injectors. Reduced emittance growth in high peak-current electron injectors may be achieved by using high field strengths and by linearizing the radial component of the cavity electric field at the expense of lower shunt impedance

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from reservoir water surfaces: A new global synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collectively, reservoirs created by dams are thought to be an important source ofgreenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere. So far, efforts to quantify, model, andmanage these emissions have been limited by data availability and inconsistenciesin methodological approach. Here we ...

  1. Brightness measurement of an electron impact gas ion source for proton beam writing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, N.; Santhana Raman, P. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore); Xu, X.; Pang, R.; Kan, J. A. van, E-mail: phyjavk@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Khursheed, A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore)

    2016-02-15

    We are developing a high brightness nano-aperture electron impact gas ion source, which can create ion beams from a miniature ionization chamber with relatively small virtual source sizes, typically around 100 nm. A prototype source of this kind was designed and successively micro-fabricated using integrated circuit technology. Experiments to measure source brightness were performed inside a field emission scanning electron microscope. The total output current was measured to be between 200 and 300 pA. The highest estimated reduced brightness was found to be comparable to the injecting focused electron beam reduced brightness. This translates into an ion reduced brightness that is significantly better than that of conventional radio frequency ion sources, currently used in single-ended MeV accelerators.

  2. A bright-rimmed cloud sculpted by the H ii region Sh2-48

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, M. E.; Paron, S.; Giacani, E.; Rubio, M.; Dubner, G.

    2013-08-01

    Aims: We characterize a bright-rimmed cloud embedded in the H ii region Sh2-48 while searching for evidence of triggered star formation. Methods: We carried out observations towards a region of 2' × 2' centered at RA = 18h22m11.39s, Dec = -14°35'24.81''(J2000) using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE; Chile) in the 12CO J = 3-2, 13CO J = 3-2, HCO+J = 4-3, and CS J = 7-6 lines with an angular resolution of about 22''. We also present radio continuum observations at 5 GHz carried out with the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA; EEUU) interferometer with a synthetized beam of 7'' × 5''. The molecular transitions were used to study the distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas of the bright-rimmed cloud. The radio continuum data was used to characterize the ionized gas located on the illuminated border of this molecular condensation. Combining these observations with infrared public data allowed us to build up a comprehensive picture of the current state of star formation within this cloud. Results: The analysis of our molecular observations reveals a relatively dense clump with n(H2) ~ 3 × 103cm-3, located in projection onto the interior of the H ii region Sh2-48. The emission distribution of the four observed molecular transitions has, at VLSR ~ 38 km s-1, morphological anticorrelation with the bright-rimmed cloud as seen in the optical emission. From the new radio continuum observations, we identify a thin layer of ionized gas located on the border of the clump that is facing the ionizing star. The ionized gas has an electron density of about 73 cm-3, which is a factor three higher than the typical critical density (nc ~ 25 cm-3), above which an ionized boundary layer can be formed and maintained. This supports the hypothesis that the clump is being photoionized by the nearby O9.5V star, BD-14 5014. From the evaluation of the pressure balance between the ionized and molecular gas, we conclude that the clump would be in a prepressure balance

  3. Atmospheric characterization through fused mobile airborne and surface in situ surveys: methane emissions quantification from a producing oil field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Leifer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 inventory uncertainties are large, requiring robust emission derivation approaches. We report on a fused airborne–surface data collection approach to derive emissions from an active oil field near Bakersfield, central California. The approach characterizes the atmosphere from the surface to above the planetary boundary layer (PBL and combines downwind trace gas concentration anomaly (plume above background with normal winds to derive flux. This approach does not require a well-mixed PBL; allows explicit, data-based, uncertainty evaluation; and was applied to complex topography and wind flows. In situ airborne (collected by AJAX – the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment and mobile surface (collected by AMOG – the AutoMObile trace Gas – Surveyor data were collected on 19 August 2015 to assess source strength. Data included an AMOG and AJAX intercomparison transect profiling from the San Joaquin Valley (SJV floor into the Sierra Nevada (0.1–2.2 km altitude, validating a novel surface approach for atmospheric profiling by leveraging topography. The profile intercomparison found good agreement in multiple parameters for the overlapping altitude range from 500 to 1500 m for the upper 5 % of surface winds, which accounts for wind-impeding structures, i.e., terrain, trees, buildings, etc. Annualized emissions from the active oil fields were 31.3 ± 16 Gg methane and 2.4 ± 1.2 Tg carbon dioxide. Data showed the PBL was not well mixed at distances of 10–20 km downwind, highlighting the importance of the experimental design.

  4. Fluorescence brightness and photostability of individual copper (I) oxide nanocubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohora, Nafisa; Kandjani, Ahmad Esmaielzadeh; Orth, Antony; Brown, Hannah M; Hutchinson, Mark R; Gibson, Brant C

    2017-12-04

    Conventional organic fluorophores lose their ability to fluoresce after repeated exposure to excitation light due to photobleaching. Therefore, research into emerging bright and photostable nanomaterials has become of great interest for a range of applications such as bio-imaging and tracking. Among these emerging fluorophores, metal oxide-based nanomaterials have attracted significant attention as a potential multifunctional material with photocatalytic and angeogenisis abilities in addition to fluorescnce applications. However, most of these applications are highly dependent on size, morphology, and chemo-physical properties of individual particles. In this manuscript, we present a method to study the intrinsic optical characteristics of individual copper (I) oxide (Cu 2 O) nanocubes. When excited at 520 nm using only 11 µW excitation power (1.7 W/cm2), individual nanocubes were observed to emit light with peak wavelengths ~760 nm which is conveniently within the near-infrared 1 (NIR1) biological window where tissue autofluorescence is minimal. Bright and photostable fluorescence was observed with intensities up to 487 K counts/s under constant illumination for at least 2 minutes with a brightness approximately four times higher than the autofluorescence from a fixed cumulus-oocyte complex. With near-IR emission, high fluorescence brightness, and outstanding photostability, Cu 2 O nanocubes are attractive candidates for long-term fluorescent bioimaging applications.

  5. A theoretical and numerical study of polarimetric scattering and emission from random rough surfaces with anisotropic directional spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, S. H.; Kwok, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, theoretical and numerical results of the polarimetric scattering and emission from random rough surfaces with anisotropic directional spectrum are presented for the remote sensing of ocean and soil surfaces. The polarimetric scattered field for rough dielectric surfaces is derived to the second order by the small perturbation method (SPM). It is found that the second-order scattered field is coherent in nature, and its coefficients for different polarizations present the lowest-order corrections to the Fresnel reflection coefficients of the surfaces. In addition, the cross-polarized (HV and VH) components of the coherent fields are reciprocal and not zero for surfaces with anisotropic directional spectrum when the azimuth angle of the incident direction is not aligned with the symmetry directions of surfaces. In order to verify the energy conservation condition of the theoretical results, which is important if the theory is to be applied to the passive polarimetry of rough surfaces, a Monte Carlo simulation is performed to numerically calculate the polarimetric reflectivities of one-dimensional random rough surfaces which are generated with a prescribed power-law spectrum in the spectral domain and transformed to the spatial domain by the FFT. The surfaces simulated by this approach are periodic with the period corresponding to the low-wavenumber cutoff. To calculate the scattering from periodic dielectric surfaces, the authors present a new numerical technique which applies the Floquet theorem to reduce the problem to one period and does not require the evaluation of one-dimensional periodic Green's function used in the conventional method of moment formulation. Once the scattering coefficients are obtained, the polarimetric Stokes vectors for the emission from the random surfaces are then calculated according to the Kirchhoff's law and are illustrated as functions of relative azimuth observation and row directions. The second-order SPM is also

  6. Onset of surface stimulated emission at 260 nm from AlGaN multiple quantum wells

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Xiaohang

    2015-12-14

    We demonstrated onset of deep-ultraviolet (DUV) surface stimulated emission (SE) from c-plane AlGaNmultiple-quantum well(MQW)heterostructuresgrown on a sapphire substrate by optical pumping at room temperature. The onset of SE became observable at a pumping power density of 630 kW/cm2. Spectral deconvolution revealed superposition of a linearly amplified spontaneous emission peak at λ ∼ 257.0 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ∼12 nm and a superlinearly amplified SE peak at λ ∼ 260 nm with a narrow FWHM of less than 2 nm. In particular, the wavelength of ∼260 nm is the shortest wavelength of surface SE from III-nitride MQWheterostructures to date. Atomic force microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements were employed to investigate the material and structural quality of the AlGaNheterostructures, showing smooth surface and sharp layer interfaces. This study offers promising results for AlGaNheterostructuresgrown on sapphire substrates for the development of DUV vertical cavity surface emitting lasers(VCSELs).

  7. Onset of surface stimulated emission at 260 nm from AlGaN multiple quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaohang; Xie, Hongen; Ponce, Fernando A.; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Dupuis, Russell D.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated onset of deep-ultraviolet (DUV) surface stimulated emission (SE) from c-plane AlGaN multiple-quantum well (MQW) heterostructures grown on a sapphire substrate by optical pumping at room temperature. The onset of SE became observable at a pumping power density of 630 kW/cm 2 . Spectral deconvolution revealed superposition of a linearly amplified spontaneous emission peak at λ ∼ 257.0 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ∼12 nm and a superlinearly amplified SE peak at λ ∼ 260 nm with a narrow FWHM of less than 2 nm. In particular, the wavelength of ∼260 nm is the shortest wavelength of surface SE from III-nitride MQW heterostructures to date. Atomic force microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements were employed to investigate the material and structural quality of the AlGaN heterostructures, showing smooth surface and sharp layer interfaces. This study offers promising results for AlGaN heterostructures grown on sapphire substrates for the development of DUV vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs)

  8. On the capability of IASI measurements to inform about CO surface emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Szopa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Between July and November 2008, simultaneous observations were conducted by several orbiting instruments that monitor carbon monoxide in the atmosphere, among them the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Instrument (IASI and Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT. In this paper, the concentration retrievals at about 700 hPa from these two instruments are successively used in a variational Bayesian system to infer the global distribution of CO emissions. Starting from a global emission budget of 479 Tg for the considered period, the posterior estimate of CO emissions using IASI retrievals gives a total of 643 Tg, which is in close agreement with the budget calculated with version 3 of the MOPITT data (649 Tg. The regional totals are also broadly consistent between the two inversions. Even though our theoretical error budget indicates that IASI constrains the emissions slightly less than MOPITT, because of lesser sensitivity in the lower troposphere, these first results indicate that IASI may play a major role in the quantification of the emissions of CO.

