WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface area analysis

  1. Thermal Desorption Analysis of Effective Specific Soil Surface Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagin, A. V.; Bashina, A. S.; Klyueva, V. V.; Kubareva, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    A new method of assessing the effective specific surface area based on the successive thermal desorption of water vapor at different temperature stages of sample drying is analyzed in comparison with the conventional static adsorption method using a representative set of soil samples of different genesis and degree of dispersion. The theory of the method uses the fundamental relationship between the thermodynamic water potential (Ψ) and the absolute temperature of drying ( T): Ψ = Q - aT, where Q is the specific heat of vaporization, and a is the physically based parameter related to the initial temperature and relative humidity of the air in the external thermodynamic reservoir (laboratory). From gravimetric data on the mass fraction of water ( W) and the Ψ value, Polyanyi potential curves ( W(Ψ)) for the studied samples are plotted. Water sorption isotherms are then calculated, from which the capacity of monolayer and the target effective specific surface area are determined using the BET theory. Comparative analysis shows that the new method well agrees with the conventional estimation of the degree of dispersion by the BET and Kutilek methods in a wide range of specific surface area values between 10 and 250 m2/g.

  2. Size and surface AREA analysis of some metallic and intermetallic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmasry, M.A.A.; Elsayed, A.A.; Abadir, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    The powder characterization of three intermetallic compounds ( Cr B, B 4 c and S ib 4 ) and three metallic powders (Fe, Co, and Ni) has been performed. This included the determination of powder density, chemical analysis, impurity analysis, shape factor, particle size analysis and specific surface area. The particle size analysis for the six powders was carried out using three techniques, namely; the 0-23, the microtrac and the fisher sub sieve and size. It was found that the analysis of the two powders and deviates from the log-normal probability distribution and the deviation was corrected. The specific surface area of the powders was measured using the high speed surface area analysis (BET method), and it was also calculated from surface area analysis findings, the BET technique was found to give the highest specific surface area values, and was attributed to the inclusion of internal porosity in the measurement. 8 fig., 10 tab

  3. Root surface area measurement of permanent dentition in Indian population – CBCT analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Lakhani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The area of the root surface of human teeth has been investigated extensively in the dental literature. All previous attempts mainly rely on the use of physical methods to calculate surface area on extracted teeth or use virtual 3D Models for the same. The aim is to develop an algorithm using MATLAB software that estimates the dimensions of 3-D image produced with the help of CBCT so that the same can be utilized to calculate the root surface area of teeth among Indian population. Present research utilizes CBCT images of samples of extracted teeth mounted on a customized jpg. A descriptive chart for statistical analysis has been prepared to obtain average root surface area of each tooth type. The currently developed algorithm has been successfully applied to the CBCT images of complete sample of teeth to obtain their root surface area. The algorithm developed to calculate root surface area of the teeth holds wide spread application in the field of dentistry pursuing its high expediency in even various specializations of dentistry including orthodontics, prosthodontics, periodontology and implantalogy. It is concluded that it has now become a reality to accurately determine the surface area of the root of human teeth without extracting them using the CBCT radiographs of the patients.

  4. Sensitivity analysis of the surface water- groundwater interaction for the sandy area of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez del Campo, E.; Jousma, G.; Massop, H.T.L.

    1993-01-01

    The "Sensitivity Analysis of the Surface Water- Groundwater Interaction for the Sandy Area of the Netherlands" was carried out in the framework of a bilateral research project in support of the implementation of a nationwide geohydrological information system (REGIS) in the Netherlands. This

  5. Infinitesimal-area 2D radiative analysis using parametric surface representation, through NURBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daun, K J; Hollands, K G.T.

    1999-07-01

    The use of form factors in the treatment of radiant enclosures requires that the radiosity and surface properties be treated as uniform over finite areas. This restriction can be relaxed by applying an infinitesimal-area analysis, where the radiant exchange is taken to be between infinitesimal areas, rather than finite areas. This paper presents a generic infinitesimal-area formulation that can be applied to two-dimensional enclosure problems. (Previous infinitesimal-area analyses have largely been restricted to specific, one-dimensional problems.) Specifically, the paper shows how the analytical expression for the kernel of the integral equation can be obtained without human intervention, once the enclosure surface has been defined parametrically. This can be accomplished by using a computer algebra package or by using NURBS algorithms, which are the industry standard for the geometrical representations used in CAD-CAM codes. Once the kernel has been obtained by this formalism, the 2D integral equation can be set up and solved numerically. The result is a single general-purpose infinitesimal-area analysis code that can proceed from surface specification to solution. The authors have implemented this 2D code and tested it on 1D problems, whose solutions have been given in the literature, obtaining agreement commensurate with the accuracy of the published solutions.

  6. Sensitivity analysis of the surface water- groundwater interaction for the sandy area of the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez del Campo, E.; Jousma, G.; Massop, H.T.L.

    1993-01-01

    The "Sensitivity Analysis of the Surface Water- Groundwater Interaction for the Sandy Area of the Netherlands" was carried out in the framework of a bilateral research project in support of the implementation of a nationwide geohydrological information system (REGIS) in the Netherlands. This project, conducted in cooperation between the TNO Institute for Applied Scientific Research (IGG-TNO) and !he Winand Staring Centre for Integrated Land, Soil and Water Research (SC-DLO), is aimed at defin...

  7. GC/MS analysis of pesticides in the Ferrara area (Italy) surface water: a chemometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasti, Luisa; Nava, Elisabetta; Morelli, Marco; Bignami, Silvia; Dondi, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    The development of a network to monitor surface waters is a critical element in the assessment, restoration and protection of water quality. In this study, concentrations of 42 pesticides--determined by GC-MS on samples from 11 points along the Ferrara area rivers--have been analyzed by chemometric tools. The data were collected over a three-year period (2002-2004). Principal component analysis of the detected pesticides was carried out in order to define the best spatial locations for the sampling points. The results obtained have been interpreted in view of agricultural land use. Time series data regarding pesticide contents in surface waters has been analyzed using the Autocorrelation function. This chemometric tool allows for seasonal trends and makes it possible to optimize sampling frequency in order to detect the effective maximum pesticide content.

  8. GC/MS Analysis of Pesticides in the Ferrara Area (Italy) Surface Water: A Chemometric Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasti, L.; Dondi, F.; Nava, E.; Morelli, M.; Bignami, S.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a network to monitor surface waters is a critical element in the assessment, restoration and protection of water quality. In this study, concentrations of 42 pesticides - determined by GC-MS on samples from 11 points along the Ferrara area rivers - have been analyzed by chemometric tools. The data were collected over a three-year period (2002-2004). Principal component analysis of the detected pesticides was carried out in order to define the best spatial locations for the sampling points. The results obtained have been interpreted in view of agricultural land use. Time series data regarding pesticide contents in surface waters has been analyzed using the Autocorrelation function. This chemometric tool allows for seasonal trends and makes it possible to optimize sampling frequency in order to detect the effective maximum pesticide content

  9. Surface deformation analysis over Vrancea seismogenic area through radar and GPS geospatial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Savastru, Roxana S.; Savastru, Dan M.; Serban, Florin S.; Teleaga, Delia M.; Mateciuc, Doru N.

    2017-10-01

    Time series analysis of GPS (Global Positioning Systems) and InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) data are important tools for Earth's surface deformation assessment, which can result from a wide range of geological phenomena like as earthquakes, landslides or ground water level changes. The aim of this paper was to identify several types of earthquake precursors that might be observed from geospatial data in Vrancea seismogenic region in Romania. Continuous GPS Romanian network stations and few field campaigns data recorded between 2005-2012 years revealed a displacement of about 5 or 6 millimeters per year in horizontal direction relative motion, and a few millimeters per year in vertical direction. In order to assess possible deformations due to earthquakes and respectively for possible slow deformations, have been used also time series Sentinel 1 satellite data available for Vrancea zone during October 2014 till October 2016 to generate two types of interferograms (short-term and medium- term). During investigated period were not recorded medium or strong earthquakes, so interferograms over test area revealed small displacements on vertical direction (subsidence or uplifts) of 5-10 millimeters per year. Based on GPS continuous network data and satellite Sentinel 1 results, different possible tectonic scenarios were developed. The localization of horizontal and vertical motions, fault slip, and surface deformation of the continental blocks provides new information, in support of different geodynamic models for Vrancea tectonic active region in Romania and Europe.

  10. High-resolution surface analysis for extended-range downscaling with limited-area atmospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Separovic, Leo; Husain, Syed Zahid; Yu, Wei; Fernig, David

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution limited-area model (LAM) simulations are frequently employed to downscale coarse-resolution objective analyses over a specified area of the globe using high-resolution computational grids. When LAMs are integrated over extended time frames, from months to years, they are prone to deviations in land surface variables that can be harmful to the quality of the simulated near-surface fields. Nudging of the prognostic surface fields toward a reference-gridded data set is therefore devised in order to prevent the atmospheric model from diverging from the expected values. This paper presents a method to generate high-resolution analyses of land-surface variables, such as surface canopy temperature, soil moisture, and snow conditions, to be used for the relaxation of lower boundary conditions in extended-range LAM simulations. The proposed method is based on performing offline simulations with an external surface model, forced with the near-surface meteorological fields derived from short-range forecast, operational analyses, and observed temperatures and humidity. Results show that the outputs of the surface model obtained in the present study have potential to improve the near-surface atmospheric fields in extended-range LAM integrations.

  11. Flow analysis of water-powder mixtures: Application to specific surface area and shape factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunger, M.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the characterization of powder materials with respect to their application in concrete. Given that powders provide by far highest percentage of specific surface area in a concrete mix, their packing behavior and water demand is of vital interest for the design of concrete. They

  12. Flow analysis of water-powder mixtures : Application to specific surface area and shape factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunger, M.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the characterization of powder materials with respect to their application in concrete. Given that powders provide by far highest percentage of specific surface area in a concrete mix, their packing behavior and water demand is of vital interest for the design of concrete. They

  13. Site characterization at Groningen gas field area through joint surface-borehole H/V analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spica, Zack J.; Perton, Mathieu; Nakata, Nori; Liu, Xin; Beroza, Gregory C.

    2018-01-01

    A new interpretation of the horizontal to vertical (H/V) spectral ratio in terms of the Diffuse Field Assumption (DFA) has fuelled a resurgence of interest in that approach. The DFA links H/V measurements to Green's function retrieval through autocorrelation of the ambient seismic field. This naturally allows for estimation of layered velocity structure. In this contribution, we further explore the potential of H/V analysis. Our study is facilitated by a distributed array of surface and co-located borehole stations deployed at multiple depths, and by detailed prior information on velocity structure that is available due to development of the Groningen gas field. We use the vertical distribution of H/V spectra recorded at discrete depths inside boreholes to obtain shear wave velocity models of the shallow subsurface. We combine both joint H/V inversion and borehole interferometry to reduce the non-uniqueness of the problem and to allow faster convergence towards a reliable velocity model. The good agreement between our results and velocity models from an independent study validates the methodology, demonstrates the power of the method, but more importantly provides further constraints on the shallow velocity structure, which is an essential component of integrated hazard assessment in the area.

  14. Surface Sediment Analysis on Petroleum Hydrocarbon and Total Organic Carbon from Coastal Area of Papar to Tuaran, Sabah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Aishah Mohd Ali; Payus, C.; Masni Mohd Ali

    2015-01-01

    Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and total organic carbon (TOC) were investigated in surface sediments along coastal area of Papar to Tuaran, Sabah. Surface sediment samples were collected in 24 different stations in each area by using Ponar grab sampler. Samples were extracted for TPH using standard method sediment/ sludge APHA 5520E and analyzed using UV/VIS spectrophotometer while for TOC method analysis using United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/ MAP Athens (2006). The range of TPH concentrations in surface sediments were recorded at 0.24 - 20.65 mg/ kg dw Miri crude oil equivalents, meanwhile the TOC percentage ranged from 0.03 - 4.02 %. In the mean time, the statistical analysis by Pearson correlation showed a positive correlation with coefficient, r = 0.790 which showing the TPH concentrations significantly have influence on the TOC accumulations in the surface sediment. (author)

  15. Dual Orlicz geominimal surface area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongyi Ma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The L p $L_{p}$ -geominimal surface area was introduced by Lutwak in 1996, which extended the important concept of the geominimal surface area. Recently, Wang and Qi defined the p-dual geominimal surface area, which belongs to the dual Brunn-Minkowski theory. In this paper, based on the concept of the dual Orlicz mixed volume, we extend the dual geominimal surface area to the Orlicz version and give its properties. In addition, the isoperimetric inequality, a Blaschke-Santaló type inequality, and the monotonicity inequality for the dual Orlicz geominimal surface areas are established.

  16. Surface Area Analysis Using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) Method: Standard Operating Procedure Series: SOP-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    provide a foundational understanding of the steps involved, how to per- form them in a repeatable and reliable manner , and to provide the theory behind...how to perform them in a repeatable and reliable manner , and to provide the theory behind the analysis. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Surface area, BET

  17. Analysis and Application of River Surface Line in Hilly Area based on Hec-ras Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Congshan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For example—Cixian Fuyang River Regulation Project. Due to the character that Fuyang River is located in hilly areas of Cixian, we use the Hex-ras software to calculate the status of the river water surface line for the goal of determining the final treatment plan. We maintain the present situation of the river channel design as principle, select the most appropriate pushed water level and roughnessas the basic, and we combine the classification calculation of crossing structures of backwater and the encryption calculation section to get the more accurate result. We compare the water level elevation and the calculation of cross strait, analyze the design parameters, calculate repeated the water line section, analyze the rationality of the design plan, and then finally determine the applicability of Hex-rac software in the large continuous variation of cross section of embankment of river river surface line.

  18. Study of the mobility, surface area, and sintering behavior of agglomerates in the transition regime by tandem differential mobility analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kuk; Hogan, Christopher J.; Biswas, Pratim

    2007-01-01

    The surface area of nanosized agglomerates is of great importance as the reactivity and health effects of such particles are highly dependent on surface area. Changes in surface area through sintering during nanoparticle synthesis processes are also of interest for precision control of synthesised particles. Unfortunately, information on particle surface area and surface area dynamics is not readily obtainable through traditional particle mobility sizing techniques. In this study, we have experimentally determined the mobility diameter of transition regime agglomerates with 3, 4, and 5 primary particles. Agglomerates were produced by spray drying well-characterised polystyrene latex particles with diameters of 55, 67, 76, and 99 nm. Tandem differential mobility analysis was used to determine agglomerate mobility diameter by selecting monodisperse agglomerates with the same number of primary particles in the first DMA, and subsequently completely sintering the agglomerates in a furnace aerosol reactor. The size distribution of the completely sintered particles was measured by an SMPS system, which allowed for the determination of the number of primary particles in the agglomerates. A simple power law regression was used to express mobility diameter as a function of primary particle size and the number of primary particles, and had an excellent correlation (R 2 = 0.9971) with the experimental data. A scaling exponent was determined from the experimental data to relate measured mobility diameter to surface area for agglomerates. Using this relationship, the sintering characteristics of agglomerates were also examined for varying furnace temperatures and residence times. The sintering data agreed well with the geometric sintering model (GSM) model proposed by Cho and Biswas (2006a) as well as with the model proposed Koch and Friedlander (1990) for sintering by viscous flow

  19. FIBRIN-TYPE FIBRINOID IN HUMAN PLACENTA: A STEREOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF ITS ASSOCIATION WITH INTERVILLOUS VOLUME AND VILLOUS SURFACE AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry M Mayhew

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Stereological methods were used to examine fibrin-type fibrinoid deposition in the intervillous spaces of human placentas collected during gestation (12-41 weeks and from term pregnancies at low (400 m and high (3.6 km altitude. The main aim was to test predictions about the relationships between fibrinoid deposits and either the volume of intervillous space or the surface area of (intermediate + terminal villi. Fields of view on Masson trichrome-stained paraffin sections were selected as part of a systematic sampling design which randomised section location and orientation. Relative and absolute volumes were estimated by test point counting and surfaces by intersection counting. Apparent differences were tested by analyses of variance and relationships by correlation and regression analysis. Fibrinoid volume increased during gestation and correlated positively with intervillous volume and villous surface area. However, relative to intervillous volume, the main increase in fibrinoid occurred towards term (36-41 weeks. At high altitude, placentas contained more intervillous space but less fibrinoid. At both altitudes, there were significant correlations between fibrinoid volume and villous surface area. In all cases, changes in fibrinoid volume were commensurate with changes in villous surface area. Whilst findings lend support to the notion that fibrinoid deposition during normal gestation is influenced by the quality of vascular perfusion, they also emphasise that the extent of the villous surface is a more generally important factor. The villous surface may influence the steady state between coagulation and fibrinolysis since some pro-coagulatory events operate at the trophoblastic epithelium. They occur notably at sites of trophoblast de-epithelialisation and these arise following trauma or during the extrusion phase of normal epithelial turnover.

  20. Discrimination of surface wear on obsidian tools using LSCM and RelA: pilot study results (area-scale analysis of obsidian tool surfaces).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemp, W James; Chung, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study tests the reliability of laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) to quantitatively measure wear on experimental obsidian tools. To our knowledge, this is the first use of confocal microscopy to study wear on stone flakes made from an amorphous silicate like obsidian. Three-dimensional surface roughness or texture area scans on three obsidian flakes used on different contact materials (hide, shell, wood) were documented using the LSCM to determine whether the worn surfaces could be discriminated using area-scale analysis, specifically relative area (RelA). When coupled with the F-test, this scale-sensitive fractal analysis could not only discriminate the used from unused surfaces on individual tools, but was also capable of discriminating the wear histories of tools used on different contact materials. Results indicate that such discriminations occur at different scales. Confidence levels for the discriminations at different scales were established using the F-test (mean square ratios or MSRs). In instances where discrimination of surface roughness or texture was not possible above the established confidence level based on MSRs, photomicrographs and RelA assisted in hypothesizing why this was so. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Simulation and Analysis of Topographic Effect on Land Surface Albedo over Mountainous Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, D.; Wen, J.; Xiao, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface albedo is one of the significant geophysical variables affecting the Earth's climate and controlling the surface radiation budget. Topography leads to the formation of shadows and the redistribution of incident radiation, which complicates the modeling and estimation of the land surface albedo. Some studies show that neglecting the topography effect may lead to significant bias in estimating the land surface albedo for the sloping terrain. However, for the composite sloping terrain, the topographic effects on the albedo remain unclear. Accurately estimating the sub-topographic effect on the land surface albedo over the composite sloping terrain presents a challenge for remote sensing modeling and applications. In our study, we focus on the development of a simplified estimation method for land surface albedo including black-sky albedo (BSA) and white-sky albedo (WSA) of the composite sloping terrain at a kilometer scale based on the fine scale DEM (30m) and quantitatively investigate and understand the topographic effects on the albedo. The albedo is affected by various factors such as solar zenith angle (SZA), solar azimuth angle (SAA), shadows, terrain occlusion, and slope and aspect distribution of the micro-slopes. When SZA is 30°, the absolute and relative deviations between the BSA of flat terrain and that of rugged terrain reaches 0.12 and 50%, respectively. When the mean slope of the terrain is 30.63° and SZA=30°, the absolute deviation of BSA caused by SAA can reach 0.04. The maximal relative and relative deviation between the WSA of flat terrain and that of rugged terrain reaches 0.08 and 50%. These results demonstrate that the topographic effect has to be taken into account in the albedo estimation.

  2. Surface deformation monitoring of Sinabung volcano using multi temporal InSAR method and GIS analysis for affected area assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditiya, A.; Aoki, Y.; Anugrah, R. D.

    2018-04-01

    Sinabung Volcano which located in northern part of Sumatera island is part of a hundred active volcano in Indonesia. Surface deformation is detected over Sinabung Volcano and surrounded area since the first eruption in 2010 after 400 years long rest. We present multi temporal Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) time-series method of ALOS-2 L-band SAR data acquired from December 2014 to July 2017 to reveal surface deformation with high spatial resolution. The method includes focusing the SAR data, generating interferogram and phase unwrapping using SNAPHU tools. The result reveal significant deformation over Sinabung Volcano areas at rates up to 10 cm during observation period and the highest deformation occurs in western part which is trajectory of lava. We concluded the observed deformation primarily caused by volcanic activity respectively after long period of rest. In addition, Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis produces disaster affected areas of Sinabung eruption. GIS is reliable technique to estimate the impact of the hazard scenario to the exposure data and develop scenarios of disaster impacts to inform their contingency and emergency plan. The GIS results include the estimated affected area divided into 3 zones based on pyroclastic lava flow and pyroclastic fall (incandescent rock and ash). The highest impact is occurred in zone II due to many settlements are scattered in this zone. This information will be support stakeholders to take emergency preparation for disaster reduction. The continuation of this high rate of decline tends to endanger the population in next periods.

  3. Assessment of the mechanical properties of area-elastic sport surfaces with video analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, J.J.; Nigg, B.M.; Gerritsen, K.G.M.

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical properties of a surface are assumed to he of importance with respect to injuries, comfort, and performance in sport. For a better understanding of the factors that do influence the etiology of injuries as well as comfort, a method was developed to compare mechanical characteristics of

  4. Combining Landform Thematic Layer and Object-Oriented Image Analysis to Map the Surface Features of Mountainous Flood Plain Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, H.-K.; Lin, M.-L.; Huang, W.-C.

    2012-04-01

    The Typhoon Morakot on August 2009 brought more than 2,000 mm of cumulative rainfall in southern Taiwan, the extreme rainfall event caused serious damage to the Kaoping River basin. The losses were mostly blamed on the landslides along sides of the river, and shifting of the watercourse even led to the failure of roads and bridges, as well as flooding and levees damage happened around the villages on flood bank and terraces. Alluvial fans resulted from debris flow of stream feeders blocked the main watercourse and debris dam was even formed and collapsed. These disasters have highlighted the importance of identification and map the watercourse alteration, surface features of flood plain area and artificial structures soon after the catastrophic typhoon event for natural hazard mitigation. Interpretation of remote sensing images is an efficient approach to acquire spatial information for vast areas, therefore making it suitable for the differentiation of terrain and objects near the vast flood plain areas in a short term. The object-oriented image analysis program (Definiens Developer 7.0) and multi-band high resolution satellite images (QuickBird, DigitalGlobe) was utilized to interpret the flood plain features from Liouguei to Baolai of the the Kaoping River basin after Typhoon Morakot. Object-oriented image interpretation is the process of using homogenized image blocks as elements instead of pixels for different shapes, textures and the mutual relationships of adjacent elements, as well as categorized conditions and rules for semi-artificial interpretation of surface features. Digital terrain models (DTM) are also employed along with the above process to produce layers with specific "landform thematic layers". These layers are especially helpful in differentiating some confusing categories in the spectrum analysis with improved accuracy, such as landslides and riverbeds, as well as terraces, riverbanks, which are of significant engineering importance in disaster

  5. AN EXAMPLE IN SURFACE AREA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Casper

    1969-01-01

    For length and area, a central fact is that the value of the length of a curve or the area of a surface, as given by the Lebesgue theory, is at least as great as that given by the classical formula, whenever the latter has meaning. This is now found not to be valid in higher dimensions. We give an example of a continuous mapping of the unit cube into itself for which the value given by the formula exceeds the three-dimensional Lebesgue area of the corresponding suface. PMID:16591750

  6. Determination of retinal surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Manbir; Gilmartin, Bernard; Thai, Ngoc Jade; Logan, Nicola S

    2017-09-01

    Previous attempts at determining retinal surface area and surface area of the whole eye have been based upon mathematical calculations derived from retinal photographs, schematic eyes and retinal biopsies of donor eyes. 3-dimensional (3-D) ocular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows a more direct measurement, it can be used to image the eye in vivo, and there is no risk of tissue shrinkage. The primary purpose of this study is to compare, using T2-weighted 3D MRI, retinal surface areas for superior-temporal (ST), inferior-temporal (IT), superior-nasal (SN) and inferior-nasal (IN) retinal quadrants. An ancillary aim is to examine whether inter-quadrant variations in area are concordant with reported inter-quadrant patterns of susceptibility to retinal breaks associated with posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). Seventy-three adult participants presenting without retinal pathology (mean age 26.25 ± 6.06 years) were scanned using a Siemens 3-Tesla MRI scanner to provide T2-weighted MR images that demarcate fluid-filled internal structures for the whole eye and provide high-contrast delineation of the vitreous-retina interface. Integrated MRI software generated total internal ocular surface area (TSA). The second nodal point was used to demarcate the origin of the peripheral retina in order to calculate total retinal surface area (RSA) and quadrant retinal surface areas (QRSA) for ST, IT, SN, and IN quadrants. Mean spherical error (MSE) was -2.50 ± 4.03D and mean axial length (AL) 24.51 ± 1.57 mm. Mean TSA and RSA for the RE were 2058 ± 189 and 1363 ± 160 mm 2 , respectively. Repeated measures anova for QRSA data indicated a significant difference within-quadrants (P area/mm increase in AL. Although the differences between QRSAs are relatively small, there was evidence of concordance with reported inter-quadrant patterns of susceptibility to retinal breaks associated with PVD. The data allow AL to be converted to QRSAs, which will assist further

  7. Rietveld quantitative phase analysis of high surface area commercial alumina doped with niobia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, L.B.; Pereira, A.S.; Pokorny, A.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of crystalline phases present in a given material can provide important information about the phenomena related to the diffusion of new elements in a ceramic matrix, as well as the formation and precipitation of minority phases and their microstructural evaluation. In this work, a high content of niobia (16 and 32 %w.t)was added to a high specific surface commercial alumina powder. The specimens were uniaxially pressed (200 MPa) and sintered in two stages: a first step at 1100°C for 3, 6 or 9 hours followed by a second step at 1350°C for 3 hours. The crystalline phases were analyzed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and quantified by the Rietveld method. The morphology of the samples was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). From the results obtained, some aluminum niobates phases expected for the Al_2O_3-Nb_2O_5 system could be identified as an intergranular phase and their relative fraction was quantified. (author)

  8. ST-T isointegral analysis of exercise stress body surface mapping for identifying ischemic areas in patients with angina pectoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, T.; Kawakubo, K.; Toda, I.; Mashima, S.; Ohtake, T.; Iio, M.; Sugimoto, T.

    1988-01-01

    ST-T isointegral analysis of body surface mapping was used in an attempt to localize ischemic areas on exercise tests. In 28 patients with angina pectoris and 10 healthy subjects, body surface potential was recorded with 87 leads, and ST isopotential and ST-T isointegral maps were constructed. In all 10 healthy subjects, the basic pattern of the ST-T isointegral map showed no significant change after exercise. In 23 of 28 patients with angina pectoris (82%), alterations in the ST-T isointegral map after exercise were observed. They were divided into four types (anterior, inferoposterior, lateral, and global) according to the distribution of negative values, which were well correlated with the extent of ischemic area determined by thallium myocardial scintigraphy and coronary angiography. The postexercise ST-T isointegral map was normalized after administration of nitroglycerin in four of five patients. In five patients (18%) who did not show abnormalities on the postexercise ST-T isointegral map, the magnitude of maximal ST depression was significantly smaller than that observed in the other 23 patients with angina pectoris (0.14 vs 0.23 mV on the average, p less than 0.05). It was concluded that the exercise test with ST-T isointegral mapping is a new method for noninvasive detection of location and severity of ischemic regions

  9. Partial Sequence Analysis of Merozoite Surface Proteine-3α Gene in Plasmodium vivax Isolates from Malarious Areas of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mirhendi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 85-90% of malaria infections in Iran are attributed to Plasmodium vivax, while little is known about the genetic of the parasite and its strain types in this region. This study was designed and performed for describing genetic characteristics of Plasmodium vivax population of Iran based on the merozoite surface protein-3α gene sequence. Methods: Through a descriptive study we analyzed partial P. vivax merozoite surface protein-3α gene sequences from 17 clinical P. vivax isolates collected from malarious areas of Iran. Genomic DNA was extracted by Q1Aamp® DNA blood mini kit, amplified through nested PCR for a partial nucleotide sequence of PvMSP-3 gene in P. vivax. PCR-amplified products were sequenced with an ABI Prism Perkin-Elmer 310 sequencer machine and the data were analyzed with clustal W software. Results: Analysis of PvMSP-3 gene sequences demonstrated extensive polymorphisms, but the sequence identity between isolates of same types was relatively high. We identified specific insertions and deletions for the types A, B and C variants of P. vivax in our isolates. In phylogenetic comparison of geographically separated isolates, there was not a significant geo­graphical branching of the parasite populations. Conclusion: The highly polymorphic nature of isolates suggests that more investigations of the PvMSP-3 gene are needed to explore its vaccine potential.

  10. Lp-dual affine surface area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wang; Binwu, He

    2008-12-01

    According to the notion of Lp-affine surface area by Lutwak, in this paper, we introduce the concept of Lp-dual affine surface area. Further, we establish the affine isoperimetric inequality and the Blaschke-Santaló inequality for Lp-dual affine surface area. Besides, the dual Brunn-Minkowski inequality for Lp-dual affine surface area is presented.

  11. Surface moisture estimation in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yitong

    Surface moisture is an important parameter because it modifies urban microclimate and surface layer meteorology. The primary objectives of this paper are: 1) to analyze the impact of surface roughness from buildings on surface moisture in urban areas; and 2) to quantify the impact of surface roughness resulting from urban trees on surface moisture. To achieve the objectives, two hypotheses were tested: 1) the distribution of surface moisture is associated with the structural complexity of buildings in urban areas; and 2) The distribution and change of surface moisture is associated with the distribution and vigor of urban trees. The study area is Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. In the part of the morphology of urban trees, Warren Township was selected due to the limitation of tree inventory data. To test the hypotheses, the research design was made to extract the aerodynamic parameters, such as frontal areas, roughness length and displacement height of buildings and trees from Terrestrial and Airborne LiDAR data, then to input the aerodynamic parameters into the urban surface energy balance model. The methodology was developed for comparing the impact of aerodynamic parameters from LiDAR data with the parameters that were derived empirically from land use and land cover data. The analytical procedures are discussed below: 1) to capture the spatial and temporal variation of surface moisture, daily and hourly Land Surface Temperature (LST) were downscaled from 4 km to 1 km, and 960 m to 30 m, respectively, by regression between LST and various components that impact LST; 2) to estimate surface moisture, namely soil moisture and evapotranspiration (ET), land surfaces were classified into soil, vegetation, and impervious surfaces, using Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA); 3) aerodynamic parameters of buildings and trees were extracted from Airborne and Terrestrial LiDAR data; 4) the Temperature-Vegetation-Index (TVX) method, and the Two-Source-Energy-Balance (TSEB

  12. Compound washing remediation and response surface analysis of lead-contaminated soil in mining area by fermentation broth and saponin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongjiao; Wang, Zhengwei; Gao, Yuntao

    2018-03-01

    The development of eluent is the key to soil washing remediation, and a compound eluent was constructed using the prepared citric acid fermentation broth and saponin in this study. It displayed a good washing performance for Pb, Cu, Cr, and Cd in red soil, and the removal rates, especially Pb, gained an improvement compared with a single eluent. Based on this, the compound eluent was applied to remediation of Pb-contaminated soil in mining area; the desorption of Pb is a heterogeneous diffusion process, and Pb in large particle size soil is relatively easy to remove. An available response surface analysis model was established; its P  washing time > saponin concentration, and liquid-to-solid ratio and washing time show interaction. Moreover, the Pb removal rate can reach 56.20% under the optimized conditions: 0.25% saponin concentration, 20 mL/g liquid-to-solid ratio, and 320-min washing time, which is close to the predicted value of 56.20% with a difference of 1.41%. In addition, most of the active Pb was removed and environmental risks were lowered after washing.

  13. Lp-mixed affine surface area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weidong; Leng, Gangsong

    2007-11-01

    According to the three notions of mixed affine surface area, Lp-affine surface area and Lp-mixed affine surface area proposed by Lutwak, in this article, we give the concept of ith Lp-mixed affine surface area such that the first and second notions of Lutwak are its special cases. Further, some Lutwak's results are extended associated with this concept. Besides, applying this concept, we establish an inequality for the volumes and dual quermassintegrals of a class of star bodies.

  14. Performance test and analysis to the prototype of fiber-based portable large area surface contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Yantao; Liu Yang; Wang Wei; Wang Ying; Hou Jie

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility was studied of using large area plastic scintillation (sensitive area up to 1200 cm 2 ) and wavelength-shifting fiber (WLS) to measure β surface contamination that led to a tentative adoption of direct coupling method of wavelength-shifting fiber array and plastic scintillator. Based on above, a calculation program was established, by which the optical transmission was simulated enabling optimizations to the design of the system such as the size of the plastic scintillator, the quantity of the wavelength-shifting fiber and the configuration mode of the wavelength-shifting fiber. As a result, a special experimental prototype was developed and tested. Results prove that the sensitive detection area is up to 1200 cm 2 , the detection efficiency is about 15.4%, the inconsistency of the different sensitive area is about 9.7%, and the minimum detectable limit is about 0.05 Bq/cm 2 , all of which indicate that the experimental prototype could satisfy requirements of surface pollution monitoring for both normal and accident conditions. (authors)

  15. Heavy metal contamination of surface soil in electronic waste dismantling area: site investigation and source-apportionment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhui Li; Huabo Duan; Pixing Shi

    2011-07-01

    The dismantling and disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) in developing countries is causing increasing concern because of its impacts on the environment and risks to human health. Heavy-metal concentrations in the surface soils of Guiyu (Guangdong Province, China) were monitored to determine the status of heavy-metal contamination on e-waste dismantling area with a more than 20 years history. Two metalloids and nine metals were selected for investigation. This paper also attempts to compare the data among a variety of e-waste dismantling areas, after reviewing a number of heavy-metal contamination-related studies in such areas in China over the past decade. In addition, source apportionment of heavy metal in the surface soil of these areas has been analysed. Both the MSW open-burning sites probably contained invaluable e-waste and abandoned sites formerly involved in informal recycling activities are the new sources of soil-based environmental pollution in Guiyu. Although printed circuit board waste is thought to be the main source of heavy-metal emissions during e-waste processing, requirement is necessary to soundly manage the plastic separated from e-waste, which mostly contains heavy metals and other toxic substances.

  16. Electrochemical Properties of High Surface Area Vanadium Oxide Aerogels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dong, Winny

    2001-01-01

    .... Traditional composite electrode structures have prevented truly quantitative analysis of surface area effects in nanoscale battery materials, as well as a study of their innate electrochemical behavior...

  17. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS.Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu*, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ...

  18. High Surface Area Tunnels in Hexagonal WO₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wanmei; Yeung, Michael T; Lech, Andrew T; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Chain; Li, Tianqi; Duan, Xiangfeng; Zhou, Jun; Kaner, Richard B

    2015-07-08

    High surface area in h-WO3 has been verified from the intracrystalline tunnels. This bottom-up approach differs from conventional templating-type methods. The 3.67 Å diameter tunnels are characterized by low-pressure CO2 adsorption isotherms with nonlocal density functional theory fitting, transmission electron microscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis. These open and rigid tunnels absorb H(+) and Li(+), but not Na(+) in aqueous electrolytes without inducing a phase transformation, accessing both internal and external active sites. Moreover, these tunnel structures demonstrate high specific pseudocapacitance and good stability in an H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. Thus, the high surface area created from 3.67 Å diameter tunnels in h-WO3 shows potential applications in electrochemical energy storage, selective ion transfer, and selective gas adsorption.

  19. Analysis of remotely sensed and surface data of aerosols and meteorology for the Mexico Megalopolis Area between 2003 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Marco; Braun, Rachel A; Shingler, Taylor; Sorooshian, Armin

    2017-08-27

    This paper presents an aerosol characterization study from 2003 to 2015 for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using remotely sensed aerosol data, ground-based measurements, air mass trajectory modeling, aerosol chemical composition modeling, and reanalysis data for the broader Megalopolis of Central Mexico region. The most extensive biomass burning emissions occur between March and May concurrent with the highest aerosol optical depth, ultraviolet aerosol index, and surface particulate matter (PM) mass concentration values. A notable enhancement in coarse PM levels is observed during vehicular rush hour periods on weekdays versus weekends owing to nonengine-related emissions such as resuspended dust. Among wet deposition species measured, PM 2.5 , PM 10 , and PM coarse (PM 10 -PM 2.5 ) were best correlated with NH 4 + , SO 4 2- , and Ca 2+ , suggesting that the latter three constituents are important components of the aerosol seeding raindrops that eventually deposit to the surface in the study region. Reductions in surface PM mass concentrations were observed in 2014-2015 owing to reduced regional biomass burning as compared to 2003-2013.

  20. Mapping paddy rice planting areas through time series analysis of MODIS land surface temperature and vegetation index data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geli; Xiao, Xiangming; Dong, Jinwei; Kou, Weili; Jin, Cui; Qin, Yuanwei; Zhou, Yuting; Wang, Jie; Menarguez, Michael Angelo; Biradar, Chandrashekhar

    2015-08-01

    Knowledge of the area and spatial distribution of paddy rice is important for assessment of food security, management of water resources, and estimation of greenhouse gas (methane) emissions. Paddy rice agriculture has expanded rapidly in northeastern China in the last decade, but there are no updated maps of paddy rice fields in the region. Existing algorithms for identifying paddy rice fields are based on the unique physical features of paddy rice during the flooding and transplanting phases and use vegetation indices that are sensitive to the dynamics of the canopy and surface water content. However, the flooding phenomena in high latitude area could also be from spring snowmelt flooding. We used land surface temperature (LST) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor to determine the temporal window of flooding and rice transplantation over a year to improve the existing phenology-based approach. Other land cover types (e.g., evergreen vegetation, permanent water bodies, and sparse vegetation) with potential influences on paddy rice identification were removed (masked out) due to their different temporal profiles. The accuracy assessment using high-resolution images showed that the resultant MODIS-derived paddy rice map of northeastern China in 2010 had a high accuracy (producer and user accuracies of 92% and 96%, respectively). The MODIS-based map also had a comparable accuracy to the 2010 Landsat-based National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) of China in terms of both area and spatial pattern. This study demonstrated that our improved algorithm by using both thermal and optical MODIS data, provides a robust, simple and automated approach to identify and map paddy rice fields in temperate and cold temperate zones, the northern frontier of rice planting.

  1. Sensitivity analysis of surface ozone to emission controls in Beijing and its neighboring area during the 2008 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi; Zhang, Meigen

    2012-01-01

    The regional air quality modeling system RAMS (regional atmospheric modeling system)-CMAQ (community multi-scale air quality modeling system) is applied to analyze temporal and spatial variations in surface ozone concentration over Beijing and its surrounding region from July to October 2008. Comparison of simulated and observed meteorological elements and concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone at one urban site and three rural sites during Olympic Games show that model can generally reproduce the main observed feature of wind, temperature and ozone, but NOx concentration is overestimated. Although ozone concentration decreased during Olympics, high ozone episodes occurred on 24 July and 24 August with concentration of 360 and 245 microg/m3 at Aoyuncun site, respectively. The analysis of sensitive test, with and without emission controls, shows that emission controls could reduce ozone concentration in the afternoon when ozone concentration was highest but increase it at night and in the morning. The evolution of the weather system during the ozone episodes (24 July and 24 August) indicates that hot and dry air and a stable weak pressure field intensified the production of ozone and allowed it to accumulate. Process analysis at the urban site and rural site shows that under favorable weather condition on 24 August, horizontal transport was the main contributor of the rural place and the pollution from the higher layer would be transported to the surface layer. On 24 July, as the wind velocity was smaller, the impact of transport on the rural place was not obvious.

  2. Sensitivity analysis of surface ozone to emission controls in Beijing and its neighboring area during the 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Gao; Meigen Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The regional air quality modeling system RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System)-CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system) is applied to analyze temporal and spatial variations in surface ozone concentration over Beijing and its surrounding region from July to October 2008.Comparison of simulated and observed meteorological elements and concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone at one urban site and three rural sites during Olympic Games show that model can generally reproduce the main observed feature of wind,temperature and ozone,but NOx concentration is overestimated.Although ozone concentration decreased during Olympics,high ozone episodes occurred on 24 July and 24 August with concentration of 360 and 245 μg/m3 at Aoyuncun site,respectively.The analysis of sensitive test,with and without emission controls,shows that emission controls could reduce ozone concentration in the afternoon when ozone concentration was highest but increase it at night and in the morning.The evolution of the weather system during the ozone episodes (24 July and 24 August) indicates that hot and dry air and a stable weak pressure field intensified the production of ozone and allowed it to accumulate.Process analysis at the urban site and rural site shows that under favorable weather condition on 24 August,horizontal transport was the main contributor of the rural place and the pollution from the higher layer would be transported to the surface layer.On 24 July,as the wind velocity was smaller,the impact of transport on the rural place was not obvious.

  3. Contact area measurements on structured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kücükyildiz, Ömer Can; Jensen, Sebastian Hoppe Nesgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    In connection with the use of brass specimens featuring structured surfaces in a tribology test, an algorithm was developed for automatic measurement of the contact area by optical means.......In connection with the use of brass specimens featuring structured surfaces in a tribology test, an algorithm was developed for automatic measurement of the contact area by optical means....

  4. L p -Dual geominimal surface area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lutwak proposed the notion of Lp -geominimal surface area according to the Lp -mixed volume. In this article, associated with the Lp -dual mixed volume, we introduce the Lp -dual geominimal surface area and prove some inequalities for this notion. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 52A20 52A40.

  5. Wetted surface area of recreational boats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker J; van Vlaardingen PLA; ICH; VSP

    2018-01-01

    The wetted surface area of recreational craft is often treated with special paint that prevents growth of algae and other organisms. The active substances in this paint (antifouling) are also emitted into the water. The extent of this emission is among others determined by the treated surface area.

  6. Surface analysis the principal techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Vickerman, John C

    2009-01-01

    This completely updated and revised second edition of Surface Analysis: The Principal Techniques, deals with the characterisation and understanding of the outer layers of substrates, how they react, look and function which are all of interest to surface scientists. Within this comprehensive text, experts in each analysis area introduce the theory and practice of the principal techniques that have shown themselves to be effective in both basic research and in applied surface analysis. Examples of analysis are provided to facilitate the understanding of this topic and to show readers how they c

  7. POSEIDON: An integrated system for analysis and forecast of hydrological, meteorological and surface marine fields in the Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speranza, A.; Accadia, C.; Casaioli, M.; Mariani, S.; Monacelli, G.; Inghilesi, R.; Tartaglione, N.; Ruti, P. M.; Carillo, A.; Bargagli, A.; Pisacane, G.; Valentinotti, F.; Lavagnini, A.

