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Sample records for surface brightness dwarf

  1. SURFACE BRIGHTNESS PROFILES OF DWARF GALAXIES. II. COLOR TRENDS AND MASS PROFILES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Kimberly A. [Penn State Mont Alto, 1 Campus Drive, Mont Alto, PA 17237 (United States); Hunter, Deidre A. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Elmegreen, Bruce G., E-mail: kah259@psu.edu, E-mail: dah@lowell.edu, E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In this second paper of a series, we explore the B  −  V , U  −  B , and FUV−NUV radial color trends from a multi-wavelength sample of 141 dwarf disk galaxies. Like spirals, dwarf galaxies have three types of radial surface brightness profiles: (I) single exponential throughout the observed extent (the minority), (II) down-bending (the majority), and (III) up-bending. We find that the colors of (1) Type I dwarfs generally become redder with increasing radius, unlike spirals which have a blueing trend that flattens beyond ∼1.5 disk scale lengths, (2) Type II dwarfs come in six different “flavors,” one of which mimics the “U” shape of spirals, and (3) Type III dwarfs have a stretched “S” shape where the central colors are flattish, become steeply redder toward the surface brightness break, then remain roughly constant beyond, which is similar to spiral Type III color profiles, but without the central outward bluing. Faint (−9 >  M{sub B}  > −14) Type II dwarfs tend to have continuously red or “U” shaped colors and steeper color slopes than bright (−14 >  M{sub B}  > −19) Type II dwarfs, which additionally have colors that become bluer or remain constant with increasing radius. Sm dwarfs and BCDs tend to have at least some blue and red radial color trend, respectively. Additionally, we determine stellar surface mass density (Σ) profiles and use them to show that the break in Σ generally remains in Type II dwarfs (unlike Type II spirals) but generally disappears in Type III dwarfs (unlike Type III spirals). Moreover, the break in Σ is strong, intermediate, and weak in faint dwarfs, bright dwarfs, and spirals, respectively, indicating that Σ may straighten with increasing galaxy mass. Finally, the average stellar surface mass density at the surface brightness break is roughly 1−2  M {sub ⊙} pc{sup −2} for Type II dwarfs but higher at 5.9  M {sub ⊙} pc{sup −2} or 27  M {sub ⊙} pc{sup −2} for

  2. SURFACE BRIGHTNESS PROFILES OF DWARF GALAXIES. I. PROFILES AND STATISTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Kimberly A.; Hunter, Deidre A.; Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2013-01-01

    Radial surface brightness profiles of spiral galaxies are classified into three types: (I) single exponential, or the light falls off with one exponential to a break before falling off (II) more steeply, or (III) less steeply. Profile breaks are also found in dwarf disks, but some dwarf Type IIs are flat or increasing out to a break before falling off. Here we re-examine the stellar disk profiles of 141 dwarfs: 96 dwarf irregulars (dIms), 26 Blue Compact Dwarfs (BCDs), and 19 Magellanic-type spirals (Sms). We fit single, double, or even triple exponential profiles in up to 11 passbands: GALEX FUV and NUV, ground-based UBVJHK and Hα, and Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 μm. We find that more luminous galaxies have brighter centers, larger inner and outer scale lengths, and breaks at larger radii; dwarf trends with M B extend to spirals. However, the V-band break surface brightness is independent of break type, M B , and Hubble type. Dwarf Type II and III profiles fall off similarly beyond the breaks but have different interiors and IIs break ∼twice as far as IIIs. Outer Type II and III scale lengths may have weak trends with wavelength, but pure Type II inner scale lengths clearly decrease from the FUV to visible bands whereas Type III inner scale lengths increase with redder bands. This suggests the influence of different star formation histories on profile type, but nonetheless the break location is approximately the same in all passbands. Dwarfs continue trends between profile and Hubble types such that later-type galaxies have more Type II but fewer Type I and III profiles than early-type spirals. BCDs and Sms are over-represented as Types III and II, respectively, compared to dIms

  3. A Survey for Low Surface Brightness Dwarf Galaxies Around M31

    OpenAIRE

    Armandroff, Taft E.; Davies, James E.; Jacoby, George H.

    1998-01-01

    By applying a digital filtering technique to 1550 square degrees of the POSS-II in the vicinity of M31, we found two previously unidentified very low surface brightness dwarf galaxies which we designate And V and VI. Follow-up imaging with the KPNO 4-m telescope resolved these into stars easily. The V- and I- band images of And V indicate a distance similar to that of M31, and approximately -1.5. All evidence strongly supports its classification as a dwarf spheroidal companion to M31. Data f...

  4. Difference in Dwarf Galaxy Surface Brightness Profiles as a Function of Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngdae; Park, Hong Soo; Kim, Sang Chul; Moon, Dae-Sik; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kim, Dong-Jin; Cha, Sang-Mok

    2018-05-01

    We investigate surface brightness profiles (SBPs) of dwarf galaxies in field, group, and cluster environments. With deep BV I images from the Korea Microlensing Telescope Network Supernova Program, SBPs of 38 dwarfs in the NGC 2784 group are fitted by a single-exponential or double-exponential model. We find that 53% of the dwarfs are fitted with single-exponential profiles (“Type I”), while 47% of the dwarfs show double-exponential profiles; 37% of all dwarfs have smaller sizes for the outer part than the inner part (“Type II”), while 10% have a larger outer than inner part (“Type III”). We compare these results with those in the field and in the Virgo cluster, where the SBP types of 102 field dwarfs are compiled from a previous study and the SBP types of 375 cluster dwarfs are measured using SDSS r-band images. As a result, the distributions of SBP types are different in the three environments. Common SBP types for the field, the NGC 2784 group, and the Virgo cluster are Type II, Type I and II, and Type I and III profiles, respectively. After comparing the sizes of dwarfs in different environments, we suggest that since the sizes of some dwarfs are changed due to environmental effects, SBP types are capable of being transformed and the distributions of SBP types in the three environments are different. We discuss possible environmental mechanisms for the transformation of SBP types. Based on data collected at KMTNet Telescopes and SDSS.

  5. A study of the H I and optical properties of Low Surface Brightness galaxies: spirals, dwarfs, and irregulars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, M.; van Driel, W.; Das, M.; Martin, J.-M.

    2018-06-01

    We present a study of the H I and optical properties of nearby (z ≤ 0.1) Low Surface Brightness galaxies (LSBGs). We started with a literature sample of ˜900 LSBGs and divided them into three morphological classes: spirals, irregulars, and dwarfs. Of these, we could use ˜490 LSBGs to study their H I and stellar masses, colours, and colour-magnitude diagrams, and local environment, compare them with normal, High Surface Brightness (HSB) galaxies and determine the differences between the three morphological classes. We found that LSB and HSB galaxies span a similar range in H I and stellar masses, and have a similar M_{H I}/M⋆-M⋆ relationship. Among the LSBGs, as expected, the spirals have the highest average H I and stellar masses, both of about 109.8 M⊙. The LSGBs' (g - r) integrated colour is nearly constant as function of H I mass for all classes. In the colour-magnitude diagram, the spirals are spread over the red and blue regions whereas the irregulars and dwarfs are confined to the blue region. The spirals also exhibit a steeper slope in the M_{H I}/M⋆-M⋆ plane. Within their local environment, we confirmed that LSBGs are more isolated than HSB galaxies, and LSB spirals more isolated than irregulars and dwarfs. Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical tests on the H I mass, stellar mass, and number of neighbours indicate that the spirals are a statistically different population from the dwarfs and irregulars. This suggests that the spirals may have different formation and H I evolution than the dwarfs and irregulars.

  6. The Star-forming Main Sequence of Dwarf Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaugh, Stacy S.; Schombert, James M.; Lelli, Federico

    2017-12-01

    We explore the star-forming properties of late-type, low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. The star-forming main sequence ({SFR}-{M}* ) of LSB dwarfs has a steep slope, indistinguishable from unity (1.04 ± 0.06). They form a distinct sequence from more massive spirals, which exhibit a shallower slope. The break occurs around {M}* ≈ {10}10 {M}⊙ , and can also be seen in the gas mass—stellar mass plane. The global Kennicutt-Schmidt law ({SFR}-{M}g) has a slope of 1.47 ± 0.11 without the break seen in the main sequence. There is an ample supply of gas in LSB galaxies, which have gas depletion times well in excess of a Hubble time, and often tens of Hubble times. Only ˜ 3 % of this cold gas needs be in the form of molecular gas to sustain the observed star formation. In analogy with the faint, long-lived stars of the lower stellar main sequence, it may be appropriate to consider the main sequence of star-forming galaxies to be defined by thriving dwarfs (with {M}* {10}10 {M}⊙ ) are weary giants that constitute more of a turn-off population.

  7. Low surface brightness galaxies in the Fornax Cluster: automated galaxy surface photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.I.; Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    A sample is presented of low surface brightness galaxies (with extrapolated central surface brightness fainter than 22.0 Bμ) in the Fornax Cluster region which has been measured by the APM machine. Photometric parameters, namely profile shape, scale length, central brightness and total magnitude, are derived for the sample galaxies and correlations between the parameters of low surface brightness dwarf galaxies are discussed, with particular reference to the selection limits. Contrary to previous authors we find no evidence for a luminosity-surface brightness correlation in the sense of lower surface brightness galaxies having lower luminosities and scale sizes. In fact, the present data suggest that it is the galaxies with the largest scale lengths which are more likely to be of very low surface brightness. In addition, the larger scale length galaxies occur preferentially towards the centre of the Cluster. (author)

  8. Low surface brightness galaxies in the cluster A1367

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.I.; Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    We have obtained deep CCD frames of apparently blank regions of sky in the hope of detecting very low surface brightness (LSB) objects in the cluster A1367. We discuss our data reduction, and image detection and selection techniques. If the galaxies detected are actually cluster members then they are dwarfs and the conclusions of a previous paper on the Fornax cluster are essentially confirmed. One area of variance is that the lowest surface brightness galaxies do not appear to be preferentially concentrated towards the cluster centre. This can be explained by there being a much larger density of dwarf galaxies over this bright galaxy-rich region of the universe. We find over our small area approximately four times as many LSB galaxies as would be expected from our Fornax data. We speculate on the possible origin and likely intensity of intergalactic light within clusters. (author)

  9. Search for bright nearby M dwarfs with virtual observatory tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aberasturi, M.; Caballero, J. A.; Montesinos, B.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; Solano, E.; Martín, E. L. [Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Departamento de Astrofísica, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Using Virtual Observatory tools, we cross-matched the Carlsberg Meridian 14 and the 2MASS Point Source catalogs to select candidate nearby bright M dwarfs distributed over ∼25,000 deg{sup 2}. Here, we present reconnaissance low-resolution optical spectra for 27 candidates that were observed with the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph at the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope (R≈ 1600). We derived spectral types from a new spectral index, R, which measures the ratio of fluxes at 7485-7015 Å and 7120-7150 Å. We also used VOSA, a Virtual Observatory tool for spectral energy distribution fitting, to derive effective temperatures and surface gravities for each candidate. The resulting 27 targets were M dwarfs brighter than J = 10.5 mag, 16 of which were completely new in the Northern hemisphere and 7 of which were located at less than 15 pc. For all of them, we also measured Hα and Na I pseudo-equivalent widths, determined photometric distances, and identified the most active stars. The targets with the weakest sodium absorption, namely, J0422+2439 (with X-ray and strong Hα emissions), J0435+2523, and J0439+2333, are new members in the young Taurus-Auriga star-forming region based on proper motion, spatial distribution, and location in the color-magnitude diagram, which reopens the discussion on the deficit of M2-4 Taurus stars. Finally, based on proper motion diagrams, we report on a new wide M dwarf binary system in the field, LSPM J0326+3929EW.

  10. Multiband photometry and spectroscopy of an all-sky sample of bright white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddi, R.; Gentile Fusillo, N. P.; Pala, A. F.; Hermes, J. J.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Chote, P.; Hollands, M. A.; Henden, A.; Catalán, S.; Geier, S.; Koester, D.; Munari, U.; Napiwotzki, R.; Tremblay, P.-E.

    2017-12-01

    The upcoming NASA Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will obtain space-based uninterrupted light curves for a large sample of bright white dwarfs distributed across the entire sky, providing a very rich resource for asteroseismological studies and the search for transits from planetary debris. We have compiled an all-sky catalogue of ultraviolet, optical and infrared photometry as well as proper motions, which we propose as an essential tool for the preliminary identification and characterization of potential targets. We present data for 1864 known white dwarfs and 305 high-probability white dwarf candidates brighter than 17 mag. We describe the spectroscopic follow-up of 135 stars, of which 82 are white dwarfs and 25 are hot subdwarfs. The new confirmed stars include six pulsating white dwarf candidates (ZZ Cetis), and nine white dwarf binaries with a cool main-sequence companion. We identify one star with a spectroscopic distance of only 25 pc from the Sun. Around the time TESS is launched, we foresee that all white dwarfs in this sample will have trigonometric parallaxes measured by the ESA Gaia mission next year.

  11. Surface brightness and color distributions in blue compact dwarf galaxies. I. Haro 2, an extreme example of a star-forming young elliptical galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loose, H.H.; Thuan, T.X.; Virginia Univ., Charlottesville, VA)

    1986-01-01

    The first results of a large-scale program to study the morphology and structure of blue compact dwarf galaxies from CCD observations are presented. The observations and reduction procedures are described, and surface brightness and color profiles are shown. The results are used to discuss the morphological type of Haro 2 and its stellar populations. It is found that Haro 2 appears to be an extreme example of an elliptical galaxy undergoing intense star formation in its central regions, and that the oldest stars it contains were made only about four million yr ago. The missing mass problem of Haro 2 is also discussed. 28 references

  12. Suppression of cooling by strong magnetic fields in white dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyavin, G; Shulyak, D; Wade, G A; Antonyuk, K; Zharikov, S V; Galazutdinov, G A; Plachinda, S; Bagnulo, S; Machado, L Fox; Alvarez, M; Clark, D M; Lopez, J M; Hiriart, D; Han, Inwoo; Jeon, Young-Beom; Zurita, C; Mujica, R; Burlakova, T; Szeifert, T; Burenkov, A

    2014-11-06

    Isolated cool white dwarf stars more often have strong magnetic fields than young, hotter white dwarfs, which has been a puzzle because magnetic fields are expected to decay with time but a cool surface suggests that the star is old. In addition, some white dwarfs with strong fields vary in brightness as they rotate, which has been variously attributed to surface brightness inhomogeneities similar to sunspots, chemical inhomogeneities and other magneto-optical effects. Here we describe optical observations of the brightness and magnetic field of the cool white dwarf WD 1953-011 taken over about eight years, and the results of an analysis of its surface temperature and magnetic field distribution. We find that the magnetic field suppresses atmospheric convection, leading to dark spots in the most magnetized areas. We also find that strong fields are sufficient to suppress convection over the entire surface in cool magnetic white dwarfs, which inhibits their cooling evolution relative to weakly magnetic and non-magnetic white dwarfs, making them appear younger than they truly are. This explains the long-standing mystery of why magnetic fields are more common amongst cool white dwarfs, and implies that the currently accepted ages of strongly magnetic white dwarfs are systematically too young.

  13. Tracing the stellar component of low surface brightness Milky Way dwarf galaxies to their outskirts. I. Sextans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuéndez, L.; Battaglia, G.; Irwin, M.; Bermejo-Climent, J. R.; McMonigal, B.; Bate, N. F.; Lewis, G. F.; Conn, A. R.; de Boer, T. J. L.; Gallart, C.; Guglielmo, M.; Ibata, R.; McConnachie, A.; Tolstoy, E.; Fernando, N.

    2018-01-01

    Aims: We present results from deep and very spatially extended CTIO/DECam g and r photometry (reaching out to 2 mag below the oldest main-sequence turn-off and covering 20 deg2) around the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy. We aim to use this dataset to study the structural properties of Sextans overall stellar population and its member stars in different evolutionary phases, as well as to search for possible signs of tidal disturbance from the Milky Way, which would indicate departure from dynamical equilibrium. Methods: We performed the most accurate and quantitative structural analysis to-date of Sextans' stellar components by applying Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov chain methods to the individual stars' positions. Surface density maps are built by statistically decontaminating the sample through a matched filter analysis of the colour-magnitude diagram, and then analysed for departures from axisymmetry. Results: Sextans is found to be significantly less spatially extended and more centrally concentrated than early studies suggested. No statistically significant distortions or signs of tidal disturbances were found down to a surface brightness limit of 31.8 mag/arcsec2 in V-band. We identify an overdensity in the central regions that may correspond to previously reported kinematic substructure(s). In agreement with previous findings, old and metal-poor stars such as Blue Horizontal Branch stars cover a much larger area than stars in other evolutionary phases, and bright Blue Stragglers (BSs) are less spatially extended than faint ones. However, the different spatial distribution of bright and faint BSs appears consistent with the general age and metallicity gradients found in Sextans' stellar component. This is compatible with Sextans BSs having formed by evolution of binaries and not necessarily due to the presence of a central disrupted globular cluster, as suggested in the literature. We provide structural parameters for the various populations analysed and make

  14. Structure and stellar content of dwarf elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, N.

    1983-01-01

    A small number of low-luminosity elliptical galaxies in the Virgo cluster and around other prominent galaxies have been studied using photoelectric and photographic techniques. The color-magnitude relation for ellipticals now extends from M/sub v/ = -23 to -15, and is linear over that range with a slope of 0.10 in U-V per visual magnitude. Galaxies which are known to contain a large number of young stars (''extreme cases'') are from 0.10 to 0.20 mag bluer in U-V than the lower envelope of the dwarf elliptical color-magnitude relation. This difference can be accounted for if the dwarf elliptical galaxies are young, but do not contain the massive blue stars that probably exist in the young populations of the extreme cases. Surface brightness profiles of the dwarfs have revealed some interesting distinctions between themselves and the brighter E's. In general, their intensity profiles are shallower than those of the bright E's, meaning they are of lower mean density. These mean densities are also a function of the total luminosity. Unlike the bright E's, the surface brightnesses near the centers are also a strong function of the total luminosity. The presence of a nucleation, which can be as much as 2 mag brighter than what the outer envelope would predict, does not appear to depend on any other measurable property of the galaxies. The variation in surface brightness profiles at the same total luminosity is suggestive that the low-luminosity dwarfs formed in more than one way. The flattening distribution of the dwarfs is like that of the bright ellipticals, and is also similar to the flattening distribution of field irregular galaxies

  15. KECK/LRIS SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF COMA CLUSTER DWARF GALAXY MEMBERSHIP ASSIGNMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiboucas, Kristin; Tully, R. Brent; Marzke, Ronald O.; Trentham, Neil; Ferguson, Henry C.; Hammer, Derek; Carter, David; Khosroshahi, Habib

    2010-01-01

    Keck/LRIS multi-object spectroscopy has been carried out on 140 of some of the lowest and highest surface brightness faint (19 < R < 22) dwarf galaxy candidates in the core region of the Coma Cluster. These spectra are used to measure redshifts and establish membership for these faint dwarf populations. The primary goal of the low surface brightness sample is to test our ability to use morphological and surface brightness criteria to distinguish between Coma Cluster members and background galaxies using high resolution Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys images. Candidates were rated as expected members, uncertain, or expected background. From 93 spectra, 51 dwarf galaxy members and 20 background galaxies are identified. Our morphological membership estimation success rate is ∼100% for objects expected to be members and better than ∼90% for galaxies expected to be in the background. We confirm that low surface brightness is a very good indicator of cluster membership. High surface brightness galaxies are almost always background with confusion arising only from the cases of the rare compact elliptical (cE) galaxies. The more problematic cases occur at intermediate surface brightness. Many of these galaxies are given uncertain membership ratings, and these were found to be members about half of the time. Including color information will improve membership determination but will fail for some of the same objects that are already misidentified when using only surface brightness and morphology criteria. cE galaxies with B-V colors ∼0.2 mag redward of the red sequence in particular require spectroscopic follow up. In a sample of 47 high surface brightness, ultracompact dwarf candidates, 19 objects have redshifts which place them in the Coma Cluster, while another 6 have questionable redshift measurements but may also prove to be members. Redshift measurements are presented and the use of indirect means for establishing cluster membership is

  16. The Westerbork HI survey of spiral and irregular galaxies - II. R-band surface photometry of late-type dwarf galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaters, RA; Balcells, M

    R-band surface photometry is presented for 171 late-type dwarf and irregular galaxies. For a subsample of 46 galaxies B-band photometry is presented as well. We present surface brightness profiles as well as isophotal and photometric parameters including magnitudes, diameters and central surface

  17. The RSA survey of dwarf galaxies, 1: Optical photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vader, J. Patricia; Chaboyer, Brian

    1994-01-01

    We present detailed surface photometry, based on broad B-band charge coupled device (CCD) images, of about 80 dwarf galaxies. Our sample represents approximately 10% of all dwarf galaxies identified in the vicinity of Revised Shapley-Ames (RSA) galaxies on high resolution blue photographic plates, referred to as the RSA survey of dwarf galaxies. We derive global properties and radial surface brightness profiles, and examine the morphologies. The radial surface brightness profiles of dwarf galaxies, whether early or late type, display the same varieties in shape and complexity as those of classical giant galaxies. Only a few are well described by a pure r(exp 1/4) law. Exponential profiles prevail. Features typical of giant disk galaxies, such as exponential profiles with a central depression, lenses, and even, in one case (IC 2041), a relatively prominent bulge are also found in dwarf galaxies. Our data suggest that the central region evolves from being bulge-like, with an r(exp 1/4) law profile, in bright galaxies to a lens-like structure in dwarf galaxies. We prove detailed surface photometry to be a helpful if not always sufficient tool in investigating the structure of dwarf galaxies. In many cases kinematic information is needed to complete the picture. We find the shapes of the surface brightness profiles to be loosely associated with morphological type. Our sample contains several new galaxies with properties intermediate between those of giant and dwarf ellipticals (but no M32-like objects). This shows that such intermediate galaxies exist so that at least a fraction of early-type dwarf ellipticals is structurally related to early-type giants instead of belonging to a totally unrelated, disjunct family. This supports an origin of early-type dwarf galaxies as originally more massive systems that acquired their current morphology as a result of substantial, presumable supernova-driven, mass loss. On the other hand, several early-type dwarfs in our sample are

  18. The Hunt for Missing Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    Theories of galaxy formation and evolution predict that there should be significantly more dwarf galaxies than have been observed. Are our theories wrong? Or are dwarf galaxies just difficult to detect? Recent results from a survey of a galaxy cluster 62 million light-years away suggest there may be lots of undiscovered dwarf galaxies hiding throughout the universe!Hiding in FaintnessThe missing dwarf problem has had hints of a resolution with the recent discovery of Ultra-Diffuse Galaxies (UDGs) in the Coma and Virgo galaxy clusters. UDGs have low masses and large radii, resulting in a very low surface brightness that makes them extremely difficult to detect. If many dwarfs are UDGs, this could well explain why weve been missing them!But the Coma and Virgo galaxy clusters are similar in that theyre both very massive. Are there UDGs in other galaxy clusters as well? To answer this question, an international team of scientists is running the Next Generation Fornax Survey (NGFS), a survey searching for faint dwarf galaxies in the central 30 square degrees of the Fornax galaxy cluster.The NGFS uses near-UV and optical observations from the Dark Energy Camera mounted on the 4m Blanco Telescope in Chile. The survey is still underway, but in a recent publication led by Roberto P. Muoz (Institute of Astrophysics at the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile), the team has released an overview of the first results from only the central 3 square degrees of the NGFS field.Surprising DetectionGalaxy radii vs. their absolute i-band magnitudes, for the dwarfs found in NGFS as well as other stellar systems in the nearby universe. The NGFS dwarfs are similar to the ultra-diffuse dwarfs found in the Virgo and Coma clusters, but are several orders of magnitude fainter. [Muoz et al. 2015]In just this small central field, the team has found an astounding 284 low-surface-brightness dwarf galaxy candidates 158 of them previously undetected. At the bright end of this sample are dwarf

  19. Illuminating Low Surface Brightness Galaxies with the Hyper Suprime-Cam Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Johnny P.; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.; Macarthur, Lauren A.; Flowers, Xzavier; Goulding, Andy D.; Huang, Song; Kim, Ji Hoon; Komiyama, Yutaka; Leauthaud, Alexie; Leisman, Lukas; Lupton, Robert H.; Sifón, Cristóbal; Wang, Shiang-Yu

    2018-04-01

    We present a catalog of extended low surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs) identified in the Wide layer of the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC-SSP). Using the first ∼200 deg2 of the survey, we have uncovered 781 LSBGs, spanning red (g ‑ i ≥ 0.64) and blue (g ‑ i r eff = 2.″5–14″), our sample is likely dominated by low-redshift objects. We define LSBGs to have mean surface brightnesses {\\bar{μ }}eff}(g)> 24.3 mag arcsec‑2, which allows nucleated galaxies into our sample. As a result, the central surface brightness distribution spans a wide range of μ 0(g) = 18–27.4 mag arcsec‑2, with 50% and 95% of galaxies fainter than 24.3 and 22 mag arcsec‑2, respectively. Furthermore, the surface brightness distribution is a strong function of color, with the red distribution being much broader and generally fainter than that of the blue LSBGs, and this trend shows a clear correlation with galaxy morphology. Red LSBGs typically have smooth light profiles that are well characterized by single-component Sérsic functions. In contrast, blue LSBGs tend to have irregular morphologies and show evidence for ongoing star formation. We cross-match our sample with existing optical, H I, and ultraviolet catalogs to gain insight into the physical nature of the LSBGs. We find that our sample is diverse, ranging from dwarf spheroidals and ultradiffuse galaxies in nearby groups to gas-rich irregulars to giant LSB spirals, demonstrating the potential of the HSC-SSP to provide a truly unprecedented view of the LSBG population.

  20. Do Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Host Stellar Bars?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Sánchez García, Osbaldo

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of assessing if low surface brightness galaxies host stellar bars and by studying the dependence of the occurrence of bars as a function of surface brightness, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to construct a large volume-limited sample of galaxies and then segregate these galaxies as having low or high surface brightness in terms of their central surface brightness. We find that the fraction of low surface brightness galaxies hosting strong bars is systematically lower than that found for high surface brightness galaxies. The dependence of the bar fraction on the central surface brightness is mostly driven by a correlation of the surface brightness with the spin and the gas richness of the galaxies, showing only a minor dependence on the surface brightness. We also find that the length of the bars is strongly dependent on the surface brightness, and although some of this dependence is attributed to the gas content, even at a fixed gas-to-stellar mass ratio, high surface brightness galaxies host longer bars than their low surface brightness counterparts, which we attribute to an anticorrelation of the surface brightness with the spin.

  1. Do Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Host Stellar Bars?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Sánchez García, Osbaldo, E-mail: b.cervantes@irya.unam.mx, E-mail: o.sanchez@irya.unam.mx [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Morelia, A.P. 3-72, C.P. 58089 Michoacán, México (Mexico)

    2017-09-20

    With the aim of assessing if low surface brightness galaxies host stellar bars and by studying the dependence of the occurrence of bars as a function of surface brightness, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to construct a large volume-limited sample of galaxies and then segregate these galaxies as having low or high surface brightness in terms of their central surface brightness. We find that the fraction of low surface brightness galaxies hosting strong bars is systematically lower than that found for high surface brightness galaxies. The dependence of the bar fraction on the central surface brightness is mostly driven by a correlation of the surface brightness with the spin and the gas richness of the galaxies, showing only a minor dependence on the surface brightness. We also find that the length of the bars is strongly dependent on the surface brightness, and although some of this dependence is attributed to the gas content, even at a fixed gas-to-stellar mass ratio, high surface brightness galaxies host longer bars than their low surface brightness counterparts, which we attribute to an anticorrelation of the surface brightness with the spin.

  2. Irregular Dwarf Galaxy IC 1613

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet image (left) and visual image (right) of the irregular dwarf galaxy IC 1613. Low surface brightness galaxies, such as IC 1613, are more easily detected in the ultraviolet because of the low background levels compared to visual wavelengths.

  3. DISCOVERY OF A BRIGHT, EXTREMELY LOW MASS WHITE DWARF IN A CLOSE DOUBLE DEGENERATE SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vennes, S.; Kawka, A.; Nemeth, P.; Thorstensen, J. R.; Skinner, J. N.; Pigulski, A.; Steslicki, M.; Kolaczkowski, Z.; Srodka, P.

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of a bright (V ∼ 13.7), extremely low mass white dwarf in a close double degenerate system. We originally selected GALEX J171708.5+675712 for spectroscopic follow-up among a group of white dwarf candidates in an ultraviolet-optical reduced proper-motion diagram. The new white dwarf has a mass of 0.18 M sun and is the primary component of a close double degenerate system (P = 0.246137 days, K 1 = 288 km s -1 ) comprising a fainter white dwarf secondary with M 2 ∼ 0.9 M sun . Light curves phased with the orbital ephemeris show evidence of relativistic beaming and weaker ellipsoidal variations. The light curves also reveal secondary eclipses (depth ∼8 mmag) while the primary eclipses appear partially compensated by the secondary gravitational deflection and are below detection limits. Photospheric abundance measurements show a nearly solar composition of Si, Ca, and Fe (0.1-1 sun), while the normal kinematics suggest a relatively recent formation history. Close binary evolutionary scenarios suggest that extremely low mass white dwarfs form via a common-envelope phase and possible Roche lobe overflow.

  4. SURFACE PHOTOMETRY OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBLOK, WJG; VANDERHULST, JM; BOTHUN, GD

    1995-01-01

    Low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are galaxies dominated by an exponential disc whose central surface brightness is much fainter than the value of mu(B)(0) = 21.65 +/- 0.30 mag arcsec(-2) found by Freeman. In this paper we present broadband photometry of a sample of 21 late-type LSB galaxies.

  5. EVOLUTIONARY TRACKS OF TIDALLY STIRRED DISKY DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokas, Ewa L.; Kazantzidis, Stelios; Mayer, Lucio

    2011-01-01

    Using collisionless N-body simulations, we investigate the tidal evolution of late-type, rotationally supported dwarfs inside Milky Way sized host galaxies. Our study focuses on a wide variety of dwarf orbital configurations and initial structures. During the evolution, the disky dwarfs undergo strong mass loss, the stellar disks are transformed into spheroids, and rotation is replaced by random motions of the stars. Thus, the late-type progenitors are transformed into early-type dwarfs as envisioned by the tidal stirring model for the formation of dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies in the Local Group. We determine the photometric properties of the dwarfs, including the total visual magnitude, the half-light radius, and the central surface brightness as they would be measured by an observer near the galactic center. Special emphasis is also placed on studying their kinematics and shapes. We demonstrate that the measured values are biased by a number of observational effects including the increasing angle of the observation cone near the orbital pericenter, the fact that away from the pericenter the tidal tails are typically oriented along the line of sight, and the fact that for most of the evolution the stellar components of the dwarfs are triaxial ellipsoids whose major axis tumbles with respect to the line of sight. Finally, we compare the measured properties of the simulated dwarfs to those of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. The evolutionary tracks of the dwarfs in different parameter planes and the correlations between their different properties, especially the total magnitude and the surface brightness, strongly suggest that present-day dSph galaxies may have indeed formed from late-type progenitors as proposed by the tidal stirring scenario.

  6. Does low surface brightness mean low density?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBlok, WJG; McGaugh, SS

    1996-01-01

    We compare the dynamical properties of two galaxies at identical positions on the Tully-Fisher relation, but with different surface brightnesses. We find that the low surface brightness galaxy UGC 128 has a higher mass-to-light ratio, and yet has lower mass densities than the high surface brightness

  7. ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF UGC 1382 AS A GIANT LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, Lea M. Z.; Hagen, Alex [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Seibert, Mark; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Madore, Barry F. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Nyland, Kristina; Young, Lisa M. [Physics Department, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Neill, James D. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Treyer, Marie [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille, UMR 7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille (France)

    2016-08-01

    We provide evidence that UGC 1382, long believed to be a passive elliptical galaxy, is actually a giant low surface brightness (GLSB) galaxy that rivals the archetypical GLSB Malin 1 in size. Like other GLSB galaxies, it has two components: a high surface brightness disk galaxy surrounded by an extended low surface brightness (LSB) disk. For UGC 1382, the central component is a lenticular system with an effective radius of 6 kpc. Beyond this, the LSB disk has an effective radius of ∼38 kpc and an extrapolated central surface brightness of ∼26 mag arcsec{sup 2}. Both components have a combined stellar mass of ∼8 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙}, and are embedded in a massive (10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙}) low-density (<3 M {sub ⊙} pc{sup 2}) HI disk with a radius of 110 kpc, making this one of the largest isolated disk galaxies known. The system resides in a massive dark matter halo of at least 2 × 10{sup 12} M {sub ⊙}. Although possibly part of a small group, its low-density environment likely plays a role in the formation and retention of the giant LSB and HI disks. We model the spectral energy distributions and find that the LSB disk is likely older than the lenticular component. UGC 1382 has UV–optical colors typical of galaxies transitioning through the green valley. Within the LSB disk are spiral arms forming stars at extremely low efficiencies. The gas depletion timescale of ∼10{sup 11} years suggests that UGC 1382 may be a very-long-term resident of the green valley. We find that the formation and evolution of the LSB disk in UGC 1382 is best explained by the accretion of gas-rich LSB dwarf galaxies.

  8. The lowest surface brightness disc galaxy known

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.I.; Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The discovery of a galaxy with a prominent bulge and a dominant extremely low surface brightness disc component is reported. The profile of this galaxy is very similar to the recently discovered giant low surface brightness galaxy Malin 1. The disc central surface brightness is found to be ∼ 26.4 Rμ, some 1.5 mag fainter than Malin 1 and thus by far the lowest yet observed. (author)

  9. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies: Keystones of galaxy evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, John S., III; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1994-01-01

    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are the most insignificant extragalactic stellar systems in terms of their visibility, but potentially very significant in terms of their role in the formation and evolution of much more luminous galaxies. We discuss the present observational data and their implications for theories of the formation and evolution of both dwarf and giant galaxies. The putative dark-matter content of these low-surface-brightness systems is of particular interest, as is their chemical evolution. Surveys for new dwarf spheroidals hidden behind the stars of our Galaxy and those which are not bound to giant galaxies may give new clues as to the origins of this unique class of galaxy.

  10. Automated detection of very Low Surface Brightness galaxies in the Virgo Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prole, D. J.; Davies, J. I.; Keenan, O. C.; Davies, L. J. M.

    2018-04-01

    We report the automatic detection of a new sample of very low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies, likely members of the Virgo cluster. We introduce our new software, DeepScan, that has been designed specifically to detect extended LSB features automatically using the DBSCAN algorithm. We demonstrate the technique by applying it over a 5 degree2 portion of the Next-Generation Virgo Survey (NGVS) data to reveal 53 low surface brightness galaxies that are candidate cluster members based on their sizes and colours. 30 of these sources are new detections despite the region being searched specifically for LSB galaxies previously. Our final sample contains galaxies with 26.0 ≤ ⟨μe⟩ ≤ 28.5 and 19 ≤ mg ≤ 21, making them some of the faintest known in Virgo. The majority of them have colours consistent with the red sequence, and have a mean stellar mass of 106.3 ± 0.5M⊙ assuming cluster membership. After using ProFit to fit Sérsic profiles to our detections, none of the new sources have effective radii larger than 1.5 Kpc and do not meet the criteria for ultra-diffuse galaxy (UDG) classification, so we classify them as ultra-faint dwarfs.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Bright white dwarfs for high-speed photometry (Raddi+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddi, R.; Gentile Fusillo, N. P.; Pala, A. F.; Hermes, J. J.; Gansicke, B. T.; Chote, P.; Hollands, M. A.; Henden, A.; Catalan, S.; Geier, S.; Koester, D.; Munari, U.; Napiwotzki, R.; Tremblay, P.-E.

    2017-11-01

    This photometric and reduced proper motion catalogue was created to identify suitable targets for the space-borne mission TESS, which will acquire all- sky time-series photometry for at least two years searching for exoplanet transits and enabling asteroseismology for numerous classes of stars. We cross-matched APASS, GALEX, 2MASS, and WISE, with PPMXL.The attached data include current-epoch positions and photometry of known white dwarfs, candidate white dwarfs, and new spectroscopically confirmed white dwarfs. For the new stars, we estimated the atmospheric parameters (temperature and surface gravity), masses, and ages. Nine white dwarfs have low mass secondaries, for which we estimate temperatures and ages. (6 data files).

  12. Solo dwarfs I: survey introduction and first results for the Sagittarius dwarf irregular galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, C. R.; McConnachie, A. W.; Irwin, M.; Bate, N. F.; Lewis, G. F.; Walker, M. G.; Côté, P.; Venn, K.; Battaglia, G.

    2016-05-01

    We introduce the Solitary Local dwarfs survey (Solo), a wide-field photometric study targeting every isolated dwarf galaxy within 3 Mpc of the Milky Way. Solo is based on (u)gi multiband imaging from Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/MegaCam for northern targets, and Magellan/Megacam for southern targets. All galaxies fainter than MV ≃ -18 situated beyond the nominal virial radius of the Milky Way and M31 (≳300 kpc) are included in this volume-limited sample, for a total of 42 targets. In addition to reviewing the survey goals and strategy, we present results for the Sagittarius dwarf irregular galaxy (Sag DIG), one of the most isolated, low-mass galaxies, located at the edge of the Local Group. We analyse its resolved stellar populations and their spatial distributions. We provide updated estimates of its central surface brightness and integrated luminosity, and trace its surface brightness profile to a level fainter than 30 mag arcsec-2. Sag DIG is well described by a highly elliptical (disc-like) system following a single component Sérsic model. However, a low-level distortion is present at the outer edges of the galaxy that, were Sag DIG not so isolated, would likely be attributed to some kind of previous tidal interaction. Further, we find evidence of an extremely low level, extended distribution of stars beyond ˜5 arcmin (>1.5 kpc) that suggests Sag DIG may be embedded in a very low-density stellar halo. We compare the stellar and H I structures of Sag DIG, and discuss results for this galaxy in relation to other isolated, dwarf irregular galaxies in the Local Group.

  13. Dusty Dwarfs Galaxies Occulting A Bright Background Spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holwerda, Benne

    2017-08-01

    The role of dust in shaping the spectral energy distributions of low mass disk galaxies remains poorly understood. Recent results from the Herschel Space Observatory imply that dwarf galaxies contain large amounts of cool (T 20K) dust, coupled with very modest optical extinctions. These seemingly contradictory conclusions may be resolved if dwarfs harbor a variety of dust geometries, e.g., dust at larger galactocentric radii or in quiescent dark clumps. We propose HST observations of six truly occulting dwarf galaxies drawn from the Galaxy Zoo catalog of silhouetted galaxy pairs. Confirmed, true occulting dwarfs are rare as most low-mass disks in overlap are either close satellites or do not have a confirmed redshift. Dwarf occulters are the key to determining the spatial extent of dust, the small scale structure introduced by turbulence, and the prevailing dust attenuation law. The recent spectroscopic confirmation of bona-fide low mass occulting dwarfs offers an opportunity to map dust in these with HST. What is the role of dust in the SED of these dwarf disk galaxies? With shorter feedback scales, how does star-formation affect their morphology and dust composition, as revealed from their attenuation curve? The resolution of HST allows us to map the dust disks down to the fine scale structure of molecular clouds and multi-wavelength imaging maps the attenuation curve and hence dust composition in these disks. We therefore ask for 2 orbits on each of 6 dwarf galaxies in F275W, F475W, F606W, F814W and F125W to map dust from UV to NIR to constrain the attenuation curve.

  14. THE BROWN DWARF KINEMATICS PROJECT (BDKP). III. PARALLAXES FOR 70 ULTRACOOL DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Shara, Michael M.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Walter, Frederick M.; Van der Bliek, Nicole; West, Andrew A.; Vrba, Frederick J.; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem

    2012-01-01

    We report parallax measurements for 70 ultracool dwarfs (UCDs) including 11 late-M, 32 L, and 27 T dwarfs. In this sample, 14 M and L dwarfs exhibit low surface gravity features, 6 are close binary systems, and 2 are metal-poor subdwarfs. We combined our new measurements with 114 previously published UCD parallaxes and optical-mid-IR photometry to examine trends in spectral-type/absolute magnitude, and color-color diagrams. We report new polynomial relations between spectral type and M JHK . Including resolved L/T transition binaries in the relations, we find no reason to differentiate between a 'bright' (unresolved binary) and a 'faint' (single source) sample across the L/T boundary. Isolating early T dwarfs, we find that the brightening of T0-T4 sources is prominent in M J where there is a [1.2-1.4] mag difference. A similar yet dampened brightening of [0.3-0.5] mag happens at M H and a plateau or dimming of [–0.2 to –0.3] mag is seen in M K . Comparison with evolutionary models that vary gravity, metallicity, and cloud thickness verifies that for L into T dwarfs, decreasing cloud thickness reproduces brown dwarf near-IR color-magnitude diagrams. However we find that a near constant temperature of 1200 ±100 K along a narrow spectral subtype of T0-T4 is required to account for the brightening and color-magnitude diagram of the L-dwarf/T-dwarf transition. There is a significant population of both L and T dwarfs which are red or potentially 'ultra-cloudy' compared to the models, many of which are known to be young indicating a correlation between enhanced photospheric dust and youth. For the low surface gravity or young companion L dwarfs we find that 8 out of 10 are at least [0.2-1.0] mag underluminous in M JH and/or M K compared to equivalent spectral type objects. We speculate that this is a consequence of increased dust opacity and conclude that low surface gravity L dwarfs require a completely new spectral-type/absolute magnitude polynomial for analysis.

  15. THE BROWN DWARF KINEMATICS PROJECT (BDKP). III. PARALLAXES FOR 70 ULTRACOOL DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Shara, Michael M.; Cruz, Kelle L. [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10034 (United States); Burgasser, Adam J. [Center of Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Walter, Frederick M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Van der Bliek, Nicole [CTIO/National Optical Astronomy Observatory (Chile); West, Andrew A. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Ave Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Vrba, Frederick J. [US Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, P.O. Box 1149, Flagstaff, AZ 86002 (United States); Anglada-Escude, Guillem, E-mail: jfaherty@amnh.org [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States)

    2012-06-10

    We report parallax measurements for 70 ultracool dwarfs (UCDs) including 11 late-M, 32 L, and 27 T dwarfs. In this sample, 14 M and L dwarfs exhibit low surface gravity features, 6 are close binary systems, and 2 are metal-poor subdwarfs. We combined our new measurements with 114 previously published UCD parallaxes and optical-mid-IR photometry to examine trends in spectral-type/absolute magnitude, and color-color diagrams. We report new polynomial relations between spectral type and M{sub JHK}. Including resolved L/T transition binaries in the relations, we find no reason to differentiate between a 'bright' (unresolved binary) and a 'faint' (single source) sample across the L/T boundary. Isolating early T dwarfs, we find that the brightening of T0-T4 sources is prominent in M{sub J} where there is a [1.2-1.4] mag difference. A similar yet dampened brightening of [0.3-0.5] mag happens at M{sub H} and a plateau or dimming of [-0.2 to -0.3] mag is seen in M{sub K} . Comparison with evolutionary models that vary gravity, metallicity, and cloud thickness verifies that for L into T dwarfs, decreasing cloud thickness reproduces brown dwarf near-IR color-magnitude diagrams. However we find that a near constant temperature of 1200 {+-}100 K along a narrow spectral subtype of T0-T4 is required to account for the brightening and color-magnitude diagram of the L-dwarf/T-dwarf transition. There is a significant population of both L and T dwarfs which are red or potentially 'ultra-cloudy' compared to the models, many of which are known to be young indicating a correlation between enhanced photospheric dust and youth. For the low surface gravity or young companion L dwarfs we find that 8 out of 10 are at least [0.2-1.0] mag underluminous in M{sub JH} and/or M{sub K} compared to equivalent spectral type objects. We speculate that this is a consequence of increased dust opacity and conclude that low surface gravity L dwarfs require a completely new

  16. Benchmark Transiting Brown Dwarf LHS 6343 C: Spitzer Secondary Eclipse Observations Yield Brightness Temperature and Mid-T Spectral Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montet, Benjamin T.; Johnson, John Asher; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Desert, Jean-Michel

    2016-05-01

    There are no field brown dwarf analogs with measured masses, radii, and luminosities, precluding our ability to connect the population of transiting brown dwarfs with measurable masses and radii and field brown dwarfs with measurable luminosities and atmospheric properties. LHS 6343 C, a weakly irradiated brown dwarf transiting one member of an M+M binary in the Kepler field, provides the first opportunity to probe the atmosphere of a non-inflated brown dwarf with a measured mass and radius. Here, we analyze four Spitzer observations of secondary eclipses of LHS 6343 C behind LHS 6343 A. Jointly fitting the eclipses with a Gaussian process noise model of the instrumental systematics, we measure eclipse depths of 1.06 ± 0.21 ppt at 3.6 μm and 2.09 ± 0.08 ppt at 4.5 μm, corresponding to brightness temperatures of 1026 ± 57 K and 1249 ± 36 K, respectively. We then apply brown dwarf evolutionary models to infer a bolometric luminosity {log}({L}\\star /{L}⊙ )=-5.16+/- 0.04. Given the known physical properties of the brown dwarf and the two M dwarfs in the LHS 6343 system, these depths are consistent with models of a 1100 K T dwarf at an age of 5 Gyr and empirical observations of field T5-6 dwarfs with temperatures of 1070 ± 130 K. We investigate the possibility that the orbit of LHS 6343 C has been altered by the Kozai-Lidov mechanism and propose additional astrometric or Rossiter-McLaughlin measurements of the system to probe the dynamical history of the system.

  17. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1983-01-01

    It is proposed that Freeman's discovery that the extrapolated central surface brightness of spiral galaxies is approximately constant can be simply explained if the galaxies contain a spheroidal component which dominates the light in their outer isophotes. Calculations of an effective central surface brightness indicate a wide spread of values. This requires either a wide spread in disc properties or significant spheroidal components or, most probably, both. (author)

  18. K2-155: A Bright Metal-poor M Dwarf with Three Transiting Super-Earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Teruyuki; Dai, Fei; Livingston, John H.; Fujii, Yuka; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Gandolfi, Davide; Redfield, Seth; Winn, Joshua N.; Guenther, Eike W.; Prieto-Arranz, Jorge; Albrecht, Simon; Barragan, Oscar; Cabrera, Juan; Cauley, P. Wilson; Csizmadia, Szilard; Deeg, Hans; Eigmüller, Philipp; Erikson, Anders; Fridlund, Malcolm; Fukui, Akihiko; Grziwa, Sascha; Hatzes, Artie P.; Korth, Judith; Narita, Norio; Nespral, David; Niraula, Prajwal; Nowak, Grzegorz; Pätzold, Martin; Palle, Enric; Persson, Carina M.; Rauer, Heike; Ribas, Ignasi; Smith, Alexis M. S.; Van Eylen, Vincent

    2018-03-01

    We report on the discovery of three transiting super-Earths around K2-155 (EPIC 210897587), a relatively bright early M dwarf (V = 12.81 mag) observed during Campaign 13 of the NASA K2 mission. To characterize the system and validate the planet candidates, we conducted speckle imaging and high-dispersion optical spectroscopy, including radial velocity measurements. Based on the K2 light curve and the spectroscopic characterization of the host star, the planet sizes and orbital periods are {1.55}-0.17+0.20 {R}\\oplus and 6.34365 ± 0.00028 days for the inner planet; {1.95}-0.22+0.27 {R}\\oplus and 13.85402 ± 0.00088 days for the middle planet; and {1.64}-0.17+0.18 {R}\\oplus and 40.6835 ± 0.0031 days for the outer planet. The outer planet (K2-155d) is near the habitable zone, with an insolation 1.67 ± 0.38 times that of the Earth. The planet’s radius falls within the range between that of smaller rocky planets and larger gas-rich planets. To assess the habitability of this planet, we present a series of three-dimensional global climate simulations, assuming that K2-155d is tidally locked and has an Earth-like composition and atmosphere. We find that the planet can maintain a moderate surface temperature if the insolation proves to be smaller than ∼1.5 times that of the Earth. Doppler mass measurements, transit spectroscopy, and other follow-up observations should be rewarding, as K2-155 is one of the optically brightest M dwarfs known to harbor transiting planets.

  19. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.; Phillipps, S.

    1985-01-01

    The intrinsic surface brightness Ssub(e) of 500 disc galaxies (0<=T<=9) drawn from the Second Reference Catalogue is computed and it is shown that Ssub(e) does not correlate significantly with Msub(B), (B-V) or type. This is consistent with the notion that there is a heavy selection bias in favour of disc galaxies with that particular surface brightness which allows inclusion in the catalogue over the largest volume of space. (author)

  20. Star formation and the surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1985-01-01

    The (blue) surface brightness of spiral galaxies is significantly correlated with their Hα linewidth. This can be most plausibly interpreted as a correlation of surface brightness with star formation rate. There is also a significant difference in surface brightness between galaxies forming stars in a grand design spiral pattern and those with floc star formation regions. (author)

  1. SIMULTANEOUS MULTI-BAND DETECTION OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES WITH MARKOVIAN MODELING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollmer, B.; Bonnarel, F.; Louys, M.; Perret, B.; Petremand, M.; Lavigne, F.; Collet, Ch.; Van Driel, W.; Sabatini, S.; MacArthur, L. A.

    2013-01-01

    We present to the astronomical community an algorithm for the detection of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies in images, called MARSIAA (MARkovian Software for Image Analysis in Astronomy), which is based on multi-scale Markovian modeling. MARSIAA can be applied simultaneously to different bands. It segments an image into a user-defined number of classes, according to their surface brightness and surroundings—typically, one or two classes contain the LSB structures. We have developed an algorithm, called DetectLSB, which allows the efficient identification of LSB galaxies from among the candidate sources selected by MARSIAA. The application of the method to two and three bands simultaneously was tested on simulated images. Based on our tests, we are confident that we can detect LSB galaxies down to a central surface brightness level of only 1.5 times the standard deviation from the mean pixel value in the image background. To assess the robustness of our method, the method was applied to a set of 18 B- and I-band images (covering 1.3 deg 2 in total) of the Virgo Cluster to which Sabatini et al. previously applied a matched-filter dwarf LSB galaxy search algorithm. We have detected all 20 objects from the Sabatini et al. catalog which we could classify by eye as bona fide LSB galaxies. Our method has also detected four additional Virgo Cluster LSB galaxy candidates undetected by Sabatini et al. To further assess the completeness of the results of our method, both MARSIAA, SExtractor, and DetectLSB were applied to search for (1) mock Virgo LSB galaxies inserted into a set of deep Next Generation Virgo Survey (NGVS) gri-band subimages and (2) Virgo LSB galaxies identified by eye in a full set of NGVS square degree gri images. MARSIAA/DetectLSB recovered ∼20% more mock LSB galaxies and ∼40% more LSB galaxies identified by eye than SExtractor/DetectLSB. With a 90% fraction of false positives from an entirely unsupervised pipeline, a completeness of 90% is

  2. Giant Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Alka; Kantharia, Nimisha G.; Das, Mousumi

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we present radio observations of the giant low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies made using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). LSB galaxies are generally large, dark matter dominated spirals that have low star formation efficiencies and large HI gas disks. Their properties suggest that they are less evolved compared to high surface brightness galaxies. We present GMRT emission maps of LSB galaxies with an optically-identified active nucleus. Using our radio data and archival near-infrared (2MASS) and near-ultraviolet (GALEX) data, we studied morphology and star formation efficiencies in these galaxies. All the galaxies show radio continuum emission mostly associated with the centre of the galaxy.

  3. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies: Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.; Ohio State Univ., Columbus

    1988-01-01

    Using measurements from IRAS correlations are found between optical surface brightness and both infrared-to-optical flux ratio and infrared colour temperature, in the sense that galaxies with high surface brightness have higher FIR emission and higher temperatures. (author)

  4. Measuring the surface inhomogeneity of metals on accreting white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, M H; Hippel, T von; Thompson, S E

    2009-01-01

    Due to the short settling times of metals in DA white dwarf atmospheres, any white dwarfs with photospheric metals must be actively accreting. It is therefore natural to expect that the metals may not be deposited uniformly on the surface of the star. We present calculations showing how the temperature variations associated with white dwarf pulsations lead to an observable diagnostic of the surface metal distribution, and we show what constraints current data sets are able to provide.

  5. The surface brightness of 1550 galaxies in Fornax: automated galaxy surface photometry: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.J.; Kibblewhite, E.J.; Cawson, M.G.M.

    1987-01-01

    A survey of a complete sample of galaxies in the region of the Fornax cluster is presented. Measurements with the Automatic Plate Measuring machine are used to derive the observed distribution of galaxy surface brightness for 1550 objects. Corrections for surface brightness dependent selection effects are then made in order to estimate the true distribution. It is found that the sample (with 16.6 ≤ Msub(APM) ≤ 19.1) is divided into two distinct populations. The 'normal' galaxies with extrapolated central surface brightness Ssub(x) ≤ 22.5 Bμ form a uniformly distributed background of field galaxies. Low surface brightness galaxies (Ssub(x) ≥ 22.5 Bμ), on the other hand, are strongly clumped about the cluster centre. There appear to be few low surface brightness field galaxies. (author)

  6. Multi-spectral study of a new sample of blue compact dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Doublier, V; Comte, G

    1999-01-01

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.124, no.3, p.405-24 (1997). We present the results of surface photometry on a new sample of blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDGs), in continuation to a previous paper (Doublier et al. 1997). The 22 galaxies $9 (plus two companions) discussed in the present paper have been selected in the Southern Hemisphere, from several lists. An atlas containing isophotal maps, surface brightnesses and B-R color profiles of the sample is given, together $9 with the tables containing the photometric parameters. The results are consistent with those for objects selected from the Byurakan surveys in the Northern Hemisphere. Similarly, we find about one fourth of the BCDGs showing a $9 dominant r/sup 1/4/ brightness distribution component, one fourth of the BCDGs showing a dominant exponential surface brightness profile, and about half of them show composite brightness distributions. Integrated properties, colors, $9 mean surface brightnesses and luminosity-radius relations are investigated and discussed f...

  7. Low surface brightness spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanishin, W.

    1980-01-01

    This dissertation presents an observational overview of a sample of low surface brightness (LSB) spiral galaxies. The sample galaxies were chosen to have low surface brightness disks and indications of spiral structure visible on the Palomar Sky Survey. They are of sufficient angular size (diameter > 2.5 arcmin), to allow detailed surface photometry using Mayall 4-m prime focus plates. The major findings of this dissertation are: (1) The average disk central surface brightness of the LSB galaxies is 22.88 magnitude/arcsec 2 in the B passband. (2) From broadband color measurements of the old stellar population, we infer a low average stellar metallicity, on the order of 1/5 solar. (3) The spectra and optical colors of the HII regions in the LSB galaxies indicate a lack of hot ionizing stars compared to HII regions in other late-type galaxies. (4) The average surface mass density, measured within the radius containing half the total mass, is less than half that of a sample of normal late-type spirals. (5) The average LSB galaxy neutral hydrogen mass to blue luminosity ratio is about 0.6, significantly higher than in a sample of normal late-type galaxies. (6) We find no conclusive evidence of an abnormal mass-to-light ratio in the LSB galaxies. (7) Some of the LSB galaxies exhibit well-developed density wave patterns. (8) A very crude calculation shows the lower metallicity of the LSB galaxies compared with normal late-type spirals might be explained simply by the deficiency of massive stars in the LSB galaxies

  8. SIMULTANEOUS MULTI-BAND DETECTION OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES WITH MARKOVIAN MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollmer, B.; Bonnarel, F.; Louys, M. [CDS, Observatoire Astronomique, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Perret, B.; Petremand, M.; Lavigne, F.; Collet, Ch. [LSIIT, Universite de Strasbourg, 7, Rue Rene Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg (France); Van Driel, W. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon (France); Sabatini, S. [INAF/IASF-Roma, via Fosso de Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); MacArthur, L. A., E-mail: Bernd.Vollmer@astro.unistra.fr [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2013-02-01

    We present to the astronomical community an algorithm for the detection of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies in images, called MARSIAA (MARkovian Software for Image Analysis in Astronomy), which is based on multi-scale Markovian modeling. MARSIAA can be applied simultaneously to different bands. It segments an image into a user-defined number of classes, according to their surface brightness and surroundings-typically, one or two classes contain the LSB structures. We have developed an algorithm, called DetectLSB, which allows the efficient identification of LSB galaxies from among the candidate sources selected by MARSIAA. The application of the method to two and three bands simultaneously was tested on simulated images. Based on our tests, we are confident that we can detect LSB galaxies down to a central surface brightness level of only 1.5 times the standard deviation from the mean pixel value in the image background. To assess the robustness of our method, the method was applied to a set of 18 B- and I-band images (covering 1.3 deg{sup 2} in total) of the Virgo Cluster to which Sabatini et al. previously applied a matched-filter dwarf LSB galaxy search algorithm. We have detected all 20 objects from the Sabatini et al. catalog which we could classify by eye as bona fide LSB galaxies. Our method has also detected four additional Virgo Cluster LSB galaxy candidates undetected by Sabatini et al. To further assess the completeness of the results of our method, both MARSIAA, SExtractor, and DetectLSB were applied to search for (1) mock Virgo LSB galaxies inserted into a set of deep Next Generation Virgo Survey (NGVS) gri-band subimages and (2) Virgo LSB galaxies identified by eye in a full set of NGVS square degree gri images. MARSIAA/DetectLSB recovered {approx}20% more mock LSB galaxies and {approx}40% more LSB galaxies identified by eye than SExtractor/DetectLSB. With a 90% fraction of false positives from an entirely unsupervised pipeline, a completeness of

  9. UBV photometry of dwarf novae in the brightness minimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloshina, I.B.; Lyutyj, V.M.

    1983-01-01

    Photoelectric one-night observations of the dwarf novae SS Cyg at minimum light evidence for the existence of eclipses in this system at the moments of conjuctions. The orbital inclination of the system is estimated to be i approximately 70 deg C. The components of this system are low-massive (white and red dwarf stars) and low-luminous objects. As the optical luminosity of the dwarf novae at the minimum light is dependent on the accretion disk and hot spot at its periphery, where the substance jet run out from a nondegenerated component falls, eclipses should be associated with the disk and hot spot. The white dwarf star contributes greatly to the luminosity at the minimum light, but its eclipses are possible only at i approximately 90 deg

  10. High-speed photometry of the dwarf nova Z Cha in quiescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Janet; Horne, Keith; Berriman, Graham; O'Donoghue, Darragh; Warner, Brian

    1986-01-01

    High-speed white light photometry of the cataclysmic variable star Z Cha is used to study the structure of the system and to derive the properties of its components. The white dwarf and bright spot eclipse timings require a mass ratio, q=Msub(R)/Msub(WD) of 0.146 0 .9>i>81 0 .6. The infalling stream passes through the light centre of the bright spot. If the central luminous object is the white dwarf its mass is 0.54+-0.01 Msolar mass which corresponds to a secondary star mass of 0.081+-0.003 Msolar mass. Agreement between colour and brightness temperatures for the white dwarf and bright spot provide a rough confirmation of the 97 pc distance. (author)

  11. Asteroseismology of pulsating DA white dwarfs with fully evolutionary models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Althaus L.G.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach for asteroseismology of DA white dwarfs that consists in the employment of a large set of non-static, physically sound, fully evolutionary models representative of these stars. We already have applied this approach with success to pulsating PG1159 stars (GW Vir variables. Our white dwarf models, which cover a wide range of stellar masses, effective temperatures, and envelope thicknesses, are the result of fully evolutionary computations that take into account the complete history of the progenitor stars from the ZAMS. In particular, the models are characterized by self-consistent chemical structures from the centre to the surface, a crucial aspect of white dwarf asteroseismology. We apply this approach to an ensemble of 44 bright DAV (ZZ Ceti stars.

  12. A surface brightness analysis of eight RR Lyrae stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, S.L.; Barnes, T.G. III; Moffett, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have used a surface brightness, (V-R) relation to analyze new contemporaneous photometry and radial velocity data for 6 RR-ab type stars and to re-analyze previously published data for RR Lyrae and X Arietis. Systematic effects were found in the surface brightness at phases near minimum radius. Excluding these phases, they determine the slope of the surface brightness relation and the mean radius for each star. They also find a zero point which includes both a distance term and the zero point of the surface brightness relation. The sample includes stars with Preston's metallicity indicator ΔS = 0 to 9, with periods ranging from 0.397 days to 0.651 days. Their results indicate a log(R/R solar ) vs. log P relation in the sense that stars with longer periods have larger radii, in agreement with theoretical predictions. Their radii are consistent with bolometric magnitudes in the range 0.2 - 0.8 magnitude but accurate magnitudes must await a reliable T e - color calibration

  13. The brown dwarf kinematics project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Jackie K.

    2010-10-01

    Brown dwarfs are a recent addition to the plethora of objects studied in Astronomy. With theoretical masses between 13 and 75 MJupiter , they lack sustained stable Hydrogen burning so they never join the stellar main sequence. They have physical properties similar to both planets and low-mass stars so studies of their population inform on both. The distances and kinematics of brown dwarfs provide key statistical constraints on their ages, moving group membership, absolute brightnesses, evolutionary trends, and multiplicity. Yet, until my thesis, fundamental measurements of parallax and proper motion were made for only a relatively small fraction of the known population. To address this deficiency, I initiated the Brown Dwarf Kinematics (BDKP). Over the past four years I have re-imaged the majority of spectroscopically confirmed field brown dwarfs (or ultracool dwarfs---UCDs) and created the largest proper motion catalog for ultracool dwarfs to date. Using new astrometric information I examined population characteristics such as ages calculated from velocity dispersions and correlations between kinematics and colors. Using proper motions, I identified several new wide co-moving companions and investigated binding energy (and hence formation) limitations as well as the frequency of hierarchical companions. Concurrently over the past four years I have been conducting a parallax survey of 84 UCDs including those showing spectral signatures of youth, metal-poor brown dwarfs, and those within 20 pc of the Sun. Using absolute magnitude relations in J,H, and K, I identified overluminous binary candidates and investigated known flux-reversal binaries. Using current evolutionary models, I compared the MK vs J-K color magnitude diagram to model predictions and found that the low-surface gravity dwarfs are significantly red-ward and underluminous of predictions and a handful of late-type T dwarfs may require thicker clouds to account for their scatter.

  14. Bright galaxies in the Fornax cluster. Automated galaxy surface photometry: Pt. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.J.; Phillipps, S.; Davies, J.L.; Cawson, M.G.M.; Kibblewhite, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    We have determined surface-brightness profiles for all galaxies down to magnitude B = 16 in the central region of the Fornax cluster. Using existing redshift data, we have determined the distributions of surface brightness for both the whole sample and for cluster disc galaxies only. Although both distributions peak at extrapolated central surface brightness ∼ 21.7B mag/arcsec 2 (the canonical result), it is shown that they are, in fact, consistent with very broad distributions of disc central surface brightness once selection effects and the effects of bulge contamination of the profile are taken into account. (author)

  15. Low-Surface-Brightness Galaxies: Hidden Galaxies Revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothun, G.; Impey, C.; McGaugh, S.

    1997-07-01

    In twenty years, low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies have evolved from being an idiosyncratic notion to being one of the major baryonic repositories in the Universe. The story of their discovery and the characterization of their properties is told here. Their recovery from the noise of the night sky background is a strong testament to the severity of surface brightness selection effects. LSB galaxies have a number of remarkable properties which distinguish them from the more familiar Hubble Sequence of spirals. The two most important are 1) they evolve at a significantly slower rate and may well experience star formation outside of the molecular cloud environment, 2) they are embedded in dark matter halos which are of lower density and more extended than the halos around high surface brightness (HSB) disk galaxies. Compared to HSB disks, LSB disks are strongly dark matter dominated at all radii and show a systematic increase in $M/L$ with decreasing central surface brightness. In addition, the recognition that large numbers of LSB galaxies actually exist has changed the form of the galaxy luminosity function and has clearly increased the space density of galaxies at z =0. Recent CCD surveys have uncovered a population of red LSB disks that may be related to the excess of faint blue galaxies detected at moderate redshifts. LSB galaxies offer us a new window into galaxy evolution and formation which is every bit as important as those processes which have produced easy to detect galaxies. Indeed, the apparent youth of some LSB galaxies suggest that galaxy formation is a greatly extended process. While the discovery of LSB galaxies have lead to new insights, it remains unwise to presume that we now have a representative sample which encompasses all galaxy types and forms. (SECTION: Invited Review Paper)

  16. Evidence for dwarf stars at D of about 100 kiloparsecs near the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Andrew; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Richstone, Douglas; Flynn, Chris

    1992-01-01

    A method is presented for detecting individual, metal-poor, dwarf stars at distances less than about 150 kpc - a method specifically designed to filter out stars from among the much more numerous faint background field galaxies on the basis of broad-band colors. This technique is applied to two fields at high Galactic latitude, for which there are deep CCD data in four bands ranging from 3600 to 9000 A. The field in Sextans probably contains more than about five dwarf stars with BJ not greater than 25.5. These are consistent with being at a common distance about 100 kpc and lie about 1.7 deg from the newly discovered dwarf galaxy in Sextans whose distance is about 85 +/- 10 kpc. The stars lie near the major axis of the galaxy and are near or beyond the tidal radius. The second field, toward the south Galactic pole, may contain up to about five extra-Galactic stars, but these show no evidence for being at a common distance. Possible applications of this type technique are discussed, and it is shown that even very low surface brightness star clusters or dwarf galaxies may be detected at distances less than about 1 Mpc.

  17. HERSCHEL SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF LITTLE THINGS DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigan, Phil; Young, Lisa; Cormier, Diane; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Madden, Suzanne; Hunter, Deidre; Brinks, Elias; Elmegreen, Bruce; Schruba, Andreas; Heesen, Volker

    2016-01-01

    We present far-infrared (FIR) spectral line observations of five galaxies from the Little Things sample: DDO 69, DDO 70, DDO 75, DDO 155, and WLM. While most studies of dwarfs focus on bright systems or starbursts due to observational constraints, our data extend the observed parameter space into the regime of low surface brightness dwarf galaxies with low metallicities and moderate star formation rates. Our targets were observed with Herschel at the [C ii] 158 μm, [O i] 63 μm, [O iii] 88 μm, and [N ii] 122 μm emission lines using the PACS Spectrometer. These high-resolution maps allow us for the first time to study the FIR properties of these systems on the scales of larger star-forming complexes. The spatial resolution in our maps, in combination with star formation tracers, allows us to identify separate photodissociation regions (PDRs) in some of the regions we observed. Our systems have widespread [C ii] emission that is bright relative to continuum, averaging near 0.5% of the total infrared (TIR) budget—higher than in solar-metallicity galaxies of other types. [N ii] is weak, suggesting that the [C ii] emission in our galaxies comes mostly from PDRs instead of the diffuse ionized interstellar medium (ISM). These systems exhibit efficient cooling at low dust temperatures, as shown by ([O i]+[C ii])/TIR in relation to 60 μm/100 μm, and low [O i]/[C ii] ratios which indicate that [C ii] is the dominant coolant of the ISM. We observe [O iii]/[C ii] ratios in our galaxies that are lower than those published for other dwarfs, but similar to levels noted in spirals

  18. HERSCHEL SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF LITTLE THINGS DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cigan, Phil; Young, Lisa [Physics Department, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Cormier, Diane [Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Lebouteiller, Vianney; Madden, Suzanne [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM—CNRS—Université Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hunter, Deidre [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Brinks, Elias [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Elmegreen, Bruce [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Hts., NY 10598 (United States); Schruba, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Heesen, Volker, E-mail: pcigan@alumni.nmt.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Collaboration: LITTLE THINGS Team

    2016-01-15

    We present far-infrared (FIR) spectral line observations of five galaxies from the Little Things sample: DDO 69, DDO 70, DDO 75, DDO 155, and WLM. While most studies of dwarfs focus on bright systems or starbursts due to observational constraints, our data extend the observed parameter space into the regime of low surface brightness dwarf galaxies with low metallicities and moderate star formation rates. Our targets were observed with Herschel at the [C ii] 158 μm, [O i] 63 μm, [O iii] 88 μm, and [N ii] 122 μm emission lines using the PACS Spectrometer. These high-resolution maps allow us for the first time to study the FIR properties of these systems on the scales of larger star-forming complexes. The spatial resolution in our maps, in combination with star formation tracers, allows us to identify separate photodissociation regions (PDRs) in some of the regions we observed. Our systems have widespread [C ii] emission that is bright relative to continuum, averaging near 0.5% of the total infrared (TIR) budget—higher than in solar-metallicity galaxies of other types. [N ii] is weak, suggesting that the [C ii] emission in our galaxies comes mostly from PDRs instead of the diffuse ionized interstellar medium (ISM). These systems exhibit efficient cooling at low dust temperatures, as shown by ([O i]+[C ii])/TIR in relation to 60 μm/100 μm, and low [O i]/[C ii] ratios which indicate that [C ii] is the dominant coolant of the ISM. We observe [O iii]/[C ii] ratios in our galaxies that are lower than those published for other dwarfs, but similar to levels noted in spirals.