  9. Enhanced electron emission from coated metal targets: Effect of surface thickness on performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madas, Saibabu; Mishra, S. K.; Upadhyay Kahaly, Mousumi

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we establish an analytical formalism to address the temperature dependent electron emission from a metallic target with thin coating, operating at a finite temperature. Taking into account three dimensional parabolic energy dispersion for the target (base) material and suitable thickness dependent energy dispersion for the coating layer, Fermi Dirac statistics of electron energy distribution and Fowler's mechanism of the electron emission, we discuss the dependence of the emission flux on the physical properties such as the Fermi level, work function, thickness of the coating material, and operating temperature. Our systematic estimation of how the thickness of coating affects the emission current demonstrates superior emission characteristics for thin coating layer at high temperature (above 1000 K), whereas in low temperature regime, a better response is expected from thicker coating layer. This underlying fundamental behavior appears to be essentially identical for all configurations when work function of the coating layer is lower than that of the bulk target work function. The analysis and predictions could be useful in designing new coated materials with suitable thickness for applications in the field of thin film devices and field emitters.

  10. Enhanced electron emission from coated metal targets: Effect of surface thickness on performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saibabu Madas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we establish an analytical formalism to address the temperature dependent electron emission from a metallic target with thin coating, operating at a finite temperature. Taking into account three dimensional parabolic energy dispersion for the target (base material and suitable thickness dependent energy dispersion for the coating layer, Fermi Dirac statistics of electron energy distribution and Fowler’s mechanism of the electron emission, we discuss the dependence of the emission flux on the physical properties such as the Fermi level, work function, thickness of the coating material, and operating temperature. Our systematic estimation of how the thickness of coating affects the emission current demonstrates superior emission characteristics for thin coating layer at high temperature (above 1000 K, whereas in low temperature regime, a better response is expected from thicker coating layer. This underlying fundamental behavior appears to be essentially identical for all configurations when work function of the coating layer is lower than that of the bulk target work function. The analysis and predictions could be useful in designing new coated materials with suitable thickness for applications in the field of thin film devices and field emitters.

  11. Improved ferroelectric/piezoelectric properties and bright green/UC red emission in (Li,Ho)-doped CaBi4Ti4O15 multifunctional ceramics with excellent temperature stability and superior water-resistance performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ping; Guo, Yongquan; Tian, Mijie; Zheng, Qiaoji; Jiang, Na; Wu, Xiaochun; Xia, Zhiguo; Lin, Dunmin

    2015-10-21

    Multifunctional materials based on rare earth ion doped ferro/piezoelectrics have attracted considerable attention in recent years. In this work, new lead-free multifunctional ceramics of Ca1-x(LiHo)x/2Bi4Ti4O15 were prepared by a conventional solid-state reaction method. The great multi-improvement in ferroelectricity/piezoelectricity, down/up-conversion luminescence and temperature stability of the multifunctional properties is induced by the partial substitution of (Li0.5Ho0.5)(2+) for Ca(2+) ions in CaBi4Ti4O15. All the ceramics possess a bismuth-layer structure, and the crystal structure of the ceramics is changed from a four layered bismuth-layer structure to a three-layered structure with the level of (Li0.5Ho0.5)(2+) increasing. The ceramic with x = 0.1 exhibits simultaneously, high resistivity (R = 4.51 × 10(11)Ω cm), good piezoelectricity (d33 = 10.2 pC N(-1)), high Curie temperature (TC = 814 °C), strong ferroelectricity (Pr = 9.03 μC cm(-2)) and enhanced luminescence. These behaviours are greatly associated with the contribution of (Li0.5Ho0.5)(2+) in the ceramics. Under the excitation of 451 nm light, the ceramic with x = 0.1 exhibits a strong green emission peak centered at 545 nm, corresponding to the transition of the (5)S2→(5)I8 level in Ho(3+) ions, while a strong red up-conversion emission band located at 660 nm is observed under the near-infrared excitation of 980 nm at room temperature, arising from the transition of (5)F5→(5)I8 levels in Ho(3+) ions. Surprisingly, the excellent temperature stability of ferroelectricity/piezoelectricity/luminescence and superior water-resistance behaviors of piezoelectricity/luminescence are also obtained in the ceramic with x = 0.1. Our study suggests that the present ceramics may have potential applications in advanced multifunctional devices at high temperature.

  12. Apparatus and procedure to characterize the surface quality of conductors by measuring the rate of cathode emission as a function of surface electric field strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestayer, Mac; Christo, Steve; Taylor, Mark

    2014-10-21

    A device and method for characterizing quality of a conducting surface. The device including a gaseous ionizing chamber having centrally located inside the chamber a conducting sample to be tested to which a negative potential is applied, a plurality of anode or "sense" wires spaced regularly about the central test wire, a plurality of "field wires" at a negative potential are spaced regularly around the sense, and a plurality of "guard wires" at a positive potential are spaced regularly around the field wires in the chamber. The method utilizing the device to measure emission currents from the conductor.

  13. The role of surface and deep-level defects on the emission of tin oxide quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Vinod; Kumar, Vijay; Som, S; Ntwaeaborwa, O M; Swart, H C; Neethling, J H; Lee, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the role of surface and deep-level defects on the blue emission of tin oxide quantum dots (SnO 2 QDs) synthesized by the solution-combustion method at different combustion temperatures. X-ray diffraction studies showed the formation of a single rutile SnO 2 phase with a tetragonal lattice structure. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies revealed an increase in the average dot size from 2.2 to 3.6 nm with an increase of the combustion temperature from 350 to 550 °C. A decrease in the band gap value from 3.37 to 2.76 eV was observed with the increase in dot size due to the quantum confinement effect. The photoluminescence emission was measured for excitation at 325 nm and it showed a broad blue emission band for all the combustion temperatures studied. This was due to the creation of various oxygen and tin vacancies/defects as confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data. The origin of the blue emission in the SnO 2 QDs is discussed with the help of an energy band diagram. (paper)

  14. Flexible Ag-C60 nano-biosensors based on surface plasmon coupled emission for clinical and forensic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulpur, Pradyumna; Yadavilli, Sairam; Mulpur, Praharsha; Kondiparthi, Neeharika; Sengupta, Bishwambhar; Rao, Apparao M; Podila, Ramakrishna; Kamisetti, Venkataramaniah

    2015-10-14

    The relatively low sensitivity of fluorescence detection schemes, which are mainly limited by the isotropic nature of fluorophore emission, can be overcome by utilizing surface plasmon coupled emission (SPCE). In this study, we demonstrate directional emission from fluorophores on flexible Ag-C60 SPCE sensor platforms for point-of-care sensing, in healthcare and forensic sensing scenarios, with at least 10 times higher sensitivity than traditional fluorescence sensing schemes. Adopting the highly sensitive Ag-C60 SPCE platform based on glass and novel low-cost flexible substrates, we report the unambiguous detection of acid-fast Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) bacteria at densities as low as 20 Mtb mm(-2); from non-acid-fast bacteria (e.g., E. coli and S. aureus), and the specific on-site detection of acid-fast sperm cells in human semen samples. In combination with the directional emission and high-sensitivity of SPCE platforms, we also demonstrate the utility of smartphones that can replace expensive and cumbersome detectors to enable rapid hand-held detection of analytes in resource-limited settings; a much needed critical advance to biosensors, for developing countries.

  15. Studying the Impacts of Environmental Factors and Agricultural Management on Methane Emissions from Rice Paddies Using a Land Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. S.; Gahlot, S.; Shu, S.; Jain, A. K.; Kheshgi, H. S.

    2017-12-01

    Continued growth in population is projected to drive increased future demand for rice and the methane emissions associated with its production. However, observational studies of methane emissions from rice have reported seemingly conflicting results and do not all support this projection. In this study we couple an ecophysiological process-based rice paddy module and a methane emission module with a land surface model, Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM), to study the impacts of various environmental factors and agricultural management practices on rice production and methane emissions from rice fields. This coupled modeling framework accounts for dynamic rice growth processes with adaptation of photosynthesis, rice-specific phenology, biomass accumulation, leaf area development and structures responses to water, temperature, light and nutrient stresses. The coupled model is calibrated and validated with observations from various rice cultivation fields. We find that the differing results of observational studies can be caused by the interactions of environmental factors, including climate, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and N deposition, and agricultural management practices, such as irrigation and N fertilizer applications, with rice production at spatial and temporal scales.

  16. The zonal structure of tropical O3 and CO as observed by the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer in November 2004 – Part 2: Impact of surface emissions on O3 and its precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Osterman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of surface emissions on the zonal structure of tropical tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide is investigated for November 2004 using satellite observations, in-situ measurements, and chemical transport models in conjunction with inverse-estimated surface emissions.Vertical ozone profiles from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES and ozone sonde measurements from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ network show elevated concentrations of ozone over Indonesia and Australia (60–70 ppb in the lower troposphere against the backdrop of the well-known zonal "wave-one" pattern with ozone concentrations of (70–80 ppb centered over the Atlantic . Observational evidence from TES CO vertical profiles and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI NO2 columns point to regional surface emissions as an important contributor to the elevated ozone over Indonesia. This contribution is investigated with the GEOS-Chem chemistry and transport model using surface emission estimates derived from an optimal inverse model, which was constrained by TES and Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT CO profiles (Jones et al., 2009. These a posteriori estimates, which were over a factor of 2 greater than climatological emissions, reduced differences between GEOS-Chem and TES ozone observations by 30–40% over Indonesia. The response of the free tropospheric chemical state to the changes in these emissions is investigated for ozone, CO, NOx, and PAN. Model simulations indicate that ozone over Indonesian/Australian is sensitive to regional changes in surface emissions of NOx but relatively insensitive to lightning NOx. Over sub-equatorial Africa and South America, free tropospheric NOx was reduced in response to increased surface emissions potentially muting ozone production.

  17. NASA's MODIS/VIIRS Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Products: Asssessment of Accuracy, Continuity and Science Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulley, G. C.; Malakar, N.; Islam, T.

    2017-12-01

    Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST&E) are an important Earth System Data Record (ESDR) and Environmental Climate Variable (ECV) defined by NASA and GCOS respectively. LST&E data are key variables used in land cover/land use change studies, in surface energy balance and atmospheric water vapor retrieval models and retrievals, and in climate research. LST&E products are currently produced on a routine basis using data from the MODIS instruments on the NASA EOS platforms and by the VIIRS instrument on the Suomi-NPP platform that serves as a bridge between NASA EOS and the next-generation JPSS platforms. Two new NASA LST&E products for MODIS (MxD21) and VIIRS (VNP21) are being produced during 2017 using a new approach that addresses discrepancies in accuracy and consistency between the current suite of split-window based LST products. The new approach uses a Temperature Emissivity Separation (TES) algorithm, originally developed for the ASTER instrument, to physically retrieve both LST and spectral emissivity consistently for both sensors with high accuracy and well defined uncertainties. This study provides a rigorous assessment of accuracy of the MxD21/VNP21 products using temperature- and radiance-based validation strategies and demonstrates continuity between the products using collocated matchups over CONUS. We will further demonstrate potential science use of the new products with studies related to heat waves, monitoring snow melt dynamics, and land cover/land use change.