    2004-07-01

    The Mediterranean area is characterized by relevant hydrological, meteorological and marine processes developing at horizontal space-scales of the order of 1-100 km. In the recent past, several international programs have been addressed (ALPEX, POEM, MAP, etc.) to "resolving" the dynamics of such motions. Other projects (INTERREG-Flooding, MEDEX, etc.) are at present being developed with special emphasis on catastrophic events with major impact on human society that are, quite often, characterized in their manifestation by processes with the above-mentioned scales of motion. In the dynamical evolution of such events, however, equally important is the dynamics of interaction of the local (and sometimes very damaging) processes with others developing at larger scales of motion. In fact, some of the most catastrophic events in the history of Mediterranean countries are associated with dynamical processes covering all the range of space-time scales from planetary to local. The Prevision Operational System for the mEditerranean basIn and the Defence of the lagOon of veNice (POSEIDON) is an integrated system for the analysis and forecast of hydrological, meteorological, oceanic fields specifically designed and set up in order to bridge the gap between global and local scales of motion, by modeling explicitly the above referred to dynamical processes in the range of scales from Mediterranean to local. The core of POSEIDON consists of a "cascade" of numerical models that, starting from global scale numerical analysis-forecast, goes all the way to very local phenomena, like tidal propagation in Venice Lagoon. The large computational load imposed by such operational design requires necessarily parallel computing technology: the first model in the cascade is a parallelised version of BOlogna Limited Area Model (BOLAM) running on a Quadrics 128 processors computer (also known as QBOLAM). POSEIDON, developed in the context of a co-operation between the Italian Agency for New

  8. Identifying the tundra-forest border in the stomate record: an analysis of lake surface samples from the Yellowknife area, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, B.C.S. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Limnological Research Center; MacDonald, G.M. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Botanical Sciences; Moser, K.A. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    1996-05-01

    The relationship between conifer stomata and existing vegetation across tundra, forest-tundra, and closed zones in the Yellowknife area of the Northwest Territories was studied. Conifer stomata were identified in surface samples from lakes in the treeline zone, but were absent in samples from tundra lakes. Stomate analysis was recorded and the results were presented in a concentration diagram plotting stomate concentrations according to vegetation zone. Conifer stomate analysis was not able to resolve differences between forest-tundra and closed forest. Nevertheless, it was suggested that stomate analysis will become an important technique supplementing pollen analysis for reconstructing past tree-line changes since the presence of stomata in lakes make it possible to separate the tundra from forest-tundra and closed forest. The limited dispersal of conifer stomata permitted a better resolution of tree-line boundaries than did pollen. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Surface area-volume ratios in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühsel, Sara; Brückner, Adrian; Schmelzle, Sebastian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-10-01

    Body mass, volume and surface area are important for many aspects of the physiology and performance of species. Whereas body mass scaling received a lot of attention in the literature, surface areas of animals have not been measured explicitly in this context. We quantified surface area-volume (SA/V) ratios for the first time using 3D surface models based on a structured light scanning method for 126 species of pollinating insects from 4 orders (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Coleoptera). Water loss of 67 species was measured gravimetrically at very dry conditions for 2 h at 15 and 30 °C to demonstrate the applicability of the new 3D surface measurements and relevance for predicting the performance of insects. Quantified SA/V ratios significantly explained the variation in water loss across species, both directly or after accounting for isometric scaling (residuals of the SA/V ∼ mass 2/3 relationship). Small insects with a proportionally larger surface area had the highest water loss rates. Surface scans of insects to quantify allometric SA/V ratios thus provide a promising method to predict physiological responses, improving the potential of body mass isometry alone that assume geometric similarity. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Surface water sampling and analysis plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses surface water monitoring, sampling, and analysis activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Surface water monitoring will be conducted at nine sites within WAG 6. Activities to be conducted will include the installation, inspection, and maintenance of automatic flow-monitoring and sampling equipment and manual collection of various water and sediment samples. The samples will be analyzed for various organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. The information derived from the surface water monitoring, sampling, and analysis will aid in evaluating risk associated with contaminants migrating off-WAG, and will be used in calculations to establish relationships between contaminant concentration (C) and flow (Q). The C-Q relationship will be used in calculating the cumulative risk associated with the off-WAG migration of contaminants.

  11. Surface water sampling and analysis plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses surface water monitoring, sampling, and analysis activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Surface water monitoring will be conducted at nine sites within WAG 6. Activities to be conducted will include the installation, inspection, and maintenance of automatic flow-monitoring and sampling equipment and manual collection of various water and sediment samples. The samples will be analyzed for various organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. The information derived from the surface water monitoring, sampling, and analysis will aid in evaluating risk associated with contaminants migrating off-WAG, and will be used in calculations to establish relationships between contaminant concentration (C) and flow (Q). The C-Q relationship will be used in calculating the cumulative risk associated with the off-WAG migration of contaminants

  12. Surface area and pore size characteristics of nanoporous gold subjected to thermal, mechanical, or surface modification studied using gas adsorption isotherms, cyclic voltammetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yih Horng; Davis, Jason A.; Fujikawa, Kohki; Ganesh, N. Vijaya; Demchenko, Alexei V.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms are used to investigate the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) pore size distribution of physically modified, thermally annealed, and octadecanethiol functionalized np-Au monoliths. We present the full adsorption-desorption isotherms for N2 gas on np-Au, and observe type IV isotherms and type H1 hysteresis loops. The evolution of the np-Au under various thermal annealing treatments was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The images of both the exterior and interior of the thermally annealed np-Au show that the porosity of all free standing np-Au structures decreases as the heat treatment temperature increases. The modification of the np-Au surface with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of C18-SH (coverage of 2.94 × 1014 molecules cm−2 based from the decomposition of the C18-SH using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)), was found to reduce the strength of the interaction of nitrogen gas with the np-Au surface, as reflected by a decrease in the ‘C’ parameter of the BET equation. From cyclic voltammetry studies, we found that the surface area of the np-Au monoliths annealed at elevated temperatures followed the same trend with annealing temperature as found in the BET surface area study and SEM morphology characterization. The study highlights the ability to control free-standing nanoporous gold monoliths with high surface area, and well-defined, tunable pore morphology. PMID:22822294

  13. From analysis to surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bemman, Brian; Meredith, David

    it with a “ground truth” analysis of the same music pro- duced by a human expert (see, in particular, [5]). In this paper, we explore the problem of generating an encoding of the musical surface of a work automatically from a systematic encoding of an analysis. The ability to do this depends on one having...... an effective (i.e., comput- able), correct and complete description of some aspect of the structure of the music. Generating the surface struc- ture of a piece from an analysis in this manner serves as a proof of the analysis' correctness, effectiveness and com- pleteness. We present a reductive analysis......In recent years, a significant body of research has focused on developing algorithms for computing analyses of mu- sical works automatically from encodings of these works' surfaces [3,4,7,10,11]. The quality of the output of such analysis algorithms is typically evaluated by comparing...

  14. Monitoring System for ALICE Surface Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Demirbasci, Oguz

    2016-01-01

    I have been at CERN for 12 weeks within the scope of Summer Student Programme working on a monitoring system project for surface areas of the ALICE experiment during this period of time. The development and implementation of a monitoring system for environmental parameters in the accessible areas where a cheap hardware setup can be deployed were aim of this project. This report explains how it was developed by using Arduino, Raspberry PI, WinCC OA and DIM protocol.

  15. Osmosis and Surface Area to Volume Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, D. R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to help students understand the concepts of osmosis and surface area to volume ratio (SA:VOL). The task for students is to compare water uptake in different sizes of potato cubes and relate differences to their SA:VOL ratios. (JN)

  16. Estimating surface area in early hominins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Cross

    Full Text Available Height and weight-based methods of estimating surface area have played an important role in the development of the current consensus regarding the role of thermoregulation in human evolution. However, such methods may not be reliable when applied to early hominins because their limb proportions differ markedly from those of humans. Here, we report a study in which this possibility was evaluated by comparing surface area estimates generated with the best-known height and weight-based method to estimates generated with a method that is sensitive to proportional differences. We found that the two methods yield indistinguishable estimates when applied to taxa whose limb proportions are similar to those of humans, but significantly different results when applied to taxa whose proportions differ from those of humans. We also found that the discrepancy between the estimates generated by the two methods is almost entirely attributable to inter-taxa differences in limb proportions. One corollary of these findings is that we need to reassess hypotheses about the role of thermoregulation in human evolution that have been developed with the aid of height and weight-based methods of estimating body surface area. Another is that we need to use other methods in future work on fossil hominin body surface areas.

  17. Nondestructive, stereological estimation of canopy surface area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio; Sciortino, Marco; Aaslyng, Jesper M.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a stereological procedure to estimate the total leaf surface area of a plant canopy in vivo, and address the problem of how to predict the variance of the corresponding estimator. The procedure involves three nested systematic uniform random sampling stages: (i) selection of plants from...... a canopy using the smooth fractionator, (ii) sampling of leaves from the selected plants using the fractionator, and (iii) area estimation of the sampled leaves using point counting. We apply this procedure to estimate the total area of a chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium L.) canopy and evaluate both...... the time required and the precision of the estimator. Furthermore, we compare the precision of point counting for three different grid intensities with that of several standard leaf area measurement techniques. Results showed that the precision of the plant leaf area estimator based on point counting...

  18. Quantification of lung surface area using computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Li

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To refine the CT prediction of emphysema by comparing histology and CT for specific regions of lung. To incorporate both regional lung density measured by CT and cluster analysis of low attenuation areas for comparison with histological measurement of surface area per unit lung volume. Methods The histological surface area per unit lung volume was estimated for 140 samples taken from resected lung specimens of fourteen subjects. The region of the lung sampled for histology was located on the pre-operative CT scan; the regional CT median lung density and emphysematous lesion size were calculated using the X-ray attenuation values and a low attenuation cluster analysis. Linear mixed models were used to examine the relationships between histological surface area per unit lung volume and CT measures. Results The median CT lung density, low attenuation cluster analysis, and the combination of both were important predictors of surface area per unit lung volume measured by histology (p Conclusion Combining CT measures of lung density and emphysematous lesion size provides a more accurate estimate of lung surface area per unit lung volume than either measure alone.

  19. High surface area fibrous silica nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Disclosed are high surface area nanoparticles that have a fibrous morphology. The nanoparticles have a plurality of fibers, wherein each fiber is in contact with one other fiber and each fiber has a length of between about 1 nm and about 5000 nm. Also disclosed are applications of the nanoparticles of the present invention, and methods of fabrication of the nanoparticles of the present invention.

  20. High surface area fibrous silica nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2014-11-11

    Disclosed are high surface area nanoparticles that have a fibrous morphology. The nanoparticles have a plurality of fibers, wherein each fiber is in contact with one other fiber and each fiber has a length of between about 1 nm and about 5000 nm. Also disclosed are applications of the nanoparticles of the present invention, and methods of fabrication of the nanoparticles of the present invention.

  1. The surface analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deville, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Nowadays, there are a lot of surfaces analysis methods, each having its specificity, its qualities, its constraints (for instance vacuum) and its limits. Expensive in time and in investment, these methods have to be used deliberately. This article appeals to non specialists. It gives some elements of choice according to the studied information, the sensitivity, the use constraints or the answer to a precise question. After having recalled the fundamental principles which govern these analysis methods, based on the interaction between radiations (ultraviolet, X) or particles (ions, electrons) with matter, two methods will be more particularly described: the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-rays photoemission spectroscopy (ESCA or XPS). Indeed, they are the most widespread methods in laboratories, the easier for use and probably the most productive for the analysis of surface of industrial materials or samples submitted to treatments in aggressive media. (O.M.)

  2. On semiautomatic estimation of surface area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dvorak, J.; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel

    2013-01-01

    and the surfactor. For ellipsoidal particles, it is shown that the flower estimator is equal to the pivotal estimator based on support function measurements along four perpendicular rays. This result makes the pivotal estimator a powerful approximation to the flower estimator. In a simulation study of prolate....... If the segmentation is correct the estimate is computed automatically, otherwise the expert performs the necessary measurements manually. In case of convex particles we suggest to base the semiautomatic estimation on the so-called flower estimator, a new local stereological estimator of particle surface area....... For convex particles, the estimator is equal to four times the area of the support set (flower set) of the particle transect. We study the statistical properties of the flower estimator and compare its performance to that of two discretizations of the flower estimator, namely the pivotal estimator...

  3. Installation and performance evaluation of an indigenous surface area analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, S.N.; Solapurkar, M.N.; Venkatesan, V.; Prakash, A.; Khan, K.B.; Kumar, Arun; Prasad, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    An indigenously available surface area analyser was installed inside glove box and checked for its performance by analyzing uranium oxide and thorium oxide powders at RMD. The unit has been made ready for analysis of Plutonium oxide powders after incorporating several important features. (author)

  4. A Simple Proof of Cauchy's Surface Area Formula

    OpenAIRE

    Tsukerman, Emmanuel; Veomett, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    We give a short and simple proof of Cauchy's surface area formula, which states that the average area of a projection of a convex body is equal to its surface area up to a multiplicative constant in the dimension.

  5. Site Characterization in the Urban Area of Tijuana, B. C., Mexico by Means of: H/V Spectral Ratios, Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves, and Random Decrement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Herrera, R.; Huerta-Lopez, C. I.; Martinez-Cruzado, J. A.

    2009-05-01

    Results of site characterization for an experimental site in the metropolitan area of Tijuana, B. C., Mexico are presented as part of the on-going research in which time series of earthquakes, ambient noise, and induced vibrations were processed with three different methods: H/V spectral ratios, Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW), and the Random Decrement Method, (RDM). Forward modeling using the wave propagation stiffness matrix method (Roësset and Kausel, 1981) was used to compute the theoretical SH/P, SV/P spectral ratios, and the experimental H/V spectral ratios were computed following the conventional concepts of Fourier analysis. The modeling/comparison between the theoretical and experimental H/V spectral ratios was carried out. For the SASW method the theoretical dispersion curves were also computed and compared with the experimental one, and finally the theoretical free vibration decay curve was compared with the experimental one obtained with the RDM. All three methods were tested with ambient noise, induced vibrations, and earthquake signals. Both experimental spectral ratios obtained with ambient noise as well as earthquake signals agree quite well with the theoretical spectral ratios, particularly at the fundamental vibration frequency of the recording site. Differences between the fundamental vibration frequencies are evident for sites located at alluvial fill (~0.6 Hz) and at sites located at conglomerate/sandstones fill (0.75 Hz). Shear wave velocities for the soft soil layers of the 4-layer discrete soil model ranges as low as 100 m/s and up to 280 m/s. The results with the SASW provided information that allows to identify low velocity layers, not seen before with the traditional seismic methods. The damping estimations obtained with the RDM are within the expected values, and the dominant frequency of the system also obtained with the RDM correlates within the range of plus-minus 20 % with the one obtained by means of the H/V spectral

  6. Can foot anthropometric measurements predict dynamic plantar surface contact area?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Natalie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have suggested that increased plantar surface area, associated with pes planus, is a risk factor for the development of lower extremity overuse injuries. The intent of this study was to determine if a single or combination of foot anthropometric measures could be used to predict plantar surface area. Methods Six foot measurements were collected on 155 subjects (97 females, 58 males, mean age 24.5 ± 3.5 years. The measurements as well as one ratio were entered into a stepwise regression analysis to determine the optimal set of measurements associated with total plantar contact area either including or excluding the toe region. The predicted values were used to calculate plantar surface area and were compared to the actual values obtained dynamically using a pressure sensor platform. Results A three variable model was found to describe the relationship between the foot measures/ratio and total plantar contact area (R2 = 0.77, p R2 = 0.76, p Conclusion The results of this study indicate that the clinician can use a combination of simple, reliable, and time efficient foot anthropometric measurements to explain over 75% of the plantar surface contact area, either including or excluding the toe region.

  7. Surface Temperature Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Ruedy, Reto

    2012-01-01

    Small global mean temperature changes may have significant to disastrous consequences for the Earth's climate if they persist for an extended period. Obtaining global means from local weather reports is hampered by the uneven spatial distribution of the reliably reporting weather stations. Methods had to be developed that minimize as far as possible the impact of that situation. This software is a method of combining temperature data of individual stations to obtain a global mean trend, overcoming/estimating the uncertainty introduced by the spatial and temporal gaps in the available data. Useful estimates were obtained by the introduction of a special grid, subdividing the Earth's surface into 8,000 equal-area boxes, using the existing data to create virtual stations at the center of each of these boxes, and combining temperature anomalies (after assessing the radius of high correlation) rather than temperatures.

  8. Accessible surface area from NMR chemical shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafsa, Noor E.; Arndt, David; Wishart, David S., E-mail: david.wishart@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta, Department of Computing Science (Canada)

    2015-07-15

    Accessible surface area (ASA) is the surface area of an atom, amino acid or biomolecule that is exposed to solvent. The calculation of a molecule’s ASA requires three-dimensional coordinate data and the use of a “rolling ball” algorithm to both define and calculate the ASA. For polymers such as proteins, the ASA for individual amino acids is closely related to the hydrophobicity of the amino acid as well as its local secondary and tertiary structure. For proteins, ASA is a structural descriptor that can often be as informative as secondary structure. Consequently there has been considerable effort over the past two decades to try to predict ASA from protein sequence data and to use ASA information (derived from chemical modification studies) as a structure constraint. Recently it has become evident that protein chemical shifts are also sensitive to ASA. Given the potential utility of ASA estimates as structural constraints for NMR we decided to explore this relationship further. Using machine learning techniques (specifically a boosted tree regression model) we developed an algorithm called “ShiftASA” that combines chemical-shift and sequence derived features to accurately estimate per-residue fractional ASA values of water-soluble proteins. This method showed a correlation coefficient between predicted and experimental values of 0.79 when evaluated on a set of 65 independent test proteins, which was an 8.2 % improvement over the next best performing (sequence-only) method. On a separate test set of 92 proteins, ShiftASA reported a mean correlation coefficient of 0.82, which was 12.3 % better than the next best performing method. ShiftASA is available as a web server ( http://shiftasa.wishartlab.com http://shiftasa.wishartlab.com ) for submitting input queries for fractional ASA calculation.

  9. High-surface-area active carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Grady, T.M.; Wennerberg, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation and properties of a unique active carbon having exceptionally high surface areas, over 2500 m 2 /gm, and extraordinary adsorptive capacities. The carbon is made by a direct chemical activation route in which petroleum coke or other carbonaceous sources are reacted with excess potassium hydroxide at 400 0 to 500 0 C to an intermediate product that is subsequently pyrolyzed at 800 0 to 900 0 C to active carbon containing potassium salts. These are removed by water washing and the carbon is dried to produce a powdered product. A granular carbon can also be made by further processing the powdered carbon by using specialized granulation techniques. Typical properties of the carbon include Iodine Numbers of 3000 to 3600, methylene blue adsorption of 650 to 750 mg/gm, pore volumes of 2.0 to 2.6 cc/gm and less than 3.0% ash. This carbon's high adsorption capacities make it uniquely suited for numerous demanding applications in the medical area, purifications, removal of toxic substances, as catalyst carriers, etc

  10. Using GIS techniques for surface runoff potential analysis in the Subcarpathian area between Buzãu and Slãnic rivers, in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIA FONTANINE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Subcarpathian area between Buzău and Slănic rivers, located in the south-eastern part of Romania, is one of the most affected areas by the torrential related phenomena. This occurs due to physical-geographical and economical-geographical factors, such as: slope, curvature profile, lithology, soil texture and land use. In order to calculate and spatially model the surface runoff potential index, these factors were integrated and worked in GIS enviroment. Each characteristic of the factors was given a bonitation score, according to the way that it influences surface runoff. By applying the methodology mainly taken after Smith (2003 [1], the Flash-Flood Potential Index was obtained, with values between 19.4 - 44.5. The highest values of the index correspond to deforestated slopes, which exceed 15º, located in Bălăneasa and Sărățel river basins.

  11. Dynamics Change of Honghu Lake's Water Surface Area and Its Driving Force Analysis Based on Remote Sensing Technique and TOPMODEL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, X; Cao, B; Shen, S; Hu, D; Tang, X

    2014-01-01

    Honghu Lake is the largest freshwater lake in the Hubei Province of China. This paper introduces a remote sensing approach to monitor the lake's water surface area dynamics over the last 40 years by using multi-temporal remote sensing imagery including Landsat and HJ-1. Meanwhile, the daily precipitation and evaporation data provided by Honghu meteorological station since 1970s were also collected and used to analyze the influence of climate change factors. The typical situation for precipitation was selected as an input into the TOPMODEL model to simulate the hydrological process in Honghu Lake. The simulation result with the water surface area extracted from remote sensing imagery was analyzed. This experiment shows the precipitation and timing of precipitation effects changes in the lake with remote sensing data and it showed the potential of using TOPMODEL model to analyze the combined hydrological process in Honghu Lake

  12. Pooled analysis of two case-control studies in New Caledonia and French Polynesia of body mass index and differentiated thyroid cancer: the importance of body surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cléro, Enora; Leux, Christophe; Brindel, Pauline; Truong, Thérèse; Anger, Antoinette; Teinturier, Cécile; Diallo, Ibrahima; Doyon, Françoise; Guénel, Pascal; de Vathaire, Florent

    2010-11-01

    New Caledonia and French Polynesia have among of the world highest thyroid cancer incidence rates. Studies have demonstrated a relationship between anthropometric parameters and the prevalence of cancer. In this study we evaluated further the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and other anthropometric parameters on the incidence of thyroid cancer in the New Caledonia and French Polynesia populations. We performed a pooled analysis of two case-control studies in New Caledonia and French Polynesia. We included a total of 554 cases (65 men and 489 women) of differentiated thyroid cancers and 776 population control subjects matched on sex, age, and study. Anthropometric factors (height, weight, BMI, body fat percentage [BF%], and body surface area [BSA]), at age 18 and before diagnosis, were analyzed by conditional logistic regression, adjusting for other independent risk factors. A high proportion of cases (73%) were overweight (25-29.9 kg/m(2)) or obese (≥30 kg/m(2)) before diagnosis of thyroid cancer (against 57% of control subjects). An increased risk of thyroid cancer was observed with greater height, weight, BMI, BF%, and BSA. The association of thyroid cancer risk with height, weight, BMI, and BF% did not remain when adjustment was made for BSA. By comparison, the odds ratios for the highest versus the lowest quartile of BSA at age 18 were 3.97 (95% confidence interval, 2.57-6.15; p < 0.001) for women and 4.06 (95% confidence interval, 1.03-16.06; p = 0.04) for men. The association between thyroid cancer risk and each of anthropometric factors did not depend on tumor size or menopausal status before diagnosis. Among anthropometric factors, BSA plays a dominant role in thyroid cancer risk and explains the apparent role of BMI.

  13. Analysis of environmental setting, surface-water and groundwater data, and data gaps for the Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, Oklahoma, through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, William J.; Harich, Christopher R.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Lewis, Jason M.; Shivers, Molly J.; Seger, Christian H.; Becker, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    The Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, consisting of approximately 960 square miles in parts of three counties in central Oklahoma, has an abundance of water resources, being underlain by three principal aquifers (alluvial/terrace, Central Oklahoma, and Vamoosa-Ada), bordered by two major rivers (North Canadian and Canadian), and has several smaller drainages. The Central Oklahoma aquifer (also referred to as the Garber-Wellington aquifer) underlies approximately 3,000 square miles in central Oklahoma in parts of Cleveland, Logan, Lincoln, Oklahoma, and Pottawatomie Counties and much of the tribal jurisdictional area. Water from these aquifers is used for municipal, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and domestic supplies. The approximately 115,000 people living in this area used an estimated 4.41 million gallons of fresh groundwater, 12.12 million gallons of fresh surface water, and 8.15 million gallons of saline groundwater per day in 2005. Approximately 8.48, 2.65, 2.24, 1.55, 0.83, and 0.81 million gallons per day of that water were used for domestic, livestock, commercial, industrial, crop irrigation, and thermoelectric purposes, respectively. Approximately one-third of the water used in 2005 was saline water produced during petroleum production. Future changes in use of freshwater in this area will be affected primarily by changes in population and agricultural practices. Future changes in saline water use will be affected substantially by changes in petroleum production. Parts of the area periodically are subject to flooding and severe droughts that can limit available water resources, particularly during summers, when water use increases and streamflows substantially decrease. Most of the area is characterized by rural types of land cover such as grassland, pasture/hay fields, and deciduous forest, which may limit negative effects on water quality by human activities because of lesser emissions of man-made chemicals on such areas than

  14. Analysis of surface contributions to external doses in a radioactively contaminated urban environment designed by the EMRAS-2 Urban Areas Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Jeong, Hae Sun; Jeong, Hyo Joon; Kim, Eun Han; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, In Gyu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► External dose and contribution from radio-activated surface were evaluated for EMRAS-2 Urban Areas Working Group scenarios. ► The external doses showed a distinctive difference with the locations and precipitation. ► The contribution of contaminated surfaces for external dose depends on locations and precipitation. ► These results provide the essential information for decision-making support of countermeasures. - Abstract: The EMRAS-2 Urban Areas Working Group, which is supported by the IAEA, has designed a variety of accidental scenarios to test and improve the capabilities of the models used for an evaluation of radioactive contamination in an urban environment. A variety of models including a Korean model, METRO-K, are used for predictive results on the hypothetical scenarios. This paper describes the predictive results of METRO-K for the hypothetical scenarios designed in the Working Group. The external dose resulting from the air contamination of Co-60 was evaluated, and its contribution was analyzed with time as a function of the location of a receptor and precipitation conditions at the time of the contamination event. As a result, the external doses showed a distinctive difference with the locations to be evaluated and the precipitation conditions. Moreover, the contribution of contaminated surfaces for external doses was strongly dependent on the locations to be evaluated and the precipitation conditions. These results will provide essential information to assist the decision-making of appropriate countermeasures in an emergency situation of a radioactively contaminated urban environment

  15. Clay mineralogy in different geomorphic surfaces in sugarcane areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, L.; Marques, J., Jr.

    2012-04-01

    The crystallization of the oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum and kaolinite of clay fraction is the result of pedogenetic processes controlled by the relief. These minerals have influence on the physical and chemical attributes of soil and exhibit spatial dependence. The pattern of spatial distribution is influenced by forms of relief as the geomorphic surfaces. In this sense, the studies aimed at understanding the relationship between relief and the distribution pattern of the clay fraction attributes contribute to the delineation of specific areas of management in the field. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum and kaolinite of clay fraction and its relationship with the physical and chemical attributes in different geomorphic surfaces. Soil samples were collected in a transect each 25 m (100 samples) and in the sides of the same (200 samples) as well as an area of 500 ha (1 sample each six hectare). Geomorphic surfaces (GS) in the transect were mapped in detail to support mapping the entire area. The soil samples were taken to the laboratory for chemical, physical, and mineralogical analysis, and the pattern of spatial distribution of soil attributes was obtained by statistics and geostatistics. The GS I is considered the oldest surface of the study area, with depositional character, and a slope ranging from 0 to 4%. GS II and III are considered to be eroded, and the surface II plan a gentle slope that extends from the edge of the surface until the beginning of I and III. The crystallographic characteristics of the oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum and kaolinite showed spatial dependence and the distribution pattern corresponding to the limits present of the GS in the field. Surfaces I and II showed the best environments to the degree of crystallinity of hematite and the surface III to the greatest degree of crystallinity of goethite agreeing to the pedoenvironment

  16. Pattern Analysis of El Nino and La Nina Phenomenon Based on Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Rainfall Intensity using Oceanic Nino Index (ONI) in West Java Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Yudo; Nabilah, Farras

    2017-12-01

    Climate change occurs in 1998-2016 brings significant alteration in the earth surface. It is affects an extremely anomaly temperature such as El Nino and La Nina or mostly known as ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation). West Java is one of the regions in Indonesia that encounters the impact of this phenomenon. Climate change due to ENSO also affects food production and other commodities. In this research, processing data method is conducted using programming language to process SST data and rainfall data from 1998 to 2016. The data are sea surface temperature from NOAA satellite, SST Reynolds (Sea Surface Temperature) and daily rainfall temperature from TRMM satellite. Data examination is done using analysis of rainfall spatial pattern and sea surface temperature (SST) where is affected by El Nino and La Nina phenomenon. This research results distribution map of SST and rainfall for each season to find out the impacts of El Nino and La Nina around West Java. El Nino and La Nina in Java Sea are occurring every August to February. During El Nino, sea surface temperature is between 27°C - 28°C with average temperature on 27.71°C. Rainfall intensity is 1.0 mm/day - 2.0 mm/day and the average are 1.63 mm/day. During La Nina, sea surface temperature is between 29°C - 30°C with average temperature on 29.06°C. Rainfall intensity is 9.0 mm/day - 10 mm/day, and the average is 9.74 mm/day. The correlation between rainfall and SST is 0,413 which is expresses a fairly strong correlation between parameters. The conclusion is, during La Nina SST and rainfall increase. While during El Nino SST and rainfall decrease. Hopefully this research could be a guideline to plan disaster mitigation in West Java region that is related extreme climate change.

  17. Spectral theory of infinite-area hyperbolic surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Borthwick, David

    2016-01-01

    This text introduces geometric spectral theory in the context of infinite-area Riemann surfaces, providing a comprehensive account of the most recent developments in the field. For the second edition the context has been extended to general surfaces with hyperbolic ends, which provides a natural setting for development of the spectral theory while still keeping technical difficulties to a minimum. All of the material from the first edition is included and updated, and new sections have been added. Topics covered include an introduction to the geometry of hyperbolic surfaces, analysis of the resolvent of the Laplacian, scattering theory, resonances and scattering poles, the Selberg zeta function, the Poisson formula, distribution of resonances, the inverse scattering problem, Patterson-Sullivan theory, and the dynamical approach to the zeta function. The new sections cover the latest developments in the field, including the spectral gap, resonance asymptotics near the critical line, and sharp geometric constan...

  18. Adaptation of an urban land surface model to a tropical suburban area: Offline evaluation, sensitivity analysis, and optimization of TEB/ISBA (SURFEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshan, Suraj

    The main objective of the present thesis is the improvement of the TEB/ISBA (SURFEX) urban land surface model (ULSM) through comprehensive evaluation, sensitivity analysis, and optimization experiments using energy balance and radiative and air temperature data observed during 11 months at a tropical sub-urban site in Singapore. Overall the performance of the model is satisfactory, with a small underestimation of net radiation and an overestimation of sensible heat flux. Weaknesses in predicting the latent heat flux are apparent with smaller model values during daytime and the model also significantly underpredicts both the daytime peak and nighttime storage heat. Surface temperatures of all facets are generally overpredicted. Significant variation exists in the model behaviour between dry and wet seasons. The vegetation parametrization used in the model is inadequate to represent the moisture dynamics, producing unrealistically low latent heat fluxes during a particularly dry period. The comprehensive evaluation of the USLM shows the need for accurate estimation of input parameter values for present site. Since obtaining many of these parameters through empirical methods is not feasible, the present study employed a two step approach aimed at providing information about the most sensitive parameters and an optimized parameter set from model calibration. Two well established sensitivity analysis methods (global: Sobol and local: Morris) and a state-of-the-art multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (Borg) were employed for sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation. Experiments were carried out for three different weather periods. The analysis indicates that roof related parameters are the most important ones in controlling the behaviour of the sensible heat flux and net radiation flux, with roof and road albedo as the most influential parameters. Soil moisture initialization parameters are important in controlling the latent heat flux. The built (town) fraction

  19. Area-averaged evapotranspiration over a heterogeneous land surface: aggregation of multi-point EC flux measurements with a high-resolution land-cover map and footprint analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feinan; Wang, Weizhen; Wang, Jiemin; Xu, Ziwei; Qi, Yuan; Wu, Yueru

    2017-08-01

    The determination of area-averaged evapotranspiration (ET) at the satellite pixel scale/model grid scale over a heterogeneous land surface plays a significant role in developing and improving the parameterization schemes of the remote sensing based ET estimation models and general hydro-meteorological models. The Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) flux matrix provided a unique opportunity to build an aggregation scheme for area-averaged fluxes. On the basis of the HiWATER flux matrix dataset and high-resolution land-cover map, this study focused on estimating the area-averaged ET over a heterogeneous landscape with footprint analysis and multivariate regression. The procedure is as follows. Firstly, quality control and uncertainty estimation for the data of the flux matrix, including 17 eddy-covariance (EC) sites and four groups of large-aperture scintillometers (LASs), were carefully done. Secondly, the representativeness of each EC site was quantitatively evaluated; footprint analysis was also performed for each LAS path. Thirdly, based on the high-resolution land-cover map derived from aircraft remote sensing, a flux aggregation method was established combining footprint analysis and multiple-linear regression. Then, the area-averaged sensible heat fluxes obtained from the EC flux matrix were validated by the LAS measurements. Finally, the area-averaged ET of the kernel experimental area of HiWATER was estimated. Compared with the formerly used and rather simple approaches, such as the arithmetic average and area-weighted methods, the present scheme is not only with a much better database, but also has a solid grounding in physics and mathematics in the integration of area-averaged fluxes over a heterogeneous surface. Results from this study, both instantaneous and daily ET at the satellite pixel scale, can be used for the validation of relevant remote sensing models and land surface process models. Furthermore, this work will be

  20. Multi-temporal image analysis of historical aerial photographs and recent satellite imagery reveals evolution of water body surface area and polygonal terrain morphology in Kobuk Valley National Park, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Necsoiu, Marius; Dinwiddie, Cynthia L; Walter, Gary R; Stothoff, Stuart A; Larsen, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Multi-temporal image analysis of very-high-resolution historical aerial and recent satellite imagery of the Ahnewetut Wetlands in Kobuk Valley National Park, Alaska, revealed the nature of thaw lake and polygonal terrain evolution over a 54-year period of record comprising two 27-year intervals (1951–1978, 1978–2005). Using active-contouring-based change detection, high-precision orthorectification and co-registration and the normalized difference index, surface area expansion and contraction of 22 shallow water bodies, ranging in size from 0.09 to 179 ha, and the transition of ice-wedge polygons from a low- to a high-centered morphology were quantified. Total surface area decreased by only 0.4% during the first time interval, but decreased by 5.5% during the second time interval. Twelve water bodies (ten lakes and two ponds) were relatively stable with net surface area decreases of ≤10%, including four lakes that gained area during both time intervals, whereas ten water bodies (five lakes and five ponds) had surface area losses in excess of 10%, including two ponds that drained completely. Polygonal terrain remained relatively stable during the first time interval, but transformation of polygons from low- to high-centered was significant during the second time interval. (letter)

  1. Palatal Surface Area of Maxillary Plaster Casts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darvann, Tron Andre; Hermann, Nuno V.; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between corresponding two-dimensional and three-dimensional measurements on maxillary plaster casts taken from photographs and three-dimensional surface scans, respectively. Materials and Methods: Corresponding two-dimensional and three-dimensional measu...

  2. Effect of impervious surface area and vegetation changes on mean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adeniyi adeyemi

    Land surface temperature (LST) is measured by the surface energy balance, .... climatic and environmental conditions (Cheng et al., 2006). ..... urban areas have generally resulted in a high reflection and emission of solar radiation and greater.

  3. Repository surface design site layout analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalvo, H.R.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to establish the arrangement of the Yucca Mountain Repository surface facilities and features near the North Portal. The analysis updates and expands the North Portal area site layout concept presented in the ACD, including changes to reflect the resizing of the Waste Handling Building (WHB), Waste Treatment Building (WTB), Carrier Preparation Building (CPB), and site parking areas; the addition of the Carrier Washdown Buildings (CWBs); the elimination of the Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF); and the development of a concept for site grading and flood control. The analysis also establishes the layout of the surface features (e.g., roads and utilities) that connect all the repository surface areas (North Portal Operations Area, South Portal Development Operations Area, Emplacement Shaft Surface Operations Area, and Development Shaft Surface Operations Area) and locates an area for a potential lag storage facility. Details of South Portal and shaft layouts will be covered in separate design analyses. The objective of this analysis is to provide a suitable level of design for the Viability Assessment (VA). The analysis was revised to incorporate additional material developed since the issuance of Revision 01. This material includes safeguards and security input, utility system input (size and location of fire water tanks and pump houses, potable water and sanitary sewage rates, size of wastewater evaporation pond, size and location of the utility building, size of the bulk fuel storage tank, and size and location of other exterior process equipment), main electrical substation information, redundancy of water supply and storage for the fire support system, and additional information on the storm water retention pond

  4. Surface Area Distribution Descriptor for object matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Gafar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Matching 3D objects by their similarity is a fundamental problem in computer vision, computer graphics and many other fields. The main challenge in object matching is to find a suitable shape representation that can be used to accurately and quickly discriminate between similar and dissimilar shapes. In this paper we present a new volumetric descriptor to represent 3D objects. The proposed descriptor is used to match objects under rigid transformations including uniform scaling. The descriptor represents the object by dividing it into shells, acquiring the area distribution of the object through those shells. The computed areas are normalised to make the descriptor scale-invariant in addition to rotation and translation invariant. The effectiveness and stability of the proposed descriptor to noise and variant sampling density as well as the effectiveness of the similarity measures are analysed and demonstrated through experimental results.

  5. Why Do We Need the Derivative for the Surface Area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristova, Yulia; Zeytuncu, Yunus E.

    2016-01-01

    Surface area and volume computations are the most common applications of integration in calculus books. When computing the surface area of a solid of revolution, students are usually told to use the frustum method instead of the disc method; however, a rigorous explanation is rarely provided. In this note, we provide one by using geometric…

  6. On the specific surface area of nanoporous materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detsi, E.; De Jong, E.; Zinchenko, A.; Vukovic, Z.; Vukovic, I.; Punzhin, S.; Loos, K.; ten Brinke, G.; De Raedt, H. A.; Onck, P. R.; De Hosson, J. T. M.

    2011-01-01

    A proper quantification of the specific surface area of nanoporous materials is necessary for a better understanding of the properties that are affected by the high surface-area-to-volume ratio of nanoporous metals, nanoporous polymers and nanoporous ceramics. In this paper we derive an analytical

  7. Coupling Modified Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis and Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN Models to Simulate Surface Runoff: Application to the Main Urban Area of Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Land surface characteristics, including soil type, terrain slope, and antecedent soil moisture, have significant impacts on surface runoff during heavy precipitation in highly urbanized areas. In this study, a Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA method is modified to extract high-precision impervious surface, vegetation, and soil fractions. In the modified LSMA method, the representative endmembers are first selected by combining a high-resolution image from Google Earth; the unmixing results of the LSMA are then post-processed to reduce errors of misclassification with Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. The modified LSMA is applied to the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI image from 18 October 2015 of the main urban area of Guangzhou city. The experimental result indicates that the modified LSMA shows improved extraction performance compared with the conventional LSMA, as it can significantly reduce the bias and root-mean-square error (RMSE. The improved impervious surface, vegetation, and soil fractions are used to calculate the composite curve number (CN for each pixel according to the Soil Conservation Service curve number (SCS-CN model. The composite CN is then adjusted with regional data of the terrain slope and total 5-day antecedent precipitation. Finally, the surface runoff is simulated with the SCS-CN model by combining the adjusted CN and real precipitation data at 1 p.m., 4 May 2015.

  8. Lage-area planar RF plasma productions by surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, S.

    1994-01-01

    Large-area rf plasmas are confirmed to be produced by means of RF discharges inside a large-area dielectric tube. The plasma space is 73 cm x 176 cm and 2.5 cm. The plasma is thought to be produced by an odd plasma-surface wave (PSW ο ) in case of using large-area electrodes and by an even plasma-surface wave (PSW ο ) in case of without the electrodes. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs

  9. Body surface area prediction in normal, hypermuscular, and obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Michael C; Spalding, Paul B; Gutierrez, Juan C; Balkan, Wayne; Namias, Nicholas; Koniaris, Leonidas G; Zimmers, Teresa A

    2009-05-15

    Accurate determination of body surface area (BSA) in experimental animals is essential for modeling effects of burn injury or drug metabolism. Two-dimensional surface area is related to three-dimensional body volume, which in turn can be estimated from body mass. The Meeh equation relates body surface area to the two-thirds power of body mass, through a constant, k, which must be determined empirically by species and size. We found older values of k overestimated BSA in certain mice; thus we determined empirically k for various strains of normal, obese, and hypermuscular mice. BSA was computed from digitally scanned pelts and nonlinear regression analysis was used to determine the best-fit k. The empirically determined k for C57BL/6J mice of 9.82 was not significantly different from other inbred and outbred mouse strains of normal body composition. However, mean k of the nearly spheroid, obese lepr(db/db) mice (k = 8.29) was significantly lower than for normals, as were values for dumbbell-shaped, hypermuscular mice with either targeted deletion of the myostatin gene (Mstn) (k = 8.48) or with skeletal muscle specific expression of a dominant negative myostatin receptor (Acvr2b) (k = 8.80). Hypermuscular and obese mice differ substantially from normals in shape and density, resulting in considerably altered k values. This suggests Meeh constants should be determined empirically for animals of altered body composition. Use of these new, improved Meeh constants will allow greater accuracy in experimental models of burn injury and pharmacokinetics.

  10. Estimation of small surface displacements in the Upper Rhine Graben area from a combined analysis of PS-InSAR, levelling and GNSS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, T.; Caro Cuenca, M.; Knöpfler, A.; van Leijen, F. J.; Mayer, M.; Westerhaus, M.; Hanssen, R. F.; Heck, B.

    2015-10-01

    The intra-plate deformation of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) located in Central Europe is investigated using geodetic measurement techniques. We present a new approach to calculate a combined velocity field from InSAR, levelling and GNSS measurements. As the expected tectonic movements in the URG area are small (less than 1 mm a-1), the best possible solutions for linear velocity rates from single-technique analyses are estimated in a first step. Second, we combine the velocity rates obtained from InSAR (line of sight velocity rates in ascending and descending image geometries), levelling (vertical velocity rates) and GNSS (horizontal velocity rates) using least-squares adjustment (LSA). Focusing on the Northern URG area, we analyse SAR data on four different image stacks (ERS ascending, ERS descending, Envisat ascending, Envisat descending) using the Persistent Scatterer (PS) approach. The linear velocity rates in ascending and descending image geometries, respectively, are estimated in an LSA from joint time-series analysis of ERS and Envisat data. Vertical velocity rates from levelling are obtained from a consistent adjustment of more than 40 000 measured height differences using a kinematic displacement model. Horizontal velocity rates in east and north direction are calculated from a time-series analysis of daily coordinate estimates at 76 permanently operating GNSS sites in the URG region. As the locations, at which the measurement data of PS-InSAR, levelling and GNSS reside, do not coincide, spatial interpolation is needed during several steps of the rigorous processing. We use Ordinary Kriging to interpolate from a given set of data points to the locations of interest with a special focus on the modeling and propagation of errors. The final 3-D velocity field is calculated at a 200 m grid, which carries values only close to the location of PS points, resulting in a mean horizontal and vertical precision of 0.30 and 0.13 mm a-1, respectively. The vertical

  11. Indexing aortic valve area by body surface area increases the prevalence of severe aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jander, Nikolaus; Gohlke-Bärwolf, Christa; Bahlmann, Edda

    2014-01-01

    To account for differences in body size in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is divided by body surface area (BSA) to calculate indexed AVA (AVAindex). Cut-off values for severe stenosis are......To account for differences in body size in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is divided by body surface area (BSA) to calculate indexed AVA (AVAindex). Cut-off values for severe stenosis are...