  19. Pulsations of white dwarf stars with thick hydrogen or helium surface layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, A.N.; Starrfield, S.G.; Kidman, R.B.; Pesnell, W.D.

    1986-07-01

    In order to see if there could be agreement between results of stellar evolution theory and those of nonradial pulsation theory, calculations of white dwarf models have been made for hydrogen surface masses of 10/sup -4/ solar masses. Earlier results indicated that surface masses greater than 10/sup -8/ solar masses would not allow nonradial pulsations, even though all the driving and damping is in surface layers only 10/sup -12/ of the mass thick. It is shown that the surface mass of hydrogen in the pulsating white dwarfs (ZZ Ceti variables) can be any value as long as it is thick enough to contain the surface convection zone. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Surface Gravities for 228 M, L, and T Dwarfs in the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Emily C.; Mace, Gregory N.; McLean, Ian S.; Logsdon, Sarah E.; Rice, Emily L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Burgasser, Adam J.; McGovern, Mark R.; Prato, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    We combine 131 new medium-resolution ( R ∼ 2000) J -band spectra of M, L, and T dwarfs from the Keck NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey (BDSS) with 97 previously published BDSS spectra to study surface-gravity-sensitive indices for 228 low-mass stars and brown dwarfs spanning spectral types M5–T9. Specifically, we use an established set of spectral indices to determine surface gravity classifications for all of the M6–L7 objects in our sample by measuring the equivalent widths (EW) of the K i lines at 1.1692, 1.1778, and 1.2529 μ m, and the 1.2 μ m FeH J absorption index. Our results are consistent with previous surface gravity measurements, showing a distinct double peak—at ∼L5 and T5—in K i EW as a function of spectral type. We analyze the K i EWs of 73 objects of known ages and find a linear trend between log(Age) and EW. From this relationship, we assign age ranges to the very low gravity, intermediate gravity, and field gravity designations for spectral types M6–L0. Interestingly, the ages probed by these designations remain broad, change with spectral type, and depend on the gravity-sensitive index used. Gravity designations are useful indicators of the possibility of youth, but current data sets cannot be used to provide a precise age estimate.

  1. Surface Gravities for 228 M, L, and T Dwarfs in the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Emily C.; Mace, Gregory N.; McLean, Ian S.; Logsdon, Sarah E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Rice, Emily L. [Department of Engineering Science and Physics, College of Staten Island, 2800 Victory Boulevard, Staten Island, NY 10301 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Burgasser, Adam J. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); McGovern, Mark R. [Math and Sciences Division, Antelope Valley College, 3041 West Avenue K, Lancaster, CA 93536 (United States); Prato, Lisa, E-mail: emartin@astro.ucla.edu [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2017-03-20

    We combine 131 new medium-resolution ( R ∼ 2000) J -band spectra of M, L, and T dwarfs from the Keck NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey (BDSS) with 97 previously published BDSS spectra to study surface-gravity-sensitive indices for 228 low-mass stars and brown dwarfs spanning spectral types M5–T9. Specifically, we use an established set of spectral indices to determine surface gravity classifications for all of the M6–L7 objects in our sample by measuring the equivalent widths (EW) of the K i lines at 1.1692, 1.1778, and 1.2529 μ m, and the 1.2 μ m FeH{sub J} absorption index. Our results are consistent with previous surface gravity measurements, showing a distinct double peak—at ∼L5 and T5—in K i EW as a function of spectral type. We analyze the K i EWs of 73 objects of known ages and find a linear trend between log(Age) and EW. From this relationship, we assign age ranges to the very low gravity, intermediate gravity, and field gravity designations for spectral types M6–L0. Interestingly, the ages probed by these designations remain broad, change with spectral type, and depend on the gravity-sensitive index used. Gravity designations are useful indicators of the possibility of youth, but current data sets cannot be used to provide a precise age estimate.

  2. Observation of near-infrared surface brightness of the large Magellanic cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Satio; Koizumi, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Toshio; Murakami, Hiroshi; Uyama, Kiichiro.

    1981-01-01

    The near-infrared surface brightness of the large Magellanic cloud was observed by an infrared telescope carried by a balloon. The balloon flight was made at Australian Balloon Launching Station. The brightness distribution of 2.4 Mu m radiation was obtained. A part of Bar was bright, and the expansion of the contour at the east end of Bar corresponded to the 30 Dor region. Many near-infrared sources distribute in this region. Discussions on the color and brightness of the center of Bar and the 30 Dor region are presented. (Kato, T.)

  3. Gas, Stars, and Star Formation in Alfalfa Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and Hi components of 229 low H i mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H i masses ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M* obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M* approximately less than10(exp 8)M(sub 0) is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper Hi mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M* than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H i depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that Hi disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  4. The disk averaged star formation relation for Local Volume dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Lagos, C. D. P.; Young, T.; Jerjen, H.

    2018-05-01

    Spatially resolved H I studies of dwarf galaxies have provided a wealth of precision data. However these high-quality, resolved observations are only possible for handful of dwarf galaxies in the Local Volume. Future H I surveys are unlikely to improve the current situation. We therefore explore a method for estimating the surface density of the atomic gas from global H I parameters, which are conversely widely available. We perform empirical tests using galaxies with resolved H I maps, and find that our approximation produces values for the surface density of atomic hydrogen within typically 0.5 dex of the true value. We apply this method to a sample of 147 galaxies drawn from modern near-infrared stellar photometric surveys. With this sample we confirm a strict correlation between the atomic gas surface density and the star formation rate surface density, that is vertically offset from the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation by a factor of 10 - 30, and significantly steeper than the classical N = 1.4 of Kennicutt (1998). We further infer the molecular fraction in the sample of low surface brightness, predominantly dwarf galaxies by assuming that the star formation relationship with molecular gas observed for spiral galaxies also holds in these galaxies, finding a molecular-to-atomic gas mass fraction within the range of 5-15%. Comparison of the data to available models shows that a model in which the thermal pressure balances the vertical gravitational field captures better the shape of the ΣSFR-Σgas relationship. However, such models fail to reproduce the data completely, suggesting that thermal pressure plays an important role in the disks of dwarf galaxies.

  5. Surface magnetic field strengths: New tests of magnetoconvective models of M dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, James; Mullan, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Precision modeling of M dwarfs has become worthwhile in recent years due to the increasingly precise values of masses and radii which can be obtained from eclipsing binary studies. In a recent paper, Torres has identified four prime M dwarf pairs with the most precise empirical determinations of masses and radii. The measured radii are consistently larger than standard stellar models predict by several percent. These four systems potentially provide the most challenging tests of precision evolutionary models of cool dwarfs at the present time. We have previously modeled M dwarfs in the context of a criterion due to Gough and Tayler in which magnetic fields inhibit the onset of convection according to a physics-based prescription. In the present paper, we apply our magnetoconvective approach to the four prime systems in the Torres list. Going a step beyond what we have already modeled in CM Dra (one of the four Torres systems), we note that new constraints on magnetoconvective models of M dwarfs are now available from empirical estimates of magnetic field strengths on the surfaces of these stars. In the present paper, we consider how well our magnetoconvective models succeed when confronted with this new test of surface magnetic field strengths. Among the systems listed by Torres, we find that plausible magnetic models work well for CM Dra, YY Gem, and CU Cnc. (The fourth system in Torres's list does not yet have enough information to warrant magnetic modeling.) Our magnetoconvection models of CM Dra, YY Gem, and CU Cnc yield predictions of the magnetic fluxes on the stellar surface which are consistent with the observed correlation between magnetic flux and X-ray luminosity.

  6. Surface Magnetic Field Strengths: New Tests of Magnetoconvective Models of M Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, James; Mullan, D. J.

    2014-05-01

    Precision modeling of M dwarfs has become worthwhile in recent years due to the increasingly precise values of masses and radii which can be obtained from eclipsing binary studies. In a recent paper, Torres has identified four prime M dwarf pairs with the most precise empirical determinations of masses and radii. The measured radii are consistently larger than standard stellar models predict by several percent. These four systems potentially provide the most challenging tests of precision evolutionary models of cool dwarfs at the present time. We have previously modeled M dwarfs in the context of a criterion due to Gough & Tayler in which magnetic fields inhibit the onset of convection according to a physics-based prescription. In the present paper, we apply our magnetoconvective approach to the four prime systems in the Torres list. Going a step beyond what we have already modeled in CM Dra (one of the four Torres systems), we note that new constraints on magnetoconvective models of M dwarfs are now available from empirical estimates of magnetic field strengths on the surfaces of these stars. In the present paper, we consider how well our magnetoconvective models succeed when confronted with this new test of surface magnetic field strengths. Among the systems listed by Torres, we find that plausible magnetic models work well for CM Dra, YY Gem, and CU Cnc. (The fourth system in Torres's list does not yet have enough information to warrant magnetic modeling.) Our magnetoconvection models of CM Dra, YY Gem, and CU Cnc yield predictions of the magnetic fluxes on the stellar surface which are consistent with the observed correlation between magnetic flux and X-ray luminosity.

  7. CHARACTERIZING K2 PLANET DISCOVERIES: A SUPER-EARTH TRANSITING THE BRIGHT K DWARF HIP 116454

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Montet, Benjamin T.; Johnson, John Asher; Buchhave, Lars A.; Zeng, Li; Latham, David W.; Angus, Ruth; Bieryla, Allyson; Charbonneau, David; Pepe, Francesco; Udry, Stéphane; Lovis, Christophe; Cameron, Andrew Collier; Molinari, Emilio; Boschin, Walter; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Cameron, Chris; Law, Nicholas; Bowler, Brendan P.; Baranec, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We report the first planet discovery from the two-wheeled Kepler (K2) mission: HIP 116454 b. The host star HIP 116454 is a bright (V = 10.1, K = 8.0) K1 dwarf with high proper motion and a parallax-based distance of 55.2 ± 5.4 pc. Based on high-resolution optical spectroscopy, we find that the host star is metal-poor with [Fe/H] =–0.16 ± 0.08 and has a radius R * = 0.716 ± 0.024 R ☉ and mass M * = 0.775 ± 0.027 M ☉ . The star was observed by the Kepler spacecraft during its Two-Wheeled Concept Engineering Test in 2014 February. During the 9 days of observations, K2 observed a single transit event. Using a new K2 photometric analysis technique, we are able to correct small telescope drifts and recover the observed transit at high confidence, corresponding to a planetary radius of R p = 2.53 ± 0.18 R ⊕ . Radial velocity observations with the HARPS-N spectrograph reveal a 11.82 ± 1.33 M ⊕ planet in a 9.1 day orbit, consistent with the transit depth, duration, and ephemeris. Follow-up photometric measurements from the MOST satellite confirm the transit observed in the K2 photometry and provide a refined ephemeris, making HIP 116454 b amenable for future follow-up observations of this latest addition to the growing population of transiting super-Earths around nearby, bright stars

  8. CHARACTERIZING K2 PLANET DISCOVERIES: A SUPER-EARTH TRANSITING THE BRIGHT K DWARF HIP 116454

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Montet, Benjamin T.; Johnson, John Asher; Buchhave, Lars A.; Zeng, Li; Latham, David W.; Angus, Ruth; Bieryla, Allyson; Charbonneau, David [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Pepe, Francesco; Udry, Stéphane; Lovis, Christophe [Observatoire Astronomique de l' Université de Genève, 51 chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Cameron, Andrew Collier [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Molinari, Emilio; Boschin, Walter [INAF-Fundación Galileo Galilei, Rambla José Ana Fernández Pérez, 7, E-38712 Breña Baja (Spain); Matthews, Jaymie M. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T1Z1 (Canada); Cameron, Chris [Cape Breton University, 1250 Grand Lake Road, Sydney NS B1P 6L2 (Canada); Law, Nicholas [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Bowler, Brendan P. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Baranec, Christoph, E-mail: avanderburg@cfa.harvard.edu [University of Hawai' i at Mānoa, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); and others

    2015-02-10

    We report the first planet discovery from the two-wheeled Kepler (K2) mission: HIP 116454 b. The host star HIP 116454 is a bright (V = 10.1, K = 8.0) K1 dwarf with high proper motion and a parallax-based distance of 55.2 ± 5.4 pc. Based on high-resolution optical spectroscopy, we find that the host star is metal-poor with [Fe/H] =–0.16 ± 0.08 and has a radius R {sub *} = 0.716 ± 0.024 R {sub ☉} and mass M {sub *} = 0.775 ± 0.027 M {sub ☉}. The star was observed by the Kepler spacecraft during its Two-Wheeled Concept Engineering Test in 2014 February. During the 9 days of observations, K2 observed a single transit event. Using a new K2 photometric analysis technique, we are able to correct small telescope drifts and recover the observed transit at high confidence, corresponding to a planetary radius of R{sub p} = 2.53 ± 0.18 R {sub ⊕}. Radial velocity observations with the HARPS-N spectrograph reveal a 11.82 ± 1.33 M {sub ⊕} planet in a 9.1 day orbit, consistent with the transit depth, duration, and ephemeris. Follow-up photometric measurements from the MOST satellite confirm the transit observed in the K2 photometry and provide a refined ephemeris, making HIP 116454 b amenable for future follow-up observations of this latest addition to the growing population of transiting super-Earths around nearby, bright stars.

  9. Giant Low Surface Brightness Galaxies: Evolution in Isolation M. Das

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rich in neutral hydrogen gas but low in star formation and hence low in surface ... The LSB dwarfs and irregulars form the larger fraction of LSB galax- ies. Studies ...... Navarro, J. F., Frenk, C. S., White, S. D. M. 1996, ApJ, 462, 563. Norman ...

  10. PERSEUS I: A DISTANT SATELLITE DWARF GALAXY OF ANDROMEDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Nicolas F.; Laevens, Benjamin P. M.; Schlafly, Edward F.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F.; Bernard, Edouard J.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Kaiser, Nicholas; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Magnier, Eugene A.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Tonry, John L.; Draper, Peter W.; Metcalfe, Nigel; Price, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    We present the discovery of a new dwarf galaxy, Perseus I/Andromeda XXXIII, found in the vicinity of Andromeda (M31) in stacked imaging data from the Pan-STARRS1 3π survey. Located 27.°9 away from M31, Perseus I has a heliocentric distance of 785 ± 65 kpc, compatible with it being a satellite of M31 at 374 −10 +14 kpc from its host. The properties of Perseus I are typical for a reasonably bright dwarf galaxy (M V = –10.3 ± 0.7), with an exponential half-light radius of r h = 1.7 ± 0.4 arcmin or r h =400 −85 +105 pc at this distance, and a moderate ellipticity (ϵ=0.43 −0.17 +0.15 ). The late discovery of Perseus I is due to its fairly low surface brightness (μ 0 =25.7 −0.9 +1.0  mag arcsec –2 ), and to the previous lack of deep, high quality photometric data in this region. If confirmed to be a companion of M31, the location of Perseus I, far east from its host, could place interesting constraints on the bulk motion of the satellite system of M31

  11. What fraction of white dwarfs are members of binary systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holberg, J B

    2009-01-01

    White dwarfs were originally discovered as the subordinate faint companions of bright nearby stars (i.e. Sirius B and 40 Eri B). Several general categories of binary systems involving white dwarfs are recognized: Sirius-like systems, where the white dwarf may be difficult to detect, binary systems containing white dwarfs and low mass stars, where the white dwarf is often readily discerned; and double degenerate systems. Different modes of white dwarf discovery influence our perception of both the overall binary fraction and the nature of these systems; proper motion surveys emphasize resolved systems, while photometric surveys emphasize unresolved systems containing relatively hot white dwarfs. Recent studies of the local white dwarf population offer some hope of achieving realistic estimates of the relative number of binary systems containing white dwarfs. A sample of 132 white dwarfs within 20 pc indicates that an individual white dwarf has a probability of 32 ± 8% of occurring within a binary or multiple star system.

  12. The unique structural parameters of the underlying host galaxies in blue compact dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janowiecki, Steven; Salzer, John J.

    2014-01-01

    The nature of possible evolutionary pathways between various types of dwarf galaxies is still not fully understood. Blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs) provide a unique window into dwarf galaxy formation and evolution and are often thought of as an evolutionary stage between different classes of dwarf galaxies. In this study we use deep optical and near-infrared observations of the underlying hosts of BCDs in order to study the structural differences between different types of dwarf galaxies. When compared with dwarf irregular galaxies of similar luminosities, we find that the underlying hosts of BCDs have significantly more concentrated light distributions, with smaller scale lengths and brighter central surface brightnesses. We demonstrate here that the underlying hosts of BCDs are distinct from the broad continuum of typical dwarf irregular galaxies, and that it is unlikely that most dwarf irregular galaxies can transform into a BCD or vice versa. Furthermore, we find that the starburst in a BCD only brightens it on average by ∼0.8 mag (factor of two), in agreement with other studies. It appears that a BCD is a long-lived and distinct type of dwarf galaxy that exhibits an exceptionally concentrated matter distribution. We suggest that it is this compact mass distribution that enables the strong star formation events that characterize this class of dwarf galaxy, that the compactness of the underlying host can be used as a distinguishing parameter between BCDs and other dwarf galaxies, and that it can also be used to identify BCDs which are not currently experiencing an intense starburst event.

  13. Stellar populations of bulges in galaxies with a low surface-brightness disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, L.; Corsini, E. M.; Pizzella, A.; Dalla Bontà, E.; Coccato, L.; Méndez-Abreu, J.

    2015-03-01

    The radial profiles of the Hβ, Mg, and Fe line-strength indices are presented for a sample of eight spiral galaxies with a low surface-brightness stellar disc and a bulge. The correlations between the central values of the line-strength indices and velocity dispersion are consistent to those known for early-type galaxies and bulges of high surface-brightness galaxies. The age, metallicity, and α/Fe enhancement of the stellar populations in the bulge-dominated region are obtained using stellar population models with variable element abundance ratios. Almost all the sample bulges are characterized by a young stellar population, on-going star formation, and a solar α/Fe enhancement. Their metallicity spans from high to sub-solar values. No significant gradient in age and α/Fe enhancement is measured, whereas only in a few cases a negative metallicity gradient is found. These properties suggest that a pure dissipative collapse is not able to explain formation of all the sample bulges and that other phenomena, like mergers or acquisition events, need to be invoked. Such a picture is also supported by the lack of a correlation between the central value and gradient of the metallicity in bulges with very low metallicity. The stellar populations of the bulges hosted by low surface-brightness discs share many properties with those of high surface-brightness galaxies. Therefore, they are likely to have common formation scenarios and evolution histories. A strong interplay between bulges and discs is ruled out by the fact that in spite of being hosted by discs with extremely different properties, the bulges of low and high surface-brightness discs are remarkably similar.

  14. Distribution of surface brightness in Seyfert galaxies. III. Analysis of data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, V.L.; Doroshenko, V.T.; Terebizh, V.Yu.

    1987-01-01

    The observational data on the distribution of the surface brightness μ(r) in normal and Seyfert galaxies given in the first two parts of the study [1,2] are considered. The general form of μ(r) for r ≤ approximately equals 2 kpc is the same for the two groups of galaxies. The values of the parameters that characterize the central part of the spherical component are found, namely, the surface brightness μ 1 /sup (0)/, the brightness, the brightness gradient n 1 , and the color indices (U-B) 1 /sup (0)/ and (B-V) 1 /sup (0)/ at distance 1 kpc from the center. The range of variation of the basic parameters and the correlations of the parameters with each other and with the absolute magnitudes M/sub B//sup (0)/ of the galaxies find a natural explanation in the framework of the standard models of the spherical subsystems of galaxies. The relationships have approximately the same form for normal and Seyfert galaxies. The photometric characteristics of the central regions of Sy 1 and Sy 2 type galaxies are similar. The obtained results do not contradict the idea that all sufficiently bright spiral galaxies can pass through a Seyfert stage with a characteristic time of ∼10 8 yr

  15. Habitable planets around white and brown dwarfs: the perils of a cooling primary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rory; Heller, René

    2013-03-01

    White and brown dwarfs are astrophysical objects that are bright enough to support an insolation habitable zone (IHZ). Unlike hydrogen-burning stars, they cool and become less luminous with time; hence their IHZ moves in with time. The inner edge of the IHZ is defined as the orbital radius at which a planet may enter a moist or runaway greenhouse, phenomena that can remove a planet's surface water forever. Thus, as the IHZ moves in, planets that enter it may no longer have any water and are still uninhabitable. Additionally, the close proximity of the IHZ to the primary leads to concern that tidal heating may also be strong enough to trigger a runaway greenhouse, even for orbital eccentricities as small as 10(-6). Water loss occurs due to photolyzation by UV photons in the planetary stratosphere, followed by hydrogen escape. Young white dwarfs emit a large amount of these photons, as their surface temperatures are over 10(4) K. The situation is less clear for brown dwarfs, as observational data do not constrain their early activity and UV emission very well. Nonetheless, both types of planets are at risk of never achieving habitable conditions, but planets orbiting white dwarfs may be less likely to sustain life than those orbiting brown dwarfs. We consider the future habitability of the planet candidates KOI 55.01 and 55.02 in these terms and find they are unlikely to become habitable.

  16. Eruptions and superhumps in dwarf novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.

    1979-01-01

    The existence of two distinct eruption types in dwarf novae is considered. A small subclass of dwarf novae, the SU Ursae Majoris stars, show occasional very bright and long eruptions (''supermaxima''), and during supermaxima, large-amplitude photometric variations (''superhumps'') at a period related to the orbital period are seen. Two new stars showing these effects, AY Lyrae and YZ Cancri, are reported. A third star, WZ Sagittae, is probably also a member of the class. Models for the superhumps are reviewed and found to be unsatisfactory. Observational constraints on a successful model are discussed

  17. The morphology and surface brightness of extragalactic jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicknell, G.V.

    1983-01-01

    The problems associated with laminar flow models are reviewed, and an analogy between laboratory jets and astrophysical jets is given. The relationship between surface brightness and the jet full width half maximum is not in general as predicted by simple magnetohydrodynamic models. An alternative turbulent model is presented

  18. SOAR + SMARTS Southern White Dwarf Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasavage, John P.; Lepine, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present early results from the SOAR + SMARTS Southern White Dwarf SURVEY (SSSWDS). Our initial sift of relatively bright (15 color relation of Oppenheimer et al. 2001 are obtained and permit prioritized follow-up. For confirmation of luminosity class, we use the SOAR telescope atop Cerro Pachon equipped with the Goodman Spectrograph and a moderate resolution grating. In tandem, we acquire multi-epoch, optical Johnson-Kron-Cousins BVRI photometry using the SMARTS 1.0m telescope atop CTIO. Combined with JHK from 2MASS, we compare the photometric SED to relevant white dwarf model atmospheres to estimate physical parameters (e.g., effective temperature, mass) and distance. For the nearest targets, specifically those within the RECONS (www.recons.org) horizon of 25 pc, we aim to obtain trigonometric parallaxes as part of the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Parallax Investigation (CTIOPI) project being conducted at the SMARTS 0.9m telescope. To date, we have confirmed 100 relatively bright, new white dwarfs in the southern hemisphere. Of those, 13 are estimated to be within our 25 pc horizon-of-interest, including two that are estimated to be within 15 pc. Ongoing observations will boost these figures by the end of the project.

  19. Hot spot manifestation in eclipsing dwarf nova HT Cassiopeiae

    OpenAIRE

    Bakowska, K.; Olech, A.

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection of the hot spot in light curves of the eclipsing dwarf nova HT Cassiopeiae during its superoutburst in 2010 November. Analysis of eight reconstructed light curves of the hot spot eclipses showed directly that the brightness of the hot spot was changing significantly during the superoutburst. Thereby, detected hot spot manifestation in HT Cas is the newest observational evidence for the EMT model for dwarf novae.

  20. HAZE AT OCCATOR CRATER ON DWARF PLANET CERES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thangjam, G.; Hoffmann, M.; Nathues, A.; Platz, T. [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, 37077, Goettingen (Germany); Li, J.-Y., E-mail: thangjam@mps.mpg.de, E-mail: hoffmann@mps.mpg.de, E-mail: nathues@mps.mpg.de, E-mail: platz@mps.mpg.de, E-mail: jyli@psi.edu [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 East Fort Lowell Rd., Suite 106, Tucson, AZ 85719-2395 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    A diurnal varying haze layer at the bright spots of Occator on dwarf planet Ceres has been reported from images of the Dawn Framing Camera. This finding is supported by ground-based observations revealing diurnal albedo changes at Occator’s longitude. In the present work, we further investigate the previously reported haze phenomenon in more detail using additional Framing Camera images. We demonstrate that the light scattering behavior at the central floor of Occator is different compared to a typical cerean surface and is likely inconsistent with a pure solid surface scatterer. The identified deviation is best explained by an additional component to the scattered light of the surface, i.e., a haze layer. Our results support the water vapor detection by Herschel observations though the existence of a tenuous cerean exosphere is not yet confirmed.

  1. The visibility of galaxies as a function of central surface brightness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.; Phillipps, S.

    1983-01-01

    The likelihood of a galaxy with given intrinsic profile appearing in a photograph catalogue with limiting criteria on apparent magnitude and angular size will depend on the maximum distance at which such a galaxy can lie and still obey both criteria. It is demonstrated that the corresponding volume in which the galaxy will be visible is a sensitive function of the galaxy's central surface brightness as well as its absolute magnitude. Before the observed concentrations around preferred values of surface brightness can be regarded as real, it will be necessary to make allowance for this selection effect. (author)

  2. The stellar content of the isolated transition dwarf galaxy DDO210

    OpenAIRE

    McConnachie, Alan W.; Arimoto, Nobuo; Irwin, Mike; Tolstoy, Eline

    2006-01-01

    We use Subaru Suprime-Cam and VLT FORS1 photometry of the dwarf galaxy DDO210 to study the global stellar content and structural properties of a transition-type galaxy (with properties intermediate between dwarf irregular and dwarf spheroidal systems). This galaxy is sufficiently isolated that tidal interactions are not likely to have affected its evolution in any way. The colour-magnitude diagrams of DDO210 show a red giant branch (RGB) population (with an RGB bump), a bright asymptotic gian...

  3. Skylab ultraviolet stellar spectra - A new white dwarf, HD 149499 B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, S. B.; Wray, J. D.; Benedict, G. F.; Henize, K. G.; Laget, M.

    1976-01-01

    The letter reports the discovery of a cool star with excess brightness in the vacuum ultraviolet on an objective-prism photograph obtained during the second Skylab mission. This star, HD 149499, is of type K0 V and has a companion with an apparent magnitude of about 11.8; the relatively flat UV spectrum observed at the position of HD 149499 is characteristic of a 10th or 11th magnitude unreddened O- or early B-type star. It is shown that the excess VUV brightness is due to the companion, HD 149499B, which probably lies in the region of the H-R diagram occupied by the hot white dwarfs. Inspection of white dwarf lists indicates that this star is the sixth or seventh brightest white dwarf known. A maximum orbital motion of 0.025 arcsec/yr is estimated along with a period of just under 500 yr.

  4. Habitable Planets Around White and Brown Dwarfs: The Perils of a Cooling Primary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, René

    2013-01-01

    Abstract White and brown dwarfs are astrophysical objects that are bright enough to support an insolation habitable zone (IHZ). Unlike hydrogen-burning stars, they cool and become less luminous with time; hence their IHZ moves in with time. The inner edge of the IHZ is defined as the orbital radius at which a planet may enter a moist or runaway greenhouse, phenomena that can remove a planet's surface water forever. Thus, as the IHZ moves in, planets that enter it may no longer have any water and are still uninhabitable. Additionally, the close proximity of the IHZ to the primary leads to concern that tidal heating may also be strong enough to trigger a runaway greenhouse, even for orbital eccentricities as small as 10−6. Water loss occurs due to photolyzation by UV photons in the planetary stratosphere, followed by hydrogen escape. Young white dwarfs emit a large amount of these photons, as their surface temperatures are over 104 K. The situation is less clear for brown dwarfs, as observational data do not constrain their early activity and UV emission very well. Nonetheless, both types of planets are at risk of never achieving habitable conditions, but planets orbiting white dwarfs may be less likely to sustain life than those orbiting brown dwarfs. We consider the future habitability of the planet candidates KOI 55.01 and 55.02 in these terms and find they are unlikely to become habitable. Key Words: Extrasolar terrestrial planets—Habitability—Habitable zone—Tides—Exoplanets. Astrobiology 13, 279–291. PMID:23537137

  5. Benchmark ultra-cool dwarfs in widely separated binary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones H.R.A.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-cool dwarfs as wide companions to subgiants, giants, white dwarfs and main sequence stars can be very good benchmark objects, for which we can infer physical properties with minimal reference to theoretical models, through association with the primary stars. We have searched for benchmark ultra-cool dwarfs in widely separated binary systems using SDSS, UKIDSS, and 2MASS. We then estimate spectral types using SDSS spectroscopy and multi-band colors, place constraints on distance, and perform proper motions calculations for all candidates which have sufficient epoch baseline coverage. Analysis of the proper motion and distance constraints show that eight of our ultra-cool dwarfs are members of widely separated binary systems. Another L3.5 dwarf, SDSS 0832, is shown to be a companion to the bright K3 giant η Cancri. Such primaries can provide age and metallicity constraints for any companion objects, yielding excellent benchmark objects. This is the first wide ultra-cool dwarf + giant binary system identified.

  6. Implications of the dwarfs spheroidal galaxy mass-metallicity relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of the mass-metallicity relation among dwarf spheroidal galaxies are discussed in terms of a model which assumes that the internal chemical evolution of the dwarf spheroidals was promoted by supernova activity. The model can be used to explain the observed dwarf spheroidal mass-metallicity relation assuming the present mass of these systems M sub s is proportional to their initial masses M as M sub s varies according to a power-law index of exp 7/4. It is inferred from the power-law dependence of M on the proto-cloud radius that the most massive dwarf spheroids were formed from the densest clouds. The observed slope of the mass-metallicity relation for dwarf spheroidal galaxies is found to be significantly different from theoretical estimates of this slope for elliptical galaxies. It is suggested that the difference may imply that spheroidal dwarfs and elliptical galaxies had different formation histories, confirming Kormendy's (1985) observations of differences in the brightness and luminosity trends. 54 references

  7. The radial velocity, velocity dispersion, and mass-to-light ratio of the Sculptor dwarf galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armandroff, T. E.; Da Costa, G. S.

    1986-01-01

    The radial velocity, velocity dispersion, and mass-to-light ratio for 16 K giants in the Sculptor dwarf galaxy are calculated. Spectra at the Ca II triplet are analyzed using cross-correlation techniques in order to obtain the mean velocity of + 107.4 + or - 2.0 km/s. The dimensional velocity dispersion estimated as 6.3 (+1.1, -1.3) km/s is combined with the calculated core radius and observed central surface brightness to produce a mass-to-light ratio of 6.0 in solar units. It is noted that the data indicate that the Sculptor contains a large amount of mass not found in globular clusters, and the mass is either in the form of remnant stars or low-mass dwarfs.

  8. Unveiling the Low Surface Brightness Stellar Peripheries of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Annette M. N.

    2018-01-01

    The low surface brightness peripheral regions of galaxies contain a gold mine of information about how minor mergers and accretions have influenced their evolution over cosmic time. Enormous stellar envelopes and copious amounts of faint tidal debris are natural outcomes of the hierarchical assembly process and the search for and study of these features, albeit highly challenging, offers the potential for unrivalled insight into the mechanisms of galaxy growth. Over the last two decades, there has been burgeoning interest in probing galaxy outskirts using resolved stellar populations. Wide-field surveys have uncovered vast tidal debris features and new populations of very remote globular clusters, while deep Hubble Space Telescope photometry has provided exquisite star formation histories back to the earliest epochs. I will highlight some recent results from studies within and beyond the Local Group and conclude by briefly discussing the great potential of future facilities, such as JWST, Euclid, LSST and WFIRST, for major breakthroughs in low surface brightness galaxy periphery science.

  9. White dwarf heating and the ultraviolet flux in dwarf novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pringle, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    An investigation is made of the heating of the outer layers of the white dwarf which is likely to occur during a dwarf nova outburst. It is shown that the decline in IUE flux, observed during quiescent intervals in the dwarf novae VW Hydri and WX Hydri, may be due to the outer layers cooling off once the heat source is removed. The calculations here assume uniformity of the heat source over the white dwarf surface. This is unlikely to be realized from disc accretion, and we discuss that further calculations are required. (author)

  10. Surface Inhomogeneities of the White Dwarf in the Binary EUVE J2013+400

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennes, Stephane

    We propose to study the white dwarf in the binary EUVE J2013+400. The object is paired with a dMe star and new extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations will offer critical insights into the properties of the white dwarf. The binary behaves, in every other aspects, like its siblings EUVE J0720-317 and EUVE J1016-053 and new EUV observations will help establish their class properties; in particular, EUV photometric variations in 0720-317 and 1016-053 over a period of 11 hours and 57 minutes, respectively, are indicative of surface abundance inhomogeneities coupled with the white dwarfs rotation period. These variations and their large photospheric helium abundance are best explained by a diffusion-accretion model in which time-variable accretion and possible coupling to magnetic poles contribute to abundance variations across the surface and possibly as a function of depth. EUV spectroscopy will also enable a study of the helium abundance as a function of depth and a detailed comparison with theoretical diffusion profile.

  11. B and R CCD surface photometry of selected low surface brightness galaxies in the region of the Fornax cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.I.; Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    The recent discoveries of large numbers of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies in clusters and of the extreme LSB giant galaxy Malin 1 are changing our view of the galactic contents of the Universe. In this paper we describe B and R band CCD photometry of a sample of LSB galaxies previously identified from photographic plates of the Fornax cluster. This sample contains some of the lowest surface brightness galaxies known, one having the same central surface brightness as Main 1. The objects in this sample have a wide range of morphologies, and galaxies of similar appearance may have very different (B-R) colours. The range of (B-R) colours for this sample (almost all of which would have been described as dE from their B band morphology alone) is as large as that of the entire Hubble sequence. (author)

  12. A Survey for Low-Surface-Brightness Galaxies Around M31. I. The Newly Discovered Dwarf Andromeda V

    OpenAIRE

    Armandroff, Taft E.; Davies, James E.; Jacoby, George H.

    1998-01-01

    We present images and a color-magnitude diagram for And V, a new dwarf spheroidal companion to M31 that was found using a digital filtering technique applied to 1550 square degrees of the second Palomar Sky Survey. And V resolves into stars easily in follow-up 4-m V- and I-band images, from which we deduce a distance of 810 +/- 45 kpc using the tip of the red giant branch method. Within the uncertainties, this distance is identical to the Population II distances for M31 and, combined with a p...

  13. GAS, STARS, AND STAR FORMATION IN ALFALFA DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Brinchmann, Jarle [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Stierwalt, Sabrina [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Neff, Susan G., E-mail: shan@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: jarle@strw.leidenuniv.nl, E-mail: sabrina@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: susan.g.neff@nasa.gov [NASA GSFC, Code 665, Observational Cosmology Lab, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and H I components of 229 low H I mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H I masses <10{sup 7.7} M{sub Sun} and H I line widths <80 km s{sup -1}. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M{sub *}) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M{sub *} obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M{sub *} {approx}< 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper H I mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M{sub *} than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H I depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that H I disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  14. GAS, STARS, AND STAR FORMATION IN ALFALFA DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and H I components of 229 low H I mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H I masses 7.7 M ☉ and H I line widths –1 . Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M * ) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M * obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M * ∼ 8 M ☉ is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper H I mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M * than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H I depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that H I disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  15. Testing the existence of optical linear polarization in young brown dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjavacas, E.; Miles-Páez, P. A.; Zapatero-Osorio, M. R.; Goldman, B.; Buenzli, E.; Henning, T.; Pallé, E.; Fang, M.

    2017-07-01

    Linear polarization can be used as a probe of the existence of atmospheric condensates in ultracool dwarfs. Models predict that the observed linear polarization increases with the degree of oblateness, which is inversely proportional to the surface gravity. We aimed to test the existence of optical linear polarization in a sample of bright young brown dwarfs, with spectral types between M6 and L2, observable from the Calar Alto Observatory, and cataloged previously as low gravity objects using spectroscopy. Linear polarimetric images were collected in I and R band using CAFOS at the 2.2-m telescope in Calar Alto Observatory (Spain). The flux ratio method was employed to determine the linear polarization degrees. With a confidence of 3σ, our data indicate that all targets have a linear polarimetry degree in average below 0.69 per cent in the I band, and below 1.0 per cent in the R band, at the time they were observed. We detected significant (I.e. P/σ ≥ 3) linear polarization for the young M6 dwarf 2MASS J04221413+1530525 in the R band, with a degree of p* = 0.81 ± 0.17 per cent.

  16. Multiwavelength monitoring of the dwarf nova VW Hydri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amerongen, S. van; Damen, E.; Groot, M.; Kraakman, H.; Parakijs, J. van

    1987-01-01

    Results are presented of five-colour photometric observations (Walraven system) of VW Hyi, made between 1984 July and November, as part of a long-term multiwavelength study of this dwarf nova. The average orbital light and colour curves during quiescence are accurately defined. Apart from a slow decay following outburst during the first quarter of a quiescent interval, neither the average brightness nor the maximum and minimum brightness show a significant secular trend between outbursts. The 3σ upper limits to a secular change in average brightness during the last three-quarters of a quiescent interval range between 0.16 and 0.20 mag in the five passbands. (author)

  17. The accreting white dwarfs in VY Scl nova-like variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sion, Edward M; Mizusawa, Trisha; Ballouz, Ronald-Louis

    2009-01-01

    Accurate distances for nova-like variables offer the possibility of extracting information on nova-like accretion rates during high states of optical brightness and on their underlying accretion-heated white dwarfs during intermediate and low brightness states. The modeling technique which is employed is discussed and a representative example, the novalike variable KR Aur, is presented. Although KR Aur was in a fainter high state when its far ultraviolet spectrum was obtained, roughly one-half of its FUV radiation is due to the light of an accretion disk and the other half is contributed by a hot white dwarf with T eff = 29, 000±2, 000K. However, this best-fit solution corresponds to a distance of 180 pc which was an early distance estimate due to Patterson (1984).

  18. Identification of old tidal dwarfs near early-type galaxies from deep imaging and H I observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Pierre-Alain; Paudel, Sanjaya; McDermid, Richard M.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Serra, Paolo; Bournaud, Frédéric; Cappellari, Michele; Emsellem, Eric

    2014-05-01

    It has recently been proposed that the dwarf spheroidal galaxies located in the Local Group discs of satellites (DoSs) may be tidal dwarf galaxies (TDGs) born in a major merger at least 5 Gyr ago. Whether TDGs can live that long is still poorly constrained by observations. As part of deep optical and H I surveys with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) MegaCam camera and Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope made within the ATLAS3D project, and follow-up spectroscopic observations with the Gemini-North telescope, we have discovered old TDG candidates around several early-type galaxies. At least one of them has an oxygen abundance close to solar, as expected for a tidal origin. This confirmed pre-enriched object is located within the gigantic, but very low surface brightness, tidal tail that emanates from the elliptical galaxy, NGC 5557. An age of 4 Gyr estimated from its SED fitting makes it the oldest securely identified TDG ever found so far. We investigated the structural and gaseous properties of the TDG and of a companion located in the same collisional debris, and thus most likely of tidal origin as well. Despite several Gyr of evolution close to their parent galaxies, they kept a large gas reservoir. Their central surface brightness is low and their effective radius much larger than that of typical dwarf galaxies of the same mass. This possibly provides us with criteria to identify tidal objects which can be more easily checked than the traditional ones requiring deep spectroscopic observations. In view of the above, we discuss the survival time of TDGs and question the tidal origin of the DoSs.

  19. A Survey for Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Around M31. II. The Newly Discovered Dwarf Andromeda VI

    OpenAIRE

    Armandroff, Taft E.; Jacoby, George H.; Davies, James E.

    1999-01-01

    We present B-, V-, and I-band images, as well as an H alpha image, of And VI. This is the second newly identified dwarf spheroidal (dSph) companion to M31 found using a digital filtering technique applied to the second Palomar Sky Survey for which 1550 square degrees now have been surveyed. And VI was confirmed to be a nearby dSph galaxy when it resolved into stars easily with a short 4-m V-band exposure. Sub-arcsec images taken at the Kitt Peak WIYN 3.5-m telescope provided (I,V-I) and (V,B-...

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Brown dwarf surface gravities with Keck/NIRSPEC (Martin , 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E. C.; Mace, G. N.; McLean, I. S.; Logsdon, S. E.; Rice, E. L.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Burgasser, A. J.; McGovern, M. R.; Prato, L.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we follow up on prior NIR spectroscopy by our group and use a modified Allers & Liu (A13, 2013ApJ...772...79A) method to determine surface gravities for 228 M, L, and T dwarfs. We present medium-resolution (R~20000) J-band spectra of 85 M dwarfs, 92 L dwarfs, and 51 T dwarfs obtained as part of the Keck NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey (BDSS). Ninety-seven spectra were published previously in McLean+ (2003ApJ...596..561M), Burgasser+ (2003ApJ...592.1186B), McGovern+ (2004ApJ...600.1020M), Rice+ (2010ApJS..186...63R), Kirkpatrick+ (2010, J/ApJS/190/100), Luhman (2012ARA&A..50...65L), Thompson+ (2013PASP..125..809T), Mace+ (2013, J/ApJS/205/6), Mace+ (2013ApJ...777...36M), and Kirkpatrick+ (2014, J/ApJ/783/122), and the remaining 131 are presented here for the first time. Observation information (spanning 1999 Apr to 2015 Mar) for all of the targets in our sample is listed in Table 1. (4 data files).

  1. PAndAS' CUBS: DISCOVERY OF TWO NEW DWARF GALAXIES IN THE SURROUNDINGS OF THE ANDROMEDA AND TRIANGULUM GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Nicolas F.; McConnachie, Alan W.; Irwin, Mike; Chapman, Scott; Widrow, Lawrence M.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Dubinski, John; Babul, Arif; Navarro, Julio; Fardal, Mark; Lewis, Geraint F.; Rich, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    We present the discovery of two new dwarf galaxies, Andromeda XXI and Andromeda XXII, located in the surroundings of the Andromeda and Triangulum galaxies (M31 and M33). These discoveries stem from the first year data of the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey, a photometric survey of the M31/M33 group conducted with the Megaprime/MegaCam Wide-Field Camera mounted on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Both satellites appear as spatial overdensities of stars which, when plotted in a color-magnitude diagram, follow metal-poor, [Fe/H] = -1.8, red giant branches at the distance of M31/M33. Andromeda XXI is a moderately bright dwarf galaxy (M V = -9.9 ± 0.6), albeit with low surface brightness, emphasizing again that many relatively luminous M31 satellites still remain to be discovered. It is also a large satellite, with a half-light radius close to 1 kpc, making it the fourth largest Local Group dwarf spheroidal galaxy after the recently discovered Andromeda XIX, Andromeda II, and Sagittarius around the Milky Way, and supports the trend that M31 satellites are larger than their Milky Way counterparts. Andromeda XXII is much fainter (M V = -6.5 ± 0.8) and lies a lot closer in projection to M33 than it does to M31 (42 versus 224 kpc), suggesting that it could be the first Triangulum satellite to be discovered. Although this is a very exciting possibility in the context of a past interaction of M33 with M31 and the fate of its satellite system, a confirmation will have to await a good distance estimate to confirm its physical proximity to M33. Along with the dwarf galaxies found in previous surveys of the M31 surroundings, these two new satellites bring the number of dwarf spheroidal galaxies in this region to 20.

  2. Global Properties of M31's Stellar Halo from the SPLASH Survey. I. Surface Brightness Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Karoline M.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Beaton, Rachael L.; Bullock, James; Geha, Marla C.; Kalirai, Jason S.; Kirby, Evan N.; Majewski, Steven R.; Ostheimer, James C.; Patterson, Richard J.; Tollerud, Erik J.; Tanaka, Mikito; Chiba, Masashi

    2012-11-01

    We present the surface brightness profile of M31's stellar halo out to a projected radius of 175 kpc. The surface brightness estimates are based on confirmed samples of M31 red giant branch stars derived from Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopic observations. A set of empirical spectroscopic and photometric M31 membership diagnostics is used to identify and reject foreground and background contaminants. This enables us to trace the stellar halo of M31 to larger projected distances and fainter surface brightnesses than previous photometric studies. The surface brightness profile of M31's halo follows a power law with index -2.2 ± 0.2 and extends to a projected distance of at least ~175 kpc (~2/3 of M31's virial radius), with no evidence of a downward break at large radii. The best-fit elliptical isophotes have b/a = 0.94 with the major axis of the halo aligned along the minor axis of M31's disk, consistent with a prolate halo, although the data are also consistent with M31's halo having spherical symmetry. The fact that tidal debris features are kinematically cold is used to identify substructure in the spectroscopic fields out to projected radii of 90 kpc and investigate the effect of this substructure on the surface brightness profile. The scatter in the surface brightness profile is reduced when kinematically identified tidal debris features in M31 are statistically subtracted; the remaining profile indicates that a comparatively diffuse stellar component to M31's stellar halo exists to large distances. Beyond 90 kpc, kinematically cold tidal debris features cannot be identified due to small number statistics; nevertheless, the significant field-to-field variation in surface brightness beyond 90 kpc suggests that the outermost region of M31's halo is also comprised to a significant degree of stars stripped from accreted objects. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California

  3. THE NIRSPEC ULTRACOOL DWARF RADIAL VELOCITY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, Cullen H.; Charbonneau, David; White, Russel J.

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of an infrared Doppler survey designed to detect brown dwarf and giant planetary companions to a magnitude-limited sample of ultracool dwarfs. Using the NIRSPEC spectrograph on the Keck II telescope, we obtained approximately 600 radial velocity (RV) measurements over a period of six years of a sample of 59 late-M and L dwarfs spanning spectral types M8/L0 to L6. A subsample of 46 of our targets has been observed on three or more epochs. We rely on telluric CH 4 absorption features in Earth's atmosphere as a simultaneous wavelength reference and exploit the rich set of CO absorption features found in the K-band spectra of cool stars and brown dwarfs to measure RVs and projected rotational velocities. For a bright, slowly rotating M dwarf standard we demonstrate an RV precision of 50 m s -1 and for slowly rotating L dwarfs we achieve a typical RV precision of approximately 200 m s -1 . This precision is sufficient for the detection of close-in giant planetary companions to mid-L dwarfs as well as more equal mass spectroscopic binary systems with small separations (a +0.7 -0.6 Gyr, similar to that of nearby sun-like stars. We simulate the efficiency with which we detect spectroscopic binaries and find that the rate of tight (a +8.6 -1.6 %, consistent with recent estimates in the literature of a tight binary fraction of 3%-4%.

  4. A radio-pulsing white dwarf binary star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, T R; Gänsicke, B T; Hümmerich, S; Hambsch, F-J; Bernhard, K; Lloyd, C; Breedt, E; Stanway, E R; Steeghs, D T; Parsons, S G; Toloza, O; Schreiber, M R; Jonker, P G; van Roestel, J; Kupfer, T; Pala, A F; Dhillon, V S; Hardy, L K; Littlefair, S P; Aungwerojwit, A; Arjyotha, S; Koester, D; Bochinski, J J; Haswell, C A; Frank, P; Wheatley, P J

    2016-09-15

    White dwarfs are compact stars, similar in size to Earth but approximately 200,000 times more massive. Isolated white dwarfs emit most of their power from ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths, but when in close orbits with less dense stars, white dwarfs can strip material from their companions and the resulting mass transfer can generate atomic line and X-ray emission, as well as near- and mid-infrared radiation if the white dwarf is magnetic. However, even in binaries, white dwarfs are rarely detected at far-infrared or radio frequencies. Here we report the discovery of a white dwarf/cool star binary that emits from X-ray to radio wavelengths. The star, AR Scorpii (henceforth AR Sco), was classified in the early 1970s as a δ-Scuti star, a common variety of periodic variable star. Our observations reveal instead a 3.56-hour period close binary, pulsing in brightness on a period of 1.97 minutes. The pulses are so intense that AR Sco's optical flux can increase by a factor of four within 30 seconds, and they are also detectable at radio frequencies. They reflect the spin of a magnetic white dwarf, which we find to be slowing down on a 10 7 -year timescale. The spin-down power is an order of magnitude larger than that seen in electromagnetic radiation, which, together with an absence of obvious signs of accretion, suggests that AR Sco is primarily spin-powered. Although the pulsations are driven by the white dwarf's spin, they mainly originate from the cool star. AR Sco's broadband spectrum is characteristic of synchrotron radiation, requiring relativistic electrons. These must either originate from near the white dwarf or be generated in situ at the M star through direct interaction with the white dwarf's magnetosphere.

  5. Statistical analysis of dwarf nova outbursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gicger, A.

    1987-01-01

    Correlation between maximum brightness, outburst width, lengths of preceding and following intervals has been studied for 14 dwarf novae (mostly from southern sky). Significant correlations (ρ ≥ 0.4) occur only in 16 per cent of cases, what confirms earlier results of Szkody and Mattei (1984). Global correlations have also been studied between mean photometric parameters and binary system parameters using a sample including over 30 objects. The most interesting result is the strong correlation (ρ = +0.94) between the orbital period and the outburst duration. It implies that the quantity α(z 0 /r) 2 is approximately constant for all dwarf novae. Using typical estimates for z 0 /r we get α = 0.2. 30 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs. (author)

  6. Thermal measurements of dark and bright surface features on Vesta as derived from Dawn/VIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Federico; Capria, Maria Teresa; De Sanctis, M.C.; Combe, J.-Ph.; Zambon, F.; Nathues, A.; Schröder, S.E.; Li, J.-Y.; Palomba, E.; Longobardo, A.; Blewett, D.T.; Denevi, B.W.; Palmer, E.; Capaccioni, F.; Ammannito, E.; Titus, Timothy N.; Mittlefehldt, D.W.; Sunshine, J.M.; Russell, C.T.; Raymond, C.A.; Dawn/VIR Team,

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing data acquired during Dawn’s orbital mission at Vesta showed several local concentrations of high-albedo (bright) and low-albedo (dark) material units, in addition to spectrally distinct meteorite impact ejecta. The thermal behavior of such areas seen at local scale (1-10 km) is related to physical properties that can provide information about the origin of those materials. We use Dawn’s Visible and InfraRed (VIR) mapping spectrometer hyperspectral data to retrieve surface temperatures and emissivities, with high accuracy as long as temperatures are greater than 220 K. Some of the dark and bright features were observed multiple times by VIR in the various mission phases at variable spatial resolution, illumination and observation angles, local solar time, and heliocentric distance. This work presents the first temperature maps and spectral emissivities of several kilometer-scale dark and bright material units on Vesta. Results retrieved from the infrared data acquired by VIR show that bright regions generally correspond to regions with lower temperature, while dark regions correspond to areas with higher temperature. During maximum daily insolation and in the range of heliocentric distances explored by Dawn, i.e. 2.23-2.54 AU, the warmest dark unit found on Vesta rises to a temperature of 273 K, while bright units observed under comparable conditions do not exceed 266 K. Similarly, dark units appear to have higher emissivity on average compared to bright units. Dark-material units show a weak anticorrelation between temperature and albedo, whereas the relation is stronger for bright material units observed under the same conditions. Individual features may show either evanescent or distinct margins in the thermal images, as a consequence of the cohesion of the surface material. Finally, for the two categories of dark and bright materials, we were able to highlight the influence of heliocentric distance on surface temperatures, and estimate an

  7. 8-12 GHz Radio Observations of Flare Activity On M dwarf CN Leo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, Alia; Villadsen, Jackie; Quintana, Elisa; Barclay, Thomas; Thackeray, Beverly

    2018-01-01

    Red dwarfs are cool stars that make up 70% of all stars. Red dwarfs can be utilized to detect potentially habitable planets but they have particularly strong magnetic activity that can be detrimental to orbiting planets’ atmospheres and habitability. A coronal mass ejection (CME) is an eruption of magnetized plasma from the star that is ejected into the interplanetary medium which can erode a planet’s atmosphere daily. Based on the sun CMEs are expected to produce very bright radio bursts along with optical flares. We are using M dwarf CN Leo, a well studied flare star that was in the K2 campaign field in summer 2017, as a template to understand the relationship between radio and optical flares and the space weather conditions impacting M dwarf planets. Using radio frequencies ranging from 0.22 GHz-12 GHz we search for simultaneous radio bursts and optical flares to infer if CMEs, flares or aurorae are occurring on the star. I will present the 8-12 GHz radio data from eight 1.5-hour observations with simultaneous optical data. CN Leo produced a bright non-thermal radio flare that lasted approximately for a day during two consecutive observations, with a gyrosynchrotron emission mechanism.

  8. A study of excess H-alpha emission in chromospherically active M dwarf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.; Skumanich, A.; Stauffer, J.R.; Harlan, E.; Bopp, B.W.

    1989-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations from three observatories are combined to study the properties of the excess H-alpha emission which characterizes the most chromospherically active subset of the M dwarf stars, known as the dMe stars. It is demonstrated that the excess H-alpha luminosity from these stars is a monotonically decreasing function of their (R-I) color, and evidence is presented which suggests that the product of the mean surface brightness and the mean filling factor of the emissive regions is essentially constant with color. Another significant result of the study is a linear correlation between the excess luminosity in H-alpha and the coronal X-ray luminosity. 39 refs

  9. DISCOVERY OF AN UNUSUALLY RED L-TYPE BROWN DWARF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gizis, John E.; Castro, Philip J.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Liu, Michael C.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Shaw, John D.; Vrba, Frederick J.; Harris, Hugh C.; Deacon, Niall R.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of an unusually red brown dwarf found in a search for high proper motion objects using WISE and 2MASS data. WISEP J004701.06+680352.1 is moving at 0.''44 yr –1 and lies relatively close to the Galactic plane (b = 5. 0 2). Near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy reveals that this is one of the reddest (2MASS J – K s 2.55 ± 0.08 mag) field L dwarfs yet detected, making this object an important member of the class of unusually red L dwarfs. We discuss evidence for thick condensate clouds and speculate on the age of the object. Although models by different research groups agree that thick clouds can explain the red spectrum, they predict dramatically different effective temperatures, ranging from 1100 K to 1600 K. This brown dwarf is well suited for additional studies of extremely dusty substellar atmospheres because it is relatively bright (K s = 13.05 ± 0.03 mag), which should also contribute to an improved understanding of young gas-giant planets and the transition between L and T brown dwarfs.

  10. Hot spot in eclipsing dwarf nova IY Ursae Majoris during quiescence and normal outburst

    OpenAIRE

    Bakowska, K.; Olech, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present the analysis of hot spot brightness in light curves of the eclipsing dwarf nova IY Ursae Majoris during its normal outburst in March 2013 and in quiescence in April 2012 and in October 2015. Examination of four reconstructed light curves of the hot spot eclipses showed directly that the brightness of the hot spot changed significantly only during the outburst. The brightness of the hot spot, before and after the outburst, was on the same level. Hereby, based on the behaviour of the...

  11. Nucleosynthesis and the Inhomogeneous Chemical Evolution of the Carina Dwarf Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venn, Kim A.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Irwin, Mike J.; Hill, Vanessa; Jablonka, Pascale; Tolstoy, Eline; Lemasle, Bertrand; Divell, Mike; Starkenburg, Else; Letarte, Bruno; Baldner, Charles; Battaglia, Giuseppina; Helmi, Amina; Kaufer, Andreas; Primas, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The detailed abundances of 23 chemical elements in nine bright red giant branch stars in the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy are presented based on high-resolution spectra gathered at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and Magellan telescopes. A spherical model atmospheres analysis is applied using

  12. WISEP J004701.06+680352.1: AN INTERMEDIATE SURFACE GRAVITY, DUSTY BROWN DWARF IN THE AB DOR MOVING GROUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizis, John E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Allers, Katelyn N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837 (United States); Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu HI 96822 (United States); Harris, Hugh C. [US Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington 5241 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Burgasser, Adam J. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We present spectroscopy, astrometry, and photometry of the brown dwarf WISEP J004701.06+680352.1 (W0047+68), an unusually red field L dwarf at a distance of 12.2 ± 0.4 pc. The three-dimensional space motion identifies it as a member of the AB Dor Moving Group, an identification supported by our classification of W0047+68 as intermediate surface gravity (INT-G) using the Allers and Liu near-infrared classification system. This moving group membership implies near-solar metallicity, age ∼100-125 Myr, M ≈ 0.018 M {sub ☉}, and log g ≈ 4.5; the thick condensate clouds needed to explain the infrared spectrum are, therefore, a result of surface gravity that is lower than that of ordinary field brown dwarfs. From the observed luminosity and evolutionary model radius, we find T {sub eff} ≈ 1300 K, a temperature normally associated with early T dwarfs. Thick clouds are also used to explain the spectral properties of directly imaged giant planets, and we discuss the successes and challenges for such substellar models in matching the observed optical and infrared spectra. W0047+68 shows that cloud thickness is more sensitive to intermediate surface gravity than in most models. We also present a trigonometric parallax of the dusty L6 dwarf 2MASS J21481628+4003593. It lies at 8.060 ± 0.036 parsecs; its astrometry is consistent with the view that it is older and metal-rich.

  13. Eclipse studies of the dwarf nova Oy Carinae in quiescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.H.; Horne, K.; Berriman, G.; Wade, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    High-speed photometry of OY Car have been obtained which cover 20 eclipses in white light and seven eclipses in UBR. The results show the red dwarf to have a mass of 0.070 + or - 0.002 solar masses and a radius of 0.127 + or - 0.002 solar radii, and the white dwarf to have a temperature of several thousand degrees below 15,000 K. The bright spot is found to have a compact 15,000-K core and a tail that extends along the rim but does not penetrate far into the disk. 31 refs

  14. Benchmark Transiting Brown Dwarf LHS 6343 C: Spitzer Secondary Eclipse Observations Yield Brightness Temperature and Mid-T Spectral Class

    OpenAIRE

    Montet, B.T.; Johnson, J.A.; Fortney, J.J.; Desert, J.-M.

    2016-01-01

    © 2016. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.. There are no field brown dwarf analogs with measured masses, radii, and luminosities, precluding our ability to connect the population of transiting brown dwarfs with measurable masses and radii and field brown dwarfs with measurable luminosities and atmospheric properties. LHS 6343 C, a weakly irradiated brown dwarf transiting one member of an M+M binary in the Kepler field, provides the first opportunity to probe the atmospher...

  15. Suzaku observations of low surface brightness cluster Abell 1631

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babazaki, Yasunori; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Ota, Naomi; Sasaki, Shin; Böhringer, Hans; Chon, Gayoung; Pratt, Gabriel W.; Matsumoto, Hironori

    2018-06-01

    We present analysis results for a nearby galaxy cluster Abell 1631 at z = 0.046 using the X-ray observatory Suzaku. This cluster is categorized as a low X-ray surface brightness cluster. To study the dynamical state of the cluster, we conduct four-pointed Suzaku observations and investigate physical properties of the Mpc-scale hot gas associated with the A 1631 cluster for the first time. Unlike relaxed clusters, the X-ray image shows no strong peak at the center and an irregular morphology. We perform spectral analysis and investigate the radial profiles of the gas temperature, density, and entropy out to approximately 1.5 Mpc in the east, north, west, and south directions by combining with the XMM-Newton data archive. The measured gas density in the central region is relatively low (a few ×10-4 cm-3) at the given temperature (˜2.9 keV) compared with X-ray-selected clusters. The entropy profile and value within the central region (r clusters. These features are also observed in another low surface brightness cluster, Abell 76. The spatial distributions of galaxies and the hot gas appear to be different. The X-ray luminosity is relatively lower than that expected from the velocity dispersion. A post-merger scenario may explain the observed results.

  16. Benchmark Transiting Brown Dwarf LHS 6343 C: Spitzer Secondary Eclipse Observations Yield Brightness Temperature and Mid-T Spectral Class

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montet, B.T.; Johnson, J.A.; Fortney, J.J.; Desert, J.-M.

    2016-01-01

    There are no field brown dwarf analogs with measured masses, radii, and luminosities, precluding our ability to connect the population of transiting brown dwarfs with measurable masses and radii and field brown dwarfs with measurable luminosities and atmospheric properties. LHS 6343 C, a weakly

  17. Inner Disk Structure of Dwarf Novae in the Light of X-Ray Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Balman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of the X-ray observations of dwarf nova are still not fully understood. I review the X-ray spectral characteristics of dwarf novae during the quiescence in general explained by cooling flow models and the outburst spectra that show hard X-ray emission dominantly with few sources that reveal soft X-ray/EUV blackbody emission. The nature of aperiodic time variability of brightness of dwarf novae shows band limited noise, which can be adequately described in the framework of the model of propagating fluctuations. The frequency of the break (1-6 mHz indicates inner disk truncation of the optically thick disk with a range of radii (3.0-10.0×109 cm. The RXTE and optical (RTT150 data of SS Cyg in outburst and quiescence reveal that the inner disk radius moves towards the white dwarf and receeds as the outburst declines to quiescence. A preliminary analysis of SU UMa indicates a similar behaviour. In addition, I find that the outburst spectra of WZ Sge shows two component spectrum of only hard X-ray emission, one of which may be fitted with a power law suggesting thermal Comptonization occuring in the system. Cross-correlations between the simultaneous UV and X-ray light curves (XMM −Newton of five DNe in quiescence show time lags in the X-rays of 96-181 sec consistent with travel time of matter from a truncated inner disk to the white dwarf surface. All this suggests that dwarf novae and other plausible nonmagnetic systems have truncated accretion disks indicating that the disks may be partially evaporated and the accretion may occur through hot (coronal flows in the disk.

  18. Relations Between FUV Excess and Coronal Soft X-Ray Emission Among Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graeme H.; Hargrave, Mason; Eckholm, Elliot

    2017-11-01

    The far-ultraviolet magnitudes of late-F, G and early-K dwarfs with (B - V) ⩾ 0.50 as measured by the GALEX satellite are shown to correlate with soft X-ray luminosity. This result indicates that line and continuum emission from stellar active regions make significant contributions to the flux in the GALEX FUV band for late-F, G and K dwarfs. By contrast, detection of a correlation between FUV brightness and soft X-ray luminosity among early-F dwarfs requires subtraction of the photospheric component from the FUV flux. The range in (B - V) among F and G dwarfs over which a correlation between uncorrected FUV magnitude and X-ray luminosity is detected coincides with the range in colour over which coronal and chromospheric emission correlates with stellar rotation.

  19. Chandra Captures Flare From Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The first flare ever seen from a brown dwarf, or failed star, was detected by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. The bright X-ray flare has implications for understanding the explosive activity and origin of magnetic fields of extremely low mass stars. Chandra detected no X-rays at all from LP 944-20 for the first nine hours of a twelve hour observation, then the source flared dramatically before it faded away over the next two hours. "We were shocked," said Dr. Robert Rutledge of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, the lead author on the discovery paper to appear in the July 20 issue of Astrophysical Journal Letters. "We didn't expect to see flaring from such a lightweight object. This is really the 'mouse that roared.'" Chandra LP 944-20 X-ray Image Press Image and Caption The energy emitted in the brown dwarf flare was comparable to a small solar flare, and was a billion times greater than observed X-ray flares from Jupiter. The flaring energy is believed to come from a twisted magnetic field. "This is the strongest evidence yet that brown dwarfs and possibly young giant planets have magnetic fields, and that a large amount of energy can be released in a flare," said Dr. Eduardo Martin, also of Caltech and a member of the team. Professor Gibor Basri of the University of California, Berkeley, the principal investigator for this observation, speculated that the flare "could have its origin in the turbulent magnetized hot material beneath the surface of the brown dwarf. A sub-surface flare could heat the atmosphere, allowing currents to flow and give rise to the X-ray flare -- like a stroke of lightning." LP 944-20 is about 500 million years old and has a mass that is about 60 times that of Jupiter, or 6 percent that of the Sun. Its diameter is about one-tenth that of the Sun and it has a rotation period of less than five hours. Located in the constellation Fornax in the southern skies, LP 944-20 is one of the best studied brown dwarfs because it is

  20. 37 NEW T-TYPE BROWN DWARFS IN THE CANADA-FRANCE BROWN DWARFS SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, Loic; Artigau, Etienne; Delorme, Philippe; Reyle, Celine; Forveille, Thierry; Delfosse, Xavier; Willott, Chris J.

    2011-01-01

    The Canada-France Brown Dwarfs Survey is an i'- and z'-band survey realized with MegaCam at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope that covers a surface area of 780 deg 2 . Image analysis is now completed while J-band follow-up campaigns are ∼90% done. The survey identified about 70 T dwarf candidates, of which 43 now have near-infrared spectra obtained with NIRI and GNIRS at Gemini and ISAAC at the Very Large Telescope. Six of these were previously published and we present here the 37 new discoveries, all T dwarfs. They range from T0 to T8.5 with four being of type T7 or later. Both newly identified T8 dwarfs are possibly high log (g) massive brown dwarfs of thin disk age. One T4.5 dwarf shows signs of sub-metallicity. We present proper motions and near-infrared photometry, and discuss about the most peculiar/interesting objects in some details.

  1. Characterizing bars in low surface brightness disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Wesley; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we use B-band, I-band, and 3.6 μm azimuthal light profiles of four low surface brightness galaxies (LSBs; UGC 628, F568-1, F568-3, F563-V2) to characterize three bar parameters: length, strength, and corotation radius. We employ three techniques to measure the radius of the bars, including a new method using the azimuthal light profiles. We find comparable bar radii between the I-band and 3.6 μm for all four galaxies when using our azimuthal light profile method, and that our bar lengths are comparable to those in high surface brightness galaxies (HSBs). In addition, we find the bar strengths for our galaxies to be smaller than those for HSBs. Finally, we use Fourier transforms of the B-band, I-band, and 3.6 μm images to characterize the bars as either `fast' or `slow' by measuring the corotation radius via phase profiles. When using the B- and I-band phase crossings, we find three of our galaxies have faster than expected relative bar pattern speeds for galaxies expected to be embedded in centrally dense cold dark matter haloes. When using the B-band and 3.6 μm phase crossings, we find more ambiguous results, although the relative bar pattern speeds are still faster than expected. Since we find a very slow bar in F563-V2, we are confident that we are able to differentiate between fast and slow bars. Finally, we find no relation between bar strength and relative bar pattern speed when comparing our LSBs to HSBs.

  2. First Characterization of the Neutral ISM in Two Local Volume Dwarf Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bralts-Kelly, Lilly; Bulatek, Alyssa M.; Chinski, Sarah; Ford, Robert N.; Gilbonio, Hannah E.; Helmel, Greta; McGlasson, Riley; Mizener, Andrew; Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Kaisin, Serafim; Karachentsev, Igor [Special Astrophysical Observatory of RAS, Nizhnij Arkhyz, KChR, 369167 (Russian Federation); Denn, Grant, E-mail: jcannon@macalester.edu, E-mail: skai@sao.ru, E-mail: ikar@sao.ru, E-mail: gdenn@msudenver.edu [Department of Physics, Metropolitan State University of Denver, P.O. Box 173362, Denver, CO 80217 (United States)

    2017-10-10

    We present the first H i spectral-line images of the nearby, star-forming dwarf galaxies UGC 11411 and UGC 8245, acquired as part of the “Observing for University Classes” program with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). These low-resolution images localize the H i gas and reveal the bulk kinematics of each system. Comparing with Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) broadband and ground-based H α imaging, we find that the ongoing star formation in each galaxy is associated with the highest H i mass surface density regions. UGC 8245 has a much lower current star formation rate than UGC 11411, which harbors very high surface brightness H α emission in the inner disk and diffuse, lower surface brightness nebular gas that extends well beyond the stellar disk as traced by HST . We measure the dynamical masses of each galaxy and find that the halo of UGC 11411 is more than an order of magnitude more massive than the halo of UGC 8245, even though the H i and stellar masses of the sources are similar. We show that UGC 8245 shares similar physical properties with other well-studied low-mass galaxies, while UGC 11411 is more highly dark matter dominated. Both systems have negative peculiar velocities that are associated with a coherent flow of nearby galaxies at high supergalactic latitude.

