WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface area burned

  1. Hand burns surface area: A rule of thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargan, Dallan; Mandal, Anirban; Shokrollahi, Kayvan

    2018-03-11

    Rapid estimation of acute hand burns is important for communication, standardisation of assessment, rehabilitation and research. Use of an individual's own thumbprint area as a fraction of their total hand surface area was evaluated to assess potential utility in hand burn evaluation. Ten health professionals used an ink-covered dominant thumb pulp to cover the surfaces of their own non-dominant hand using the contralateral thumb. Thumbprints were assessed on the web spaces, sides of digits and dorsum and palm beyond the distal wrist crease. Hand surface area was estimated using the Banerjee and Sen method, and thumbprint ellipse area calculated to assess correlation. Mean estimated total hand surface area was 390.0cm 2 ±SD 51.5 (328.3-469.0), mean thumbprint ellipse area was 5.5cm 2 ±SD 1.3 (3.7-8.4), and mean estimated print number was 73.5±SD 11.0 (range 53.1-87.8, 95% CI 6.8). The mean observed number of thumbprints on one hand was 80.1±SD 5.9 (range 70.0-88.0, 95% CI 3.7), χ 2 =0.009. The combined mean of digital prints was 42, comprising a mean of two prints each on volar, dorsal, radial and ulnar digit surfaces, except volar middle and ring (3 prints each). Palmar prints were 15 (11-19), dorsal 15 (11-19), ulnar palm border 3, first web space 2, and second, third and fourth web spaces one each. Using the surface of the palm alone, excluding digits, as 0.5% of total body surface area, the area of one thumbprint was approximated as 1/30th of 1%. We have demonstrated how thumbprint area serves as a simple method for evaluating hand burn surface area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiative surface temperatures of the burned and unburned areas in a tallgrass prairie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asrar, G.; Harris, T.R.; Lapitan, R.L.; Cooper, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    This study was conducted in a natural tallgrass prairie area in the Flint Hills of Kansas. Our objective was to evaluate the surface radiative temperatures of burned and unburned treatments of the grassland as a means of delineating the areas covered by each treatment. Burning is used to remove the senescent vegetation resulting from the previous year's growth. Surface temperatures were obtained in situ and by an airborne scanner. Burned and unburned grass canopies had distinctly different diurnal surface radiative temperatures. Measurements of surface energy balance components revealed a difference in partitioning of the available energy between the two canopies, which resulted in the difference in their measured surface temperatures. The magnitude of this difference is dependent on the time of measurements and topographic conditions. (author)

  3. Total body surface area overestimation at referring institutions in children transferred to a burn center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swords, Douglas S; Hadley, Edmund D; Swett, Katrina R; Pranikoff, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Total body surface area (TBSA) burned is a powerful descriptor of burn severity and influences the volume of resuscitation required in burn patients. The incidence and severity of TBSA overestimation by referring institutions (RIs) in children transferred to a burn center (BC) are unclear. The association between TBSA overestimation and overresuscitation is unknown as is that between TBSA overestimation and outcome. The trauma registry at a BC was queried over 7.25 years for children presenting with burns. TBSA estimate at RIs and BC, total fluid volume given before arrival at a BC, demographic variables, and clinical variables were reviewed. Nearly 20 per cent of children arrived from RIs without TBSA estimation. Nearly 50 per cent were overestimated by 5 per cent or greater TBSA and burn sizes were overestimated by up to 44 per cent TBSA. Average TBSA measured at BC was 9.5 ± 8.3 per cent compared with 15.5 ± 11.8 per cent as measured at RIs (P < 0.0001). Burns between 10 and 19.9 per cent TBSA were overestimated most often and by the greatest amounts. There was a statistically significant relationship between overestimation of TBSA by 5 per cent or greater and overresuscitation by 10 mL/kg or greater (P = 0.02). No patient demographic or clinical factors were associated with TBSA overestimation. Education efforts aimed at emergency department physicians regarding the importance of always calculating TBSA as well as the mechanics of TBSA estimation and calculating resuscitation volume are needed. Further studies should evaluate the association of TBSA overestimation by RIs with adverse outcomes and complications in the burned child.

  4. Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  5. Total surface area change of Uranium dioxide fuel in function of burn-up and its impact on fission gas release during neutron irradiation for small, intermediate and high burn-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szuta, M.

    2011-01-01

    In the early published papers it was observed that the fractional fission gas release from the specimen have a tendency to increase with the total surface area of the specimen - a fairy linear relationship was indicated. Moreover it was observed that the increase of total surface area during irradiation occurs in the result of connection the closed porosity with the open porosity what in turn causes the increase of fission gas release. These observations let us surmise that the process of knock-out release is the most significant process of fission gas release since its quantity is proportional to the total surface area. Review of the experiments related to the increase of total surface area in function of burn-up is presented in the paper. For very high burn-up the process of grain sub-division (polygonization) occurs under condition that the temperature of irradiated fuel lies below the temperature of grain re-crystallization. Simultaneously with the process of polygonization, the increase in local porosity and the decrease in local density in function of burn-up occurs, which leads to the increase of total surface area. It is suggested that the same processes take place in the transformed fuel as in the original fuel, with the difference that the total surface area is so big that the whole fuel can be treated as that affected by the knock-out process. This leads to explanation of the experimental data that for very high burn-up (>120 MWd/kgU) the concentration of xenon is constant. An explanation of the grain subdivision process in function of burn-up in the 'athermal' rim region in terms of total surface area, initial grain size and knock-out release is undertaken. Correlation of the threshold burn-up, the local fission gas concentration, local total surface area, initial and local grain size and burn-up in the rim region is expected. (author)

  6. Lack of Precision of Burn Surface Area Calculation by UK Armed Forces Medical Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    computer screen or tablet , and therefore the variability in perception and representation inherent in having a human assess and draw the burn remains...Potential solutions to this source of error include 3D MRI and TeraHertz scanning technologies [40], but at the time of writing, these are not yet

  7. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randerson, J.T; Chen, Y.; van der Werf, G.R.; Rogers, B.M.; Morton, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often

  8. Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch, Donovan S; Morgan, Penelope; Smith, Alistair M S; Kolden, Crystal A; Hudak, Andrew T

    2014-01-01

    The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily areas burned from which we calculated the proportions of each of three burn severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized burn ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. We found that the proportion of high burn severity was weakly correlated (Kendall τ = 0.299) with size of daily area burned (DAB). Burn severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and area burned in a day. (letters)

  9. Focused feasibility study for surface soil at the main pits and pushout area, J-field toxic burning pits area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, T.; Benioff, P.; Biang, C.; Butler, J. [and others

    1996-06-01

    The Environmental Management Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). J-Field is located within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning/open detonation. Portions of J-Field continue to be used for the detonation and disposal of unexploded ordnance (UXO) by open burning/open detonation under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  10. The Ocular Surface Chemical Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medi Eslani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular chemical burns are common and serious ocular emergencies that require immediate and intensive evaluation and care. The victims of such incidents are usually young, and therefore loss of vision and disfigurement could dramatically affect their lives. The clinical course can be divided into immediate, acute, early, and late reparative phases. The degree of limbal, corneal, and conjunctival involvement at the time of injury is critically associated with prognosis. The treatment starts with simple but vision saving steps and is continued with complicated surgical procedures later in the course of the disease. The goal of treatment is to restore the normal ocular surface anatomy and function. Limbal stem cell transplantation, amniotic membrane transplantation, and ultimately keratoprosthesis may be indicated depending on the patients’ needs.

  11. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechel Nevada

    2004-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration plan details the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (Tonopah Test Range). CAU 484 consists of sites located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. CAU 484 consists of the following six Corrective Action Sites: (1) CAS RG-52-007-TAML, Davis Gun Penetrator Test; (2) CAS TA-52-001-TANL, NEDS Detonation Area; (3) CAS TA-52-004-TAAL, Metal Particle Dispersion Test; (4) CAS TA-52-005-TAAL, Joint Test Assembly DU Sites; (5) CAS TA-52-006-TAPL, Depleted Uranium Site; and (6) CAS TA-54-001-TANL, Containment Tank and Steel Structure

  12. Burn Pre-Approval Area, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2000) [burn_preapproval_area_LOSCO_2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a region dataset delineating the areas of offshore Louisiana having Regional Response Team VI (RRT 6) pre-approval for the use of in-situ burning, according...

  13. Mapping burned areas using dense time-series of Landsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawbaker, Todd J.; Vanderhoof, Melanie; Beal, Yen-Ju G.; Takacs, Joshua; Schmidt, Gail L.; Falgout, Jeff T.; Williams, Brad; Brunner, Nicole M.; Caldwell, Megan K.; Picotte, Joshua J.; Howard, Stephen M.; Stitt, Susan; Dwyer, John L.

    2017-01-01

    Complete and accurate burned area data are needed to document patterns of fires, to quantify relationships between the patterns and drivers of fire occurrence, and to assess the impacts of fires on human and natural systems. Unfortunately, in many areas existing fire occurrence datasets are known to be incomplete. Consequently, the need to systematically collect burned area information has been recognized by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which have both called for the production of essential climate variables (ECVs), including information about burned area. In this paper, we present an algorithm that identifies burned areas in dense time-series of Landsat data to produce the Landsat Burned Area Essential Climate Variable (BAECV) products. The algorithm uses gradient boosted regression models to generate burn probability surfaces using band values and spectral indices from individual Landsat scenes, lagged reference conditions, and change metrics between the scene and reference predictors. Burn classifications are generated from the burn probability surfaces using pixel-level thresholding in combination with a region growing process. The algorithm can be applied anywhere Landsat and training data are available. For this study, BAECV products were generated for the conterminous United States from 1984 through 2015. These products consist of pixel-level burn probabilities for each Landsat scene, in addition to, annual composites including: the maximum burn probability and a burn classification. We compared the BAECV burn classification products to the existing Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED; 1997–2015) and Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS; 1984–2013) data. We found that the BAECV products mapped 36% more burned area than the GFED and 116% more burned area than MTBS. Differences between the BAECV products and the GFED were especially high in the West and East where the

  14. Production of Landsat ETM+ reference imagery of burned areas within Southern African savannahs: comparison of methods and application to MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. M. S. Smith; N. A. Drake; M. J. Wooster; A. T. Hudak; Z. A. Holden; C. J. Gibbons

    2007-01-01

    Accurate production of regional burned area maps are necessary to reduce uncertainty in emission estimates from African savannah fires. Numerous methods have been developed that map burned and unburned surfaces. These methods are typically applied to coarse spatial resolution (1 km) data to produce regional estimates of the area burned, while higher spatial resolution...

  15. Assessing variability and long-term trends in burned area by merging multiple satellite fire products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Giglio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Long term, high quality estimates of burned area are needed for improving both prognostic and diagnostic fire emissions models and for assessing feedbacks between fire and the climate system. We developed global, monthly burned area estimates aggregated to 0.5° spatial resolution for the time period July 1996 through mid-2009 using four satellite data sets. From 2001–2009, our primary data source was 500-m burned area maps produced using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS surface reflectance imagery; more than 90% of the global area burned during this time period was mapped in this fashion. During times when the 500-m MODIS data were not available, we used a combination of local regression and regional regression trees developed over periods when burned area and Terra MODIS active fire data were available to indirectly estimate burned area. Cross-calibration with fire observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR allowed the data set to be extended prior to the MODIS era. With our data set we estimated that the global annual area burned for the years 1997–2008 varied between 330 and 431 Mha, with the maximum occurring in 1998. We compared our data set to the recent GFED2, L3JRC, GLOBCARBON, and MODIS MCD45A1 global burned area products and found substantial differences in many regions. Lastly, we assessed the interannual variability and long-term trends in global burned area over the past 13 years. This burned area time series serves as the basis for the third version of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3 estimates of trace gas and aerosol emissions.

  16. Identifying individual fires from satellite-derived burned area data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archibald, S

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm for identifying individual fires from the Modis burned area data product is introduced for southern Africa. This algorithm gives the date of burning, size of fire, and location of the centroid for all fires identified over 8 years...

  17. Evaluation of who oral rehydration solution (ORS) and salt tablets in resuscitating adult patients with burns covering more than 15% of total body surface area (TBSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghazy, A M; Adly, O A; Elbadawy, M A; Hashem, R E

    2016-03-31

    Intra-venous (IV) burn resuscitation is effective; nevertheless it has its disadvantages. WHO Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) has shown high effectiveness in treating dehydration. WHO-ORS, with salt supplement, seems to be suitable for burn resuscitation, where IV resuscitation is not available, feasible or possible. The objective of the study was to evaluate acute phase efficacy and safety, as well as limitations and complications of burn resuscitation using WHO-ORS and salt tablets. This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in the Burn Unit, Suez Canal University Hospital, Ismailia, Egypt. The study group was given WHO-ORS (15% of body weight/day) with one salt tablet (5gm) per liter according to Sørensen's formula. The control group was given IV fluids according to the Parkland formula. Patients' vital signs and urine output were monitored for 72 hours after starting resuscitation. Both groups were comparable regarding age, sex, and percentage, etiology and degree of burns. For all assessed parameters, there were no major significant differences between the study group (10 cases) and control group (20 cases). Even where there was a significant difference, apart from blood pressure in the first hour of the first day, the study group never crossed safe limits for pulse, systolic blood pressure, urine output, respiratory rate and conscious level. WHO-ORS with 5gm salt tablets, given according to Sørenson's formula, is a safe and efficient alternative for IV resuscitation. It could even be a substitute, particularly in low resource settings and fire disasters.

  18. Global analysis of the persistence of the spectral signal associated with burned areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, A.; Boschetti, L.

    2015-12-01

    Systematic global burned area maps at coarse spatial resolution (350 m - 1 km) have been produced in the past two decades from several Earth Observation (EO) systems (including MODIS, Spot-VGT, AVHRR, MERIS), and have been extensively used in a variety of applications related to emissions estimation, fire ecology, and vegetation monitoring (Mouillot et al. 2014). There is however a strong need for moderate to high resolution (10-30 m) global burned area maps, in order to improve emission estimations, in particular on heterogeneous landscapes and for local scale air quality applications, for fire management and environmental restoration, and in support of carbon accounting (Hyer and Reid 2009; Mouillot et al. 2014; Randerson et al. 2012). Fires causes a non-permanent land cover change: the ash and charcoal left by the fire can be visible for a period ranging from a few weeks in savannas and grasslands ecosystems, to over a year in forest ecosystems (Roy et al. 2010). This poses a major challenge for designing a global burned area mapping system from moderate resolution (10-30 m) EO data, due to the low revisit time frequency of the satellites (Boschetti et al. 2015). As a consequence, a quantitative assessment of the permanence of the spectral signature of burned areas at global scale is a necessary step to assess the feasibility of global burned area mapping with moderate resolution sensors. This study presents a global analysis of the post-fire reflectance of burned areas, using the MODIS MCD45A1 global burned area product to identify the location and timing of burning, and the MO(Y)D09 global surface reflectance product to retrieve the time series of reflectance values after the fire. The result is a spatially explicit map of persistence of burned area signal, which is then summarized by landcover type, and by fire zone using the subcontinental regions defined by Giglio et al. (2006).

  19. Separability Analysis of Sentinel-2A Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI Data for Burned Area Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning is a global phenomenon and systematic burned area mapping is of increasing importance for science and applications. With high spatial resolution and novelty in band design, the recently launched Sentinel-2A satellite provides a new opportunity for moderate spatial resolution burned area mapping. This study examines the performance of the Sentinel-2A Multi Spectral Instrument (MSI bands and derived spectral indices to differentiate between unburned and burned areas. For this purpose, five pairs of pre-fire and post-fire top of atmosphere (TOA reflectance and atmospherically corrected (surface reflectance images were studied. The pixel values of locations that were unburned in the first image and burned in the second image, as well as the values of locations that were unburned in both images which served as a control, were compared and the discrimination of individual bands and spectral indices were evaluated using parametric (transformed divergence and non-parametric (decision tree approaches. Based on the results, the most suitable MSI bands to detect burned areas are the 20 m near-infrared, short wave infrared and red-edge bands, while the performance of the spectral indices varied with location. The atmospheric correction only significantly influenced the separability of the visible wavelength bands. The results provide insights that are useful for developing Sentinel-2 burned area mapping algorithms.

  20. [Etiological analysis of subambient temperature burn in 351 cases of Hefei area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jie; Qi, Weiwei; Xu, Qinglian; Zhou, Shunying; Wang, Guobao

    2010-06-01

    To study the preventive measure of the subambient temperature burn by analysing the pathogenesis feature. The clinical data were analysed from 351 cases of subambient temperature burn between February 2004 and February 2009, including age, sex, burn season, burn factors, burn position, burn area, burn degree, treatment way, and wound healing. Subambient temperature burn occurred in every age stage. The susceptible age stages included infant, children, and the elderly. Female patients were more than male patients. The common burn reasons were hot-water bottle burn, honey warm keeper burn, and heating device burn. The peak season was winter. Lower limb was the most common site of the subambient temperature burn. The deep II degree to III degree were the most common level, and the burn area was always small, often time safety awareness should be strengthened so as to decrease the incidence rate of subambient temperature burn and the injury degree.

  1. Satellite versus ground-based estimates of burned area: A comparison between MODIS based burned area and fire agency reports over North America in 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephane Mangeon; Robert Field; Michael Fromm; Charles McHugh; Apostolos Voulgarakis

    2015-01-01

    North American wildfire management teams routinely assess burned area on site during firefighting campaigns; meanwhile, satellite observations provide systematic and global burned-area data. Here we compare satellite and ground-based daily burned area for wildfire events for selected large fires across North America in 2007 on daily timescales. In a sample of 26 fires...

  2. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Revision 0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmeister, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 484 Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) activities called for the identification and remediation of surface hot spot depleted uranium (DU) with some excavation to determine the vertical extent of contamination (NNSA/NSO, 2004). During the CAU 484 SAFER investigation (conducted November 2003 through August 2007), approximately 50 locations containing DU were identified on Antelope Lake. All but four locations (CA-1, SA-5-9, SA-12-15, and SA-4) were remediated. Figure 1-1 shows locations of the four use restriction (UR) sites. The four locations were determined to have failed the SAFER conceptual site model assumption of a small volume hot spot. Two of the locations (CA-1 and SA-5-9) were excavated to depths of 3.5 to 7 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs), and a third location (SA-12-15) with a footprint of 30 by 60 ft was excavated to a depth of 0.5 ft. At the fourth site (SA-4), the discovery of unexploded ordnance (UXO) halted the excavation due to potential safety concerns. Remediation activities on Antelope Lake resulted in the removal of approximately 246 cubic yards (yd3) of DU-impacted soil from the four UR sites; however, Kiwi surveys confirmed that residual DU contamination remained at each of the four sites. (The Kiwi was a Remote Sensing Laboratory [RSL] vehicle equipped with a data-acquisition system and four sodium iodide gamma detectors. Surveys were conducted with the vehicle moving at a rate of approximately 10 miles per hour with the gamma detectors positioned 14 to 28 inches [in.] above the ground surface [NNSA/NSO, 2004]).

  3. Interim Status Closure Plan Open Burning Treatment Unit Technical Area 16-399 Burn Tray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-07

    This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close one of the interim status hazardous waste open burning treatment units at Technical Area (TA) 16 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Facility), hereinafter referred to as the 'TA-16-399 Burn Tray' or 'the unit'. The information provided in this closure plan addresses the closure requirements specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 265, Subparts G and P for the thermal treatment units operated at the Facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. Closure of the open burning treatment unit will be completed in accordance with Section 4.1 of this closure plan.

  4. Lethal Area 50 in Patients with Burn Injuries in North West, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mirza Aghazadeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In view of their considerably high rates of mortality and morbidity, burns are still viewed as one of the most important health-threatening environmental hazards imposing a significant burden on the health care system in low and middle-income countries. This study seeks to determine the lethal area fifty percent (LA50 in all burn patients admitted over a period of five years and the factors influencing mortality in burn injuries. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional carried out from 2010 to 2014 in Sina Hospital of Tabriz, 1226 participant including 319 women, 346 men, 272 girls, and 289 boys were selected through stratified sampling. The demographic and clinical data of patients ( their age, gender, burn type, TBSA, the season and consequences of burning were all extracted and then analyzed, using descriptive statistics (measures of central tendency and variability and inferential statistics(chi-square and linear regressionat a significance level of 0.05. The LA50 was calculated through determining the relationship between the total body surface area and mortality rate (The extent of the body burns measured and recorded based on Lando Chart in hospitals. Results: The highest (47.6% and the lowest (3.8% rates of burns were observed among those aged below 16 and above 65, respectively. The majority of the participants were residents of cities (55.4%, married (34.6%, illiterate (56.6%, and housewives (14.8%. Most burns were caused by accidents (98.4% at home (90.6%. Most patients had suffered first- and second-degree burns (68.4%, with no inhalation damages (99.5%. Hot liquids were the main culprit in most of the burns (58.7% and the upper extremities were the most frequently affected areas (34.8%. There was .99 rise in mortality for every percent increase in TBSA, and there seemed to be a significant relationship between the age level and the eventual outcome- the higher the age, the more likely for the incident to end in death

  5. Analysis and Assessment of the Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Burned Areas in the Amazon Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle da Silva Cardozo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of burned areas in Rondônia State, Brazil during the years 2000 to 2011 and evaluate the burned area maps. A Linear Spectral Mixture Model (LSMM was applied to MODIS surface reflectance images to originate the burned areas maps, which were validated with TM/Landsat 5 and ETM+/Landsat 7 images and field data acquired in August 2013. The validation presented a correlation ranging from 67% to 96% with an average value of 86%. The lower correlation values are related to the distinct spatial resolutions of the MODIS and TM/ETM+ sensors because small burn scars are not detected in MODIS images and higher spatial correlations are related to the presence of large fires, which are better identified in MODIS, increasing the accuracy of the mapping methodology. In addition, the 12-year burned area maps of Rondônia indicate that fires, as a general pattern, occur in areas that have already been converted to some land use, such as vegetal extraction, large animal livestock areas or diversified permanent crops. Furthermore, during the analyzed period, land use conversion associated with climatic events significantly influenced the occurrence of fire in Rondônia and amplified its impacts.

  6. Unsupervised Spatio-Temporal Data Mining Framework for Burned Area Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriah, Shyam (Inventor); Kumar, Vipin (Inventor); Mithal, Varun (Inventor); Khandelwal, Ankush (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method reduces processing time required to identify locations burned by fire by receiving a feature value for each pixel in an image, each pixel representing a sub-area of a location. Pixels are then grouped based on similarities of the feature values to form candidate burn events. For each candidate burn event, a probability that the candidate burn event is a true burn event is determined based on at least one further feature value for each pixel in the candidate burn event. Candidate burn events that have a probability below a threshold are removed from further consideration as burn events to produce a set of remaining candidate burn events.

  7. The management of small area burns and unexpected illness after burn in children under five years of age - A costing study in the English healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiyali, R; Sarginson, J H; Hollén, L I; Spickett-Jones, F; Young, A E R

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this economic study was to evaluate the resource use and cost associated with the management of small area burns, including the additional costs associated with unexpected illness after burn in children of less than five years of age. This study was conducted as a secondary analysis of a multi-centre prospective observational cohort study investigating the physiological response to burns in children. 452 children were included in the economic analysis (median age=1.60years, 61.3% boys, median total burn surface area [TBSA]=1.00%) with a mean length of stay of 0.69 days. Of these children, 21.5% re-presented to medical care with an unexpected illness within fourteen days of injury. The cost of managing a burn of less than 10% TBSA in a child less than five years of age was £785. The additional cost associated with the management of illness after burn was £1381. A generalised linear regression model was used to determine the association between an unexpected illness after burn, presenting child characteristics and NHS cost. Our findings may be of value to those planning economic evaluations of novel technologies in burn care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. Burn severity of areas reburned by wildfires in the Gila National Forest, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary A. Holden; Penelope Morgan; Andrew T. Hudak

    2010-01-01

    We describe satellite-inferred burn severity patterns of areas that were burned and then reburned by wildland fire from 1984 to 2004 within the Gila Aldo Leopold Wilderness Complex, New Mexico, USA. Thirteen fires have burned 27 000 hectares across multiple vegetation types at intervals between fires ranging from 3 yr to 14 yr. Burn severity of reburned areas showed...

  9. A system for 3D representation of burns and calculation of burnt skin area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, María Felicidad; Acha, Begoña; Gómez-Cía, Tomás; Fondón, Irene; Serrano, Carmen

    2011-11-01

    In this paper a computer-based system for burnt surface area estimation (BAI), is presented. First, a 3D model of a patient, adapted to age, weight, gender and constitution is created. On this 3D model, physicians represent both burns as well as burn depth allowing the burnt surface area to be automatically calculated by the system. Each patient models as well as photographs and burn area estimation can be stored. Therefore, these data can be included in the patient's clinical records for further review. Validation of this system was performed. In a first experiment, artificial known sized paper patches were attached to different parts of the body in 37 volunteers. A panel of 5 experts diagnosed the extent of the patches using the Rule of Nines. Besides, our system estimated the area of the "artificial burn". In order to validate the null hypothesis, Student's t-test was applied to collected data. In addition, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated and a value of 0.9918 was obtained, demonstrating that the reliability of the program in calculating the area is of 99%. In a second experiment, the burnt skin areas of 80 patients were calculated using BAI system and the Rule of Nines. A comparison between these two measuring methods was performed via t-Student test and ICC. The hypothesis of null difference between both measures is only true for deep dermal burns and the ICC is significantly different, indicating that the area estimation calculated by applying classical techniques can result in a wrong diagnose of the burnt surface. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of hydrogen addition on burning rate and surface density of turbulent lean premixed methane-air flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, H.; Tayebi, B.; Galizzi, C.; Escudie, D.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen (H 2 ) is a clean burning component, but relatively expensive. Mixing a small amount of hydrogen with other fuels is an effective way to use H 2 . H 2 enriched combustion significantly improves fuel efficiency and reduces pollutant (nitrogen oxide and particulate matter) emissions. This presentation discussed the effect of hydrogen addition on burning rate and surface density of turbulent lean premixed methane-air flames. The presentation discussed flame configuration; the experimental methodology using laser tomography; and results for typical images, burning velocity, ratio of turbulent to laminar burning velocities, flame surface density, curvature, flame brush thickness, and integrated flame surface area. It was concluded that the increase of turbulent burning velocity was faster than that of laminar burning velocity, which contradicted traditional theory. figs.

  11. A human-driven decline in global burned area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andela, N.

    2017-12-01

    Fire regimes are changing rapidly across the globe, driven by human land management and climate. We assessed long-term trends in fire activity using multiple satellite data sets and developed a new global data set on individual fire dynamics to understand the implications of changing fire regimes. Despite warming climate, burned area declined across most of the tropics, contributing to a global decline in burned area of 24.3 ± 8.8% over the past 18 years. The estimated decrease in burned area was largest in savannas and grasslands, where agricultural expansion and intensification were primary drivers of declining fire activity. In tropical forests, frequent fires for deforestation and agricultural management yield a sharp rise in fire activity with the expansion of settled land uses, but the use of fire decreases with increasing investment in agricultural areas in both savanna and forested landscapes. Disparate patterns of recent socieconomic development resulted in contrasting fire trends between southern Africa (increase) and South America (decrease). A strong inverse relationship between burned area and economic development in savannas and grasslands suggests that despite potential increasing fire risk from climate change, ongoing socioeconomic development will likely sustain observed declines in fire in these ecosystems during coming decades. Fewer and smaller fires reduced aerosol concentrations, modified vegetation structure, and increased the magnitude of the terrestrial carbon sink. The spatiotemporal distribution of fire size, duration, speed and direction of spread provided new insights in continental scale differences in fire regimes driven by human and climatic factors. Understanding these dynamics over larger scales is critical to achieve a balance between conservation of fire-dependent ecosystems and increasing agricultural production to support growing populations that will require careful management of fire activity in human-dominated landscapes.

  12. A human-driven decline in global burned area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andela, N; Morton, D C; Giglio, L; Chen, Y; van der Werf, G R; Kasibhatla, P S; DeFries, R S; Collatz, G J; Hantson, S; Kloster, S; Bachelet, D; Forrest, M; Lasslop, G; Li, F; Mangeon, S; Melton, J R; Yue, C; Randerson, J T

    2017-06-30

    Fire is an essential Earth system process that alters ecosystem and atmospheric composition. Here we assessed long-term fire trends using multiple satellite data sets. We found that global burned area declined by 24.3 ± 8.8% over the past 18 years. The estimated decrease in burned area remained robust after adjusting for precipitation variability and was largest in savannas. Agricultural expansion and intensification were primary drivers of declining fire activity. Fewer and smaller fires reduced aerosol concentrations, modified vegetation structure, and increased the magnitude of the terrestrial carbon sink. Fire models were unable to reproduce the pattern and magnitude of observed declines, suggesting that they may overestimate fire emissions in future projections. Using economic and demographic variables, we developed a conceptual model for predicting fire in human-dominated landscapes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  13. Prescribed burning and mastication effects on surface fuels in southern pine beetle-killed loblolly pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron D. Stottlemyer; Thomas A. Waldrop; G. Geoff Wang

    2015-01-01

    Surface fuels were characterized in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations severely impacted by southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Ehrh.) (SPB) outbreaks in the upper South Carolina Piedmont. Prescribed burning and mastication were then tested as fuel reduction treatments in these areas. Prescribed burning reduced...

  14. How is the chlorophyll count affected by burned and unburned marsh areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, C.

    2017-12-01

    Does marsh burnings, either man made or natural, hinder or help Louisiana's vitally important coastal plant life? Does the carbon produced from the fires have a negative effect on the chlorophyll count of these precious living protective barriers? Or does it help contribute to raising the plants chlorophyll count? Along Louisiana's Gulf Coast, marsh burnings are conducted every 2-4 years to destroy some of the Spartina patens. Fires and smoke may have an effect on the chlorophyll count of the plants found in Louisiana's marshes. Peat burns, root burns, and cover burns are the three types of marsh fires. These burns can be either man made or started by natural causes. Peat burns occur when the soil is dry due to a drained marsh. Root burns occur when plant roots are burned without the soil being consumed. Cover burns occur when several centimeters of water covers the soil. Cover burns are often used by Wildlife and Fisheries personnel to promote preferred plant food growth like Scirpus olneyi rather than the dominant Spartina patens. Our project was conducted by testing marsh plants and obtaining chlorophyll count of both a burned (cover burn) and an unburned area. Approximately one year after the burn, in August 2015, we tested the burned area's site. We retested the same site in December 2016. The results from our testing showed that there was a slightly higher chlorophyll count in the burned area. The chlorophyll count average from the two testing days was 33.5 in the burned area and 30.15 in the unburned area. Our hypothesis was that the chlorophyll content of "controlled" burned wetland areas will have a higher amount than the "no" burn area. The experiment results supported this hypothesis by showing an increase of 3.35 average in the burned area.

  15. Cell formation effects on the burning speeds and flame front area of synthetic gas at high pressures and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askari, Omid; Elia, Mimmo; Ferrari, Matthew; Metghalchi, Hameed

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of cell formation on burning speed and flame surface area is investigated. • A new developed non-dimensional number called cellularity factor is introduced. • Cellular burning speed and mass burning rate are calculated using differential based multi-shell model. • Flame instability is studied using thermo-diffusive and hydrodynamics effects. • Power law correlations are developed for cellular burning speeds and mass burning rates. - Abstract: Cellular burning speeds and mass burning rates of premixed syngas/oxidizer/diluent (H_2/CO/O_2/He) have been determined at high pressures and temperatures over a wide range of equivalence ratios which are at engine-relevant conditions. Working on high pressure combustion helps to reduce the pollution and increase the energy efficiency in combustion devices. The experimental facilities consisted of two spherical and cylindrical chambers. The spherical chamber, which can withstand high pressures up to 400 atm, was used to collect pressure rise data due to combustion, to calculate cellular burning speed and mass burning rate. For flame structure and instability analysis the cylindrical chamber was used to take pictures of propagating flame using a high speed CMOS camera and a schlieren photography system. A new differential based multi-shell model based on pressure rise data was used to determine the cellular burning speed and mass burning rate. In this paper, cellular burning speed and mass burning rate of H_2/CO/O_2/He mixture have been measured for a wide range of equivalence ratios from 0.6 to 2, temperatures from 400 to 750 K and pressures from 2 to 50 atm for three hydrogen concentrations of 5, 10 and 25% in the syngas. The power law correlations for cellular burning speed and mass burning rate were developed as a function of equivalence ratio, temperature and pressure. In this study a new developed parameter, called cellularity factor, which indicates the cell formation effect on flame

  16. Mapping burned areas and burn severity patterns across the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeropoulos, Christos; Amatulli, Giuseppe; Kempeneers, Pieter; Sedano, Fernando; San Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Camia, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The Mediterranean region is highly susceptible to wildfires. On average, about 60,000 fires take place in this region every year, burning on average half a million hectares of forests and natural vegetation. Wildfires cause environmental degradation and affect the lives of thousands of people in the region. In order to minimize the consequences of these catastrophic events, fire managers and national authorities need to have in their disposal accurate and updated spatial information concerning the size of the burned area as well as the burn severity patterns. Mapping burned areas and burn severity patterns is necessary to effectively support the decision-making process in what concerns strategic (long-term) planning with the definition of post-fire actions at European and national scales. Although a comprehensive archive of burnt areas exists at the European Forest Fire Information System, the analysis of the severity of the areas affected by forest fires in the region is not yet available. Fire severity is influenced by many variables, including fuel type, topography and meteorological conditions before and during the fire. The analysis of fire severity is essential to determine the socio-economic impact of forest fires, to assess fire impacts, and to determine the need of post-fire rehabilitation measures. Moreover, fire severity is linked to forest fire emissions and determines the rate of recovery of the vegetation after the fire. Satellite imagery can give important insights about the conditions of the live fuel moisture content and can be used to assess changes on vegetation structure and vitality after forest fires. Fire events occurred in Greece, Portugal and Spain during the fire season of 2009 were recorded and analyzed in a GIS environment. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) were calculated from 8-days composites MODIS/TERRA imagery from March to October 2009. In

  17. Evaluating the accuracy of a MODIS direct broadcast algorithm for mapping burned areas over Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, A.; Hao, W. M.; Nordgren, B.; Corley, R.; Urbanski, S. P.; Ponomarev, E. I.

    2012-12-01

    Emission inventories for open area biomass burning rely on burned area estimates as a key component. We have developed an automated algorithm based on MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite instrument data for estimating burned area from biomass fires. The algorithm is based on active fire detections, burn scars from MODIS calibrated radiances (MOD02HKM), and MODIS land cover classification (MOD12Q1). Our burned area product combines active fires and burn scar detections using spatio-temporal criteria, and has a resolution of 500 x 500 meters. The algorithm has been used for smoke emission estimates over the western United States. We will present the assessed accuracy of our algorithm in different regions of Russia with intense wildfire activity by comparing our results with the burned area product from the Sukachev Institute of Forest (SIF) of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Krasnoyarsk, Russia, as well as burn scars extracted from Landsat imagery. Landsat burned area extraction was based on threshold classification using the Jenks Natural Breaks algorithm to the histogram for each singe scene Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) image. The final evaluation consisted of a grid-based approach, where the burned area in each 3 km x 3 km grid cell was calculated and compared with the other two sources. A comparison between our burned area estimates and those from SIF showed strong correlation (R2=0.978), although our estimate is approximately 40% lower than the SIF burned areas. The linear fit between the burned area from Landsat scenes and our MODIS algorithm over 18,754 grid cells resulted with a slope of 0.998 and R2=0.7, indicating that our algorithm is suitable for mapping burned areas for fires in boreal forests and other ecosystems. The results of our burned area algorithm will be used for estimating emissions of trace gasses and aerosol particles (including black carbon) from biomass burning in Northern Eurasia for the period of 2002-2011.

  18. Dual Orlicz geominimal surface area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongyi Ma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The L p $L_{p}$ -geominimal surface area was introduced by Lutwak in 1996, which extended the important concept of the geominimal surface area. Recently, Wang and Qi defined the p-dual geominimal surface area, which belongs to the dual Brunn-Minkowski theory. In this paper, based on the concept of the dual Orlicz mixed volume, we extend the dual geominimal surface area to the Orlicz version and give its properties. In addition, the isoperimetric inequality, a Blaschke-Santaló type inequality, and the monotonicity inequality for the dual Orlicz geominimal surface areas are established.

  19. BAMS: A Tool for Supervised Burned Area Mapping Using Landsat Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor Bastarrika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new supervised burned area mapping software named BAMS (Burned Area Mapping Software is presented in this paper. The tool was built from standard ArcGISTM libraries. It computes several of the spectral indexes most commonly used in burned area detection and implements a two-phase supervised strategy to map areas burned between two Landsat multitemporal images. The only input required from the user is the visual delimitation of a few burned areas, from which burned perimeters are extracted. After the discrimination of burned patches, the user can visually assess the results, and iteratively select additional sampling burned areas to improve the extent of the burned patches. The final result of the BAMS program is a polygon vector layer containing three categories: (a burned perimeters, (b unburned areas, and (c non-observed areas. The latter refer to clouds or sensor observation errors. Outputs of the BAMS code meet the requirements of file formats and structure of standard validation protocols. This paper presents the tool’s structure and technical basis. The program has been tested in six areas located in the United States, for various ecosystems and land covers, and then compared against the National Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS Burned Area Boundaries Dataset.

  20. Connection of indicator of sodium burning in enclosed area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enenkl, V

    1975-01-15

    The connection is described of an indicator of sodium burning in a closed area. The air and combustion product mixture is sucked by a pump through a pipe from the steam generator. Following possible aftercooling it is passed to a hermetically sealed vessel with distilled water. Fitted in the vessel are electrodes wired to a galvanometer. The air-sodium combustion product mixture is directed to the bottom of the vessel and bubbles through the distilled water. Sodium oxide contained in the mixture dissolves in the water and forms an electrolytic solution. The voltage produced at the electrodes may be indicated by the galvanometer.

  1. Global estimation of CO emissions using three sets of satellite data for burned area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Atul K.

    Using three sets of satellite data for burned areas together with the tree cover imagery and a biogeochemical component of the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM) the global emissions of CO and associated uncertainties are estimated for the year 2000. The available fuel load (AFL) is calculated using the ISAM biogeochemical model, which accounts for the aboveground and surface fuel removed by land clearing for croplands and pasturelands, as well as the influence on fuel load of various ecosystem processes (such as stomatal conductance, evapotranspiration, plant photosynthesis and respiration, litter production, and soil organic carbon decomposition) and important feedback mechanisms (such as climate and fertilization feedback mechanism). The ISAM estimated global total AFL in the year 2000 was about 687 Pg AFL. All forest ecosystems account for about 90% of the global total AFL. The estimated global CO emissions based on three global burned area satellite data sets (GLOBSCAR, GBA, and Global Fire Emissions Database version 2 (GFEDv2)) for the year 2000 ranges between 320 and 390 Tg CO. Emissions from open fires are highest in tropical Africa, primarily due to forest cutting and burning. The estimated overall uncertainty in global CO emission is about ±65%, with the highest uncertainty occurring in North Africa and Middle East region (±99%). The results of this study suggest that the uncertainties in the calculated emissions stem primarily from the area burned data.

  2. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    A burn is damage to your body's tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight, or radiation. Scalds from hot ... and gases are the most common causes of burns. Another kind is an inhalation injury, caused by ...

  3. Burned Area Detection and Burn Severity Assessment of a Heathland Fire in Belgium Using Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy (APEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennert Schepers

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled, large fires are a major threat to the biodiversity of protected heath landscapes. The severity of the fire is an important factor influencing vegetation recovery. We used airborne imaging spectroscopy data from the Airborne Prism Experiment (APEX sensor to: (1 investigate which spectral regions and spectral indices perform best in discriminating burned from unburned areas; and (2 assess the burn severity of a recent fire in the Kalmthoutse Heide, a heathland area in Belgium. A separability index was used to estimate the effectiveness of individual bands and spectral indices to discriminate between burned and unburned land. For the burn severity analysis, a modified version of the Geometrically structured Composite Burn Index (GeoCBI was developed for the field data collection. The field data were collected in four different vegetation types: Calluna vulgaris-dominated heath (dry heath, Erica tetralix-dominated heath (wet heath, Molinia caerulea (grass-encroached heath, and coniferous woodland. Discrimination between burned and unburned areas differed among vegetation types. For the pooled dataset, bands in the near infrared (NIR spectral region demonstrated the highest discriminatory power, followed by short wave infrared (SWIR bands. Visible wavelengths performed considerably poorer. The Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR outperformed the other spectral indices and the individual spectral bands in discriminating between burned and unburned areas. For the burn severity assessment, all spectral bands and indices showed low correlations with the field data GeoCBI, when data of all pre-fire vegetation types were pooled (R2 maximum 0.41. Analysis per vegetation type, however, revealed considerably higher correlations (R2 up to 0.78. The Mid Infrared Burn Index (MIRBI had the highest correlations for Molinia and Erica (R2 = 0.78 and 0.42, respectively. In Calluna stands, the Char Soil Index (CSI achieved the highest correlations, with R2 = 0

  4. A multi-sensor burned area algorithm for crop residue burning in northwestern India: validation and sources of error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T.; Marlier, M. E.; Karambelas, A. N.; Jain, M.; DeFries, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    A leading source of outdoor emissions in northwestern India comes from crop residue burning after the annual monsoon (kharif) and winter (rabi) crop harvests. Agricultural burned area, from which agricultural fire emissions are often derived, can be poorly quantified due to the mismatch between moderate-resolution satellite sensors and the relatively small size and short burn period of the fires. Many previous studies use the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED), which is based on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) burned area product MCD64A1, as an outdoor fires emissions dataset. Correction factors with MODIS active fire detections have previously attempted to account for small fires. We present a new burned area classification algorithm that leverages more frequent MODIS observations (500 m x 500 m) with higher spatial resolution Landsat (30 m x 30 m) observations. Our approach is based on two-tailed Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) thresholds, abbreviated as ModL2T NBR, and results in an estimated 104 ± 55% higher burned area than GFEDv4.1s (version 4, MCD64A1 + small fires correction) in northwestern India during the 2003-2014 winter (October to November) burning seasons. Regional transport of winter fire emissions affect approximately 63 million people downwind. The general increase in burned area (+37% from 2003-2007 to 2008-2014) over the study period also correlates with increased mechanization (+58% in combine harvester usage from 2001-2002 to 2011-2012). Further, we find strong correlation between ModL2T NBR-derived burned area and results of an independent survey (r = 0.68) and previous studies (r = 0.92). Sources of error arise from small median landholding sizes (1-3 ha), heterogeneous spatial distribution of two dominant burning practices (partial and whole field), coarse spatio-temporal satellite resolution, cloud and haze cover, and limited Landsat scene availability. The burned area estimates of this study can be used to build

  5. Land surface temperature as potential indicator of burn severity in forest Mediterranean ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintano, C.; Fernández-Manso, A.; Calvo, L.; Marcos, E.; Valbuena, L.

    2015-04-01

    Forest fires are one of the most important causes of environmental alteration in Mediterranean countries. Discrimination of different degrees of burn severity is critical for improving management of fire-affected areas. This paper aims to evaluate the usefulness of land surface temperature (LST) as potential indicator of burn severity. We used a large convention-dominated wildfire, which occurred on 19-21 September, 2012 in Northwestern Spain. From this area, a 1-year series of six LST images were generated from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data using a single channel algorithm. Further, the Composite Burn Index (CBI) was measured in 111 field plots to identify the burn severity level (low, moderate, and high). Evaluation of the potential relationship between post-fire LST and ground measured CBI was performed by both correlation analysis and regression models. Correlation coefficients were higher in the immediate post-fire LST images, but decreased during the fall of 2012 and increased again with a second maximum value in summer, 2013. A linear regression model between post-fire LST and CBI allowed us to represent spatially predicted CBI (R-squaredadj > 85%). After performing an analysis of variance (ANOVA) between post-fire LST and CBI, a Fisher's least significant difference test determined that two burn severity levels (low-moderate and high) could be statistically distinguished. The identification of such burn severity levels is sufficient and useful to forest managers. We conclude that summer post-fire LST from moderate resolution satellite data may be considered as a valuable indicator of burn severity for large fires in Mediterranean forest ecosytems.

  6. Burned area detection based on Landsat time series in savannas of southern Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxiu; Heiskanen, Janne; Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Pellikka, Petri K. E.

    2018-02-01

    West African savannas are subject to regular fires, which have impacts on vegetation structure, biodiversity and carbon balance. An efficient and accurate mapping of burned area associated with seasonal fires can greatly benefit decision making in land management. Since coarse resolution burned area products cannot meet the accuracy needed for fire management and climate modelling at local scales, the medium resolution Landsat data is a promising alternative for local scale studies. In this study, we developed an algorithm for continuous monitoring of annual burned areas using Landsat time series. The algorithm is based on burned pixel detection using harmonic model fitting with Landsat time series and breakpoint identification in the time series data. This approach was tested in a savanna area in southern Burkina Faso using 281 images acquired between October 2000 and April 2016. An overall accuracy of 79.2% was obtained with balanced omission and commission errors. This represents a significant improvement in comparison with MODIS burned area product (67.6%), which had more omission errors than commission errors, indicating underestimation of the total burned area. By observing the spatial distribution of burned areas, we found that the Landsat based method misclassified cropland and cloud shadows as burned areas due to the similar spectral response, and MODIS burned area product omitted small and fragmented burned areas. The proposed algorithm is flexible and robust against decreased data availability caused by clouds and Landsat 7 missing lines, therefore having a high potential for being applied in other landscapes in future studies.

  7. Improving global fire carbon emissions estimates by combining moderate resolution burned area and active fire observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; Giglio, L.; Rogers, B. M.; van der Werf, G.

    2011-12-01

    In several important biomes, including croplands and tropical forests, many small fires exist that have sizes that are well below the detection limit for the current generation of burned area products derived from moderate resolution spectroradiometers. These fires likely have important effects on greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and regional air quality. Here we developed an approach for combining 1km thermal anomalies (active fires; MOD14A2) and 500m burned area observations (MCD64A1) to estimate the prevalence of these fires and their likely contribution to burned area and carbon emissions. We first estimated active fires within and outside of 500m burn scars in 0.5 degree grid cells during 2001-2010 for which MCD64A1 burned area observations were available. For these two sets of active fires we then examined mean fire radiative power (FRP) and changes in enhanced vegetation index (EVI) derived from 16-day intervals immediately before and after each active fire observation. To estimate the burned area associated with sub-500m fires, we first applied burned area to active fire ratios derived solely from within burned area perimeters to active fires outside of burn perimeters. In a second step, we further modified our sub-500m burned area estimates using EVI changes from active fires outside and within of burned areas (after subtracting EVI changes derived from control regions). We found that in northern and southern Africa savanna regions and in Central and South America dry forest regions, the number of active fires outside of MCD64A1 burned areas increased considerably towards the end of the fire season. EVI changes for active fires outside of burn perimeters were, on average, considerably smaller than EVI changes associated with active fires inside burn scars, providing evidence for burn scars that were substantially smaller than the 25 ha area of a single 500m pixel. FRP estimates also were lower for active fires outside of burn perimeters. In our

  8. The impact of antecedent fire area on burned area in southern California coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Owen F.; Bradstock, Ross A.; Keeley, Jon E.; Syphard, Alexandra D.

    2012-01-01

    Frequent wildfire disasters in southern California highlight the need for risk reduction strategies for the region, of which fuel reduction via prescribed burning is one option. However, there is no consensus about the effectiveness of prescribed fire in reducing the area of wildfire. Here, we use 29 years of historical fire mapping to quantify the relationship between annual wildfire area and antecedent fire area in predominantly shrub and grassland fuels in seven southern California counties, controlling for annual variation in weather patterns. This method has been used elsewhere to measure leverage: the reduction in wildfire area resulting from one unit of prescribed fire treatment. We found little evidence for a leverage effect (leverage = zero). Specifically our results showed no evidence that wildfire area was negatively influenced by previous fires, and only weak relationships with weather variables rainfall and Santa Ana wind occurrences, which were variables included to control for inter-annual variation. We conclude that this is because only 2% of the vegetation burns each year and so wildfires rarely encounter burned patches and chaparral shrublands can carry a fire within 1 or 2 years after previous fire. Prescribed burning is unlikely to have much influence on fire regimes in this area, though targeted treatment at the urban interface may be effective at providing defensible space for protecting assets. These results fit an emerging global model of fire leverage which position California at the bottom end of a continuum, with tropical savannas at the top (leverage = 1: direct replacement of wildfire by prescribed fire) and Australian eucalypt forests in the middle (leverage ∼ 0.25).

  9. Enhanced biogenic emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide following surface biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iris C.; Levine, Joel S.; Poth, Mark A.; Riggan, Philip J.

    1988-01-01

    Recent measurements indicate significantly enhanced biogenic soil emissions of both nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) following surface burning. These enhanced fluxes persisted for at least six months following the burn. Simultaneous measurements indicate enhanced levels of exchangeable ammonium in the soil following the burn. Biomass burning is known to be an instantaneous source of NO and N2O resulting from high-temperature combustion. Now it is found that biomass burning also results in significantly enhanced biogenic emissions of these gases, which persist for months following the burn.

  10. Joint simulation of regional areas burned in Canadian forest fires: A Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen Magnussen

    2009-01-01

    Areas burned annually in 29 Canadian forest fire regions show a patchy and irregular correlation structure that significantly influences the distribution of annual totals for Canada and for groups of regions. A binary Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) is constructed for the purpose of joint simulation of regional areas burned in forest fires. For each year the MCMC...

  11. Valoration of burned body surface; area in patients of San Vicente de Paúl University Hospital, Medellín, 2004 Evaluación de la superficie corporal quemada en pacientes del Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, Medellín, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Hoyos Franco

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The estimation of the burned surface area has a huge importance for the acute management and prognosis of the burn victim It has been revised the different methods available for the assessment of the burn extent and some resuscitation basic concepts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study was made based on the information took from medical records of patients from the burn unit of the San Vicente de Paul University Hospital in Medellín (Col during 2004. The initial diagnosis of the burn extension made by the remittent clinician was compared with the ones made by experience clinicians at the emergency room and by the plastic surgeon at the Burn Unit. The results obtained were processed with the package Statistic 6.0 (Stafsoft Inc and it was considered significant a p value < 0.05. The variables are presented as absolute values and with their respective percentages. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: There were 329 attended patients. 60% of them had mistaken or incomplete diagnosis, and 39.3% of the diagnosis made at our emergency room were incomplete or incorrect. We found more frequently overestimation than underestimation of the burn surface area. In most of the cases mistakes were made that modified the burn category (mild, moderate, and severe. It is necessary to improve basic knowledge about burn care in the inexperience clinicians. INTRODUCCIÓN: la evaluación de la superficie corporal quemada tiene gran importancia para el tratamiento inicial y el pronóstico del paciente quemado. Se revisan los diferentes métodos para evaluar la superficie corporal quemada y algunos conceptos básicos de reanimación. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y transversal a partir de las historias clínicas de los pacientes quemados hospitalizados en el Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl (HUSVP de Medellín durante el año 2004. Se compararon los diagnósticos de extensión quemada emitidos

  12. [Clinical effect of three dimensional human body scanning system BurnCalc in the evaluation of burn wound area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J; Wang, L; Zhang, Y C; Tang, H T; Xia, Z F

    2017-10-20

    Objective: To validate the clinical effect of three dimensional human body scanning system BurnCalc developed by our research team in the evaluation of burn wound area. Methods: A total of 48 burn patients treated in the outpatient department of our unit from January to June 2015, conforming to the study criteria, were enrolled in. For the first 12 patients, one wound on the limbs or torso was selected from each patient. The stability of the system was tested by 3 attending physicians using three dimensional human body scanning system BurnCalc to measure the area of wounds individually. For the following 36 patients, one wound was selected from each patient, including 12 wounds on limbs, front torso, and side torso, respectively. The area of wounds was measured by the same attending physician using transparency tracing method, National Institutes of Health (NIH) Image J method, and three dimensional human body scanning system BurnCalc, respectively. The time for getting information of 36 wounds by three methods was recorded by stopwatch. The stability among the testers was evaluated by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Data were processed with randomized blocks analysis of variance and Bonferroni test. Results: (1) Wound area of patients measured by three physicians using three dimensional human body scanning system BurnCalc was (122±95), (121±95), and (123±96) cm(2,) respectively, and there was no statistically significant difference among them ( F =1.55, P >0.05). The ICC among 3 physicians was 0.999. (2) The wound area of limbs of patients measured by transparency tracing method, NIH Image J method, and three dimensional human body scanning system BurnCalc was (84±50), (76±46), and (84±49) cm(2,) respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the wound area of limbs of patients measured by transparency tracing method and three dimensional human body scanning system BurnCalc ( P >0.05). The wound area of limbs of patients

  13. AN EXAMPLE IN SURFACE AREA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Casper

    1969-01-01

    For length and area, a central fact is that the value of the length of a curve or the area of a surface, as given by the Lebesgue theory, is at least as great as that given by the classical formula, whenever the latter has meaning. This is now found not to be valid in higher dimensions. We give an example of a continuous mapping of the unit cube into itself for which the value given by the formula exceeds the three-dimensional Lebesgue area of the corresponding suface. PMID:16591750

  14. Relative abundance of small mammals in nest core areas and burned wintering areas of Mexican spotted owls in the Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey; Sean C. Kyle; Todd A. Rawlinson; Darrell L. Apprill; James P Ward

    2014-01-01

    Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) are common in older forests within their range but also persist in many areas burned by wildfire and may selectively forage in these areas. One hypothesis explaining this pattern postulates that prey abundance increases in burned areas following wildfire. We observed movement to wintering areas within areas burned by...

  15. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 Burn Area is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). CAU 490 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and includes for Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) Fire Training Area (CAS 03-56-001-03BA); (2) Station 44 Burn Area (CAS RG-56-001-RGBA); (3) Sandia Service Yard (CAS 03-58-001-03FN); and (4) Gun Propellant Burn Area (CAS 09-54-001-09L2).

  16. Determination of retinal surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Manbir; Gilmartin, Bernard; Thai, Ngoc Jade; Logan, Nicola S

    2017-09-01

    Previous attempts at determining retinal surface area and surface area of the whole eye have been based upon mathematical calculations derived from retinal photographs, schematic eyes and retinal biopsies of donor eyes. 3-dimensional (3-D) ocular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows a more direct measurement, it can be used to image the eye in vivo, and there is no risk of tissue shrinkage. The primary purpose of this study is to compare, using T2-weighted 3D MRI, retinal surface areas for superior-temporal (ST), inferior-temporal (IT), superior-nasal (SN) and inferior-nasal (IN) retinal quadrants. An ancillary aim is to examine whether inter-quadrant variations in area are concordant with reported inter-quadrant patterns of susceptibility to retinal breaks associated with posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). Seventy-three adult participants presenting without retinal pathology (mean age 26.25 ± 6.06 years) were scanned using a Siemens 3-Tesla MRI scanner to provide T2-weighted MR images that demarcate fluid-filled internal structures for the whole eye and provide high-contrast delineation of the vitreous-retina interface. Integrated MRI software generated total internal ocular surface area (TSA). The second nodal point was used to demarcate the origin of the peripheral retina in order to calculate total retinal surface area (RSA) and quadrant retinal surface areas (QRSA) for ST, IT, SN, and IN quadrants. Mean spherical error (MSE) was -2.50 ± 4.03D and mean axial length (AL) 24.51 ± 1.57 mm. Mean TSA and RSA for the RE were 2058 ± 189 and 1363 ± 160 mm 2 , respectively. Repeated measures anova for QRSA data indicated a significant difference within-quadrants (P area/mm increase in AL. Although the differences between QRSAs are relatively small, there was evidence of concordance with reported inter-quadrant patterns of susceptibility to retinal breaks associated with PVD. The data allow AL to be converted to QRSAs, which will assist further

  17. Nitrogen and sulfur emissions from the burning of forest products near large urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean A. Hegg; Lawrence F. Radke; Peter V. Hobbs; Charles A. Brock; Phillip J. Riggan

    1987-01-01

    Airborne measuremens of trace gases and particles in the smoke from a prescribed burn of forest products in the Los Angeles basin show significantly higher emissions of NOx, SO2, and particulate NO3 than do measurements in smokes from the burning of biomass in rural areas. It is postulated that the...

  18. Evaluating the effectiveness of burned area emergency response (BAER) efforts after the 2003 wildfires, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter M. Wohlgemuth; Ken R. Hubbert; Jan L. Beyers; David R. Weise

    2007-01-01

    Wildfires burned approximately 300,000 hectares (750,000 acres) across southern California in the fall of 2003. Over 10 million dollars were spent on Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) treatments following these fires. To support the BAER efforts, we designed a comprehensive strategy with standardized protocols to evaluate the effectiveness of various erosion...

  19. Effect of burn area on invertebrate recolonization in grasslands in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our study examined the short-term response of grassland invertebrate communities to fire in the South African Drakensberg, in relation to distance from the edge of a burn. We aimed to establish which species survive fire and the dynamics of the post-fire recolonization process, and thereby contribute to establishing the ...

  20. Diagnosis of aged prescribed burning plumes impacting an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangil; Kim, Hyeon K; Yan, Bo; Cobb, Charles E; Hennigan, Chris; Nichols, Sara; Chamber, Michael; Edgerton, Eric S; Jansen, John J; Hu, Yongtao; Zheng, Mei; Weber, Rodney J; Russell, Armistead G

    2008-03-01

    An unanticipated wind shift led to the advection of plumes from two prescribed burning sites that impacted Atlanta, GA, producing a heavy smoke event late in the afternoon on February 28, 2007. Observed PM2.5 concentrations increased to over 140 microg/m3 and O3 concentrations up to 30 ppb in a couple of hours, despite the late hour in February when photochemistry is less vigorous. A detailed investigation of PM2.5 chemical composition and source apportionment analysis showed that the increase in PM2.5 mass was driven mainly by organic carbon (OC). However, both results from source apportionment and an observed nonlinear relationship between OC and PM2.5 potassium (K) indicate that the increased OC was not due solely to primary emissions. Most of the OC was water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and was dominated by hydrophobic compounds. The data are consistent with large enhancements in isoprenoid (isoprene and monoterpenes) and other volatile organic compounds emitted from prescribed burning that led to both significant O3 and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production. Formation of oligomers from oxidation products of isoprenoid compounds or condensation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with multiple functional groups emitted during prescribed burning appears to be a major component of the secondary organic contributor of the SOA. The results from this study imply that enhanced emissions due to the fire itself and elevated temperature in the burning region should be considered in air quality models (e.g., receptor and emission-based models) to assess impacts of prescribed burning emissions on ambient air quality.

  1. SAFARI 2000 1-Degree Estimates of Burned Biomass, Area, and Emissions, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new method is used to generate spatial estimates of monthly averaged biomass burned area and spatial and temporal estimates of trace gas and aerosol emissions from...