  12. Area-averaged evapotranspiration over a heterogeneous land surface: aggregation of multi-point EC flux measurements with a high-resolution land-cover map and footprint analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The determination of area-averaged evapotranspiration (ET at the satellite pixel scale/model grid scale over a heterogeneous land surface plays a significant role in developing and improving the parameterization schemes of the remote sensing based ET estimation models and general hydro-meteorological models. The Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER flux matrix provided a unique opportunity to build an aggregation scheme for area-averaged fluxes. On the basis of the HiWATER flux matrix dataset and high-resolution land-cover map, this study focused on estimating the area-averaged ET over a heterogeneous landscape with footprint analysis and multivariate regression. The procedure is as follows. Firstly, quality control and uncertainty estimation for the data of the flux matrix, including 17 eddy-covariance (EC sites and four groups of large-aperture scintillometers (LASs, were carefully done. Secondly, the representativeness of each EC site was quantitatively evaluated; footprint analysis was also performed for each LAS path. Thirdly, based on the high-resolution land-cover map derived from aircraft remote sensing, a flux aggregation method was established combining footprint analysis and multiple-linear regression. Then, the area-averaged sensible heat fluxes obtained from the EC flux matrix were validated by the LAS measurements. Finally, the area-averaged ET of the kernel experimental area of HiWATER was estimated. Compared with the formerly used and rather simple approaches, such as the arithmetic average and area-weighted methods, the present scheme is not only with a much better database, but also has a solid grounding in physics and mathematics in the integration of area-averaged fluxes over a heterogeneous surface. Results from this study, both instantaneous and daily ET at the satellite pixel scale, can be used for the validation of relevant remote sensing models and land surface process models. Furthermore, this

  13. Hand burns surface area: A rule of thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargan, Dallan; Mandal, Anirban; Shokrollahi, Kayvan

    2018-03-11

    Rapid estimation of acute hand burns is important for communication, standardisation of assessment, rehabilitation and research. Use of an individual's own thumbprint area as a fraction of their total hand surface area was evaluated to assess potential utility in hand burn evaluation. Ten health professionals used an ink-covered dominant thumb pulp to cover the surfaces of their own non-dominant hand using the contralateral thumb. Thumbprints were assessed on the web spaces, sides of digits and dorsum and palm beyond the distal wrist crease. Hand surface area was estimated using the Banerjee and Sen method, and thumbprint ellipse area calculated to assess correlation. Mean estimated total hand surface area was 390.0cm 2 ±SD 51.5 (328.3-469.0), mean thumbprint ellipse area was 5.5cm 2 ±SD 1.3 (3.7-8.4), and mean estimated print number was 73.5±SD 11.0 (range 53.1-87.8, 95% CI 6.8). The mean observed number of thumbprints on one hand was 80.1±SD 5.9 (range 70.0-88.0, 95% CI 3.7), χ 2 =0.009. The combined mean of digital prints was 42, comprising a mean of two prints each on volar, dorsal, radial and ulnar digit surfaces, except volar middle and ring (3 prints each). Palmar prints were 15 (11-19), dorsal 15 (11-19), ulnar palm border 3, first web space 2, and second, third and fourth web spaces one each. Using the surface of the palm alone, excluding digits, as 0.5% of total body surface area, the area of one thumbprint was approximated as 1/30th of 1%. We have demonstrated how thumbprint area serves as a simple method for evaluating hand burn surface area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Innovative Use of Cr(VI) Plume Depictions and Pump-and-Treat Capture Analysis to Estimate Risks of Contaminant Discharge to Surface Water at Hanford Reactor Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Chuck W.; Hanson, James P.; Ivarson, Kristine A.; Tonkin, M.

    2015-01-14

    The Hanford Site nuclear reactor operations required large quantities of high-quality cooling water, which was treated with chemicals including sodium dichromate dihydrate for corrosion control. Cooling water leakage, as well as intentional discharge of cooling water to ground during upset conditions, produced extensive groundwater recharge mounds consisting largely of contaminated cooling water and resulted in wide distribution of hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) contamination in the unconfined aquifer. The 2013 Cr(VI) groundwater plumes in the 100 Areas cover approximately 6 km2 (1500 acres), primarily in the 100-HR-3 and 100-KR-4 groundwater operable units (OUs). The Columbia River is a groundwater discharge boundary; where the plumes are adjacent to the Columbia River there remains a potential to discharge Cr(VI) to the river at concentrations above water quality criteria. The pump-and-treat systems along the River Corridor are operating with two main goals: 1) protection of the Columbia River, and 2) recovery of contaminant mass. An evaluation of the effectiveness of the pump-and-treat systems was needed to determine if the Columbia River was protected from contamination, and also to determine where additional system modifications may be needed. In response to this need, a technique for assessing the river protection was developed which takes into consideration seasonal migration of the plume and hydraulic performance of the operating well fields. Groundwater contaminant plume maps are generated across the Hanford Site on an annual basis. The assessment technique overlays the annual plume and the capture efficiency maps for the various pump and treat systems. The river protection analysis technique was prepared for use at the Hanford site and is described in detail in M.J. Tonkin, 2013. Interpolated capture frequency maps, based on mapping dynamic water level observed in observation wells and derived water levels in the vicinity of extraction and injection wells

  15. Particle surface area and bacterial activity in recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; von Ahnen, Mathis; Fernandes, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Suspended particles in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) provide surface area that can be colonized by bacteria. More particles accumulate as the intensity of recirculation increases thus potentially increasing the bacterial carrying capacity of the systems. Applying a recent, rapid, culture...... but may provide significant surface area. Hence, the study substantiates that particles in RAS provide surface area supporting bacterial activity, and that particles play a key role in controlling the bacterial carrying capacity at least in less intensive RAS. Applying fast, culture-independent techniques......-independent fluorometric detection method (Bactiquant®) for measuring bacterial activity, the current study explored the relationship between total particle surface area (TSA, derived from the size distribution of particles >5 μm) and bacterial activity in freshwater RAS operated at increasing intensity of recirculation...

  16. Statistical analysis of lake levels and field study of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015: Chapter A of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; White, Eric A.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Morel, Daniel L.; Heck, Jessica M.

    2016-10-19

    Water levels declined from 2003 to 2011 in many lakes in Ramsey and Washington Counties in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota; however, water levels in other northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes increased during the same period. Groundwater and surface-water exchanges can be important in determining lake levels where these exchanges are an important component of the water budget of a lake. An understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area has been limited by the lack of hydrologic data. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and Minnesota Department of Health, completed a field and statistical study assessing lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. This report documents the analysis of collected hydrologic, water-quality, and geophysical data; and existing hydrologic and geologic data to (1) assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes, (2) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (3) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (4) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake. Statistical analyses of lake levels during short-term (2002–10) and long-term (1925–2014) periods were completed to help understand lake-level changes across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area. Comparison of 2002–10 lake levels to several landscape and geologic characteristics explained variability in lake-level changes for 96 northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. Application of several statistical methods determined that (1) closed-basin lakes (without an active outlet) had larger lake-level declines than flow-through lakes with an outlet; (2

  17. On $L_p$ Affine Surface Area and Curvature Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between $L_p$ affine surface area and curvature measures is investigated. As a result, a new representation of the existing notion of $L_p$ affine surface area depending only on curvature measures is derived. Direct proofs of the equivalence between this new representation and those previously known are provided. The proofs show that the new representation is, in a sense, "polar" to that of Lutwak's and "dual" to that of Sch\\"utt & Werner's.

  18. Quantifying object and material surface areas in residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Ming, Katherine Y.; Singer, Brett C.

    2005-01-05

    The dynamic behavior of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor environments depends, in part, on sorptive interactions between VOCs in the gas phase and material surfaces. Since information on the types and quantities of interior material surfaces is not generally available, this pilot-scale study was conducted in occupied residences to develop and demonstrate a method for quantifying surface areas of objects and materials in rooms. Access to 33 rooms in nine residences consisting of bathrooms, bedroom/offices and common areas was solicited from among research group members living in the East San Francisco Bay Area. A systematic approach was implemented for measuring rooms and objects from 300 cm{sup 2} and larger. The ventilated air volumes of the rooms were estimated and surface area-to-volume ratios were calculated for objects and materials, each segregated into 20 or more categories. Total surface area-to-volume ratios also were determined for each room. The bathrooms had the highest total surface area-to-volume ratios. Bedrooms generally had higher ratios than common areas consisting of kitchens, living/dining rooms and transitional rooms. Total surface area-to-volume ratios for the 12 bedrooms ranged between 2.3 and 4.7 m{sup 2} m{sup -3}. The importance of individual objects and materials with respect to sorption will depend upon the sorption coefficients for the various VOC/materials combinations. When combined, the highly permeable material categories, which may contribute to significant interactions, had a median ratio of about 0.5 m{sup 2} m{sup -3} for all three types of rooms.

  19. SURFACE ENERGY BALANCE OVER ORANGE ORCHARD USING SURFACE RENEWAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Barbagallo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Reliable estimation of surface sensible and latent heat flux is the most important process to appraise energy and mass exchange among atmosphere and biosphere. In this study the surface energy fluxes were measured over an irrigated orange orchard during 2005-2008 monitoring periods using a Surface Renewal- Energy Balance approach. The experimental area is located in a representative orchard growing area of eastern Sicily (Italy. The performance of Surface Renewal (SR analysis for estimating sensible heat flux (H was analysed and evaluated in terms of correlation with H fluxes from the eddy covariance (EC method. Study revealed that the mean available energy (RN- G and latent heat flux (LE were of about 300 W m-2 and 237 W m-2, respectively, during dry periods and unstable-case atmospheric conditions. The estimated crop coefficient Kc values for the orchard crop averaged close to 0.80, which is considerably higher than previous FAO studies that found the value to be 0.65 for citrus with 70% of ground cover. The intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (LI PAR by the crop was measured and relationships between LAI and crop coefficient (Kc were established.

  20. Surface area considerations for corroding N reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Pitner, A.L.

    1996-06-01

    The N Reactor fuel is corroding at sites where the Zircaloy cladding was damaged when the fuel was discharged from the reactor. Corroding areas are clearly visible on the fuel stored in open cans in the K East Basin. There is a need to estimate the area of the corroding uranium to analyze aspects of fuel behavior as it is transitioned. from current wet storage to dry storage. In this report, the factors that contribute to open-quotes trueclose quotes surface area are analyzed in terms of what is currently known about the N Reactor fuel. Using observations from a visual examinations of the fuel in the K East wet storage facility, a value for the corroding geometric area is estimated. Based on observations of corroding uranium and surface roughness values for other metals, a surface roughness factor is also estimated and applied to the corroding K East fuel to provide an estimated open-quotes trueclose quotes surface area. While the estimated area may be modified as additional data become available from fuel characterization studies, the estimate provides a basis to assess effects of exposed uranium metal surfaces on fuel behavior in operations involved in transitioning from wet to dry storage, during shipment and staging, conditioning, and dry interim storage

  1. Sampling and analysis of 100 Area springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This report is submitted in fulfillment of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-30-01, submit a report to EPA and Ecology evaluating the impact to the Columbia River from contaminated springs and seeps as described in the operable unit work plans listed in M-30-03. Springs, seeps, sediments, and the Columbia River were sampled for chemical and radiological analyses during the period September 16 through October 21, 1991. A total of 26 locations were sampled. Results of these analyses show that radiological and nonradiological contaminants continue to enter the Columbia River from the retired reactor areas of the 100 Area via the springs. The primary contaminants in the springs are strontium-90, tritium, and chromium. These contaminants were detected in concentrations above drinking water standards. Analysis of total organic carbon were run on all water samples collected; there is no conclusive evidence that organic constituents are entering the river through the springs. Total organic carbon analyses were generally higher for the surface water than for the springs. The results of this study will be used to develop a focused, yet flexible, long-term spring sampling program. Analysis of Columbia River water samples collected at the Hanford Townsite (i.e., downstream of the reactor areas) did not detect any Hanford-specific contaminants

  2. Assessment of dialyzer surface in online hemodiafiltration; objective choice of dialyzer surface area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Maduell

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: The increase in 40% and 80% of dialyzer surface area entails an increase in convective volume of 6 and 16% respectively, showing minimal differences both in convective volume and clearance capacity when UFC was greater than 45 mL/h/mmHg. It is advisable to optimise dialyser efficiency to the smallest surface area possible, adjusting treatment prescription.

  3. Specific surface area evaluation method by using scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrescu, Camelia; Petrescu, Cristian; Axinte, Adrian

    2000-01-01

    Ceramics are among the most interesting materials for a large category of applications, including both industry and health. Among the characteristic of the ceramic materials, the specific surface area is often difficult to evaluate.The paper presents a method of evaluation for the specific surface area of two ceramic powders by means of scanning electron microscopy measurements and an original method of computing the specific surface area.Cumulative curves are used to calculate the specific surface area under assumption that the values of particles diameters follow a normal logarithmic distribution. For two powder types, X7R and NPO the results are the following: - for the density ρ (g/cm 2 ), 5.5 and 6.0, respectively; - for the average diameter D bar (μm), 0.51 and 0.53, respectively; - for σ, 1.465 and 1.385, respectively; - for specific surface area (m 2 /g), 1.248 and 1.330, respectively. The obtained results are in good agreement with the values measured by conventional methods. (authors)

  4. Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using a Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR and Kinematic Structural Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teplow, William J. [US Geothermal, Inc., Boise, ID (United States); Warren, Ian [US Geothermal, Inc., Boise, ID (United States)

    2015-08-12

    The DOE cost-share program applied innovative and cutting edge seismic surveying and processing, permanent scatter interferometry-synthetic aperture radar (PSInSAR) and structural kinematics to the exploration problem of locating and mapping largeaperture fractures (LAFs) for the purpose of targeting geothermal production wells. The San Emidio geothermal resource area, which is under lease to USG, contains production wells that have encountered and currently produce from LAFs in the southern half of the resource area (Figure 2). The USG lease block, incorporating the northern extension of the San Emidio geothermal resource, extends 3 miles north of the operating wellfield. The northern lease block was known to contain shallow thermal waters but was previously unexplored by deep drilling. Results of the Phase 1 exploration program are described in detail in the Phase 1 Final Report (Teplow et al., 2011). The DOE cost shared program was completed as planned on September 30, 2014. This report summarizes results from all of Phase 1 and 2 activities.

  5. Atomic force microscopy analysis of different surface treatments of Ti dental implant surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathomarco, R.V.; Solorzano, G.; Elias, C.N.; Prioli, R.

    2004-01-01

    The surface of commercial unalloyed titanium, used in dental implants, was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. The morphology, roughness, and surface area of the samples, submitted to mechanically-induced erosion, chemical etching and a combination of both, were compared. The results show that surface treatments strongly influence the dental implant physical and chemical properties. An analysis of the length dependence of the implant surface roughness shows that, for scan sizes larger than 50 μm, the average surface roughness is independent of the scanning length and that the surface treatments lead to average surface roughness in the range of 0.37 up to 0.48 μm. It is shown that the implant surface energy is sensitive to the titanium surface area. As the area increases there is a decrease in the surface contact angle

  6. Atomic force microscopy analysis of different surface treatments of Ti dental implant surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathomarco, Ti R. V.; Solorzano, G.; Elias, C. N.; Prioli, R.

    2004-06-01

    The surface of commercial unalloyed titanium, used in dental implants, was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. The morphology, roughness, and surface area of the samples, submitted to mechanically-induced erosion, chemical etching and a combination of both, were compared. The results show that surface treatments strongly influence the dental implant physical and chemical properties. An analysis of the length dependence of the implant surface roughness shows that, for scan sizes larger than 50 μm, the average surface roughness is independent of the scanning length and that the surface treatments lead to average surface roughness in the range of 0.37 up to 0.48 μm. It is shown that the implant surface energy is sensitive to the titanium surface area. As the area increases there is a decrease in the surface contact angle.

  7. STEREOLOGICAL ESTIMATION OF SURFACE AREA FROM DIGITAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Ziegel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A sampling design of local stereology is combined with a method from digital stereology to yield a novel estimator of surface area based on counts of configurations observed in a digitization of an isotropic 2- dimensional slice with thickness s. As a tool, a result of the second author and J. Rataj on infinitesimal increase of volumes of morphological transforms is refined and used. The proposed surface area estimator is asymptotically unbiased in the case of sets contained in the ball centred at the origin with radius s and in the case of balls centred at the origin with unknown radius. For general shapes bounds for the asymptotic expected relative worst case error are given. A simulation example is discussed for surface area estimation based on 2×2×2-configurations.

  8. MCO gas composition for low reactive surface areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    This calculation adjusts modeled output (HNF-SD-SNF-TI-040, Rev. 2) by considering lower reactive fuel surface areas and by increasing the input helium backfill overpressure from 0.5 to 1.5 atm (2.5 atm abs) to verify that MCO gas-phase oxygen concentrations can remain below 4 mole % over a 40 year interim period under a worst case condition of zero reactive surface area. Added backfill gas will dilute any gases generated during interim storage and is a strategy within the current design capability. The zero reactive surface area represents a hypothetical worst case example where there is no fuel scrap and/or damaged spent fuel rods in an MCO. Also included is a hypothetical case where only K East fuel exists in an MCO with an added backfill overpressure of 0.5 atm (1.5 atm abs)

  9. OBSERVED ASTEROID SURFACE AREA IN THE THERMAL INFRARED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, C. R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Kramer, E.; Sonnett, S. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wright, E. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The rapid accumulation of thermal infrared observations and shape models of asteroids has led to increased interest in thermophysical modeling. Most of these infrared observations are unresolved. We consider what fraction of an asteroid’s surface area contributes the bulk of the emitted thermal flux for two model asteroids of different shapes over a range of thermal parameters. The resulting observed surface in the infrared is generally more fragmented than the area observed in visible wavelengths, indicating high sensitivity to shape. For objects with low values of the thermal parameter, small fractions of the surface contribute the majority of thermally emitted flux. Calculating observed areas could enable the production of spatially resolved thermal inertia maps from non-resolved observations of asteroids.

  10. Fire Hazards Analysis for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    This documents the Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area. The Interim Storage Cask, Rad-Vault, and NAC-1 Cask are analyzed for fire hazards and the 200 Area Interim Storage Area is assessed according to HNF-PRO-350 and the objectives of DOE Order 5480 7A. This FHA addresses the potential fire hazards associated with the Interim Storage Area (ISA) facility in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480 7A. It is intended to assess the risk from fire to ensure there are no undue fire hazards to site personnel and the public and to ensure property damage potential from fire is within acceptable limits. This FHA will be in the form of a graded approach commensurate with the complexity of the structure or area and the associated fire hazards

  11. Stereological estimation of surface area from digital images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegel, Johanna; Kiderlen, Markus

    2010-01-01

    A sampling design of local stereology is combined with a method from digital stereology to yield a novel estimator of surface area based on counts of configurations observed in a digitization of an isotropic 2- dimensional slice with thickness s. As a tool, a result of the second author and J....... Rataj on infinitesimal increase of volumes of morphological transforms is refined and used. The proposed surface area estimator is asymptotically unbiased in the case of sets contained in the ball centred at the origin with radius s and in the case of balls centred at the origin with unknown radius...

  12. Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, R.C.; Quigley, G.P.

    1996-12-17

    Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source is disclosed. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm{sup 2} emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm{sup 2} at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing. 3 figs.

  13. High surface area carbon and process for its production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanos, Jimmy; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter; Rash, Tyler; Shah, Parag; Suppes, Galen

    2016-12-13

    Activated carbon materials and methods of producing and using activated carbon materials are provided. In particular, biomass-derived activated carbon materials and processes of producing the activated carbon materials with prespecified surface areas and pore size distributions are provided. Activated carbon materials with preselected high specific surface areas, porosities, sub-nm (<1 nm) pore volumes, and supra-nm (1-5 nm) pore volumes may be achieved by controlling the degree of carbon consumption and metallic potassium intercalation into the carbon lattice during the activation process.

  14. Influence of Ear Surface Area on Heat Tolerance of Composite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative importance of ear surface area on heat tolerance of composite rabbit population was evaluated. The study was conducted during the dry and rainy seasons, climatic data were recorded to obtain categorical heat stress index. Physiological parameters, growth performance, ear length and ear width of the rabbits ...

  15. Discrepancy between body surface area and body composition in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobäus, Nicole; Küpferling, Susanne; Lorenz, Marie-Luise; Norman, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Calculation of cytostatic dose is typically based on body surface area (BSA) regardless of body composition. The aim of this study was to assess the discrepancy between BSA and low fat-free mass (FFM) by investigating the prevalence of low FFM with regard to BSA in 630 cancer patients. First, BSA was calculated according to DuBois and DuBois. Patients were divided into 6 categories with respect to their BSA. Each BSA category was further divided into 3 groups according to FFM: low (FFM), normal (-0.99 and 0.99 SD of mean FFM) or high (>1 SD of mean FFM), which was derived through bioelectric impedance analysis. FFM was reduced in 15.7% of patients, 69% had normal and 15.2% had high FFM. In patients with low FFM (i.e., more than-1 SD lower than the mean FFM within their BSA group), body mass index and fatigue were higher whereas functional status was reduced. Moreover, in the subcohort of patients receiving chemotherapy, absolute FFM [Hazard ratio (HR) = 0.970, P = 0.026] as well as the allocation to the low FFM group (HR = 1.644, P = 0.025) emerged as predictors of increased 1-yr mortality. In conclusion, there was a large discrepancy between FFM and BSA. Particularly women were affected by low FFM.

  16. Surface Rupture Effects on Earthquake Moment-Area Scaling Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yingdi; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Miyakoshi, Ken; Irikura, Kojiro

    2017-09-01

    Empirical earthquake scaling relations play a central role in fundamental studies of earthquake physics and in current practice of earthquake hazard assessment, and are being refined by advances in earthquake source analysis. A scaling relation between seismic moment ( M 0) and rupture area ( A) currently in use for ground motion prediction in Japan features a transition regime of the form M 0- A 2, between the well-recognized small (self-similar) and very large (W-model) earthquake regimes, which has counter-intuitive attributes and uncertain theoretical underpinnings. Here, we investigate the mechanical origin of this transition regime via earthquake cycle simulations, analytical dislocation models and numerical crack models on strike-slip faults. We find that, even if stress drop is assumed constant, the properties of the transition regime are controlled by surface rupture effects, comprising an effective rupture elongation along-dip due to a mirror effect and systematic changes of the shape factor relating slip to stress drop. Based on this physical insight, we propose a simplified formula to account for these effects in M 0- A scaling relations for strike-slip earthquakes.

  17. Surface water and groundwater interaction in Marala - Khanki area, Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, W.; Ahmad, M.; Latif, Z.; Tariq, J.A.; Malik, M.R.

    2011-07-01

    Isotope hydrological investigations were carried out in two selected areas of Indus Basin viz. Haripur Area and Chashma- Taunsa Area for elucidating various aspects of surface water and groundwater interaction. Groundwater samples were collected on seasonal basis (low and high river discharge periods) while surface water samples were collected more frequently (weekly or monthly basis). Isotopic data suggested that there is no contribution of surface water to groundwater recharge in Haripur Area and rain is the prevailing source of groundwater recharge. The data further revealed that isotopic values of the Haripur pocket of Tarbela Lake are higher than those of Main Lake / Indus River meaning that there is a significant contribution of base flow in this pocket. Indus River appeared to be the dominant source of groundwater recharge at most of the locations in Chashma- Taunsa Area. Isotopic data of Indus River showed an increase at Taunsa as compared to Chashma in low flow period indicating the high contribution of base flow at this point in time. Stable isotopes were successfully used to quantify the base flow contribution. (author)

  18. Growth of contact area between rough surfaces under normal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stesky, R. M.; Hannan, S. S.

    1987-05-01

    The contact area between deforming rough surfaces in marble, alabaster, and quartz was measured from thin sections of surfaces bonded under load with low viscosity resin epoxy. The marble and alabaster samples had contact areas that increased with stress at an accelerating rate. This result suggests that the strength of the asperity contacts decreased progressively during the deformation, following some form of strain weakening relationship. This conclusion is supported by petrographic observation of the thin sections that indicate that much of the deformation was cataclastic, with minor twinning of calcite and kinking of gypsum. In the case of the quartz, the observed contact area was small and increased approximately linearly with normal stress. Only the irreversible cataclastic deformation was observed; however strain-induced birefringence and cracking of the epoxy, not observed with the other rocks, suggests that significant elastic deformation occurred, but recovered during unloading.

  19. Water is a poor solvent for densely grafted poly(ethylene oxide) chains: a conclusion drawn from a self-consistent field theory-based analysis of neutron reflectivity and surface pressure-area isotherm data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoyoung; Kim, Dae Hwan; Witte, Kevin N; Ohn, Kimberly; Choi, Je; Akgun, Bulent; Satija, Sushil; Won, You-Yeon

    2012-06-21

    By use of a combined experimental and theoretical approach, a model poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) brush system, prepared by spreading a poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PEO-PnBA) amphiphilic diblock copolymer onto an air-water interface, was investigated. The polymer segment density profiles of the PEO brush in the direction normal to the air-water interface under various grafting density conditions were determined by using the neutron reflectivity (NR) measurement technique. To achieve a theoretically sound analysis of the reflectivity data, we used a data analysis method that utilizes the self-consistent field (SCF) theoretical modeling as a tool for predicting expected reflectivity results for comparison with the experimental data. Using this data analysis technique, we discovered that the effective Flory-Huggins interaction parameter of the PEO brush chains is significantly greater than that corresponding to the θ condition in Flory-Huggins solutions (i.e., χ(PEO-water)(brush chains)/χ(PEO-water)(θ condition) ≈ 1.2), suggesting that contrary to what is more commonly observed for PEO in normal situations (χ(PEO-water)(free chains)/χ(PEO-water)(θ condition) ≈ 0.92), the PEO chains are actually not "hydrophilic" when they exist as polymer brush chains, because of the many body interactions that are forced to be effective in the brush situation. This result is further supported by the fact that the surface pressures of the PEO brush calculated on the basis of the measured χ(PEO-water) value are in close agreement with the experimental surface pressure-area isotherm data. The SCF theoretical analysis of the surface pressure behavior of the PEO brush also suggests that even though the grafted PEO chains experience a poor solvent environment, the PEO brush layer exhibits positive surface pressures, because the hydrophobicity of the PEO brush chains (which favors compression) is insufficient to overcome the opposing effect of the chain

  20. In vitro and in vivo toxicities of sediment and surface water in an area near a major steel industry of Korea: endocrine disruption, reproduction, or survival effects combined with instrumental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Sangwoo; Kim, Cheolmin; Liu, Xiaoshan; Seo, Jihyun; Jung, Hyorin; Ji, Kyunghee; Hong, Seongjin; Park, Jinsoon; Khim, Jong Seong; Yoon, Seokmin; Lee, Woojin; Park, Jeongim; Choi, Kyungho

    2014-02-01

    The influence of industrial and/or municipal contaminant inputs on the aquatic environment of Pohang, Korea was investigated, with a focus on bioassay combined with instrumental analysis. Pohang is the most heavily populated city in Gyeongsangbuk-do province of Korea, with more than half a million residents, and also hosts the nation's biggest steel manufacturer and related industries. Sediment (n=15) and surface water samples (n=17) were collected from Hyeongsan River which runs across the Pohang city, in two separate events, i.e., June 2010 and February 2011. Sediment samples were first Soxhlet-extracted (raw extract) and were measured for estrogenicity using H295R cell line, and also analyzed for alkylphenols (APs), bisphenol A (BPA), PAHs, and PCBs. For sediment samples which exhibited greatest effects in the cell line, further fractionation was performed into non-polar, mid-polar, and polar portions. In surface water samples, heavy metals were also analyzed. Among 15 sediment samples, station S2 near the steel industry complex and station M3 near the municipal area showed the greatest sex hormone changes, and these changes were generally explained by the fractions which contained APs and BPA. Principal component analysis (PCA) however suggests that chemicals that were not analyzed in the present study would better explain endocrine disruption capacity of sediments. In water samples, adverse effects on hatchability and growth of Japanese medaka fish, and on Daphnia reproduction were noted following exposure to six water samples collected from stations near industrial and municipal areas. Several heavy metals and nonylphenol (NP) concentrations exceeded surface water quality guidelines, suggesting adverse effects of contamination inputs from both industrial and municipal activities. Observed estrogenicities in stations such as S2 and M3 warrant further investigations on longer term ecosystem impacts near industrial and municipal areas. The levels of major

  1. Assessment of dialyzer surface in online hemodiafiltration; objective choice of dialyzer surface area

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Maduell; Raquel Ojeda; Marta Arias-Guillén; Giannina Bazan; Manel Vera; Néstor Fontseré; Elisabeth Massó; Miquel Gómez; Lida Rodas; Mario Jiménez-Hernández; Gastón Piñeiro; Nayra Rico

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Online haemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) is most effective technique; several randomised studies and meta-analyses have shown a reduction in mortality, with a directly related association with convective volume. At present, it is not properly established whether the increasing in dialyser surface area may suppose better outcomes in terms of convective and clearance efficacy. The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of increase in dialyser surface area on the convective volume...

  2. Small carpal bone surface area, a characteristic of Turner's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, R.H.; Done, S.; Correia, J.A.; Crawford, J.D.; Kushner, D.C.; Herman, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    An abnormality which has received little attention but may be easily recognized on radiographs of the hand of patients with Turner's syndrome is described. Eleven of thirty-one patients (35.5%) with Turner's syndrome were shown on radiographs of the hand to have a visually detectable smallness of the bone surface area of the carpus when compared to the area of the second through fifth metacarpals. Values for the ''C/M'' ratio (the area of the carpals divided by the area of the second through fifth metacarpals) were calculated for films of 31 individuals with gonadal dysgenesis and compared with those from bone age-matched films of seventy-six individuals with normal development of the hand and wrist. A consistent difference with minimal overlap was documented. (orig./WL)

  3. Surface analysis and techniques in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Smentkowski, Vincent S

    2014-01-01

    This book highlights state-of-the-art surface analytical instrumentation, advanced data analysis tools, and the use of complimentary surface analytical instrumentation to perform a complete analysis of biological systems.

  4. Sintering of uranium oxide of high specific surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel, Alain; Francois, Bernard; Delmas, Roger; Caillat, Roger

    1959-01-01

    The extent to which a uranium oxide powder deriving from ammonium uranate or uranium peroxide lends itself to the sintering process depends largely on its specific surface area. When this is greater than 5 m 2 / g there is an optimum temperature for sintering in hydrogen. This temperature becomes less as the specific area of the powder is greater. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 249, p. 1045-1047, sitting of 21 September 1959 [fr

  5. Hand surface area estimation formula using 3D anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yao-Wen; Yu, Chi-Yuang

    2010-11-01

    Hand surface area is an important reference in occupational hygiene and many other applications. This study derives a formula for the palm surface area (PSA) and hand surface area (HSA) based on three-dimensional (3D) scan data. Two-hundred and seventy subjects, 135 males and 135 females, were recruited for this study. The hand was measured using a high-resolution 3D hand scanner. Precision and accuracy of the scanner is within 0.67%. Both the PSA and HSA were computed using the triangular mesh summation method. A comparison between this study and previous textbook values (such as in the U.K. teaching text and Lund and Browder chart discussed in the article) was performed first to show that previous textbooks overestimated the PSA by 12.0% and HSA by 8.7% (for the male, PSA 8.5% and HSA 4.7%, and for the female, PSA 16.2% and HSA 13.4%). Six 1D measurements were then extracted semiautomatically for use as candidate estimators for the PSA and HSA estimation formula. Stepwise regressions on these six 1D measurements and variable dependency test were performed. Results show that a pair of measurements (hand length and hand breadth) were able to account for 96% of the HSA variance and up to 98% of the PSA variance. A test of the gender-specific formula indicated that gender is not a significant factor in either the PSA or HSA estimation.

  6. Solvent accessible surface area (ASA) of simulated phospholipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuchsen, E.; Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Westh, P.

    2003-01-01

    The membrane-solvent interface has been investigated through calculations of the solvent accessible surface area (ASA) for simulated membranes of DPPC and POPE. For DPPC at 52 degreesC we found an ASA of 126 +/- 8 Angstrom(2) per lipid molecule, equivalent to twice the projected lateral area......, even the most exposed parts of the PC head-group show average ASAs of less than half of its maximal or 'fully hydrated' value. The average ASA of a simulated POPE membrane was 96 +/- 7 Angstrom(2) per lipid. The smaller value than for DPPC reflects much lower ASA of the ammonium ion, which is partially...... compensated by increased exposure of the ethylene and phosphate moieties. The ASA of the polar moieties Of (PO4, NH3 and COO) constitutes 65% of the total accessible area for POPE, making this interface more polar than that of DPPC. It is suggested that ASA information can be valuable in attempts...

  7. Technology of surface wastewater purification, including high-rise construction areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyba, Anna; Skolubovich, Yury

    2018-03-01

    Despite on the improvements in the quality of high-rise construction areas and industrial wastewater treatment, the pollution of water bodies continues to increase. This is due to the organized and unorganized surface untreated sewage entry into the reservoirs. The qualitative analysis of some cities' surface sewage composition is carried out in the work. Based on the published literature review, the characteristic contamination present in surface wastewater was identified. The paper proposes a new technology for the treatment of surface sewage and presents the results of preliminary studies.

  8. Applied surface analysis of metal materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The applications of surface analytical techniques in the solution of technological problems in metalurgy and engineering are reviewed. Some important application areas such as corrosion, grain boundary segregation and metallurgical coatings are presented together with specific requirements for the type of information which is necessary for solving particular problems. The techniques discussed include: electron spectroscopies (Auger Electron Spectroscopy, Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis), ion spectroscopies (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, Ion Scattering Spectroscopy), Rutherford Back-Scattering, nuclear reaction analysis, optical methods (Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectrometry), ellipsometry, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, the Moessbauer spectroscopy and methods of consumptive depth profile analysis. Principles and analytical features of these methods are demonstrated and examples of their applications to metallurgy are taken from recent literature. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs., 112 refs

  9. Automatic emotional expression analysis from eye area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoç, Betül; Arslan, Ahmet

    2015-02-01

    Eyes play an important role in expressing emotions in nonverbal communication. In the present study, emotional expression classification was performed based on the features that were automatically extracted from the eye area. Fırst, the face area and the eye area were automatically extracted from the captured image. Afterwards, the parameters to be used for the analysis through discrete wavelet transformation were obtained from the eye area. Using these parameters, emotional expression analysis was performed through artificial intelligence techniques. As the result of the experimental studies, 6 universal emotions consisting of expressions of happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, anger and fear were classified at a success rate of 84% using artificial neural networks.

  10. Molecularly-Limited Fractal Surface Area of Mineral Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Jandacka

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the specific surface area (SSA of powders is not sufficiently described in the literature in spite of its nontrivial contribution to adsorption and dissolution processes. Fractal geometry provides a way to determine this parameter via relation SSA ~ x(D − 3s(2 − D, where x (m is the particle size and s (m is a scale. Such a relation respects nano-, micro-, or macro-topography on the surface. Within this theory, the fractal dimension 2 ≤ D < 3 and scale parameter s plays a significant role. The parameter D may be determined from BET or dissolution measurements on several samples, changing the powder particle sizes or sizes of adsorbate molecules. If the fractality of the surface is high, the SSA does not depend on the particle size distribution and vice versa. In this paper, the SSA parameter is analyzed from the point of view of adsorption and dissolution processes. In the case of adsorption, a new equation for the SSA, depending on the term (2 − D∙(s2 − sBET/sBET, is derived, where sBET and s2 are effective cross-sectional diameters for BET and new adsorbates. Determination of the SSA for the dissolution process appears to be very complicated, since the fractality of the surface may change in the process. Nevertheless, the presented equations have good application potential.

  11. Fault tree analysis for vital area identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnado, G.B.; Ortiz, N.R.

    1978-01-01

    The use of fault tree analysis techniques to systematically identify (1) the sabotage events which can lead to release of significant quantities of radioactive materials, (2) the areas of the nuclear power plant in which the sabotage events can be accomplished, and (3) the areas of the plant which must be protected to assure that release does not occur are discussed

  12. Indexing Glomerular Filtration Rate to Body Surface Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redal-Baigorri, Belén; Rasmussen, Knud; Heaf, James Goya

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Kidney function is mostly expressed in terms of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). A common feature is the expression as ml/min per 1.73 m(2) , which represents the adjustment of the individual kidney function to a standard body surface area (BSA) to allow comparison between individuals....... We investigated the impact of indexing GFR to BSA in cancer patients, as this BSA indexation might affect the reported individual kidney function. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 895 adults who had their kidney function measured with (51) chrome ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. Mean values of BSA...

  13. Asymptotic variance of grey-scale surface area estimators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Anne Marie

    Grey-scale local algorithms have been suggested as a fast way of estimating surface area from grey-scale digital images. Their asymptotic mean has already been described. In this paper, the asymptotic behaviour of the variance is studied in isotropic and sufficiently smooth settings, resulting...... in a general asymptotic bound. For compact convex sets with nowhere vanishing Gaussian curvature, the asymptotics can be described more explicitly. As in the case of volume estimators, the variance is decomposed into a lattice sum and an oscillating term of at most the same magnitude....

  14. EFFECT OF RATIO OF SURFACE AREA ON THE CORROSION RATE

    OpenAIRE

    Dody Prayitno; M. Irsyad

    2018-01-01

    Aluminum and steel are used to be a construction for a building outdoor panel. Aluminum and steel are connected by bolt and nut. An atmosphere due to a corrosion of the aluminum. The corrosion possibly to cause the hole diameter of bolt and nut to become larger. Thus the bolt and nut can not enough strong to hold the panel. The panel may collapse. The aim of the research is first to answer a question where does the corrosion starts. The second is to know the effect of ratio surface area of st...

  15. Characterization of pigment-leached antifouling coatings using BET surface area measurements and mercury porosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2007-01-01

    of antifouling coating behaviour because the active binder surface area and porosity of the leached layer are substantially increased. A similar effect was not observed for a coating with a mixture of ZnO and TiO2 pigments. The two experimental methods are expected to be useful for practical analysis of leaching...

  16. Cortical surface area and cortical thickness in the precuneus of adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, E; Román, F J; de la Cuétara, J M; Martin-Loeches, M; Colom, R

    2015-02-12

    The precuneus has received considerable attention in the last decade, because of its cognitive functions, its role as a central node of the brain networks, and its involvement in neurodegenerative processes. Paleoneurological studies suggested that form changes in the deep parietal areas represent a major character associated with the origin of the modern human brain morphology. A recent neuroanatomical survey based on shape analysis suggests that the proportions of the precuneus are also a determinant source of overall brain geometrical differences among adult individuals, influencing the brain spatial organization. Here, we evaluate the variation of cortical thickness and cortical surface area of the precuneus in a sample of adult humans, and their relation with geometry and cognition. Precuneal thickness and surface area are not correlated. There is a marked individual variation. The right precuneus is thinner and larger than the left one, but there are relevant fluctuating asymmetries, with only a modest correlation between the hemispheres. Males have a thicker cortex but differences in cortical area are not significant between sexes. The surface area of the precuneus shows a positive allometry with the brain surface area, although the correlation is modest. The dilation/contraction of the precuneus, described as a major factor of variability within adult humans, is associated with absolute increase/decrease of its surface, but not with variation in thickness. Precuneal thickness, precuneal surface area and precuneal morphology are not correlated with psychological factors such as intelligence, working memory, attention control, and processing speed, stressing further possible roles of this area in supporting default mode functions. Beyond gross morphology, the processes underlying the large phenotypic variation of the precuneus must be further investigated through specific cellular analyses, aimed at considering differences in cellular size, density

  17. Surface States and Effective Surface Area on Photoluminescent P-Type Porous Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, S. Z.; Porras, A. Ramirez; Resto, O.; Goldstein, Y.; Many, A.; Savir, E.

    1997-01-01

    The present study is motivated by the possibility of utilizing porous silicon for spectral sensors. Pulse measurements on the porous-Si/electrolyte system are employed to determine the surface effective area and the surface-state density at various stages of the anodization process used to produce the porous material. Such measurements were combined with studies of the photoluminescence spectra. These spectra were found to shift progressively to the blue as a function of anodization time. The luminescence intensity increases initially with anodization time, reaches a maximum and then decreases with further anodization. The surface state density, on the other hand, increases with anodization time from an initial value of about 2 x 10(exp 12)/sq cm surface to about 1013 sq cm for the anodized surface. This value is attained already after -2 min anodization and upon further anodization remains fairly constant. In parallel, the effective surface area increases by a factor of 10-30. This behavior is markedly different from the one observed previously for n-type porous Si.

  18. Optimized preparation for large surface area activated carbon from date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) stone biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danish, Mohammed; Hashim, Rokiah; Ibrahim, M.N. Mohamad; Sulaiman, Othman

    2014-01-01

    The preparation of activated carbon from date stone treated with phosphoric acid was optimized using rotatable central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM). The chemical activating agent concentration and temperature of activation plays a crucial role in preparation of large surface area activated carbons. The optimized activated carbon was characterized using thermogravimetric analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the larger surface area of activated carbon from date stone can be achieved under optimum activating agent (phosphoric acid) concentration, 50.0% (8.674 mol L −1 ) and activation temperature, 900 °C. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area of optimized activated carbon was found to be 1225 m 2  g −1 , and thermogravimetric analysis revealed that 55.2% mass of optimized activated carbon was found thermally stable till 900 °C. The leading chemical functional groups found in the date stone activated carbon were aliphatic carboxylic acid salt ν(C=O) 1561.22 cm −1 and 1384.52 cm −1 , aliphatic hydrocarbons ν(C–H) 2922.99 cm −1 (C–H sym./asym. stretch frequency), aliphatic phosphates ν(P–O–C) 1054.09 cm −1 , and secondary aliphatic alcohols ν(O–H) 3419.81 cm −1 and 1159.83 cm −1 . - Highlights: • RSM optimization was done for the production of large surface area activated carbon. • Two independent variables with two responses were selected for optimization. • Characterization was done for surface area, morphology and chemical constituents. • Optimized date stone activated carbon achieved surface area 1225 m 2  g −1

  19. Effect of surface area of substrates aiming the optimization of carbon nanotube production from ferrocene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, A.G.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An optimized synthesis of CNTs by ferrocene is proposed. ► The surface area of substrates influences the nucleation of CNTs. ► The higher the surface area of substrates the lower the temperature of synthesis. ► Chemical composition of substrates has no influence on the growth of CNTs. - Abstract: Ferrocene is widely used for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes due to its ability to act as catalyst and precursor of the synthesis. This paper proposes an optimization of the synthesis of carbon nanotubes from ferrocene, using a substrate with high surface area for their nucleation. Four different surface areas of silica powder were tested: 0.5, 50, 200 and 300 m 2 /g. Raman spectroscopy and microscopy were used to characterize the product obtained and X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis were also performed to evaluate the phases of the material. It was observed that the silica powder with the highest surface area allowed the synthesis of carbon nanotubes to occur at a lower temperature (600 °C), whereas substrates with a surface area lower than 50 m 2 /g will only form carbon nanotubes at temperatures higher than 750 °C. In order to evaluate the influence of chemical composition of the substrate, three different ceramic powders were analyzed: alumina, silica and zirconia. carbon black and previously synthesized carbon nanotubes were also used as substrate for the synthesis and the results showed that the chemical composition of the substrate does not play a relevant role in the synthesis of carbon nanotubes, only the surface area showed an influence.