  3. FC colour images of dwarf planet Ceres reveal a complicated geological history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathues, A.; Hoffmann, M.; Platz, T.; Thangjam, G. S.; Cloutis, E. A.; Reddy, V.; Le Corre, L.; Li, J.-Y.; Mengel, K.; Rivkin, A.; Applin, D. M.; Schaefer, M.; Christensen, U.; Sierks, H.; Ripken, J.; Schmidt, B. E.; Hiesinger, H.; Sykes, M. V.; Sizemore, H. G.; Preusker, F.; Russell, C. T.

    2016-12-01

    The dwarf planet Ceres (equatorial diameter 963km) is the largest object that has remained in the main asteroid belt (Russell and Raymond, 2012), while most large bodies have been destroyed or removed by dynamical processes (Petit et al. 2001; Minton and Malhotra, 2009). Pre-Dawn investigations (McCord and Sotin, 2005; Castillo-Rogez and McCord, 2010; Castillo-Rogez et al., 2011) suggest that Ceres is a thermally evolved, but still volatile-rich body with potential geological activity, that was never completely molten, but possibly differentiated into a rocky core, an ice-rich mantle, and may contain remnant internal liquid water. Thermal alteration should contribute to producing a (dark) carbonaceous chondritic-like surface (McCord and Sotin, 2005; Castillo-Rogez and McCord, 2010; Castillo-Rogez et al., 2011; Nathues et al., 2015) containing ammoniated phyllosilicates (King et al., 1992; De Sanctis et al., 2015 and 2016). Here we show and analyse global contrast-rich colour mosaics, derived from a camera on-board Dawn at Ceres (Russell et al., 2016). Colours are unexpectedly more diverse on global scale than anticipated by Hubble Space Telescope (Li et al., 2006) and ground-based observations (Reddy et al. 2015). Dawn data led to the identification of five major colour units. The youngest units identified by crater counting, termed bright and bluish units, are exclusively found at equatorial and intermediate latitudes. We identified correlations between the distribution of the colour units, crater size, and formation age, inferring a crustal stratigraphy. Surface brightness and spectral properties are not correlated. The youngest surface features are the bright spots at crater Occator ( Ø 92km). Their colour spectra are highly consistent with the presence of carbonates while most of the remaining surface resembles modifications of various types of ordinary carbonaceous chondrites.

  4. A SOUTHERN SKY AND GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY FOR BRIGHT KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, Scott S.; Udalski, Andrzej; Kubiak, Marcin; Pietrzynski, Grzegorz; Poleski, Radoslaw; Soszynski, Igor; Szymanski, Michal K.; Ulaczyk, Krzysztof; Trujillo, Chadwick

    2011-01-01

    About 2500 deg 2 of sky south of declination -25 0 and/or near the Galactic Plane were surveyed for bright outer solar system objects. This survey is one of the first large-scale southern sky and Galactic Plane surveys to detect dwarf planets and other bright Kuiper Belt Objects in the trans-Neptunian region. The survey was able to obtain a limiting R-band magnitude of 21.6. In all, 18 outer solar system objects were detected, including Pluto which was detected near the Galactic center using optimal image subtraction techniques to remove the high stellar density background. Fourteen of the detections were previously unknown trans-Neptunian objects, demonstrating that the southern sky had not been well searched to date for bright outer solar system objects. Assuming moderate albedos, several of the new discoveries from this survey could be in hydrostatic equilibrium and thus could be considered dwarf planets. Combining this survey with previous surveys from the northern hemisphere suggests that the Kuiper Belt is nearly complete to around 21st magnitude in the R band. All the main dynamical classes in the Kuiper Belt are occupied by at least one dwarf-planet-sized object. The 3:2 Neptune resonance, which is the innermost well-populated Neptune resonance, has several large objects while the main outer Neptune resonances such as the 5:3, 7:4, 2:1, and 5:2 do not appear to have any large objects. This indicates that the outer resonances are either significantly depleted in objects relative to the 3:2 resonance or have a significantly different assortment of objects than the 3:2 resonance. For the largest objects (H < 4.5 mag), the scattered disk population appears to have a few times more objects than the main Kuiper Belt (MKB) population, while the Sedna population could be several times more than that of the MKB.

  5. IRAS surface brightness maps of reflection nebulae in the Pleiades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelaz, Michael W.; Werner, M. W.; Sellgren, K.

    1987-01-01

    Surface brightness maps at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns were made of a 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg area of the reflection nebulae in the Pleiades by coadding IRAS scans of this region. Emission is seen surrounding 17 Tau, 20 Tau, 23 Tau, and 25 Tau in all four bands, coextensive with the visible reflection nebulosity, and extending as far as 30 arcminutes from the illuminating stars. The infrared energy distributions of the nebulae peak in the 100 micron band, but up to 40 percent of the total infrared power lies in the 12 and 25 micron bands. The brightness of the 12 and 25 micron emission and the absence of temperature gradients at these wavelengths are inconsistent with the predictions of equilibrium thermal emission models. The emission at these wavelengths appears to be the result of micron nonequilibrium emission from very small grains, or from molecules consisting of 10-100 carbon atoms, which have been excited by ultraviolet radiation from the illuminating stars.

  6. Detecting edges in the X-ray surface brightness of galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, J. S.; Fabian, A. C.; Russell, H. R.; Walker, S. A.; Blundell, K. M.

    2016-08-01

    The effects of many physical processes in the intracluster medium of galaxy clusters imprint themselves in X-ray surface brightness images. It is therefore important to choose optimal methods for extracting information from and enhancing the interpretability of such images. We describe in detail a gradient filtering edge detection method that we previously applied to images of the Centaurus cluster of galaxies. The Gaussian gradient filter measures the gradient in the surface brightness distribution on particular spatial scales. We apply this filter on different scales to Chandra X-ray observatory images of two clusters with active galactic nucleus feedback, the Perseus cluster and M 87, and a merging system, A 3667. By combining filtered images on different scales using radial filters spectacular images of the edges in a cluster are produced. We describe how to assess the significance of features in filtered images. We find the gradient filtering technique to have significant advantages for detecting many kinds of features compared to other analysis techniques, such as unsharp masking. Filtering cluster images in this way in a hard energy band allows shocks to be detected.

  7. Evidence for the Translocation of Gibberellin A_3 and Gibberellin-Like Substances in Grafts between Normal, Dwarf_1 and Dwarf_5 Seedlings of Zea mays L.

    OpenAIRE

    M., Katsumi; D.E., Foard; B.O., Phinney; Biology Department, International Christian University; Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University; Department of Biology, University of California

    1983-01-01

    Approach grafts were made between the cut surfaces of mesocotyls from normal and dwarf seedlings of Zea mays L. (maize). The dwarfs were the non-allelic single gene gibberellin mutants, dwarf_1 and dwarf_5. The graft combinations were normal-normal, normal-dwarf_1, normal-dwarf_5, dwarf_1-dwarf_1, dwarf_5-dwarf_5, and dwarf_1-dwarf_5. The grafts were used to demonstrate the movement of gibberellin-like substances across the union. GA_3, added to one member of the graft, resulted in leaf-sheat...

  8. WHITE DWARF/M DWARF BINARIES AS SINGLE DEGENERATE PROGENITORS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, J. Craig

    2012-01-01

    Limits on the companions of white dwarfs in the single-degenerate scenario for the origin of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have gotten increasingly tight, yet igniting a nearly Chandrasekhar mass C/O white dwarf from a condition of near hydrostatic equilibrium provides compelling agreement with observed spectral evolution. The only type of non-degenerate stars that survive the tight limits, M V ∼> 8.4 on the SN Ia in SNR 0509-67.5 and M V ∼> 9.5 in the remnant of SN 1572, are M dwarfs. While M dwarfs are observed in cataclysmic variables, they have special properties that have not been considered in most work on the progenitors of SNe Ia: they have small but finite magnetic fields and they flare frequently. These properties are explored in the context of SN Ia progenitors. White dwarf/M dwarf pairs may be sufficiently plentiful to provide, in principle, an adequate rate of explosions even with slow orbital evolution due to magnetic braking or gravitational radiation. Even modest magnetic fields on the white dwarf and M dwarf will yield adequate torques to lock the two stars together, resulting in a slowly rotating white dwarf, with the magnetic poles pointing at one another in the orbital plane. The mass loss will be channeled by a 'magnetic bottle' connecting the two stars, landing on a concentrated polar area on the white dwarf. This enhances the effective rate of accretion compared to spherical accretion. Luminosity from accretion and hydrogen burning on the surface of the white dwarf may induce self-excited mass transfer. The combined effects of self-excited mass loss, polar accretion, and magnetic inhibition of mixing of accretion layers give possible means to beat the 'nova limit' and grow the white dwarf to the Chandrasekhar mass even at rather moderate mass accretion rates.

  9. High-Resolution EUV Spectroscopy of White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Michael P.; Wood, K. S.; Barstow, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    We compare results of high-resolution EUV spectroscopic measurements of the isolated white dwarf G191-B2B and the binary system Feige 24 obtained with the J-PEX (Joint Plasmadynamic Experiment), which was sponsored jointly by the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory and NASA. J-PEX delivers the world's highest resolution in EUV and does so at high effective area (e.g., more effective area in a sounding rocket than is available with Chandra at adjacent energies, but in a waveband Chandra cannot reach). The capability J-PEX represents is applicable to the astrophysics of hot plasmas in stellar coronae, white dwarfs and the ISM. G191-B2B and Feige 24 are quite distinct hot white dwarf systems having in common that they are bright in the portion of the EUV where He emission features and edges occur, hence they can be exploited to probe both the stellar atmosphere and the ISM, separating those components by model-fitting that sums over all relevant (He) spectral features in the band. There is evidence from these fits that atmospheric He is being detected but the result is more conservatively cast as a pair of upper limits. We discuss how longer duration satellite observations with the same instrumentation could increase exposure to detect atmospheric He in these and other nearby hot white dwarfs.

  10. Is EG 50 a White or Strange Dwarf?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajyan, G. S.; Vartanyan, Yu. L.

    2017-12-01

    The time dependences of the luminosity of a white dwarf and four strange dwarfs with masses of 0.5 M (the mass of the white dwarf EG 50 with a surface temperature of 2.1·104 K) are determined taking neutrino energy losses into account. It was assumed that these configurations radiate only at the expense of thermal energy reserves. It is shown that the sources of thermal energy owing to nonequilibrium b-processes and the phenomenon of crystallization of electron-nuclear matter are insignificant in determining the cooling time of white and strange dwarfs with masses of 0.5 M⨀. It is shown that in this approximation the time dependences of the luminosity of white and strange dwarfs with masses of 0.5 M⨀ differ significantly only for surface temperatures TR≥7·104 K, so it is impossible to determine whether EG 50 is a white or strange dwarf based on the cooling time.

  11. Suzaku observations of low surface brightness cluster Abell 1631

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babazaki, Yasunori; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Ota, Naomi; Sasaki, Shin; Böhringer, Hans; Chon, Gayoung; Pratt, Gabriel W.; Matsumoto, Hironori

    2018-04-01

    We present analysis results for a nearby galaxy cluster Abell 1631 at z = 0.046 using the X-ray observatory Suzaku. This cluster is categorized as a low X-ray surface brightness cluster. To study the dynamical state of the cluster, we conduct four-pointed Suzaku observations and investigate physical properties of the Mpc-scale hot gas associated with the A 1631 cluster for the first time. Unlike relaxed clusters, the X-ray image shows no strong peak at the center and an irregular morphology. We perform spectral analysis and investigate the radial profiles of the gas temperature, density, and entropy out to approximately 1.5 Mpc in the east, north, west, and south directions by combining with the XMM-Newton data archive. The measured gas density in the central region is relatively low (a few ×10-4 cm-3) at the given temperature (˜2.9 keV) compared with X-ray-selected clusters. The entropy profile and value within the central region (r < 0.1 r200) are found to be flatter and higher (≳400 keV cm2). The observed bolometric luminosity is approximately three times lower than that expected from the luminosity-temperature relation in previous studies of relaxed clusters. These features are also observed in another low surface brightness cluster, Abell 76. The spatial distributions of galaxies and the hot gas appear to be different. The X-ray luminosity is relatively lower than that expected from the velocity dispersion. A post-merger scenario may explain the observed results.

  12. Extracting Galaxy Cluster Gas Inhomogeneity from X-Ray Surface Brightness: A Statistical Approach and Application to Abell 3667

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Hajime; Reese, Erik D.; Kitayama, Tetsu; Sasaki, Shin; Suto, Yasushi

    2008-11-01

    Our previous analysis indicates that small-scale fluctuations in the intracluster medium (ICM) from cosmological hydrodynamic simulations follow the lognormal probability density function. In order to test the lognormal nature of the ICM directly against X-ray observations of galaxy clusters, we develop a method of extracting statistical information about the three-dimensional properties of the fluctuations from the two-dimensional X-ray surface brightness. We first create a set of synthetic clusters with lognormal fluctuations around their mean profile given by spherical isothermal β-models, later considering polytropic temperature profiles as well. Performing mock observations of these synthetic clusters, we find that the resulting X-ray surface brightness fluctuations also follow the lognormal distribution fairly well. Systematic analysis of the synthetic clusters provides an empirical relation between the three-dimensional density fluctuations and the two-dimensional X-ray surface brightness. We analyze Chandra observations of the galaxy cluster Abell 3667, and find that its X-ray surface brightness fluctuations follow the lognormal distribution. While the lognormal model was originally motivated by cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, this is the first observational confirmation of the lognormal signature in a real cluster. Finally we check the synthetic cluster results against clusters from cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. As a result of the complex structure exhibited by simulated clusters, the empirical relation between the two- and three-dimensional fluctuation properties calibrated with synthetic clusters when applied to simulated clusters shows large scatter. Nevertheless we are able to reproduce the true value of the fluctuation amplitude of simulated clusters within a factor of 2 from their two-dimensional X-ray surface brightness alone. Our current methodology combined with existing observational data is useful in describing and inferring the

  13. White Dwarfs in Cataclysmic Variables: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Sion

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize what is currently known about the surface temperatures of accreting white dwarfs in nonmagnetic and magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs based upon synthetic spectral analyses of far ultraviolet data. We focus only on white dwarf surface temperatures, since in the area of chemical abundances, rotation rates, WD masses and accretion rates, relatively little has changed since our last review, pending the results of a large HST GO programinvolving 48 CVs of different CV types. The surface temperature of the white dwarf in SS Cygni is re-examined in the light of its revised distance. We also discuss new HST spectra of the recurrent nova T Pyxidis as it transitioned into quiescence following its April 2011 nova outburst.

  14. White dwarf-red dwarf binaries in the Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselaar, E.J.M. van den

    2007-01-01

    This PhD thesis shows several studies on white dwarf - red dwarf binaries. White dwarfs are the end products of most stars and red dwarfs are normal hydrogen burning low-mass stars. White dwarf - red dwarf binaries are both blue (white dwarf) and red (red dwarf). Together with the fact that they are

  15. Selection effects in the bivariate brightness distribution for spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1986-01-01

    The joint distribution of total luminosity and characteristic surface brightness (the bivariate brightness distribution) is investigated for a complete sample of spiral galaxies in the Virgo cluster. The influence of selection and physical limits of various kinds on the apparent distribution are detailed. While the distribution of surface brightness for bright galaxies may be genuinely fairly narrow, faint galaxies exist right across the (quite small) range of accessible surface brightnesses so no statement can be made about the true extent of the distribution. The lack of high surface brightness bright galaxies in the Virgo sample relative to an overall RC2 sample (mostly field galaxies) supports the contention that the star-formation rate is reduced in the inner region of the cluster for environmental reasons. (author)

  16. Characterizing the Resolved M6 Dwarf Twin LP 318-218AB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Hilario, Elizabeth; Burgasser, Adam J.; Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella; Tamiya, Tomoki

    2017-01-01

    The lowest-mass stars and brown dwarfs are among the most common objects in the Milky Way Galaxy, but theories of their formation and evolution remain poorly constrained. Binary systems are important for understanding the formation of these objects and for making direct orbit and mass measurements to validate evolutionary theories. We report the discovery of LP 318-218, a high proper motion late M dwarf, as a near equal-brightness binary system with a separation of 0.72 arcseconds. Resolved near-infrared spectroscopy confirms the components as nearly identical M6 twins. We using our resolved photometry and spectroscopy to estimate the distance, projected separation and tangential velocity of the system, and confirm common proper motion. We also perform atmosphere model fits to the resolved spectra to assess their physical properties. We place LP 318-218 in context with other widely-separated late M dwarf binaries.

  17. Polarized radiation in magnetic white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosi, L.A.; Zimmerman, R.L.; Kemp, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    A model for magnetic white dwarfs is proposed which attributes the partially polarized light to synchrotron radiation. The source of the radiation is relativistic electrons trapped in the magnetosphere of a white dwarf. The white dwarf's magnetic field is assumed to be dipolar. The Stokes parameters for the synchrotron radiation are tabulated as a function of frequency, observer's orientation, and energy and spatial distribution of the relativistic electrons. The results of the synchrotron calculations are applied to the polarization observations of Grw+70degree8247 and DQ Herculis. This model can account for the major features of the polarized radiation coming from these two magnetic white dwarfs. The calculations predict for Grw+70degree8247 that the surface magnetic field is B/sub s/approximately-less-than4 x 10 6 gauss, that the incident viewing angle is 45degreeapproximately-less-thantheta 0 approximately-less-than75degree, and that the electrons are trapped with nearly an isotropic distribution about the white dwarf. For DQ Herculis the surface magnetic field is B/sub s/approximately-less-than7 x 10 6 gauss and the trapped electrons are confined to a dislike region about the white dwarf. For both cases the density of electrons in the magnetosphere falls in the range of 10 5 approximately-less-thannapproximately-less-than10 7 cm -3 with energies of about 4--35 MeV

  18. CCD photometry of apparent dwarf galaxies in Fornax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Grimley, P.L.; Disney, M.J.; Cawson, M.G.M.; Kibblewhite, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Blue and red CCD surface photometry of two apparent dwarf galaxies in the Fornax cluster region is presented. Luminosity profiles are derived and their form discussed. The fainter galaxy resembles an archetypal diffuse dwarf elliptical but the brighter of the pair is either an unusual red dwarf or a background galaxy in chance juxtaposition. (author)

  19. A new, bright and hard aluminum surface produced by anodization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Fengyan; Hu, Bo; Tay, See Leng; Wang, Yuxin; Xiong, Chao; Gao, Wei

    2017-07-01

    Anodized aluminum (Al) and Al alloys have a wide range of applications. However, certain anodized finishings have relatively low hardness, dull appearance and/or poor corrosion resistance, which limited their applications. In this research, Al was first electropolished in a phosphoric acid-based solution, then anodized in a sulfuric acid-based solution under controlled processing parameters. The anodized specimen was then sealed by two-step sealing method. A systematic study including microstructure, surface morphology, hardness and corrosion resistance of these anodized films has been conducted. Results show that the hardness of this new anodized film was increased by a factor of 10 compared with the pure Al metal. Salt spray corrosion testing also demonstrated the greatly improved corrosion resistance. Unlike the traditional hard anodized Al which presents a dull-colored surface, this newly developed anodized Al alloy possesses a very bright and shiny surface with good hardness and corrosion resistance.

  20. The Young and the Restless: Revealing the Turbulent, Cloudy Nature of Young Brown Dwarfs and Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Jacqueline; Cruz, Kelle; Rice, Emily; Gagne, Jonathan; Marley, Mark; Gizis, John

    2018-05-01

    Emerging as an important insight into cool-temperature atmospheric physics is evidence for a correlation between enhanced clouds and youth. With this Spitzer Cycle 14 large GO program, we propose to obtain qualifying evidence for this hypothesis using an age calibrated sample of brown dwarf-exoplanet analogs recently discovered and characterized by team members. Using Spitzer's unparalleled ability to conduct uninterrupted, high-cadence observations over numerous hours, we will examine the periodic brightness variations at 3.5 microns, where clouds are thought to be most disruptive to emergent flux. Compared to older sources, theory predicts that younger or lower-surface gravity objects will have cooler brightness temperatures at 3.5 microns and larger peak to peak amplitude variations due to higher altitude, more turbulent clouds. Therefore we propose to obtain light curves for 26 sources that span L3-L8 spectral types (Teff 2500-1700 K), 20-130 Myr ages, and predicted 8-30 MJup masses. Comparing to the variability trends and statistics of field (3-5 Gyr) Spitzer Space Telescope General Observer Proposal equivalents currently being monitored by Spitzer, we will have unequivocal evidence for (or against) the turbulent atmospheric nature of younger sources. Coupling this Spitzer dataset with the multitude of spectral information we have on each source, the light curves obtained through this proposal will form the definitive library of data for investigating atmosphere dynamics (rotation rates, winds, storms, changing cloud structures) in young giant exoplanets and brown dwarfs.

  1. The distribution of star formation and metals in the low surface brightness galaxy UGC 628

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. E.; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Wang, Sharon X.

    2015-09-01

    We introduce the MUSCEL Programme (MUltiwavelength observations of the Structure, Chemistry and Evolution of LSB galaxies), a project aimed at determining the star-formation histories of low surface brightness galaxies. MUSCEL utilizes ground-based optical spectra and space-based UV and IR photometry to fully constrain the star-formation histories of our targets with the aim of shedding light on the processes that led low surface brightness galaxies down a different evolutionary path from that followed by high surface brightness galaxies, such as our Milky Way. Here we present the spatially resolved optical spectra of UGC 628, observed with the VIRUS-P IFU at the 2.7-m Harlen J. Smith Telescope at the McDonald Observatory, and utilize emission-line diagnostics to determine the rate and distribution of star formation as well as the gas-phase metallicity and metallicity gradient. We find highly clustered star formation throughout UGC 628, excluding the core regions, and a log(O/H) metallicity around -4.2, with more metal-rich regions near the edges of the galactic disc. Based on the emission-line diagnostics alone, the current mode of star formation, slow and concentrated in the outer disc, appears to have dominated for quite some time, although there are clear signs of a much older stellar population formed in a more standard inside-out fashion.

  2. Soil hydraulic parameters and surface soil moisture of a tilled bare soil plot inversely derived from l-band brightness temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Dimitrov, Marin

    2014-01-01

    We coupled a radiative transfer model and a soil hydrologic model (HYDRUS 1D) with an optimization routine to derive soil hydraulic parameters, surface roughness, and soil moisture of a tilled bare soil plot using measured brightness temperatures at 1.4 GHz (L-band), rainfall, and potential soil evaporation. The robustness of the approach was evaluated using five 28-d data sets representing different meteorological conditions. We considered two soil hydraulic property models: the unimodal Mualem-van Genuchten and the bimodal model of Durner. Microwave radiative transfer was modeled by three different approaches: the Fresnel equation with depth-averaged dielectric permittivity of either 2-or 5-cm-thick surface layers and a coherent radiative transfer model (CRTM) that accounts for vertical gradients in dielectric permittivity. Brightness temperatures simulated by the CRTM and the 2-cm-layer Fresnel model fitted well to the measured ones. L-band brightness temperatures are therefore related to the dielectric permittivity and soil moisture in a 2-cm-thick surface layer. The surface roughness parameter that was derived from brightness temperatures using inverse modeling was similar to direct estimates from laser profiler measurements. The laboratory-derived water retention curve was bimodal and could be retrieved consistently for the different periods from brightness temperatures using inverse modeling. A unimodal soil hydraulic property function underestimated the hydraulic conductivity near saturation. Surface soil moisture contents simulated using retrieved soil hydraulic parameters were compared with in situ measurements. Depth-specific calibration relations were essential to derive soil moisture from near-surface installed sensors. © Soil Science Society of America 5585 Guilford Rd., Madison, WI 53711 USA.

  3. Observations of the impact of starbursts on the interstellar medium in dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Amanda T.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Schommer, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies play a crucial role in our understanding of the formation and evolution of galaxies, and the concept of supernova-driven mass outflows is a vital ingredient in theories of the structure and evolution of dwarf galaxies. Despite the theoretical importance of these outflows, there is a very limited amount of direct observational evidence for their existence. We have therefore begun a detailed multi-wave-band search for outflows in dwarf (MB greater than or = -18) galaxies with extensive recent or ongoing centrally concentrated star formation. We report the first results of this search in the present paper. Observations of the ionized gas in dwarf amorphous galaxies with centrally concentrated populations of massive stars provide evidence for the large-scale expansion of their expansion of their ionized interstellar media. Fabry-Perot H alpha images reveal the presence of kiloparsec-scale 'superbubbles' and filaments which tend to be oriented along the galaxy minor axis. These structures are comparable in size to the chracteristic optical sizes of the galaxies, and dominate the morphology of the galaxies at low surface brightness in H alpha. Since expanding structure of this size and velocity are not observed in all low-mass galaxies with recent or ongoing star formation, we suggest that we are witnessing transient events that likely have a relatively low 'duty cycle' in such galaxies. That is, we argue that the particular galaxies in the present paper have had significantly elevated star formation rates over the past 107-108 yr (i.e., these are starburst or young poststarburst systems). This interpretation is consistent with the optical colors and emission-line properties of these galaxies.

  4. Quasi-periodic luminosity variations in dwarf novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, E.L.; Nather, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    We have identified quasi-periodic oscillations in the light curves of five dwarf novae--U Gem, SS Cyg, RU Peg, KT Per, and VW Hyi-- and in the light curve of the quasi-periodic X-ray source Sco X-1. The mean periods of the quasi-periodic oscillations range from 32 s in SS Cyg to 147 s in KT Per and 165 s in Sco X-l. Their amplitudes are typically 0.005--0.0l mag. The properties of the quasi-periodic oscillations are represented well by a second-order autoregressive process. Use of this representation shows that the length of time over which the quasi-periodic oscillations maintain coherence is very short, typically 3--5 cycles of the oscillations. Thus the quasi-periodic oscillations can be distinguished from the short-period coherent oscillations in dwarf novae, which are usually interpreted as white dwarf pulsations, because t the periods of the quasi-periodic oscillations are 3--4 times longer and their coherence time is much shorter. The quasi-periodic oscillations occur in dwarf novae only during their eruptions and occur in Sco X-l only when the system is bright. The presence of the oscillations does not depend on the subclass to which a dwarf nova belongs or on the morphology of the individual eruptions. We argue that their short periods, their short coherence times, and their presence in Sco X-l require that the quasi-periodic oscillations be produced by the accretion disk, and not by the stars or by the boundary between the a accretion disk and its central star

  5. Bright patches on chernozems - from space to surface and soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanova, Anna; Burian, Libor; Holec, Juraj; Minár, Jozef

    2016-04-01

    located in areas with slope gradient between 3 and 6°, which is consider as the higher slope in this part of the hilly land. In 1949 the distribution of bright patches was more strongly related to higher slope gradient, the convex forms of profile curvature, and upslope position than in 2004. In the studied catchment, 34 soil profiles were described in the bright patches (identified in 2004), and 73% of them were situated on the convex forms of profile curvature. The most of the profiles were eroded (88%), the mean soil loss was 0.36 m (in the comparison with the reference soil profile), and in 55% of described soil profiles the entire mollic horizon was removed. The typical surface horizon contained 2.3% of humus and 21% of carbonates. The soil profiles were further compared with these situated in the areas neighbouring with the bright patches, and soil profiles on two valley cross-sections, in order to understand the soil redistribution in the catchment, and describe the differences between the bright and black patches in the chernozem landscape. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract ESF-EC-0006-07 and APVV-0625-11; Anna Smetanová has received the support of the AgreenSkills fellowship (under grant agreement n°267196).

  6. Nebular metallicities in two isolated local void dwarf galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholls, David C.; Jerjen, Helmut; Dopita, Michael A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Rd., Weston ACT 2611 (Australia); Basurah, Hassan, E-mail: David.Nicholls@anu.edu.au [Astronomy Department, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-01-01

    Isolated dwarf galaxies, especially those situated in voids, may provide insight into primordial conditions in the universe and the physical processes that govern star formation in undisturbed stellar systems. The metallicity of H II regions in such galaxies is key to investigating this possibility. From the SIGRID sample of isolated dwarf galaxies, we have identified two exceptionally isolated objects, the Local Void galaxy [KK98]246 (ESO 461-G036) and another somewhat larger dwarf irregular on the edge of the Local Void, MCG-01-41-006 (HIPASS J1609-04). We report our measurements of the nebular metallicities in these objects. The first object has a single low luminosity H II region, while the second is in a more vigorous star forming phase with several bright H II regions. We find that the metallicities in both galaxies are typical for galaxies of this size, and do not indicate the presence of any primordial gas, despite (for [KK98]246) the known surrounding large reservoir of neutral hydrogen.

  7. Nebular Metallicities in Two Isolated Local Void Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, David C.; Jerjen, Helmut; Dopita, Michael A.; Basurah, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Isolated dwarf galaxies, especially those situated in voids, may provide insight into primordial conditions in the universe and the physical processes that govern star formation in undisturbed stellar systems. The metallicity of H II regions in such galaxies is key to investigating this possibility. From the SIGRID sample of isolated dwarf galaxies, we have identified two exceptionally isolated objects, the Local Void galaxy [KK98]246 (ESO 461-G036) and another somewhat larger dwarf irregular on the edge of the Local Void, MCG-01-41-006 (HIPASS J1609-04). We report our measurements of the nebular metallicities in these objects. The first object has a single low luminosity H II region, while the second is in a more vigorous star forming phase with several bright H II regions. We find that the metallicities in both galaxies are typical for galaxies of this size, and do not indicate the presence of any primordial gas, despite (for [KK98]246) the known surrounding large reservoir of neutral hydrogen.

  8. Brightness and transparency in the early visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela, Viljami R; Vanni, Simo

    2013-06-24

    Several psychophysical studies have shown that transparency can have drastic effects on brightness and lightness. However, the neural processes generating these effects have remained unresolved. Several lines of evidence suggest that the early visual cortex is important for brightness perception. While single cell recordings suggest that surface brightness is represented in the primary visual cortex, the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have been discrepant. In addition, the location of the neural representation of transparency is not yet known. We investigated whether the fMRI responses in areas V1, V2, and V3 correlate with brightness and transparency. To dissociate the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to brightness from the response to local border contrast and mean luminance, we used variants of White's brightness illusion, both opaque and transparent, in which luminance increments and decrements cancel each other out. The stimuli consisted of a target surface and a surround. The surround luminance was always sinusoidally modulated at 0.5 Hz to induce brightness modulation to the target. The target luminance was constant or modulated in counterphase to null brightness modulation. The mean signal changes were calculated from the voxels in V1, V2, and V3 corresponding to the retinotopic location of the target surface. The BOLD responses were significantly stronger for modulating brightness than for stimuli with constant brightness. In addition, the responses were stronger for transparent than for opaque stimuli, but there was more individual variation. No interaction between brightness and transparency was found. The results show that the early visual areas V1-V3 are sensitive to surface brightness and transparency and suggest that brightness and transparency are represented separately.

  9. An Improved Transit Measurement for a 2.4 R ⊕ Planet Orbiting A Bright Mid-M Dwarf K2–28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ge; Knutson, Heather A.; Dressing, Courtney D.; Morley, Caroline V.; Werner, Michael; Gorjian, Varoujan; Beichman, Charles; Benneke, Björn; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Ciardi, David; Crossfield, Ian; Howell, Steve B.; Krick, Jessica E.; Livingston, John; Morales, Farisa Y.; Schlieder, Joshua E.

    2018-05-01

    We present a new Spitzer transit observation of K2–28b, a sub-Neptune (R p = 2.45 ± 0.28 R ⊕) orbiting a relatively bright (V mag = 16.06, K mag = 10.75) metal-rich M4 dwarf (EPIC 206318379). This star is one of only seven with masses less than 0.2 {M}ȯ known to host transiting planets, and the planet appears to be a slightly smaller analogue of GJ 1214b (2.85+/- 0.20 {R}\\oplus ). Our new Spitzer observations were taken two years after the original K2 discovery data and have a significantly higher cadence, allowing us to derive improved estimates for this planet’s radius, semimajor axis, and orbital period, which greatly reduce the uncertainty in the prediction of near future transit times for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) observations. We also evaluate the system’s suitability for atmospheric characterization with JWST and find that it is currently the only small (K2–28b to be representative of the kind of mid-M systems that should be detectable in the TESS sample.

  10. Quantum liquid signatures in dwarf stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabadadze, Gregory; Pirtskhalava, David, E-mail: gg32@nyu.edu, E-mail: dmp371@nyu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    We develop further the proposal of arXiv:0806.3692 that a new state of matter - charged condensate of spin-0 nuclei - may exist in helium-core dwarf stars. The charged condensate and its fluctuations are described by an effective field theory Lagrangian. The spectrum of bosonic fluctuations is gapped, while electrons, at temperatures of interest, give rise to gapless excitations near the Fermi surface. These properties determine the evolution of the dwarfs with condensed cores. In particular, we show that such dwarf stars would cool significantly faster than their crystallized counterparts. As a result, the luminosity function for the helium-core dwarfs will have a sharp drop-off after the condensation. It is tempting to interpret the recently discovered abrupt termination of a sequence of 24 helium-core dwarf candidates in NGC 6397 as a signature of the charged condensation.

  11. A SEARCH FOR HIGH PROPER MOTION T DWARFS WITH Pan-STARRS1 + 2MASS + WISE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Michael C.; Deacon, Niall R.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Redstone, Joshua; Goldman, Bertrand; Price, P. A.

    2011-01-01

    We have searched ∼8200 deg 2 for high proper motion (∼0.''5-2.''7 year -1 ) T dwarfs by combining first-epoch data from the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) 3π Survey, the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) All-Sky Point Source Catalog, and the WISE Preliminary Data Release. We identified two high proper motion objects with the very red (W1 - W2) colors characteristic of T dwarfs, one being the known T7.5 dwarf GJ 570D. Near-IR spectroscopy of the other object (PSO J043.5395+02.3995 ≡ WISEP J025409.45+022359.1) reveals a spectral type of T8, leading to a photometric distance of 7.2 ± 0.7 pc. The 2.''56 year -1 proper motion of PSO J043.5+02 is the second highest among field T dwarfs, corresponding to a tangential velocity of 87 ± 8 km s -1 . According to the Besancon galaxy model, this velocity indicates that its galactic membership is probably in the thin disk, with the thick disk an unlikely possibility. Such membership is in accord with the near-IR spectrum, which points to a surface gravity (age) and metallicity typical of the field population. We combine 2MASS, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, WISE, and PS1 astrometry to derive a preliminary parallax of 171 ± 45 mas (5.8 +2.0 -1.2 pc), the first such measurement using PS1 data. The proximity and brightness of PSO J043.5+02 will facilitate future characterization of its atmosphere, variability, multiplicity, distance, and kinematics. The modest number of candidates from our search suggests that the immediate (∼10 pc) solar neighborhood does not contain a large reservoir of undiscovered T dwarfs earlier than about T8.

  12. White dwarf evolution - Cradle-to-grave constraints via pulsation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaler, Steven D.

    1990-01-01

    White dwarf evolution, particularly in the early phases, is not very strongly constrained by observation. Fortunately, white dwarfs undergo nonradial pulsation in three distinct regions of the H-R diagram. These pulsations provide accurate masses, surface compositional structure and rotation velocities, and help constrain other important physical properties. We demonstrate the application of the tools of stellar seismology to white dwarf evolution using the hot white dwarf star PG 1159-035 and the cool DAV (or ZZ Ceti) stars as examples. From pulsation studies, significant challenges to the theory of white dwarf evolution emerge.

  13. White dwarfs in cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sion, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    The physical properties and evolutionary state of the underlying white dwarfs in CVs are explored. Observations of 25 white dwarfs with effective temperature upper limits of 9000-75,000 K are discussed. Correlations between effective temperature, orbital period, accretion rate, and CV type with respect to the CV period gap are considered. Quasi-static and hydrodynamic evolutionary models are used to explain the surface temperature/luminosity distribution ratios. 42 references

  14. Temperate Earth-sized planets transiting a nearby ultracool dwarf star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, Emmanuël; Lederer, Susan M; Delrez, Laetitia; de Wit, Julien; Burdanov, Artem; Van Grootel, Valérie; Burgasser, Adam J; Triaud, Amaury H M J; Opitom, Cyrielle; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Sahu, Devendra K; Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella; Magain, Pierre; Queloz, Didier

    2016-05-12

    Star-like objects with effective temperatures of less than 2,700 kelvin are referred to as 'ultracool dwarfs'. This heterogeneous group includes stars of extremely low mass as well as brown dwarfs (substellar objects not massive enough to sustain hydrogen fusion), and represents about 15 per cent of the population of astronomical objects near the Sun. Core-accretion theory predicts that, given the small masses of these ultracool dwarfs, and the small sizes of their protoplanetary disks, there should be a large but hitherto undetected population of terrestrial planets orbiting them--ranging from metal-rich Mercury-sized planets to more hospitable volatile-rich Earth-sized planets. Here we report observations of three short-period Earth-sized planets transiting an ultracool dwarf star only 12 parsecs away. The inner two planets receive four times and two times the irradiation of Earth, respectively, placing them close to the inner edge of the habitable zone of the star. Our data suggest that 11 orbits remain possible for the third planet, the most likely resulting in irradiation significantly less than that received by Earth. The infrared brightness of the host star, combined with its Jupiter-like size, offers the possibility of thoroughly characterizing the components of this nearby planetary system.

  15. A near-infrared census of the multicomponent stellar structure of early-type dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H.; Lisker, T.; Hansson, K. S. A.; Meyer, H. T.; Paudel, S.; Peletier, R. F.; Den Brok, M.; Niemi, S.-M.; Toloba, E.; Hensler, G.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Ryś, A.; Boselli, A.

    2014-01-01

    The fraction of star-forming to quiescent dwarf galaxies varies from almost infinity in the field to zero in the centers of rich galaxy clusters. What is causing this pronounced morphology-density relation? What do quiescent dwarf galaxies look like when studied in detail, and what conclusions can be drawn about their formation mechanism? Here we study a nearly magnitude-complete sample (–19 < M r < –16 mag) of 121 Virgo cluster early types with deep near-infrared images from the SMAKCED project. We fit two-dimensional models with optional inner and outer components, as well as bar and lens components (in ∼15% of the galaxies), to the galaxy images. While a single Sérsic function may approximate the overall galaxy structure, it does not entirely capture the light distribution of two-thirds of our galaxies, for which multicomponent models provide a better fit. This fraction of complex galaxies shows a strong dependence on luminosity, being larger for brighter objects. We analyze the global and component-specific photometric scaling relations of early-type dwarf galaxies and discuss similarities with bright early and late types. The dwarfs' global galaxy parameters show scaling relations that are similar to those of bright disk galaxies. The inner components are mostly fitted with Sérsic n values close to 1. At a given magnitude, they are systematically larger than the bulges of spirals, suggesting that they are not ordinary bulges. We argue that the multicomponent structures in early-type dwarfs are mostly a phenomenon inherent to the disks and may indeed stem from environmental processing.

  16. THE STABILITY OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS DISKS BASED ON MULTI-WAVELENGTH MODELING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLachlan, J. M.; Wood, K.; Matthews, L. D.; Gallagher, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the structure and composition of the dusty interstellar medium (ISM) of low surface brightness (LSB) disk galaxies, we have used multi-wavelength photometry to construct spectral energy distributions for three low-mass, edge-on LSB galaxies (V rot = 88-105 km s -1 ). We use Monte Carlo radiation transfer codes that include the effects of transiently heated small grains and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules to model and interpret the data. We find that, unlike the high surface brightness galaxies previously modeled, the dust disks appear to have scale heights equal to or exceeding their stellar scale heights. This result supports the findings of previous studies that low-mass disk galaxies have dust scale heights comparable to their stellar scale heights and suggests that the cold ISM of low-mass, LSB disk galaxies may be stable against fragmentation and gravitational collapse. This may help to explain the lack of observed dust lanes in edge-on LSB galaxies and their low current star formation rates. Dust masses are found in the range (1.16-2.38) x 10 6 M sun , corresponding to face-on (edge-on), V-band, optical depths 0.034 ∼ face ∼ eq ∼< 1.99).

  17. White dwarf evolution - Cradle-to-grave constraints via pulsation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaler, S.D.

    1990-01-01

    White dwarf evolution, particularly in the early phases, is not very strongly constrained by observation. Fortunately, white dwarfs undergo nonradial pulsation in three distinct regions of the H-R diagram. These pulsations provide accurate masses, surface compositional structure and rotation velocities, and help constrain other important physical properties. We demonstrate the application of the tools of stellar seismology to white dwarf evolution using the hot white dwarf star PG 1159-035 and the cool DAV (or ZZ Ceti) stars as examples. From pulsation studies, significant challenges to the theory of white dwarf evolution emerge. 44 refs

  18. The outer disks of early-type galaxies. I. Surface-brightness profiles of barred galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erwin, Peter; Pohlen, Michael; Beckman, John E.

    We present a study of 66 barred, early-type (S0-Sb) disk galaxies, focused on the disk surface brightness profile outside the bar region, with the aim of throwing light on the nature of Freeman type I and II profiles, their origins, and their possible relation to disk truncations. This paper

  19. White Dwarfs in Cataclysmic Variable Stars: Surface Temperatures and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Sion

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A summary is presented of what is currently known about the surface temperatures of accreting white dwarfs (WDs detected in non-magnetic and magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs based upon synthetic spectral analyses of far ultraviolet data. A special focus is placed on WD temperatures above and below the CV period gap as a function of the orbital period, Porb. The principal uncertainty of the temperatures for the CV WDs in the Teff - Porb distribution, besides the distance to the CV, is the mass of the WD. Only in eclipsing CV systems, an area of eclipsing binary studies, which was so central to Robert H. Koch’s career, is it possible to know CV WD masses with high precision.

  20. Star Formation in Dwarf-Dwarf Mergers: Fueling Hierarchical Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stierwalt, Sabrina; Johnson, K. E.; Kallivayalil, N.; Patton, D. R.; Putman, M. E.; Besla, G.; Geha, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    We present early results from the first systematic study a sample of isolated interacting dwarf pairs and the mechanisms governing their star formation. Low mass dwarf galaxies are ubiquitous in the local universe, yet the efficiency of gas removal and the enhancement of star formation in dwarfs via pre-processing (i.e. dwarf-dwarf interactions occurring before the accretion by a massive host) are currently unconstrained. Studies of Local Group dwarfs credit stochastic internal processes for their complicated star formation histories, but a few intriguing examples suggest interactions among dwarfs may produce enhanced star formation. We combine archival UV imaging from GALEX with deep optical broad- and narrow-band (Halpha) imaging taken with the pre- One Degree Imager (pODI) on the WIYN 3.5-m telescope and with the 2.3-m Bok telescope at Steward Observatory to confirm the presence of stellar bridges and tidal tails and to determine whether dwarf-dwarf interactions alone can trigger significant levels of star formation. We investigate star formation rates and global galaxy colors as a function of dwarf pair separation (i.e. the dwarf merger sequence) and dwarf-dwarf mass ratio. This project is a precursor to an ongoing effort to obtain high spatial resolution HI imaging to assess the importance of sequential triggering caused by dwarf-dwarf interactions and the subsequent affect on the more massive hosts that later accrete the low mass systems.

  1. LOW CO LUMINOSITIES IN DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schruba, Andreas; Walter, Fabian; Sandstrom, Karin; Leroy, Adam K.; Bigiel, Frank; Brinks, Elias; De Blok, W. J. G.; Kramer, Carsten; Rosolowsky, Erik; Schuster, Karl; Usero, Antonio; Weiss, Axel; Wiesemeyer, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    We present maps of 12 COJ = 2-1 emission covering the entire star-forming disks of 16 nearby dwarf galaxies observed by the IRAM HERACLES survey. The data have 13'' angular resolution, ∼250 pc at our average distance of D = 4 Mpc, and sample the galaxies by 10-1000 resolution elements. We apply stacking techniques to perform the first sensitive search for CO emission in dwarf galaxies outside the Local Group ranging from individual lines of sight, stacking over IR-bright regions of embedded star formation, and stacking over the entire galaxy. We detect five galaxies in CO with total CO luminosities of L CO2-1 = (3-28) × 10 6 K km s –1 pc 2 . The other 11 galaxies remain undetected in CO even in the stacked images and have L CO2-1 ∼ 6 K km s –1 pc 2 . We combine our sample of dwarf galaxies with a large sample of spiral galaxies from the literature to study scaling relations of L CO with M B and metallicity. We find that dwarf galaxies with metallicities of Z ≈ 1/2-1/10 Z ☉ have L CO of 2-4 orders of magnitude smaller than massive spiral galaxies and that their L CO per unit L B is 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller. A comparison with tracers of star formation (FUV and 24 μm) shows that L CO per unit star formation rate (SFR) is 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller in dwarf galaxies. One possible interpretation is that dwarf galaxies form stars much more efficiently: we argue that the low L CO /SFR ratio is due to the fact that the CO-to-H 2 conversion factor, α CO , changes significantly in low-metallicity environments. Assuming that a constant H 2 depletion time of τ dep = 1.8 Gyr holds in dwarf galaxies (as found for a large sample of nearby spirals) implies α CO values for dwarf galaxies with Z ≈ 1/2-1/10 Z ☉ that are more than one order of magnitude higher than those found in solar metallicity spiral galaxies. Such a significant increase of α CO at low metallicity is consistent with previous studies, in particular those of Local Group dwarf

  2. Kinetic Effect on the Freezing of Ammonium-Sodium-Carbonate-Chloride Brines and Implications for Origin of Ceres' Bright Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodyss, R. P.; Thomas, E. C.; Vu, T. H.; Johnson, P. V.; Choukroun, M.

    2017-12-01

    Subsurface brines on Ceres containing natrite (Na2CO3) and smaller amounts of NH4Cl or NH4HCO3 have been proposed to reach the dwarf planet's surface from an internal reservoir, where the brines freeze and result in bright spots across Ceres. Kinetically frozen solutions containing the likely constituents of Ceres' subsurface brines (ammonium, sodium, carbonate, and chloride ions) were studied via infrared and micro-Raman spectroscopy, where the flash-frozen mixtures were found to preferentially form ammonium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate, even in sodium-dominated solutions. Additionally, sodium chloride only formed when sodium or chloride (or both) were present in excess in the brine solutions. Raman spectroscopy was further employed to analyze the effect of vacuum exposure on these frozen brines over longer periods of time to simulate the surface conditions of Ceres.

  3. The Ultraviolet Radiation Environment around M Dwarf Exoplanet Host Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; Froning, Cynthia S.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Roberge, Aki; Stocke, John T.; Tian, Feng; Bushinsky, Rachel; Desert, Jean-Michel; Mauas, Pablo; Mauas, Pablo; hide

    2013-01-01

    The spectral and temporal behavior of exoplanet host stars is a critical input to models of the chemistry and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Ultraviolet photons influence the atmospheric temperature profiles and production of potential biomarkers on Earth-like planets around these stars. At present, little observational or theoretical basis exists for understanding the ultraviolet spectra of M dwarfs, despite their critical importance to predicting and interpreting the spectra of potentially habitable planets as they are obtained in the coming decades. Using observations from the Hubble Space Telescope, we present a study of the UV radiation fields around nearby M dwarf planet hosts that covers both far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) wavelengths. The combined FUV+NUV spectra are publicly available in machine-readable format. We find that all six exoplanet host stars in our sample (GJ 581, GJ 876, GJ 436, GJ 832, GJ 667C, and GJ 1214) exhibit some level of chromospheric and transition region UV emission. No "UV-quiet" M dwarfs are observed. The bright stellar Lyman-alpha emission lines are reconstructed, and we find that the Lyman-alpha line fluxes comprise approximately 37%-75% of the total 1150-3100 A flux from most M dwarfs; approximately greater than 10(exp3) times the solar value. We develop an empirical scaling relation between Lyman-alpha and Mg II emission, to be used when interstellar H I attenuation precludes the direct observation of Lyman-alpha. The intrinsic unreddened flux ratio is F(Lyman-alpha)/F(Mg II) = 10(exp3). The F(FUV)/F(NUV) flux ratio, a driver for abiotic production of the suggested biomarkers O2 and O3, is shown to be approximately 0.5-3 for all M dwarfs in our sample, greather than 10(exp3) times the solar ratio. For the four stars with moderate signal-to-noise Cosmic Origins Spectrograph time-resolved spectra, we find UV emission line variability with amplitudes of 50%.500% on 10(exp2)-10(exp3) s timescales. This effect should be taken

  4. THE ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION ENVIRONMENT AROUND M DWARF EXOPLANET HOST STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    France, Kevin; Froning, Cynthia S.; Stocke, John T.; Bushinsky, Rachel [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Linsky, Jeffrey L. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Roberge, Aki [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Tian, Feng [Center for Earth System Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Desert, Jean-Michel [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mauas, Pablo; Vieytes, Mariela [Instituto de Astronomsica del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), C.C. 67 Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Walkowicz, Lucianne M., E-mail: kevin.france@colorado.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    The spectral and temporal behavior of exoplanet host stars is a critical input to models of the chemistry and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Ultraviolet photons influence the atmospheric temperature profiles and production of potential biomarkers on Earth-like planets around these stars. At present, little observational or theoretical basis exists for understanding the ultraviolet spectra of M dwarfs, despite their critical importance to predicting and interpreting the spectra of potentially habitable planets as they are obtained in the coming decades. Using observations from the Hubble Space Telescope, we present a study of the UV radiation fields around nearby M dwarf planet hosts that covers both far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) wavelengths. The combined FUV+NUV spectra are publicly available in machine-readable format. We find that all six exoplanet host stars in our sample (GJ 581, GJ 876, GJ 436, GJ 832, GJ 667C, and GJ 1214) exhibit some level of chromospheric and transition region UV emission. No 'UV-quiet' M dwarfs are observed. The bright stellar Ly{alpha} emission lines are reconstructed, and we find that the Ly{alpha} line fluxes comprise {approx}37%-75% of the total 1150-3100 A flux from most M dwarfs; {approx}>10{sup 3} times the solar value. We develop an empirical scaling relation between Ly{alpha} and Mg II emission, to be used when interstellar H I attenuation precludes the direct observation of Ly{alpha}. The intrinsic unreddened flux ratio is F(Ly{alpha})/F(Mg II) = 10 {+-} 3. The F(FUV)/F(NUV) flux ratio, a driver for abiotic production of the suggested biomarkers O{sub 2} and O{sub 3}, is shown to be {approx}0.5-3 for all M dwarfs in our sample, >10{sup 3} times the solar ratio. For the four stars with moderate signal-to-noise Cosmic Origins Spectrograph time-resolved spectra, we find UV emission line variability with amplitudes of 50%-500% on 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} s timescales. This effect should be taken into account in future UV

  5. High-dispersion observations of H-alpha in the suspected brown dwarf, white dwarf binary system G29-38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebert, J.; Saffer, R.A.; Pilachowski, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    High-dispersion spectroscopy of the H-alpha absorption line of the cool DA white dwarf G29-38 is reported. This is the star for which a recently detected IR excess has been suggested to be due to a possible brown dwarf companion. Three echelle spectra show no evidence for radial-velocity variations larger than about 1.1 + or - 8.7 km/s and are used to derive a weighted heliocentric radial velocity of 33.7 + or - 4.3 kms/s for the white dwarf. The observations of a sharp absorption-line core restricts the possible rotation of the white dwarf to 40 km/s or less and ensures that any surface magnetic field has a strength of 100,000 G or less. These results make it unlikely that the DA white dwarf has previously been in a cataclysmic variable accretion phase. 18 references

  6. THE ACS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY. VII. THE NGC 4214 STARBURST AND THE EFFECTS OF STAR FORMATION HISTORY ON DWARF MORPHOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Seth, Anil C.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 optical observations obtained as part of the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury as well as early release Wide Field Camera 3 ultraviolet and infrared observations of the nearby dwarf starbursting galaxy NGC 4214. Our data provide a detailed example of how covering such a broad range in wavelength provides a powerful tool for constraining the physical properties of stellar populations. The deepest data reach the ancient red clump at M F814W ∼ - 0.2. All of the optical data reach the main-sequence turnoff for stars younger than ∼300 Myr and the blue He-burning sequence for stars younger than 500 Myr. The full color-magnitude diagram (CMD) fitting analysis shows that all three fields in our data set are consistent with ∼75% of the stellar mass being older than 8 Gyr, in spite of showing a wide range in star formation rates at present. Thus, our results suggest that the scale length of NGC 4214 has remained relatively constant for many gigayears. As previously noted by others, we also find the galaxy has recently ramped up production consistent with its bright UV luminosity and its population of UV-bright massive stars. In the central field we find UV point sources with F336W magnitudes as bright as -9.9. These are as bright as stars with masses of at least 52-56 M sun and ages near 4 Myr in stellar evolution models. Assuming a standard initial mass function, our CMD is well fitted by an increase in star formation rate beginning 100 Myr ago. The stellar populations of this late-type dwarf are compared with those of NGC 404, an early-type dwarf that is also the most massive galaxy in its local environment. The late-type dwarf appears to have a similar high fraction of ancient stars, suggesting that these dominant galaxies may form at early epochs even if they have low total mass and very different present-day morphologies.

  7. Identification of faint central stars in extended, low-surface-brightness planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwitter, K.B.; Lydon, T.J.; Jacoby, G.H.

    1988-01-01

    As part of a larger program to study the properties of planetary nebula central stars, a search for faint central stars in extended, low-surface-brightness planetary nebulae using CCD imaging is performed. Of 25 target nebulae, central star candidates have been identified in 17, with certainties ranging from extremely probable to possible. Observed V values in the central star candidates extend to fainter than 23 mag. The identifications are presented along with the resulting photometric measurements. 24 references

  8. Simulated X-ray galaxy clusters at the virial radius: Slopes of the gas density, temperature and surface brightness profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncarelli, M.; Ettori, S.; Dolag, K.; Moscardini, L.; Borgani, S.; Murante, G.

    2006-12-01

    Using a set of hydrodynamical simulations of nine galaxy clusters with masses in the range 1.5 × 1014 matter of tension between simulated and observed properties, and up to the virial radius and beyond, where present observations are unable to provide any constraints. We have modelled the radial profiles between 0.3R200 and 3R200 with power laws with one index, two indexes and a rolling index. The simulated temperature and [0.5-2] keV surface brightness profiles well reproduce the observed behaviours outside the core. The shape of all these profiles in the radial range considered depends mainly on the activity of the gravitational collapse, with no significant difference among models including extraphysics. The profiles steepen in the outskirts, with the slope of the power-law fit that changes from -2.5 to -3.4 in the gas density, from -0.5 to -1.8 in the gas temperature and from -3.5 to -5.0 in the X-ray soft surface brightness. We predict that the gas density, temperature and [0.5-2] keV surface brightness values at R200 are, on average, 0.05, 0.60, 0.008 times the measured values at 0.3R200. At 2R200, these values decrease by an order of magnitude in the gas density and surface brightness, by a factor of 2 in the temperature, putting stringent limits on the detectable properties of the intracluster-medium (ICM) in the virial regions.

  9. Error sources in the retrieval of aerosol information over bright surfaces from satellite measurements in the oxygen A band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Swadhin; de Graaf, Martin; Sneep, Maarten; de Haan, Johan F.; Stammes, Piet; Sanders, Abram F. J.; Tuinder, Olaf; Pepijn Veefkind, J.; Levelt, Pieternel F.

    2018-01-01

    Retrieving aerosol optical thickness and aerosol layer height over a bright surface from measured top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectrum in the oxygen A band is known to be challenging, often resulting in large errors. In certain atmospheric conditions and viewing geometries, a loss of sensitivity to aerosol optical thickness has been reported in the literature. This loss of sensitivity has been attributed to a phenomenon known as critical surface albedo regime, which is a range of surface albedos for which the top-of-atmosphere reflectance has minimal sensitivity to aerosol optical thickness. This paper extends the concept of critical surface albedo for aerosol layer height retrievals in the oxygen A band, and discusses its implications. The underlying physics are introduced by analysing the top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectrum as a sum of atmospheric path contribution and surface contribution, obtained using a radiative transfer model. Furthermore, error analysis of an aerosol layer height retrieval algorithm is conducted over dark and bright surfaces to show the dependence on surface reflectance. The analysis shows that the derivative with respect to aerosol layer height of the atmospheric path contribution to the top-of-atmosphere reflectance is opposite in sign to that of the surface contribution - an increase in surface brightness results in a decrease in information content. In the case of aerosol optical thickness, these derivatives are anti-correlated, leading to large retrieval errors in high surface albedo regimes. The consequence of this anti-correlation is demonstrated with measured spectra in the oxygen A band from the GOME-2 instrument on board the Metop-A satellite over the 2010 Russian wildfires incident.

  10. RED DWARF DYNAMO RAISES PUZZLE OVER INTERIORS OF LOWEST-MASS STARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    -years away in the constellation Aquila. Gliese 752A is a red dwarf that is one-third the mass of the Sun and slightly more than half its diameter. By contrast, VB10 is physically smaller than the planet Jupiter and only about nine percent the mass of our Sun. This very faint star is near the threshold of the lowest possible mass for a true star (.08 solar masses), below which nuclear fusion processes cannot take place according to current models. A team led by Linsky used Hubble's Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) to make a one-hour long exposure of VB10 on October 12, 1994. No detectable ultraviolet emission was seen until the last five minutes, when bright emission was detected in a flare. Though the star's normal surface temperature is 4,500 degrees Fahrenheit, Hubble's GHRS detected a sudden burst of 270,000 degrees Fahrenheit in the star's outer atmosphere. Linsky attributes this rapid heating to the presence of an intense, but unstable, magnetic field. THE INTERIOR WORKINGS OF A STELLAR DYNAMO Before the Hubble observation, astronomers thought magnetic fields in stars required the same dynamo process which creates magnetic fields on the Sun. In the classic solar model, heat generated by nuclear fusion reactions at the star's center escapes through a radiative zone just outside the core. The heat travels from the radiative core to the star's surface through a convection zone. In this region, heat bubbles to the surface by motions similar to boiling in a pot of water. Dynamos, which accelerate electrons to create magnetic forces, operate when the interior of a star rotates faster than the surface. Recent studies of the Sun indicate its convective zone rotates at nearly the same rate at all depths. This means the solar dynamo must operate in the more rapidly rotating radiative core just below the convective zone. The puzzle is that stars below 20 percent the mass of our Sun do not have radiative cores, but instead transport heat from their core through

  11. Pulsations in carbon-atmosphere white dwarfs: A new chapter in white dwarf asteroseismology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, G; Brassard, P; Dufour, P; Green, E M; Liebert, J

    2009-01-01

    We present some of the results of a survey aimed at exploring the asteroseismological potential of the newly-discovered carbon-atmosphere white dwarfs. We show that, in certains regions of parameter space, carbon-atmosphere white dwarfs may drive low-order gravity modes. We demonstrate that our theoretical results are consistent with the recent exciting discovery of luminosity variations in SDSS J1426+5752 and some null results obtained by a team of scientists at McDonald Observatory. We also present follow-up photometric observations carried out by ourselves at the Mount Bigelow 1.6-m telescope using the new Mont4K camera. The results of follow-up spectroscopic observations at the MMT are also briefly reported, including the surprising discovery that SDSS J1426+5752 is not only a pulsating star but that it is also a magnetic white dwarf with a surface field near 1.2 MG. The discovery of g-mode pulsations in SDSS J1426+5752 is quite significant in itself as it opens a fourth asteroseismological 'window', after the GW Vir, V777 Her, and ZZ Ceti families, through which one may study white dwarfs.

  12. Unperturbed moderator brightness in pulsed neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batkov, K.; Takibayev, A.; Zanini, L.; Mezei, F.

    2013-01-01

    The unperturbed neutron brightness of a moderator can be defined from the number of neutrons leaving the surface of a moderator completely surrounded by a reflector. Without openings for beam extraction, it is the maximum brightness that can be theoretically achieved in a moderator. The unperturbed brightness of a cylindrical cold moderator filled with pure para-H 2 was calculated using MCNPX; the moderator dimensions were optimised, for a fixed target and reflector geometry corresponding to the present concept for the ESS spallation source. This quantity does not depend on openings for beam extraction and therefore can be used for a first-round optimisation of a moderator, before effects due to beam openings are considered. We find that such an optimisation yields to a factor of 2 increase with respect to a conventional volume moderator, large enough to accommodate a viewed surface of 12×12 cm 2 : the unperturbed neutron brightness is maximum for a disc-shaped moderator of 15 cm diameter, 1.4 cm height. The reasons for this increase can be related to the properties of the scattering cross-section of para-H 2 , to the added reflector around the exit surface in the case of a compact moderator, and to a directionality effect. This large optimisation gain in the unperturbed brightness hints towards similar potentials for the perturbed neutron brightness, in particular in conjunction with advancing the optical quality of neutron delivery from the moderator to the sample, where by Liouville theorem the brightness is conserved over the beam trajectory, except for absorption and similar type losses

  13. Infrared Colors of Dwarf-Dwarf Galaxy Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Sandra; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Johnson, Kelsey; Patton, Dave; Kallivayalil, Nitya

    2015-10-01

    We request Spitzer Warm Mission IRAC Channel 1 & 2 imaging for a sample of 60 isolated dwarf galaxy pairs as a key component of a larger, multi-wavelength effort to understand the role low-mass mergers play in galaxy evolution. A systematic study of dwarf-dwarf mergers has never been done, and we wish to characterize the impact such interactions have on fueling star formation in the nearby universe. The Spitzer imaging proposed here will allow us to determine the extent to which the 3.6 and 4.5 mum bands are dominated by stellar light and investigate a) the extent to which interacting pairs show IR excess and b) whether the excess is related to the pair separation. Second, we will use this IR photometry to constrain the processes contributing to the observed color excess and scatter in each system. We will take advantage of the wealth of observations available in the Spitzer Heritage Archive for 'normal' non-interacting dwarfs by comparing the stellar populations of those dwarfs with the likely interacting dwarfs in our sample. Ultimately, we can combine the Spitzer imaging proposed here with our current, ongoing efforts to obtain groundbased optical photometry to model the star formation histories of these dwarfs and to help constrain the timescales and impact dwarf-dwarf mergers have on fueling star formation. The sensitivity and resolution offered by Spitzer are necessary to determine the dust properties of these interacting systems, and how these properties vary as a function of pair separation, mass ratio, and gas fraction.

  14. Topics in white dwarf astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintzen, P.M.N.

    1975-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the apparent deficiency, compared to theoretical predictions, of cool degenerate stars. Two approaches to the problem were employed: a spectroscopic survey designed to identify red degenerates, and a model atmospheres study of the spectroscopic and photometric differences between red dwarfs and red degenerate stars. On computed atmospheric models for white dwarfs at the temperatures under investigation. Line profiles obtained from these models indicate that degenerate stars with T/sub e/ approximately 6000 0 K and depleted surface metals would be extremely difficult to identify spectroscopically. Their hydrogen and calcium line profiles would strongly resemble those of classical sub-dwarfs. Three apparently degenerate stars whose spectral features match our predictions have been identified. These results indicate that the existence of the previously postulated deficiency of red degenerate stars is uncertain

  15. Satellite dwarf galaxies in a hierarchical universe: the prevalence of dwarf-dwarf major mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deason, Alis; Wetzel, Andrew; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea

    2014-01-01

    Mergers are a common phenomenon in hierarchical structure formation, especially for massive galaxies and clusters, but their importance for dwarf galaxies in the Local Group remains poorly understood. We investigate the frequency of major mergers between dwarf galaxies in the Local Group using the ELVIS suite of cosmological zoom-in dissipationless simulations of Milky Way- and M31-like host halos. We find that ∼10% of satellite dwarf galaxies with M star > 10 6 M ☉ that are within the host virial radius experienced a major merger of stellar mass ratio closer than 0.1 since z = 1, with a lower fraction for lower mass dwarf galaxies. Recent merger remnants are biased toward larger radial distance and more recent virial infall times, because most recent mergers occurred shortly before crossing within the virial radius of the host halo. Satellite-satellite mergers also occur within the host halo after virial infall, catalyzed by the large fraction of dwarf galaxies that fell in as part of a group. The merger fraction doubles for dwarf galaxies outside of the host virial radius, so the most distant dwarf galaxies in the Local Group are the most likely to have experienced a recent major merger. We discuss the implications of these results on observable dwarf merger remnants, their star formation histories, the gas content of mergers, and massive black holes in dwarf galaxies.

  16. A Bright Short Period M-M Eclipsing Binary from the KELT Survey: Magnetic Activity and the Mass-Radius Relationship for M Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Jack B.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Zhou, George; Conroy, Kyle E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Collins, Karen; Stevens, Daniel J.; Labadie-Bartz, Jonathan; Stockdale, Christopher; Myers, Gordon; Colón, Knicole D.; Bento, Joao; Kehusmaa, Petri; Petrucci, Romina; Jofré, Emiliano; Quinn, Samuel N.; Lund, Michael B.; Kuhn, Rudolf B.; Siverd, Robert J.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Harlingten, Caisey; Pepper, Joshua; Gaudi, B. Scott; James, David; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Reichart, Daniel; Kedziora-Chudczer, Lucyna; Bailey, Jeremy; Melville, Graeme

    2017-08-01

    We report the discovery of KELT J041621-620046, a moderately bright (J ˜ 10.2) M-dwarf eclipsing binary system at a distance of 39 ± 3 pc. KELT J041621-620046 was first identified as an eclipsing binary using observations from the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) survey. The system has a short orbital period of ˜1.11 days and consists of components with {M}1={0.447}+0.052-0.047 {M}⊙ and {M}2={0.399}+0.046-0.042 {M}⊙ in nearly circular orbits. The radii of the two stars are {R}1={0.540}+0.034-0.032 {R}⊙ and {\\text{}}{R}2=0.453+/- 0.017 {R}⊙ . Full system and orbital properties were determined (to ˜10% error) by conducting an EBOP (Eclipsing Binary Orbit Program) global modeling of the high precision photometric and spectroscopic observations obtained by the KELT Follow-up Network. Each star is larger by 17%-28% and cooler by 4%-10% than predicted by standard (non-magnetic) stellar models. Strong Hα emission indicates chromospheric activity in both stars. The observed radii and temperature discrepancies for both components are more consistent with those predicted by empirical relations that account for convective suppression due to magnetic activity.

  17. The habitability of planets orbiting M-dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Aomawa L.; Ballard, Sarah; Johnson, John Asher

    2016-12-01

    The prospects for the habitability of M-dwarf planets have long been debated, due to key differences between the unique stellar and planetary environments around these low-mass stars, as compared to hotter, more luminous Sun-like stars. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made by both space- and ground-based observatories to measure the likelihood of small planets to orbit in the habitable zones of M-dwarf stars. We now know that most M dwarfs are hosts to closely-packed planetary systems characterized by a paucity of Jupiter-mass planets and the presence of multiple rocky planets, with roughly a third of these rocky M-dwarf planets orbiting within the habitable zone, where they have the potential to support liquid water on their surfaces. Theoretical studies have also quantified the effect on climate and habitability of the interaction between the spectral energy distribution of M-dwarf stars and the atmospheres and surfaces of their planets. These and other recent results fill in knowledge gaps that existed at the time of the previous overview papers published nearly a decade ago by Tarter et al. (2007) and Scalo et al. (2007). In this review we provide a comprehensive picture of the current knowledge of M-dwarf planet occurrence and habitability based on work done in this area over the past decade, and summarize future directions planned in this quickly evolving field.

  18. Extinction in the Galaxy from surface brightnesses of ESO-LV galaxies : Testing "standard" extinction maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choloniewski, J.; Valentijn, E. A.