  18. Analysis of Field Emission of Fabricated Nanogap in Pd Strips for Surface Conduction Electron-Emitter Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hsiang-Yu; Li, Yiming; Tsai, Chih-Hao; Pan, Fu-Ming

    2008-04-01

    We study the field emission (FE) property of a nanometer-scale gap structure in a palladium strip, which was fabricated by hydrogen absorption under high-pressure treatment. A vigorous cracking process could be accompanied by extensive atomic migration during the hydrogen treatment. A three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain particle-in-cell method is adopted to simulate the electron emission in a surface-conduction electron-emitter display (SED) device. Examinations of conducting characteristics, FE efficiency, the local field around the emitter, and the current density on the anode plate with one FE emitter are conducted. The image of a light spot is successfully produced on a phosphor plate, which implies that the explored electrode with nanometer separation possesses a potential SED application. Experimental observation and numerical simulation show that the proposed structure can be used as a surface conduction electron emitter and has a high FE efficiency with low turn-on voltage and a different electron emission mechanism. This study benefits the advanced SED design for a new type of electron source.

  19. Satellite-derived ice data sets no. 2: Arctic monthly average microwave brightness temperatures and sea ice concentrations, 1973-1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, C. L.; Comiso, J. C.; Zwally, H. J.

    1987-01-01

    A summary data set for four years (mid 70's) of Arctic sea ice conditions is available on magnetic tape. The data include monthly and yearly averaged Nimbus 5 electrically scanning microwave radiometer (ESMR) brightness temperatures, an ice concentration parameter derived from the brightness temperatures, monthly climatological surface air temperatures, and monthly climatological sea level pressures. All data matrices are applied to 293 by 293 grids that cover a polar stereographic map enclosing the 50 deg N latitude circle. The grid size varies from about 32 X 32 km at the poles to about 28 X 28 km at 50 deg N. The ice concentration parameter is calculated assuming that the field of view contains only open water and first-year ice with an ice emissivity of 0.92. To account for the presence of multiyear ice, a nomogram is provided relating the ice concentration parameter, the total ice concentration, and the fraction of the ice cover which is multiyear ice.

  20. Work function and surface stability of tungsten-based thermionic electron emission cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ryan; Morgan, Dane; Booske, John

    2017-11-01

    Materials that exhibit a low work function and therefore easily emit electrons into vacuum form the basis of electronic devices used in applications ranging from satellite communications to thermionic energy conversion. W-Ba-O is the canonical materials system that functions as the thermionic electron emitter commercially used in a range of high-power electron devices. However, the work functions, surface stability, and kinetic characteristics of a polycrystalline W emitter surface are still not well understood or characterized. In this study, we examined the work function and surface stability of the eight lowest index surfaces of the W-Ba-O system using density functional theory methods. We found that under the typical thermionic cathode operating conditions of high temperature and low oxygen partial pressure, the most stable surface adsorbates are Ba-O species with compositions in the range of Ba0.125O-Ba0.25O per surface W atom, with O passivating all dangling W bonds and Ba creating work function-lowering surface dipoles. Wulff construction analysis reveals that the presence of O and Ba significantly alters the surface energetics and changes the proportions of surface facets present under equilibrium conditions. Analysis of previously published data on W sintering kinetics suggests that fine W particles in the size range of 100-500 nm may be at or near equilibrium during cathode synthesis and thus may exhibit surface orientation fractions well described by the calculated Wulff construction.

  1. Increasing the Brightness of Light Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Ling

    2006-01-01

    In modern illumination systems, compact size and high brightness are important features. Light recycling allows an increase of the spectral radiance (brightness) emitted by a light source for the price of reducing the total radiant power. Light recycling means returning part of the emitted light to the source where part of it will escape absorption. As a result, the output brightness can be increased in a restricted phase space, ...

  2. Molecular effects in ion-electron emission from clean metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baragiola, R.A.; Alonso, E.V.; Auciello, O.; Ferron, J.; Lantschner, G.; Oliva Florio, A.

    1978-01-01

    The authors have measured electron emission yields from clean Al, Cu and Ag under 2-50 keV H + , D + , H 2 + impact. It is found that molecular ion yields are lower than twice the yield of atomic ions. No isotope effects are observed for equal-velocity ions. (Auth.)

  3. Spatial variability in nitrous oxide and methane emissions from beef cattle feedyard pen surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle feedlots include enteric carbon dioxide and methane, and manure-derived methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide. Enteric methane comprises the largest portion of the greenhouse gas footprint of beef cattle feedyards. For the manure component, methane is th...

  4. Kinetic electron emission from metal surfaces induced by impact of slow ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šroubek, Zdeněk; Lorinčík, Jan

    -, č. 625 (2014), s. 7-9 ISSN 0039-6028 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10086 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Ion induced kinetic electron emission * Electronic excitation Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.925, year: 2014

  5. The effect of MAO processing time on surface properties and low temperature infrared emissivity of ceramic coating on aluminium 6061 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Bosta, Mohannad M. S.; Ma, Keng-Jeng; Chien, Hsi-Hsin

    2013-09-01

    MAO ceramic coatings were prepared on aluminium 6061 surfaces at different treating durations (10, 20, ... 60 min), using alkali silicate electrolyte and pulsed bipolar current mode. The surface microstructures and properties were studied using SEM, XRD, EDX and a surface roughness tester. Image-Pro Plus and MATCH! softwares were used to analyze SEM micrographs and XRD results, respectively. The infrared emissivities of the ceramic coatings were measured at the 70 °C using FTIR spectrometer. We found a linear correlation between the volcano-like area and the surface roughness. The compositions and phases were associated with the volcano-like population and area. The curve of IR spectral emissivity was influenced by surface roughness, γ-alumina, sillimanite and cristobalite phases. The emissivity was enhanced by the surface roughness in the ranges 4.0-9.6 μm and 10.5-14.8 μm. In the range 7.0-8.0 μm, α-alumina and sillimanite phases enhanced the emissivity, while the cristobalite has a negative impact to the emissivity. A negative contributions were found for α-alumina in the region 9.6-16.0 μm and for the surface thickness in the region 15.0-16.0 μm. Overall, the average of long wave infrared (LWIR) emissivity ranged from 87.05% to 91.65%.

  6. Transparent organic light-emitting diodes with balanced white emission by minimizing waveguide and surface plasmonic loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Bo; Ou, Qing-Dong; Li, Yan-Qing; Chen, Jing-De; Zhao, Xin-Dong; Wei, Jian; Xie, Zhong-Zhi; Tang, Jian-Xin

    2017-07-10

    It is challenging in realizing high-performance transparent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with symmetrical light emission to both sides. Herein, an efficient transparent OLED with highly balanced white emission to both sides is demonstrated by integrating quasi-periodic nanostructures into the organic emitter and the metal-dielectric composite top electrode, which can simultaneously suppressing waveguide and surface plasmonic loss. The power efficiency and external quantum efficiency are raised to 83.5 lm W -1 and 38.8%, respectively, along with a bi-directional luminance ratio of 1.26. The proposed scheme provides a facile route for extending application scope of transparent OLEDs for future transparent displays and lightings.

  7. Localization of burn mark under an abnormal topography on MOSFET chip surface using liquid crystal and emission microscopy tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C K; Sim, K S; Tso, C P

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the localization of burn mark in MOSFET and the scanning electron microscope (SEM) inspection on the defect location. When a suspect abnormal topography is shown on the die surface, further methods to pin-point the defect location is necessary. Fault localization analysis becomes important because an abnormal spot on the chip surface may and may not have a defect underneath it. The chip surface topography can change due to the catastrophic damage occurred at layers under the chip surface, but it could also be due to inconsistency during metal deposition in the wafer fabrication process. Two localization techniques, liquid crystal thermography and emission microscopy, were performed to confirm that the abnormal topography spot is the actual defect location. The tiny burn mark was surfaced by performing a surface decoration at the defect location using hot hydrochloric acid. SEM imaging, which has the high magnification and three-dimensional capabilities, was used to capture the images of the burn mark. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Search for bright nearby M dwarfs with virtual observatory tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aberasturi, M.; Caballero, J. A.; Montesinos, B.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; Solano, E.; Martín, E. L. [Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Departamento de Astrofísica, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Using Virtual Observatory tools, we cross-matched the Carlsberg Meridian 14 and the 2MASS Point Source catalogs to select candidate nearby bright M dwarfs distributed over ∼25,000 deg{sup 2}. Here, we present reconnaissance low-resolution optical spectra for 27 candidates that were observed with the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph at the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope (R≈ 1600). We derived spectral types from a new spectral index, R, which measures the ratio of fluxes at 7485-7015 Å and 7120-7150 Å. We also used VOSA, a Virtual Observatory tool for spectral energy distribution fitting, to derive effective temperatures and surface gravities for each candidate. The resulting 27 targets were M dwarfs brighter than J = 10.5 mag, 16 of which were completely new in the Northern hemisphere and 7 of which were located at less than 15 pc. For all of them, we also measured Hα and Na I pseudo-equivalent widths, determined photometric distances, and identified the most active stars. The targets with the weakest sodium absorption, namely, J0422+2439 (with X-ray and strong Hα emissions), J0435+2523, and J0439+2333, are new members in the young Taurus-Auriga star-forming region based on proper motion, spatial distribution, and location in the color-magnitude diagram, which reopens the discussion on the deficit of M2-4 Taurus stars. Finally, based on proper motion diagrams, we report on a new wide M dwarf binary system in the field, LSPM J0326+3929EW.

  9. Enhanced brightness x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, A.S.; Cauble, R.C.; Da Silva, L.B.; Moreno, J.C.; Nilsen, J.

    1994-09-01

    We are developing short-pulsed, enhanced-brightness, and coherent x-ray lasers (XRLs) for applications in areas such as plasma imaging. In a traveling wave pump setup the optical laser creating the XRL plasma sweeps along the lasant axis at the same speed as the x-rays. This technique becomes increasingly important as the target length increases and the gain duration shortens. An order of magnitude increase in output energy was measured with vs without traveling wave pump. Using multiple pulse techniques and multilayer mirrors to inject the output of one pulse back into the plasma formed by a later pulse we have begun to develop the x-ray analog of a multi-pass amplifler. The use of multiple pulses separated by as much as 1.6 ns reduces multilayer mirror damage. This injection technique is demonstrated by imaging the near-field emission profiles of the XRL. The addition of multilayer beamsplitter will allow us to effectively produce a soft XRL cavity

  10. The Los Alamos high-brightness photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shea, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    For a number of years Los Alamos National Laboratory has been developing photocathode RF guns for high-brightness electron beam applications such as free-electron lasers (FELs). Previously thermionic high-voltage guns have been the source of choice for the electron accelerators used to drive FELs. The performance of such FELs is severely limited by the emittance growth produced by the subharmonic bunching process and also by the low peak current of the source. In a photoinjector, a laser driven photocathode is placed directly in a high-gradient RF accelerating cavity. A photocathode allows unsurpassed control over the current, and the spatial and temporal profile of the beam. In addition the electrodeless emission'' avoids many of the difficulties associated with multi-electrode guns, i.e. the electrons are accelerated very rapidly to relativistic energies, and there are no electrodes to distort the accelerating fields. For the past two years we have been integrating a photocathode into our existing FEL facility by replacing our thermionic gun and subharmonic bunchers with a high-gradient 1.3 GHz photoinjector. The photoinjector, which is approximately 0.6 m in length, produces 6 MeV, 300 A, 15 ps linac, and accelerated to a final energy of 40 MeV. We have recently begun lasing at wavelengths near 3 {mu}m. 16 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Optical Observations of X-ray Bright, Optically Normal Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadun, Alberto C.; Aryan, N. S.; Ghosh, K. K.