  20. Heavy metal contamination in surface runoff sediments of the urban area of Vilnius, Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gytautas Ignatavičius

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface runoff from urbanized territories carries a wide range of pollutants. Sediments in untreated runoff from direct discharge stormwater systems significantly contribute to urban waterway pollution. In this study, heavy metal (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ba, As and Fe contamination in surface runoff sediments of the urban area of the city of Vilnius was investigated. The surface runoff sediment samples were collected from seven dischargers with the highest volume rate of water flow and concentrations of suspended solids. The geospatial analysis of the distribution of heavy metals shows that there are several active pollution sources supplying the dischargers with contaminated sediments. Most of these areas are located in the central part of the city and in old town with intense traffic. Principal components analysis and t-test results clearly depicted the significantly different chemical compositions of winter and autumn surface sediment samples. The sampling approach and assessment of results provide a useful tool to examine the contamination that is generated in urban areas, distinguish pollution sources and give a better understanding of the importance of permeable surfaces and green areas.

  1. Global Analysis of Minimal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Tromba, Anthony J

    2010-01-01

    Many properties of minimal surfaces are of a global nature, and this is already true for the results treated in the first two volumes of the treatise. Part I of the present book can be viewed as an extension of these results. For instance, the first two chapters deal with existence, regularity and uniqueness theorems for minimal surfaces with partially free boundaries. Here one of the main features is the possibility of 'edge-crawling' along free parts of the boundary. The third chapter deals with a priori estimates for minimal surfaces in higher dimensions and for minimizers of singular integ

  2. Modeled effects on permittivity measurements of water content in high surface area porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.B.; Or, Dani

    2003-01-01

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) has become an important measurement technique for determination of porous media water content and electrical conductivity due to its accuracy, fast response and automation capability. Water content is inferred from the measured bulk dielectric constant based on travel time analysis along simple transmission lines. TDR measurements in low surface area porous media accurately describe water content using an empirical relationship. Measurement discrepancies arise from dominating influences such as bound water due to high surface area, extreme aspect ratio particles or atypical water phase configuration. Our objectives were to highlight primary factors affecting dielectric permittivity measurements for water content determination in porous mixtures, and demonstrate the influence of these factors on mixture permittivity as predicted by a three-phase dielectric mixture model. Modeled results considering water binding, higher porosity, constituent geometry or phase configuration suggest any of these effects individually are capable of causing permittivity reduction, though all likely contribute in high surface area porous media

  3. High surface area V-Mo-N materials synthesized from amine intercalated foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawiec, Piotr; Narayan Panda, Rabi; Kockrick, Emanuel; Geiger, Dorin; Kaskel, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Nanocrystalline ternary V-Mo nitrides were prepared via nitridation of amine intercalated oxide foams or bulk ternary oxides. Specific surface areas were in the range between 40 and 198 m 2 g -1 and strongly depended on the preparation method (foam or bulk oxide). Foamed precursors were favorable for vanadium rich materials, while for molybdenum rich samples bulk ternary oxides resulted in higher specific surface areas. The materials were characterized via nitrogen physisorption at 77 K, X-ray diffraction patterns, electron microscopy, and elemental analysis. - Graphical abstract: Nanocrystalline ternary V-Mo nitrides were prepared via nitridation of amine intercalated oxide foams or bulk ternary oxides. Foamed precursors were favorable for vanadium rich materials, while for molybdenum rich samples bulk ternary oxides resulted in higher specific surface areas

  4. VEGETATION COVERAGE AND IMPERVIOUS SURFACE AREA ESTIMATED BASED ON THE ESTARFM MODEL AND REMOTE SENSING MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Impervious surface area and vegetation coverage are important biophysical indicators of urban surface features which can be derived from medium-resolution images. However, remote sensing data obtained by a single sensor are easily affected by many factors such as weather conditions, and the spatial and temporal resolution can not meet the needs for soil erosion estimation. Therefore, the integrated multi-source remote sensing data are needed to carry out high spatio-temporal resolution vegetation coverage estimation. Two spatial and temporal vegetation coverage data and impervious data were obtained from MODIS and Landsat 8 remote sensing images. Based on the Enhanced Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (ESTARFM, the vegetation coverage data of two scales were fused and the data of vegetation coverage fusion (ESTARFM FVC and impervious layer with high spatiotemporal resolution (30 m, 8 day were obtained. On this basis, the spatial variability of the seepage-free surface and the vegetation cover landscape in the study area was measured by means of statistics and spatial autocorrelation analysis. The results showed that: 1 ESTARFM FVC and impermeable surface have higher accuracy and can characterize the characteristics of the biophysical components covered by the earth's surface; 2 The average impervious surface proportion and the spatial configuration of each area are different, which are affected by natural conditions and urbanization. In the urban area of Xi'an, which has typical characteristics of spontaneous urbanization, landscapes are fragmented and have less spatial dependence.

  5. Vegetation Coverage and Impervious Surface Area Estimated Based on the Estarfm Model and Remote Sensing Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rongming; Wang, Shu; Guo, Jiao; Guo, Liankun

    2018-04-01

    Impervious surface area and vegetation coverage are important biophysical indicators of urban surface features which can be derived from medium-resolution images. However, remote sensing data obtained by a single sensor are easily affected by many factors such as weather conditions, and the spatial and temporal resolution can not meet the needs for soil erosion estimation. Therefore, the integrated multi-source remote sensing data are needed to carry out high spatio-temporal resolution vegetation coverage estimation. Two spatial and temporal vegetation coverage data and impervious data were obtained from MODIS and Landsat 8 remote sensing images. Based on the Enhanced Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (ESTARFM), the vegetation coverage data of two scales were fused and the data of vegetation coverage fusion (ESTARFM FVC) and impervious layer with high spatiotemporal resolution (30 m, 8 day) were obtained. On this basis, the spatial variability of the seepage-free surface and the vegetation cover landscape in the study area was measured by means of statistics and spatial autocorrelation analysis. The results showed that: 1) ESTARFM FVC and impermeable surface have higher accuracy and can characterize the characteristics of the biophysical components covered by the earth's surface; 2) The average impervious surface proportion and the spatial configuration of each area are different, which are affected by natural conditions and urbanization. In the urban area of Xi'an, which has typical characteristics of spontaneous urbanization, landscapes are fragmented and have less spatial dependence.

  6. Thin film surface reconstruction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imperatori, P [CNR, Monterotondo Stazione, Rome (Italy). Istituto di Chimica dei materiali

    1996-09-01

    The study of the atomic structure of surfaces and interfaces is a fundamental step in the knowledge and the development of new materials. Among the several surface-sensitive techniques employed to characterise the atomic arrangements, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD) is one of the most powerful. With a simple data treatment, based on the kinematical theory, and using the classical methods of x-ray bulk structure determination, it gives the atomic positions of atoms at a surface or an interface and the atomic displacements of subsurface layers for a complete determination of the structure. In this paper the main features of the technique will be briefly reviewed and selected of application to semiconductor and metal surfaces will be discussed.

  7. Gap Surface Plasmon Waveguide Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Grøndahl; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic waveguides supporting gap surface plasmons (GSPs) localized in a dielectric spacer between metal films are investigated numerically and the waveguiding properties at telecommunication wavelengths are presented. Especially, we emphasize that the mode confinement can advantageously...

  8. Evaluating polymer degradation with complex mixtures using a simplified surface area method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Kandace M; Pelham, Todd; Phalen, Robert N

    2017-09-01

    Chemical-resistant gloves, designed to protect workers from chemical hazards, are made from a variety of polymer materials such as plastic, rubber, and synthetic rubber. One material does not provide protection against all chemicals, thus proper polymer selection is critical. Standardized testing, such as chemical degradation tests, are used to aid in the selection process. The current methods of degradation ratings based on changes in weight or tensile properties can be expensive and data often do not exist for complex chemical mixtures. There are hundreds of thousands of chemical products on the market that do not have chemical resistance data for polymer selection. The method described in this study provides an inexpensive alternative to gravimetric analysis. This method uses surface area change to evaluate degradation of a polymer material. Degradation tests for 5 polymer types against 50 complex mixtures were conducted using both gravimetric and surface area methods. The percent change data were compared between the two methods. The resulting regression line was y = 0.48x + 0.019, in units of percent, and the Pearson correlation coefficient was r = 0.9537 (p ≤ 0.05), which indicated a strong correlation between percent weight change and percent surface area change. On average, the percent change for surface area was about half that of the weight change. Using this information, an equivalent rating system was developed for determining the chemical degradation of polymer gloves using surface area.

  9. 30 CFR 785.19 - Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alluvial valley floor exists if it finds that— (i) Unconsolidated streamlaid deposits holding streams are... on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial valley floors in the arid and semiarid areas west of....19 Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...

  10. Electromagnetic surface waves for large-area RF plasma productions between large-area planar electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, S.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, large-area plasma production has been tested by means of a 13.56 MHz radio-frequency (RF) discharge between a pair of large-area planar electrodes, approximately 0.5 m x 1.4 m, as one of the semiconductor technologies for fabrication of large-area amorphous silicon solar cells in the ''Sunshine Project'' of the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology in Japan. We also confirmed long plasma production between a pair of long electrodes. In this paper, normal electromagnetic (EM) waves propagating in a region between a planar waveguide with one plasma and two dielectric layers are analyzed in order to study the feasibility of large-area plasma productions by EM wave-discharges between a pair of large-area RF electrodes larger than the half-wavelength of RF wave. In conclusion, plasmas higher than an electron plasma frequency will be produced by an odd TMoo surface mode. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs

  11. Fault tree analysis for vital area identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnado, G.B.; Ortiz, N.R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of fault tree analysis to identify those areas of nuclear fuel cycle facilities which must be protected to prevent acts of sabotage that could lead to sifnificant release of radioactive material. By proper manipulation of the fault trees for a plant, an analyst can identify vital areas in a manner consistent with regulatory definitions. This paper discusses the general procedures used in the analysis of any nuclear facility. In addition, a structured, generic approach to the development of the fault trees for nuclear power reactors is presented along with selected results of the application of the generic approach to several plants

  12. Human cortical areas involved in perception of surface glossiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Atsushi; Sakano, Yuichi; Ando, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    Glossiness is the visual appearance of an object's surface as defined by its surface reflectance properties. Despite its ecological importance, little is known about the neural substrates underlying its perception. In this study, we performed the first human neuroimaging experiments that directly investigated where the processing of glossiness resides in the visual cortex. First, we investigated the cortical regions that were more activated by observing high glossiness compared with low glossiness, where the effects of simple luminance and luminance contrast were dissociated by controlling the illumination conditions (Experiment 1). As cortical regions that may be related to the processing of glossiness, V2, V3, hV4, VO-1, VO-2, collateral sulcus (CoS), LO-1, and V3A/B were identified, which also showed significant correlation with the perceived level of glossiness. This result is consistent with the recent monkey studies that identified selective neural response to glossiness in the ventral visual pathway, except for V3A/B in the dorsal visual pathway, whose involvement in the processing of glossiness could be specific to the human visual system. Second, we investigated the cortical regions that were modulated by selective attention to glossiness (Experiment 2). The visual areas that showed higher activation to attention to glossiness than that to either form or orientation were identified as right hV4, right VO-2, and right V3A/B, which were commonly identified in Experiment 1. The results indicate that these commonly identified visual areas in the human visual cortex may play important roles in glossiness perception. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. The Impact of UV-dose, Body Surface Area Exposed and Other Factors on Cutaneous Vitamin D Synthesis Measured as Serum 25(OH)D Concentration: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Nadine; Schöpe, Jakob; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Bocionek, Peter; Saternus, Roman; Vogt, Thomas; Reichrath, Jörg

    2018-02-01

    To optimize public health campaigns concerning UV exposure, it is important to characterize factors that influence UV-induced cutaneous vitamin D production. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the impact of different individual and environmental factors including exposed body surface area (BSA), UVB dose and vitamin D status, on serum 25(OH)D concentration. In accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses, and Meta-analysis of Observational studies in Epidemiology guidelines, a systematic literature search was conducted (MEDLINE; 01/1960-07/2016) investigating the impact of these factors on vitamin D status after artificial UV exposure as main outcome measure. Summary mean differences [and 95% confidence interval (CI)] were derived from random-effects meta-analysis to account for possible heterogeneity across studies. Meta-regression was conducted to account for impact of UVB dose, baseline 25(OH)D level and BSA. We identified 15 studies, with an estimated mean 25(OH)D rise per standard erythema dose (SED) of 0.19 nmol/l (95% CI 0.11-0.26 nmol/l). Results from meta-regression suggest a significant impact of UV dose and baseline 25(OH)D concentration on serum 25(OH)D level (p<0.01). Single UVB doses between 0.75 and 3 SED resulted in the highest rise of serum 25(OH)D per dose unit. BSA exposed had a smaller, non-proportional, not significant impact. Partial BSA exposure resulted in relatively higher rise compared to whole-body exposure (e.g. exposure of face and hands caused an 8-fold higher rise of serum 25(OH)D concentration/SED/1% BSA compared to whole-body exposure). Our findings support previous reports, estimating that the half-life of serum 25(OH)D varies depending on different factors. Our results indicate that partial BSA exposure (e.g. 10%) with moderate UV doses (e.g. 1 SED) is effective in generating or maintaining a healthy vitamin D status. However, due to limitations that include possible

  14. Assessment of Surface Area Characteristics of Dental Implants with Gradual Bioactive Surface Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czan, Andrej; Babík, Ondrej; Miklos, Matej; Záušková, Lucia; Mezencevová, Viktória

    2017-10-01

    Since most of the implant surface is in direct contact with bone tissue, shape and integrity of said surface has great influence on successful osseointegration. Among other characteristics that predetermine titanium of different grades of pureness as ideal biomaterial, titanium shows high mechanical strength making precise miniature machining increasingly difficult. Current titanium-based implants are often anodized due to colour coding. This anodized layer has important functional properties for right usage and also bio-compatibility of dental implants. Physical method of anodizing and usage of anodizing mediums has a significant influence on the surface quality and itself functionality. However, basic requirement of the dental implant with satisfactory properties is quality of machined surface before anodizing. Roughness, for example, is factor affecting of time length of anodizing operation and so whole productivity. The paper is focused on monitoring of surface and area characteristics, such as roughness or surface integrity after different cutting conditions of miniature machining of dental implants and their impact on suitability for creation of satisfactory anodized layer with the correct biocompatible functional properties.

  15. Robot Towed Shortwave Infrared Camera for Specific Surface Area Retrieval of Surface Snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J.; Lines, A.; Ray, L.; Albert, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Optical grain size and specific surface area are key parameters for measuring the atmospheric interactions of snow, as well as tracking metamorphosis and allowing for the ground truthing of remote sensing data. We describe a device using a shortwave infrared camera with changeable optical bandpass filters (centered at 1300 nm and 1550 nm) that can be used to quickly measure the average SSA over an area of 0.25 m^2. The device and method are compared with calculations made from measurements taken with a field spectral radiometer. The instrument is designed to be towed by a small autonomous ground vehicle, and therefore rides above the snow surface on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW) skis.

  16. Estimating the surface area of birds: using the homing pigeon (Columba livia as a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina R. Perez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of the surface area of the avian body is valuable for thermoregulation and metabolism studies as well as for assessing exposure to oil and other surface-active organic pollutants from a spill. The use of frozen carcasses for surface area estimations prevents the ability to modify the posture of the bird. The surface area of six live homing pigeons in the fully extended flight position was estimated using a noninvasive method. An equation was derived to estimate the total surface area of a pigeon based on its body weight. A pigeon's surface area in the fully extended flight position is approximately 4 times larger than the surface area of a pigeon in the perching position. The surface area of a bird is dependent on its physical position, and, therefore, the fully extended flight position exhibits the maximum area of a bird and should be considered the true surface area of a bird.

  17. NEW CONCEPTS AND TEST METHODS OF CURVE PROFILE AREA DENSITY IN SURFACE: ESTIMATION OF AREAL DENSITY ON CURVED SPATIAL SURFACE

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Shen

    2011-01-01

    The concepts of curve profile, curve intercept, curve intercept density, curve profile area density, intersection density in containing intersection (or intersection density relied on intersection reference), curve profile intersection density in surface (or curve intercept intersection density relied on intersection of containing curve), and curve profile area density in surface (AS) were defined. AS expressed the amount of curve profile area of Y phase in the unit containing surface area, S...

  18. Detailed Analysis of ECMWF Surface Pressure Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagiolini, E.; Schmidt, T.; Schwarz, G.; Zenner, L.

    2012-04-01

    Investigations of temporal variations within the gravity field of the Earth led us to the analysis of common surface pressure data products delivered by ECMWF. We looked into the characteristics of global as well as spatially and temporally confined phenomena being visible in the data. In particular, we were interested in the overall data quality, the local and temporal signal-to-noise ratio of surface pressure data sets, and the identification of irregular data. To this end, we analyzed a time series of a full year of surface pressure operational analysis data and their nominal standard deviations. The use of pressure data on a Gaussian grid data allowed us to remain close to the internal computations at ECMWF during data assimilation. Thus, we circumvented potential interpolation effects that would otherwise occur in cylindrical projections of conventional map products. The results obtained by us demonstrate the identification of a few distinct outliers, data quality effects over land or water and along coastlines as well as neighborhood effects of samples within and outside of the tropics. Small scale neighborhood effects depend on their geographical direction, sampling distance, land or water, and local time. In addition, one notices large scale seasonal effects that are latitude and longitude dependent. As a consequence, we obtain a cause-and-effect survey of pressure data peculiarities. One can then use background corrected pressure data to analyze seasonal effects within given latitude belts. Here time series of pressure data allow the tracking of high and low pressure areas together with the identification of their actual extent, velocity and life time. This information is vital to overall mass transport calculations and the determination of temporally varying gravity fields. However, one has to note that the satellite and ground-based instruments and the assimilation software being used for the pressure calculations will not remain the same over the years

  19. Area densitometry using rotating Scheimpflug photography for posterior capsule opacification and surface light scattering analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Keiichiro; Honbo, Masato; Mori, Yosai; Kataoka, Yasushi; Miyata, Kazunori

    2015-11-01

    To compare area densitometry analysis using rotating Scheimpflug photography in quantifications of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) and surface light scattering with previous anterior-segment analyzer measurement. Miyata Eye Hospital, Miyazaki, Japan. Prospective observational case series. Scheimpflug images of eyes with foldable intraocular lenses (IOLs) were obtained using rotating and fixed Scheimpflug photography. Area densitometry on the posterior and anterior surfaces was conducted for PCO and surface light scattering analyses, respectively, with an identical area size. Correlation between two measurements was analyzed using linear regression. The study included 105 eyes of 74 patients who received IOLs 1 to 18 years (mean, 4.9 ± 4.5 years) postoperatively. In the PCO analysis on the posterior IOL surface, there was a significant correlation between the two measurements (P photography exhibited saturation due to intensive scatterings. Area densitometry combined with a rotating Scheimpflug photography was exchangeable to previously established densitometry measurement, and allowed successive evaluation in longer-term observations. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Changing surface-atmosphere energy exchange and refreezing capacity of the lower accumulation area, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampidis, C.; van As, D.; Box, J. E.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Colgan, W. T.; Doyle, S. H.; Hubbard, A. L.; MacFerrin, M.; Machguth, H.; Smeets, C. J. P. P.

    2015-11-01

    We present 5 years (2009-2013) of automatic weather station measurements from the lower accumulation area (1840 m a.s.l. - above sea level) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Kangerlussuaq region. Here, the summers of 2010 and 2012 were both exceptionally warm, but only 2012 resulted in a strongly negative surface mass budget (SMB) and surface meltwater run-off. The observed run-off was due to a large ice fraction in the upper 10 m of firn that prevented meltwater from percolating to available pore volume below. Analysis reveals an anomalously low 2012 summer-averaged albedo of 0.71 (typically ~ 0.78), as meltwater was present at the ice sheet surface. Consequently, during the 2012 melt season, the ice sheet surface absorbed 28 % (213 MJ m-2) more solar radiation than the average of all other years. A surface energy balance model is used to evaluate the seasonal and interannual variability of all surface energy fluxes. The model reproduces the observed melt rates as well as the SMB for each season. A sensitivity analysis reveals that 71 % of the additional solar radiation in 2012 was used for melt, corresponding to 36 % (0.64 m) of the 2012 surface lowering. The remaining 64 % (1.14 m) of surface lowering resulted from high atmospheric temperatures, up to a +2.6 °C daily average, indicating that 2012 would have been a negative SMB year at this site even without the melt-albedo feedback. Longer time series of SMB, regional temperature, and remotely sensed albedo (MODIS) show that 2012 was the first strongly negative SMB year, with the lowest albedo, at this elevation on record. The warm conditions of recent years have resulted in enhanced melt and reduction of the refreezing capacity in the lower accumulation area. If high temperatures continue, the current lower accumulation area will turn into a region with superimposed ice in coming years.

  1. EURO AREA FISCAL STRUCTURES. A MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HURDUZEU Gheorghe

    2014-07-01

    taxes on income of corporations and taxes on income of individuals and households and other current taxes. Actual social contributions were also split into employer’s actual contributions, employee’s social contributions and social contributions of self- and non-employed persons. As the primary data analysis revealed many differences between Euro Area member states, but also similarities concerning various fiscal aggregates, we completed the analysis through multidimensional analysis, with the aims of classifying Euro Area member states into subgroups with similar fiscal structures. Taking into consideration the above mentioned variables, we used cluster analysis in order to determine which member states have similar fiscal structures and which are the main similarities that characterize Euro Area in this respect.

  2. Dynamic characterisation of the specific surface area for fracture networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovic, V.

    2017-12-01

    One important application of chemical transport is geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste for which crystalline rock is a prime candidate for instance in Scandinavia. Interconnected heterogeneous fractures of sparsely fractured rock such as granite, act as conduits for transport of dissolved tracers. Fluid flow is known to be highly channelized in such rocks. Channels imply narrow flow paths, adjacent to essentially stagnant water in the fracture and/or the rock matrix. Tracers are transported along channelised flow paths and retained by minerals and/or stagnant water, depending on their sorption properties; this mechanism is critical for rocks to act as a barrier and ultimately provide safety for a geological repository. The sorbing tracers are retained by diffusion and sorption on mineral surfaces, whereas non-sorbing tracers can be retained only by diffusion into stagnant water of fractures. The retention and transport properties of a sparsely fractured rock will primarily depend on the specific surface area (SSA) of the fracture network which is determined by the heterogeneous structure and flow. The main challenge when characterising SSA on the field-scale is its dependence on the flow dynamics. We first define SSA as a physical quantity and clarify its importance for chemical transport. A methodology for dynamic characterisation of SSA in fracture networks is proposed that relies on three sets of data: i) Flow rate data as obtained by a flow logging procedure; ii) transmissivity data as obtained by pumping tests; iii) fracture network data as obtained from outcrop and geophysical observations. The proposed methodology utilises these data directly as well as indirectly through flow and particle tracking simulations in three-dimensional discrete fracture networks. The methodology is exemplified using specific data from the Swedish site Laxemar. The potential impact of uncertainties is of particular significance and is illustrated for radionuclide

  3. High Surface Area of Porous Silicon Drives Desorption of Intact Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northen, Trent R.; Woo, Hin-Koon; Northen, Michael T.; Nordström, Anders; Uritboonthail, Winnie; Turner, Kimberly L.; Siuzdak, Gary

    2007-01-01

    The surface structure of porous silicon used in desorption/ionization on porous silicon (DIOS) mass analysis is known to play a primary role in the desorption/ionization (D/I) process. In this study, mass spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to examine the correlation between intact ion generation with surface ablation, and surface morphology. The DIOS process is found to be highly laser energy dependent and correlates directly with the appearance of surface ions (Sin+ and OSiH+). A threshold laser energy for DIOS is observed (10 mJ/cm2), which supports that DIOS is driven by surface restructuring and is not a strictly thermal process. In addition, three DIOS regimes are observed which correspond to surface restructuring and melting. These results suggest that higher surface area silicon substrates may enhance DIOS performance. A recent example which fits into this mechanism is silicon nanowires surface which have a high surface energy and concomitantly requires lower laser energy for analyte desorpton. PMID:17881245

  4. Is the planum temporale surface area a marker of hemispheric or regional language lateralization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Crivello, Fabrice; Mazoyer, Bernard

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the association between the left planum temporale (PT) surface area or asymmetry and the hemispheric or regional functional asymmetries during language production and perception tasks in 287 healthy adults (BIL&GIN) who were matched for sex and handedness. The measurements of the PT surface area were performed after manually delineating the region using brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) and considering the Heschl's gyrus (HG) duplication pattern; the measurements either included (PT tot ) or did not include (PT post ) the second gyrus. A region encompassing both the PT and HG (HGPT) was also studied. Regardless of the ROI measured, 80% of the sample had a positive left minus right PT asymmetry. We first tested whether the PT tot , PT post and HGPT surface areas in the left or right hemispheres or PT asymmetries differed in groups of individuals varying in language lateralization by assessing their hemispheric index during a sentence production minus word list production task. We then investigated the association between these different measures of the PT anatomy and the regional asymmetries measured during the task. Regardless of the anatomical definition used, we observed no correlations between the left surface areas or asymmetries and the hemispheric or regional functional asymmetries during the language production task. We then performed a similar analysis using the same sample measuring language functional lateralization during speech listening tasks (i.e., listening to sentences and lists of words). Although the hemispheric lateralization during speech listening was not correlated with the left PT tot , PT post or HGPT surface areas or the PT asymmetries, significant positive correlations were observed between the asymmetries in these regions and the regional functional asymmetries measured in areas adjacent to the end of the Sylvian fissure while participants listened to the word lists or sentences. The PT asymmetry thus appears to be

  5. Surface computing and collaborative analysis work

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Judith; Gossage, Stevenson; Hack, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Large surface computing devices (wall-mounted or tabletop) with touch interfaces and their application to collaborative data analysis, an increasingly important and prevalent activity, is the primary topic of this book. Our goals are to outline the fundamentals of surface computing (a still maturing technology), review relevant work on collaborative data analysis, describe frameworks for understanding collaborative processes, and provide a better understanding of the opportunities for research and development. We describe surfaces as display technologies with which people can interact directly, and emphasize how interaction design changes when designing for large surfaces. We review efforts to use large displays, surfaces or mixed display environments to enable collaborative analytic activity. Collaborative analysis is important in many domains, but to provide concrete examples and a specific focus, we frequently consider analysis work in the security domain, and in particular the challenges security personne...

  6. Applications of surface analysis and surface theory in tribology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, John

    1989-01-01

    Tribology, the study of adhesion, friction and wear of materials, is a complex field which requires a knowledge of solid state physics, surface physics, chemistry, material science, and mechanical engineering. It has been dominated, however, by the more practical need to make equipment work. With the advent of surface analysis and advances in surface and solid-state theory, a new dimension has been added to the analysis of interactions at tribological interfaces. In this paper the applications of tribological studies and their limitations are presented. Examples from research at the NASA Lewis Research Center are given. Emphasis is on fundamental studies involving the effects of monolayer coverage and thick films on friction and wear. A summary of the current status of theoretical calculations of defect energetics is presented. In addition, some new theoretical techniques which enable simplified quantitative calculations of adhesion, fracture, and friction are discussed.

  7. The winds regime of surface in the Colombian coffee area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando Guzman Martinez; Lucia Gomez Gomez

    1994-01-01

    The characteristics of the address and gust of wind of the surface winds have been studied in 15 stations of the Colombian coffee area. It was found that the relief plays an important paper in the wind circulation so that during the day (7 a.m. - 7 p.m.) these they blow of the low sector toward the mountain and at night (7 p.m. - 7 a.m.) this situation is invested, that which is consistent with the characteristic pattern of circulation valley-mountain of the mountainous regions. For this fact, in most of the analyzed places a single day and night dominant address that it takes the orientation in that it is the respective hydrographic basin. It was not observed that the Alisios winds of the northeast and southeast modify the address settled down by the local circulation (valley-mountain) on the other hand a remarkable increase of the gust of wind was appreciated in July and August in the Florida and Ospina, stations located to the south of the country, as direct consequence of the Alisios of the southeast. The daily gust of wind in most of the studied places is low and it doesn't exceed of the 10 km/h, reason why it can consider that the Colombian coffee area is free of important damages for the action of the wind. Nevertheless, in some stations as Alban, Maracay and Paraguaicito the daily maximum gust of wind can surpass the 30 km/h and in occasions to cause damage mechanic to cultivations of high behavior and not well anchored facilities

  8. Extent of Stream Burial and Relationships to Watershed Area, Topography, and Impervious Surface Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy E. Weitzell

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stream burial—the routing of streams through culverts, pipes, and concrete lined channels, or simply paving them over—is common during urbanization, and disproportionately affects small, headwater streams. Burial undermines the physical and chemical processes governing life in streams, with consequences for water quality and quantity that may amplify from headwaters to downstream receiving waters. Knowledge of the extent of stream burial is critical for understanding cumulative impacts to stream networks, and for future decision-making allowing for urban development while protecting ecosystem function. We predicted stream burial across the urbanizing Potomac River Basin (USA for each 10-m stream segment in the basin from medium-resolution impervious cover data and training observations obtained from high-resolution aerial photography in a GIS. Results were analyzed across a range in spatial aggregation, including counties and independent cities, small watersheds, and regular spatial grids. Stream burial was generally correlated with total impervious surface area (ISA, with areas exhibiting ISA above 30% often subject to elevated ratios of stream burial. Recurring patterns in burial predictions related to catchment area and topographic slope were also detected. We discuss these results in the context of physiographic constraints on stream location and urban development, including implications for environmental management of aquatic resources.

  9. Characterization of technical surfaces by structure function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalms, Michael; Kreis, Thomas; Bergmann, Ralf B.

    2018-03-01

    The structure function is a tool for characterizing technical surfaces that exhibits a number of advantages over Fourierbased analysis methods. So it is optimally suited for analyzing the height distributions of surfaces measured by full-field non-contacting methods. The structure function is thus a useful method to extract global or local criteria like e. g. periodicities, waviness, lay, or roughness to analyze and evaluate technical surfaces. After the definition of line- and area-structure function and offering effective procedures for their calculation this paper presents examples using simulated and measured data of technical surfaces including aircraft parts.

  10. Modeling surface area to volume effects on borosilicate glass dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourcier, W.L.; Ebert, W.L.; Feng, X.

    1992-11-01

    We simulated the reaction of SRL-131 glass with equilibrated J-13 water in order to investigate the effects of surface area to volume ratio (SA/V) on glass dissolution. We show that glass-fluid ion exchange causes solution pH to rise to progressively higher values as SA/V increases. Because the ion exchange is rapid relative to the duration of the glass dissolution experiment, the pH effect does not scale with (SA/V)*time. Experiments compared at the same (SA/V)*time value therefore have different pHs, with higher pHs at higher SA/V ratios. Both experimental data and our simulation results show similar trends of increasing reaction rate as a function of SA/V ratio when scaled to (SA/V)*time. Glasses which react in systems of differing SA/V ratio therefore follow different reaction paths and high SA/V ratios cannot be used to generate data which accurately scales to long time periods unless the ion exchange effect is taken into account. We suggest some simple test designs which enable more reliable high. SA/V accelerated tests

  11. Tracheobronchial and Alveolar Particle Surface Area Doses in Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carmen Fuoco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke is the main cause of lung cancer events. Mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS is a direct concern for smokers, but also the secondhand smoke (SHS contributes to the smoker exposure. In addition, smoker exposure is affected by the “free-smoke” particle exposure (B, related to the micro-environments where smokers spend time. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the daily alveolar and tracheobronchial deposited fractions of airborne particles for smokers as the sum of these three contributions: MSS, SHS, and B. Measurements of particle surface area distributions in the MSS were performed through a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer, an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer, and a Thermo-dilution system on five types of conventional cigarettes. A Monte Carlo method was then applied to evaluate the most probable value of dose received during the inhalation of MSS by smokers. Measurements of particle concentrations in SHS and at the “free-smoke” particle background (B were performed through 24-h monitoring at a personal scale of adult smoker through hand-held devices. This paper found that the total daily deposited dose for typical smokers was 1.03 × 105 mm2·day−1. The main contribution of such a huge daily dose was addressable to the MSS (98% while SHS contributed 1.1%, increasing up to 2% for people smoking only while traveling in a car.

  12. Large area optical mapping of surface contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Guilherme; Canning, John; Padden, Whayne; Martelli, Cicero; Dligatch, Svetlana

    2017-09-04

    Top-down contact angle measurements have been validated and confirmed to be as good if not more reliable than side-based measurements. A range of samples, including industrially relevant materials for roofing and printing, has been compared. Using the top-down approach, mapping in both 1-D and 2-D has been demonstrated. The method was applied to study the change in contact angle as a function of change in silver (Ag) nanoparticle size controlled by thermal evaporation. Large area mapping reveals good uniformity for commercial Aspen paper coated with black laser printer ink. A demonstration of the forensic and chemical analysis potential in 2-D is shown by uncovering the hidden CsF initials made with mineral oil on the coated Aspen paper. The method promises to revolutionize nanoscale characterization and industrial monitoring as well as chemical analyses by allowing rapid contact angle measurements over large areas or large numbers of samples in ways and times that have not been possible before.

  13. A Mathematical Method to Calculate Tumor Contact Surface Area: An Effective Parameter to Predict Renal Function after Partial Nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Po-Fan; Wang, Yu-De; Huang, Chi-Ping; Wu, Hsi-Chin; Yang, Che-Rei; Chen, Guang-Heng; Chang, Chao-Hsiang

    2016-07-01

    We proposed a mathematical formula to calculate contact surface area between a tumor and renal parenchyma. We examined the applicability of using contact surface area to predict renal function after partial nephrectomy. We performed this retrospective study in patients who underwent partial nephrectomy between January 2012 and December 2014. Based on abdominopelvic computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, we calculated the contact surface area using the formula (2*π*radius*depth) developed by integral calculus. We then evaluated the correlation between contact surface area and perioperative parameters, and compared contact surface area and R.E.N.A.L. (Radius/Exophytic/endophytic/Nearness to collecting system/Anterior/Location) score in predicting a reduction in renal function. Overall 35, 26 and 45 patients underwent partial nephrectomy with open, laparoscopic and robotic approaches, respectively. Mean ± SD contact surface area was 30.7±26.1 cm(2) and median (IQR) R.E.N.A.L. score was 7 (2.25). Spearman correlation analysis showed that contact surface area was significantly associated with estimated blood loss (p=0.04), operative time (p=0.04) and percent change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (p contact surface area and R.E.N.A.L. score independently affected percent change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (p contact surface area was a better independent predictor of a greater than 10% change in estimated glomerular filtration rate compared to R.E.N.A.L. score (AUC 0.86 vs 0.69). Using this simple mathematical method, contact surface area was associated with surgical outcomes. Compared to R.E.N.A.L. score, contact surface area was a better predictor of functional change after partial nephrectomy. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Protected area gap analysis of important bird areas in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sritharan, Shakthi; Burgess, Neil David

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of gaps in protected area (PA) coverage of species distributions have been carried out extensively for the past two decades, aiming to better locate new PAs and conserve species. In this study, progress to close gaps in the protection of the Important Bird Areas (IBAs) of Tanzania...

  15. Fabrication of mesoporous and high specific surface area lanthanum carbide-carbon nanotube composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biasetto, L.; Carturan, S.; Maggioni, G.; Zanonato, P.; Bernardo, P. Di; Colombo, P.; Andrighetto, A.; Prete, G.

    2009-01-01

    Mesoporous lanthanum carbide-carbon nanotube composites were produced by means of carbothermal reaction of lanthanum oxide, graphite and multi-walled carbon nanotube mixtures under high vacuum. Residual gas analysis revealed the higher reactivity of lanthanum oxide towards carbon nanotubes compared to graphite. After sintering, the composites revealed a specific surface area increasing with the amount of carbon nanotubes introduced. The meso-porosity of carbon nanotubes was maintained after thermal treatment.

  16. Roles of surface water areas for water and solute cycle in Hanoi city, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takeshi; Kuroda, Keisuke; Do Thuan, An; Tran Thi Viet, Nga; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2013-04-01

    Hanoi city, the capital of Viet Nam, has developed beside the Red river. Recent rapid urbanization of this city has reduced a large number of natural water areas such as lakes, ponds and canals not only in the central area but the suburban area. Contrary, the urbanization has increased artificial water areas such as pond for fish cultivation and landscaping. On the other hand, the urbanization has induced the inflow of waste water from households and various kinds of factories to these water areas because of delay of sewerage system development. Inflow of the waste water has induced eutrophication and pollution of these water areas. Also, there is a possibility of groundwater pollution by infiltration of polluted surface water. However, the role of these water areas for water cycle and solute transport is not clarified. Therefore, this study focuses on the interaction between surface water areas and groundwater in Hanoi city to evaluate appropriate land development and groundwater resource management. We are carrying out three approaches: a) understanding of geochemical characteristics of surface water and groundwater, b) monitoring of water levels of pond and groundwater, c) sampling of soil and pond sediment. Correlation between d18O and dD of precipitation (after GNIP), the Red River (after GNIR) and the water samples of this study showed that the groundwater is composed of precipitation, the Red River and surface water that has evaporation process. Contribution of the surface water with evaporation process was widely found in the study area. As for groundwater monitoring, the Holocene aquifers at two sites were in unconfined condition in dry season and the groundwater levels in the aquifer continued to increase through rainy season. The results of isotopic analysis and groundwater level monitoring showed that the surface water areas are one of the major groundwater sources. On the other hand, concentrations of dissolved Arsenic (filtered by 0.45um) in the pore

  17. Analysis of gravity data using trend surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimopolos, Natalia-Silvia; Asimopolos, Laurentiu

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we have developed algorithms and related software programs for calculating of trend surfaces of higher order. These methods of analysis of trends, like mobile media applications are filtration systems for geophysical data in surface. In particular we presented few case studies for gravity data and gravity maps. Analysis with polynomial trend surfaces contributes to the recognition, isolation and measurement of trends that can be represented by surfaces or hyper-surfaces (in several sizes), thus achieving a separation in regional variations and local variations. This separation is achieved by adjusting the trend function at different values. Trend surfaces using the regression analysis satisfy the criterion of least squares. The difference between the surface of trend and the observed value in a certain point is the residual value. Residual sum of squares of these values should be minimal as the criterion of least squares. The trend surface is considered as regional or large-scale and the residual value will be regarded as local or small-scale component. Removing the regional trend has the effect of highlighting local components represented by residual values. Surface analysis and hyper-surfaces principles are applied to the surface trend and any number of dimensions. For hyper-surfaces we can work with polynomial functions with four or more variables (three variables of space and other variables for interest parameters) that have great importance in some applications. In the paper we presented the mathematical developments about generalized trend surfaces and case studies about gravimetric data. The trend surfaces have the great advantage that the effect of regional anomalies can be expressed as analytic functions. These tendency surfaces allows subsequent mathematical processing and interesting generalizations, with great advantage to work with polynomial functions compared with the original discrete data. For gravity data we estimate the depth of

  18. Scanning tunneling microscopy: A powerful tool for surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walle, G.F.A. van de; Nelissen, B.J.; Soethout, L.L.; Kempen, H. van

    1987-01-01

    The invention of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) has opened a new area of surface analysis. A description of the principle of operation is given in this paper. Also the technical problems encountered and their solution are described. Two examples demonstrating the possibilities of the STM are presented: topographic and spectroscopic measurements on a stepped Ni (111) surface and photoconductive measurements on GaAs. (orig.)

  19. Area-to-Area Poisson Kriging and Spatial Bayesian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmarian, Naeimehossadat; Jafari-Koshki, Tohid; Soleimani, Ali; Taghi Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    Background: In many countries gastric cancer has the highest incidence among the gastrointestinal cancers and is the second most common cancer in Iran. The aim of this study was to identify and map high risk gastric cancer regions at the county-level in Iran. Methods: In this study we analyzed gastric cancer data for Iran in the years 2003-2010. Areato- area Poisson kriging and Besag, York and Mollie (BYM) spatial models were applied to smoothing the standardized incidence ratios of gastric cancer for the 373 counties surveyed in this study. The two methods were compared in term of accuracy and precision in identifying high risk regions. Result: The highest smoothed standardized incidence rate (SIR) according to area-to-area Poisson kriging was in Meshkinshahr county in Ardabil province in north-western Iran (2.4,SD=0.05), while the highest smoothed standardized incidence rate (SIR) according to the BYM model was in Ardabil, the capital of that province (2.9,SD=0.09). Conclusion: Both methods of mapping, ATA Poisson kriging and BYM, showed the gastric cancer incidence rate to be highest in north and north-west Iran. However, area-to-area Poisson kriging was more precise than the BYM model and required less smoothing. According to the results obtained, preventive measures and treatment programs should be focused on particular counties of Iran. Creative Commons Attribution License

  20. Study of LiFePO{sub 4} cathode materials coated with high surface area carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Cheng-Zhang; Fey, George Ting-Kuo [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054 (China); Kao, Hsien-Ming [Department of Chemistry, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054 (China)

    2009-04-01

    LiFePO{sub 4} is a potential cathode material for 4 V lithium-ion batteries. Carbon-coated lithium iron phosphates were prepared using a high surface area carbon to react precursors through a solid-state process, during which LiFePO{sub 4} particles were embedded in amorphous carbon. The carbonaceous materials were synthesized by the pyrolysis of peanut shells under argon, where they were carbonized in a two-step process that occurred between 573 and 873 K. The shells were also treated with a proprietary porogenic agent with the goal of altering the pore structure and surface area of the pyrolysis products. The electrochemical properties of the as-prepared LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite cathode materials were systematically characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, element mapping, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. In LiFePO{sub 4}/C composites, the carbon not only increases rate capability, but also stabilizes capacity. In fact, the capacity of the composites increased with the specific surface area of carbon. The best result was observed with a composite made of 8.0 wt.% with a specific surface area of 2099 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. When high surface area carbon was used as a carbon source to produce LiFePO{sub 4}, overall conductivity increased from 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1}, because the inhibition of particle growth during the final sintering process led to greater specific capacity, improved cycling properties and better rate capability compared to a pure olivine LiFePO{sub 4} material. (author)

  1. Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Surface Sediment from Coastal Area of Putatan and Papar, Sabah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Aishah Mohd Ali; Rohana Tair; Yang, S.Z.; Masni Mohd Ali

    2013-01-01

    Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and percent total organic carbon (TOC) were investigated in surface sediments from coastal area of Papar and Putatan, Sabah. Samples were collected in five different stations in each area by using Ponar grab sampler. Samples were extracted with Soxhlet, concentrated and analyzed by using UV/ VIS spectrophotometer. The overall mean and range of TPH concentrations in the sediments from coastal area of Papar and Putatan were 1.95 (0.53-4.59 mg/ kg dw Miri crude oil equivalents) and 0.85 (0.26-1.64 mg/ kg dw Miri crude oil equivalents) respectively. Meanwhile, the TOC ranged from 0.81-2.32 % and 0.35-0.81 % respectively. Statistical analysis using Pearson correlation showed no significant differences between TPH and TOC (p<0.05) in both areas. (author)

  2. Preliminary Analysis of Slope Stability in Kuok and Surrounding Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewandra Bagus Eka Putra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of slope influenced by the condition of the rocks beneath the surface. On high level of slopes, amount of surface runoff and water transport energy is also enlarged. This caused by greater gravity, in line with the surface tilt from the horizontal plane. In other words, topsoil eroded more and more. When the slope becomes twice as steep, then the amount of erosion per unit area be 2.0 - 2.5 times more. Kuok and surrounding area is the road access between the West Sumatra and Riau which plays an important role economies of both provinces. The purpose of this study is to map the locations that have fairly steep slopes and potential mode of landslides. Based on SRTM data obtained,  the roads in Kuok area has a minimum elevation of + 33 m and a maximum  + 217.329 m. Rugged road conditions with slope ranging from 24.08 ° to 44.68 ° causing this area having frequent landslides. The result of slope stability analysis in a slope near the Water Power Plant Koto Panjang, indicated that mode of active failure is toppling failure or rock fall and the potential zone of failure is in the center part of the slope.