    A new method for the determination of the extinction in the Galaxy is proposed. The method uses surface brightnesses of external galaxies in the B and R-bands. The observational data have been taken from the ESO-LV galaxy catalog. As a first application of our model we derive the ratio of R-band to

  19. Satellite dwarf galaxies in a hierarchical universe: the prevalence of dwarf-dwarf major mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, Alis [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Wetzel, Andrew [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Garrison-Kimmel, Shea, E-mail: alis@ucolick.org [Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2014-10-20

    Mergers are a common phenomenon in hierarchical structure formation, especially for massive galaxies and clusters, but their importance for dwarf galaxies in the Local Group remains poorly understood. We investigate the frequency of major mergers between dwarf galaxies in the Local Group using the ELVIS suite of cosmological zoom-in dissipationless simulations of Milky Way- and M31-like host halos. We find that ∼10% of satellite dwarf galaxies with M {sub star} > 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} that are within the host virial radius experienced a major merger of stellar mass ratio closer than 0.1 since z = 1, with a lower fraction for lower mass dwarf galaxies. Recent merger remnants are biased toward larger radial distance and more recent virial infall times, because most recent mergers occurred shortly before crossing within the virial radius of the host halo. Satellite-satellite mergers also occur within the host halo after virial infall, catalyzed by the large fraction of dwarf galaxies that fell in as part of a group. The merger fraction doubles for dwarf galaxies outside of the host virial radius, so the most distant dwarf galaxies in the Local Group are the most likely to have experienced a recent major merger. We discuss the implications of these results on observable dwarf merger remnants, their star formation histories, the gas content of mergers, and massive black holes in dwarf galaxies.

  20. What does an erupting nova do to its red dwarf companion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovetz, A.; Prialnik, D.; Shara, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    During nova eruptions and for decades afterward, the red dwards in cataclysmic binaries are irradiated with hundreds of times more luminosity than they themselves produce. Simulations of the time-dependent irradiation of three red dwarf models (0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 solar mass) are presented. The mass transfer rates forced by irradiation after nova eruption are found to be enhanced by two orders of magnitude because of the irradiation. The time scale for irradiation to become unimportant is that of the white dwarf cooling time scale, a few centuries. These two results support the hibernation scenario of novae, which suggests that novae remain bright for a few centuries after eruption because of irradiation-induced mass transfer. After irradiation decreases mass transfer slows, and some very old novae may then become extremely faint. 26 references

  1. THE FORNAX DWARF GALAXY AS A REMNANT OF RECENT DWARF-DWARF MERGING IN THE LOCAL GROUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yozin, C.; Bekki, K.

    2012-01-01

    We present results from the first numerical analysis to support the hypothesis, first proposed in Coleman et al., that the Fornax dwarf galaxy was formed from the minor merging of two dwarfs about 2 Gyr ago. Using orbits for the Fornax dwarf that are consistent with the latest proper motion measurements, our dynamical evolution models show that the observed asymmetric shell-like substructures can be formed from the remnant of a smaller dwarf during minor merging. These models also predict the formation of diffuse stellar streams. We discuss how these stellar substructures depend on model parameters of dwarf-dwarf merging, and how the intermediate-age subpopulations found in the vicinity of these substructures may be formed from gas accretion in past merger events. We also suggest that one of Fornax's globular clusters originates from a merged dwarf companion, and demonstrate where as yet undetected tidal streams or H I gas formed from the dwarf merging may be found in the outer halo of the Galaxy.

  2. A MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF THE HIGH SURFACE BRIGHTNESS HOT SPOT IN PKS 1421-490

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, L. E. H.; Bicknell, G. V.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Jauncey, D. L.; Gelbord, J.; Schwartz, D. A.; Birkinshaw, M.; Worrall, D. M.; Marshall, H. L.; Georganopoulos, M.; Perlman, E. S.; Murphy, D. W.

    2009-01-01

    Long Baseline Array imaging of the z = 0.663 broadline radio galaxy PKS 1421-490 reveals a 400 pc diameter high surface brightness hot spot at a projected distance of ∼40 kpc from the active galactic nucleus. The isotropic X-ray luminosity of the hot spot, L 2-10keV = 3 x 10 44 ergs s -1 , is comparable to the isotropic X-ray luminosity of the entire X-ray jet of PKS 0637-752, and the peak radio surface brightness is hundreds of times greater than that of the brightest hot spot in Cygnus A. We model the radio to X-ray spectral energy distribution using a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model with a near equipartition magnetic field strength of 3 mG. There is a strong brightness asymmetry between the approaching and receding hotspots and the hot spot spectrum remains flat (α ∼ 0.5) well beyond the predicted cooling break for a 3 mG magnetic field, indicating that the hotspot emission may be Doppler beamed. A high plasma velocity beyond the terminal jet shock could be the result of a dynamically important magnetic field in the jet. There is a change in the slope of the hotspot radio spectrum at GHz frequencies, which we model by incorporating a cutoff in the electron energy distribution at γ min ∼ 650, with higher values implied if the hotspot emission is Doppler beamed. We show that a sharp decrease in the electron number density below a Lorentz factor of 650 would arise from the dissipation of bulk kinetic energy in an electron/proton jet with a Lorentz factor Γ jet ∼> 5.

  3. Globular clusters in high-redshift dwarf galaxies: a case study from the Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zick, Tom O.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael

    2018-06-01

    We present the reconstructed evolution of rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosities of the most massive Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxy, Fornax, and its five globular clusters (GCs) across redshift, based on analysis of the stellar fossil record and stellar population synthesis modelling. We find that (1) Fornax's (proto-)GCs can generate 10-100 times more UV flux than the field population, despite comprising 3. (3) GC formation can introduce order-of-magnitude errors in abundance matching. We also find that some compact HFF objects are consistent with the reconstructed properties of Fornax's GCs at the same redshifts (e.g. surface brightness, star formation rate), suggesting we may have already detected proto-GCs in the early Universe. Finally, we discuss the prospects for improving the connections between local GCs and proto-GCs detected in the early Universe.

  4. A DARK SPOT ON A MASSIVE WHITE DWARF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, Alexandros; Curd, Brandon; Wisniewski, John P. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Bell, Keaton J.; Winget, D. E.; Winget, K. I. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Brown, Warren R. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hermes, J. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Dufour, Patrick [Institut de recherche sur les exoplanétes (iREx), Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2015-12-01

    We present the serendipitous discovery of eclipse-like events around the massive white dwarf SDSS J152934.98+292801.9 (hereafter J1529+2928). We selected J1529+2928 for time-series photometry based on its spectroscopic temperature and surface gravity, which place it near the ZZ Ceti instability strip. Instead of pulsations, we detect photometric dips from this white dwarf every 38 minutes. Follow-up optical spectroscopy observations with Gemini reveal no significant radial velocity variations, ruling out stellar and brown dwarf companions. A disintegrating planet around this white dwarf cannot explain the observed light curves in different filters. Given the short period, the source of the photometric dips must be a dark spot that comes into view every 38 minutes due to the rotation of the white dwarf. Our optical spectroscopy does not show any evidence of Zeeman splitting of the Balmer lines, limiting the magnetic field strength to B < 70 kG. Since up to 15% of white dwarfs display kG magnetic fields, such eclipse-like events should be common around white dwarfs. We discuss the potential implications of this discovery on transient surveys targeting white dwarfs, like the K2 mission and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  5. FOUR NEW T DWARFS IDENTIFIED IN Pan-STARRS 1 COMMISSIONING DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deacon, Niall R.; Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Kaiser, N.; Morgan, J. S.; Sweeney, W. E.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.; Goldman, Bertrand; Redstone, Joshua A.; Lupton, R. H.; Price, P. A.

    2011-01-01

    A complete well-defined sample of ultracool dwarfs is one of the key science programs of the Pan-STARRS 1 optical survey telescope (PS1). Here we combine PS1 commissioning data with the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) to conduct a proper motion search (0.''1-2.''0 yr -1 ) for nearby T dwarfs, using optical+near-IR colors to select objects for spectroscopic follow-up. The addition of sensitive far-red optical imaging from PS1 enables discovery of nearby ultracool dwarfs that cannot be identified from 2MASS data alone. We have searched 3700 deg 2 of PS1 y-band (0.95-1.03 μm) data to y ∼ 19.5 mag (AB) and J ∼ 16.5 mag (Vega) and discovered four previously unknown bright T dwarfs. Three of the objects (with spectral types T1.5, T2, and T3.5) have photometric distances within 25 pc and were missed by previous 2MASS searches due to more restrictive color selection criteria. The fourth object (spectral type T4.5) is more distant than 25 pc and is only a single-band detection in 2MASS. We also examine the potential for completing the census of nearby ultracool objects with the PS1 3π survey.

  6. Edge integration and the perception of brightness and darkness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vladusich, T.; Lucassen, M.P.; Cornelissen, F.W.

    2006-01-01

    How do induced brightness and darkness signals from local and remote surfaces interact to determine the final achromatic color percept of a target surface? An emerging theory of achromatic color perception posits that brightness and darkness percepts are computed by weighting and summing the

  7. The Brown Dwarf Kinematics Project (BDKP. III. Parallaxes for 70 Ultracool Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-10

    a low surface gravity dwarf, Cal is a calibrator ultracool dwarf, SD is an ultracool subdwarf, B is a tight binary unresolved in 2MASS . d F indicates...procedure described in Vrba et al. (2004), we obtained 2MASS photometry for all reference stars. We com- pared with the intrinsic colors described in...140.5 ± 5.8 38.44 ± 2.83 −1191.00 ± 13.00 −115.00 ± 13.00 A 1 2MASS J0746+2000 86.2 ± 4.6 −355.9 ± 5.1 −63.7 ± 5.2 81.90 ± 0.30 −374.04 ± 0.31 −57.91

  8. Calibrating the Type Ia Supernova Distance Scale Using Surface Brightness Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Cicely; Jensen, Joseph B.; Blakeslee, John; Milne, Peter; Garnavich, Peter M.; Brown, Peter

    2018-06-01

    We have observed 20 supernova host galaxies with HST WFC3/IR in the F110W filter, and prepared the data for Surface Brightness Fluctuation (SBF) distance measurements. The purpose of this study is to determine if there are any discrepancies between the SBF distance scale and the type-Ia SN distance scale, for which local calibrators are scarce. We have now measured SBF magnitudes to all early-type galaxies that have hosted SN Ia within 80 Mpc for which SBF measurements are possible. SBF is the only distance measurement technique with statistical uncertainties comparable to SN Ia that can be applied to galaxies out to 80 Mpc.

  9. Ages of white dwarf-red subdwarf systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hektor Monteiro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide the first age estimates for two recently discovered white dwarf-red subdwarf systems, LHS 193AB and LHS 300AB. These systems provide a new opportunity for linking the reliable age estimates for the white dwarfs to the (measurable metallicities of the red subdwarfs. We have obtained precise photometry in the VJRKCIKCJH bands and spectroscopy covering from 6,000°A to 9,000°A (our spectral coveragefor the two new systems, as well as for a comparison white dwarfmain sequence red dwarf system, GJ 283 AB. Using model grids, we estimate the cooling age as well as temperature, surface gravity, mass, progenitor mass and total lifetimes of the white dwarfs. The results indicate that the two new systems are probably ancient thick disk objects with ages of at least 6-9 gigayears (Gyr.

  10. The white dwarf in dwarf nova SDSS J080434.20+510349.2: Entering the instability strip?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlenko, E, E-mail: pavlenko@crao.crimea.u [Crimean astrophysical observatory, Crimea 98409 (Ukraine)

    2009-06-01

    SDSS J080434.20+510349.2 is a WZ Sge type binary that displayed a rare outburst in 2006 (Pavlenko et al. 2007). During the long-lasting tail of the late stage of the outburst, the binary showed a two-humped or four-humped profile of the orbital light modulation. The amplitude of the orbital light curve decreased while the mean brightness decreased; moreover, that occurred approx 10 times faster during the fast outburst decline with respect to the late quiet state of slow outburst fading. There were no white dwarf pulsations detected in this system, neither 1 - 1.5 months prior to the outburst, nor in 1.5 - 2 months after the 2006 outburst. However, strong non-radial pulsations with period 12.6 minutes and a mean amplitude of 0.05m were first detected in the V band with the 2.6-m Shajn mirror telescope of the Crimean astrophysical observatory, approx 8 months after the outburst. The evolution of pulsations over two years, in 2006 - 2008, is considered. It is supposed that pulsations first appeared when the cooling white dwarf (after the outburst) entered the instability strip, although the possibility of temporary lack of pulsations at some occasions could not be excluded.

  11. Testing the white dwarf mass-radius relationship with eclipsing binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, S. G.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Marsh, T. R.; Ashley, R. P.; Bours, M. C. P.; Breedt, E.; Burleigh, M. R.; Copperwheat, C. M.; Dhillon, V. S.; Green, M.; Hardy, L. K.; Hermes, J. J.; Irawati, P.; Kerry, P.; Littlefair, S. P.; McAllister, M. J.; Rattanasoon, S.; Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Sahman, D. I.; Schreiber, M. R.

    2017-10-01

    We present high-precision, model-independent, mass and radius measurements for 16 white dwarfs in detached eclipsing binaries and combine these with previously published data to test the theoretical white dwarf mass-radius relationship. We reach a mean precision of 2.4 per cent in mass and 2.7 per cent in radius, with our best measurements reaching a precision of 0.3 per cent in mass and 0.5 per cent in radius. We find excellent agreement between the measured and predicted radii across a wide range of masses and temperatures. We also find the radii of all white dwarfs with masses less than 0.48 M⊙ to be fully consistent with helium core models, but they are on average 9 per cent larger than those of carbon-oxygen core models. In contrast, white dwarfs with masses larger than 0.52 M⊙ all have radii consistent with carbon-oxygen core models. Moreover, we find that all but one of the white dwarfs in our sample have radii consistent with possessing thick surface hydrogen envelopes (10-5 ≥ MH/MWD ≥ 10-4), implying that the surface hydrogen layers of these white dwarfs are not obviously affected by common envelope evolution.

  12. Brightness masking is modulated by disparity structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelekanos, Vassilis; Ban, Hiroshi; Welchman, Andrew E

    2015-05-01

    The luminance contrast at the borders of a surface strongly influences surface's apparent brightness, as demonstrated by a number of classic visual illusions. Such phenomena are compatible with a propagation mechanism believed to spread contrast information from borders to the interior. This process is disrupted by masking, where the perceived brightness of a target is reduced by the brief presentation of a mask (Paradiso & Nakayama, 1991), but the exact visual stage that this happens remains unclear. In the present study, we examined whether brightness masking occurs at a monocular-, or a binocular-level of the visual hierarchy. We used backward masking, whereby a briefly presented target stimulus is disrupted by a mask coming soon afterwards, to show that brightness masking is affected by binocular stages of the visual processing. We manipulated the 3-D configurations (slant direction) of the target and mask and measured the differential disruption that masking causes on brightness estimation. We found that the masking effect was weaker when stimuli had a different slant. We suggest that brightness masking is partly mediated by mid-level neuronal mechanisms, at a stage where binocular disparity edge structure has been extracted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. POX 52: A Dwarf Seyfert 1 Galaxy with an Intermediate-Mass Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Aaron J.; Ho, Luis C.; Rutledge, Robert E.; Sargent, Wallace L. W.

    2004-05-01

    We describe new optical images and spectra of POX 52, a dwarf galaxy with an active nucleus that was originally detected in the POX objective-prism survey. While POX 52 was originally thought to be a Seyfert 2 galaxy, the new data reveal an emission-line spectrum very similar to that of the dwarf Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4395, with broad components to the permitted line profiles, and we classify POX 52 as a Seyfert 1 galaxy. The host galaxy appears to be a dwarf elliptical, and its brightness profile is best fit by a Sérsic model with an index of 3.6+/-0.2 and a total magnitude of MV=-17.6. Applying mass-luminosity-line width scaling relations to estimate the black hole mass from the broad Hβ line width and nonstellar continuum luminosity, we find MBH~1.6×105Msolar. The stellar velocity dispersion in the host galaxy, measured from the Ca II λ8498, 8542 lines, is 36+/-5 km s-1, also suggestive of a black hole mass of order 105Msolar. Further searches for active nuclei in dwarf galaxies can provide unique constraints on the demographics of black holes in the mass range below 106Msolar.

  14. AN EMPIRICAL CALIBRATION TO ESTIMATE COOL DWARF FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS FROM H-BAND SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, Elisabeth R.; Charbonneau, David; Irwin, Jonathan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mann, Andrew W., E-mail: enewton@cfa.harvard.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2015-02-20

    Interferometric radius measurements provide a direct probe of the fundamental parameters of M dwarfs. However, interferometry is within reach for only a limited sample of nearby, bright stars. We use interferometrically measured radii, bolometric luminosities, and effective temperatures to develop new empirical calibrations based on low-resolution, near-infrared spectra. We find that H-band Mg and Al spectral features are good tracers of stellar properties, and derive functions that relate effective temperature, radius, and log luminosity to these features. The standard deviations in the residuals of our best fits are, respectively, 73 K, 0.027 R {sub ☉}, and 0.049 dex (an 11% error on luminosity). Our calibrations are valid from mid K to mid M dwarf stars, roughly corresponding to temperatures between 3100 and 4800 K. We apply our H-band relationships to M dwarfs targeted by the MEarth transiting planet survey and to the cool Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs). We present spectral measurements and estimated stellar parameters for these stars. Parallaxes are also available for many of the MEarth targets, allowing us to independently validate our calibrations by demonstrating a clear relationship between our inferred parameters and the stars' absolute K magnitudes. We identify objects with magnitudes that are too bright for their inferred luminosities as candidate multiple systems. We also use our estimated luminosities to address the applicability of near-infrared metallicity calibrations to mid and late M dwarfs. The temperatures we infer for the KOIs agree remarkably well with those from the literature; however, our stellar radii are systematically larger than those presented in previous works that derive radii from model isochrones. This results in a mean planet radius that is 15% larger than one would infer using the stellar properties from recent catalogs. Our results confirm the derived parameters from previous in-depth studies of KOIs 961 (Kepler

  15. The historical record for Sirius - Evidence for a white-dwarf thermonuclear runaway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhweiler, Frederick C.; Kondo, Yoji; Sion, Edward M.

    1986-01-01

    Evidence was recently presented that in medieval times Sirius was a bright red star, rather than the present bluish-white star. Here, the results of attempts to detect possible planetary nebula ejecta toward Sirius using data obtained by the IUE are presented. Based on these results and in the light of recent advances in understanding white-dwarf evolution, it is proposed that Sirius B underwent a recent thermonuclear runaway event triggered by a diffusion-induced CN reaction.

  16. Population demographics for the federally endangered dwarf wedgemussel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Lellis, William A.; Cole, Jeffrey C.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; St. John White, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The dwarf wedgemussel, Alasmidonta heterodon, is a federally endangered freshwater mussel species inhabiting several Atlantic Slope rivers. Studies on population demographics of this species are necessary for status assessment and directing recovery efforts. We conducted qualitative and quantitative surveys for dwarf wedgemussel in the mainstem Delaware River and in four of its tributaries (Big Flat Brook, Little Flat Brook, Neversink River, and Paulinskill River). Population range, relative abundance, size, size structure, and sex ratio were quantified within each river. Total dwarf wedgemussel population size for the surveyed rivers in the Delaware Basin was estimated to be 14,432 individuals (90% confidence limits, 7,961-26,161). Our results suggest that the historically robust Neversink River population has declined, but that this population persists and substantial populations remain in other tributaries. Sex ratios were generally female-biased, and small individuals (Dwarf wedgemussel was most often found at the surface of the sediment (not buried below) in shallow quadrats (dwarf wedgemussel viability within the Delaware River Basin.

  17. THE NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF YOUNG, EARLY M-TYPE DWARF STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansdell, Megan; Baranec, Christoph; Gaidos, Eric; Mann, Andrew W.; Lépine, Sebastien; James, David; Buccino, Andrea; Mauas, Pablo; Petrucci, Romina; Law, Nicholas M.; Riddle, Reed

    2015-01-01

    Planets orbiting within the close-in habitable zones of M dwarf stars will be exposed to elevated high-energy radiation driven by strong magnetohydrodynamic dynamos during stellar youth. Near-ultraviolet (NUV) irradiation can erode and alter the chemistry of planetary atmospheres, and a quantitative description of the evolution of NUV emission from M dwarfs is needed when modeling these effects. We investigated the NUV luminosity evolution of early M-type dwarfs by cross-correlating the Lépine and Gaidos catalog of bright M dwarfs with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) catalog of NUV (1771-2831 Å) sources. Of the 4805 sources with GALEX counterparts, 797 have NUV emission significantly (>2.5σ) in excess of an empirical basal level. We inspected these candidate active stars using visible-wavelength spectra, high-resolution adaptive optics imaging, time-series photometry, and literature searches to identify cases where the elevated NUV emission is due to unresolved background sources or stellar companions; we estimated the overall occurrence of these ''false positives'' (FPs) as ∼16%. We constructed an NUV luminosity function that accounted for FPs, detection biases of the source catalogs, and GALEX upper limits. We found the NUV luminosity function to be inconsistent with predictions from a constant star-formation rate and simplified age-activity relation defined by a two-parameter power law

  18. THE NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF YOUNG, EARLY M-TYPE DWARF STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansdell, Megan; Baranec, Christoph [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Gaidos, Eric [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Mann, Andrew W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Lépine, Sebastien [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302 (United States); James, David [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603 La Serena (Chile); Buccino, Andrea; Mauas, Pablo; Petrucci, Romina [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Law, Nicholas M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Riddle, Reed [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Planets orbiting within the close-in habitable zones of M dwarf stars will be exposed to elevated high-energy radiation driven by strong magnetohydrodynamic dynamos during stellar youth. Near-ultraviolet (NUV) irradiation can erode and alter the chemistry of planetary atmospheres, and a quantitative description of the evolution of NUV emission from M dwarfs is needed when modeling these effects. We investigated the NUV luminosity evolution of early M-type dwarfs by cross-correlating the Lépine and Gaidos catalog of bright M dwarfs with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) catalog of NUV (1771-2831 Å) sources. Of the 4805 sources with GALEX counterparts, 797 have NUV emission significantly (>2.5σ) in excess of an empirical basal level. We inspected these candidate active stars using visible-wavelength spectra, high-resolution adaptive optics imaging, time-series photometry, and literature searches to identify cases where the elevated NUV emission is due to unresolved background sources or stellar companions; we estimated the overall occurrence of these ''false positives'' (FPs) as ∼16%. We constructed an NUV luminosity function that accounted for FPs, detection biases of the source catalogs, and GALEX upper limits. We found the NUV luminosity function to be inconsistent with predictions from a constant star-formation rate and simplified age-activity relation defined by a two-parameter power law.

  19. POPULATION PROPERTIES OF BROWN DWARF ANALOGS TO EXOPLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Gagne, Jonathan; Weinberger, Alycia; Riedel, Adric R.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Lambrides, Erini; Fica, Haley; Baldassare, Vivienne; Lemonier, Emily; Rice, Emily L.; Thorstensen, John R.; Tinney, C. G.

    2016-01-01

    We present a kinematic analysis of 152 low surface gravity M7-L8 dwarfs by adding 18 new parallaxes (including 10 for comparative field objects), 38 new radial velocities, and 19 new proper motions. We also add low- or moderate-resolution near-infrared spectra for 43 sources confirming their low surface gravity features. Among the full sample, we find 39 objects to be high-likelihood or new bona fide members of nearby moving groups, 92 objects to be ambiguous members and 21 objects that are non-members. Using this age-calibrated sample, we investigate trends in gravity classification, photometric color, absolute magnitude, color–magnitude, luminosity, and effective temperature. We find that gravity classification and photometric color clearly separate 5–130 Myr sources from >3 Gyr field objects, but they do not correlate one to one with the narrower 5–130 Myr age range. Sources with the same spectral subtype in the same group have systematically redder colors, but they are distributed between 1 and 4 σ from the field sequences and the most extreme outlier switches between intermediate- and low-gravity sources either confirmed in a group or not. The absolute magnitudes of low-gravity sources from the J band through W 3 show a flux redistribution when compared to equivalently typed field brown dwarfs that is correlated with spectral subtype. Low-gravity, late-type L dwarfs are fainter at J than the field sequence but brighter by W 3. Low-gravity M dwarfs are >1 mag brighter than field dwarfs in all bands from J through W 3. Clouds, which are a far more dominant opacity source for L dwarfs, are the likely cause. On color–magnitude diagrams, the latest-type, low-gravity L dwarfs drive the elbow of the L/T transition up to 1 mag redder and 1 mag fainter than field dwarfs at M J but are consistent with or brighter than the elbow at M W1 and M W2 . We conclude that low-gravity dwarfs carry an extreme version of the cloud conditions of field objects to lower

  20. Naming Disney's Dwarfs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidwell, Robert T.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses Disney's version of the folkloric dwarfs in his production of "Snow White" and weighs the Disney rendition of the dwarf figure against the corpus of traits and behaviors pertaining to dwarfs in traditional folklore. Concludes that Disney's dwarfs are "anthropologically true." (HOD)

  1. The Fall and the Rise of X-Rays from Dwarf Novae in Outburst: RXTE Observations of VW Hydri and WW Ceti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertig, D.; Mukai, K.; Nelson, T.; Cannizzo, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    In a dwarf nova, the accretion disk around the white dwarf is a source of ultraviolet, optical, and infrared photons, but is never hot enough to emit X-rays. Observed X-rays instead originate from the boundary layer between the disk and the white dwarf. As the disk switches between quiescence and outburst states, the 2-10 keV X-ray flux is usually seen to be anti-correlated with the optical brightness. Here we present RXTE monitoring observations of two dwarf novae, VW Hyi and WW Cet, confirming the optical/X-ray anti-correlation in these two systems. However, we do not detect any episodes of increased hard X-ray flux on the rise (out of two possible chances for WW Cet) or the decline (two for WW Cet and one for VW Hyi) from outburst, attributes that are clearly established in SS Cyg. The addition of these data to the existing literature establishes the fact that the behavior of SS Cyg is the exception, rather than the archetype as is often assumed. We speculate that only dwarf novae with a massive white dwarf may show these hard X-ray spikes.

  2. Temperatures and luminosities of white dwarfs in dwarf novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smak, J.

    1984-01-01

    Far ultraviolet radiation observed in dwarf novae at minimum can only be attributed to their white dwarfs. In three systems white dwarfs are detected directly through their eclipses. These data are used to determine the effective temperatures and luminosities of white dwarfs. The resulting temperatures range from about logT e = 4.1 to about 4.9, with typical values of about 4.5. The luminosities range from about logL 1 = 31.0 to about 33.5 and show correlation with the average accretion rates. Radiation from white dwarfs is likely to be the source of excitation of the emission lines from disks. It is also argued that the heating by the white dwarf can significantly modify the structure of the innermost parts of the disk and, particularly, inhibit the incidence of thermal instability in that region. 26 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  3. Inferring Land Surface Model Parameters for the Assimilation of Satellite-Based L-Band Brightness Temperature Observations into a Soil Moisture Analysis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission provides global measurements of L-band brightness temperatures at horizontal and vertical polarization and a variety of incidence angles that are sensitive to moisture and temperature conditions in the top few centimeters of the soil. These L-band observations can therefore be assimilated into a land surface model to obtain surface and root zone soil moisture estimates. As part of the observation operator, such an assimilation system requires a radiative transfer model (RTM) that converts geophysical fields (including soil moisture and soil temperature) into modeled L-band brightness temperatures. At the global scale, the RTM parameters and the climatological soil moisture conditions are still poorly known. Using look-up tables from the literature to estimate the RTM parameters usually results in modeled L-band brightness temperatures that are strongly biased against the SMOS observations, with biases varying regionally and seasonally. Such biases must be addressed within the land data assimilation system. In this presentation, the estimation of the RTM parameters is discussed for the NASA GEOS-5 land data assimilation system, which is based on the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and the Catchment land surface model. In the GEOS-5 land data assimilation system, soil moisture and brightness temperature biases are addressed in three stages. First, the global soil properties and soil hydraulic parameters that are used in the Catchment model were revised to minimize the bias in the modeled soil moisture, as verified against available in situ soil moisture measurements. Second, key parameters of the "tau-omega" RTM were calibrated prior to data assimilation using an objective function that minimizes the climatological differences between the modeled L-band brightness temperatures and the corresponding SMOS observations. Calibrated parameters include soil roughness parameters, vegetation structure parameters

  4. Visible Color and Photometry of Bright Materials on Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, S. E.; Li, J. Y.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Hiesinger, H.; Blewett, D. T.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Keller, H. U.

    2012-01-01

    The Dawn Framing Camera (FC) collected images of the surface of Vesta at a pixel scale of 70 m in the High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) phase through its clear and seven color filters spanning from 430 nm to 980 nm. The surface of Vesta displays a large diversity in its brightness and colors, evidently related to the diverse geology [1] and mineralogy [2]. Here we report a detailed investigation of the visible colors and photometric properties of the apparently bright materials on Vesta in order to study their origin. The global distribution and the spectroscopy of bright materials are discussed in companion papers [3, 4], and the synthesis results about the origin of Vestan bright materials are reported in [5].

  5. Pulsating low-mass white dwarfs in the frame of new evolutionary sequences. V. Asteroseismology of ELMV white dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcaferro, Leila M.; Córsico, Alejandro H.; Althaus, Leandro G.

    2017-11-01

    Context. Many pulsating low-mass white dwarf stars have been detected in the past years in the field of our Galaxy. Some of them exhibit multiperiodic brightness variation, therefore it is possible to probe their interiors through asteroseismology. Aims: We present a detailed asteroseismological study of all the known low-mass variable white dwarf stars based on a complete set of fully evolutionary models that are representative of low-mass He-core white dwarf stars. Methods: We employed adiabatic radial and nonradial pulsation periods for low-mass white dwarf models with stellar masses ranging from 0.1554 to 0.4352 M⊙ that were derived by simulating the nonconservative evolution of a binary system consisting of an initially 1 M⊙ zero-age main-sequence (ZAMS) star and a 1.4 M⊙ neutron star companion. We estimated the mean period spacing for the stars under study (where this was possible), and then we constrained the stellar mass by comparing the observed period spacing with the average of the computed period spacings for our grid of models. We also employed the individual observed periods of every known pulsating low-mass white dwarf star to search for a representative seismological model. Results: We found that even though the stars under analysis exhibit few periods and the period fits show multiplicity of solutions, it is possible to find seismological models whose mass and effective temperature are in agreement with the values given by spectroscopy for most of the cases. Unfortunately, we were not able to constrain the stellar masses by employing the observed period spacing because, in general, only few periods are exhibited by these stars. In the two cases where we were able to extract the period spacing from the set of observed periods, this method led to stellar mass values that were substantially higher than expected for this type of stars. Conclusions: The results presented in this work show the need for further photometric searches, on the one hand

  6. LACERTA I AND CASSIOPEIA III. TWO LUMINOUS AND DISTANT ANDROMEDA SATELLITE DWARF GALAXIES FOUND IN THE 3π PAN-STARRS1 SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Nicolas F.; Laevens, Benjamin P. M.; Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F.; Schlafly, Edward F.; Morganson, Eric; Rix, Hans-Walter; Bernard, Edouard J.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Kaiser, Nicholas; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Magnier, Eugene A.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Tonry, John L.; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Price, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of two new dwarf galaxies, Lacerta I/Andromeda XXXI (Lac I/And XXXI) and Cassiopeia III/Andromeda XXXII (Cas III/And XXXII), in stacked Pan-STARRS1 r P1 - and i P1 -band imaging data. Both are luminous systems (M V ∼ –12) located at projected distances of 20.°3 and 10.°5 from M31. Lac I and Cas III are likely satellites of the Andromeda galaxy with heliocentric distances of 756 +44 -28 kpc and 772 +61 -56 kpc, respectively, and corresponding M31-centric distances of 275 ± 7 kpc and 144 +6 -4 kpc. The brightest of recent Local Group member discoveries, these two new dwarf galaxies owe their late discovery to their large sizes (r h = 4.2 +0.4 -0.5 arcmin or 912 +124 -93 pc for Lac I; r h = 6.5 +1.2 -1.0 arcmin or 1456 ± 267 pc for Cas III) and consequently low surface brightness (μ 0 ∼ 26.0 mag arcsec –2 ), as well as to the lack of a systematic survey of regions at large radii from M31, close to the Galactic plane. This latter limitation is now alleviated by the 3π Pan-STARRS1 survey, which could lead to the discovery of other distant Andromeda satellite dwarf galaxies.

  7. A Dark Spot on a Massive White Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, Alexandros; Bell, Keaton J.; Curd, Brandon; Brown, Warren R.; Hermes, J. J.; Dufour, Patrick; Wisniewski, John P.; Winget, D. E.; Winget, K. I.

    2015-12-01

    We present the serendipitous discovery of eclipse-like events around the massive white dwarf SDSS J152934.98+292801.9 (hereafter J1529+2928). We selected J1529+2928 for time-series photometry based on its spectroscopic temperature and surface gravity, which place it near the ZZ Ceti instability strip. Instead of pulsations, we detect photometric dips from this white dwarf every 38 minutes. Follow-up optical spectroscopy observations with Gemini reveal no significant radial velocity variations, ruling out stellar and brown dwarf companions. A disintegrating planet around this white dwarf cannot explain the observed light curves in different filters. Given the short period, the source of the photometric dips must be a dark spot that comes into view every 38 minutes due to the rotation of the white dwarf. Our optical spectroscopy does not show any evidence of Zeeman splitting of the Balmer lines, limiting the magnetic field strength to B Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  8. Surface-plasmon resonance-enhanced multiphoton emission of high-brightness electron beams from a nanostructured copper cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R K; To, H; Andonian, G; Feng, J; Polyakov, A; Scoby, C M; Thompson, K; Wan, W; Padmore, H A; Musumeci, P

    2013-02-15

    We experimentally investigate surface-plasmon assisted photoemission to enhance the efficiency of metallic photocathodes for high-brightness electron sources. A nanohole array-based copper surface was designed to exhibit a plasmonic response at 800 nm, fabricated using the focused ion beam milling technique, optically characterized and tested as a photocathode in a high power radio frequency photoinjector. Because of the larger absorption and localization of the optical field intensity, the charge yield observed under ultrashort laser pulse illumination is increased by more than 100 times compared to a flat surface. We also present the first beam characterization results (intrinsic emittance and bunch length) from a nanostructured photocathode.

  9. Two new pulsating low-mass pre-white dwarfs or SX Phoenicis stars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, M. A.; Kanaan, A.; Córsico, A. H.; Kepler, S. O.; Althaus, L. G.; Koester, D.; Sánchez Arias, J. P.

    2016-03-01

    Context. The discovery of pulsations in low-mass stars opens an opportunity to probe their interiors and determine their evolution by employing the tools of asteroseismology. Aims: We aim to analyse high-speed photometry of SDSS J145847.02+070754.46 and SDSS J173001.94+070600.25 and discover brightness variabilities. In order to locate these stars in the Teff - log g diagram, we fit optical spectra (SDSS) with synthetic non-magnetic spectra derived from model atmospheres. Methods: To carry out this study, we used the photometric data we obtained for these stars with the 2.15 m telescope at CASLEO, Argentina. We analysed their light curves and applied the discrete Fourier transform (FT) to determine the pulsation frequencies. Finally, we compare both stars in the Teff - log g diagram, with two known pre-white dwarfs and seven pulsating pre-ELM white dwarf stars, δ Scuti, and SX Phe stars Results: We report the discovery of pulsations in SDSS J145847.02+070754.46 and SDSS J173001.94+070600.25. We determine their effective temperature and surface gravity to be Teff = 7972 ± 200 K, log g = 4.25 ± 0.5 and Teff = 7925 ± 200 K, log g = 4.25 ± 0.5, respectively. With these parameters, these new pulsating low-mass stars can be identified with either ELM white dwarfs (with ~0.17 M⊙) or more massive SX Phe stars. We identified pulsation periods of 3278.7 and 1633.9 s for SDSS J145847.02+070754.46 and a pulsation period of 3367.1 s for SDSS J173001.94+070600.25. These two new objects, together with those of Maxted et al. (2013, 2014), indicate the possible existence of a new instability domain towards the late stages of evolution of low-mass white dwarf stars, although their identification with SX Phe stars cannot be discarded. Visiting Astronomer, Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.

  10. Discovery of a Bright, Extremely Low Mass White Dwarf in a Close Double Degenerate System

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vennes, Stephane; Thorstensen, J.R.; Kawka, Adela; Németh, Péter; Skinner, J.N.; Pigulski, A.; Stęslicki, M.; Kolaczkowski, Z.; Srodka, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 737, č. 1 (2011), L16/1-L16/6 ISSN 2041-8205 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300030908; GA AV ČR IAA301630901; GA ČR GAP209/10/0967; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : close binaries stars * individual star GALEX J171708.5+675712 * white dwarf s Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.526, year: 2011

  11. New insights from a statistical analysis of IUE spectra of dwarf novae and nova-like stars. I - Inclination effects in lines and continua

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Dous, Constanze

    1991-01-01

    IUE observations of dwarf novae at maximum at quiescence and novalike objects at the high brightness state are analyzed for effects of the inclination angle on the emitted continuum and line radiation. A clear pattern in the continuum flux distribution is exhibited only by dwarf novae at maximum where some 80 percent of the non-double-eclipsing systems show essentially identical distributions. This result is not in disagreement with theoretical expectations. All classes of objects exhibit a clear, but in each case different, dependence of the line radiation on the inclination angle.

  12. The night sky brightness at McDonald Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, J. K.; Roosen, R. G.; Brandt, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    Baseline observations of the night sky brightness in B and V are presented for McDonald Observatory. In agreement with earlier work by Elvey and Rudnick (1937) and Elvey (1943), significant night-to-night and same-night variations in sky brightness are found. Possible causes for these variations are discussed. The largest variation in sky brightness found during a single night is approximately a factor of two, a value which corresponds to a factor-of-four variation in airglow brightness. The data are used to comment on the accuracy of previously published surface photometry of M 81.

  13. Charged condensate and helium dwarf stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabadadze, Gregory; Rosen, Rachel A, E-mail: gg32@nyu.edu, E-mail: rar339@nyu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    White dwarf stars composed of carbon, oxygen and heavier elements are expected to crystallize as they cool down below certain temperatures. Yet, simple arguments suggest that the helium white dwarf cores may not solidify, mostly because of zero-point oscillations of the helium ions that would dissolve the crystalline structure. We argue that the interior of the helium dwarfs may instead form a macroscopic quantum state in which the charged helium-4 nuclei are in a Bose-Einstein condensate, while the relativistic electrons form a neutralizing degenerate Fermi liquid. We discuss the electric charge screening, and the spectrum of this substance, showing that the bosonic long-wavelength fluctuations exhibit a mass gap. Hence, there is a suppression at low temperatures of the boson contribution to the specific heat-the latter being dominated by the specific heat of the electrons near the Fermi surface. This state of matter may have observational signatures.

  14. Discovery of Nearest Known Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Bright Southern Star Epsilon Indi Has Cool, Substellar Companion [1] Summary A team of European astronomers [2] has discovered a Brown Dwarf object (a 'failed' star) less than 12 light-years from the Sun. It is the nearest yet known. Now designated Epsilon Indi B, it is a companion to a well-known bright star in the southern sky, Epsilon Indi (now "Epsilon Indi A"), previously thought to be single. The binary system is one of the twenty nearest stellar systems to the Sun. The brown dwarf was discovered from the comparatively rapid motion across the sky which it shares with its brighter companion : the pair move a full lunar diameter in less than 400 years. It was first identified using digitised archival photographic plates from the SuperCOSMOS Sky Surveys (SSS) and confirmed using data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Follow-up observations with the near-infrared sensitive SOFI instrument on the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the La Silla Observatory confirmed its nature and has allowed measurements of its physical properties. Epsilon Indi B has a mass just 45 times that of Jupiter, the largest planet in the Solar System, and a surface temperature of only 1000 °C. It belongs to the so-called 'T dwarf' category of objects which straddle the domain between stars and giant planets. Epsilon Indi B is the nearest and brightest T dwarf known. Future studies of the new object promise to provide astronomers with important new clues as to the formation and evolution of these exotic celestial bodies, at the same time yielding interesting insights into the border zone between planets and stars. TINY MOVING NEEDLES IN GIANT HAYSTACKS ESO PR Photo 03a/03 ESO PR Photo 03a/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 605 pix - 92k [Normal - JPEG: 1200 x 1815 pix - 1.0M] Caption: PR Photo 03a/03 shows Epsilon Indi A (the bright star at far right) and its newly discovered brown dwarf companion Epsilon Indi B (circled). The upper image comes from one of the SuperCOSMOS Sky

  15. An unsuccessful search for brown dwarf companions to white dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, Harry L.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a survey to detect excess infrared emission from white dwarf stars which would be attributable to a low mass companion are reviewed. Neither a simple comparison of spectroscopically identified white dwarf stars with the IRAS Point Source Catalog nor the coadding of IRAS survey data resulted in a detection of a brown dwarf. The seven nearest stars where the most stringent limits to the presence of a brown dwarf were obtained are listed, and an effort to detect brown dwarfs in the solar neighborhood is discussed.

  16. THE BROWN DWARF KINEMATICS PROJECT (BDKP). IV. RADIAL VELOCITIES OF 85 LATE-M AND L DWARFS WITH MagE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgasser, Adam J. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Logsdon, Sarah E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Gagné, Jonathan [Institute for Research on Exoplanets (iREx), Université de Montréal, Département de Physique, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Bochanski, John J. [Rider University, 2083 Lawrenceville Road, Lawrenceville, NJ 08648 (United States); Faherty, Jaqueline K. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); West, Andrew A. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Mamajek, Eric E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Schmidt, Sarah J. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Cruz, Kelle L., E-mail: aburgasser@ucsd.edu [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10034 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Radial velocity measurements are presented for 85 late M- and L-type very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs obtained with the Magellan Echellette spectrograph. Targets primarily have distances within 20 pc of the Sun, with more distant sources selected for their unusual spectral energy distributions. We achieved precisions of 2–3 km s{sup −1}, and combined these with astrometric and spectrophotometric data to calculate UVW velocities. Most are members of the thin disk of the Galaxy, and velocity dispersions indicate a mean age of 5.2 ± 0.2 Gyr for sources within 20 pc. We find signficantly different kinematic ages between late-M dwarfs (4.0 ± 0.2 Gyr) and L dwarfs (6.5 ± 0.4 Gyr) in our sample that are contrary to predictions from prior simulations. This difference appears to be driven by a dispersed population of unusually blue L dwarfs which may be more prevalent in our local volume-limited sample than in deeper magnitude-limited surveys. The L dwarfs exhibit an asymmetric U velocity distribution with a net inward flow, similar to gradients recently detected in local stellar samples. Simulations incorporating brown dwarf evolution and Galactic orbital dynamics are unable to reproduce the velocity asymmetry, suggesting non-axisymmetric perturbations or two distinct L dwarf populations. We also find the L dwarfs to have a kinematic age-activity correlation similar to more massive stars. We identify several sources with low surface gravities, and two new substellar candidate members of nearby young moving groups: the astrometric binary DENIS J08230313–4912012AB, a low-probability member of the β Pictoris Moving Group; and 2MASS J15104786–2818174, a moderate-probability member of the 30–50 Myr Argus Association.

  17. The mysterious age invariance of the planetary nebula luminosity function bright cut-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesicki, K.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.

    2018-05-01

    Planetary nebulae mark the end of the active life of 90% of all stars. They trace the transition from a red giant to a degenerate white dwarf. Stellar models1,2 predicted that only stars above approximately twice the solar mass could form a bright nebula. But the ubiquitous presence of bright planetary nebulae in old stellar populations, such as elliptical galaxies, contradicts this: such high-mass stars are not present in old systems. The planetary nebula luminosity function, and especially its bright cut-off, is almost invariant between young spiral galaxies, with high-mass stars, and old elliptical galaxies, with only low-mass stars. Here, we show that new evolutionary tracks of low-mass stars are capable of explaining in a simple manner this decades-old mystery. The agreement between the observed luminosity function and computed stellar evolution validates the latest theoretical modelling. With these models, the planetary nebula luminosity function provides a powerful diagnostic to derive star formation histories of intermediate-age stars. The new models predict that the Sun at the end of its life will also form a planetary nebula, but it will be faint.

  18. KECK NIRSPEC RADIAL VELOCITY OBSERVATIONS OF LATE-M DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, Angelle; White, Russel [Department of Astronomy, Georgia State University, One Park Place, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Bailey, John [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Blake, Cullen [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Blake, Geoffrey [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cruz, Kelle [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College, 695 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Burgasser, Adam J. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Kraus, Adam [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    We present the results of an infrared spectroscopic survey of 23 late-M dwarfs with the NIRSPEC echelle spectrometer on the Keck II telescope. Using telluric lines for wavelength calibration, we are able to achieve measurement precisions of down to 45 m s{sup -1} for our late-M dwarfs over a one- to four-year long baseline. Our sample contains two stars with radial velocity (RV) variations of >1000 m s{sup -1}. While we require more measurements to determine whether these RV variations are due to unseen planetary or stellar companions or are the result of starspots known to plague the surface of M dwarfs, we can place upper limits of <40 M{sub J} sin i on the masses of any companions around those two M dwarfs with RV variations of <160 m s{sup -1} at orbital periods of 10-100 days. We have also measured the rotational velocities for all the stars in our late-M dwarf sample and offer our multi-order, high-resolution spectra over 2.0-2.4 {mu}m to the atmospheric modeling community to better understand the atmospheres of late-M dwarfs.

  19. KECK NIRSPEC RADIAL VELOCITY OBSERVATIONS OF LATE-M DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, Angelle; White, Russel; Bailey, John; Blake, Cullen; Blake, Geoffrey; Cruz, Kelle; Burgasser, Adam J.; Kraus, Adam

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of an infrared spectroscopic survey of 23 late-M dwarfs with the NIRSPEC echelle spectrometer on the Keck II telescope. Using telluric lines for wavelength calibration, we are able to achieve measurement precisions of down to 45 m s –1 for our late-M dwarfs over a one- to four-year long baseline. Our sample contains two stars with radial velocity (RV) variations of >1000 m s –1 . While we require more measurements to determine whether these RV variations are due to unseen planetary or stellar companions or are the result of starspots known to plague the surface of M dwarfs, we can place upper limits of J sin i on the masses of any companions around those two M dwarfs with RV variations of –1 at orbital periods of 10-100 days. We have also measured the rotational velocities for all the stars in our late-M dwarf sample and offer our multi-order, high-resolution spectra over 2.0-2.4 μm to the atmospheric modeling community to better understand the atmospheres of late-M dwarfs.

  20. White dwarf radii and boundary-layer constraints in three dwarf novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The structure of the boundary layer between the accretion disc and white dwarf in three quiescent dwarf novae is explored with high signal-to-noise eclipse light curves obtained by phase folding 12-20 eclipses. Models of the eclipse shapes of various white dwarf/boundary layer configurations that might be at the centres of the accretion discs are calculated and compared with observations of the eclipses in Z Cha, OY Car and HT Cas. Possible models for the central objects are found to be a white dwarf with or without its lower hemisphere occulted by the disc, or a white dwarf with an optically thick boundary layer significantly extended in latitude up and down its sides. The most likely of these models for each system is an unocculted white dwarf with no boundary layer contributing significantly to the optical flux, or a white dwarf totally covered by an optically thick boundary layer. (author)

  1. SATELLITE DWARF GALAXIES IN A HIERARCHICAL UNIVERSE: THE PREVALENCE OF DWARF-DWARF MAJOR MERGERS

    OpenAIRE

    Deason, A; Wetzel, A; Garrison-Kimmel, S

    2014-01-01

    Mergers are a common phenomenon in hierarchical structure formation, especially for massive galaxies and clusters, but their importance for dwarf galaxies in the Local Group remains poorly understood. We investigate the frequency of major mergers between dwarf galaxies in the Local Group using the ELVIS suite of cosmological zoom-in dissipationless simulations of Milky Way- and M31-like host halos. We find that ~10% of satellite dwarf galaxies with M_star > 10^6 M_sun that are within the host...

  2. NuSTAR and Swift Observations of the Dwarf Nova Z Camelpardalis in a Standstill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Koji; Sokoloski, Jennifer; Nelson, Thomas; Luna, Gerardo Juan Manuel; Ringwald, Frederick

    2018-01-01

    Dwarf nova outbursts are dramatic increases in the optical/UV emission from the accretion disks surrounding non-magnetic, or weakly magnetic, white dwarfs, and they are believed to be caused by disk instabilities. During the optical outburst, the optically thin X-rays originating from the boundary layer between the disk and the white dwarf are known to become fainter and softer. However, during an outburst, neither the disk nor the boundary layer has the time to settle into a steady state, exhibiting clear hysteresis effects instead. The Z Cam-type dwarf novae exhibit a rare, third state called standstill, lasting several months to several years, at an optical brightness roughly one magnitude below outburst peak. A standstill is therefore an ideal opportunity to study a high-state disk while minimizing the hysteresis effects. Here we report our NuSTAR and Swift observations of the prototype, Z Cam, in late September, 2017, roughly 6 months into its most recent standstill episode. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first pointed X-ray observation of a Z Cam-type object in a standstill, and our preliminary analysis suggests Z Cam in standstill has X-ray properties broadly similar to those seen during past outbursts. We will describe these results and discuss implications for the disk physics.

  3. Dwarf Star Erupts in Giant Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This movie taken by NASA'S Galaxy Evolution Explorer shows one of the largest flares, or star eruptions, ever recorded at ultraviolet wavelengths. The star, called GJ 3685A, just happened to be in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer's field of view while the telescope was busy observing galaxies. As the movie demonstrates, the seemingly serene star suddenly exploded once, then even more intensely a second time, pouring out in total about one million times more energy than a typical flare from our Sun. The second blast of light constituted an increase in brightness by a factor of at least 10,000. Flares are huge explosions of energy stemming from a single location on a star's surface. They are caused by the brief destruction of a star's magnetic fields. Many types of stars experience them, though old, small, rapidly rotating 'red dwarfs' like GJ 3685A tend to flare more frequently and dramatically. These stars, called flare stars, can experience powerful eruptions as often as every few hours. Younger stars, in general, also erupt more often. One of the reasons astronomers study flare stars is to gain a better picture and history of flare events taking place on the Sun. A preliminary analysis of the GJ 3685A flare shows that the mechanisms underlying stellar eruptions may be more complex than previously believed. Evidence for the two most popular flare theories was found. Though this movie has been sped up (the actual flare lasted about 20 minutes), time-resolved data exist for each one-hundredth of a second. These observations were taken at 2 p.m. Pacific time, April 24, 2004. In the still image, the time sequence starts in the upper left panel, continues in the upper right, then moves to the lower left and ends in the lower right. The circular and linear features that appear below and to the right of GJ 3685A during the flare event are detector artifacts caused by the extreme brightness of the flare.

  4. Surface Variability of Short-wavelength Radiation and Temperature on Exoplanets around M Dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xin; Tian, Feng [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Yuwei [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 0B9 (Canada); Dudhia, Jimy; Chen, Ming, E-mail: tianfengco@tsinghua.edu.cn [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-03-10

    It is a common practice to use 3D General Circulation Models (GCM) with spatial resolution of a few hundred kilometers to simulate the climate of Earth-like exoplanets. The enhanced albedo effect of clouds is especially important for exoplanets in the habitable zones around M dwarfs that likely have fixed substellar regions and substantial cloud coverage. Here, we carry out mesoscale model simulations with 3 km spatial resolution driven by the initial and boundary conditions in a 3D GCM and find that it could significantly underestimate the spatial variability of both the incident short-wavelength radiation and the temperature at planet surface. Our findings suggest that mesoscale models with cloud-resolving capability be considered for future studies of exoplanet climate.

  5. Students Use VLA to Make Startling Brown-Dwarf Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    15 edition of the scientific journal Nature. Berger, Hoffman, Momjian and Murphy are graduate students, and the rest were participants in the NSF-funded Research Experiences for Undergraduates program. The 14 students spent last summer working with NRAO scientists in Socorro. While each student had their own scientist-mentor, the VLA summer students also traditionally receive some VLA observing time for a collaborative project of their own. They sought ideas for their project from the NRAO staff, and, when they asked Frail, he suggested that they look at the latest research result from the recently-launched Chandra X-ray satellite. The students went to the Chandra World Wide Web site, and found that the satellite had detected an X-ray flare from the brown dwarf LP944-20. "We did some background reading, and realized that, based on predictions, the brown dwarf would be unobservable with the VLA, but we decided to try it anyway," said Berger. "Everybody we talked to said there was almost no chance that we'd see anything at all," said Becker. "They added, though, that it would be really exciting if we did," she said. The students had been given three hours of VLA observing time for their project. They used an hour and a half of it on the brown dwarf. The day after their observation, the students gathered at the NRAO Array Operations Center in Socorro to process their data and make their images. Berger, who had experience processing VLA data, worked alone in the same room as the other students, who were working together on another computer. Berger finished first and was shocked at his image. "I saw a bright object at the exact position of the brown dwarf, and was pretty sure I had made a mistake," Berger said. He waited for the others, who were working under the guidance of another NRAO astronomer. Ten minutes later, their image appeared on the screen, also showing the bright object at the brown dwarf's location. "We all got excited," said Berger, who then began breaking

  6. Searching for benchmark systems containing ultra-cool dwarfs and white dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinfield D.J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We have used the 2MASS all-sky survey and WISE to look for ultracool dwarfs that are part of multiple systems containing main sequence stars. We cross-matched L dwarf candidates from the surveys with Hipparcos and Gliese stars, finding two new systems. We consider the binary fraction for L dwarfs and main sequence stars, and further assess possible unresolved multiplicity within the full companion sample. This analysis shows that some of the L dwarfs in this sample might actually be unresolved binaries themselves. We have also identified a sample of common proper motion systems in which a main sequence star has a white dwarf as wide companion. These systems can help explore key issues in star evolution theory, as the initial-final mass relationship of white dwarfs, or the chromospheric activity-age relationship for stars still in the main sequence. Spectroscopy for 50 white dwarf candidates, selected from the SuperCOSMOS Science Archive, was obtained. We have also observed 6 of the main sequence star companions, and have estimated their effective temperatures, rotational and microturbulent velocities and metallicities.

  7. Energy-exchange collisions of dark-bright-bright vector solitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, R; Manikandan, N; Aravinthan, K

    2015-12-01

    We find a dark component guiding the practically interesting bright-bright vector one-soliton to two different parametric domains giving rise to different physical situations by constructing a more general form of three-component dark-bright-bright mixed vector one-soliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with nine free real parameters. Moreover our main investigation of the collision dynamics of such mixed vector solitons by constructing the multisoliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with the help of Hirota technique reveals that the dark-bright-bright vector two-soliton supports energy-exchange collision dynamics. In particular the dark component preserves its initial form and the energy-exchange collision property of the bright-bright vector two-soliton solution of the Manakov model during collision. In addition the interactions between bound state dark-bright-bright vector solitons reveal oscillations in their amplitudes. A similar kind of breathing effect was also experimentally observed in the Bose-Einstein condensates. Some possible ways are theoretically suggested not only to control this breathing effect but also to manage the beating, bouncing, jumping, and attraction effects in the collision dynamics of dark-bright-bright vector solitons. The role of multiple free parameters in our solution is examined to define polarization vector, envelope speed, envelope width, envelope amplitude, grayness, and complex modulation of our solution. It is interesting to note that the polarization vector of our mixed vector one-soliton evolves in sphere or hyperboloid depending upon the initial parametric choices.

  8. FIRST DIRECT EVIDENCE THAT BARIUM DWARFS HAVE WHITE DWARF COMPANIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R. O.; McGahee, C. E.; Griffin, R. E. M.; Corbally, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    Barium II (Ba) stars are chemically peculiar F-, G-, and K-type objects that show enhanced abundances of s-process elements. Since s-process nucleosynthesis is unlikely to take place in stars prior to the advanced asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stage, the prevailing hypothesis is that each present Ba star was contaminated by an AGB companion which is now a white dwarf (WD). Unless the initial mass ratio of such a binary was fairly close to unity, the receiving star is thus at least as likely to be a dwarf as a giant. So although most known Ba stars appear to be giants, the hypothesis requires that Ba dwarfs be comparably plentiful and moreover that they should all have WD companions. However, despite dedicated searches with the IUE satellite, no WD companions have been directly detected to date among the classical Ba dwarfs, even though some 90% of those stars are spectroscopic binaries, so the contamination hypothesis is therefore presently in some jeopardy. In this paper, we analyze recent deep, near-UV and far-UV Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) exposures of four of the brightest of the class (HD 2454, 15360, 26367, and 221531), together with archived GALEX data for two newly recognized Ba dwarfs: HD 34654 and HD 114520 (which also prove to be spectroscopic binaries). The GALEX observations of the Ba dwarfs as a group show a significant far-UV excess compared to a control sample of normal F-type dwarfs. We suggest that this ensemble far-UV excess constitutes the first direct evidence that Ba dwarfs have WD companions.

  9. LP 400-22, A Very Low Mass and High-Velocity White Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawka, Adela; Vennes, Stephane; Oswalt, Terry D.; Smith, J. Allyn; Silvestri, Nicole M.

    2006-01-01

    We report the identification of LP 400-22 (WD 2234+222) as a very low mass and high-velocity white dwarf. The ultraviolet GALEX and optical photometric colors and a spectral line analysis of LP 400-22 show this star to have an effective temperature of 11,080+/-140 K and a surface gravity of log g = 6.32 +/-0.08. Therefore, this is a helium-core white dwarf with a mass of 0.17 M,. The tangential velocity of this white dwarf is 414+/-43 km/s, making it one of the fastest moving white dwarfs known. We discuss probable evolutionary scenarios for this remarkable object.

  10. Theoretical models for asteroseismology of DA white dwarf stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, P.A. [XTA, MS B220, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Because white dwarfs are the most common end state of stellar evolution, determining their internal structure will yield many clues about the final stages of stellar evolution and the physics of matter under extreme conditions. We present the results of our parametric survey of evolutionary models of compositionally stratified white dwarfs with hydrogen surface layers (DA white dwarfs) and provide a comprehensive set of theoretical {ital g}-mode pulsation periods for comparison to observations of pulsating DA white dwarfs. This survey complements the previous survey of helium atmosphere (DB) white dwarf periods of Bradley, Winget, & Wood. We show how to use the periods of low-overtone and/or trapped modes to constrain the internal structure of pulsating DA white dwarfs by utilizing their sensitivity to the total stellar mass and the location of the hydrogen/helium transition zone. We use G117-B15A as an example to demonstrate the potential of our models for asteroseismology; we suggest that G117-B15A has a mass of 0.55 {ital M}{sub {circle_dot}} and a hydrogen layer mass of {approx_equal}1.5{times}10{sup {minus}4} {ital M}{sub {asterisk}}. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Astronomical Society.}

  11. Nearby Red Dwarfs are Sexy for Planets and Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, T. J.; Jao, W.-C.; Subasavage, J. P.; RECONS Team

    2005-12-01

    The RECONS group continues to discover many nearby red dwarfs in the southern sky through a combination of proper motion surveys, literature review, and ultimately, our parallax program CTIOPI. Already, we have measured the first accurate parallaxes for 11 of the nearest 100 stellar systems, including four within 5 parsecs of the Sun. These nearby red dwarfs are prime candidates for NASA's Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) because the astrometric perturbations are largest for planets orbiting stars of low mass that are nearby. In addition, new multiple red dwarf systems can be targeted for mass determinations, thereby providing points on a comprehensive mass-luminosity relation for the most populous members of the Galaxy. Recent atmospheric modeling of planets orbiting red dwarfs indicates that even if the planets are tidally locked, heat distribution is highly effective in keeping the worlds balmy over the entire surface. Red dwarfs are therefore "back on the table" as viable hosts of life-bearing planets. Given their ubiquity, red dwarfs are being seriously considered as prime SETI targets, and will allow us to answer not only the question "Are We Alone?" but "Just How Alone Are We?" This work has been supported by the National Science Foundation, NASA's Space Interferometry Mission, and Georgia State University.

  12. The K Dwarf Advantage for Biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Giada; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn David; Meadows, Victoria

    2018-01-01

    Biosignature detection is typically studied in the context of an atmosphere in chemical disequilibrium. Oxygen (O2) and methane (CH4) are generally considered the “canonical” biosignature disequilibrium pair. However, the modern CH4 concentration poses a major detection challenge to future direct imaging telescopes, and it has been difficult for Earth to accumulate spectrally detectable quantities of O2 and CH4 over its history (Olson et al 2016, Reinhard et al 2017). Even the lower atmospheric levels of O2 typical of the Earth’s Proterozoic eon (0.01-1% of the modern O2 amount) may have resulted in a reduced photochemical lifetime of CH4 due to decreased UV shielding of CH4 (Claire et al 2006, Goldblatt et al 2006). However, while the above is true for an Earthlike planet orbiting a sunlike star, the situation changes for other stars. For instance, Segura et al (2005) found longer photochemical lifetimes for CH4 in the atmospheres of Earthlike planets orbiting M dwarfs. M dwarfs, however, present several barriers to planetary habitability including desiccation during the stellar super-luminous pre-main sequence phase (Lugar and Barnes 2015) and tidal locking. K dwarfs, which comprise about 12% of all main sequence stars, avoid these M dwarf hazards, and will be important targets for future exoplanet direct imaging missions. Using a photochemical model, we find CH4 and O2 are simultaneously detectable in the atmospheres of K dwarf planets with various O2 concentrations ranging between Proterozoic levels and modern O2 amounts. For instance, for a planet with an Earth-like CH4 surface flux (1 x 1011 molecules/cm2/s) and a Proterozoic-like O2 level (1% of modern), the planet generates a CH4 surface mixing ratio of 1x10-5 for a planet orbiting the sun, and 1.5x10-4 – an order of magnitude more CH4 – for a planet orbiting a K6V star. This is enough to produce detectable CH4 and O2 for the planet orbiting the K6V star. We discuss the implications of this

  13. Analysis of SMOS brightness temperature and vegetation optical depth data with coupled land surface and radiative transfer models in Southern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Schlenz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS L1c brightness temperature and L2 optical depth data are analysed with a coupled land surface (PROMET and radiative transfer model (L-MEB. The coupled models are validated with ground and airborne measurements under contrasting soil moisture, vegetation and land surface temperature conditions during the SMOS Validation Campaign in May and June 2010 in the SMOS test site Upper Danube Catchment in southern Germany. The brightness temperature root-mean-squared errors are between 6 K and 9 K. The L-MEB parameterisation is considered appropriate under local conditions even though it might possibly be further optimised. SMOS L1c brightness temperature data are processed and analysed in the Upper Danube Catchment using the coupled models in 2011 and during the SMOS Validation Campaign 2010 together with airborne L-band brightness temperature data. Only low to fair correlations are found for this comparison (R between 0.1–0.41. SMOS L1c brightness temperature data do not show the expected seasonal behaviour and are positively biased. It is concluded that RFI is responsible for a considerable part of the observed problems in the SMOS data products in the Upper Danube Catchment. This is consistent with the observed dry bias in the SMOS L2 soil moisture products which can also be related to RFI. It is confirmed that the brightness temperature data from the lower SMOS look angles and the horizontal polarisation are less reliable. This information could be used to improve the brightness temperature data filtering before the soil moisture retrieval. SMOS L2 optical depth values have been compared to modelled data and are not considered a reliable source of information about vegetation due to missing seasonal behaviour and a very high mean value. A fairly strong correlation between SMOS L2 soil moisture and optical depth was found (R = 0.65 even though the two variables are considered independent in the

  14. White Dwarf Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Kepler, S. O.; Romero, Alejandra Daniela; Pelisoli, Ingrid; Ourique, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    White dwarf stars are the final stage of most stars, born single or in multiple systems. We discuss the identification, magnetic fields, and mass distribution for white dwarfs detected from spectra obtained by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey up to Data Release 13 in 2016, which lead to the increase in the number of spectroscopically identified white dwarf stars from 5000 to 39000. This number includes only white dwarf stars with log g >= 6.5 stars, i.e., excluding the Extremely Low Mass white dw...

  15. UNCOVERING THE FORMATION OF ULTRACOMPACT DWARF GALAXIES BY MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanuka; Sharina, Margarita; Davoust, Emmanuel; De, Tuli; Chattopadhyay, Asis Kumar

    2012-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the properties of a large sample of dynamically hot old stellar systems, from globular clusters (GCs) to giant ellipticals, which was performed in order to investigate the origin of ultracompact dwarf galaxies (UCDs). The data were mostly drawn from Forbes et al. We recalculated some of the effective radii, computed mean surface brightnesses and mass-to-light ratios, and estimated ages and metallicities. We completed the sample with GCs of M31. We used a multivariate statistical technique (K-Means clustering), together with a new algorithm (Gap Statistics) for finding the optimum number of homogeneous sub-groups in the sample, using a total of six parameters (absolute magnitude, effective radius, virial mass-to-light ratio, stellar mass-to-light ratio, and metallicity). We found six groups. FK1 and FK5 are composed of high- and low-mass elliptical galaxies, respectively. FK3 and FK6 are composed of high-metallicity and low-metallicity objects, respectively, and both include GCs and UCDs. Two very small groups, FK2 and FK4, are composed of Local Group dwarf spheroidals. Our groups differ in their mean masses and virial mass-to-light ratios. The relations between these two parameters are also different for the various groups. The probability density distributions of metallicity for the four groups of galaxies are similar to those of the GCs and UCDs. The brightest low-metallicity GCs and UCDs tend to follow the mass-metallicity relation like elliptical galaxies. The objects of FK3 are more metal-rich per unit effective luminosity density than high-mass ellipticals.

  16. UNCOVERING THE FORMATION OF ULTRACOMPACT DWARF GALAXIES BY MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanuka [Department of Applied Mathematics, Calcutta University, 92 A.P.C. Road, Calcutta 700009 (India); Sharina, Margarita [Special Astrophysical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences, N. Arkhyz, KCh R 369167 (Russian Federation); Davoust, Emmanuel [IRAP, Universite de Toulouse, CNRS, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); De, Tuli; Chattopadhyay, Asis Kumar, E-mail: tanuka@iucaa.ernet.in, E-mail: sme@sao.ru, E-mail: davoust@ast.obs-mip.fr, E-mail: akcstat@caluniv.ac.in [Department of Statistics, Calcutta University, 35 B.C. Road, Calcutta 700019 (India)

    2012-05-10

    We present a statistical analysis of the properties of a large sample of dynamically hot old stellar systems, from globular clusters (GCs) to giant ellipticals, which was performed in order to investigate the origin of ultracompact dwarf galaxies (UCDs). The data were mostly drawn from Forbes et al. We recalculated some of the effective radii, computed mean surface brightnesses and mass-to-light ratios, and estimated ages and metallicities. We completed the sample with GCs of M31. We used a multivariate statistical technique (K-Means clustering), together with a new algorithm (Gap Statistics) for finding the optimum number of homogeneous sub-groups in the sample, using a total of six parameters (absolute magnitude, effective radius, virial mass-to-light ratio, stellar mass-to-light ratio, and metallicity). We found six groups. FK1 and FK5 are composed of high- and low-mass elliptical galaxies, respectively. FK3 and FK6 are composed of high-metallicity and low-metallicity objects, respectively, and both include GCs and UCDs. Two very small groups, FK2 and FK4, are composed of Local Group dwarf spheroidals. Our groups differ in their mean masses and virial mass-to-light ratios. The relations between these two parameters are also different for the various groups. The probability density distributions of metallicity for the four groups of galaxies are similar to those of the GCs and UCDs. The brightest low-metallicity GCs and UCDs tend to follow the mass-metallicity relation like elliptical galaxies. The objects of FK3 are more metal-rich per unit effective luminosity density than high-mass ellipticals.

  17. Radiation of dwarf novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruch, A.

    1987-01-01

    The nature of dwarf novae with their components white dwarf star, cool star, accretion disk, boundary layer and hot spot is investigated. It is shown that very different physical states and processes occur in the components of dwarf novae. Spectroscopical and photometrical observations are carried out. For better understanding the radiation portions of the single dwarf novae components are separated from the total electromagnetic spectrum recieved from the dwarf novae. The model assumptions are compared with the observations and verified

  18. Acoustic waves in M dwarfs: Maintaining a corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, D. J.; Cheng, Q. Q.