  2. 3D photography is a reliable burn wound area assessment tool compared to digital planimetry in very young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee Kee, E L; Kimble, R M; Stockton, K A

    2015-09-01

    Reliability and validity of 3D photography (3D LifeViz™ System) compared to digital planimetry (Visitrak™) has been established in a compliant cohort of children with acute burns. Further research is required to investigate these assessment tools in children representative of the general pediatric burns population, specifically children under the age of three years. To determine if 3D photography is a reliable wound assessment tool compared to Visitrak™ in children of all ages with acute burns ≤10% TBSA. Ninety-six children (median age 1 year 9 months) who presented to the Royal Children's Hospital Brisbane with an acute burn ≤10% TBSA were recruited into the study. Wounds were measured at the first dressing change using the Visitrak™ system and 3D photography. All measurements were completed by one investigator and level of agreement between wound surface area measurements was calculated. Wound surface area measurements were complete (i.e. participants had measurements from both techniques) for 75 participants. Level of agreement between wound surface area measurements calculated using an intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was excellent (ICC 0.96, 95% CI 0.93, 0.97). Visitrak™ tracings could not be completed in 19 participants with 16 aged less than two years. 3D photography could not be completed for one participant. Barriers to completing tracings were: excessive movement, pain, young age or wound location (e.g. face or perineum). This study has confirmed 3D photography as a reliable alternative to digital planimetry in children of all ages with acute burns ≤10% TBSA. In addition, 3D photography is more suitable for very young children given its non-invasive nature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. Lp-dual affine surface area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wang; Binwu, He

    2008-12-01

    According to the notion of Lp-affine surface area by Lutwak, in this paper, we introduce the concept of Lp-dual affine surface area. Further, we establish the affine isoperimetric inequality and the Blaschke-Santaló inequality for Lp-dual affine surface area. Besides, the dual Brunn-Minkowski inequality for Lp-dual affine surface area is presented.

  4. Characterization of Emissions and Residues from Simulations of the Deepwater Horizon Surface Oil Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface oil burns conducted by the U.S. Coast Guard from April to July 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico were simulated by small scale burns to characterize the pollutants, determine emission factors, and gather particulate matter for subsequent...

  5. Impact of prescribed burning on soils in urban interface areas in Granada (south-eastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Montoya Sánchez-Camacho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We report here on the effects of preventive burning on soils in peri-urban areas in Granada (Spain. The sampling area, located close to the Sacromonte Abbey on the outskirts of the city of Granada,used to be an agricultural plot devoted to olive trees and cereals but is now abandoned to scrub and the odd tree.The soils in question were entisols. Controlled burning was conductedfor six hours over an area of 13,300 m2and samples were taken at three different times: before burning, four days afterwards and a year afterwards. The parameters measured were: pH, organic matter, carbonates, soil moisture and nitrogen. The results reveal that whilst organic matter and nitrogen contents increased, pH, carbonates and soil moisture decreased after burning.

  6. Using Logistic Regression To Predict the Probability of Debris Flows Occurring in Areas Recently Burned By Wildland Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.

    2003-01-01

    Logistic regression was used to predict the probability of debris flows occurring in areas recently burned by wildland fires. Multiple logistic regression is conceptually similar to multiple linear regression because statistical relations between one dependent variable and several independent variables are evaluated. In logistic regression, however, the dependent variable is transformed to a binary variable (debris flow did or did not occur), and the actual probability of the debris flow occurring is statistically modeled. Data from 399 basins located within 15 wildland fires that burned during 2000-2002 in Colorado, Idaho, Montana, and New Mexico were evaluated. More than 35 independent variables describing the burn severity, geology, land surface gradient, rainfall, and soil properties were evaluated. The models were developed as follows: (1) Basins that did and did not produce debris flows were delineated from National Elevation Data using a Geographic Information System (GIS). (2) Data describing the burn severity, geology, land surface gradient, rainfall, and soil properties were determined for each basin. These data were then downloaded to a statistics software package for analysis using logistic regression. (3) Relations between the occurrence/non-occurrence of debris flows and burn severity, geology, land surface gradient, rainfall, and soil properties were evaluated and several preliminary multivariate logistic regression models were constructed. All possible combinations of independent variables were evaluated to determine which combination produced the most effective model. The multivariate model that best predicted the occurrence of debris flows was selected. (4) The multivariate logistic regression model was entered into a GIS, and a map showing the probability of debris flows was constructed. The most effective model incorporates the percentage of each basin with slope greater than 30 percent, percentage of land burned at medium and high burn severity

  7. Southern Africa Fire Network (SAFNet) regional burned-area product-validation protocol

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roy, DP

    2005-10-10

    Full Text Available on the spatial extent and timing of burning, as clouds may preclude hotspot detection and because the satellite may not overpass when burning occurs (Justice et al. 2002). Algorithms that use multi-temporal satellite data to map the areas affected by the passage... independent reference data from aircraft observations of prescribed fires and wildfires (Kaufman et al. 1998). However, aircraft campaigns are expensive to undertake in a regionally representative manner and are difficult to coordinate with cloud...

  8. Large-area burns with pandrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Fang-Gang; Zhao, Xiao-Zhuo; Bian, Jing; Zhang, Guo-An

    2011-02-01

    Infection due to pandrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PDRPA) has become a challenge in clinical practice. The aim of this research was to summarize the treatment of large-area burns (60% - 80%) with PDRPA infection and respiratory failure in our hospital over the last two years, and to explore a feasible treatment protocol for such patients. We retrospectively analyzed the treatment of five patients with large-area burns accompanied by PDRPA infection and respiratory failure transferred to our hospital from burn units in hospitals in other Chinese cities from January 2008 to February 2010. Before PDRPA infection occurred, all five patients had open wounds with large areas of granulation because of the failure of surgery and dissolving of scar tissue; they had also undergone long-term administration of carbapenems. This therapy included ventilatory support, rigorous repair of wounds, and combined antibiotic therapy targeted at drug-resistance mechanisms, including carbapenems, ciprofloxacin, macrolide antibiotics and β-lactamase inhibitors. Four patients recovered from burns and one died after therapy. First, compromised immunity caused by delayed healing of burn wounds in patients with large-area burns and long-term administration of carbapenems may be the important factors in the initiation and progression of PDRPA infection. Second, if targeted at drug-resistance mechanisms, combined antibiotic therapy using carbapenems, ciprofloxacin, macrolide antibiotics and β-lactamase inhibitors could effectively control PDRPA infection. Third, although patients with large-area burns suffered respiratory failure and had high risks from anesthesia and surgery, only aggressive skin grafting with ventilatory support could control the infection and save lives. Patients may not be able to tolerate a long surgical procedure, so the duration of surgery should be minimized, and the frequency of surgery increased.

  9. Temporal resolution requirements of satellite constellations for 30 m global burned area mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, A.; Boschetti, L.

    2017-12-01

    Global burned area maps have been generated systematically with daily, coarse resolution satellite data (Giglio et al. 2013). The production of moderate resolution (10 - 30 m) global burned area products would meet the needs of several user communities: improved carbon emission estimations due to heterogeneous landscapes and for local scale air quality and fire management applications (Mouillot et al. 2014; van der Werf et al. 2010). While the increased spatial resolution reduces the influence of mixed burnt/unburnt pixels and it would increase the spectral separation of burned areas, moderate resolution satellites have reduced temporal resolution (10 - 16 days). Fire causes a land-cover change spectrally visible for a period ranging from a few weeks in savannas to over a year in forested ecosystems (Roy et al. 2010); because clouds, smoke, and other optically thick aerosols limit the number of available observations (Roy et al. 2008; Smith and Wooster 2005), burned areas might disappear before they are observed by moderate resolution sensors. Data fusion from a constellation of different sensors has been proposed to overcome these limits (Boschetti et al. 2015; Roy 2015). In this study, we estimated the probability of moderate resolution satellites and virtual constellations (including Landsat-8/9, Sentinel-2A/B) to provide sufficient observations for burned area mapping globally, and by ecosystem. First, we estimated the duration of the persistence of the signal associated with burned areas by combining the MODIS Global Burned Area and the Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Reflectance Product by characterizing the post-fire trends in reflectance to determine the length of the period in which the burn class is spectrally distinct from the unburned and, therefore, detectable. The MODIS-Terra daily cloud data were then used to estimate the probability of cloud cover. The cloud probability was used at each location to estimate the minimum revisit time needed to obtain at least one

  10. Serum albumin levels in burn people are associated to the total body surface burned and the length of hospital stay but not to the initiation of the oral/enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; de Haro-Padilla, Jesús M; Rioja, Luis F; Derosier, Leo C; de la Torre, Jorge I

    2013-01-01

    Serum albumin levels have been used to evaluate the severity of the burns and the nutrition protein status in burn people, specifically in the response of the burn patient to the nutrition. Although it hasn't been proven if all these associations are fully funded. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the relationship of serum albumin levels at 3-7 days after the burn injury, with the total body surface area burned (TBSA), the length of hospital stay (LHS) and the initiation of the oral/enteral nutrition (IOEN). It was carried out with the health records of patients that accomplished the inclusion criteria and were admitted to the burn units at the University Hospital of Reina Sofia (Córdoba, Spain) and UAB Hospital at Birmingham (Alabama, USA) over a 10 years period, between January 2000 and December 2009. We studied the statistical association of serum albumin levels with the TBSA, LHS and IOEN by ANOVA one way test. The confidence interval chosen for statistical differences was 95%. Duncan's test was used to determine the number of statistically significantly groups. Were expressed as mean±standard deviation. We found serum albumin levels association with TBSA and LHS, with greater to lesser serum albumin levels found associated to lesser to greater TBSA and LHS. We didn't find statistical association with IOEN. We conclude that serum albumin levels aren't a nutritional marker in burn people although they could be used as a simple clinical tool to identify the severity of the burn wounds represented by the total body surface area burned and the lenght of hospital stay.

  11. [Treatment of burn surfaces by proteinases: mathematical description of an enzyme distribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, A S; Domogatskiĭ, S P; Blizniukov, O P; Ruuge, E K

    2003-01-01

    The process of penetration of a proteolytic enzyme applied to the surface of burn wound into the depth of necrotic tissue was considered. The model approximation describes three factors by a series of mathematical equations: inward-directed enzyme diffusion, counter-flow filtration of interstitial fluid (exudates), and irreversible inactivation of the enzyme by specific inhibitors present in exudates. According to the model, a quasi-stationary distribution of enzymatic activity through the thickness of the necrotic layer is achieved within 3 h and persists as long as the enzyme concentration on the wound surface is constant. The enzyme activity diminishes linearly from the wound surface to the mid-part of the necrotic layer. No enzyme activity is retained in the inner mid-part of the necrotic layer completely protected by the prevalent inhibitor. The ratio of enzyme concentration on the wound surface to inhibitor concentration in the interstitial fluid is the same as the ratio of the depth of active enzyme area to the depth of the inhibitor-protected area through the necrotic layer. The dynamics of accumulation of the active enzyme in the necrotic zone and the rate of enzyme inactivation in the wound by inhibitors were described by formulas applicable for practical purposes.

  12. Simultaneous measurement of the surface temperature and the release of atomic sodium from a burning black liquor droplet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saw, Woei L.; Nathan, Graham J. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Ashman, Peter J.; Alwahabi, Zeyad T. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Hupa, Mikko [Process Chemistry Centre, Aabo Akademi, Biskopsgatan 8 FI-20500 Aabo (Finland)

    2010-04-15

    Simultaneous measurement of the concentration of released atomic sodium, swelling, surface and internal temperature of a burning black liquor droplet under a fuel lean and rich condition has been demonstrated. Two-dimensional two-colour optical pyrometry was employed to determine the distribution of surface temperature and swelling of a burning black liquor droplet while planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to assess the temporal release of atomic sodium. The key findings of these studies are: (i) the concentration of atomic sodium released during the drying and devolatilisation stages was found to be correlated with the external surface area; and (ii) the insignificant presence of atomic sodium during the char consumption stage shows that sodium release is suppressed by the lower temperature and by the high CO{sub 2} content in and around the particle. (author)

  13. Lp-mixed affine surface area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weidong; Leng, Gangsong

    2007-11-01

    According to the three notions of mixed affine surface area, Lp-affine surface area and Lp-mixed affine surface area proposed by Lutwak, in this article, we give the concept of ith Lp-mixed affine surface area such that the first and second notions of Lutwak are its special cases. Further, some Lutwak's results are extended associated with this concept. Besides, applying this concept, we establish an inequality for the volumes and dual quermassintegrals of a class of star bodies.

  14. A Method of Mapping Burned Area Using Chinese FengYun-3 MERSI Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, T.

    2017-12-01

    Wildfire is a naturally reoccurring global phenomenon which has environmental and ecological consequences such as effects on the global carbon budget, changes to the global carbon cycle and disruption to ecosystem succession. The information of burned area is significant for post disaster assessment, ecosystems protection and restoration. The Medium Resolution Spectral Imager (MERSI) onboard FENGYUN-3C (FY-3C) has shown good ability for fire detection and monitoring but lacks recognition among researchers. In this study, an automated burned area mapping algorithm was proposed based on FY-3C MERSI data. The algorithm is generally divided into two phases: 1) selection of training pixels based on 1000-m resolution MERSI data, which offers more spectral information through the use of more vegetation indices; and 2) classification: first the region growing method is applied to 1000-m MERSI data to calculate the core burned area and then the same classification method is applied to the 250-m MERSI data set by using the core burned area as a seed to obtain results at a finer spatial resolution. An evaluation of the performance of the algorithm was carried out at two study sites in America and Canada. The accuracy assessment and validation were made by comparing our results with reference results derived from Landsat OLI data. The result has a high kappa coefficient and the lower commission error, indicating that this algorithm can improve the burned area mapping accuracy at the two study sites. It may then be possible to use MERSI and other data to fill the gaps in the imaging of burned areas in the future.

  15. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third...... with infected burn wound compared with the burn wound only group. The burn mouse model resembles the clinical situation and provides an opportunity to examine or develop new strategies like new antibiotics and immune therapy, in handling burn wound victims much....

  16. Future climate and wildfire: ecosystem projections of area burned in the western US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, J. S.; Duffy, P.; Battisti, D. S.; McKenzie, D.; Peterson, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    The area burned by fire in ecosystems of the western United States has been closely linked to climate in the paleoecological record and in the modern record. Statistical models of area burned show that the climatic controls on area burned vary with vegetation type (Littell et al. 2009). In more arid or systems (grasslands, shrublands, woodlands), antecedent climatic controls on fire were associated first with the production of fuels and secondarily with drought in the year of fire. These relationships typically manifested as wetter and sometimes cooler conditions in the seasons prior to the fire season. Area burned in forest ecosystems and some woodlands was primarily associated with drought conditions, specifically increased temperature and decreased precipitation in the year of fire and the seasons leading up to the fire season. These climatic controls indicate the role of climate in drying existing fuels. Statistical fire models trained on the late 20th century for ecoprovinces in the West would be useful for projecting area burned, at least until vegetation type conversion driven by climate and disturbance occurs. To that end, we used ~ 2.5 degree gridded future climate fields derived for a multi-GCM ensemble of 1C and 2C temperature increase forcing to develop future ecoprovince monthly and seasonal average temperature and associated precipitation and used these as predictors in statistical fire models of future projected area burned. We also conducted modeling scenarios with the ensemble temperature increase paired with historical precipitation. Most ecoprovinces had increases in area burned, with a range of ~ 67% to over 600% . Ecoprovinces that are primarily sensitive to precipitation changes exhibit smaller increases than those most sensitive to temperature (forest systems). We also developed exceedance probabilities. Some ecoprovinces show large increases in area burned but low exceedance probabilities, suggest that the area burned is concentrated more

  17. Burn Exclusion Areas from USCG source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1999) [burn_exclusion_areas_USCG_1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a polygon dataset delineating areas in the Gulf of Mexico that are excluded from Regional Response Team VI (RRT 6) pre-approval for the use of in-situ...

  18. Spectral Mixture Analysis to map burned areas in Brazil's deforestation arc from 1992 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes Daldegan, G.; Ribeiro, F.; Roberts, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    The two most extensive biomes in South America, the Amazon and the Cerrado, are subject to several fire events every dry season. Both are known for their ecological and environmental importance. However, due to the intensive human occupation over the last four decades, they have been facing high deforestation rates. The Cerrado biome is adapted to fire and is considered a fire-dependent landscape. In contrast, the Amazon as a tropical moist broadleaf forest does not display similar characteristics and is classified as a fire-sensitive landscape. Nonetheless, studies have shown that forest areas that have already been burned become more prone to experience recurrent burns. Remote sensing has been extensively used by a large number of researchers studying fire occurrence at a global scale, as well as in both landscapes aforementioned. Digital image processing aiming to map fire activity has been applied to a number of imagery from sensors of various spatial, temporal, and spectral resolutions. More specifically, several studies have used Landsat data to map fire scars in the Amazon forest and in the Cerrado. An advantage of using Landsat data is the potential to map fire scars at a finer spatial resolution, when compared to products derived from imagery of sensors featuring better temporal resolution but coarser spatial resolution, such as MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) and GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite). This study aimed to map burned areas present in the Amazon-Cerrado transition zone by applying Spectral Mixture Analysis on Landsat imagery for a period of 20 years (1992-2011). The study area is a subset of this ecotone, centered at the State of Mato Grosso. By taking advantage of the Landsat 5TM and Landsat 7ETM+ imagery collections available in Google Earth Engine platform and applying Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) techniques over them permitted to model fire scar fractions and delimitate burned areas. Overlaying

  19. Smoke incursions into urban areas: simulation of a Georgia prescribed burn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. Liu; S. Goodrick; G. Achtemeier

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates smoke incursion into urban areas by examining a prescribed burn in central Georgia,USA, on 28 February 2007. Simulations were conducted with a regional modeling framework to understand transport, dispersion,and structure of smoke plumes, the air quality effects, sensitivity to emissions,...

  20. Area burned in alpine treeline ecotones reflects region-wide trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Alina Cansler; Donald McKenzie; Charles B. Halpern

    2016-01-01

    The direct effects of climate change on alpine treeline ecotones – the transition zones between subalpine forest and non-forested alpine vegetation – have been studied extensively, but climate-induced changes in disturbance regimes have received less attention. To determine if recent increases in area burned extend to these higher-elevation landscapes, we analysed...

  1. Previous fires moderate burn severity of subsequent wildland fires in two large western US wilderness areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Carol Miller; Cara R. Nelson; Zachary A. Holden

    2014-01-01

    Wildland fire is an important natural process in many ecosystems. However, fire exclusion has reduced frequency of fire and area burned in many dry forest types, which may affect vegetation structure and composition, and potential fire behavior. In forests of the western U.S., these effects pose a challenge for fire and land managers who seek to restore the ecological...

  2. Long lead statistical forecasts of area burned in western U.S. wildfires by ecosystem province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerling, A.L.; Gershunov, A.; Cayan, D.R.; Barnett, T.P.

    2002-01-01

    A statistical forecast methodology exploits large-scale patterns in monthly U.S. Climatological Division Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) values over a wide region and several seasons to predict area burned in western U.S. wildfires by ecosystem province a season in advance. The forecast model, which is based on canonical correlations, indicates that a few characteristic patterns determine predicted wildfire season area burned. Strong negative associations between anomalous soil moisture (inferred from PDSI) immediately prior to the fire season and area burned dominate in most higher elevation forested provinces, while strong positive associations between anomalous soil moisture a year prior to the fire season and area burned dominate in desert and shrub and grassland provinces. In much of the western U.S., above- and below-normal fire season forecasts were successful 57% of the time or better, as compared with a 33% skill for a random guess, and with a low probability of being surprised by a fire season at the opposite extreme of that forecast.

  3. Baseline Risk Assessment for the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits and Rubble Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This document provides an overview of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a description of the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (BRPs) and Rubble Pit (RP) unit. It also describes the objectives and scope of the baseline risk assessment (BRA).

  4. Regional relationships between climate and wildfire-burned area in the interior West, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon M. Collins; Philip N. Omi; Phillip L. Chapman

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have linked the Atlantic Multtidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) with drought occurrence in the interior United States. This study evaluates the influence of AM0 and PDO phases on interannual relationships between climate and wildfire-burned area during the 20th century. Palmer's Drought Severity Index (PDSI) is...

  5. Wood is burning in capital city area's fireplaces as well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luoma, H.

    1998-01-01

    The firewood market situation in the capital city area was examined by a mail questionnaire in the spring of 1997. The questionnaire form was distributed to 800 single-family houses in Espoo, Helsinki and Vantaa. The responses to the questionnaire numbered 297 (37 %). Wood was found to be the main source of heat energy in the households of 2 % of the respondents and as an alternative source of heat energy in 58 % of the households. The most common fireplace in the respondents' homes was a wood-fired sauna stove. Heat-accumulating fireplaces were in the second place and open fireplaces in the third place. The installation of heat-accumulating fireplaces has become more popular while wood-fired sauna stoves and open fireplaces have lost some of their popularity during the past few years. Thirteen percent of the owners responding to the questionnaire intend to install new fireplaces. Half of the respondents were of the opinion that there is nothing to restrict the use of their fireplaces. Those who felt that there were restrictions stated that the high cost of firewood was the most significant restricting factor. Other restricting factors were the difficulty of getting firewood and the shortcomings of wood storage facilities. The storage problem can be dealt with by, for example, resorting to joint purchases, in which case the batch of wood for one house can be smaller in size. One quarter of the interviewers showed interest in concerted purchasing and deliveries of wood. An average of 3.6 m 3 of wood was used in the single-family houses in the capital city area in 1996. This wood was obtained either by purchasing it, from one's own forest/block of land or by some other independent means (not by purchasing). These three forms of acquiring wood were almost equally important. Typically, firewood was bought the form of logging residues. The greatest demand is for bulk batches of chopped firewood. When firewood is purchased, the customer typically prefers to have it

  6. Estimating future burned areas under changing climate in the EU-Mediterranean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatulli, Giuseppe; Camia, Andrea; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesús

    2013-04-15

    The impacts of climate change on forest fires have received increased attention in recent years at both continental and local scales. It is widely recognized that weather plays a key role in extreme fire situations. It is therefore of great interest to analyze projected changes in fire danger under climate change scenarios and to assess the consequent impacts of forest fires. In this study we estimated burned areas in the European Mediterranean (EU-Med) countries under past and future climate conditions. Historical (1985-2004) monthly burned areas in EU-Med countries were modeled by using the Canadian Fire Weather Index (CFWI). Monthly averages of the CFWI sub-indices were used as explanatory variables to estimate the monthly burned areas in each of the five most affected countries in Europe using three different modeling approaches (Multiple Linear Regression - MLR, Random Forest - RF, Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines - MARS). MARS outperformed the other methods. Regression equations and significant coefficients of determination were obtained, although there were noticeable differences from country to country. Climatic conditions at the end of the 21st Century were simulated using results from the runs of the regional climate model HIRHAM in the European project PRUDENCE, considering two IPCC SRES scenarios (A2-B2). The MARS models were applied to both scenarios resulting in projected burned areas in each country and in the EU-Med region. Results showed that significant increases, 66% and 140% of the total burned area, can be expected in the EU-Med region under the A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Domestic Wood Burning in a Residential Area: PM2.5 Trace Elements and Black Smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, P.; Gustafson, P.; Johannesson, S.; Barregaard, L.; Saellsten, G.; Boman, J.

    2005-01-01

    Indoor and outdoor levels of PM2.5 have been studied in a residential area in Hagfors, a small town in Sweden. The sampling took place during typical Swedish winter conditions with sub-zero temperatures and full snow cover between February 10th and Mars 6th, 2003. The area consists of single houses having different heating systems. Some of the houses are heated by burning wood; some use heat pumps while others use direct electrical heating. 13 houses burning wood in boilers or similar for heating and 10 houses heated by other means but situated in the same area were selected for this study. Only houses without tobacco smoke were selected since this is one of the major sources of indoor particles. The objectives of the study were to identify levels and differences in composition of aerosol particles outdoors and inside houses with boilers using wood as fuel and houses heated in other ways. For K, Ca, Mn, Zn and Rb significantly higher (p < 0.05) indoor concentration for wood burners were found. The elements most often referred to as markers for wood burning are K and Zn. In addition, Si, S, Cl, Br and Rb are also mentioned as markers (Hedberg et al., 2002, Moloi et al., 2003). Black smoke was linked to wood burning, although not fully significant (p-value 0.07), as seen in figure 1a. Within the wood-burning group, some houses have concentrations comparable to the concentrations in the houses where no wood is used, while the others have much higher concentrations. These houses also have higher concentrations of K compared to the other wood burners. The possible reasons are different types of wood burning appliances and their placement in the houses as well as possible leakage. Sulphur, although sometimes linked to wood burning, shows no relationship to wood burning in this study. In figure 1b it can be seen that the indoor concentrations of sulphur is clearly lower compared to outdoor concentrations and that the levels indoors do not differ between wood and non

  8. Diversity of the soil biota in burned areas of southern taiga forests (Tver oblast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongalsky, K. B.; Zaitsev, A. S.; Korobushkin, D. I.; Saifutdinov, R. A.; Yazrikova, T. E.; Benediktova, A. I.; Gorbunova, A. Yu.; Gorshkova, I. A.; Butenko, K. O.; Kosina, N. V.; Lapygina, E. V.; Kuznetsova, D. M.; Rakhleeva, A. A.; Shakhab, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    Relations between soil biota diversity and its contribution to the performance of some ecosystem functions were assessed based on the results obtained in undisturbed and burned spruce forests near the Central Forest Nature Biosphere Reserve (Tver oblast). In August 2014, in two 4-year-old burned areas, abiotic parameters of the soils, indicators of the state of the microbial communities, the number, taxonomic diversity, and the abundance of the main groups of soil invertebrates (testate amoebae, nematodes, enchytraeids, mites, collembolans, and the mesofauna as a whole) were determined. In the soils of the burned areas, higher CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions were observed. The number of bacterial cells remained similar, and the total length of active mycelium was not significantly different. All this implies a certain intensification of biogenic processes promoting the mobilization of carbon and nitrogen after fire. The number of most of the groups of soil animals was lower (not always significantly) in the burned area than that in the soils of the undisturbed forests. The changes in the taxonomic diversity were specific for each taxon studied. Overall, the diversity of invertebrates was related to the litter thickness. However, the high taxonomic diversity of soil fauna did not always correspond to the active functioning of the ecosystem. Thus, for some taxa, a quite close correlation was found, for instance, between the total number of species (of testate amoebae in particular) and the berry crop, as well as between the soil mesofauna population and the dead wood stock. The total diversity of the investigated taxa included in the detrital trophic web was the most reliable indicator of the carbon stock in the burned areas.

  9. What determines area burned in large landscapes? Insights from a decade of comparative landscape-fire modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey J. Cary; Robert E. Keane; Mike D. Flannigan; Ian D. Davies; Russ A. Parsons

    2015-01-01

    Understanding what determines area burned in large landscapes is critical for informing wildland fire management in fire-prone environments and for representing fire activity in Dynamic Global Vegetation Models. For the past ten years, a group of landscape-fire modellers have been exploring the relative influence of key determinants of area burned in temperate and...

  10. Burned area emergency watershed rehabilitation: Program goals, techniques, effectiveness, and future directions in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Peter R. Robichaud; Jan L. Beyers

    2000-01-01

    Following wildfires, burned areas are assessed by special teams to determine if emergency watershed rehabilitation measures are required to restore watershed function and minimize damage to soil resources. The objective of burned area emergency rehabilitation (BAER) treatments is to restore watershed condition and reduce erosional losses on hillslopes, in channels, and...

  11. Validation of the MODIS Collection 6 MCD64 Global Burned Area Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.; Giglio, L.; Stehman, S. V.; Humber, M. L.; Sathyachandran, S. K.; Zubkova, M.; Melchiorre, A.; Huang, H.; Huo, L. Z.

    2017-12-01

    The research, policy and management applications of satellite products place a high priority on rigorously assessing their accuracy. A number of NASA, ESA and EU funded global and continental burned area products have been developed using coarse spatial resolution satellite data, and have the potential to become part of a long-term fire Essential Climate Variable. These products have usually been validated by comparison with reference burned area maps derived by visual interpretation of Landsat or similar spatial resolution data selected on an ad hoc basis. More optimally, a design-based validation method should be adopted, characterized by the selection of reference data via probability sampling. Design based techniques have been used for annual land cover and land cover change product validation, but have not been widely used for burned area products, or for other products that are highly variable in time and space (e.g. snow, floods, other non-permanent phenomena). This has been due to the challenge of designing an appropriate sampling strategy, and to the cost and limited availability of independent reference data. This paper describes the validation procedure adopted for the latest Collection 6 version of the MODIS Global Burned Area product (MCD64, Giglio et al, 2009). We used a tri-dimensional sampling grid that allows for probability sampling of Landsat data in time and in space (Boschetti et al, 2016). To sample the globe in the spatial domain with non-overlapping sampling units, the Thiessen Scene Area (TSA) tessellation of the Landsat WRS path/rows is used. The TSA grid is then combined with the 16-day Landsat acquisition calendar to provide tri-dimensonal elements (voxels). This allows the implementation of a sampling design where not only the location but also the time interval of the reference data is explicitly drawn through stratified random sampling. The novel sampling approach was used for the selection of a reference dataset consisting of 700

  12. The relationship of field burn severity measures to satellite-derived Burned Area Reflectance Classification (BARC) maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Hudak; Penelope Morgan; Carter Stone; Pete Robichaud; Terrie Jain; Jess Clark

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from ongoing research on spatial variability of fire effects on soils and vegetation from the Black Mountain Two and Cooney Ridge wildfires, which burned in western Montana during the 2003 fire season. Extensive field fractional cover data were sampled to assess the efficacy of quantitative satellite image-derived indicators of burn...

  13. Flamelet Surface Density and Burning Rate Integral in Premixed Combustion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gouldin, F

    1999-01-01

    We have developed, tested and applied in V-flames and a spark ignition engine a new experimental method, crossed-plane laser imaging, for measuring flamelet surface normals in premixed turbulent flames...

  14. Contact area measurements on structured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kücükyildiz, Ömer Can; Jensen, Sebastian Hoppe Nesgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    In connection with the use of brass specimens featuring structured surfaces in a tribology test, an algorithm was developed for automatic measurement of the contact area by optical means.......In connection with the use of brass specimens featuring structured surfaces in a tribology test, an algorithm was developed for automatic measurement of the contact area by optical means....

  15. L p -Dual geominimal surface area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lutwak proposed the notion of Lp -geominimal surface area according to the Lp -mixed volume. In this article, associated with the Lp -dual mixed volume, we introduce the Lp -dual geominimal surface area and prove some inequalities for this notion. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 52A20 52A40.

  16. Wetted surface area of recreational boats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker J; van Vlaardingen PLA; ICH; VSP

    2018-01-01

    The wetted surface area of recreational craft is often treated with special paint that prevents growth of algae and other organisms. The active substances in this paint (antifouling) are also emitted into the water. The extent of this emission is among others determined by the treated surface area.

  17. Simulating high spatial resolution high severity burned area in Sierra Nevada forests for California Spotted Owl habitat climate change risk assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, A.; Westerling, A. L.; Jones, G.; Peery, M. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Sierra Nevada forests have experienced an increase in very large fires with significant areas of high burn severity, such as the Rim (2013) and King (2014) fires, that have impacted habitat of endangered species such as the California spotted owl. In order to support land manager forest management planning and risk assessment activities, we used historical wildfire histories from the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project and gridded hydroclimate and land surface characteristics data to develope statistical models to simulate the frequency, location and extent of high severity burned area in Sierra Nevada forest wildfires as functions of climate and land surface characteristics. We define high severity here as BA90 area: the area comprising patches with ninety percent or more basal area killed within a larger fire. We developed a system of statistical models to characterize the probability of large fire occurrence, the probability of significant BA90 area present given a large fire, and the total extent of BA90 area in a fire on a 1/16 degree lat/lon grid over the Sierra Nevada. Repeated draws from binomial and generalized pareto distributions using these probabilities generated a library of simulated histories of high severity fire for a range of near (50 yr) future climate and fuels management scenarios. Fuels management scenarios were provided by USFS Region 5. Simulated BA90 area was then downscaled to 30 m resolution using a statistical model we developed using Random Forest techniques to estimate the probability of adjacent 30m pixels burning with ninety percent basal kill as a function of fire size and vegetation and topographic features. The result is a library of simulated high resolution maps of BA90 burned areas for a range of climate and fuels management scenarios with which we estimated conditional probabilities of owl nesting sites being impacted by high severity wildfire.

  18. MODIS 250m burned area mapping based on an algorithm using change point detection and Markov random fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Bernardo; Pereira, Jose; Campagnolo, Manuel; Killick, Rebeca

    2013-04-01

    Area burned in tropical savannas of Brazil was mapped using MODIS-AQUA daily 250m resolution imagery by adapting one of the European Space Agency fire_CCI project burned area algorithms, based on change point detection and Markov random fields. The study area covers 1,44 Mkm2 and was performed with data from 2005. The daily 1000 m image quality layer was used for cloud and cloud shadow screening. The algorithm addresses each pixel as a time series and detects changes in the statistical properties of NIR reflectance values, to identify potential burning dates. The first step of the algorithm is robust filtering, to exclude outlier observations, followed by application of the Pruned Exact Linear Time (PELT) change point detection technique. Near-infrared (NIR) spectral reflectance changes between time segments, and post change NIR reflectance values are combined into a fire likelihood score. Change points corresponding to an increase in reflectance are dismissed as potential burn events, as are those occurring outside of a pre-defined fire season. In the last step of the algorithm, monthly burned area probability maps and detection date maps are converted to dichotomous (burned-unburned maps) using Markov random fields, which take into account both spatial and temporal relations in the potential burned area maps. A preliminary assessment of our results is performed by comparison with data from the MODIS 1km active fires and the 500m burned area products, taking into account differences in spatial resolution between the two sensors.

  19. Mapping Burned Areas in Tropical Forests Using a Novel Machine Learning Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Varun Mithal; Guruprasad Nayak; Ankush Khandelwal; Vipin Kumar; Ramakrishna Nemani; Nikunj C. Oza

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an application of a novel machine-learning framework on MODIS (moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer) data to map burned areas over tropical forests of South America and South-east Asia. The RAPT (RAre Class Prediction in the absence of True labels) framework is able to build data adaptive classification models using noisy training labels. It is particularly suitable when expert annotated training samples are difficult to obtain as in the case of wild fires in the ...

  20. Impacts of Brown Carbon from Biomass Burning on Surface UV and Ozone Photochemistry in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Jungbin; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Arola, Antti; Torres, Omar; Jethva, Hiren; Andrade, Marcos; Labow, Gordon; Eck, Thomas F.; Li, Zhangqing; Dickerson, Russell R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The spectral dependence of light absorption by atmospheric particulate matter has major implications for air quality and climate forcing, but remains uncertain especially in tropical areas with extensive biomass burning. In the September-October 2007 biomass-burning season in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, we studied light absorbing (chromophoric) organic or brown carbon (BrC) with surface and space-based remote sensing. We found that BrC has negligible absorption at visible wavelengths, but significant absorption and strong spectral dependence at UV wavelengths. Using the ground-based inversion of column effective imaginary refractive index in the range 305368nm, we quantified a strong spectral dependence of absorption by BrC in the UV and diminished ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation reaching the surface. Reduced UV-B means less erythema, plant damage, and slower photolysis rates. We use a photochemical box model to show that relative to black carbon (BC) alone, the combined optical properties of BrC and BC slow the net rate of production of ozone by up to 18 and lead to reduced concentrations of radicals OH, HO2, and RO2 by up to 17, 15, and 14, respectively. The optical properties of BrC aerosol change in subtle ways the generally adverse effects of smoke from biomass burning.

  1. Impacts of brown carbon from biomass burning on surface UV and ozone photochemistry in the Amazon Basin

    KAUST Repository

    Mok, Jungbin

    2016-11-11

    The spectral dependence of light absorption by atmospheric particulate matter has major implications for air quality and climate forcing, but remains uncertain especially in tropical areas with extensive biomass burning. In the September-October 2007 biomass-burning season in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, we studied light absorbing (chromophoric) organic or “brown” carbon (BrC) with surface and space-based remote sensing. We found that BrC has negligible absorption at visible wavelengths, but significant absorption and strong spectral dependence at UV wavelengths. Using the ground-based inversion of column effective imaginary refractive index in the range 305–368 nm, we quantified a strong spectral dependence of absorption by BrC in the UV and diminished ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation reaching the surface. Reduced UV-B means less erythema, plant damage, and slower photolysis rates. We use a photochemical box model to show that relative to black carbon (BC) alone, the combined optical properties of BrC and BC slow the net rate of production of ozone by up to 18% and lead to reduced concentrations of radicals OH, HO2, and RO2 by up to 17%, 15%, and 14%, respectively. The optical properties of BrC aerosol change in subtle ways the generally adverse effects of smoke from biomass burning.

  2. Validation of the USGS Landsat Burned Area Essential Climate Variable (BAECV) across the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Fairaux, Nicole; Beal, Yen-Ju G.; Hawbaker, Todd J.

    2017-01-01

    The Landsat Burned Area Essential Climate Variable (BAECV), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), capitalizes on the long temporal availability of Landsat imagery to identify burned areas across the conterminous United States (CONUS) (1984–2015). Adequate validation of such products is critical for their proper usage and interpretation. Validation of coarse-resolution products often relies on independent data derived from moderate-resolution sensors (e.g., Landsat). Validation of Landsat products, in turn, is challenging because there is no corresponding source of high-resolution, multispectral imagery that has been systematically collected in space and time over the entire temporal extent of the Landsat archive. Because of this, comparison between high-resolution images and Landsat science products can help increase user's confidence in the Landsat science products, but may not, alone, be adequate. In this paper, we demonstrate an approach to systematically validate the Landsat-derived BAECV product. Burned area extent was mapped for Landsat image pairs using a manually trained semi-automated algorithm that was manually edited across 28 path/rows and five different years (1988, 1993, 1998, 2003, 2008). Three datasets were independently developed by three analysts and the datasets were integrated on a pixel by pixel basis in which at least one to all three analysts were required to agree a pixel was burned. We found that errors within our Landsat reference dataset could be minimized by using the rendition of the dataset in which pixels were mapped as burned if at least two of the three analysts agreed. BAECV errors of omission and commission for the detection of burned pixels averaged 42% and 33%, respectively for CONUS across all five validation years. Errors of omission and commission were lowest across the western CONUS, for example in the shrub and scrublands of the Arid West (31% and 24%, respectively), and highest in the grasslands and

  3. Relative importance of fuel management, ignition management and weather for area burned: Evidence from five landscape-fire-succession models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey J. Cary; Mike D. Flannigan; Robert E. Keane; Ross A. Bradstock; Ian D. Davies; James M. Lenihan; Chao Li; Kimberley A. Logan; Russell A. Parsons

    2009-01-01

    The behaviour of five landscape fire models (CAFE, FIRESCAPE, LAMOS(HS), LANDSUM and SEMLAND) was compared in a standardised modelling experiment. The importance of fuel management approach, fuel management effort, ignition management effort and weather in determining variation in area burned and number of edge pixels burned (a measure of potential impact on assets...

  4. Comparison of pixel and object-based classification for burned area mapping using SPOT-6 images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Sertel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available On 30 May 2013, a forest fire occurred in Izmir, Turkey causing damage to both forest and fruit trees within the region. In this research, pre- and post-fire SPOT-6 images obtained on 30 April 2013 and 31 May 2013 were used to identify the extent of forest fire within the region. SPOT-6 images of the study region were orthorectified and classified using pixel and object-based classification (OBC algorithms to accurately delineate the boundaries of burned areas. The present results show that for OBC using only normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI thresholds is not sufficient enough to map the burn scars; however, creating a new and simple rule set that included mean brightness values of near infrared and red channels in addition to mean NDVI values of segments considerably improved the accuracy of classification. According to the accuracy assessment results, the burned area was mapped with a 0.9322 kappa value in OBC, while a 0.7433 kappa value was observed in pixel-based classification. Lastly, classification results were integrated with the forest management map to determine the effected forest types after the fire to be used by the National Forest Directorate for their operational activities to effectively manage the fire, response and recovery processes.

  5. Body surface area prediction in normal, hypermuscular, and obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Michael C; Spalding, Paul B; Gutierrez, Juan C; Balkan, Wayne; Namias, Nicholas; Koniaris, Leonidas G; Zimmers, Teresa A

    2009-05-15

    Accurate determination of body surface area (BSA) in experimental animals is essential for modeling effects of burn injury or drug metabolism. Two-dimensional surface area is related to three-dimensional body volume, which in turn can be estimated from body mass. The Meeh equation relates body surface area to the two-thirds power of body mass, through a constant, k, which must be determined empirically by species and size. We found older values of k overestimated BSA in certain mice; thus we determined empirically k for various strains of normal, obese, and hypermuscular mice. BSA was computed from digitally scanned pelts and nonlinear regression analysis was used to determine the best-fit k. The empirically determined k for C57BL/6J mice of 9.82 was not significantly different from other inbred and outbred mouse strains of normal body composition. However, mean k of the nearly spheroid, obese lepr(db/db) mice (k = 8.29) was significantly lower than for normals, as were values for dumbbell-shaped, hypermuscular mice with either targeted deletion of the myostatin gene (Mstn) (k = 8.48) or with skeletal muscle specific expression of a dominant negative myostatin receptor (Acvr2b) (k = 8.80). Hypermuscular and obese mice differ substantially from normals in shape and density, resulting in considerably altered k values. This suggests Meeh constants should be determined empirically for animals of altered body composition. Use of these new, improved Meeh constants will allow greater accuracy in experimental models of burn injury and pharmacokinetics.

  6. Clinical analysis of amniotic membrane patches and grafts for acute ocular surface burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effect and value of amniotic membrane patches and grafts for acute ocular surface burn at different degrees.METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 28 cases(28 eyesaffected by ocular chemical or thermal burn with different degree were included in our hospital from March 2007 to March 2012. Amniotic membrane patched was undergone in 13 eyes with fresh amnion that the patients corneal burns degree Ⅱ or Ⅲ with partial limbal buns at degree Ⅳ. Amniotic membrane grafts was performed in 15 eyes with fresh amnion that the patients all corneal burns at degree Ⅲ with the whole limbal necrosis without severe eyelid defect. The follow-up time ranged 6~24mo. The postoperative visual acuity, the condition of amniotic membrane transplant, renovation of cornea and complications were observed. RESULTS: Postoperative corrected visual acuity was improved in 20 eyes(71%, it was not changed in 5 eyes(18%, the visual acuity declined in 3 eyes(11%. The amniotic membrane survived in 23 eyes and the survival rate was up to 82%. The cornea of 4 eyes recovered to transparent, nebula emceed in 8 eyes eventually, corneal macula emerged in 10 eyes, 4 eyes ended up with leukoma, 2 eyes developed corneal melting after therapy, then received lamellar keratoplasty. Corneal surface become epithelization after amnion patches or grafts, but any of them have recurrent epithelial erosion, and become stable epithalization after repeat operation.CONCLUSION: Amniotic membrane patches and grafts is an effective method to deal with acute ocular surface burn.

  7. Surface moisture estimation in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yitong

    Surface moisture is an important parameter because it modifies urban microclimate and surface layer meteorology. The primary objectives of this paper are: 1) to analyze the impact of surface roughness from buildings on surface moisture in urban areas; and 2) to quantify the impact of surface roughness resulting from urban trees on surface moisture. To achieve the objectives, two hypotheses were tested: 1) the distribution of surface moisture is associated with the structural complexity of buildings in urban areas; and 2) The distribution and change of surface moisture is associated with the distribution and vigor of urban trees. The study area is Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. In the part of the morphology of urban trees, Warren Township was selected due to the limitation of tree inventory data. To test the hypotheses, the research design was made to extract the aerodynamic parameters, such as frontal areas, roughness length and displacement height of buildings and trees from Terrestrial and Airborne LiDAR data, then to input the aerodynamic parameters into the urban surface energy balance model. The methodology was developed for comparing the impact of aerodynamic parameters from LiDAR data with the parameters that were derived empirically from land use and land cover data. The analytical procedures are discussed below: 1) to capture the spatial and temporal variation of surface moisture, daily and hourly Land Surface Temperature (LST) were downscaled from 4 km to 1 km, and 960 m to 30 m, respectively, by regression between LST and various components that impact LST; 2) to estimate surface moisture, namely soil moisture and evapotranspiration (ET), land surfaces were classified into soil, vegetation, and impervious surfaces, using Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA); 3) aerodynamic parameters of buildings and trees were extracted from Airborne and Terrestrial LiDAR data; 4) the Temperature-Vegetation-Index (TVX) method, and the Two-Source-Energy-Balance (TSEB

  8. An assessment of burn care professionals' attitudes to major burn.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, A D

    2008-06-01

    The resuscitation of severe burn remains a controversial area within the burn care profession. There is ongoing debate as to what percentage burn is associated with a sufficient quality of life to support initial resuscitation efforts. We conducted a survey of delegates at the 39th Annual Meeting of the British Burns Association (2005), regarding attitudes towards resuscitation following major burns. Respondents were asked the maximum percentage total body surface area (TBSA) burn beyond which they would not wish to be resuscitated. They were also asked what maximum TBSA they perceived to be commensurate with an acceptable quality of life (QOL). One hundred and forty three of 300 delegates responded to the questionnaire. Thirty three percent of respondents would not wish to be resuscitated with 50-75% TBSA burns or greater. A further 35% would not wish to have life-sustaining intervention with 75-95% TBSA burns or greater. The remaining 32% indicated that they would not want resuscitation with TBSA burns>95%. Regardless of TBSA affected, 16% would not wish resuscitation if they had full thickness facial burns, a further 10% did not want resuscitation if both their hands and faces were affected. Our survey demonstrates the diversity of personal preference amongst burn care professionals. This would suggest that a unifying philosophy regarding the resuscitation of extensive burns will remain elusive.

  9. Surface area-volume ratios in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühsel, Sara; Brückner, Adrian; Schmelzle, Sebastian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-10-01

    Body mass, volume and surface area are important for many aspects of the physiology and performance of species. Whereas body mass scaling received a lot of attention in the literature, surface areas of animals have not been measured explicitly in this context. We quantified surface area-volume (SA/V) ratios for the first time using 3D surface models based on a structured light scanning method for 126 species of pollinating insects from 4 orders (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Coleoptera). Water loss of 67 species was measured gravimetrically at very dry conditions for 2 h at 15 and 30 °C to demonstrate the applicability of the new 3D surface measurements and relevance for predicting the performance of insects. Quantified SA/V ratios significantly explained the variation in water loss across species, both directly or after accounting for isometric scaling (residuals of the SA/V ∼ mass 2/3 relationship). Small insects with a proportionally larger surface area had the highest water loss rates. Surface scans of insects to quantify allometric SA/V ratios thus provide a promising method to predict physiological responses, improving the potential of body mass isometry alone that assume geometric similarity. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Dust, Pollution, and Biomass Burning Aerosols in Asian Pacific: A Column Surface/Satellite Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Many recent field experiments are designed to study the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of both pollution-derived and naturally occurring aerosols, which often exist in high concentrations over eastern/southeastern Asia and along the rim of the western Pacific. For example, the phase-I of ACE-Asia was conducted from March-May 2001 in the vicinity of the Gobi desert, East Coast of China, Yellow Sea, Korea, and Japan, along the pathway of Kosa (severe events that blanket East Asia with yellow desert dust, peaked in the Spring season). Asian dust typically originates in desert areas far from polluted urban regions. During transport, dust layers can interact with anthropogenic sulfate and soot aerosols from heavily polluted urban areas. Springtime is also the peak season for biomass burning in southeastern Asia. Added to the complex effects of clouds and natural marine aerosols, dust particles reaching the marine environment can have drastically different properties than those from the source. Thus, understanding the unique temporal and spatial variations of Asian aerosols is of special importance in regional-to-global climate issues such as radiative forcing, the hydrological cycle, and primary biological productivity in the mid-Pacific Ocean. During ACE-Asia we have measured continuously aerosol physical/optical/radiative properties, column precipitable water amount, and surface reflectivity over homogeneous areas from surface. The inclusion of flux measurements permits the determination of aerosol radiative flux in addition to measurements of loading and optical depth. At the time of the Terra/MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), SeaWiFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor), TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and other satellite overpasses, these ground-based observations can provide valuable data to compare with satellite retrievals over land. A column satellite-surface perspective of Asian aerosols will be presented

  11. A Global Inventory of Burned Areas at 1 Km Resolution for the Year 2000 Derived from Spot Vegetation Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tansey, K.; Gregoire, J.M.; Boschetti, L.; Maggi, M.; Binaghi, E.; Brivio, P.A.; Stroppiana, D.; Ershov, D.; Flasse, S.; Fraser, R.; Graetz, D.; Peduzzi, P.; Pereira, J.; Silva, J.; Sousa, A.

    2004-01-01

    Biomass burning constitutes a major contribution to global emissions of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, greenhouse gases and aerosols. Furthermore, biomass burning has an impact on health, transport, the environment and land use. Vegetation fires are certainly not recent phenomena and the impacts are not always negative. However, evidence suggests that fires are becoming more frequent and there is a large increase in the number of fires being set by humans for a variety of reasons. Knowledge of the interactions and feedbacks between biomass burning, climate and carbon cycling is needed to help the prediction of climate change scenarios. To obtain this knowledge, the scientific community requires, in the first instance, information on the spatial and temporal distribution of biomass burning at the global scale. This paper presents an inventory of burned areas at monthly time periods for the year 2000 at a resolution of 1 kilometer (km) and is available to the scientific community at no cost. The burned area products have been derived from a single source of satellite-derived images, the SPOT VEGETATION S1 1 km product, using algorithms developed and calibrated at regional scales by a network of partners. In this paper, estimates of burned area, number of burn scars and average size of the burn scar are described for each month of the year 2000. The information is reported at the country level. This paper makes a significant contribution to understanding the effect of biomass burning on atmospheric chemistry and the storage and cycling of carbon by constraining one of the main parameters used in the calculation of gas emissions

  12. A Global Inventory of Burned Areas at 1 Km Resolution for the Year 2000 Derived from Spot Vegetation Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tansey, K. [Department of Geography, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Gregoire, J.M.; Boschetti, L.; Maggi, M. [European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra, I-21020 (Italy); Binaghi, E. [Universita dell' Insubria, Via Ravasi 2, I-21100 Varese (Italy); Brivio, P.A.; Stroppiana, D. [Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment CNR-IREA, Via Bassini 15, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Ershov, D. [International Forest Institute IFI, Novocheriomushkinskaya str. 69a, Moscow, 117418 (Russian Federation); Flasse, S. [Flasse Consulting, 3 Sycamore Crescent, Maidstone, ME16 0AG (United Kingdom); Fraser, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS), 588 Booth St., Ottawa, ON, K1A 0Y7 (Canada); Graetz, D. [CSIRO Earth Observation Centre GPO 3023, Canberra, ACT, 2601 (Australia); Peduzzi, P. [United Nations Environment Programme UNEP, Early Warning Unit UNEP/DEWA/GRID, International Environment House, 1219 Geneva (Switzerland); Pereira, J. [Tropical Research Institute, Travessa Conde da Ribeira 9, 1300-142 Lisbon (Portugal); Silva, J. [Department of Forestry, Technical University of Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisbon (Portugal); Sousa, A. [Department of Rural Engineering, University of Evora, Apartado 94, 7002-554 Evora (Portugal)

    2004-12-01

    Biomass burning constitutes a major contribution to global emissions of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, greenhouse gases and aerosols. Furthermore, biomass burning has an impact on health, transport, the environment and land use. Vegetation fires are certainly not recent phenomena and the impacts are not always negative. However, evidence suggests that fires are becoming more frequent and there is a large increase in the number of fires being set by humans for a variety of reasons. Knowledge of the interactions and feedbacks between biomass burning, climate and carbon cycling is needed to help the prediction of climate change scenarios. To obtain this knowledge, the scientific community requires, in the first instance, information on the spatial and temporal distribution of biomass burning at the global scale. This paper presents an inventory of burned areas at monthly time periods for the year 2000 at a resolution of 1 kilometer (km) and is available to the scientific community at no cost. The burned area products have been derived from a single source of satellite-derived images, the SPOT VEGETATION S1 1 km product, using algorithms developed and calibrated at regional scales by a network of partners. In this paper, estimates of burned area, number of burn scars and average size of the burn scar are described for each month of the year 2000. The information is reported at the country level. This paper makes a significant contribution to understanding the effect of biomass burning on atmospheric chemistry and the storage and cycling of carbon by constraining one of the main parameters used in the calculation of gas emissions.

  13. MERIS burned area algorithm in the framework of the ESA Fire CCI Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, P.; Calado, T.; Gonzalez, F.

    2012-04-01

    The Fire-CCI project aims at generating long and reliable time series of burned area (BA) maps based on existing information provided by European satellite sensors. In this context, a BA algorithm is currently being developed using the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) sensor. The algorithm is being tested over a series of ten study sites with a area of 500x500 km2 each, for the period of 2003 to 2009. The study sites are located in Canada, Colombia, Brazil, Portugal, Angola, South Africa, Kazakhstan, Borneo, Russia and Australia and include a variety of vegetation types characterized by different fire regimes. The algorithm has to take into account several limiting aspects that range from the MERIS sensor characteristics (e.g. the lack of SWIR bands) to the noise presented in the data. In addition the lack of data in some areas caused either because of cloud contamination or because the sensor does not acquire full resolution data over the study area, provokes a limitation difficult to overcome. In order to overcome these drawbacks, the design of the BA algorithm is based on the analysis of maximum composites of spectral indices characterized by low values of temporal standard deviation in space and associated to MODIS hot spots. Accordingly, for each study site and year, composites of maximum values of BAI are computed and the corresponding Julian day of the maximum value and number of observations in the period are registered by pixel . Then we computed the temporal standard deviation for pixels with a number of observations greater than 10 using spatial matrices of 3x3 pixels. To classify the BAI values as burned or non-burned we extract statistics using the MODIS hot spots. A pixel is finally classified as burned if it satisfies the following conditions: i) it is associated to hot spots; ii) BAI maximum is higher than a certain threshold and iii) the standard deviation of the Julian day is less than a given number of days.

  14. Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan for the P-Area Burning Rubble Pit (131-P)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bland, T.

    2002-01-01

    The Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan (SB/PP) is being issued by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), which functions as the lead agency for Savannah River Site (SRS) remedial activities, with concurrence by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The purpose of this SB/PP is to describe the preferred remedial alternatives for the P-Area Burning/Rubble Pit (131-P) (PBRP) Operable Unit (OU) and to provide for public involvement in the decision-making process

  15. Modelling hydrological connectivity in burned areas. A case study from South of Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.; López-Vicente, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Overland flow connectivity depends on the spatio-temporal interactions of hydrological and geomorphic processes as well as on the human footprint on the landscape. This study deals with the modelling of hydrological connectivity in a burned area with different levels of fire severity. Namely, the objectives are to: i) characterize and ii) modelling the pre- (PreF) and post-fire (PostF) scenarios, as well as iii) evaluate the effect of the vegetation changes due to the fire and the initial ...

  16. Using Logistic Regression to Predict the Probability of Debris Flows in Areas Burned by Wildfires, Southern California, 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Helsel, Dennis R.

    2008-01-01

    Logistic regression was used to develop statistical models that can be used to predict the probability of debris flows in areas recently burned by wildfires by using data from 14 wildfires that burned in southern California during 2003-2006. Twenty-eight independent variables describing the basin morphology, burn severity, rainfall, and soil properties of 306 drainage basins located within those burned areas were evaluated. The models were developed as follows: (1) Basins that did and did not produce debris flows soon after the 2003 to 2006 fires were delineated from data in the National Elevation Dataset using a geographic information system; (2) Data describing the basin morphology, burn severity, rainfall, and soil properties were compiled for each basin. These data were then input to a statistics software package for analysis using logistic regression; and (3) Relations between the occurrence or absence of debris flows and the basin morphology, burn severity, rainfall, and soil properties were evaluated, and five multivariate logistic regression models were constructed. All possible combinations of independent variables were evaluated to determine which combinations produced the most effective models, and the multivariate models that best predicted the occurrence of debris flows were identified. Percentage of high burn severity and 3-hour peak rainfall intensity were significant variables in all models. Soil organic matter content and soil clay content were significant variables in all models except Model 5. Soil slope was a significant variable in all models except Model 4. The most suitable model can be selected from these five models on the basis of the availability of independent variables in the particular area of interest and field checking of probability maps. The multivariate logistic regression models can be entered into a geographic information system, and maps showing the probability of debris flows can be constructed in recently burned areas of

  17. Assessment of the vegetation cover in a burned area 22-years ago using remote sensing techniques and GIS analysis (Sierra de las Nieves, South of Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.; Remond, Ricardo; Ruiz-Sinoga, José D.

    2015-04-01

    map the most recovered areas affected by the wildfire in 1991. The vegetation indexes indicated that the vegetation cover in 2013 was still lower than that mapped just before the 1991 widlfire in most of the burned area after 22-years. This result was also confirmed by other techniques applied. Finally, the kernel density surface let identify and locate the most recovered areas of pine cover as well as those areas that still remain totally or partially uncovered (bare soil.

  18. Monitoring System for ALICE Surface Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Demirbasci, Oguz

    2016-01-01

    I have been at CERN for 12 weeks within the scope of Summer Student Programme working on a monitoring system project for surface areas of the ALICE experiment during this period of time. The development and implementation of a monitoring system for environmental parameters in the accessible areas where a cheap hardware setup can be deployed were aim of this project. This report explains how it was developed by using Arduino, Raspberry PI, WinCC OA and DIM protocol.

  19. Area-averaged surface fluxes and their time-space variability over the FIFE experimental domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E. A.; Hsu, A. Y.; Crosson, W. L.; Field, R. T.; Fritschen, L. J.; Gurney, R. J.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Kustas, W. P.; Nie, D.; Shuttleworth, W. J.

    1992-01-01

    The underlying mean and variance properties of surface net radiation, sensible-latent heat fluxes and soil heat flux are studied over the densely instrumented grassland region encompassing FIFE. Flux variability is discussed together with the problem of scaling up to area-averaged fluxes. Results are compared and contrasted for cloudy and clear situations and examined for the influence of surface-induced biophysical controls (burn and grazing treatments) and topographic controls (aspect ratios and slope factors).

  20. Dust, Pollution, and Biomass Burning Aerosols in Asian Pacific: A Column Satellite-Surface Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee

    2004-01-01

    Airborne dusts from northern China contribute a significant part of the air quality problem and, to some extent, regional climatic impact in Asia during spring-time. However, with the economical growth in China, increases in the emission of air pollutants generated from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the radiation balance, but adverse health effects to humans all year round. In addition, both of these dust and air pollution clouds can transport swiftly across the Pacific reaching North America within a few days, possessing an even larger scale effect. The Asian dust and air pollution aerosols can be detected by its colored appearance on current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and its evolution monitored by satellites and surface network. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two new initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East

  1. Osmosis and Surface Area to Volume Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, D. R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to help students understand the concepts of osmosis and surface area to volume ratio (SA:VOL). The task for students is to compare water uptake in different sizes of potato cubes and relate differences to their SA:VOL ratios. (JN)

  2. Estimating surface area in early hominins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Cross

    Full Text Available Height and weight-based methods of estimating surface area have played an important role in the development of the current consensus regarding the role of thermoregulation in human evolution. However, such methods may not be reliable when applied to early hominins because their limb proportions differ markedly from those of humans. Here, we report a study in which this possibility was evaluated by comparing surface area estimates generated with the best-known height and weight-based method to estimates generated with a method that is sensitive to proportional differences. We found that the two methods yield indistinguishable estimates when applied to taxa whose limb proportions are similar to those of humans, but significantly different results when applied to taxa whose proportions differ from those of humans. We also found that the discrepancy between the estimates generated by the two methods is almost entirely attributable to inter-taxa differences in limb proportions. One corollary of these findings is that we need to reassess hypotheses about the role of thermoregulation in human evolution that have been developed with the aid of height and weight-based methods of estimating body surface area. Another is that we need to use other methods in future work on fossil hominin body surface areas.