    2007-05-01

    X-ray bright, optically normal galaxies (XBONGs) are galaxies that seem to have normal spectra and morphology, but are relatively bright x-ray sources. The large ratio of the x-ray to optical emission suggests that some activity, similar to that of active galactic nuclei (AGN), is occurring. Since the galaxies do not show any obvious sign of nuclear activity in their optical spectra, one possible explanation is that these galaxies do not have an optically thick accretion disk at small radii, as previously assumed. Previous data for NGC 7626 classifies it as an XBONG, and so we are studying optical features of this galaxy in order to determine better its features. After confirming an x-ray jet, we are now comparing this to optical features that we have found, including warped dust lanes and a possible optical jet.

  12. Very bright, near-infrared single photon emitters in diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. M. Lau

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate activation of bright diamond single photon emitters in the near infrared range by thermal annealing alone, i.e., without ion implantation. The activation is crucially dependent on the annealing ambient. The activation of the single photon emitters is only observed when the sample is annealed in forming gas (4% H2 in Ar above temperatures of 1000 °C. By contrast, no emitters are activated by annealing in vacuum, oxygen, argon or deuterium. The emitters activated by annealing in forming gas exhibit very bright emission in the 730-760 nm wavelength range and have linewidths of ∼1.5-2.5 nm at room temperature.

  13. Brightness of the photosphere and faculae at the limb based on eclipse observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akimov, L.A.; Belkina, I.L.; Dyatel, N.P.

    1982-05-01

    The absolute distributions of integral and surface brightness of the photospheric continuum (lambdaroughly-equal5870 A) and in faculae at the very limb are obtained from slitless spectrograms of the total solar eclipse of July 10, 1972. Several possible reasons for the brightness increase toward the limb in the distribution of photospheric surface brightness are discussed. The faculae showed high contrasts, up to 1.76 at a height of 200 km from the limb. A comparison of the times of local contacts observed and calculated with allowance for lunar relief showed that the active regions are at about 300 km above the photosphere. A schematic model of a facula is proposed.

  14. Particle emission induced by the interaction of highly charged slow Xe-ions with a SiO2 surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiwietz, G.; Skogvall, B.; Schneider, D.; Clark, M.; DeWitt, D.; McDonald, J.

    1991-01-01

    Sputtering of surface atoms by low energy (a few keV) heavy ions is a commonly used technique in material science and applied physics. In general, sputtering occurs via nuclear energy transfer processes and is determined mainly by the atom-atom interaction potentials. In the energy range of interest these potentials depend only slightly on the charge state of one collision partner if the other is neutral. The development of new ion-sources, however, allows for the use of ions with charged states of q > 50. For these highly charged ions it is conceivable that electronic processes come into play as well. If, for example, the density of charged surface atoms exceeds a certain limit, then particle emission can occur via the electrostatic repulsion of target atoms, the so-called Coulomb explosion. Indications for such electronic effects have been found in a few investigations of ion-induced sputtering Si (q q+ ). However, the order of magnitude of this effect is not clear until now. In this work we present preliminary data on sputtering, ion backscattering, electron and photon emission from SiO 2 surface induced by incident Xe ions of very high charge states (q=30--50). The experiment was performed at the electron beam ion trap (EBIT) of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using a time-of-flight (TOF) ion analyzer-system from the Hahn-Meitner-Institute, Berlin

  15. Application of Gauss's theorem to quantify localized surface emissions from airborne measurements of wind and trace gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Stephen; Faloona, Ian; Mehrotra, Shobhit; Suard, Maxime; Lenschow, Donald H.; Sweeney, Colm; Herndon, Scott; Schwietzke, Stefan; Pétron, Gabrielle; Pifer, Justin; Kort, Eric A.; Schnell, Russell

    2017-09-01

    Airborne estimates of greenhouse gas emissions are becoming more prevalent with the advent of rapid commercial development of trace gas instrumentation featuring increased measurement accuracy, precision, and frequency, and the swelling interest in the verification of current emission inventories. Multiple airborne studies have indicated that emission inventories may underestimate some hydrocarbon emission sources in US oil- and gas-producing basins. Consequently, a proper assessment of the accuracy of these airborne methods is crucial to interpreting the meaning of such discrepancies. We present a new method of sampling surface sources of any trace gas for which fast and precise measurements can be made and apply it to methane, ethane, and carbon dioxide on spatial scales of ˜ 1000 m, where consecutive loops are flown around a targeted source region at multiple altitudes. Using Reynolds decomposition for the scalar concentrations, along with Gauss's theorem, we show that the method accurately accounts for the smaller-scale turbulent dispersion of the local plume, which is often ignored in other average mass balance methods. With the help of large eddy simulations (LES) we further show how the circling radius can be optimized for the micrometeorological conditions encountered during any flight. Furthermore, by sampling controlled releases of methane and ethane on the ground we can ascertain that the accuracy of the method, in appropriate meteorological conditions, is often better than 10 %, with limits of detection below 5 kg h-1 for both methane and ethane. Because of the FAA-mandated minimum flight safe altitude of 150 m, placement of the aircraft is critical to preventing a large portion of the emission plume from flowing underneath the lowest aircraft sampling altitude, which is generally the leading source of uncertainty in these measurements. Finally, we show how the accuracy of the method is strongly dependent on the number of sampling loops and/or time

  16. MODELING THE ANOMALY OF SURFACE NUMBER DENSITIES OF GALAXIES ON THE GALACTIC EXTINCTION MAP DUE TO THEIR FIR EMISSION CONTAMINATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwagi, Toshiya; Suto, Yasushi; Taruya, Atsushi; Yahata, Kazuhiro [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kayo, Issha [Department of Physics, Toho University, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8510 (Japan); Nishimichi, Takahiro, E-mail: kashiwagi@utap.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    The most widely used Galactic extinction map is constructed assuming that the observed far-infrared (FIR) fluxes come entirely from Galactic dust. According to the earlier suggestion by Yahata et al., we consider how FIR emission of galaxies affects the SFD map. We first compute the surface number density of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 galaxies as a function of the r-band extinction, A {sub r,} {sub SFD}. We confirm that the surface densities of those galaxies positively correlate with A {sub r,} {sub SFD} for A {sub r,} {sub SFD} < 0.1, as first discovered by Yahata et al. for SDSS DR4 galaxies. Next we construct an analytical model to compute the surface density of galaxies, taking into account the contamination of their FIR emission. We adopt a log-normal probability distribution for the ratio of 100 μm and r-band luminosities of each galaxy, y ≡ (νL){sub 100} {sub μm}/(νL) {sub r}. Then we search for the mean and rms values of y that fit the observed anomaly, using the analytical model. The required values to reproduce the anomaly are roughly consistent with those measured from the stacking analysis of SDSS galaxies. Due to the limitation of our statistical modeling, we are not yet able to remove the FIR contamination of galaxies from the extinction map. Nevertheless, the agreement with the model prediction suggests that the FIR emission of galaxies is mainly responsible for the observed anomaly. Whereas the corresponding systematic error in the Galactic extinction map is 0.1-1 mmag, it is directly correlated with galaxy clustering and thus needs to be carefully examined in precision cosmology.

  17. Ocean Surface Emissivity at L-band (1.4 GHz): The Dependence on Salinity and Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVine, D. M.; Lang, R.; Wentz, F.; Messiner, T.

    2012-01-01

    A characterization of the emissivity of sea water at L-band is important for the remote sensing of sea surface salinity. Measurements of salinity are currently being made in the radio astronomy band at 1.413 GHz by ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission and NASA's Aquarius instrument aboard the Aquarius/SAC-D observatory. The goal of both missions is accuracy on the order of 0.1 psu. This requires accurate knowledge of the dielectric constant of sea water as a function of salinity and temperature and also the effect of waves (roughness). The former determines the emissivity of an ideal (i.e. flat) surface and the later is the major source of error from predictions based on a flat surface. These two aspects of the problem of characterizing the emissivity are being addressed in the context of the Aquarius mission. First, laboratory measurements are being made of the dielectric constant of sea water. This is being done at the George Washington University using a resonant cavity. In this technique, sea water of known salinity and temperature is fed into the cavity along its axis through a narrow tube. The sea water changes the resonant frequency and Q of the cavity which, if the sample is small enough, can be related to the dielectric constant of the sample. An extensive set of measurements have been conducted at 1.413 GHz to develop a model for the real and imaginary part of the dielectric constant as a function of salinity and temperature. The results are compared to the predictions of models based on parameterization of the Debye resonance of the water molecule. The models and measurements are close; however, the differences are significant for remote sensing of salinity. This is especially true at low temperatures where the sensitivity to salinity is lowest.

  18. Impacts of population growth, urbanisation and sanitation changes on global human Cryptosporidium emissions to surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstra, Nynke; Vermeulen-Henstra, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a pathogenic protozoan parasite and is a leading cause of diarrhoea worldwide. The concentration of Cryptosporidium in the surface water is a determinant for probability of exposure and the risk of disease. Surface water concentrations are expected to change with population

  19. Advanced Analysis of the Influence of Clouds, Precipiation and Surface Emissivity on DMSP/NPOESS Satellite Microwave Channels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isaacs, R

    2002-01-01

    ...: development of databases of brightness temperatures from various satellite sensors; development databases of conventional analysis to verify the presence and amount of clouds and precipitation and for verification of retrieval results...

  20. Characterization of leached surface layers on simulated high-level waste glasses by sputter-induced optical emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houser, C.; Tsong, I.S.T.; White, W.B.

    1979-01-01

    The leaching process in simulated waste encapsulant glasses was studied by measuring the compositional depth-profiles of H (from water), the glass framework formers Si and B, the alkalis Na and Cs, the alkaline earths Ca and Sr, the transition metals Mo and Fe, the rare-earths La, Ce, and Nd, using the technique of sputter-induced optical emission. The leaching process of these glasses is highly complex. In addition to alkali/hydrogen exchange, there is breakdown of the glass framework, build-up of barrier layers on the surface, and formation of layered reaction zones of distinctly different chemistry all within the outer micrometer of the glass

  1. Application of homotopy perturbation method for a conductive–radiative fin with temperature dependent thermal conductivity and surface emissivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranab Kanti Roy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at studying the effects of environmental temperature and surface emissivity parameter on the temperature distribution, efficiency and heat transfer rate of a conductive–radiative fin. The Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM being one of the semi-numerical methods for highly nonlinear and inhomogeneous equations, the local temperature distribution efficiencies and heat transfer rates are obtained using HPM in which Newton–Raphson method is used for the insulated boundary condition. It is found that the results of the present works are in good agreement with results available in the literature.