    1994-01-01

    We use a time-dependent hydrodynamics code to follow the propagation of acoustic waves into the corona of an M dwarf star. An important qualitative difference between M dwarfs and stars such as the Sun is that the acoustic spectrum in M dwarfs is expected to peak at periods close to the acoustic cutoff P(sub A): this allows more effective penetration of waves into the corona. In our code, radiative losses in the photosphere, chromosphere, and corona are computed using Rosseland mean opacities, Mg II kappa and Ly alpha emission, and optically thin emissivities respectively. We find that acoustic heating can maintain a corona with a temperature of order 0.7-1 x 10(exp 6) K and a surface X-ray flux as large as 10(exp 5)ergs/sq cm/s. In a recent survey of X-rays from M dwarfs, some (20%-30%) of the stars lie at or below this limiting X-ray flux: we suggest that such stars may be candidates for acoustically maintained coronae.

  19. Recreating the chemical evolution of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal from its tidal debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Sheffield, Allyson; Cunha, Katia M. L.; Smith, Verne V.

    2018-06-01

    We present a detailed chemical analysis of the Sagittarius (Sgr) tidal stream based on high-resolution Gemini+GRACES spectra of 42 members of the highest surface brightness portions of both the trailing and leading arms of the Sgr stream. We select Sgr tidal stream candidates using a 2MASS+WISE color-color selection, combined with LAMOST radial velocities, allowing us to efficiently select Sgr stream members with little contamination from field stars. Sgr is a recently infallen, currently disrupting dwarf spheroidal galaxy, with roughly 70% of the luminosity of the Sgr system residing in the tidal streams. With this study, we provide a link between the (known) chemical properties in the intact Sgr core and the significant portion of the Sgr system's luminosity that is estimated to currently reside in the streams. In this talk, we focus on abundances of alpha-elements, but we will also analyze neutron-capture (both r- and s-process) and iron-peak species. We compare our chemical abundances to the few existing measurements in the stream as well as the numerous results in the Sgr core.

  20. Suzaku Observation of the Dwarf Nova V893 Scorpii: The Discovery of a Partial X-Ray Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Koji; Zietsman, E.; Still, M.

    2008-01-01

    V893 Sco is an eclipsing dwarf nova that had attracted little attention from X-ray astronomers until it was proposed as the identification of an RXTE all-sky slew survey (XSS) source. Here we report on the po inted X-ray observations of this object using Suzaku. We confirm V893 Sco to be X-ray bright, whose spectrum is highly absorbed for a dwar f nova. We have also discovered a partial X-ray eclipse in V893 Sco. This is the first time that a partial eclipse is seen in Xray light c urves of a dwarf nova. We have successfully modeled the gross features of the optical and X-ray eclipse light curves using a boundary layer geometry of the X-ray emission region. Future observations may lead to confirmation of this basic picture, and allow us to place tight co nstraints on the size of the X-ray emission region. The partial X-ray eclipse therefore should make V893 Sco a key object in understanding the physics of accretion in quiescent dwarf nova.

  1. Dwarf mistletoe effects on fuel loadings in ponderosa pine forests in northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad Hoffman; Robert Mathiasen; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2007-01-01

    Southwestern dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium vaginatum (Willd.) J. Presl ssp. cryptopodum) infests about 0.9 million ha in the southwestern United States. Several studies suggest that dwarf mistletoes affect forest fuels and fire behavior; however, few studies have quantified these effects. We compared surface fuel loadings and...

  2. A Panchromatic View of Brown Dwarf Aurorae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda, J. Sebastian [University of Colorado Boulder, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, 3665 Discovery Drive, Boulder CO, 80303 (United States); Hallinan, Gregg; Kao, Melodie M. [California Institute of Technology, Department of Astronomy, 1200 E. California Avenue, Pasadena CA, 91125 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Stellar coronal activity has been shown to persist into the low-mass star regime, down to late M-dwarf spectral types. However, there is now an accumulation of evidence suggesting that at the end of the main sequence, there is a transition in the nature of the magnetic activity from chromospheric and coronal to planet-like and auroral, from local impulsive heating via flares and MHD wave dissipation to energy dissipation from strong large-scale magnetospheric current systems. We examine this transition and the prevalence of auroral activity in brown dwarfs through a compilation of multiwavelength surveys of magnetic activity, including radio, X-ray, and optical. We compile the results of those surveys and place their conclusions in the context of auroral emission as a consequence of large-scale magnetospheric current systems that accelerate energetic electron beams and drive the particles to impact the cool atmospheric gas. We explore the different manifestations of auroral phenomena, like H α , in brown dwarf atmospheres and define their distinguishing characteristics. We conclude that large-amplitude photometric variability in the near-infrared is most likely a consequence of clouds in brown dwarf atmospheres, but that auroral activity may be responsible for long-lived stable surface features. We report a connection between auroral H α emission and quiescent radio emission in electron cyclotron maser instability pulsing brown dwarfs, suggesting a potential underlying physical connection between quiescent and auroral emissions. We also discuss the electrodynamic engines powering brown dwarf aurorae and the possible role of satellites around these systems both to power the aurorae and seed the magnetosphere with plasma.

  3. On the occurrence and detectability of Bose-Einstein condensation in helium white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benvenuto, O.G.; Vito, M.A. De

    2011-01-01

    It has been recently proposed that helium white dwarfs may provide promising conditions for the occurrence of the Bose-Einstein condensation. The argument supporting this expectation is that in some conditions attained in the core of these objects, the typical De Broglie wavelength associated with helium nuclei is of the order of the mean distance between neighboring nuclei. In these conditions the system should depart from classical behavior showing quantum effects. As helium nuclei are bosons, they are expected to condense. In order to explore the possibility of detecting the Bose-Einstein condensation in the evolution of helium white dwarfs we have computed a set of models for a variety of stellar masses and values of the condensation temperature. We do not perform a detailed treatment of the condensation process but mimic it by suppressing the nuclei contribution to the equation of state by applying an adequate function. As the cooling of white dwarfs depends on average properties of the whole stellar interior, this procedure should be suitable for exploring the departure of the cooling process from that predicted by the standard treatment. We find that the Bose-Einstein condensation has noticeable, but not dramatic effects on the cooling process only for the most massive white dwarfs compatible with a helium dominated interior ( ≈ 0.50M s un) and very low luminosities (say, Log(L/L s un) < −4.0). These facts lead us to conclude that it seems extremely difficult to find observable signals of the Bose-Einstein condensation. Recently, it has been suggested that the population of helium white dwarfs detected in the globular cluster NGC 6397 is a good candidate for detecting signals of the Bose-Einstein condensation. We find that these stars have masses too low and are too bright to have an already condensed interior

  4. RCB stars from double degenerate white dwarf mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jan; Wiggins, Brandon K.; Marcello, Dominic; Motl, Patrick; Clayton, Geoffrey C.

    2018-01-01

    We have conducted grid based and SPH based hydrodynamic simulations of white dwarf mergers, to investigate the role of dredge-up and mixing during the merger. The goal is to test if sufficiently little 16O can be brought up to the surface to explain the observed 16O to 18O ratio of order unity found in RCB stars. In all simulations, the total mass is ~< 1 M⊙. By initializing both the grid based and the SPH simulations with the same setup, we can compare the results from these different methods. In most of the simulations, more than 0.01 M⊙ of 16O is brought up to the surface. Hence a similar mass of 18O must be produced in order to explain the observed oxygen ratio. However,in SPH simulations where the accretor is a hybrid He/CO white dwarf, much less 16O is brought to the surface, making this an excellent candidate for the progenitor of RCB stars.

  5. FORMATION OF ULTRA-COMPACT BLUE DWARF GALAXIES AND THEIR EVOLUTION INTO NUCLEATED DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    We propose that there is an evolutionary link between ultra-compact blue dwarf galaxies (UCBDs) with active star formation and nucleated dwarfs based on the results of numerical simulations of dwarf–dwarf merging. We consider the observational fact that low-mass dwarfs can be very gas-rich, and thereby investigate the dynamical and chemical evolution of very gas-rich, dissipative dwarf–dwarf mergers. We find that the remnants of dwarf–dwarf mergers can be dominated by new stellar populations formed from the triggered starbursts and consequently can have blue colors and higher metallicities (Z ∼ [0.2–1]Z ⊙ ). We also find that the remnants of these mergers can have rather high mass densities (10 4 M ⊙ pc −3 ) within the central 10 pc and small half-light radii (40−100 pc). The radial stellar structures of some merger remnants are similar to those of nucleated dwarfs. Star formation can continue in nuclear gas disks (R < 100 pc) surrounding stellar galactic nuclei (SGNs) so that the SGNs can finally have multiple stellar populations with different ages and metallicities. These very compact blue remnants can be identified as UCBDs soon after merging and as nucleated dwarfs after the young stars fade. We discuss these results in the context of the origins of metal-rich ultra-compact dwarfs and SGNs

  6. FORMATION OF ULTRA-COMPACT BLUE DWARF GALAXIES AND THEIR EVOLUTION INTO NUCLEATED DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR, M468, The University of Western Australia 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley Western Australia, 6009 (Australia)

    2015-10-10

    We propose that there is an evolutionary link between ultra-compact blue dwarf galaxies (UCBDs) with active star formation and nucleated dwarfs based on the results of numerical simulations of dwarf–dwarf merging. We consider the observational fact that low-mass dwarfs can be very gas-rich, and thereby investigate the dynamical and chemical evolution of very gas-rich, dissipative dwarf–dwarf mergers. We find that the remnants of dwarf–dwarf mergers can be dominated by new stellar populations formed from the triggered starbursts and consequently can have blue colors and higher metallicities (Z ∼ [0.2–1]Z{sub ⊙}). We also find that the remnants of these mergers can have rather high mass densities (10{sup 4} M{sub ⊙} pc{sup −3}) within the central 10 pc and small half-light radii (40−100 pc). The radial stellar structures of some merger remnants are similar to those of nucleated dwarfs. Star formation can continue in nuclear gas disks (R < 100 pc) surrounding stellar galactic nuclei (SGNs) so that the SGNs can finally have multiple stellar populations with different ages and metallicities. These very compact blue remnants can be identified as UCBDs soon after merging and as nucleated dwarfs after the young stars fade. We discuss these results in the context of the origins of metal-rich ultra-compact dwarfs and SGNs.

  7. New Light on Dark Stars Red Dwarfs, Low-Mass Stars, Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, I. Neill

    2005-01-01

    There has been very considerable progress in research into low-mass stars, brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets during the past few years, particularly since the fist edtion of this book was published in 2000. In this new edtion the authors present a comprehensive review of both the astrophysical nature of individual red dwarf and brown dwarf stars and their collective statistical properties as an important Galactic stellar population. Chapters dealing with the observational properies of low-mass dwarfs, the stellar mass function and extrasolar planets have been completely revised. Other chapters have been significantly revised and updated as appropriate, including important new material on observational techniques, stellar acivity, the Galactic halo and field star surveys. The authors detail the many discoveries of new brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets made since publication of the first edition of the book and provide a state-of-the-art review of our current knowledge of very low-mass stars, brown dwarfs a...

  8. The chemical evolution of white dwarf atmospheres: Diffusion and accretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vauclair, G.; Vauclair, S.; Greenstein, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    A study of diffusion processes in white dwarfs is presented. We are especially interested in the estimate of the diffusion time scales for C, N, O, Mg, and Ca along the cooling sequence. The effect of the radiative acceleration is important in hot white dwarfs while in cooler ones the thermal diffusion dominates the gravitational settling. In hot white dwarfs, there should be an observable amount of CNO elements unless they have previously left the stars by a selective wind. Observational tests of this result are discussed. The diffusion time scales are always short compared to the evolutionary time scales. It is shown that in both hydrogen and helium envelopes, the convection zone, even at its maximum depth, is not able to bring back to the stellar surface the metals which have previously diffused downwards. The diffusion alone predicts a complete absence of metals in white dwarf atmospheres and envelopes. As metals are observed in white dwarfs, at least at effective temperatures lower than 15,000 K, there must be some mechanism competing with diffusion. We investigate the competition between diffusion and accretion and propose a general scheme for the chemical evolution of white dwarf atmospheres along the cooling sequence. (orig.)

  9. Discovery of Temperate Earth-Sized Planets Transiting a Nearby Ultracool Dwarf Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehin, Emmanuel; Gillon, Michael; Lederer, Susan M.; Delrez, Laetitia; De Wit, Julien; Burdanov, Artem; Van Grootel, Valerie; Burgasser, Adam; Triaud, Amaury; Demory, Brice-Olivier; hide

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of three short-period Earth-sized planets transiting a nearby ultracool dwarf star using data collected by the Liège TRAPPIST telescope, located in la Silla (Chile). TRAPPIST-1 is an isolated M8.0+/-0.5-type dwarf star at a distance of 12.0+/-0.4 parsecs as measured by its trigonometric parallax, with an age constrained to be > 500 Myr, and with a luminosity, mass, and radius of 0.05%, 8% and 11.5% those of the Sun, respectively. The small size of the host star, only slightly larger than Jupiter, translates into Earth-like radii for the three discovered planets, as deduced from their transit depths. The inner two planets receive four and two times the irradiation of Earth, respectively, placing them close to the inner edge of the habitable zone of the star. Several orbits remain possible for the third planet based on our current data. The infrared brightness of the host star combined with its Jupiter-like size offer the possibility of thoroughly characterizing the components of this nearby planetary system.

  10. Distinguishing CDM dwarfs from SIDM dwarfs in baryonic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Emily; Fitts, Alex B.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Dwarf galaxies in the nearby Universe are the most dark-matter-dominated systems known. They are therefore natural probes of the nature of dark matter, which remains unknown. Our collaboration has performed several high-resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations of isolated dwarf galaxies. We simulate each galaxy in standard cold dark matter (ΛCDM) as well as self-interacting dark matter (SIDM, with a cross section of σ/m ~ 1 cm2/g), both with and without baryons, in order to identify distinguishing characteristics between the two. The simulations are run using GIZMO, a meshless-finite-mass hydrodynamical code, and are part of the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) project. By analyzing both the global properties and inner structure of the dwarfs in varying dark matter prescriptions, we provide a side-by-side comparison of isolated, dark-matter-dominated galaxies at the mass scale where differences in the two models of dark matter are thought to be the most obvious. We find that the edge of classical dwarfs and ultra-faint dwarfs (at stellar masses of ~105 solar masses) provides the clearest window for distinguishing between the two theories. At these low masses, our SIDM galaxies have a cored inner density profile, while their CDM counterparts have “cuspy” centers. The SIDM versions of each galaxy also have measurably lower stellar velocity dispersions than their CDM counterparts. Future observations of ultra faint dwarfs with JWST and 30-m telescopes will be able to discern whether such alternate theories of dark matter are viable.

  11. SURPRISINGLY WEAK MAGNETISM ON YOUNG ACCRETING BROWN DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, A.; Basri, G.; Christensen, U. R.

    2009-01-01

    We have measured the surface magnetic flux on four accreting young brown dwarfs and one nonaccreting young very low mass (VLM) star utilizing high-resolution spectra of absorption lines of the FeH molecule. A magnetic field of 1-2 kG had been proposed for one of the brown dwarfs, Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) J1207334-393254, because of its similarities to higher mass T Tauri stars as manifested in accretion and the presence of a jet. We do not find clear evidence for a kilogauss field in any of our young brown dwarfs but do find a 2 kG field on the young VLM star. Our 3σ upper limit for the magnetic flux in 2MASS J1207334-393254 just reaches 1 kG. We estimate the magnetic field required for accretion in young brown dwarfs given the observed rotations, and find that fields of only a few hundred gauss are sufficient for magnetospheric accretion. This predicted value is less than our observed upper limit. We conclude that magnetic fields in young brown dwarfs are a factor of 5 or more lower than in young stars of about one solar mass, and in older stars with spectral types similar to our young brown dwarfs. It is interesting that, during the first few million years, the fields scale down with mass in line with what is needed for magnetospheric accretion, yet no such scaling is observed at later ages within the same effective temperature range. This scaling is opposite to the trend in rotation, with shorter rotation periods for very young accreting brown dwarfs compared with accreting solar-mass objects (and very low Rossby numbers in all cases). We speculate that in young objects a deeper intrinsic connection may exist between magnetospheric accretion and magnetic field strength, or that magnetic field generation in brown dwarfs may be less efficient than in stars. Neither of these currently has an easy physical explanation.

  12. A SEARCH FOR L/T TRANSITION DWARFS WITH Pan-STARRS1 AND WISE: DISCOVERY OF SEVEN NEARBY OBJECTS INCLUDING TWO CANDIDATE SPECTROSCOPIC VARIABLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, William M. J.; Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Deacon, Niall R.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Redstone, Joshua; Price, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    We present initial results from a wide-field (30,000 deg 2 ) search for L/T transition brown dwarfs within 25 pc using the Pan-STARRS1 and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) surveys. Previous large-area searches have been incomplete for L/T transition dwarfs, because these objects are faint in optical bands and have near-infrared (near-IR) colors that are difficult to distinguish from background stars. To overcome these obstacles, we have cross-matched the Pan-STARRS1 (optical) and WISE (mid-IR) catalogs to produce a unique multi-wavelength database for finding ultracool dwarfs. As part of our initial discoveries, we have identified seven brown dwarfs in the L/T transition within 9-15 pc of the Sun. The L9.5 dwarf PSO J140.2308+45.6487 and the T1.5 dwarf PSO J307.6784+07.8263 (both independently discovered by Mace et al.) show possible spectroscopic variability at the Y and J bands. Two more objects in our sample show evidence of photometric J-band variability, and two others are candidate unresolved binaries based on their spectra. We expect our full search to yield a well-defined, volume-limited sample of L/T transition dwarfs that will include many new targets for study of this complex regime. PSO J307.6784+07.8263 in particular may be an excellent candidate for in-depth study of variability, given its brightness (J = 14.2 mag) and proximity (11 pc)

  13. Activity and Kinematics of White Dwarf-M Dwarf Binaries from the SUPERBLINK Proper Motion Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, Julie N.; Morgan, Dylan P.; West, Andrew A.; Lépine, Sébastien; Thorstensen, John R.

    2017-01-01

    We present an activity and kinematic analysis of high proper motion white dwarf-M dwarf binaries (WD+dMs) found in the SUPERBLINK survey, 178 of which are new identifications. To identify WD+dMs, we developed a UV–optical–IR color criterion and conducted a spectroscopic survey to confirm each candidate binary. For the newly identified systems, we fit the two components using model white dwarf spectra and M dwarf template spectra to determine physical parameters. We use H α chromospheric emission to examine the magnetic activity of the M dwarf in each system, and investigate how its activity is affected by the presence of a white dwarf companion. We find that the fraction of WD+dM binaries with active M dwarfs is significantly higher than their single M dwarf counterparts at early and mid-spectral types. We corroborate previous studies that find high activity fractions at both close and intermediate separations. At more distant separations, the binary fraction appears to approach the activity fraction for single M dwarfs. Using derived radial velocities and the proper motions, we calculate 3D space velocities for the WD+dMs in SUPERBLINK. For the entire SUPERBLINK WD+dMs, we find a large vertical velocity dispersion, indicating a dynamically hotter population compared to high proper motion samples of single M dwarfs. We compare the kinematics for systems with active M dwarfs and those with inactive M dwarfs, and find signatures of asymmetric drift in the inactive sample, indicating that they are drawn from an older population.

  14. Activity and Kinematics of White Dwarf-M Dwarf Binaries from the SUPERBLINK Proper Motion Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Julie N. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Morgan, Dylan P.; West, Andrew A. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Lépine, Sébastien [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place NE, Atlanta, GA, 30303 (United States); Thorstensen, John R., E-mail: jskinner@bu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    We present an activity and kinematic analysis of high proper motion white dwarf-M dwarf binaries (WD+dMs) found in the SUPERBLINK survey, 178 of which are new identifications. To identify WD+dMs, we developed a UV–optical–IR color criterion and conducted a spectroscopic survey to confirm each candidate binary. For the newly identified systems, we fit the two components using model white dwarf spectra and M dwarf template spectra to determine physical parameters. We use H α chromospheric emission to examine the magnetic activity of the M dwarf in each system, and investigate how its activity is affected by the presence of a white dwarf companion. We find that the fraction of WD+dM binaries with active M dwarfs is significantly higher than their single M dwarf counterparts at early and mid-spectral types. We corroborate previous studies that find high activity fractions at both close and intermediate separations. At more distant separations, the binary fraction appears to approach the activity fraction for single M dwarfs. Using derived radial velocities and the proper motions, we calculate 3D space velocities for the WD+dMs in SUPERBLINK. For the entire SUPERBLINK WD+dMs, we find a large vertical velocity dispersion, indicating a dynamically hotter population compared to high proper motion samples of single M dwarfs. We compare the kinematics for systems with active M dwarfs and those with inactive M dwarfs, and find signatures of asymmetric drift in the inactive sample, indicating that they are drawn from an older population.

  15. M dwarfs from the Einstein extended medium sensitivity survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, T.A.; Liebert, J.; Gioia, I.M.; Maccacaro, T.

    1988-01-01

    A complete sample of X-ray selected M dwarfs are presented which were serendipitously detected in the extended Einstein Observatory Medium Sensitivity Survey (MSS). The MSS detected only early M dwarfs (type MO through M5), 84 percent of which were emission stars (i.e., type Me V). It was calculated that the X-ray luminosity function for early M dwarfs with a log Lx greater than 27.6 and, by comparison to optical luminosity functions, find that about 25 percent of all early M dwarfs emit X-rays at a level greater than log Lx = 27.6. This result is compared to luminosity function estimates from optically selected samples and discussed in light of the sample's kinematic and mean age. Also presented is H alpha and Ca II K line fluxes for each member of the sample and it is shown that the surface H alpha and Ca II K luminosities do indeed correlate with Lx. The significance of this effect to theories of chromospheric and coronal heating is explained. 76 references

  16. Galaxy Size Evolution at High Redshift and Surface Brightness Selection Effects: Constraints from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Broadhurst, T. J.; Franx, M.

    2004-08-01

    We use the exceptional depth of the Ultra Deep Field (UDF) and UDF-parallel Advanced Camera for Surveys fields to study the sizes of high-redshift (z~2-6) galaxies and address long-standing questions about possible biases in the cosmic star formation rate due to surface brightness dimming. Contrasting B-, V-, and i-dropout samples culled from the deeper data with those obtained from the shallower Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey fields, we demonstrate that the shallower data are essentially complete at bright magnitudes to z~0.4", >~3 kpc) low surface brightness galaxies are rare. A simple comparison of the half-light radii of the Hubble Deep Field-North + Hubble Deep Field-South U-dropouts with B-, V-, and i-dropouts from the UDF shows that the sizes follow a (1+z)-1.05+/-0.21 scaling toward high redshift. A more rigorous measurement compares different scalings of our U-dropout sample with the mean profiles for a set of intermediate-magnitude (26.0dropouts from the UDF. The best fit is found with a (1+z)-0.94+0.19-0.25 size scaling (for fixed luminosity). This result is then verified by repeating this experiment with different size measures, low-redshift samples, and magnitude ranges. Very similar scalings are found for all comparisons. A robust measurement of size evolution is thereby demonstrated for galaxies from z~6 to 2.5 using data from the UDF. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  17. Universal Dark Halo Scaling Relation for the Dwarf Spheroidal Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kohei; Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Ogiya, Go; Chiba, Masashi; Inoue, Shigeki; Mori, Masao

    2017-07-01

    Motivated by a recently found interesting property of the dark halo surface density within a radius, {r}\\max , giving the maximum circular velocity, {V}\\max , we investigate it for dark halos of the Milky Way’s and Andromeda’s dwarf satellites based on cosmological simulations. We select and analyze the simulated subhalos associated with Milky-Way-sized dark halos and find that the values of their surface densities, {{{Σ }}}{V\\max }, are in good agreement with those for the observed dwarf spheroidal satellites even without employing any fitting procedures. Moreover, all subhalos on the small scales of dwarf satellites are expected to obey the universal relation, irrespective of differences in their orbital evolutions, host halo properties, and observed redshifts. Therefore, we find that the universal scaling relation for dark halos on dwarf galaxy mass scales surely exists and provides us with important clues for understanding fundamental properties of dark halos. We also investigate orbital and dynamical evolutions of subhalos to understand the origin of this universal dark halo relation and find that most subhalos evolve generally along the {r}\\max \\propto {V}\\max sequence, even though these subhalos have undergone different histories of mass assembly and tidal stripping. This sequence, therefore, should be the key feature for understanding the nature of the universality of {{{Σ }}}{V\\max }.

  18. Identification and characterization of low mass stars and brown dwarfs using Virtual Observatory tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberasturi, Miriam

    2015-11-01

    Context: Two thirds of the stars in our galactic neighborhood (d searches. Brown dwarfs (BDs) are self-gravitating objects that do not get enough mass to maintain a sufficiently high temperature in their core for stable hydrogen fusion. They represent the link between low-mass stars and giant planets. Due to their low temperatures, BDs emit significant flux at mid-infrared wavelength which makes this range very adequate to look for this type of objects. The Virtual Observatory (VO) is an international initiative designed to help the astronomical community in the exploitation of the multi-wavelength information that resides in data archives. In the last years the Spanish Virtual Observatory is conducting a number of projects focused on the study of substellar objects taking advantage of Virtual Observatory tools for an easy data access and analysis of large area surveys. This is the framework where this thesis has been carried out. This dissertation addresses three problems in the framework of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs, namely, the search for brown dwarf candidates crossmatching catalogues (Chapter 4), the search for nearby bright M dwarfs and the subsequent spectroscopic characterization (Chapter 5), and a study of binarity in mid to late-T brown dwarfs (Chapter 6); the first two topics use Virtual Observatory tools. Aims and methodology:In the first paper we carried out a search of brown dwarfs in the sky area in common to the WISE, 2MASS Point Source and SDSS catalogues. A VO-workflow with the criteria that must accomplish our candidates was built using STILTS. The workflow returned 138 sources that were visually inspected. For the six new candidates that passed the inspection, proper motions were calculated using the positions and the different observing epochs of the catalogues previously quoted. Effective temperatures were estimated using VOSA and spectral types and distances using appropriate photometric calibrations. In the second publication we

  19. Understanding of variability properties in very low mass stars and brown dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Soumen; Ghosh, Samrat; Khata, Dhrimadri; Joshi, Santosh; Das, Ramkrishna

    2018-04-01

    We report on photometric variability studies of a L3.5 brown dwarf 2MASS J00361617+1821104 (2M0036+18) in the field and of four young brown dwarfs in the star-forming region IC 348. From muti-epoch observations, we found significant periodic variability in 2M0036+18 with a period of 2.66 ± 0.55 hours on one occasion while it seemed to be non-variable on three other occasions. An evolving dust cloud might cause such a scenario. Among four young brown dwarfs of IC 348 in the spectral range M7.25 - M8, one brown dwarf 2MASS J03443921+3208138 shows significant variability. The K-band spectra (2.0-2.4 μm) of nine very low mass stars (M1 - M9 V) are used to characterize the water band index (H20-K2). We found that it is strongly correlated with the surface temperature of M dwarfs.

  20. Youngest Brown Dwarf Yet in a Multiple Stellar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    to sustain stable nuclear fusion of hydrogen. Once they have been formed, they enter into a very long phase of slow contraction. This process releases (potential) energy that is emitted in the form of electromagnetic radiation. Their brightness decreases with time, as they become smaller and smaller and their energy reservoir dwindles. A few dozen "free-floating", isolated Brown Dwarfs have been discovered so far in space. They include members of the well-known, comparatively young Pleiades cluster (120 million years old) and some much older ones (some thousands of million years) only a few light-years away. A typical example is Kelu-1 that was found at ESO in 1997, see PR 07/97. However, despite extensive searches and much invested effort, astronomers have so far only found three Brown Dwarfs that have been confirmed as companions to normal stars: Gl 229 B , G196-3 B , and Gl 570 D . The younger a Brown Dwarf is, the more luminous it is, and the nearer it is to us, the brighter it appears in the sky. Old Brown Dwarfs are intrinsically so faint that, with the currently available instruments, they can only be found if they are nearby. It is therefore no surprise that the known, nearby Brown Dwarfs are generally older than the more distant ones, e.g. those found in the Pleiades. A programme to find young Brown Dwarfs It is on this background, that the international astronomer team [1] is now searching for young Brown Dwarfs that are companions to young, nearby stars. However, young stars are quite rare in the solar neighbourhood. Only a few were known before the very successful ROSAT X-ray survey that discovered about 100 young and nearby stars, less than 100 million years old and within ~ 300 light-years distance. The new research programme attempts to find brown dwarf companions to these and other young and nearby stars. For this, state-of-the-art infrared imaging cameras are used at the 3.6-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) with the SOFI (and SHARP) instrument on La

  1. The bright-bright and bright-dark mode coupling-based planar metamaterial for plasmonic EIT-like effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Meng, Hongyun; Chen, Zhangjie; Li, Xianping; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Faqiang; Wei, Zhongchao; Tan, Chunhua; Huang, Xuguang; Li, Shuti

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel planar metamaterial structure for the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like effect, which consists of a split-ring resonator (SRR) and a pair of metal strips. The simulated results indicate that a single transparency window can be realized in the symmetry situation, which originates from the bright-bright mode coupling. Further, a dual-band EIT-like effect can be achieved in the asymmetry situation, which is due to the bright-bright mode coupling and bright-dark mode coupling, respectively. Different EIT-like effect can be simultaneously achieved in the proposed structure with the different situations. It is of certain significance for the study of EIT-like effect.

  2. Activity and Kinematics of White Dwarf-M Dwarf Binaries from the SUPERBLINK Proper Motion Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Julie N.; Morgan, Dylan P.; West, Andrew A.; Lépine, Sébastien; Thorstensen, John R.

    2017-09-01

    We present an activity and kinematic analysis of high proper motion white dwarf-M dwarf binaries (WD+dMs) found in the SUPERBLINK survey, 178 of which are new identifications. To identify WD+dMs, we developed a UV-optical-IR color criterion and conducted a spectroscopic survey to confirm each candidate binary. For the newly identified systems, we fit the two components using model white dwarf spectra and M dwarf template spectra to determine physical parameters. We use Hα chromospheric emission to examine the magnetic activity of the M dwarf in each system, and investigate how its activity is affected by the presence of a white dwarf companion. We find that the fraction of WD+dM binaries with active M dwarfs is significantly higher than their single M dwarf counterparts at early and mid-spectral types. We corroborate previous studies that find high activity fractions at both close and intermediate separations. At more distant separations, the binary fraction appears to approach the activity fraction for single M dwarfs. Using derived radial velocities and the proper motions, we calculate 3D space velocities for the WD+dMs in SUPERBLINK. For the entire SUPERBLINK WD+dMs, we find a large vertical velocity dispersion, indicating a dynamically hotter population compared to high proper motion samples of single M dwarfs. We compare the kinematics for systems with active M dwarfs and those with inactive M dwarfs, and find signatures of asymmetric drift in the inactive sample, indicating that they are drawn from an older population. Based on observations obtained at the MDM Observatory operated by Dartmouth College, Columbia University, The Ohio State University, and the University of Michigan.

  3. POLARIMETRIC DETECTION OF EXOPLANETS TRANSITING T AND L BROWN DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, Sujan

    2016-01-01

    While scattering of light by atoms and molecules yields large amounts of polarization at the B-band of both T and L dwarfs, scattering by dust grains in the cloudy atmosphere of L dwarfs gives rise to significant polarization at the far-optical and infrared wavelengths where these objects are much brighter. However, the observable disk-averaged polarization should be zero if the clouds are uniformly distributed and the object is spherically symmetric. Therefore, in order to explain the observed large polarization of several L dwarfs, rotation-induced oblateness or horizontally inhomogeneous cloud distribution in the atmosphere is invoked. On the other hand, when an extra-solar planet of Earth-size or larger transits the brown dwarf along the line of sight, the asymmetry induced during the transit gives rise to a net non-zero, time-dependent polarization. Employing atmospheric models for a range of effective temperature and surface gravity appropriate for T and L dwarfs, I derive the time-dependent polarization profiles of these objects during the transit phase and estimate the peak amplitude of polarization that occurs during the inner contact points of the transit ingress/egress phase. It is found that peak polarization in the range of 0.2%–1.0% at I and J band may arise of cloudy L dwarfs occulted by Earth-size or larger exoplanets. Such an amount of polarization is higher than what can be produced by rotation-induced oblateness of even rapidly rotating L dwarfs. Hence, I suggest that time-resolved imaging polarization could be a potential technique for detecting transiting exoplanets around L dwarfs.

  4. POLARIMETRIC DETECTION OF EXOPLANETS TRANSITING T AND L BROWN DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, Sujan, E-mail: sujan@iiap.res.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala 2nd Block, Bangalore 560 034 (India)

    2016-10-01

    While scattering of light by atoms and molecules yields large amounts of polarization at the B-band of both T and L dwarfs, scattering by dust grains in the cloudy atmosphere of L dwarfs gives rise to significant polarization at the far-optical and infrared wavelengths where these objects are much brighter. However, the observable disk-averaged polarization should be zero if the clouds are uniformly distributed and the object is spherically symmetric. Therefore, in order to explain the observed large polarization of several L dwarfs, rotation-induced oblateness or horizontally inhomogeneous cloud distribution in the atmosphere is invoked. On the other hand, when an extra-solar planet of Earth-size or larger transits the brown dwarf along the line of sight, the asymmetry induced during the transit gives rise to a net non-zero, time-dependent polarization. Employing atmospheric models for a range of effective temperature and surface gravity appropriate for T and L dwarfs, I derive the time-dependent polarization profiles of these objects during the transit phase and estimate the peak amplitude of polarization that occurs during the inner contact points of the transit ingress/egress phase. It is found that peak polarization in the range of 0.2%–1.0% at I and J band may arise of cloudy L dwarfs occulted by Earth-size or larger exoplanets. Such an amount of polarization is higher than what can be produced by rotation-induced oblateness of even rapidly rotating L dwarfs. Hence, I suggest that time-resolved imaging polarization could be a potential technique for detecting transiting exoplanets around L dwarfs.

  5. A SEARCH FOR RAPIDLY ACCRETING WHITE DWARFS IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepo, Kelly; Van Kerkwijk, Marten

    2013-01-01

    The nature of the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is still a mystery. While plausible candidates are known for both the single-degenerate and double-degenerate models, the observed numbers fall significantly short of what is required to reproduce the SNe Ia rate. Some of the most promising single-degenerate Type Ia progenitors are recurrent novae and super-soft sources (SSS). White dwarfs (WDs) with higher mass transfer rates can also be SN Ia progenitors. For these rapidly accreting white dwarfs (RAWDs), more material than is needed for steady burning accretes on the WD, and extends the WD's photosphere. Unlike SSS, such objects will likely not be detectable at soft X-ray energies, but will be bright at longer wavelengths, such as the far-ultraviolet (UV). Possible examples include LMC N66 and the V Sagittae stars. We present a survey using multi-object spectrographs looking for RAWDs in the central core of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), from objects selected to be bright in the far-UV and with blue far UV – V colors. While we find some unusual objects, and recover known planetary nebula and Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars, we detect no candidate RAWD. The upper limits from this non-detection depend on our expectations of what an RAWD should look like, as well assumptions about the internal extinction of the SMC. Assuming they resemble LMC N66 or fainter versions of WR stars we set an upper limit of 10-14 RAWDs in the SMC. However, our survey is unlikely to detect objects like V Sge, and hence we cannot set meaningful upper limits if RAWDs generally resemble V Sge.

  6. A SEARCH FOR RAPIDLY ACCRETING WHITE DWARFS IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepo, Kelly; Van Kerkwijk, Marten, E-mail: lepo@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: mhvk@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 Saint George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The nature of the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is still a mystery. While plausible candidates are known for both the single-degenerate and double-degenerate models, the observed numbers fall significantly short of what is required to reproduce the SNe Ia rate. Some of the most promising single-degenerate Type Ia progenitors are recurrent novae and super-soft sources (SSS). White dwarfs (WDs) with higher mass transfer rates can also be SN Ia progenitors. For these rapidly accreting white dwarfs (RAWDs), more material than is needed for steady burning accretes on the WD, and extends the WD's photosphere. Unlike SSS, such objects will likely not be detectable at soft X-ray energies, but will be bright at longer wavelengths, such as the far-ultraviolet (UV). Possible examples include LMC N66 and the V Sagittae stars. We present a survey using multi-object spectrographs looking for RAWDs in the central core of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), from objects selected to be bright in the far-UV and with blue far UV - V colors. While we find some unusual objects, and recover known planetary nebula and Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars, we detect no candidate RAWD. The upper limits from this non-detection depend on our expectations of what an RAWD should look like, as well assumptions about the internal extinction of the SMC. Assuming they resemble LMC N66 or fainter versions of WR stars we set an upper limit of 10-14 RAWDs in the SMC. However, our survey is unlikely to detect objects like V Sge, and hence we cannot set meaningful upper limits if RAWDs generally resemble V Sge.

  7. An unusual microwave flare with 56 second oscillations on the M dwarf L726-8 A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, D. E.; Dulk, G. A.; Linsky, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Using the VLA, an unusual flare event has been observed on L726-8 A (dM5.5e), the primary star in the M dwarf system containing the prototype flare star UV Cet. This flare had a peak flux of 8 mJy at 6 cm and a corresponding brightness temperature greater than 10 to the 10th K, was almost entirely right-hand circularly polarized, showed large flux variations on the 10 s time resolution of the VLA, and exhibited quasi-periodic oscillations with a period of about 56 + or - 5 s. While periodic flux variations have been detected during solar flares and RS CVn type stellar flares, this is apparently the first detection of periodicity in microwaves from M dwarf stars. It is proposed that the observed radiation was due to maser action, probably an electron maser, and that the energy release mechanism was modulated.

  8. Mid-Infrared Observations of the White Dwarf Brown Dwarf Binary GD 1400

    OpenAIRE

    Farihi, J.; Zuckerman, B.; Becklin, E. E.

    2005-01-01

    Fluxes are measured for the DA white dwarf plus brown dwarf pair GD 1400 with the Infrared Array Camera on the {\\em Spitzer Space Telescope}. GD 1400 displays an infrared excess over the entire $3-8\\mu$m region consistent with the presence of a mid- to late-type L dwarf companion. A discussion is given regarding current knowledge of this unique system.

  9. Dynamics of Dwarf Galaxies Disfavor Stellar-Mass Black Holes as Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koushiappas, Savvas M; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-07-28

    We study the effects of black hole dark matter on the dynamical evolution of stars in dwarf galaxies. We find that mass segregation leads to a depletion of stars in the center of dwarf galaxies and the appearance of a ring in the projected stellar surface density profile. Using Segue 1 as an example we show that current observations of the projected surface stellar density rule out at the 99.9% confidence level the possibility that more than 6% of the dark matter is composed of black holes with a mass of few tens of solar masses.

  10. Stark Broadening and White Dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Milan S.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available White dwarf and pre-white dwarfs are the best types of stars for the application of Stark broadening research results in astrophysics, since in the atmospheres of these stars physical conditions are very favorable for this line broadening mechanism - in hot hydrogen-deficient white dwarfs and pre-white dwarfs Teff = 75 000–180 000 K and log g = 5.5–8 [cgs]. Even for much cooler DA and DB white dwarfs with the typical effective temperatures 10 000-20 000 K, Stark broadening is usually the dominant broadening mechanism. In this review, Stark broadening in white dwarf spectra is considered, and the attention is drawn to the STARK-B database (http://stark-b.obspm.fr/, containing the parameters needed for analysis and synthesis of white dwarf spectra, as well as for the collective efforts to develop the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center.

  11. Cloud Atlas: Rotational Modulations in the L/T Transition Brown Dwarf Companion HN Peg B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yifan; Apai, Daniel; Metchev, Stanimir; Lew, Ben W. P.; Schneider, Glenn; Marley, Mark S.; Karalidi, Theodora; Manjavacas, Elena; Bedin, Luigi R.; Cowan, Nicolas B.; hide

    2018-01-01

    Time-resolved observations of brown dwarfs' rotational modulations provide powerful insights into the properties of condensate clouds in ultra-cool atmospheres. Multi-wavelength light curves reveal cloud vertical structures, condensate particle sizes, and cloud morphology, which directly constrain condensate cloud and atmospheric circulation models. We report results from Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared G141 taken in six consecutive orbits observations of HNPeg B, an L/T transition brown dwarf companion to a G0V type star. The best-fit sine wave to the 1.1 to 1.7 micron broadband light curve has the amplitude of and period of hour. The modulation amplitude has no detectable wavelength dependence except in the 1.4 micron water absorption band, indicating that the characteristic condensate particle sizes are large (greater than 1 micron). We detect significantly (4.4 sigma) lower modulation amplitude in the 1.4 micron water absorption band, and find that HN Peg B's spectral modulation resembles those of early T type brown dwarfs. We also describe a new empirical interpolation method to remove spectral contamination from the bright host star. This method may be applied in other high-contrast time-resolved observations with WFC3.

  12. THE CORONAL ABUNDANCE ANOMALIES OF M DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Brian E.; Laming, J. Martin [Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science Division, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Karovska, Margarita, E-mail: brian.wood@nrl.navy.mil [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We analyze Chandra X-ray spectra of the M0 V+M0 V binary GJ 338. As quantified by X-ray surface flux, these are the most inactive M dwarfs ever observed with X-ray grating spectroscopy. We focus on measuring coronal abundances, in particular searching for evidence of abundance anomalies related to first ionization potential (FIP). In the solar corona and wind, low-FIP elements are overabundant, which is the so-called FIP effect. For other stars, particularly very active ones, an 'inverse FIP effect' is often observed, with low-FIP elements being underabundant. For both members of the GJ 338 binary, we find evidence for a modest inverse FIP effect, consistent with expectations from a previously reported correlation between spectral type and FIP bias. This amounts to strong evidence that all M dwarfs should exhibit the inverse FIP effect phenomenon, not just the active ones. We take the first step toward modeling the inverse FIP phenomenon in M dwarfs, building on past work that has demonstrated that MHD waves coursing through coronal loops can lead to a ponderomotive force that fractionates elements in a manner consistent with the FIP effect. We demonstrate that in certain circumstances this model can also lead to an inverse FIP effect, pointing the way to more detailed modeling of M dwarf coronal abundances in the future.

  13. The Coronal Abundance Anomalies of M Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brian E.; Laming, J. Martin; Karovska, Margarita

    2012-07-01

    We analyze Chandra X-ray spectra of the M0 V+M0 V binary GJ 338. As quantified by X-ray surface flux, these are the most inactive M dwarfs ever observed with X-ray grating spectroscopy. We focus on measuring coronal abundances, in particular searching for evidence of abundance anomalies related to first ionization potential (FIP). In the solar corona and wind, low-FIP elements are overabundant, which is the so-called FIP effect. For other stars, particularly very active ones, an "inverse FIP effect" is often observed, with low-FIP elements being underabundant. For both members of the GJ 338 binary, we find evidence for a modest inverse FIP effect, consistent with expectations from a previously reported correlation between spectral type and FIP bias. This amounts to strong evidence that all M dwarfs should exhibit the inverse FIP effect phenomenon, not just the active ones. We take the first step toward modeling the inverse FIP phenomenon in M dwarfs, building on past work that has demonstrated that MHD waves coursing through coronal loops can lead to a ponderomotive force that fractionates elements in a manner consistent with the FIP effect. We demonstrate that in certain circumstances this model can also lead to an inverse FIP effect, pointing the way to more detailed modeling of M dwarf coronal abundances in the future.

  14. THE CORONAL ABUNDANCE ANOMALIES OF M DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Brian E.; Laming, J. Martin; Karovska, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    We analyze Chandra X-ray spectra of the M0 V+M0 V binary GJ 338. As quantified by X-ray surface flux, these are the most inactive M dwarfs ever observed with X-ray grating spectroscopy. We focus on measuring coronal abundances, in particular searching for evidence of abundance anomalies related to first ionization potential (FIP). In the solar corona and wind, low-FIP elements are overabundant, which is the so-called FIP effect. For other stars, particularly very active ones, an 'inverse FIP effect' is often observed, with low-FIP elements being underabundant. For both members of the GJ 338 binary, we find evidence for a modest inverse FIP effect, consistent with expectations from a previously reported correlation between spectral type and FIP bias. This amounts to strong evidence that all M dwarfs should exhibit the inverse FIP effect phenomenon, not just the active ones. We take the first step toward modeling the inverse FIP phenomenon in M dwarfs, building on past work that has demonstrated that MHD waves coursing through coronal loops can lead to a ponderomotive force that fractionates elements in a manner consistent with the FIP effect. We demonstrate that in certain circumstances this model can also lead to an inverse FIP effect, pointing the way to more detailed modeling of M dwarf coronal abundances in the future.

  15. Dwarf Mice and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masternak, Michal M; Darcy, Justin; Victoria, Berta; Bartke, Andrzej

    2018-01-01

    Dwarf mice have been studied for many decades, however, the focus of these studies shifted in 1996 when it was shown by Brown-Borg and her coworkers that Ames dwarf (Prop1 df ) mice are exceptionally long-lived. Since then, Snell dwarf (Pit1 dw ) and growth hormone receptor knockout (GHR-KO, a.k.a. Laron dwarf) mice were also shown to be exceptionally long-lived, presumably due to their growth hormone (GH)-deficiency or -resistance, respectively. What is of equal importance in these dwarf mice is their extended health span, that is, these animals have a longer period of life lived free of frailty and age-related diseases. This review article focuses on recent studies conducted in these dwarf mice, which concerned brown and white adipose tissue biology, microRNA (miRNA) profiling, as well as early-life dietary and hormonal interventions. Results of these studies identify novel mechanisms linking reduced GH action with extensions of both life span and health span. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Benchmarking Brown Dwarf Models With a Non-irradiated Transiting Brown Dwarf in Praesepe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Thomas; Marley, Mark; Line, Michael; Gizis, John

    2018-05-01

    We wish to use 9.4 hours of Spitzer time to observe two eclipses, one each at 3.6um and 4.5um, of the transiting brown dwarf AD 3116b. AD 3116b is a 54.2+/-4.3 MJ, 1.08+/-0.07 RJ object on a 1.98 day orbit about a 3200K M-dwarf. Uniquely, AD 3116 and its host star are both members of Praesepe, a 690+/-60 Myr old open cluster. AD 3116b is thus one of two transiting brown dwarfs for which we have a robust isochronal age that is not dependent upon brown dwarf evolutionary models, and the youngest brown dwarf for which this is the case. Importantly, the flux AD 3116b receives from its host star is only 0.7% of its predicted internal luminosity (Saumon & Marley 2008). This makes AD 3116b the first known transiting brown dwarf that simultaneously has a well-defined age, and that receives a negligible amount of external irradiation, and a unique laboratory to test radius and luminosity predictions from brown dwarf evolutionary models. Our goal is to measure the emission from the brown dwarf. AD 3116b should have large, 25 mmag, eclipse depths in the Spitzer bandpasses, and we expect to measure them with a precision of +/-0.50 mmag at 3.6um and +/-0.54 mmag at 4.5um. This will allow us to make measure AD 3116b?s internal effective temperature to +/-40K. We will also use the upcoming Gaia DR2 parallaxes to measure AD 3116b's absolute IRAC magnitudes and color, and hence determine the cloud properties of the atmosphere. As the only known brown dwarf with an independently measured mass, radius, and age, Spitzer measurements of AD 3116b's luminosity and clouds will provide a critical benchmark for brown dwarf observation and theory.

  17. The Ital-FLAMES survey of the Sagittarius dwarf Spheroidal galaxy. I. Chemical abundances of bright RGB stars

    OpenAIRE

    Monaco, L.; Bellazzini, M.; Bonifacio, P.; Ferraro, F. R.; Marconi, G.; Pancino, E.; Sbordone, L.; Zaggia, S.

    2005-01-01

    We present iron and $\\alpha$ element (Mg, Ca, Ti) abundances for a sample of 15 Red Giant Branch stars belonging to the main body of the Sagittarius dwarf Spheroidal galaxy. Abundances have been obtained from spectra collected using the high resolution spectrograph FLAMES-UVES mounted at the VLT. Stars of our sample have a mean metallicity of [Fe/H]=-0.41$\\pm$0.20 with a metal poor tail extending to [Fe/H]=-1.52. The $\\alpha$ element abundance ratios are slightly subsolar for metallicities hi...

  18. Marvel-ous Dwarfs: Results from Four Heroically Large Simulated Volumes of Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Ferah; Brooks, Alyson; Weisz, Daniel; Bellovary, Jillian; Christensen, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    We present results from high resolution, fully cosmological simulations of cosmic sheets that contain many dwarf galaxies. Together, they create the largest collection of simulated dwarf galaxies to date, with z=0 stellar masses comparable to the LMC or smaller. In total, we have simulated almost 100 luminous dwarf galaxies, forming a sample of simulated dwarfs which span a wide range of physical (stellar and halo mass) and evolutionary properties (merger history). We show how they can be calibrated against a wealth of observations of nearby galaxies including star formation histories, HI masses and kinematics, as well as stellar metallicities. We present preliminary results answering the following key questions: What is the slope of the stellar mass function at extremely low masses? Do halos with HI and no stars exist? What is the scatter in the stellar to halo mass relationship as a function of dwarf mass? What drives the scatter? With this large suite, we are beginning to statistically characterize dwarf galaxies and identify the types and numbers of outliers to expect.

  19. From strange stars to strange dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.; Kettner, C.; Weber, F.

    1995-01-01

    We determine all possible equilibrium sequences of compact strange-matter stars with nuclear crusts, which range from massive strange stars to strange white dwarf endash like objects (strange dwarfs). The properties of such stars are compared with those of their nonstrange counterparts emdash neutron stars and ordinary white dwarfs. The main emphasis of this paper is on strange dwarfs, which we divide into two distinct categories. The first one consists of a core of strange matter enveloped within ordinary white dwarf matter. Such stars are hydrostatically stable with or without the strange core and are therefore referred to as open-quote open-quote trivial close-quote close-quote strange dwarfs. This is different for the second category which forms an entirely new class of dwarf stars that contain nuclear material up to 4x10 4 times denser than in ordinary white dwarfs of average mass, M∼0.6 M circle-dot , and still about 400 times denser than in the densest white dwarfs. The entire family of such dwarfs, denoted dense strange dwarfs, owes its hydrostatic stability to the strange core. A striking features of strange dwarfs is that the entire sequence from the maximum-mass strange star to the maximum-mass strange dwarf is stable to radial oscillations. The minimum-mass star is only conditionally stable, and the sequences on both sides are stable. Such a stable, continuous connection does not exist between ordinary white dwarfs and neutron stars, which are known to be separated by a broad range of unstable stars. We find an expansive range of very low mass (planetary-like) strange-matter stars (masses even below 10 -4 M circle-dot are possible) that arise as natural dark-matter candidates, which if abundant enough in our Galaxy, should be seen in the gravitational microlensing searches that are presently being performed. copyright 1995 The American Astronomical Society

  20. A SEARCH FOR L/T TRANSITION DWARFS WITH Pan-STARRS1 AND WISE: DISCOVERY OF SEVEN NEARBY OBJECTS INCLUDING TWO CANDIDATE SPECTROSCOPIC VARIABLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, William M. J.; Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Deacon, Niall R. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Dupuy, Trent J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Redstone, Joshua [Facebook, 335 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10017-4677 (United States); Price, P. A., E-mail: wbest@ifa.hawaii.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    We present initial results from a wide-field (30,000 deg{sup 2}) search for L/T transition brown dwarfs within 25 pc using the Pan-STARRS1 and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) surveys. Previous large-area searches have been incomplete for L/T transition dwarfs, because these objects are faint in optical bands and have near-infrared (near-IR) colors that are difficult to distinguish from background stars. To overcome these obstacles, we have cross-matched the Pan-STARRS1 (optical) and WISE (mid-IR) catalogs to produce a unique multi-wavelength database for finding ultracool dwarfs. As part of our initial discoveries, we have identified seven brown dwarfs in the L/T transition within 9-15 pc of the Sun. The L9.5 dwarf PSO J140.2308+45.6487 and the T1.5 dwarf PSO J307.6784+07.8263 (both independently discovered by Mace et al.) show possible spectroscopic variability at the Y and J bands. Two more objects in our sample show evidence of photometric J-band variability, and two others are candidate unresolved binaries based on their spectra. We expect our full search to yield a well-defined, volume-limited sample of L/T transition dwarfs that will include many new targets for study of this complex regime. PSO J307.6784+07.8263 in particular may be an excellent candidate for in-depth study of variability, given its brightness (J = 14.2 mag) and proximity (11 pc)

  1. Photometry of the long period dwarf nova GY Hya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Albert; Monard, Berto

    2017-08-01

    Although comparatively bright, the cataclysmic variable GY Hya has not attracted much attention in the past. As part of a project to better characterize such systems photometrically, we observed light curves in white light, each spanning several hours, at Bronberg Observatory, South Africa, in 2004 and 2005, and at the Observatório do Pico dos Dias, Brazil, in 2014 and 2016. These data permit to study orbital modulations and their variations from season to season. The orbital period, already known from spectroscopic observations of Peters and Thorstensen (2005), is confirmed through strong ellipsoidal variations of the mass donor star in the system and the presence of eclipses of both components. A refined period of 0.34723972 (6) days and revised ephemeries are derived. Seasonal changes in the average orbital light curve can qualitatively be explained by variations of the contribution of a hot spot to the system light together with changes of the disk radius. The amplitude of the ellipsoidal variations and the eclipse contact phases permit to put some constraints on the mass ratio, orbital inclination and the relative brightness of the primary and secondary components. There are some indications that the disk radius during quiescence, expressed in units of the component separation, is smaller than in other dwarf novae.

  2. Hubble Space Telescope Imaging and Spectral Analysis of Two Brown Dwarf Binaries at the L Dwarf/T Dwarf Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Gagliuffi, Daniella C. Bardalez; Gizis, John E.

    2010-01-01

    We present a detailed examination of the brown dwarf multiples 2MASS J08503593+1057156 and 2MASS J17281150+3948593, both suspected of harboring components that straddle the L dwarf/T dwarf transition. Resolved photometry from Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS show opposite trends in the relative colors of the components, with the secondary of 2MASS J0850+1057 being redder than its primary, while that of 2MASS J1728+3948 is bluer. We determine near-infrared component types by matching combined-lig...

  3. THE HAWAII INFRARED PARALLAX PROGRAM. II. YOUNG ULTRACOOL FIELD DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Dupuy, Trent J. [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Astronomy, 2515 Speedway C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Allers, Katelyn N., E-mail: mliu@ifa.hawaii.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    We present a large, uniform analysis of young (≈10–150 Myr) ultracool dwarfs, based on new high-precision infrared (IR) parallaxes for 68 objects. We find that low-gravity (vl-g) late-M and L dwarfs form a continuous sequence in IR color–magnitude diagrams, separate from the field population and from current theoretical models. These vl-g objects also appear distinct from young substellar (brown dwarf and exoplanet) companions, suggesting that the two populations may have a different range of physical properties. In contrast, at the L/T transition, young, old, and spectrally peculiar objects all span a relatively narrow range in near-IR absolute magnitudes. At a given spectral type, the IR absolute magnitudes of young objects can be offset from ordinary field dwarfs, with the largest offsets occurring in the Y and J bands for late-M dwarfs (brighter than the field) and mid-/late-L dwarfs (fainter than the field). Overall, low-gravity (vl-g) objects have the most uniform photometric behavior, while intermediate gravity (int-g) objects are more diverse, suggesting a third governing parameter beyond spectral type and gravity class. We examine the moving group membership for all young ultracool dwarfs with parallaxes, changing the status of 23 objects (including 8 previously identified planetary-mass candidates) and fortifying the status of another 28 objects. We use our resulting age-calibrated sample to establish empirical young isochrones and show a declining frequency of vl-g objects relative to int-g objects with increasing age. Notable individual objects in our sample include high-velocity (≳100 km s{sup −1}) int-g objects, very red late-L dwarfs with high surface gravities, candidate disk-bearing members of the MBM20 cloud and β  Pic moving group, and very young distant interlopers. Finally, we provide a comprehensive summary of the absolute magnitudes and spectral classifications of young ultracool dwarfs, using a combined sample of 102

  4. Physics of white dwarf stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, D.; Chanmugam, G. (Louisiana State Univ., New Orleans, LA (USA))

    1990-07-01

    White dwarf stars, compact objects with extremely high interior densities, are the most common end product in the evolution of stars. In this paper we review the history of their discovery, and of the realisation that their structure is determined by the physics of the degenerate electron gas. Spectral types and surface chemical composition show a complicated pattern dominated by diffusion processes and their interaction with accretion, convection and mass loss. While this interaction is not completely understood in all its detail at present, the study may ultimately lead to important constraints on the theory of stellar evolution in general. Variability, caused by non-radial oscillations of the star, is a common phenomenon and is shown to be a powerful probe of the structure of deeper layers that are not directly accessible to observation. Very strong magnetic fields detected in a small fraction of white dwarfs offer a unique opportunity to study the behaviour of atoms under conditions that cannot be simulated in terrestrial laboratories. (author).

  5. Brown dwarfs as dark galactic halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.C.; Walker, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that the dark matter in galactic halos can consist of brown dwarf stars is considered. The radiative signature for such halos consisting solely of brown dwarfs is calculated, and the allowed range of brown dwarf masses, the initial mass function (IMF), the stellar properties, and the density distribution of the galactic halo are discussed. The prediction emission from the halo is compared with existing observations. It is found that, for any IMF of brown dwarfs below the deuterium burning limit, brown dwarf halos are consistent with observations. Brown dwarf halos cannot, however, explain the recently observed near-IR background. It is shown that future satellite missions will either detect brown dwarf halos or place tight constraints on the allowed range of the IMF. 30 refs

  6. Magnetically gated accretion in an accreting 'non-magnetic' white dwarf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaringi, S; Maccarone, T J; D'Angelo, C; Knigge, C; Groot, P J

    2017-12-13

    White dwarfs are often found in binary systems with orbital periods ranging from tens of minutes to hours in which they can accrete gas from their companion stars. In about 15 per cent of these binaries, the magnetic field of the white dwarf is strong enough (at 10 6 gauss or more) to channel the accreted matter along field lines onto the magnetic poles. The remaining systems are referred to as 'non-magnetic', because until now there has been no evidence that they have a magnetic field that is strong enough to affect the accretion dynamics. Here we report an analysis of archival optical observations of the 'non-magnetic' accreting white dwarf in the binary system MV Lyrae, whose light curve displays quasi-periodic bursts of about 30 minutes duration roughly every 2 hours. The timescale and amplitude of these bursts indicate the presence of an unstable, magnetically regulated accretion mode, which in turn implies the existence of magnetically gated accretion, in which disk material builds up around the magnetospheric boundary (at the co-rotation radius) and then accretes onto the white dwarf, producing bursts powered by the release of gravitational potential energy. We infer a surface magnetic field strength for the white dwarf in MV Lyrae of between 2 × 10 4 gauss and 1 × 10 5 gauss, too low to be detectable by other current methods. Our discovery provides a new way of studying the strength and evolution of magnetic fields in accreting white dwarfs and extends the connections between accretion onto white dwarfs, young stellar objects and neutron stars, for which similar magnetically gated accretion cycles have been identified.

  7. Plasmonic EIT-like switching in bright-dark-bright plasmon resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junxue; Wang, Pei; Chen, Chuncong; Lu, Yonghua; Ming, Hai; Zhan, Qiwen

    2011-03-28

    In this paper we report the study of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission in the bright-dark-bright plasmon resonators. It is demonstrated that the interferences between the dark plasmons excited by two bright plasmon resonators can be controlled by the incident light polarization. The constructive interference strengthens the coupling between the bright and dark resonators, leading to a more prominent EIT-like transparency window of the metamaterial. In contrary, destructive interference suppresses the coupling between the bright and dark resonators, destroying the interference pathway that forms the EIT-like transmission. Based on this observation, the plasmonic EIT switching can be realized by changing the polarization of incident light. This phenomenon may find applications in optical switching and plasmon-based information processing.

  8. CLASSIFICATION OF FIELD DWARFS AND GIANTS IN RAVE AND ITS USE IN STELLAR STREAM DETECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klement, R. J.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Rix, H.-W.; Smith, K. W.; Fuchs, B.

    2011-01-01

    Samples of bright stars, as they emerge from surveys such as RAVE, contain comparable fractions of dwarf and giant stars. An efficient separation of these two luminosity classes is therefore important, especially for studies in which distances are estimated through photometric parallax relations. We use the available spectroscopic log g estimates from the second RAVE data release (DR2) to assign each star a probability for being a dwarf or subgiant/giant based on mixture model fits to the log g distribution in different color bins. We further attempt to use these stars as a labeled training set in order to classify stars which lack log g estimates into dwarfs and giants with a Support Vector Machine algorithm. We assess the performance of this classification against different choices of the input feature vector. In particular, we use different combinations of reduced proper motions, 2MASS JHK, DENIS IJK, and USNO-B B2R2 apparent magnitudes. Our study shows that-for our color ranges-the infrared bands alone provide no relevant information to separate dwarfs and giants. Even when optical bands and reduced proper motions are added, the fraction of true giants classified as dwarfs (the contamination) remains above 20%. Using only the dwarfs with available spectroscopic log g and distance estimates (the latter from Breddels et al.), we then repeat the stream search by Klementet al. (KFR08), which assumed that all stars were dwarfs and claimed the discovery of a new stellar stream at V ∼ -160 km s -1 in a sample of 7015 stars from RAVE DR1. The existence of the KFR08 stream has been supported by two recent studies using other independent data sets. Our re-analysis of the pure DR2 dwarf sample exhibits an overdensity of five stars at the phase-space position of the KFR08 stream, with a metallicity distribution that appears inconsistent with that of stars at comparably low rotational velocities. Compared to several smooth Milky Way models, the mean standardized deviation

  9. Testing Gravity Using Dwarf Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Sakstein, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Generic scalar-tensor theories of gravity predict deviations from Newtonian physics inside astrophysical bodies. In this paper, we point out that low mass stellar objects, red and brown dwarf stars, are excellent probes of these theories. We calculate two important and potentially observable quantities: the radius of brown dwarfs and the minimum mass for hydrogen burning in red dwarfs. The brown dwarf radius can differ significantly from the GR prediction and upcoming surveys that probe the m...

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CONCH-SHELL catalog of nearby M dwarfs (Gaidos+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidos, E.; Mann, A. W.; Lepine, S.; Buccino, A.; James, D.; Ansdell, M.; Petrucci, R.; Mauas, P.; Hilton, E. J.

    2015-04-01

    Lepinet et al. 2011 (J/AJ/142/138) selected candidate M dwarfs as stars that were (i) bright (J2.7), (iii) had absolute magnitudes or reduced proper motions, proxies for absolute magnitudes, consistent with the main sequence and (iv) infrared Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS; Skrutskie et al. 2006, Cat. II/246) JHKS colours that are consistent with M dwarfs. In this work, we constructed a revised catalogue of JMark III spectrograph and Boller & Chivens CCDS spectrograph (CCDS) on the 1.3m McGraw-Hill telescope at the MDM Observatory on Kitt Peak, Arizona, the REOSC spectrograph on the 2.15m Jorge Sahade telescope at the Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO), Argentina, and the RC spectrograph on the 1.9m Radcliffe telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory. We obtained a total of 3071 spectra of 2583 stars or 86% of the catalog over the span 2002-2014 of more than 11 years. 425 stars were observed twice, 14 stars were observed thrice, and 6 stars had more than four observations. (2 data files).

  11. The abundance properties of nearby late-type galaxies. II. The relation between abundance distributions and surface brightness profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilyugin, L. S.; Grebel, E. K.; Zinchenko, I. A.; Kniazev, A. Y.

    2014-01-01

    The relations between oxygen abundance and disk surface brightness (OH–SB relation) in the infrared W1 band are examined for nearby late-type galaxies. The oxygen abundances were presented in Paper I. The photometric characteristics of the disks are inferred here using photometric maps from the literature through bulge-disk decomposition. We find evidence that the OH–SB relation is not unique but depends on the galactocentric distance r (taken as a fraction of the optical radius R 25 ) and on the properties of a galaxy: the disk scale length h and the morphological T-type. We suggest a general, four-dimensional OH–SB relation with the values r, h, and T as parameters. The parametric OH–SB relation reproduces the observed data better than a simple, one-parameter relation; the deviations resulting when using our parametric relation are smaller by a factor of ∼1.4 than that of the simple relation. The influence of the parameters on the OH–SB relation varies with galactocentric distance. The influence of the T-type on the OH–SB relation is negligible at the centers of galaxies and increases with galactocentric distance. In contrast, the influence of the disk scale length on the OH–SB relation is at a maximum at the centers of galaxies and decreases with galactocentric distance, disappearing at the optical edges of galaxies. Two-dimensional relations can be used to reproduce the observed data at the optical edges of the disks and at the centers of the disks. The disk scale length should be used as a second parameter in the OH–SB relation at the center of the disk while the morphological T-type should be used as a second parameter in the relation at optical edge of the disk. The relations between oxygen abundance and disk surface brightness in the optical B and infrared K bands at the center of the disk and at optical edge of the disk are also considered. The general properties of the abundance–surface brightness relations are similar for the three

  12. The galactic population of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napiwotzki, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    The contribution of white dwarfs of the different Galactic populations to the stellar content of our Galaxy is only poorly known. Some authors claim a vast population of halo white dwarfs, which would be in accordance with some investigations of the early phases of Galaxy formation claiming a top-heavy initial- mass- function. Here, I present a model of the population of white dwarfs in the Milky Way based on observations of the local white dwarf sample and a standard model of Galactic structure. This model will be used to estimate the space densities of thin disc, thick disc and halo white dwarfs and their contribution to the baryonic mass budget of the Milky Way. One result of this investigation is that white dwarfs of the halo population contribute a large fraction of the Galactic white dwarf number count, but they are not responsible for the lion's share of stellar mass in the Milky Way. Another important result is the substantial contribution of the - often neglected - population of thick disc white dwarfs. Misclassification of thick disc white dwarfs is responsible for overestimates of the halo population in previous investigations.

  13. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2006-02-15

    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Astero-archaeology: Reading the galactic history recorded in the white dwarf stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Galactic history is written in its oldest stars, the white dwarfs. Although still some years away from reading the details of that history, significant limits can already be placed on both the Galactic age and star formation history. The following is a complete analysis of the problem, starting with a fresh exploration of the physics of white dwarf stars. An extensive grid of numerical model sequences is presented and these are used to describe in detail the behavior of the white dwarf stars as a function of mass, core composition, surface layer masses and compositions, and uncertainties in the constitutive physics. These model sequences are used to decode the information contained in the white dwarf luminosity function. A theoretical context is established for current and future observations by presenting luminosity functions computed with differing choices for the input white dwarf evolutionary sequences, the assumed age of the local disk, the star formation rate as a function of time, and the possibility of scale height inflation of the disk with time. Finally, white dwarf cosmochronology is discussed within the context of other, conflicting, methods of cosmochronology. How this work can help resolve these conflicts and shed light on fundamental problems in galaxy formation and cosmology.

  15. M DWARF LUMINOSITY, RADIUS, AND α-ENRICHMENT FROM I-BAND SPECTRAL FEATURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrien, Ryan C.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Bender, Chad F.; Deshpande, Rohit; Robertson, Paul, E-mail: rct151@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2015-03-20

    Despite the ubiquity of M dwarfs and their growing importance to studies of exoplanets, Galactic evolution, and stellar structure, methods for precisely measuring their fundamental stellar properties remain elusive. Existing techniques for measuring M dwarf luminosity, mass, radius, or composition are calibrated over a limited range of stellar parameters or require expensive observations. We find a strong correlation between the K{sub S}-band luminosity (M{sub K}), the observed strength of the I-band sodium doublet absorption feature, and [Fe/H] in M dwarfs without strong Hα emission. We show that the strength of this feature, coupled with [Fe/H] and spectral type, can be used to derive M dwarf M{sub K} and radius without requiring parallax. Additionally, we find promising evidence that the strengths of the I-band sodium doublet and the nearby I-band calcium triplet may jointly indicate α-element enrichment. The use of these I-band features requires only moderate-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy to provide valuable information about the potential habitability of exoplanets around M dwarfs, and surface gravity and distance for M dwarfs throughout the Galaxy. This technique has immediate applicability for both target selection and candidate planet–host system characterization for exoplanet missions such as TESS and K2.