  3. Nondestructive, stereological estimation of canopy surface area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio; Sciortino, Marco; Aaslyng, Jesper M.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a stereological procedure to estimate the total leaf surface area of a plant canopy in vivo, and address the problem of how to predict the variance of the corresponding estimator. The procedure involves three nested systematic uniform random sampling stages: (i) selection of plants from...... a canopy using the smooth fractionator, (ii) sampling of leaves from the selected plants using the fractionator, and (iii) area estimation of the sampled leaves using point counting. We apply this procedure to estimate the total area of a chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium L.) canopy and evaluate both...... the time required and the precision of the estimator. Furthermore, we compare the precision of point counting for three different grid intensities with that of several standard leaf area measurement techniques. Results showed that the precision of the plant leaf area estimator based on point counting...

  4. Aquifer pumping test report for the burn site groundwater area of concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skelly, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ferry, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The Aquifer Pumping Test Report for the Burn Site Groundwater (BSG) Area of Concern is being submitted by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration to describe the results of the aquifer pumping test program and related field activities that were completed at the BSG Area of Concern. This report summarizes the results of the field work and data analyses, and is being submitted to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) Hazardous Waste Bureau, as required by the April 14, 2016 letter, Summary of Agreements and Proposed Milestones Pursuant to the Meeting of July 20, 2015, (NMED April 2016).

  5. Chemical mass balance source apportionment of TSP in a lignite-burning area of Western Macedonia, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Constantini

    Total suspended particle mass concentrations (TSP) were determined in the Kozani-Ptolemais-Florina basin (western Macedonia, Greece), an area with intensive lignite burning for power generation. The study was conducted over a 1-year period (November 2000-November 2001) at 10 receptor sites located at variable distances from the power plants. Ambient TSP samples were analyzed for 27 major, minor and trace elements. Particulate emissions were also collected from a variety of sources including fly ash, lignite dust, automobile traffic, domestic heating, and open-air burning of agricultural biomass and refuse, and analyzed for the same chemical components. Ambient and source chemical profiles were used for source identification and apportionment of TSP by employing a chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. Diesel burning in vehicular traffic and in the power plants for generator start up was found to be the major contributor to ambient TSP levels at all 10 sites. Other sources with significant contributions were domestic coal burning, vegetative burning (wood combustion and agricultural burns) and refuse open-air burning. Fly ash escaping the electrostatic precipitators of the power plants was a minor contributor to ambient TSP.

  6. Parameters Affecting the Erosive Burning of Solid Rocket Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelaziz Almostafa; Guozhu Liang; Elsayed Anwer

    2018-01-01

    Increasing the velocity of gases inside solid rocket motors with low port-to-throat area ratios, leading to increased occurrence and severity of burning rate augmentation due to flow of propellant products across burning propellant surfaces (erosive burning), erosive burning of high energy composite propellant was investigated to supply rocket motor design criteria and to supplement knowledge of combustion phenomena, pressure, burning rate and high velocity of gases all of these are parameter...

  7. Fouling tendency of ash resulting from burning mixtures of biofuels. Part 3. Influence of probe surface temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mischa Theis; Bengt-Johan Skrifvars; Maria Zevenhoven; Mikko Hupa; Honghi Tran [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Aabo (Finland). Combustion and Materials Chemistry

    2006-10-15

    Mixtures of peat with bark and peat with straw were burned in a large lab-scale entrained flow reactor under controlled conditions, and deposits were collected on an air-cooled probe controlled at four to six different probe surface temperatures between 475 and 625{sup o}C. The results show that the probe surface temperature has no effect on the deposition rate when peat is burned. When burning bark, either alone or in mixtures with peat, the deposition rate decreases with increasing probe surface temperature. When burning straw, either alone or in mixtures with peat, the deposition rate increases with increasing probe surface temperature up to 550{sup o}C and remains constant at higher temperatures. The Cl content in the deposits decreases with increasing probe surface temperature, regardless of the mixture composition. In deposits obtained from burning peat-bark mixtures, K appears as K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} when the deposition rate is low and as KCl when the deposition rate is high. In deposits obtained from burning peat-straw mixtures, no clear relationship is found between the deposition rate and the contents of Cl, S and K in the deposits. 21 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Seasonal and spatial variation of organic tracers for biomass burning in PM1 aerosols from highly insolated urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drooge, B L; Fontal, M; Bravo, N; Fernández, P; Fernández, M A; Muñoz-Arnanz, J; Jiménez, B; Grimalt, J O

    2014-10-01

    PM1 aerosol characterization on organic tracers for biomass burning (levoglucosan and its isomers and dehydroabietic acid) was conducted within the AERTRANS project. PM1 filters (N = 90) were sampled from 2010 to 2012 in busy streets in the urban centre of Madrid and Barcelona (Spain) at ground-level and at roof sites. In both urban areas, biomass burning was not expected to be an important local emission source, but regional emissions from wildfires, residential heating or biomass removal may influence the air quality in the cities. Although both areas are under influence of high solar radiation, Madrid is situated in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, while Barcelona is located at the Mediterranean Coast and under influence of marine atmospheres. Two extraction methods were applied, i.e. Soxhlet and ASE, which showed equivalent results after GC-MS analyses. The ambient air concentrations of the organic tracers for biomass burning increased by an order of magnitude at both sites during winter compared to summer. An exception was observed during a PM event in summer 2012, when the atmosphere in Barcelona was directly affected by regional wildfire smoke and levels were four times higher as those observed in winter. Overall, there was little variation between the street and roof sites in both cities, suggesting that regional biomass burning sources influence the urban areas after atmospheric transport. Despite the different atmospheric characteristics in terms of air relative humidity, Madrid and Barcelona exhibit very similar composition and concentrations of biomass burning organic tracers. Nevertheless, levoglucosan and its isomers seem to be more suitable for source apportionment purposes than dehydroabietic acid. In both urban areas, biomass burning contributions to PM were generally low (2 %) in summer, except on the day when wildfire smoke arrive to the urban area. In the colder periods the contribution increase to around 30 %, indicating that regional

  9. High Surface Area Tunnels in Hexagonal WO₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wanmei; Yeung, Michael T; Lech, Andrew T; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Chain; Li, Tianqi; Duan, Xiangfeng; Zhou, Jun; Kaner, Richard B

    2015-07-08

    High surface area in h-WO3 has been verified from the intracrystalline tunnels. This bottom-up approach differs from conventional templating-type methods. The 3.67 Å diameter tunnels are characterized by low-pressure CO2 adsorption isotherms with nonlocal density functional theory fitting, transmission electron microscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis. These open and rigid tunnels absorb H(+) and Li(+), but not Na(+) in aqueous electrolytes without inducing a phase transformation, accessing both internal and external active sites. Moreover, these tunnel structures demonstrate high specific pseudocapacitance and good stability in an H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. Thus, the high surface area created from 3.67 Å diameter tunnels in h-WO3 shows potential applications in electrochemical energy storage, selective ion transfer, and selective gas adsorption.

  10. High surface area fibrous silica nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Disclosed are high surface area nanoparticles that have a fibrous morphology. The nanoparticles have a plurality of fibers, wherein each fiber is in contact with one other fiber and each fiber has a length of between about 1 nm and about 5000 nm. Also disclosed are applications of the nanoparticles of the present invention, and methods of fabrication of the nanoparticles of the present invention.

  11. High surface area fibrous silica nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2014-11-11

    Disclosed are high surface area nanoparticles that have a fibrous morphology. The nanoparticles have a plurality of fibers, wherein each fiber is in contact with one other fiber and each fiber has a length of between about 1 nm and about 5000 nm. Also disclosed are applications of the nanoparticles of the present invention, and methods of fabrication of the nanoparticles of the present invention.

  12. Developing a Random Forest Algorithm for MODIS Global Burned Area Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Ramo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop a global burned area (BA algorithm for MODIS BRDF-corrected images based on the Random Forest (RF classifier. Two RF models were generated, including: (1 all MODIS reflective bands; and (2 only the red (R and near infrared (NIR bands. Active fire information, vegetation indices and auxiliary variables were taken into account as well. Both RF models were trained using a statistically designed sample of 130 reference sites, which took into account the global diversity of fire conditions. For each site, fire perimeters were obtained from multitemporal pairs of Landsat TM/ETM+ images acquired in 2008. Those fire perimeters were used to extract burned and unburned areas to train the RF models. Using the standard MD43A4 resolution (500 × 500 m, the training dataset included 48,365 burned pixels and 6,293,205 unburned pixels. Different combinations of number of trees and number of parameters were tested. The final RF models included 600 trees and 5 attributes. The RF full model (considering all bands provided a balanced accuracy of 0.94, while the RF RNIR model had 0.93. As a first assessment of these RF models, they were used to classify daily MCD43A4 images in three test sites for three consecutive years (2006–2008. The selected sites included different ecosystems: Australia (Tropical, Boreal (Canada and Temperate (California, and extended coverage (totaling more than 2,500,000 km2. Results from both RF models for those sites were compared with national fire perimeters, as well as with two existing BA MODIS products; the MCD45 and MCD64. Considering all three years and three sites, commission error for the RF Full model was 0.16, with an omission error of 0.23. For the RF RNIR model, these errors were 0.19 and 0.21, respectively. The existing MODIS BA products had lower commission errors, but higher omission errors (0.09 and 0.33 for the MCD45 and 0.10 and 0.29 for the MCD64 than those obtained with the RF models, and

  13. Forest Understory Fire in the Brazilian Amazon in ENSO and Non-ENSO Years: Area Burned and Committed Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, A.; Nepstad, D.; Ver-Diaz, M. Del. C.

    2004-01-01

    "Understory fires" that burn the floor of standing forests are one of the most important types of forest impoverishment in the Amazon, especially during the severe droughts of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes. However, we are aware of no estimates of the areal extent of these fires for the Brazilian Amazon and, hence, of their contribution to Amazon carbon fluxes to the atmosphere. We calculated the area of forest understory fires for the Brazilian Amazon region during an El Nino (1998) and a non El Nino (1995) year based on forest fire scars mapped with satellite images for three locations in eastern and southern Amazon, where deforestation is concentrated. The three study sites represented a gradient of both forest types and dry season severity. The burning scar maps were used to determine how the percentage of forest that burned varied with distance from agricultural clearings. These spatial functions were then applied to similar forest/climate combinations outside of the study sites to derive an initial estimate for the Brazilian Amazon. Ninety-one percent of the forest area that burned in the study sites was within the first kilometer of a clearing for the non ENSO year and within the first four kilometers for the ENSO year. The area of forest burned by understory forest fire during the severe drought (ENSO) year (3.9 millions of hectares) was 13 times greater than the area burned during the average rainfall year (0.2 million hectares), and twice the area of annual deforestation rate. Dense forest was, proportionally, the forest area most affected by understory fires during the El Nino year, while understory fires were concentrated in transitional forests during the year of average rainfall. Our estimate of aboveground tree biomass killed by fire ranged from 0.06 Pg to 0.38 Pg during the ENSO and from 0,004 Pg to 0,024 Pg during the non ENSO.

  14. Prevention of burn-on defect on surface of hydroturbine blade casting of ultra-low-carbon refining stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ling

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The burn-on sand is common surface defect encountered in CO2-cured silicate-bonded sand casting of hydroturbine blade of ultra-low-carbon martensitic stainless steel, its feature, causes and prevention measures are presented in this paper. Experiments showed that the burn-on defect is caused by oxidization of chromium in the molten steel at high temperature and can be effectively eliminated by using chromium-corundum coating.

  15. Impact of a Newly Implemented Burn Protocol on Surgically Managed Partial Thickness Burns at a Specialized Burns Center in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Khwee-Soon Vincent; Chong, Si-Jack; Tan, Bien-Keem

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a newly implemented protocol for superficial to mid-dermal partial thickness burns which involves early surgery and rapid coverage with biosynthetic dressing in a specialized national burns center in Singapore. Consecutive patients with 5% or greater total body surface area (TBSA) superficial to mid-dermal partial thickness burns injury admitted to the Burns Centre at the Singapore General Hospital between August and December 2014 for surgery within 48 hours of injury were prospectively recruited into the study to form the protocol group. Comparable historical cases from the year 2013 retrieved from the burns center audit database were used to form the historical control group. Demographics (age, sex), type and depth of burns, %TBSA burnt, number of operative sessions, and length of stay were recorded for each patient of both cohorts. Thirty-nine burns patients managed under the new protocol were compared with historical control (n = 39) comparable in age and extensiveness of burns. A significantly shorter length of stay (P burns was observed in the new protocol group (0.74 day/%TBSA) versus historical control (1.55 day/%TBSA). Fewer operative sessions were needed under the new protocol for burns 10% or greater TBSA burns (P protocol for surgically managed burns patients which involves early surgery and appropriate use of biosynthetic dressing on superficial to mid-dermal partial thickness burns. Clinically, shorter lengths of stay, fewer operative sessions, and decreased need for skin grafting of burns patient were observed.

  16. Automated Burned Area Delineation Using IRS AWiFS satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, J.; Kiranchand, T. R.; Rajashekar, G.; Jha, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    India is endowed with a rich forest cover. Over 21% of country's area is covered by forest of varied composition and structure. Out of 67.5 million ha of Indian forests, about 55% of the forest cover is being subjected to fires each year, causing an economic loss of over 440 crores of rupees apart from other ecological effects. Studies carried out by Forest Survey of India reveals that on an average 53% forest cover of the country is prone to fires and 6.17% of the forests are prone to severe fire damage. Forest Survey of India in a countrywide study in 1995 estimated that about 1.45 million hectares of forest are affected by fire annually. According to Forest Protection Division of the Ministry of Environment and Forest (GOI), 3.73 million ha of forests are affected by fire annually in India. Karnataka is one of the southern states of India extending in between latitude 110 30' and 180 25' and longitudes 740 10' and 780 35'. As per Forest Survey of India's State of Forest Report (SFR) 2009, of the total geographic area of 191791sq.km, the state harbors 38284 sq.km of recorded forest area. Major forest types occurring in the study area are tropical evergreen and semi-evergreen, tropical moist and dry deciduous forests along with tropical scrub and dry grasslands. Typical forest fire season in the study area is from February-May with a peak during March-April every year, though sporadic fire episodes occur in other parts of the year sq.km, the state harbors 38284 sq.km of recorded forest area. Major forest types occurring in the study area are tropical evergreen and semi-evergreen, tropical moist and dry deciduous forests along with tropical scrub and dry grasslands. Significant area of the deciduous forests, scrub and grasslands is prone to recurrent forest fires every year. In this study we evaluate the feasibility of burned area mapping over a large area (Karnataka state, India) using a semi-automated detection algorithm applied to medium resolution multi

  17. Mouse Model of Burn Wound and Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2017-01-01

    The immunosuppression induced by thermal injury renders the burned victim susceptible to infection. A mouse model was developed to examine the immunosuppression, which was possible to induce even at a minor thermal insult of 6% total body surface area. After induction of the burn (48 hr) a depres......The immunosuppression induced by thermal injury renders the burned victim susceptible to infection. A mouse model was developed to examine the immunosuppression, which was possible to induce even at a minor thermal insult of 6% total body surface area. After induction of the burn (48 hr...

  18. On semiautomatic estimation of surface area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dvorak, J.; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel

    2013-01-01

    and the surfactor. For ellipsoidal particles, it is shown that the flower estimator is equal to the pivotal estimator based on support function measurements along four perpendicular rays. This result makes the pivotal estimator a powerful approximation to the flower estimator. In a simulation study of prolate....... If the segmentation is correct the estimate is computed automatically, otherwise the expert performs the necessary measurements manually. In case of convex particles we suggest to base the semiautomatic estimation on the so-called flower estimator, a new local stereological estimator of particle surface area....... For convex particles, the estimator is equal to four times the area of the support set (flower set) of the particle transect. We study the statistical properties of the flower estimator and compare its performance to that of two discretizations of the flower estimator, namely the pivotal estimator...

  19. A non-destructive surface burn detection method for ferrous metals based on acoustic emission and ensemble empirical mode decomposition: from laser simulation to grinding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhensheng; Wu, Haixi; Yu, Zhonghua; Huang, Youfang

    2014-01-01

    Grinding is usually done in the final finishing of a component. As a result, the surface quality of finished products, e.g., surface roughness, hardness and residual stress, are affected by the grinding procedure. However, the lack of methods for monitoring of grinding makes it difficult to control the quality of the process. This paper focuses on the monitoring approaches for the surface burn phenomenon in grinding. A non-destructive burn detection method based on acoustic emission (AE) and ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) was proposed for this purpose. To precisely extract the AE features caused by phase transformation during burn formation, artificial burn was produced to mimic grinding burn by means of laser irradiation, since laser-induced burn involves less mechanical and electrical noise. The burn formation process was monitored by an AE sensor. The frequency band ranging from 150 to 400 kHz was believed to be related to surface burn formation in the laser irradiation process. The burn-sensitive frequency band was further used to instruct feature extraction during the grinding process based on EEMD. Linear classification results evidenced a distinct margin between samples with and without surface burn. This work provides a practical means for grinding burn detection. (paper)

  20. A Simple Proof of Cauchy's Surface Area Formula

    OpenAIRE

    Tsukerman, Emmanuel; Veomett, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    We give a short and simple proof of Cauchy's surface area formula, which states that the average area of a projection of a convex body is equal to its surface area up to a multiplicative constant in the dimension.

  1. Work plan for focused feasibility study of the toxic burning pits area at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biang, C.; Benioff, P.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.

    1995-03-01

    The Environmental Management Division (EMD) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCIA). J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). Considerable archival information about J-Field exists as a result of efforts by APG staff to characterize the hazards associated with the site. Contamination of J-Field was first detected during an environmental survey of the Edgewood Area conducted in 1977 and 1978 by the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA)(predecessor to the US Army Environmental Center). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field. Contamination at J-Field was also detected during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science in 1983. The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved the installation and sampling of nine wells and the collection and analysis of surficial and deep composite soil samples. In 1986, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit (MD3-21-0021355) requiring a basewide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1987, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phased hydrogeologic assessment in which data were collected to model groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed, a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today-

  2. Foot burns: epidemiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemington-Gorse, S; Pellard, S; Wilson-Jones, N; Potokar, T

    2007-12-01

    This is a retrospective study of the epidemiology and management of isolated foot burns presenting to the Welsh Centre for Burns from January 1998 to December 2002. A total of 289 were treated of which 233 were included in this study. Approximately 40% were in the paediatric age group and the gender distribution varied dramatically for adults and children. In the adult group the male:female ratio was 3.5:1, however in the paediatric group the male:female ratio was more equal (1.6:1). Scald burns (65%) formed the largest group in children and scald (35%) and chemical burns (32%) in adults. Foot burns have a complication rate of 18% and prolonged hospital stay. Complications include hypertrophic scarring, graft loss/delayed healing and wound infection. Although isolated foot burns represent a small body surface area, over half require treatment as in patients to allow for initial aggressive conservative management of elevation and regular wound cleansing to avoid complications. This study suggests a protocol for the initial acute management of foot burns. This protocol states immediate referral of all foot burns to a burn centre, admission of these burns for 24-48 h for elevation, regular wound cleansing with change of dressings and prophylactic antibiotics.

  3. Accessible surface area from NMR chemical shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafsa, Noor E.; Arndt, David; Wishart, David S., E-mail: david.wishart@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta, Department of Computing Science (Canada)

    2015-07-15

    Accessible surface area (ASA) is the surface area of an atom, amino acid or biomolecule that is exposed to solvent. The calculation of a molecule’s ASA requires three-dimensional coordinate data and the use of a “rolling ball” algorithm to both define and calculate the ASA. For polymers such as proteins, the ASA for individual amino acids is closely related to the hydrophobicity of the amino acid as well as its local secondary and tertiary structure. For proteins, ASA is a structural descriptor that can often be as informative as secondary structure. Consequently there has been considerable effort over the past two decades to try to predict ASA from protein sequence data and to use ASA information (derived from chemical modification studies) as a structure constraint. Recently it has become evident that protein chemical shifts are also sensitive to ASA. Given the potential utility of ASA estimates as structural constraints for NMR we decided to explore this relationship further. Using machine learning techniques (specifically a boosted tree regression model) we developed an algorithm called “ShiftASA” that combines chemical-shift and sequence derived features to accurately estimate per-residue fractional ASA values of water-soluble proteins. This method showed a correlation coefficient between predicted and experimental values of 0.79 when evaluated on a set of 65 independent test proteins, which was an 8.2 % improvement over the next best performing (sequence-only) method. On a separate test set of 92 proteins, ShiftASA reported a mean correlation coefficient of 0.82, which was 12.3 % better than the next best performing method. ShiftASA is available as a web server ( http://shiftasa.wishartlab.com http://shiftasa.wishartlab.com ) for submitting input queries for fractional ASA calculation.

  4. [Treatment of surface burns with proteolytic enzymes: mathematic description of lysis kinetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domogatskaia, A S; Domogatskiĭ, S P; Ruuge, E K

    2003-01-01

    The lysis of necrotic tissue by a proteolytic enzyme applied to the surface of a burn wound was studied. A mathematical model was proposed, which describes changes in the thickness of necrotic tissue as a function of the proteolytic activity of the enzyme. The model takes into account the inward-directed diffusion of the enzyme, the counterflow of interstitial fluid (exudates) containing specific inhibitors, and the extracellular matrix proteolysis. It was shown in terms of the quasi-stationary approach that the thickness of the necrotic tissue layer decreases exponentially with time; i.e., the lysis slows down as the thickness of the necrotic tissue layer decreases. The dependence of the characteristic time of this decrease on enzyme concentration was obtained. It was shown that, at high enzyme concentrations (more than 5 mg/ml), the entire time of lysis (after the establishment of quasi-stationary equilibrium) is inversely proportional to the concentration of the enzyme.

  5. High-surface-area active carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Grady, T.M.; Wennerberg, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation and properties of a unique active carbon having exceptionally high surface areas, over 2500 m 2 /gm, and extraordinary adsorptive capacities. The carbon is made by a direct chemical activation route in which petroleum coke or other carbonaceous sources are reacted with excess potassium hydroxide at 400 0 to 500 0 C to an intermediate product that is subsequently pyrolyzed at 800 0 to 900 0 C to active carbon containing potassium salts. These are removed by water washing and the carbon is dried to produce a powdered product. A granular carbon can also be made by further processing the powdered carbon by using specialized granulation techniques. Typical properties of the carbon include Iodine Numbers of 3000 to 3600, methylene blue adsorption of 650 to 750 mg/gm, pore volumes of 2.0 to 2.6 cc/gm and less than 3.0% ash. This carbon's high adsorption capacities make it uniquely suited for numerous demanding applications in the medical area, purifications, removal of toxic substances, as catalyst carriers, etc

  6. A thirty year, fine-scale, characterization of area burned in Canadian forests shows evidence of regionally increasing trends in the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coops, Nicholas C; Hermosilla, Txomin; Wulder, Michael A; White, Joanne C; Bolton, Douglas K

    2018-01-01

    Fire as a dominant disturbance has profound implications on the terrestrial carbon cycle. We present the first ever multi-decadal, spatially-explicit, 30 meter assessment of fire regimes across the forested ecoregions of Canada at an annual time-step. From 1985 to 2015, 51 Mha burned, impacting over 6.5% of forested ecosystems. Mean annual area burned was 1,651,818 ha and varied markedly (σ = 1,116,119), with 25% of the total area burned occurring in three years: 1989, 1995, and 2015. Boreal forest types contained 98% of the total area burned, with the conifer-dominated Boreal Shield containing one-third of all burned area. While results confirm no significant national trend in burned area for the period of 1985 to 2015, a significant national increasing trend (α = 0.05) of 11% per year was evident for the past decade (2006 to 2015). Regionally, a significant increasing trend in total burned area from 1985 to 2015 was observed in the Montane Cordillera (2.4% increase per year), while the Taiga Plains and Taiga Shield West displayed significant increasing trends from 2006 to 2015 (26.1% and 12.7% increases per year, respectively). The Atlantic Maritime, which had the lowest burned area of all ecozones (0.01% burned per year), was the only ecozone to display a significant negative trend (2.4% decrease per year) from 1985 to 2015. Given the century-long fire return intervals in many of these ecozones, and large annual variability in burned area, short-term trends need to be interpreted with caution. Additional interpretive cautions are related to year used for trend initiation and the nature and extents of spatial regionalizations used for summarizing findings. The results of our analysis provide a baseline for monitoring future national and regional trends in burned area and offer spatially and temporally detailed insights to inform science, policy, and management.

  7. Resorption of radionuclides through the surface of thermal burns and problems of decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'in, L.A.; Ivannikov, A.T.; Popov, B.A.; Parfenova, I.M.

    1981-01-01

    Resorption of sup(137)Cs, sup(89)Sr, sup(131)I, sup(241)Am during thermal burns of 1-3 degrees and choice of a decontamination method used simultaneously for decontamination and disinfection of burn wounds were studied. It is shown that a degree of burns effects in a certain form on skin penetrability: through burns of 1-2 degrees the resorption increases 1 5-3 times, through burns of the thir degree the resorption decreases slightly as compared to the resorption through intact skin. High efficiency of 3% soap solution for removing radionuclides from burn csurfae of skin has been established. For burns accompanied with the disturbance of epidermis integrality, when considerable absorption of radionuclides is possible, decontamination must be accomplished as soon and complete as possible [ru

  8. Assessing the response of area burned to changing climate in western boreal North America using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael S. Balshi; A. David McGuire; Paul Duffy; Mike Flannigan; John Walsh; Jerry Melillo

    2009-01-01

    We developed temporally and spatially explicit relationships between air temperature and fuel moisture codes derived from the Canadian Fire Weather Index System to estimate annual area burned at 2.5o (latitude x longitude) resolution using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline (MARS) approach across Alaska and Canada. Burned area was...

  9. Emissions from Combustion of Open Area Sources: Prescribed Forest and Agricultural Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from wildfires and prescribed forest and agricultural burns generate a variety of emissions that can cause adverse health effects for humans, contribute to climate change, and decrease visibility. Only limited pollutant data are available for these sources, particularly...

  10. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and its correlation with basal membrane components laminin-5 and collagen type IV in paediatric burn patients measured with Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging (SPRI) biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weremijewicz, Artur; Matuszczak, Ewa; Sankiewicz, Anna; Tylicka, Marzena; Komarowska, Marta; Tokarzewicz, Anna; Debek, Wojciech; Gorodkiewicz, Ewa; Hermanowicz, Adam

    2018-01-30

    The purpose of this study was the determination of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and its correlation with basal membrane components laminin-5 and collagen type IV in the blood plasma of burn patients measured with Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging (SPRI) biosensors. 31 children scalded by hot water who were managed at the Department of Paediatric Surgery between 2014-2015, after primarily presenting with burns in 4-20% TBSA were included into the study (age 9 months up to 14 years, mean age 2,5+1 years). There were 10 girls and 21 boys. Venous blood samples were drawn 2-6h, and 12-16h after the thermal injury, and on the subsequent days 3, 5 and 7. The matrix metalloproteinase-2, collagen type IV and laminin-5 concentrations were assessed using Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging by the investigators blinded to the other data. The MMP-2, laminin-5 and collagen type IV concentrations in the blood plasma of patients with burns, were highest 12-16h after thermal injury, the difference was statistically significant. The MMP-2, laminin-5 and collagen type IV concentrations measured 3 days, 5 days and 7 days after the thermal injury, slowly decreased over time, and on the 7th day reached the normal range, when compared with the concentration measured in controls. Current work is the first follow-up study regarding MMP-2 in burns. MMP-2, laminin-5 and collagen type IV levels were elevated early after burn injury in the plasma of studied patients, and were highest 12-16h after the injury. MMP-2, laminin-5 and collagen type IV levels were not proportional to the severity of the burn. We believe in the possibility that the gradual decrease of MMP-2, collagen type IV and laminin-5 concentrations could be connected with the process of healing, but to prove it, more investigation is needed in this area. The SPR imaging biosensor is a good diagnostic tool for determination of MMP-2, laminin-5 and collagen type IV in blood plasma of patients with burns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  11. Aluminum agglomeration involving the second mergence of agglomerates on the solid propellants burning surface: Experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Wen; Liu, Xin; Rezaiguia, Hichem; Liu, Huan; Wang, Zhixin; Liu, Peijin

    2017-07-01

    The agglomeration of aluminum particles usually occurs on the burning surface of aluminized composite propellants. It leads to low propellant combustion efficiency and high two-phase flow losses. To reach a thorough understanding of aluminum agglomeration behaviors, agglomeration processes, and particles size distribution of Al/AP/RDX/GAP propellants were studied by using a cinephotomicrography experimental technique, under 5 MPa. Accumulation, aggregation, and agglomeration phenomena of aluminum particles have been inspected, as well as the flame asymmetry of burning agglomerates. Results reveals that the dependency of the mean and the maximum agglomeration diameter to the burning rate and the virgin aluminum size have the same trend. A second-time mergence of multiple agglomerates on the burning surface is unveiled. Two typical modes of second mergence are concluded, based upon vertical and level movement of agglomerates, respectively. The latter mode is found to be dominant and sometimes a combination of the two modes may occur. A new model of aluminum agglomeration on the burning surface of composite propellants is derived to predict the particulates size distribution with a low computational amount. The basic idea is inspired from the well-known pocket models. The pocket size of the region formed by adjacent AP particles is obtained through scanning electron microscopy of the propellant cross-section coupled to an image processing method. The second mergence mechanism, as well as the effect of the burning rate on the agglomeration processes, are included in the present model. The mergence of two agglomerates is prescribed to occur only if their separation distance is less than a critical value. The agglomerates size distribution resulting from this original model match reasonably with the experimental data. Moreover, the present model gives superior results for mean agglomeration diameter compared to common empirical and pocket models. The average prediction

  12. Assessment of Burned Area and Atmospheric Gases from Multi- temporal MODIS Images (2000- 2017) in Nainital District, Uttarakhand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, R.; K V, S. B.; Dhakate, P. M.

    2017-12-01

    Recent times have observed a significant rate of deforestation and forest degradation. One of the major causes of forest degradation is forest fires. Forest fires though have shaped the current forest ecosystem but also have continued to degrade the system by causing loss of flora and fauna. In addition to that, forest fire leads to emission of carbon and other trace gases which contributes to global warming. The hill states in India, particularly Uttarakhand witnesses annual forest fires; which are primarily anthropogenic caused, occurring from March to June. Nainital one of the thirteen districts in Uttarakhand, has been selected as the study site. The region has diverse endemic species of vegetation, ranging from Alpine in North to moist deciduous in South. The increasing forest fire incidents in the region and limited studies on the subject, calls for landscape assessment of the complex Human Environment System (HES). It is in this context, that a greater need for monitoring forest fire incidents has been felt. Remote Sensing and GIS which are robust tool, provides continuous information of an area at various spatial and temporal resolutions. The goal of this study is to map burned area, burned severity and estimate atmospheric gas emissions in forested areas of Nainital by utilizing cloud free MODIS images from 2000- 2017. Multiple spectral indices were generated from pre and post burn dataset of MODIS to conclude the most sensitive band combination. Inter- comparison of results obtained from different spectral indices and the global MODIS MCD45A1 was carried out using linear regression analysis. Additionally, burned area estimation from satellite was compared to figures reported by forest department. There were considerable differences amongst the two which could be primarily due to differences in spatial resolution, and timings of forest fire occurrence and image acquisition. Further, estimation of various atmospheric gases was carried out based on the IPCC

  13. Localization of burn mark under an abnormal topography on MOSFET chip surface using liquid crystal and emission microscopy tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C K; Sim, K S; Tso, C P

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the localization of burn mark in MOSFET and the scanning electron microscope (SEM) inspection on the defect location. When a suspect abnormal topography is shown on the die surface, further methods to pin-point the defect location is necessary. Fault localization analysis becomes important because an abnormal spot on the chip surface may and may not have a defect underneath it. The chip surface topography can change due to the catastrophic damage occurred at layers under the chip surface, but it could also be due to inconsistency during metal deposition in the wafer fabrication process. Two localization techniques, liquid crystal thermography and emission microscopy, were performed to confirm that the abnormal topography spot is the actual defect location. The tiny burn mark was surfaced by performing a surface decoration at the defect location using hot hydrochloric acid. SEM imaging, which has the high magnification and three-dimensional capabilities, was used to capture the images of the burn mark. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The largest forest fires in Portugal: the constraints of burned area size on the comprehension of fire severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedim, Fantina; Remelgado, Ruben; Martins, João; Carvalho, Salete

    2015-01-01

    Portugal is a European country with highest forest fires density and burned area. Since beginning of official forest fires database in 1980, an increase in number of fires and burned area as well as appearance of large and catastrophic fires have characterized fire activity in Portugal. In 1980s, the largest fires were just a little bit over 10,000 ha. However, in the beginning of 21st century several fires occurred with a burned area over 20,000 ha. Some of these events can be classified as mega-fires due to their ecological and socioeconomic severity. The present study aimed to discuss the characterization of large forest fires trend, in order to understand if the largest fires that occurred in Portugal were exceptional events or evidences of a new trend, and the constraints of fire size to characterize fire effects because, usually, it is assumed that larger the fire higher the damages. Using Portuguese forest fire database and satellite imagery, the present study showed that the largest fires could be seen at the same time as exceptional events and as evidence of a new fire regime. It highlighted the importance of size and patterns of unburned patches within fire perimeter as well as heterogeneity of fire ecological severity, usually not included in fire regime description, which are critical to fire management and research. The findings of this research can be used in forest risk reduction and suppression planning.

  15. Prescribed burning in the Kings River Ecosystem Project Area: lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    David S. McCandliss

    2002-01-01

    The prescribed fire program on the Sierra National Forest is in its infancy. Prescription burning was initiated in 1994 in two 32,000-acre watersheds in the Kings River District of the Sierra National Forest. Primary objectives are to return fire to a more historical role in forest ecosystems and to provide opportunities for scientists from the Pacific Southwest...

  16. Characterizing Brazilian fire and estimating areas burned by using the Airborne Infrared Disaster Assessment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Brass; Liane S. Guild; Philip J. Riggan; Vincent G. Ambrosia; Robert N. Lockwood; A. Pereira Joao

    1996-01-01

    Biomass burning is a common force in much of the developing tropical world and has wide-ranging environmental impacts. Fire is an important component in tropical deforestation and is often used to clear broad expanses of land for shifting agriculture, dispose of crop residue, and "clean" pastures for cattle grazing. It is part of a complex social phenomenon...

  17. Postwildfire debris flows hazard assessment for the area burned by the 2011 Track Fire, northeastern New Mexico and southeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.

    2011-01-01

    In June 2011, the Track Fire burned 113 square kilometers in Colfax County, northeastern New Mexico, and Las Animas County, southeastern Colorado, including the upper watersheds of Chicorica and Raton Creeks. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from basins burned by the Track Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of burn severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of post-fire debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 38 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence-interval), the probability of debris flow estimated for basins burned by the Track fire ranged between 2 and 97 percent, with probabilities greater than 80 percent identified for the majority of the tributary basins to Raton Creek in Railroad Canyon; six basins that flow into Lake Maloya, including the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins; two tributary basins to Sugarite Canyon, and an unnamed basin on the eastern flank of the burned area. Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 30 cubic meters to greater than 100,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 100,000 cubic meters) were estimated for Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins, which drain into Lake Maloya. The Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Ranking identifies the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins as having the highest probability of producing the largest debris flows. This finding indicates the greatest post-fire debris-flow impacts may be expected to Lake Maloya

  18. Smartphone applications in burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzer, Paul; Parvizi, Daryousch; Lumenta, David B; Giretzlehner, Michael; Branski, Ludwik K; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Tuca, Alexandru; Rappl, Thomas; Smolle, Christian; Kamolz, Lars P

    2015-08-01

    Since the introduction of applications (apps) for smartphones, the popularity of medical apps has been rising. The aim of this review was to demonstrate the current availability of apps related to burns on Google's Android and Apple's iOS store as well as to include a review of their developers, features, and costs. A systematic online review of Google Play Store and Apple's App Store was performed by using the following search terms: "burn," "burns," "thermal," and the German word "Verbrennung." All apps that were programmed for use as medical apps for burns were included. The review was performed from 25 February until 1 March 2014. A closer look at the free and paid calculation apps including a standardized patient was performed. Four types of apps were identified: calculators, information apps, book/journal apps, and games. In Google Play Store, 31 apps were related to burns, of which 20 were calculation apps (eight for estimating the total body surface area (TBSA) and nine for total fluid requirement (TFR)). In Apple's App Store, under the category of medicine, 39 apps were related to burns, of which 21 were calculation apps (19 for estimating the TBSA and 17 for calculating the TFR). In 19 out of 32 available calculation apps, our study showed a correlation of the calculated TFR compared to our standardized patient. The review demonstrated that many apps for medical burns are available in both common app stores. Even free available calculation apps may provide a more objective and reproducible procedure compared to manual/subjective estimations, although there is still a lack of data security especially in personal data entered in calculation apps. Further clinical studies including smartphone apps for burns should be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Safety performance of a near surface repository subject to a fuel burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanini, Lorenzo; Frano, Rosa Lo; Forasassi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the performances of a near surface repository subject to fuel burning occurring simultaneously or subsequently to a large commercial aircraft impact. Specifically the thermal effects caused by a Boeing-747 crushing (considered like “beyond design basis accident”) are studied. An important part of this study is the analysis of the possible (thermo-mechanical) degradation effects, as dehydration, degasification, pressurization, etc. that the concrete may undergo, particularly in the case of prolonged fire, and of the resistance of structure itself in this condition. Conservative assumptions and restrictions have been made with regard to the fire scenario, the maximum temperature of which is calculated on the basis of the fuel airplane amount, the normal impact, the variation of the material properties along with the temperature as well the damaging phenomena of concrete. The airplane impact load, calculated with the Riera approach, and the maximum temperature, reached during the fuel combustion, are used as input (boundary condition) in the numerical simulations performed by MARC© code. The obtained results showed that a repository wall thickness, ranging from 0.6 to 0.9 m, is not sufficient to prevent the local penetration of wall. To reduce the computational cost, the analyses have been made only on a half part of the structure, highlighting the dominance of thermal effects. Despite the ongoing concrete degradation phenomena, the overall integrity of the repository seemed to be guaranteed as well as the containment and the confinement of radioactive waste. (author)

  20. Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-24

    Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

  1. Estimated probability of postwildfire debris flows in the 2012 Whitewater-Baldy Fire burn area, southwestern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne C.; Matherne, Anne Marie; Verdin, Kristine L.

    2012-01-01

    In May and June 2012, the Whitewater-Baldy Fire burned approximately 1,200 square kilometers (300,000 acres) of the Gila National Forest, in southwestern New Mexico. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from 128 basins burned by the Whitewater-Baldy Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed by using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain Western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows along the burned area drainage network and for selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of areal burned extent and severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall intensity to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. In response to the 2-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, modeling indicated that four basins have high probabilities of debris-flow occurrence (greater than or equal to 80 percent). For the 10-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, an additional 14 basins are included, and for the 25-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, an additional eight basins, 20 percent of the total, have high probabilities of debris-flow occurrence. In addition, probability analysis along the stream segments can identify specific reaches of greatest concern for debris flows within a basin. Basins with a high probability of debris-flow occurrence were concentrated in the west and central parts of the burned area, including tributaries to Whitewater Creek, Mineral Creek, and Willow Creek. Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from about 3,000-4,000 cubic meters (m3) to greater than 500,000 m3 for all design storms modeled. Drainage basins with estimated volumes greater than 500,000 m3 included tributaries to Whitewater Creek, Willow

  2. Simulation of flame surface density and burning rate of a premixed turbulent flame using contour advection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, B.H.Y.; Chan, C.K. [Department of Applied Mathematics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2006-10-15

    In this paper, a 2-dimensional rod-stabilized V-shaped flame is simulated using contour advection with surgery as well as the random vortex method. Effects of turbulence on various quantities, such as flame brush thickness and flame surface density, are investigated. The flame surface density S is estimated using the Bray-Moss-Libby formulation, which involves the use of a mean orientation factor {sigma}{sub c}. As a comparison, values of S are also obtained using Shepherd's model, which employs the values of mean flame surface area and mean flame length. Local flame structure is characterized in terms of turbulent flame brush, orientation factor, and flame surface density. Profiles of S obtained using the two different models are compared and show that discrepancy is more evident with increasing turbulence intensity. (author)

  3. Dissolved organic carbon in rainwater from areas heavily impacted by sugar cane burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, C. H.; Francisco, J. G.; Nogueira, R. F. P.; Campos, M. L. A. M.

    This work reports on rainwater dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from Ribeirão Preto (RP) and Araraquara over a period of 3 years. The economies of these two cities, located in São Paulo state (Brazil), are based on agriculture and related industries, and the region is strongly impacted by the burning of sugar cane foliage before harvesting. Highest DOC concentrations were obtained when air masses traversed sugar cane fields burned on the same day as the rain event. Significant increases in the DOC volume weighted means (VWM) during the harvest period, for both sites, and a good linear correlation ( r = 0.83) between DOC and K (a biomass burning marker) suggest that regional scale organic carbon emissions prevail over long-range transport. The DOC VWMs and standard deviations were 272 ± 22 μmol L -1 ( n = 193) and 338 ± 40 μmol L -1 ( n = 80) for RP and Araraquara, respectively, values which are at least two times higher than those reported for other regions influenced by biomass burning, such as the Amazon. These high DOC levels are discussed in terms of agricultural activities, particularly the large usage of biogenic fuels in Brazil, as well as the analytical method used in this work, which includes volatile organic carbon when reporting DOC values. Taking into account rainfall volume, estimated annual rainwater DOC fluxes for RP (4.8 g C m -2 yr -1) and Araraquara (5.4 g C m -2 yr -1) were close to that previously found for the Amazon region (4.8 g C m -2 yr -1). This work also discusses whether previous calculations of the global rainwater carbon flux may have been underestimated, since they did not consider large inputs from biomass combustion sources, and suffered from a possible analytical bias.

  4. Palatal Surface Area of Maxillary Plaster Casts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darvann, Tron Andre; Hermann, Nuno V.; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between corresponding two-dimensional and three-dimensional measurements on maxillary plaster casts taken from photographs and three-dimensional surface scans, respectively. Materials and Methods: Corresponding two-dimensional and three-dimensional measu...

  5. Methylated spirit burns: an ongoing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansbeken, J R H; Vloemans, A F P M; Tempelman, F R H; Breederveld, R S

    2012-09-01

    Despite many educational campaigns we still see burns caused by methylated spirit every year. We undertook a retrospective study to analyse the impact of this problem. We retrospectively collected data of all patients with burns caused by methylated spirit over twelve years from 1996 to 2008. Our main endpoints were: incidence, age, mechanism of injury, total body surface area (TBSA) burned, burn depth, need for surgery and length of hospital stay. Ninety-seven patients with methylated spirit burns were included. During the study period there was no decrease in the number of patients annually admitted to the burn unit with methylated spirit burns. 28% of the patients (n=27) were younger than eighteen years old, 15% (n=15) were ten years old or younger. The most common cause of burns was carelessness in activities involving barbecues, campfires and fondues. Mean TBSA burned was 16% (SD 12.4). 70% (n=68) had full thickness burns. 66% (n=64) needed grafting. Mean length of hospital stay was 23 days (SD 24.7). The use of methylated spirit is an ongoing problem, which continues to cause severe burns in adults and children. Therefore methylated spirit should be banned in households. We suggest sale only in specialised shops, clear labelling and mandatory warnings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of impervious surface area and vegetation changes on mean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adeniyi adeyemi

    Land surface temperature (LST) is measured by the surface energy balance, .... climatic and environmental conditions (Cheng et al., 2006). ..... urban areas have generally resulted in a high reflection and emission of solar radiation and greater.

  7. Radiocarbon Analysis to Calculate New End-Member Values for Biomass Burning Source Samples Specific to the Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, S.; Kirchstetter, T.; Fairley, D.; Sheesley, R. J.; Tang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Elemental carbon (EC), also known as black carbon or soot, is an important particulate air pollutant that contributes to climate forcing through absorption of solar radiation and to adverse human health impacts through inhalation. Both fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, via residential firewood burning, agricultural burning, wild fires, and controlled burns, are significant sources of EC. Our ability to successfully control ambient EC concentrations requires understanding the contribution of these different emission sources. Radiocarbon (14C) analysis has been increasingly used as an apportionment tool to distinguish between EC from fossil fuel and biomass combustion sources. However, there are uncertainties associated with this method including: 1) uncertainty associated with the isolation of EC to be used for radiocarbon analysis (e.g., inclusion of organic carbon, blank contamination, recovery of EC, etc.) 2) uncertainty associated with the radiocarbon signature of the end member. The objective of this research project is to utilize laboratory experiments to evaluate some of these uncertainties, particularly for EC sources that significantly impact the San Francisco Bay Area. Source samples of EC only and a mix of EC and organic carbon (OC) were produced for this study to represent known emission sources and to approximate the mixing of EC and OC that would be present in the atmosphere. These samples include a combination of methane flame soot, various wood smoke samples (i.e. cedar, oak, sugar pine, pine at various ages, etc.), meat cooking, and smoldering cellulose smoke. EC fractions were isolated using a Sunset Laboratory's thermal optical transmittance carbon analyzer. For 14C analysis, samples were sent to Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution for isotope analysis using an accelerated mass spectrometry. End member values and uncertainties for the EC isolation utilizing this method will be reported.

  8. Electrochemical Properties of High Surface Area Vanadium Oxide Aerogels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dong, Winny

    2001-01-01

    .... Traditional composite electrode structures have prevented truly quantitative analysis of surface area effects in nanoscale battery materials, as well as a study of their innate electrochemical behavior...

  9. Burned areas for the conterminous U.S. from 1984 through 2015, an automated approach using dense time-series of Landsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawbaker, T. J.; Vanderhoof, M.; Beal, Y. J. G.; Takacs, J. D.; Schmidt, G.; Falgout, J.; Brunner, N. M.; Caldwell, M. K.; Picotte, J. J.; Howard, S. M.; Stitt, S.; Dwyer, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    Complete and accurate burned area data are needed to document patterns of fires, to quantify relationships between the patterns and drivers of fire occurrence, and to assess the impacts of fires on human and natural systems. Unfortunately, many existing fire datasets in the United States are known to be incomplete and that complicates efforts to understand burned area patterns and introduces a large amount of uncertainty in efforts to identify their driving processes and impacts. Because of this, the need to systematically collect burned area information has been recognized by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which have both called for the production of essential climate variables. To help meet this need, we developed a novel algorithm that automatically identifies burned areas in temporally-dense time series of Landsat image stacks to produce Landsat Burned Area Essential Climate Variable (BAECV) products. The algorithm makes use of predictors derived from individual Landsat scenes, lagged reference conditions, and change metrics between the scene and reference predictors. Outputs of the BAECV algorithm, generated for the conterminous United States for 1984 through 2015, consist of burn probabilities for each Landsat scene, in addition to, annual composites including: the maximum burn probability, burn classification, and the Julian date of the first Landsat scene a burn was observed. The BAECV products document patterns of fire occurrence that are not well characterized by existing fire datasets in the United States. We anticipate that these data could help to better understand past patterns of fire occurrence, the drivers that created them, and the impacts fires had on natural and human systems.

  10. Surface Area Distribution Descriptor for object matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Gafar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Matching 3D objects by their similarity is a fundamental problem in computer vision, computer graphics and many other fields. The main challenge in object matching is to find a suitable shape representation that can be used to accurately and quickly discriminate between similar and dissimilar shapes. In this paper we present a new volumetric descriptor to represent 3D objects. The proposed descriptor is used to match objects under rigid transformations including uniform scaling. The descriptor represents the object by dividing it into shells, acquiring the area distribution of the object through those shells. The computed areas are normalised to make the descriptor scale-invariant in addition to rotation and translation invariant. The effectiveness and stability of the proposed descriptor to noise and variant sampling density as well as the effectiveness of the similarity measures are analysed and demonstrated through experimental results.

  11. The influence of weather and fuel type on the fuel composition of the area burned by forest fires in Ontario, 1996-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podur, Justin J; Martell, David L

    2009-07-01

    Forest fires are influenced by weather, fuels, and topography, but the relative influence of these factors may vary in different forest types. Compositional analysis can be used to assess the relative importance of fuels and weather in the boreal forest. Do forest or wild land fires burn more flammable fuels preferentially or, because most large fires burn in extreme weather conditions, do fires burn fuels in the proportions they are available despite differences in flammability? In the Canadian boreal forest, aspen (Populus tremuloides) has been found to burn in less than the proportion in which it is available. We used the province of Ontario's Provincial Fuels Database and fire records provided by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources to compare the fuel composition of area burned by 594 large (>40 ha) fires that occurred in Ontario's boreal forest region, a study area some 430,000 km2 in size, between 1996 and 2006 with the fuel composition of the neighborhoods around the fires. We found that, over the range of fire weather conditions in which large fires burned and in a study area with 8% aspen, fires burn fuels in the proportions that they are available, results which are consistent with the dominance of weather in controlling large fires.

  12. Why Do We Need the Derivative for the Surface Area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristova, Yulia; Zeytuncu, Yunus E.

    2016-01-01

    Surface area and volume computations are the most common applications of integration in calculus books. When computing the surface area of a solid of revolution, students are usually told to use the frustum method instead of the disc method; however, a rigorous explanation is rarely provided. In this note, we provide one by using geometric…

  13. On the specific surface area of nanoporous materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detsi, E.; De Jong, E.; Zinchenko, A.; Vukovic, Z.; Vukovic, I.; Punzhin, S.; Loos, K.; ten Brinke, G.; De Raedt, H. A.; Onck, P. R.; De Hosson, J. T. M.

    2011-01-01

    A proper quantification of the specific surface area of nanoporous materials is necessary for a better understanding of the properties that are affected by the high surface-area-to-volume ratio of nanoporous metals, nanoporous polymers and nanoporous ceramics. In this paper we derive an analytical

  14. Postwildfire preliminary debris flow hazard assessment for the area burned by the 2011 Las Conchas Fire in north-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.

    2011-01-01

    The Las Conchas Fire during the summer of 2011 was the largest in recorded history for the state of New Mexico, burning 634 square kilometers in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from 321 basins burned by the Las Conchas Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of burn severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 28.0 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence interval), the probabilities of debris flows estimated for basins burned by the Las Conchas Fire were greater than 80 percent for two-thirds (67 percent) of the modeled basins. Basins with a high (greater than 80 percent) probability of debris-flow occurrence were concentrated in tributaries to Santa Clara and Rio del Oso Canyons in the northeastern part of the burned area; some steep areas in the Valles Caldera National Preserve, Los Alamos, and Guaje Canyons in the east-central part of the burned area; tributaries to Peralta, Colle, Bland, and Cochiti canyons in the southwestern part of the burned area; and tributaries to Frijoles, Alamo, and Capulin Canyons in the southeastern part of the burned area (within Bandelier National Monument). Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 400 cubic meters to greater than 72,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 40,000 cubic meters) were estimated for basins in Santa Clara, Los Alamos, and Water Canyons, and for two

  15. Parameters Affecting the Erosive Burning of Solid Rocket Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz Almostafa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the velocity of gases inside solid rocket motors with low port-to-throat area ratios, leading to increased occurrence and severity of burning rate augmentation due to flow of propellant products across burning propellant surfaces (erosive burning, erosive burning of high energy composite propellant was investigated to supply rocket motor design criteria and to supplement knowledge of combustion phenomena, pressure, burning rate and high velocity of gases all of these are parameters affect on erosive burning. Investigate the phenomena of the erosive burning by using the 2’inch rocket motor and modified one. Different tests applied to fulfil all the parameters that calculated out from the experiments and by studying the pressure time curve and erosive burning phenomena.

  16. Lawn mower-related burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, J; Orlet, H; Law, E; Gertler, C

    2000-01-01

    Lawn mower-related injuries are fairly common and are usually caused by the mower blades. Burns may also be associated with the use of power lawn mowers. We describe 27 lawn mower-related burn injuries of 24 male patients and 3 female patients. Three of the patients with burn injuries were children. Burn sizes ranged from 1% to 99% of the total body surface area (mean, 18.1%). Two of the patients died. The hospital stay ranged from 1 day to 45 days. Twenty-six injuries involved gasoline, which is frequently associated with refueling accidents. Safety measures should involve keeping children away from lawn mowers that are being used. The proper use and storage of gasoline is stressed.

  17. Lage-area planar RF plasma productions by surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, S.

    1994-01-01

    Large-area rf plasmas are confirmed to be produced by means of RF discharges inside a large-area dielectric tube. The plasma space is 73 cm x 176 cm and 2.5 cm. The plasma is thought to be produced by an odd plasma-surface wave (PSW ο ) in case of using large-area electrodes and by an even plasma-surface wave (PSW ο ) in case of without the electrodes. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs

  18. Assault by burning in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadin, W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Criminal attacks by burns on women in Jordan are highlighted in this retrospective study carried out of all proved cases of criminal burns in female patients treated at the burn unit of the Royal Rehabilitation Center in Jordan between January 2005 and June 2012. Thirteen patients were included in our study, out of a total of 550 patients admitted, all in the age range of 16-45 yr. Of these 13 women, six were burned by acid throwing, five by hot water, and two by direct flames from fuel thrown over them. Burn percentage ranged from 15 to 75% of the total body surface area, with involvement in most cases of the face and upper trunk. The mean hospital stay was 33 days and the mortality rate was 3/13, i.e. 23%. Violence against women exists in Jordanian society, yet burning assaults are rare. Of these, burning by throwing acid is the most common and most disfiguring act, with a higher mortality rate in domestic environments. PMID:23766757

  19. High-Wattage Pulsed Irradiation of Linearly Polarized Near-Infrared Light to Stellate Ganglion Area for Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Momota

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to apply high-wattage pulsed irradiation of linearly polarized near-infrared light to the stellate ganglion area for burning mouth syndrome (BMS and to assess the efficacy of the stellate ganglion area irradiation (SGR on BMS using differential time-/frequency-domain parameters (D parameters. Three patients with BMS received high-wattage pulsed SGR; the response to SGR was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS representing the intensity of glossalgia and D parameters used in heart rate variability analysis. High-wattage pulsed SGR significantly decreased the mean value of VAS in all cases without any adverse event such as thermal injury. D parameters mostly correlated with clinical condition of BMS. High-wattage pulsed SGR was safe and effective for the treatment of BMS; D parameters are useful for assessing efficacy of SGR on BMS.

  20. [Effects of application of pulse contour cardiac output monitoring technology in early treatment of patients with large area burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D Y; Xie, W G; Xi, M M; Li, Z; Wang, B

    2018-01-20

    Objective: To analyze the changes and relationship of early hemodynamic indexes of patients with large area burns monitored by pulse contour cardiac output (PiCCO) monitoring technology, so as to assess the guiding value of this technology in the treatment of patients with large area burns during shock period. Methods: Eighteen patients with large area burns, confirming to the study criteria, were admitted to our unit from May 2016 to May 2017. Pulse contour cardiac output index (PCCI), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), global end-diastolic volume index (GEDVI), and extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) of patients were monitored by PiCCO instrument from admission to post injury day (PID) 7, and they were calibrated and recorded once every four hours. The fluid infusion coefficients of patients at the first and second 24 hours post injury were calculated. The blood lactic acid values of patients from PID 1 to 7 were also recorded. The correlations among PCCI, SVRI, and GEDVI as well as the correlation between SVRI and blood lactic acid of these 18 patients were analyzed. Prognosis of patients were recorded. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance, single sample t test and Bonferroni correction, Pearson correlation analysis, and Spearman rank correlation analysis. Results: (1) There was statistically significant difference in PCCI value of patients from post injury hour (PIH) 4 to 168 ( F =7.428, P 0.05). (2) There was statistically significant difference in SVRI value of patients from PIH 4 to 168 ( F =7.863, P 0.05). (3) There was no statistically significant difference in the GEDVI values of patients from PIH 4 to 168 ( F =0.704, P >0.05). The GEDVI values of patients at PIH 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 were significantly lower than normal value ( t =-3.112, -3.554, -2.969, -2.450, -2.476, P 0.05). (4) There was statistically significant difference in EVLWI value of patients from PIH 4 to 168 ( F =1.859, P 0.05). (5) The fluid infusion

  1. Indexing aortic valve area by body surface area increases the prevalence of severe aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jander, Nikolaus; Gohlke-Bärwolf, Christa; Bahlmann, Edda

    2014-01-01

    To account for differences in body size in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is divided by body surface area (BSA) to calculate indexed AVA (AVAindex). Cut-off values for severe stenosis are......To account for differences in body size in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is divided by body surface area (BSA) to calculate indexed AVA (AVAindex). Cut-off values for severe stenosis are...

  2. Etiology of Burn Injuries Among 0-6 Aged Children in One University Hospital Burn Unit, Bursa, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neriman Akansel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background; Children whose verbal communications are not fully developed are the ones at risk for burn injuries. Causes of burn injuries vary among different age groups and scald injuries are the common cause of burn injuries among children. The majority of burns result from contact with thermal agents such as flame, hot surfaces, or hot liquids.Aim: The aim of this study was to determine etiologic factors of the burn injured children Methods: Data were collected for burn injured children treated in Uludag University Medical Hospital Burn Unit between January 2001 – December 2008. Patients’ demographic variables, etiology of burn injury, TBSA(total body surface area, degree of the burn injury, duration of hospitalization was detected from medical records of the hospitalized patients.Results: The mean age of the children was 2.5±1.5 (median=2. Although 4.6 % of burned patients were under one year of age, most of the children (67.8% were between 1-3 years. All of the patients were burned as a result of accident and house environment was the place where the burn incident occurred. Burn injuries occurredmostly during summer (29.9% and spring (28.7%. Scald injuries (75.3% were mostly seen burn injury types all among other burn injuries.Conclusions: Lack of supervision and observation are usually the most common causes of burn injuries in children. Statistical differences were found among age groups according to their burn etiology (p<0.05. An effect of TBSA on patient survival was statistically significant (p<0.000 and also statistically significant results were seen among age groups according to their TBSA’s (p<0.005.