  2. The bright-bright and bright-dark mode coupling-based planar metamaterial for plasmonic EIT-like effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Meng, Hongyun; Chen, Zhangjie; Li, Xianping; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Faqiang; Wei, Zhongchao; Tan, Chunhua; Huang, Xuguang; Li, Shuti

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel planar metamaterial structure for the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like effect, which consists of a split-ring resonator (SRR) and a pair of metal strips. The simulated results indicate that a single transparency window can be realized in the symmetry situation, which originates from the bright-bright mode coupling. Further, a dual-band EIT-like effect can be achieved in the asymmetry situation, which is due to the bright-bright mode coupling and bright-dark mode coupling, respectively. Different EIT-like effect can be simultaneously achieved in the proposed structure with the different situations. It is of certain significance for the study of EIT-like effect.

  3. Dominant role of dielectron satellites in emission spectra of laser plasma near target surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozmej, F.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that satellite structures of resonance lines may become more intensive than resonance lines themselves. The experimental and theoretical studies show that the conditions whereby the satellite structures become predominant in the plasma emission spectrum, are sufficiently easily realized in the experiment and moreover they obviously will present typical cases by studies on the plasma condensed areas in the experiments on inertial thermonuclear synthesis and by investigation of plasma, created through pico- and femtosecond laser pulses of high contrast

  4. Emissivity of Candidate Materials for VHTR Applicationbs: Role of Oxidation and Surface Modification Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Anderson, Mark; Cao, Guoping; Kulcinski, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    The Generation IV (GEN IV) Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative was instituted by the Department of Energy (DOE) with the goal of researching and developing technologies and materials necessary for various types of future reactors. These GEN IV reactors will employ advanced fuel cycles, passive safety systems, and other innovative systems, leading to significant differences between these future reactors and current water-cooled reactors. The leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) to be built at Idaho National Lab (INL) in the United States is the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Due to the high operating temperatures of the VHTR, the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) will partially rely on heat transfer by radiation for cooling. Heat expulsion by radiation will become all the more important during high temperature excursions during off-normal accident scenarios. Radiant power is dictated by emissivity, a material property. The NGNP Materials Research and Development Program Plan (1) has identified emissivity and the effects of high temperature oxide formation on emissivity as an area of research towards the development of the VHTR.

  5. Investigation on surface-plasmon-enhanced light emission of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenzhong; Li, Qiang; Fan, Qigao; Zhu, Yixin

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate surface-plasmon (SP) enhanced light emission from InGaN/GaN near ultraviolet (NUV) multiple quantum wells (MQWs) using Ag thin films and nano-particles (NPs). Two types of Ag NP arrays are fabricated on the NUV-MQWs, one is fabricated on p-GaN layer with three different sizes of about 120, 160 and 240 nm formed by self-assembled process, while the other is embedded close to the MQWs. In addition, the influence of the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) and localized surface plasmon (LSP) in NUV-MQWs has been investigated by photoluminescence (PL) measurement. Both PL measurements and theoretical simulation results show that the NUV light would be extracted more effectively under LSP mode than that of SPP mode. The highest enhancement of PL intensity is increased by 324% for the sample with NPs embedded in etched p-GaN near the MQWs as compared with the bare MQWs, also is about 1.24 times higher than the MQW sample covered with Ag NPs on the surface, indicating strong surface scattering and SP coupling between Ag NPs and NUV-MQWs.

  6. Secondary ion emission from cleaned surfaces bombarded by 100 MeV accelerator beams at the GSI Darmstadt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wien, K.; Becker, O.; Guthier, W.; Knippelberg, W.; Koczon, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1.4 MeV/n beam facility for the UNILAC/GSI has been used to study secondary ion emission from surfaces cleaned under UHV conditions by ion etching or cleaving of crystals. The desorption phenomena observed by means of TOF mass spectrometry can be classified as follows: (1) Clean metal surfaces emit metal ions being ejected by atomic collisions cascades. Electronic excitation of surface states seems to support ionization. (2) The desorption of contaminants adsorbed at the metal surface is strongly correlated with the electronic energy loss of the projectiles - even, if the content of impurities is very low. (3) Ion formation at the epitaxial surface of fluoride crystals as CaF 2 , MgF 2 and NaF is initiated by the electronic excitation of the crystal. At high beam energies the mass spectrum is dominated by a series of cluster ions. These cluster ions disappear below a certain energy deposit threshold, whereas small atomic ions are observed over the whole energy range

  7. RESOLVE: A new algorithm for aperture synthesis imaging of extended emission in radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junklewitz, H.; Bell, M. R.; Selig, M.; Enßlin, T. A.

    2016-02-01

    We present resolve, a new algorithm for radio aperture synthesis imaging of extended and diffuse emission in total intensity. The algorithm is derived using Bayesian statistical inference techniques, estimating the surface brightness in the sky assuming a priori log-normal statistics. resolve estimates the measured sky brightness in total intensity, and the spatial correlation structure in the sky, which is used to guide the algorithm to an optimal reconstruction of extended and diffuse sources. During this process, the algorithm succeeds in deconvolving the effects of the radio interferometric point spread function. Additionally, resolve provides a map with an uncertainty estimate of the reconstructed surface brightness. Furthermore, with resolve we introduce a new, optimal visibility weighting scheme that can be viewed as an extension to robust weighting. In tests using simulated observations, the algorithm shows improved performance against two standard imaging approaches for extended sources, Multiscale-CLEAN and the Maximum Entropy Method.

  8. The impact of climate and composition on playa surface roughness: Investigation of atmospheric mineral dust emission mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollerud, H. J.; Fantle, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric mineral dust has a wide range of impacts, including the transport of elements in geochemical cycles, health hazards from small particles, and climate forcing via the reflection of sunlight from dust particles. In particular, the mineral dust component of climate forcing is one of the most uncertain elements in the IPCC climate forcing summary. Mineral dust is also an important component of geochemical cycles. For instance, dust inputs to the ocean potentially affect the iron cycle by stimulating natural iron fertilization, which could then modify climate via the biological pump. Also dust can transport nutrients over long distances and fertilize nutrient-poor regions, such as island ecosystems or the Amazon rain forest. However, there are still many uncertainties in quantifying dust emissions from source regions. One factor that influences dust emission is surface roughness and texture, since a weak, unconsolidated surface texture is more easily ablated by wind than a strong, hard crust. We are investigating the impact of processes such as precipitation, groundwater evaporation, and wind on surface roughness in a playa dust source region. We find that water has a significant influence on surface roughness. We utilize ESA's Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) instrument to measure roughness in the playa. A map of roughness indicates where the playa surface is smooth (on the scale of centimeters) and potentially very strong, and where it is rough and might be more sensitive to disturbance. We have analyzed approximately 40 ASAR observations of the Black Rock Desert from 2007-2011. In general, the playa is smoother and more variable over time relative to nearby areas. There is also considerable variation within the playa. While the playa roughness maps changed significantly between summers and between observations during the winters, over the course of each summer, the playa surface maintained essentially the same roughness pattern. This suggests that

  9. Electron emission induced by resonant coherent ion-surface interaction at grazing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia de Abajo, F.J.; Ponce, V.H.; Echenique, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    A new spectroscopy based on the resonant coherently induced electron loss to the continuum in ion-surface scattering under grazing incidence is proposed. A series of peaks, corresponding to the energy differences determined by the resonant interaction with the rows of atoms in the surface, is predicted to appear in the energy distribution of electrons emitted from electronic states bound to the probe. Calculations for MeV He + ions scattered at a W(001) surface along the left-angle 100 right-angle direction with a glancing angle of 0--2 mrad show a total yield close to 1

  10. Brightness and darkness as perceptual dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vladusich, T.; Lucassen, M.P.; Cornelissen, F.W.

    2007-01-01

    A common-sense assumption concerning visual perception states that brightness and darkness cannot coexist at a given spatial location. One corollary of this assumption is that achromatic colors, or perceived grey shades, are contained in a one-dimensional (1-D) space varying from bright to dark. The

  11. Surface Coating of Wood Building Products: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the NESHAP for surface coating of wood building products by reading the rule summary and history, with links to the federal register notices, additional documents, related rules and compliance information

  12. Simultaneous and multi-point measurement of ammonia emanating from human skin surface for the estimation of whole body dermal emission rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Shota; Sekine, Yoshika; Kimura, Keita; Umezawa, Kazuo; Asai, Satomi; Miyachi, Hayato

    2017-05-15

    Ammonia is one of the members of odor gases and a possible source of odor in indoor environment. However, little has been known on the actual emission rate of ammonia from the human skin surface. Then, this study aimed to estimate the whole-body dermal emission rate of ammonia by simultaneous and multi-point measurement of emission fluxes of ammonia employing a passive flux sampler - ion chromatography system. Firstly, the emission fluxes of ammonia were non-invasively measured for ten volunteers at 13 sampling positions set in 13 anatomical regions classified by Kurazumi et al. The measured emission fluxes were then converted to partial emission rates using the surface body areas estimated by weights and heights of volunteers and partial rates of 13 body regions. Subsequent summation of the partial emission rates provided the whole body dermal emission rate of ammonia. The results ranged from 2.9 to 12mgh -1 with an average of 5.9±3.2mgh -1 per person for the ten healthy young volunteers. The values were much greater than those from human breath, and thus the dermal emission of ammonia was found more significant odor source than the breath exhalation in indoor environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Exoelectron emission from surface layer of Li2B4O7 glass ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Takamichi; Katsube, Shizuko; Yanagisawa, Hideo; Kikuchi, Riichi; Kawanishi, Masaharu.

    1984-01-01

    The thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TESS) of Li 2 B 4 O 7 glass ceramics was investigated for its application to the dosimetric use. It has been found the TSEE glow patterns of Li 2 B 4 O 7 glass ceramics and of the thin layer of LiF evaporated on Li 2 B 4 O 7 glass ceramics depend on the kind of radiations irradiated. The TSEE glow pattern of the duplicated structure sample indicated a possibility of determining the dose of each kind of radiation separately in the mixed radiation field. (author)

  14. Sensitivity analysis of surface ozone to emission controls in Beijing and its neighboring area during the 2008 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi; Zhang, Meigen

    2012-01-01

    The regional air quality modeling system RAMS (regional atmospheric modeling system)-CMAQ (community multi-scale air quality modeling system) is applied to analyze temporal and spatial variations in surface ozone concentration over Beijing and its surrounding region from July to October 2008. Comparison of simulated and observed meteorological elements and concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone at one urban site and three rural sites during Olympic Games show that model can generally reproduce the main observed feature of wind, temperature and ozone, but NOx concentration is overestimated. Although ozone concentration decreased during Olympics, high ozone episodes occurred on 24 July and 24 August with concentration of 360 and 245 microg/m3 at Aoyuncun site, respectively. The analysis of sensitive test, with and without emission controls, shows that emission controls could reduce ozone concentration in the afternoon when ozone concentration was highest but increase it at night and in the morning. The evolution of the weather system during the ozone episodes (24 July and 24 August) indicates that hot and dry air and a stable weak pressure field intensified the production of ozone and allowed it to accumulate. Process analysis at the urban site and rural site shows that under favorable weather condition on 24 August, horizontal transport was the main contributor of the rural place and the pollution from the higher layer would be transported to the surface layer. On 24 July, as the wind velocity was smaller, the impact of transport on the rural place was not obvious.