  16. Astero-archaeology: Reading the galactic history recorded in the white dwarf stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Galactic history is written in its oldest stars, the white dwarfs. Although still some years away from reading the details of that history, significant limits can already be placed on both the Galactic age and star formation history. The following is a complete analysis of the problem, starting with a fresh exploration of the physics of white dwarf stars. An extensive grid of numerical model sequences is presented and these are used to describe in detail the behavior of the white dwarf stars as a function of mass, core composition, surface layer masses and compositions, and uncertainties in the constitutive physics. These model sequences are used to decode the information contained in the white dwarf luminosity function. A theoretical context is established for current and future observations by presenting luminosity functions computed with differing choices for the input white dwarf evolutionary sequences, the assumed age of the local disk, the star formation rate as a function of time, and the possibility of scale height inflation of the disk with time. Finally, white dwarf cosmochronology is discussed within the context of other, conflicting, methods of cosmochronology. How this work can help resolve these conflicts and shed light on fundamental problems in galaxy formation and cosmology

  17. M DWARF LUMINOSITY, RADIUS, AND α-ENRICHMENT FROM I-BAND SPECTRAL FEATURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrien, Ryan C.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Bender, Chad F.; Deshpande, Rohit; Robertson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of M dwarfs and their growing importance to studies of exoplanets, Galactic evolution, and stellar structure, methods for precisely measuring their fundamental stellar properties remain elusive. Existing techniques for measuring M dwarf luminosity, mass, radius, or composition are calibrated over a limited range of stellar parameters or require expensive observations. We find a strong correlation between the K S -band luminosity (M K ), the observed strength of the I-band sodium doublet absorption feature, and [Fe/H] in M dwarfs without strong Hα emission. We show that the strength of this feature, coupled with [Fe/H] and spectral type, can be used to derive M dwarf M K and radius without requiring parallax. Additionally, we find promising evidence that the strengths of the I-band sodium doublet and the nearby I-band calcium triplet may jointly indicate α-element enrichment. The use of these I-band features requires only moderate-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy to provide valuable information about the potential habitability of exoplanets around M dwarfs, and surface gravity and distance for M dwarfs throughout the Galaxy. This technique has immediate applicability for both target selection and candidate planet–host system characterization for exoplanet missions such as TESS and K2

  18. THE LINK BETWEEN PLANETARY SYSTEMS, DUSTY WHITE DWARFS, AND METAL-POLLUTED WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debes, John H.; Walsh, Kevin J.; Stark, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    It has long been suspected that metal-polluted white dwarfs (types DAZ, DBZ, and DZ) and white dwarfs with dusty disks possess planetary systems, but a specific physical mechanism by which planetesimals are perturbed close to a white dwarf has not yet been fully posited. In this paper, we demonstrate that mass loss from a central star during post-main-sequence evolution can sweep planetesimals into interior mean motion resonances with a single giant planet. These planetesimals are slowly removed through chaotic excursions of eccentricity that in time create radial orbits capable of tidally disrupting the planetesimal. Numerical N-body simulations of the solar system show that a sufficient number of planetesimals are perturbed to explain white dwarfs with both dust and metal pollution, provided other white dwarfs have more massive relic asteroid belts. Our scenario requires only one Jupiter-sized planet and a sufficient number of asteroids near its 2:1 interior mean motion resonance. Finally, we show that once a planetesimal is perturbed into a tidal crossing orbit, it will become disrupted after the first pass of the white dwarf, where a highly eccentric stream of debris forms the main reservoir for dust-producing collisions. These simulations, in concert with observations of white dwarfs, place interesting limits on the frequency of planetary systems around main-sequence stars, the frequency of planetesimal belts, and the probability that dust may obscure future terrestrial planet finding missions.

  19. Pruning The ELM Survey: Characterizing Candidate Low-mass White Dwarfs through Photometric Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Keaton J.; Winget, D. E.; Montgomery, M. H.; Castanheira, B. G.; Vanderbosch, Z.; Winget, K. I. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Gianninas, A.; Kilic, Mukremin [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Hermes, J. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Brown, Warren R., E-mail: keatonb@astro.as.utexas.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We assess the photometric variability of nine stars with spectroscopic T {sub eff} and log g values from the ELM Survey that locates them near the empirical extremely low-mass (ELM) white dwarf instability strip. We discover three new pulsating stars: SDSS J135512.34+195645.4, SDSS J173521.69+213440.6, and SDSS J213907.42+222708.9. However, these are among the few ELM Survey objects that do not show radial velocity (RV) variations that confirm the binary nature expected of helium-core white dwarfs. The dominant 4.31 hr pulsation in SDSS J135512.34+195645.4 far exceeds the theoretical cut-off for surface reflection in a white dwarf, and this target is likely a high-amplitude δ Scuti pulsator with an overestimated surface gravity. We estimate the probability to be less than 0.0008 that the lack of measured RV variations in four of eight other pulsating candidate ELM white dwarfs could be due to low orbital inclination. Two other targets exhibit variability as photometric binaries. Partial coverage of the 19.342 hr orbit of WD J030818.19+514011.5 reveals deep eclipses that imply a primary radius >0.4 R {sub ⊙}—too large to be consistent with an ELM white dwarf. The only object for which our time series photometry adds support to ELM white dwarf classification is SDSS J105435.78−212155.9, which has consistent signatures of Doppler beaming and ellipsoidal variations. We conclude that the ELM Survey contains multiple false positives from another stellar population at T {sub eff}≲9000 K, possibly related to the sdA stars recently reported from SDSS spectra.

  20. Search for brown dwarfs and late M dwarfs in the Hyades and the Pleiades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuckerman, B.; Becklin, E.E.; Hawaii Univ., Honolulu)

    1987-01-01

    The J and K colors of 14 white dwarfs that are believed to be single stars and members of either the Hyades or Pleiades clusters or the Hyades supercluster were measured, and no indication of any excess 2.2 micron (K) emission above that expected from the white dwarf was found. Based on recently published theoretical cooling curves for brown dwarfs, the existence of any cool companion stars, with masses greater than approximately 0.03 solar mass within a radius of 6 arcsec of eight white dwarfs in the Hyades cluster and greater than approximately 0.015 solar mass toward the single white dwarf in the Pleiades, is ruled out. This latter limit, only 15 Jupiter masses, is probably the lowest that has yet been established for any star by purely infrared techniques. 21 references

  1. Stellar model chromospheres. XIII - M dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampapa, M. S.; Worden, S. P.; Linsky, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Single-component, homogeneous model chromospheres that are consistent with high-resolution profiles of the Ca II K line calibrated in surface flux units for three dMe and 2 dM stars observed at quiescent times are constructed. The models reveal several systematic trends. Large values of the ratio of T(min) to T(eff) are derived, indicating a large amount of nonradiative heating present in the upper photospheres of M dwarf stars. It is also found that the lower chromospheric temperature gradient is similar for all the M dwarf stars. Since for the models here the chromospheric K line emission strength is most sensitive to the total amount of chromospheric material present within the approximate temperature range T(min)-6000 K, increasing the emission strength is not simply due to increasing chromospheric temperature gradients. It is also found that both the electron density and electron temperature at one thermalization length in the K line below the top of the chromospheres are greater in the dMe stars than in the dM stars. The M dwarf models here have microturbulent velocities between 1 and 2 km/sec, which are much smaller than for solar chromosphere models.

  2. AXIAL RATIO OF EDGE-ON SPIRAL GALAXIES AS A TEST FOR BRIGHT RADIO HALOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singal, J.; Jones, E.; Dunlap, H.; Kogut, A.

    2015-01-01

    We use surface brightness contour maps of nearby edge-on spiral galaxies to determine whether extended bright radio halos are common. In particular, we test a recent model of the spatial structure of the diffuse radio continuum by Subrahmanyan and Cowsik which posits that a substantial fraction of the observed high-latitude surface brightness originates from an extended Galactic halo of uniform emissivity. Measurements of the axial ratio of emission contours within a sample of normal spiral galaxies at 1500 MHz and below show no evidence for such a bright, extended radio halo. Either the Galaxy is atypical compared to nearby quiescent spirals or the bulk of the observed high-latitude emission does not originate from this type of extended halo. (letters)

  3. Asteroseismology of white dwarf stars

    OpenAIRE

    Córsico, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Most of low- and intermediate-mass stars that populate the Universe will end their lives as white dwarf stars. These ancient stellar remnants have encrypted inside a precious record of the evolutionary history of the progenitor stars, providing a wealth of information about the evolution of stars, star formation, and the age of a variety of stellar populations, such as our Galaxy and open and globular clusters. While some information like surface chemical composition, temperature and gravity ...

  4. An Unusual Transient in the Extremely Metal-Poor Galaxy SDSS J094332.35+332657.6 (Leoncino Dwarf)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Mercedes E.; Sánchez Almeida, J.

    2018-05-01

    We have serendipitously discovered that Leoncino Dwarf, an ultra-faint, low-metallicity record-holder dwarf galaxy, may have hosted a transient source, and possibly exhibited a change in morphology, a shift in the center of brightness, and peak variability of the main (host) source in images taken approximately 40 yr apart; it is highly likely that these phenomena are related. Scenarios involving a Solar System object, a stellar cluster, dust enshrouding, and accretion variability have been considered, and discarded, as the origin of the transient. Although a combination of time-varying strong and weak lensing effects, induced by an intermediate mass black hole (104 - 5 × 105 M⊙) moving within the Milky Way halo (0.1 - 4 kpc), can conceivably explain all of the observed variable galaxy properties, it is statistically highly unlikely according to current theoretical predictions, and, therefore, also discarded. A cataclysmic event such as a supernova/hypernova could have occurred, as long as the event was observed towards the later/late-stage descent of the light curve, but this scenario fails to explain the absence of a post-explosion source and/or host HII region in recent optical images. An episode related to the giant eruption of a luminous blue variable star, a stellar merger or a nova, observed at, or near, peak magnitude may explain the transient source and possibly the change in morphology/center of brightness, but can not justify the main source peak variability, unless stellar variability is evoked.

  5. CLOUDS IN THE COLDEST BROWN DWARFS: FIRE SPECTROSCOPY OF ROSS 458C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Simcoe, Robert A.; Bochanski, John J.; Saumon, Didier; Mamajek, Eric E.; McMurtry, Craig; Pipher, Judith L.; Forrest, William J.; Cushing, Michael C.; Marley, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Condensate clouds are a salient feature of L dwarf atmospheres, but have been assumed to play little role in shaping the spectra of the coldest T-type brown dwarfs. Here we report evidence of condensate opacity in the near-infrared spectrum of the brown dwarf candidate Ross 458C, obtained with the Folded-Port Infrared Echellette (FIRE) spectrograph at the Magellan Telescopes. These data verify the low-temperature nature of this source, indicating a T8 spectral classification, log 10 L bol /L sun = -5.62 ± 0.03, T eff = 650 ± 25 K, and a mass at or below the deuterium burning limit. The data also reveal enhanced emission at the K band associated with youth (low surface gravity) and supersolar metallicity, reflecting the properties of the Ross 458 system (age = 150-800 Myr, [Fe/H] = +0.2 to +0.3). We present fits of FIRE data for Ross 458C, the T9 dwarf ULAS J133553.45+113005.2, and the blue T7.5 dwarf SDSS J141624.08+134826.7B, to cloudless and cloudy spectral models from Saumon and Marley. For Ross 458C, we confirm a low surface gravity and supersolar metallicity, while the temperature differs depending on the presence (635 +25 -35 K) or absence (760 +70 -45 K) of cloud extinction. ULAS J1335+1130 and SDSS J1416+1348B have similar temperatures (595 +25 -45 K), but distinct surface gravities (log g = 4.0-4.5 cgs versus 5.0-5.5 cgs) and metallicities ([M/H] ∼ +0.2 versus -0.2). In all three cases, cloudy models provide better fits to the spectral data, significantly so for Ross 458C. These results indicate that clouds are an important opacity source in the spectra of young cold T dwarfs and should be considered when characterizing planetary-mass objects in young clusters and directly imaged exoplanets. The characteristics of Ross 458C suggest that it could itself be regarded as a planet, albeit one whose cosmogony does not conform with current planet formation theories.

  6. Brightness of the photosphere and faculae at the limb based on eclipse observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akimov, L.A.; Belkina, I.L.; Dyatel, N.P.

    1982-05-01

    The absolute distributions of integral and surface brightness of the photospheric continuum (lambdaroughly-equal5870 A) and in faculae at the very limb are obtained from slitless spectrograms of the total solar eclipse of July 10, 1972. Several possible reasons for the brightness increase toward the limb in the distribution of photospheric surface brightness are discussed. The faculae showed high contrasts, up to 1.76 at a height of 200 km from the limb. A comparison of the times of local contacts observed and calculated with allowance for lunar relief showed that the active regions are at about 300 km above the photosphere. A schematic model of a facula is proposed.

  7. X-Ray Emission from an Asymmetric Blast Wave and a Massive White Dwarf in the Gamma Ray Emitting Nova V407 CYG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Thomas; Donato, Davide; Mukai, Koji; Sokoloski, Jennifer; Chomiuk, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Classical nova events in symbiotic stars, although rare, offer a unique opportunity to probe the interaction between ejecta and a dense environment in stellar explosions. In this work, we use X-ray data obtained with Swift and Suzaku during the recent classical nova outburst in V407 Cyg to explore such an interaction. We find evidence of both equilibrium and non-equilibrium ionization plasmas at the time of peak X-ray brightness, indicating a strong asymmetry in the density of the emitting region. Comparing a simple model to the data, we find that the X-ray evolution is broadly consistent with nova ejecta driving a forward shock into the dense wind of the Mira companion. We detect a highly absorbed soft X-ray component in the spectrum during the first 50 days of the outburst that is consistent with supersoft emission from the nuclear burning white dwarf. The high temperature and short turn off time of this emission component, in addition to the observed breaks in the optical and UV lightcurves, indicate that the white dwarf in the binary is extremely massive. Finally, we explore the connections between the X-ray and GeV-ray evolution, and propose that the gamma ray turn-off is due to the stalling of the forward shock as the ejecta reach the red giant surface.

  8. Binary Star Orbits. V. The Nearby White Dwarf/Red Dwarf Pair 40 Eri BC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Miles, Korie N.

    2017-11-01

    A new relative orbit solution with new dynamical masses is determined for the nearby white dwarf-red dwarf pair 40 Eri BC. The period is 230.09 ± 0.68 years. It is predicted to close slowly over the next half-century, getting as close as 1.″32 in early 2066. We determine masses of 0.575 ± 0.018 {{ M }}⊙ for the white dwarf and 0.2041 ± 0.0064 {{ M }}⊙ for the red dwarf companion. The inconsistency of the masses determined by gravitational redshift and dynamical techniques, due to a premature orbit calculation, no longer exists.

  9. The ultracool-field dwarf luminosity-function and space density from the Canada-France Brown Dwarf Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reylé, C.; Delorme, P.; Willott, C. J.; Albert, L.; Delfosse, X.; Forveille, T.; Artigau, E.; Malo, L.; Hill, G. J.; Doyon, R.

    2010-11-01

    Context. Thanks to recent and ongoing large scale surveys, hundreds of brown dwarfs have been discovered in the last decade. The Canada-France Brown Dwarf Survey is a wide-field survey for cool brown dwarfs conducted with the MegaCam camera on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Aims: Our objectives are to find ultracool brown dwarfs and to constrain the field brown-dwarf luminosity function and the mass function from a large and homogeneous sample of L and T dwarfs. Methods: We identify candidates in CFHT/MegaCam i' and z' images and follow them up with pointed near infrared (NIR) imaging on several telescopes. Halfway through our survey we found ~50 T dwarfs and ~170 L or ultra cool M dwarfs drawn from a larger sample of 1400 candidates with typical ultracool dwarfs i'-z' colours, found in 780 square degrees. Results: We have currently completed the NIR follow-up on a large part of the survey for all candidates from mid-L dwarfs down to the latest T dwarfs known with utracool dwarfs' colours. This allows us to draw on a complete and well defined sample of 102 ultracool dwarfs to investigate the luminosity function and space density of field dwarfs. Conclusions: We found the density of late L5 to T0 dwarfs to be 2.0+0.8-0.7 × 10-3 objects pc-3, the density of T0.5 to T5.5 dwarfs to be 1.4+0.3-0.2 × 10-3 objects pc-3, and the density of T6 to T8 dwarfs to be 5.3+3.1-2.2 × 10-3 objects pc-3. We found that these results agree better with a flat substellar mass function. Three latest dwarfs at the boundary between T and Y dwarfs give the high density 8.3+9.0-5.1 × 10-3 objects pc-3. Although the uncertainties are very large this suggests that many brown dwarfs should be found in this late spectral type range, as expected from the cooling of brown dwarfs, whatever their mass, down to very low temperature. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by

  10. SILICATE EVOLUTION IN BROWN DWARF DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, B.

    2009-01-01

    We present a compositional analysis of the 10 μm silicate spectra for brown dwarf disks in the Taurus and Upper Scorpius (UppSco) star-forming regions, using archival Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph observations. A variety in the silicate features is observed, ranging from a narrow profile with a peak at 9.8 μm, to nearly flat, low-contrast features. For most objects, we find nearly equal fractions for the large-grain and crystalline mass fractions, indicating both processes to be active in these disks. The median crystalline mass fraction for the Taurus brown dwarfs is found to be 20%, a factor of ∼2 higher than the median reported for the higher mass stars in Taurus. The large-grain mass fractions are found to increase with an increasing strength in the X-ray emission, while the opposite trend is observed for the crystalline mass fractions. A small 5% of the Taurus brown dwarfs are still found to be dominated by pristine interstellar medium-like dust, with an amorphous submicron grain mass fraction of ∼87%. For 15% of the objects, we find a negligible large-grain mass fraction, but a >60% small amorphous silicate fraction. These may be the cases where substantial grain growth and dust sedimentation have occurred in the disks, resulting in a high fraction of amorphous submicron grains in the disk surface. Among the UppSco brown dwarfs, only usd161939 has a signal-to-noise ratio high enough to properly model its silicate spectrum. We find a 74% small amorphous grain and a ∼26% crystalline mass fraction for this object.

  11. General relativistic effects in the structure of massive white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, G. A.; Marinho, R. M.; Malheiro, M.

    2018-04-01

    In this work we investigate the structure of white dwarfs using the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations and compare our results with those obtained from Newtonian equations of gravitation in order to put in evidence the importance of general relativity (GR) for the structure of such stars. We consider in this work for the matter inside white dwarfs two equations of state, frequently found in the literature, namely, the Chandrasekhar and Salpeter equations of state. We find that using Newtonian equilibrium equations, the radii of massive white dwarfs (M>1.3M_{⊙ }) are overestimated in comparison with GR outcomes. For a mass of 1.415M_{⊙ } the white dwarf radius predicted by GR is about 33% smaller than the Newtonian one. Hence, in this case, for the surface gravity the difference between the general relativistic and Newtonian outcomes is about 65%. We depict the general relativistic mass-radius diagrams as M/M_{⊙ }=R/(a+bR+cR^2+dR^3+kR^4), where a, b, c and d are parameters obtained from a fitting procedure of the numerical results and k=(2.08× 10^{-6}R_{⊙ })^{-1}, being R_{⊙ } the radius of the Sun in km. Lastly, we point out that GR plays an important role to determine any physical quantity that depends, simultaneously, on the mass and radius of massive white dwarfs.

  12. MOIRCS DEEP SURVEY. V. A UNIVERSAL RELATION FOR STELLAR MASS AND SURFACE BRIGHTNESS OF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Takashi; Kajisawa, Masaru; Yamada, Toru; Akiyama, Masayuki; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Onodera, Masato; Konishi, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    We present a universal linear correlation between the stellar mass and surface brightness (SB) of galaxies at 0.3 -2.0∼-0.8 , in addition to dimming as (1 + z) 4 by the cosmological expansion effect. The brightening depends on galaxy color and stellar mass. The blue population (rest-frame U - V -0.8±0.3 in the rest-V band. On the other hand, the red population (U - V>0) and the massive galaxies (M * >10 10 M sun ) show stronger brightening, (1 + z) -1.5±0.1 . By comparison with galaxy evolution models, the phenomena are well understood by the pure luminosity evolution of galaxies out to z ∼ 3.

  13. Astrophysical Implications of a New Dynamical Mass for the Nearby White Dwarf 40 Eridani B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Howard E.; Bergeron, P.; Bédard, A.

    2017-10-01

    The bright, nearby DA-type white dwarf (WD) 40 Eridani B is orbited by the M dwarf 40 Eri C, allowing determination of the WD’s mass. Until recently, however, the mass depended on orbital elements determined four decades ago, and that mass was so low that it created several astrophysical puzzles. Using new astrometric measurements, the binary-star group at the U.S. Naval Observatory has revised the dynamical mass upward, to 0.573 ± 0.018 M ⊙. In this paper, we use model-atmosphere analysis to update other parameters of the WD, including effective temperature, surface gravity, radius, and luminosity. We then compare these results with WD interior models. Within the observational uncertainties, theoretical cooling tracks for CO-core WDs of its measured mass are consistent with the position of 40 Eri B in the H-R diagram; equivalently, the theoretical mass-radius relation (MRR) is consistent with the star’s location in the mass-radius plane. This consistency is, however, achieved only if we assume a “thin” outer hydrogen layer, with q H = M H/M WD ≃ 10-10. We discuss other evidence that a significant fraction of DA WDs have such thin H layers, in spite of the expectation from canonical stellar-evolution theory of “thick” H layers with q H ≃ 10-4. The cooling age of 40 Eri B is ˜122 Myr, and its total age is ˜1.8 Gyr. We present the MRRs for 40 Eri B and three other nearby WDs in visual binaries with precise mass determinations, and show that the agreement of current theory with observations is excellent in all cases.

  14. A new perspective on the infrared brightness temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CEAWMT), ... temperatures clearly discriminates the cloud pixels of deep convective and ... utilized in the modelling of the histogram of infrared brightness temperature of deep convective and ..... Henderson-Sellers A 1978 Surface type and its effect.

  15. White dwarfs - the once and future suns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimble, V.

    1986-01-01

    The history and properties of white dwarfs (Bessel's conclusion that Sirius and Procyon have invisible companions, Clark's discovery of Sirius B, Adams and Russell's study of white dwarf spectra, Chandrasekhar's explanation of white dwarf structure by equations incorporating quantum mechanics and relativity) are treated. Formation of white dwarfs, degeneracy, binary white dwarfs (and novae and supernovae) are explained. A mystery nearly 50 years old regarding the spectrum of the star Greenwich +70 degrees-8247 has been solved: it involves a stationary line phenomenon and a magnetic field of 300-500 million gauss. Processes being studied in white dwarfs and white dwarf models include gravitational settling, accretion, dredge-up, radiation pressure, and diffusive hydrogen burning

  16. WHITE DWARF-RED DWARF SYSTEMS RESOLVED WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE. II. FULL SNAPSHOT SURVEY RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farihi, J.; Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, S.

    2010-01-01

    Results are presented for a Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys high-resolution imaging campaign of 90 white dwarfs with known or suspected low-mass stellar and substellar companions. Of the 72 targets that remain candidate and confirmed white dwarfs with near-infrared excess, 43 are spatially resolved into two or more components, and a total of 12 systems are potentially triples. For 68 systems where a comparison is possible, 50% have significant photometric distance mismatches between their white dwarf and M dwarf components, suggesting that white dwarf parameters derived spectroscopically are often biased due to the cool companion. Interestingly, 9 of the 30 binaries known to have emission lines are found to be visual pairs and hence widely separated, indicating an intrinsically active cool star and not irradiation from the white dwarf. There is a possible, slight deficit of earlier spectral types (bluer colors) among the spatially unresolved companions, exactly the opposite of expectations if significant mass is transferred to the companion during the common envelope phase. Using the best available distance estimates, the low-mass companions to white dwarfs exhibit a bimodal distribution in projected separation. This result supports the hypothesis that during the giant phases of the white dwarf progenitor, any unevolved companions either migrate inward to short periods of hours to days, or outward to periods of hundreds to thousands of years. No intermediate projected separations of a few to several AU are found among these pairs. However, a few double M dwarfs (within triples) are spatially resolved in this range, empirically demonstrating that such separations were readily detectable among the binaries with white dwarfs. A straightforward and testable prediction emerges: all spatially unresolved, low-mass stellar and substellar companions to white dwarfs should be in short-period orbits. This result has implications for substellar companion and

  17. LARGER PLANET RADII INFERRED FROM STELLAR ''FLICKER'' BRIGHTNESS VARIATIONS OF BRIGHT PLANET-HOST STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastien, Fabienne A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Most extrasolar planets have been detected by their influence on their parent star, typically either gravitationally (the Doppler method) or by the small dip in brightness as the planet blocks a portion of the star (the transit method). Therefore, the accuracy with which we know the masses and radii of extrasolar planets depends directly on how well we know those of the stars, the latter usually determined from the measured stellar surface gravity, log g. Recent work has demonstrated that the short-timescale brightness variations ( f licker ) of stars can be used to measure log g to a high accuracy of ∼0.1-0.2 dex. Here, we use flicker measurements of 289 bright (Kepmag < 13) candidate planet-hosting stars with T eff = 4500-6650 K to re-assess the stellar parameters and determine the resulting impact on derived planet properties. This re-assessment reveals that for the brightest planet-host stars, Malmquist bias contaminates the stellar sample with evolved stars: nearly 50% of the bright planet-host stars are subgiants. As a result, the stellar radii, and hence the radii of the planets orbiting these stars, are on average 20%-30% larger than previous measurements had suggested

  18. WISEP J004701.06+680352.1: An Intermediate Surface Gravity, Dusty Brown Dwarf in the AB Dor Moving Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    dusty L6 dwarf 2MASS J21481628+4003593. It lies at 8.060 ± 0.036 parsecs; its astrometry is consistent with the view that it is older and metal-rich...Key words: brown dwarfs – infrared: stars – stars: individual (WISEP J004701.06+680352.1, 2MASS J21481628+4003593) 1. INTRODUCTION One of the key...2M1207b (16.13, Gizis et al. 2007). Besides PSO J318-22, the best studied of the extremely red L dwarfs are 2MASS J21481628+4003593 (Looper et al

  19. ON THE ASSEMBLY OF THE MILKY WAY DWARF SATELLITES AND THEIR COMMON MASS SCALE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashkov, Valery; Madau, Piero; Kuhlen, Michael; Diemand, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    We use a particle tagging technique to dynamically populate the N-body Via Lactea II high-resolution simulation with stars. The method is calibrated using the observed luminosity function of Milky Way (MW) satellites and the concentration of their stellar populations, and self-consistently follows the accretion and disruption of progenitor dwarfs and the buildup of the stellar halo in a cosmological 'live host'. Simple prescriptions for assigning stellar populations to collisionless particles are able to reproduce many properties of the observed MW halo and its surviving dwarf satellites, like velocity dispersions, sizes, brightness profiles, metallicities, and spatial distribution. Our model predicts the existence of approximately 1850 subhalos harboring 'extremely faint' satellites (with mass-to-light ratios >5 × 10 3 ) lying beyond the Sloan Digital Sky Survey detection threshold. Of these, about 20 are 'first galaxies', i.e., satellites that formed a stellar mass above 10 M ☉ before redshift 9. The 10 most luminous satellites (L > 10 6 L ☉ ) in the simulation are hosted by subhalos with peak circular velocities today in the range V max = 10-40 km s –1 that have shed between 80% and 99% of their dark mass after being accreted at redshifts 1.7 max and stellar line-of-sight velocity dispersion σ los today follow the relation V max = 2.2σ los . We apply a standard mass estimation algorithm based on Jeans modeling of the line-of-sight velocity dispersion profiles to the simulated dwarf spheroidals and test the accuracy of this technique. The inner (within 300 pc) mass-luminosity relation for currently detectable satellites is nearly flat in our model, in qualitative agreement with the 'common mass scale' found in MW dwarfs. We do, however, predict a weak, but significant positive correlation for these objects: M 300 ∝L 0.088±0.024 .

  20. Distribution of the Ammoniated Species on the Surface of Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammannito, E.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Carrorro, F. G.; Ciarniello, M.; Combe, J. P.; De Angelis, S.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Frigeri, A.; Marchi, S.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.; Raponi, A.; Toplis, M. J.; Tosi, F.; Castillo, J. C.; Capaccioni, F.; Capria, M. T.; Fonte, S.; Giardino, M.; Jaumann, R.; Longobardo, A.; Joy, S. P.; Magni, G.; McCord, T. B.; McFadden, L. A.; Palomba, E.; Pieters, C. M.; Polanskey, C. A.; Prettyman, T. H.; Rayman, M.; Raymond, C. A.; Schenk, P.; Zambon, F.; Russell, C. T.

    2016-12-01

    The Dawn spacecraft has been acquiring data on dwarf planet Ceres since January 2015 (1). The VIR spectrometer (0.25-5.0 μm) acquired data at different altitudes providing information on the composition of the surface of Ceres at resolutions ranging from few kilometers to about one hundred meters (2). The average spectrum of Ceres is well represented by a mixture of dark minerals, Mg- phyllosilicates, ammoniated clays, and Mg carbonates (3). This result confirms previous studies based on ground based spectra (4, 5). Maps of the surface at about 1 km/px show that the components identified in the average spectrum are present all across the surface with variations in their relative abundance (6). Some localized areas however have peculiar spectral characteristics. One example is the spectrum of the bright regions within Occator crater that is most consistent with a large amount of Na-carbonates and possibly ammonium salts (7). The presence of ammoniated species poses a constraint on the pH and redox condition during the evolution of Ceres. Therefore, we have studied the distribution across the surface of such species to better understand the evolutionary pathway of Ceres. References : (1) Russell, C. T. et al. 2016, Science. (2) De Sanctis M.C. et al., The VIR Spectrometer, 2011, Space Science Reviews. (3) De Sanctis M.C. et al. Ammoniated phyllosilicates on dwarf planet Ceres reveal an outer solar system origin, Nature, 2015. (4) King T. et al. (1992) Science, 255, 1551-1553. (5) Rivkin A.S. et al. (2006) Icarus, 185, 563-567. (6) Ammannito E. et al., Spectral diversity of Ceres surface as measured by VIR, 2016, Science. (7) De Sanctis et al. (2016), Nature

  1. Formation of dwarf ellipticals and dwarf irregular galaxies by interaction of giant galaxies under environmental influence

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, Tanuka; Debsarma, Suma; Karmakar, Pradip; Davoust, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    A model is proposed for the formation of gas-rich dwarf irregular galaxies and gas-poor, rotating dwarf elliptical galaxies following the interaction between two giant galaxies as a function of space density. The formation of dwarf galaxies is considered to depend on a random variable, the tidal index theta, an environmental parameter defined by Karachentsev et al. (2004), such that for theta less than zero, the formation of dwarf irregular galaxy is assured whereas for theta greater than zer...

  2. Asteroseismology of White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Carl J.

    1997-01-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation has been to study various aspects of multimode pulsations in variable white dwarfs. In particular, nonlinear interactions among pulsation modes in white dwarfs (and, to some extent, in other variable stars), analysis of recent observations where such interactions are important, and preliminary work on the effects of crystallization in cool white dwarfs are reported.

  3. The Surface UV Environment on Planets Orbiting M Dwarfs: Implications for Prebiotic Chemistry and the Need for Experimental Follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjan, Sukrit; Sasselov, Dimitar D. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wordsworth, Robin, E-mail: sranjan@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02140 (United States)

    2017-07-10

    Potentially habitable planets orbiting M dwarfs are of intense astrobiological interest because they are the only rocky worlds accessible to biosignature search over the next 10+ years because of a confluence of observational effects. Simultaneously, recent experimental and theoretical work suggests that UV light may have played a key role in the origin of life on Earth, especially the origin of RNA. Characterizing the UV environment on M-dwarf planets is important for understanding whether life as we know it could emerge on such worlds. In this work, we couple radiative transfer models to observed M-dwarf spectra to determine the UV environment on prebiotic Earth-analog planets orbiting M dwarfs. We calculate dose rates to quantify the impact of different host stars on prebiotically important photoprocesses. We find that M-dwarf planets have access to 100–1000 times less bioactive UV fluence than the young Earth. It is unclear whether UV-sensitive prebiotic chemistry that may have been important to abiogenesis, such as the only known prebiotically plausible pathways for pyrimidine ribonucleotide synthesis, could function on M-dwarf planets. This uncertainty affects objects like the recently discovered habitable-zone planets orbiting Proxima Centauri, TRAPPIST-1, and LHS 1140. Laboratory studies of the sensitivity of putative prebiotic pathways to irradiation level are required to resolve this uncertainty. If steady-state M-dwarf UV output is insufficient to power these pathways, transient elevated UV irradiation due to flares may suffice; laboratory studies can constrain this possibility as well.

  4. The Surface UV Environment on Planets Orbiting M Dwarfs: Implications for Prebiotic Chemistry and the Need for Experimental Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Sukrit; Wordsworth, Robin; Sasselov, Dimitar D.

    2017-07-01

    Potentially habitable planets orbiting M dwarfs are of intense astrobiological interest because they are the only rocky worlds accessible to biosignature search over the next 10+ years because of a confluence of observational effects. Simultaneously, recent experimental and theoretical work suggests that UV light may have played a key role in the origin of life on Earth, especially the origin of RNA. Characterizing the UV environment on M-dwarf planets is important for understanding whether life as we know it could emerge on such worlds. In this work, we couple radiative transfer models to observed M-dwarf spectra to determine the UV environment on prebiotic Earth-analog planets orbiting M dwarfs. We calculate dose rates to quantify the impact of different host stars on prebiotically important photoprocesses. We find that M-dwarf planets have access to 100–1000 times less bioactive UV fluence than the young Earth. It is unclear whether UV-sensitive prebiotic chemistry that may have been important to abiogenesis, such as the only known prebiotically plausible pathways for pyrimidine ribonucleotide synthesis, could function on M-dwarf planets. This uncertainty affects objects like the recently discovered habitable-zone planets orbiting Proxima Centauri, TRAPPIST-1, and LHS 1140. Laboratory studies of the sensitivity of putative prebiotic pathways to irradiation level are required to resolve this uncertainty. If steady-state M-dwarf UV output is insufficient to power these pathways, transient elevated UV irradiation due to flares may suffice; laboratory studies can constrain this possibility as well.

  5. The Surface UV Environment on Planets Orbiting M Dwarfs: Implications for Prebiotic Chemistry and the Need for Experimental Follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjan, Sukrit; Sasselov, Dimitar D.; Wordsworth, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Potentially habitable planets orbiting M dwarfs are of intense astrobiological interest because they are the only rocky worlds accessible to biosignature search over the next 10+ years because of a confluence of observational effects. Simultaneously, recent experimental and theoretical work suggests that UV light may have played a key role in the origin of life on Earth, especially the origin of RNA. Characterizing the UV environment on M-dwarf planets is important for understanding whether life as we know it could emerge on such worlds. In this work, we couple radiative transfer models to observed M-dwarf spectra to determine the UV environment on prebiotic Earth-analog planets orbiting M dwarfs. We calculate dose rates to quantify the impact of different host stars on prebiotically important photoprocesses. We find that M-dwarf planets have access to 100–1000 times less bioactive UV fluence than the young Earth. It is unclear whether UV-sensitive prebiotic chemistry that may have been important to abiogenesis, such as the only known prebiotically plausible pathways for pyrimidine ribonucleotide synthesis, could function on M-dwarf planets. This uncertainty affects objects like the recently discovered habitable-zone planets orbiting Proxima Centauri, TRAPPIST-1, and LHS 1140. Laboratory studies of the sensitivity of putative prebiotic pathways to irradiation level are required to resolve this uncertainty. If steady-state M-dwarf UV output is insufficient to power these pathways, transient elevated UV irradiation due to flares may suffice; laboratory studies can constrain this possibility as well.

  6. SDSS DR7 WHITE DWARF CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, S. J.; Nitta, A. [Gemini Observatory, 670 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Kepler, S. O.; Pelisoli, Ingrid; Pecanha, Viviane; Costa, J. E. S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Koester, D. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Krzesinski, J. [Mt. Suhora Observatory, Pedagogical University of Cracow, ul. Podchorazych 2, 30-084 Cracow (Poland); Dufour, P.; Lachapelle, F.-R.; Bergeron, P. [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, C. P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Yip, Ching-Wa [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3701 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Harris, Hugh C. [United States Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001-8521 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Althaus, L.; Corsico, A., E-mail: hch@nofs.navy.mil [Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Paseo del Bosque S/N, (1900) La Plata (Argentina)

    2013-01-15

    We present a new catalog of spectroscopically confirmed white dwarf stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 spectroscopic catalog. We find 20,407 white dwarf spectra, representing 19,712 stars, and provide atmospheric model fits to 14,120 DA and 1011 DB white dwarf spectra from 12,843 and 923 stars, respectively. These numbers represent more than a factor of two increase in the total number of white dwarf stars from the previous SDSS white dwarf catalogs based on DR4 data. Our distribution of subtypes varies from previous catalogs due to our more conservative, manual classifications of each star in our catalog, supplementing our automatic fits. In particular, we find a large number of magnetic white dwarf stars whose small Zeeman splittings mimic increased Stark broadening that would otherwise result in an overestimated log g if fit as a non-magnetic white dwarf. We calculate mean DA and DB masses for our clean, non-magnetic sample and find the DB mean mass is statistically larger than that for the DAs.

  7. The late-M dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessell, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Far-red spectra and VRIJHK photometry have been obtained for a sample of late-M dwarfs selected on the basis of large reduced red magnitudes from the LHS Catalog. Half of the stars in the three faintest 1 mag bins are late-M stars, the other red stars are metallic-hydride subdwarfs. Relations between various colors for the late-M dwarfs are investigated. Of all the colors I - K most reliably correlates with spectral type. FeH bands near 9900 A are clearly seen in the spectra of all dwarf stars later than M5. Two stars cooler than VB10, and similar in temperature to LHS2924 have been identified; both have H-alpha in emission and appear variable in magnitude and R - I color; one is a flare star. The other stars are of earlier spectral type and resemble W359 and VB8. The observed MI, I - K main sequence is in good agreement with the IG theoretical main sequence of Stringfellow, and the faintest stars could be about 0.09 solar mass red dwarfs or lower mass brown dwarfs. 65 refs

  8. Understanding Brown Dwarf Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of brown dwarf variability continue to find that roughly half of all brown dwarfs are variable. While variability is observed amongst all types of brown dwarfs, amplitudes are typically greatest for L-T transition objects. In my talk I will discuss the possible physical mechanisms that are responsible for the observed variability. I will particularly focus on comparing and contrasting the effects of changes in atmospheric thermal profile and cloud opacity. The two different mechanisms will produce different variability signatures and I will discuss the extent to which the current datasets constrain both mechanisms. By combining constraints from studies of variability with existing spectral and photometric datasets we can begin to construct and test self-consistent models of brown dwarf atmospheres. These models not only aid in the interpretation of existing objects but also inform studies of directly imaged giant planets.

  9. Nature vs. nurture in the low-density environment: structure and evolution of early-type dwarf galaxies in poor groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibali, F.; Grützbauch, R.; Rampazzo, R.; Bressan, A.; Zeilinger, W. W.

    2011-04-01

    We present the stellar population properties of 13 dwarf galaxies residing in poor groups (low-density environment, LDE) observed with VIMOS at VLT. Ages, metallicities, and [α/Fe] ratios were derived within an r < re/2 aperture from the Lick indices Hβ, Mgb, Fe5270, and Fe5335 through comparison with our simple stellar population (SSP) models that account for variable [α/Fe] ratios. For a fiducial subsample of 10 early-type dwarfs, we derived median values and scatters around the medians of 5.7 ± 4.4 Gyr, -0.26 ± 0.28, and -0.04 ± 0.33 for age, log Z/Z⊙, and [α/Fe] , respectively. For a selection of bright early-type galaxies (ETGs) from an earlier sample residing in a comparable environment, we derive median values of 9.8 ± 4.1 Gyr, 0.06 ± 0.16, and 0.18 ± 0.13 for the same stellar population parameters. It follows that dwarfs are on average younger, less metal rich, and less enhanced in the α-elements than giants, in agreement with the extrapolation to the low-mass regime of the scaling relations derived for giant ETGs. From the total (dwarf + giant) sample, we find that age ∝ σ0.39 ± 0.22, Z ∝ σ0.80 ± 0.16, and α/Fe ∝ σ0.42 ± 0.22. We also find correlations with morphology, in the sense that the metallicity and the [α/Fe] ratio increase with the Sersic index n or with the bulge-to-total light fraction B/T. The presence of a strong morphology-[α/Fe] relation appears to contradict the possible evolution along the Hubble sequence from low B/T (low n) to high B/T (high n) galaxies. We also investigate the role played by environment by comparing the properties of our LDE dwarfs with those of Coma red passive dwarfs from the literature. We find possible evidence that LDE dwarfs experienced more prolonged star formations than Coma dwarfs, however larger data samples are needed to draw firmer conclusions. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile.

  10. Evolution models of helium white dwarf-main-sequence star merger remnants: the mass distribution of single low-mass white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianfei; Hall, Philip D.; Jeffery, C. Simon; Bi, Shaolan

    2018-02-01

    It is not known how single white dwarfs with masses less than 0.5Msolar -- low-mass white dwarfs -- are formed. One way in which such a white dwarf might be formed is after the merger of a helium-core white dwarf with a main-sequence star that produces a red giant branch star and fails to ignite helium. We use a stellar-evolution code to compute models of the remnants of these mergers and find a relation between the pre-merger masses and the final white dwarf mass. Combining our results with a model population, we predict that the mass distribution of single low-mass white dwarfs formed through this channel spans the range 0.37 to 0.5Msolar and peaks between 0.45 and 0.46Msolar. Helium white dwarf--main-sequence star mergers can also lead to the formation of single helium white dwarfs with masses up to 0.51Msolar. In our model the Galactic formation rate of single low-mass white dwarfs through this channel is about 8.7X10^-3yr^-1. Comparing our models with observations, we find that the majority of single low-mass white dwarfs (<0.5Msolar) are formed from helium white dwarf--main-sequence star mergers, at a rate which is about $2$ per cent of the total white dwarf formation rate.

  11. 150 southern compact and bright-nucleus galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairall, A.P.

    1977-01-01

    Galaxies having regions of exceptionally high surface brightness have been selected from the ESO Quick Blue Survey and investigated by 'grating photography' -direct photography plus low-dispersion slitless spectroscopy. Two new Seyfert galaxies and a peculiar multiple system have been discovered. Differences in red continua are also noted. (author)

  12. Near-infrared photometry of bright elliptical galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, R. F.; Valentijn, E. A.; Jameson, R. F.

    High-quality visual-infrared color profiles have been determined for elliptical galaxies for the first time. Surface photometry in J and K is presented for 12 bright elliptical galaxies, and the results have been combined with CCD data in visual passbands. It is shown that the galaxies become bluer

  13. EROS 2 proper motion survey a field brown dwarf and an L dwarf companion to LHS 102

    CERN Document Server

    Goldman, B; Forveille, T; Afonso, C; Alard, C; Albert, J N; Andersen, J; Ansari, R; Aubourg, E; Bareyre, P; Bauer, F; Beaulieu, J P; Borsenberger, J; Bouquet, A; Char, S; Charlot, X; Couchot, F; Coutures, C; Derue, F; Ferlet, R; Fouqué, P; Glicenstein, J F; Gould, A; Graff, D S; Gros, M H; Haïssinski, J; Hamilton, J C; Hardin, D P; De Kat, J; Kim, A; Lasserre, T; Lesquoy, E; Loup, C; Magneville, C; Mansoux, B; Marquette, J B; Martín, E L; Maurice, E; Milshtein, A I; Moniez, M; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Perdereau, O; Prévôt, L; Regnault, N; Rich, J; Spiro, Michel; Vidal-Madjar, A; Virgoux, L; Zylberajch, S

    1999-01-01

    We report the discovery of two L dwarfs (the new spectral class defined for dwarfs cooler than the M type) in a two-epoch CCD proper motion survey of 413 square degrees, complemented by infrared photometry from DENIS. One of them has a strong lithium line and is therefore a brown dwarf. The other is a common proper motion companion to the mid-M dwarf LHS 102 (GJ 1001), which has a well determined trigonometric parallax. LHS 102B is thus the coolest L dwarf of known distance and luminosity. Its infrared absolute photometry are very well reproduced by the Allard et al DUSTY models.

  14. ON THE FORMATION OF HOT DQ WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Althaus, L. G.; Corsico, A. H.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.; Romero, A. D.; GarcIa-Berro, E.

    2009-01-01

    We present the first full evolutionary calculations aimed at exploring the origin of hot DQ white dwarfs. These calculations consistently cover the whole evolution from the born-again stage to the white dwarf cooling track. Our calculations provide strong support for the diffusive/convective mixing picture for the formation of hot DQs. We find that the hot DQ stage is a short-lived stage and that the range of effective temperatures where hot DQ stars are found can be accounted for by different masses of residual helium and/or different initial stellar masses. In the frame of this scenario, a correlation between the effective temperature and the surface carbon abundance in DQs should be expected, with the largest carbon abundances expected in the hottest DQs. From our calculations, we suggest that most of the hot DQs could be the cooler descendants of some PG 1159 stars characterized by He-rich envelopes markedly smaller than those predicted by the standard theory of stellar evolution. At least for one hot DQ, the high-gravity white dwarf SDSS J142625.70+575218.4, an evolutionary link between this star and the massive PG 1159 star H1504+65, is plausible.

  15. White dwarf-main sequence binaries from LAMOST: the DR5 catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, J.-J.; Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Parsons, S. G.; Liu, X.-W.; Luo, A.-L.; Kong, X.; Zhang, H.-T.

    2018-03-01

    We present the data release (DR) 5 catalogue of white dwarf-main sequence (WDMS) binaries from the Large Area Multi-Object fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST). The catalogue contains 876 WDMS binaries, of which 757 are additions to our previous LAMOST DR1 sample and 357 are systems that have not been published before. We also describe a LAMOST-dedicated survey that aims at obtaining spectra of photometrically-selected WDMS binaries from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) that are expected to contain cool white dwarfs and/or early type M dwarf companions. This is a population under-represented in previous SDSS WDMS binary catalogues. We determine the stellar parameters (white dwarf effective temperatures, surface gravities and masses, and M dwarf spectral types) of the LAMOST DR5 WDMS binaries and make use of the parameter distributions to analyse the properties of the sample. We find that, despite our efforts, systems containing cool white dwarfs remain under-represented. Moreover, we make use of LAMOST DR5 and SDSS DR14 (when available) spectra to measure the Na I λλ 8183.27, 8194.81 absorption doublet and/or Hα emission radial velocities of our systems. This allows identifying 128 binaries displaying significant radial velocity variations, 76 of which are new. Finally, we cross-match our catalogue with the Catalina Surveys and identify 57 systems displaying light curve variations. These include 16 eclipsing systems, two of which are new, and nine binaries that are new eclipsing candidates. We calculate periodograms from the photometric data and measure (estimate) the orbital periods of 30 (15) WDMS binaries.

  16. Using White Dwarf Companions of Blue Stragglers to Constrain Mass Transfer Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosnell, Natalie M.; Leiner, Emily; Geller, Aaron M.; Knigge, Christian; Mathieu, Robert D.; Sills, Alison; Leigh, Nathan

    2018-06-01

    Complete membership studies of old open clusters reveal that 25% of the evolved stars follow pathways in stellar evolution that are impacted by binary evolution. Recent studies show that the majority of blue straggler stars, traditionally defined to be stars brighter and bluer than the corresponding main sequence turnoff, are formed through mass transfer from a giant star onto a main sequence companion, resulting in a white dwarf in a binary system with a blue straggler. We will present constraints on the histories and mass transfer efficiencies for two blue straggler-white dwarf binaries in open cluster NGC 188. The constraints are a result of measuring white dwarf cooling temperatures and surface gravities with HST COS far-ultraviolet spectroscopy. This information sets both the timeline for mass transfer and the stellar masses in the pre-mass transfer binary, allowing us to constrain aspects of the mass transfer physics. One system is formed through Case C mass transfer, leaving a CO-core white dwarf, and provides an interesting test case for mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch star in an eccentric system. The other system formed through Case B mass transfer, leaving a He-core white dwarf, and challenges our current understanding of the expected regimes for stable mass transfer from red giant branch stars.

  17. THE WHITE DWARFS WITHIN 20 PARSECS OF THE SUN: KINEMATICS AND STATISTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sion, Edward M.; McCook, George P.; Wasatonic, Richard; Holberg, J. B.; Oswalt, Terry D.

    2009-01-01

    We present the kinematical properties, distribution of spectroscopic subtypes, and stellar population subcomponents of the white dwarfs within 20 pc of the Sun. We find no convincing evidence of halo white dwarfs in the total 20 pc sample of 129 white dwarfs nor is there convincing evidence of genuine thick disk subcomponent members within 20 parsecs. Virtually, the entire 20 pc sample likely belongs to the thin disk. The total DA to non-DA ratio of the 20 pc sample is 1.6, a manifestation of deepening envelope convection which transforms DA stars with sufficiently thin H surface layers into non-DAs. The addition of five new stars to the 20 pc sample yields a revised local space density of white dwarfs of (4.9 ± 0.5) x 10 -3 pc -3 and a corresponding mass density of (3.3 ± 0.3) x 10 -3 M sun pc -3 . We find that at least 15% of the white dwarfs within 20 parsecs of the Sun (the DAZ and DZ stars) have photospheric metals that possibly originate from accretion of circumstellar material (debris disks) around them. If this interpretation is correct, this suggests the possibility that the same percentage have planets or asteroid-like bodies orbiting them.

  18. Bose-Einstein Condensate Dark Matter Halos Confronted with Galactic Rotation Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dwornik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative confrontation of both the Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC and the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW dark halo models with galactic rotation curves. We employ 6 High Surface Brightness (HSB, 6 Low Surface Brightness (LSB, and 7 dwarf galaxies with rotation curves falling into two classes. In the first class rotational velocities increase with radius over the observed range. The BEC and NFW models give comparable fits for HSB and LSB galaxies of this type, while for dwarf galaxies the fit is significantly better with the BEC model. In the second class the rotational velocity of HSB and LSB galaxies exhibits long flat plateaus, resulting in better fit with the NFW model for HSB galaxies and comparable fits for LSB galaxies. We conclude that due to its central density cusp avoidance the BEC model fits better dwarf galaxy dark matter distribution. Nevertheless it suffers from sharp cutoff in larger galaxies, where the NFW model performs better. The investigated galaxy sample obeys the Tully-Fisher relation, including the particular characteristics exhibited by dwarf galaxies. In both models the fitting enforces a relation between dark matter parameters: the characteristic density and the corresponding characteristic distance scale with an inverse power.

  19. Under a crimson sun prospects for life in a red dwarf system

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, David S

    2013-01-01

    Gliese 581 is a red dwarf star some 20.3 light years from Earth. Red dwarfs are among the most numerous stars in the galaxy, and they sport diverse planetary systems. At magnitude 10, Gliese 581 is visible to amateur observers but does not stand out. So what makes this star so important? It is that professional observers have confirmed that it has at least four planets orbiting it, and in 2009, Planet d was described in the letters of The Astrophysical Journal as “the first confirmed exoplanet that could support Earth-like life.”   Under a Crimson Sun looks at the nature of red dwarf systems such as Gliese as potential homes for life.   Realistically, what are prospects for life on these distant worlds? Could life evolve and survive there? How do these planetary surfaces and geology evolve? How would life on a red dwarf planet differ from life on Earth? And what are the implications for finding further habitable worlds in our galaxy?   Stevenson provides readers with insight into the habitability of pl...

  20. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays from white dwarf pulsars and the Hillas criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobato, Ronaldo V.; Coelho, Jaziel G.; Malheiro, M.

    2017-01-01

    The origins of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays ( E ≳ 10 19 eV) are a mystery and still under debate in astroparticle physics. In recent years some efforts were made to understand their nature. In this contribution we consider the possibility of Some Soft Gamma Repeaters (SGRs) and Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) beeing white dwarf pulsars, and show that these sources can achieve large electromagnetic potentials on their surface that accelerate particle almost at the speed of light, with energies E ∼ 10 20-21 eV. The sources SGRs/AXPs considered as highly magnetized white dwarfs are well described in the Hillas diagram, lying close to the AR Sorpii and AE Aquarii which are understood as white dwarf pulsars. (paper)

  1. Infrared photometry of cool white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramasinghe, D.T.; Allen, D.A.; Bessell, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The results are presented of a search for the effects of pressure induced H 2 dipole opacity on the infrared JHK magnitudes of cool white dwarfs. LHS 1126 is found to be a very cool (Tsub(e) approximately 4250 K) DC white dwarf with a H rich atmospheric composition dominated by H 2 dipole opacity in the infrared. JHK photometry also favours a H rich atmospheric composition for the DK white dwarfs LP 658-2 and W 489. The surprisingly high proportion of hydrogen rich white dwarfs in the sample appears to suggest that the mechanism which inhibits the accretion of hydrogen in the hotter helium stars becomes less effective at low (Tsub(e) approximately 3 + ion in cool hydrogen rich white dwarf atmospheres is pointed out and it is suggested that the opacity due to this ion may be responsible for the blanketing observed in the U and B magnitudes of some cool white dwarfs. (author)

  2. Mixing and overshooting in surface convection zones of DA white dwarfs: first results from ANTARES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupka, F.; Zaussinger, F.; Montgomery, M. H.

    2018-03-01

    We present results of a large, high-resolution 3D hydrodynamical simulation of the surface layers of a DA white dwarf (WD) with Teff = 11 800 K and log (g) = 8 using the ANTARES code, the widest and deepest such simulation to date. Our simulations are in good agreement with previous calculations in the Schwarzschild-unstable region and in the overshooting region immediately beneath it. Farther below, in the wave-dominated region, we find that the rms horizontal velocities decay with depth more rapidly than the vertical ones. Since mixing requires both vertical and horizontal displacements, this could have consequences for the size of the region that is well mixed by convection, if this trend is found to hold for deeper layers. We discuss how the size of the mixed region affects the calculated settling times and inferred steady-state accretion rates for WDs with metals observed in their atmospheres.

  3. Lists of semi-dwarf cereal stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The lists are prepared in relation to the Co-ordinated Research Programme. At the first Research Co-ordination Meeting on evaluation of cereal semi-dwarf mutants for cross breeding, March 1981, programme participants were requested to list semi-dwarf mutants available at their institutes including also non-induced semi-dwarf stocks being used in cross-breeding programme for short stature. List-I is prepared from such lists provided by programme participants. Further it was requested to name breeders and institutes providing characteristics of the listed semi-dwarf stocks. List-II gives that information. In the List-I: Parents of semi-dwarf stocks derived from cross breeding, are shown in brackets. In column ''Culm length'', figures are in cm and those of parent cultivars are shown in brackets

  4. Uniform Atmospheric Retrieval Analysis of Ultracool Dwarfs. II. Properties of 11 T dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Line, Michael R. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe AZ 85287 (United States); Marley, Mark S.; Freedman, Richard [NASA Ames Research Center, Mail Stop 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Burningham, Ben [Centre for Astrophysics Research, School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Morley, Caroline V. [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hinkel, Natalie R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Teske, Johanna [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lupu, Roxana, E-mail: mrline@asu.edu [BAER Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Mail Stop 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2017-10-20

    Brown dwarf spectra are rich in information revealing of the chemical and physical processes operating in their atmospheres. We apply a recently developed atmospheric retrieval tool to an ensemble of late-T dwarf (600–800 K) near-infrared (1–2.5 μ m) spectra. With these spectra we are able to directly constrain the molecular abundances for the first time of H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, and Na+K, surface gravity, effective temperature, thermal structure, photometric radius, and cloud optical depths. We find that ammonia, water, methane, and the alkali metals are present and that their abundances are well constrained in all 11 objects. We find no significant trend in the water, methane, or ammonia abundances with temperature, but find a very strong (>25 σ ) decreasing trend in the alkali metal abundances with decreasing effective temperature, indicative of alkali rainout. As expected from previous work, we also find little evidence for optically thick clouds. With the methane and water abundances, we derive the intrinsic atmospheric metallicity and carbon-to-oxygen ratios. We find in our sample that metallicities are typically subsolar (−0.4 < [ M /H] < 0.1 dex) and carbon-to-oxygen ratios are somewhat supersolar (0.4 < C/O < 1.2), different than expectations from the local stellar population. We also find that the retrieved vertical thermal profiles are consistent with radiative equilibrium over the photospheric regions. Finally, we find that our retrieved effective temperatures are lower than previous inferences for some objects and that some of our radii are larger than expectations from evolutionary models, possibly indicative of unresolved binaries. This investigation and method represent a new and powerful paradigm for using spectra to determine the fundamental chemical and physical processes governing cool brown dwarf atmospheres.

  5. Pulsations in white dwarf stars

    OpenAIRE

    Van Grootel, Valérie; Fontaine, Gilles; Brassard, Pierre; Dupret, Marc-Antoine

    2017-01-01

    I will present a description of the six distinct families of pulsating white dwarfs that are currently known. Pulsations are present at various stages of the evolution (from hot, pre-white dwarfs to cool white dwarfs), at various stellar masses, and for various atmospheric compositions. In all of them, a mechanism linked to opacity changes along the evolution drives the oscillations. The existence of these oscillations offers the opportunity to apply asteroseismology for constraining physics ...

  6. Circadian Phase-Shifting Effects of Bright Light, Exercise, and Bright Light + Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngstedt, Shawn D; Kline, Christopher E; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Zielinski, Mark R; Devlin, Tina M; Moore, Teresa A

    2016-02-26

    Limited research has compared the circadian phase-shifting effects of bright light and exercise and additive effects of these stimuli. The aim of this study was to compare the phase-delaying effects of late night bright light, late night exercise, and late evening bright light followed by early morning exercise. In a within-subjects, counterbalanced design, 6 young adults completed each of three 2.5-day protocols. Participants followed a 3-h ultra-short sleep-wake cycle, involving wakefulness in dim light for 2h, followed by attempted sleep in darkness for 1 h, repeated throughout each protocol. On night 2 of each protocol, participants received either (1) bright light alone (5,000 lux) from 2210-2340 h, (2) treadmill exercise alone from 2210-2340 h, or (3) bright light (2210-2340 h) followed by exercise from 0410-0540 h. Urine was collected every 90 min. Shifts in the 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) cosine acrophase from baseline to post-treatment were compared between treatments. Analyses revealed a significant additive phase-delaying effect of bright light + exercise (80.8 ± 11.6 [SD] min) compared with exercise alone (47.3 ± 21.6 min), and a similar phase delay following bright light alone (56.6 ± 15.2 min) and exercise alone administered for the same duration and at the same time of night. Thus, the data suggest that late night bright light followed by early morning exercise can have an additive circadian phase-shifting effect.

  7. White dwarfs in the WTS: Eclipsing binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burleigh M.R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We have identified photometric white dwarf candidates in the WFCAM transit survey through a reduced proper motion versus colour approach. Box-fitting with parameters adjusted to detect the unique signature of a white dwarf + planet/brown dwarf transit/eclipse event was performed, as well as looking for variability due to the irradiation of the companions atmosphere by the white dwarf's high UV flux. We have also performed a simple sensitivity analysis in order to assess the ability of the survey to detect companions to white dwarfs via the transit method.

  8. Habitability of planets around red dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, M J; Doyle, L R; Joshi, M M; Haberle, R M

    1999-08-01

    Recent models indicate that relatively moderate climates could exist on Earth-sized planets in synchronous rotation around red dwarf stars. Investigation of the global water cycle, availability of photosynthetically active radiation in red dwarf sunlight, and the biological implications of stellar flares, which can be frequent for red dwarfs, suggests that higher plant habitability of red dwarf planets may be possible.

  9. A systematic search for brown dwarfs orbiting nearby stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, T.J.; Mccarthy, D.W. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Survey data for brown dwarf and stellar companions relative to known M dwarf stars within 5 pc north of -30 deg are analyzed. A region 0.2 to 5 arcsec in radius around 27 stars at the IR H and K bands are examined using IR speckle interferometry. The frequency of binary versus single M dwarfs in the solar neighborhood is examined. The IR mass-magnitude relations and mass-luminosity-age relation are studied. The data reveal that there are 19 single M dwarfs, 8 M dwarf binaries, 1 M dwarf triple system, and 1 M dwarf in a triple system for M dwarfs within 5 pc north of -30 deg. Also of the 27 M dwarfs studied none was found to have a brown dwarf companion. 64 refs

  10. Astrophysical Implications of a New Dynamical Mass for the Nearby White Dwarf 40 Eridani B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bergeron, P.; Bédard, A., E-mail: heb11@psu.edu [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2017-10-10

    The bright, nearby DA-type white dwarf (WD) 40 Eridani B is orbited by the M dwarf 40 Eri C, allowing determination of the WD’s mass. Until recently, however, the mass depended on orbital elements determined four decades ago, and that mass was so low that it created several astrophysical puzzles. Using new astrometric measurements, the binary-star group at the U.S. Naval Observatory has revised the dynamical mass upward, to 0.573 ± 0.018 M {sub ☉}. In this paper, we use model-atmosphere analysis to update other parameters of the WD, including effective temperature, surface gravity, radius, and luminosity. We then compare these results with WD interior models. Within the observational uncertainties, theoretical cooling tracks for CO-core WDs of its measured mass are consistent with the position of 40 Eri B in the H-R diagram; equivalently, the theoretical mass–radius relation (MRR) is consistent with the star’s location in the mass–radius plane. This consistency is, however, achieved only if we assume a “thin” outer hydrogen layer, with q {sub H} = M {sub H}/ M {sub WD} ≃ 10{sup −10}. We discuss other evidence that a significant fraction of DA WDs have such thin H layers, in spite of the expectation from canonical stellar-evolution theory of “thick” H layers with q {sub H} ≃ 10{sup −4}. The cooling age of 40 Eri B is ∼122 Myr, and its total age is ∼1.8 Gyr. We present the MRRs for 40 Eri B and three other nearby WDs in visual binaries with precise mass determinations, and show that the agreement of current theory with observations is excellent in all cases.

  11. The Metallicity of Void Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreckel, K.; Croxall, K.; Groves, B.; van de Weygaert, R.; Pogge, R. W.

    2015-01-01

    The current ΛCDM cosmological model predicts that galaxy evolution proceeds more slowly in lower density environments, suggesting that voids are a prime location to search for relatively pristine galaxies that are representative of the building blocks of early massive galaxies. To test the assumption that void galaxies are more pristine, we compare the evolutionary properties of a sample of dwarf galaxies selected specifically to lie in voids with a sample of similar isolated dwarf galaxies in average density environments. We measure gas-phase oxygen abundances and gas fractions for eight dwarf galaxies (Mr > -16.2), carefully selected to reside within the lowest density environments of seven voids, and apply the same calibrations to existing samples of isolated dwarf galaxies. We find no significant difference between these void dwarf galaxies and the isolated dwarf galaxies, suggesting that dwarf galaxy chemical evolution proceeds independent of the large-scale environment. While this sample is too small to draw strong conclusions, it suggests that external gas accretion is playing a limited role in the chemical evolution of these systems, and that this evolution is instead dominated mainly by the internal secular processes that are linking the simultaneous growth and enrichment of these galaxies.

  12. Evolution of White Dwarf Stars

    OpenAIRE

    L. G. Althaus

    2001-01-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting the main results we have obtained for the study of the evoution of white dwarf stars. The calculations are carried out by means of a detailed evolutionary code based on an updated physical description. In particular, we briefly discuss the results for the evolution of white dwarfs of different stellar masses and chemical composition, and the evolution of whit e dwarfs in the framework of a varying gravitational constant G scenario as well.

  13. Calibrating Detailed Chemical Analysis of M dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyette, Mark; Muirhead, Philip Steven; Mann, Andrew; Brewer, John; Allard, France; Homeier, Derek

    2018-01-01

    The ability to perform detailed chemical analysis of Sun-like F-, G-, and K-type stars is a powerful tool with many applications including studying the chemical evolution of the Galaxy, assessing membership in stellar kinematic groups, and constraining planet formation theories. Unfortunately, complications in modeling cooler stellar atmospheres has hindered similar analysis of M-dwarf stars. Large surveys of FGK abundances play an important role in developing methods to measure the compositions of M dwarfs by providing benchmark FGK stars that have widely-separated M dwarf companions. These systems allow us to empirically calibrate metallicity-sensitive features in M dwarf spectra. However, current methods to measure metallicity in M dwarfs from moderate-resolution spectra are limited to measuring overall metallicity and largely rely on astrophysical abundance correlations in stellar populations. In this talk, I will discuss how large, homogeneous catalogs of precise FGK abundances are crucial to advancing chemical analysis of M dwarfs beyond overall metallicity to direct measurements of individual elemental abundances. I will present a new method to analyze high-resolution, NIR spectra of M dwarfs that employs an empirical calibration of synthetic M dwarf spectra to infer effective temperature, Fe abundance, and Ti abundance. This work is a step toward detailed chemical analysis of M dwarfs at a similar precision achieved for FGK stars.

  14. Observations of Superwinds in Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, A. T.; Heckman, T. M.; Wyse, R.; Schommer, R.

    1993-12-01

    Dwarf galaxies are important in developing our understanding of the formation and evolution of galaxies, and of the structure in the universe. The concept of supernova-driven mass outflows is a vital ingredient in theories of the structure and evolution of dwarfs galaxies. We have begun a detailed multi-waveband search for outflows in starbursting dwarf galaxies, and have obtained Fabry-Perot images and Echelle spectra of 20 nearby actively-star-forming dwarf galaxies. In about half the sample, the Fabry-Perot Hα images show loops and filaments with sizes of one to a few kpc. The Echelle spectra taken through the loops and filaments show kinematics consistent with expanding bubble-like structures. We describe these data, and present seven dwarfs in our sample that have the strongest evidence of outflows.

  15. Models of surface convection and dust clouds in brown dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freytag, B; Allard, F; Ludwig, H-G; Homeier, D; Steffen, M

    2008-01-01

    The influence of dust grains on the atmospheres of brown dwarfs is visible in observed spectra. To investigate what prevents the dust grains from falling down, or how fresh condensable material is mixed up in the atmosphere to allow new grains to form, we performed 2D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations with CO5BOLD of the upper part of the convection zone and the atmosphere containing the dust cloud layers. We find that unlike in models of Cepheids, the convective overshoot does not play a major role. Instead, the mixing in the dust clouds is controlled by gravity waves.

  16. M-dwarf exoplanet surface density distribution. A log-normal fit from 0.07 to 400 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael R.; Amara, Adam; Reggiani, Maddalena; Quanz, Sascha P.

    2018-04-01

    Aims: We fit a log-normal function to the M-dwarf orbital surface density distribution of gas giant planets, over the mass range 1-10 times that of Jupiter, from 0.07 to 400 AU. Methods: We used a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach to explore the likelihoods of various parameter values consistent with point estimates of the data given our assumed functional form. Results: This fit is consistent with radial velocity, microlensing, and direct-imaging observations, is well-motivated from theoretical and phenomenological points of view, and predicts results of future surveys. We present probability distributions for each parameter and a maximum likelihood estimate solution. Conclusions: We suggest that this function makes more physical sense than other widely used functions, and we explore the implications of our results on the design of future exoplanet surveys.

  17. METAL ABUNDANCES OF 12 DWARF IRREGULARS FROM THE ADBS SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haurberg, Nathalie C.; Salzer, John J. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 E. Third St., Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Rosenberg, Jessica, E-mail: nhaurber@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: slaz@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: jrosenb4@gmu.edu [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Science, George Mason University, MS 3F3, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    We have analyzed long-slit spectra of 12 dwarf irregular galaxies from the Arecibo Dual Beam Survey (ADBS). These galaxies represent a heterogeneous sample of objects detected by ADBS, but on average are relatively gas-rich, low-surface-brightness, and low-mass, thus represent a region of the galaxian population that is not commonly included in optical surveys. The metallicity-luminosity relationship for these galaxies is analyzed; the galaxies discussed in this paper appear to be under-abundant at a given luminosity when compared to a sample from the literature. We attempt to identify a 'second parameter' responsible for the intrinsic scatter and apparent under-abundance of our galaxies. We do not find a definitive second parameter but note the possible indication that infall or mixing of pristine gas may be responsible. We derive oxygen abundances for multiple H II regions in many of our galaxies but do not find any strong indications of metallicity variation within the galaxies except in one case where we see variation between an isolated H II region and the rest of the galaxy. Our data set includes the galaxy with the largest known H I-to-optical size ratio, ADBS 113845+2008. Our abundance analysis of this galaxy reveals that it is strongly over-enriched compared to galaxies of similar luminosity, indicating it is not a young object and confirming the result from Cannon et al. that this galaxy appears to be intrinsically rare in the local universe.