  3. Estimation of Specific Surface Area using Langmuir Isotherm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Y= KCe/(1+KCe) (1) where Y is the fraction of fish carbon surface covered ..... transmigration of adsorbate in the plane surface. (Hameed et al., 2006). ... and to the Technologists of Agric Soil Science. Laboratory of ... Biosorption of Heavy Metals by Activated. Sludge and their Desorption Characteristics. J. Environ Mgt. 84: ...

  4. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TECHNIQUES FOR ROAD SURFACE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Knyaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality and condition of a road surface is of great importance for convenience and safety of driving. So the investigations of the behaviour of road materials in laboratory conditions and monitoring of existing roads are widely fulfilled for controlling a geometric parameters and detecting defects in the road surface. Photogrammetry as accurate non-contact measuring method provides powerful means for solving different tasks in road surface reconstruction and analysis. The range of dimensions concerned in road surface analysis can have great variation from tenths of millimetre to hundreds meters and more. So a set of techniques is needed to meet all requirements of road parameters estimation. Two photogrammetric techniques for road surface analysis are presented: for accurate measuring of road pavement and for road surface reconstruction based on imagery obtained from unmanned aerial vehicle. The first technique uses photogrammetric system based on structured light for fast and accurate surface 3D reconstruction and it allows analysing the characteristics of road texture and monitoring the pavement behaviour. The second technique provides dense 3D model road suitable for road macro parameters estimation.

  5. High-surface-area silica nanospheres (KCC-1) with a fibrous morphology

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek; Cha, Dong Kyu; Zhang, Xixiang; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Fibrous nanosilica: A new family of high-surface-area silica nanospheres (KCC-1) have been prepared (see picture). KCC-1 features excellent physical properties, including high surface area, unprecedented fibrous surface morphology, high thermal (up to 950 °C) and hydrothermal stabilities, and high mechanical stability. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Determining eyeball surface area directly exposed to the effects of external factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliszewski, Tadeusz; Kadłuczka, Filip; Kiełbasa, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses determining the surface area of eyeballs of men and women exposed to the direct effects of external factors in the working environment. For one eye, the mean surface is 172-182 mm(2). The determined surface area can be used in formulas for calculating the exposure of eyeballs to harmful chemical substances in workplace air.

  7. 30 CFR 942.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 942.761 Section 942.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  8. 30 CFR 903.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 903.761 Section 903.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, applies to surface coal mining...

  9. 30 CFR 910.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. 910.761 Section 910.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  10. 30 CFR 937.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mining by Act of Congress. 937.761 Section 937.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and...

  11. 30 CFR 921.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. 921.761 Section 921.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  12. 30 CFR 912.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mining by act of Congress. 912.761 Section 912.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and...

  13. 30 CFR 947.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 947.761 Section 947.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  14. 30 CFR 939.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. 939.761 Section 939.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  15. 30 CFR 941.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 941.761 Section 941.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  16. 30 CFR 922.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 922.761 Section 922.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  17. 30 CFR 905.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 905.761 Section 905.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

  18. High-surface-area silica nanospheres (KCC-1) with a fibrous morphology

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2010-08-02

    Fibrous nanosilica: A new family of high-surface-area silica nanospheres (KCC-1) have been prepared (see picture). KCC-1 features excellent physical properties, including high surface area, unprecedented fibrous surface morphology, high thermal (up to 950 °C) and hydrothermal stabilities, and high mechanical stability. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Changing surface-atmosphere energy exchange and refreezing capacity of the lower accumulation area, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charalampidis, C.; Van As, D.; Box, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    We present 5 years (2009-2013) of automatic weather station measurements from the lower accumulation area (1840 m a.s.l.-above sea level) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Kangerlussuaq region. Here, the summers of 2010 and 2012 were both exceptionally warm, but only 2012 resulted in a strongly...... negative surface mass budget (SMB) and surface meltwater run-off. The observed run-off was due to a large ice fraction in the upper 10 m of firn that prevented meltwater from percolating to available pore volume below. Analysis reveals an anomalously low 2012 summer-averaged albedo of 0.71 (typically ∼ 0.......78), as meltwater was present at the ice sheet surface. Consequently, during the 2012 melt season, the ice sheet surface absorbed 28 % (213 MJ m-2) more solar radiation than the average of all other years. A surface energy balance model is used to evaluate the seasonal and interannual variability of all surface...

  20. SECTION 6.2 SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY ANALYSIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seah, M. P.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    Surface physical analysis, i.e. topography characterisation, encompasses measurement, visualisation, and quantification. This is critical for both component form and for surface finish at macro-, micro- and nano-scales. The principal methods of surface topography measurement are stylus profilometry......, optical scanning techniques, and scanning probe microscopy (SPM). These methods, based on acquisition of topography data from point by point scans, give quantitative information of heights with respect to position. Based on a different approach, the so-called integral methods produce parameters...

  1. Specifications for surface reaction analysis apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teraoka, Yuden; Yoshigoe, Akitaka

    2001-03-01

    A surface reaction analysis apparatus was installed at the JAERI soft x-ray beamline in the SPring-8 as an experimental end-station for the study of surface chemistry. The apparatus is devoted to the study concerning the influence of translational kinetic energy of incident molecules to chemical reactions on solid surfaces with gas molecules. In order to achieve the research purpose, reactive molecular scattering experiments and photoemission spectroscopic measurements using synchrotron radiation are performed in that apparatus via a supersonic molecular beam generator, an electron energy analyzer and a quadrupole mass analyzer. The detail specifications for the apparatus are described in this report. (author)

  2. Impervious Surfaces Alter Soil Bacterial Communities in Urban Areas: A Case Study in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinhong Hu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion of urbanization has caused land cover change, especially the increasing area of impervious surfaces. Such alterations have significant effects on the soil ecosystem by impeding the exchange of gasses, water, and materials between soil and the atmosphere. It is unclear whether impervious surfaces have any effects on soil bacterial diversity and community composition. In the present study, we conducted an investigation of bacterial communities across five typical land cover types, including impervious surfaces (concrete, permeable pavement (bricks with round holes, shrub coverage (Buxus megistophylla Levl., lawns (Festuca elata Keng ex E. Alexeev, and roadside trees (Sophora japonica Linn. in Beijing, to explore the response of bacteria to impervious surfaces. The soil bacterial communities were addressed by high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. We found that Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Firmicutes were the predominant phyla in urban soils. Soil from impervious surfaces presented a lower bacterial diversity, and differed greatly from other types of land cover. Soil bacterial diversity was predominantly affected by Zn, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and soil moisture content (SMC. The composition of the bacterial community was similar under shrub coverage, roadside trees, and lawns, but different from beneath impervious surfaces and permeable pavement. Variance partitioning analysis showed that edaphic properties contributed to 12% of the bacterial community variation, heavy metal pollution explained 3.6% of the variation, and interaction between the two explained 33% of the variance. Together, our data indicate that impervious surfaces induced changes in bacterial community composition and decrease of bacterial diversity. Interactions between edaphic properties and heavy metals were here found to change the composition of the bacterial community and

  3. Effect of particle surface area on ice active site densities retrieved from droplet freezing spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Beydoun

    2016-10-01

    that general active site density functions, such as the popular ns parameterization, cannot be reliably extrapolated below this critical surface area threshold to describe freezing curves for lower particle surface area concentrations. Freezing curves obtained below this threshold translate to higher ns values, while the ns values are essentially the same from curves obtained above the critical area threshold; ns should remain the same for a system as concentration is varied. However, we can successfully predict the lower concentration freezing curves, which are more atmospherically relevant, through a process of random sampling from g distributions obtained from high particle concentration data. Our analysis is applied to cold plate freezing measurements of droplets containing variable concentrations of particles from NX illite minerals, MCC cellulose, and commercial Snomax bacterial particles. Parameterizations that can predict the temporal evolution of the frozen fraction of cloud droplets in larger atmospheric models are also derived from this new framework.

  4. Restoration of eroded surfaces in Serbian ski-areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Ratko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts in Serbian ski areas are very strong, leading to landscape degradation and functionality losses. Construction or improvement works cause serious destruction of topsoil and native vegetation. Some activities enhance erosion production and sediment yield: clear cuttings; trunk transport down the slope; road construction and large excavations. Also, lack of erosion control works in ski areas, especially between April and October, result in various forms of land degradation such as furrows, gullies, landslides, or debris from rock weathering. The consequences of mismanagement in ski areas are noticeable in downstream sections of river beds, causing floods and bed-load deposition. Planning and designing activities, with the application of technical and biotechnical erosion control structures, through the concept of restoration, are necessary measures in the protection of ski areas.

  5. Aberration analysis for freeform surface terms overlay on general decentered and tilted optical surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tong; Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Yongtian

    2018-03-19

    Aberration theory helps designers to better understand the nature of imaging systems. However, the existing aberration theory of freeform surfaces has many limitations. For example, it only works in the special case when the central area of the freeform surface is used. In addition, the light footprint is limited to a circle, which does not match the case of an elliptical footprint for general systems. In this paper, aberrations generated by freeform surface term overlay on general decentered and tilted optical surfaces are analyzed. For the case when the off-axis section of a freeform surface is used, the aberration equation for using stop and nonstop surfaces is discussed, and the aberrations generated by Zernike terms up to Z 17/18 are analyzed in detail. To solve the problem of the elliptical light footprint for tilted freeform surfaces, the scaled pupil vector is used in the aberration analysis. The mechanism of aberration transformation is discovered, and the aberrations generated by different Zernike terms in this case are calculated. Finally we proposed aberration equations for freeform terms on general decentered and tilted freeform surfaces. The research result given in this paper offers an important reference for optical designers and engineers, and it is of great importance in developing analytical methods for general freeform system design, tolerance analysis, and system assembly.

  6. External Validation of Contact Surface Area as a Predictor of Postoperative Renal Function in Patients Undergoing Partial Nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haifler, Miki; Ristau, Benjamin T; Higgins, Andrew M; Smaldone, Marc C; Kutikov, Alexander; Zisman, Amnon; Uzzo, Robert G

    2017-09-20

    We sought to externally validate a mathematical formula for tumor contact surface area as a predictor of postoperative renal function in patients undergoing partial nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. We queried a prospectively maintained kidney cancer database for patients who underwent partial nephrectomy between 2014 and 2016. Contact surface area was calculated using data obtained from preoperative cross-sectional imaging. The correlation between contact surface area and perioperative variables was examined. The correlation between postoperative renal functional outcomes, contact surface area and the R.E.N.A.L. (radius, exophytic/endophytic properties, nearness of tumor to collecting system or sinus, anterior/posterior, location relative to polar lines and tumor touches main renal artery or vein) nephrometry score was also assessed. A total of 257 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy had sufficient data to enter the study. Median contact surface area was 14.5 cm 2 (IQR 6.2-36) and the median nephrometry score was 9 (IQR 7-10). Spearman correlation analysis showed that contact surface area correlated with estimated blood loss (r s = 0.42, p contact surface area and nephrometry score were independent predictors of the absolute change in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (each p contact surface area was a better predictor of a greater than 20% postoperative decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate compared with the nephrometry score (AUC 0.94 vs 0.80). Contact surface area correlated with the change in postoperative renal function after partial nephrectomy. It can be used in conjunction with the nephrometry score to counsel patients about the risk of renal functional decline after partial nephrectomy. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Correlation of lung surface area to apoptosis and proliferation in human emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, K; Mercer, B A; Schulman, L L; Sonett, J R; D'Armiento, J M

    2005-02-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is associated with alterations in matrix proteins and protease activity. These alterations may be linked to programmed cell death by apoptosis, potentially influencing lung architecture and lung function. To evaluate apoptosis in emphysema, lung tissue was analysed from 10 emphysema patients and six individuals without emphysema (normal). Morphological analysis revealed alveolar cells in emphysematous lungs with convoluted nuclei characteristic of apoptosis. DNA fragmentation was detected using terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) and gel electrophoresis. TUNEL revealed higher apoptosis in emphysematous than normal lungs. Markers of apoptosis, including active caspase-3, proteolytic fragment of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, Bax and Bad, were detected in emphysematous lungs. Linear regression showed that apoptosis was inversely correlated with surface area. Emphysematous lungs demonstrated lower surface areas and increased cell proliferation. There was no correlation between apoptosis and proliferation, suggesting that, although both events increase during emphysema, they are not in equilibrium, potentially contributing to reduced lung surface area. In summary, cell-based mechanisms associated with emphysematous parenchymal damage include increased apoptosis and cell proliferation. Apoptosis correlated with airspace enlargement, supporting epidemiological evidence of the progressive nature of emphysema. These data extend the understanding of cell dynamics and structural changes within the lung during emphysema pathogenesis.

  8. A novel high specific surface area conducting paper material composed of polypyrrole and Cladophora cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihranyan, Albert; Nyholm, Leif; Bennett, Alfonso E Garcia; Strømme, Maria

    2008-10-02

    We present a novel conducting polypyrrole-based composite material, obtained by polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of iron(III) chloride on a cellulose substrate derived from the environmentally polluting Cladophora sp. algae. The material, which was doped with chloride ions, was molded into paper sheets and characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, N 2 gas adsorption analysis, cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and conductivity measurements at varying relative humidities. The specific surface area of the composite was found to be 57 m (2)/g and the fibrous structure of the Cladophora cellulose remained intact even after a 50 nm thick layer of polypyrrole had been coated on the cellulose fibers. The composite could be repeatedly used for electrochemically controlled extraction and desorption of chloride and an ion exchanging capacity of 370 C per g of composite was obtained as a result of the high surface area of the cellulose substrate. The influence of the oxidation and reduction potentials on the chloride ion exchange capacity and the nucleation of delocalized positive charges, forming conductive paths in the polypyrrole film, was also investigated. The creation of conductive paths during oxidation followed an effective medium rather than a percolative behavior, indicating that some conduction paths survive the polymer reduction steps. The present high surface area material should be well-suited for use in, e.g., electrochemically controlled ion exchange or separation devices, as well as sensors based on the fact that the material is compact, light, mechanically stable, and moldable into paper sheets.

  9. Assessment of large aperture scintillometry for large-area surface ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    29

    1995), flat pastoral surfaces. (McAneny ... heat flux using net radiometer and soil heat flux plate, respectively and synchronized with ..... order to facilitates development of satellite based application for ET and drought monitoring, the .... daytime sensible heat flux and momentum fluxes;Boundary- Layer Meteorol.,68 357-373.

  10. Surface albedo measurements in Mexico City metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, T; Mar, B; Longoria, R; Ruiz Suarez, L. G [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Morales, L [Instituto de Geografia, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-04-01

    Optical and thermal properties of soils are important input data for the meteorological and photochemical modules of air quality models. As development of these models increase on spatial resolution good albedo data become more important. In this paper measurements of surface albedo of UV (295-385 nm) and visible (450-550 nm) radiation are reported for different urban and rural surfaces in the vicinity of Mexico City. It was found for the downtown zone and average albedo value of 0.05 which is in very good agreement with reported values for urban surfaces. Our albedo values measured in UV region for grey cement and green grass are of 0.10 and 0.009, respectively, and quite similar to those found at the literature of 0.11 and 0.008 for those type of surfaces. [Spanish] Las propiedades opticas y termicas de suelos son datos importantes para los modulos meteorologicos y fotoquimicos de los modelos de calidad del aire. Conforme aumenta la resolucion espacial del modelo se vuelve mas importante contar con buenos datos de albedo. En este articulo se presentan mediciones de albedo superficial de radiacion Ultravioleta (295-385 nm) y visible (450-550 nm) para diferentes superficies urbanas. Los valores medidos de albedo en la region UV para cemento gris y pasto verde son de 0.10 y 0.009, respectivamente, y son muy similares a los reportados en la literatura, 0.11 y 0.008 para este tipo de superficies.

  11. High surface area mesoporous activated carbon-alginate beads for efficient removal of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Asma; Bhat, A H; Naeem, Abdul; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Danish, Mohammed

    2018-02-01

    High surface area mesoporous activated carbon-alginate (AC-alginate) beads were successfully synthesized by entrapping activated carbon powder derived from Mangosteen fruit peel into calcium-alginate beads for methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solution. The structure and surface characteristics of AC-alginate beads were analyzed using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and surface area analysis (S BET ), while thermal properties were tested using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of AC-alginate dose, pH of solution, contact time, initial concentration of MB solution and temperature on MB removal was elucidated. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity of 230mg/g was achieved for 100mg/L of MB solution at pH 9.5 and temperature 25°C. Furthermore, the adsorption of MB on AC-alginate beads followed well pseudo-second order equation and equilibrium adsorption data were better fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model. The findings reveal the feasibility of AC-alginate beads composite to be used as a potential and low cost adsorbent for removal of cationic dyes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Large Area Diamond Tribological Surfaces with Negligible Wear in Extreme Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase I we propose to demonstrate the processing of very large area diamond sliding bearings and tribological surfaces. The bearings and surfaces will experience...

  13. Uptake of acetone, ethanol and benzene to snow and ice: effects of surface area and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbatt, J P D; Bartels-Rausch, T; Ullerstam, M; Ye, T J

    2008-01-01

    The interactions of gas-phase acetone, ethanol and benzene with smooth ice films and artificial snow have been studied. In one technique, the snow is packed into a cylindrical column and inserted into a low-pressure flow reactor coupled to a chemical-ionization mass spectrometer for gas-phase analysis. At 214 and 228 K, it is found for acetone and ethanol that the adsorbed amounts per surface area match those for adsorption to thin films of ice formed by freezing liquid water, when the specific surface area of the snow (as determined from Kr adsorption at 77 K) and the geometric surface area of the ice films are used. This indicates that freezing thin films of water leads to surfaces that are smooth at the molecular level. Experiments performed to test the effect of film growth on ethanol uptake indicate that uptake is independent of ice growth rate, up to 2.4 μm min -1 . In addition, traditional Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) experiments were performed with these gases on artificial snow from 238 to 266.5 K. A transition from a BET type I isotherm indicative of monolayer formation to a BET type II isotherm indicative of multilayer uptake is observed for acetone at T≥263 K and ethanol at T≥255 K, arising from solution formation on the ice. When multilayer formation does not occur, as was the case for benzene at T≤263 K and for acetone at T≤255 K, the saturated surface coverage increased with increasing temperature, consistent with the quasi-liquid layer affecting adsorption prior to full dissolution/multilayer formation.

  14. Applications of ion scattering in surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The study of ion scattering from surfaces has made an increasingly important contribution both to the development of highly surface specific analysis techniques and to the understanding of the atomic collision processes associated with ion bombardment of solid surfaces. From an analysis point of view, by appropriate choice of parameters such as ion energy and species, scattering geometry and target temperature, it is possible to study not only the composition of the surface layer but also the detailed atomic arrangement. The ion scattering technique is thus particularly useful for the study of surface compositional and structural changes caused by adsorption, thermal annealing or ion bombardment treatments of simple or composite materials. Ion bombardment induced desorption, damage or atomic mixing can also be effectively studied using scattering techniques. By reviewing the application of the technique to a variety of these technologically important surface investigations, it is possible to illustrate the way in which ion scattering has developed as the understanding of the underlying physics has improved. (author)

  15. Surface and interface analysis of photovoltaic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazmerski, L.L.

    1983-01-01

    Interface chemistry can control the performance and operational lifetime of solar cells, especially thin-film, polycrystalline devices. The composition and elemental integrity of device surfaces, internal junctions, layer and defect interfces can be related to and dominate the electroptical characteristics of the materials/ devices. This paper examines the compositional properties of external and internal surfaces in polycrystaline solar cells, utilizing high-resolution, complementary surface analysis techniques. The electronic properties of these same regions are evaluated using microelectrical characterization methods. Cell performance, in turn, is explained in terms of these relation-ships. Specifically, two solar cell types are used as examples: (1) the polycrystalline Si homojunction and (2) the (Cd Zn)S/CuInSe 2 heterojunction. Throughout these investigations of photovoltaic devices, the limitations and strengths of the surface and electrical microanalyses techniques are emphasized and discussed. (Author) [pt

  16. Possibilities of surface waters monitoring at mining areas using UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisiecka, Ewa; Motyka, Barbara; Motyka, Zbigniew; Pierzchała, Łukasz; Szade, Adam

    2018-04-01

    The selected, remote measurement methods are discussed, useful for determining surface water properties using mobile unmanned aerial platforms (UAV). The possibilities of using this type of solutions in the scope of measuring spatial, physicochemical and biological parameters of both natural and anthropogenic water reservoirs, including flood polders, water-filled pits, settling tanks and mining sinks were analyzed. Methods of remote identification of the process of overgrowing this type of ecosystems with water and coastal plant formations have also been proposed.

  17. Experimental and numerical analysis of microstructured surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Diani, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Heat dissipation is one of the most important issues for the reliability of electronics equipment. Up today, air represents the most safe, cheap, and common working fluid for electronics thermal management applications. Due to its poor heat transfer characteristics, air always flow through enhanced surfaces, such as plain and louvered fins, pin fins, offset strip fins and wire screens, in order to increase the heat transfer area and to create turbulence. Recently, metal foams have been propos...

  18. Level crossing analysis of growing surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahbazi, F; Sobhanian, S; Tabar, M Reza Rahimi; Khorram, S; Frootan, G R; Zahed, H

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the average frequency of positive slope ν + α , crossing the height α = h - h-bar in the surface growing processes. The exact level crossing analysis of the random deposition model and the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation in the strong coupling limit before creation of singularities is given

  19. Estimating the surface area of birds: using the homing pigeon (Columba livia) as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Cristina R; Moye, John K; Pritsos, Chris A

    2014-05-08

    Estimation of the surface area of the avian body is valuable for thermoregulation and metabolism studies as well as for assessing exposure to oil and other surface-active organic pollutants from a spill. The use of frozen carcasses for surface area estimations prevents the ability to modify the posture of the bird. The surface area of six live homing pigeons in the fully extended flight position was estimated using a noninvasive method. An equation was derived to estimate the total surface area of a pigeon based on its body weight. A pigeon's surface area in the fully extended flight position is approximately 4 times larger than the surface area of a pigeon in the perching position. The surface area of a bird is dependent on its physical position, and, therefore, the fully extended flight position exhibits the maximum area of a bird and should be considered the true surface area of a bird. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd | Biology Open.

  20. Comparison of diffusion charging and mobility-based methods for measurement of aerosol agglomerate surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Bon Ki; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2012-05-01

    We compare different approaches to measure surface area of aerosol agglomerates. The objective was to compare field methods, such as mobility and diffusion charging based approaches, with laboratory approach, such as Brunauer, Emmett, Teller (BET) method used for bulk powder samples. To allow intercomparison of various surface area measurements, we defined 'geometric surface area' of agglomerates (assuming agglomerates are made up of ideal spheres), and compared various surface area measurements to the geometric surface area. Four different approaches for measuring surface area of agglomerate particles in the size range of 60-350 nm were compared using (i) diffusion charging-based sensors from three different manufacturers, (ii) mobility diameter of an agglomerate, (iii) mobility diameter of an agglomerate assuming a linear chain morphology with uniform primary particle size, and (iv) surface area estimation based on tandem mobility-mass measurement and microscopy. Our results indicate that the tandem mobility-mass measurement, which can be applied directly to airborne particles unlike the BET method, agrees well with the BET method. It was also shown that the three diffusion charging-based surface area measurements of silver agglomerates were similar within a factor of 2 and were lower than those obtained from the tandem mobility-mass and microscopy method by a factor of 3-10 in the size range studied. Surface area estimated using the mobility diameter depended on the structure or morphology of the agglomerate with significant underestimation at high fractal dimensions approaching 3.

  1. Tritium in Precipitation, Surface and Groundwaters in the Zagreb Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvatincic, N.; Baresic, J.; Sironic, A.; Krajcar Bronic, I.; Obelic, B.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive isotope tritium (3H) and stable isotopes of hydrogen (2H/1H) and oxygen (18O/16O) were measured in Sava River, precipitation and groundwater at 3 monitoring wells (piezometers) and 1 production well of the Petrusevec aquifer, close to the Sava River. Samples were collected monthly during 2010. The investigation is included in the Regional IAEA Project RER/8/016 Using Environmental Isotopes for Evaluation of Streamwater/Groundwater Interactions in Selected Aquifers in the Danube Basin. Sava River is a tributary of Danube River and the aim of the investigation is to determine the influence of surface stream of Sava River to the groundwater of aquifer used for water exploitation. In this work only 3H results were presented. 3H was measured by liquid scintillation counter Quantulus 1220, using electrolytic enrichment for all samples. 3H activity in precipitation showed slight seasonal fluctuation between 4 TU and 14 TU, with higher values in summer. 3H activity of Sava River and groundwater of the Petrusevec aquifer followed 3H of precipitation till May 2010. Significant increase of 3H in Sava River was observed in June, (199 @ 20) TU, and in the next month it fell down at 6 TU. Increase of 3H was also observed in groundwater but with damped response (maximum 60 TU) and with delay of 2 - 3 months related to Sava River. Different response of different piezometers and the well indicated the different infiltration times of surface water of Sava River to groundwater of the Petrusevec aquifer. The increased 3H activity in surface and groundwaters was caused by release of tritiated water from the Krsko Nuclear Power Plant, 30 km upstream from Zagreb. The results of 3H, 2H/1H and 18O/16O measurements will be used to determine the infiltration time of groundwater of the Petrusevec aquifer using conceptual and mathematical models. (author)

  2. Possibilities of surface waters monitoring at mining areas using UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiecka Ewa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The selected, remote measurement methods are discussed, useful for determining surface water properties using mobile unmanned aerial platforms (UAV. The possibilities of using this type of solutions in the scope of measuring spatial, physicochemical and biological parameters of both natural and anthropogenic water reservoirs, including flood polders, water-filled pits, settling tanks and mining sinks were analyzed. Methods of remote identification of the process of overgrowing this type of ecosystems with water and coastal plant formations have also been proposed.

  3. SURFACE TEXTURE ANALYSIS FOR FUNCTIONALITY CONTROL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Tosello, Guido

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 3 hours duration as a part of the course VISION ONLINE – One week course on Precision & Nanometrology. The exercises concern surface texture analysis for functionality control, in connection with three different case stories. This docume...... contains a short description of each case story, 3-D roughness parameters analysis and relation with the product’s functionality.......This document is used in connection with three exercises of 3 hours duration as a part of the course VISION ONLINE – One week course on Precision & Nanometrology. The exercises concern surface texture analysis for functionality control, in connection with three different case stories. This document...

  4. Effect of solution and leaf surface polarity on droplet spread area and contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairn, Justin J; Forster, W Alison; van Leeuwen, Rebecca M

    2016-03-01

    How much an agrochemical spray droplet spreads on a leaf surface can significantly influence efficacy. This study investigates the effect solution polarity has on droplet spreading on leaf surfaces and whether the relative leaf surface polarity, as quantified using the wetting tension dielectric (WTD) technique, influences the final spread area. Contact angles and spread areas were measured using four probe solutions on 17 species. Probe solution polarity was found to affect the measured spread area and the contact angle of the droplets on non-hairy leaves. Leaf hairs skewed the spread area measurement, preventing investigation of the influence of surface polarity on hairy leaves. WTD-measured leaf surface polarity of non-hairy leaves was found to correlate strongly with the effect of solution polarity on spread area. For non-polar leaf surfaces the spread area decreases with increasing solution polarity, for neutral surfaces polarity has no effect on spread area and for polar leaf surfaces the spread area increases with increasing solution polarity. These results attest to the use of the WTD technique as a means to quantify leaf surface polarity. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Surface analysis with STM and AFM

    CERN Document Server

    Magonov, Sergi N

    1996-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are powerful tools for surface examination. In the past, many STM and AFM studies led to erroneous conclusions due to lack of proper theoretical considerations and of an understanding of how image patterns are affected by measurement conditions. For this book, two world experts, one on theoretical analysis and the other on experimental characterization, have joined forces to bring together essential components of STM and AFM studies: The practical aspects of STM, the image simulation by surface electron density plot calculat

  6. A method of analyzing rectal surface area irradiated and rectal complications in prostate conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yong; Song, Paul Y.; Li Shidong; Spelbring, Danny R.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Haraf, Daniel J.; Chen, George T.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method of analyzing rectal surface area irradiated and rectal complications in prostate conformal radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Dose-surface histograms of the rectum, which state the rectal surface area irradiated to any given dose, were calculated for a group of 27 patients treated with a four-field box technique to a total (tumor minimum) dose ranging from 68 to 70 Gy. Occurrences of rectal toxicities as defined by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) were recorded and examined in terms of dose and rectal surface area irradiated. For a specified end point of rectal complication, the complication probability was analyzed as a function of dose irradiated to a fixed rectal area, and as a function of area receiving a fixed dose. Lyman's model of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) was used to fit the data. Results: The observed occurrences of rectal complications appear to depend on the rectal surface area irradiated to a given dose level. The patient distribution of each toxicity grade exhibits a maximum as a function of percentage surface area irradiated, and the maximum moves to higher values of percentage surface area as the toxicity grade increases. The dependence of the NTCP for the specified end point on dose and percentage surface area irradiated was fitted to Lyman's NTCP model with a set of parameters. The curvature of the NTCP as a function of the surface area suggests that the rectum is a parallel structured organ. Conclusions: The described method of analyzing rectal surface area irradiated yields interesting insight into understanding rectal complications in prostate conformal radiotherapy. Application of the method to a larger patient data set has the potential to facilitate the construction of a full dose-surface-complication relationship, which would be most useful in guiding clinical practice

  7. The Genetic Association Between Neocortical Volume and General Cognitive Ability Is Driven by Global Surface Area Rather Than Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuoksimaa, Eero; Panizzon, Matthew S; Chen, Chi-Hua; Fiecas, Mark; Eyler, Lisa T; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Hagler, Donald J; Fischl, Bruce; Franz, Carol E; Jak, Amy; Lyons, Michael J; Neale, Michael C; Rinker, Daniel A; Thompson, Wesley K; Tsuang, Ming T; Dale, Anders M; Kremen, William S

    2015-08-01

    Total gray matter volume is associated with general cognitive ability (GCA), an association mediated by genetic factors. It is expectable that total neocortical volume should be similarly associated with GCA. Neocortical volume is the product of thickness and surface area, but global thickness and surface area are unrelated phenotypically and genetically in humans. The nature of the genetic association between GCA and either of these 2 cortical dimensions has not been examined. Humans possess greater cognitive capacity than other species, and surface area increases appear to be the primary driver of the increased size of the human cortex. Thus, we expected neocortical surface area to be more strongly associated with cognition than thickness. Using multivariate genetic analysis in 515 middle-aged twins, we demonstrated that both the phenotypic and genetic associations between neocortical volume and GCA are driven primarily by surface area rather than thickness. Results were generally similar for each of 4 specific cognitive abilities that comprised the GCA measure. Our results suggest that emphasis on neocortical surface area, rather than thickness, could be more fruitful for elucidating neocortical-GCA associations and identifying specific genes underlying those associations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. BLM National Surface Management Agency: Area Polygons, Withdrawal Area Polygons, and Special Public Purpose Withdrawal Area Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Geographic Data Committee — The SMA implementation is comprised of one feature dataset, with several polygon feature classes, rather than a single feature class. SurfaceManagementAgency: The...

  9. Surface analysis methods in materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Sexton, Brett; Smart, Roger

    1992-01-01

    The idea for this book stemmed from a remark by Philip Jennings of Murdoch University in a discussion session following a regular meeting of the Australian Surface Science group. He observed that a text on surface analysis and applica­ tions to materials suitable for final year undergraduate and postgraduate science students was not currently available. Furthermore, the members of the Australian Surface Science group had the research experience and range of coverage of sur­ face analytical techniques and applications to provide a text for this purpose. A of techniques and applications to be included was agreed at that meeting. The list intended readership of the book has been broadened since the early discussions, particularly to encompass industrial users, but there has been no significant alter­ ation in content. The editors, in consultation with the contributors, have agreed that the book should be prepared for four major groups of readers: - senior undergraduate students in chemistry, physics, metallur...

  10. Surface and subsurface conditions in permafrost areas - a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidstrand, Patrik

    2003-02-01

    This report contains a summary of some of the information within existing technical and scientific literature on permafrost. Permafrost is viewed as one of the future climate driven process domains that may exist in Scandinavia, and that may give rise to significantly different surface and subsurface conditions than the present. Except for changes in the biosphere, permafrost may impact hydraulic, mechanical, and chemical subsurface processes and conditions. Permafrost and its influences on the subsurface conditions are thus of interest for the performance and safety assessments of deep geological waste repositories. The definition of permafrost is 'ground that stays at or below 0 deg C for at least two consecutive years'. Permafrost will effect the geological subsurface to some depth. How deep the permafrost may grow is a function of the heat balance, thermal conditions at the surface and within the ground, and the geothermal heat flux from the Earth's inner parts. The main chapters of the report summaries the knowledge on permafrost evolution, occurrence and distribution, and extracts information concerning hydrology and mechanical and chemical impacts due to permafrost related conditions. The results of a literature review are always dependent on the available literature. Concerning permafrost there is some literature available from investigations in the field of long-term repositories and some from mining industries. However, reports of these investigations are few and the bulk of permafrost literature comes from the science departments concerned with surficial processes (e.g. geomorphology, hydrology, agriculture, etc) and from engineering concerns, such as foundation of constructions and pipeline design. This focus within the permafrost research inevitably yields a biased but also an abundant amount of information on localised surficial processes and a limited amount on regional and deep permafrost characteristics. Possible conclusions are that there is

  11. Surface and subsurface conditions in permafrost areas - a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidstrand, Patrik [Bergab, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2003-02-01

    This report contains a summary of some of the information within existing technical and scientific literature on permafrost. Permafrost is viewed as one of the future climate driven process domains that may exist in Scandinavia, and that may give rise to significantly different surface and subsurface conditions than the present. Except for changes in the biosphere, permafrost may impact hydraulic, mechanical, and chemical subsurface processes and conditions. Permafrost and its influences on the subsurface conditions are thus of interest for the performance and safety assessments of deep geological waste repositories. The definition of permafrost is 'ground that stays at or below 0 deg C for at least two consecutive years'. Permafrost will effect the geological subsurface to some depth. How deep the permafrost may grow is a function of the heat balance, thermal conditions at the surface and within the ground, and the geothermal heat flux from the Earth's inner parts. The main chapters of the report summaries the knowledge on permafrost evolution, occurrence and distribution, and extracts information concerning hydrology and mechanical and chemical impacts due to permafrost related conditions. The results of a literature review are always dependent on the available literature. Concerning permafrost there is some literature available from investigations in the field of long-term repositories and some from mining industries. However, reports of these investigations are few and the bulk of permafrost literature comes from the science departments concerned with surficial processes (e.g. geomorphology, hydrology, agriculture, etc) and from engineering concerns, such as foundation of constructions and pipeline design. This focus within the permafrost research inevitably yields a biased but also an abundant amount of information on localised surficial processes and a limited amount on regional and deep permafrost characteristics. Possible conclusions are that

  12. 30 CFR 933.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. 933.761 Section 933.761 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated Unsuitable for Coal Mining by Act of Congress, with...

  13. Surface area of antimony oxide by isotope exchange and other methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Y.K.; Acharya, B.V.; Rangamannar, B.

    1985-06-17

    Specific surface areas of antimony oxide samples, one commercial, the other prepared from antimony trichloride were measured by heterogeneous isotope exchange, gas adsorption, air permeability and microscopic methods. Specific surface areas obtained by these four methods for the two samples were compared and the observed differences are explained.

  14. The protection of urban areas from surface wastewater pollutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vialkova Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it considered the problem of collection, treatment and discharge into waters of rain and melted wastewater. To reduce the load on the combined sewer system, there are engineering solutions collect rain and melt water for use in the irrigation of lawns and green spaces. Research carried out at the department “Water supply and sanitation”, (Russia, confirm the high pollution concentrations of meltwater and rainfall in urban arias. Series of measurements of heavy metal in rainwater runoff carried out in Hungary demonstrates clearly the differences in concentrations in the function of distance from the edge of the road. Also differences are introduced between pollution concentrations in runoff water from within and outside urban traffic roads. The quality of snow cover, forming meltwater is observed to be changing in dependence on roadway location. Quality characteristics of surface runoff and its sediments can be effectively improved with super-high frequency radiation (SHF treatment which is presented in this paper.

  15. High surface area silicon materials: fundamentals and new technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buriak, Jillian M

    2006-01-15

    Crystalline silicon forms the basis of just about all computing technologies on the planet, in the form of microelectronics. An enormous amount of research infrastructure and knowledge has been developed over the past half-century to construct complex functional microelectronic structures in silicon. As a result, it is highly probable that silicon will remain central to computing and related technologies as a platform for integration of, for instance, molecular electronics, sensing elements and micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems. Porous nanocrystalline silicon is a fascinating variant of the same single crystal silicon wafers used to make computer chips. Its synthesis, a straightforward electrochemical, chemical or photochemical etch, is compatible with existing silicon-based fabrication techniques. Porous silicon literally adds an entirely new dimension to the realm of silicon-based technologies as it has a complex, three-dimensional architecture made up of silicon nanoparticles, nanowires, and channel structures. The intrinsic material is photoluminescent at room temperature in the visible region due to quantum confinement effects, and thus provides an optical element to electronic applications. Our group has been developing new organic surface reactions on porous and nanocrystalline silicon to tailor it for a myriad of applications, including molecular electronics and sensing. Integration of organic and biological molecules with porous silicon is critical to harness the properties of this material. The construction and use of complex, hierarchical molecular synthetic strategies on porous silicon will be described.

  16. Reduction Expansion Synthesis as Strategy to Control Nitrogen Doping Level and Surface Area in Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Canty

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Graphene sheets doped with nitrogen were produced by the reduction-expansion (RES method utilizing graphite oxide (GO and urea as precursor materials. The simultaneous graphene generation and nitrogen insertion reactions are based on the fact that urea decomposes upon heating to release reducing gases. The volatile byproducts perform two primary functions: (i promoting the reduction of the GO and (ii providing the nitrogen to be inserted in situ as the graphene structure is created. Samples with diverse urea/GO mass ratios were treated at 800 °C in inert atmosphere to generate graphene with diverse microstructural characteristics and levels of nitrogen doping. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM were used to study the microstructural features of the products. The effects of doping on the samples structure and surface area were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman Spectroscopy, and Brunauer Emmet Teller (BET. The GO and urea decomposition-reduction process as well as nitrogen-doped graphene stability were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA coupled with mass spectroscopy (MS analysis of the evolved gases. Results show that the proposed method offers a high level of control over the amount of nitrogen inserted in the graphene and may be used alternatively to control its surface area. To demonstrate the practical relevance of these findings, as-produced samples were used as electrodes in supercapacitor and battery devices and compared with conventional, thermally exfoliated graphene.

  17. Experiment Study on Determination of Surface Area of Finegrained Soils by Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X. Q.; Zhou, C. Y.; Fang, Y. G.; Lin, L. S.

    2017-12-01

    The specific surface area (SSA) has a great influence on the physical and chemical properties of fine-grained soils. Determination of specific surface area is an important content for fine-grained soils micro-meso analysis and characteristic research. In this paper, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) was adopted to determine the SSA of fine-grained soils including quartz, kaolinite, bentonite and natural Shenzhen soft clay. The test results show that the average values of SSA obtained by MIP are 0.78m2/g, 11.31m2/g, 57.28m2/g and 27.15m2/g respectively for very fine-grained quartz, kaolin, bentonite and natural Shenzhen soft clay, and that it is feasible to apply MIP to obtain the SSA of fine-grained soils through statistical analysis of 97 samples. Through discussion, it is necessary to consider the state of fine-grained soils such as pore ratio when the SSA of fine-grained soils is determined by MIP.

  18. A Probabilistic Analysis of Surface Water Flood Risk in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Katie; Hall, Jim; Glenis, Vassilis; Kilsby, Chris

    2017-10-30

    Flooding in urban areas during heavy rainfall, often characterized by short duration and high-intensity events, is known as "surface water flooding." Analyzing surface water flood risk is complex as it requires understanding of biophysical and human factors, such as the localized scale and nature of heavy precipitation events, characteristics of the urban area affected (including detailed topography and drainage networks), and the spatial distribution of economic and social vulnerability. Climate change is recognized as having the potential to enhance the intensity and frequency of heavy rainfall events. This study develops a methodology to link high spatial resolution probabilistic projections of hourly precipitation with detailed surface water flood depth maps and characterization of urban vulnerability to estimate surface water flood risk. It incorporates probabilistic information on the range of uncertainties in future precipitation in a changing climate. The method is applied to a case study of Greater London and highlights that both the frequency and spatial extent of surface water flood events are set to increase under future climate change. The expected annual damage from surface water flooding is estimated to be to be £171 million, £343 million, and £390 million/year under the baseline, 2030 high, and 2050 high climate change scenarios, respectively. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. High surface area microporous activated carbons prepared from Fox nut (Euryale ferox) shell by zinc chloride activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Arvind; Mohan Jena, Hara

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Activated carbons have been prepared from Fox nutshell with chemical activation using ZnCl 2 . • The thermal behavior of the raw material and impregnated raw material has been carried out by thermogravimetric analysis. • The characterizations of the prepared activated carbons have been determined by nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms, FTIR, XRD, and FESEM. • The BET surface area and total pore volume of prepared activated carbon has been obtained as 2869 m 2 /g, 2124 m 2 /g, and 1.96 cm 3 /g, respectively. • The microporous surface area, micropore volume, and microporosity percentage of prepared activated carbon has been obtained as 2124 m 2 /g, 1.68 cm 3 /g, and 85.71%, respectively. - Abstract: High surface area microporous activated carbon has been prepared from Fox nutshell (Euryale ferox) by chemical activation with ZnCl 2 as an activator. The process has been conducted at different impregnation (ZnCl 2 /Fox nutshell) ratios (1–2.5) and carbonization temperatures (500–700 °C). The thermal decomposition behavior of Fox nutshell and impregnated Fox nutshell has been carried out by thermogravimetric analysis. The pore properties including the BET surface area, micropore surface area, micropore volume, and pore size distribution of the activated carbons have been determined by nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms at −196 °C using the BET, t-plot method, DR, and BJH methods. The BET surface area, the microporous surface area, total pore volume, and micropore volume have been obtained as 2869 m 2 /g, 2124 m 2 /g, 1.96 cm 3 /g, and 1.68 cm 3 /g, respectively, and the microporosity percentage of the prepared activated carbon is 85.71%. The prepared activated carbons have been also characterized with instrumental methods such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM).