  3. A review of campfire burns in children: The QLD experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okon, O; Zhu, L; Kimble, R M; Stockton, K A

    2018-03-27

    Campfire burns in children are a significant health issue. It is imperative that the extent of the problem is examined and strategies discussed to inform future prevention campaigns. A retrospective review of data from the Queensland Paediatric Burns Registry for all children presenting with campfire burns between January 2013 and December 2014 (inclusive). Information collected included patient demographics, detail regarding mechanism of injury, first aid, Total Body Surface Area (TBSA), burn depth, and treatment. Seventy-five children with campfire burns were seen in our paediatric burns centre during this 2-year period. The median age of patients was 3 years (range 10 days-14 years). The hands and feet were the areas most commonly affected. Eleven percent of patients suffered flame burns, whilst 89% suffered contact burns from the hot coals or ashes. Of the latter group, approximately half experienced burns from campfires that had been extinguished for at least one night. Thirteen percent of patients underwent split thickness skin grafting. The incidence of burns was increased during school holiday months. We have previously demonstrated the effectiveness of targeted campaigns in reducing the incidence of campfire burns. A significant portion of patients sustained burns from incorrectly extinguished campfires. These injuries are likely to be preventable with ongoing public awareness campaigns. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. L-form plastics in the treatment of post-burn trophic ulcers and cicatrices of the foot calcaneal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakirov, Babur M; Tagaev, Komil R; Tursunov, Bachron S; Achtamov, Dgamshed A

    2009-03-01

    The burn trauma of the posterior surface of calcaneus region and ankle joint followed by cicatrix formation in the Achilles tendon zone is often complicated by unhealing trophic ulcers. Eleven patients (seven men and four women, aged 9-54 years) have been operated on under our observation for prolonged unhealing ulcers and cicatrices located in the Achilles tendon zone. After cicatrices dissection, L-form plastic surgery was performed. The postoperative period was smooth; a skin graft was appropriately fixed to the proper tissues and the wound margins. Good results were achieved in 10 cases, and no complications were noted. However, in only one patient a marginal necrosis of the external talus part adjoining the ulcer due to tissue changes has been noted, but that had no influence on the good results of the operation.

  5. An optimized groundwater extraction system for the toxic burning pits area of J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, J.J.; Johnson, R.L.; Patton, T.L.; Martino, L.E.

    1996-06-01

    Testing and disposal of chemical warfare agents, munitions, and industrial chemicals at the J-Field area of the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) have resulted in contamination of soil and groundwater. The discharge of contaminated groundwater to on-site marshes and adjacent estuaries poses a potential risk to ecological receptors. The Toxic Burning Pits (TBP) area is of special concern because of its disposal history. This report describes a groundwater modeling study conducted at J-Field that focused on the TBP area. The goal of this modeling effort was optimization of the groundwater extraction system at the TBP area by applying linear programming techniques. Initially, the flow field in the J-Field vicinity was characterized with a three-dimensional model that uses existing data and several numerical techniques. A user-specified border was set near the marsh and used as a constraint boundary in two modeled remediation scenarios: containment of the groundwater and containment of groundwater with an impermeable cap installed over the TBP area. In both cases, the objective was to extract the minimum amount of water necessary while satisfying the constraints. The smallest number of wells necessary was then determined for each case. This optimization approach provided two benefits: cost savings, in that the water to be treated and the well installation costs were minimized, and minimization of remediation impacts on the ecology of the marsh.

  6. Particle surface area and bacterial activity in recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; von Ahnen, Mathis; Fernandes, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Suspended particles in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) provide surface area that can be colonized by bacteria. More particles accumulate as the intensity of recirculation increases thus potentially increasing the bacterial carrying capacity of the systems. Applying a recent, rapid, culture...... but may provide significant surface area. Hence, the study substantiates that particles in RAS provide surface area supporting bacterial activity, and that particles play a key role in controlling the bacterial carrying capacity at least in less intensive RAS. Applying fast, culture-independent techniques......-independent fluorometric detection method (Bactiquant®) for measuring bacterial activity, the current study explored the relationship between total particle surface area (TSA, derived from the size distribution of particles >5 μm) and bacterial activity in freshwater RAS operated at increasing intensity of recirculation...

  7. Outcome after burns: an observational study on burn scar maturation and predictors for severe scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Martijn B A; Vloemans, Jos F P M; Tuinebreijer, Wim E; van de Ven, Peter; van Unen, Ella; van Zuijlen, Paul P M; Middelkoop, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Long-term outcome of burn scars as well as the relation with clinically relevant parameters has not been studied quantitatively. Therefore, we conducted a detailed analysis on the clinical changes of burn scars in a longitudinal setup. In addition, we focused on the differences in scar quality in relation to the depth, etiology of the burn wound and age of the patient. Burn scars of 474 patients were subjected to a scar assessment protocol 3, 6, and 12 months postburn. Three different age groups were defined (≤5, 5-18, and ≥18 years). The observer part of the patient and observer scar assessment scale revealed a significant (p burned (p  0.230) have no significant influence on scar quality when corrected for sex, total body surface area burned, time, and age or etiology, respectively. © 2012 by the Wound Healing Society.

  8. On $L_p$ Affine Surface Area and Curvature Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between $L_p$ affine surface area and curvature measures is investigated. As a result, a new representation of the existing notion of $L_p$ affine surface area depending only on curvature measures is derived. Direct proofs of the equivalence between this new representation and those previously known are provided. The proofs show that the new representation is, in a sense, "polar" to that of Lutwak's and "dual" to that of Sch\\"utt & Werner's.

  9. Geothermal, Geochemical and Geomagnetic Mapping Of the Burning Coal Seam in Fire- Zone 18 of the Coal Mining Area Wuda, Inner Mongolia, PR China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, W.; Han, J.; Halisch, M.; Lindner, H.; Rueter, H.; Wuttke, M. W.

    2008-12-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal has become a world wide problem caused by and affecting technical operations in coal mining areas. The localization of the burning centre is a prerequisite for any planning of fire fighting operations. In the German - Chinese coal fire project sponsored by the German Ministry of Science and Technologies (Grant No. 0330490K) the so called fire zone 18 of the coal mining area of Wuda (InnerMongolia, PR China) serves as a test area for geophysical measurements. For the geothermal and geochemical mapping 25 up to 1m deep boreholes with a diameter of approx. 30 mm are distributed over the particular fire-zone with an extension of 320 × 180 m2. To avoid the highly dynamic gas flow processes in fire induced fractures caused by weather conditions, all boreholes were situated in the undisturbed rock compartments. In these boreholes, plastic tubes of 12 mm diameter provide access to the borehole ground filled with highly permeable gravel. The boreholes are otherwise sealed to the atmosphere by clay. The geothermal observations consist of measurements of temperature profiles in the boreholes and thermal conductivity measurement on rock samples in the lab. For depths greater then 0.2 m diurnal variations in the temperature gradient were neglected. The derived heat flow with maximum values of 80 W/m2 is more then three orders of magnitude higher than the natural undisturbed heat flow. The high heat flow suggests that the dominant heat transport is gas convection through the system of porous rock and fractures. Any temperature anomaly caused by the burning coal in a depth of more than 18 m would need years to reach the surface by a heat transport restricted to conduction. The geochemical soil gas probing is performed by gas extraction from the boreholes. Measured are the concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, H2S and CH4. The O2 deficit in the soil air and the concentrations of the other combustion products compared to the concentrations in the free

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1 with ROTC 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehlecke, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 140 is located within Areas 5, 22, and 23 of the NTS and is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): 05-08-01, Detonation Pits; 05-08-02, Debris Pits; 05-17-01, Hazardous Waste Accumulation Site (Buried); 05-19-01, Waste Disposal Site; 05-23-01, Gravel Gertie; 05-35-01, Burn Pit; 05-99-04, Burn Pit; 22-99-04, Radioactive Waste Dump; and 23-17-01, Hazardous Waste Storage Area. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide a rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 140. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from November 13 through December 11, 2002. Additional sampling to delineate the extent of contaminants of concern (COCs) was conducted on February 4 and March 18 and 19, 2003. Corrective action investigation activities were performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 140. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against appropriate preliminary action levels to identify COCs for each CAS. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities revealed the following: (1) CAS 05-08-01 contains the COCs lead and the radioisotope thorium-234 in the surface soil at sample location A05. (2) CAS 05-23-01 did not have any COCs identified during the field investigation; however, based on historical knowledge of activities at this site, the interior of the Gravel Gertie is considered contaminated with uranium. (3) CAS 23-17-01 contains the COC total petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel-range organics) at location J20 at a depth of 9 to 10 feet below ground surface. (4) No COCs were identified at CASs 05-08-02, 05-17-01, 05-19-01, 05

  11. Characterization of biomass burning from olive grove areas: A major source of organic aerosol in PM10 of Southwest Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M.; Salvador, Pedro; Fernández-Camacho, Rocío; Artiñano, Begoña; Coz, Esther; Márquez, Gonzalo; Sánchez-Rodas, Daniel; de la Rosa, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    The inorganic and organic geochemistry of aerosol particulate matter (APM) was studied in a major olive grove area from Southwest Europe (Baena, Spain). The biomass consists of olive tree branches and the solid waste resulting of the olive oil production. Moreover, high PM10 levels were obtained (31.5 μg m- 3), with two days of exceedance of the daily limit of 50 μg m- 3 (2008/50/CE; EU, 2008) during the experimental period. A high mean levoglucosan concentration was obtained representing up 95% of the total mass of the isomers analysed (280 ng m- 3), while galactosan and mannosan mean concentrations were lower (8.64 ng m- 3 and 7.86 ng m- 3, respectively). The contribution of wood smoke in Baena was estimated, representing 19% of OC and 17% of OM total mass. Positive matrix factor (PMF) was applied to the organic and inorganic aerosols data, which has permitted the identification of five source categories: biomass burning, traffic, mineral dust, marine aerosol and SIC (secondary inorganic compounds). The biomass burning category reached the highest mean contribution to the PM10 mass (41%, 17.6 μg m- 3). In light of these results, the use of biomass resulting from the olive oil production for residential heating and industry must be considered the most important aerosol source during the winter months. The results of this paper can be extrapolated to other olive oil producing areas in the Mediterranean basin. Therefore, a fuller understanding of this type of biomass combustion is required in order to be able to establish appropriate polices and reduce the environmental impact on the population.

  12. Quantifying object and material surface areas in residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Ming, Katherine Y.; Singer, Brett C.

    2005-01-05

    The dynamic behavior of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor environments depends, in part, on sorptive interactions between VOCs in the gas phase and material surfaces. Since information on the types and quantities of interior material surfaces is not generally available, this pilot-scale study was conducted in occupied residences to develop and demonstrate a method for quantifying surface areas of objects and materials in rooms. Access to 33 rooms in nine residences consisting of bathrooms, bedroom/offices and common areas was solicited from among research group members living in the East San Francisco Bay Area. A systematic approach was implemented for measuring rooms and objects from 300 cm{sup 2} and larger. The ventilated air volumes of the rooms were estimated and surface area-to-volume ratios were calculated for objects and materials, each segregated into 20 or more categories. Total surface area-to-volume ratios also were determined for each room. The bathrooms had the highest total surface area-to-volume ratios. Bedrooms generally had higher ratios than common areas consisting of kitchens, living/dining rooms and transitional rooms. Total surface area-to-volume ratios for the 12 bedrooms ranged between 2.3 and 4.7 m{sup 2} m{sup -3}. The importance of individual objects and materials with respect to sorption will depend upon the sorption coefficients for the various VOC/materials combinations. When combined, the highly permeable material categories, which may contribute to significant interactions, had a median ratio of about 0.5 m{sup 2} m{sup -3} for all three types of rooms.

  13. Quantification of lung surface area using computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Li

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To refine the CT prediction of emphysema by comparing histology and CT for specific regions of lung. To incorporate both regional lung density measured by CT and cluster analysis of low attenuation areas for comparison with histological measurement of surface area per unit lung volume. Methods The histological surface area per unit lung volume was estimated for 140 samples taken from resected lung specimens of fourteen subjects. The region of the lung sampled for histology was located on the pre-operative CT scan; the regional CT median lung density and emphysematous lesion size were calculated using the X-ray attenuation values and a low attenuation cluster analysis. Linear mixed models were used to examine the relationships between histological surface area per unit lung volume and CT measures. Results The median CT lung density, low attenuation cluster analysis, and the combination of both were important predictors of surface area per unit lung volume measured by histology (p Conclusion Combining CT measures of lung density and emphysematous lesion size provides a more accurate estimate of lung surface area per unit lung volume than either measure alone.

  14. Surface area considerations for corroding N reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Pitner, A.L.

    1996-06-01

    The N Reactor fuel is corroding at sites where the Zircaloy cladding was damaged when the fuel was discharged from the reactor. Corroding areas are clearly visible on the fuel stored in open cans in the K East Basin. There is a need to estimate the area of the corroding uranium to analyze aspects of fuel behavior as it is transitioned. from current wet storage to dry storage. In this report, the factors that contribute to open-quotes trueclose quotes surface area are analyzed in terms of what is currently known about the N Reactor fuel. Using observations from a visual examinations of the fuel in the K East wet storage facility, a value for the corroding geometric area is estimated. Based on observations of corroding uranium and surface roughness values for other metals, a surface roughness factor is also estimated and applied to the corroding K East fuel to provide an estimated open-quotes trueclose quotes surface area. While the estimated area may be modified as additional data become available from fuel characterization studies, the estimate provides a basis to assess effects of exposed uranium metal surfaces on fuel behavior in operations involved in transitioning from wet to dry storage, during shipment and staging, conditioning, and dry interim storage

  15. Changes in Zinc metabolism after burns : observations, explanations, clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de K.E.C.; de Goeij, J.J.M.; Hamer, van den C.J.A.; Boxma, H.; Groot, de C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Zinc in plasma and urine and serum albumin and alpha 2-macroglobulin were measured in 48 patients with burns. Mean total burned surface area amounted to 18%, ranging from 2 to 55%, and mean hospitalization time amounted to 35 days, ranging from 10 to 124 days. All parameters showed a decrease during

  16. Open Burn/Open Detonation (OBOD) Area Management Using Lime For Explosives Transformation And Metals Immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic Ca Calcium Cd Cadmium Co Cobalt Cr Chromium Cu Copper Fe Iron Mo Molybdenum ERDC/EL TR-12-4 xii Ni Nickel Pb Lead Sb... phytoremediation , reactive barriers, etc.) exist for treatment after the explosive constituents have entered the groundwater or surface water. However, no...Explosives (1,3-dinitrobenzene and nitrobenzene), perchlorate, and inor- ganics ( arsenic , copper, nickel, selenium and zinc) were detected in pre- vious

  17. Assessment of dialyzer surface in online hemodiafiltration; objective choice of dialyzer surface area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Maduell

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: The increase in 40% and 80% of dialyzer surface area entails an increase in convective volume of 6 and 16% respectively, showing minimal differences both in convective volume and clearance capacity when UFC was greater than 45 mL/h/mmHg. It is advisable to optimise dialyser efficiency to the smallest surface area possible, adjusting treatment prescription.

  18. Emergency post-fire rehabilitation treatment effects on burned area ecology and long-term restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter R. Robichaud; Sarah A. Lewis; Robert E. Brown; Louise E. Ashmun

    2009-01-01

    The predicted continuation of strong drying and warming trends in the southwestern United States underlies the associated prediction of increased frequency, area, and severity of wildfires in the coming years. As a result, the management of wildfires and fire effects on public lands will continue to be a major land management priority for the foreseeable future....

  19. Sensitivity of burned area in Europe to climate change, atmospheric CO2 levels, and demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Minchao; Knorr, Wolfgang; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    model. Applying a range of future projections that combine different scenarios for climate changes, enhanced CO2 concentrations, and population growth, we investigated the individual and combined effects of these drivers on the total area and regions affected by fire in the 21st century. The two models...

  20. Postwildfire debris-flow hazard assessment of the area burned by the 2012 Little Bear Fire, south-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne C.; Matherne, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary hazard assessment was developed of the debris-flow potential from 56 drainage basins burned by the Little Bear Fire in south-central New Mexico in June 2012. The Little Bear Fire burned approximately 179 square kilometers (km2) (44,330 acres), including about 143 km2 (35,300 acres) of National Forest System lands of the Lincoln National Forest. Within the Lincoln National Forest, about 72 km2 (17,664 acres) of the White Mountain Wilderness were burned. The burn area also included about 34 km2 (8,500 acres) of private lands. Burn severity was high or moderate on 53 percent of the burn area. The area burned is at risk of substantial postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. A postwildfire debris-flow hazard assessment of the area burned by the Little Bear Fire was performed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Lincoln National Forest. A set of two empirical hazard-assessment models developed by using data from recently burned drainage basins throughout the intermountain Western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows along the burn area drainage network and for selected drainage basins within the burn area. The models incorporate measures of areal burn extent and severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall intensity to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. Relative hazard rankings of postwildfire debris flows were produced by summing the estimated probability and volume ranking to illustrate those areas with the highest potential occurrence of debris flows with the largest volumes. The probability that a drainage basin could produce debris flows and the volume of a possible debris flow at the basin outlet were estimated for three design storms: (1) a 2-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall of 27 millimeters (mm) (a 50 percent chance of occurrence in

  1. Specific surface area evaluation method by using scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrescu, Camelia; Petrescu, Cristian; Axinte, Adrian

    2000-01-01

    Ceramics are among the most interesting materials for a large category of applications, including both industry and health. Among the characteristic of the ceramic materials, the specific surface area is often difficult to evaluate.The paper presents a method of evaluation for the specific surface area of two ceramic powders by means of scanning electron microscopy measurements and an original method of computing the specific surface area.Cumulative curves are used to calculate the specific surface area under assumption that the values of particles diameters follow a normal logarithmic distribution. For two powder types, X7R and NPO the results are the following: - for the density ρ (g/cm 2 ), 5.5 and 6.0, respectively; - for the average diameter D bar (μm), 0.51 and 0.53, respectively; - for σ, 1.465 and 1.385, respectively; - for specific surface area (m 2 /g), 1.248 and 1.330, respectively. The obtained results are in good agreement with the values measured by conventional methods. (authors)

  2. Retrospective analysis of patients with burn injury treated in a burn center in Turkey during the Syrian civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucel Yuce

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To report the management of burn injuries that occured in the Syria civil war, which were referred to our burn center. Methods: Forty-three patients with burns, injured in the civil war in Syria and whom were referred to Dr. Lütfi Kırdar Kartal Educating and Training Hospital Burn Centre of İstanbul, Turkey between 2011-2015 were analyzed in a retrospective study. Results: Most of our patients were in major burn classification (93%; 40/43 and most of them had burns >15% total on body surface area. Most of them were admitted to our center late after first management at centers with improper conditions and in cultures of these patients unusual and resistant strains specific to the battlefield were produced. Conclusion: Immediate transfer of the patients from the scene of incidence to burn centers ensures early treatment, this factor may be effective on the outcome of these patients.

  3. Myroides Species in a Paediatric Burn Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Soydan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Myroides are non-motile, Gram negative bacteria that are mostly found in environmental sources such as soil and water. They are not a part of human flora. For a long time they were evaluated as low grade opportunistic pathogens causing infections in immunocompromised patients whereas a few life-threatening infections were reported in immunocompetent individuals due to Myroides species. The child having a 64% of total body surface area burn was admitted to the burn unit. Myroides spp. was isolated first in urine culture then in blood culture. This is the first time Myroides spp. is reported in a paediatric patient with serious burn.

  4. Can foot anthropometric measurements predict dynamic plantar surface contact area?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Natalie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have suggested that increased plantar surface area, associated with pes planus, is a risk factor for the development of lower extremity overuse injuries. The intent of this study was to determine if a single or combination of foot anthropometric measures could be used to predict plantar surface area. Methods Six foot measurements were collected on 155 subjects (97 females, 58 males, mean age 24.5 ± 3.5 years. The measurements as well as one ratio were entered into a stepwise regression analysis to determine the optimal set of measurements associated with total plantar contact area either including or excluding the toe region. The predicted values were used to calculate plantar surface area and were compared to the actual values obtained dynamically using a pressure sensor platform. Results A three variable model was found to describe the relationship between the foot measures/ratio and total plantar contact area (R2 = 0.77, p R2 = 0.76, p Conclusion The results of this study indicate that the clinician can use a combination of simple, reliable, and time efficient foot anthropometric measurements to explain over 75% of the plantar surface contact area, either including or excluding the toe region.

  5. The epidemology of burn injuries of children and the importance of modern burn centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Mohar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burns represent the major percentage of injuries to children. Their incidence level, injury mechanisms and treatment often differ from the burn injuries of adults.Methods: From the medical records of the Department for Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the Ljubljana Medical Centre we gathered, analyzed and compared the burn injuries of children up to the age of 15 who were admitted to hospital in the year 2003 to those who were treated as outpatients. Moreover, we compared the burn injuries of hospitalized children at the same department in the years 2003, 1993 and 1983 respectively. We compared their gender, age, the total body surface area of burns, the depth of burns, frequency of the mechanisms of injury, the affected parts of the body and the length and mode of treatment. Finally, we compared our results with the results of similar studies from other burn centres.Results: The number of children treated for burns at the department has declined. In all the years studied, the injured children were younger than 5 and the majority of them were boys. The number of children admitted with substantial total body surface areas of burns was also declining. However, there was an increase in the number of children admitted with burns less than 10 % of their total body surface area. The number of burns treated by surgery slightly increased over the years studied. There was a similar sex and age distribution among the hospitalized children and those treated as outpatients.Conclusions: The number of children hospitalized with burns is in decline. In the years 1983, 1993 and 2003, there was no significant difference in the percentage of children who were treated surgically and those who were treated conservatively (P = 0.247. The Burn Centre at the Department for Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the Ljubljana Medical Centre which together with the Burn Department of the Maribor General Hospital covers the population of two million

  6. STEREOLOGICAL ESTIMATION OF SURFACE AREA FROM DIGITAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Ziegel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A sampling design of local stereology is combined with a method from digital stereology to yield a novel estimator of surface area based on counts of configurations observed in a digitization of an isotropic 2- dimensional slice with thickness s. As a tool, a result of the second author and J. Rataj on infinitesimal increase of volumes of morphological transforms is refined and used. The proposed surface area estimator is asymptotically unbiased in the case of sets contained in the ball centred at the origin with radius s and in the case of balls centred at the origin with unknown radius. For general shapes bounds for the asymptotic expected relative worst case error are given. A simulation example is discussed for surface area estimation based on 2×2×2-configurations.

  7. MCO gas composition for low reactive surface areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    This calculation adjusts modeled output (HNF-SD-SNF-TI-040, Rev. 2) by considering lower reactive fuel surface areas and by increasing the input helium backfill overpressure from 0.5 to 1.5 atm (2.5 atm abs) to verify that MCO gas-phase oxygen concentrations can remain below 4 mole % over a 40 year interim period under a worst case condition of zero reactive surface area. Added backfill gas will dilute any gases generated during interim storage and is a strategy within the current design capability. The zero reactive surface area represents a hypothetical worst case example where there is no fuel scrap and/or damaged spent fuel rods in an MCO. Also included is a hypothetical case where only K East fuel exists in an MCO with an added backfill overpressure of 0.5 atm (1.5 atm abs)

  8. OBSERVED ASTEROID SURFACE AREA IN THE THERMAL INFRARED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, C. R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Kramer, E.; Sonnett, S. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wright, E. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The rapid accumulation of thermal infrared observations and shape models of asteroids has led to increased interest in thermophysical modeling. Most of these infrared observations are unresolved. We consider what fraction of an asteroid’s surface area contributes the bulk of the emitted thermal flux for two model asteroids of different shapes over a range of thermal parameters. The resulting observed surface in the infrared is generally more fragmented than the area observed in visible wavelengths, indicating high sensitivity to shape. For objects with low values of the thermal parameter, small fractions of the surface contribute the majority of thermally emitted flux. Calculating observed areas could enable the production of spatially resolved thermal inertia maps from non-resolved observations of asteroids.

  9. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted disposal...

  10. Stereological estimation of surface area from digital images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegel, Johanna; Kiderlen, Markus

    2010-01-01

    A sampling design of local stereology is combined with a method from digital stereology to yield a novel estimator of surface area based on counts of configurations observed in a digitization of an isotropic 2- dimensional slice with thickness s. As a tool, a result of the second author and J....... Rataj on infinitesimal increase of volumes of morphological transforms is refined and used. The proposed surface area estimator is asymptotically unbiased in the case of sets contained in the ball centred at the origin with radius s and in the case of balls centred at the origin with unknown radius...

  11. Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, R.C.; Quigley, G.P.

    1996-12-17

    Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source is disclosed. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm{sup 2} emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm{sup 2} at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing. 3 figs.

  12. High surface area carbon and process for its production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanos, Jimmy; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter; Rash, Tyler; Shah, Parag; Suppes, Galen

    2016-12-13

    Activated carbon materials and methods of producing and using activated carbon materials are provided. In particular, biomass-derived activated carbon materials and processes of producing the activated carbon materials with prespecified surface areas and pore size distributions are provided. Activated carbon materials with preselected high specific surface areas, porosities, sub-nm (<1 nm) pore volumes, and supra-nm (1-5 nm) pore volumes may be achieved by controlling the degree of carbon consumption and metallic potassium intercalation into the carbon lattice during the activation process.

  13. Modelling fire frequency and area burned across phytoclimatic regions in Spain using reanalysis data and the Canadian Fire Weather Index System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedia, J.; Herrera, S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.

    2013-09-01

    We develop fire occurrence and burned area models in peninsular Spain, an area of high variability in climate and fuel types, for the period 1990-2008. We based the analysis on a phytoclimatic classification aiming to the stratification of the territory into homogeneous units in terms of climatic and fuel type characteristics, allowing to test model performance under different climatic and fuel conditions. We used generalized linear models (GLM) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) as modelling algorithms and temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and wind speed, taken from the ERA-Interim reanalysis, as well as the components of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System as predictors. We also computed the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) as an additional predictor for the models of burned area. We found two contrasting fire regimes in terms of area burned and number of fires: one characterized by a bimodal annual pattern, characterizing the Nemoral and Oro-boreal phytoclimatic types, and another one exhibiting an unimodal annual cycle, with the fire season concentrated in the summer months in the Mediterranean and Arid regions. The fire occurrence models attained good skill in most of the phytoclimatic zones considered, yielding in some zones notably high correlation coefficients between the observed and modelled inter-annual fire frequencies. Total area burned also exhibited a high dependence on the meteorological drivers, although their ability to reproduce the observed annual burned area time series was poor in most cases. We identified temperature and some FWI system components as the most important explanatory variables, and also SPEI in some of the burned area models, highlighting the adequacy of the FWI system for fire modelling applications and leaving the door opened to the development a more complex modelling framework based on these predictors. Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential usefulness

  14. Evaluation of the U.S. Geological Survey Landsat burned area essential climate variable across the conterminous U.S. using commercial high-resolution imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Brunner, Nicole M.; Beal, Yen-Ju G.; Hawbaker, Todd J.

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has produced the Landsat Burned Area Essential Climate Variable (BAECV) product for the conterminous United States (CONUS), which provides wall-to-wall annual maps of burned area at 30 m resolution (1984–2015). Validation is a critical component in the generation of such remotely sensed products. Previous efforts to validate the BAECV relied on a reference dataset derived from Landsat, which was effective in evaluating the product across its timespan but did not allow for consideration of inaccuracies imposed by the Landsat sensor itself. In this effort, the BAECV was validated using 286 high-resolution images, collected from GeoEye-1, QuickBird-2, Worldview-2 and RapidEye satellites. A disproportionate sampling strategy was utilized to ensure enough burned area pixels were collected. Errors of omission and commission for burned area averaged 22 ± 4% and 48 ± 3%, respectively, across CONUS. Errors were lowest across the western U.S. The elevated error of commission relative to omission was largely driven by patterns in the Great Plains which saw low errors of omission (13 ± 13%) but high errors of commission (70 ± 5%) and potentially a region-growing function included in the BAECV algorithm. While the BAECV reliably detected agricultural fires in the Great Plains, it frequently mapped tilled areas or areas with low vegetation as burned. Landscape metrics were calculated for individual fire events to assess the influence of image resolution (2 m, 30 m and 500 m) on mapping fire heterogeneity. As the spatial detail of imagery increased, fire events were mapped in a patchier manner with greater patch and edge densities, and shape complexity, which can influence estimates of total greenhouse gas emissions and rates of vegetation recovery. The increasing number of satellites collecting high-resolution imagery and rapid improvements in the frequency with which imagery is being collected means greater opportunities to utilize these sources

  15. Quantifying the influence of previously burned areas on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure: A case study of the Las Conchas Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Patrick Freeborn; Jon D. Rieck; Dave Calkin; Julie W. Gilbertson-Day; Mark A. Cochrane; Michael S. Hand

    2016-01-01

    We present a case study of the Las Conchas Fire (2011) to explore the role of previously burned areas (wildfires and prescribed fires) on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure. Methodological innovations include characterisation of the joint dynamics of fire growth and suppression activities, development of a fire line effectiveness framework, and...

  16. Clay mineralogy in different geomorphic surfaces in sugarcane areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, L.; Marques, J., Jr.

    2012-04-01

    The crystallization of the oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum and kaolinite of clay fraction is the result of pedogenetic processes controlled by the relief. These minerals have influence on the physical and chemical attributes of soil and exhibit spatial dependence. The pattern of spatial distribution is influenced by forms of relief as the geomorphic surfaces. In this sense, the studies aimed at understanding the relationship between relief and the distribution pattern of the clay fraction attributes contribute to the delineation of specific areas of management in the field. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum and kaolinite of clay fraction and its relationship with the physical and chemical attributes in different geomorphic surfaces. Soil samples were collected in a transect each 25 m (100 samples) and in the sides of the same (200 samples) as well as an area of 500 ha (1 sample each six hectare). Geomorphic surfaces (GS) in the transect were mapped in detail to support mapping the entire area. The soil samples were taken to the laboratory for chemical, physical, and mineralogical analysis, and the pattern of spatial distribution of soil attributes was obtained by statistics and geostatistics. The GS I is considered the oldest surface of the study area, with depositional character, and a slope ranging from 0 to 4%. GS II and III are considered to be eroded, and the surface II plan a gentle slope that extends from the edge of the surface until the beginning of I and III. The crystallographic characteristics of the oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum and kaolinite showed spatial dependence and the distribution pattern corresponding to the limits present of the GS in the field. Surfaces I and II showed the best environments to the degree of crystallinity of hematite and the surface III to the greatest degree of crystallinity of goethite agreeing to the pedoenvironment

  17. An assessment of dispersing pollutants from the pre-harvest burning of sugarcane in rural areas in the northeast of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Maria Gabriela L.; Henríquez, Jorge R.; Costa, José A. P.; de Lira Junior, José C.

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, the Brazilian government has been applying several restrictions with regard to preventing environmental pollution. Although Brazilian legislation is becoming stricter as to the pre-harvest burning of sugarcane, this practice is frequently used in order to assist manual harvesting. In the northeast region of Brazil, sugarcane is an important crop, which accounts for about 15% of the national production in a total area of 1,060,660 ha, the average production being 51,119 kg per hectare. The pre-harvest burning of sugarcane generates smoke, which has a high concentration of atmospheric pollutants such as carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (P.M. 2.5 and 10), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOX). This article estimates the volume of CO, P.M. 2.5 and NOX generated and how they are dispersed in the atmosphere when this arises from the burning of sugarcane biomass in rural areas of Northeast Brazil, and does so by using AERMOD VIEW® simulation software. Using the characteristics of the emissions and environmental (meteorological and topographical) data, quality air profiles based on pollutant dispersion were obtained. Three studies were taken into account in order to determine the relationship between pollutant dispersion and some parameters of the burning process, such as those for the spatial distribution of resources, the duration of pre-harvest burning and the influence of undertaking burning in different months. As to spatial distribution, to divide an area into small lots contributes to decreasing the maximum concentration of pollutants by 53% compared to burning a single area of equivalent size. The study of the burning duration indicated that doing so gradually (using a lengthier procedure) could decrease the maximum concentration of the pollutants by an inverse relation. The harvesting period in this region is between November and April. The pollutants

  18. Installation and performance evaluation of an indigenous surface area analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, S.N.; Solapurkar, M.N.; Venkatesan, V.; Prakash, A.; Khan, K.B.; Kumar, Arun; Prasad, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    An indigenously available surface area analyser was installed inside glove box and checked for its performance by analyzing uranium oxide and thorium oxide powders at RMD. The unit has been made ready for analysis of Plutonium oxide powders after incorporating several important features. (author)

  19. Influence of Ear Surface Area on Heat Tolerance of Composite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative importance of ear surface area on heat tolerance of composite rabbit population was evaluated. The study was conducted during the dry and rainy seasons, climatic data were recorded to obtain categorical heat stress index. Physiological parameters, growth performance, ear length and ear width of the rabbits ...

  20. Natural Radioisotopes of Pb, Bi and Po in the Atmosphere of Coal Burning Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asnor Azrin Sabuti

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is discussing the changes of natural radionuclides 210Pb, 210Bi and 210Po in atmospheric samples (rainwater and solid fallout caused by Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz coal-fired Power Plant (SSAAPP operation. We also describe the seasonal changes of 210Pb, 210Bi and 210Po to the monsoon seasons in Peninsular Malaysia. Bulk atmospheric trap was used to collect atmospheric samples for five months (7 Feb 2007 to 27 July 2007 and placed within the SSAAPP area. The natural radionuclide activity levels in the atmosphere were affected by local meteorological conditions to impact their variance over time. As a result, the natural radionulides were increased from the ambient value in atmospheric particles (solid fallout, which related to coal combustion by-product releases into atmosphere. In contrast, this was giving relatively lower or in the same magnitude from most places of radionuclides in rainwater samples. Degree of changes between 210Pb, 210Bi and 210Po affected by high temperature combustions were found to be different for each nuclide due to their respective volatility. 210Po in rainwater and solid fallout were considerably low during early inter-monsoon period which mainly controlled by the rainfall pattern. On the other hand, 210Pb and 210Bi in solid fallout were recorded higher concentrations which associated to drier conditions and more particulate content in air column during southwest monsoon. The mean activity ratio of 210BiRW/210PbRW and 210PoRW/210PbRW are 0.47 ± 0.04 and 0.52 ± 0.17, respectively. Whereas for 210BiSF/210PbSF and 210PoSF/210PbSF are 0.52 ± 0.05 and 0.71 ± 0.13, respectively. Some results showed high activity ratios, reaching to 1.87 ± 0.08 for 210Bi/210Pb and 4.58 ± 0.55 for 210Po/210Pb, of which due to additional of 210Bi and 210Po excess. These ratios also indicating that 210Pb and 210Bi could potentially come from the same source, compared to 210Po which varied differently, showing evidence it came

  1. High burn rate solid composite propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manship, Timothy D.

    High burn rate propellants help maintain high levels of thrust without requiring complex, high surface area grain geometries. Utilizing high burn rate propellants allows for simplified grain geometries that not only make production of the grains easier, but the simplified grains tend to have better mechanical strength, which is important in missiles undergoing high-g accelerations. Additionally, high burn rate propellants allow for a higher volumetric loading which reduces the overall missile's size and weight. The purpose of this study is to present methods of achieving a high burn rate propellant and to develop a composite propellant formulation that burns at 1.5 inches per second at 1000 psia. In this study, several means of achieving a high burn rate propellant were presented. In addition, several candidate approaches were evaluated using the Kepner-Tregoe method with hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)-based propellants using burn rate modifiers and dicyclopentadiene (DCPD)-based propellants being selected for further evaluation. Propellants with varying levels of nano-aluminum, nano-iron oxide, FeBTA, and overall solids loading were produced using the HTPB binder and evaluated in order to determine the effect the various ingredients have on the burn rate and to find a formulation that provides the burn rate desired. Experiments were conducted to compare the burn rates of propellants using the binders HTPB and DCPD. The DCPD formulation matched that of the baseline HTPB mix. Finally, GAP-plasticized DCPD gumstock dogbones were attempted to be made for mechanical evaluation. Results from the study show that nano-additives have a substantial effect on propellant burn rate with nano-iron oxide having the largest influence. Of the formulations tested, the highest burn rate was a 84% solids loading mix using nano-aluminum nano-iron oxide, and ammonium perchlorate in a 3:1(20 micron: 200 micron) ratio which achieved a burn rate of 1.2 inches per second at 1000

  2. Surface water and groundwater interaction in Marala - Khanki area, Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, W.; Ahmad, M.; Latif, Z.; Tariq, J.A.; Malik, M.R.

    2011-07-01

    Isotope hydrological investigations were carried out in two selected areas of Indus Basin viz. Haripur Area and Chashma- Taunsa Area for elucidating various aspects of surface water and groundwater interaction. Groundwater samples were collected on seasonal basis (low and high river discharge periods) while surface water samples were collected more frequently (weekly or monthly basis). Isotopic data suggested that there is no contribution of surface water to groundwater recharge in Haripur Area and rain is the prevailing source of groundwater recharge. The data further revealed that isotopic values of the Haripur pocket of Tarbela Lake are higher than those of Main Lake / Indus River meaning that there is a significant contribution of base flow in this pocket. Indus River appeared to be the dominant source of groundwater recharge at most of the locations in Chashma- Taunsa Area. Isotopic data of Indus River showed an increase at Taunsa as compared to Chashma in low flow period indicating the high contribution of base flow at this point in time. Stable isotopes were successfully used to quantify the base flow contribution. (author)

  3. Myocardial Autophagy after Severe Burn in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Shi, Xiao-hua; Huang, Yue-sheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Autophagy plays a major role in myocardial ischemia and hypoxia injury. The present study investigated the effects of autophagy on cardiac dysfunction in rats after severe burn. Methods Protein expression of the autophagy markers LC3 and Beclin 1 were determined at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 h post-burn in Sprague Dawley rats subjected to 30% total body surface area 3rd degree burns. Autophagic, apoptotic, and oncotic cell death were evaluated in the myocardium at each time point by immunofluorescence. Changes of cardiac function were measured in a Langendorff model of isolated heart at 6 h post-burn, and the autophagic response was measured following activation by Rapamycin and inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA). The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat, the angiotensin receptor I blocker losartan, and the reactive oxygen species inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) were also applied to the ex vivo heart model to examine the roles of these factors in post-burn cardiac function. Results Autophagic cell death was first observed in the myocardium at 3 h post-burn, occurring in 0.008 ± 0.001% of total cardiomyocytes, and continued to increase to a level of 0.022 ± 0.005% by 12 h post-burn. No autophagic cell death was observed in control hearts. Compared with apoptosis, autophagic cell death occurred earlier and in larger quantities. Rapamycin enhanced autophagy and decreased cardiac function in isolated hearts 6 h post-burn, while 3-MA exerted the opposite response. Enalaprilat, losartan, and DPI all inhibited autophagy and enhanced heart function. Conclusion Myocardial autophagy is enhanced in severe burns and autophagic cell death occurred early at 3 h post-burn, which may contribute to post-burn cardiac dysfunction. Angiotensin II and reactive oxygen species may play important roles in this process by regulating cell signaling transduction. PMID:22768082

  4. Gas fireplace contact burns in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettel, Julie C; Khambalia, Amina; Barden, Wendy; Murthy, Trisha; Macarthur, Colin

    2004-01-01

    Contact burns from domestic appliances are common in young children. Recently, gas fireplaces have been recognized as a potential cause of contact burns in young children. We sought to quantify the frequency of gas fireplace contact burns in young children, to identify the etiology of contact, to describe the clinical presentation, and to describe clinical outcomes. Children with gas fireplace contact burn injuries presenting to The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto (1999-2002) were identified using three data sources: the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program Database, the Burn Unit Registry, and the Rehabilitation Services Database. Demographic, clinical, and outcomes data were collected on all children. During the 4-year study period, 27 children presented to the hospital because of a gas fireplace contact burn (approximately 9% of all contact burns). The median age of the children was 14 months (range, 8-36 months), with 16 boys (59%). Most children were burned in their own home. With regard to etiology, 10 children (37%) lost their balance near the fireplace, 2 (7%) walked too close to the glass front, and 8 (30%) touched the glass front out of curiosity. Almost half (44%) of the children burned the palms and digits of both hands. The median total burn surface area was 1% (range, 0.2-2.5%). In total, 30% of children were admitted to hospital, and 11% required skin grafts. All children had full wound closure after 4 to 43 days. Given the etiology of these burns (loss of balance or curiosity), passive prevention, such as barriers or changes in the composition of glass panels, may be the most effective approach to combat them.

  5. Growth of contact area between rough surfaces under normal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stesky, R. M.; Hannan, S. S.

    1987-05-01

    The contact area between deforming rough surfaces in marble, alabaster, and quartz was measured from thin sections of surfaces bonded under load with low viscosity resin epoxy. The marble and alabaster samples had contact areas that increased with stress at an accelerating rate. This result suggests that the strength of the asperity contacts decreased progressively during the deformation, following some form of strain weakening relationship. This conclusion is supported by petrographic observation of the thin sections that indicate that much of the deformation was cataclastic, with minor twinning of calcite and kinking of gypsum. In the case of the quartz, the observed contact area was small and increased approximately linearly with normal stress. Only the irreversible cataclastic deformation was observed; however strain-induced birefringence and cracking of the epoxy, not observed with the other rocks, suggests that significant elastic deformation occurred, but recovered during unloading.

  6. Trace elements in atmospheric particulate matter over a coal burning power production area of western Macedonia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaloti, Christina; Triantafyllou, Athanasios; Kouimtzis, Themistoklis; Samara, Constantini

    2006-12-01

    Total suspended particle (TSP) concentrations were determined in the Eordea basin (western Macedonia, Greece), an area with intensive lignite burning for power generation. The study was conducted over a one-year period (November 2000-November 2001) at 10 sites located at variable distances from the power plants. Ambient TSP samples were analyzed for 27 major, minor and trace elements. Annual means of TSP concentrations ranged between 47+/-33 microg m(-3) and 110+/-50 microg m(-3) at 9 out of the 10 sites. Only the site closest to the power stations and the lignite conveyor belts exhibited annual TSP levels (210+/-97 microg m(-3)) exceeding the European standard (150 microg m(-3), 80/779/EEC). Concentrations of TSP and almost all elemental components exhibited significant spatial variations; however, the elemental profiles of TSP were quite similar among all sites suggesting that they are affected by similar source types. At all sites, statistical analysis indicated insignificant (Pmining activities.

  7. Assessment of dialyzer surface in online hemodiafiltration; objective choice of dialyzer surface area

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Maduell; Raquel Ojeda; Marta Arias-Guillén; Giannina Bazan; Manel Vera; Néstor Fontseré; Elisabeth Massó; Miquel Gómez; Lida Rodas; Mario Jiménez-Hernández; Gastón Piñeiro; Nayra Rico

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Online haemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) is most effective technique; several randomised studies and meta-analyses have shown a reduction in mortality, with a directly related association with convective volume. At present, it is not properly established whether the increasing in dialyser surface area may suppose better outcomes in terms of convective and clearance efficacy. The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of increase in dialyser surface area on the convective volume...

  8. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (with Record of Technical Change No.1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Active Unit 490 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (FTA); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area; 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard; and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area. These CASs are located at the Tonopah Test Range near Areas 3 and 9. Historically, the FTA was used for training exercises where tires and wood were ignited with diesel fuel. Records indicate that water and carbon dioxide were the only extinguishing agents used during these training exercises. The Station 44 Burn Area was used for fire training exercises and consisted of two wooden structures. The two burn areas (ignition of tires, wood, and wooden structures with diesel fuel and water) were limited to the building footprints (10 ft by 10 ft each). The Sandia Service Yard was used for storage (i.e., wood, tires, metal, electronic and office equipment, construction debris, and drums of oil/grease) from approximately 1979 to 1993. The Gun Propellant Burn Area was used from the 1960s to 1980s to burn excess artillery gun propellant, solid-fuel rocket motors, black powder, and deteriorated explosives; additionally, the area was used for the disposal of experimental explosive items. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to: (1) determine the presence of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) at each CAS, (2) determine if any COPCs exceed field-screening levels and/or preliminary action levels, and (3) determine the nature and extent of contamination with enough certainty to support selection of corrective action alternatives for each CAS. The scope of this CAIP is to resolve the

  9. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (with Record of Technical Change No.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-09

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Active Unit 490 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (FTA); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area; 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard; and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area. These CASs are located at the Tonopah Test Range near Areas 3 and 9. Historically, the FTA was used for training exercises where tires and wood were ignited with diesel fuel. Records indicate that water and carbon dioxide were the only extinguishing agents used during these training exercises. The Station 44 Burn Area was used for fire training exercises and consisted of two wooden structures. The two burn areas (ignition of tires, wood, and wooden structures with diesel fuel and water) were limited to the building footprints (10 ft by 10 ft each). The Sandia Service Yard was used for storage (i.e., wood, tires, metal, electronic and office equipment, construction debris, and drums of oil/grease) from approximately 1979 to 1993. The Gun Propellant Burn Area was used from the 1960s to 1980s to burn excess artillery gun propellant, solid-fuel rocket motors, black powder, and deteriorated explosives; additionally, the area was used for the disposal of experimental explosive items. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to: (1) determine the presence of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) at each CAS, (2) determine if any COPCs exceed field-screening levels and/or preliminary action levels, and (3) determine the nature and extent of contamination with enough certainty to support selection of corrective action alternatives for each CAS. The scope of this CAIP is to resolve

  10. Wound management and outcome of 595 electrical burns in a major burn center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haisheng; Tan, Jianglin; Zhou, Junyi; Yuan, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jiaping; Peng, Yizhi; Wu, Jun; Luo, Gaoxing

    2017-06-15

    Electrical burns are important causes of trauma worldwide. This study aims to analyze the clinical characteristics, wound management, and outcome of electric burns. This retrospective study was performed at the Institute of Burn Research of the Third Military Medical University during 2013-2015. Data including the demographics, injury patterns, wound treatment, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. A total of 595 electrical burn patients (93.8% males) were included. The average age was 37.3 ± 14.6 y, and most patients (73.5%) were aged 19∼50 years. Most patients (67.2%) were injured in work-related circumstances. The mean total body surface area was 8.8 ± 11.8% and most wounds (63.5%) were full-thickness burns. Operation times of high-voltage burns and current burns were higher than those of low-voltage burns and arc burns, respectively. Of the 375 operated patients, 83.2% (n = 312) underwent skin autografting and 49.3% (n = 185) required skin flap coverage. Common types of skin flaps were adjacent (50.3%), random (42.2%), and pedicle (35.7%). Amputation was performed in 107 cases (18.0%) and concentrated on the hands (43.9%) and upper limbs (39.3%). The mean length of stay was 42.9 ± 46.3 d and only one death occurred (0.2%). Current burns and higher numbers of operations were major risk factors for amputation and length of stay, respectively. Electrical burns mainly affected adult males with occupational exposures in China. Skin autografts and various skin flaps were commonly used for electric burn wound management. More standardized and effective strategies of treatment and prevention are still needed to decrease amputation rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Importance of proper initial treatment of moderate and major burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulović Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Burns are common injuries with frequency depending on human factors, development of protection, industry and traffic, eventual wars. Organized treatment of major burn injuries has tremendous medical, social and economic importance. The aim of this study was to analyze initial treatment of major and moderate burns, to compare it with the current recommendations and to signify the importance of organized management of burns. Methods. In a prospective study 547 adult patients with major burns were analyzed, covering a period of eight years, with the emphasis on the initial hospital admission and emergency care for burns greater than 10% of total body surface area (TBSA. Results. In the different groups of major burns, the percentage of hospital admission was: 81.5 in burns greater than 10% TBSA, 37.7 in burns of the functional areas, 54.5 in the III degree burns, 81.6 in electrical burns, 55.9 in chemical burns, 61.9 in inhalation injury, 41.0 in burns in patients with the greater risk and 100 in burns with a concomitant trauma. In the group of 145 patients with burns greater than 10% TBSA, intravenous fluids were given in 87 patients, analgesics in 45, corticosteroids in 29, antibiotics in 23 and oxygen administration in 14. In the same group, wound irrigation was done in 14.4%, removing of the clothing and shoes in 29.6%, elevation of the legs in 8.9% and prevention of hypothermia in 7.6% of the victims. There were no initial estimations of burn extent (percentage of a burn, notes about the patient and injury and tetanus immunizations. Conclusion. Based on these findings, it is concluded that there should be much more initial hospital admissions of major burns, and also, necessary steps in the emergency care of burns greater than 10% TBSA should be taken more frequently. On the other side, unnecessary or wrong steps should be avoided in the initial burn treatment.

  12. Small carpal bone surface area, a characteristic of Turner's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, R.H.; Done, S.; Correia, J.A.; Crawford, J.D.; Kushner, D.C.; Herman, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    An abnormality which has received little attention but may be easily recognized on radiographs of the hand of patients with Turner's syndrome is described. Eleven of thirty-one patients (35.5%) with Turner's syndrome were shown on radiographs of the hand to have a visually detectable smallness of the bone surface area of the carpus when compared to the area of the second through fifth metacarpals. Values for the ''C/M'' ratio (the area of the carpals divided by the area of the second through fifth metacarpals) were calculated for films of 31 individuals with gonadal dysgenesis and compared with those from bone age-matched films of seventy-six individuals with normal development of the hand and wrist. A consistent difference with minimal overlap was documented. (orig./WL)

  13. Spatial and temporal patterns of burned area over Brazilian Cerrado from 2005 to 2015 using remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libonati, Renata; DaCamara, Carlos; Setzer, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Although Cerrado is a fire-dependent biome, current agriculture practices have significantly modified the native fire regime. Moreover, over the last decades, climate conditions, such as intensive droughts, have contributed to enhance the effects of anthropogenic activities, and consequently fire, over the region. For instance, during the 2010 extreme drought there was an increase of 100% in the number of fire pixels detected by just one polar orbiting satellite (information online at http://www.cptec.inpe.br/queimadas). A better characterization of spatial and temporal fire patterns over Cerrado is therefore crucial to uncover both climate and anthropogenic influences in this ecosystem. Additionally, information about the extent, location and time of burned areas (BA) over Cerrado is especially useful to a wide range of users, from government agencies, research groups and ecologists, to fire managers and NGOs. Instruments on-board satellites are the only available operational means to collect BA data at appropriated spatial and temporal scales and in a cost-effective way. Several global BA products derived from remote sensed information have been developed over the last years using a variety of techniques based on different spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions. Although presenting similar inter-annual variability, there are marked differences among the products both in magnitude and location of the area burnt. The development of regional algorithms which take into account local characteristics such as vegetation type, soil and climate is therefore an added value to the existing information. We present a monthly BA product (AQM) for Brazil based on information from MODIS 1km. The algorithm was specifically designed for ecosystems in Brazil and the procedure represents the first initiative of an automated method for BA monitoring using remote sensing information in the country. The product relies on an algorithm that takes advantage of the ability of MIR

  14. Surface Disinfectants for Burn Units Evaluated by a New Double Method, Using Microorganisms Recently Isolated From Patients, on a Surface Germ-Carrier Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herruzo, Rafael; Vizcaino, Maria Jose; Herruzo, Irene; Sanchez, Manuel

    Assessment methods of surface disinfection based on international standards (Environmental Protection Agency, European Norms, etc) do not correspond to hospital reality. New evaluation methods of surfaces disinfection are proposed to choose the most suitable disinfectant to act against clinically relevant microorganisms detected on the surfaces of burn units. 1) "Immediate effect": 6 products were compared using a glass germ-carrier and 20 recently isolated microorganisms from different patients in the intensive care units. Disinfectants were applied with microfiber cloths. Log10 reductions were calculated for colony forming units produced after 15 minutes of disinfectant application. 2) "Residual effect": the glass germ-carriers were previously impregnated with one of the studied disinfectants. After a 30-minute wait period, they were then contaminated with 1 microorganism (from the 20 above-mentioned). After 15 minutes, the disinfectant was inhibited and the log10 reduction of colony forming units was assessed. The immediate effect (disinfection and microorganism dragging and transferring from the surface to the cloth) produced complete elimination of the inoculums for all products used except one (a diluted quaternary ammonium). The average residual effect found on the 20 microorganisms was moderate: 2 to 3 log10 colony forming unit reduction with chlorine dioxide or 0.5% chlorhexidine (and lower with the other products), obtaining surfaces refractory to recontamination, at least, during 30 minutes. Two tests should be performed before advising surface disinfectant: 1) direct effect and 2) residual efficacy. These characteristics should be considered when a new surface disinfectant is chosen. Chlorine dioxide has a similar or better direct effect than sodium hypochlorite and a similar residual effect than chlorhexidine.

  15. Sintering of uranium oxide of high specific surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel, Alain; Francois, Bernard; Delmas, Roger; Caillat, Roger

    1959-01-01

    The extent to which a uranium oxide powder deriving from ammonium uranate or uranium peroxide lends itself to the sintering process depends largely on its specific surface area. When this is greater than 5 m 2 / g there is an optimum temperature for sintering in hydrogen. This temperature becomes less as the specific area of the powder is greater. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 249, p. 1045-1047, sitting of 21 September 1959 [fr

  16. Spectral theory of infinite-area hyperbolic surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Borthwick, David

    2016-01-01

    This text introduces geometric spectral theory in the context of infinite-area Riemann surfaces, providing a comprehensive account of the most recent developments in the field. For the second edition the context has been extended to general surfaces with hyperbolic ends, which provides a natural setting for development of the spectral theory while still keeping technical difficulties to a minimum. All of the material from the first edition is included and updated, and new sections have been added. Topics covered include an introduction to the geometry of hyperbolic surfaces, analysis of the resolvent of the Laplacian, scattering theory, resonances and scattering poles, the Selberg zeta function, the Poisson formula, distribution of resonances, the inverse scattering problem, Patterson-Sullivan theory, and the dynamical approach to the zeta function. The new sections cover the latest developments in the field, including the spectral gap, resonance asymptotics near the critical line, and sharp geometric constan...

  17. Thermal Desorption Analysis of Effective Specific Soil Surface Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagin, A. V.; Bashina, A. S.; Klyueva, V. V.; Kubareva, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    A new method of assessing the effective specific surface area based on the successive thermal desorption of water vapor at different temperature stages of sample drying is analyzed in comparison with the conventional static adsorption method using a representative set of soil samples of different genesis and degree of dispersion. The theory of the method uses the fundamental relationship between the thermodynamic water potential (Ψ) and the absolute temperature of drying ( T): Ψ = Q - aT, where Q is the specific heat of vaporization, and a is the physically based parameter related to the initial temperature and relative humidity of the air in the external thermodynamic reservoir (laboratory). From gravimetric data on the mass fraction of water ( W) and the Ψ value, Polyanyi potential curves ( W(Ψ)) for the studied samples are plotted. Water sorption isotherms are then calculated, from which the capacity of monolayer and the target effective specific surface area are determined using the BET theory. Comparative analysis shows that the new method well agrees with the conventional estimation of the degree of dispersion by the BET and Kutilek methods in a wide range of specific surface area values between 10 and 250 m2/g.

  18. Hand surface area estimation formula using 3D anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yao-Wen; Yu, Chi-Yuang

    2010-11-01

    Hand surface area is an important reference in occupational hygiene and many other applications. This study derives a formula for the palm surface area (PSA) and hand surface area (HSA) based on three-dimensional (3D) scan data. Two-hundred and seventy subjects, 135 males and 135 females, were recruited for this study. The hand was measured using a high-resolution 3D hand scanner. Precision and accuracy of the scanner is within 0.67%. Both the PSA and HSA were computed using the triangular mesh summation method. A comparison between this study and previous textbook values (such as in the U.K. teaching text and Lund and Browder chart discussed in the article) was performed first to show that previous textbooks overestimated the PSA by 12.0% and HSA by 8.7% (for the male, PSA 8.5% and HSA 4.7%, and for the female, PSA 16.2% and HSA 13.4%). Six 1D measurements were then extracted semiautomatically for use as candidate estimators for the PSA and HSA estimation formula. Stepwise regressions on these six 1D measurements and variable dependency test were performed. Results show that a pair of measurements (hand length and hand breadth) were able to account for 96% of the HSA variance and up to 98% of the PSA variance. A test of the gender-specific formula indicated that gender is not a significant factor in either the PSA or HSA estimation.

  19. An unusual electrical burn caused by alkaline batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyng-Luen Roan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrical burns caused by low-voltage batteries are rarely reported. We recently encountered a male patient who suffered from a superficial second-degree burn over his left elbow and back. The total body surface area of the burn was estimated to be 6%. After interviewing the patient, the cause was suspected to be related to the explosion of a music player on the left-side of his waist, carried on his belt while he was painting a bathroom wall. Elevated creatine kinase levels and hematuria indicated rhabdomyolysis and suggested an electrical burn. Initial treatment was done in the burn intensive care unit with fluid challenge and wound care. The creatine kinase level decreased gradually and the hematuria was gone after 4 days in the intensive care unit. He was then transferred to the general ward for further wound management and discharged from our burn center after a total of 11 days without surgical intervention.

  20. Minor burn - first aid - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100213.htm Minor burn - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use ... out of 2 Overview To treat a minor burn, run cool water over the area of the ...

  1. Solvent accessible surface area (ASA) of simulated phospholipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuchsen, E.; Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Westh, P.

    2003-01-01

    The membrane-solvent interface has been investigated through calculations of the solvent accessible surface area (ASA) for simulated membranes of DPPC and POPE. For DPPC at 52 degreesC we found an ASA of 126 +/- 8 Angstrom(2) per lipid molecule, equivalent to twice the projected lateral area......, even the most exposed parts of the PC head-group show average ASAs of less than half of its maximal or 'fully hydrated' value. The average ASA of a simulated POPE membrane was 96 +/- 7 Angstrom(2) per lipid. The smaller value than for DPPC reflects much lower ASA of the ammonium ion, which is partially...... compensated by increased exposure of the ethylene and phosphate moieties. The ASA of the polar moieties Of (PO4, NH3 and COO) constitutes 65% of the total accessible area for POPE, making this interface more polar than that of DPPC. It is suggested that ASA information can be valuable in attempts...

  2. Correlation between the histological features of corneal surface pannus following ocular surface burns and the final outcome of cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sati, Alok; Basu, Sayan; Sangwan, Virender S; Vemuganti, Geeta K

    2015-04-01

    To report the influence of histological features of corneal surface pannus following ocular surface burn on the outcome of cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation (CLET). On retrospectively reviewing the medical records of the patients who underwent autologous CLET from April 2002 to June 2012 at L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India, we could trace the histological reports in only 90 records. These 90 records, besides clinical parameters, were reviewed for the influence of various histological features on the final outcome of CLET. The histological features include epithelial hyperplasia (21.1%), surface ulceration (2.2%), goblet cells (62.2%), squamous metaplasia (11.1%), active fibrosis (31.1%), severe inflammation (8.9%), multinucleated giant cells (3.3%), stromal calcification (8.9%) and active proliferating vessels (5.6%). Among these histological features, patients with either hyperplasia or calcification in their excised corneal pannus show an unfavourable outcome compared with patients without hyperplasia (p=0.003) or calcification (p=0.018). A similar unfavourable outcome was not seen with other histological features and various clinical parameters. Presence of either calcific deposits or hyperplasia in the excised corneal pannus provides poor prognostication; hence, a proper counselling of such patients is mandatory along with a close follow-up. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Data in support of environmental controls on the characteristics of mean number of forest fires and mean forest area burned (1987–2007 in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fire frequency and size are two important parameters describing fire characteristics. Exploring the spatial variation of fire characteristics and understanding the environmental controls are indispensable to fire prediction and sustainable forest landscape management. To illustrate the spatial variation of forest fire characteristics over China and to quantitatively determine the relative contribution of each of the environmental controls to this variation, forest fire characteristic data (mean number of forest fires and mean burned forest area and environmental data (climate, land use, vegetation type and topography at provincial level were derived. These data sets can potentially serve as a foundation for future studies relating to fire risk assessment, carbon emission by forest fires, and the impact of climate change on fire characteristics. This data article contains data related to the research article entitled “Environmental controls on the characteristics of mean number of forest fires and mean forest area burned (1987–2007 in China” by chang et al. [1].