  18. Cypris settlement and dwarf male formation in the barnacle Scalpellum scalpellum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spremberg, U.; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Buhl-Mortensen, L.

    2012-01-01

    Cypris settlement and metamorphosis into dwarf males were studied in the androdioecious barnacle Scalpellum scalpellum using field collected samples from the North Sea, and experiments with laboratory reared larvae, observed with video. In the field sample, dwarf males were always situated...... surfaces of the adults, or on their hydroid substratum, always developed into hermaphrodites. The numbers settling as males did not differ significantly from those settling as hermaphrodites, suggesting that genetic sex determination may operate in S. scalpellum. The N. Sea sample comprised 52 adult...

  19. Stellar and Planetary Parameters for K2 's Late-type Dwarf Systems from C1 to C5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Arturo O. [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Peacock, Sarah [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Blvd, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Schlieder, Joshua E. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Dressing, Courtney D. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Obermeier, Christian [Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany); Livingston, John; Petigura, Erik A. [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ciceri, Simona [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Beichman, Charles A. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lépine, Sébastien [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Pl NE #605, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Aller, Kimberly M. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai’i at Mānoa, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Chance, Quadry A. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Howard, Andrew W. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Werner, Michael W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The NASA K2 mission uses photometry to find planets transiting stars of various types. M dwarfs are of high interest since they host more short-period planets than any other type of main-sequence star and transiting planets around M dwarfs have deeper transits compared to other main-sequence stars. In this paper, we present stellar parameters from K and M dwarfs hosting transiting planet candidates discovered by our team. Using the SOFI spectrograph on the European Southern Observatory’s New Technology Telescope, we obtained R ≈ 1000 J -, H -, and K -band (0.95–2.52 μ m) spectra of 34 late-type K2 planet and candidate planet host systems and 12 bright K4–M5 dwarfs with interferometrically measured radii and effective temperatures. Out of our 34 late-type K2 targets, we identify 27 of these stars as M dwarfs. We measure equivalent widths of spectral features, derive calibration relations using stars with interferometric measurements, and estimate stellar radii, effective temperatures, masses, and luminosities for the K2 planet hosts. Our calibrations provide radii and temperatures with median uncertainties of 0.059 R {sub ⊙} (16.09%) and 160 K (4.33%), respectively. We then reassess the radii and equilibrium temperatures of known and candidate planets based on our spectroscopically derived stellar parameters. Since a planet’s radius and equilibrium temperature depend on the parameters of its host star, our study provides more precise planetary parameters for planets and candidates orbiting late-type stars observed with K2 . We find a median planet radius and an equilibrium temperature of approximately 3 R {sub ⊕} and 500 K, respectively, with several systems (K2-18b and K2-72e) receiving near-Earth-like levels of incident irradiation.

  20. PREFACE: 16th European White Dwarfs Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Berro, Enrique; Hernanz, Margarita; Isern, Jordi; Torres, Santiago

    2009-07-01

    The 16th European Workshop on White Dwarfs was held in Barcelona, Spain, from 30 June to 4 July 2008 at the premises of the UPC. Almost 120 participants from Europe (France, Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, and several others), America (USA, Canada, Argentina, Brazil, and Chile), and other continents (Australia, South Africa, . . . ) attended the workshop. Among these participants were the most relevant specialists in the field. The topics covered by the conference were: White dwarf structure and evolution Progenitors and Planetary Nebulae White dwarfs in binaries: cataclysmic variables, double degenerates and other binaries White dwarfs, dust disks and planetary systems Atmospheres, chemical composition, magnetic fields Variable white dwarfs White dwarfs in stellar clusters and the halo White Dwarfs as SNIa progenitors The programme included 54 talks, and 45 posters. The oral presentations were distributed into the following sessions: Luminosity function, mass function and populations White dwarf structure and evolution White dwarf ages White dwarf catalogs and surveys Central stars of planetary nebulae Supernovae progenitors White dwarfs in novae and CVs Physical processes in white dwarfs and magnetic white dwarfs Disks, dust and planets around white dwarfs Pulsating white dwarfs Additionally we had a special open session about Spitzer and white dwarfs. The Proceedings of the 16th European Workshop on White Dwarfs are representative of the current state-of-the-art of the research field and include new and exciting results. We acknowledge the very positive attitude of the attendants to the workshop, which stimulated very fruitful discussions that took place in all the sessions and after the official schedule. Also, the meeting allowed new collaborations tp start that will undoubtedly result in significant advances in the research field. We also acknowledge the willingness of the participants to deliver their contributions before the final deadline. We sincerely

  1. Assimilation of SMOS Brightness Temperatures or Soil Moisture Retrievals into a Land Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.; Reichle, Rolf H.

    2016-01-01

    Three different data products from the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission are assimilated separately into the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5) to improve estimates of surface and root-zone soil moisture. The first product consists of multi-angle, dual-polarization brightness temperature (Tb) observations at the bottom of the atmosphere extracted from Level 1 data. The second product is a derived SMOS Tb product that mimics the data at a 40 degree incidence angle from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. The third product is the operational SMOS Level 2 surface soil moisture (SM) retrieval product. The assimilation system uses a spatially distributed ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) with seasonally varying climatological bias mitigation for Tb assimilation, whereas a time-invariant cumulative density function matching is used for SM retrieval assimilation. All assimilation experiments improve the soil moisture estimates compared to model-only simulations in terms of unbiased root-mean-square differences and anomaly correlations during the period from 1 July 2010 to 1 May 2015 and for 187 sites across the US. Especially in areas where the satellite data are most sensitive to surface soil moisture, large skill improvements (e.g., an increase in the anomaly correlation by 0.1) are found in the surface soil moisture. The domain-average surface and root-zone skill metrics are similar among the various assimilation experiments, but large differences in skill are found locally. The observation-minus-forecast residuals and analysis increments reveal large differences in how the observations add value in the Tb and SM retrieval assimilation systems. The distinct patterns of these diagnostics in the two systems reflect observation and model errors patterns that are not well captured in the assigned EnKF error parameters. Consequently, a localized optimization of the EnKF error parameters is needed to further improve Tb or SM retrieval

  2. Critical issues in enhancing brightness in thin film phosphors for flat-panel display applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.K.; Chen, Z.; Kumar, D.; Cho, K.; Ollinger, M.

    2002-01-01

    Thin film phosphors have potential applications in field emission flat-panel displays. However, they are limited by the lower cathodoluminescent brightness in comparison to phosphor powders. In this paper, we have investigated the critical parameters that need to be optimized to increase the brightness of phosphor thin films. Specifically, we studied the role of surface roughness and optical properties of the substrate on the brightness of the phosphor films. Thin Y 2 O 3 :Eu phosphor films were deposited on various substrates (lanthanum aluminate, quartz, sapphire, and silicon) with thicknesses varying from 50 to 500 nm. A model that accounts for diffuse and specular or scattering effects has been developed to understand the effects of the microstructure on the emission characteristics of the cathodoluminescent films. The results from the model show that both the optical properties of the substrate and the surface roughness of the films play a critical role in controlling the brightness of laser deposited phosphor films

  3. Bright Stuff on Ceres = Sulfates and Carbonates on CI Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael; Chan, Queenie H. S.; Gounelle, Matthieu; Fries, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports of the DAWN spacecraft's observations of the surface of Ceres indicate that there are bright areas, which can be explained by large amounts of the Mg sulfate hexahydrate (MgSO4•6(H2O)), although the identification appears tenuous. There are preliminary indications that water is being evolved from these bright areas, and some have inferred that these might be sites of contemporary hydro-volcanism. A heat source for such modern activity is not obvious, given the small size of Ceres, lack of any tidal forces from nearby giant planets, probable age and presumed bulk composition. We contend that observations of chondritic materials in the lab shed light on the nature of the bright spots on Ceres

  4. A Very Cool Pair of Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Observations with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, along with two other telescopes, have shown that there is a new candidate for the coldest known star: a brown dwarf in a double system with about the same temperature as a freshly made cup of tea - hot in human terms, but extraordinarily cold for the surface of a star. This object is cool enough to begin crossing the blurred line dividing small cold stars from big hot planets. Brown dwarfs are essentially failed stars: they lack enough mass for gravity to trigger the nuclear reactions that make stars shine. The newly discovered brown dwarf, identified as CFBDSIR 1458+10B, is the dimmer member of a binary brown dwarf system located just 75 light-years from Earth [1]. The powerful X-shooter spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) was used to show that the composite object was very cool by brown dwarf standards. "We were very excited to see that this object had such a low temperature, but we couldn't have guessed that it would turn out to be a double system and have an even more interesting, even colder component," said Philippe Delorme of the Institut de planétologie et d'astrophysique de Grenoble (CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier), a co-author of the paper. CFBDSIR 1458+10 is the coolest brown dwarf binary found to date. The dimmer of the two dwarfs has now been found to have a temperature of about 100 degrees Celsius - the boiling point of water, and not much different from the temperature inside a sauna [2]. "At such temperatures we expect the brown dwarf to have properties that are different from previously known brown dwarfs and much closer to those of giant exoplanets - it could even have water clouds in its atmosphere," said Michael Liu of the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy, who is lead author of the paper describing this new work. "In fact, once we start taking images of gas-giant planets around Sun-like stars in the near future, I expect that many of them

  5. SpeX Spectroscopy of Unresolved Very Low-Mass Binaries. I. Identification of Seventeen Candidate Binaries Straddling the L Dwarf/T Dwarf Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Cushing, Michael C.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Looper, Dagny L.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Reid, I. Neill

    2009-01-01

    We report the identification of 17 candidate brown dwarf binaries whose components straddle the L dwarf/T dwarf transition. These sources were culled from a large near-infrared spectral sample of L and T dwarfs observed with the Infrared Telescope Facility SpeX spectrograph. Candidates were selected on the basis of spectral ratios which segregate known (resolved) L dwarf/T dwarf pairs from presumably single sources. Composite templates, constructed by combining 13581 pairs of absolute flux-ca...

  6. Variation reduction of brightness and pH of pulp sent to a paper mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napassavong Rojanarowan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The variance of the brightness of pulp sent to the paper mill during the changing period of dry pulp grades affects the chemical control in the paper mill. This research aims to determine the mixing formula of pulp with different brightness from the EOP and D1 stages to handle this variation issue. This research uses response surface design with Central Composite Design type, regression technique and optimization technique to find the optimal setting of the mixing formula for each of the seven brightness levels to obtain the target brightness of 86% and the pH of 5.25. The mixing formulas are determined by the pulp mixing percentage and the sulfuric acid consumption. The experimental results reveal that when using higher EOP mixing ratio, the brightness decreases and the pH increases. Regarding the effect of the sulfuric acid, increasing the sulfuric acid makes the brightness and the pH decrease. After implementing the optimal formula in the production line, the mean of pulp brightness is closer to the target compared with the brightness before improvement and the brightness variation decreases without affecting the quality of other pulp grades, average of brightness decreased from 87.4% to 86.3% and standard deviation of brightness decreased from 1.09 to 0.46.

  7. Rapid Evolution of the Gaseous Exoplanetary Debris Around the White Dwarf Star HE 1349--2305

    OpenAIRE

    Dennihy, E.; Clemens, J. C.; Dunlap, B. H.; Fanale, S. M.; Fuchs, J. T.; Hermes, J. J.

    2018-01-01

    Observations of heavy metal pollution in white dwarf stars indicate that metal-rich planetesimals are frequently scattered into star-grazing orbits, tidally disrupted, and accreted onto the white dwarf surface, offering direct insight into the dynamical evolution of post-main-sequence exoplanetary systems. Emission lines from the gaseous debris in the accretion disks of some of these systems show variations on timescales of decades, and have been interpreted as the general relativistic preces...

  8. Milky Way red dwarfs in the BoRG survey; galactic scale-height and the distribution of dwarf stars in WFC3 imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holwerda, B. W.; Bouwens, R.; Trenti, M.; Clarkson, W.; Sahu, K.; Bradley, L.; Stiavelli, M.; Pirzkal, N.; Ryan, R.; De Marchi, G.; Andersen, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a tally of Milky Way late-type dwarf stars in 68 Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) pure-parallel fields (227 arcmin 2 ) from the Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies survey for high-redshift galaxies. Using spectroscopically identified M-dwarfs in two public surveys, the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey and the Early Release Science mosaics, we identify a morphological selection criterion using the half-light radius (r 50 ), a near-infrared J – H, G – J color region where M-dwarfs are found, and a V – J relation with M-dwarf subtype. We apply this morphological selection of stellar objects, color-color selection of M-dwarfs, and optical-near-infrared color subtyping to compile a catalog of 274 M-dwarfs belonging to the disk of the Milky Way with a limiting magnitude of m F125W < 24(AB). Based on the M-dwarf statistics, we conclude that (1) the previously identified north-south discrepancy in M-dwarf numbers persists in our sample; there are more M-dwarfs in the northern fields on average than in southern ones, (2) the Milky Way's single disk scale-height for M-dwarfs is 0.3-4 kpc, depending on subtype, (3) the scale-height depends on M-dwarf subtype with early types (M0-4) high scale-height (z 0 = 3-4 kpc) and later types M5 and above in the thin disk (z 0 = 0.3-0.5 kpc), (4) a second component is visible in the vertical distribution, with a different, much higher scale-height in the southern fields compared to the northern ones. We report the M-dwarf component of the Sagittarius stream in one of our fields with 11 confirmed M-dwarfs, seven of which are at the stream's distance. In addition to the M-dwarf catalog, we report the discovery of 1 T-dwarfs and 30 L-dwarfs from their near-infrared colors. The dwarf scale-height and the relative low incidence in our fields of L- and T-dwarfs in these fields makes it unlikely that these stars will be interlopers in great numbers in color-selected samples of high-redshift galaxies

  9. Milky Way red dwarfs in the BoRG survey; galactic scale-height and the distribution of dwarf stars in WFC3 imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holwerda, B. W.; Bouwens, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Trenti, M. [Kavli Institute for Cosmology and Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Clarkson, W. [Department of Natural Sciences College of Arts, Sciences and Letters, University of Michigan-Dearborn 4901 Evergreen Road, Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States); Sahu, K.; Bradley, L.; Stiavelli, M.; Pirzkal, N.; Ryan, R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); De Marchi, G. [European Space Agency, ESA-ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Andersen, M., E-mail: holwerda@strw.leidenuniv.nl [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planétologie et d' Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, F-38041 Grenoble (France)

    2014-06-10

    We present a tally of Milky Way late-type dwarf stars in 68 Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) pure-parallel fields (227 arcmin{sup 2}) from the Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies survey for high-redshift galaxies. Using spectroscopically identified M-dwarfs in two public surveys, the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey and the Early Release Science mosaics, we identify a morphological selection criterion using the half-light radius (r {sub 50}), a near-infrared J – H, G – J color region where M-dwarfs are found, and a V – J relation with M-dwarf subtype. We apply this morphological selection of stellar objects, color-color selection of M-dwarfs, and optical-near-infrared color subtyping to compile a catalog of 274 M-dwarfs belonging to the disk of the Milky Way with a limiting magnitude of m {sub F125W} < 24(AB). Based on the M-dwarf statistics, we conclude that (1) the previously identified north-south discrepancy in M-dwarf numbers persists in our sample; there are more M-dwarfs in the northern fields on average than in southern ones, (2) the Milky Way's single disk scale-height for M-dwarfs is 0.3-4 kpc, depending on subtype, (3) the scale-height depends on M-dwarf subtype with early types (M0-4) high scale-height (z {sub 0} = 3-4 kpc) and later types M5 and above in the thin disk (z {sub 0} = 0.3-0.5 kpc), (4) a second component is visible in the vertical distribution, with a different, much higher scale-height in the southern fields compared to the northern ones. We report the M-dwarf component of the Sagittarius stream in one of our fields with 11 confirmed M-dwarfs, seven of which are at the stream's distance. In addition to the M-dwarf catalog, we report the discovery of 1 T-dwarfs and 30 L-dwarfs from their near-infrared colors. The dwarf scale-height and the relative low incidence in our fields of L- and T-dwarfs in these fields makes it unlikely that these stars will be interlopers in great numbers in color-selected samples of

  10. An overview of white dwarf stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charpinet S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a brief summary of what is currently known about white dwarf stars, with an emphasis on their evolutionary and internal properties. As is well known, white dwarfs represent the end products of stellar evolution for the vast majority of stars and, as such, bear the signatures of past events (such as mass loss, mixing phases, loss and redistribution of angular momentum, and thermonuclear burning that are of essential importance in the evolution of stars in general. In addition, white dwarf stars represent ideal testbeds for our understanding of matter under extreme conditions, and work on their constitutive physics (neutrino production rates, conductive and radiative opacities, interior liquid/solid equations of state, partially ionized and partially degenerate envelope equations of state, diffusion coefficients, line broadening mechanisms is still being actively pursued. Given a set of constitutive physics, cooling white dwarfs can be used advantageously as cosmochronometers. Moreover, the field has been blessed by the existence of four distinct families of pulsating white dwarfs, each mapping a different evolutionary phase, and this allows the application of the asteroseismological method to probe and test their internal structure and evolutionary state. We set the stage for the reviews that follow on cooling white dwarfs as cosmochronometers and physics laboratories, as well as on the properties of pulsating white dwarfs and the asteroseismological results that can be inferred.

  11. A CROSS-MATCH OF 2MASS AND SDSS. II. PECULIAR L DWARFS, UNRESOLVED BINARIES, AND THE SPACE DENSITY OF T DWARF SECONDARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geissler, Kerstin; Metchev, Stanimir; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Berriman, G. Bruce; Looper, Dagny

    2011-01-01

    We present the completion of a program to cross-correlate the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 1 (SDSS DR1) and Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) Point Source Catalog in search for extremely red L and T dwarfs. The program was initiated by Metchev and collaborators, who presented the findings on all newly identified T dwarfs in SDSS DR1 and estimated the space density of isolated T0-T8 dwarfs in the solar neighborhood. In the current work, we present most of the L dwarf discoveries. Our red-sensitive (z - J ≥ 2.75 mag) cross-match proves to be efficient in detecting peculiarly red L dwarfs, adding two new ones, including one of the reddest known L dwarfs. Our search also nets a new peculiarly blue L7 dwarf and, surprisingly, two M8 dwarfs. We further broaden our analysis to detect unresolved binary L or T dwarfs through spectral template fitting to all L and T dwarfs presented here and in the earlier work by Metchev and collaborators. We identify nine probable binaries, six of which are new and eight harbor likely T dwarf secondaries. We combine this result with current knowledge of the mass ratio distribution and frequency of substellar companions to estimate an overall space density of 0.005-0.05 pc -3 for individual T0-T8 dwarfs.

  12. Larch Dwarf Mistletoe (FIDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome S. Beatty; Gregory M. Filip; Robert L. Mathiason

    1997-01-01

    Larch dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium laricis (Piper) St. John) is a common and damaging parasite of western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) in the Pacific Northwest and southern British Columbia. Larch dwarf mistletoe occurs commonly throughout the range of western larch in British Columbia, northern and central Idaho, western Montana and east of the Cascades in...

  13. Star Formation Histories of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Grebel, Eva K.

    2000-01-01

    Properties of nearby dwarf galaxies are briefly discussed. Dwarf galaxies vary widely in their star formation histories, the ages of their subpopulations, and in their enrichment history. Furthermore, many dwarf galaxies show evidence for spatial variations in their star formation history; often in the form of very extended old populations and radial gradients in age and metallicity. Determining factors in dwarf galaxy evolution appear to be both galaxy mass and environment. We may be observi...

  14. The stellar occultation by the dwarf planet Haumea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Sanz, Pablo; Ortiz, Jose Luis; Sicardy, Bruno; Rossi, Gustavo; Berard, Diane; Morales, Nicolas; Duffard, Rene; Braga-Ribas, Felipe; Hopp, Ulrich; Ries, Christoph; Nascimbeni, Valerio; Marzari, Francesco; Granata, Valentina; Pál, András; Kiss, Csaba; Pribulla, Theodor; Milan Komzík, Richard; Hornoch, Kamil; Pravec, Petr; Bacci, Paolo; Maestripieri, Martina; Nerli, Luca; Mazzei, Leonardo; Bachini, Mauro; Martinelli, Fabio; Succi, Giacomo; Ciabattari, Fabrizio; Mikuz, Herman; Carbognani, Albino; Gaehrken, Bernd; Mottola, Stefano; Hellmich, Stephan; Rommel, Flavia; Fernández-Valenzuela, Estela; Campo Bagatin, Adriano; Haumea occultation international Collaboration: https://cloud.iaa.csic.es/public.php?service=files&t=d9276f8ab1a316cef13bee28bef75add

    2017-10-01

    The dwarf planet Haumea is a very peculiar Trans-Neptunian Object (TNO) with unique and exotic characteristics. It is currently classified as one of the five dwarf planets of the solar system, and it is the only one for which size, shape, albedo, density and other basic properties were not accurately known. To solve that we predicted an occultation of the star GaiaDR1 1233009038221203584 by Haumea and organized observations within the expected shadow path. Medium/large telescopes were needed to record the occultation with enough signal to noise ratio because the occulted star is of similar brightness as Haumea (R~17.7 mag). We will report results derived from this successful stellar occultation by Haumea on 2017 January 21st. The occultation was positive from 12 telescopes at 10 observing stations in Europe: the Asiago Observatory 1.8m telescope (Italy), the Mount Agliale Observatory 0.5m telescope (Italy), the Lajatico Astronomical Centre 0.5m telescope (Italy), the S.Marcello Pistoiese Observatory 0.6m telescope (Italy), the Crni Vrh Observatory 0.6m telescope (Slovenia), the Ondrejov Observatory 0.65m telescope (Czech Republic), the Bavarian Public Observatory 0.81m telescope (Germany), the Konkoly Observatory 1m and 0.6m telescopes (Hungary), the Skalnate Pleso Observatory 1.3m telescope (Slovakia), and the Wendelstein Observatory 2m and 0.4m telescopes (Germany). This is the occultation by a TNO with the largest number of chords ever recorded.Part of this work has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under Grant Agreement No. 687378.

  15. Kiloamp high-brightness beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporaso, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    Brightness preservation of high-current relativistic electron beams under two different types of transport is discussed. Recent progress in improving the brightness of laser-guided beams in the Advanced Test Accelerator is reviewed. A strategy for the preservation of the brightness of space-charge-dominated beams in a solenoidal transport system is presented

  16. Evolution models of helium white dwarf--main-sequence star merger remnants: the mass distribution of single low-mass white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xianfei; Hall, Philip D.; Jeffery, C. Simon; Bi, Shaolan

    2017-01-01

    It is not known how single white dwarfs with masses less than 0.5Msolar -- low-mass white dwarfs -- are formed. One way in which such a white dwarf might be formed is after the merger of a helium-core white dwarf with a main-sequence star that produces a red giant branch star and fails to ignite helium. We use a stellar-evolution code to compute models of the remnants of these mergers and find a relation between the pre-merger masses and the final white dwarf mass. Combining our results with ...

  17. Hemlock Dwarf Mistletoe (FIDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Hennon; Jerome S. Beatty; Diane Hildebrand

    2001-01-01

    Hemlock dwarf mistletoe, Arceuthobium tsugense (Rosendahl) G.N. Jones, causes a serious disease of western hemlock and several other tree species along the Pacific Coast of North America. This small, seed-bearing plant lives exclusively as a parasite on living trees. Throughout its range, hemlock dwarf mistletoe occurs in patch-like patterns in the forests. Some...

  18. Merging white dwarfs and thermonuclear supernovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kerkwijk, M H

    2013-06-13

    Thermonuclear supernovae result when interaction with a companion reignites nuclear fusion in a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, causing a thermonuclear runaway, a catastrophic gain in pressure and the disintegration of the whole white dwarf. It is usually thought that fusion is reignited in near-pycnonuclear conditions when the white dwarf approaches the Chandrasekhar mass. I briefly describe two long-standing problems faced by this scenario, and the suggestion that these supernovae instead result from mergers of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, including those that produce sub-Chandrasekhar-mass remnants. I then turn to possible observational tests, in particular, those that test the absence or presence of electron captures during the burning.

  19. A selective deficit in the appreciation and recognition of brightness: brightness agnosia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Nys, Gudrun M S; van der Smagt, Maarten J; de Haan, Edward H F

    2009-01-01

    We report a patient with extensive brain damage in the right hemisphere who demonstrated a severe impairment in the appreciation of brightness. Acuity, contrast sensitivity as well as luminance discrimination were normal, suggesting her brightness impairment is not a mere consequence of low-level sensory impairments. The patient was not able to indicate the darker or the lighter of two grey squares, even though she was able to see that they differed. In addition, she could not indicate whether the lights in a room were switched on or off, nor was she able to differentiate between normal greyscale images and inverted greyscale images. As the patient recognised objects, colours, and shapes correctly, the impairment is specific for brightness. As low-level, sensory processing is normal, this specific deficit in the recognition and appreciation of brightness appears to be of a higher, cognitive level, the level of semantic knowledge. This appears to be the first report of 'brightness agnosia'.

  20. White-dwarf-white-dwarf galactic background in the LISA data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edlund, Jeffrey A.; Tinto, Massimo; Krolak, Andrzej; Nelemans, Gijs

    2005-01-01

    LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) is a proposed space mission, which will use coherent laser beams exchanged between three remote spacecraft to detect and study low-frequency cosmic gravitational radiation. In the low part of its frequency band, the LISA strain sensitivity will be dominated by the incoherent superposition of hundreds of millions of gravitational wave signals radiated by inspiraling white-dwarf binaries present in our own Galaxy. In order to estimate the magnitude of the LISA response to this background, we have simulated a synthesized population that recently appeared in the literature. Our approach relies on entirely analytic expressions of the LISA time-delay interferometric responses to the gravitational radiation emitted by such systems, which allows us to implement a computationally efficient and accurate simulation of the background in the LISA data. We find the amplitude of the galactic white-dwarf binary background in the LISA data to be modulated in time, reaching a minimum equal to about twice that of the LISA noise for a period of about two months around the time when the Sun-LISA direction is roughly oriented towards the Autumn equinox. This suggests that, during this time period, LISA could search for other gravitational wave signals incoming from directions that are away from the galactic plane. Since the galactic white-dwarf background will be observed by LISA not as a stationary but rather as a cyclostationary random process with a period of 1 yr, we summarize the theory of cyclostationary random processes, present the corresponding generalized spectral method needed to characterize such process, and make a comparison between our analytic results and those obtained by applying our method to the simulated data. We find that, by measuring the generalized spectral components of the white-dwarf background, LISA will be able to infer properties of the distribution of the white-dwarf binary systems present in our Galaxy

  1. Response of dwarf mistletoe-infested ponderosa pine to thinning: 2. Dwarf mistletoe propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis F. Roth; James W. Barrett

    1985-01-01

    Propagation of dwarf mistletoe in ponderosa pine saplings is little influenced by thinning overly dense stands to 250 trees per acre. Numerous plants that appear soon after thinning develop from formerly latent plants in the suppressed under-story. Subsequently, dwarf mistletoe propagates nearly as fast as tree crowns enlarge but the rate differs widely among trees....

  2. Properties of an eclipsing double white dwarf binary NLTT 11748

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, David L.; Walker, Arielle N.; Marsh, Thomas R.; Bours, Madelon C. P.; Breedt, Elmé; Bildsten, Lars; Copperwheat, Chris M.; Dhillon, Vik S.; Littlefair, Stuart P.; Howell, Steve B.; Shporer, Avi; Steinfadt, Justin D. R.

    2014-01-01

    We present high-quality ULTRACAM photometry of the eclipsing detached double white dwarf binary NLTT 11748. This system consists of a carbon/oxygen white dwarf and an extremely low mass (<0.2 M ☉ ) helium-core white dwarf in a 5.6 hr orbit. To date, such extremely low-mass white dwarfs, which can have thin, stably burning outer layers, have been modeled via poorly constrained atmosphere and cooling calculations where uncertainties in the detailed structure can strongly influence the eventual fates of these systems when mass transfer begins. With precise (individual precision ≈1%), high-cadence (≈2 s), multicolor photometry of multiple primary and secondary eclipses spanning >1.5 yr, we constrain the masses and radii of both objects in the NLTT 11748 system to a statistical uncertainty of a few percent. However, we find that overall uncertainty in the thickness of the envelope of the secondary carbon/oxygen white dwarf leads to a larger (≈13%) systematic uncertainty in the primary He WD's mass. Over the full range of possible envelope thicknesses, we find that our primary mass (0.136-0.162 M ☉ ) and surface gravity (log (g) = 6.32-6.38; radii are 0.0423-0.0433 R ☉ ) constraints do not agree with previous spectroscopic determinations. We use precise eclipse timing to detect the Rømer delay at 7σ significance, providing an additional weak constraint on the masses and limiting the eccentricity to ecos ω = (– 4 ± 5) × 10 –5 . Finally, we use multicolor data to constrain the secondary's effective temperature (7600 ± 120 K) and cooling age (1.6-1.7 Gyr).

  3. BrightFocus Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About BrightFocus Foundation Featured Content BrightFocus: Investing in Science to Save Mind and Sight We're here to help. Explore ... recognition is very important. Monday, November 6, 2017 New Diagnosis? Managing a mind and sight disease is a journey. And you’ ...

  4. A VERY BRIGHT, VERY HOT, AND VERY LONG FLARING EVENT FROM THE M DWARF BINARY SYSTEM DG CVn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osten, Rachel A. [Space Telescope Science Institute (United States); Kowalski, Adam [U. Md/GSFC (United States); Drake, Stephen A. [USRA/CRESST and NASA/GSFC (United States); Krimm, Hans [USRA/CRESST (United States); Page, Kim [X-ray and Observational Astronomy Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Gazeas, Kosmas [Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, University of Athens, GR-15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece); Kennea, Jamie [Penn State (United States); Oates, Samantha [Instituto de Astrofsica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008, Granada (Spain); Page, Mathew [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); De Miguel, Enrique [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, E-21071 Huelva (Spain); Novák, Rudolf [Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Apeltauer, Tomas [Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Veveri 331/95, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Gehrels, Neil, E-mail: osten@stsci.edu [NASA/GSFC (United States)

    2016-12-01

    On 2014 April 23, the Swift satellite responded to a hard X-ray transient detected by its Burst Alert Telescope, which turned out to be a stellar flare from a nearby, young M dwarf binary DG CVn. We utilize observations at X-ray, UV, optical, and radio wavelengths to infer the properties of two large flares. The X-ray spectrum of the primary outburst can be described over the 0.3–100 keV bandpass by either a single very high-temperature plasma or a nonthermal thick-target bremsstrahlung model, and we rule out the nonthermal model based on energetic grounds. The temperatures were the highest seen spectroscopically in a stellar flare, at T{sub X} of 290 MK. The first event was followed by a comparably energetic event almost a day later. We constrain the photospheric area involved in each of the two flares to be >10{sup 20} cm{sup 2}, and find evidence from flux ratios in the second event of contributions to the white light flare emission in addition to the usual hot, T  ∼ 10{sup 4} K blackbody emission seen in the impulsive phase of flares. The radiated energy in X-rays and white light reveal these events to be the two most energetic X-ray flares observed from an M dwarf, with X-ray radiated energies in the 0.3–10 keV bandpass of 4 × 10{sup 35} and 9 × 10{sup 35} erg, and optical flare energies at E{sub V} of 2.8 × 10{sup 34} and 5.2 × 10{sup 34} erg, respectively. The results presented here should be integrated into updated modeling of the astrophysical impact of large stellar flares on close-in exoplanetary atmospheres.

  5. A Very Bright, Very Hot, and Very Long Flaring Event from the M Dwarf Binary System DG CVn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osten, Rachel A.; Kowalski, Adam; Drake, Stephen; Krimm, Hans; Page, Kim; Gazeas, Kosmas; Page, Mathew; Miguel, Enrique De; Novak, Rudolf; Gehrels, Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    On 2014 April 23, the Swift satellite responded to a hard X-ray transient detected by its Burst Alert Telescope, which turned out to be a stellar flare from a nearby, young M dwarf binary DG CVn. We utilize observations at X-ray, UV, optical, and radio wavelengths to infer the properties of two large flares. The X-ray spectrum of the primary outburst can be described over the 0.3100 kiloelectron volts bandpass by either a single very high-temperature plasma or a nonthermal thick-target bremsstrahlung model, and we rule out the nonthermal model based on energetic grounds. The temperatures were the highest seen spectroscopically in a stellar flare, at T(sub x) of 290 megakelvin. The first event was followed by a comparably energetic event almost a day later. We constrain the photospheric area involved in each of the two flares to be greater than 10(exp 20) sq cm, and find evidence from flux ratios in the second event of contributions to the white light flare emission in addition to the usual hot, T approximately 10(exp 4) K blackbody emission seen in the impulsive phase of flares. The radiated energy in X-rays and white light reveal these events to be the two most energetic X-ray flares observed from an M dwarf, with X-ray radiated energies in the 0.3-10 kiloelectron volts bandpass of 4 x 10(exp 35) and 9 x 10(exp 35) erg, and optical flare energies at E(sub V) of 2.8 x 10(exp 34) and 5.2 x 10(exp 34) erg, respectively. The results presented here should be integrated into updated modeling of the astrophysical impact of large stellar flares on close-in exoplanetary atmospheres.

  6. Connecting Young Brown Dwarfs and Directly Imaged Gas-Giant Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Michael; Dupuy, Trent; Allers, Katelyn; Aller, Kimberly; Best, William; Magnier, Eugene

    2015-12-01

    Direct detections of gas-giant exoplanets and discoveries of young (~10-100 Myr) field brown dwarfs from all-sky surveys are strengthening the link between the exoplanet and brown dwarf populations, given the overlapping ages, masses, temperatures, and surface gravities. In light of the relatively small number of directly imaged planets and the modest associated datasets, the large census of young field brown dwarfsprovides a compelling laboratory for enriching our understanding of both classes of objects. However, work to date on young field objects has typically focused on individual discoveries.We present a large comprehensive study of the youngest field brown dwarfs, comprising both previously known objects and our new discoveries from the latest wide-field surveys (Pan-STARRS-1 and WISE). With masses now extending down to ~5 Jupiter masses, these objects have physical properties that largely overlap young gas-giant planets and thus are promising analogs for studying exoplanet atmospheres at unparalleled S/N, spectral resolution, and wavelength coverage. We combine high-quality spectra and parallaxes to determine spectral energy distributions, luminosities, temperatures, and ages for young field objects. We demonstrate that this population spans a continuum in the color-magnitude diagram, thereby forming a bridge between the hot and cool extremes of directly imaged planets. We find that the extremely dusty properties of the planets around 2MASS J1207-39 and HR 8799 do occur in some young brown dwarfs, but these properties do not have a simple correspondence with age, perhaps contrary to expectations. We find young field brown dwarfs can have unusually low temperatures and suggest a new spectral type-temperature scale appropriate for directly imaged planets.To help provide a reference for extreme-contrast imaging surveys, we establish a grid of spectral standards and benchmarks, based on membership in nearby young moving groups, in order to calibrate gravity

  7. Activity-induced radial velocity variation of M dwarf stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Marie; Korhonen, Heidi Helena

    2012-01-01

    that can drown out a planetary signature. Cool, low-mass M dwarf stars can be highly active, which can make detection of potentially habitable planets around these stars difficult. We investigate radial velocity variations caused by different activity (spot) patterns on M dwarf stars in order to determine...... the limits of detectability for small planets orbiting active M dwarfs. We report on our progress toward the aim of answering the following questions: What types of spot patterns are realistic for M dwarf stars? What effect will spots have on M dwarf RV measurements? Can jitter from M dwarf spots mimic...... planetary signals? What is the ideal observing wavelength to reduce M dwarf jitter?...

  8. NEW COOLING SEQUENCES FOR OLD WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renedo, I.; Althaus, L. G.; GarcIa-Berro, E.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.; Romero, A. D.; Corsico, A. H.; Rohrmann, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    We present full evolutionary calculations appropriate for the study of hydrogen-rich DA white dwarfs. This is done by evolving white dwarf progenitors from the zero-age main sequence, through the core hydrogen-burning phase, the helium-burning phase, and the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch phase to the white dwarf stage. Complete evolutionary sequences are computed for a wide range of stellar masses and for two different metallicities, Z = 0.01, which is representative of the solar neighborhood, and Z = 0.001, which is appropriate for the study of old stellar systems, like globular clusters. During the white dwarf cooling stage, we self-consistently compute the phase in which nuclear reactions are still important, the diffusive evolution of the elements in the outer layers and, finally, we also take into account all the relevant energy sources in the deep interior of the white dwarf, such as the release of latent heat and the release of gravitational energy due to carbon-oxygen phase separation upon crystallization. We also provide colors and magnitudes for these sequences, based on a new set of improved non-gray white dwarf model atmospheres, which include the most up-to-date physical inputs like the Lyα quasi-molecular opacity. The calculations are extended down to an effective temperature of 2500 K. Our calculations provide a homogeneous set of evolutionary cooling tracks appropriate for mass and age determinations of old DA white dwarfs and for white dwarf cosmochronology of the different Galactic populations.

  9. Calorie restriction and dwarf mice in gerontological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee Alderman, J; DePetrillo, Michael A; Gluesenkamp, Angela M; Hartley, Antonia C; Verhoff, S Veronica; Zavodni, Katherine L; Combs, Terry P

    2010-01-01

    What aging process is delayed by calorie restriction (CR) and mutations that produce long-lived dwarf mice? From 1935 until 1996, CR was the only option for increasing the maximum lifespan of laboratory rodents. In 1996, the mutation producing the Ames dwarf mouse (Prop-1(-/-)) was reported to increase lifespan. Since 1996, other gene mutations that cause dwarfism or lower body weight have been reported to increase the lifespan of mice. The recent discovery of long-lived mutant dwarf mice provides an opportunity to investigate common features between CR and dwarf models. Both CR and dwarf mutations increase insulin sensitivity. Elevated insulin sensitivity reduces oxidative stress, a potential cause of aging. The elevation of liver insulin sensitivity by the hormone adiponectin in CR and long-lived dwarf mice can lower endogenous glucose production and raise fatty acid oxidation. Adiponectin reduction of plasma glucose in CR and long-lived dwarf mice can thereby lower age-related increases in oxidative damage and cancer. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Starbursts in Blue compact dwarf galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuan, T.X.

    1987-01-01

    We summarize all the arguments for a bursting mode of star formation in blue compact dwarf galaxies. We show in particular how spectral synthesis of far ultraviolet spectra of Blue compact dwarf galaxy constitutes a powerful way for studying the star formation history in these galaxies. Blue compact dwarf galaxy luminosity functions show jumps and discontinuities. These jumps act like fossil records of the star-forming bursts, helping us to count and date the bursts

  11. Merging White Dwarfs and Thermonuclear Supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    van Kerkwijk, Marten H.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear supernovae result when interaction with a companion reignites nuclear fusion in a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, causing a thermonuclear runaway, a catastrophic gain in pressure, and the disintegration of the whole white dwarf. It is usually thought that fusion is reignited in near-pycnonuclear conditions when the white dwarf approaches the Chandrasekhar mass. I briefly describe two long-standing problems faced by this scenario, and our suggestion that these supernovae instead resul...

  12. The SDSS-III APOGEE radial velocity survey of M dwarfs. I. Description of the survey and science goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, R.; Bender, C. F.; Mahadevan, S.; Terrien, R. C.; Schneider, D. P.; Fleming, S. W. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Blake, C. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Carlberg, J. K. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Zasowski, G.; Hearty, F. [University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Crepp, J. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Rajpurohit, A. S.; Reylé, C. [Institut UTINAM, CNRS UMR 6213, Observatoire des Sciences de l' Univers THETA Franche-Comt é-Bourgogne, Université de Franche Comté, Observatoire de Besançon, BP 1615, F-25010 Besançon Cedex (France); Nidever, D. L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Prieto, C. Allende; Hernández, J. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bizyaev, D. [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); Ebelke, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, TCU Box 298840, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Frinchaboy, P. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Ge, J. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); and others

    2013-12-01

    hope to achieve a relative velocity precision floor of 50 m s{sup –1} for bright M dwarfs. With three or more epochs, this precision is adequate to detect substellar companions, including giant planets with short orbital periods, and flag them for higher-cadence followup. We present preliminary, and promising, results of this telluric modeling technique in this paper.

  13. Rare White dwarf stars with carbon atmospheres

    OpenAIRE

    Dufour, P.; Liebert, James; Fontaine, G.; Behara, N.

    2007-01-01

    White dwarfs represent the endpoint of stellar evolution for stars with initial masses between approximately 0.07 msun and 8-10 msun, where msun is the mass of the Sun (more massive stars end their life as either black holes or neutron stars). The theory of stellar evolution predicts that the majority of white dwarfs have a core made of carbon and oxygen, which itself is surrounded by a helium layer and, for ~80 per cent of known white dwarfs, by an additional hydrogen layer. All white dwarfs...

  14. Pulsating White Dwarfs in Cataclysmic Variables: The Marriage of ZZ Cet and Dwarf Nova

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, Brian; Woudt, Patrick A.

    2003-01-01

    There are now four dwarf novae known with white dwarf primaries that show large amplitude non-radial oscillations of the kind seen in ZZ Cet stars. We compare the properties of these stars and point out that by the end of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey more than 30 should be known.

  15. Detection of a white dwarf companion to the Hyades stars HD 27483

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1993-01-01

    We observed with IUE a white dwarf (WD) companion to the Hyades F6 V binary stars HD 27483. This system is known to be a close binary of two nearly equal stars with an orbital period of 3.05 days. Our IUE observations revealed the presence of a third star, a white dwarf with an effective temperature of 23,000 +/- 1000 K and a mass of approximately 0.6 solar mass. Its presence in the Hyades cluster with a known age permits me to derive the mass of its progenitor, which must have been about 2.3 solar masses. The presence of the white dwarf in a binary system opens the possibility that some of the envelope material, which was expelled by the WD progenitor, may have been collected by the F6 stars. We may thus be able to study abundance anomalies of the WD progenitor with known mass on the surface of the F6 companions.

  16. BROWN DWARFS IN YOUNG MOVING GROUPS FROM PAN-STARRS1. I. AB DORADUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aller, Kimberly M.; Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Best, William M. J.; Kotson, Michael C.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Flewelling, Heather; Kaiser, Nick; Tonry, John L.; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Waters, Christopher [University of Hawaii, Institute of Astronomy, 2860 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Metcalf, Nigel [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-20

    Substellar members of young (≲150 Myr) moving groups are valuable benchmarks to empirically define brown dwarf evolution with age and to study the low-mass end of the initial mass function. We have combined Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) proper motions with optical–IR photometry from PS1, Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), and WISE to search for substellar members of the AB Dor Moving Group within ≈50 pc and with spectral types of late M to early L, corresponding to masses down to ≈30 M {sub Jup} at the age of the group (≈125 Myr). Including both photometry and proper motions allows us to better select candidates by excluding field dwarfs whose colors are similar to young AB Dor Moving Group members. Our near-IR spectroscopy has identified six ultracool dwarfs (M6–L4; ≈30–100 M {sub Jup}) with intermediate surface gravities (int-g) as candidate members of the AB Dor Moving Group. We find another two candidate members with spectra showing hints of youth but consistent with field gravities. We also find four field brown dwarfs unassociated with the AB Dor Moving Group, three of which have int-g gravity classification. While signatures of youth are present in the spectra of our ≈125 Myr objects, neither their J – K nor W 1 – W 2 colors are significantly redder than field dwarfs with the same spectral types, unlike younger ultracool dwarfs. We also determined PS1 parallaxes for eight of our candidates and one previously identified AB Dor Moving Group candidate. Although radial velocities (and parallaxes, for some) are still needed to fully assess membership, these new objects provide valuable insight into the spectral characteristics and evolution of young brown dwarfs.

  17. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF GJ 3470 b: A VERY LOW-DENSITY NEPTUNE-SIZE PLANET ORBITING A METAL-RICH M DWARF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demory, Brice-Olivier; Seager, Sara; Torres, Guillermo; Neves, Vasco; Santos, Nuno; Rogers, Leslie; Gillon, Michaël; Horch, Elliott; Sullivan, Peter; Bonfils, Xavier; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry; Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Udry, Stephane; Smalley, Barry

    2013-01-01

    We present Spitzer/IRAC 4.5 μm transit photometry of GJ 3470 b, a Neptune-size planet orbiting an M1.5 dwarf star with a 3.3 day period recently discovered in the course of the HARPS M-dwarf survey. We refine the stellar parameters by employing purely empirical mass-luminosity and surface brightness relations constrained by our updated value for the mean stellar density, and additional information from new near-infrared spectroscopic observations. We derive a stellar mass of M * = 0.539 +0.047 -0.043 M sun and a radius of R * = 0.568 +0.037 -0.031 R sun . We determine the host star of GJ 3470 b to be metal-rich, with a metallicity of [Fe/H] = +0.20 ± 0.10 and an effective temperature of T eff = 3600 ± 100 K. The revised stellar parameters yield a planetary radius R p = 4.83 -0.21 +0.22 R ⊕ that is 13% larger than the value previously reported in the literature. We find a planetary mass M p = 13.9 +1.5 -1.4 M ⊕ that translates to a very low planetary density, ρ p = 0.72 +0.13 -0.12 g cm –3 , which is 33% smaller than the original value. With a mean density half of that of GJ 436 b, GJ 3470 b is an example of a very low-density low-mass planet, similar to Kepler-11 d, Kepler-11 e, and Kepler-18 c, but orbiting a much brighter nearby star that is more conducive to follow-up studies.

  18. Panchromatic Calibration of Astronomical Observations with State-of-the-Art White Dwarf Model Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.

    2016-05-01

    Theoretical spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of white dwarfs provide a powerful tool for cross-calibration and sensitivity control of instruments from the far infrared to the X-ray energy range. Such SEDs can be calculated from fully metal-line blanketed NLTE model-atmospheres that are e.g. computed by the Tübingen NLTE Model-Atmosphere Package (TMAP) that has arrived at a high level of sophistication. TMAP was successfully employed for the reliable spectral analysis of many hot, compact post-AGB stars. High-quality stellar spectra obtained over a wide energy range establish a data base with a large number of spectral lines of many successive ions of different species. Their analysis allows to determine effective temperatures, surface gravities, and element abundances of individual (pre-)white dwarfs with very small error ranges. We present applications of TMAP SEDs for spectral analyses of hot, compact stars in the parameter range from (pre-) white dwarfs to neutron stars and demonstrate the improvement of flux calibration using white-dwarf SEDs that are e.g. available via registered services in the Virtual Observatory.

  19. Stark Broadening of Carbon and Oxygen Lines in Hot DQ White Dwarf Stars: Recent Results and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dufour P.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available White dwarf stars are traditionally found to have surface compositions made primarily of hydrogen or helium. However, a new family has recently been uncovered, the so-called hot DQ white dwarfs, which have surface compositions dominated by carbon and oxygen with little or no trace of hydrogen and helium (Dufour et al. 2007, 2008, 2010. Deriving precise atmospheric parameters for these objects (such as the effective temperature and the surface gravity requires detailed modeling of spectral line profiles. Stark broadening parameters are of crucial importance in that context. We present preliminary results from our new generation of model atmospheres including the latest Stark broadening calculations for C II lines and discuss the implications as well as future work that remains to be done.

  20. The WFCAM transit survey and cool white dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinfield D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present results from our search for cool white dwarfs in the WTS (WFCAM Transit Survey. Repeat observations starting in 2007 allowed to produce deep stacked images in J and measure proper motions. We combine this with deep optical imaging to select cool white dwarf candidates (Teff < 5000 K. About 27 cool white dwarf candidates with proper motions above 0.10 arcsec/yr were identified in one of the fields representing 1/8th of the survey area. Follow-up spectroscopy with the 10.2 m GTC telescope at La Palma confirmed the white dwarf status for all observed candidates. On-going work is being carried out to increase the sample of cool white dwarfs that will allow a more comprehensive study of the thick disk/halo white dwarf population.

  1. First Spectropolarimetric Measurement of a Brown Dwarf Magnetic Field in Molecular Bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmychov, Oleksii; Berdyugina, Svetlana V. [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik Schöneckstr, 6 D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Harrington, David M., E-mail: oleksii@leibniz-kis.de [National Solar Observatory (Maui), 8 Kiopa’a Street Pukalani, HI 96768 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    We present the first measurements of the surface magnetic field of a late-M dwarf, LSR J1835+3259, with the help of the full-Stokes spectropolarimetry in the bands of diatomic molecules. Our measurements at different rotational phases of a dwarf yielded one 5 σ and two 3 σ magnetic field detections. The observational data have been obtained with the LRISp polarimeter at the Keck observatory on 2012 August 22 and 23. These data have been compared against synthetic full-Stokes spectra in the bands of the molecules CrH, FeH, and TiO, which have been calculated for a range of the stellar parameters and magnetic field strengths. Making use of χ {sup 2}-minimization and maximum likelihood estimation, we determine the net magnetic field strength B (and not flux Bf ) of LSR J1835+3259 to ∼5 kG with the help of the Paschen–Back effect in the CrH lines. Our measurements at different rotational phases suggest that the dwarf’s surface might be covered with strong small-scale magnetic fields. In addition, recent findings of the dwarf’s hydrogen emission and the Stokes V signal from the lower chromosphere indicate that its surface magnetic field might be changing rapidly giving rise to flare activity, similar to young dMe dwarfs. We substantiate the substellar origin of LSR J1835+3259 by making use of our own data as well as the photometric data from the all-sky surveys 2MASS and WISE .

  2. Production and evaluation of dwarf and semi-dwarf winter wheat mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabas, Z.; Kertesz, Z.

    1984-01-01

    A special research programme for evolving and evaluating dwarf wheat forms resistant to lodging was carried out at the Cereal Research Institute, Wheat Division, Szeged, Hungary. Seed lots of the two tall winter wheat varieties Jubilejnaya 50 and Partizanka were exposed to gamma ray of 60 Co. With irradiation of 15000 rad 60 Co all of M 1 plants grown in the field were almost totally destroyed in 1980 and about 50% in 1982. In the greenhouse the number of lost M 1 plants was insignificant. Only a small number of plants died both in the greenhouse and in the field when they were irradiated with 5000 rad. A treatment with this lower dose of irradiation probably may help the breeders in selection for winter hardiness. 97 dwarf wheat lines already established were analysed for height character by a top cross method using the variety Jubilejnaya 50 as a tester. Height data of the simultaneously grown parental as well as the F 1 and F 2 offsprings indicated that the majority of them were recessive, except 3 cases where dominant or semi-dominant dwarfism was observed. Noteworthy is the Mx 158 a new semi-dwarf variety candidate, 60-65 cm in height at normal stand and resistant to all the main diseases here (powdery mildew and rusts). Its grain and protein production per unit area is also very good. Some genetically lesser-known dwarf sources were investigated in a complete crossing diallel test. (author)

  3. WISE Y dwarfs as probes of the brown dwarf-exoplanet connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beichman, C.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Cushing, Michael C.; Dodson-Robinson, Sally; Marley, Mark S.; Morley, Caroline V.; Wright, E. L.

    2014-01-01

    We have determined astrometric positions for 15 WISE-discovered late-type brown dwarfs (six T8-9 and nine Y dwarfs) using the Keck-II telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Hubble Space Telescope. Combining data from 8 to 20 epochs we derive parallactic and proper motions for these objects, which puts the majority within 15 pc. For ages greater than a few Gyr, as suggested from kinematic considerations, we find masses of 10-30 M Jup based on standard models for the evolution of low-mass objects with a range of mass estimates for individual objects, depending on the model in question. Three of the coolest objects have effective temperatures ∼350 K and inferred masses of 10-15 M Jup . Our parallactic distances confirm earlier photometric estimates and direct measurements and suggest that the number of objects with masses below about 15 M Jup must be flat or declining, relative to higher mass objects. The masses of the coldest Y dwarfs may be similar to those inferred for recently imaged planet-mass companions to nearby young stars. Objects in this mass range, which appear to be rare in both the interstellar and protoplanetary environments, may both have formed via gravitational fragmentation—the brown dwarfs in interstellar clouds and companion objects in a protoplanetary disk. In both cases, however, the fact that objects in this mass range are relatively infrequent suggests that this mechanism must be inefficient in both environments.

  4. Morphology and Structures of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Mira; Ann, HongBae

    2015-08-01

    We performed an analysis of the structure of nearby dwarf galaxies based on a 2-dimensional decomposition of galaxy images using GALFIT. The present sample consists of ~1,100 dwarf galaxies with redshift less than z = 0.01, which is is derived from the morphology catalog of the Visually classified galaxies in the local universe (Ann, Seo, and Ha 2015). In this catalog, dwarf galaxies are divided into 5 subtypes: dS0, dE, dSph, dEbc, dEblue with distinction of the presence of nucleation in dE, dSph, and dS0. We found that dSph and dEblue galaxies are fainter than other subtypes of dwarf galaxies. In most cases, single component, represented by the Sersic profile with n=1~1.5, well describes the luminosity distribution of dwarf galaxies in the present sample. However, a significant fraction of dS0, dEbc, and dEbue galaxies show sub-structures such as spiral arms and rings. We will discuss the morphology dependent evolutionary history of the local dwarf galaxies.

  5. HOW TO MAKE AN ULTRA-FAINT DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY: TIDAL STIRRING OF DISKY DWARFS WITH SHALLOW DARK MATTER DENSITY PROFILES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Łokas, Ewa L.; Kazantzidis, Stelios; Mayer, Lucio

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the Sloan Digital Sky Survey has unraveled a new population of ultra-faint dwarf galaxies (UFDs) whose origin remains a puzzle in the vicinity of the Milky Way (MW). Using a suite of collisionless N-body simulations, we investigate the formation of UFDs in the context of the tidal stirring model for the formation of dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Local Group (LG). Our simulations are designed to reproduce the tidal interactions between MW-sized host galaxies and rotationally supported dwarfs embedded in 10 9 M ☉ dark matter (DM) halos. We explore a variety of inner density slopes ρ∝r –α for the dwarf DM halos, ranging from core-like (α = 0.2) to cuspy (α = 1), and different dwarf orbital configurations. Our experiments demonstrate that UFDs can be produced via tidal stirring of disky dwarfs on relatively tight orbits, consistent with a redshift of accretion by the host galaxy of z ∼ 1, and with intermediate values for the halo inner density slopes (ρ∝r –0.6 ). The inferred slopes are in excellent agreement with those resulting from both the modeling of the rotation curves of dwarf galaxies and recent cosmological simulations of dwarf galaxy formation. Comparing the properties of observed UFDs with those of their simulated counterparts, we find remarkable similarities in terms of basic observational parameters. We conclude that tidal stirring of rotationally supported dwarfs represents a viable mechanism for the formation of UFDs in the LG environment.

  6. Progenitors of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drilling, J.S.; Schoenberner, D.

    1985-01-01

    Direct observational evidence is presented which indicates that the immediate progenitors of white dwarfs are the central stars of planetary nebulae (approximately 70%), other post-AGB objects (approximately 30%), and post-HB objects not massive enough to climb the AGB (approximately 0.3%). The combined birth rate for these objects is in satisfactory agreement with the death rate of main-sequence stars and the birth rate of white dwarfs

  7. THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY. X. PROPERTIES OF ULTRA-COMPACT DWARFS IN THE M87, M49, AND M60 REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chengze [Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Peng, Eric W.; Zhang, Hong-Xin [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Gwyn, Stephen; Blakeslee, John P. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Jordán, Andrés; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Puzia, Thomas H. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Mihos, J. Christopher [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lançon, Ariane [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg and CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l’Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Cuillandre, Jean-Charles [CEA/IRFU/SAp, Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CNRS/INSU, Université Paris Diderot, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Boselli, Alessandro [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Durrell, Patrick R., E-mail: czliu@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: peng@pku.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, One University Plaza, Youngstown, OH 44555 (United States); and others

    2015-10-10

    We use imaging from the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS) to present a comparative study of ultra-compact dwarf (UCD) galaxies associated with three prominent Virgo sub-clusters: those centered on the massive red-sequence galaxies M87, M49, and M60. We show how UCDs can be selected with high completeness using a combination of half-light radius and location in color–color diagrams (u*iK{sub s} or u*gz). Although the central galaxies in each of these sub-clusters have nearly identical luminosities and stellar masses, we find large differences in the sizes of their UCD populations, with M87 containing ∼3.5 and 7.8 times more UCDs than M49 and M60, respectively. The relative abundance of UCDs in the three regions scales in proportion to sub-cluster mass, as traced by X-ray gas mass, total gravitating mass, number of globular clusters (GCs), and number of nearby galaxies. We find that the UCDs are predominantly blue in color, with ∼85% of the UCDs having colors similar to blue GCs and stellar nuclei of dwarf galaxies. We present evidence that UCDs surrounding M87 and M49 may follow a morphological sequence ordered by the prominence of their outer, low surface brightness envelope, ultimately merging with the sequence of nucleated low-mass galaxies, and that envelope prominence correlates with distance from either galaxy. Our analysis provides evidence that tidal stripping of nucleated galaxies is an important process in the formation of UCDs.

  8. Explosive helium burning in white dwarf stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khokhlov, A.M. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Astronomicheskij Sovet)

    1984-04-01

    Helium burning kinetics in white dwarfs has been considered at constant temperatures T >= 10/sup 9/ K and densities rho >10/sup 5/ g/cm/sup 3/. It is found, that helium detonation in white dwarfs does not lead to formation of light (A < 56) elements. Thus, helium white dwarf model for supernova 1 is inconsistent with observations.

  9. Project DWARF - using eclipsing binaries for searching for exoplanets and brown dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudak, V.; Parimucha, Š.

    2016-12-01

    Project DWARF is a long-term observation campaign for about 60 selected eclipsing binaries aimed for detection of exoplanets or other objects (brown dwarfs) in low-mass detached binaries of different types (low-mass eclipsing binaries with M and K components, short-period binaries with sdB or sdO component, post-common-envelope systems containing a white dwarf). Existence of other bodies in systems are determined by analysing of O-C diagrams, constructed from observed minima times of binaries. Objects are selected with intention to determine minima with high precision. About 40 observatories are involved into the network at present time, mostly situated in Europe. The observations are made by small or middle class telescopes with apertures of 20-200 cm. In this contribution we give information about current status of the project, we present main goals and results of 4 years observations.

  10. Properties of an eclipsing double white dwarf binary NLTT 11748

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, David L.; Walker, Arielle N. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Marsh, Thomas R.; Bours, Madelon C. P.; Breedt, Elmé [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Bildsten, Lars [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Kohn Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Copperwheat, Chris M. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Dhillon, Vik S.; Littlefair, Stuart P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Howell, Steve B. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Shporer, Avi [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Steinfadt, Justin D. R., E-mail: kaplan@uwm.edu [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    We present high-quality ULTRACAM photometry of the eclipsing detached double white dwarf binary NLTT 11748. This system consists of a carbon/oxygen white dwarf and an extremely low mass (<0.2 M {sub ☉}) helium-core white dwarf in a 5.6 hr orbit. To date, such extremely low-mass white dwarfs, which can have thin, stably burning outer layers, have been modeled via poorly constrained atmosphere and cooling calculations where uncertainties in the detailed structure can strongly influence the eventual fates of these systems when mass transfer begins. With precise (individual precision ≈1%), high-cadence (≈2 s), multicolor photometry of multiple primary and secondary eclipses spanning >1.5 yr, we constrain the masses and radii of both objects in the NLTT 11748 system to a statistical uncertainty of a few percent. However, we find that overall uncertainty in the thickness of the envelope of the secondary carbon/oxygen white dwarf leads to a larger (≈13%) systematic uncertainty in the primary He WD's mass. Over the full range of possible envelope thicknesses, we find that our primary mass (0.136-0.162 M {sub ☉}) and surface gravity (log (g) = 6.32-6.38; radii are 0.0423-0.0433 R {sub ☉}) constraints do not agree with previous spectroscopic determinations. We use precise eclipse timing to detect the Rømer delay at 7σ significance, providing an additional weak constraint on the masses and limiting the eccentricity to ecos ω = (– 4 ± 5) × 10{sup –5}. Finally, we use multicolor data to constrain the secondary's effective temperature (7600 ± 120 K) and cooling age (1.6-1.7 Gyr).

  11. A Survey for Hα Emission from Late L Dwarfs and T Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, J. Sebastian; Hallinan, Gregg; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Cotter, Garret; Kao, Melodie M.; Mooley, Kunal

    2016-07-01

    Recently, studies of brown dwarfs have demonstrated that they possess strong magnetic fields and have the potential to produce radio and optical auroral emissions powered by magnetospheric currents. This emission provides the only window on magnetic fields in the coolest brown dwarfs and identifying additional benchmark objects is key to constraining dynamo theory in this regime. To this end, we conducted a new red optical (6300-9700 Å) survey with the Keck telescopes looking for Hα emission from a sample of late L dwarfs and T dwarfs. Our survey gathered optical spectra for 29 targets, 18 of which did not have previous optical spectra in the literature, greatly expanding the number of moderate-resolution (R ˜ 2000) spectra available at these spectral types. Combining our sample with previous surveys, we confirm an Hα detection rate of 9.2±{}2.13.5% for L and T dwarfs in the optical spectral range of L4-T8. This detection rate is consistent with the recently measured detection rate for auroral radio emission from Kao et al., suggesting that geometrical selection effects due to the beaming of the radio emission are small or absent. We also provide the first detection of Hα emission from 2MASS 0036+1821, previously notable as the only electron cyclotron maser radio source without a confirmed detection of Hα emission. Finally, we also establish optical standards for spectral types T3 and T4, filling in the previous gap between T2 and T5. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  12. Accretion on to Magnetic White Dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wickramasinghe Dayal

    2014-01-01

    The polars have no counterparts in neutron star systems and their study provides unique insights into the complex nature of the magnetospheric boundary. The observed properties of accretion shocks at the white dwarf surface such as the anomalous soft-X-ray excess and its time variability provide strong support for the hypothesis that under certain circumstances the field channelled funnel flow is “blobby”. This has been attributed to interchange instabilities such as the Magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the shocked gas at the stream-magnetosphere boundary where the stream fragments into discrete clumps of gas. As the clumps penetrate into the magnetosphere, they are shredded into smaller mass blobs via the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability that then couple on to field lines over an extended inner transition region in the orbital plane. The more massive blobs penetrate deep into the photosphere of the white dwarf releasing their energy as a reprocessed soft-X-ray black body component. Although similar instabilities are expected in the inner transition region in disced accretion albeit on a different scale there has been no direct observational evidence for blobby accretion in the generally lower field and disced IPs.

  13. FIRE SPECTROSCOPY OF FIVE LATE-TYPE T DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Cushing, Michael C.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, James M.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Looper, Dagny L.; Tinney, Christopher; Simcoe, Robert A.; Bochanski, John J.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Thompson, Maggie A.; Wright, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    We present the discovery of five late-type T dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Low-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy obtained with the Magellan Folded-port InfraRed Echellette reveal strong H 2 O and CH 4 absorption in all five sources, and spectral indices and comparison to spectral templates indicate classifications ranging from T5.5 to T8.5:. The spectrum of the latest-type source, WISE J1812+2721, is an excellent match to that of the T8.5 companion brown dwarf Wolf 940B. WISE-based spectrophotometric distance estimates place these T dwarfs at 12-13 pc from the Sun, assuming they are single. Preliminary fits of the spectral data to the atmosphere models of Saumon and Marley indicate effective temperatures ranging from 600 K to 930 K, both cloudy and cloud-free atmospheres, and a broad range of ages and masses. In particular, two sources show evidence of both low surface gravity and cloudy atmospheres, tentatively supporting a trend noted in other young brown dwarfs and exoplanets. In contrast, the high proper motion T dwarf WISE J2018-7423 exhibits a suppressed K-band peak and blue spectrophotometric J - K colors indicative of an old, massive brown dwarf; however, it lacks the broadened Y-band peak seen in metal-poor counterparts. These results illustrate the broad diversity of low-temperature brown dwarfs that will be uncovered with WISE.

  14. Effects of magnetic fields in white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzon, Bruno; Schramm, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    We perform calculations of white dwarfs endowed with strong magnetic fields. White dwarfs are the progenitors of supernova Type Ia explosions and they are widely used as candles to show that the Universe is expanding and accelerating. However, observations of ultraluminous supernovae have suggested that the progenitor of such an explosion should be a white dwarf with mass above the well-known Chandrasekhar limit ∼ 1.4 M⊙. In corroboration with other works, but by using a fully general relativistic framework, we obtained also strongly magnetized white dwarfs with masses M ∼ 2.0 M⊙. (paper)

  15. Genetic identification of a dwarf mutant in cucumber ( Cucumis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dwarf (compact) plant architecture is an important trait in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) breeding. A dwarf type mutant was selected from the cucumbers. The morphological and reproductive characteristics of the dwarf were compared with the vine plants. The dwarf type of cucumbers is characterized by its short ...

  16. Radio-flaring Ultracool Dwarf Population Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Route, Matthew, E-mail: mroute@purdue.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, the Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    Over a dozen ultracool dwarfs (UCDs), low-mass objects of spectral types ≥M7, are known to be sources of radio flares. These typically several-minutes-long radio bursts can be up to 100% circularly polarized and have high brightness temperatures, consistent with coherent emission via the electron cyclotron maser operating in approximately kilogauss magnetic fields. Recently, the statistical properties of the bulk physical parameters that describe these UCDs have become described adequately enough to permit synthesis of the population of radio-flaring objects. For the first time, I construct a Monte Carlo simulator to model the population of these radio-flaring UCDs. This simulator is powered by Intel Secure Key (ISK), a new processor technology that uses a local entropy source to improve random number generation that has heretofore been used to improve cryptography. The results from this simulator indicate that only ∼5% of radio-flaring UCDs within the local interstellar neighborhood (<25 pc away) have been discovered. I discuss a number of scenarios that may explain this radio-flaring fraction and suggest that the observed behavior is likely a result of several factors. The performance of ISK as compared to other pseudorandom number generators is also evaluated, and its potential utility for other astrophysical codes is briefly described.

  17. Chemical composition and effective temperatures of metallic line white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, G.L.

    1974-01-01

    Model atmosphere techniques have been employed to determine the composition, effective temperatures, radii, masses and surface gravities of white dwarfs Ross 640 and van Maanen 2. The non-gray, LTE, convective, constant flux models employed collisional damping constants for the Ca II H and K lines that were measured in a laboratory device that simulated white dwarf atmospheric conditions. Ross 640 was found to have an extremely helium-rich composition and T/sub eff/ = 8500K, while the observed properties of van Maanen 2 were fitted best by a model with 91 percent helium, 9 percent hydrogen and T/sub eff/ = 6100K. The laboratory measurements of pressure shifts for the Ca II lines casts some doubt on the interpretation of recent radial velocity determinations for van Maanen 2. (U.S.)

  18. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.

    2012-01-01

    masses of the brown dwarf companions are 0.02 ± 0.01 M⊙ and 0.019 ± 0.002 M⊙ for MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149, respectively, and both companions are orbiting low-mass M dwarf host stars. More microlensing brown dwarfs are expected to be detected as the number of lensing events...

  19. Intermittent episodes of bright light suppress myopia in the chicken more than continuous bright light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhong Lan

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Bright light has been shown a powerful inhibitor of myopia development in animal models. We studied which temporal patterns of bright light are the most potent in suppressing deprivation myopia in chickens. METHODS: Eight-day-old chickens wore diffusers over one eye to induce deprivation myopia. A reference group (n = 8 was kept under office-like illuminance (500 lux at a 10:14 light:dark cycle. Episodes of bright light (15 000 lux were super-imposed on this background as follows. Paradigm I: exposure to constant bright light for either 1 hour (n = 5, 2 hours (n = 5, 5 hours (n = 4 or 10 hours (n = 4. Paradigm II: exposure to repeated cycles of bright light with 50% duty cycle and either 60 minutes (n = 7, 30 minutes (n = 8, 15 minutes (n = 6, 7 minutes (n = 7 or 1 minute (n = 7 periods, provided for 10 hours. Refraction and axial length were measured prior to and immediately after the 5-day experiment. Relative changes were analyzed by paired t-tests, and differences among groups were tested by one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: Compared with the reference group, exposure to continuous bright light for 1 or 2 hours every day had no significant protective effect against deprivation myopia. Inhibition of myopia became significant after 5 hours of bright light exposure but extending the duration to 10 hours did not offer an additional benefit. In comparison, repeated cycles of 1:1 or 7:7 minutes of bright light enhanced the protective effect against myopia and could fully suppress its development. CONCLUSIONS: The protective effect of bright light depends on the exposure duration and, to the intermittent form, the frequency cycle. Compared to the saturation effect of continuous bright light, low frequency cycles of bright light (1:1 min provided the strongest inhibition effect. However, our quantitative results probably might not be directly translated into humans, but rather need further amendments in clinical studies.