  20. Measurement of the specific surface area of loose copper deposit by electrochemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Dolmatova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the work the surface area of the electrode with dispersed copper deposit obtained within 30 seconds was evaluated by techniques of chronopotentiometry (CPM and impedance spectroscopy. In method CPM the electrode surface available for measurement depends on the value of the polarizing current. At high currents during the transition time there is a change of surface relief that can not determine the full surface of loose deposit. The electrochemical impedance method is devoid of this shortcoming since the measurements are carried out in indifferent electrolyte in the absence of current. The area measured by the impedance is tens of times higher than the value obtained by chronopotentiometry. It is found that from a solution containing sulfuric acid the deposits form with a high specific surface area. Based on these data it was concluded that the method of impedance spectroscopy can be used to measure in situ the surface area of the dispersed copper deposits.

  1. Characteristics of surface O{sub 3} over Qinghai Lake area in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Zhenxing, E-mail: zxshen@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Cao, Junji [Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Zhang, Leiming [Air Quality Research Division, Environment Canada, Toronto (Canada); Zhao, Zhuzi [Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Dong, Jungang [School of Architecture, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi' an 710055 (China); Wang, Linqing [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Wang, Qiyuan; Li, Guohui; Liu, Suixin [Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Zhang, Qian [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

    2014-12-01

    Surface O{sub 3} was monitored continuously during Aug. 12, 2010 to Jul. 21, 2011 at a high elevation site (3200 m above sea level) in Qinghai Lake area (36°58′37″N, 99°53′56″E) in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China. Daily average O{sub 3} ranged from 21.8 ppbv to 65.3 ppbv with an annual average of 41.0 ppbv. Seasonal average of O{sub 3} followed a decreasing order of summer > autumn > spring > winter. Diurnal variations of O{sub 3} showed low concentrations during daytime and high concentrations during late night and early morning. An intensive campaign was also conducted during Aug. 13–31, 2010 to investigate correlations between meteorological or chemical conditions and O{sub 3}. It was found that O{sub 3} was poorly correlated with solar radiation due to the insufficient NO{sub x} in the ambient air, thus limiting O{sub 3} formation under strong solar radiation. In contrast, high O{sub 3} levels always coincided with strong winds, suggesting that stratospheric O{sub 3} and long range transport might be the main sources of O{sub 3} in this rural area. Back-trajectory analysis supported this hypothesis and further indicated the transport of air masses from northwest, northeast and southeast directions. - Highlights: • Surface O{sub 3} was measured in Qinghai Lake area in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China. • The O{sub 3} chemical formation was under a strong NOx-limited in Qinghai Lake areas. • Stratospheric O{sub 3} and transport might be the main sources of O{sub 3} in this area.

  2. Characteristics of surface O3 over Qinghai Lake area in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Zhenxing; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Leiming; Zhao, Zhuzi; Dong, Jungang; Wang, Linqing; Wang, Qiyuan; Li, Guohui; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Surface O 3 was monitored continuously during Aug. 12, 2010 to Jul. 21, 2011 at a high elevation site (3200 m above sea level) in Qinghai Lake area (36°58′37″N, 99°53′56″E) in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China. Daily average O 3 ranged from 21.8 ppbv to 65.3 ppbv with an annual average of 41.0 ppbv. Seasonal average of O 3 followed a decreasing order of summer > autumn > spring > winter. Diurnal variations of O 3 showed low concentrations during daytime and high concentrations during late night and early morning. An intensive campaign was also conducted during Aug. 13–31, 2010 to investigate correlations between meteorological or chemical conditions and O 3 . It was found that O 3 was poorly correlated with solar radiation due to the insufficient NO x in the ambient air, thus limiting O 3 formation under strong solar radiation. In contrast, high O 3 levels always coincided with strong winds, suggesting that stratospheric O 3 and long range transport might be the main sources of O 3 in this rural area. Back-trajectory analysis supported this hypothesis and further indicated the transport of air masses from northwest, northeast and southeast directions. - Highlights: • Surface O 3 was measured in Qinghai Lake area in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China. • The O 3 chemical formation was under a strong NOx-limited in Qinghai Lake areas. • Stratospheric O 3 and transport might be the main sources of O 3 in this area

  3. Surface and groundwater Nitrate distribution in the area of Vicenza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altissimo, L.; Dal Pra, A.

    1999-01-01

    Public aqueducts in the Province of Vicenza (Italy) are supplied entirely by various kinds of water sources: the sub river bed strata of the mountain valleys, water-bearing aquifers of the high plan, pressurized water-bearing aquifers of the middle plain, karstic reservoirs of the mountain massifs and local springs. Progressive increase in nitrate concentration has long been detected in the underground water of many parts of the Vicenza region. The nitrates originate from various sources: human waste, industrial dumping (e.g. the tanning industry) and the use of animal and chemical fertilizers. Nitrate distribution was studied in all wells used for extracting underground water including source waters which replenishing underground aquifers. During the study period ('91-'95), water courses in the recharge areas were found to have nitrate concentrations ranging between 2.0 and 42.0 mg/l. These values remained substantially stable in time. Underground aquifers showed stable nitrate concentration between 5.0 mg/l (mountain karstic aquifers; sub-river bed strata of valley bottom) and 44.0 mg/l (water bearing strata of the high plain of Astico and Brenta rivers). The pressurized flooding aquifers of the middle plain have lower concentrations (6.0-21.0 mg/l) but tend to increase by about 0.5 mg/l per year [it

  4. Surface analysis by RBS and NRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, M.

    1984-01-01

    The use of Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) for surface analysis is discussed. For the RBS technique, emphasis is laid on cases which are not discussed in existing review articles of the subject. The present work intends to describe a calculation procedure with the aid of which it is possible to obtain the depth distribution of a high concentration and non-homogeneously binary compound sample. This complicates the determination of the stopping and scattering cross-sections of the incoming particles at a certain depth below the surface. In addition, a method is described by which the thickness and composition of a two-element film, deposited on a single-element substrate, can be determined by RBS. One advantage with the method presented here is that it is not necessary to detect any signals from the lighter component of the film, in order to determine the composition. This improves the RBS technique to study light elements in connection with thin layers. Finally, the NRA method to measure concentration distributions of deuterium beneath a surface is presented. In the case discussed here, the analysis is done by the D( 3 He, H) 4 He nuclear reaction. (author)

  5. Long-term studies on the effects of nonvolatile organic compounds on porous media surface areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachikian, Crist S; Harmon, Thomas C

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the long-term behavior of porous media contaminated by nonvolatile organic compounds (NVOC) in terms of specific interfacial surface area. Specifically, a natural sand, Moffett sand (MS), was contaminated with naphthalene and the surface area was measured repeatedly over time using nitrogen adsorption-desorption techniques. A field-contaminated sand affected by lamp-black material (LB) from former manufactured gas plant operations was also studied. Lampblack is a carbonaceous skeleton containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other hydrocarbons. It is hypothesized that soils contaminated by these types of chemicals will exhibit significantly less surface area than their clean counterparts. The surface areas for the contaminated MS samples increased toward their clean-MS values during the 700-h aging period, but achieved the clean values only after pentane extraction or heating at 60 degrees C. Heating at 50 degrees C failed to achieve a similar recovery of the clean-MS surface area value. Nonspecific mass loss tracked the increase in surface area as indirect evidence that naphthalene loss was the cause of the surface area increase. For the LB samples, aging at 100 degrees C produced a slight decrease in surface area and mass while aging at 250 degrees C caused the surface area to increase roughly threefold while the mass decreased by approximately 1%. These results suggest that, under moderate heating and over the time scale of this investigation, there is a redistribution of the complex contaminant mixture on the solid matrix. Greater temperatures remove mass more efficiently and therefore exhibited the surface area increase expected in this experiment.

  6. Analysis of Geothermal Pathway in the Metamorphic Area, Northeastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Wu, M. Y.; Song, S. R.; Lo, W.

    2016-12-01

    A quantitative measure by play fairway analysis in geothermal energy development is an important tool that can present the probability map of potential resources through the uncertainty studies in geology for early phase decision making purpose in the related industries. While source, pathway, and fluid are the three main geologic factors in traditional geothermal systems, identifying the heat paths is critical to reduce drilling cost. Taiwan is in East Asia and the western edge of Pacific Ocean, locating on the convergent boundary of Eurasian Plate and Philippine Sea Plate with many earthquake activities. This study chooses a metamorphic area in the western corner of Yi-Lan plain in northeastern Taiwan with high geothermal potential and several existing exploration sites. Having high subsurface temperature gradient from the mountain belts, and plenty hydrologic systems through thousands of millimeters annual precipitation that would bring up heats closer to the surface, current geothermal conceptual model indicates the importance of pathway distribution which affects the possible concentration of extractable heat location. The study conducts surface lineation analysis using analytic hierarchy process to determine weights among various fracture types for their roles in geothermal pathways, based on the information of remote sensing data, published geologic maps and field work measurements, to produce regional fracture distribution probability map. The results display how the spatial distribution of pathways through various fractures could affect geothermal systems, identify the geothermal plays using statistical data analysis, and compare against the existing drilling data.

  7. SURFAN, a programme for surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negoita, F.; Borcan, C.; Pantelica, D.

    1997-01-01

    Possible alternatives to Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) method of material analysis, overcoming the poor sensitivity to light elements of RBS, are the nuclear resonant reaction analysis (NRA) and elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). The last one is especially useful in surface and thin film analysis. To simulate the spectra obtained with any of these methods a programme SURFAN was worked out. In comparison with the code RUMP, published by Doolittle, it allows to simply change the charge of the projectile nature, implies no limitation to the energy of incident projectiles and permits the use of any depth profile function. The basic ideas and the structure of SURFAN are presented. Its application to ERDA and RBS methods resulted in important information on the processes implied in special materials obtained by advanced technologies

  8. Surface Area, and Oxidation Effects on Nitridation Kinetics of Silicon Powder Compacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, R. T.; Palczer, A. R.

    1998-01-01

    Commercially available silicon powders were wet-attrition-milled from 2 to 48 hr to achieve surface areas (SA's) ranging from 1.3 to 70 sq m/g. The surface area effects on the nitridation kinetics of silicon powder compacts were determined at 1250 or 1350 C for 4 hr. In addition, the influence of nitridation environment, and preoxidation on nitridation kinetics of a silicon powder of high surface area (approximately equals 63 sq m/g) was investigated. As the surface area increased, so did the percentage nitridation after 4 hr in N2 at 1250 or 1350 C. Silicon powders of high surface area (greater than 40 sq m/g) can be nitrided to greater than 70% at 1250 C in 4 hr. The nitridation kinetics of the high-surface-area powder compacts were significantly delayed by preoxidation treatment. Conversely, the nitridation environment had no significant influence on the nitridation kinetics of the same powder. Impurities present in the starting powder, and those accumulated during attrition milling, appeared to react with the silica layer on the surface of silicon particles to form a molten silicate layer, which provided a path for rapid diffusion of nitrogen and enhanced the nitridation kinetics of high surface area silicon powder.

  9. Environmental and geochemical assessment of surface sediments on irshansk ilmenite deposit area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталия Олеговна Крюченко

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It is revealed the problem of pollution of surface sediments of Irshansk ilmenite deposit area of various chemical elements hazard class (Mn, V, Ba, Ni, Co, Cr, Mo, Cu, Pb, Zn. It is determined its average content in surface sediments of various functional areas (forest and agricultural land, flood deposits, reclaimed land, calculated geochemical criteria, so given ecological and geochemical assessment of area

  10. Outlining precision boundaries among areas with different variability standards using magnetic susceptibility and geomorphic surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Matias,Sammy S. R.; Marques Júnior,José; Siqueira,Diego S.; Pereira,Gener T.

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for detailed maps that represent in a simplified way the knowledge of the variability of a particular area or region maps. The objective was to outline precision boundaries among areas with different accuracy variability standards using magnetic susceptibility and geomorphic surfaces. The study was conducted in an area of 110 ha, which identified three compartment landscapes based on the geomorphic surfaces model. To determinate pH, organic matter, phosphorus, po...

  11. Coherence of land surface layout as intangible environmental resource (Vooremaa landscape protection area, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Karasov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Vooremaa Landscape Protection Area provides a specimen of native Estonian agricultural lands, alternating with picturesque moraine lakes. The overall visual environment within this area was basically changed by glacial agents and, hereafter, by cultural activities, such as crop farming. Topography consists of about 100 drumlins (some of them are cultivated, as well as depressions, filled with lakes and covered by forests and grasslands. A rich combination of the mentioned factors determined the study area selection. There was accepted, that the harmony, or pleasing organization of distinguishable units of visual environment (with no attention to their colours or textures, but regarding their geographical meaning only, depends on the system effect: the more complexity of the overall system exceeds the algebraic sum of the complexity of its components, the more its organization does. In this way, some developments of information theory could be applied to the analysis of visual environment (from top view, similarly to the analysis of the text (considering units of land relief, land cover, and land cover relief, or a land surface in total, as the symbols of some alphabet, and their diversity within the floating circle – as words, consisting of the symbols. Since mentioned notions of organization and harmony are frequently implied in the concept of landscape coherence, the latter term was used as a fixed and well-known one in the landscape and environmental aesthetics. Hartley’s formula was used to compute the coherence of the land surface layout and the respective regionalization within the study area and surroundings. The effectiveness of the proposed method for representation of visual harmony was non-rigorously verified with transect of Google Street View panoramic photo series, while everyone is welcomed to use the Google Street View to compare the presented results with his own conclusions. There was found, that the proposed index

  12. Changes in the Surface Area of Glaciers in Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khromova, T.; Nosenko, G.

    2012-12-01

    Glaciers are widely recognized as key indicators of climate change. Recent evidence suggests an acceleration of glacier mass loss in several key mountain regions. Glacier recession implies the landscape changes in the glacial zone, origin of new lakes and activation of natural disaster processes, catastrophic mudflows, ice avalanches, outburst floods, and etc. The presence of glaciers in itself threats to human life, economic activity and growing infrastructure. Economical and recreational human activity in mountain regions requires relevant information on snow and ice objects. Absence or inadequacy of such information results in financial and human losses. A more comprehensive evaluation of glacier changes is imperative to assess ice contributions to global sea level rise and the future of water resources from glacial basins. One of the urgent steps is a full inventory of all ice bodies, their volume and changes The first estimation of glaciers state and glaciers distribution in the big part of Northern Eurasia has been done in the USSR Glacier Inventory published in 1966 -1980 as a part of IHD activity. The Inventory is based on topographic maps and air photos and reflects the status of the glaciers in 1957-1970y. There is information about 23796 glaciers with area of 78222.3 km2 in the Inventory. It covers 23 glacier systems on Northern Eurasia. In the 80th the USSR Glacier Inventory has been transformed in the digital form as a part of the World Glacier Inventory. Recent satellite data provide a unique opportunity to look again at these glaciers and to evaluate changes in glacier extent for the second part of XX century. In the paper we report about 15 000 glaciers outlines for Caucasus, Pamir, Tien-Shan, Altai, Syntar-Khayata, Cherskogo Range, Kamchatka and Russian Arctic which have been derived from ASTER and Landsat imagery and could be used for glacier changes evaluation. The results show that glaciers are retreating in all these regions. There is, however

  13. Surface Properties of TNOs: Preliminary Statistical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonieta Barucci, Maria; Fornasier, S.; Alvarez-Cantal, A.; de Bergh, C.; Merlin, F.; DeMeo, F.; Dumas, C.

    2009-09-01

    An overview of the surface properties based on the last results obtained during the Large Program performed at ESO-VLT (2007-2008) will be presented. Simultaneous high quality visible and near-infrared spectroscopy and photometry have been carried out on 40 objects with various dynamical properties, using FORS1 (V), ISAAC (J) and SINFONI (H+K bands) mounted respectively at UT2, UT1 and UT4 VLT-ESO telescopes (Cerro Paranal, Chile). For spectroscopy we computed the spectral slope for each object and searched for possible rotational inhomogeneities. A few objects show features in their visible spectra such as Eris, whose spectral bands are displaced with respect to pure methane-ice. We identify new faint absorption features on 10199 Chariklo and 42355 Typhon, possibly due to the presence of aqueous altered materials. The H+K band spectroscopy was performed with the new instrument SINFONI which is a 3D integral field spectrometer. While some objects show no diagnostic spectral bands, others reveal surface deposits of ices of H2O, CH3OH, CH4, and N2. To investigate the surface properties of these bodies, a radiative transfer model has been applied to interpret the entire 0.4-2.4 micron spectral region. The diversity of the spectra suggests that these objects represent a substantial range of bulk compositions. These different surface compositions can be diagnostic of original compositional diversity, interior source and/or different evolution with different physical processes affecting the surfaces. A statistical analysis is in progress to investigate the correlation of the TNOs’ surface properties with size and dynamical properties.

  14. Synthesis of partially graphitic ordered mesoporous carbons with high surface areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Wenjun; Wan, Ying [Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Resource Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Dou, Yuqian; Zhao, Dongyuan [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Graphitic carbons with ordered mesostructure and high surface areas (of great interest in applications such as energy storage) have been synthesized by a direct triblock-copolymer-templating method. Pluronic F127 is used as a structure-directing agent, with a low-molecular-weight phenolic resol as a carbon source, ferric oxide as a catalyst, and silica as an additive. Inorganic oxides can be completely eliminated from the carbon. Small-angle XRD and N{sub 2} sorption analysis show that the resultant carbon materials possess an ordered 2D hexagonal mesostructure, uniform bimodal mesopores (about 1.5 and 6 nm), high surface area ({proportional_to}1300 m{sup 2}/g), and large pore volumes ({proportional_to}1.50 cm{sup 3}/g) after low-temperature pyrolysis (900 C). All surface areas come from mesopores. Wide-angle XRD patterns demonstrate that the presence of the ferric oxide catalyst and the silica additive lead to a marked enhancement of graphitic ordering in the framework. Raman spectra provide evidence of the increased content of graphitic sp{sup 2} carbon structures. Transmission electron microscopy images confirm that numerous domains in the ordered mesostructures are composed of characteristic graphitic carbon nanostructures. The evolution of the graphitic structure is dependent on the temperature and the concentrations of the silica additive, and ferric oxide catalyst. Electrochemical measurements performed on this graphitic mesoporous carbon when used as an electrode material for an electrochemical double layer capacitor shows rectangular-shaped cyclic voltammetry curves over a wide range of scan rates, even up to 200 mV/s, with a large capacitance of 155 F/g in KOH electrolyte. This method can be widely applied to the synthesis of graphitized carbon nanostructures. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. The Investigation of a Sinkhole Area in Germany by Near-Surface Active Seismic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschache, S.; Becker, D.; Wadas, S. H.; Polom, U.; Krawczyk, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    In November 2010, a 30 m wide and 17 m deep sinkhole occurred in a residential area of Schmalkalden, Germany, which fortunately did not harm humans, but led to damage of buildings and property. Subsequent geoscientific investigations showed that the collapse was naturally caused by the subrosion of sulfates in a depth of about 80 m. In 2012, an early warning system was established including 3C borehole geophones deployed in 50 m depth around the backfilled sinkhole. During the acquisition of two shallow 2D shear wave seismic profiles, the signals generated by a micro-vibrator at the surface were additionally recorded by the four borehole geophones of the early warning system and a VSP probe in a fifth borehole. The travel time analysis of the direct arrivals enhanced the understanding of wave propagation in the area. Seismic velocity anomalies were detected and related to structural seismic images of the 2D profiles. Due to the promising first results, the experiment was further extended by distributing vibration points throughout the whole area around the sinkhole. This time, micro-vibrators for P- and S-wave generation were used. The signals were recorded by the borehole geophones and temporary installed seismometers at surface positions close to the boreholes. The travel times and signal attenuations are evaluated to detect potential instable zones. Furthermore, array analyses are performed. The first results reveal features in the active tomography datasets consistent with structures observed in the 2D seismic images. The advantages of the presented method are the low effort and good repeatability due to the permanently installed borehole geophones. It has the potential to determine P-wave and S-wave velocities in 3D. It supports the interpretation of established investigation methods as 2D surface seismics and VSP. In our further research we propose to evaluate the suitability of the method for the time lapse monitoring of changes in the seismic wave

  16. ThermoMap. Interactive analysis and information system for the area-selected evaluation of the near-surface geothermal potential; ThermoMap. Interaktives Analyse- und Auskunftssystem zur flaechenhaften Abschaetzung des oberflaechennahen geothermischen Potenzials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertemann, David [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (DE). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie (Exogene Dynamik); Psyk, Mario [REHAU AG and CO, Erlangen-Eltersdorf (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The project ThermoMap funded by the European Commission enables a comprehensive assessment of the near-surface geothermal energy potential from already existing geoscientific data sets. Currently, twelve partners from nine EU Member States are involved.

  17. Development of cortical thickness and surface area in autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent T. Mensen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder often associated with changes in cortical volume. The constituents of cortical volume – cortical thickness and surface area – have separable developmental trajectories and are related to different neurobiological processes. However, little is known about the developmental trajectories of cortical thickness and surface area in ASD. In this magnetic resonance imaging (MRI study, we used an accelerated longitudinal design to investigate the cortical development in 90 individuals with ASD and 90 typically developing controls, aged 9 to 20 years. We quantified cortical measures using the FreeSurfer software package, and then used linear mixed model analyses to estimate the developmental trajectories for each cortical measure. Our primary finding was that the development of surface area follows a linear trajectory in ASD that differs from typically developing controls. In typical development, we found a decline in cortical surface area between the ages of 9 and 20 that was absent in ASD. We found this pattern in all regions where developmental trajectories for surface area differed between groups. When we applied a more stringent correction that takes the interdependency of measures into account, this effect on cortical surface area retained significance for left banks of superior temporal sulcus, postcentral area, and right supramarginal area. These areas have previously been implicated in ASD and are involved in the interpretation and processing of audiovisual social stimuli and distinction between self and others. Although some differences in cortical volume and thickness were found, none survived the more stringent correction for multiple testing. This study underscores the importance of distinguishing between cortical surface area and thickness in investigating cortical development, and suggests the development of cortical surface area is of importance to ASD.

  18. Spatio-Temporal Modelling of Dust Transport over Surface Mining Areas and Neighbouring Residential Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Gulikova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Projects focusing on spatio-temporal modelling of the living environment need to manage a wide range of terrain measurements, existing spatial data, time series, results of spatial analysis and inputs/outputs from numerical simulations. Thus, GISs are often used to manage data from remote sensors, to provide advanced spatial analysis and to integrate numerical models. In order to demonstrate the integration of spatial data, time series and methods in the framework of the GIS, we present a case study focused on the modelling of dust transport over a surface coal mining area, exploring spatial data from 3D laser scanners, GPS measurements, aerial images, time series of meteorological observations, inputs/outputs form numerical models and existing geographic resources. To achieve this, digital terrain models, layers including GPS thematic mapping, and scenes with simulation of wind flows are created to visualize and interpret coal dust transport over the mine area and a neighbouring residential zone. A temporary coal storage and sorting site, located near the residential zone, is one of the dominant sources of emissions. Using numerical simulations, the possible effects of wind flows are observed over the surface, modified by natural objects and man-made obstacles. The coal dust drifts with the wind in the direction of the residential zone and is partially deposited in this area. The simultaneous display of the digital map layers together with the location of the dominant emission source, wind flows and protected areas enables a risk assessment of the dust deposition in the area of interest to be performed. In order to obtain a more accurate simulation of wind flows over the temporary storage and sorting site, 3D laser scanning and GPS thematic mapping are used to create a more detailed digital terrain model. Thus, visualization of wind flows over the area of interest combined with 3D map layers enables the exploration of the processes of coal dust

  19. AFM-based tribological study of nanopatterned surfaces: the influence of contact area instabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, A; Serpini, E; Gazzadi, G C; Valeri, S

    2016-04-06

    Although the importance of morphology on the tribological properties of surfaces has long been proved, an exhaustive understanding of nanopatterning effects is still lacking due to the difficulty in both fabricating 'really nano-' structures and detecting their tribological properties. In the present work we show how the probe-surface contact area can be a critical parameter due to its remarkable local variability, making a correct interpretation of the data very difficult in the case of extremely small nanofeatures. Regular arrays of parallel 1D straight nanoprotrusions were fabricated by means of a low-dose focused ion beam, taking advantage of the amorphization-related swelling effect. The tribological properties of the patterns were detected in the presence of air and in vacuum (dry ambient) by atomic force microscopy. We have introduced a novel procedure and data analysis to reduce the uncertainties related to contact instabilities. The real time estimation of the radius of curvature of the contacting asperity enables us to study the dependence of the tribological properties of the patterns from their geometrical characteristics. The effect of the patterns on both adhesion and the coefficient of friction strongly depends on the contact area, which is linked to the local radius of curvature of the probe. However, a detectable hydrophobic character induced on the hydrophilic native SiO2 has been observed as well. The results suggest a scenario for capillary formation on the patterns.

  20. AFM-based tribological study of nanopatterned surfaces: the influence of contact area instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rota, A; Serpini, E; Gazzadi, G C; Valeri, S

    2016-01-01

    Although the importance of morphology on the tribological properties of surfaces has long been proved, an exhaustive understanding of nanopatterning effects is still lacking due to the difficulty in both fabricating ‘really nano-’ structures and detecting their tribological properties. In the present work we show how the probe–surface contact area can be a critical parameter due to its remarkable local variability, making a correct interpretation of the data very difficult in the case of extremely small nanofeatures. Regular arrays of parallel 1D straight nanoprotrusions were fabricated by means of a low-dose focused ion beam, taking advantage of the amorphization-related swelling effect. The tribological properties of the patterns were detected in the presence of air and in vacuum (dry ambient) by atomic force microscopy. We have introduced a novel procedure and data analysis to reduce the uncertainties related to contact instabilities. The real time estimation of the radius of curvature of the contacting asperity enables us to study the dependence of the tribological properties of the patterns from their geometrical characteristics. The effect of the patterns on both adhesion and the coefficient of friction strongly depends on the contact area, which is linked to the local radius of curvature of the probe. However, a detectable hydrophobic character induced on the hydrophilic native SiO 2 has been observed as well. The results suggest a scenario for capillary formation on the patterns. (paper)

  1. Surface area-burnoff correlation for the steam--graphite reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, W.A. Jr.; Malinauskas, A.P.

    1977-01-01

    The oxidation of core graphite by steam of air represents a problem area of significant concern in safety analyses for the high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR). Core and core-support graphite integrity and strength deteriorate with oxidation of the graphite, and oxidation furthermore could affect the rate of fission product release under upset conditions. Consequently, modeling of core response during steam or air ingress conditions requires an expression for the rate of graphite interaction with those impurities. The steam--graphite reaction in particular is a complex interaction of mass transport within the graphite with chemi-sorption and reaction on accessible surfaces; experimental results from graphite to graphite are highly variable, and the description of the reaction is not yet completely consistent. A simple etch pit model relating surface area to burnoff has been proposed and shown to provide reasonable correlation with experimental data obtained from steam oxidation studies of nuclear grade H-327 graphite. Unaccounted differences between theory and experiment arise at burnoffs exceeding 3 to 5 percent. The model, while not complete nor comprehensive, is consistent with experimental observations of graphite oxidation by O 2 (air), CO 2 , or H 2 O, and could have some utility in safety analysis

  2. Mountain home known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Mountain Home KGRA encompasses an area of 3853 hectares (ha) at the foot of the Mount Bennett Hills in Elmore County, Idaho. The site is associated with an arid climate and high winds that generate an acute dust problem. The KGRA lies adjacent to the northwest-southeast trending fault zone that reflects the northern boundary of the western Snake River Plain graben. Data indicate that a careful analysis of the subsidence potential is needed prior to extensive geothermal development. Surface water resources are confined to several small creeks. Lands are utilized for irrigated farmlands and rangeland for livestock. There are no apparent soil limitations to geothermal development. Sage grouse and mule deer are the major species of concern. The potential of locating significant heritage resources other than the Oregon Trail or the bathhouse debris appears to be relatively slight.

  3. Rapid fabrication of large-area, corrosion-resistant superhydrophobic Mg alloy surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenji; Song, Jinlong; Sun, Jing; Lu, Yao; Yu, Ziyuan

    2011-11-01

    A superhydrophobic magnesium (Mg) alloy surface was successfully fabricated via a facile electrochemical machining process, and subsequently covered with a fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) film. The surface morphologies and chemical compositions were investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and a Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR). The results show hierarchal rough structures and an FAS film with a low surface energy on the Mg alloy surfaces, which confers good superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 165.2° and a water tilting angle of approximately 2°. The processing conditions, such as the processing time and removal rate per unit area at a constant removal mass per unit area, were investigated to determine their effects on the superhydrophobicity. Interestingly, when the removal mass per unit area is constant at approximately 11.10 mg/cm(2), the superhydrophobicity does not change with the removal rate per unit area. Therefore, a superhydrophobic Mg alloy surface can be rapidly fabricated based on this property. A large-area superhydrophobic Mg alloy surface was also fabricated for the first time using a small-area moving cathode. The corrosion resistance and durability of the superhydrophobic surfaces were also examined.

  4. Human arachnoid granulations Part I: a technique for quantifying area and distribution on the superior surface of the cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holman David W

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The arachnoid granulations (AGs are herniations of the arachnoid membrane into the dural venous sinuses on the surface of the brain. Previous morphological studies of AGs have been limited in scope and only one has mentioned surface area measurements. The purpose of this study was to investigate the topographic distribution of AGs on the superior surface of the cerebral cortex. Methods En face images were taken of the superior surface of 35 formalin-fixed human brains. AGs were manually identified using Adobe Photoshop, with a pixel location containing an AG defined as 'positive'. A set of 25 standard fiducial points was marked on each hemisphere for a total of 50 points on each image. The points were connected on each hemisphere to create a segmented image. A standard template was created for each hemisphere by calculating the average position of the 25 fiducial points from all brains. Each segmented image was mapped to the standard template using a linear transformation. A topographic distribution map was produced by calculating the proportion of AG positive images at each pixel in the standard template. The AG surface area was calculated for each hemisphere and for the total brain superior surface. To adjust for different brain sizes, the proportional involvement of AGs was calculated by dividing the AG area by the total area. Results The total brain average surface area of AGs was 78.53 ± 13.13 mm2 (n = 35 and average AG proportional involvement was 57.71 × 10-4 ± 7.65 × 10-4. Regression analysis confirmed the reproducibility of AG identification between independent researchers with r2 = 0.97. The surface AGs were localized in the parasagittal planes that coincide with the region of the lateral lacunae. Conclusion The data obtained on the spatial distribution and en face surface area of AGs will be used in an in vitro model of CSF outflow. With an increase in the number of samples, this analysis technique can be used

  5. Water redistribution at the soil surface : ponding and surface runoff in flat areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appels, W.M.

    2013-01-01

    In The Netherlands, one of the most important targets for the improvement of surface water quality as aimed for in the European Water Framework Directive, is the reduction of nutrient concentrations (both nitrogen and phosphorus). To identify the most suitable and effective measures for reducing the

  6. Surface Preparation for Microdebonding Analysis of Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahraman, Ramazan; Mandell, J. F.

    1999-01-01

    The bond strength between fibers and matrix is an essential property of all composite materials and it must be measured accurately to be able to correlate it with the composite behavior. There are several factors affecting its measurement. This paper discusses the polishing and load application aspects of the indentation test technique for fibre-matrix bond strength determination in polymer and ceramic matrix composites. Different polishing procedures are suggested for polymer and ceramic surfaces for obtaining a smooth surface which is a must for the test results to be reliable. The geometry of the fibers tested was also found to affect the analysis results. For best results, fibers with similar size and which are similarly surrounded by other fibers should be tested. Care should be taken during load application on a fiber for the loading probe not to approach the fiber circumference. The force should be applied in a small increments as possible, however starting from a high enough level to prevent fiber breakage due to surface damage from several loading steps. (Author)

  7. Influence of Ecological Factors on Estimation of Impervious Surface Area Using Landsat 8 Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiu Jia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of impervious surface area is important to the study of urban environments and social development, but surface characteristics, as well as the temporal, spectral, and spatial resolutions of remote sensing images, influence the estimation accuracy. To investigate the effects of regional environmental characteristics on the estimation of impervious surface area, we divided China into seven sub-regions based on climate, soil type, feature complexity, and vegetation phenology: arid and semi-arid areas, Huang-Huai-Hai winter wheat production areas, typical temperate regions, the Pearl River Delta, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, typical tropical and subtropical regions, and the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. Impervious surface area was estimated from Landsat 8 images of five typical cities, including Yinchuan, Shijiazhuang, Shenyang, Ningbo, and Kunming. Using the linear spectral unmixing method, impervious and permeable surface areas were determined at the pixel-scale based on end-member proportions. We calculated the producer’s accuracy, user’s accuracy, and overall accuracy to assess the estimation accuracy, and compared the accuracies among images acquired from different seasons and locations. In tropical and subtropical regions, vegetation canopies can confound the identification of impervious surfaces and, thus, images acquired in winter, early spring, and autumn are most suitable; estimations in the Pearl River Delta, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River are influenced by soil, vegetation phenology, vegetation canopy, and water, and images acquired in spring, summer, and autumn provide the best results; in typical temperate areas, images acquired from spring to autumn are most effective for estimations; in winter wheat-growing areas, images acquired throughout the year are suitable; and in arid and semi-arid areas, summer and early autumn, during which vegetation is abundant, are the optimal seasons for

  8. Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, M.A.; Yu, C.M.; Raley, N.F.

    1999-03-16

    Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gases in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters. 9 figs.

  9. Structural dynamics of fore-crisis area on a heat emission surface of a fuel element's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharaevskij, I.G.; Fialko, N.M.; Sharaevskaya, E.I.

    2011-01-01

    The known theoretical and experimental data regarding the nature of dry spots evolution are reviewed and the idea regarding the mechanism of heat emission from the heated surface in fore-crisis area are defined more precisely.

  10. Lp-dual affine surface area forms of Busemann–Petty type problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associated with the notion of Lp-intersection body which was defined ... Lp-dual affine surface area; Lp-intersection body; Busemann–Petty ..... [11] Schneider R, Convex Bodies: The Brunn–Minkowski Theory (1993) (Cambridge: Cam-.

  11. Cortical thickness and surface area correlates with cognitive dysfunction among first-episode psychosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, L; Müürsepp, A; Mõttus, R; Ilves, P; Koch, K; Uppin, K; Tarnovskaja, J; Maron, E; Zharkovsky, A; Vasar, E; Vasar, V

    2016-07-01

    In studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), some have reported specific brain structure-function relationships among first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, but findings are inconsistent. We aimed to localize the brain regions where cortical thickness (CTh) and surface area (cortical area; CA) relate to neurocognition, by performing an MRI on participants and measuring their neurocognitive performance using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), in order to investigate any significant differences between FEP patients and control subjects (CS). Exploration of potential correlations between specific cognitive functions and brain structure was performed using CANTAB computer-based neurocognitive testing and a vertex-by-vertex whole-brain MRI analysis of 63 FEP patients and 30 CS. Significant correlations were found between cortical parameters in the frontal, temporal, cingular and occipital brain regions and performance in set-shifting, working memory manipulation, strategy usage and sustained attention tests. These correlations were significantly dissimilar between FEP patients and CS. Significant correlations between CTh and CA with neurocognitive performance were localized in brain areas known to be involved in cognition. The results also suggested a disrupted structure-function relationship in FEP patients compared with CS.

  12. Assessment of the dynamics of the radioactivity contents in surface waters in contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komissarov, F.D.; Datskevich, P.I.; Golikov, Y.N.; Basharina, L.P.; Churack, T.N.; Khvaley, O.D.

    1997-01-01

    In the connection with Chernobyl APS accident, since 1988 a network of sites was established for radioecological monitoring of surface water systems, mainly, small rivers on all Belarus territory. Small rivers are the principal way of radionuclides run off in liquid and solid discharges during rains and high-floods and their re-distribution in landscapes. The components of water systems radio-monitoring were water and water suspensions, area water-collection, bottom deposits and biota. In the paper the data are cited of radioecological studies of water systems components. Their analysis is done and some conclusions made which may be used for the development of radioecological prognosis and for taking environmental measures

  13. Isolation of residuals using trend surface analysis to magnetic data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polynomial surfaces of various degrees are fitted to a magnetic data of Awo area, southwestern Nigeria with the aim of isolating the residuals of the area associated with mineralogy. The fourth degree surface correlates better with the magnetic map of the study area. The residualized data were obtained by subtracting the ...

  14. Estimation of surface area concentration of workplace incidental nanoparticles based on number and mass concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. Y.; Ramachandran, G.; Raynor, P. C.; Kim, S. W.

    2011-10-01

    Surface area was estimated by three different methods using number and/or mass concentrations obtained from either two or three instruments that are commonly used in the field. The estimated surface area concentrations were compared with reference surface area concentrations (SAREF) calculated from the particle size distributions obtained from a scanning mobility particle sizer and an optical particle counter (OPC). The first estimation method (SAPSD) used particle size distribution measured by a condensation particle counter (CPC) and an OPC. The second method (SAINV1) used an inversion routine based on PM1.0, PM2.5, and number concentrations to reconstruct assumed lognormal size distributions by minimizing the difference between measurements and calculated values. The third method (SAINV2) utilized a simpler inversion method that used PM1.0 and number concentrations to construct a lognormal size distribution with an assumed value of geometric standard deviation. All estimated surface area concentrations were calculated from the reconstructed size distributions. These methods were evaluated using particle measurements obtained in a restaurant, an aluminum die-casting factory, and a diesel engine laboratory. SAPSD was 0.7-1.8 times higher and SAINV1 and SAINV2 were 2.2-8 times higher than SAREF in the restaurant and diesel engine laboratory. In the die casting facility, all estimated surface area concentrations were lower than SAREF. However, the estimated surface area concentration using all three methods had qualitatively similar exposure trends and rankings to those using SAREF within a workplace. This study suggests that surface area concentration estimation based on particle size distribution (SAPSD) is a more accurate and convenient method to estimate surface area concentrations than estimation methods using inversion routines and may be feasible to use for classifying exposure groups and identifying exposure trends.

  15. Estimation of surface area concentration of workplace incidental nanoparticles based on number and mass concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. Y.; Ramachandran, G.; Raynor, P. C.; Kim, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Surface area was estimated by three different methods using number and/or mass concentrations obtained from either two or three instruments that are commonly used in the field. The estimated surface area concentrations were compared with reference surface area concentrations (SA REF ) calculated from the particle size distributions obtained from a scanning mobility particle sizer and an optical particle counter (OPC). The first estimation method (SA PSD ) used particle size distribution measured by a condensation particle counter (CPC) and an OPC. The second method (SA INV1 ) used an inversion routine based on PM1.0, PM2.5, and number concentrations to reconstruct assumed lognormal size distributions by minimizing the difference between measurements and calculated values. The third method (SA INV2 ) utilized a simpler inversion method that used PM1.0 and number concentrations to construct a lognormal size distribution with an assumed value of geometric standard deviation. All estimated surface area concentrations were calculated from the reconstructed size distributions. These methods were evaluated using particle measurements obtained in a restaurant, an aluminum die-casting factory, and a diesel engine laboratory. SA PSD was 0.7–1.8 times higher and SA INV1 and SA INV2 were 2.2–8 times higher than SA REF in the restaurant and diesel engine laboratory. In the die casting facility, all estimated surface area concentrations were lower than SA REF . However, the estimated surface area concentration using all three methods had qualitatively similar exposure trends and rankings to those using SA REF within a workplace. This study suggests that surface area concentration estimation based on particle size distribution (SA PSD ) is a more accurate and convenient method to estimate surface area concentrations than estimation methods using inversion routines and may be feasible to use for classifying exposure groups and identifying exposure trends.

  16. Interdependence between body surface area and ultraviolet B dose in vitamin D production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogh, M K B; Schmedes, Anne; Philipsen, P A

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) B radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) [25(OH)D], but the relationship to body surface area and UVB dose needs investigation.......Ultraviolet (UV) B radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) [25(OH)D], but the relationship to body surface area and UVB dose needs investigation....

  17. Petroliferous basin analysis in Jinju area 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Ho; Kwak, Young Hoon; Son, Jin Dam; Cheong, Tae Jin; Ryu, Byung Jae; Son, Byeong Kook; Hwang, In Gul; Lee, Yong Joo; Kim, Hag Ju; Ko Jae Hong [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Petroleum geological studies such as stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrology and organic geochemistry were carried out in the Gyeongsang Supergroup, Jinju area. Based on lithofacies and rock color, the sequence can be divided into seven formations which can be organized into two groups (Sindong Group: Nagdong, Hasandong and Jinju formations in ascending order; Hayang Group: Chilgog, Silla Conglomerate, Haman and Jindong formations). The results may indicate that all transformable organic matter has been transformed into hydrocarbon and that considerable hydrocarbons could be generated. All of these indicate that some dry gas potential can be expected if suitable reservoir were formed. (author). 13 refs., 31 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Human bioclimatology analysis of Ankara urban area

    OpenAIRE

    Onur Çalışkan; Necla Türkoğlu

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the Physiological Equivalent Temperatures (PET) of different land patterns in the Ankara urban area has been analyzed. The spatial distribution and temporal variation of the thermal perceptions and the grades of thermal stress caused by the thermal conditions have been determined for 00:00, 03:00, 06:00, 09:00, 12:00, 15:00, 18:00 and 21:00 hours during the December and July of 2010. The effects of physiographic features such as elevation, aspect, slope, and especially land use...