  15. Deconvolution of Thermal Emissivity Spectra of Mercury to their Endmember Counterparts measured in Simulated Mercury Surface Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varatharajan, I.; D'Amore, M.; Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.; Hiesinger, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (MERTIS) payload of ESA/JAXA Bepicolombo mission to Mercury will map the thermal emissivity at wavelength range of 7-14 μm and spatial resolution of 500 m/pixel [1]. Mercury was also imaged at the same wavelength range using the Boston University's Mid-Infrared Spectrometer and Imager (MIRSI) mounted on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii with the minimum spatial coverage of 400-600km/spectra which blends all rocks, minerals, and soil types [2]. Therefore, the study [2] used quantitative deconvolution algorithm developed by [3] for spectral unmixing of this composite thermal emissivity spectrum from telescope to their respective areal fractions of endmember spectra; however, the thermal emissivity of endmembers used in [2] is the inverted reflectance measurements (Kirchhoff's law) of various samples measured at room temperature and pressure. Over a decade, the Planetary Spectroscopy Laboratory (PSL) at the Institute of Planetary Research (PF) at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) facilitates the thermal emissivity measurements under controlled and simulated surface conditions of Mercury by taking emissivity measurements at varying temperatures from 100-500°C under vacuum conditions supporting MERTIS payload. The measured thermal emissivity endmember spectral library therefore includes major silicates such as bytownite, anorthoclase, synthetic glass, olivine, enstatite, nepheline basanite, rocks like komatiite, tektite, Johnson Space Center lunar simulant (1A), and synthetic powdered sulfides which includes MgS, FeS, CaS, CrS, TiS, NaS, and MnS. Using such specialized endmember spectral library created under Mercury's conditions significantly increases the accuracy of the deconvolution model results. In this study, we revisited the available telescope spectra and redeveloped the algorithm by [3] by only choosing the endmember spectral library created at PSL for unbiased model

  16. LARGER PLANET RADII INFERRED FROM STELLAR ''FLICKER'' BRIGHTNESS VARIATIONS OF BRIGHT PLANET-HOST STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastien, Fabienne A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Most extrasolar planets have been detected by their influence on their parent star, typically either gravitationally (the Doppler method) or by the small dip in brightness as the planet blocks a portion of the star (the transit method). Therefore, the accuracy with which we know the masses and radii of extrasolar planets depends directly on how well we know those of the stars, the latter usually determined from the measured stellar surface gravity, log g. Recent work has demonstrated that the short-timescale brightness variations ( f licker ) of stars can be used to measure log g to a high accuracy of ∼0.1-0.2 dex. Here, we use flicker measurements of 289 bright (Kepmag < 13) candidate planet-hosting stars with T eff = 4500-6650 K to re-assess the stellar parameters and determine the resulting impact on derived planet properties. This re-assessment reveals that for the brightest planet-host stars, Malmquist bias contaminates the stellar sample with evolved stars: nearly 50% of the bright planet-host stars are subgiants. As a result, the stellar radii, and hence the radii of the planets orbiting these stars, are on average 20%-30% larger than previous measurements had suggested

  17. Surface behavior based on ion-induced secondary electron emission from semi-insulating materials in breakdown evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koc, Emrah; Karakoese, Sema [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey); Salamov, Bahtiyar G. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Physics, National Academy of Science, 1143 Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2013-09-15

    This study focuses on analyses of secondary electron emission (SEE) at semiconductor surfaces when the sufficient conditions of space-time distribution occur. Experimental measurements and calculations with the approach of Townsend coefficients, which include the evaluations of ionization coefficient ({alpha}) and SEE coefficient ({gamma}) were performed in high-ohmic InP, GaAs, and Si semiconductor cathodes with argon and air environments in a wide range of E/N (300-10 000 Td). The direct calculations of {gamma} were carried out to determine the behavior of cold-semiconductor cathode current in a wide range of microgaps (45-525 {mu}m). Paschen curves are interpreted in the dependence of large pd range on breakdown voltage through {gamma} and {alpha}/N. Ion-induced secondary electrons exhibit the direct behaviors affecting the timescale of breakdown evolution in the vicinity of the Paschen minimum during the natural bombardment process with ions of semiconductor cathodes. Also, when {alpha}/N rapidly drops and the excitations of gas atoms densely occupy the gas volume, we determined that the photoelectric effect provides a growth for electron emission from semiconductor surfaces at the breakdown stage at the reduced values of E/N. At all pressures, the emission magnitudes of electrons liberated by semiconductor cathodes into vacuum are found as {gamma}{sub InP} > {gamma}{sub GaAs} > {gamma}{sub Si} in breakdown evolution. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Two-step excitation structure changes of luminescence centers and strong tunable blue emission on surface of silica nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lei, E-mail: nanoyang@qq.com; Jiang, Zhongcheng; Dong, Jiazhang; Zhang, Liuqian [Hunan University, College of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Pan, Anlian, E-mail: anlian.pan@gmail.com; Zhuang, Xiujuan [Hunan University, Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Physics and Technology of Hunan Province (China)

    2015-10-15

    We report a scheme for investigating two-step stimulated structure change of luminescence centers. Amorphous silica nanospheres with uniform diameter of 9–15 nm have been synthesized by Stöber method. Strong hydroxyl-related infrared-absorption band is observed in infrared spectrum. The surface hydroxyl groups exert great influence on the luminescent behavior of silica. They provide stable and intermediate energy states to accommodate excitation electrons. The existence of these surface states reduces the energy barrier of photochemical reactions, creating conditions for two-step excitation process. By carefully examining excitation and emission process, the nearest excitation band is absent in both optical absorption spectrum and excitation spectrum. This later generated state confirms the generation of new luminescence centers as well as the existence of photochemical reactions. Stimulated by different energies, two-step excitation process impels different photochemical reactions, prompting generation of different lattice defects on surface area of silica. Thereby, tunable luminescence is achieved. After thermal treatment, strong gap excitation band appears with the disappearance of strong surface excitation band. Strong blue luminescence also disappears. The research is significance to precise introducing structural defects and controlling position of luminescence peaks.

  19. Discrepancies between soft x-ray emissivity contours and magnetic flux surfaces in Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, M.C.; Granetz, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The soft x-ray diagnostic system of Alcator C-Mod, equipped with 152 detectors distributed in four arrays, is used to obtain iso-emissivity surfaces. These surfaces have been characterized by giving their elongation and relative shift from the centre of the tokamak as functions of plasma radius. Flux surfaces, provided by magnetic diagnostics, have also been described with elongation and shift. Results from the comparison of the two sets of geometric parameters obtained from magnetic and x-ray diagnostics are presented. We find that, whereas the shifts obtained from these two diagnostic methods are always in good agreement, the corresponding elongation curves show different patterns. An agreement between elongations better than 2% is only found in a range of about 2 cm in minor radius. On the other hand, the elongations can differ by 10% towards the plasma edge and the plasma centre. Error bars for the x-ray diagnostic are obtained by propagating the effect of ± 1% random errors at the detector signals, and can amount to ± 1-2% of the estimated values near the edge and the centre of the plasma. The estimated uncertainties in the determination of elongation from magnetic flux surfaces are of the order of 4%. A series of tests and simulations performed to verify the accuracy of the X-ray diagnostic system is presented. The discrepancies found could imply the existence of asymmetries in impurity concentration. (Author)

  20. Vicinage effects in energy loss and electron emission during grazing scattering of heavy molecular ions from a solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yuanhong; Wang Younian; Miskovic, Z.L.

    2005-01-01

    Vicinage effects in the energy loss and the electron emission spectra are studied in the presence of Coulomb explosion of swift, heavy molecular ions, during their grazing scattering from a solid surface. The dynamic response of the surface is treated by means of the dielectric theory within the specular reflection model using the plasmon pole approximation for the bulk dielectric function, whereas the angle-resolved energy spectra of the electrons emitted from the surface are obtained on the basis of the first-order, time-dependent perturbation theory. The evolution of the charge states of the constituent ions in the molecule during scattering is described by a nonequilibrium extension of the Brandt-Kitagawa model. The molecule scattering trajectories and the corresponding Coulomb explosion dynamics are evaluated for the cases of the internuclear axis being either aligned in the beam direction or randomly oriented in the directions parallel to the surface. Our calculations show that the vicinage effect in the energy loss is generally weaker for heavy molecules than for light molecules. In addition, there is clear evidence of the negative vicinage effect in both the energy loss and the energy spectra of the emitted electrons for molecular ions at lower speeds and with the axis aligned in the direction of motion

  1. Volume and surface photoemission from tungsten. I. Calculation of band structure and emission spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N. Egede; Feuerbacher, B.

    1974-01-01

    is obtained from an ad hoc potential based on a Dirac-Slater atomic calculation for the ground-state configuration and with full Slater exchange in the atomic as well as in the crystal potential. The selection of this best potential is justified by comparing the calculated band structure to Fermi...... of states. The present work includes a crude estimate of this surface density of states, which is derived from the bulk band structure by narrowing the d bands according to an effective number of neighbors per surface atom. Estimates of surface relaxation effects are also included.......The electronic energy-band structure of tungsten has been calculated by means of the relativistic-augmented-plane-wave method. A series of mutually related potentials are constructed by varying the electronic configuration and the amount of Slater exchange included. The best band structure...

  2. Modelling the impact of sanitation, population growth and urbanization on human emissions of Cryptosporidium to surface waters—a case study for Bangladesh and India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, L.C.; Kraker, Dummy; Hofstra, N.; Kroeze, C.; Medema, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that can cause diarrhoea. Human faeces are an important source of Cryptosporidium in surface waters. We present a model to study the impact of sanitation, urbanization and population growth on human emissions of Cryptosporidium to surface waters. We build on a

  3. Modelling the impact of sanitation, population growth and urbanization on human emissions of cryptosporidium to surface waters : A case study for Bangladesh and India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, L.C.; Kraker, J.; Hofstra, N.; Kroeze, C.; Medema, G.