  4. [Treatment of burn wounds with dibunol liniment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalonov, P M; Dadabaev, T D; Khalilov, Kh N

    1989-01-01

    In 40 burned patients with the area of damage from 10 to 40% of the body surface in local treatment with dibunol against the background of active infusion-transfusion therapy, the accelerated rejection of the necrotic crust was noted, which permitted to reduce the period of preparation for autodermoplasty. The antiinflammatory effect of dibunol was established.

  5. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, and consisting of three separate land withdrawal areas (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4), CAU 417 is comprised of 34 corrective action sites (CASs) including 2 underground storage tanks, 5 septic systems, 8 shaker pad/cuttings disposal areas, 1 decontamination facility pit, 1 burn area, 1 scrap/trash dump, 1 outlier area, 8 housekeeping sites, and 16 mud pits. Four field events were conducted between September 1996 and June 1998 to complete a corrective action investigation indicating that the only contaminant of concern was total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) which was found in 18 of the CASs. A total of 1,028 samples were analyzed. During this investigation, a statistical approach was used to determine which depth intervals or layers inside individual mud pits and shaker pad areas were above the State action levels for the TPH. Other related field sampling activities (i.e., expedited site characterization methods, surface geophysical surveys, direct-push geophysical surveys, direct-push soil sampling, and rotosonic drilling located septic leachfields) were conducted in this four-phase investigation; however, no further contaminants of concern (COCs) were identified. During and after the investigation activities, several of the sites which had surface debris but no COCs were cleaned up as housekeeping sites, two septic tanks were closed in place, and two underground storage tanks were removed. The focus of this CADD was to identify CAAs which would promote the prevention or mitigation of human exposure to surface and subsurface soils with contaminant

  6. Record of Decision Remedial Alternative Selection for the D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (431-D and 431-1D)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Mason, J.T.

    1997-02-01

    The D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (DBRP) (431-D and 431-1D) Waste Unit is listed as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 3004(U) Solid Waste Management Unit/Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) unit in Appendix C of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS). This decision document presents the selected remedial alternative for the DBRP located at the SRS in Aiken, South Carolina.

  7. Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan for the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (231-F, 231-1F, and 231-2F)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this source unit Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan is to describe the preferred alternative for addressing the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (231-F and 231-1F) and Rubble Pit (231-2F) (FBRP) source unit located at SRS, in southwestern Aiken County, South Carolina and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process

  8. Epidemiology of burns throughout the World. Part II: intentional burns in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Michael D

    2012-08-01

    A significant number of burns and deaths from fire are intentionally wrought. Rates of intentional burns are unevenly distributed throughout the world; India has a particularly high rate in young women whereas in Europe rates are higher in men in mid-life. Data from hospitalized burn patients worldwide reveal incidence rates for assault by fire and scalds ranging from 3% to 10%. The average proportion of the body surface area burned in an assault by fire or scalds is approximately 20%. In different parts of the world, attempted burning of others or oneself can be attributed to different motives. Circumstances under which assaults occur fall largely into the categories of interpersonal conflict, including spousal abuse, elder abuse, or interactions over contentious business transactions. Contributing social factors to assaults by burning include drug and alcohol abuse, non-constructive use of leisure time, non-participation in religious and community activities, unstable relationships, and extramarital affairs. Although the incidence of self-mutilation and suicide attempts by burning are relatively low, deliberate self-harm carries a significant risk of death, with an overall mortality rate of 65% worldwide. In those who resort to self-immolation, circumstantial themes reflect domestic discord, family dysfunction, and the social ramifications of unemployment. Preventing injurious burn-related violence requires a multifaceted approach, including legislation and enforcement, education, and advocacy. Better standardized assessment tools are needed to screen for risks of abuse and for psychiatric disorders in perpetrators. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. Stress disorder and PTSD after burn injuries: a prospective study of predictors of PTSD at Sina Burn Center, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi-Bazargani H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani1, Hemmat Maghsoudi2, Mohsen Soudmand-Niri3, Fatemeh Ranjbar4, Hossein Mashadi-Abdollahi51Neuroscience Research Center, Statistics and Epidemiology Department, School of Health and Nutrition, 2Department of Surgery, 3School of Psychology, 4Department of Psychiatry, 5National Public Health Management Centre, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranBackground: A burn injury can be a traumatic experience with tremendous social, physical, and psychological consequences. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and predictors of PTSD Checklist score initially and 3 months after injury in burns victims admitted to the Sina Burn Center in north-west Iran.Methods: This prospective study examined adult patients aged 16–65 years with unintentional burns. The PTSD Checklist was used to screen for PTSD.Results: Flame burns constituted 49.4% of all burns. Mean PTSD score was 23.8 ± 14.7 early in the hospitalization period and increased to 24.2 ± 14.3, 3 months after the burn injury. Twenty percent of victims 2 weeks into treatment had a positive PTSD screening test, and this figure increased to 31.5% after 3 months. The likelihood of developing a positive PTSD screening test increased significantly after 3 months (P < 0.01. Using multivariate regression analysis, factors independently predicting PTSD score were found to be age, gender, and percentage of total body surface area burned.Conclusion: PTSD was a problem in the population studied and should be managed appropriately after hospital admission due to burn injury. Male gender, younger age, and higher total body surface area burned may predict a higher PTSD score after burn injury. Keywords: post-traumatic stress disorder, burn injury, predictors, Iran

  10. Is there a threshold age and burn size associated with poor outcomes in the elderly after burn injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G; Pinto, Ruxandra; Costford, Sheila R.; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Elderly burn care represents a vast challenge. The elderly are one of the most susceptible populations to burn injuries, but also one of the fastest growing demographics, indicating a substantial increase in patient numbers in the near future. Despite the need and importance of elderly burn care, survival of elderly burn patients is poor. Additionally, little is known about the responses of elderly patients after burn. One central question that has not been answered is what age defines an elderly patient. The current study was conducted to determine whether there is a cut-off age for elderly burn patients that is correlated with an increased risk for mortality and to determine the burn size in modern burn care that is associated with increased mortality. To answer these questions, we applied appropriate statistical analyses to the Ross Tilley Burn Centre and the Inflammatory and Host Response to Injury databases. We could not find a clear cut-off age that differentiates or predicts between survival and death. Risk of death increased linearly with increasing age. Additionally, we found that the LD50 decreases from 45% total body surface area (TBSA) to 25% TBSA from the age of 55 years to the age of 70 years, indicating that even small burns lead to poor outcome in the elderly. We therefore concluded that age is not an ideal to predictor of burn outcome, but we strongly suggest that burn care providers be aware that if an elderly patient sustains even a 25% TBSA burn, the risk of mortality is 50% despite the implementation of modern protocolized burn care. PMID:26803373

  11. Pediatric Burns in the Bedouin Population in Southern Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnon D. Cohen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Burn trauma is an important public health concern, with increased risk for burns in children. A cross-sectional study was performed to describe the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors for burns in hospitalized Bedouin children in Soroka University Medical Center during the years 2001–2002. In a population of 558 hospitalized burn-injured patients, 282 Bedouin children were identified. Two hundred and sixty five patients (94.0% had burns involving less than 20% of the body surface area. Cause of the burns was scald in 190 patients (67.4%, fire in 80 patients (28.4%, chemical in 8 patients (2.8%, and explosion in 2 patients (0.7%. Two female patients (0.7% aged 11 and 17 years died of their burns that were caused by fire. The mean length of hospitalization was 9.8 days. Pediatric burn injury has become a significant public health problem in the Bedouin population of the Negev. To reduce the burden of burn injury, it is necessary to increase current efforts in prevention of burns.

  12. Outcomes of burns in the elderly: revised estimates from the Birmingham Burn Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearn, Christopher; Hardwicke, Joseph; Kitsios, Andreas; Siddons, Victoria; Nightingale, Peter; Moiemen, Naiem

    2015-09-01

    Outcomes after burn have continued to improve over the last 70 years in all age groups including the elderly. However, concerns have been raised that survival gains have not been to the same magnitude in elderly patients compared to younger age groups. The aims of this study were to analyze the recent outcomes of elderly burn injured patients admitted to the Birmingham Burn Centre, compare data with a historical cohort and published data from other burn centres worldwide. A retrospective review was conducted of all patients ≥65 years of age, admitted to our centre with cutaneous burns, between 2004 and 2012. Data was compared to a previously published historical cohort (1999-2003). 228 patients were included. The observed mortality for the study group was 14.9%. The median age of the study group was 79 years, the male to female ratio was 1:1 and median Total Body Surface Area (TBSA) burned was 5%. The incidence of inhalation injury was 13%. Median length of stay per TBSA burned for survivors was 2.4 days/% TBSA. Mortality has improved in all burn size groups, but differences were highly statistically significant in the medium burn size group (10-20% TBSA, p≤0.001). Burn outcomes in the elderly have improved over the last decade. This reduction has been impacted by a reduction in overall injury severity but is also likely due to general improvements in burn care, improved infrastructure, implementation of clinical guidelines and increased multi-disciplinary support, including Geriatric physicians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Children with burns referred for child abuse evaluation: Burn characteristics and co-existent injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Marie-Christin; Kemp, Alison; Maguire, Sabine; Nuttall, Diane; Feldman, Kenneth W; Lindberg, Daniel M

    2016-05-01

    Intentional burns represent a serious form of physical abuse that must be identified to protect children from further harm. This study is a retrospectively planned secondary analysis of the Examining Siblings To Recognize Abuse (ExSTRA) network data. Our objective was to describe the characteristics of burns injuries in children referred to Child Abuse Pediatricians (CAPs) in relation to the perceived likelihood of abuse. We furthermore compare the extent of diagnostic investigations undertaken in children referred to CAPs for burn injuries with those referred for other reasons. Within this dataset, 7% (215/2890) of children had burns. Children with burns were older than children with other injuries (median age 20 months vs. 10 months). Physical abuse was perceived as likely in 40.9% (88) and unlikely in 59.1% (127). Scalds accounted for 52.6% (113) and contact burns for 27.6% (60). Several characteristics of the history and burn injury were associated with a significantly higher perceived likelihood of abuse, including children with reported inflicted injury, absent or inadequate explanation, hot water as agent, immersion scald, a bilateral/symmetric burn pattern, total body surface area ≥10%, full thickness burns, and co-existent injuries. The rates of diagnostic testing were significantly lower in children with burns than other injuries, yet the yield of skeletal survey and hepatic transaminases testing were comparable between the two groups. This would imply that children referred to CAPs for burns warrant the same level of comprehensive investigations as those referred for other reasons. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Interpretation of stable isotope, denitrification, and groundwater age data for samples collected from Sandia National Laboratories /New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater Area of Concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrid, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Singleton, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Visser, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-06-02

    This report combines and summarizes results for two groundwater-sampling events (October 2012 and October/November 2015) from the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater (BSG) Area of Concern (AOC) located in the Lurance Canyon Arroyo southeast of Albuquerque, NM in the Manzanita Mountains. The first phase of groundwater sampling occurred in October 2012 including samples from 19 wells at three separate sites that were analyzed by the Environmental Radiochemistry Laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as part of a nitrate Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) evaluation. The three sites (BSG, Technical Area-V, and Tijeras Arroyo) are shown on the regional hydrogeologic map and described in the Sandia Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report. The first phase of groundwater sampling included six monitoring wells at the Burn Site, eight monitoring wells at Technical Area-V, and five monitoring wells at Tijeras Arroyo. Each groundwater sample was analyzed using the two specialized analytical methods, age-dating and denitrification suites. In September 2015, a second phase of groundwater sampling took place at the Burn Site including 10 wells sampled and analyzed by the same two analytical suites. Five of the six wells sampled in 2012 were resampled in 2015. This report summarizes results from two sampling events in order to evaluate evidence for in situ denitrification, the average age of the groundwater, and the extent of recent recharge of the bedrock fracture system beneath the BSG AOC.

  15. Interpretation of stable isotope, denitrification, and groundwater age data for samples collected from Sandia National Laboratories /New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater Area of Concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrid, V.; Singleton, M. J.; Visser, A.; Esser, B.

    2016-01-01

    This report combines and summarizes results for two groundwater-sampling events (October 2012 and October/November 2015) from the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Burn Site Groundwater (BSG) Area of Concern (AOC) located in the Lurance Canyon Arroyo southeast of Albuquerque, NM in the Manzanita Mountains. The first phase of groundwater sampling occurred in October 2012 including samples from 19 wells at three separate sites that were analyzed by the Environmental Radiochemistry Laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as part of a nitrate Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) evaluation. The three sites (BSG, Technical Area-V, and Tijeras Arroyo) are shown on the regional hydrogeologic map and described in the Sandia Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report. The first phase of groundwater sampling included six monitoring wells at the Burn Site, eight monitoring wells at Technical Area-V, and five monitoring wells at Tijeras Arroyo. Each groundwater sample was analyzed using the two specialized analytical methods, age-dating and denitrification suites. In September 2015, a second phase of groundwater sampling took place at the Burn Site including 10 wells sampled and analyzed by the same two analytical suites. Five of the six wells sampled in 2012 were resampled in 2015. This report summarizes results from two sampling events in order to evaluate evidence for in situ denitrification, the average age of the groundwater, and the extent of recent recharge of the bedrock fracture system beneath the BSG AOC.

  16. Epidemiology of burns in teaching hospital of Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtazudin Wani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no information on the pattern of outcomes among burn patients in relation to clinical aspects in India. Hence, the present study was undertaken in a burn unit to determine selected epidemiological variables, assess the clinical aspects (etiology, extent and anatomical location and finally to analyze the outcomes in cases of burn injury. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was undertaken to analyze the patients admitted to the Burn Unit of Government Medical college Srinagar. The study was carried over a period 2 years from January 2013 to December 2014. Various variables including age and sex distribution, nature of burn injuries, Anatomical location, percentage of total body surface area burnt, depth of burns, Survival of expired patients and mortality were recorded and analyzed. Results: Highest incidence of burns was in the age group between 21 and 40 years; 61% patients were females and 39% were males; majority of our patients had burns in the range of 20 to 40% TBSA (total body surface area; mortality rate in our study was 36.82%; most common site of the burn injury was upper limb(30.19%;among patients who died those with TBSA burn of >60%, 41 to 60% and 31 to 40% succumbed within three, six and nine days respectively. Age ranged from 6 months to 93 years. Mean age of the patients was 31 years. Eighty percent patients belonged to rural areas and 20% belonged to Urban locality. Conclusion: People with low educational qualification should be taught about the proper and safe usage of modern appliances based on electricity, LPG or kerosene. People with psychiatric problems or low intelligence quotient (I.Q should be helped by their care takers in avoiding the burn injuries and also devices with alarms should be used in their households. Fuel or electric devices should be checked by a trained person regularly (e.g once in month to avoid usage of faulty devices.

  17. Molecularly-Limited Fractal Surface Area of Mineral Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Jandacka

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the specific surface area (SSA of powders is not sufficiently described in the literature in spite of its nontrivial contribution to adsorption and dissolution processes. Fractal geometry provides a way to determine this parameter via relation SSA ~ x(D − 3s(2 − D, where x (m is the particle size and s (m is a scale. Such a relation respects nano-, micro-, or macro-topography on the surface. Within this theory, the fractal dimension 2 ≤ D < 3 and scale parameter s plays a significant role. The parameter D may be determined from BET or dissolution measurements on several samples, changing the powder particle sizes or sizes of adsorbate molecules. If the fractality of the surface is high, the SSA does not depend on the particle size distribution and vice versa. In this paper, the SSA parameter is analyzed from the point of view of adsorption and dissolution processes. In the case of adsorption, a new equation for the SSA, depending on the term (2 − D∙(s2 − sBET/sBET, is derived, where sBET and s2 are effective cross-sectional diameters for BET and new adsorbates. Determination of the SSA for the dissolution process appears to be very complicated, since the fractality of the surface may change in the process. Nevertheless, the presented equations have good application potential.

  18. Indexing Glomerular Filtration Rate to Body Surface Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redal-Baigorri, Belén; Rasmussen, Knud; Heaf, James Goya

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Kidney function is mostly expressed in terms of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). A common feature is the expression as ml/min per 1.73 m(2) , which represents the adjustment of the individual kidney function to a standard body surface area (BSA) to allow comparison between individuals....... We investigated the impact of indexing GFR to BSA in cancer patients, as this BSA indexation might affect the reported individual kidney function. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 895 adults who had their kidney function measured with (51) chrome ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. Mean values of BSA...

  19. Asymptotic variance of grey-scale surface area estimators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Anne Marie

    Grey-scale local algorithms have been suggested as a fast way of estimating surface area from grey-scale digital images. Their asymptotic mean has already been described. In this paper, the asymptotic behaviour of the variance is studied in isotropic and sufficiently smooth settings, resulting...... in a general asymptotic bound. For compact convex sets with nowhere vanishing Gaussian curvature, the asymptotics can be described more explicitly. As in the case of volume estimators, the variance is decomposed into a lattice sum and an oscillating term of at most the same magnitude....

  20. EFFECT OF RATIO OF SURFACE AREA ON THE CORROSION RATE

    OpenAIRE

    Dody Prayitno; M. Irsyad

    2018-01-01

    Aluminum and steel are used to be a construction for a building outdoor panel. Aluminum and steel are connected by bolt and nut. An atmosphere due to a corrosion of the aluminum. The corrosion possibly to cause the hole diameter of bolt and nut to become larger. Thus the bolt and nut can not enough strong to hold the panel. The panel may collapse. The aim of the research is first to answer a question where does the corrosion starts. The second is to know the effect of ratio surface area of st...

  1. Burning plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J.

    1990-10-01

    The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R ampersand D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration

  2. Genital burns in the national burn repository: incidence, etiology, and impact on morbidity and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpole, Bethany G; Wibbenmeyer, Lucy A; Erickson, Bradley A

    2014-02-01

    To better characterize national genital burns (GBs) characteristics using a large burn registry. We hypothesized that mortality and morbidity will be higher in patients with GBs. The National Burn Repository, a large North American registry of hospitalized burn patients, was queried for patients with GB. Burn characteristics and mechanism, demographics, mortality, and surgical interventions were retrieved. Outcomes of interest were mortality, hospital-acquired infection (HAI), and surgical intervention on the genitalia. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for outcomes were determined with binomial logistic regression controlling for age, total burn surface area, race, length of stay, gender, and inhalation injury presence. GBs were present in 1245 cases of 71,895 burns (1.7%). Patients with GB had significantly greater average total burn surface area, length of stay, and mortality. In patients with GB, surgery of the genitalia was infrequent (10.4%), with the aOR of receiving surgery higher among men (aOR 2.7, P burns (aOR 3.1, P <.002). Presence of a GB increased the odds of HAI (aOR 3.0, P <.0001) and urinary tract infections (aOR 3.4, P <.0001). GB was also an independent predictor of mortality (aOR 1.54) even after adjusting for the increased HAI risk. GBs are rare but associated with higher HAI rates and higher mortality after adjusting for well-established mortality risk factors. Although a cause and effect relationship cannot be established using these registry data, we believe this study suggests the need for special management considerations in GB cases to improve overall outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. To burn or not to burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, L.

    1993-01-01

    While taking a match to an oil slick may sound like the making of a chaotic inferno, emergency response specialists say burning may be the most efficient way to remove large oil spills from the ocean's surface. But tests of this technique are being resisted by environmentalists as well as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which has final authority over the matter. The debate over test burning arose most recently in Alaska when a proposal to spill and then ignite 1,000 barrels of crude on the Arctic Ocean this past summer was rejected by the EPA. The EPA didn't object to the technique or to the notion of burning spilled oil. However, it contends that it's not necessary to spill thousands of gallons of oil to conduct tests, and unnecessarily pollute the environment, when plenty of oil is already available from accidental spills. Researchers disagree, claiming they won't be able to use the burning technique on an actual spill until it has been tested in a controlled experiment. Despite such concerns, the Canadian government is going ahead with a test burn off the coast of Newfoundland next year. Faced with a choice of test burning or the kind of shoreline contamination left in the wake of the Exxon Valdez disaster, Environment Canada opts for testing. Learning valuable lessons about rapid oil-spill cleanup is worth the relatively minor risks to the environment that test burning would pose

  4. Analysis of remotely sensed and surface data of aerosols and meteorology for the Mexico Megalopolis Area between 2003 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Marco; Braun, Rachel A; Shingler, Taylor; Sorooshian, Armin

    2017-08-27

    This paper presents an aerosol characterization study from 2003 to 2015 for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using remotely sensed aerosol data, ground-based measurements, air mass trajectory modeling, aerosol chemical composition modeling, and reanalysis data for the broader Megalopolis of Central Mexico region. The most extensive biomass burning emissions occur between March and May concurrent with the highest aerosol optical depth, ultraviolet aerosol index, and surface particulate matter (PM) mass concentration values. A notable enhancement in coarse PM levels is observed during vehicular rush hour periods on weekdays versus weekends owing to nonengine-related emissions such as resuspended dust. Among wet deposition species measured, PM 2.5 , PM 10 , and PM coarse (PM 10 -PM 2.5 ) were best correlated with NH 4 + , SO 4 2- , and Ca 2+ , suggesting that the latter three constituents are important components of the aerosol seeding raindrops that eventually deposit to the surface in the study region. Reductions in surface PM mass concentrations were observed in 2014-2015 owing to reduced regional biomass burning as compared to 2003-2013.

  5. Quality of life and mediating role of patient scar assessment in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyunjin; Boo, Sunjoo

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we examined the plausibility of the mediating effect of the levels of patient scar assessment on the relationship between burn severity measured with total body surface area and burn-specific health-related quality of life (HRQL) among patients with burns in South Korea. In this cross sectional descriptive study, we collected data from 100 burn patients in three burn centers specializing in burn care in South Korea. Patient scar assessment, burn specific HRQL, and burn-related characteristics were self-reported with anonymous, paper-based surveys. The findings showed a positive correlation between burn severity, patient scar assessment, and HRQL in burn patients. The evidence of this paper is that quality of life after burns more determined by scar characteristics than burn severity. In the light of the poor HRQL in burn patients, the results of this study support that improving scar status could improve patients' HRQL. Health care providers should keep in mind that patients' perspectives of their scars would be a great indicator of their HRQL, so the providers' focus should be on intensive scar management intervention in their care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Surface States and Effective Surface Area on Photoluminescent P-Type Porous Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, S. Z.; Porras, A. Ramirez; Resto, O.; Goldstein, Y.; Many, A.; Savir, E.

    1997-01-01

    The present study is motivated by the possibility of utilizing porous silicon for spectral sensors. Pulse measurements on the porous-Si/electrolyte system are employed to determine the surface effective area and the surface-state density at various stages of the anodization process used to produce the porous material. Such measurements were combined with studies of the photoluminescence spectra. These spectra were found to shift progressively to the blue as a function of anodization time. The luminescence intensity increases initially with anodization time, reaches a maximum and then decreases with further anodization. The surface state density, on the other hand, increases with anodization time from an initial value of about 2 x 10(exp 12)/sq cm surface to about 1013 sq cm for the anodized surface. This value is attained already after -2 min anodization and upon further anodization remains fairly constant. In parallel, the effective surface area increases by a factor of 10-30. This behavior is markedly different from the one observed previously for n-type porous Si.

  7. Size-dependent validation of MODIS MCD64A1 burned area over six vegetation types in boreal Eurasia: Large underestimation in croplands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunmao; Kobayashi, Hideki; Kanaya, Yugo; Saito, Masahiko

    2017-07-05

    Pollutants emitted from wildfires in boreal Eurasia can be transported to the Arctic, and their subsequent deposition could accelerate global warming. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) MCD64A1 burned area product is the basis of fire emission products. However, uncertainties due to the "moderate resolution" (500 m) characteristic of the MODIS sensor could be introduced. Here, we present a size-dependent validation of MCD64A1 with reference to higher resolution (better than 30 m) satellite products (Landsat 7 ETM+, RapidEye, WorldView-2, and GeoEye-1) for six ecotypes over 12 regions of boreal Eurasia. We considered the 2012 boreal Eurasia burning season when severe wildfires occurred and when Arctic sea ice extent was historically low. Among the six ecotypes, we found MCD64A1 burned areas comprised only 13% of the reference products in croplands because of inadequate detection of small fires (Eurasia (15,256 km 2 ) could have been ~16% greater than suggested by MCD64A1 (13,187 km 2 ) when applying the correction factors proposed in this study. This implies the effects of wildfire emissions in boreal Eurasia on Arctic warming could be greater than currently estimated.

  8. Burn-center quality improvement: are burn outcomes dependent on admitting facilities and is there a volume-outcome "sweet-spot"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hranjec, Tjasa; Turrentine, Florence E; Stukenborg, George; Young, Jeffrey S; Sawyer, Robert G; Calland, James F

    2012-05-01

    Risk factors of mortality in burn patients such as inhalation injury, patient age, and percent of total body surface area (%TBSA) burned have been identified in previous publications. However, little is known about the variability of mortality outcomes between burn centers and whether the admitting facilities or facility volumes can be recognized as predictors of mortality. De-identified data from 87,665 acute burn observations obtained from the National Burn Repository between 2003 and 2007 were used to estimate a multivariable logistic regression model that could predict patient mortality with reference to the admitting burn facility/facility volume, adjusted for differences in age, inhalation injury, %TBSA burned, and an additional factor, percent full thickness burn (%FTB). As previously reported, all three covariates (%TBSA burned, inhalation injury, and age) were found to be highly statistically significant risk factors of mortality in burn patients (P value improve the multivariable model. The treatment/admitting facility was found to be an independent mortality predictor, with certain hospitals having increased odds of death and others showing a protective effect (decreased odds ratio). Hospitals with high burn volumes had the highest risk of mortality. Mortality outcomes of patients with similar risk factors (%TBSA burned, inhalation injury, age, and %FTB) are significantly affected by the treating facility and their admission volumes.

  9. Predictors of muscle protein synthesis after severe pediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Eva C; Herndon, David N; Lee, Jinhyung; Porter, Craig; Cotter, Matthew; Suman, Oscar E; Sidossis, Labros S; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2015-04-01

    Following a major burn, skeletal muscle protein synthesis rate increases but is often insufficient to compensate for massively elevated muscle protein breakdown rates. Given the long-term nature of the pathophysiologic response to burn injury, we hypothesized that muscle protein synthesis rate would be chronically elevated in severely burned children. The objectives of this study were to characterize muscle protein synthesis rate of burned children over a period of 24 months after injury and to identify predictors that influence this response. A total of 87 children with 40% or greater total body surface area (TBSA) burned were included. Patients participated in stable isotope infusion studies at 1, 2, and approximately 4 weeks after burn and at 6, 12, and 24 months after injury to determine skeletal muscle protein fractional synthesis rate. Generalized estimating equations with log link normal distribution were applied to account for clustering of patients and control for patient characteristics. Patients (8 ± 6 years) had large (62, 51-72% TBSA) and deep (47% ± 21% TBSA third degree) burns. Muscle protein fractional synthesis rate was elevated throughout the first 12 months after burn compared with established values from healthy young adults. Muscle protein fractional synthesis rate was lower in boys, in children older than 3 years, and when burns were greater than 80% TBSA. Muscle protein synthesis is elevated for at least 1 year after injury, suggesting that greater muscle protein turnover is a component of the long-term pathophysiologic response to burn trauma. Muscle protein synthesis is highly affected by sex, age, and burn size in severely burned children. These findings may explain the divergence in net protein balance and lean body mass in different populations of burn patients. Prognostic study, level III.

  10. A rare case of failed healing in previously burned skin after a secondary burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, Stephen J; Parsons, Shaun; Menezes, Hana; Ives, Andrew; Cleland, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Patients presenting with large surface area burns are common in our practice; however, patients with a secondary large burn on pre-existing burn scars and grafts are rare and not reported. We report on an unusual case of a patient sustaining a secondary large burn to areas previously injured by a burn from a different mechanism. We discuss the potential implications when managing a case like this and suggest potential biological reasons why the skin may behave differently. Our patient was a 33-year-old man who presented with a 5% TBSA burn on skin scarred by a previous 40% total body surface area (TBSA) burn and skin grafts. Initially assessed as superficial partial thickness in depth, the wounds were treated conservatively with dressings; however, they failed to heal and became infected requiring surgical management. Burns sustained in areas of previous burn scars and grafts may behave differently to normal patterns of healing, requiring more aggressive management and surgical intervention at an early stage.

  11. Burn Wise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn Wise is a partnership program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  12. Epidemiological Study Of Burn Cases And Their Mortality Experiences Amongst Adults From A Tertiary Level Care Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar P

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: How to use hospital statistics in establishing epidemiology of burns amongst adults? Objectives: To identify epidemiological determinants for Ii Various burn injuries and ii their mortality experiences. Study design: Hospital based study carried out for a period of one year (1st January 1991 to 31st December 1991. Settings: Wards of department of Burn & Plastic Surgery, BJ Medical College, Ahmedabad. Participants: 386 adults (20 years and above admitted at the centre for burn injuries during 1991. Study variables: Epidemiological determinants (age, sex, temporal, place, etc. for various burn injuries and the determinants of mortality (type of burn, extent of burn, referral time lag etc. Outcome profile: Common profile of burn victims with relation to the epidemiological factors and other factors responsible for high mortality in burn cases. Statistical analysis: Chi- square and Z tests. Results:Burns occured more in females specially in the age group of 20-24 years. Eighty five percent were flame burns. Flame burns were more in females, while electric burns were more in males. Burns were less during monsoon (27.7% than winter (32.6% and summer (39.6%, but electric burns were twice more common during monsoon. Maximum burns (81.9% were domestic, occurring mainly either in kitchen or living room. They were seen more in late evening. Sixty two percent cases were severe as total burn surface area (TBSA was >40%. Case fatality correlated positively with TBSA and death was almost universal with TBSA >60%. Early referral reduced fatality significantly in less severe burns (TBSA<40% but failed to influence it in severe burns. Appraisal of alleged suicide cases (2.6% and of stove bursting (4.4% revealed that young females carry additional risk of burn injuries.

  13. Pre-fire treatment effects and post-fire forest dynamics on the Rodeo-Chediski burn area, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara A. Strom

    2005-01-01

    The 2002 Rodeo-Chediski fire was the largest wildfire in Arizona history at 189,000 ha (468,000 acres), and exhibited some of the most extreme fire behavior ever seen in the Southwest. Pre-fire fuel reduction treatments of thinning, timber harvesting, and prescribed burning on the White Mountain Apache Tribal lands (WMAT) and thinning on the Apache-Sitgreaves National...

  14. Comparing the Global Charcoal Database with Burned Area Trends from an Offline Fire Model Driven by the NCAR Last Millennium Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, A.; Magi, B. I.; Marlon, J. R.; Bartlein, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    This study uses an offline fire model driven by output from the NCAR Community Earth System Model Last Millennium Ensemble (LME) to evaluate how climate, ecological, and human factors contributed to burned area over the past millennium, and uses the Global Charcoal Database (GCD) record of fire activity as a constraint. The offline fire model is similar to the fire module within the NCAR Community Land Model. The LME experiment includes 13 simulations of the Earth system from 850 CE through 2005 CE, and the fire model simulates burned area using LME climate and vegetation with imposed land use and land cover change. The fire model trends are compared to GCD records of charcoal accumulation rates derived from sediment cores. The comparisons are a way to assess the skill of the fire model, but also set up a methodology to directly test hypotheses of the main drivers of fire patterns over the past millennium. The focus is on regions selected from the GCD with high data density, and that have lake sediment cores that best capture the last millennium. Preliminary results are based on a fire model which excludes burning cropland and pasture land cover types, but this allows some assessment of how climate variability is captured by the fire model. Generally, there is good agreement between modeled burned area trends and fire trends from GCD for many regions of interest, suggesting the strength of climate variability as a control. At the global scale, trends and features are similar from 850 to 1700, which includes the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age. After 1700, the trends significantly deviate, which may be due to non-cultivated land being converted to cultivated. In key regions of high data density in the GCD such as the Western USA, the trends agree from 850 to 1200 but diverge from 1200 to 1300. From 1300 to 1800, the trends show good agreement again. Implementing processes to include burning cultivated land within the fire model is anticipated to

  15. 30 CFR 785.19 - Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alluvial valley floor exists if it finds that— (i) Unconsolidated streamlaid deposits holding streams are... on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial valley floors in the arid and semiarid areas west of....19 Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...

  16. Adult survivors' lived experience of burns and post-burn health: A qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Thereasa E; Ogletree, Roberta J; Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Neumeister, Michael W

    2016-02-01

    The individual implications of major burns are likely to affect the full spectrum of patients' physical, emotional, psychological, social, environmental, spiritual and vocational health. Yet, not all of the post-burn health implications are inevitably negative. Utilizing a qualitative approach, this heuristic phenomenological study explores the experiences and perceptions early (ages 18-35) and midlife (ages 36-64) adults providing insight for how participants perceived their burns in relationship to their post-burn health. Participants were interviewed using semi-structured interview questions framed around seven domains of health. Interview recordings were transcribed verbatim then coded line by line, identifying dominant categories related to health. Categories were analyzed identifying shared themes among the study sample. Participants were Caucasian, seven males and one female. Mean age at time of interviews was 54.38 and 42.38 at time of burns. Mean time since burns occurred was 9.38 years with a minimum of (20%) total body surface area (TBSA) burns. Qualitative content analysis rendered three emergent health-related categories and associated themes that represented shared meanings within the participant sample. The category of "Physical Health" reflected the theme physical limitations, pain and sensitivity to temperature. Within the category of "Intellectual Health" were themes of insight, goal setting and self-efficacy, optimism and humor and within "Emotional Health" were the themes empathy and gratitude. By exploring subjective experiences and perceptions of health shared through dialog with experienced burned persons, there are opportunities to develop a more complete picture of how holistic health may be affected by major burns that in turn could support future long-term rehabilitative trajectories of early and midlife adult burn patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. Electromagnetic surface waves for large-area RF plasma productions between large-area planar electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, S.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, large-area plasma production has been tested by means of a 13.56 MHz radio-frequency (RF) discharge between a pair of large-area planar electrodes, approximately 0.5 m x 1.4 m, as one of the semiconductor technologies for fabrication of large-area amorphous silicon solar cells in the ''Sunshine Project'' of the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology in Japan. We also confirmed long plasma production between a pair of long electrodes. In this paper, normal electromagnetic (EM) waves propagating in a region between a planar waveguide with one plasma and two dielectric layers are analyzed in order to study the feasibility of large-area plasma productions by EM wave-discharges between a pair of large-area RF electrodes larger than the half-wavelength of RF wave. In conclusion, plasmas higher than an electron plasma frequency will be produced by an odd TMoo surface mode. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs

  18. Galactorrhea and amenorrhea in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Navin; Gore, Madhuri A; Shankar, Ravi

    2008-09-01

    Galactorrhea and/or amenorrhea, although uncommonly reported in post-burn patients, is a complex problem to treat. Patient is reluctant to volunteer history of these symptoms, unless asked specifically. To study profile of adult female patients with galactorrhea and/or amenorrhea in post burn period. A prospective study of all adult female patients presenting with or detected to have galactorrhea and/or amenorrhea in post burn period was conducted over 6 month's period. Detailed clinical examination, estimation of LH, FSH, Prolactin levels and X-ray of skull was done in all patients. The data collected was analyzed. Patients with hyperprolactinemia and galactorrhea were treated with Bromocriptine for 3 weeks to 3 months. In all patients with amenorrhea, pregnancy was ruled out by gynecological examination and urine pregnancy test. During this period, 30 patients (15.15%) were detected to have galactorrhea and/or amenorrhoea. The extent of burn in these patients was 20-65%of body surface area. Out of 30 patients, 5 had galactorrhea and amenorrhea, 1 galactorrhea alone and 24 had amenorrhea alone. Analysis of voluntary disclosures and detection on interrogation was done. Till the end of study, 4 patients with galactorrhea had complete relief, 2 patients reported reduction in discharge. Galactorrhea was distressing for all and was always associated with high prolactine levels .The reverse was not true. All the patients had chest burns besides other body areas. Association was noted between menstrual aberration and ovulatory phase at the time of burn. Galactorrhea and menstrual disturbances do exist in female patients in reproductive age group in post burn period and patients should be especially interrogated for these symptoms by the burn care providers.

  19. Economic burden of burn injuries in the Netherlands: A 3 months follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop, M Jenda; Wijnen, Ben F M; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K; Dokter, Jan; Middelkoop, Esther; Polinder, Suzanne; van Baar, Margriet E

    2016-01-01

    Burn care has rapidly improved in the past decades. However, healthcare innovations can be expensive, demanding careful choices on their implementation. Obtaining knowledge on the extent of the costs of burn injuries is an essential first step for economic evaluations within burn care. The objective of this study was to determine the economic burden of patients with burns admitted to a burn centre and to identify important cost categories until 3 months post-burn. A prospective cohort study was conducted in the burn centre of Maasstad Hospital Rotterdam, the Netherlands, including all patients with acute burn related injuries from August 2011 until July 2012. Total costs were calculated from a societal perspective, until 3 months post injury. Subgroup analyses were performed to examine whether the mean total costs per patient differed by age, aetiology or percentage total body surface area (TBSA) burned. In our population, with a mean burn size of 8%, mean total costs were €26,540 per patient varying from €742 to €235,557. Most important cost categories were burn centre days (62%), surgical interventions (5%) and work absence (20%). Flame burns were significantly more costly than other types of burns, adult patients were significantly more costly than children and adolescents and a higher percentage TBSA burned also corresponded to significantly higher costs. Mean total costs of burn care in the first 3 months post injury were estimated at €26,540 and depended on age, aetiology and TBSA. Mean total costs in our population probably apply to other high-income countries as well, although we should realise that patients with burn injuries are diverse and represent a broad range of total costs. To reduce costs of burn care, future intervention studies should focus on a timely wound healing, reducing length of stay and enabling an early return to work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Human cortical areas involved in perception of surface glossiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Atsushi; Sakano, Yuichi; Ando, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    Glossiness is the visual appearance of an object's surface as defined by its surface reflectance properties. Despite its ecological importance, little is known about the neural substrates underlying its perception. In this study, we performed the first human neuroimaging experiments that directly investigated where the processing of glossiness resides in the visual cortex. First, we investigated the cortical regions that were more activated by observing high glossiness compared with low glossiness, where the effects of simple luminance and luminance contrast were dissociated by controlling the illumination conditions (Experiment 1). As cortical regions that may be related to the processing of glossiness, V2, V3, hV4, VO-1, VO-2, collateral sulcus (CoS), LO-1, and V3A/B were identified, which also showed significant correlation with the perceived level of glossiness. This result is consistent with the recent monkey studies that identified selective neural response to glossiness in the ventral visual pathway, except for V3A/B in the dorsal visual pathway, whose involvement in the processing of glossiness could be specific to the human visual system. Second, we investigated the cortical regions that were modulated by selective attention to glossiness (Experiment 2). The visual areas that showed higher activation to attention to glossiness than that to either form or orientation were identified as right hV4, right VO-2, and right V3A/B, which were commonly identified in Experiment 1. The results indicate that these commonly identified visual areas in the human visual cortex may play important roles in glossiness perception. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Assessment of Surface Area Characteristics of Dental Implants with Gradual Bioactive Surface Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czan, Andrej; Babík, Ondrej; Miklos, Matej; Záušková, Lucia; Mezencevová, Viktória

    2017-10-01

    Since most of the implant surface is in direct contact with bone tissue, shape and integrity of said surface has great influence on successful osseointegration. Among other characteristics that predetermine titanium of different grades of pureness as ideal biomaterial, titanium shows high mechanical strength making precise miniature machining increasingly difficult. Current titanium-based implants are often anodized due to colour coding. This anodized layer has important functional properties for right usage and also bio-compatibility of dental implants. Physical method of anodizing and usage of anodizing mediums has a significant influence on the surface quality and itself functionality. However, basic requirement of the dental implant with satisfactory properties is quality of machined surface before anodizing. Roughness, for example, is factor affecting of time length of anodizing operation and so whole productivity. The paper is focused on monitoring of surface and area characteristics, such as roughness or surface integrity after different cutting conditions of miniature machining of dental implants and their impact on suitability for creation of satisfactory anodized layer with the correct biocompatible functional properties.

  2. PCDD/Fs in air and soil around an e-waste dismantling area with open burning of insulated wires in south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, M; Tang, Y H; Peng, P A; Cai, Y

    2015-05-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in ambient air and farmland soil sampled in 2006 around an e-waste dismantling area with open burning of insulated wires in Longtang in south China were investigated. The total toxic equivalent concentrations of PCDD/Fs were 3.2-31.7 pg/m(3) in air and 5.8 12.4 ng/kg in farmland soil at an e-waste site and 0.063-0.091 pg/m(3) in air at a background site. PCDD/Fs in the air at the e-waste site were characterized with dominant 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF and OCDF and higher concentrations of furans than dioxins, suggesting open burning of insulated wires was likely to be the main source of PCDD/Fs. Compared with the results in this study, the level of PCDD/F tended to lessen with the average TEQ concentration decreasing by 41 % and the pattern changed to be dominated by OCDD in the air of Longtang in 2010 when insulated wires were openly burned in only a small scale. Our results indicate that the lower chlorinated congeners with higher vapor pressures have enhanced atmospheric transport tendencies.

  3. Study of Alterations in Lipid Profile After Burn Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Asha Khubchandani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: After burn injury, changes in lipid profile occur in body. Dyslipidemia after burn injury is one of the important alterations. Objective: To check alterations in lipid profile after burn injury. Materials and Method: It was cross sectional study which was carried out on 250 burns patients of both sex, with an age group of 18-45 years, and varying burns percentage of 20-80% of total body surface area (TBSA. Serum cholesterol, serum LDL, serum HDL and serum triglyceride level were measured on XL-640 fully-auto biochemical analyser. Serum LDL and HDL were measured by Accelerator Selective Detergent Method. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride were measured by Trindor’s method. Results: Results showed decrease in serum cholesterol, serum LDL and serum HDL, while increase in serum triglyceride level in burns patients compared to normal subjects. Conclusion: This study clearly showed the importance of measuring serum cholesterol, TG, LDL and HDL in burn patients and targeting changes that occur in their levels along the burns course, which may have beneficial effect in protection from organ damage, increasing survival rates and improving burn outcome.

  4. Robot Towed Shortwave Infrared Camera for Specific Surface Area Retrieval of Surface Snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J.; Lines, A.; Ray, L.; Albert, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Optical grain size and specific surface area are key parameters for measuring the atmospheric interactions of snow, as well as tracking metamorphosis and allowing for the ground truthing of remote sensing data. We describe a device using a shortwave infrared camera with changeable optical bandpass filters (centered at 1300 nm and 1550 nm) that can be used to quickly measure the average SSA over an area of 0.25 m^2. The device and method are compared with calculations made from measurements taken with a field spectral radiometer. The instrument is designed to be towed by a small autonomous ground vehicle, and therefore rides above the snow surface on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW) skis.

  5. Estimating the surface area of birds: using the homing pigeon (Columba livia as a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina R. Perez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of the surface area of the avian body is valuable for thermoregulation and metabolism studies as well as for assessing exposure to oil and other surface-active organic pollutants from a spill. The use of frozen carcasses for surface area estimations prevents the ability to modify the posture of the bird. The surface area of six live homing pigeons in the fully extended flight position was estimated using a noninvasive method. An equation was derived to estimate the total surface area of a pigeon based on its body weight. A pigeon's surface area in the fully extended flight position is approximately 4 times larger than the surface area of a pigeon in the perching position. The surface area of a bird is dependent on its physical position, and, therefore, the fully extended flight position exhibits the maximum area of a bird and should be considered the true surface area of a bird.

  6. [Surgical treatment of burns : Special aspects of pediatric burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bührer, G; Beier, J P; Horch, R E; Arkudas, A

    2017-05-01

    Treatment of pediatric burn patients is very important because of the sheer frequency of burn wounds and the possible long-term ramifications. Extensive burns need special care and are treated in specialized burn centers. The goal of this work is to present current standards in burn therapy and important innovations in the treatment of burns in children so that the common and small area burn wounds and scalds in pediatric patients in day-to-day dermatological practice can be adequately treated. Analysis of current literature, discussion of reviews, incorporation of current guidelines. Burns in pediatric patients are common. Improvement of survival can be achieved by treatment in burn centers. The assessment of burn depth and area is an important factor for proper treatment. We give an overview for outpatient treatment of partial thickness burns. New methods may result in better long-term outcome. Adequate treatment of burn injuries considering current literature and guidelines improves patient outcome. Rational implementation of new methods is recommended.

  7. Development of the life impact burn recovery evaluation (LIBRE) profile: assessing burn survivors' social participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazis, Lewis E; Marino, Molly; Ni, Pengsheng; Soley Bori, Marina; Amaya, Flor; Dore, Emily; Ryan, Colleen M; Schneider, Jeff C; Shie, Vivian; Acton, Amy; Jette, Alan M

    2017-10-01

    Measuring the impact burn injuries have on social participation is integral to understanding and improving survivors' quality of life, yet there are no existing instruments that comprehensively measure the social participation of burn survivors. This project aimed to develop the Life Impact Burn Recovery Evaluation Profile (LIBRE), a patient-reported multidimensional assessment for understanding the social participation after burn injuries. 192 questions representing multiple social participation areas were administered to a convenience sample of 601 burn survivors. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to identify the underlying structure of the data. Using item response theory methods, a Graded Response Model was applied for each identified sub-domain. The resultant multidimensional LIBRE Profile can be administered via Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) or fixed short forms. The study sample included 54.7% women with a mean age of 44.6 (SD 15.9) years. The average time since burn injury was 15.4 years (0-74 years) and the average total body surface area burned was 40% (1-97%). The CFA indicated acceptable fit statistics (CFI range 0.913-0.977, TLI range 0.904-0.974, RMSEA range 0.06-0.096). The six unidimensional scales were named: relationships with family and friends, social interactions, social activities, work and employment, romantic relationships, and sexual relationships. The marginal reliability of the full item bank and CATs ranged from 0.84 to 0.93, with ceiling effects less than 15% for all scales. The LIBRE Profile is a promising new measure of social participation following a burn injury that enables burn survivors and their care providers to measure social participation.

  8. Cardiovascular risk profile in burn survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Becky; Younger, John F; Stockton, Kellie; Muller, Michael; Paratz, Jennifer

    2017-11-01

    Burn patients have prolonged derangements in metabolic, endocrine, cardiac and psychosocial systems, potentially impacting on their cardiovascular health. There are no studies on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) after-burn. The aim of our study was to record lipid values and evaluate CVD risk in adult burn survivors. In a cross-sectional study patients ≥18 years with burn injury between 18-80% total burn surface area (TBSA) from 1998 to 2012 had total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides measured via finger prick. Means were compared to optimal ranges. Multivariate regression models were performed to assess the association of lipids with age, years after-burn and total body surface area % (TBSA). A p value Risk Score (FGCRS) was calculated. Fifty patients were included in the study. Compared to optimal values, patients had low HDL and high triglycerides. Greater %TBSA was associated with statistically significant elevation of triglycerides (p=0.007) and total cholesterol/HDL ratio (p=0.027). The median FGCRS was 3.9% (low) 10-year risk of CVD with 82% of patients in the low-risk category. Patients involved in medium/high level of physical activity had optimal values of HDL, TC/HDL and triglycerides despite the magnitude of TBSA%. Adult burn survivors had alterations in lipid profile proportional to TBSA, which could be modified by exercise, and no increase in overall formally predicted CVD risk in this cross sectional study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. NEW CONCEPTS AND TEST METHODS OF CURVE PROFILE AREA DENSITY IN SURFACE: ESTIMATION OF AREAL DENSITY ON CURVED SPATIAL SURFACE

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Shen

    2011-01-01

    The concepts of curve profile, curve intercept, curve intercept density, curve profile area density, intersection density in containing intersection (or intersection density relied on intersection reference), curve profile intersection density in surface (or curve intercept intersection density relied on intersection of containing curve), and curve profile area density in surface (AS) were defined. AS expressed the amount of curve profile area of Y phase in the unit containing surface area, S...

  10. Thermal injury induces impaired function in polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes and reduced control of burn wound infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, H.; Moser, C.; Jensen, P. O.

    2009-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6% third-degree burn...... injury was induced in mice with a hot-air blower. The third-degree burn was confirmed histologically. The mice were allocated into five groups: control, shave, burn, infection and burn infection group. At 48 h, a decline in the concentration of peripheral blood leucocytes was observed in the group...... of mice with burn wound. The reduction was ascribed to the decline in concentration of polymorphonuclear neutrophil leucocytes and monocytes. When infecting the skin with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a dissemination of bacteria was observed only in the burn wound group. Histological characterization...

  11. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  12. Burns and military clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  13. Post-fire debris-flow hazard assessment of the area burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek Fire near Hailey, central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary hazard assessment was developed for debris-flow hazards in the 465 square-kilometer (115,000 acres) area burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek fire near Hailey in central Idaho. The burn area covers all or part of six watersheds and selected basins draining to the Big Wood River and is at risk of substantial post-fire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the Intermountain Region in Western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence, potential volume of debris flows, and the combined debris-flow hazard ranking along the drainage network within the burn area and to estimate the same for analyzed drainage basins within the burn area. Input data for the empirical models included topographic parameters, soil characteristics, burn severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 2-year storm (13 mm); (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 10-year storm (19 mm); and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 25-year storm (22 mm). Estimated debris-flow probabilities for drainage basins upstream of 130 selected basin outlets ranged from less than 1 to 78 percent with the probabilities increasing with each increase in storm magnitude. Probabilities were high in three of the six watersheds. For the 25-year storm, probabilities were greater than 60 percent for 11 basin outlets and ranged from 50 to 60 percent for an additional 12 basin outlets. Probability estimates for stream segments within the drainage network can vary within a basin. For the 25-year storm, probabilities for stream segments within 33 basins were higher than the basin outlet, emphasizing the importance of evaluating the drainage network as well as basin outlets. Estimated debris-flow volumes for the three modeled storms range

  14. Dynamic characterisation of the specific surface area for fracture networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovic, V.

    2017-12-01

    One important application of chemical transport is geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste for which crystalline rock is a prime candidate for instance in Scandinavia. Interconnected heterogeneous fractures of sparsely fractured rock such as granite, act as conduits for transport of dissolved tracers. Fluid flow is known to be highly channelized in such rocks. Channels imply narrow flow paths, adjacent to essentially stagnant water in the fracture and/or the rock matrix. Tracers are transported along channelised flow paths and retained by minerals and/or stagnant water, depending on their sorption properties; this mechanism is critical for rocks to act as a barrier and ultimately provide safety for a geological repository. The sorbing tracers are retained by diffusion and sorption on mineral surfaces, whereas non-sorbing tracers can be retained only by diffusion into stagnant water of fractures. The retention and transport properties of a sparsely fractured rock will primarily depend on the specific surface area (SSA) of the fracture network which is determined by the heterogeneous structure and flow. The main challenge when characterising SSA on the field-scale is its dependence on the flow dynamics. We first define SSA as a physical quantity and clarify its importance for chemical transport. A methodology for dynamic characterisation of SSA in fracture networks is proposed that relies on three sets of data: i) Flow rate data as obtained by a flow logging procedure; ii) transmissivity data as obtained by pumping tests; iii) fracture network data as obtained from outcrop and geophysical observations. The proposed methodology utilises these data directly as well as indirectly through flow and particle tracking simulations in three-dimensional discrete fracture networks. The methodology is exemplified using specific data from the Swedish site Laxemar. The potential impact of uncertainties is of particular significance and is illustrated for radionuclide

  15. [Prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with advanced burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagner, D O; Krylov, K M; Verbitsky, V G; Shlyk, I V

    2018-01-01

    To reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with advanced burns by developing a prophylactic algorithm. The study consisted of retrospective group of 488 patients with thermal burns grade II-III over 20% of body surface area and prospective group of 135 patients with a similar thermal trauma. Standard clinical and laboratory examination was applied. Instrumental survey included fibrogastroduodenoscopy, endoscopic pH-metry and invasive volumetric monitoring (PICCO plus). Statistical processing was carried out with Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and IBM SPSS 20.0. New algorithm significantly decreased incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding (p<0.001) and mortality rate (p=0.006) in patients with advanced burns.

  16. Effects of Burn Injury on Markers of Hypermetabolism in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Uygun, Korkut; Uygun, Basak; Yarmush, Martin L.; Berthiaume, François

    2009-01-01

    The basic metrics of hypermetabolism have not been thoroughly characterized in rat burn injury models. We examined three models expected to differ in sensitivity to burn injury to identify that which group(s) exhibited the most clinically relevant metabolic response. Six and 12 weeks old male CD (6 week mCD and 12 week mCD) rats, and 12 weeks old female Fischer (12 week fFI) rats received a 20% total body surface area burn, followed by saline resuscitation. Activity, core body temperature, he...

  17. Factors associated with chemical burns in Zhejiang province, China: An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Rui M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work-related burns are common among occupational injuries. Zhejiang Province is an industrial area with a high incidence of chemical burns. We aimed to survey epidemiological features of chemical burns in Zhejiang province to determine associated factors and acquire data for developing a strategy to prevent and treat chemical burns. Methods Questionnaires were developed, reviewed and validated by experts, and sent to 25 hospitals in Zhejiang province to prospectively collect data of 492 chemical burn patients admitted during one year from Sept. 1, 2008 to Aug. 31, 2009. Questions included victims' characteristics and general condition, injury location, causes of accident, causative chemicals, total body surface area burn, concomitant injuries, employee safety training, and awareness level of protective measures. Surveys were completed for each of burn patients by burn department personnel who interviewed the hospitalized patients. Results In this study, 417 victims (87.61% got chemical burn at work, of which 355 victims (74.58% worked in private or individual enterprises. Most frequent chemicals involved were hydrofluoric acid and sulfuric acid. Main causes of chemical injury accidents were inappropriate operation of equipment or handling of chemicals and absence of or failure to use effective individual protection. Conclusions Most chemical burns are preventable occupational injuries that can be attributed to inappropriate operation of equipment or handling of chemicals, lack of employee awareness about appropriate action and lack of effective protective equipment and training. Emphasis on safety education and protection for workers may help protect workers and prevent chemical burns.

  18. Impact of managed moorland burning on peat nutrient and base cation status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Sheila; Gilpin, Martin; Wearing, Catherine; Johnston, Kerrylyn; Holden, Joseph; Brown, Lee

    2013-04-01

    Controlled 'patch' burning of moorland vegetation has been used for decades in the UK to stimulate growth of heather (Calluna vulgaris) for game bird habitat and livestock grazing. Typically small patches (300-900 m2) are burned in rotations of 8-25 years. However, our understanding of the short-to-medium term environmental impacts of the practice on these sensitive upland areas has so far been limited by a lack of scientific data. In particular the effect of burning on concentrations of base cations and acid-base status of these highly organic soils has implications both for ecosystem nutrient status and for buffering of acidic waters. As part of the EMBER project peat chemistry data were collected in ten upland blanket peat catchments in the UK. Five catchments were subject to a history of prescribed rotational patch burning. The other five catchments acted as controls which were not subject to burning, nor confounded by other detrimental activities such as drainage or forestry. Soil solution chemistry was also monitored at two intensively studied sites (one regularly burned and one control). Fifty-centimetre soil cores, sectioned into 5-cm intervals, were collected from triplicate patches of four burn ages at each burned site, and from twelve locations at similar hillslope positions at each control site. At the two intensively monitored sites, soil solution chemistry was monitored at four depths in each patch. Across all sites, burned plots had significantly smaller cation exchange capacities, lower concentrations of exchangeable base cations and increased concentrations of exchangeable H+ and Al3+ in near-surface soil. C/N ratios were also lower in burned compared to unburned surface soils. There was no consistent trend between burn age and peat chemistry across all burned sites, possibly reflecting local controls on post-burn recovery rates or external influences on burn management decisions. At the intensively monitored site, plots burned less than two years

  19. Epidemiology and mortality of 162 major burns in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, R L; Ghoneim, I E

    1996-09-01

    The burns intensive care unit at IBN Sina Hospital reopened in July 1991, following the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait and the Gulf War. Epidemiology and mortality of 162 burn patients with 30 per cent and over total body surface area (TBSA) burns, treated from July 1991 to December 1994, is presented. There were 91 males and 71 females with a ratio of 1.3 to 1. The median age was 30 years (range 4 months to 93 years) and 44 per cent of the patients were 15-40 years of age. 124 (76.5 per cent) accidents occurred at home and the flame burn was the commonest involving 131 (80.9 per cent) patients. The median burn surface area was 45.5 per cent and the majority of them sustained deep burns. The hospital stay of the surviving patients ranged from 11 to 174 days (median 38 days), while the day of the death was from 1 to 134 days. Forty-six deaths represent an overall mortality rate of 28.4 per cent amongst our patients. All the patients whose Baux score was 130 and above died. Burn shock was responsible for 10 deaths, and out of them eight were not actively resuscitated due to high Baux score. Sixteen deaths occurred within 48 h postburn. Septicaemia and its related effects were responsible for the majority of the deaths.

  20. The winds regime of surface in the Colombian coffee area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando Guzman Martinez; Lucia Gomez Gomez

    1994-01-01

    The characteristics of the address and gust of wind of the surface winds have been studied in 15 stations of the Colombian coffee area. It was found that the relief plays an important paper in the wind circulation so that during the day (7 a.m. - 7 p.m.) these they blow of the low sector toward the mountain and at night (7 p.m. - 7 a.m.) this situation is invested, that which is consistent with the characteristic pattern of circulation valley-mountain of the mountainous regions. For this fact, in most of the analyzed places a single day and night dominant address that it takes the orientation in that it is the respective hydrographic basin. It was not observed that the Alisios winds of the northeast and southeast modify the address settled down by the local circulation (valley-mountain) on the other hand a remarkable increase of the gust of wind was appreciated in July and August in the Florida and Ospina, stations located to the south of the country, as direct consequence of the Alisios of the southeast. The daily gust of wind in most of the studied places is low and it doesn't exceed of the 10 km/h, reason why it can consider that the Colombian coffee area is free of important damages for the action of the wind. Nevertheless, in some stations as Alban, Maracay and Paraguaicito the daily maximum gust of wind can surpass the 30 km/h and in occasions to cause damage mechanic to cultivations of high behavior and not well anchored facilities

  1. Burn-related factors affecting anxiety, depression and self-esteem in burn patients: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M; Khadilkar, N; De Sousa, A

    2017-03-31

    Burns are physically, psychologically and economically challenging injuries, and the factors leading to them are many and under-studied. The aim of the current study was to assess level of anxiety, depression and self-esteem in burn patients, and look at various burn-related variables that affect them. This cross-sectional study included 100 patients with burn injuries admitted to a tertiary care private hospital in an urban metropolis in India. The patients were assessed for anxiety, depression and self-esteem using the Hamilton anxiety rating scale, Hamilton depression rating scale and Rosenberg self-esteem scale respectively. Assessment was carried out within 2-8 weeks of injury following medical stabilization. The data was tabulated and statistically analyzed. The study sample was predominantly male (54%), married (69%), with a mean age of 34.1 ± 10.8 years. Accidental burns (94%) were the most common modality of injury. The majority (46%) suffered burns involving 20-59% total body surface area (TBSA), and facial burns were present (57%). No significant association was found between TBSA and anxiety, depression or self-esteem, and the same was true for facial burns. Deep burns, however, were significantly associated with anxiety (p=0.03) and depression (p=0.0002). High rates of anxiety and depression are associated with burn injuries and related to burn depth. Adjustment and recovery in these patients depends on various other factors like the patient's psychological status, nature/extent of the injury and ensuing medical care. Further research is warranted to reveal the magnitude and predictors of psychological problems in burn patients.