  19. REMOTE AREA RADIATION MONITORING (RARM) ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NELSON RL

    2008-01-01

    The Remote Area Radiation Monitoring (RARM) system will be used to provide real-time radiation monitoring information to the operations personnel during tank retrieval and transfer operations. The primary focus of the system is to detect potential anomalous (waste leaks) or transient radiological conditions. This system will provide mobile, real-time radiological monitoring, data logging, and status at pre-selected strategic points along the waste transfer route during tank retrieval operations. The system will provide early detection and response capabilities for the Retrieval and Closure Operations organization and Radiological Control personnel

  20. Lake Chad Total Surface Water Area as Derived from Land Surface Temperature and Radar Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Policelli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lake Chad, located in the middle of the African Sahel belt, underwent dramatic decreases in the 1970s and 1980s leaving less than ten percent of its 1960s surface water extent as open water. In this paper, we present an extended record (dry seasons 1988–2016 of the total surface water area of the lake (including both open water and flooded vegetation derived using Land Surface Temperature (LST data (dry seasons 2000–2016 from the NASA Terra MODIS sensor and EUMETSAT Meteosat-based LST measurements (dry seasons 1988–2001 from an earlier study. We also examine the total surface water area for Lake Chad using radar data (dry seasons 2015–2016 from the ESA Sentinel-1a mission. For the limited number of radar data sets available to us (18 data sets, we find on average a close match between the estimates from these data and the corresponding estimates from LST, though we find spatial differences in the estimates using the two types of data. We use these spatial differences to adjust the record (dry seasons 2000–2016 from MODIS LST. Then we use the adjusted record to remove the bias of the existing LST record (dry seasons 1988–2001 derived from Meteosat measurements and combine the two records. From this composite, extended record, we plot the total surface water area of the lake for the dry seasons of 1988–1989 through 2016–2017. We find for the dry seasons of 1988–1989 to 2016–2017 that the maximum total surface water area of the lake was approximately 16,800 sq. km (February and May, 2000, the minimum total surface water area of the lake was approximately 6400 sq. km (November, 1990, and the average was approximately 12,700 sq. km. Further, we find the total surface water area of the lake to be highly variable during this period, with an average rate of increase of approximately 143 km2 per year.

  1. Dynamic factor modeling of ground and surface water levels in an agricultural area adjacent to Everglades National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, A.; Muñoz-Carpena, R.

    2006-02-01

    The extensive eastern boundary of Everglades National Park (ENP) in south Florida (USA) is subject to one the most expensive and ambitious environmental restoration projects in history. Understanding and predicting the interaction between the shallow aquifer and surface water is a key component for fine-tuning the process. The Frog Pond is an intensively instrumented agricultural 2023 ha area adjacent to ENP. The interactions among 21 multivariate daily time series (ground and surface water elevations, rainfall and evapotranspiration) available from this area were studied by means of dynamic factor analysis, a novel technique in the field of hydrology. This method is designed to determine latent or background effects governing variability or fluctuations in non-stationary time series. Water levels in 16 wells and two drainage ditch locations inside the area were selected as response variables, and canal levels and net recharge as explanatory variables. Elevations in the two canals delimiting the Frog Pond area were found to be the main factors explaining the response variables. This influence of canal elevations on water levels inside the area was complementary and inversely related to the distance between the observation point and each canal. Rainfall events do not affect daily water levels significantly but are responsible for instantaneous or localized groundwater responses that in some cases can be directly associated with the risk of flooding. This close coupling between surface and groundwater levels, that corroborates that found by other authors using different methods, could hinder on-going environmental restoration efforts in the area by bypassing the function of wetlands and other surface features. An empirical model with a reduced set of parameters was successfully developed and validated in the area by interpolating the results from the dynamic factor analysis across the spatial domain (coefficient of efficiency across the domain: 0.66-0.99). Although

  2. Assessment of nanoparticle surface area by measuring unattached fraction of radon progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzer, Lev S. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Indoor Environment Department (United States)], E-mail: LSRuzer@lbl.gov

    2008-05-15

    A number of studies on the exposure of nanometer aerosols have indicated that health effects associated with low-solubility inhaled particles in the range of 1-100 nm may be more appropriately associated with particulate surface area than mass concentration. Such data on correlation between number, surface area and mass concentration are needed for exposure investigations, but the means for measuring aerosol surface area are not readily available. In this paper we propose a method for particle surface area assessment based on a new approach, deposition of the 'unattached fraction of radon progeny' onto nanometer aerosols.The proposed approach represents a synthesis of:(1) Derived direct analytical correlation between the 'unattached fraction' of radon progeny and surface area particle concentration in the range of 1-100 nm particle diameter;(2) Experimental data on correlation between the unattached fraction of radon progeny and particle surface area for particles with diameter in the range of 44 nm-2.1 {mu}m.

  3. Adsorption of water vapour and the specific surface area of arctic zone soils (Spitsbergen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Jolanta; Sokołowska, Zofia; Witkowska-Walczak, Barbara; Skic, Kamil

    2018-01-01

    Water vapour/nitrogen adsorption were investigated and calculated the specific surface areas of arctic-zone soil samples (Turbic Cryosols) originating from different micro-relief forms (mud boils, cell forms and sorted circles) and from different depths. For the characterisation of the isotherms obtained for arctic soils, the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller model was then compared with the two other models (Aranovich-Donohue and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer) which were developed from Brunauer-Emmet-Teller. Specific surface area was calculated using the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller model at p p0-1 range of 0.05-0.35 for the water vapour desorption and nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The values of total specific surface area were the highest in Cryosols on mud boils, lower on cell forms, and the lowest on sorted circles. Such tendency was observed for the results obtained by both the water vapour and nitrogen adsorption. The differences in the values of specific surface area at two investigated layers were small. High determination coefficients were obtained for relationships between the specific surface areas and contents of clay and silt fraction in Cryosols. No statistically significant correlation between the total carbon amount and the values of specific surface area in Cryosols has been found.

  4. Greenland surface mass-balance observations from the ice-sheet ablation area and local glaciers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machguth, Horst; Thomsen, Henrik H.; Weidick, Anker

    2016-01-01

    Glacier surface mass-balance measurements on Greenland started more than a century ago, but no compilation exists of the observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. Such data could be used in the evaluation of modelled surface mass balance, or to document changes in g...

  5. Determining surface areas of marine alga cells by acid-base titration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Ma, Y; Su, Y

    1997-09-01

    A new method for determining the surface area of living marine alga cells was described. The method uses acid-base titration to measure the surface acid/base amount on the surface of alga cells and uses the BET (Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller) equation to estimate the maximum surface acid/base amount, assuming that hydrous cell walls have carbohydrates or other structural compounds which can behave like surface Brönsted acid-base sites due to coordination of environmental H2O molecules. The method was applied to 18 diverse alga species (including 7 diatoms, 2 flagellates, 8 green algae and 1 red alga) maintained in seawater cultures. For the species examined, the surface areas of individual cells ranged from 2.8 x 10(-8) m2 for Nannochloropsis oculata to 690 x 10(-8) m2 for Dunaliella viridis, specific surface areas from 1,030 m2.g-1 for Dunaliella salina to 28,900 m2.g-1 for Pyramidomonas sp. Measurement accuracy was 15.2%. Preliminary studies show that the method may be more promising and accurate than light/electron microscopic measurements for coarse estimation of the surface area of living algae.

  6. 30 CFR 717.15 - Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. 717.15 Section 717.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS UNDERGROUND MINING GENERAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 717.15 Disposal of excess rock and...

  7. Greenland surface mass-balance observations from the ice-sheet ablation area and local glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machguth, Horst; Thomsen, Henrik H.; Weidick, Anker; Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.; Abermann, Jakob; Andersen, Morten L.; Andersen, Signe B.; Bjørk, Anders A.; Box, Jason E.; Braithwaite, Roger J.; Bøggild, Carl E.; Citterio, Michele; Clement, Poul; Colgan, William; Fausto, Robert S.; Gleie, Karin; Gubler, Stefanie; Hasholt, Bent; Hynek, Bernhard; Knudsen, Niels T.; Larsen, Signe H.; Mernild, Sebastian H.; Oerlemans, Johannes; Oerter, Hans; Olesen, Ole B.; Smeets, C. J P Paul; Steffen, Konrad; Stober, Manfred; Sugiyama, Shin; Van As, Dirk; Van Den Broeke, Michiel R.; Van De Wal, Roderik S W

    2016-01-01

    Glacier surface mass-balance measurements on Greenland started more than a century ago, but no compilation exists of the observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. Such data could be used in the evaluation of modelled surface mass balance, or to document changes in

  8. Changes in Thickness and Surface Area of the Human Cortex and Their Relationship with Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnack, H.G.; van Haren, N.E.M.; Brouwer, R.M.; Evans, A.; Durston, S.; Boomsma, D.I.; Kahn, R.S.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in cortical thickness over time have been related to intelligence, but whether changes in cortical surface area are related to general cognitive functioning is unknown. We therefore examined the relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and changes in cortical thickness and surface

  9. Measuring Surface Deformation in Glacier Retreated Areas Based on Ps-Insar - Geladandong Glacier as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadi, B.; Balz, T.

    2018-04-01

    Glaciers are retreating in many parts of the world as a result of global warming. Many researchers consider Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau as a reference for climate change by measuring glaciers retreat on the plateau. This retreat resulted in some topographic changes in retreated areas, and in some cases can lead to geohazards as landslides, and rock avalanches, which is known in glacier retreated areas as paraglacial slope failure (PSF). In this study, Geladandong biggest and main glacier mass was selected to estimate surface deformation on its glacier retreated areas and define potential future PSF based on PS-InSAR technique. 56 ascending and 49 descending images were used to fulfill this aim. Geladandong glacier retreated areas were defined based on the maximum extent of the glacier in the little ice age. Results revealed a general uplift in the glacier retreated areas with velocity less than 5mm/year. Obvious surface motion was revealed in seven parts surround glacier retreated areas with high relative velocity reached ±60mm/year in some parts. Four parts were considered as PSF potential motion, and two of them showed potential damage for the main road in the study area in case of rock avalanche into recent glacier lakes that could result in glacier lake outburst flooding heading directly to the road. Finally, further analysis and field investigations are needed to define the main reasons for different types of deformation and estimate future risks of these types of surface motion in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  10. Surface-Casting Synthesis of Mesoporous Zirconia with a CMK-5-Like Structure and High Surface Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dong; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Pichler, Christian M; Bongard, Hans-Josef; Spliethoff, Bernd; Asahina, Shunsuke; Cao, Zhengwen; Terasaki, Osamu; Schüth, Ferdi

    2017-09-04

    About 15 years ago, the Ryoo group described the synthesis of CMK-5, a material consisting of a hexagonal arrangement of carbon nanotubes. Extension of the surface casting synthesis to oxide compositions, however, was not possible so far, in spite of many attempts. Here it is demonstrated, that crystalline mesoporous hollow zirconia materials with very high surface areas up to 400 m 2  g -1 , and in selected cases in the form of CMK-5-like, are indeed accessible via such a surface casting process. The key for the successful synthesis is an increased interaction between the silica hard template surface and the zirconia precursor species by using silanol group-rich mesoporous silica as a hard template. The surface areas of the obtained zirconias exceed those of conventionally hard-templated ones by a factor of two to three. The surface casting process seems to be applicable also to other oxide materials. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. A radiation analysis of lunar surface habitats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, G.; Wilson, J.W.; Tripathi, R.K.; Clowdsley, M.S.; Nealy, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    An analysis is performed on the radiation environment found on the surface of the Moon, and applied to different possible lunar base mission scenarios. An optimization technique has been used to minimize the astronaut radiation exposure and at the same time control the effect of shielding, in terms of mass addition and material choice, as a mission cost driver. The optimization process performs minimization of mass along all phases of a mission scenario, considered in terms of time frame, equipment, location, crew characteristics and performance required, radiation exposure annual and career limit constraints (those proposed in NCRP 132), and implementation of the ALARA principle. In the lunar environment manned habitats are to host future crews involved in the construction and/or in the utilization of moon based infrastructure. Three different kinds of lunar missions are considered in the analysis, Moon Base Construction Phase, during which astronauts are on the surface just to build an outpost for future resident crews, Moon Base Outpost Phase, during which astronaut crews are resident but continuing exploration and installation activities, and Moon Base Routine Phase, with shifting resident crews. In each scenario various kinds of habitats, from very simple shelters to more complex bases, are considered in detail (e.g. shape, thickness, materials, etc) with considerations of various shielding strategies. The results for all scenarios clearly showed that the direct exposure to the space environment like in transfers and EVAs phases gives the most of the dose, with the proposed shielded habitats and shelters giving quite a good protection from radiation. Operational constraints on hardware and scenarios have all been considered by the optimization techniques. Within the limits of this preliminary analysis, the three Moon Base related mission scenarios are perfectly feasible from the astronaut radiation safety point of view with the currently adopted and proposed

  12. Cortical thickness, surface area and volume measures in Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Worker

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD, Multiple System Atrophy (MSA and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP are neurodegenerative diseases that can be difficult to distinguish clinically. The objective of the current study was to use surface-based analysis techniques to assess cortical thickness, surface area and grey matter volume to identify unique morphological patterns of cortical atrophy in PD, MSA and PSP and to relate these patterns of change to disease duration and clinical features.High resolution 3D T1-weighted MRI volumes were acquired from 14 PD patients, 18 MSA, 14 PSP and 19 healthy control participants. Cortical thickness, surface area and volume analyses were carried out using the automated surface-based analysis package FreeSurfer (version 5.1.0. Measures of disease severity and duration were assessed for correlation with cortical morphometric changes in each clinical group.Results show that in PSP, widespread cortical thinning and volume loss occurs within the frontal lobe, particularly the superior frontal gyrus. In addition, PSP patients also displayed increased surface area in the pericalcarine. In comparison, PD and MSA did not display significant changes in cortical morphology.These results demonstrate that patients with clinically established PSP exhibit distinct patterns of cortical atrophy, particularly affecting the frontal lobe. These results could be used in the future to develop a useful clinical application of MRI to distinguish PSP patients from PD and MSA patients.

  13. Models of bedrock surface and overburden thickness over Olkiluoto island and nearby sea area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moenkkoenen, H.

    2012-04-01

    In this report, a model of bedrock surface and a model of overburden thickness over the Olkiluoto Island and the nearby sea area are presented. Also in purpose to produce material for biosphere and radionuclide transport modelling, stratigraphy models of different sediment layers were created at two priority areas north and south of the Olkiluoto Island. The work concentrated on the collection and description of available data of bedrock surface and overburden thickness. Because the information on the bedrock surface and overburden is collected from different sources and is based on a number of types of data the quality and applicability of data sets varies. Consequently also the reliability in different parts of the models varies. Input data for the bedrock surface and overburden thickness models include 2928 single points and additional outcrops observations (611 polygons) in the modelled area. In addition, the input data include 173 seismic refraction lines (6534 points) and acousticseismic sounding lines (26655 points from which 13721 points are located in model area) in the Olkiluoto offshore area. The average elevation of bedrock surface in area is 2.1 metres above the sea level. The average thickness of overburden is 2.5 metres varying typically between 2 - 4 metres. Thickest overburden covers (approximately 16 metres) of terrestrial area are located at the western end of the Olkiluoto Island and in sea basin south of the island. (orig.)

  14. Models of bedrock surface and overburden thickness over Olkiluoto island and nearby sea area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moenkkoenen, H. [WSP Finland Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-04-15

    In this report, a model of bedrock surface and a model of overburden thickness over the Olkiluoto Island and the nearby sea area are presented. Also in purpose to produce material for biosphere and radionuclide transport modelling, stratigraphy models of different sediment layers were created at two priority areas north and south of the Olkiluoto Island. The work concentrated on the collection and description of available data of bedrock surface and overburden thickness. Because the information on the bedrock surface and overburden is collected from different sources and is based on a number of types of data the quality and applicability of data sets varies. Consequently also the reliability in different parts of the models varies. Input data for the bedrock surface and overburden thickness models include 2928 single points and additional outcrops observations (611 polygons) in the modelled area. In addition, the input data include 173 seismic refraction lines (6534 points) and acousticseismic sounding lines (26655 points from which 13721 points are located in model area) in the Olkiluoto offshore area. The average elevation of bedrock surface in area is 2.1 metres above the sea level. The average thickness of overburden is 2.5 metres varying typically between 2 - 4 metres. Thickest overburden covers (approximately 16 metres) of terrestrial area are located at the western end of the Olkiluoto Island and in sea basin south of the island. (orig.)

  15. Surface renewal analysis for estimating turbulent surface fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellvi, F.

    2009-01-01

    A decade ago, the need for a long-term surface monitoring was recognized to better understand the soil-vegetation-atmosphere scalar exchange and interaction processes. the AmeriFlux concept emerged in the IGBP workshop (La Thuile, IT, 1995). Continuous acquisition of surface fluxes for different species such as temperature, water vapour, CO x , halocarbon, ozone, etc.,) and momentum allows determination of the influence of local (canopy) exchanges, fossil fuel emission, large-scale biotic exchange on ambient concentrations which are crucial to take decisions for protecting natural environments and water resources, to develop new perspective for modern agriculture and forest management and to better understand the global climate change. (Author)

  16. Benchmarking sensitivity of biophysical processes to leaf area changes in land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzieri, Giovanni; Duveiller, Gregory; Georgievski, Goran; Li, Wei; Robestson, Eddy; Kautz, Markus; Lawrence, Peter; Ciais, Philippe; Pongratz, Julia; Sitch, Stephen; Wiltshire, Andy; Arneth, Almut; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Land surface models (LSM) are widely applied as supporting tools for policy-relevant assessment of climate change and its impact on terrestrial ecosystems, yet knowledge of their performance skills in representing the sensitivity of biophysical processes to changes in vegetation density is still limited. This is particularly relevant in light of the substantial impacts on regional climate associated with the changes in leaf area index (LAI) following the observed global greening. Benchmarking LSMs on the sensitivity of the simulated processes to vegetation density is essential to reduce their uncertainty and improve the representation of these effects. Here we present a novel benchmark system to assess model capacity in reproducing land surface-atmosphere energy exchanges modulated by vegetation density. Through a collaborative effort of different modeling groups, a consistent set of land surface energy fluxes and LAI dynamics has been generated from multiple LSMs, including JSBACH, JULES, ORCHIDEE, CLM4.5 and LPJ-GUESS. Relationships of interannual variations of modeled surface fluxes to LAI changes have been analyzed at global scale across different climatological gradients and compared with satellite-based products. A set of scoring metrics has been used to assess the overall model performances and a detailed analysis in the climate space has been provided to diagnose possible model errors associated to background conditions. Results have enabled us to identify model-specific strengths and deficiencies. An overall best performing model does not emerge from the analyses. However, the comparison with other models that work better under certain metrics and conditions indicates that improvements are expected to be potentially achievable. A general amplification of the biophysical processes mediated by vegetation is found across the different land surface schemes. Grasslands are characterized by an underestimated year-to-year variability of LAI in cold climates

  17. Determination of the surface area and sizes of supported copper nanoparticles through organothiol adsorption—ñhemisorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndolomingo, Matumuene Joe; Meijboom, Reinout, E-mail: rmeijboom@uj.ac.za

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Cu on γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts were prepared and characterized. • The ligand sorption-based technique was used for the determination of specific surface area and particle sizes. • The ligand packing density on Cu nanoparticles was quantified. • A fair agreement was found between the Cu particle sizes obtained from ligand adsorption and TEM methods. • The oxidation of morin by hydrogen peroxide was used to evaluate the catalytic activities of the Cu supported catalysts. - Abstract: The mechanisms involving the nanoparticle surfaces in catalytic reactions are more difficult to elucidate due to the nanoparticle surface unevenness, size distributions, and morphological irregularity. True surface area and particle sizes determination are key aspects of the activity of metal nanoparticle catalysts. Here we report on the organothiol adsorption-based technique for the determination of specific surface area of Cu nanoparticles, and their resultant sizes on γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supports. Quantification of ligand packing density on copper nanoparticles is also reported. The concentration of the probe ligand, 2-mercaptobenzimidazole (2-MBI) before and after immersion of supported copper catalysts was determined by ultraviolet-visible spectrometry (UV–vis). The amount of ligand adsorbed was found to be proportional to the copper nanoparticles surface area. Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), N{sub 2}-physisorption (BET), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used for the characterization of the catalysts. A fair agreement was found between particle sizes obtained from ligand adsorption and TEM methods. The catalytic activity of the copper nanoparticles related to their inherent surface area was evaluated using the model reaction of the oxidation of morin by hydrogen peroxide.

  18. Application of stereological methods to estimate post-mortem brain surface area using 3T MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furlong, Carolyn; García-Fiñana, Marta; Puddephat, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The Cavalieri and Vertical Sections methods of design based stereology were applied in combination with 3 tesla (i.e. 3T) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to estimate cortical and subcortical volume, area of the pial surface, area of the grey-white matter boundary, and thickness of the cerebral...

  19. Petroliferous basin analysis in Taegu area (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, T J; Oh, J H; Son, J D; Bong, P Y; Lee, H Y; Ryu, B J; Son, B K; Kwon, Y I; Hwang, I G; Lee, Y J; Kim, H J [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Sandstones of the Sindong and Hayang groups belong to the arkose-feldspar arenite. In the Sindong Group, sandstones are dominated by quartz. In the Hayang Group, however, feldspar and tuffaceous sandstones are abundant. Sand grains are subangular to subrounded and moderately-sorted, in which the sand grains show point- and long-contact. Primary pores are filled with diagenetic minerals such as calcite, silica and authigenic clay minerals. Replacement and dissolution of calcite, and alternation of feldspar form the minor secondary pores. Reservoir quality of the sandstones is poor with less than 5% of porosity. In the study area, illite crystallinity is strongly affected by the post depositional intrusion, regardless of stratigraphic position. The burial temperature of the study area could be estimated at about 150-180 deg.C based on illite crystallinity data. In the Sindong Group, vitrinite reflectance ranges from 2.51% to 3.85% Ro and Rock-Eval Tmax ranges from 613 deg. to 711 deg.C, indicating that thermal maturity of the organic matter reached at the last stage of dry gas generation. These data also indicate that all of the transformable organic matter has been transformed into hydrocarbon and that considerable hydrocarbons could have been generated. Geophysical study on the Jinju Formation suggests that P-wave velocity of the sediments is very high and high frequency seismic source should be used to identify main depositional units. In this case, some depositional units can not be recognized, using ordinary seismic data acquisition method. In summary, the Nakdong and Jinju formations contain abundant black shales, and thermal maturity of the organic matter reached at the final stage of dry gas generation. These formations also contain thick sandstones which can act as a petroleum reservoir. However, reservoir quality of the sandstones is poor (porosity: < 5%; permeability: < 0.001 md). In these sandstones, secondary pores such as dissolution pores and

  20. Surface and interface analysis an electrochemists toolbox

    CERN Document Server

    Holze, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    A broad, almost encyclopedic overview of spectroscopic and other analytical techniques useful for investigations of phase boundaries in electrochemistry is presented. The analysis of electrochemical interfaces and interphases on a microscopic, even molecular level, is of central importance for an improved understanding of the structure and dynamics of these phase boundaries. The gained knowledge will be needed for improvements of methods and applications reaching from electrocatalysis, electrochemical energy conversion, biocompatibility of metals, corrosion protection to galvanic surface treatment and finishing. The book provides an overview as complete as possible and enables the reader to choose methods most suitable for tackling his particular task. It is nevertheless compact and does not flood the reader with the details of review papers.

  1. Surface Management System Departure Event Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Gilena A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a data analysis of the Surface Management System (SMS) performance of departure events, including push-back and runway departure events.The paper focuses on the detection performance, or the ability to detect departure events, as well as the prediction performance of SMS. The results detail a modest overall detection performance of push-back events and a significantly high overall detection performance of runway departure events. The overall detection performance of SMS for push-back events is approximately 55%.The overall detection performance of SMS for runway departure events nears 100%. This paper also presents the overall SMS prediction performance for runway departure events as well as the timeliness of the Aircraft Situation Display for Industry data source for SMS predictions.

  2. Preparation, Surface and Pore Structure of High Surface Area Activated Carbon Fibers from Bamboo by Steam Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Ma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available High surface area activated carbon fibers (ACF have been prepared from bamboo by steam activation after liquefaction and curing. The influences of activation temperature on the microstructure, surface area and porosity were investigated. The results showed that ACF from bamboo at 850 °C have the maximum iodine and methylene blue adsorption values. Aside from the graphitic carbon, phenolic and carbonyl groups were the predominant functions on the surface of activated carbon fiber from bamboo. The prepared ACF from bamboo were found to be mainly type I of isotherm, but the mesoporosity presented an increasing trend after 700 °C. The surface area and micropore volume of samples, which were determined by application of the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and t-plot methods, were as high as 2024 m2/g and 0.569 cm3/g, respectively. It was also found that the higher activation temperature produced the more ordered microcrystalline structure of ACF from bamboo.

  3. Radiative surface temperatures of the burned and unburned areas in a tallgrass prairie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asrar, G.; Harris, T.R.; Lapitan, R.L.; Cooper, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    This study was conducted in a natural tallgrass prairie area in the Flint Hills of Kansas. Our objective was to evaluate the surface radiative temperatures of burned and unburned treatments of the grassland as a means of delineating the areas covered by each treatment. Burning is used to remove the senescent vegetation resulting from the previous year's growth. Surface temperatures were obtained in situ and by an airborne scanner. Burned and unburned grass canopies had distinctly different diurnal surface radiative temperatures. Measurements of surface energy balance components revealed a difference in partitioning of the available energy between the two canopies, which resulted in the difference in their measured surface temperatures. The magnitude of this difference is dependent on the time of measurements and topographic conditions. (author)

  4. Planar spatial correlations, anisotropy, and specific surface area of stationary random porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    An earlier result of the author showed that an anisotropic spatial correlation function of a random porous medium could be used to compute the specific surface area when it is stationary as well as anisotropic by first performing a three-dimensional radial average and then taking the first derivative with respect to lag at the origin. This result generalized the earlier result for isotropic porous media of Debye et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 28, 679 (1957)]. The present article provides more detailed information about the use of spatial correlation functions for anisotropic porous media and in particular shows that, for stationary anisotropic media, the specific surface area can be related to the derivative of the two-dimensional radial average of the correlation function measured from cross sections taken through the anisotropic medium. The main concept is first illustrated using a simple pedagogical example for an anisotropic distribution of spherical voids. Then, a general derivation of formulas relating the derivative of the planar correlation functions to surface integrals is presented. When the surface normal is uniformly distributed (as is the case for any distribution of spherical voids), our formulas can be used to relate a specific surface area to easily measurable quantities from any single cross section. When the surface normal is not distributed uniformly (as would be the case for an oriented distribution of ellipsoidal voids), our results show how to obtain valid estimates of specific surface area by averaging measurements on three orthogonal cross sections. One important general observation for porous media is that the surface area from nearly flat cracks may be underestimated from measurements on orthogonal cross sections if any of the cross sections happen to lie in the plane of the cracks. This result is illustrated by taking the very small aspect ratio (penny-shaped crack) limit of an oblate spheroid, but holds for other types of flat surfaces as well

  5. Wind and area potential analysis of the Lower Saxony coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahlke, T.; Gerdes, G.; Keuper, A.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of the wind and area potential is carried out for 10 areas at the Lower Saxony coast, on behalf of the Lower Saxony Ministry of the Environment. The processes for determining suitable areas, the wind speeds and the possible amounts of energy are introduced. (orig.) [de

  6. Trace metal pollution assessment in the surface sediments of nearshore area, off Calicut, southwest coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Reji; Shynu, R; Sreeraj, M K; Ramachandran, K K

    2017-07-15

    Metal concentrations (Al, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb), grain size, and total organic carbon content in 29 surface sediment samples from the nearshore area off Calicut were analyzed to determine their distribution and pollution status. Surface sediments were dominantly silts with low percentage of clay and sand at nearshore and offshore areas. The mean metal concentrations were in the following order: Cr>Ni>Zn>Pb>Cu. The enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index of metals suggest that the surface sediments were not polluted by Zn and moderately polluted by Cu and Ni. By contrast, Cr and Pb showed significant enrichment levels. Results from a multivariate statistical analysis suggested that the spatial enrichment of these heavy metals was related to sediment type. Thus, the sediment distribution and their metal enrichment were mainly controlled by local hydrodynamic conditions that caused the winnowing of fine-grained sediments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Estimating surface fluxes over the north Tibetan Plateau area with ASTER imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqiang Ma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface fluxes are important boundary conditions for climatological modeling and Asian monsoon system. The recent availability of high-resolution, multi-band imagery from the ASTER (Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer sensor has enabled us to estimate surface fluxes to bridge the gap between local scale flux measurements using micrometeorological instruments and regional scale land-atmosphere exchanges of water and heat fluxes that are fundamental for the understanding of the water cycle in the Asian monsoon system. A parameterization method based on ASTER data and field observations has been proposed and tested for deriving surface albedo, surface temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI, vegetation coverage, Leaf Area Index (LAI, net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux over heterogeneous land surface in this paper. As a case study, the methodology was applied to the experimental area of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP on the Tibetan Plateau (CAMP/Tibet, located at the north Tibetan Plateau. The ASTER data of 24 July 2001, 29 November 2001 and 12 March 2002 was used in this paper for the case of summer, winter and spring. To validate the proposed methodology, the ground-measured surface variables (surface albedo and surface temperature and land surface heat fluxes (net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux were compared to the ASTER derived values. The results show that the derived surface variables and land surface heat fluxes in three different months over the study area are in good accordance with the land surface status. Also, the estimated land surface variables and land surface heat fluxes are in good accordance with ground measurements, and all their absolute percentage difference (APD is less than 10% in the validation sites

  8. THE EFFECTS OF BUILT-UP AND GREEN AREAS ON THE LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE OF THE KUALA LUMPUR CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Isa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A common consequence of rapid and uncontrollable urbanization is Urban Heat Island (UHI. It occurs due to the negligence on climate behaviour which degrades the quality of urban climate condition. Recently, addressing urban climate in urban planning through mapping has received worldwide attention. Therefore, the need to identify the significant factors is a must. This study aims to analyse the relationships between Land Surface Temperature (LST and two urban parameters namely built-up and green areas. Geographical Information System (GIS and remote sensing techniques were used to prepare the necessary data layers required for this study. The built-up and the green areas were extracted from Landsat 8 satellite images either using the Normalized Difference Built-Up Index (NDBI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI or Modified Normalize Difference Water Index (MNDWI algorithms, while the mono-window algorithm was used to retrieve the Land Surface Temperature (LST. Correlation analysis and Multi-Linear Regression (MLR model were applied to quantitatively analyse the effects of the urban parameters. From the study, it was found that the two urban parameters have significant effects on the LST of Kuala Lumpur City. The built-up areas have greater influence on the LST as compared to the green areas. The built-up areas tend to increase the LST while green areas especially the densely vegetated areas help to reduce the LST within an urban areas. Future studies should focus on improving existing urban climatic model by including other urban parameters.

  9. Acid/base bifunctional carbonaceous nanomaterial with large surface area: Preparation, characterization, and adsorption properties for cationic and anionic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kai; Ma, Chun–Fang; Ling, Yuan; Li, Meng [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Gao, Qiang, E-mail: gaoqiang@cug.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Engineering Research Center of Nano-Geo Materials of Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Luo, Wen–Jun, E-mail: heartnohome@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Nanostructured carbonaceous materials are extremely important in the nano field, yet developing simple, mild, and “green” methods that can make such materials possess large surface area and rich functional groups on their surfaces still remains a considerable challenge. Herein, a one-pot and environment-friendly method, i.e., thermal treatment (180 °C; 18 h) of water mixed with glucose and chitosan (CTS), has been proposed. The resultant carbonaceous nanomaterials were characterized by field emitting scanning electron microscope, N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and zeta-potential analysis. It was found that, in contrast to the conventional hydrothermally carbonized product from pure glucose, with low surface area (9.3 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and pore volume (0.016 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}), the CTS-added carbonaceous products showed satisfactory textural parameters (surface area and pore volume up to 254 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and 0.701 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}, respectively). Moreover, it was also interestingly found that these CTS-added carbonaceous products possessed both acidic (–COOH) and basic (–NH{sub 2}) groups on their surfaces. Taking the advantages of large surface area and –COOH/–NH{sub 2} bifunctional surface, the carbonaceous nanomaterials exhibited excellent performance for adsorptions of cationic compound (i.e., methylene blue) at pH 10 and anionic compound (i.e., acid red 18) at pH 2, respectively. This work not only provides a simple and green route to prepare acid/base bifunctional carbonaceous nanomaterials with large surface area but also well demonstrates their potential for application in adsorption. - Highlights: • A simple and green method was proposed to prepare carbon nanomaterials. • The carbon product showed acid/base bifunctional surface with large surface area. • The carbon material could efficiently adsorb both cationic and anionic compounds.

  10. Evaluation of light detector surface area for functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Ayaz, Hasan; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Onaral, Banu

    2017-10-01

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging neuroimaging technique that utilizes near infrared light to detect cortical concentration changes of oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin non-invasively. Using light sources and detectors over the scalp, multi-wavelength light intensities are recorded as time series and converted to concentration changes of hemoglobin via modified Beer-Lambert law. Here, we describe a potential source for systematic error in the calculation of hemoglobin changes and light intensity measurements. Previous system characterization and analysis studies looked into various fNIRS parameters such as type of light source, number and selection of wavelengths, distance between light source and detector. In this study, we have analyzed the contribution of light detector surface area to the overall outcome. Results from Monte Carlo based digital phantoms indicated that selection of detector area is a critical system parameter in minimizing the error in concentration calculations. The findings here can guide the design of future fNIRS sensors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Construction of the Geological Model around KURT area based on the surface investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Koh, Yong Kwon; Kim, Kyung Su; Choi, Jong Won

    2009-01-01

    To characterize the geological features in the study area for high-level radioactive waste disposal research, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has been performing several geological investigations such as geophysical surveys and borehole drillings since 1997. Especially, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) constructed to understand the deep geological environments in 2006. Recently, the deep boreholes, which have 500 m depth inside the left research module of the KURT and 1,000 m depth outside the KURT, were drilled to confirm and validate the results from a geological model. The objective of this research was to investigate hydrogeological conditions using a 3-D geological model around the KURT. The geological analysis from the surface and borehole investigations determined four important geological elements including subsurface weathered zone, low-angled fractures zone, fracture zones and bedrock for the geological model. In addition, the geometries of these elements were also calculated for the three-dimensional model. The results from 3-D geological model in this study will be beneficial to understand hydrogeological environment in the study area as an important part of high-level radioactive waste disposal technology.

  12. Groundwater impacts on surface water quality and nutrient loads in lowland polder catchments: monitoring the greater Amsterdam area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang; Rozemeijer, Joachim; van Breukelen, Boris M.; Ouboter, Maarten; van der Vlugt, Corné; Broers, Hans Peter

    2018-01-01

    The Amsterdam area, a highly manipulated delta area formed by polders and reclaimed lakes, struggles with high nutrient levels in its surface water system. The polders receive spatially and temporally variable amounts of water and nutrients via surface runoff, groundwater seepage, sewer leakage, and via water inlets from upstream polders. Diffuse anthropogenic sources, such as manure and fertiliser use and atmospheric deposition, add to the water quality problems in the polders. The major nutrient sources and pathways have not yet been clarified due to the complex hydrological system in lowland catchments with both urban and agricultural areas. In this study, the spatial variability of the groundwater seepage impact was identified by exploiting the dense groundwater and surface water monitoring networks in Amsterdam and its surrounding polders. A total of 25 variables (concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), NH4, NO3, HCO3, SO4, Ca, and Cl in surface water and groundwater, N and P agricultural inputs, seepage rate, elevation, land-use, and soil type) for 144 polders were analysed statistically and interpreted in relation to sources, transport mechanisms, and pathways. The results imply that groundwater is a large source of nutrients in the greater Amsterdam mixed urban-agricultural catchments. The groundwater nutrient concentrations exceeded the surface water environmental quality standards (EQSs) in 93 % of the polders for TP and in 91 % for TN. Groundwater outflow into the polders thus adds to nutrient levels in the surface water. High correlations (R2 up to 0.88) between solutes in groundwater and surface water, together with the close similarities in their spatial patterns, confirmed the large impact of groundwater on surface water chemistry, especially in the polders that have high seepage rates. Our analysis indicates that the elevated nutrient and bicarbonate concentrations in the groundwater seepage originate from the decomposition of

  13. Groundwater impacts on surface water quality and nutrient loads in lowland polder catchments: monitoring the greater Amsterdam area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Amsterdam area, a highly manipulated delta area formed by polders and reclaimed lakes, struggles with high nutrient levels in its surface water system. The polders receive spatially and temporally variable amounts of water and nutrients via surface runoff, groundwater seepage, sewer leakage, and via water inlets from upstream polders. Diffuse anthropogenic sources, such as manure and fertiliser use and atmospheric deposition, add to the water quality problems in the polders. The major nutrient sources and pathways have not yet been clarified due to the complex hydrological system in lowland catchments with both urban and agricultural areas. In this study, the spatial variability of the groundwater seepage impact was identified by exploiting the dense groundwater and surface water monitoring networks in Amsterdam and its surrounding polders. A total of 25 variables (concentrations of total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP, NH4, NO3, HCO3, SO4, Ca, and Cl in surface water and groundwater, N and P agricultural inputs, seepage rate, elevation, land-use, and soil type for 144 polders were analysed statistically and interpreted in relation to sources, transport mechanisms, and pathways. The results imply that groundwater is a large source of nutrients in the greater Amsterdam mixed urban–agricultural catchments. The groundwater nutrient concentrations exceeded the surface water environmental quality standards (EQSs in 93 % of the polders for TP and in 91 % for TN. Groundwater outflow into the polders thus adds to nutrient levels in the surface water. High correlations (R2 up to 0.88 between solutes in groundwater and surface water, together with the close similarities in their spatial patterns, confirmed the large impact of groundwater on surface water chemistry, especially in the polders that have high seepage rates. Our analysis indicates that the elevated nutrient and bicarbonate concentrations in the groundwater seepage originate

  14. Preparation of MgO with High Surface Area, and Modification of Its Pore Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Moon Hee; Park, Dong Gon [Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-15

    Thermal decomposition of hydrated surface layer of Mg(OH){sub 2} at 500 .deg. C in vacuum turned non-porous MgO into porous one with high surface area of around 270 m{sup 2}/g. Most of its surface area, 74 %, was from micropores, and rest of it was from mesopores in wedge-shaped slits, exhibiting bimodal size distribution centered around 30 and 90 A. Rehydration followed by subsequent dehydration at 300 .deg. C in dynamic vacuum further raised the surface area to 340 m{sup 2}/g. Fraction of microporous surface area was increased to 93%, and the shape of the mesopores was modified into parallel slits with a specific dimension of 32 A. Application of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} over MgO via iron complex formation did not alter the pore characteristics of MgO core, except slightly increased pore dimension. Over the course of the modification, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} stayed on the surface possibly via spill-over reaction.

  15. Study of measurement methods of ultrafine aerosols surface-area for characterizing occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bau, S.

    2008-12-01

    This work aims at improving knowledge on ultrafine aerosols surface-area measurement. Indeed, the development of nano-technologies may lead to occupational exposure to airborne nano-structured particles, which involves a new prevention issue. There is currently no consensus concerning what parameter (mass, surface-area, number) should be measured. However, surface-area could be a relevant metric, since it leads to a satisfying correlation with biological effects when nano-structured particles are inhaled. Hence, an original theoretical work was performed to position the parameter of surface-area in relation to other aerosol characteristics. To investigate measurement techniques of nano-structured aerosols surface-area, the experimental facility CAIMAN (Characterization of Instruments for the Measurement of Aerosols of Nano-particles) was designed and built. Within CAIMAN, it is possible to produce nano-structured aerosols with varying and controlled properties (size, concentration, chemical nature, morphology, state-of-charge), stable and reproducible in time. The generated aerosols were used to experimentally characterize the response of the instruments in study (NSAM and AeroTrak 9000 TSI, LQ1-DC Matter Engineering). The response functions measured with monodisperse aerosols show a good agreement with the corresponding theoretical curves in a large size range, from 15 to 520 nm. Furthermore, hypotheses have been formulated to explain the reasonable biases observed when measuring poly-disperse aerosols. (author)

  16. A longitudinal study: changes in cortical thickness and surface area during pubertal maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M Herting

    Full Text Available Sex hormones have been shown to contribute to the organization and function of the brain during puberty and adolescence. Moreover, it has been suggested that distinct hormone changes in girls versus boys may contribute to the emergence of sex differences in internalizing and externalizing behavior during adolescence. In the current longitudinal study, the influence of within-subject changes in puberty (physical and hormonal on cortical thickness and surface area was examined across a 2-year span, while controlling for age. Greater increases in Tanner Stage predicted less superior frontal thinning and decreases in precuneus surface area in both sexes. Significant Tanner Stage and sex interactions were also seen, with less right superior temporal thinning in girls but not boys, as well as greater decreases in the right bank of the superior temporal sulcus surface area in boys compared to girls. In addition, within-subject changes in testosterone over the 2-year follow-up period were found to relate to decreases in middle superior frontal surface area in boys, but increases in surface area in girls. Lastly, larger increases in estradiol in girls predicted greater middle temporal lobe thinning. These results show that within-subject physical and hormonal markers of puberty relate to region and sex-specific changes in cortical development across adolescence.

  17. A longitudinal study: changes in cortical thickness and surface area during pubertal maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herting, Megan M; Gautam, Prapti; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Dahl, Ronald E; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones have been shown to contribute to the organization and function of the brain during puberty and adolescence. Moreover, it has been suggested that distinct hormone changes in girls versus boys may contribute to the emergence of sex differences in internalizing and externalizing behavior during adolescence. In the current longitudinal study, the influence of within-subject changes in puberty (physical and hormonal) on cortical thickness and surface area was examined across a 2-year span, while controlling for age. Greater increases in Tanner Stage predicted less superior frontal thinning and decreases in precuneus surface area in both sexes. Significant Tanner Stage and sex interactions were also seen, with less right superior temporal thinning in girls but not boys, as well as greater decreases in the right bank of the superior temporal sulcus surface area in boys compared to girls. In addition, within-subject changes in testosterone over the 2-year follow-up period were found to relate to decreases in middle superior frontal surface area in boys, but increases in surface area in girls. Lastly, larger increases in estradiol in girls predicted greater middle temporal lobe thinning. These results show that within-subject physical and hormonal markers of puberty relate to region and sex-specific changes in cortical development across adolescence.