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that can cause diarrhoea. Human faeces are an important source of Cryptosporidium in surface waters. We present a model to study the impact of sanitation, urbanization and population growth on human emissions of Cryptosporidium to surface waters. We build on a

  4. SMOS brightness temperature assimilation into the Community Land Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rains

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission brightness temperatures at a single incident angle are assimilated into the Community Land Model (CLM across Australia to improve soil moisture simulations. Therefore, the data assimilation system DasPy is coupled to the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF as well as to the Community Microwave Emission Model (CMEM. Brightness temperature climatologies are precomputed to enable the assimilation of brightness temperature anomalies, making use of 6 years of SMOS data (2010–2015. Mean correlation R with in situ measurements increases moderately from 0.61 to 0.68 (11 % for upper soil layers if the root zone is included in the updates. A reduced improvement of 5 % is achieved if the assimilation is restricted to the upper soil layers. Root-zone simulations improve by 7 % when updating both the top layers and root zone, and by 4 % when only updating the top layers. Mean increments and increment standard deviations are compared for the experiments. The long-term assimilation impact is analysed by looking at a set of quantiles computed for soil moisture at each grid cell. Within hydrological monitoring systems, extreme dry or wet conditions are often defined via their relative occurrence, adding great importance to assimilation-induced quantile changes. Although still being limited now, longer L-band radiometer time series will become available and make model output improved by assimilating such data that are more usable for extreme event statistics.

  5. Three Bright X-ray Sources in NGC 1313

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E.; Petre, R.; Schlegel, E.

    1992-12-01

    Three bright X-ray sources were detected in a recent (April/May 1991) ROSAT PSPC observation of the nearby (D ~ 4.5 Mpc) face--on barred spiral galaxy NGC 1313. Two of the sources were at positions coincident with X-ray sources detected by Fabbiano & Trinchieri (ApJ 315, 1987) in a previous (Jan 1980) Einstein IPC observation. The position of the brightest Einstein source is near the center of NGC 1313, and the second Einstein source is ~ 7' south of the ``nuclear'' source, in the outskirts of the spiral arms. A third bright X-ray source was detected in the ROSAT observation ~ 7' southwest of the ``nuclear'' source. We present X-ray spectra and X-ray images for the three bright sources found in the ROSAT observation of NGC 1313, and compare with previous Einstein results. Spectral analysis of these sources require them to have very large soft X-ray luminosities ( ~ 10(40) erg s(-1) ) when compared with typical X-ray sources in our Galaxy. Feasible explanations for the X-ray emission are presented. The third X-ray source is positively identified with the recently discovered (Ryder et. al., ApJ 1992) peculiar type-II supernova 1978K.

  6. Explaining global surface aerosol number concentrations in terms of primary emissions and particle formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Spracklen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We synthesised observations of total particle number (CN concentration from 36 sites around the world. We found that annual mean CN concentrations are typically 300–2000 cm−3 in the marine boundary layer and free troposphere (FT and 1000–10 000 cm−3 in the continental boundary layer (BL. Many sites exhibit pronounced seasonality with summer time concentrations a factor of 2–10 greater than wintertime concentrations. We used these CN observations to evaluate primary and secondary sources of particle number in a global aerosol microphysics model. We found that emissions of primary particles can reasonably reproduce the spatial pattern of observed CN concentration (R2=0.46 but fail to explain the observed seasonal cycle (R2=0.1. The modeled CN concentration in the FT was biased low (normalised mean bias, NMB=−88% unless a secondary source of particles was included, for example from binary homogeneous nucleation of sulfuric acid and water (NMB=−25%. Simulated CN concentrations in the continental BL were also biased low (NMB=−74% unless the number emission of anthropogenic primary particles was increased or a mechanism that results in particle formation in the BL was included. We ran a number of simulations where we included an empirical BL nucleation mechanism either using the activation-type mechanism (nucleation rate, J, proportional to gas-phase sulfuric acid concentration to the power one or kinetic-type mechanism (J proportional to sulfuric acid to the power two with a range of nucleation coefficients. We found that the seasonal CN cycle observed at continental BL sites was better simulated by BL particle formation (R2=0.3 than by increasing the number emission from primary anthropogenic sources (R2=0.18. The nucleation constants that resulted in best overall match between model and observed CN concentrations were

  7. Explaining global surface aerosol number concentrations in terms of primary emissions and particle formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, D. V.; Carslaw, K. S.; Merikanto, J.; Mann, G. W.; Reddington, C. L.; Pickering, S.; Ogren, J. A.; Andrews, E.; Baltensperger, U.; Weingartner, E.; Boy, M.; Kulmala, M.; Laakso, L.; Lihavainen, H.; Kivekäs, N.; Komppula, M.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Kouvarakis, G.; Jennings, S. G.; O'Dowd, C.; Birmili, W.; Wiedensohler, A.; Weller, R.; Gras, J.; Laj, P.; Sellegri, K.; Bonn, B.; Krejci, R.; Laaksonen, A.; Hamed, A.; Minikin, A.; Harrison, R. M.; Talbot, R.; Sun, J.

    2010-05-01

    We synthesised observations of total particle number (CN) concentration from 36 sites around the world. We found that annual mean CN concentrations are typically 300-2000 cm-3 in the marine boundary layer and free troposphere (FT) and 1000-10 000 cm-3 in the continental boundary layer (BL). Many sites exhibit pronounced seasonality with summer time concentrations a factor of 2-10 greater than wintertime concentrations. We used these CN observations to evaluate primary and secondary sources of particle number in a global aerosol microphysics model. We found that emissions of primary particles can reasonably reproduce the spatial pattern of observed CN concentration (R2=0.46) but fail to explain the observed seasonal cycle (R2=0.1). The modeled CN concentration in the FT was biased low (normalised mean bias, NMB=-88%) unless a secondary source of particles was included, for example from binary homogeneous nucleation of sulfuric acid and water (NMB=-25%). Simulated CN concentrations in the continental BL were also biased low (NMB=-74%) unless the number emission of anthropogenic primary particles was increased or a mechanism that results in particle formation in the BL was included. We ran a number of simulations where we included an empirical BL nucleation mechanism either using the activation-type mechanism (nucleation rate, J, proportional to gas-phase sulfuric acid concentration to the power one) or kinetic-type mechanism (J proportional to sulfuric acid to the power two) with a range of nucleation coefficients. We found that the seasonal CN cycle observed at continental BL sites was better simulated by BL particle formation (R2=0.3) than by increasing the number emission from primary anthropogenic sources (R2=0.18). The nucleation constants that resulted in best overall match between model and observed CN concentrations were consistent with values derived in previous studies from detailed case studies at individual sites. In our model, kinetic and activation

  8. Bright Sparks of Our Future!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Naoimh

    2016-04-01

    My name is Naoimh Riordan and I am the Vice Principal of Rockboro Primary School in Cork City, South of Ireland. I am a full time class primary teacher and I teach 4th class, my students are aged between 9-10 years. My passion for education has developed over the years and grown towards STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) subjects. I believe these subjects are the way forward for our future. My passion and beliefs are driven by the unique after school programme that I have developed. It is titled "Sparks" coming from the term Bright Sparks. "Sparks" is an after school programme with a difference where the STEM subjects are concentrated on through lessons such as Science, Veterinary Science Computer Animation /Coding, Eco engineering, Robotics, Magical Maths, Chess and Creative Writing. All these subjects are taught through activity based learning and are one-hour long each week for a ten-week term. "Sparks" is fully inclusive and non-selective which gives all students of any level of ability an opportunity to engage into these subjects. "Sparks" is open to all primary students in County Cork. The "Sparks" after school programme is taught by tutors from the different Universities and Colleges in Cork City. It works very well because the tutor brings their knowledge, skills and specialised equipment from their respective universities and in turn the tutor gains invaluable teaching practise, can trial a pilot programme in a chosen STEM subject and gain an insight into what works in the physical classroom.

  9. Designers predict a bright future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statton, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    As power plant designers and builders, there is a bright future for the industry. The demand for electricity will continue to grow, and the need for new plants will increase accordingly. But companies that develop and supply these plants must adapt to new ways of doing business if they expect to see the dawn of this new age. Several factors will have a profound effect on the generation and use of electricity in future years. Instant communications now reach all corners of the globe, making people everywhere aspire to a higher standard of living. The economic surge needed to satisfy these appetites will, in turn, be fed by a network of suppliers who are themselves restructuring to serve global markets, unimpeded by past nationalistic barriers to trade. The strong correlation between economic progress and the growing demand for electricity is well recognized. A ready supply of affordable electricity is a necessary underpinning for any economic expansion. As economies advance and jobs increase, electric demand grows geometrically, fueled by an ever-improving quality of life. Coupled with increasing demand is the worldwide trend toward privatization of the generation industry. The reasons may vary in different parts of the world, but the effect is the same--companies are battling intensely for the right to build or purchase generating facilities. Those companies, like the industry they serve, are themselves in a period of transition. Once a closed, monopolistic group of owners in a predominantly services-based market, they are, thanks to competitive forces, being driven steadily toward a product-based structure

  10. Kinetic Electron Emission from Higly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite Surfaces Induced by Singly Charged Ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cernusca, S.; Diem, A.; Winter, H. P.; Aumayr, F.; Lörinčík, Jan; Šroubek, Zdeněk

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 193, - (2002), s. 616-620 ISSN 0168-583X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : clean metal-surface * slow * polycrystalline gold Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.158, year: 2002

  11. Tunable band gap emission and surface passivation of germanium nanocrystals synthesized in the gas phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wheeler, LM; Levij, L.M.; Kortshagen, U.R.

    2013-01-01

    The narrow bulk band gap and large exciton Bohr radius of germanium (Ge) make it an attractive material for optoelectronics utilizing band-gap-tunable photoluminescence (PL). However, realization of PL due to quantum confinement remains scarcely reported. Instead, PL is often observed from surface

  12. Measuring ammonia concentrations and emissions from agricultural land and liquid surfaces: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sanjay B; Westerman, Philip W; Arogo, Jactone

    2006-07-01

    Aerial ammonia concentrations (Cg) are measured using acid scrubbers, filter packs, denuders, or optical methods. Using Cg and wind speed or airflow rate, ammonia emission rate or flux can be directly estimated using enclosures or micrometeorological methods. Using nitrogen (N) recovery is not recommended, mainly because the different gaseous N components cannot be separated. Although low cost and replicable, chambers modify environmental conditions and are suitable only for comparing treatments. Wind tunnels do not modify environmental conditions as much as chambers, but they may not be appropriate for determining ammonia fluxes; however, they can be used to compare emissions and test models. Larger wind tunnels that also simulate natural wind profiles may be more useful for comparing treatments than micrometeorological methods because the latter require larger plots and are, thus, difficult to replicate. For determining absolute ammonia flux, the micrometeorological methods are the most suitable because they are nonintrusive. For use with micrometeorological methods, both the passive denuders and optical methods give comparable accuracies, although the latter give real-time Cg but at a higher cost. The passive denuder is wind weighted and also costs less than forced-air Cg measurement methods, but it requires calibration. When ammonia contamination during sample preparation and handling is a concern and separating the gas-phase ammonia and aerosol ammonium is not required, the scrubber is preferred over the passive denuder. The photothermal interferometer, because of its low detection limit and robustness, may hold potential for use in agriculture, but it requires evaluation. With its simpler theoretical basis and fewer restrictions, the integrated horizontal flux (IHF) method is preferable over other micrometeorological methods, particularly for lagoons, where berms and land-lagoon boundaries modify wind flow and flux gradients. With uniform wind flow, the ZINST