  2. Extent of Stream Burial and Relationships to Watershed Area, Topography, and Impervious Surface Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy E. Weitzell

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stream burial—the routing of streams through culverts, pipes, and concrete lined channels, or simply paving them over—is common during urbanization, and disproportionately affects small, headwater streams. Burial undermines the physical and chemical processes governing life in streams, with consequences for water quality and quantity that may amplify from headwaters to downstream receiving waters. Knowledge of the extent of stream burial is critical for understanding cumulative impacts to stream networks, and for future decision-making allowing for urban development while protecting ecosystem function. We predicted stream burial across the urbanizing Potomac River Basin (USA for each 10-m stream segment in the basin from medium-resolution impervious cover data and training observations obtained from high-resolution aerial photography in a GIS. Results were analyzed across a range in spatial aggregation, including counties and independent cities, small watersheds, and regular spatial grids. Stream burial was generally correlated with total impervious surface area (ISA, with areas exhibiting ISA above 30% often subject to elevated ratios of stream burial. Recurring patterns in burial predictions related to catchment area and topographic slope were also detected. We discuss these results in the context of physiographic constraints on stream location and urban development, including implications for environmental management of aquatic resources.

  3. BurnCase 3D software validation study: Burn size measurement accuracy and inter-rater reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvizi, Daryousch; Giretzlehner, Michael; Wurzer, Paul; Klein, Limor Dinur; Shoham, Yaron; Bohanon, Fredrick J; Haller, Herbert L; Tuca, Alexandru; Branski, Ludwik K; Lumenta, David B; Herndon, David N; Kamolz, Lars-P

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of burn size estimation using the computer-assisted software BurnCase 3D (RISC Software GmbH, Hagenberg, Austria) with that using a 2D scan, considered to be the actual burn size. Thirty artificial burn areas were pre planned and prepared on three mannequins (one child, one female, and one male). Five trained physicians (raters) were asked to assess the size of all wound areas using BurnCase 3D software. The results were then compared with the real wound areas, as determined by 2D planimetry imaging. To examine inter-rater reliability, we performed an intraclass correlation analysis with a 95% confidence interval. The mean wound area estimations of the five raters using BurnCase 3D were in total 20.7±0.9% for the child, 27.2±1.5% for the female and 16.5±0.1% for the male mannequin. Our analysis showed relative overestimations of 0.4%, 2.8% and 1.5% for the child, female and male mannequins respectively, compared to the 2D scan. The intraclass correlation between the single raters for mean percentage of the artificial burn areas was 98.6%. There was also a high intraclass correlation between the single raters and the 2D Scan visible. BurnCase 3D is a valid and reliable tool for the determination of total body surface area burned in standard models. Further clinical studies including different pediatric and overweight adult mannequins are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Discrepancy between body surface area and body composition in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobäus, Nicole; Küpferling, Susanne; Lorenz, Marie-Luise; Norman, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Calculation of cytostatic dose is typically based on body surface area (BSA) regardless of body composition. The aim of this study was to assess the discrepancy between BSA and low fat-free mass (FFM) by investigating the prevalence of low FFM with regard to BSA in 630 cancer patients. First, BSA was calculated according to DuBois and DuBois. Patients were divided into 6 categories with respect to their BSA. Each BSA category was further divided into 3 groups according to FFM: low (FFM), normal (-0.99 and 0.99 SD of mean FFM) or high (>1 SD of mean FFM), which was derived through bioelectric impedance analysis. FFM was reduced in 15.7% of patients, 69% had normal and 15.2% had high FFM. In patients with low FFM (i.e., more than-1 SD lower than the mean FFM within their BSA group), body mass index and fatigue were higher whereas functional status was reduced. Moreover, in the subcohort of patients receiving chemotherapy, absolute FFM [Hazard ratio (HR) = 0.970, P = 0.026] as well as the allocation to the low FFM group (HR = 1.644, P = 0.025) emerged as predictors of increased 1-yr mortality. In conclusion, there was a large discrepancy between FFM and BSA. Particularly women were affected by low FFM.

  5. Modeling surface area to volume effects on borosilicate glass dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourcier, W.L.; Ebert, W.L.; Feng, X.

    1992-11-01

    We simulated the reaction of SRL-131 glass with equilibrated J-13 water in order to investigate the effects of surface area to volume ratio (SA/V) on glass dissolution. We show that glass-fluid ion exchange causes solution pH to rise to progressively higher values as SA/V increases. Because the ion exchange is rapid relative to the duration of the glass dissolution experiment, the pH effect does not scale with (SA/V)*time. Experiments compared at the same (SA/V)*time value therefore have different pHs, with higher pHs at higher SA/V ratios. Both experimental data and our simulation results show similar trends of increasing reaction rate as a function of SA/V ratio when scaled to (SA/V)*time. Glasses which react in systems of differing SA/V ratio therefore follow different reaction paths and high SA/V ratios cannot be used to generate data which accurately scales to long time periods unless the ion exchange effect is taken into account. We suggest some simple test designs which enable more reliable high. SA/V accelerated tests

  6. Surface Rupture Effects on Earthquake Moment-Area Scaling Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yingdi; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Miyakoshi, Ken; Irikura, Kojiro

    2017-09-01

    Empirical earthquake scaling relations play a central role in fundamental studies of earthquake physics and in current practice of earthquake hazard assessment, and are being refined by advances in earthquake source analysis. A scaling relation between seismic moment ( M 0) and rupture area ( A) currently in use for ground motion prediction in Japan features a transition regime of the form M 0- A 2, between the well-recognized small (self-similar) and very large (W-model) earthquake regimes, which has counter-intuitive attributes and uncertain theoretical underpinnings. Here, we investigate the mechanical origin of this transition regime via earthquake cycle simulations, analytical dislocation models and numerical crack models on strike-slip faults. We find that, even if stress drop is assumed constant, the properties of the transition regime are controlled by surface rupture effects, comprising an effective rupture elongation along-dip due to a mirror effect and systematic changes of the shape factor relating slip to stress drop. Based on this physical insight, we propose a simplified formula to account for these effects in M 0- A scaling relations for strike-slip earthquakes.

  7. Tracheobronchial and Alveolar Particle Surface Area Doses in Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carmen Fuoco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke is the main cause of lung cancer events. Mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS is a direct concern for smokers, but also the secondhand smoke (SHS contributes to the smoker exposure. In addition, smoker exposure is affected by the “free-smoke” particle exposure (B, related to the micro-environments where smokers spend time. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the daily alveolar and tracheobronchial deposited fractions of airborne particles for smokers as the sum of these three contributions: MSS, SHS, and B. Measurements of particle surface area distributions in the MSS were performed through a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer, an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer, and a Thermo-dilution system on five types of conventional cigarettes. A Monte Carlo method was then applied to evaluate the most probable value of dose received during the inhalation of MSS by smokers. Measurements of particle concentrations in SHS and at the “free-smoke” particle background (B were performed through 24-h monitoring at a personal scale of adult smoker through hand-held devices. This paper found that the total daily deposited dose for typical smokers was 1.03 × 105 mm2·day−1. The main contribution of such a huge daily dose was addressable to the MSS (98% while SHS contributed 1.1%, increasing up to 2% for people smoking only while traveling in a car.

  8. Long-Term Social Reintegration Outcomes for Burn Survivors With and Without Peer Support Attendance: A Life Impact Burn Recovery Evaluation (LIBRE) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Brian; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Wibbenmeyer, Lucy; Acton, Amy; Lee, Austin; Marino, Molly; Jette, Alan; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Kazis, Lewis E; Ryan, Colleen M

    2017-10-31

    To examine differences in long-term social reintegration outcomes for burn survivors with and without peer support attendance. Cross-sectional survey. Community-dwelling burn survivors. Burn survivors (N=601) aged ≥18 years with injuries to ≥5% total body surface area (TBSA) or burns to critical areas (hands, feet, face, or genitals). Not applicable. The Life Impact Burn Recovery Evaluation Profile was used to examine the following previously validated 6 scale scores of social participation: Family and Friends, Social Interactions, Social Activities, Work and Employment, Romantic Relationships, and Sexual Relationships. Burn support group attendance was reported by 330 (55%) of 596 respondents who responded to this item. Attendees had larger burn size (43.4%±23.6% vs 36.8%±23.4% TBSA burned, P10 years from injury (50% vs 42.5%, Preintegration in burn survivors. This cross-sectional study prompts further exploration into the potential benefits of peer support groups on burn recovery with future intervention studies. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The interactive effects of surface-burn severity and canopy cover on conifer and broadleaf tree seedling ecophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheel Bansal; Till Jochum; David A. Wardle; Marie-Charlotte Nilsson

    2014-01-01

    Fire has an important role for regeneration of many boreal forest tree species, and this includes both wildfire and prescribed burning following clear-cutting. Depending on the severity, fire can have a variety of effects on above- and belowground properties that impact tree seedling establishment. Very little is known about the impacts of ground fire severity on post-...

  10. Heavy metal contamination of surface soil in electronic waste dismantling area: site investigation and source-apportionment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhui Li; Huabo Duan; Pixing Shi

    2011-07-01

    The dismantling and disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) in developing countries is causing increasing concern because of its impacts on the environment and risks to human health. Heavy-metal concentrations in the surface soils of Guiyu (Guangdong Province, China) were monitored to determine the status of heavy-metal contamination on e-waste dismantling area with a more than 20 years history. Two metalloids and nine metals were selected for investigation. This paper also attempts to compare the data among a variety of e-waste dismantling areas, after reviewing a number of heavy-metal contamination-related studies in such areas in China over the past decade. In addition, source apportionment of heavy metal in the surface soil of these areas has been analysed. Both the MSW open-burning sites probably contained invaluable e-waste and abandoned sites formerly involved in informal recycling activities are the new sources of soil-based environmental pollution in Guiyu. Although printed circuit board waste is thought to be the main source of heavy-metal emissions during e-waste processing, requirement is necessary to soundly manage the plastic separated from e-waste, which mostly contains heavy metals and other toxic substances.

  11. Intake of 238U and 232Th through the consumption of foodstuffs by tribal populations practicing slash and burn agriculture in an extremely high rainfall area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.K.; Gothankar, S.; Iongwai, P.S.; Kharbuli, B.; War, S.A.; Puranik, V.D.

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 232 Th, 238 U was determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in different food groups namely cereals, vegetables, leafy vegetables, roots and tubers cultivated and consumed by tribal population residing around the proposed uranium mine. The study area is a part of rural area K. P. Mawthabah (Domiasiat) in the west Khasi Hills District of Meghalaya, India located in the tropical region of high rainfall that remains steeped in tribal tradition without much outside influence. Agriculture by Jhum (slash and burn) cultivation and animal husbandry are the main occupation of the tribal populations. A total of 89 samples from locally grown food products were analyzed. The concentration of 238 U and 232 Th in the soil of the study area was found to vary 1.6–15.5 and 2.0–5.0 times respectively to the average mean value observed in India. The estimated daily dietary intake of 238 U and 232 Th were 2.0 μg d −1 (25 mBq d −1 ) and 3.4 μg d −1 (14 mBq d −1 ) is comparable with reported range 0.5–5.0 μg d −1 and 0.15–3.5 μg d −1 respectively for the Asian population. - Highlights: ► 232 Th, 238 U were determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). ► Study area located in the tropical region of high rainfall that remains steeped in tribal tradition. ► Agriculture by Jhum (slash and burn) cultivation and animal husbandry are the main occupation of the tribal populations. ► The estimated daily intake of 232 Th and 238 U in high rainfall area was found to be 3.4 and 2.0 μg respectively.

  12. Emergency service admissions of patients with burn injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiye Yolcu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate the propertiesof burn injured patients who admitted to our hospitalemergency service.Methods: Patients were detected from the hospital recordsof emergency service during six months period andwere divided into five groups according to their ages (60 years. Age, gender totalbody surface area (TBSA, mechanism of injury and theoutcome of emergency evaluation were recorded.Results: Totally 111619 patients admitted to our emergencyservice between 01.07.2011 and 31.12.2011. Duringsix months, 2349 males and 1960 females totally4309 patients were burn injured patients. 1773 patientswere between 0-10 years, 1083 patients were 11-20years, 735 patients were between 21 and 40, 361 patientswere between 41 and 60 and 357 patients were over 60years. Most of the patients were treated in the emergencyservice (90.1%. 0-10% TBSA patients constituted 94.2%.This ratio for burn area >40% was 0.6%. Hot liquid burn(vapored water, milk etc. was 60.2%. There was a significantrelation between mechanism of burn injury andage groups (p<0.05. No corrosive and sunburn injuriesdetermined in females. Age groups were related with hospitalization(p<0.05. The highest intensive care unit admissionwas found in the 0-10 age group (1.3%.Conclusion: Emergency service is the first admission departmentof burn injury patients. Knowing the propertiesof burn injury patients, would help hard-working emergencydoctors in triage of these patients. Also, reportingthe data of emergency service burn injury patients wouldbe helpful for further studies. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4(3: 285-288Key words: Burn injury, emergency service, total body surface area

  13. Survival after burn in a sub-Saharan burn unit: Challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Anna F.; Boschini, Laura P.; Kiser, Michelle M.; Samuel, Jonathan C.; Mjuweni, Steven N.; Cairns, Bruce A.; Charles, Anthony G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Burns are among the most devastating of all injuries and a major global public health crisis, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. In developed countries, aggressive management of burns continues to lower overall mortality and increase lethal total body surface area (TBSA) at which 50% of patients die (LA50). However, lack of resources and inadequate infrastructure significantly impede such improvements in developing countries. Methods This study is a retrospective analysis of patients admitted to the burn center at Kamuzu Central Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi between June 2011 and December 2012. We collected information including patient age, gender, date of admission, mechanism of injury, time to presentation to hospital, total body surface area (TBSA) burn, comorbidities, date and type of operative procedures, date of discharge, length of hospital stay, and survival. We then performed bivariate analysis and logistic regression to identify characteristics associated with increased mortality. Results A total of 454 patients were admitted during the study period with a median age of 4 years (range 0.5 months to 79 years). Of these patients, 53% were male. The overall mean TBSA was 18.5%, and average TBSA increased with age—17% for 0–18 year olds, 24% for 19–60 year olds, and 41% for patients over 60 years old. Scald and flame burns were the commonest mechanisms, 52% and 41% respectively, and flame burns were associated with higher mortality. Overall survival in this population was 82%; however survival reduced with increasing age categories (84% in patients 0–18 years old, 79% in patients 19–60 years old, and 36% in patients older than 60 years). TBSA remained the strongest predictor of mortality after adjusting for age and mechanism of burn. The LA50 for this population was 39% TBSA. Discussion Our data reiterate that burn in Malawi is largely a pediatric disease and that the high burn mortality and relatively low LA50 have modestly improved

  14. Unplanned readmission after hospital discharge in burn patients in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafaryparvar, Zakiyeh; Adib, Masoomeh; Ghanbari, Atefeh; Leyli, Ehsan Kazemnezhad

    2018-02-21

    Burns are considered as one of the most serious health problems throughout the world. They may lead to adverse consequences and outcomes. One of these outcomes is unplanned readmission. Unplanned readmission has been commonly used as a quality indicator by hospitals and governments. This study aimed to determine the predictors of unplanned readmission in patients with burns hospitalized in a burn center in the North of Iran (Guilan province, Rasht). This retrospective analytic study has been done on the medical records of hospitalized patients with burns in Velayat Sub-Specialty Burn and Plastic Surgery Center, Rasht, Iran during 2008-2013. In general, 703 medical records have been reviewed but statistical analysis was performed on 626 medical records. All data were entered in SPSS (version 16) and analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Among 626 patients with burns, the overall readmission rate was 5.1%. Predictors of readmission included total body surface area (OR 1.030, CI 1.011-1.049), hypertension (OR 2.923, CI 1.089-7.845) and skin graft (OR 7.045, CI 2.718-18.258). Considering the outcome, predictors following burn have a crucial role in the allocation of treatment cost for patients with burns and they can be used as one of the quality indicators for health care providers and governments.

  15. History of burns: The past, present and the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Chear Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are one of the most common and devastating afflictions on the human body. In this article we look back at how the treatment of burns has evolved over the centuries from a primarily topical therapy consisting of weird and wonderful topical concoctions in ancient times to one that spans multiple scientific fields of topical therapy, antibiotics, fluid resuscitation, skin excision and grafting, respiratory and metabolic care and nutrition. Most major advances in burn care occurred in the last 50 years, spurred on by wars and great fires. The use of systemic antibiotics and topical silver therapy greatly reduced sepsis related mortality. This along with the advent of antiseptic surgical techniques, burn depth classification and skin grafting allowed the excision and coverage of full-thickness burns which resulted in greatly improved survival rates. Advancements in the methods of assessing the surface area of burns paved way for more accurate fluid resuscitation, minimising the effects of shock and avoiding fluid over-loading. The introduction of metabolic care, nutritional support and care of inhalational injuries further improved the outcome of burn patients. We also briefly discuss some future directions in burn care such as the use of cell and pharmalogical therapies.

  16. Estimation of Specific Surface Area using Langmuir Isotherm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Y= KCe/(1+KCe) (1) where Y is the fraction of fish carbon surface covered ..... transmigration of adsorbate in the plane surface. (Hameed et al., 2006). ... and to the Technologists of Agric Soil Science. Laboratory of ... Biosorption of Heavy Metals by Activated. Sludge and their Desorption Characteristics. J. Environ Mgt. 84: ...

  17. The role of frugivorous birds and bats in the colonization of cloud forest plant species in burned areas in western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rost, J.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The extension of montane cloud forests in western Mexico is threatened by several disturbances that limit their extension. In this study we aim to assess the contribution of birds and bats in the dispersal and colonization of cloud–forest plants in contiguous surface–burned pine forests. We sampled seed rain and sapling establishment over one year in two surface–burned sites, which differed in the size of their closest cloud forest patch. A total of 17 plant species were found, most of which were late–successional trees, shrubs and climbers. Distance influenced the seed rain of only one dispersed taxon (Solanum sp. and had no effect on the sapling distribution of this or other plants. In turn, marked differences were found between sites, with more seeds dispersed and higher sapling density in the site that was next to the larger cloud forest patch. The role of long–distance dispersers and the existence of seed banks before fire could explain the little importance of distance from seed source on seed dispersal and sapling distribution. Nevertheless, dispersal by birds and bats before or after fire facilitates the regeneration and conservation of cloud forests in disturbed areas formerly occupied by other habitats.

  18. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada Appendix D - Corrective Action Investigation Report, Central Nevada Test Area, CAU 417

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, and consisting of three separate land withdrawal areas (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4), CAU 417 is comprised of 34 corrective action sites (CASs) including 2 underground storage tanks, 5 septic systems, 8 shaker pad/cuttings disposal areas, 1 decontamination facility pit, 1 burn area, 1 scrap/trash dump, 1 outlier area, 8 housekeeping sites, and 16 mud pits. Four field events were conducted between September 1996 and June 1998 to complete a corrective action investigation indicating that the only contaminant of concern was total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) which was found in 18 of the CASs. A total of 1,028 samples were analyzed. During this investigation, a statistical approach was used to determine which depth intervals or layers inside individual mud pits and shaker pad areas were above the State action levels for the TPH. Other related field sampling activities (i.e., expedited site characterization methods, surface geophysical surveys, direct-push geophysical surveys, direct-push soil sampling, and rotosonic drilling located septic leachfields) were conducted in this four-phase investigation; however, no further contaminants of concern (COCs) were identified. During and after the investigation activities, several of the sites which had surface debris but no COCs were cleaned up as housekeeping sites, two septic tanks were closed in place, and two underground storage tanks were removed. The focus of this CADD was to identify CAAs which would promote the prevention or mitigation of human exposure to surface and subsurface soils with contaminant

  19. The Effectiveness Evaluation of Current Disinfectants on Pathogens Isolated from Surface of Different Parts of Shahid Sadughi Accidents Burns Hospital in City of Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sahlabadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The burn unit is a suitable environment for the growth of pathogenic bacteria that can reduce these pathogens by appropriate disinfection methods. So, choosing an appropriate disinfectant and applying standard methods of disinfection can be effective in reducing nosocomial infections. The aim of this study is evaluation of efficacy of current disinfectants on pathogens isolated from surface of different parts of Shahid Sadughi accidents burns hospital in city of Yazd. Methods: In this study, the sampling method has done simple randomly and 240 samples were collected from 30 different parts of hospital surfaces (for every disinfectant 30 samples before and 30 samples after disinfection. The samples in the Microbiology laboratory of Medical Sciences University were cultured on blood agar and EMB agar culture. Colonies that were suspected to pathogens were identified by biochemical tests and their colony count was determined. Data were analyzed using Paired T-test. Results: The average of isolated bacteria at 4 parts of burn unit of hospital before disinfecting by Deconex 50 AF, Descoscid, Epimax SC and Silvosept was 58.02, 18897.28, 30989.05 and 38.52 respectively and after disinfecting was 12.8, 0.62, 1.65 and 5.09 respectively. Reducing of contamination in all disinfectants shown a significant difference (p<0.05. The most common isolated pathogens were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella, staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter and Escherichia coli. Conclusion: The results showed that all disinfectants was effective on isolated pathogens and also have shown a significant difference (p<0.05 between the average of bacteria count before and after disinfection.

  20. Impact of Work-Related Burn Injury on Social Reintegration Outcomes: A Life Impact Burn Recovery Evaluation (LIBRE) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jeffrey C; Shie, Vivian L; Espinoza, Leda F; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Lee, Austin; Acton, Amy; Marino, Molly; Jette, Alan; Kazis, Lewis E; Ryan, Colleen M

    2017-11-26

    To examine differences in long-term social reintegration outcomes for burn survivors with and without work-related injuries. Cross-sectional survey. Community-dwelling burn survivors. Burn survivors (N=601) aged ≥18 years with injuries to ≥5% total body surface area or burns to critical areas (hands, feet, face, or genitals). Not applicable. The Life Impact Burn Recovery Evaluation Profile was used to examine the following previously validated 6 scale scores of social participation: Family and Friends, Social Interactions, Social Activities, Work and Employment, Romantic Relationships, and Sexual Relationships. Older participants, those who were married, and men were more likely to be burned at work (Preintegration outcomes than those without work-related injuries. Identification of those at higher risk for work reintegration challenges after burn injury may enable survivors, providers, employers, and insurers to better use appropriate resources to promote and target optimal employment outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Methamphetamine-related burns in the cornbelt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Bridget A; Lewis, Robert W; Latenser, Barbara A; Chung, Joseph Y; Willoughby, Clark; Kealey, G Patrick; Wibbenmeyer, Lucy A

    2008-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is a highly addictive drug that is easily manufactured from everyday household products and chemicals found at local farm stores. The proliferation of small MA labs has led to a dramatic increase in patients sustaining thermal injury while making and/or using MA. We hypothesized that these patients have larger injuries with longer hospital stays, and larger, nonreimbursed hospital bills compared with burn patients not manufacturing or using MA. In a retrospective case-control study, all burn patients >or=16 years of age admitted to our burn center from January 2002 to December 2005 were stratified into two groups based on urine MA status. Of the 660 burn patients >or=16 years of age admitted during this 4 year period, urine drug screens were obtained at admission on 410 patients (62%); 10% of urine drug screens were MA (+). MA (+) patients have larger burns compared with MA (-) patients (9.3 vs 8.6% body surface area burns), have higher rates of inhalation injuries (20.4 vs 9.3%, P = .015), and more nonthermal trauma (13.0 vs 3.1%, P = .001). When compared with MA (-) patients, MA (+) patients require longer hospital stays (median 9.5 vs 7.0 days, P = .036), accrue greater hospital bills per day (dollars 4292 vs dollars 2797, P = .01), and lack medical insurance (66.7 vs 17.7%, P manufacture mandates that burn centers monitor patients for MA use and develop and institute protocols to ensure proper care of this increasingly costly population.

  2. High-surface-area silica nanospheres (KCC-1) with a fibrous morphology

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek; Cha, Dong Kyu; Zhang, Xixiang; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Fibrous nanosilica: A new family of high-surface-area silica nanospheres (KCC-1) have been prepared (see picture). KCC-1 features excellent physical properties, including high surface area, unprecedented fibrous surface morphology, high thermal (up to 950 °C) and hydrothermal stabilities, and high mechanical stability. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Determining eyeball surface area directly exposed to the effects of external factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliszewski, Tadeusz; Kadłuczka, Filip; Kiełbasa, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses determining the surface area of eyeballs of men and women exposed to the direct effects of external factors in the working environment. For one eye, the mean surface is 172-182 mm(2). The determined surface area can be used in formulas for calculating the exposure of eyeballs to harmful chemical substances in workplace air.

  4. 30 CFR 942.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 942.761 Section 942.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  5. 30 CFR 903.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 903.761 Section 903.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, applies to surface coal mining...

  6. 30 CFR 910.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. 910.761 Section 910.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  7. 30 CFR 937.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mining by Act of Congress. 937.761 Section 937.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and...

  8. 30 CFR 921.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. 921.761 Section 921.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  9. 30 CFR 912.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mining by act of Congress. 912.761 Section 912.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and...

  10. 30 CFR 947.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 947.761 Section 947.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  11. 30 CFR 939.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. 939.761 Section 939.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  12. 30 CFR 941.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 941.761 Section 941.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  13. 30 CFR 922.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 922.761 Section 922.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  14. 30 CFR 905.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 905.761 Section 905.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  15. High-surface-area silica nanospheres (KCC-1) with a fibrous morphology

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2010-08-02

    Fibrous nanosilica: A new family of high-surface-area silica nanospheres (KCC-1) have been prepared (see picture). KCC-1 features excellent physical properties, including high surface area, unprecedented fibrous surface morphology, high thermal (up to 950 °C) and hydrothermal stabilities, and high mechanical stability. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Burning mouth syndrome: An update

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Kumar Ambaldhage; Jaishankar Homberhalli Puttabuddi; Purnachandrarao Naik Nunsavath

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by an oral burning sensation in the absence of any organic disorders of the oral cavity. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. It is observed principally in middle-aged patients and postmenopausal women and is characterized by an intense burning type of pain, preferably on the tongue and in other areas of the ...

  17. Bone markers during acute burn care: Relevance to clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Anne-Françoise; Damas, Pierre; Delanaye, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne

    2017-02-01

    Bone changes are increasingly described after burn. How bone markers could help to detect early bone changes or to screen burn patients at higher risk of demineralization is still not made clear. We performed an observational study assessing the changes in serum bone markers after moderate burn. Adults admitted in the first 24h following burn extended on >10% body surface area were included. Serum levels of collagen type 1 cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP), type 1 procollagen N-terminal (P1NP) and bone alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP) were measured at admission and every week during the first month. Data are expressed as median [min-max]. Bone markers were measured in 20 patients: 18 men, 2 women (including one post-menopausal). Age was 46 [19-86] years old, burn surface area reached 15 [7-85] %. Twelve patients completed the study. All biomarkers mainly remained into normal ranges during evolution. A huge variability was observed regarding biomarkers evolution. Patient's evolution was not linear and could fluctuate from a decrease to an increase of blood concentrations. There was not necessarily a consistency between the two formation or the two resorption markers. Variations observed between two consecutive measurements were lesser than the accepted critical difference in almost one third of the cases. Considering available data, role and interest of bone markers in management of burn related bone disease remain unclear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Burns injury in children: Is antibiotic prophylaxis recommended?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Chahed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wound infection is the most frequent complication in burn patients. There is a lack of guidelines on the use of systemic antibiotics in children to prevent this complication. Patients and Methods: A prospective study is carried out on 80 patients to evaluate the role of antibiotic prophylaxis in the control of infections. Results: The mean age was 34 months (9 months to 8 years. There was a male predominance with sex ratio of 1.66. The mean burn surface size burn was 26.5% with total burn surface area ranging from 5% to 33%, respectively. According to American Burn Association 37% (30/80 were severe burns with second and third degree burns >10% of the total surface body area in children aged <10 years old. Scalds represented 76.2% (61/80 of the burns. Burns by hot oil were 11 cases (13.7%, while 8 cases (10% were flame burns. The random distribution of the groups was as follow: Group A (amoxicilline + clavulanic acid = 25 cases, Group B (oxacilline = 20 cases and Group C (no antibiotics = 35 cases. Total infection rate was 20% (16/80, distributed as follow: 8 cases (50% in Group C, 5 cases (31.2% in Group A and 3 cases in Group B (18.7%. Infection rate in each individual group was: 22.9% (8 cases/35 in Group C, 20% (5 cases/25 in Group A and 15% (3 cases/20 in Group B (P = 0.7. They were distributed as follow: Septicaemia 12 cases/16 (75%, wound infection 4 cases/16 (25%. Bacteria isolated were with a decreasing order: Staphylococcus aureus (36.3%, Pseudomonas (27.2%, Escherichia coli (18.1%, Klebsiella (9% and Enterobacteria (9%. There is a tendency to a delayed cicatrisation (P = 0.07 in case of hot oil burns (65.18 ± 120 days than by flame (54.33 ± 19.8 days than by hot water (29.55 ± 26.2 days. Otherwise no toxic shock syndrome was recorded in this study. Conclusion: It is concluded that adequate and careful nursing of burn wounds seems to be sufficient to prevent complications and to obtain cicatrisation. Antibiotics are

  19. Burning Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be accompanied by a pins and needles sensation (paresthesia) or numbness, or both. Burning feet may also be referred to as tingling feet or paresthesia. While fatigue or a skin infection can cause ...

  20. Prescribed burning in the South: trends, purpose, and barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry K. Haines; Rodney L. Busby; David A. Cleaves

    2001-01-01

    The results of a survey of fire management officials concerning historical and projected prescribed burning activity in the South are reported. Prescribed burning programs on USDA Forest Service and private and State-owned lands are described in terms of area burned by ownership and State, intended resource benefits, barriers to expanded burning, and optimum burning...

  1. Ice & Fire: the Burning Question

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    With the Arctic opening up to new shipping routes and increased oil exploration and production due to climate change, the risk of an Arctic oil spill is increasing. Of the classic oil spill response methods (mechanical recovery, dispersants and in-situ burning), in-situ burning is considered...... to be particularly a suitable response method in the Arctic. In-situ burning aims to remove the oil from the marine environment by burning it from the water surface. A recent Ph.D. thesis from the Technical University of Denmark has provided some new insights with respect to the fire science behind this response...

  2. Restoration of eroded surfaces in Serbian ski-areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Ratko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts in Serbian ski areas are very strong, leading to landscape degradation and functionality losses. Construction or improvement works cause serious destruction of topsoil and native vegetation. Some activities enhance erosion production and sediment yield: clear cuttings; trunk transport down the slope; road construction and large excavations. Also, lack of erosion control works in ski areas, especially between April and October, result in various forms of land degradation such as furrows, gullies, landslides, or debris from rock weathering. The consequences of mismanagement in ski areas are noticeable in downstream sections of river beds, causing floods and bed-load deposition. Planning and designing activities, with the application of technical and biotechnical erosion control structures, through the concept of restoration, are necessary measures in the protection of ski areas.

  3. Organochlorines in surface soil at electronic-waste wire burning sites and metal contribution evaluated using quantitative X-ray speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takigami, Hidetaka; Takaoka, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals and toxic chlorinated aromatic compounds (aromatic-Cls) such as dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are found at high concentrations and persist in surface soil at wire burning sites (WBSs) in developing countries in which various wire cables are recycled to yield pure metals. Chlorine K-edge near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) is used to detect the specific chemical form of Cl and estimate its amount using a spectrum jump in the solid phase. Quantitative X-ray speciation of Cl was applied to study the mechanisms of aromatic-Cls formation in surface soil at WBSs in Southeast Asia. Relationships between aromatic-Cls and chlorides of heavy metals were evaluated because heavy metals are promoters of the thermochemical solid-phase formation of aromatic-Cls.

  4. Organochlorines in surface soil at electronic-waste wire burning sites and metal contribution evaluated using quantitative X-ray speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takigami, Hidetaka; Takaoka, Masaki

    2013-04-01

    Heavy metals and toxic chlorinated aromatic compounds (aromatic-Cls) such as dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are found at high concentrations and persist in surface soil at wire burning sites (WBSs) in developing countries in which various wire cables are recycled to yield pure metals. Chlorine K-edge near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) is used to detect the specific chemical form of Cl and estimate its amount using a spectrum jump in the solid phase. Quantitative X-ray speciation of Cl was applied to study the mechanisms of aromatic-Cls formation in surface soil at WBSs in Southeast Asia. Relationships between aromatic-Cls and chlorides of heavy metals were evaluated because heavy metals are promoters of the thermochemical solid-phase formation of aromatic-Cls.

  5. Capacity of bone marrow colony forming unit-fibroblasts in vitro from mice with combined radiation-burn injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xinghua; Luo Chengji; Guo Chaohua; Wang Ping

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the capacity of bone marrow colony forming unit-fibroblasts (CFU-F) from mice with combined radiation-burn injury. Methods: Mice were treated with 5.0 Gy γ-ray radiation alone, 15% total body surface area (TBSA) III degree burn alone or combined radiation-burn. The numbers of CFU-Fs were assayed by Dexter's method. Results: The numbers of CFU-Fs from mice with radiation and combined radiation-burn injury were significantly decreased, compared with those of controls and mice with burn injury alone (P<0.05-0.01). conclusion: The results reveal that the repairing process of bone marrow stromal cells from mice with radiation injury and combined radiation-burn injury is slow, and the combined radiation-burn injury inflicted on the stromal cells possesses the characteristic of radiation injury

  6. Burning issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raloff, J.

    1993-01-01

    The idea of burning oil slicks at sea has intrigued oil-cleanup managers for more than a decade, but it wasn't until the advent of fireproof booms in the mid-1980's and a major spill opportunity (the March 1989 Exxon Valdez) that in-situ burning got a real sea trial. The results of this and other burning experiments indicate that, when conditions allow it, nothing can compete with fire's ability to remove oil from water. Burns have the potential to remove as much oil in one day as mechanical devices can in one month, along with minimal equipment, labor and cost. Reluctance to burn in appropriate situations comes primarily from the formation of oily, black smoke. Analysis of the potentially toxic gases have been done, indicating that burning will not increase the levels of polluting aldehydes, ketones, dioxins, furans, and PAHs above those that normally evaporate from spilled oil. This article contains descriptions of planned oil fires and the discussion on the advantages and concerns of such a policy

  7. Assessment of large aperture scintillometry for large-area surface ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    29

    1995), flat pastoral surfaces. (McAneny ... heat flux using net radiometer and soil heat flux plate, respectively and synchronized with ..... order to facilitates development of satellite based application for ET and drought monitoring, the .... daytime sensible heat flux and momentum fluxes;Boundary- Layer Meteorol.,68 357-373.

  8. Surface albedo measurements in Mexico City metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, T; Mar, B; Longoria, R; Ruiz Suarez, L. G [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Morales, L [Instituto de Geografia, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-04-01

    Optical and thermal properties of soils are important input data for the meteorological and photochemical modules of air quality models. As development of these models increase on spatial resolution good albedo data become more important. In this paper measurements of surface albedo of UV (295-385 nm) and visible (450-550 nm) radiation are reported for different urban and rural surfaces in the vicinity of Mexico City. It was found for the downtown zone and average albedo value of 0.05 which is in very good agreement with reported values for urban surfaces. Our albedo values measured in UV region for grey cement and green grass are of 0.10 and 0.009, respectively, and quite similar to those found at the literature of 0.11 and 0.008 for those type of surfaces. [Spanish] Las propiedades opticas y termicas de suelos son datos importantes para los modulos meteorologicos y fotoquimicos de los modelos de calidad del aire. Conforme aumenta la resolucion espacial del modelo se vuelve mas importante contar con buenos datos de albedo. En este articulo se presentan mediciones de albedo superficial de radiacion Ultravioleta (295-385 nm) y visible (450-550 nm) para diferentes superficies urbanas. Los valores medidos de albedo en la region UV para cemento gris y pasto verde son de 0.10 y 0.009, respectivamente, y son muy similares a los reportados en la literatura, 0.11 y 0.008 para este tipo de superficies.

  9. Large Area Diamond Tribological Surfaces with Negligible Wear in Extreme Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase I we propose to demonstrate the processing of very large area diamond sliding bearings and tribological surfaces. The bearings and surfaces will experience...

  10. A method for determining the extent of thermal burns in elephants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shakespeare

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A practical method was developed to assess the extent of burns suffered by elephants caught in bush fires. In developing this method, the surface areas of the different body parts of juvenile, subadult and adult elephants were first determined using standard equations, and then expressed as a percentage of the total body surface area. When viewed from a distance, the burnt proportion of all body segments is estimated, converted to percentages of total body surface area, and then summed to determine the extent of burns suffered.

  11. The effect of seasonality on burn incidence, severity and outcome in Central Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Anna F; Gallaher, Jared; Mjuweni, Stephen; Cairns, Bruce A; Charles, Anthony G

    2017-08-01

    In much of the world, burns are more common in cold months. However, few studies have described the seasonality of burns in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examines the effect of seasonality on the incidence and outcome of burns in central Malawi. A retrospective analysis was performed at Kamuzu Central Hospital and included all patients admitted from May 2011 to August 2014. Demographic data, burn mechanism, total body surface area (%TBSA), and mortality were analyzed. Seasons were categorized as Rainy (December-February), Lush (March-May), Cold (June-August) and Hot (September-November). A negative binomial regression was used to assess the effect of seasonality on burn incidence. This was performed using both the raw and deseasonalized data in order to evaluate for trends not attributable to random fluctuation. A total of 905 patients were included. Flame (38%) and Scald (59%) burns were the most common mechanism. More burns occurred during the cold season (41% vs 19-20% in the other seasons). Overall mortality was 19%. Only the cold season had a statistically significant increase in burn . The incidence rate ratios (IRR) for the hot, lush, and cold seasons were 0.94 (CI 0.6-1.32), 1.02 (CI 0.72-1.45) and 1.6 (CI 1.17-2.19), respectively, when compared to the rainy season. Burn severity and mortality did not differ between seasons. The results of this study demonstrate the year-round phenomenon of burns treated at our institution, and highlights the slight predominance of burns during the cold season. These data can be used to guide prevention strategies, with special attention to the implications of the increased burn incidence during the cold season. Though burn severity and mortality remain relatively unchanged between seasons, recognizing the seasonal variability in incidence of burns is critical for resource allocation in this low-income setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of laser Doppler imaging in burn care in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hop M Jenda

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early accurate assessment of burn depth is important to determine the optimal treatment of burns. The method most used to determine burn depth is clinical assessment, which is the least expensive, but not the most accurate. Laser Doppler imaging (LDI is a technique with which a more accurate (>95% estimate of burn depth can be made by measuring the dermal perfusion. The actual effect on therapeutic decisions, clinical outcomes and the costs of the introduction of this device, however, are unknown. Before we decide to implement LDI in Dutch burn care, a study on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of LDI is necessary. Methods/design A multicenter randomised controlled trial will be conducted in the Dutch burn centres: Beverwijk, Groningen and Rotterdam. All patients treated as outpatient or admitted to a burn centre within 5 days post burn, with burns of indeterminate depth (burns not obviously superficial or full thickness and a total body surface area burned of ≤ 20% are eligible. A total of 200 patients will be included. Burn depth will be diagnosed by both clinical assessment and laser Doppler imaging between 2–5 days post burn in all patients. Subsequently, patients are randomly divided in two groups: ‘new diagnostic strategy’ versus ‘current diagnostic strategy’. The results of the LDI-scan will only be provided to the treating clinician in the ‘new diagnostic strategy’ group. The main endpoint is the effect of LDI on wound healing time. In addition we measure: a the effect of LDI on other patient outcomes (quality of life, scar quality, b the effect of LDI on diagnostic and therapeutic decisions, and c the effect of LDI on total (medical and non-medical costs and cost-effectiveness. Discussion This trial will contribute to our current knowledge on the use of LDI in burn care and will provide evidence on its cost-effectiveness. Trial registration NCT01489540

  13. THE TREATMENT OF BURNS: A COMPARATIVE TRIAL OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other burns under 10% body surface area are treated as outpatients unless there .... which allows a range of movement but prevents the child from interfering with the ... trolled physiotherapy is instituted from the second or third day. Cases with ...

  14. Possibilities of surface waters monitoring at mining areas using UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisiecka, Ewa; Motyka, Barbara; Motyka, Zbigniew; Pierzchała, Łukasz; Szade, Adam

    2018-04-01

    The selected, remote measurement methods are discussed, useful for determining surface water properties using mobile unmanned aerial platforms (UAV). The possibilities of using this type of solutions in the scope of measuring spatial, physicochemical and biological parameters of both natural and anthropogenic water reservoirs, including flood polders, water-filled pits, settling tanks and mining sinks were analyzed. Methods of remote identification of the process of overgrowing this type of ecosystems with water and coastal plant formations have also been proposed.

  15. Dynamics of forest ecosystems regenerated on burned and harvested areas in mountain regions of Siberia: characteristics of biological diversity, structure and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Danilin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex estimation of forest ecosystems dynamics based on detailing characteristics of structure, growth and productivity of the stands and describing general geographical and biological management options for preserving their biodiversity and sustaining stability are discussed in the paper by describing examples of tree stands restored on burned and logged areas in mountain regions of Siberia. On vast areas in Siberia, characterized as sub-boreal, subarid and with a strongly continental climate, forests grow on seasonally frozen soils and in many cases are surrounded by vast steppe and forest-steppe areas and uplands. Developing criteria for sustainability of mountain forest ecosystems is necessary for forest resource management and conservation. It is therefore important to obtain complex biometric characteristics on forest stands and landscapes and to thoroughly study their structure, biological diversity and productivity. Morphometric methods, Weibull simulation and allometric equations were used to determine the dimensional hierarchies of coenopopulation individuals. Structure and productivity of the aboveground stand components were also studied.

  16. Estimating the surface area of birds: using the homing pigeon (Columba livia) as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Cristina R; Moye, John K; Pritsos, Chris A

    2014-05-08

    Estimation of the surface area of the avian body is valuable for thermoregulation and metabolism studies as well as for assessing exposure to oil and other surface-active organic pollutants from a spill. The use of frozen carcasses for surface area estimations prevents the ability to modify the posture of the bird. The surface area of six live homing pigeons in the fully extended flight position was estimated using a noninvasive method. An equation was derived to estimate the total surface area of a pigeon based on its body weight. A pigeon's surface area in the fully extended flight position is approximately 4 times larger than the surface area of a pigeon in the perching position. The surface area of a bird is dependent on its physical position, and, therefore, the fully extended flight position exhibits the maximum area of a bird and should be considered the true surface area of a bird. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd | Biology Open.

  17. Comparison of diffusion charging and mobility-based methods for measurement of aerosol agglomerate surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Bon Ki; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2012-05-01

    We compare different approaches to measure surface area of aerosol agglomerates. The objective was to compare field methods, such as mobility and diffusion charging based approaches, with laboratory approach, such as Brunauer, Emmett, Teller (BET) method used for bulk powder samples. To allow intercomparison of various surface area measurements, we defined 'geometric surface area' of agglomerates (assuming agglomerates are made up of ideal spheres), and compared various surface area measurements to the geometric surface area. Four different approaches for measuring surface area of agglomerate particles in the size range of 60-350 nm were compared using (i) diffusion charging-based sensors from three different manufacturers, (ii) mobility diameter of an agglomerate, (iii) mobility diameter of an agglomerate assuming a linear chain morphology with uniform primary particle size, and (iv) surface area estimation based on tandem mobility-mass measurement and microscopy. Our results indicate that the tandem mobility-mass measurement, which can be applied directly to airborne particles unlike the BET method, agrees well with the BET method. It was also shown that the three diffusion charging-based surface area measurements of silver agglomerates were similar within a factor of 2 and were lower than those obtained from the tandem mobility-mass and microscopy method by a factor of 3-10 in the size range studied. Surface area estimated using the mobility diameter depended on the structure or morphology of the agglomerate with significant underestimation at high fractal dimensions approaching 3.

  18. Contributions of Severe Burn and Disuse to Bone Structure and Strength in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, L.A.; Wu, X.; Tou, J. C.; Johnson, E.; Wolf, S.E.; Wade, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    Burn and disuse results in metabolic and bone changes associated with substantial and sustained bone loss. Such loss can lead to an increased fracture incidence and osteopenia. We studied the independent effects of burn and disuse on bone morphology, composition and strength, and microstructure of the bone alterations 14 days after injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: Sham/Ambulatory (SA), Burn/Ambulatory (BA), Sham/Hindlimb Unloaded (SH) and Burn/Hindlimb Unloaded (BH). Burn groups received a 40% total body surface area full-thickness scald burn. Disuse by hindlimb unloading was initiated immediately following injury. Bone turnover was determined in plasma and urine. Femur biomechanical parameters were measured by three-point bending tests and bone microarchitecture was determined by microcomputed tomography (uCT). On day 14, a significant reduction in body mass was observed as a result of burn, disuse and a combination of both. In terms of bone health, disuse alone and in combination affected femur weight, length and bone mineral content. Bending failure energy, an index of femur strength, was significantly reduced in all groups and maximum bending stress was lower when burn and disuse were combined. Osteocalcin was reduced in BA compared to the other groups, indicating influence of burn. The reductions observed in femur weight, BMC, biomechanical parameters and indices of bone formation are primarily responses to the combination of burn and disuse. These results offer insight into bone degradation following severe injury and disuse. PMID:23142361

  19. The effect of family characteristics on the recovery of burn injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Robert L; Lee, Austin F; Kazis, Lewis E; Liang, Matthew H; Li, Nien-Chen; Hinson, Michelle I; Bauk, Helena; Meyer, Walter J; Stubbs, Teresa K; Palmieri, Tina L; Tompkins, Ronald G

    2012-09-01

    Interactions between family members and characteristics of family life and function may affect a child's recovery from burn injury. We prospectively examined the relationship between family characteristics and physical and psychosocial recovery from burns. The families of 399 burned children aged 5 years to 18 years admitted to one of four Shriners Hospitals for Children for management of acute burns completed the Family Environment Scale within 7 days of admission and then the American Burn Association/Shriners Hospitals for Children Burn Outcome Questionnaire (BOQ) at baseline, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 months. Generalized estimating equations with random effects for the time since burn were used to track recovery of the BOQ patient-centered domains associated with baseline family characteristics during the course of the study. The children had a mean age of 11 years and burn size of 32% total body surface area burned. Higher Family Environment Scale scores in cohesion, independence, organization, and active recreational orientation were associated with significantly better rates of recovery in multiple BOQ domains of health-related quality of life. Higher scores in conflict and achievement orientation predicted statistically significant impaired recovery. Higher expressiveness predicted greater difficulty with school reentry. Family characteristics affect the recovery of children after serious burns. Some of these may be amenable to focused anticipatory family interventions to help optimize outcomes. In particular, those characteristics that impair school reentry should be targeted.

  20. The epidemiology of burns in young children from Mexico treated at a U.S. hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dipen D; Rosenberg, Laura; Rosenberg, Marta; Leal, Jesus; Andersen, Clark R; Foncerrada, Guillermo; Lee, Jong O; Jimenez, Carlos J; Branski, Ludwik; Meyer, Walter J; Herndon, David N

    2016-12-01

    Young children are the most vulnerable for sustaining burns. At this pediatric burn hospital we have provided medical care to young children with severe burns from Mexico for many years. This study identified modifiable risk factors that could be used to assist in prevention of burns in this age group. A retrospective chart review was performed with children Mexico who were injured from 2000 to 2013. The medical records of 447 acute patients were reviewed. There were 187 females and 260 males with large burns >20% total body surface area (TBSA) burned. Primary causes of burns were flame and scalds. Children with flame injuries were older (3.0±1.5 years of age) than those with scalds (2.6±1.2 years of age). Admissions attributed to flame burns were largely from explosions by propane tanks, gas line leaks, and house fires. Most admissions for scalds were predominantly from falling in large containers of hot water, food, or grease; and fewer were attributed to spills from hot liquids. Most cases reported to a social service agency were to find resources for families. Mortality rate for flame and scald burns was low. It is important take into account demographic, cultural, and socioeconomic variables when developing and implementing prevention programs. Burn prevention instruction for parents is crucial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. Tritium in Precipitation, Surface and Groundwaters in the Zagreb Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvatincic, N.; Baresic, J.; Sironic, A.; Krajcar Bronic, I.; Obelic, B.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive isotope tritium (3H) and stable isotopes of hydrogen (2H/1H) and oxygen (18O/16O) were measured in Sava River, precipitation and groundwater at 3 monitoring wells (piezometers) and 1 production well of the Petrusevec aquifer, close to the Sava River. Samples were collected monthly during 2010. The investigation is included in the Regional IAEA Project RER/8/016 Using Environmental Isotopes for Evaluation of Streamwater/Groundwater Interactions in Selected Aquifers in the Danube Basin. Sava River is a tributary of Danube River and the aim of the investigation is to determine the influence of surface stream of Sava River to the groundwater of aquifer used for water exploitation. In this work only 3H results were presented. 3H was measured by liquid scintillation counter Quantulus 1220, using electrolytic enrichment for all samples. 3H activity in precipitation showed slight seasonal fluctuation between 4 TU and 14 TU, with higher values in summer. 3H activity of Sava River and groundwater of the Petrusevec aquifer followed 3H of precipitation till May 2010. Significant increase of 3H in Sava River was observed in June, (199 @ 20) TU, and in the next month it fell down at 6 TU. Increase of 3H was also observed in groundwater but with damped response (maximum 60 TU) and with delay of 2 - 3 months related to Sava River. Different response of different piezometers and the well indicated the different infiltration times of surface water of Sava River to groundwater of the Petrusevec aquifer. The increased 3H activity in surface and groundwaters was caused by release of tritiated water from the Krsko Nuclear Power Plant, 30 km upstream from Zagreb. The results of 3H, 2H/1H and 18O/16O measurements will be used to determine the infiltration time of groundwater of the Petrusevec aquifer using conceptual and mathematical models. (author)

  2. Possibilities of surface waters monitoring at mining areas using UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiecka Ewa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The selected, remote measurement methods are discussed, useful for determining surface water properties using mobile unmanned aerial platforms (UAV. The possibilities of using this type of solutions in the scope of measuring spatial, physicochemical and biological parameters of both natural and anthropogenic water reservoirs, including flood polders, water-filled pits, settling tanks and mining sinks were analyzed. Methods of remote identification of the process of overgrowing this type of ecosystems with water and coastal plant formations have also been proposed.

  3. Effect of solution and leaf surface polarity on droplet spread area and contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairn, Justin J; Forster, W Alison; van Leeuwen, Rebecca M

    2016-03-01

    How much an agrochemical spray droplet spreads on a leaf surface can significantly influence efficacy. This study investigates the effect solution polarity has on droplet spreading on leaf surfaces and whether the relative leaf surface polarity, as quantified using the wetting tension dielectric (WTD) technique, influences the final spread area. Contact angles and spread areas were measured using four probe solutions on 17 species. Probe solution polarity was found to affect the measured spread area and the contact angle of the droplets on non-hairy leaves. Leaf hairs skewed the spread area measurement, preventing investigation of the influence of surface polarity on hairy leaves. WTD-measured leaf surface polarity of non-hairy leaves was found to correlate strongly with the effect of solution polarity on spread area. For non-polar leaf surfaces the spread area decreases with increasing solution polarity, for neutral surfaces polarity has no effect on spread area and for polar leaf surfaces the spread area increases with increasing solution polarity. These results attest to the use of the WTD technique as a means to quantify leaf surface polarity. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Retrospective analysis of patients with burn injury treated in a burn center in Turkey during the Syrian civil war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuce, Yucel; Acar, Hakan A; Erkal, Kutlu H; Arditi, Nur B

    2017-01-01

    To report the management of burn injuries that occured in the Syria civil war, which were referred to our burn center. Methods: Forty-three patients with burns, injured in the civil war in Syria and whom were referred to Dr. Lütfi Kırdar Kartal Educating and Training Hospital Burn Centre of İstanbul, Turkey between 2011-2015 were analyzed in a retrospective study. Results: Most of our patients were in major burn classification (93%; 40/43) and most of them had burns greater than 15% total on body surface area. Most of them were admitted to our center late after first management at centers with improper conditions and in cultures of these patients unusual and resistant strains specific to the battlefield were produced. Conclusion: Immediate transfer of the patients from the scene of incidence to burn centers ensures early treatment, this factor may be effective on the outcome of these patients.

  5. A method of analyzing rectal surface area irradiated and rectal complications in prostate conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yong; Song, Paul Y.; Li Shidong; Spelbring, Danny R.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Haraf, Daniel J.; Chen, George T.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method of analyzing rectal surface area irradiated and rectal complications in prostate conformal radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Dose-surface histograms of the rectum, which state the rectal surface area irradiated to any given dose, were calculated for a group of 27 patients treated with a four-field box technique to a total (tumor minimum) dose ranging from 68 to 70 Gy. Occurrences of rectal toxicities as defined by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) were recorded and examined in terms of dose and rectal surface area irradiated. For a specified end point of rectal complication, the complication probability was analyzed as a function of dose irradiated to a fixed rectal area, and as a function of area receiving a fixed dose. Lyman's model of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) was used to fit the data. Results: The observed occurrences of rectal complications appear to depend on the rectal surface area irradiated to a given dose level. The patient distribution of each toxicity grade exhibits a maximum as a function of percentage surface area irradiated, and the maximum moves to higher values of percentage surface area as the toxicity grade increases. The dependence of the NTCP for the specified end point on dose and percentage surface area irradiated was fitted to Lyman's NTCP model with a set of parameters. The curvature of the NTCP as a function of the surface area suggests that the rectum is a parallel structured organ. Conclusions: The described method of analyzing rectal surface area irradiated yields interesting insight into understanding rectal complications in prostate conformal radiotherapy. Application of the method to a larger patient data set has the potential to facilitate the construction of a full dose-surface-complication relationship, which would be most useful in guiding clinical practice

  6. Large area optical mapping of surface contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Guilherme; Canning, John; Padden, Whayne; Martelli, Cicero; Dligatch, Svetlana

    2017-09-04

    Top-down contact angle measurements have been validated and confirmed to be as good if not more reliable than side-based measurements. A range of samples, including industrially relevant materials for roofing and printing, has been compared. Using the top-down approach, mapping in both 1-D and 2-D has been demonstrated. The method was applied to study the change in contact angle as a function of change in silver (Ag) nanoparticle size controlled by thermal evaporation. Large area mapping reveals good uniformity for commercial Aspen paper coated with black laser printer ink. A demonstration of the forensic and chemical analysis potential in 2-D is shown by uncovering the hidden CsF initials made with mineral oil on the coated Aspen paper. The method promises to revolutionize nanoscale characterization and industrial monitoring as well as chemical analyses by allowing rapid contact angle measurements over large areas or large numbers of samples in ways and times that have not been possible before.

  7. BLM National Surface Management Agency: Area Polygons, Withdrawal Area Polygons, and Special Public Purpose Withdrawal Area Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Geographic Data Committee — The SMA implementation is comprised of one feature dataset, with several polygon feature classes, rather than a single feature class. SurfaceManagementAgency: The...

  8. Amniotic membrane for burn trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamaluddin Zainol; Hasim Mohammad

    1999-01-01

    Amniotic membranes are derived from human placentae at birth. They have two layers mainly the amniotic and the chorionic surfaces which are separated by a thin layer of connective tissues. The two layers are separated during procurement, the placenta and the chorionic side are discarded and the amnion membranes are then further processed. Amnion membranes are normally procured from placentae which are normally free of infections, i.e; the mothers are antenatally screened for sexually transmitted diseases or AlDs related diseases. Intrapartum the mother should not be having chorioamnionitis or jaundice. Sometimes the amniotic membranes are acquired from fresh elective caeserian sections. After processing, the amniotic membranes are packed in two layers of polypropylene and radiated with cobalt 60 at a dose of about 25 kGy. The amniotic membranes are clinically used to cover burn surfaces especially effective for superficial or partial thickness burns. The thin membranes adhered well to the trauma areas and peeled off automatically by the second week. No change of dressing were necessary during these times because of the close adherence, there were less chance of external contamination or infections of these wounds. Due to their flexibility they are very useful to cover difference contours of the human body for example the face, body, elbows or knees. However our experience revealed that amniotic membranes are not useful for third degree bums because the membranes dissolves by the enzymes present in the wounds

  9. Surface and subsurface conditions in permafrost areas - a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidstrand, Patrik

    2003-02-01

    This report contains a summary of some of the information within existing technical and scientific literature on permafrost. Permafrost is viewed as one of the future climate driven process domains that may exist in Scandinavia, and that may give rise to significantly different surface and subsurface conditions than the present. Except for changes in the biosphere, permafrost may impact hydraulic, mechanical, and chemical subsurface processes and conditions. Permafrost and its influences on the subsurface conditions are thus of interest for the performance and safety assessments of deep geological waste repositories. The definition of permafrost is 'ground that stays at or below 0 deg C for at least two consecutive years'. Permafrost will effect the geological subsurface to some depth. How deep the permafrost may grow is a function of the heat balance, thermal conditions at the surface and within the ground, and the geothermal heat flux from the Earth's inner parts. The main chapters of the report summaries the knowledge on permafrost evolution, occurrence and distribution, and extracts information concerning hydrology and mechanical and chemical impacts due to permafrost related conditions. The results of a literature review are always dependent on the available literature. Concerning permafrost there is some literature available from investigations in the field of long-term repositories and some from mining industries. However, reports of these investigations are few and the bulk of permafrost literature comes from the science departments concerned with surficial processes (e.g. geomorphology, hydrology, agriculture, etc) and from engineering concerns, such as foundation of constructions and pipeline design. This focus within the permafrost research inevitably yields a biased but also an abundant amount of information on localised surficial processes and a limited amount on regional and deep permafrost characteristics. Possible conclusions are that there is

  10. Surface and subsurface conditions in permafrost areas - a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidstrand, Patrik [Bergab, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2003-02-01

    This report contains a summary of some of the information within existing technical and scientific literature on permafrost. Permafrost is viewed as one of the future climate driven process domains that may exist in Scandinavia, and that may give rise to significantly different surface and subsurface conditions than the present. Except for changes in the biosphere, permafrost may impact hydraulic, mechanical, and chemical subsurface processes and conditions. Permafrost and its influences on the subsurface conditions are thus of interest for the performance and safety assessments of deep geological waste repositories. The definition of permafrost is 'ground that stays at or below 0 deg C for at least two consecutive years'. Permafrost will effect the geological subsurface to some depth. How deep the permafrost may grow is a function of the heat balance, thermal conditions at the surface and within the ground, and the geothermal heat flux from the Earth's inner parts. The main chapters of the report summaries the knowledge on permafrost evolution, occurrence and distribution, and extracts information concerning hydrology and mechanical and chemical impacts due to permafrost related conditions. The results of a literature review are always dependent on the available literature. Concerning permafrost there is some literature available from investigations in the field of long-term repositories and some from mining industries. However, reports of these investigations are few and the bulk of permafrost literature comes from the science departments concerned with surficial processes (e.g. geomorphology, hydrology, agriculture, etc) and from engineering concerns, such as foundation of constructions and pipeline design. This focus within the permafrost research inevitably yields a biased but also an abundant amount of information on localised surficial processes and a limited amount on regional and deep permafrost characteristics. Possible conclusions are that

  11. 30 CFR 933.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. 933.761 Section 933.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated Unsuitable for Coal Mining by Act of Congress, with...