  20. Intermittent episodes of bright light suppress myopia in the chicken more than continuous bright light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Weizhong; Feldkaemper, Marita; Schaeffel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Bright light has been shown a powerful inhibitor of myopia development in animal models. We studied which temporal patterns of bright light are the most potent in suppressing deprivation myopia in chickens. Eight-day-old chickens wore diffusers over one eye to induce deprivation myopia. A reference group (n = 8) was kept under office-like illuminance (500 lux) at a 10:14 light:dark cycle. Episodes of bright light (15 000 lux) were super-imposed on this background as follows. Paradigm I: exposure to constant bright light for either 1 hour (n = 5), 2 hours (n = 5), 5 hours (n = 4) or 10 hours (n = 4). Paradigm II: exposure to repeated cycles of bright light with 50% duty cycle and either 60 minutes (n = 7), 30 minutes (n = 8), 15 minutes (n = 6), 7 minutes (n = 7) or 1 minute (n = 7) periods, provided for 10 hours. Refraction and axial length were measured prior to and immediately after the 5-day experiment. Relative changes were analyzed by paired t-tests, and differences among groups were tested by one-way ANOVA. Compared with the reference group, exposure to continuous bright light for 1 or 2 hours every day had no significant protective effect against deprivation myopia. Inhibition of myopia became significant after 5 hours of bright light exposure but extending the duration to 10 hours did not offer an additional benefit. In comparison, repeated cycles of 1:1 or 7:7 minutes of bright light enhanced the protective effect against myopia and could fully suppress its development. The protective effect of bright light depends on the exposure duration and, to the intermittent form, the frequency cycle. Compared to the saturation effect of continuous bright light, low frequency cycles of bright light (1:1 min) provided the strongest inhibition effect. However, our quantitative results probably might not be directly translated into humans, but rather need further amendments in clinical studies.

  1. Cloud Atlas: Rotational Modulations in the L/T Transition Brown Dwarf Companion HN Peg B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yifan; Apai, Dániel; Metchev, Stanimir; Lew, Ben W. P.; Schneider, Glenn; Marley, Mark S.; Karalidi, Theodora; Manjavacas, Elena; Bedin, Luigi R.; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Miles-Páez, Paulo A.; Lowrance, Patrick J.; Radigan, Jacqueline; Burgasser, Adam J.

    2018-03-01

    Time-resolved observations of brown dwarfs’ rotational modulations provide powerful insights into the properties of condensate clouds in ultra-cool atmospheres. Multi-wavelength light curves reveal cloud vertical structures, condensate particle sizes, and cloud morphology, which directly constrain condensate cloud and atmospheric circulation models. We report results from Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 near-infrared G141 taken in six consecutive orbits observations of HN Peg B, an L/T transition brown dwarf companion to a G0V type star. The best-fit sine wave to the 1.1–1.7 μm broadband light curve has an amplitude of 1.206% ± 0.025% and period of 15.4 ± 0.5 hr. The modulation amplitude has no detectable wavelength dependence except in the 1.4 μm water absorption band, indicating that the characteristic condensate particle sizes are large (>1 μm). We detect significantly (4.4σ) lower modulation amplitude in the 1.4 μm water absorption band and find that HN Peg B’s spectral modulation resembles those of early T type brown dwarfs. We also describe a new empirical interpolation method to remove spectral contamination from the bright host star. This method may be applied in other high-contrast time-resolved observations with WFC3.

  2. Brightness/darkness induction and the genesis of a contour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eRoncato

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual contours often result from the integration or interpolation of fragmented edges.The strength of the completion increases when the edges share the same contrast polarity (CP. Here we demonstrate that the appearance in the perceptual field of this integrated unit, or contour of invariant CP, is concomitant with a vivid brightness alteration of the surfaces at its opposite sides. To observe this effect requires some stratagems because the formation in the visual field of a contour of invariant CP normally engenders the formation of a second contour and then the rise of two streams of induction signals that interfere in different ways. Particular configurations have been introduced that allow us to observe the induction effects of one contour taken in isolation. I documented these effects by phenomenological observations and psychophysical measurement of the brightness alteration in relation to luminance contrast. When the edges of the same CP complete to form a contour, the background of homogeneous luminance appears to dim at one side and to brighten at the opposite side (in accord with the CP. The strength of the phenomenon is proportional to the local luminance contrast. This effect weakens or nulls when the contour of the invariant CP separates surfaces filled with different grey shades.These conflicting results stimulate a deeper exploration of the induction phenomena and their role in the computation of brightness contrast. An alternative perspective is offered to account for some brightness illusions and their relation to the phenomenal transparency. The main assumption asserts that, when in the same region induction signals of opposite CP overlap, the filling-in are blocked unless the image is stratified into different layers, one for each signal of the same polarity. Phenomenological observations document this solution by the visual system

  3. ALMA Discovery of Solar Umbral Brightness Enhancement at λ = 3 mm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, Kazumasa [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8601 (Japan); Loukitcheva, Maria [Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Boulevard, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Shimojo, Masumi [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Solanki, Sami K. [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37073 Göttingen (Germany); White, Stephen M., E-mail: k.iwai@isee.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-01

    We report the discovery of a brightness enhancement in the center of a large sunspot umbra at a wavelength of 3 mm using the Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA). Sunspots are among the most prominent features on the solar surface, but many of their aspects are surprisingly poorly understood. We analyzed a λ = 3 mm (100 GHz) mosaic image obtained by ALMA that includes a large sunspot within the active region AR12470, on 2015 December 16. The 3 mm map has a 300″ × 300″ field of view and 4.″9 × 2.″2 spatial resolution, which is the highest spatial resolution map of an entire sunspot in this frequency range. We find a gradient of 3 mm brightness from a high value in the outer penumbra to a low value in the inner penumbra/outer umbra. Within the inner umbra, there is a marked increase in 3 mm brightness temperature, which we call an umbral brightness enhancement. This enhanced emission corresponds to a temperature excess of 800 K relative to the surrounding inner penumbral region and coincides with excess brightness in the 1330 and 1400 Å slit-jaw images of the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ), adjacent to a partial lightbridge. This λ = 3 mm brightness enhancement may be an intrinsic feature of the sunspot umbra at chromospheric heights, such as a manifestation of umbral flashes, or it could be related to a coronal plume, since the brightness enhancement was coincident with the footpoint of a coronal loop observed at 171 Å.

  4. Brightness checkerboard lattice method for the calibration of the coaxial reverse Hartmann test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinji; Hui, Mei; Li, Ning; Hu, Shinan; Liu, Ming; Kong, Lingqin; Dong, Liquan; Zhao, Yuejin

    2018-01-01

    The coaxial reverse Hartmann test (RHT) is widely used in the measurement of large aspheric surfaces as an auxiliary method for interference measurement, because of its large dynamic range, highly flexible test with low frequency of surface errors, and low cost. And the accuracy of the coaxial RHT depends on the calibration. However, the calibration process remains inefficient, and the signal-to-noise ratio limits the accuracy of the calibration. In this paper, brightness checkerboard lattices were used to replace the traditional dot matrix. The brightness checkerboard method can reduce the number of dot matrix projections in the calibration process, thus improving efficiency. An LCD screen displayed a brightness checkerboard lattice, in which the brighter checkerboard and the darker checkerboard alternately arranged. Based on the image on the detector, the relationship between the rays at certain angles and the photosensitive positions of the detector coordinates can be obtained. And a differential de-noising method can effectively reduce the impact of noise on the measurement results. Simulation and experimentation proved the feasibility of the method. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the efficiency of the brightness checkerboard lattices is about four times that of the traditional dot matrix, and the signal-to-noise ratio of the calibration is significantly improved.

  5. Brightness Alteration with Interweaving Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Roncato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromatic induction is observed whenever the perceived colour of a target surface shifts towards the hue of a neighbouring surface. Some vivid manifestations may be seen in a white background where thin coloured lines have been drawn (assimilation or when lines of different colours are collinear (neon effect or adjacent (watercolour to each other. This study examines a particular colour induction that manifests in concomitance with an opposite effect of colour saturation (or anti-spread. The two phenomena can be observed when a repetitive pattern is drawn in which outline thin contours intercept wider contours or surfaces, colour spreading appear to fill the surface occupied by surfaces or thick lines whereas the background traversed by thin lines is seen as brighter or filled of a saturated white. These phenomena were first observed by Bozzi (1975 and Kanizsa (1979 in figural conditions that did not allow them to document their conjunction. Here we illustrate various manifestations of this twofold phenomenon and compare its effects with the known effects of brightness and colour induction. Some conjectures on the nature of these effects are discussed.

  6. Maximum gravitational redshift of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.L.; Teukolsky, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    The stability of uniformly rotating, cold white dwarfs is examined in the framework of the Parametrized Post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism of Will and Nordtvedt. The maximum central density and gravitational redshift of a white dwarf are determined as functions of five of the nine PPN parameters (γ, β, zeta 2 , zeta 3 , and zeta 4 ), the total angular momentum J, and the composition of the star. General relativity predicts that the maximum redshifts is 571 km s -1 for nonrotating carbon and helium dwarfs, but is lower for stars composed of heavier nuclei. Uniform rotation can increase the maximum redshift to 647 km s -1 for carbon stars (the neutronization limit) and to 893 km s -1 for helium stars (the uniform rotation limit). The redshift distribution of a larger sample of white dwarfs may help determine the composition of their cores

  7. A reappraisal of the habitability of planets around M dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Jill C; Backus, Peter R; Mancinelli, Rocco L; Aurnou, Jonathan M; Backman, Dana E; Basri, Gibor S; Boss, Alan P; Clarke, Andrew; Deming, Drake; Doyle, Laurance R; Feigelson, Eric D; Freund, Friedmann; Grinspoon, David H; Haberle, Robert M; Hauck, Steven A; Heath, Martin J; Henry, Todd J; Hollingsworth, Jeffery L; Joshi, Manoj M; Kilston, Steven; Liu, Michael C; Meikle, Eric; Reid, I Neill; Rothschild, Lynn J; Scalo, John; Segura, Antigona; Tang, Carol M; Tiedje, James M; Turnbull, Margaret C; Walkowicz, Lucianne M; Weber, Arthur L; Young, Richard E

    2007-02-01

    Stable, hydrogen-burning, M dwarf stars make up about 75% of all stars in the Galaxy. They are extremely long-lived, and because they are much smaller in mass than the Sun (between 0.5 and 0.08 M(Sun)), their temperature and stellar luminosity are low and peaked in the red. We have re-examined what is known at present about the potential for a terrestrial planet forming within, or migrating into, the classic liquid-surface-water habitable zone close to an M dwarf star. Observations of protoplanetary disks suggest that planet-building materials are common around M dwarfs, but N-body simulations differ in their estimations of the likelihood of potentially habitable, wet planets that reside within their habitable zones, which are only about one-fifth to 1/50th of the width of that for a G star. Particularly in light of the claimed detection of the planets with masses as small as 5.5 and 7.5 M(Earth) orbiting M stars, there seems no reason to exclude the possibility of terrestrial planets. Tidally locked synchronous rotation within the narrow habitable zone does not necessarily lead to atmospheric collapse, and active stellar flaring may not be as much of an evolutionarily disadvantageous factor as has previously been supposed. We conclude that M dwarf stars may indeed be viable hosts for planets on which the origin and evolution of life can occur. A number of planetary processes such as cessation of geothermal activity or thermal and nonthermal atmospheric loss processes may limit the duration of planetary habitability to periods far shorter than the extreme lifetime of the M dwarf star. Nevertheless, it makes sense to include M dwarf stars in programs that seek to find habitable worlds and evidence of life. This paper presents the summary conclusions of an interdisciplinary workshop (http://mstars.seti.org) sponsored by the NASA Astrobiology Institute and convened at the SETI Institute.

  8. Colors and Photometry of Bright Materials on Vesta as Seen by the Dawn Framing Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, S. E.; Li, J.-Y.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Hiesinger, H.; Blewett, D. T.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Keller, H. U.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Dawn spacecraft has been in orbit around the asteroid Vesta since July, 2011. The on-board Framing Camera has acquired thousands of high-resolution images of the regolith-covered surface through one clear and seven narrow-band filters in the visible and near-IR wavelength range. It has observed bright and dark materials that have a range of reflectance that is unusually wide for an asteroid. Material brighter than average is predominantly found on crater walls, and in ejecta surrounding caters in the southern hemisphere. Most likely, the brightest material identified on the Vesta surface so far is located on the inside of a crater at 64.27deg S, 1.54deg . The apparent brightness of a regolith is influenced by factors such as particle size, mineralogical composition, and viewing geometry. As such, the presence of bright material can indicate differences in lithology and/or degree of space weathering. We retrieve the spectral and photometric properties of various bright terrains from false-color images acquired in the High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO). We find that most bright material has a deeper 1-m pyroxene band than average. However, the aforementioned brightest material appears to have a 1-m band that is actually less deep, a result that awaits confirmation by the on-board VIR spectrometer. This site may harbor a class of material unique for Vesta. We discuss the implications of our spectral findings for the origin of bright materials.

  9. Axion cooling of white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Isern, J.; Catalan, S.; Garcia--Berro, E.; Salaris, M.; Torres, S.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of white dwarfs is a simple gravothermal process. This process can be tested in two ways, through the luminosity function of these stars and through the secular variation of the period of pulsation of those stars that are variable. Here we show how the mass of the axion can be constrained using the white dwarf luminosity function.

  10. Nucleosynthesis in cold white dwarf explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canal, R.; Hernanz, M.

    1986-01-01

    Type I supernovae (SNI) are generally thought to be the main contributors to the galactic nucleosynthesis of iron-peak elements and their yields of intermediate-mass elements may also be important. We concentrate here upon a different class of models, based on the explosion of cold, massive, partially solid white dwarfs. We show that such white dwarfs must be relatively frequent among SNI progenitors and how their hydrodynamics upon ignition is very different from that of hotter, fluid white dwarfs. The implications for nucleosynthesis are briefly discussed and some preliminary results are presented

  11. The atomic and molecular content of disks around very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascucci, I. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Herczeg, G. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Carr, J. S. [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7211, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Bruderer, S., E-mail: pascucci@lpl.arizona.edu [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-12-20

    There is growing observational evidence that disk evolution is stellar-mass-dependent. Here, we show that these dependencies extend to the atomic and molecular content of disk atmospheres. We analyze a unique dataset of high-resolution Spitzer/IRS spectra from eight very low mass star and brown dwarf disks. We report the first detections of Ne{sup +}, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and tentative detections of H{sub 2}O toward these faint and low-mass disks. Two of our [Ne II] 12.81 μm emission lines likely trace the hot (≥5000 K) disk surface irradiated by X-ray photons from the central stellar/sub-stellar object. The H{sub 2} S(2) and S(1) fluxes are consistent with arising below the fully or partially ionized surface traced by the [Ne II] emission in gas at ∼600 K. We confirm the higher C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/HCN flux and column density ratio in brown dwarf disks previously noted from low-resolution IRS spectra. Our high-resolution spectra also show that the HCN/H{sub 2}O fluxes of brown dwarf disks are on average higher than those of T Tauri disks. Our LTE modeling hints that this difference extends to column density ratios if H{sub 2}O lines trace warm ≥600 K disk gas. These trends suggest that the inner regions of brown dwarf disks have a lower O/C ratio than those of T Tauri disks, which may result from a more efficient formation of non-migrating icy planetesimals. An O/C = 1, as inferred from our analysis, would have profound implications on the bulk composition of rocky planets that can form around very low mass stars and brown dwarfs.

  12. A selective deficit in the appreciation and recognition of brightness: brightness agnosia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, T.C.W.; Nys, G.M.S.; van der Smagt, M.J.; de Haan, E.H.F.

    2009-01-01

    We report a patient with extensive brain damage in the right hemisphere who demonstrated a severe impairment in the appreciation of brightness. Acuity, contrast sensitivity as well as luminance discrimination were normal, suggesting her brightness impairment is not a mere consequence of low-level

  13. White dwarf models of supernovae and cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomoto, K.; Hashimoto, M.

    1986-01-01

    If the accreting white dwarf increases its mass to the Chandrasekhar mass, it will either explode as a Type I supernova or collapse to form a neutron star. In fact, there is a good agreement between the exploding white dwarf model for Type I supernovae and observations. We describe various types of evolution of accreting white dwarfs as a function of binary parameters (i.e,. composition, mass, and age of the white dwarf, its companion star, and mass accretion rate), and discuss the conditions for the precursors of exploding or collapsing white dwarfs, and their relevance to cataclysmic variables. Particular attention is given to helium star cataclysmics which might be the precursors of some Type I supernovae or ultrashort period x-ray binaries. Finally we present new evolutionary calculations using the updated nuclear reaction rates for the formation of O+Ne+Mg white dwarfs, and discuss the composition structure and their relevance to the model for neon novae. 61 refs., 14 figs

  14. Searching for chemical signatures of brown dwarf formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, J.; Villaver, E.

    2017-06-01

    Context. Recent studies have shown that close-in brown dwarfs in the mass range 35-55 MJup are almost depleted as companions to stars, suggesting that objects with masses above and below this gap might have different formation mechanisms. Aims: We aim to test whether stars harbouring massive brown dwarfs and stars with low-mass brown dwarfs show any chemical peculiarity that could be related to different formation processes. Methods: Our methodology is based on the analysis of high-resolution échelle spectra (R 57 000) from 2-3 m class telescopes. We determine the fundamental stellar parameters, as well as individual abundances of C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, and Zn for a large sample of stars known to have a substellar companion in the brown dwarf regime. The sample is divided into stars hosting massive and low-mass brown dwarfs. Following previous works, a threshold of 42.5 MJup was considered. The metallicity and abundance trends of the two subsamples are compared and set in the context of current models of planetary and brown dwarf formation. Results: Our results confirm that stars with brown dwarf companions do not follow the well-established gas-giant planet metallicity correlation seen in main-sequence planet hosts. Stars harbouring massive brown dwarfs show similar metallicity and abundance distribution as stars without known planets or with low-mass planets. We find a tendency of stars harbouring less-massive brown dwarfs of having slightly higher metallicity, [XFe/Fe] values, and abundances of Sc II, Mn I, and Ni I than the stars having the massive brown dwarfs. The data suggest, as previously reported, that massive and low-mass brown dwarfs might present differences in period and eccentricity. Conclusions: We find evidence of a non-metallicity dependent mechanism for the formation of massive brown dwarfs. Our results agree with a scenario in which massive brown dwarfs are formed as stars. At high metallicities, the core

  15. A low-temperature companion to a white dwarf star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becklin, E. E.; Zuckerman, B.

    1988-01-01

    An infrared object located about 120 AU from the white dwarf GD165 has been discovered. With the exception of the possible brown dwarf companion to Giclas 29-38 reported last year, the companion to GD165 is the coolest (2100 K) dwarf star ever reported and, according to some theoretical models, it should be a substellar brown dwarf with a mass between 0.06 and 0.08 solar mass. These results, together with newly discovered low-mass stellar companions to white dwarfs, change the investigation of very low-mass stars from the study of a few chance objects to that of a statistical distribution. In particular, it appears that very low-mass stars and perhaps even brown dwarfs could be quite common in the Galaxy.

  16. The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. HD147379 b: A nearby Neptune in the temperate zone of an early-M dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiners, A.; Ribas, I.; Zechmeister, M.; Caballero, J. A.; Trifonov, T.; Dreizler, S.; Morales, J. C.; Tal-Or, L.; Lafarga, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Kaminski, A.; Jeffers, S. V.; Aceituno, J.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Guàrdia, J.; Guenther, E. W.; Hagen, H.-J.; Montes, D.; Passegger, V. M.; Seifert, W.; Schweitzer, A.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Abril, M.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Eiff, M. Ammler-von; Antona, R.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Anwand-Heerwart, H.; Arroyo-Torres, B.; Azzaro, M.; Baroch, D.; Barrado, D.; Bauer, F. F.; Becerril, S.; Benítez, D.; Berdiñas, Z. M.; Bergond, G.; Blümcke, M.; Brinkmöller, M.; del Burgo, C.; Cano, J.; Cárdenas Vázquez, M. C.; Casal, E.; Cifuentes, C.; Claret, A.; Colomé, J.; Czesla, S.; Díez-Alonso, E.; Feiz, C.; Fernández, M.; Ferro, I. M.; Fuhrmeister, B.; Galadí-Enríquez, D.; Garcia-Piquer, A.; García Vargas, M. L.; Gesa, L.; Gómez Galera, V.; González Hernández, J. I.; González-Peinado, R.; Grözinger, U.; Grohnert, S.; Guijarro, A.; de Guindos, E.; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Hatzes, A. P.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Hedrosa, R. P.; Helmling, J.; Henning, Th.; Hermelo, I.; Hernández Arabí, R.; Hernández Castaño, L.; Hernández Hernando, F.; Herrero, E.; Huber, A.; Huke, P.; Johnson, E. N.; de Juan, E.; Kim, M.; Klein, R.; Klüter, J.; Klutsch, A.; Kürster, M.; Labarga, F.; Lamert, A.; Lampón, M.; Lara, L. M.; Laun, W.; Lemke, U.; Lenzen, R.; Launhardt, R.; López del Fresno, M.; López-González, M. J.; López-Puertas, M.; López Salas, J. F.; López-Santiago, J.; Luque, R.; Magán Madinabeitia, H.; Mall, U.; Mancini, L.; Mandel, H.; Marfil, E.; Marín Molina, J. A.; Maroto Fernández, D.; Martín, E. L.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Marvin, C. J.; Mathar, R. J.; Mirabet, E.; Moreno-Raya, M. E.; Moya, A.; Mundt, R.; Nagel, E.; Naranjo, V.; Nortmann, L.; Nowak, G.; Ofir, A.; Oreiro, R.; Pallé, E.; Panduro, J.; Pascual, J.; Pavlov, A.; Pedraz, S.; Pérez-Calpena, A.; Pérez Medialdea, D.; Perger, M.; Perryman, M. A. C.; Pluto, M.; Rabaza, O.; Ramón, A.; Rebolo, R.; Redondo, P.; Reffert, S.; Reinhart, S.; Rhode, P.; Rix, H.-W.; Rodler, F.; Rodríguez, E.; Rodríguez-López, C.; Rodríguez Trinidad, A.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Rosich, A.; Sadegi, S.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Sánchez-López, A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Sarkis, P.; Sarmiento, L. F.; Schäfer, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Schiller, J.; Schöfer, P.; Solano, E.; Stahl, O.; Strachan, J. B. P.; Stürmer, J.; Suárez, J. C.; Tabernero, H. M.; Tala, M.; Tulloch, S. M.; Ulbrich, R.-G.; Veredas, G.; Vico Linares, J. I.; Vilardell, F.; Wagner, K.; Winkler, J.; Wolthoff, V.; Xu, W.; Yan, F.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.

    2018-02-01

    We report on the first star discovered to host a planet detected by radial velocity (RV) observations obtained within the CARMENES survey for exoplanets around M dwarfs. HD 147379 (V = 8.9 mag, M = 0.58 ± 0.08 M⊙), a bright M0.0 V star at a distance of 10.7 pc, is found to undergo periodic RV variations with a semi-amplitude of K = 5.1 ± 0.4 m s-1 and a period of P = 86.54 ± 0.06 d. The RV signal is found in our CARMENES data, which were taken between 2016 and 2017, and is supported by HIRES/Keck observations that were obtained since 2000. The RV variations are interpreted as resulting from a planet of minimum mass mP sin i = 25 ± 2 M⊕, 1.5 times the mass of Neptune, with an orbital semi-major axis a = 0.32 au and low eccentricity (e ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/609/L5

  17. Characterizing a New Candidate Benchmark Brown Dwarf Companion in the β Pic Moving Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Caprice; Bowler, Brendan; Liu, Michael C.; Mace, Gregory N.; Sokal, Kimberly R.

    2018-01-01

    Benchmark brown dwarfs are objects that have at least two measured fundamental quantities such as luminosity and age, and therefore can be used to test substellar atmospheric and evolutionary models. Nearby, young, loose associations such as the β Pic moving group represent some of the best regions in which to identify intermediate-age benchmark brown dwarfs due to their well-constrained ages and metallicities. We present a spectroscopic study of a new companion at the hydrogen-burning limit orbiting a low-mass star at a separation of 9″ (650 AU) in the 23 Myr old β Pic moving group. The medium-resolution near-infrared spectrum of this companion from IRTF/SpeX shows clear signs of low surface gravity and yields an index-based spectral type of M6±1 with a VL-G gravity on the Allers & Liu classification system. Currently, there are four known brown dwarf and giant planet companions in the β Pic moving group: HR 7329 B, PZ Tel B, β Pic b, and 51 Eri b. Depending on its exact age and accretion history, this new object may represent the third brown dwarf companion and fifth substellar companion in this association.

  18. The Living with a Red Dwarf / Goldiloks Program: The Activity-Rotation-Age Relationships of M and K Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Scott; Guinan, Edward Francis

    2018-01-01

    Over the past several years, the database of M dwarfs with determined ages has continually expanded, allowing us to furnish Activity-Rotation-Age Relationships as part of the Living with a Red Dwarf program. We have now begun to expand this successful program to also cover K dwarfs - the Goldiloks program. Both M and K dwarfs suffer from the same limitation - due to their long lifetimes and very slow nuclear evolution, the best method for determining ages for a large number of M and K dwarf targets is through “magnetic tracers” such as X-UV activity levels and stellar rotation rates. We report on the current results of our relationships: deriving photometric rotation rates; gathering X-UV measures with HST, IUE Chandra and XMM (both proposed by us, and archival); and assessing their impacts on our understanding of the evolutions and habitability of these stellar types.We gratefully acknowledge the support from NSF/RUI Grant AST 1009903, Chandra Grant GO-13200633, HST Grants GO-12124X and GO-13020X.

  19. Space distribution and physical properties of cool dwarf stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staller, R.F.A.

    1979-01-01

    A new study of the space density of red dwarfs based on a sample of red dwarfs in a field of 238 square degrees towards the South Galactic Pole is presented. A blink survey using red and blue copies of Mount Palomar Sky Survey plates of a six square degrees field centered on the South Galactic Pole was performed and the results (approximately 2500 red objects) and the discussion of these results are presented. The time that elapsed before a black dwarf becomes invisible is estimated and is suggested that low-velocity red dwarfs could be explained by contracting black dwarfs. Based on theoretical considerations it can be shown that the existence of a large number of low-velocity stars is in serious conflict with criteria for the stability of the galactic disk. It is shown that if one also takes into account all generations of black dwarfs that are already invisible and therfore old, the mean velocity of all black dwarfs is much higher so that there is no conflict with theory. Luminosity functions of red and black dwarfs in several photometric passbands are calculated. (Auth.)

  20. High-brightness rf linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The issue of high brightness and its ramifications in linacs driven by radio-frequency fields is discussed. A history of the RF linacs is reviewed briefly. Some current applications are then examined that are driving progress in RF linacs. The physics affecting the brightness of RF linacs is then discussed, followed by the economic feasibility of higher brightness machines

  1. A possible magnetic DA white dwarf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramasinghe, D.T.; Bessell, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    The spectrum of a peculiar southern white dwarf suspect BPM 25114 is described. A possible magnetic interpretation suggests a DA white dwarf with a field of about 10 7 gauss. The star appears to be both a spectrum variable and perhaps light variable

  2. Long-lived ames dwarf mice are resistant to chemical stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokov, Alex F; Lindsey, Merry L; Khodr, Christina; Sabia, Marian R; Richardson, Arlan

    2009-08-01

    To probe the connection between longevity and stress resistance, we compared the sensitivity of Ames long-lived dwarf mice and control littermates with paraquat, diquat, and dobutamine. In young adult animals, 95% of male and 39% of female controls died after paraquat administration, but no dwarf animals died. When the experiment was repeated at an older age or a higher dosage of paraquat, dwarf mice still showed greater resistance. Dwarf mice also were more resistant to diquat; 80% of male and 60% of female controls died compared with 40% and 20% of dwarf mice, despite greater sensitivity of dwarf liver to diquat. Dwarf mice were also less sensitive to dobutamine-induced cardiac stress and had lower levels of liver and lung F(2)-isoprostanes. This is the first direct in vivo evidence that long-lived Ames dwarf mice have enhanced resistance to chemical insult, particularly oxidative stressors.

  3. Sweating the small stuff: simulating dwarf galaxies, ultra-faint dwarf galaxies, and their own tiny satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Coral; Oñorbe, Jose; Bullock, James S.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Elbert, Oliver D.; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Hopkins, Philip F.; Kereš, Dušan

    2015-10-01

    We present Feedback in Realistic Environment (FIRE)/GIZMO hydrodynamic zoom-in simulations of isolated dark matter haloes, two each at the mass of classical dwarf galaxies (Mvir ≃ 1010 M⊙) and ultra-faint galaxies (Mvir ≃ 109 M⊙), and with two feedback implementations. The resulting central galaxies lie on an extrapolated abundance matching relation from M⋆ ≃ 106 to 104 M⊙ without a break. Every host is filled with subhaloes, many of which form stars. Each of our dwarfs with M⋆ ≃ 106 M⊙ has 1-2 well-resolved satellites with M⋆ = 3-200 × 103 M⊙. Even our isolated ultra-faint galaxies have star-forming subhaloes. If this is representative, dwarf galaxies throughout the Universe should commonly host tiny satellite galaxies of their own. We combine our results with the Exploring the Local Volume in Simulations (ELVIS) simulations to show that targeting ˜ 50 kpc regions around nearby isolated dwarfs could increase the chances of discovering ultra-faint galaxies by ˜35 per cent compared to random pointings, and specifically identify the region around the Phoenix dwarf galaxy as a good potential target. The well-resolved ultra-faint galaxies in our simulations (M⋆ ≃ 3-30 × 103 M⊙) form within Mpeak ≃ 0.5-3 × 109 M⊙ haloes. Each has a uniformly ancient stellar population ( > 10 Gyr) owing to reionization-related quenching. More massive systems, in contrast, all have late-time star formation. Our results suggest that Mhalo ≃ 5 × 109 M⊙ is a probable dividing line between haloes hosting reionization `fossils' and those hosting dwarfs that can continue to form stars in isolation after reionization.

  4. The Effects of Ram-pressure Stripping and Supernova Winds on the Tidal Stirring of Disky Dwarfs: Enhanced Transformation into Dwarf Spheroidals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantzidis, Stelios; Mayer, Lucio; Callegari, Simone; Dotti, Massimo; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2017-02-01

    A conclusive model for the formation of dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies still remains elusive. Owing to their proximity to the massive spirals Milky Way (MW) and M31, various environmental processes have been invoked to explain their origin. In this context, the tidal stirring model postulates that interactions with MW-sized hosts can transform rotationally supported dwarfs, resembling present-day dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies, into systems with the kinematic and structural properties of dSphs. Using N-body+SPH simulations, we investigate the dependence of this transformation mechanism on the gas fraction, f gas, in the disk of the progenitor dwarf. Our numerical experiments incorporate for the first time the combined effects of radiative cooling, ram-pressure stripping, star formation, supernova (SN) winds, and a cosmic UV background. For a given orbit inside the primary galaxy, rotationally supported dwarfs with gas fractions akin to those of observed dIrrs (f gas ≳ 0.5), demonstrate a substantially enhanced likelihood and efficiency of transformation into dSphs relative to their collisionless (f gas = 0) counterparts. We argue that the combination of ram-pressure stripping and SN winds causes the gas-rich dwarfs to respond more impulsively to tides, augmenting their transformation. When f gas ≳ 0.5, disky dwarfs on previously unfavorable low-eccentricity or large-pericenter orbits are still able to transform. On the widest orbits, the transformation is incomplete; the dwarfs retain significant rotational support, a relatively flat shape, and some gas, naturally resembling transition-type systems. We conclude that tidal stirring constitutes a prevalent evolutionary mechanism for shaping the structure of dwarf galaxies within the currently favored CDM cosmological paradigm.

  5. The Effects of Ram-pressure Stripping and Supernova Winds on the Tidal Stirring of Disky Dwarfs: Enhanced Transformation into Dwarf Spheroidals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazantzidis, Stelios [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece); Mayer, Lucio [Center for Theoretical Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute for Computational Science, University of Zürich, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Callegari, Simone [Anthropology Institute and Museum, University of Zürich, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Dotti, Massimo [Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Moustakas, Leonidas A., E-mail: skazantzidis@phys.uoa.gr [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2017-02-10

    A conclusive model for the formation of dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies still remains elusive. Owing to their proximity to the massive spirals Milky Way (MW) and M31, various environmental processes have been invoked to explain their origin. In this context, the tidal stirring model postulates that interactions with MW-sized hosts can transform rotationally supported dwarfs, resembling present-day dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies, into systems with the kinematic and structural properties of dSphs. Using N -body+SPH simulations, we investigate the dependence of this transformation mechanism on the gas fraction, f {sub gas}, in the disk of the progenitor dwarf. Our numerical experiments incorporate for the first time the combined effects of radiative cooling, ram-pressure stripping, star formation, supernova (SN) winds, and a cosmic UV background. For a given orbit inside the primary galaxy, rotationally supported dwarfs with gas fractions akin to those of observed dIrrs ( f {sub gas} ≳ 0.5), demonstrate a substantially enhanced likelihood and efficiency of transformation into dSphs relative to their collisionless ( f {sub gas} = 0) counterparts. We argue that the combination of ram-pressure stripping and SN winds causes the gas-rich dwarfs to respond more impulsively to tides, augmenting their transformation. When f {sub gas} ≳ 0.5, disky dwarfs on previously unfavorable low-eccentricity or large-pericenter orbits are still able to transform. On the widest orbits, the transformation is incomplete; the dwarfs retain significant rotational support, a relatively flat shape, and some gas, naturally resembling transition-type systems. We conclude that tidal stirring constitutes a prevalent evolutionary mechanism for shaping the structure of dwarf galaxies within the currently favored CDM cosmological paradigm.

  6. A multiwavelength study of superoutbursts in dwarf novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woerd, H.J. van der.

    1987-01-01

    Dwarf novae are stellar systems consisting of two stars which orbit around each other within a few hours. In dwarf novae one of the stars, which is a bit smaller and less massive than our sun, loses matter to a very compact and degenerated star: a white dwarf. This white dwarf has nearly the same mass as our sun but its radius is about a hundred times smaller. The process of mass transport was studied on the basis of observations with the Exosat-satelite (European X-ray Observatory satelite). 397 refs.; 50 figs.; 21 tabs

  7. M DWARF ACTIVITY IN THE PAN-STARRS1 MEDIUM-DEEP SURVEY: FIRST CATALOG AND ROTATION PERIODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kado-Fong, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Williams, P. K. G.; Berger, E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mann, A. W. [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Astronomy, 2515 Speedway C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Huber, M. E.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Magnier, E. A.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Rest, A., E-mail: erin.fong@tufts.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    We report on an ongoing project to investigate activity in the M dwarf stellar population observed by the Pan-STARRS1 Medium-Deep Survey (PS1-MDS). Using a custom-built pipeline, we refine an initial sample of ∼4 million sources in PS1-MDS to a sample of 184,148 candidate cool stars using color cuts. Motivated by the well-known relationship between rotation and stellar activity, we use a multiband periodogram analysis and visual vetting to identify 270 sources that are likely rotating M dwarfs. We derive a new set of polynomials relating M dwarf PS1 colors to fundamental stellar parameters and use them to estimate the masses, distances, effective temperatures, and bolometric luminosities of our sample. We present a catalog containing these values, our measured rotation periods, and cross-matches to other surveys. Our final sample spans periods of ≲1–130 days in stars with estimated effective temperatures of ∼2700–4000 K. Twenty-two of our sources have X-ray cross-matches, and they are found to be relatively X-ray bright as would be expected from selection effects. Our data set provides evidence that Kepler -based searches have not been sensitive to very slowly rotating stars ( P {sub rot} ≳ 70 day), implying that the observed emergence of very slow rotators in studies of low-mass stars may be a systematic effect. We also see a lack of low-amplitude (<2%) variability in objects with intermediate (10–40 day) rotation periods, which, considered in conjunction with other observational results, may be a signpost of a loss of magnetic complexity associated with a phase of rapid spin-down in intermediate-age M dwarfs. This work represents just a first step in exploring stellar variability in data from the PS1-MDS and, in the farther future, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  8. IUE spectrophotometry of the DA4 primary in the short-period white dwarf-red dwarf spectroscopic binary Case 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sion, E. M.; Guinan, E. F.; Wesemael, F.

    1984-01-01

    Low-resolution ultraviolet International Ultraviolet Explorer spectra of the DA white dwarf Case 1 are presented. The spectra show the presence of the 1400 A feature, already discovered in several other DA stars, and of a shallower trough in the 1550-1700 A range. A model atmosphere analysis of the ultraviolet energy distribution of the Ly-alpha red wing yields T(e) = 13,000 + or - 500 K. Possible interpretations of the 1400 A feature are reviewed. Case 1 is the coolest white dwarf found in a short-period, detached white dwarf-red dwarf binary, and its cooling time is consistent with estimates of the efficiency of angular momentum removal mechanisms in the phases subsequent to common envelope binary evolution.

  9. A case study on large-scale dynamical influence on bright band using cloud radar during the Indian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ambuj K.; Kalapureddy, M. C. R.; Devisetty, Hari Krishna; Deshpande, Sachin M.; Pandithurai, G.

    2018-02-01

    The present study is a first of its kind attempt in exploring the physical features (e.g., height, width, intensity, duration) of tropical Indian bright band using a Ka-band cloud radar under the influence of large-scale cyclonic circulation and attempts to explain the abrupt changes in bright band features, viz., rise in the bright band height by 430 m and deepening of the bright band by about 300 m observed at around 14:00 UTC on Sep 14, 2016, synoptically as well as locally. The study extends the utility of cloud radar to understand how the bright band features are associated with light precipitation, ranging from 0 to 1.5 mm/h. Our analysis of the precipitation event of Sep 14-15, 2016 shows that the bright band above (below) 3.7 km, thickness less (more) than 300 m can potentially lead to light drizzle of 0-0.25 mm/h (drizzle/light rain) at the surface. It is also seen that the cloud radar may be suitable for bright band study within light drizzle limits than under higher rain conditions. Further, the study illustrates that the bright band features can be determined using the polarimetric capability of the cloud radar. It is shown that an LDR value of - 22 dB can be associated with the top height of bright band in the Ka-band observations which is useful in the extraction of the bright band top height and its width. This study is useful for understanding the bright band phenomenon and could be potentially useful in establishing the bright band-surface rain relationship through the perspective of a cloud radar, which would be helpful to enhance the cloud radar-based quantitative estimates of precipitation.

  10. The White-Dwarf Mass-Radius Relation from 40 Eridani B and Other Nearby Visual Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Howard E.; Bergeron, P.; Bedard, A.

    2018-01-01

    The bright, nearby DA-type white dwarf (WD) 40 Eridani B is orbited by the M dwarf 40 Eri C, allowing determination of the WD's mass. Until recently, however, the mass depended on orbital elements determined four decades ago, and that mass was so low that it created several astrophysical puzzles. Using new astrometric measurements, the binary-star group at the U.S. Naval Observatory has revised the dynamical mass upward, to 0.573 ± 0.018 M⊙. We have used model-atmosphere analysis to update other parameters of the WD, including effective temperature, surface gravity, radius, and luminosity. We then comparethese results with WD interior models.Within the observational uncertainties, theoretical cooling tracks for CO-core WDs of its measured mass are consistent with the position of 40 Eri B in the H-R diagram; equivalently, the theoretical mass-radius relation (MRR) is consistent with the star's location in the mass-radius plane. This consistency is, however, achieved only if we assume a "thin'' outer hydrogen layer, with qH = MH/MWD ∼ 10–10.We discuss other evidence that a significant fraction of DA WDs have such thin H layers, in spite of expectation from canonical stellar-evolution theory of "thick'' H layers with qH ∼ 10–4 . The cooling age of 40 Eri B is ~122 Myr, and its total age is ~1.8 Gyr. We present the MRRs for 40 Eri B and three other nearby WDs in visual binaries with precise mass determinations, and show that the agreement of current theory with observation is excellent in all cases.However, astrophysical puzzles remain. The eccentricity of the BC orbit has remained high (0.43), even though the progenitor of B ought to have interacted tidally with C when it was an AGB star. This puzzle exists also for the Sirius and Procyon systems. If thin hydrogen layers are common among WDs, the mass scale will need to be shifted downwards by a few hundredths of a solar mass.

  11. Radio pulsar death lines to SGRs/AXPs and white dwarfs pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobato, Ronaldo V.; Malheiro, M. [Departamento de Física, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, ITA - DCTA, Vila das Acácias, São José dos Campos, 12228-900 SP (Brazil); Coelho, J. G. [INPE - Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Divisão de Astrofísica, Av. dos Astronautas 1758, São José dos Campos, 12227-010 SP (Brazil)

    2015-12-17

    Recently, an alternative model based on white dwarfs pulsars has been proposed to explain a class of pulsars known as Soft Gamma Repeaters (SGR) and Anomalus X-Ray Pulsars (AXP) [1], usually named as magnetars. In this model, the magnetized white dwarfs can have surface magnetic field B ∼ 10{sup 7} − 10{sup 10} G and rotate very fast with angular frequencies Ω ∼ 1 rad/s, allowing them to produce large electromagnetic (EM) potentials and generate electron-positron pairs. These EM potentials are comparable with the ones of neutron star pulsars with strong magnetic fields and even larger. In this study we consider two possible processes associated with the particle acceleration, both of them are common used to explain radio emission in neutron star pulsars: in the first process the pair production happens near to the star polar caps, i.e. inside of the light cylinder where magnetic field lines are closed; in the second one the creation of pair happens in the outer magnetosphere, i.e. far away of the star surface where magnetic field lines are open [2]. The analysis of the possibility of radio emission were done for 23 SGRs/AXPs of the McGill Online Magnetar Catalog [3] that contains the current information available on these sources. The results of this work show that the model where the particles production occur in the outer magnetosphere emission “o2” is the process compatible with the astronomical observations of absence of radio emission for almost all SGRs/AXPs when these sources are understood as white dwarf pulsars. Our work is a first attempted to find an explanation for the puzzle why for almost all the SGRs/AXPs was expected radio emission, but it was observed in only four of them. These four sources, as it was suggested recently [4], seem to belong to an high magnetic field neutron star pulsar category, different from all the others SGRs/AXPs that our work indicate to belong to a new class of white dwarf pulsars, very fast and magnetized.

  12. Conditions for accretion-induced collapse of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomoto, Kenichi; Kondo, Yoji

    1991-01-01

    Recent discovery of an unexpectedly large number of low-mass binary pulsars (LMBPs) in globular clusters has instigated active discussions on the evolutionary origin of binary pulsars. Prompted by the possibility that at least some of LMBPs originate from accretion-induced collapse (AIC) of white dwarfs, a reexamination is conducted as to whether or not AIC occurs for the new models of O + Ne + Mg white dwarfs and solid C + O white dwarfs that can ignite explosive nuclear burning at significantly lower central densities than in the previous models. Even with low critical densities, AIC is still much more likely than explosion for both types of white dwarfs. Possible regions for AIC are presented in a diagram of mass accretion rate vs initial mass of the white dwarfs. 42 refs

  13. Tidal Dwarf Galaxies and Missing Baryons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Bournaud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tidal dwarf galaxies form during the interaction, collision, or merger of massive spiral galaxies. They can resemble “normal” dwarf galaxies in terms of mass, size, and become dwarf satellites orbiting around their massive progenitor. They nevertheless keep some signatures from their origin, making them interesting targets for cosmological studies. In particular, they should be free from dark matter from a spheroidal halo. Flat rotation curves and high dynamical masses may then indicate the presence of an unseen component, and constrain the properties of the “missing baryons,” known to exist but not directly observed. The number of dwarf galaxies in the Universe is another cosmological problem for which it is important to ascertain if tidal dwarf galaxies formed frequently at high redshift, when the merger rate was high, and many of them survived until today. In this paper, “dark matter” is used to refer to the nonbaryonic matter, mostly located in large dark halos, that is, CDM in the standard paradigm, and “missing baryons” or “dark baryons” is used to refer to the baryons known to exist but hardly observed at redshift zero, and are a baryonic dark component that is additional to “dark matter”.

  14. White dwarf stars with carbon atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, P; Liebert, J; Fontaine, G; Behara, N

    2007-11-22

    White dwarfs represent the endpoint of stellar evolution for stars with initial masses between approximately 0.07 and 8-10, where is the mass of the Sun (more massive stars end their life as either black holes or neutron stars). The theory of stellar evolution predicts that the majority of white dwarfs have a core made of carbon and oxygen, which itself is surrounded by a helium layer and, for approximately 80 per cent of known white dwarfs, by an additional hydrogen layer. All white dwarfs therefore have been traditionally found to belong to one of two categories: those with a hydrogen-rich atmosphere (the DA spectral type) and those with a helium-rich atmosphere (the non-DAs). Here we report the discovery of several white dwarfs with atmospheres primarily composed of carbon, with little or no trace of hydrogen or helium. Our analysis shows that the atmospheric parameters found for these stars do not fit satisfactorily in any of the currently known theories of post-asymptotic giant branch evolution, although these objects might be the cooler counterpart of the unique and extensively studied PG 1159 star H1504+65 (refs 4-7). These stars, together with H1504+65, might accordingly form a new evolutionary sequence that follows the asymptotic giant branch.

  15. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING AND SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF TWO BROWN DWARF BINARIES AT THE L DWARF/T DWARF TRANSITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Bardalez-Gagliuffi, Daniella C.; Gizis, John E.

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed examination of the brown dwarf multiples 2MASS J08503593+1057156 and 2MASS J17281150+3948593, both suspected of harboring components that straddle the L dwarf/T dwarf transition. Resolved photometry from Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS shows opposite trends in the relative colors of the components, with the secondary of 2MASS J0850+1057 being redder than its primary, while that of 2MASS J1728+3948 is bluer. We determine near-infrared component types by matching combined-light, near-infrared spectral data to binary templates, with component spectra scaled to resolved NICMOS and K p photometry. Combinations of L7 + L6 for 2MASS J0850+1057 and L5 + L6.5 for 2MASS J1728+3948 are inferred. Remarkably, the primary of 2MASS J0850+1057 appears to have a later-type classification compared to its secondary, despite being 0.8-1.2 mag brighter in the near-infrared, while the primary of 2MASS J1728+3948 is unusually early for its combined-light optical classification. Comparison to absolute magnitude/spectral type trends also distinguishes these components, with 2MASS J0850+1057A being ∼1 mag brighter and 2MASS J1728+3948A ∼ 0.5 mag fainter than equivalently classified field counterparts. We deduce that thick condensate clouds are likely responsible for the unusual properties of 2MASS J1728+3948A, while 2MASS J0850+1057A is either an inflated young brown dwarf or a tight unresolved binary, making it potentially part of a wide, low-mass, hierarchical quintuple system.

  16. The Taxonomy of Blue Amorphous Galaxies. II. Structure and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Amanda T.; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Heckman, Timothy M.

    1999-09-01

    Dwarf galaxies play an important role in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution, and starbursts are believed to affect the structure and evolution of dwarf galaxies strongly. We have therefore embarked on a systematic study of 12 of the nearest dwarf galaxies thought to be undergoing bursts of star formation. These were selected primarily by their morphological type (blue ``amorphous'' galaxies). We show that these blue amorphous galaxies are not physically distinguishable from dwarfs selected as starbursting by other methods, such as blue compact dwarfs (BCDs) and H II galaxies. All these classes exhibit surface brightness profiles that are exponential in the outer regions (r>~1.5re) but often have a predominantly central blue excess, suggesting a young burst in an older, redder galaxy. Typically, the starbursting ``cores'' are young (~107-108 yr) events compared to the older (~109-1010 yr) underlying galaxy (the ``envelope''). The ratio of the core to envelope in blue light ranges from essentially zero to about 2. These starbursts are therefore modest events involving only a few percent of the stellar mass. The envelopes have surface brightnesses that are much higher than typical dwarf irregular (dI) galaxies, so it is unlikely that there is a straightforward evolutionary relation between typical dIs and dwarf starburst galaxies. Instead we suggest that amorphous galaxies may repeatedly cycle through starburst and quiescent phases, corresponding to the galaxies with strong and weak/absent cores, respectively. Once amorphous galaxies use up the available gas (either through star formation or galactic winds) so that star formation is shut off, the faded remnants would strongly resemble dwarf elliptical galaxies. However, in the current cosmological epoch, this is evidently a slow process that is the aftermath of a series of many weak, recurring bursts. Present-day dE's must have experienced more rapid and intense evolution than this in the distant past.

  17. Genetic Segregation Analysis of a Rapeseed Dwarf Mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, G.; Yu, S.; Zhang, T.; Zhao, J.; Lei, S.; Du, C.

    2016-01-01

    Dwarf resources in Brassica napus are very important for developing high-yield cultivars through dwarf-type and lodging-resistant breeding. However, few dwarf varieties have been available for this species. Here, we reported a new rapeseed dwarf mutant GRC1157, which exhibits obvious phenotypic variations on dwarf. Six generations (P /sub 1/, P/sub 1/, F/sub 1/, F/sub 1/, B/sub 1/, and B/sub 1/) were produced from a cross between dwarf mutant GRC1157 and an elite tall-type line XR16 to analyze genetic inheritances of plant height (PH), numbers of the 1st valid branch (VBN), main inflorescence length (MIL), pod numbers per main inflorescence (MPN), pod length (PL) and seed numbers per pod (PSN) using the mixed major gene plus polygene inheritance model. The genetic analysis shows different traits were controlled by different inheritance models: PH and PL by two pairs of additive-dominant-epistatic major genes plus additive-dominant-epistatic polygenes, MPN and PSN by two-pair additive-dominant-epistatic major genes plus additive-dominant polygenes, MIL by two-pair additive-dominant-epistatic major genes and VBN by one-pair additive-dominant major genes plus additive-dominant-epistatic polygenes. Furthermore, positive correlations between PH and some other traits were observed, suggesting that some traits may be co-regulated by several linkage or same loci/genes. In addition, high heritability (40.35-93.7 percent) were found for five traits (except VBN) in different segregating generations, indicating these traits were mainly affected by hereditary factors and suitable for early artificial selection. In sum, the dwarf mutant GRC1157 can serve as a valuable resource for rapeseed dwarf breeding and the genetic analysis in this study provided a foundation for further mapping and cloning dwarf genes in mutant GRC1157. (author)

  18. A BROWN DWARF CENSUS FROM THE SIMP SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, Jasmin; Gagné, Jonathan; Artigau, Étienne; Lafrenière, David; Nadeau, Daniel; Doyon, René; Malo, Lison; Albert, Loïc; Simard, Corinne [Département de physique and Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Gagliuffi, Daniella C. Bardalez; Burgasser, Adam J., E-mail: jasmin@astro.umontreal.ca [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., Mail Code 0424, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2016-10-20

    We have conducted a near-infrared (NIR) proper motion survey, the Sondage Infrarouge de Mouvement Propre, in order to discover field ultracool dwarfs (UCD) in the solar neighborhood. The survey was conducted by imaging ∼28% of the sky with the Caméra PAnoramique Proche-InfraRouge both in the southern hemisphere at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory 1.5 m telescope, and in the northern hemisphere at the Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic 1.6 m telescope and comparing the source positions from these observations with the Two Micron All-Sky Survey Point Source Catalog (2MASS PSC). Additional color criteria were used to further discriminate unwanted astrophysical sources. We present the results of an NIR spectroscopic follow-up of 169 M, L, and T dwarfs. Among the sources discovered are 2 young field brown dwarfs, 6 unusually red M and L dwarfs, 25 unusually blue M and L dwarfs, 2 candidate unresolved L+T binaries, and 24 peculiar UCDs. Additionally, we add 9 L/T transition dwarfs (L6–T4.5) to the already known objects.

  19. A BROWN DWARF CENSUS FROM THE SIMP SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, Jasmin; Gagné, Jonathan; Artigau, Étienne; Lafrenière, David; Nadeau, Daniel; Doyon, René; Malo, Lison; Albert, Loïc; Simard, Corinne; Gagliuffi, Daniella C. Bardalez; Burgasser, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted a near-infrared (NIR) proper motion survey, the Sondage Infrarouge de Mouvement Propre, in order to discover field ultracool dwarfs (UCD) in the solar neighborhood. The survey was conducted by imaging ∼28% of the sky with the Caméra PAnoramique Proche-InfraRouge both in the southern hemisphere at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory 1.5 m telescope, and in the northern hemisphere at the Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic 1.6 m telescope and comparing the source positions from these observations with the Two Micron All-Sky Survey Point Source Catalog (2MASS PSC). Additional color criteria were used to further discriminate unwanted astrophysical sources. We present the results of an NIR spectroscopic follow-up of 169 M, L, and T dwarfs. Among the sources discovered are 2 young field brown dwarfs, 6 unusually red M and L dwarfs, 25 unusually blue M and L dwarfs, 2 candidate unresolved L+T binaries, and 24 peculiar UCDs. Additionally, we add 9 L/T transition dwarfs (L6–T4.5) to the already known objects.

  20. Dwarf Galaxies in the Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civano, Francesca Maria; Mezcua, Mar; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Marchesi, Stefano; Suh, Hyewon; Volonteri, Marta; cyrille

    2018-01-01

    The existence of intermediate mass black holes (100 7. While detecting these seed black holes in the young Universe is observationally challenging, the nuclei of local dwarf galaxies are among the best places where to look for them as these galaxies resemble in mass and metallicity the first galaxies and they have not significantly grown through merger and accretion processes. We present a sample of 40 AGN in dwarf galaxies (107 0.5, our sample constitutes the highest-redshift discovery of AGN in dwarf galaxies. One of the dwarf galaxies is the least massive galaxy (M* = 6.6x107 Msun) found so far to host an active BH. We also present for the first time the evolution of the AGN fraction with stellar mass, X-ray luminosity, and redshift in dwarf galaxies out to z = 0.7, finding that it decreases with X-ray luminosity and stellar mass. Unlike massive galaxies, the AGN fraction is found to decrease with redshift, suggesting that AGN in dwarf galaxies evolve differently than those in high-mass galaxies.

  1. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF GJ 3470 b: A VERY LOW-DENSITY NEPTUNE-SIZE PLANET ORBITING A METAL-RICH M DWARF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demory, Brice-Olivier; Seager, Sara [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Neves, Vasco; Santos, Nuno [Centro de Astrofisica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Rogers, Leslie [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gillon, Michaeel [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, 17, Bat. B5C, Liege 1 (Belgium); Horch, Elliott [Department of Physics, 501 Crescent Street, Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, CT 06515 (United States); Sullivan, Peter [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bonfils, Xavier; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d' Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble, F-38041 (France); Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Udry, Stephane [Observatoire de Geneve, Universite de Geneve, 51 ch. des Maillettes, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Smalley, Barry, E-mail: demory@mit.edu [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST55BG (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-10

    We present Spitzer/IRAC 4.5 {mu}m transit photometry of GJ 3470 b, a Neptune-size planet orbiting an M1.5 dwarf star with a 3.3 day period recently discovered in the course of the HARPS M-dwarf survey. We refine the stellar parameters by employing purely empirical mass-luminosity and surface brightness relations constrained by our updated value for the mean stellar density, and additional information from new near-infrared spectroscopic observations. We derive a stellar mass of M{sub *}= 0.539{sup +0.047}{sub -0.043} M{sub sun} and a radius of R{sub *}= 0.568{sup +0.037}{sub -0.031} R{sub sun}. We determine the host star of GJ 3470 b to be metal-rich, with a metallicity of [Fe/H] = +0.20 {+-} 0.10 and an effective temperature of T{sub eff} = 3600 {+-} 100 K. The revised stellar parameters yield a planetary radius R{sub p}= 4.83{sub -0.21}{sup +0.22} R{sub Circled-Plus} that is 13% larger than the value previously reported in the literature. We find a planetary mass M{sub p}= 13.9{sup +1.5}{sub -1.4} M{sub Circled-Plus} that translates to a very low planetary density, {rho}{sub p}= 0.72{sup +0.13}{sub -0.12} g cm{sup -3}, which is 33% smaller than the original value. With a mean density half of that of GJ 436 b, GJ 3470 b is an example of a very low-density low-mass planet, similar to Kepler-11 d, Kepler-11 e, and Kepler-18 c, but orbiting a much brighter nearby star that is more conducive to follow-up studies.

  2. Possible new class of dense white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.; Kettner, C.; Weber, F.

    1995-01-01

    If the strange quark matter hypothesis is true, then a new class of white dwarfs can exist whose nuclear material in their deep interiors can have a density as high as the neutron drip density, a few hundred times the density in maximum-mass white dwarfs and 4x10 4 the density in dwarfs of mass, M∼0.6 M circle-dot . Their masses fall in the approximate range 10 -4 to 1 M circle-dot . They are stable against acoustical modes of vibration. A strange quark core stabilizes these stars, which otherwise would have central densities that would place them in the unstable region of the sequence between white dwarfs and neutron stars. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  3. Discovery of megaparsec-scale, low surface brightness nonthermal emission in merging galaxy clusters using the green bank telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnsworth, Damon; Rudnick, Lawrence [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Brown, Shea [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, 203 Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Brunetti, Gianfranco [INAF/Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-12-20

    We present results from a study of 12 X-ray bright clusters at 1.4 GHz with the 100 m Green Bank Telescope. After subtraction of point sources using existing interferometer data, we reach a median (best) 1σ rms sensitivity level of 0.01 (0.006) μJy arcsec{sup –2}, and find a significant excess of diffuse, low surface brightness emission in 11 of 12 Abell clusters observed. We also present initial results at 1.4 GHz of A2319 from the Very Large Array. In particular, we find: (1) four new detections of diffuse structures tentatively classified as two halos (A2065, A2069) and two relics (A2067, A2073); (2) the first detection of the radio halo in A2061 at 1.4 GHz, which qualifies this as a possible ultra-steep spectrum halo source with a synchrotron spectral index of α ∼ 1.8 between 327 MHz and 1.4 GHz; (3) a ∼2 Mpc radio halo in the sloshing, minor-merger cluster A2142; (4) a >2× increase of the giant radio halo extent and luminosity in the merging cluster A2319; (5) a ∼7× increase to the integrated radio flux and >4× increase to the observed extent of the peripheral radio relic in A1367 to ∼600 kpc, which we also observe to be polarized on a similar scale; (6) significant excess emission of ambiguous nature in three clusters with embedded tailed radio galaxies (A119, A400, A3744). Our radio halo detections agree with the well-known X-ray/radio luminosity correlation, but they are larger and fainter than current radio power correlation studies would predict. The corresponding volume-averaged synchrotron emissivities are 1-2 orders of magnitude below the characteristic value found in previous studies. Some of the halo-like detections may be some type of previously unseen, low surface brightness radio halo or blend of unresolved shock structures and sub-Mpc-scale turbulent regions associated with their respective cluster merging activity. Four of the five tentative halos contain one or more X-ray cold fronts, suggesting a possible connection between gas

  4. Infrared spectrum of an extremely cool white-dwarf star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkin; Oppenheimer; Hambly; Jameson; Smartt; Steele

    2000-01-06

    White dwarfs are the remnant cores of stars that initially had masses of less than 8 solar masses. They cool gradually over billions of years, and have been suggested to make up much of the 'dark matter' in the halo of the Milky Way. But extremely cool white dwarfs have proved difficult to detect, owing to both their faintness and their anticipated similarity in colour to other classes of dwarf stars. Recent improved models indicate that white dwarfs are much more blue than previously supposed, suggesting that the earlier searches may have been looking for the wrong kinds of objects. Here we report an infrared spectrum of an extremely cool white dwarf that is consistent with the new models. We determine the star's temperature to be 3,500 +/- 200 K, making it the coolest known white dwarf. The kinematics of this star indicate that it is in the halo of the Milky Way, and the density of such objects implied by the serendipitous discovery of this star is consistent with white dwarfs dominating the dark matter in the halo.

  5. Identifications and limited spectroscopy for Luyten common proper motion stars with probable white dwarf components. I - Pair brighter than 17th magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswalt, Terry D.; Hintzen, Paul M.; Luyten, Willem J.

    1988-01-01

    Identifications are provided for 103 bright Luyten common proper motion (CPM) stellar systems with m(pg) less than 17.0 mag containing likely white dwarf (WD) components. New spectral types are presented for 55 components, and spectral types for 51 more are available in the literature. With the CPM systems previously published by Giclas et al. (1978), the Luyten stars provide a uniform sample of nearly 200 pairs or multiples brighter than 17h magnitude. Selection effects biasing the combined samples are discussed; in particular, evidence is presented that fewer than 1 percent of wide WD binaries have been detected.

  6. Identifying Likely Disk-hosting M dwarfs with Disk Detective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Steven; Wisniewski, John; Kuchner, Marc J.; Disk Detective Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    M dwarfs are critical targets for exoplanet searches. Debris disks often provide key information as to the formation and evolution of planetary systems around higher-mass stars, alongside the planet themselves. However, less than 300 M dwarf debris disks are known, despite M dwarfs making up 70% of the local neighborhood. The Disk Detective citizen science project has identified over 6000 new potential disk host stars from the AllWISE catalog over the past three years. Here, we present preliminary results of our search for new disk-hosting M dwarfs in the survey. Based on near-infrared color cuts and fitting stellar models to photometry, we have identified over 500 potential new M dwarf disk hosts, nearly doubling the known number of such systems. In this talk, we present our methodology, and outline our ongoing work to confirm systems as M dwarf disks.

  7. The Effects of Ram-pressure Stripping and Supernova Winds on the Tidal Stirring of Disky Dwarfs: Enhanced Transformation into Dwarf Spheroidals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazantzidis, Stelios; Mayer, Lucio; Callegari, Simone; Dotti, Massimo; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2017-01-01

    A conclusive model for the formation of dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies still remains elusive. Owing to their proximity to the massive spirals Milky Way (MW) and M31, various environmental processes have been invoked to explain their origin. In this context, the tidal stirring model postulates that interactions with MW-sized hosts can transform rotationally supported dwarfs, resembling present-day dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies, into systems with the kinematic and structural properties of dSphs. Using N -body+SPH simulations, we investigate the dependence of this transformation mechanism on the gas fraction, f _g_a_s, in the disk of the progenitor dwarf. Our numerical experiments incorporate for the first time the combined effects of radiative cooling, ram-pressure stripping, star formation, supernova (SN) winds, and a cosmic UV background. For a given orbit inside the primary galaxy, rotationally supported dwarfs with gas fractions akin to those of observed dIrrs ( f _g_a_s ≳ 0.5), demonstrate a substantially enhanced likelihood and efficiency of transformation into dSphs relative to their collisionless ( f _g_a_s = 0) counterparts. We argue that the combination of ram-pressure stripping and SN winds causes the gas-rich dwarfs to respond more impulsively to tides, augmenting their transformation. When f _g_a_s ≳ 0.5, disky dwarfs on previously unfavorable low-eccentricity or large-pericenter orbits are still able to transform. On the widest orbits, the transformation is incomplete; the dwarfs retain significant rotational support, a relatively flat shape, and some gas, naturally resembling transition-type systems. We conclude that tidal stirring constitutes a prevalent evolutionary mechanism for shaping the structure of dwarf galaxies within the currently favored CDM cosmological paradigm.

  8. Assimilation of microwave brightness temperatures for soil moisture estimation using particle filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, H Y; Ma, J W; Qin, S X; Zeng, J Y

    2014-01-01

    Soil moisture plays a significant role in global water cycles. Both model simulations and remote sensing observations have their limitations when estimating soil moisture on a large spatial scale. Data assimilation (DA) is a promising tool which can combine model dynamics and remote sensing observations to obtain more precise ground soil moisture distribution. Among various DA methods, the particle filter (PF) can be applied to non-linear and non-Gaussian systems, thus holding great potential for DA. In this study, a data assimilation scheme based on the residual resampling particle filter (RR-PF) was developed to assimilate microwave brightness temperatures into the macro-scale semi-distributed Variance Infiltration Capacity (VIC) Model to estimate surface soil moisture. A radiative transfer model (RTM) was used to link brightness temperatures with surface soil moisture. Finally, the data assimilation scheme was validated by experimental data obtained at Arizona during the Soil Moisture Experiment 2004 (SMEX04). The results show that the estimation accuracy of soil moisture can be improved significantly by RR-PF through assimilating microwave brightness temperatures into VIC model. Both the overall trends and specific values of the assimilation results are more consistent with ground observations compared with model simulation results

  9. THE WHITE DWARF AGE OF NGC 2477

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffery, Elizabeth J.; Von Hippel, Ted; DeGennaro, Steven; Jefferys, William H.; Van Dyk, David A.; Stein, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    We present deep photometric observations of the open cluster NGC 2477 using HST/WFPC2. By identifying seven cluster white dwarf candidates, we present an analysis of the white dwarf age of this cluster, using both the traditional method of fitting isochrones to the white dwarf cooling sequence, and by employing a new Bayesian statistical technique that has been developed by our group. This new method performs an objective, simultaneous model fit of the cluster and stellar parameters (namely, age, metallicity, distance, reddening, as well as individual stellar masses, mass ratios, and cluster membership) to the photometry. Based on this analysis, we measure a white dwarf age of 1.035 ± 0.054 ± 0.087 Gyr (uncertainties represent the goodness of model fits and discrepancy among models, respectively) in good agreement with the cluster's main-sequence turnoff age. This work is part of our ongoing work to calibrate main-sequence turnoff and white dwarf ages using open clusters, and to improve the precision of cluster ages to the ∼5% level.

  10. Photometric behavior of spectral parameters in Vesta dark and bright regions as inferred by the Dawn VIR spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardo, Andrea; Palomba, Ernesto; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Tosi, Federico; Ammannito, Eleonora; Schröder, Stefan E.; Zambon, Francesca; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2014-09-01

    NASA’s Dawn spacecraft orbited Vesta for approximately one year, collecting thousands of hyperspectral images of its surface. The mission revealed that Vesta’s surface shows the largest variations in surface albedo on asteroids visited thus far, due to the presence of dark and bright materials at the local scale (i.e. 0.1-10 km). The aim of this work is to characterize the photometric properties of bright and dark regions, and thus derive and apply an empirical photometric correction to all the hyperspectral observations of Vesta. The very large dataset (i.e. more than 20 million spectra) provided by the VIR imaging spectrometer onboard Dawn enabled accurate statistical analysis of the spectral dataset, aimed at retrieving empirical relations between several spectral parameters (i.e. visible and infrared reflectance, band depths, band centers, Band Area Ratio) and the illumination/viewing angles. The derived relations made it possible to derive photometrically corrected maps of these spectral parameters and to infer information on the regolith shadowing effect in the Vestan dark and bright regions. As an additional analysis, we also evaluated the correlation between surface temperature and band center position. A general conclusion of this analysis is that, from a photometric point of view, the distinction between bright and dark material units lies mainly in the larger contribution due to multiple scattering in the bright units. We observed reflectance and band depth variations over Vesta’s entire surface, but these variations were much larger in the dark regions than in the bright ones. Band centers have been found to shift to longer wavelengths at increasing temperatures, with a trend that is the same observed for HED meteorites (Reddy et al. [2012]. Icarus 217, 153-158). Finally, the Band Area Ratio (i.e. the ratio between areas of the main pyroxene absorption bands located at 1.9 μm and at 0.9 μm, respectively) did not show any dependence on

  11. Branes constrictions with White Dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Aspeitia, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    We consider here a robust study of stellar dynamics for white dwarf stars with polytropic matter in the weak-field approximation using the Lane–Emden equation from the brane-world scenario. We also derive an analytical solution to the nonlocal energy density and show the behavior and sensitivity of these stars to the presence of extra dimensions. Similarly, we analyze stability and compactness, in order to show whether it is possible to agree with the conventional wisdom of white dwarfs dynamics. Our results predict an average value of the brane tension of <λ>≳84.818 MeV 4 , with a standard deviation σ≃82.021 MeV 4 , which comes from a sample of dwarf stars, being weaker than other astrophysical observations but remaining higher than cosmological results provided by n