  13. Effects of hot electron emission on a low-conductivity tetracyanoethylene polymer layer including studies of the corrugation of the film surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, K.L.; Mousa, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of strong field electron emission (FEE) on a tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) polymer layer was studied by Field Ion Microscopy (FIM) using TCNE and Ne as the imaging gases. The TCNE polymer was formed on each tungsten tip by radical polymerisation before FEE. The FIM images show field emission spots all over the surface of the tip. The FEM images show a random distribution of several field emission areas at the onset of FEE. After sometime at a current of about 1 μA, there is a transition to higher currents at the same voltage, in which the electron emission pattern changes to have only one emitting area. After this transition, two different types of FIM images were observed, depending on the imaging gas that was used. Neon FIM images at low tip voltages show spots in the areas where the electron emission current was greatest, and at much higher voltages these images show emission from other areas with lower surface corrugation. However, the FIM images with TCNE as the imaging gas do not show any differences between the areas with and without electron emission. The FIM images remain as before FEE, which can be explained by the formation of a new polymer by the reaction of the surface layer with the imaging gas. It is assumed that chemically reactive fragments at the polymer/vacuum interface, which are needed for the polymerisation reaction, are formed by pyrolysis and sputtering processes during FEE

  14. 3 MeV proton irradiation effects on surface, structural, field emission and electrical properties of brass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mian Ahsan; Bashir, Shazia; Akram, Mahreen; Mahmood, Khaliq; Faizan-ul-Haq; Hayat, Asma; Mutaza, G.; Chishti, Naveed Ahmed; Khan, M. Asad; Ahmad, Shahbaz

    2018-05-01

    Ion-induced modifications of brass in terms of surface morphology, elemental composition, phase changes, field emission properties and electrical conductivity have been investigated. Brass targets were irradiated by proton beam at constant energy of 3 MeV for various doses ranges from 1 × 1012 ions/cm2 to 1.5 × 1014 ions/cm2 using Pelletron Linear Accelerator. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) analysis reveals the formation of randomly distributed clusters, particulates, droplets and agglomers for lower ion doses which are explainable on the basis of cascade collisional process and thermal spike model. Whereas, at moderate ion doses, fiber like structures are formed due to incomplete melting. The formation of cellular like structure is observed at the maximum ion dose and is attributed to intense heating, melting and re-solidification. SRIM software analysis reveals that the penetration depth of 3 MeV protons in brass comes out to be 38 μm, whereas electronic and nuclear energy losses come out to be 5 × 10-1 and 3.1 × 10-4 eV/Å respectively. The evaluated values of energy deposited per atom vary from 0.01 to 1.5 eV with the variation of ion doses from 1 × 1012 ions/cm2 to 1.5 × 1014 ions/cm2. Both elemental analysis i.e. Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) supports each other and no new element or phase is identified. However, slight change in peak intensity and angle shifting is observed. Field emission properties of ion-structured brass are explored by measuring I-V characteristics of targets under UHV condition in diode-configuration using self designed and fabricated setup. Improvement in field enhancement factor (β) is estimated from the slope of Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) plots and it shows significant increase from 5 to 1911, whereas a reduction in turn on field (Eo) from 65 V/μm to 30 V/μm and increment in maximum current density (Jmax) from 12 μA/cm2 to 3821 μA/cm2 is observed. These enhancements

  15. Further evaluation of wetland emission estimates from the JULES land surface model using SCIAMACHY and GOSAT atmospheric column methane measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Garry; Comyn-Platt, Edward; McNorton, Joey; Chipperfield, Martyn; Gedney, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    The atmospheric concentration of methane began rising again in 2007 after a period of near-zero growth [1,2], with the largest increases observed over polar northern latitudes and the Southern Hemisphere in 2007 and in the tropics since then. The observed inter-annual variability in atmospheric methane concentrations and the associated changes in growth rates have variously been attributed to changes in different methane sources and sinks [2,3]. Wetlands are generally accepted as being the largest, but least well quantified, single natural source of CH4, with global emission estimates ranging from 142-284 Tg yr-1 [3]. The modelling of wetlands and their associated emissions of CH4 has become the subject of much current interest [4]. We have previously used the HadGEM2 chemistry-climate model to evaluate the wetland emission estimates derived using the UK community land surface model (JULES, the Joint UK Land Earth Simulator) against atmospheric observations of methane, including SCIAMACHY total methane columns [5] up to 2007. We have undertaken a series of new HadGEM2 runs using new JULES emission estimates extended in time to the end of 2012, thereby allowing comparison with both SCIAMACHY and GOSAT atmospheric column methane measurements. We will describe the results of these runs and the implications for methane wetland emissions. References [1] Rigby, M., et al.: Renewed growth of atmospheric methane. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L22805, 2008; [2] Nisbet, E.G., et al.: Methane on the Rise-Again, Science 343, 493, 2014; [3] Kirschke, S., et al.,: Three decades of global methane sources and sinks, Nature Geosciences, 6, 813-823, 2013; [4] Melton, J. R., et al.: Present state of global wetland extent and wetland methane modelling: conclusions from a model inter-comparison project (WETCHIMP), Biogeosciences, 10, 753-788, 2013; [5] Hayman, G.D., et al.: Comparison of the HadGEM2 climate-chemistry model against in situ and SCIAMACHY atmospheric methane data, Atmos. Chem

  16. Bright boys the making of information technology

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Everything has a beginning. None was more profound-and quite as unexpected-than Information Technology. Here for the first time is the untold story of how our new age came to be and the bright boys who made it happen. What began on the bare floor of an old laundry building eventually grew to rival in size the Manhattan Project. The unexpected consequence of that journey was huge---what we now know as Information Technology. For sixty years the bright boys have been totally anonymous while their achievements have become a way of life for all of us. "Bright Boys" brings them home. By 1950 they'd

  17. Surface emission determination of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from a closed industrial waste landfill using a self-designed static flux chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, E; Perales, J F; Roca, F J; Guardino, X

    2014-02-01

    Closed landfills can be a source of VOC and odorous nuisances to their atmospheric surroundings. A self-designed cylindrical air flux chamber was used to measure VOC surface emissions in a closed industrial landfill located in Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain. The two main objectives of the study were the evaluation of the performance of the chamber setup in typical measurement conditions and the determination of the emission rates of 60 different VOC from that industrial landfill, generating a valuable database that can be useful in future studies related to industrial landfill management. Triplicate samples were taken in five selected sampling points. VOC were sampled dynamically using multi-sorbent bed tubes (Carbotrap, Carbopack X, Carboxen 569) connected to SKC AirCheck 2000 pumps. The analysis was performed by automatic thermal desorption coupled with a capillary gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry detector. The emission rates of sixty VOC were calculated for each sampling point in an effort to characterize surface emissions. To calculate average, minimum and maximum emission values for each VOC, the results were analyzed by three different methods: Global, Kriging and Tributary area. Global and Tributary area methodologies presented similar values, with total VOC emissions of 237 ± 48 and 222 ± 46 g day(-1), respectively; however, Kriging values were lower, 77 ± 17 gd ay(-1). The main contributors to the total emission rate were aldehydes (nonanal and decanal), acetic acid, ketones (acetone), aromatic hydrocarbons and alcohols. Most aromatic hydrocarbon (except benzene, naphthalene and methylnaphthalenes) and aldehyde emission rates exhibited strong correlations with the rest of VOC of their family, indicating a possible common source of these compounds. B:T ratio obtained from the emission rates of the studied landfill suggested that the factors that regulate aromatic hydrocarbon distributions in the landfill emissions are different from the ones

  18. Stochastic dislocation kinetics and fractal structures in deforming metals probed by acoustic emission and surface topography measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinogradov, A. [Laboratory for the Physics of Strength of Materials and Intelligent Diagnostic Systems, Togliatti State University, Togliatti 445667 (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Hybrid Nanostructured Materials, NITU MISiS, Moscow 119490 (Russian Federation); Yasnikov, I. S. [Laboratory for the Physics of Strength of Materials and Intelligent Diagnostic Systems, Togliatti State University, Togliatti 445667 (Russian Federation); Estrin, Y. [Laboratory of Hybrid Nanostructured Materials, NITU MISiS, Moscow 119490 (Russian Federation); Centre for Advanced Hybrid Materials, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2014-06-21

    We demonstrate that the fractal dimension (FD) of the dislocation population in a deforming material is an important quantitative characteristic of the evolution of the dislocation structure. Thus, we show that peaking of FD signifies a nearing loss of uniformity of plastic flow and the onset of strain localization. Two techniques were employed to determine FD: (i) inspection of surface morphology of the deforming crystal by white light interferometry and (ii) monitoring of acoustic emission (AE) during uniaxial tensile deformation. A connection between the AE characteristics and the fractal dimension determined from surface topography measurements was established. As a common platform for the two methods, the dislocation density evolution in the bulk was used. The relations found made it possible to identify the occurrence of a peak in the median frequency of AE as a harbinger of plastic instability leading to necking. It is suggested that access to the fractal dimension provided by AE measurements and by surface topography analysis makes these techniques important tools for monitoring the evolution of the dislocation structure during plastic deformation—both as stand-alone methods and especially when used in tandem.

  19. Experimental investigation of slow-positron emission from 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, C.C.; Beling, C.D.; Fung, S.; Weng, H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Slow-positron emission from the surfaces of as-grown n-type 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC (silicon carbide) with a conversion efficiency of ∼10 -4 has been observed. After 30 min of 1000 deg. C annealing in forming gas, the conversion efficiency of the n-type 6H-SiC sample was observed to be enhanced by 75% to 1.9x10 -4 , but it then dropped to ∼10 -5 upon a further 30 min annealing at 1400 deg. C. The positron work function of the n-type 6H-SiC was found to increase by 29% upon 1000 deg. C annealing. For both p-type 4H-SiC and p-type 6H-SiC materials, the conversion efficiency was of the order of ∼10 -5 , some ten times lower than that for the n-type materials. This was attributed to the band bending at the p-type material surface which caused positrons to drift away from the positron emitting surface. (author)

  20. Recent advances in high-brightness electron guns at AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluem, H.; Todd, A.M.M.; Cole, M.D.; Rathke, J.; Schultheiss, T.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a number of active Advanced Energy Systems projects pertaining to the development of advanced, high-brightness electron guns for various applications. These projects include a fully superconducting, CW RF gun, nearing test, that utilizes the niobium surface as the photocathode material. An integrated 100 mA, low emittance DC/SRF gun, ideal as an injector for ERL-type light sources and intended as the injector for a 100 kW FEL, is in late design stage. A parallel high-power, CW, normal-conducting L-band RF gun project has just begun. The early performance analysis for this gun also shows good promise as a