  12. Surface area of antimony oxide by isotope exchange and other methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Y.K.; Acharya, B.V.; Rangamannar, B.

    1985-06-17

    Specific surface areas of antimony oxide samples, one commercial, the other prepared from antimony trichloride were measured by heterogeneous isotope exchange, gas adsorption, air permeability and microscopic methods. Specific surface areas obtained by these four methods for the two samples were compared and the observed differences are explained.

  13. The protection of urban areas from surface wastewater pollutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vialkova Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it considered the problem of collection, treatment and discharge into waters of rain and melted wastewater. To reduce the load on the combined sewer system, there are engineering solutions collect rain and melt water for use in the irrigation of lawns and green spaces. Research carried out at the department “Water supply and sanitation”, (Russia, confirm the high pollution concentrations of meltwater and rainfall in urban arias. Series of measurements of heavy metal in rainwater runoff carried out in Hungary demonstrates clearly the differences in concentrations in the function of distance from the edge of the road. Also differences are introduced between pollution concentrations in runoff water from within and outside urban traffic roads. The quality of snow cover, forming meltwater is observed to be changing in dependence on roadway location. Quality characteristics of surface runoff and its sediments can be effectively improved with super-high frequency radiation (SHF treatment which is presented in this paper.

  14. High surface area silicon materials: fundamentals and new technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buriak, Jillian M

    2006-01-15

    Crystalline silicon forms the basis of just about all computing technologies on the planet, in the form of microelectronics. An enormous amount of research infrastructure and knowledge has been developed over the past half-century to construct complex functional microelectronic structures in silicon. As a result, it is highly probable that silicon will remain central to computing and related technologies as a platform for integration of, for instance, molecular electronics, sensing elements and micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems. Porous nanocrystalline silicon is a fascinating variant of the same single crystal silicon wafers used to make computer chips. Its synthesis, a straightforward electrochemical, chemical or photochemical etch, is compatible with existing silicon-based fabrication techniques. Porous silicon literally adds an entirely new dimension to the realm of silicon-based technologies as it has a complex, three-dimensional architecture made up of silicon nanoparticles, nanowires, and channel structures. The intrinsic material is photoluminescent at room temperature in the visible region due to quantum confinement effects, and thus provides an optical element to electronic applications. Our group has been developing new organic surface reactions on porous and nanocrystalline silicon to tailor it for a myriad of applications, including molecular electronics and sensing. Integration of organic and biological molecules with porous silicon is critical to harness the properties of this material. The construction and use of complex, hierarchical molecular synthetic strategies on porous silicon will be described.

  15. An analysis of wildfire frequency and burned area relationships with human pressure and climate gradients in the context of fire regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ruano, Adrián; Rodrigues Mimbrero, Marcos; de la Riva Fernández, Juan

    2017-04-01

    which fire frequency and burnt areas are controlled by either environmental, human, or both factors. Results reveal a noticeable link between fire frequency and human activity, especially in the Northwest area during winter. On the other hand, in the Hinterland and Mediterranean regions, human and climate factors 'work' together in terms of their relationship with fire activity, being the concurrence of high human pressure and favourable climate conditions the main driver. In turn, burned area shows a similar behaviour except in the Hinterland region, were fire-affected area depends mostly on climate factors. Overall, we can conclude that the visual analysis of multidimensional scatterplots has proved to be a powerful tool that facilitates characterization and investigation of fire regimes.

  16. A synthesis of post-fire Burned Area Reports from 1972 to 2009 for western US Forest Service lands: Trends in wildfire characteristics and post-fire stabilisation treatments and expenditures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter R. Robichaud; Hakjun Rhee; Sarah A. Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Over 1200 post-fire assessment and treatment implementation reports from four decades (1970s-2000s) of western US forest fires have been examined to identify decadal patterns in fire characteristics and the justifications and expenditures for the post-fire treatments. The main trends found were: (1) the area burned by wildfire increased over time and the rate of...

  17. Measurement of the specific surface area of loose copper deposit by electrochemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Dolmatova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the work the surface area of the electrode with dispersed copper deposit obtained within 30 seconds was evaluated by techniques of chronopotentiometry (CPM and impedance spectroscopy. In method CPM the electrode surface available for measurement depends on the value of the polarizing current. At high currents during the transition time there is a change of surface relief that can not determine the full surface of loose deposit. The electrochemical impedance method is devoid of this shortcoming since the measurements are carried out in indifferent electrolyte in the absence of current. The area measured by the impedance is tens of times higher than the value obtained by chronopotentiometry. It is found that from a solution containing sulfuric acid the deposits form with a high specific surface area. Based on these data it was concluded that the method of impedance spectroscopy can be used to measure in situ the surface area of the dispersed copper deposits.

  18. Size and surface AREA analysis of some metallic and intermetallic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmasry, M.A.A.; Elsayed, A.A.; Abadir, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    The powder characterization of three intermetallic compounds ( Cr B, B 4 c and S ib 4 ) and three metallic powders (Fe, Co, and Ni) has been performed. This included the determination of powder density, chemical analysis, impurity analysis, shape factor, particle size analysis and specific surface area. The particle size analysis for the six powders was carried out using three techniques, namely; the 0-23, the microtrac and the fisher sub sieve and size. It was found that the analysis of the two powders and deviates from the log-normal probability distribution and the deviation was corrected. The specific surface area of the powders was measured using the high speed surface area analysis (BET method), and it was also calculated from surface area analysis findings, the BET technique was found to give the highest specific surface area values, and was attributed to the inclusion of internal porosity in the measurement. 8 fig., 10 tab

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, July 2002, Rev. No. 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 140 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-08-01, Detonation Pits; 05-08-02, Debris Pits; 05-17-01, Hazardous Waste Accumulation Site (Buried); 05-19-01, Waste Disposal Site; 05-23-01, Gravel Gertie; 05-35-01, Burn Pit; 05-99-04, Burn Pit; 22-99-04, Radioactive Waste Dump; 23-17-01, Hazardous Waste Storage Area. All nine of these CASs are located within Areas 5, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. This CAU is being investigated because disposed waste may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present or migrating at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. The NTS has been used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. The CASs in CAU 140 were used for testing, material storage, waste storage, and waste disposal. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution criteria and resolve the decision statements. Phase I will determine if contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) are present in concentrations exceeding preliminary action levels. This data will be evaluated at all CASs. Phase II will determine the extent of the contaminant(s) of concern (COCs). This data will only be evaluated for CASs with a COC identified during Phase I. Based on process knowledge, the COPCs for CAU 140 include volatile organics, semivolatile organics, petroleum hydrocarbons, explosive residues

  20. Protocol for a systematic review of quantitative burn wound microbiology in the management of burns patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwei, Johnny; Halstead, Fenella D; Dretzke, Janine; Oppenheim, Beryl A; Moiemen, Naiem S

    2015-11-06

    Sepsis from burn injuries can result from colonisation of burn wounds, especially in large surface area burns. Reducing bacterial infection will reduce morbidity and mortality, and mortality for severe burns can be as high as 15 %. There are various quantitative and semi-quantitative techniques to monitor bacterial load on wounds. In the UK, burn wounds are typically monitored for the presence or absence of bacteria through the collection and culture of swabs, but no absolute count is obtained. Quantitative burn wound culture provides a measure of bacterial count and is gaining increased popularity in some countries. It is however more resource intensive, and evidence for its utility appears to be inconsistent. This systematic review therefore aims to assess the evidence on the utility and reliability of different quantitative microbiology techniques in terms of diagnosing or predicting clinical outcomes. Standard systematic review methods aimed at minimising bias will be employed for study identification, selection and data extraction. Bibliographic databases and ongoing trial registers will be searched and conference abstracts screened. Studies will be eligible if they are prospective studies or systematic reviews of burn patients (any age) for whom quantitative microbiology has been performed, whether it is compared to another method. Quality assessment will be based on quality assessment tools for diagnostic and prognostic studies and tailored to the review as necessary. Synthesis is likely to be primarily narrative, but meta-analysis may be considered where clinical and methodological homogeneity exists. Given the increasing use of quantitative methods, this is a timely systematic review, which will attempt to clarify the evidence base. As far as the authors are aware, it will be the first to address this topic. PROSPERO, CRD42015023903.

  1. Novel burn device for rapid, reproducible burn wound generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J Y; Dunham, D M; Supp, D M; Sen, C K; Powell, H M

    2016-03-01

    Scarring following full thickness burns leads to significant reductions in range of motion and quality of life for burn patients. To effectively study scar development and the efficacy of anti-scarring treatments in a large animal model (female red Duroc pigs), reproducible, uniform, full-thickness, burn wounds are needed to reduce variability in observed results that occur with burn depth. Prior studies have proposed that initial temperature of the burner, contact time with skin, thermal capacity of burner material, and the amount of pressure applied to the skin need to be strictly controlled to ensure reproducibility. The purpose of this study was to develop a new burner that enables temperature and pressure to be digitally controlled and monitored in real-time throughout burn wound creation and compare it to a standard burn device. A custom burn device was manufactured with an electrically heated burn stylus and a temperature control feedback loop via an electronic microstat. Pressure monitoring was controlled by incorporation of a digital scale into the device, which measured downward force. The standard device was comprised of a heat resistant handle with a long rod connected to the burn stylus, which was heated using a hot plate. To quantify skin surface temperature and internal stylus temperature as a function of contact time, the burners were heated to the target temperature (200±5°C) and pressed into the skin for 40s to create the thermal injuries. Time to reach target temperature and elapsed time between burns were recorded. In addition, each unit was evaluated for reproducibility within and across three independent users by generating burn wounds at contact times spanning from 5 to 40s at a constant pressure and at pressures of 1 or 3lbs with a constant contact time of 40s. Biopsies were collected for histological analysis and burn depth quantification using digital image analysis (ImageJ). The custom burn device maintained both its internal

  2. Surface and groundwater Nitrate distribution in the area of Vicenza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altissimo, L.; Dal Pra, A.

    1999-01-01

    Public aqueducts in the Province of Vicenza (Italy) are supplied entirely by various kinds of water sources: the sub river bed strata of the mountain valleys, water-bearing aquifers of the high plan, pressurized water-bearing aquifers of the middle plain, karstic reservoirs of the mountain massifs and local springs. Progressive increase in nitrate concentration has long been detected in the underground water of many parts of the Vicenza region. The nitrates originate from various sources: human waste, industrial dumping (e.g. the tanning industry) and the use of animal and chemical fertilizers. Nitrate distribution was studied in all wells used for extracting underground water including source waters which replenishing underground aquifers. During the study period ('91-'95), water courses in the recharge areas were found to have nitrate concentrations ranging between 2.0 and 42.0 mg/l. These values remained substantially stable in time. Underground aquifers showed stable nitrate concentration between 5.0 mg/l (mountain karstic aquifers; sub-river bed strata of valley bottom) and 44.0 mg/l (water bearing strata of the high plain of Astico and Brenta rivers). The pressurized flooding aquifers of the middle plain have lower concentrations (6.0-21.0 mg/l) but tend to increase by about 0.5 mg/l per year [it

  3. Childhood burns in Sulaimaniyah province, Iraqi Kurdistan: a prospective study of admissions and outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Nasih; Kendrick, Denise; Al-Windi, Ahmad

    2015-03-01

    While it is globally observed that young children are at a higher risk of burn injuries, little is known about childhood burns in Iraqi Kurdistan. This study was undertaken to describe the epidemiology of burns amongst pre-school children in this region. A prospective study was undertaken from November 2007 to November 2008 involving all children aged 0-5 years attending the burns centre in Sulaimaniyah province for a new burn injury whether treated as an outpatient or admitted to hospital. 1,122 children attended the burns centre of whom 944 (84%) were interviewed (male 53%, female 47%). Mean age was 1.9 years with children aged 1 year comprising 32% and those aged 2 years comprising 21% of the sample. The incidence of burns was 1044/100,000 person-years (1030 in females and 1057 in males). Mechanisms of injury included scalds (80%), contact burns (12%) flames (6%) and other mechanisms (2%). Almost 97% of burns occurred at home including 43% in the kitchen. Winter was the commonest season (36%) followed by autumn (24%). There were 3 peak times of injury during the day corresponding to meal times. The majority of burns were caused by hot water (44%) and tea (20%) and the most common equipment/products responsible were tea utensils (41%). There were 237 admissions with an admission rate of 95 per 100,000 person-years. Scald injuries accounted for most admissions (84%). Median total body surface area affected by the burn or scald (TBSA) was 11% and median hospital stay was 7 days. In-hospital mortality was 8%. Mortality rate was 4% when TBSA was ≤25%, and 100% when TBSA was over 50%. Burn incidence is high in young children especially those aged 1-2 years. Preventive interventions targeted at families with young children & focusing on home safety measures could be effective in reducing childhood burns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Pre-existing psychiatric disorder in the burn patient is associated with worse outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Alexandra; Al Youha, Sarah; Samargandi, Osama A; Paletz, Justin

    2017-08-01

    To compare patient and burn characteristics between patients who had a pre-existing psychiatric diagnosis and patients who did not in a Burn Unit at an academic hospital. Psychosocial issues are common in patients recovering from a burn; however, little is known regarding hospital course and discharge outcomes in patients with a pre-existing psychiatric diagnosis presenting with a burn. Baseline medical comorbidities of burn patients have been shown to be a significant risk for in-hospital mortality. A retrospective chart review of 479 consecutive patients admitted to the Burn Unit of an academic hospital in Halifax, Nova Scotia between March 2nd 1995 and June 1st 2013 was performed. Extensive data regarding patient and burn characteristics and outcomes was collected. Patients with and without pre-existing psychiatric diagnoses at the time of hospital admission were compared. Sixty-three (13%) patients had a psychiatric diagnosis, with the most common being depression (52%). Forty-percent (n=25/63) of these patients had multiple pre-existing psychiatric diagnoses. Patients with a psychiatric diagnosis had a greater total-body-surface-area (TBSA)% covered by a third-degree burn (p=0.001), and were more likely to have an inhalation injury (pBurn Unit (p=0.01). The risk of death in burn patients with pre-existing psychiatric disorders was about three times the risk of death in patients with no psychiatric disorders when adjusting for other potential confounders (95% CI, 1.13-9.10; p-value 0.03). Presence of a pre-existing psychiatric disorder in the burn patient was associated with worse outcomes and was a significant predictor of death. Psychiatric diagnoses should be identified early in burn treatment and efforts should be made to ensure a comprehensive approach to inpatient support and patient discharge to reduce unfavorable burn outcomes and placement issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Long-term studies on the effects of nonvolatile organic compounds on porous media surface areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachikian, Crist S; Harmon, Thomas C

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the long-term behavior of porous media contaminated by nonvolatile organic compounds (NVOC) in terms of specific interfacial surface area. Specifically, a natural sand, Moffett sand (MS), was contaminated with naphthalene and the surface area was measured repeatedly over time using nitrogen adsorption-desorption techniques. A field-contaminated sand affected by lamp-black material (LB) from former manufactured gas plant operations was also studied. Lampblack is a carbonaceous skeleton containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other hydrocarbons. It is hypothesized that soils contaminated by these types of chemicals will exhibit significantly less surface area than their clean counterparts. The surface areas for the contaminated MS samples increased toward their clean-MS values during the 700-h aging period, but achieved the clean values only after pentane extraction or heating at 60 degrees C. Heating at 50 degrees C failed to achieve a similar recovery of the clean-MS surface area value. Nonspecific mass loss tracked the increase in surface area as indirect evidence that naphthalene loss was the cause of the surface area increase. For the LB samples, aging at 100 degrees C produced a slight decrease in surface area and mass while aging at 250 degrees C caused the surface area to increase roughly threefold while the mass decreased by approximately 1%. These results suggest that, under moderate heating and over the time scale of this investigation, there is a redistribution of the complex contaminant mixture on the solid matrix. Greater temperatures remove mass more efficiently and therefore exhibited the surface area increase expected in this experiment.

  6. Wood burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, H

    1955-01-01

    Discussed are the use of wood as a fuel, the technique of wood combustion and the operation of wood-burning stoves for cooking and heating. In addition, there is a section which reviews the use of wood stoves in various countries and lists manufacturers of stoves, central heating furnaces and in some cases sawdust burners.

  7. Domestic bioethanol-fireplaces--a new source of severe burn accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubrech, Florian; Kiefer, Jurij; Schmidt, Volker J; Bigdeli, Amir K; Hernekamp, J Frederick; Kremer, Thomas; Kneser, Ulrich; Radu, Christian Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Bioethanol-fueled fireplaces are popular interior home decoration accessories. Although their safety is promoted frequently, actual presentations of severe burn injuries in our burn intensive care unit (ICU) have focused the authors on safety problems with these devices. In this article we want to explore the mechanisms for these accidents and state our experiences with this increasingly relevant risk for severe burn injuries. The computerized medical records of all burn intensive care patients in our burn unit between 2000 and 2014 were studied. Since 2010, 12 patients with bioethanol associated burn injuries were identified. Their data was compared to the values of all patients, except the ones injured by bioethanol fireplaces that presented themselves to our burn ICU between the years 2010 and 2014. At time of admission the bioethanol patients had a mean ABSI-score of 4.8 (+/- 2.2 standard deviation (SD)). A mean of 17 percent (+/- 9.1 SD) body surface area was burned. Involvement of face and hands was very common. An operative treatment was needed in 8 cases. A median of 20 days of hospitalization (range 3-121) and a median of 4.5 days on the ICU (range 1-64) were necessary. No patient died. In most cases the injuries happened while refilling or while starting the fire, even though safety instructions were followed. In the control group, consisting of 748 patients, the mean ABSI-score was 5.6 (+/- 2.7 SD). A mean of 16.5 percent (+/- 10.1 SD) body surface area was burned. Treatment required a median of 3 days on the burn ICU (range 1-120). Regarding these parameters, the burden of disease was comparable in both groups. Bioethanol-fueled fireplaces for interior home decoration are a potential source for severe burn accidents even by intended use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. A Soft Casting Technique for Managing Pediatric Hand and Foot Burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Mee; Nederveld, Cindy; Campbell, Kristen; Moulton, Steven

    2018-04-04

    Hand and foot burns in children are difficult to dress. The authors have developed a soft casting technique to manage burns to these areas. The aim of this study is to report the outcomes using weekly dressing changes with a soft casting technique to manage pediatric hand and foot burns in the outpatient setting. A retrospective chart review was performed on children with burns to the hands or feet, who underwent dressing changes with a soft casting technique at the Children's Hospital Colorado Burn Center. Soft casting was performed by placing antibiotic ointment-impregnated nonadherent gauze over the burn wound(s), wrapping the extremity using rolled gauze, applying soft cast pad, plaster, soft cast tape, and an elastic bandage. This was changed weekly. Two hundred ninety-eight children with hand burns had a mean age of 16.8 ± 2 months. Two hundred forty-eight children had partial thickness burn injuries (83%), 50 had full thickness burn injuries (17%), and the mean total body surface area (TBSA) was 1 ± 2.4%. The mean time to heal was 10.1 ± 1.7 days for all subjects. Sixty-six children with foot burns were identified with a mean age of 24 ± 2.6 months. Forty-six children had partial thickness injuries (70%), 20 had full thickness burn injuries (30%), and the mean TBSA was 2.3 ± 2.9%. The mean time to heal was 14.1 ± 2.2 days for all subjects. Weekly dressing changes using a soft casting technique are effective for the outpatient management of pediatric hand and foot burns. This method avoids costly inpatient hospital care, reduces the number of painful dressing changes, and allows children to heal in their own environment.

  9. Surface Area, and Oxidation Effects on Nitridation Kinetics of Silicon Powder Compacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, R. T.; Palczer, A. R.

    1998-01-01

    Commercially available silicon powders were wet-attrition-milled from 2 to 48 hr to achieve surface areas (SA's) ranging from 1.3 to 70 sq m/g. The surface area effects on the nitridation kinetics of silicon powder compacts were determined at 1250 or 1350 C for 4 hr. In addition, the influence of nitridation environment, and preoxidation on nitridation kinetics of a silicon powder of high surface area (approximately equals 63 sq m/g) was investigated. As the surface area increased, so did the percentage nitridation after 4 hr in N2 at 1250 or 1350 C. Silicon powders of high surface area (greater than 40 sq m/g) can be nitrided to greater than 70% at 1250 C in 4 hr. The nitridation kinetics of the high-surface-area powder compacts were significantly delayed by preoxidation treatment. Conversely, the nitridation environment had no significant influence on the nitridation kinetics of the same powder. Impurities present in the starting powder, and those accumulated during attrition milling, appeared to react with the silica layer on the surface of silicon particles to form a molten silicate layer, which provided a path for rapid diffusion of nitrogen and enhanced the nitridation kinetics of high surface area silicon powder.

  10. Concentrations and source apportionment of PM10 and associated elemental and ionic species in a lignite-burning power generation area of southern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, G; Grigoratos, Th; Voutsinas, M; Samara, C

    2013-10-01

    Ambient concentrations of PM10 and associated elemental and ionic species were measured over the cold and the warm months of 2010 at an urban and two rural sites located in the lignite-fired power generation area of Megalopolis in Peloponnese, southern Greece. The PM10 concentrations at the urban site (44.2 ± 33.6 μg m(-3)) were significantly higher than those at the rural sites (23.7 ± 20.4 and 22.7 ± 26.9 μg m(-3)). Source apportionment of PM10 and associated components was accomplished by an advanced computational procedure, the robotic chemical mass balance model (RCMB), using chemical profiles for a variety of local fugitive dust sources (power plant fly ash, flue gas desulfurization wet ash, feeding lignite, infertile material from the opencast mines, paved and unpaved road dusts, soil), which were resuspended and sampled through a PM10 inlet onto filters and then chemically analyzed, as well as of other common sources such as vehicular traffic, residential oil combustion, biomass burning, uncontrolled waste burning, marine aerosol, and secondary aerosol formation. Geological dusts (road/soil dust) were found to be major PM10 contributors in both the cold and warm periods of the year, with average annual contribution of 32.6 % at the urban site vs. 22.0 and 29.0 % at the rural sites. Secondary aerosol also appeared to be a significant source, contributing 22.1 % at the urban site in comparison to 30.6 and 28.7 % at the rural sites. At all sites, the contribution of biomass burning was most significant in winter (28.2 % at the urban site vs. 14.6 and 24.6 % at the rural sites), whereas vehicular exhaust contribution appeared to be important mostly in the summer (21.9 % at the urban site vs. 11.5 and 10.5 % at the rural sites). The highest contribution of fly ash (33.2 %) was found at the rural site located to the north of the power plants during wintertime, when winds are favorable. In the warm period, the highest contribution of fly ash was found at the

  11. Clinical outcome of patients with self-inflicted burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, P A; Niemeijer, A S; Figaroa, G D; van Daalen, M A; Broersma, T W; van Baar, M E; Beerthuizen, G I J M; Nieuwenhuis, M K

    2017-06-01

    Patients with self-inflicted burns (SIB) are thought to have a longer length of stay compared to patients with accidental burns. However, other predictors for a longer length of stay are often not taken into account, e.g. percentage of the body surface area burned, age or comorbidities. Therefore, we wanted to study the outcome of patients with SIB at our burn center. A retrospective, observational study was conducted. All adult patients with acute burns admitted to the burn center of the Martini Hospital Groningen, between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013 were included. Data on characteristics of the patient, injury, and outcome (LOS, mortality, discharge destination) were collected. In patients with SIB, suicide attempts (SA) were distinguished from self-harm without the intention to die (non-suicidal self-injury, NSSI). To evaluate differences in outcome, each patient with SIB was matched on variables and total score of the Abbreviated Burn Severity Index (ABSI) to a patient with accidental burns (AB). In total 29 admissions (21 SA and 8 NSSI) were due to SIB and 528 due to accidents. Overall, when compared to AB, there were significant differences with respect to mortality and LOS for SA and/or NSSI. Mortality was higher in the SA group, while the LOS was higher in both the SA and NSSI groups compared to the AB group. However, after matching on ABSI, no statistical significant differences between the SA and SA-match or the NSSI and NSSI-match group were found. With the right and timely treatment, differences in mortality rate or length of stay in hospital could all be explained by the severity of the burn and the intention of the patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Perineal tap water burns in the elderly: at what cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Michael D E; Maitz, Peter K M; Kennedy, Peter J; Goltsman, David

    2017-11-01

    Burn injuries are expensive to treat. Burn injuries have been found to be difficult to treat in elderly patients than their younger counterparts. This is likely to result in higher financial burden on the healthcare system; however, no population-specific study has been conducted to ascertain the inpatient treatment costs of elderly patients with hot tap water burns. Six elderly patients (75-92 years) were admitted for tap water burns at Concord Hospital during 2010. All costs incurred during their hospitalization were followed prospectively, and were apportioned into 'direct' and 'indirect' costs. Direct costs encompassed directly measurable costs, such as consumables used on the ward or in theatres, and indirect costs included hospital overheads, such as bed and theatre costs. Three males and three females admitted with burns to the buttocks, legs or feet. Total burn surface area (TBSA) ranged from 9-21% (mean 12.8%). Length of stay ranged from 26-98 days (mean 46 days). One patient died, and four required surgical management or grafting. Total inpatient costs ranged from $69 782.33 to $254 652.70 per patient (mean $122 800.20, standard deviation $67 484.46). TBSA was directly correlated with length of stay (P < 0.01) and total cost (P < 0.01). Hot water burns among the elderly are associated with high treatment costs, which are proportional to the size of the burn. The cost of treating this cohort is higher than previously reported in a general Australian burn cohort. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  13. Environmental and geochemical assessment of surface sediments on irshansk ilmenite deposit area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталия Олеговна Крюченко

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It is revealed the problem of pollution of surface sediments of Irshansk ilmenite deposit area of various chemical elements hazard class (Mn, V, Ba, Ni, Co, Cr, Mo, Cu, Pb, Zn. It is determined its average content in surface sediments of various functional areas (forest and agricultural land, flood deposits, reclaimed land, calculated geochemical criteria, so given ecological and geochemical assessment of area

  14. Outlining precision boundaries among areas with different variability standards using magnetic susceptibility and geomorphic surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Matias,Sammy S. R.; Marques Júnior,José; Siqueira,Diego S.; Pereira,Gener T.

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for detailed maps that represent in a simplified way the knowledge of the variability of a particular area or region maps. The objective was to outline precision boundaries among areas with different accuracy variability standards using magnetic susceptibility and geomorphic surfaces. The study was conducted in an area of 110 ha, which identified three compartment landscapes based on the geomorphic surfaces model. To determinate pH, organic matter, phosphorus, po...

  15. Changes in the Surface Area of Glaciers in Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khromova, T.; Nosenko, G.

    2012-12-01

    Glaciers are widely recognized as key indicators of climate change. Recent evidence suggests an acceleration of glacier mass loss in several key mountain regions. Glacier recession implies the landscape changes in the glacial zone, origin of new lakes and activation of natural disaster processes, catastrophic mudflows, ice avalanches, outburst floods, and etc. The presence of glaciers in itself threats to human life, economic activity and growing infrastructure. Economical and recreational human activity in mountain regions requires relevant information on snow and ice objects. Absence or inadequacy of such information results in financial and human losses. A more comprehensive evaluation of glacier changes is imperative to assess ice contributions to global sea level rise and the future of water resources from glacial basins. One of the urgent steps is a full inventory of all ice bodies, their volume and changes The first estimation of glaciers state and glaciers distribution in the big part of Northern Eurasia has been done in the USSR Glacier Inventory published in 1966 -1980 as a part of IHD activity. The Inventory is based on topographic maps and air photos and reflects the status of the glaciers in 1957-1970y. There is information about 23796 glaciers with area of 78222.3 km2 in the Inventory. It covers 23 glacier systems on Northern Eurasia. In the 80th the USSR Glacier Inventory has been transformed in the digital form as a part of the World Glacier Inventory. Recent satellite data provide a unique opportunity to look again at these glaciers and to evaluate changes in glacier extent for the second part of XX century. In the paper we report about 15 000 glaciers outlines for Caucasus, Pamir, Tien-Shan, Altai, Syntar-Khayata, Cherskogo Range, Kamchatka and Russian Arctic which have been derived from ASTER and Landsat imagery and could be used for glacier changes evaluation. The results show that glaciers are retreating in all these regions. There is, however

  16. Treatment and follow-up results of children with electrical burn who observed in burn intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Aliosmanoğlu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical burns are infrequent relative to other injuries, but they are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess management and follow-up results of pediatric patients’ who observed in intensive care unit and also review the precautions for preventing electrical burns.Materials and methods: Totally 22 patients aged under 17 years who were observed in the burn intensive care unit of Şanlıurfa Education and Research Hospital during the period between July 2009-October 2010. Cases were investigated retrospectively. The patients’ age, gender, total burn surface area, length of stay in hospital, musculo-skeletal system complication, cardiovascular system complication, kidney damage and attempts were recorded.Results: Of the 22 cases, 19 (86.3% were male and 3 (13.7% were female. The mean age of the patients was 11.5 years. In 10 (45.4% children burns were occurred in workplace and working area and 12 (54.6% were occurred in the home environment. Depth of burns were third degree in 10 (45.4% children and second degree in 12 (54.6%. The mean percentage of burn surface area was 25.9%. The mean length of stay in hospital was 17 days. Debridement and grafting were performed to 12 (54.6% cases and 10 (45.4% children were treated with dressings. No patient had increased creatinine kinase levels, oliguria, myoglobuinuria and arrhythmia. The mean hospitalization time was 17 days.Conclusion: Nearly half of patients underwent debridement plus grafting. None of our patients developed renal failure other severe system dysfunction.

  17. Modern management of paediatric burns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-01

    Mar 1, 2010 ... an area of stasis where sluggish circulation and release of inflammatory mediators will .... way to estimate medium to large burns in patients older than 10 .... on day 1 decreases stress hormone release, improves nitrogen ...

  18. Educational Materials - Burn Wise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn Wise outreach material. Burn Wise is a partnership program of that emphasizes the importance of burning the right wood, the right way, in the right wood-burning appliance to protect your home, health, and the air we breathe.

  19. Development of cortical thickness and surface area in autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent T. Mensen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder often associated with changes in cortical volume. The constituents of cortical volume – cortical thickness and surface area – have separable developmental trajectories and are related to different neurobiological processes. However, little is known about the developmental trajectories of cortical thickness and surface area in ASD. In this magnetic resonance imaging (MRI study, we used an accelerated longitudinal design to investigate the cortical development in 90 individuals with ASD and 90 typically developing controls, aged 9 to 20 years. We quantified cortical measures using the FreeSurfer software package, and then used linear mixed model analyses to estimate the developmental trajectories for each cortical measure. Our primary finding was that the development of surface area follows a linear trajectory in ASD that differs from typically developing controls. In typical development, we found a decline in cortical surface area between the ages of 9 and 20 that was absent in ASD. We found this pattern in all regions where developmental trajectories for surface area differed between groups. When we applied a more stringent correction that takes the interdependency of measures into account, this effect on cortical surface area retained significance for left banks of superior temporal sulcus, postcentral area, and right supramarginal area. These areas have previously been implicated in ASD and are involved in the interpretation and processing of audiovisual social stimuli and distinction between self and others. Although some differences in cortical volume and thickness were found, none survived the more stringent correction for multiple testing. This study underscores the importance of distinguishing between cortical surface area and thickness in investigating cortical development, and suggests the development of cortical surface area is of importance to ASD.

  20. Heterogeneity in fire severity within early season and late season prescribed burns in a mixed-conifer forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, E.E.; Keeley, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Structural heterogeneity in forests of the Sierra Nevada was historically produced through variation in fire regimes and local environmental factors. The amount of heterogeneity that prescription burning can achieve might now be more limited owing to high fuel loads and increased fuel continuity. Topography, woody fuel loading, and vegetative composition were quantified in plots within replicated early and late season burn units. Two indices of fire severity were evaluated in the same plots after the burns. Scorch height ranged from 2.8 to 25.4 m in early season plots and 3.1 to 38.5 m in late season plots, whereas percentage of ground surface burned ranged from 24 to 96% in early season plots and from 47 to 100% in late season plots. Scorch height was greatest in areas with steeper slopes, higher basal area of live trees, high percentage of basal area composed of pine, and more small woody fuel. Percentage of area burned was greatest in areas with less bare ground and rock cover (more fuel continuity), steeper slopes, and units burned in the fall (lower fuel moisture). Thus topographic and biotic factors still contribute to the abundant heterogeneity in fire severity with prescribed burning, even under the current high fuel loading conditions. Burning areas with high fuel loads in early season when fuels are moister may lead to patterns of heterogeneity in fire effects that more closely approximate the expected patchiness of historical fires.

  1. Root surface area measurement of permanent dentition in Indian population – CBCT analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Lakhani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The area of the root surface of human teeth has been investigated extensively in the dental literature. All previous attempts mainly rely on the use of physical methods to calculate surface area on extracted teeth or use virtual 3D Models for the same. The aim is to develop an algorithm using MATLAB software that estimates the dimensions of 3-D image produced with the help of CBCT so that the same can be utilized to calculate the root surface area of teeth among Indian population. Present research utilizes CBCT images of samples of extracted teeth mounted on a customized jpg. A descriptive chart for statistical analysis has been prepared to obtain average root surface area of each tooth type. The currently developed algorithm has been successfully applied to the CBCT images of complete sample of teeth to obtain their root surface area. The algorithm developed to calculate root surface area of the teeth holds wide spread application in the field of dentistry pursuing its high expediency in even various specializations of dentistry including orthodontics, prosthodontics, periodontology and implantalogy. It is concluded that it has now become a reality to accurately determine the surface area of the root of human teeth without extracting them using the CBCT radiographs of the patients.

  2. Independent Predictive Factors of Hospitalization in a North-West Burn Center of Iran; an Epidemiologic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Shams Vahdati

    2015-01-01

    independent predictive factors of hospitalization. Conclusion: The results of present study showed that burns injury are most frequent in age under 20 year old, lower limbs, with boiling water, and at home. Also the most frequent type and percentage of burned area were second degree and <5% of total body surface area, respectively. Among age under 20 years old, female gender, burning site, cause, place, grade, and percent only female gender, work related burning, and burning over 5% were detected as independent predictive factors of hospitalization.

  3. Inducible satellite cell depletion attenuates skeletal muscle regrowth following a scald-burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Celeste C; McKenna, Colleen F; Cambias, Lauren A; Brightwell, Camille R; Prasai, Anesh; Wang, Ye; El Ayadi, Amina; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E; Fry, Christopher S

    2017-11-01

    Severe burns result in significant skeletal muscle cachexia that impedes recovery. Activity of satellite cells, skeletal muscle stem cells, is altered following a burn injury and likely hinders regrowth of muscle. Severe burn injury induces satellite cell proliferation and fusion into myofibres with greater activity in muscles proximal to the injury site. Conditional depletion of satellite cells attenuates recovery of myofibre area and volume following a scald burn injury in mice. Skeletal muscle regrowth following a burn injury requires satellite cell activity, underscoring the therapeutic potential of satellite cells in the prevention of prolonged frailty in burn survivors. Severe burns result in profound skeletal muscle atrophy; persistent muscle atrophy and weakness are major complications that hamper recovery from burn injury. Many factors contribute to the erosion of muscle mass following burn trauma, and we have previously shown concurrent activation and apoptosis of muscle satellite cells following a burn injury in paediatric patients. To determine the necessity of satellite cells during muscle recovery following a burn injury, we utilized a genetically modified mouse model (Pax7 CreER -DTA) that allows for the conditional depletion of satellite cells in skeletal muscle. Additionally, mice were provided 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine to determine satellite cell proliferation, activation and fusion. Juvenile satellite cell-wild-type (SC-WT) and satellite cell-depleted (SC-Dep) mice (8 weeks of age) were randomized to sham or burn injury consisting of a dorsal scald burn injury covering 30% of total body surface area. Both hindlimb and dorsal muscles were studied at 7, 14 and 21 days post-burn. SC-Dep mice had >93% depletion of satellite cells compared to SC-WT (P satellite cell proliferation and fusion. Depletion of satellite cells impaired post-burn recovery of both muscle fibre cross-sectional area and volume (P satellite cells in the aetiology of lean

  4. Perceived social support among patients with burn injuries: A perspective from the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Ahmed; Turk, Marvee; Naveed, Sadiq; Amin, Atif; Kiwanuka, Harriet; Shafique, Neha; Chaudhry, Muhammad Ashraf

    2018-02-01

    Social support is among the most well-established predictors of post-burn psychopathology after burn. Despite a disproportionately large burden of burns in the developing world, the nature of social support among burn patients in this context remains elusive. We, therefore, seek to investigate social support and its biopsychosocial determinants among patients with burn injuries in Pakistan. A cross-sectional study of 343 patients presenting with burn injuries at four teaching hospitals in the Punjab province of Pakistan was conducted. Patient evaluation consisted of a multi-part survey of demographic status, clinical features, and social support as measured by the validated Urdu translation of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate associations between patient characteristics and MSPSS score. Mean overall MSPSS score was 57.64 (std dev 13.57). Notable positive predictors of social support include male gender, Punjabi ethnicity, burn surface area, and ego resiliency. Our study reveals a troubling pattern of inadequate social support among certain subgroups of Pakistani burn patients. Addressing these inequities in the provision of social support must be prioritized as part of the global burn care agenda. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Fusarium spp infections in a pediatric burn unit: nine years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanova, María Teresa; Brizuela, Martín; Villasboas, Mabel; Guarracino, Fabian; Alvarez, Veronica; Santos, Patricia; Finquelievich, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium spp are ubiquitous fungi recognized as opportunistic agents of human infections, and can produce severe infections in burn patients. The literature on Fusarium spp infections in pediatric burn patients is scarce. To describe the clinical and epidemiological features as well as outcome of Fusarium spp infections in pediatric burn patients. Retrospective, descriptive study of Fusarium spp infections in a specialized intensive care burn unit. In 15 patients Fusarium spp infections were diagnosed. Median age was 48 months. Direct fire injury was observed in ten patients. The median affected burn surface area was 45%. Twelve patients had a full thickness burn. Fourteen patients had a Garces Index ≥3. Fungal infection developed at a median of 11 days after burn injury. Fungi were isolated from burn wound in 14 patients and from the bone in one patient. Amphotericin B was the drug of choice for treatment followed by voriconazole. Median time of treatment completion was 23 days. One patient (7%) died of fungal infection-related causes. In our series Fusarium spp was an uncommon pathogen in severely burnt patients. The burn wound was the most common site of infection and mortality was low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-10-17

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 22, and 23 of the NTS, CAU 140 consists of nine corrective action sites (CASs). Investigation activities were performed from November 13 through December 11, 2002, with additional sampling to delineate the extent of contaminants of concern (COCs) conducted on February 4 and March 18 and 19, 2003. Results obtained from the investigation activities and sampling indicated that only 3 of the 9 CASs at CAU 140 had COCs identified. Following a review of existing data, future land use, and current operations at the NTS, the following preferred alternatives were developed for consideration: (1) No Further Action - six CASs (05-08-02, 05-17-01, 05-19-01, 05-35-01, 05-99-04, and 22-99-04); (2) Clean Closure - one CAS (05-08-01), and (3) Closure-in-Place - two CASs (05-23-01 and 23-17-01). These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. Additionally, the alternatives meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 140.

  7. Suicidal burns in Samarkand burn centers and their consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakirov, B M; Ahmedov, Y M; Hakimov, E A; Tagaev, K R; Karabaev, B H

    2013-12-31

    Suicide is a global public health problem, particularly in Asia where few countries with large populations have high suicide rates accounting for the majority of the world's suicides. During a 14-year period, 76 individuals, aged 17 to 66 years, committed suicide from 1995 to 2008 and were included in this report. Data was collected on each patient including, age, sex, place of injury, patient occupation, accommodation, psychiatric illness, suicidal motives, flammable substances used, place of burn, season of the year, and total body surface area (TBSA) burnt. Most suicidal cases (55 out of 76) had a history of depressive episodes and emotional unstable disorders, and 18 of them had a known history of psychiatric illness. In 5 cases alcohol intoxication was present at the moment of suicide, and 3 patients had chronic alcohol dependence together with basic psychiatric disease. It is also evident from this study that the causes of suicide in females are mainly socio-economical and psychological.

  8. Burning mouth syndrome: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Ambaldhage

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is characterized by an oral burning sensation in the absence of any organic disorders of the oral cavity. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. It is observed principally in middle-aged patients and postmenopausal women and is characterized by an intense burning type of pain, preferably on the tongue and in other areas of the oral mucosa. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. This article provides an overview of the literature on this syndrome with special reference to the etiological factors, clinical aspects, diagnostic criteria that should be followed and the therapeutic management with reference to the most recent studies.

  9. Rapid fabrication of large-area, corrosion-resistant superhydrophobic Mg alloy surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenji; Song, Jinlong; Sun, Jing; Lu, Yao; Yu, Ziyuan

    2011-11-01

    A superhydrophobic magnesium (Mg) alloy surface was successfully fabricated via a facile electrochemical machining process, and subsequently covered with a fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) film. The surface morphologies and chemical compositions were investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and a Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR). The results show hierarchal rough structures and an FAS film with a low surface energy on the Mg alloy surfaces, which confers good superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 165.2° and a water tilting angle of approximately 2°. The processing conditions, such as the processing time and removal rate per unit area at a constant removal mass per unit area, were investigated to determine their effects on the superhydrophobicity. Interestingly, when the removal mass per unit area is constant at approximately 11.10 mg/cm(2), the superhydrophobicity does not change with the removal rate per unit area. Therefore, a superhydrophobic Mg alloy surface can be rapidly fabricated based on this property. A large-area superhydrophobic Mg alloy surface was also fabricated for the first time using a small-area moving cathode. The corrosion resistance and durability of the superhydrophobic surfaces were also examined.

  10. Two-year follow-up of outcomes related to scarring and distress in children with severe burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzer, Paul; Forbes, Abigail A; Hundeshagen, Gabriel; Andersen, Clark R; Epperson, Kathryn M; Meyer, Walter J; Kamolz, Lars P; Branski, Ludwik K; Suman, Oscar E; Herndon, David N; Finnerty, Celeste C

    2017-08-01

    We assessed the perception of scarring and distress by pediatric burn survivors with burns covering more than one-third of total body surface area (TBSA) for up to 2 years post-burn. Children with severe burns were admitted to our hospital between 2004 and 2012, and consented to this IRB-approved-study. Subjects completed at least one Scars Problems and/or Distress questionnaire between discharge and 24 months post burn. Outcomes were modeled with generalized estimating equations or using mixed linear models. Significance was accepted at p body areas over time (p self-conscious with respect to their body image even 2 years after burn injury. Implications for Rehabilitation According to self-assessment questionnaires, severely burned children perceive significant improvements in scarring and distress during the first 2 years post burn. Significant improvements were seen in reduction of pain, itching, sleeping disturbances, tightness, range of motion, and strength (p body areas. The rehabilitation team should provide access to wigs or other aids to pediatric burn survivors to address these needs.

  11. Astronaut observations of global biomass burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.A.; Nelson, R.

    1991-01-01

    One of the most fundamental inputs for understanding and modeling possible effects of biomass burning is knowledge of the size of the area burned. Because the burns are often very large and occur on all continents (except Antarctica), observations from space are essential. Information is presented in this chapter on another method for monitoring biomass burning, including immediate and long-term effects. Examples of astronaut photography of burning during one year give a perspective of the widespread occurrence of burning and the variety of biological materials that are consumed. The growth of burning in the Amazon region is presented over 15 years using smoke as a proxy for actual burning. Possible climate effects of smoke palls are also discussed

  12. Water redistribution at the soil surface : ponding and surface runoff in flat areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appels, W.M.

    2013-01-01

    In The Netherlands, one of the most important targets for the improvement of surface water quality as aimed for in the European Water Framework Directive, is the reduction of nutrient concentrations (both nitrogen and phosphorus). To identify the most suitable and effective measures for reducing the

  13. In-situ burning of crude oil and emulsions in broken ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenette, C.C.; Wighus, R.

    1996-01-01

    Large scale burns were conducted in a fjord in Norway, with fresh and emulsified crude oil to determine the feasibility of in-situ burning operations in an ice zone. The objective was to study the flame spreading characteristics of burning oil and emulsions in broken ice. The effect of wind on the flame spreading from one slick area to another was studied. The thermal environment produced by a crude oil fire on the sea surface and the response of a steel construction to the heat exposure from the fire was determined. The studies showed that high burning efficiencies (95 to 99%) could be obtained when burning fresh oil and emulsions contained in broken ice. Flame spreading was observed mostly in the downwind direction, and was dependent on the wind speed and direction. The temperatures and heat fluxes measured in the flames were higher than previously measured in pool fires. 9 refs., 7 figs

  14. From Cholera to Burns: A Role for Oral Rehydration Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, W.B.; Asuku, M.E.; Feldman, M.; Makam, R.; Noppenberger, D.; Price, L.A.; Prosciak, M.; van Loon, I.N.

    2011-01-01

    According to the practice guidelines of the American Burn Association on burn shock resuscitation, intravenous (IV) fluid therapy is the standard of care for the replacement of fluid and electrolyte losses in burn injury of ≥20% of the total body surface area. However, in mass burn casualties, IV fluid resuscitation may be delayed or unavailable. Oral rehydration therapy (ORT), which has been shown to be highly effective in the treatment of dehydration in epidemics of cholera, could be an alternate way to replace fluid losses in burns. A prospective case series of three patients was carried out as an initial step to establish whether oral Ceralyte®90 could replace fluid losses requiring IV fluid therapy in thermal injury. The requirement of the continuing IV fluid therapy was reduced by an average of 58% in the first 24 hours after the injury (range 37-78%). ORT may be a feasible alternative to IV fluid therapy in the resuscitation of burns. It could also potentially save many lives in mass casualty situations or in resource-poor settings where IV fluid therapy is not immediately available. Further studies are needed to assess the efficacy of this treatment and to determine whether the present formulations of ORT for cholera need modification. PMID:22283039

  15. Influence of Ecological Factors on Estimation of Impervious Surface Area Using Landsat 8 Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiu Jia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of impervious surface area is important to the study of urban environments and social development, but surface characteristics, as well as the temporal, spectral, and spatial resolutions of remote sensing images, influence the estimation accuracy. To investigate the effects of regional environmental characteristics on the estimation of impervious surface area, we divided China into seven sub-regions based on climate, soil type, feature complexity, and vegetation phenology: arid and semi-arid areas, Huang-Huai-Hai winter wheat production areas, typical temperate regions, the Pearl River Delta, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, typical tropical and subtropical regions, and the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. Impervious surface area was estimated from Landsat 8 images of five typical cities, including Yinchuan, Shijiazhuang, Shenyang, Ningbo, and Kunming. Using the linear spectral unmixing method, impervious and permeable surface areas were determined at the pixel-scale based on end-member proportions. We calculated the producer’s accuracy, user’s accuracy, and overall accuracy to assess the estimation accuracy, and compared the accuracies among images acquired from different seasons and locations. In tropical and subtropical regions, vegetation canopies can confound the identification of impervious surfaces and, thus, images acquired in winter, early spring, and autumn are most suitable; estimations in the Pearl River Delta, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River are influenced by soil, vegetation phenology, vegetation canopy, and water, and images acquired in spring, summer, and autumn provide the best results; in typical temperate areas, images acquired from spring to autumn are most effective for estimations; in winter wheat-growing areas, images acquired throughout the year are suitable; and in arid and semi-arid areas, summer and early autumn, during which vegetation is abundant, are the optimal seasons for

  16. A Study on the Effects of Variable Surface Area to Volume Ratio on Closed Bomb Burn Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    chrarge amnplif ier. Data acquisition was madie onl a Nic -olet Explorer Ill digital oscilloscope, followed by dlata reduction on aI PUP 11/34 coimpiterA...of Tech Jet PropulsLon Laboratory 2 Thiokol Corporation ATTN: L. D. StrandElkton Division 4800 Oak Grove Drive ATL’N: R. Biddle PsdnC 10 Tec~h Lib

  17. Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, M.A.; Yu, C.M.; Raley, N.F.

    1999-03-16

    Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gases in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters. 9 figs.

  18. Structural dynamics of fore-crisis area on a heat emission surface of a fuel element's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharaevskij, I.G.; Fialko, N.M.; Sharaevskaya, E.I.

    2011-01-01

    The known theoretical and experimental data regarding the nature of dry spots evolution are reviewed and the idea regarding the mechanism of heat emission from the heated surface in fore-crisis area are defined more precisely.

  19. Lp-dual affine surface area forms of Busemann–Petty type problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associated with the notion of Lp-intersection body which was defined ... Lp-dual affine surface area; Lp-intersection body; Busemann–Petty ..... [11] Schneider R, Convex Bodies: The Brunn–Minkowski Theory (1993) (Cambridge: Cam-.

  20. Work-related burn injuries in Ontario, Canada: a follow-up 10-year retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouatre, Elsa; Gomez, Manuel; Banfield, Joanne; Jeschke, Marc G

    2013-01-01

    Work-related burn injuries contribute to a quarter of all burn injuries in USA. In 2009, the provincial Workplace Safety and Insurance Board reported 64,824 work-related injuries that resulted in time-lost, 1188 injuries (2%) were a result of burns. There have been two previous studies performed at a regional burn centre (1984-1990 and 1998-2000) looking at incidence and characteristics of work-related burns. There was no significant change between these two groups. The purpose of this study was to identify the recent pattern of work-related burns from 2001 to 2010 and to compare it to the previous studies. During the study period, 1427 patients were admitted for an acute injury to the regional burn centre. Of these, 330 were due to a work-related incident (23%). The mean age of patients was 40.5±11.9 years, 95% were male. The mean total body surface area burn was 11.9±16.2%. The most common mechanism of burn injury was flame (32.7%) followed by electrical (27%) and scald (19.7%), inhalation injury was present in 4.8% of patients and the mortality was 1.8%. Our study has shown that there has been a significant decrease in the incidence in work-related burns treated at the regional burn centre (23.1%, vs. 28.2% vs. 30.2% pburns have now become the leading cause of injury, there was a significant reduction in inhalation injury (4.8% vs. 23% vs. 14.8%, pburns, improvement in burn care, and that prevention strategies may have been more effective. PMID:23352030

  1. Estimation of surface area concentration of workplace incidental nanoparticles based on number and mass concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. Y.; Ramachandran, G.; Raynor, P. C.; Kim, S. W.

    2011-10-01

    Surface area was estimated by three different methods using number and/or mass concentrations obtained from either two or three instruments that are commonly used in the field. The estimated surface area concentrations were compared with reference surface area concentrations (SAREF) calculated from the particle size distributions obtained from a scanning mobility particle sizer and an optical particle counter (OPC). The first estimation method (SAPSD) used particle size distribution measured by a condensation particle counter (CPC) and an OPC. The second method (SAINV1) used an inversion routine based on PM1.0, PM2.5, and number concentrations to reconstruct assumed lognormal size distributions by minimizing the difference between measurements and calculated values. The third method (SAINV2) utilized a simpler inversion method that used PM1.0 and number concentrations to construct a lognormal size distribution with an assumed value of geometric standard deviation. All estimated surface area concentrations were calculated from the reconstructed size distributions. These methods were evaluated using particle measurements obtained in a restaurant, an aluminum die-casting factory, and a diesel engine laboratory. SAPSD was 0.7-1.8 times higher and SAINV1 and SAINV2 were 2.2-8 times higher than SAREF in the restaurant and diesel engine laboratory. In the die casting facility, all estimated surface area concentrations were lower than SAREF. However, the estimated surface area concentration using all three methods had qualitatively similar exposure trends and rankings to those using SAREF within a workplace. This study suggests that surface area concentration estimation based on particle size distribution (SAPSD) is a more accurate and convenient method to estimate surface area concentrations than estimation methods using inversion routines and may be feasible to use for classifying exposure groups and identifying exposure trends.

  2. Estimation of surface area concentration of workplace incidental nanoparticles based on number and mass concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. Y.; Ramachandran, G.; Raynor, P. C.; Kim, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Surface area was estimated by three different methods using number and/or mass concentrations obtained from either two or three instruments that are commonly used in the field. The estimated surface area concentrations were compared with reference surface area concentrations (SA REF ) calculated from the particle size distributions obtained from a scanning mobility particle sizer and an optical particle counter (OPC). The first estimation method (SA PSD ) used particle size distribution measured by a condensation particle counter (CPC) and an OPC. The second method (SA INV1 ) used an inversion routine based on PM1.0, PM2.5, and number concentrations to reconstruct assumed lognormal size distributions by minimizing the difference between measurements and calculated values. The third method (SA INV2 ) utilized a simpler inversion method that used PM1.0 and number concentrations to construct a lognormal size distribution with an assumed value of geometric standard deviation. All estimated surface area concentrations were calculated from the reconstructed size distributions. These methods were evaluated using particle measurements obtained in a restaurant, an aluminum die-casting factory, and a diesel engine laboratory. SA PSD was 0.7–1.8 times higher and SA INV1 and SA INV2 were 2.2–8 times higher than SA REF in the restaurant and diesel engine laboratory. In the die casting facility, all estimated surface area concentrations were lower than SA REF . However, the estimated surface area concentration using all three methods had qualitatively similar exposure trends and rankings to those using SA REF within a workplace. This study suggests that surface area concentration estimation based on particle size distribution (SA PSD ) is a more accurate and convenient method to estimate surface area concentrations than estimation methods using inversion routines and may be feasible to use for classifying exposure groups and identifying exposure trends.

  3. Interdependence between body surface area and ultraviolet B dose in vitamin D production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogh, M K B; Schmedes, Anne; Philipsen, P A

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) B radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) [25(OH)D], but the relationship to body surface area and UVB dose needs investigation.......Ultraviolet (UV) B radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) [25(OH)D], but the relationship to body surface area and UVB dose needs investigation....

  4. Lake Chad Total Surface Water Area as Derived from Land Surface Temperature and Radar Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Policelli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lake Chad, located in the middle of the African Sahel belt, underwent dramatic decreases in the 1970s and 1980s leaving less than ten percent of its 1960s surface water extent as open water. In this paper, we present an extended record (dry seasons 1988–2016 of the total surface water area of the lake (including both open water and flooded vegetation derived using Land Surface Temperature (LST data (dry seasons 2000–2016 from the NASA Terra MODIS sensor and EUMETSAT Meteosat-based LST measurements (dry seasons 1988–2001 from an earlier study. We also examine the total surface water area for Lake Chad using radar data (dry seasons 2015–2016 from the ESA Sentinel-1a mission. For the limited number of radar data sets available to us (18 data sets, we find on average a close match between the estimates from these data and the corresponding estimates from LST, though we find spatial differences in the estimates using the two types of data. We use these spatial differences to adjust the record (dry seasons 2000–2016 from MODIS LST. Then we use the adjusted record to remove the bias of the existing LST record (dry seasons 1988–2001 derived from Meteosat measurements and combine the two records. From this composite, extended record, we plot the total surface water area of the lake for the dry seasons of 1988–1989 through 2016–2017. We find for the dry seasons of 1988–1989 to 2016–2017 that the maximum total surface water area of the lake was approximately 16,800 sq. km (February and May, 2000, the minimum total surface water area of the lake was approximately 6400 sq. km (November, 1990, and the average was approximately 12,700 sq. km. Further, we find the total surface water area of the lake to be highly variable during this period, with an average rate of increase of approximately 143 km2 per year.

  5. Assessment of nanoparticle surface area by measuring unattached fraction of radon progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzer, Lev S. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Indoor Environment Department (United States)], E-mail: LSRuzer@lbl.gov

    2008-05-15

    A number of studies on the exposure of nanometer aerosols have indicated that health effects associated with low-solubility inhaled particles in the range of 1-100 nm may be more appropriately associated with particulate surface area than mass concentration. Such data on correlation between number, surface area and mass concentration are needed for exposure investigations, but the means for measuring aerosol surface area are not readily available. In this paper we propose a method for particle surface area assessment based on a new approach, deposition of the 'unattached fraction of radon progeny' onto nanometer aerosols.The proposed approach represents a synthesis of:(1) Derived direct analytical correlation between the 'unattached fraction' of radon progeny and surface area particle concentration in the range of 1-100 nm particle diameter;(2) Experimental data on correlation between the unattached fraction of radon progeny and particle surface area for particles with diameter in the range of 44 nm-2.1 {mu}m.

  6. Adsorption of water vapour and the specific surface area of arctic zone soils (Spitsbergen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Jolanta; Sokołowska, Zofia; Witkowska-Walczak, Barbara; Skic, Kamil

    2018-01-01

    Water vapour/nitrogen adsorption were investigated and calculated the specific surface areas of arctic-zone soil samples (Turbic Cryosols) originating from different micro-relief forms (mud boils, cell forms and sorted circles) and from different depths. For the characterisation of the isotherms obtained for arctic soils, the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller model was then compared with the two other models (Aranovich-Donohue and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer) which were developed from Brunauer-Emmet-Teller. Specific surface area was calculated using the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller model at p p0-1 range of 0.05-0.35 for the water vapour desorption and nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The values of total specific surface area were the highest in Cryosols on mud boils, lower on cell forms, and the lowest on sorted circles. Such tendency was observed for the results obtained by both the water vapour and nitrogen adsorption. The differences in the values of specific surface area at two investigated layers were small. High determination coefficients were obtained for relationships between the specific surface areas and contents of clay and silt fraction in Cryosols. No statistically significant correlation between the total carbon amount and the values of specific surface area in Cryosols has been found.

  7. Greenland surface mass-balance observations from the ice-sheet ablation area and local glaciers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machguth, Horst; Thomsen, Henrik H.; Weidick, Anker

    2016-01-01

    Glacier surface mass-balance measurements on Greenland started more than a century ago, but no compilation exists of the observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. Such data could be used in the evaluation of modelled surface mass balance, or to document changes in g...

  8. Determining surface areas of marine alga cells by acid-base titration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Ma, Y; Su, Y

    1997-09-01

    A new method for determining the surface area of living marine alga cells was described. The method uses acid-base titration to measure the surface acid/base amount on the surface of alga cells and uses the BET (Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller) equation to estimate the maximum surface acid/base amount, assuming that hydrous cell walls have carbohydrates or other structural compounds which can behave like surface Brönsted acid-base sites due to coordination of environmental H2O molecules. The method was applied to 18 diverse alga species (including 7 diatoms, 2 flagellates, 8 green algae and 1 red alga) maintained in seawater cultures. For the species examined, the surface areas of individual cells ranged from 2.8 x 10(-8) m2 for Nannochloropsis oculata to 690 x 10(-8) m2 for Dunaliella viridis, specific surface areas from 1,030 m2.g-1 for Dunaliella salina to 28,900 m2.g-1 for Pyramidomonas sp. Measurement accuracy was 15.2%. Preliminary studies show that the method may be more promising and accurate than light/electron microscopic measurements for coarse estimation of the surface area of living algae.

  9. 30 CFR 717.15 - Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. 717.15 Section 717.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS UNDERGROUND MINING GENERAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 717.15 Disposal of excess rock and...

  10. Greenland surface mass-balance observations from the ice-sheet ablation area and local glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machguth, Horst; Thomsen, Henrik H.; Weidick, Anker; Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.; Abermann, Jakob; Andersen, Morten L.; Andersen, Signe B.; Bjørk, Anders A.; Box, Jason E.; Braithwaite, Roger J.; Bøggild, Carl E.; Citterio, Michele; Clement, Poul; Colgan, William; Fausto, Robert S.; Gleie, Karin; Gubler, Stefanie; Hasholt, Bent; Hynek, Bernhard; Knudsen, Niels T.; Larsen, Signe H.; Mernild, Sebastian H.; Oerlemans, Johannes; Oerter, Hans; Olesen, Ole B.; Smeets, C. J P Paul; Steffen, Konrad; Stober, Manfred; Sugiyama, Shin; Van As, Dirk; Van Den Broeke, Michiel R.; Van De Wal, Roderik S W

    2016-01-01

    Glacier surface mass-balance measurements on Greenland started more than a century ago, but no compilation exists of the observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. Such data could be used in the evaluation of modelled surface mass balance, or to document changes in

  11. Changes in Thickness and Surface Area of the Human Cortex and Their Relationship with Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnack, H.G.; van Haren, N.E.M.; Brouwer, R.M.; Evans, A.; Durston, S.; Boomsma, D.I.; Kahn, R.S.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in cortical thickness over time have been related to intelligence, but whether changes in cortical surface area are related to general cognitive functioning is unknown. We therefore examined the relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and changes in cortical thickness and surface

  12. Experience and outcomes of micrografting for major paediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, H; Martinez, R; Potgieter, D; Adams, S; Rogers, A D

    2017-08-01

    The deficit of donor sites in major burns over 50% of the total body surface area has necessitated the application of methods besides traditional meshed autografting to achieve definitive skin cover. The Meek micrografting technique was introduced at this hospital in 2011, especially in the absence of a reliable source of deceased donor allograft skin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this strategy with reference to its technical execution, efficacy and indications in the context of major paediatric burn surgery. A cohort study was performed of all paediatric patients with major burn who underwent Meek micrografting at a dedicated paediatric burn centre in a developing country over a five year period. Demographics, details of their burns, operative management and clinical course and outcomes were collected from patient records and operative notes and analysed. Thirty-five patients were managed using the micrografting technique during the study period. The mean patient age was 4.1 years (range 3 months-11 years) and their mean total body surface area (TBSA) burn was 49.7% (range 15-86%). Eleven patients sustained inhalation injuries and five developed a re-feeding syndrome on account of delayed referral. The mean abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) was 8.5 (range 2-13). The hospital length of stay in the 27 survivors was a mean of 75.5 days, equating to 1.4 days per percentage burn. Eight patients died during the course of treatment, with a mean TBSA burn of 67.75% (range 38-86%). Graft take one month after surgery was documented to be more than 90% in 24 patients, of whom 3 subsequently died. Eleven patients had less than 90% graft take at this time, of whom 5 died. There is a considerable 'learning curve' associated with this technique. In order to achieve success one must ensure a completely viable, non-infected bed, obtained by tangential or fascial excision, followed by allografting as temporary coverage and to 'test the wound bed' for definitive

  13. Surface-Casting Synthesis of Mesoporous Zirconia with a CMK-5-Like Structure and High Surface Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dong; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Pichler, Christian M; Bongard, Hans-Josef; Spliethoff, Bernd; Asahina, Shunsuke; Cao, Zhengwen; Terasaki, Osamu; Schüth, Ferdi

    2017-09-04

    About 15 years ago, the Ryoo group described the synthesis of CMK-5, a material consisting of a hexagonal arrangement of carbon nanotubes. Extension of the surface casting synthesis to oxide compositions, however, was not possible so far, in spite of many attempts. Here it is demonstrated, that crystalline mesoporous hollow zirconia materials with very high surface areas up to 400 m 2  g -1 , and in selected cases in the form of CMK-5-like, are indeed accessible via such a surface casting process. The key for the successful synthesis is an increased interaction between the silica hard template surface and the zirconia precursor species by using silanol group-rich mesoporous silica as a hard template. The surface areas of the obtained zirconias exceed those of conventionally hard-templated ones by a factor of two to three. The surface casting process seems to be applicable also to other oxide materials. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Burn Injury Caused by Laptop Computers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    generated in central processing unit (CPU), graphics processing unit, hard drive, internal ... change its position. Discussion ... Suzuki, et al. reported that the critical temperature for superficial burn was 37.8°C, for deep dermal burns 41.9°C and ... The laptop should be placed on a hard surface and not on soft surfaces like.

  15. Child Supervision and Burn Outcome among Admitted Patients at Major Trauma Hospitals in the Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edrisa Sanyang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Burn-related injuries are a significant burden in children, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs, where more than 90% of burn-related pediatric deaths occur. Lack of adult supervision of children is a major risk for pediatric burn injuries. The goal of this paper was to examine the general characteristics of burns and identify burn injury outcomes among adult-supervised children compared to those who were not supervised. The study examined burn injury and clinical characteristics among all burn patients admitted to two trauma hospitals in The Gambia, West Africa. At intake in the emergency room, the treating physician or nurse determined the need for admission based on body surface area burned (BSAB, depth of burn, and other clinical considerations such as co-occurring injuries and co-morbidities. During the study period of 1 April 2014 through 31 October 2016, 105 burn patients were admitted and data were collected by the treating physician for all of them. Information about supervision was only asked for children aged five years or less. More than half (51% of the burn patients were children under 18 years, and 22% were under 5 years. Among children under five, most (86.4% were supervised by an adult at the time of burn event. Of the 19 supervised children, 16 (84.2% had body area surface burned (BSAB of less than 20%. Two of the three children without adult supervision at the time of burn event had BSAB ≥ 20%. Overall, 59% of the patients had 20% + BSAB. Females (aOR = 1.25; 95% CI = 0.43–3.62, those burned in rural towns and villages (aOR = 2.29; 95% CI = 0.69–7.57, or burned by fire or flames (aOR = 1.47; 95% CI = 0.51–4.23 had increased odds of having a BSAB ≥ 20%, although these differences were not statistically significant. Children 0–5 years or 5–18 years (aOR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.01–0.17; aOR = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.02–0.23, respectively were less likely to have BSAB ≥ 20% than adults. Those burned in a

  16. Models of bedrock surface and overburden thickness over Olkiluoto island and nearby sea area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moenkkoenen, H.

    2012-04-01

    In this report, a model of bedrock surface and a model of overburden thickness over the Olkiluoto Island and the nearby sea area are presented. Also in purpose to produce material for biosphere and radionuclide transport modelling, stratigraphy models of different sediment layers were created at two priority areas north and south of the Olkiluoto Island. The work concentrated on the collection and description of available data of bedrock surface and overburden thickness. Because the information on the bedrock surface and overburden is collected from different sources and is based on a number of types of data the quality and applicability of data sets varies. Consequently also the reliability in different parts of the models varies. Input data for the bedrock surface and overburden thickness models include 2928 single points and additional outcrops observations (611 polygons) in the modelled area. In addition, the input data include 173 seismic refraction lines (6534 points) and acousticseismic sounding lines (26655 points from which 13721 points are located in model area) in the Olkiluoto offshore area. The average elevation of bedrock surface in area is 2.1 metres above the sea level. The average thickness of overburden is 2.5 metres varying typically between 2 - 4 metres. Thickest overburden covers (approximately 16 metres) of terrestrial area are located at the western end of the Olkiluoto Island and in sea basin south of the island. (orig.)

  17. Models of bedrock surface and overburden thickness over Olkiluoto island and nearby sea area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moenkkoenen, H. [WSP Finland Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-04-15

    In this report, a model of bedrock surface and a model of overburden thickness over the Olkiluoto Island and the nearby sea area are presented. Also in purpose to produce material for biosphere and radionuclide transport modelling, stratigraphy models of different sediment layers were created at two priority areas north and south of the Olkiluoto Island. The work concentrated on the collection and description of available data of bedrock surface and overburden thickness. Because the information on the bedrock surface and overburden is collected from different sources and is based on a number of types of data the quality and applicability of data sets varies. Consequently also the reliability in different parts of the models varies. Input data for the bedrock surface and overburden thickness models include 2928 single points and additional outcrops observations (611 polygons) in the modelled area. In addition, the input data include 173 seismic refraction lines (6534 points) and acousticseismic sounding lines (26655 points from which 13721 points are located in model area) in the Olkiluoto offshore area. The average elevation of bedrock surface in area is 2.1 metres above the sea level. The average thickness of overburden is 2.5 metres varying typically between 2 - 4 metres. Thickest overburden covers (approximately 16 metres) of terrestrial area are located at the western end of the Olkiluoto Island and in sea basin south of the island. (orig.)

  18. Hair bleaching and skin burning

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, K.; Lingitz, R.; Prattes, G.; Schneider, G.; Sutter, S.; Schintler, M.; Trop, M.

    2012-01-01

    Hairdressing-related burns are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted area resulted in subsequent scar formation.

  19. Burns From Hot Wheat Bags: A Public Safety Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anna; Amprayil, Mathew; Solanki, Nicholas S.; Greenwood, John Edward

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Wheat bags are therapeutic devices that are heated in microwaves and commonly used to provide relief from muscle and joint pain. The Royal Adelaide Hospital Burns Unit has observed a number of patients with significant burn injuries resulting from their use. Despite their dangers, the products come with limited safety information. Methods: Data were collected from the Burns Unit database for all patients admitted with burns due to hot wheat bags from 2004 to 2009. This was analyzed to determine the severity of the burn injury and identify any predisposing factors. An experimental study was performed to measure the temperature of wheat bags when heated to determine their potential for causing thermal injury. Results: 11 patients were admitted with burns due to hot wheat bags. The median age was 52 years and the mean total body surface area was 1.1%. All burns were either deep dermal (45.5%) or full thickness (54.5%). Ten patients required operative management. Predisposing factors (eg, neuropathy) to thermal injury were identified in 7 patients. The experimental study showed that hot wheat bags reached temperatures of 57.3°C (135.1°F) when heated according to instructions, 63.3°C (145.9°F) in a 1000 W microwave and 69.6°C (157.3°F) on reheating. Conclusions: Hot wheat bags cause serious burn injury. When heated improperly, they can reach temperatures high enough to cause epidermal necrosis in a short period of time. Patients with impaired temperature sensation are particularly at risk. There should be greater public awareness of the dangers of wheat bag use and more specific safety warnings on the products. PMID:21915357

  20. Application of stereological methods to estimate post-mortem brain surface area using 3T MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furlong, Carolyn; García-Fiñana, Marta; Puddephat, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The Cavalieri and Vertical Sections methods of design based stereology were applied in combination with 3 tesla (i.e. 3T) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to estimate cortical and subcortical volume, area of the pial surface, area of the grey-white matter boundary, and thickness of the cerebral...

  1. Cortical surface area and cortical thickness in the precuneus of adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, E; Román, F J; de la Cuétara, J M; Martin-Loeches, M; Colom, R

    2015-02-12

    The precuneus has received considerable attention in the last decade, because of its cognitive functions, its role as a central node of the brain networks, and its involvement in neurodegenerative processes. Paleoneurological studies suggested that form changes in the deep parietal areas represent a major character associated with the origin of the modern human brain morphology. A recent neuroanatomical survey based on shape analysis suggests that the proportions of the precuneus are also a determinant source of overall brain geometrical differences among adult individuals, influencing the brain spatial organization. Here, we evaluate the variation of cortical thickness and cortical surface area of the precuneus in a sample of adult humans, and their relation with geometry and cognition. Precuneal thickness and surface area are not correlated. There is a marked individual variation. The right precuneus is thinner and larger than the left one, but there are relevant fluctuating asymmetries, with only a modest correlation between the hemispheres. Males have a thicker cortex but differences in cortical area are not significant between sexes. The surface area of the precuneus shows a positive allometry with the brain surface area, although the correlation is modest. The dilation/contraction of the precuneus, described as a major factor of variability within adult humans, is associated with absolute increase/decrease of its surface, but not with variation in thickness. Precuneal thickness, precuneal surface area and precuneal morphology are not correlated with psychological factors such as intelligence, working memory, attention control, and processing speed, stressing further possible roles of this area in supporting default mode functions. Beyond gross morphology, the processes underlying the large phenotypic variation of the precuneus must be further investigated through specific cellular analyses, aimed at considering differences in cellular size, density

  2. Preparation, Surface and Pore Structure of High Surface Area Activated Carbon Fibers from Bamboo by Steam Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Ma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available High surface area activated carbon fibers (ACF have been prepared from bamboo by steam activation after liquefaction and curing. The influences of activation temperature on the microstructure, surface area and porosity were investigated. The results showed that ACF from bamboo at 850 °C have the maximum iodine and methylene blue adsorption values. Aside from the graphitic carbon, phenolic and carbonyl groups were the predominant functions on the surface of activated carbon fiber from bamboo. The prepared ACF from bamboo were found to be mainly type I of isotherm, but the mesoporosity presented an increasing trend after 700 °C. The surface area and micropore volume of samples, which were determined by application of the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and t-plot methods, were as high as 2024 m2/g and 0.569 cm3/g, respectively. It was also found that the higher activation temperature produced the more ordered microcrystalline structure of ACF from bamboo.

  3. Planar spatial correlations, anisotropy, and specific surface area of stationary random porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    An earlier result of the author showed that an anisotropic spatial correlation function of a random porous medium could be used to compute the specific surface area when it is stationary as well as anisotropic by first performing a three-dimensional radial average and then taking the first derivative with respect to lag at the origin. This result generalized the earlier result for isotropic porous media of Debye et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 28, 679 (1957)]. The present article provides more detailed information about the use of spatial correlation functions for anisotropic porous media and in particular shows that, for stationary anisotropic media, the specific surface area can be related to the derivative of the two-dimensional radial average of the correlation function measured from cross sections taken through the anisotropic medium. The main concept is first illustrated using a simple pedagogical example for an anisotropic distribution of spherical voids. Then, a general derivation of formulas relating the derivative of the planar correlation functions to surface integrals is presented. When the surface normal is uniformly distributed (as is the case for any distribution of spherical voids), our formulas can be used to relate a specific surface area to easily measurable quantities from any single cross section. When the surface normal is not distributed uniformly (as would be the case for an oriented distribution of ellipsoidal voids), our results show how to obtain valid estimates of specific surface area by averaging measurements on three orthogonal cross sections. One important general observation for porous media is that the surface area from nearly flat cracks may be underestimated from measurements on orthogonal cross sections if any of the cross sections happen to lie in the plane of the cracks. This result is illustrated by taking the very small aspect ratio (penny-shaped crack) limit of an oblate spheroid, but holds for other types of flat surfaces as well

  4. Car radiator burns: a prevention issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitts, Angela; Alden, Nicole E; Conlin, Tara; Yurt, Roger W

    2004-01-01

    Scald burns continue to be the major cause of injury to patients admitted to the burn center. Scald burns occurring from car radiator fluid comprise a significant subgroup. Although manufacturer warning labels have been placed on car radiators, these burns continue to occur. This retrospective review looks at all patients admitted to our burn center who suffered scald burns from car radiator fluid to assess the extent of this problem. During the study period, 86 patients were identified as having suffered scald burns as a result of contact with car radiator fluid. Seventy-one percent of the burn injuries occurred in the summer months. The areas most commonly burned were the head and upper extremities. Burn prevention efforts have improved greatly over the years; however, this study demonstrates that scald burns from car radiator fluid continue to cause physical, emotional, and financial devastation. The current radiator warning labels alone are not effective. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has proposed a new federal motor vehicle safety standard to aid in decreasing the number of scald burns from car radiators. The results of this study were submitted to the United States Department of Transportation for inclusion in a docket for federal legislation supporting these safety measures.

  5. Effect of surface area of substrates aiming the optimization of carbon nanotube production from ferrocene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, A.G.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An optimized synthesis of CNTs by ferrocene is proposed. ► The surface area of substrates influences the nucleation of CNTs. ► The higher the surface area of substrates the lower the temperature of synthesis. ► Chemical composition of substrates has no influence on the growth of CNTs. - Abstract: Ferrocene is widely used for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes due to its ability to act as catalyst and precursor of the synthesis. This paper proposes an optimization of the synthesis of carbon nanotubes from ferrocene, using a substrate with high surface area for their nucleation. Four different surface areas of silica powder were tested: 0.5, 50, 200 and 300 m 2 /g. Raman spectroscopy and microscopy were used to characterize the product obtained and X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis were also performed to evaluate the phases of the material. It was observed that the silica powder with the highest surface area allowed the synthesis of carbon nanotubes to occur at a lower temperature (600 °C), whereas substrates with a surface area lower than 50 m 2 /g will only form carbon nanotubes at temperatures higher than 750 °C. In order to evaluate the influence of chemical composition of the substrate, three different ceramic powders were analyzed: alumina, silica and zirconia. carbon black and previously synthesized carbon nanotubes were also used as substrate for the synthesis and the results showed that the chemical composition of the substrate does not play a relevant role in the synthesis of carbon nanotubes, only the surface area showed an influence.

  6. Estimating surface fluxes over the north Tibetan Plateau area with ASTER imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqiang Ma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface fluxes are important boundary conditions for climatological modeling and Asian monsoon system. The recent availability of high-resolution, multi-band imagery from the ASTER (Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer sensor has enabled us to estimate surface fluxes to bridge the gap between local scale flux measurements using micrometeorological instruments and regional scale land-atmosphere exchanges of water and heat fluxes that are fundamental for the understanding of the water cycle in the Asian monsoon system. A parameterization method based on ASTER data and field observations has been proposed and tested for deriving surface albedo, surface temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI, vegetation coverage, Leaf Area Index (LAI, net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux over heterogeneous land surface in this paper. As a case study, the methodology was applied to the experimental area of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP on the Tibetan Plateau (CAMP/Tibet, located at the north Tibetan Plateau. The ASTER data of 24 July 2001, 29 November 2001 and 12 March 2002 was used in this paper for the case of summer, winter and spring. To validate the proposed methodology, the ground-measured surface variables (surface albedo and surface temperature and land surface heat fluxes (net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux were compared to the ASTER derived values. The results show that the derived surface variables and land surface heat fluxes in three different months over the study area are in good accordance with the land surface status. Also, the estimated land surface variables and land surface heat fluxes are in good accordance with ground measurements, and all their absolute percentage difference (APD is less than 10% in the validation sites

  7. Technology of surface wastewater purification, including high-rise construction areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyba, Anna; Skolubovich, Yury

    2018-03-01

    Despite on the improvements in the quality of high-rise construction areas and industrial wastewater treatment, the pollution of water bodies continues to increase. This is due to the organized and unorganized surface untreated sewage entry into the reservoirs. The qualitative analysis of some cities' surface sewage composition is carried out in the work. Based on the published literature review, the characteristic contamination present in surface wastewater was identified. The paper proposes a new technology for the treatment of surface sewage and presents the results of preliminary studies.

  8. High-resolution surface analysis for extended-range downscaling with limited-area atmospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Separovic, Leo; Husain, Syed Zahid; Yu, Wei; Fernig, David

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution limited-area model (LAM) simulations are frequently employed to downscale coarse-resolution objective analyses over a specified area of the globe using high-resolution computational grids. When LAMs are integrated over extended time frames, from months to years, they are prone to deviations in land surface variables that can be harmful to the quality of the simulated near-surface fields. Nudging of the prognostic surface fields toward a reference-gridded data set is therefore devised in order to prevent the atmospheric model from diverging from the expected values. This paper presents a method to generate high-resolution analyses of land-surface variables, such as surface canopy temperature, soil moisture, and snow conditions, to be used for the relaxation of lower boundary conditions in extended-range LAM simulations. The proposed method is based on performing offline simulations with an external surface model, forced with the near-surface meteorological fields derived from short-range forecast, operational analyses, and observed temperatures and humidity. Results show that the outputs of the surface model obtained in the present study have potential to improve the near-surface atmospheric fields in extended-range LAM integrations.

  9. VEGETATION COVERAGE AND IMPERVIOUS SURFACE AREA ESTIMATED BASED ON THE ESTARFM MODEL AND REMOTE SENSING MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Impervious surface area and vegetation coverage are important biophysical indicators of urban surface features which can be derived from medium-resolution images. However, remote sensing data obtained by a single sensor are easily affected by many factors such as weather conditions, and the spatial and temporal resolution can not meet the needs for soil erosion estimation. Therefore, the integrated multi-source remote sensing data are needed to carry out high spatio-temporal resolution vegetation coverage estimation. Two spatial and temporal vegetation coverage data and impervious data were obtained from MODIS and Landsat 8 remote sensing images. Based on the Enhanced Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (ESTARFM, the vegetation coverage data of two scales were fused and the data of vegetation coverage fusion (ESTARFM FVC and impervious layer with high spatiotemporal resolution (30 m, 8 day were obtained. On this basis, the spatial variability of the seepage-free surface and the vegetation cover landscape in the study area was measured by means of statistics and spatial autocorrelation analysis. The results showed that: 1 ESTARFM FVC and impermeable surface have higher accuracy and can characterize the characteristics of the biophysical components covered by the earth's surface; 2 The average impervious surface proportion and the spatial configuration of each area are different, which are affected by natural conditions and urbanization. In the urban area of Xi'an, which has typical characteristics of spontaneous urbanization, landscapes are fragmented and have less spatial dependence.

  10. Vegetation Coverage and Impervious Surface Area Estimated Based on the Estarfm Model and Remote Sensing Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rongming; Wang, Shu; Guo, Jiao; Guo, Liankun

    2018-04-01

    Impervious surface area and vegetation coverage are important biophysical indicators of urban surface features which can be derived from medium-resolution images. However, remote sensing data obtained by a single sensor are easily affected by many factors such as weather conditions, and the spatial and temporal resolution can not meet the needs for soil erosion estimation. Therefore, the integrated multi-source remote sensing data are needed to carry out high spatio-temporal resolution vegetation coverage estimation. Two spatial and temporal vegetation coverage data and impervious data were obtained from MODIS and Landsat 8 remote sensing images. Based on the Enhanced Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (ESTARFM), the vegetation coverage data of two scales were fused and the data of vegetation coverage fusion (ESTARFM FVC) and impervious layer with high spatiotemporal resolution (30 m, 8 day) were obtained. On this basis, the spatial variability of the seepage-free surface and the vegetation cover landscape in the study area was measured by means of statistics and spatial autocorrelation analysis. The results showed that: 1) ESTARFM FVC and impermeable surface have higher accuracy and can characterize the characteristics of the biophysical components covered by the earth's surface; 2) The average impervious surface proportion and the spatial configuration of each area are different, which are affected by natural conditions and urbanization. In the urban area of Xi'an, which has typical characteristics of spontaneous urbanization, landscapes are fragmented and have less spatial dependence.

  11. Preparation of MgO with High Surface Area, and Modification of Its Pore Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Moon Hee; Park, Dong Gon [Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-15

    Thermal decomposition of hydrated surface layer of Mg(OH){sub 2} at 500 .deg. C in vacuum turned non-porous MgO into porous one with high surface area of around 270 m{sup 2}/g. Most of its surface area, 74 %, was from micropores, and rest of it was from mesopores in wedge-shaped slits, exhibiting bimodal size distribution centered around 30 and 90 A. Rehydration followed by subsequent dehydration at 300 .deg. C in dynamic vacuum further raised the surface area to 340 m{sup 2}/g. Fraction of microporous surface area was increased to 93%, and the shape of the mesopores was modified into parallel slits with a specific dimension of 32 A. Application of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} over MgO via iron complex formation did not alter the pore characteristics of MgO core, except slightly increased pore dimension. Over the course of the modification, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} stayed on the surface possibly via spill-over reaction.

  12. Optimized preparation for large surface area activated carbon from date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) stone biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danish, Mohammed; Hashim, Rokiah; Ibrahim, M.N. Mohamad; Sulaiman, Othman

    2014-01-01

    The preparation of activated carbon from date stone treated with phosphoric acid was optimized using rotatable central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM). The chemical activating agent concentration and temperature of activation plays a crucial role in preparation of large surface area activated carbons. The optimized activated carbon was characterized using thermogravimetric analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the larger surface area of activated carbon from date stone can be achieved under optimum activating agent (phosphoric acid) concentration, 50.0% (8.674 mol L −1 ) and activation temperature, 900 °C. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area of optimized activated carbon was found to be 1225 m 2  g −1 , and thermogravimetric analysis revealed that 55.2% mass of optimized activated carbon was found thermally stable till 900 °C. The leading chemical functional groups found in the date stone activated carbon were aliphatic carboxylic acid salt ν(C=O) 1561.22 cm −1 and 1384.52 cm −1 , aliphatic hydrocarbons ν(C–H) 2922.99 cm −1 (C–H sym./asym. stretch frequency), aliphatic phosphates ν(P–O–C) 1054.09 cm −1 , and secondary aliphatic alcohols ν(O–H) 3419.81 cm −1 and 1159.83 cm −1 . - Highlights: • RSM optimization was done for the production of large surface area activated carbon. • Two independent variables with two responses were selected for optimization. • Characterization was done for surface area, morphology and chemical constituents. • Optimized date stone activated carbon achieved surface area 1225 m 2  g −1

  13. Evaluating polymer degradation with complex mixtures using a simplified surface area method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Kandace M; Pelham, Todd; Phalen, Robert N

    2017-09-01

    Chemical-resistant gloves, designed to protect workers from chemical hazards, are made from a variety of polymer materials such as plastic, rubber, and synthetic rubber. One material does not provide protection against all chemicals, thus proper polymer selection is critical. Standardized testing, such as chemical degradation tests, are used to aid in the selection process. The current methods of degradation ratings based on changes in weight or tensile properties can be expensive and data often do not exist for complex chemical mixtures. There are hundreds of thousands of chemical products on the market that do not have chemical resistance data for polymer selection. The method described in this study provides an inexpensive alternative to gravimetric analysis. This method uses surface area change to evaluate degradation of a polymer material. Degradation tests for 5 polymer types against 50 complex mixtures were conducted using both gravimetric and surface area methods. The percent change data were compared between the two methods. The resulting regression line was y = 0.48x + 0.019, in units of percent, and the Pearson correlation coefficient was r = 0.9537 (p ≤ 0.05), which indicated a strong correlation between percent weight change and percent surface area change. On average, the percent change for surface area was about half that of the weight change. Using this information, an equivalent rating system was developed for determining the chemical degradation of polymer gloves using surface area.

  14. Study of measurement methods of ultrafine aerosols surface-area for characterizing occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bau, S.

    2008-12-01

    This work aims at improving knowledge on ultrafine aerosols surface-area measurement. Indeed, the development of nano-technologies may lead to occupational exposure to airborne nano-structured particles, which involves a new prevention issue. There is currently no consensus concerning what parameter (mass, surface-area, number) should be measured. However, surface-area could be a relevant metric, since it leads to a satisfying correlation with biological effects when nano-structured particles are inhaled. Hence, an original theoretical work was performed to position the parameter of surface-area in relation to other aerosol characteristics. To investigate measurement techniques of nano-structured aerosols surface-area, the experimental facility CAIMAN (Characterization of Instruments for the Measurement of Aerosols of Nano-particles) was designed and built. Within CAIMAN, it is possible to produce nano-structured aerosols with varying and controlled properties (size, concentration, chemical nature, morphology, state-of-charge), stable and reproducible in time. The generated aerosols were used to experimentally characterize the response of the instruments in study (NSAM and AeroTrak 9000 TSI, LQ1-DC Matter Engineering). The response functions measured with monodisperse aerosols show a good agreement with the corresponding theoretical curves in a large size range, from 15 to 520 nm. Furthermore, hypotheses have been formulated to explain the reasonable biases observed when measuring poly-disperse aerosols. (author)

  15. A longitudinal study: changes in cortical thickness and surface area during pubertal maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M Herting

    Full Text Available Sex hormones have been shown to contribute to the organization and function of the brain during puberty and adolescence. Moreover, it has been suggested that distinct hormone changes in girls versus boys may contribute to the emergence of sex differences in internalizing and externalizing behavior during adolescence. In the current longitudinal study, the influence of within-subject changes in puberty (physical and hormonal on cortical thickness and surface area was examined across a 2-year span, while controlling for age. Greater increases in Tanner Stage predicted less superior frontal thinning and decreases in precuneus surface area in both sexes. Significant Tanner Stage and sex interactions were also seen, with less right superior temporal thinning in girls but not boys, as well as greater decreases in the right bank of the superior temporal sulcus surface area in boys compared to girls. In addition, within-subject changes in testosterone over the 2-year follow-up period were found to relate to decreases in middle superior frontal surface area in boys, but increases in surface area in girls. Lastly, larger increases in estradiol in girls predicted greater middle temporal lobe thinning. These results show that within-subject physical and hormonal markers of puberty relate to region and sex-specific changes in cortical development across adolescence.

  16. A longitudinal study: changes in cortical thickness and surface area during pubertal maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herting, Megan M; Gautam, Prapti; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Dahl, Ronald E; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones have been shown to contribute to the organization and function of the brain during puberty and adolescence. Moreover, it has been suggested that distinct hormone changes in girls versus boys may contribute to the emergence of sex differences in internalizing and externalizing behavior during adolescence. In the current longitudinal study, the influence of within-subject changes in puberty (physical and hormonal) on cortical thickness and surface area was examined across a 2-year span, while controlling for age. Greater increases in Tanner Stage predicted less superior frontal thinning and decreases in precuneus surface area in both sexes. Significant Tanner Stage and sex interactions were also seen, with less right superior temporal thinning in girls but not boys, as well as greater decreases in the right bank of the superior temporal sulcus surface area in boys compared to girls. In addition, within-subject changes in testosterone over the 2-year follow-up period were found to relate to decreases in middle superior frontal surface area in boys, but increases in surface area in girls. Lastly, larger increases in estradiol in girls predicted greater middle temporal lobe thinning. These results show that within-subject physical and hormonal markers of puberty relate to region and sex-specific changes in cortical development across adolescence.

  17. Large area smoothing of surfaces by ion bombardment: fundamentals and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, F; Fechner, R; Ziberi, B; Voellner, J; Flamm, D; Schindler, A

    2009-01-01

    Ion beam erosion can be used as a process for achieving surface smoothing at microscopic length scales and for the preparation of ultrasmooth surfaces, as an alternative to nanostructuring of various surfaces via self-organization. This requires that in the evolution of the surface topography different relaxation mechanisms dominate over the roughening, and smoothing of initially rough surfaces can occur. This contribution focuses on the basic mechanisms as well as potential applications of surface smoothing using low energy ion beams. In the first part, the fundamentals for the smoothing of III/V semiconductors, Si and quartz glass surfaces using low energy ion beams (ion energy: ≤2000 eV) are reviewed using examples. The topography evolution of these surfaces with respect to different process parameters (ion energy, ion incidence angle, erosion time, sample rotation) has been investigated. On the basis of the time evolution of different roughness parameters, the relevant surface relaxation mechanisms responsible for surface smoothing are discussed. In this context, physical constraints as regards the effectiveness of surface smoothing by direct ion bombardment will also be addressed and furthermore ion beam assisted smoothing techniques are introduced. In the second application-orientated part, recent technological developments related to ion beam assisted smoothing of optically relevant surfaces are summarized. It will be demonstrated that smoothing by direct ion bombardment in combination with the use of sacrificial smoothing layers and the utilization of appropriate broad beam ion sources enables the polishing of various technologically important surfaces down to 0.1 nm root mean square roughness level, showing great promise for large area surface processing. Specific examples are given for ion beam smoothing of different optical surfaces, especially for substrates used for advanced optical applications (e.g., in x-ray optics and components for extreme

  18. Study on laminar burning velocity of syngas-air premixed flames in various mixing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kee Man; Jeong, Byeong Gyu [Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Ro [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    The laminar burning velocity of syngas-air premixed flames was measured with various equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 5.0 and a mole fraction of H{sub 2} from 0.05 to 0.75. The laminar burning velocity was experimentally determined using a Bunsen flame according to the cone angle and surface area methods. A premixed code with a USC-II detailed reaction mechanism was used for the numerical calculations to predict the laminar burning velocity and to examine the relationship between the burning velocity enhancement and the hydrogen-related reactions. The results indicate that an appropriate method for the measurement of laminar burning velocity is necessary in the H{sub 2}/CO/air syngas premixed flame. In addition, the burning velocity linearly increased with the increase of the H{sub 2} mole fraction in the syngas mixture, although the burning velocity of H{sub 2} was 10 times larger than that of CO. This result is attributed to the rapid production of H-radicals at the early stage of combustion. Furthermore, the predicted mole fractions of H and OH radicals increased with the increase of H{sub 2} mole fraction for a lean syngas mixture. However, the mole fraction of OH radicals, an indicator of heat release rate, decreased for rich syngas mixture, resulting in a reduction of the laminar burning velocity, even with an increase of the H{sub 2} mole fraction.

  19. Development and evaluation of a novel smart device-based application for burn assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Zachary; Tan, James; Bockhold, Jennifer; Ma, Jason; Tran, Nam K

    2015-06-01

    We have developed a novel software application that provides a simple and interactive Lund-Browder diagram for automatic calculation of total body surface area (TBSA) burned, fluid formula recommendations, and serial wound photography on a smart device platform. The software was developed for the iPad (Apple, Cupertino, CA) smart device platforms. Ten burns ranging from 5 to 95% TBSA were computer generated on a patient care simulator using Adobe Photoshop CS6 (Adobe, San Jose, CA). Burn clinicians calculated the TBSA first using a paper-based Lund-Browder diagram. Following a one-week "washout period", the same clinicians calculated TBSA using the smart device application. Simulated burns were presented in a random fashion and clinicians were timed. Percent TBSA burned calculated by Peregrine vs. the paper-based Lund-Browder were similar (29.53 [25.57] vs. 28.99 [25.01], p=0.22, n=7). On average, Peregrine allowed users to calculate burn size significantly faster than the paper form (58.18 [31.46] vs. 90.22 [60.60]s, p<0.001, n=7). The smart device application also provided 5 megapixel photography capabilities, and acute burn resuscitation fluid calculator. We developed an innovative smart device application that enables accurate and rapid burn size assessment to be cost-effective and widely accessible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Study on laminar burning velocity of syngas-air premixed flames in various mixing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kee Man; Jeong, Byeong Gyu; Lee, Seung Ro

    2015-01-01

    The laminar burning velocity of syngas-air premixed flames was measured with various equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 5.0 and a mole fraction of H 2 from 0.05 to 0.75. The laminar burning velocity was experimentally determined using a Bunsen flame according to the cone angle and surface area methods. A premixed code with a USC-II detailed reaction mechanism was used for the numerical calculations to predict the laminar burning velocity and to examine the relationship between the burning velocity enhancement and the hydrogen-related reactions. The results indicate that an appropriate method for the measurement of laminar burning velocity is necessary in the H 2 /CO/air syngas premixed flame. In addition, the burning velocity linearly increased with the increase of the H 2 mole fraction in the syngas mixture, although the burning velocity of H 2 was 10 times larger than that of CO. This result is attributed to the rapid production of H-radicals at the early stage of combustion. Furthermore, the predicted mole fractions of H and OH radicals increased with the increase of H 2 mole fraction for a lean syngas mixture. However, the mole fraction of OH radicals, an indicator of heat release rate, decreased for rich syngas mixture, resulting in a reduction of the laminar burning velocity, even with an increase of the H 2 mole fraction.

  1. From BASE-ASIA Toward 7-SEAS: A Satellite-Surface Perspective of Boreal Spring Biomass-Burning Aerosols and Clouds in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Lau, William K.-M.; Li, Can; Gabriel, Philip M.; Ji, Qiang; Holben, Brent N.; Welton, E. Judd; Nguyen, Anh X.; Janjai, Serm; hide

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present recent field studies conducted by NASA's SMART-COMMIT (and ACHIEVE, to be operated in 2013) mobile laboratories, jointly with distributed ground-based networks (e.g., AERONET, http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/ and MPLNET, http://mplnet.gsfc.nasa.gov/) and other contributing instruments over northern Southeast Asia. These three mobile laboratories, collectively called SMARTLabs (cf. http://smartlabs.gsfc.nasa.gov/, Surface-based Mobile Atmospheric Research & Testbed Laboratories) comprise a suite of surface remote sensing and in-situ instruments that are pivotal in providing high spectral and temporal measurements, complementing the collocated spatial observations from various Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites. A satellite-surface perspective and scientific findings, drawn from the BASE-ASIA (2006) field deployment as well as a series of ongoing 7-SEAS (2010-13) field activities over northern Southeast Asia are summarized, concerning (i) regional properties of aerosols from satellite and in situ measurements, (ii) cloud properties from remote sensing and surface observations, (iii) vertical distribution of aerosols and clouds, and (iv) regional aerosol radiative effects and impact assessment. The aerosol burden over Southeast Asia in boreal spring, attributed to biomass burning, exhibits highly consistent spatial and temporal distribution patterns, with major variability arising from changes in the magnitude of the aerosol loading mediated by processes ranging from large-scale climate factors to diurnal meteorological events. Downwind from the source regions, the tightly coupled-aerosolecloud system provides a unique, natural laboratory for further exploring the micro- and macro-scale relationships of the complex interactions. The climatic significance is presented through large-scale anti-correlations between aerosol and precipitation anomalies, showing spatial and seasonal variability, but their precise cause-and-effect relationships

  2. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Home Health Info Health Topics Burning Mouth Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a painful, complex condition often described ... or other symptoms. Read More Publications Cover image Burning Mouth Syndrome Publication files Download Language English PDF — Number of ...

  3. Combination of Radiation and Burn Injury Alters FDG Uptake in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Edward A.; Winter, David; Tolman, Crystal; Paul, Kasie; Hamrahi, Victoria; Tompkins, Ronald; Fischman, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure and burn injury have both been shown to alter glucose utilization in vivo. The present study was designed to study the effect of burn injury combined with radiation exposure, on glucose metabolism in mice using [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG). Groups of male mice weighing approximately 30g were studied. Group 1 was irradiated with a 137Cs source (9 Gy). Group 2 received full thickness burn injury on 25% total body surface area followed by resuscitated with saline (2mL, IP). Group 3 received radiation followed 10 minutes later by burn injury. Group 4 were sham treated controls. After treatment, the mice were fasted for 23 hours and then injected (IV) with 50 µCi of 18FDG. One hour post injection, the mice were sacrificed and biodistribution was measured. Positive blood cultures were observed in all groups of animals compared to the shams. Increased mortality was observed after 6 days in the burn plus radiated group as compared to the other groups. Radiation and burn treatments separately or in combination produced major changes in 18FDG uptake by many tissues. In the heart, brown adipose tissue (BAT) and spleen, radiation plus burn produced a much greater increase (p<0.0001) in 18FDG accumulation than either treatment separately. All three treatments produced moderate decreases in 18FDG accumulation (p<0.01) in the brain and gonads. Burn injury, but not irradiation, increased 18FDG accumulation in skeletal muscle; however the combination of burn plus radiation decreased 18FDG accumulation in skeletal muscle. This model may be useful for understanding the effects of burns + irradiation injury on glucose metabolism and in developing treatments for victims of injuries produced by the combination of burn plus irradiation. PMID:23143615

  4. Pediatric deep burns caused by hot incense ashes during 2014 Spring Festival in Fuyang city, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Zhou, Bo; Tao, Ren Qin; Chen, Xu Lin

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese people in Fuyang city, a northwest city of Anhui Province, are accustomed to burning incense at home for blessing during the Spring Festival. Their children, especially toddlers, like playing around the burning incense and are at risk of burning by hot incense ashes. The purpose of this study was to describe the unique cause and clinical characteristics of pediatric deep burns caused by hot incense ashes during 2014 Spring Festival. Twelve consecutive children admitted to our Burn Center and Fuyang People's Hospital during 2014 Spring Festival, with burn injuries caused by hot incense ashes which were epidemiologically studied retrospectively. Data on age, gender, size, depth and site of burn, incidence by day, number of operation, hospital stay, and causes of burns were collected. All patients came from Fuyang city. Of the 12 patients, the average age was 2.17 years, with a range of 1-6. The boy-to-girl ratio was 2: 1. The mean total burn surface area (TBSA) was 5.83%, and 91.67% of the children sustained full-thickness burn. Hands were the most common parts of the body to be injured. Dry necrosis developed in 14 fingers of 3 patients. January 31, 2014, the first day of the Chinese New Year, was the time of highest incidence. Six patients (50%) required surgical intervention while the number of operations including escharectomy, excision, skin grafting, or amputation of necrotic fingers, per patient was 2. A total of 14 fingers were amputated of the necrotic parts. All children survived and mean length of hospital stay of the patients was 20 days. Hot incense ashes cause serious injuries to children in Fuyang city during the Spring Festival. Preventive programs should be directed towards high risk groups to reduce the incidence of this burn.

  5. An Outcomes Study on the Effects of the Singapore General Hospital Burns Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Weihao; Kok, Yee Onn; Tan, Bien Keem; Chong, Si Jack

    2018-01-01

    The Singapore General Hospital Burns Protocol was implemented in May 2014 to standardize treatment for all burns patients, incorporate new techniques and materials, and streamline the processes and workflow of burns management. This study aims to analyze the effects of the Burns Protocol 2 years after its implementation. Using a REDCap electronic database, all burns patients admitted from May 2013 to April 2016 were included in the study. The historical preimplementation control group composed of patients admitted from May 2013 to April 2014 (n = 96). The postimplementation prospective study cohort consisted of patients admitted from May 2014 to April 2016 (n = 243). Details of the patients collected included age, sex, comorbidities, total body surface area (TBSA) burns, time until surgery, number of surgeries, number of positive tissue and blood cultures, and length of hospital stay. There was no statistically significant difference in the demographics of both groups. The study group had a statistically significant shorter time to surgery compared with the control group (20.8 vs 38.1, P burns, was statistically significant (number of surgeries/TBSA, 0.324 vs 0.506; P = 0.0499). The study group also had significantly shorter length of stay (12.5 vs 16.8, P = 0.0273), a shorter length of stay/TBSA burns (0.874 vs 1.342, P = 0.0101), and fewer positive tissue cultures (0.6 vs 1.3, P = 0.0003). The study group also trended toward fewer positive blood culture results (0.09 vs 0.35, P = 0.0593), although the difference was just shy of statistical significance. The new Singapore General Hospital Burns Protocol had revolutionized Singapore burns care by introducing a streamlined, multidisciplinary burns management, resulting in improved patient outcomes, lowered health care costs, and improved system resource use.

  6. Sodium butyrate protects against severe burn-induced remote acute lung injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Liang

    Full Text Available High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1, a ubiquitous nuclear protein, drives proinflammatory responses when released extracellularly. It plays a key role as a distal mediator in the development of acute lung injury (ALI. Sodium butyrate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, has been demonstrated to inhibit HMGB1 expression. This study investigates the effect of sodium butyrate on burn-induced lung injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: 1 sham group, sham burn treatment; 2 burn group, third-degree burns over 30% total body surface area (TBSA with lactated Ringer's solution for resuscitation; 3 burn plus sodium butyrate group, third-degree burns over 30% TBSA with lactated Ringer's solution containing sodium butyrate for resuscitation. The burned animals were sacrificed at 12, 24, and 48 h after burn injury. Lung injury was assessed in terms of histologic changes and wet weight to dry weight (W/D ratio. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-8 protein concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and HMGB1 expression in the lung was determined by Western blot analysis. Pulmonary myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and malondialdehyde (MDA concentration were measured to reflect neutrophil infiltration and oxidative stress in the lung, respectively. As a result, sodium butyrate significantly inhibited the HMGB1 expressions in the lungs, reduced the lung W/D ratio, and improved the pulmonary histologic changes induced by burn trauma. Furthermore, sodium butyrate administration decreased the TNF-α and IL-8 concentrations in BALF and serum, suppressed MPO activity, and reduced the MDA content in the lungs after severe burn. These results suggest that sodium butyrate attenuates inflammatory responses, neutrophil infiltration, and oxidative stress in the lungs, and protects against remote ALI induced by severe burn, which is associated with inhibiting HMGB1

  7. Relationship among land surface temperature and LUCC, NDVI in typical karst area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanhong; Wang, Shijie; Bai, Xiaoyong; Tian, Yichao; Wu, Luhua; Xiao, Jianyong; Chen, Fei; Qian, Qinghuan

    2018-01-12

    Land surface temperature (LST) can reflect the land surface water-heat exchange process comprehensively, which is considerably significant to the study of environmental change. However, research about LST in karst mountain areas with complex topography is scarce. Therefore, we retrieved the LST in a karst mountain area from Landsat 8 data and explored its relationships with LUCC and NDVI. The results showed that LST of the study area was noticeably affected by altitude and underlying surface type. In summer, abnormal high-temperature zones were observed in the study area, perhaps due to karst rocky desertification. LSTs among different land use types significantly differed with the highest in construction land and the lowest in woodland. The spatial distributions of NDVI and LST exhibited opposite patterns. Under the spatial combination of different land use types, the LST-NDVI feature space showed an obtuse-angled triangle shape and showed a negative linear correlation after removing water body data. In summary, the LST can be retrieved well by the atmospheric correction model from Landsat 8 data. Moreover, the LST of the karst mountain area is controlled by altitude, underlying surface type and aspect. This study provides a reference for land use planning, ecological environment restoration in karst areas.

  8. Surface Area of Patellar Facets: Inferential Statistics in the Iraqi Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Imam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The patella is the largest sesamoid bone in the body; its three-dimensional complexity necessitates biomechanical perfection. Numerous pathologies occur at the patellofemoral unit which may end in degenerative changes. This study aims to test the presence of statistical correlation between the surface areas of patellar facets and other patellar morphometric parameters. Materials and Methods. Forty dry human patellae were studied. The morphometry of each patella was measured using a digital Vernier Caliper, electronic balance, and image analyses software known as ImageJ. The patellar facetal surface area was correlated with patellar weight, height, width, and thickness. Results. Inferential statistics proved the existence of linear correlation of total facetal surface area and patellar weight, height, width, and thickness. The correlation was strongest for surface area versus patellar weight. The lateral facetal area was found persistently larger than the medial facetal area, the p value was found to be <0.001 (one-tailed t-test for right patellae, and another significant p value of < 0.001 (one-tailed t-test was found for left patellae. Conclusion. These data are vital for the restoration of the normal biomechanics of the patellofemoral unit; these are to be consulted during knee surgeries and implant designs and can be of an indispensable anthropometric, interethnic, and biometric value.

  9. Burning issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashmore, C.

    1998-10-01

    Coal is world`s most abundant source of energy. Turning this potential pollutant into a clean, cost-effective fuel for power production has become a matter for global concern. Some problems and their solutions are highlighted in this article. Environmental problems caused by the giant Mae Moh plant in Thailand were overcome with an extensive retrofit programme that included flue gas desulfurisation systems. For new and smaller coal-fuelled plant, boilers using circulating fluidised bed (CFB) technology provide a cost effective and efficient system which meets environmental standards. A large independent power plant at Colver, Pennsylvania, USA uses CFB technology to burn bituminous gob. AMM and Alstom can provide turnkey packages for coal-fired power plant using a modular concept based on CFB technology. 2 photos.

  10. Evaluation of vinasse/aqua ammonia mixture applied to soil fertilization in sugar cane areas harvested lacking sugar cane trash without prior burning: losses of NH3 by volatilization and 15 N recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.W.; Trivelin, P.C.O.; Bendassolli, J.A.; Muraoka, T.

    1997-01-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate the losses of NH 3 by volatization, from the vinasse/aqua ammonia mixture and urea solution applied to the soil. The N dose applied for both sources was 80 Kg ha -1 , with the volume of vinasse and urea solution applied to the surface being 200 and 100 m 3 , respectively. The nitrogen sources were applied to soil covered or not by sugarcane trash. A semi-opened static collector device was used to evaluate the ammonia volatization. The isotopic technique with 15 N was used to quantify the N recovered in the soil from the nitrogen sources applied in microplots. These microplots consisted of 96 mm-diameter PVC cylinders which were buried in the soil at 200 mm. The results show that the volatization of ammonia from the vinasse/aqua ammonia mixture, applied to the soil covered or not by sugarcane trash, ranged from 5 to 7% of the N applied. These results were similar to those observed in the treatment where urea solution was applied to the soil lacking sugarcane trash, but lower when compared to the urea applied to the soil covered with trash confirmed the volatization results, with the least 15 N recovery (57%) being obtained in this treatment. In the other treatments, i.e. urea applied to soil lacking sugarcane trash; aqua annonia/vinasse mixture applied to soil covered or not with sugarcane trash, the mean recovery of 15 N were 60.2; 70.6 and 74.2 % respectively. These results support the recommendation of the use of a fluid mixture for nitrogen fertilization in ratoon cane areas after the mechanized sugarcane harvest without prior burning. (author). 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Digital photography and transparency-based methods for measuring wound surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhedi, Amul; Saxena, Atul K; Gadani, Ravi; Patel, Ritesh

    2013-04-01

    To compare and determine a credible method of measurement of wound surface area by linear, transparency, and photographic methods for monitoring progress of wound healing accurately and ascertaining whether these methods are significantly different. From April 2005 to December 2006, 40 patients (30 men, 5 women, 5 children) admitted to the surgical ward of Shree Sayaji General Hospital, Baroda, had clean as well as infected wound following trauma, debridement, pressure sore, venous ulcer, and incision and drainage. Wound surface areas were measured by these three methods (linear, transparency, and photographic methods) simultaneously on alternate days. The linear method is statistically and significantly different from transparency and photographic methods (P value transparency and photographic methods (P value >0.05). Photographic and transparency methods provided measurements of wound surface area with equivalent result and there was no statistically significant difference between these two methods.

  12. Nanoporous Ni with High Surface Area for Potential Hydrogen Storage Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaocao; Zhao, Haibo; Fu, Zhibing; Qu, Jing; Zhong, Minglong; Yang, Xi; Yi, Yong; Wang, Chaoyang

    2018-06-01

    Nanoporous metals with considerable specific surface areas and hierarchical pore structures exhibit promising applications in the field of hydrogen storage, electrocatalysis, and fuel cells. In this manuscript, a facile method is demonstrated for fabricating nanoporous Ni with a high surface area by using SiO₂ aerogel as a template, i.e., electroless plating of Ni into an SiO₂ aerogel template followed by removal of the template at moderate conditions. The effects of the prepared conditions, including the electroless plating time, temperature of the structure, and the magnetism of nanoporous Ni are investigated in detail. The resultant optimum nanoporous Ni with a special 3D flower-like structure exhibited a high specific surface area of about 120.5 m²/g. The special nanoporous Ni exhibited a promising prospect in the field of hydrogen storage, with a hydrogen capacity of 0.45 wt % on 4.5 MPa at room temperature.

  13. Modeled effects on permittivity measurements of water content in high surface area porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.B.; Or, Dani

    2003-01-01

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) has become an important measurement technique for determination of porous media water content and electrical conductivity due to its accuracy, fast response and automation capability. Water content is inferred from the measured bulk dielectric constant based on travel time analysis along simple transmission lines. TDR measurements in low surface area porous media accurately describe water content using an empirical relationship. Measurement discrepancies arise from dominating influences such as bound water due to high surface area, extreme aspect ratio particles or atypical water phase configuration. Our objectives were to highlight primary factors affecting dielectric permittivity measurements for water content determination in porous mixtures, and demonstrate the influence of these factors on mixture permittivity as predicted by a three-phase dielectric mixture model. Modeled results considering water binding, higher porosity, constituent geometry or phase configuration suggest any of these effects individually are capable of causing permittivity reduction, though all likely contribute in high surface area porous media

  14. Development of a certified reference material for specific surface area of quartz sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egor P Sobina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of conducting research on the development of a certified reference material (CRM for specific surface area of quartz sand, which is practically non-porous and therefore has low specific surface area value ~ 0.8 m2/g. The standard uncertainty due to RM inhomogeneity, the standard uncertainty due to RM instability, as well as the standard uncertainty due to characterization were estimated using the State Primary Standard GET 210‑2014 for Units of Specific Absorption of Gases, Specific Surface Area, Specific Volume, and Pore Size of Solid Substances and Materials. The metrological characteristics of the CRM were determined using a low-temperature gas adsorption method. Krypton was used as an adsorbate to increase measurement accuracy.

  15. High surface area V-Mo-N materials synthesized from amine intercalated foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawiec, Piotr; Narayan Panda, Rabi; Kockrick, Emanuel; Geiger, Dorin; Kaskel, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Nanocrystalline ternary V-Mo nitrides were prepared via nitridation of amine intercalated oxide foams or bulk ternary oxides. Specific surface areas were in the range between 40 and 198 m 2 g -1 and strongly depended on the preparation method (foam or bulk oxide). Foamed precursors were favorable for vanadium rich materials, while for molybdenum rich samples bulk ternary oxides resulted in higher specific surface areas. The materials were characterized via nitrogen physisorption at 77 K, X-ray diffraction patterns, electron microscopy, and elemental analysis. - Graphical abstract: Nanocrystalline ternary V-Mo nitrides were prepared via nitridation of amine intercalated oxide foams or bulk ternary oxides. Foamed precursors were favorable for vanadium rich materials, while for molybdenum rich samples bulk ternary oxides resulted in higher specific surface areas

  16. Contribution to the study of techniques of measurement of interface surface area in bubble flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veteau, Jean-Michel

    1981-01-01

    This research thesis addresses problems raised by the measurement of the interface area per volume unit in duct bubble flows. The author first reports a literature survey of existing methods (photographic, chemical and optical methods) which give access to the value of the parameter which is commonly named 'specific surface area'. He analyses under which conditions these methods lead to a rigorous determination of the SVIM (mean integral volume surface). The author highlights the theoretical contributions of models related to each of these methods which are indeed global methods as they allow the interface surface area to be directly obtained in a given volume of a two-phase mixture. Then, the author reports the development of an original technique based on the use of phase detecting local probes. In the next part, the author compares photographic and optical methods, on the one hand, and optical and local methods, on the other hand. Recommendations are made for the development of local methods [fr

  17. Predicting gully rejuvenation after wildfire using remotely sensed burn severity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Kevin; Woods, Scott W.; Donahue, Jack

    2007-05-01

    The loss of surface vegetation and reduced infiltration caused by wildfires can trigger gully rejuvenation, resulting in damage to downstream aquatic resources and risk to human life and property. We developed a spatially explicit metric of burn severity — the Burn Severity Distribution Index (BSDI) — and tested its ability to predict post-fire gully rejuvenation in 1st and 2nd order basins burned in the 2000 Valley Complex fires in the Sapphire Mountains of western Montana. The BSDI was derived from burn severity data interpreted from Landsat 7 satellite imagery using the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) method, and ranged from 0.0 for completely unburned basins to 4.0 for basins burned entirely at high severity. In July 2001 rainstorms with peak 30-minute intensities of up to 17 mm h - 1 triggered gully rejuvenation in 66 of the 171 basins examined. The frequency of gully rejuvenation was higher in basins with higher BSDI values, increasing from zero for basins with a BSDI less than 1.3 to 67% for basins with a BSDI greater than 3.0. Binary logistic regression indicated that BSDI was a more significant predictor of gully rejuvenation than basin morphometric variables. The absence of gully rejuvenation in several basins with a high BSDI was attributed to low gradient, dense riparian vegetation, or concentration of high burn severity at lower elevations in the basin. The presence of gully rejuvenation in several basins with a low BSDI was associated with false negative NBR classification errors in northwest aspects, and concentration of severe burn impacts in the drainage headslopes. BSDI is a useful metric for predicting gully rejuvenation after wildfire. The use of the BSDI in Burned Area Emergency Response team assessments could improve the planning, implementation, and monitoring of burned area recovery treatments.

  18. Infinitesimal-area 2D radiative analysis using parametric surface representation, through NURBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daun, K J; Hollands, K G.T.

    1999-07-01

    The use of form factors in the treatment of radiant enclosures requires that the radiosity and surface properties be treated as uniform over finite areas. This restriction can be relaxed by applying an infinitesimal-area analysis, where the radiant exchange is taken to be between infinitesimal areas, rather than finite areas. This paper presents a generic infinitesimal-area formulation that can be applied to two-dimensional enclosure problems. (Previous infinitesimal-area analyses have largely been restricted to specific, one-dimensional problems.) Specifically, the paper shows how the analytical expression for the kernel of the integral equation can be obtained without human intervention, once the enclosure surface has been defined parametrically. This can be accomplished by using a computer algebra package or by using NURBS algorithms, which are the industry standard for the geometrical representations used in CAD-CAM codes. Once the kernel has been obtained by this formalism, the 2D integral equation can be set up and solved numerically. The result is a single general-purpose infinitesimal-area analysis code that can proceed from surface specification to solution. The authors have implemented this 2D code and tested it on 1D problems, whose solutions have been given in the literature, obtaining agreement commensurate with the accuracy of the published solutions.

  19. Microbiology of the surface water samples in the high background radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motamedifar, Mohammad; Zamani, Khosrow; Sedigh, Hadi; Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Taeb, Shahram; Haghani, M.; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Soofi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Residents of high background radiation areas of Ramsar have lived in these areas for many generations and received radiation doses much higher than the dose limit recommended by ICRP for radiation workers. The radioactivity of the high background radiation areas of Ramsar is reported to be due to 226 Ra and its decay products, which have been brought to the surface by the waters of hot springs. Over the past years the department has focused on different aspects of the health effects of the elevated levels of natural radiation in Ramsar. This study was aimed to perform a preliminary investigation on the bioeffects of exposure to elevated levels of natural radiation on the microbiology of surface water samples. Water samples were collected from surface water streams in Talesh Mahalleh district, Ramsar as well as a nearby area with normal levels of background radiation. Only two strains of bacteria, that is, Providencia stuartii and Shimwellia blattae, could be isolated from the water samples collected from high background radiation areas, while seven strains (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter asburiae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae, Buttiauxella agerstis, Tatumella punctuata and Raoultella ornithinolytica) were isolated from the water samples collected from normal background radiation areas. All the bacteria isolated from water samples of high and normal background radiation areas were sensitive to ultraviolet radiation, heat, betadine, alcohol, and deconex. Although other investigators have reported that bacteria isolated from hot springs show radioresistance, the results reported here do not reveal any adaptive response. (author)

  20. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome.

  1. A Three-Dimensional Enormous Surface Area Aluminum Microneedle Array with Nanoporous Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Po Chun; Hsieh, Sheng Jen; Chen, Chien Chon; Zou, Jun

    2013-01-01

    We proposed fabricating an aluminum microneedle array with a nanochannel structure on the surface by combining micromachining, electrolyte polishing, and anodization methods. The microneedle array provides a three-dimensional (3D) structure that possesses several hundred times more surface area than a traditional nanochannel template. Therefore, the microneedle array can potentially be used in many technology applications. This 3D microneedle array device can not only be used for painless inj...

  2. Surface and airborne measurements of organosulfur and methanesulfonate over the western United States and coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorooshian, Armin; Crosbie, Ewan; Maudlin, Lindsay C.; Youn, Jong-Sang; Wang, Zhen; Shingler, Taylor; Ortega, Amber M.; Hersey, Scott; Woods, Roy K.

    2015-08-01

    This study reports on