  18. Large area smoothing of surfaces by ion bombardment: fundamentals and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, F; Fechner, R; Ziberi, B; Voellner, J; Flamm, D; Schindler, A

    2009-01-01

    Ion beam erosion can be used as a process for achieving surface smoothing at microscopic length scales and for the preparation of ultrasmooth surfaces, as an alternative to nanostructuring of various surfaces via self-organization. This requires that in the evolution of the surface topography different relaxation mechanisms dominate over the roughening, and smoothing of initially rough surfaces can occur. This contribution focuses on the basic mechanisms as well as potential applications of surface smoothing using low energy ion beams. In the first part, the fundamentals for the smoothing of III/V semiconductors, Si and quartz glass surfaces using low energy ion beams (ion energy: ≤2000 eV) are reviewed using examples. The topography evolution of these surfaces with respect to different process parameters (ion energy, ion incidence angle, erosion time, sample rotation) has been investigated. On the basis of the time evolution of different roughness parameters, the relevant surface relaxation mechanisms responsible for surface smoothing are discussed. In this context, physical constraints as regards the effectiveness of surface smoothing by direct ion bombardment will also be addressed and furthermore ion beam assisted smoothing techniques are introduced. In the second application-orientated part, recent technological developments related to ion beam assisted smoothing of optically relevant surfaces are summarized. It will be demonstrated that smoothing by direct ion bombardment in combination with the use of sacrificial smoothing layers and the utilization of appropriate broad beam ion sources enables the polishing of various technologically important surfaces down to 0.1 nm root mean square roughness level, showing great promise for large area surface processing. Specific examples are given for ion beam smoothing of different optical surfaces, especially for substrates used for advanced optical applications (e.g., in x-ray optics and components for extreme

  19. Global Surface Warming Hiatus Analysis Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were used to conduct the study of the global surface warming hiatus, an apparent decrease in the upward trend of global surface temperatures since 1998....

  20. Characterization of chemical composition, surface area pore, and thermal properties of zeolites from Bayah, Tasikmalaya, and Lampung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginting, Aslina Br.; Dian Anggraini; Sutri Indaryati; Rosika Kriswarini

    2007-01-01

    Characterization of chemical composition, surface area, pore radius, adsorption, and thermal properties of zeolites from Bayah, Tasikmalaya, and Lampung have been performed. The purpose of the characterization is to understand the characteristics of the three zeolites since different types of zeolite will yield different chemical composition, surface area, pore radius, and adsorption. The analysis shows that zeolites from Bayah, Tasikmalaya, and Lampung consist of chemical elements Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, and S. The analysis of the surface area indicates that zeolite from Lampung has surface area of 10.0477 m 2 , pore radius of 16.0653 Å, and adsorption of 24.500 ml/g, which are greater than those of zeolite from Tasikmalaya with surface area of 6.3319 m2, pore radius of 16.2350 Å, adsorption of 13.2500 ml/g, zeolite from Bayah with surface area of 8.3528 m2, pore radius of 16.2350 Å, and adsorption of 13.250 ml/g. From of the thermal properties characterization it is shown the three zeolites experienced weight reduction from 5.93% to 8.33%, which results in the formation of new phases as indicated by endothermic reactions from 150 °C to 600 °C and from 850 °C to 1000 °C. The three zeolites experienced a decrease in heat capacity up to temperature of 199.96 °C, whereas at temperatures above 216.66 °C the zeolites experienced an increase in heat capacity up to 437.78 °C. The results of the characterization indicate that different types of zeolite do not yield significant difference in chemical composition and thermal characteristics as proven with F test, however different surface area, pore radius, and adsorption characteristics are observed. The characterization results are expected to be the first step in determining the characteristics of the three zeolites that are to be used for cesium ion exchange in the incoming research. (author)

  1. High surface area microporous activated carbons prepared from Fox nut (Euryale ferox) shell by zinc chloride activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Arvind; Mohan Jena, Hara, E-mail: hmjena@nitrkl.ac.in

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Activated carbons have been prepared from Fox nutshell with chemical activation using ZnCl{sub 2}. • The thermal behavior of the raw material and impregnated raw material has been carried out by thermogravimetric analysis. • The characterizations of the prepared activated carbons have been determined by nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms, FTIR, XRD, and FESEM. • The BET surface area and total pore volume of prepared activated carbon has been obtained as 2869 m{sup 2}/g, 2124 m{sup 2}/g, and 1.96 cm{sup 3}/g, respectively. • The microporous surface area, micropore volume, and microporosity percentage of prepared activated carbon has been obtained as 2124 m{sup 2}/g, 1.68 cm{sup 3}/g, and 85.71%, respectively. - Abstract: High surface area microporous activated carbon has been prepared from Fox nutshell (Euryale ferox) by chemical activation with ZnCl{sub 2} as an activator. The process has been conducted at different impregnation (ZnCl{sub 2}/Fox nutshell) ratios (1–2.5) and carbonization temperatures (500–700 °C). The thermal decomposition behavior of Fox nutshell and impregnated Fox nutshell has been carried out by thermogravimetric analysis. The pore properties including the BET surface area, micropore surface area, micropore volume, and pore size distribution of the activated carbons have been determined by nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms at −196 °C using the BET, t-plot method, DR, and BJH methods. The BET surface area, the microporous surface area, total pore volume, and micropore volume have been obtained as 2869 m{sup 2}/g, 2124 m{sup 2}/g, 1.96 cm{sup 3}/g, and 1.68 cm{sup 3}/g, respectively, and the microporosity percentage of the prepared activated carbon is 85.71%. The prepared activated carbons have been also characterized with instrumental methods such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM).

  2. Relationship among land surface temperature and LUCC, NDVI in typical karst area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanhong; Wang, Shijie; Bai, Xiaoyong; Tian, Yichao; Wu, Luhua; Xiao, Jianyong; Chen, Fei; Qian, Qinghuan

    2018-01-12

    Land surface temperature (LST) can reflect the land surface water-heat exchange process comprehensively, which is considerably significant to the study of environmental change. However, research about LST in karst mountain areas with complex topography is scarce. Therefore, we retrieved the LST in a karst mountain area from Landsat 8 data and explored its relationships with LUCC and NDVI. The results showed that LST of the study area was noticeably affected by altitude and underlying surface type. In summer, abnormal high-temperature zones were observed in the study area, perhaps due to karst rocky desertification. LSTs among different land use types significantly differed with the highest in construction land and the lowest in woodland. The spatial distributions of NDVI and LST exhibited opposite patterns. Under the spatial combination of different land use types, the LST-NDVI feature space showed an obtuse-angled triangle shape and showed a negative linear correlation after removing water body data. In summary, the LST can be retrieved well by the atmospheric correction model from Landsat 8 data. Moreover, the LST of the karst mountain area is controlled by altitude, underlying surface type and aspect. This study provides a reference for land use planning, ecological environment restoration in karst areas.

  3. Surface Area of Patellar Facets: Inferential Statistics in the Iraqi Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Imam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The patella is the largest sesamoid bone in the body; its three-dimensional complexity necessitates biomechanical perfection. Numerous pathologies occur at the patellofemoral unit which may end in degenerative changes. This study aims to test the presence of statistical correlation between the surface areas of patellar facets and other patellar morphometric parameters. Materials and Methods. Forty dry human patellae were studied. The morphometry of each patella was measured using a digital Vernier Caliper, electronic balance, and image analyses software known as ImageJ. The patellar facetal surface area was correlated with patellar weight, height, width, and thickness. Results. Inferential statistics proved the existence of linear correlation of total facetal surface area and patellar weight, height, width, and thickness. The correlation was strongest for surface area versus patellar weight. The lateral facetal area was found persistently larger than the medial facetal area, the p value was found to be <0.001 (one-tailed t-test for right patellae, and another significant p value of < 0.001 (one-tailed t-test was found for left patellae. Conclusion. These data are vital for the restoration of the normal biomechanics of the patellofemoral unit; these are to be consulted during knee surgeries and implant designs and can be of an indispensable anthropometric, interethnic, and biometric value.

  4. Surface analysis of selected hydrophobic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewska, Sylwia Katarzyna

    This dissertation contains a series of studies on hydrophobic surfaces by various surface sensitive techniques such as contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Hydrophobic surfaces have been classified as mineral surfaces, organic synthetic surfaces, or natural biological surfaces. As a model hydrophobic mineral surface, elemental sulfur has been selected. The sulfur surface has been characterized for selected allotropic forms of sulfur such as rhombic, monoclinic, plastic, and cyclohexasulfur. Additionally, dextrin adsorption at the sulfur surface was measured. The structure of a dextrin molecule showing hydrophobic sites has been presented to support the proposed hydrophobic bonding nature of dextrin adsorption at the sulfur surface. As a model organic hydrophobic surface, primary fatty amines such as dodecylamine, hexadecylamine, and octadecylamine were chosen. An increase of hydrophobicity, significant changes of infrared bands, and surface topographical changes with time were observed for each amine. Based on the results it was concluded that hydrocarbon chain rearrangement associated with recrystallization took place at the surface during contact with air. A barley straw surface was selected as a model of biological hydrophobic surfaces. The differences in the contact angles for various straw surfaces were explained by the presence of a wax layer. SEM images confirmed the heterogeneity and complexity of the wax crystal structure. AFM measurements provided additional structural details including a measure of surface roughness. Additionally, straw degradation as a result of conditioning in an aqueous environment was studied. Significant contact angle changes were observed as soon as one day after conditioning. FTIR studies showed a gradual wax layer removal due to straw surface decomposition. SEM and AFM images revealed topographical changes and biological

  5. Surface area loss and increased sphericity account for the splenic entrapment of subpopulations of Plasmodium falciparum ring-infected erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Safeukui

    Full Text Available Ex vivo perfusion of human spleens revealed innate retention of numerous cultured Plasmodium falciparum ring-infected red blood cells (ring-iRBCs. Ring-iRBC retention was confirmed by a microsphiltration device, a microbead-based technology that mimics the mechanical filtering function of the human spleen. However, the cellular alterations underpinning this retention remain unclear. Here, we use ImageStream technology to analyze infected RBCs' morphology and cell dimensions before and after fractionation with microsphiltration. Compared to fresh normal RBCs, the mean cell membrane surface area loss of trophozoite-iRBCs, ring-iRBCs and uninfected co-cultured RBCs (uRBCs was 14.2% (range: 8.3-21.9%, 9.6% (7.3-12.2% and 3.7% (0-8.4, respectively. Microsphilters retained 100%, ∼50% and 4% of trophozoite-iRBCs, ring-iRBCs and uRBCs, respectively. Retained ring-iRBCs display reduced surface area values (estimated mean, range: 17%, 15-18%, similar to the previously shown threshold of surface-deficient RBCs retention in the human spleen (surface area loss: >18%. By contrast, ring-iRBCs that successfully traversed microsphilters had minimal surface area loss and normal sphericity, suggesting that these parameters are determinants of their retention. To confirm this hypothesis, fresh normal RBCs were exposed to lysophosphatidylcholine to induce a controlled loss of surface area. This resulted in a dose-dependent retention in microsphilters, with complete retention occurring for RBCs displaying >14% surface area loss. Taken together, these data demonstrate that surface area loss and resultant increased sphericity drive ring-iRBC retention in microsphilters, and contribute to splenic entrapment of a subpopulation of ring-iRBCs. These findings trigger more interest in malaria research fields, including modeling of infection kinetics, estimation of parasite load, and analysis of risk factors for severe clinical forms. The determination of the threshold of

  6. Digital photography and transparency-based methods for measuring wound surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhedi, Amul; Saxena, Atul K; Gadani, Ravi; Patel, Ritesh

    2013-04-01

    To compare and determine a credible method of measurement of wound surface area by linear, transparency, and photographic methods for monitoring progress of wound healing accurately and ascertaining whether these methods are significantly different. From April 2005 to December 2006, 40 patients (30 men, 5 women, 5 children) admitted to the surgical ward of Shree Sayaji General Hospital, Baroda, had clean as well as infected wound following trauma, debridement, pressure sore, venous ulcer, and incision and drainage. Wound surface areas were measured by these three methods (linear, transparency, and photographic methods) simultaneously on alternate days. The linear method is statistically and significantly different from transparency and photographic methods (P value transparency and photographic methods (P value >0.05). Photographic and transparency methods provided measurements of wound surface area with equivalent result and there was no statistically significant difference between these two methods.

  7. Nanoporous Ni with High Surface Area for Potential Hydrogen Storage Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaocao; Zhao, Haibo; Fu, Zhibing; Qu, Jing; Zhong, Minglong; Yang, Xi; Yi, Yong; Wang, Chaoyang

    2018-06-01

    Nanoporous metals with considerable specific surface areas and hierarchical pore structures exhibit promising applications in the field of hydrogen storage, electrocatalysis, and fuel cells. In this manuscript, a facile method is demonstrated for fabricating nanoporous Ni with a high surface area by using SiO₂ aerogel as a template, i.e., electroless plating of Ni into an SiO₂ aerogel template followed by removal of the template at moderate conditions. The effects of the prepared conditions, including the electroless plating time, temperature of the structure, and the magnetism of nanoporous Ni are investigated in detail. The resultant optimum nanoporous Ni with a special 3D flower-like structure exhibited a high specific surface area of about 120.5 m²/g. The special nanoporous Ni exhibited a promising prospect in the field of hydrogen storage, with a hydrogen capacity of 0.45 wt % on 4.5 MPa at room temperature.

  8. Development of a certified reference material for specific surface area of quartz sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egor P Sobina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of conducting research on the development of a certified reference material (CRM for specific surface area of quartz sand, which is practically non-porous and therefore has low specific surface area value ~ 0.8 m2/g. The standard uncertainty due to RM inhomogeneity, the standard uncertainty due to RM instability, as well as the standard uncertainty due to characterization were estimated using the State Primary Standard GET 210‑2014 for Units of Specific Absorption of Gases, Specific Surface Area, Specific Volume, and Pore Size of Solid Substances and Materials. The metrological characteristics of the CRM were determined using a low-temperature gas adsorption method. Krypton was used as an adsorbate to increase measurement accuracy.

  9. Contribution to the study of techniques of measurement of interface surface area in bubble flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veteau, Jean-Michel

    1981-01-01

    This research thesis addresses problems raised by the measurement of the interface area per volume unit in duct bubble flows. The author first reports a literature survey of existing methods (photographic, chemical and optical methods) which give access to the value of the parameter which is commonly named 'specific surface area'. He analyses under which conditions these methods lead to a rigorous determination of the SVIM (mean integral volume surface). The author highlights the theoretical contributions of models related to each of these methods which are indeed global methods as they allow the interface surface area to be directly obtained in a given volume of a two-phase mixture. Then, the author reports the development of an original technique based on the use of phase detecting local probes. In the next part, the author compares photographic and optical methods, on the one hand, and optical and local methods, on the other hand. Recommendations are made for the development of local methods [fr

  10. Coastal surface water suitability analysis for irrigation in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtab, Mohammad Hossain; Zahid, Anwar

    2018-03-01

    Water with adequate quality and quantity is very important for irrigation to ensure the crop yields. Salinity is common problem in the coastal waters in Bangladesh. The intensity of salinity in the coastal zone in Bangladesh is not same. It fluctuates over the year. Sodium is another hazard which may hamper permeability and ultimately affects the fertility. It can reduce the crop yields. Although surface water is available in the coastal zone of Bangladesh, but its quality for irrigation needs to be monitored over the year. This paper will investigate the overall quality of coastal surface waters. Thirty-three water samples from different rivers were collected both in wet period (October-December) and in dry period (February-April). Different physical and chemical parameters are considered for investigation of the adequacy of water with respect to international irrigation water quality standards and Bangladesh standards. A comparison between the dry and wet period coastal surface water quality in Bangladesh will also be drawn here. The analysis shows that coastal surface water in Bangladesh is overall suitable for irrigation during wet period, while it needs treatment (which will increase the irrigation cost) for using for irrigation during dry period. Adaptation to this situation can improve the scenario. An integrated plan should be taken to increase the water storing capacity in the coastal area to harvest water during wet period.

  11. Description of surface systems. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area Version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, Tobias [ed.

    2005-06-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) started site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel in 2002 at two different sites in Sweden, Forsmark and Oskarshamn. The investigations should provide necessary information for a license application aimed at starting underground exploration. For this reason, ecosystem data need to be interpreted and assessed into site descriptive models, which in turn are used for safety assessment studies and for environmental impact assessment. Descriptions of the surface system are also needed for further planning of the site investigations. This report describes the surface ecosystems of the Forsmark site (e.g. hydrology, Quaternary deposits, chemistry, vegetation, animals and the human land use). The ecosystem description is an integration of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the biosphere as well as the ongoing natural processes affecting the longterm development. Improving the descriptions is important during both the initial and the complete site investigation phase. Before starting of the initial phase in Forsmark, version 0 of the site descriptive model was developed. The results of the initial site investigation phase is compiled into a preliminary site description of Forsmark (version 1.2) in June 2005. This report provides the major input and background to the biosphere description, in the 1.2 version of the Forsmark site description. The basis for this interim version is quality-assured field data from the Forsmark sub area and regional area, available in the SKB SICADA, and GIS data bases as of July 31th 2004 as well as version 1.1 of the Site Descriptive Model. To achieve an ecosystem site description there is a need to develop discipline-specific models by interpreting and analysing primary data. The different discipline-specific models are then integrated into a system describing interactions and flows and stocks of matter between and within functional units in

  12. Description of surface systems. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area Version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindborg, Tobias

    2005-06-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) started site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel in 2002 at two different sites in Sweden, Forsmark and Oskarshamn. The investigations should provide necessary information for a license application aimed at starting underground exploration. For this reason, ecosystem data need to be interpreted and assessed into site descriptive models, which in turn are used for safety assessment studies and for environmental impact assessment. Descriptions of the surface system are also needed for further planning of the site investigations. This report describes the surface ecosystems of the Forsmark site (e.g. hydrology, Quaternary deposits, chemistry, vegetation, animals and the human land use). The ecosystem description is an integration of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the biosphere as well as the ongoing natural processes affecting the longterm development. Improving the descriptions is important during both the initial and the complete site investigation phase. Before starting of the initial phase in Forsmark, version 0 of the site descriptive model was developed. The results of the initial site investigation phase is compiled into a preliminary site description of Forsmark (version 1.2) in June 2005. This report provides the major input and background to the biosphere description, in the 1.2 version of the Forsmark site description. The basis for this interim version is quality-assured field data from the Forsmark sub area and regional area, available in the SKB SICADA, and GIS data bases as of July 31th 2004 as well as version 1.1 of the Site Descriptive Model. To achieve an ecosystem site description there is a need to develop discipline-specific models by interpreting and analysing primary data. The different discipline-specific models are then integrated into a system describing interactions and flows and stocks of matter between and within functional units in

  13. Microbiology of the surface water samples in the high background radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motamedifar, Mohammad; Zamani, Khosrow; Sedigh, Hadi; Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Taeb, Shahram; Haghani, M.; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Soofi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Residents of high background radiation areas of Ramsar have lived in these areas for many generations and received radiation doses much higher than the dose limit recommended by ICRP for radiation workers. The radioactivity of the high background radiation areas of Ramsar is reported to be due to 226 Ra and its decay products, which have been brought to the surface by the waters of hot springs. Over the past years the department has focused on different aspects of the health effects of the elevated levels of natural radiation in Ramsar. This study was aimed to perform a preliminary investigation on the bioeffects of exposure to elevated levels of natural radiation on the microbiology of surface water samples. Water samples were collected from surface water streams in Talesh Mahalleh district, Ramsar as well as a nearby area with normal levels of background radiation. Only two strains of bacteria, that is, Providencia stuartii and Shimwellia blattae, could be isolated from the water samples collected from high background radiation areas, while seven strains (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter asburiae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae, Buttiauxella agerstis, Tatumella punctuata and Raoultella ornithinolytica) were isolated from the water samples collected from normal background radiation areas. All the bacteria isolated from water samples of high and normal background radiation areas were sensitive to ultraviolet radiation, heat, betadine, alcohol, and deconex. Although other investigators have reported that bacteria isolated from hot springs show radioresistance, the results reported here do not reveal any adaptive response. (author)

  14. Development of international standards for surface analysis by ISO technical committee 201 on surface chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) established Technical Committee 201 on Surface Chemical Analysis in 1991 to develop documentary standards for surface analysis. ISO/TC 201 met first in 1992 and has met annually since. This committee now has eight subcommittees (Terminology, General Procedures, Data Management and Treatment, Depth Profiling, AES, SIMS, XPS, and Glow Discharge Spectroscopy (GDS)) and one working group (Total X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy). Each subcommittee has one or more working groups to develop standards on particular topics. Australia has observer-member status on ISO/TC 201 and on all ISO/TC 201 subcommittees except GDS where it has participator-member status. I will outline the organization of ISO/TC 201 and summarize the standards that have been or are being developed. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  15. Area-averaged surface fluxes and their time-space variability over the FIFE experimental domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E. A.; Hsu, A. Y.; Crosson, W. L.; Field, R. T.; Fritschen, L. J.; Gurney, R. J.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Kustas, W. P.; Nie, D.; Shuttleworth, W. J.

    1992-01-01

    The underlying mean and variance properties of surface net radiation, sensible-latent heat fluxes and soil heat flux are studied over the densely instrumented grassland region encompassing FIFE. Flux variability is discussed together with the problem of scaling up to area-averaged fluxes. Results are compared and contrasted for cloudy and clear situations and examined for the influence of surface-induced biophysical controls (burn and grazing treatments) and topographic controls (aspect ratios and slope factors).

  16. A Three-Dimensional Enormous Surface Area Aluminum Microneedle Array with Nanoporous Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Po Chun; Hsieh, Sheng Jen; Chen, Chien Chon; Zou, Jun

    2013-01-01

    We proposed fabricating an aluminum microneedle array with a nanochannel structure on the surface by combining micromachining, electrolyte polishing, and anodization methods. The microneedle array provides a three-dimensional (3D) structure that possesses several hundred times more surface area than a traditional nanochannel template. Therefore, the microneedle array can potentially be used in many technology applications. This 3D microneedle array device can not only be used for painless inj...

  17. Tear-Film Evaporation Rate from Simultaneous Ocular-Surface Temperature and Tear-Breakup Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursch, Thomas J; Li, Wing; Taraz, Baseem; Lin, Meng C; Radke, Clayton J

    2018-01-01

    A corneal heat-transfer model is presented to quantify simultaneous measurements of fluorescein tear-breakup area (TBA) and ocular-surface temperature (OST). By accounting for disruption of the tear-film lipid layer (TFLL), we report evaporation rates through lipid-covered tear. The modified heat-transfer model provides new insights into evaporative dry eye. A quantitative analysis is presented to assess human aqueous tear evaporation rate (TER) through intact TFLLs from simultaneous in vivo measurement of time-dependent infrared OST and fluorescein TBA. We interpret simultaneous OST and TBA measurements using an extended heat-transfer model. We hypothesize that TBAs are ineffectively insulated by the TFLL and therefore exhibit higher TER than does that for a well-insulting TFLL-covered tear. As time proceeds, TBAs increase in number and size, thereby increasing the cornea area-averaged TER and decreasing OST. Tear-breakup areas were assessed from image analysis of fluorescein tear-film-breakup video recordings and are included in the heat-transfer description of OST. Model-predicted OSTs agree well with clinical experiments. Percent reductions in TER of lipid-covered tear range from 50 to 95% of that for pure water, in good agreement with literature. The physical picture of noninsulating or ruptured TFLL spots followed by enhanced evaporation from underlying cooler tear-film ruptures is consistent with the evaporative-driven mechanism for local tear rupture. A quantitative analysis is presented of in vivo TER from simultaneous clinical measurement of transient OST and TBA. The new heat-transfer model accounts for increased TER through expanding TBAs. Tear evaporation rate varies strongly across the cornea because lipid is effectively missing over tear-rupture troughs. The result is local faster evaporation compared with nonruptured, thick lipid-covered tear. Evaporative-driven tear-film ruptures deepen to a thickness where fluorescein quenching commences and local

  18. DMSA scan nomograms for renal length and area: Related to patient age and to body weight, height or surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, I.M.; Que, L.; Rutland, M.D.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To create nomograms for renal size as measured from DMSA renal studies, and to test the nomograms for their ability to separate normal from abnormal kidneys. Method: Renal length was measured from posterior oblique views and renal area from posterior views. Results from 253 patients with bilateral normal kidneys were used to create nomograms for renal size relative to patient age, body height, weight or body surface area (BSA). The nomograms enclosed 95% of the normal kidneys, thus indicating the range for 95% confidence limits, and hence the specificity. Each nomogram was then tested against 46 hypertrophied kidneys and 46 damaged kidneys. Results: The results from nomograms of renal length and renal area, compared to age, body height, body weight and BSA are presented. For each nomogram, the range is presented as a fraction of the mean value, and the number of abnormal kidneys (hypertrophied or damaged) outside the normal range is presented as a percentage (indicating the sensitivity). Conclusion: Renal Area was no better than renal length for detecting abnormal kidneys. Patient age was the least useful method of normalisation. BSA normalisation produced the best results most frequently (narrower ranges and highest detection of abnormal kidneys)

  19. Whole object surface area and volume of partial-view 3D models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulukutla, Gopal K; Proussevitch, Alexander A; Genareau, Kimberly D; Durant, Adam J

    2017-01-01

    Micro-scale 3D models, important components of many studies in science and engineering, are often used to determine morphological characteristics such as shape, surface area and volume. The application of techniques such as stereoscopic scanning electron microscopy on whole objects often results in ‘partial-view’ models with a portion of object not within the field of view thus not captured in the 3D model. The nature and extent of the surface not captured is dependent on the complex interaction of imaging system attributes (e.g. working distance, viewing angle) with object size, shape and morphology. As a result, any simplistic assumptions in estimating whole object surface area or volume can lead to significant errors. In this study, we report on a novel technique to estimate the physical fraction of an object captured in a partial-view 3D model of an otherwise whole object. This allows a more accurate estimate of surface area and volume. Using 3D models, we demonstrate the robustness of this method and the accuracy of surface area and volume estimates relative to true values. (paper)

  20. Stereological estimation of surface area and barrier thickness of fish gills in vertical sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, Oscar T F; Pedretti, Ana Carolina E; Schmitz, Anke; Perry, Steven F; Fernandes, Marisa N

    2007-01-01

    Previous morphometric methods for estimation of the volume of components, surface area and thickness of the diffusion barrier in fish gills have taken advantage of the highly ordered structure of these organs for sampling and surface area estimations, whereas the thickness of the diffusion barrier has been measured orthogonally on perpendicularly sectioned material at subjectively selected sites. Although intuitively logical, these procedures do not have a demonstrated mathematical basis, do not involve random sampling and measurement techniques, and are not applicable to the gills of all fish. The present stereological methods apply the principles of surface area estimation in vertical uniform random sections to the gills of the Brazilian teleost Arapaima gigas. The tissue was taken from the entire gill apparatus of the right-hand or left-hand side (selected at random) of the fish by systematic random sampling and embedded in glycol methacrylate for light microscopy. Arches from the other side were embedded in Epoxy resin. Reference volume was estimated by the Cavalieri method in the same vertical sections that were used for surface density and volume density measurements. The harmonic mean barrier thickness of the water-blood diffusion barrier was calculated from measurements taken along randomly selected orientation lines that were sine-weighted relative to the vertical axis. The values thus obtained for the anatomical diffusion factor (surface area divided by barrier thickness) compare favourably with those obtained for other sluggish fish using existing methods.

  1. 300 Area fuel supply facilities deactivation mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of the 300 Area fuel supply facilities (formerly call ''N reactor fuel fabrication facilities'') Deactivation Project mission analysis. Hanford systems engineering (SE) procedures call for a mission analysis. The mission analysis is an important first step in the SE process

  2. A process to enhance the specific surface area and capacitance of hydrothermally reduced graphene oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Alazmi, Amira

    2016-08-26

    The impact of post-synthesis processing in reduced graphene oxide materials for supercapacitor electrodes has been analyzed. A comparative study of vacuum, freeze and critical point drying was carried out for hydrothermally reduced graphene oxide demonstrating that the optimization of the specific surface area and preservation of the porous network are critical to maximize its supercapacitance performance. As described below, using a supercritical fluid as the drying medium, unprecedented values of the specific surface area (364 m2 g−1) and supercapacitance (441 F g−1) for this class of materials have been achieved.

  3. Volumes, Masses, and Surface Areas for Shippingport LWBR Spent Nuclear Fuel in a DOE SNF Canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.W. Davis

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate volumes, masses, and surface areas associated with (a) an empty Department of Energy (DOE) 18-inch diameter, 15-ft long spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canister, (b) an empty DOE 24-inch diameter, 15-ft long SNF canister, (c) Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) SNF, and (d) the internal basket structure for the 18-in. canister that has been designed specifically to accommodate Seed fuel from the Shippingport LWBR. Estimates of volumes, masses, and surface areas are needed as input to structural, thermal, geochemical, nuclear criticality, and radiation shielding calculations to ensure the viability of the proposed disposal configuration

  4. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on High Surface Area Nanocrystalline Zinc Oxide Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavuluri Srinivasu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High surface area nanocrystalline zinc oxide material is fabricated using mesoporous nanostructured carbon as a sacrificial template through combustion process. The resulting material is characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption, HR-SEM, and HR-TEM. The nitrogen adsorption measurement indicates that the materials possess BET specific surface area ca. 30 m2/g. Electron microscopy images prove that the zinc oxide spheres possess particle size in the range of 0.12 μm–0.17 μm. The nanocrystalline zinc oxide spheres show 1.0% of energy conversion efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells.

  5. A process to enhance the specific surface area and capacitance of hydrothermally reduced graphene oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Alazmi, Amira; El Tall, Omar; Rasul, Shahid; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Patole, Shashikant P.; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of post-synthesis processing in reduced graphene oxide materials for supercapacitor electrodes has been analyzed. A comparative study of vacuum, freeze and critical point drying was carried out for hydrothermally reduced graphene oxide demonstrating that the optimization of the specific surface area and preservation of the porous network are critical to maximize its supercapacitance performance. As described below, using a supercritical fluid as the drying medium, unprecedented values of the specific surface area (364 m2 g−1) and supercapacitance (441 F g−1) for this class of materials have been achieved.

  6. Description of surface systems. Preliminary site description Simpevarp sub area - Version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, Tobias [ed.

    2005-03-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co is currently conducting site characterisation in the Simpevarp area. The area is divided into two subareas, the Simpevarp and the Laxemar subarea. The two subareas are surrounded by a common regional model area, the Simpevarp area. This report describes both the regional area and the subareas. This report is an interim version (model version 1.2) of the description of the surface systems at the Simpevarp area, and should be seen as a background report to the site description of the Simpevarp area, version 1.2, SKB-R--05-08. The basis for this description is quality-assured field data available in the SKB SICADA and GIS databases, together with generic data from the literature. The Surface system, here defined as everything above the bedrock, comprises a number of separate disciplines (e.g. hydrology, geology, topography, oceanography and ecology). Each discipline has developed descriptions and models for a number of properties that together represent the site description. The current methodology for developing the surface system description and the integration to ecosystem models is documented in a methodology strategy report SKB-R--03-06. The procedures and guidelines given in that report were followed in this report. Compared with version 1.1 of the surface system description SKB-R--04-25, this report presents considerable additional features, especially in the ecosystem description (Chapter 4) and in the description of the surface hydrology (Section 3.4). A first attempt has also been made to connect the flow of matter (carbon) between the different ecosystems into an overall ecosystem model at a landscape level. A summarised version of this report is also presented in SKB-R--05-08 together with geological-, hydrogeological-, transport properties-, thermal properties-, rock mechanics- and hydrogeochemical descriptions.

  7. Description of surface systems. Preliminary site description Simpevarp sub area - Version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindborg, Tobias

    2005-03-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co is currently conducting site characterisation in the Simpevarp area. The area is divided into two subareas, the Simpevarp and the Laxemar subarea. The two subareas are surrounded by a common regional model area, the Simpevarp area. This report describes both the regional area and the subareas. This report is an interim version (model version 1.2) of the description of the surface systems at the Simpevarp area, and should be seen as a background report to the site description of the Simpevarp area, version 1.2, SKB-R--05-08. The basis for this description is quality-assured field data available in the SKB SICADA and GIS databases, together with generic data from the literature. The Surface system, here defined as everything above the bedrock, comprises a number of separate disciplines (e.g. hydrology, geology, topography, oceanography and ecology). Each discipline has developed descriptions and models for a number of properties that together represent the site description. The current methodology for developing the surface system description and the integration to ecosystem models is documented in a methodology strategy report SKB-R--03-06. The procedures and guidelines given in that report were followed in this report. Compared with version 1.1 of the surface system description SKB-R--04-25, this report presents considerable additional features, especially in the ecosystem description (Chapter 4) and in the description of the surface hydrology (Section 3.4). A first attempt has also been made to connect the flow of matter (carbon) between the different ecosystems into an overall ecosystem model at a landscape level. A summarised version of this report is also presented in SKB-R--05-08 together with geological-, hydrogeological-, transport properties-, thermal properties-, rock mechanics- and hydrogeochemical descriptions

  8. A high surface area Zr(IV)-based metal–organic framework showing stepwise gas adsorption and selective dye uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Xiu-Liang [Beijing Key Laboratory for Green Catalysis and Separation, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Tong, Minman; Huang, Hongliang [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang, Bin; Gan, Lei [Beijing Key Laboratory for Green Catalysis and Separation, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Yang, Qingyuan [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhong, Chongli [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); State Key Laboratory of Organic–Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Li, Jian-Rong, E-mail: jrli@bjut.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory for Green Catalysis and Separation, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); State Key Laboratory of Organic–Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Exploitation of new metal–organic framework (MOF) materials with high surface areas has been attracting great attention in related research communities due to their broad potential applications. In this work, a new Zr(IV)-based MOF, [Zr{sub 6}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}(eddb){sub 6}] (BUT-30, H{sub 2}eddb=4,4′-(ethyne-1,2-diyl)dibenzoic acid) has been solvothermally synthesized, characterized, and explored for gases and dyes adsorptions. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates a three-dimensional cubic framework structure of this MOF, in which each Zr{sub 6}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 4} building unit is linked by 12 linear eddb ligands. BUT-30 has been found stable up to 400 °C and has a Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area as high as 3940.6 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} (based on the N{sub 2} adsorption at 77 K) and total pore volume of 1.55 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}. It is more interesting that this MOF exhibits stepwise adsorption behaviors for Ar, N{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} at low temperatures, and selective uptakes towards different ionic dyes. - Graphical abstract: A new Zr(IV)-based MOF with high surface area has been synthesized and structurally characterized, which shows stepwise gas adsorption at low temperature and selective dye uptake from solution. - Highlights: • A new Zr-based MOF was synthesized and structurally characterized. • This MOF shows a higher surface area compared with its analogous UiO-67 and 68. • This MOF shows a rare stepwise adsorption towards light gases at low temperature. • This MOF performs selective uptakes towards cationic dyes over anionic ones. • Using triple-bond spacer is confirmed feasible in enhancing MOF surface areas.

  9. Risk analysis of underground infrastructures in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagno, Enrico; De Ambroggi, Massimiliano; Grande, Ottavio; Trucco, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents an integrated approach for vulnerability and resilience analysis for underground infrastructures, i.e. a societal risk analysis of the failures of underground services for an urban area. The approach is based on the detailed study of (1) domino-effects for the components of a single infrastructure and for a given set of infrastructures interoperated and/or belonging to the same area; (2) risk and vulnerability analysis of a given area; (3) identification of a set of intervention guidelines, in order to improve the overall system resilience. The use of an integrated (interoperability and area) approach, breaking down the analysis area extent into sub-areas and assessing the dependencies among sub-areas both in terms of interoperability and damage propagation of critical infrastructures, demonstrates a useful advantage in terms of resilience analysis, more consistent with the 'zoned' nature of failures of the underground infrastructures. An applied case, describing the interoperability and damage propagation analysis with the evaluation of time-dependency for the infrastructures and targets and of different kinds of interventions of the underground infrastructures of a town, is presented for this purpose.

  10. Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation Tool, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort undertook the creation of a Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation (SODAA) tool to store data relevant to airport surface research and...

  11. Surface activity of lipid extract surfactant in relation to film area compression and collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürch, S; Schürch, D; Curstedt, T; Robertson, B

    1994-08-01

    The physical properties of modified porcine surfactant (Curosurf), isolated from minced lungs by extraction with chloroform-methanol and further purified by liquid-gel chromatography, were investigated with the captive bubble technique. Bubble size, and thus the surface tension of an insoluble film at the bubble surface, is altered by changing the pressure within the closed bubble chamber. The film surface tension and area are determined from the shape (height and diameter) of the bubble. Adsorption of fresh Curosurf is characterized by stepwise decreases in surface tension, which can easily be observed by sudden quick movements of the bubble apex. These "adsorption clicks" imply a cooperative movement of large collective units of molecules, approximately 10(14) (corresponding to approximately 120 ng of phospholipid) or approximately 10(18) molecules/m2, into the interface during adsorption. Films formed in this manner are already highly enriched in dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, as seen by the extremely low compressibility, close to that of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine. Near-zero minimum tensions are obtained, even at phospholipid concentrations as low as 50 micrograms/ml. During dynamic cycling (20-50 cycles/min), low minimum surface tensions, good film stability, low compressibility, and maximum surface tensions between 30 and 40 mN/m are possible only if the films are not overcompressed near zero surface tension; i.e., the overall film area compression should not substantially exceed 30%.

  12. Rapid broad area search and detection of Chinese surface-to-air missile sites using deep convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, Richard A.; Davis, Curt H.; Scott, Grant J.; Nivin, Tyler W.

    2017-10-01

    We evaluated how deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN) could assist in the labor-intensive process of human visual searches for objects of interest in high-resolution imagery over large areas of the Earth's surface. Various DCNN were trained and tested using fewer than 100 positive training examples (China only) from a worldwide surface-to-air-missile (SAM) site dataset. A ResNet-101 DCNN achieved a 98.2% average accuracy for the China SAM site data. The ResNet-101 DCNN was used to process ˜19.6 M image chips over a large study area in southeastern China. DCNN chip detections (˜9300) were postprocessed with a spatial clustering algorithm to produce a ranked list of ˜2100 candidate SAM site locations. The combination of DCNN processing and spatial clustering effectively reduced the search area by ˜660X (0.15% of the DCNN-processed land area). An efficient web interface was used to facilitate a rapid serial human review of the candidate SAM sites in the China study area. Four novice imagery analysts with no prior imagery analysis experience were able to complete a DCNN-assisted SAM site search in an average time of ˜42 min. This search was ˜81X faster than a traditional visual search over an equivalent land area of ˜88,640 km2 while achieving nearly identical statistical accuracy (˜90% F1).

  13. Surface area and the seabed area, volume, depth, slope, and topographic variation for the world's seas, oceans, and countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Mark John; Cheung, Alan; De Hauwere, Nathalie

    2010-12-01

    Depth and topography directly and indirectly influence most ocean environmental conditions, including light penetration and photosynthesis, sedimentation, current movements and stratification, and thus temperature and oxygen gradients. These parameters are thus likely to influence species distribution patterns and productivity in the oceans. They may be considered the foundation for any standardized classification of ocean ecosystems and important correlates of metrics of biodiversity (e.g., species richness and composition, fisheries). While statistics on ocean depth and topography are often quoted, how they were derived is rarely cited, and unless calculated using the same spatial resolution the resulting statistics will not be strictly comparable. We provide such statistics using the best available resolution (1-min) global bathymetry, and open source digital maps of the world's seas and oceans and countries' Exclusive Economic Zones, using a standardized methodology. We created a terrain map and calculated sea surface and seabed area, volume, and mean, standard deviation, maximum, and minimum, of both depth and slope. All the source data and our database are freely available online. We found that although the ocean is flat, and up to 71% of the area has a ocean volume exceeds 1.3 billion km(3) (or 1.3 sextillion liters), and sea surface and seabed areas over 354 million km(2). We propose the coefficient of variation of slope as an index of topographic heterogeneity. Future studies may improve on this database, for example by using a more detailed bathymetry, and in situ measured data. The database could be used to classify ocean features, such as abyssal plains, ridges, and slopes, and thus provide the basis for a standards based classification of ocean topography.

  14. Net Farm Income Analysis of Maize Production in Gwagwalada Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Net Farm Income Analysis of Maize Production in Gwagwalada Area Council of Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. OO Alabi, AAA Coker, ME Idegbesor. Abstract. This study examined net farm income of maize production in Gwagwalada Area Council of Federal Capital Territory. The specific objectives are to: identify the ...

  15. An analysis of CDTN performance in the reactors technology area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    The author makes an analysis of CDTN (Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear) performance in the reactors technology area, showing difficulties and failures, but emphasizing the particular competence and capacity acquired in this area, as for example: the capacity in codes and methods are of neutronic calculations and nuclear projects, experimental thermohydraulic program, tests services in components and the others. (C.M.) [pt

  16. Changes in thickness and surface area of the human cortex and their relationship with intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, Hugo G; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Brouwer, Rachel M; Evans, Alan; Durston, Sarah; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2015-06-01

    Changes in cortical thickness over time have been related to intelligence, but whether changes in cortical surface area are related to general cognitive functioning is unknown. We therefore examined the relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and changes in cortical thickness and surface over time in 504 healthy subjects. At 10 years of age, more intelligent children have a slightly thinner cortex than children with a lower IQ. This relationship becomes more pronounced with increasing age: with higher IQ, a faster thinning of the cortex is found over time. In the more intelligent young adults, this relationship reverses so that by the age of 42 a thicker cortex is associated with higher intelligence. In contrast, cortical surface is larger in more intelligent children at the age of 10. The cortical surface is still expanding, reaching its maximum area during adolescence. With higher IQ, cortical expansion is completed at a younger age; and once completed, surface area decreases at a higher rate. These findings suggest that intelligence may be more related to the magnitude and timing of changes in brain structure during development than to brain structure per se, and that the cortex is never completed but shows continuing intelligence-dependent development. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Surface runoff from urban areas. New aspects; Neue Aspekte in der Behandlung von Siedlungsabfluessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Stephan [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Bereich Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Wasserguetewirtschaft; Lambert, Benedikt [Bioplan Landeskulturgesellschaft, Sinsheim (Germany); Grotehusmann, Dieter [Ingenieurgesellschaft fuer Stadthydrologie, Hannover (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    The surface runoff from urban areas is one of the most important sources of pollutants emitted into surface waters. Suspended solids which act as a transport vehicle for many anthropogenic pollutants (e. g. heavy metals, PAH) are a key factor in this regard. The development of efficient measures of storm water runoff treatment thus requires a further differentiation of suspended solids in a fine (clay and silt) and coarse (sand and gravel) fraction. Both fractions show distinctly different characteristics in pollutant loading, transport and retention on urban surfaces and sewer systems. The primary aim of storm water runoff treatment is the reduction of the fine particles which are always highly loaded with anthropogenic pollutants. In contrast the coarse particles are almost unpolluted especially if they have a low organic share. The widespread sedimentation tanks with surface loadings between 10 and 2 m/h are very inefficient. A significant, save and lasting reduction of the emitted load of fine particles requires a considerable reduction of the surface loads. That can be achieved with the installation of lamellar settler or the utilization of the very large volumes of flood management tanks frequently present in urban areas. Filtration plants are highly efficient but there application in urban areas is limited due to their high space demands. (orig.)

  18. Ambient pressure dried tetrapropoxysilane-based silica aerogels with high specific surface area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parale, Vinayak G.; Han, Wooje; Jung, Hae-Noo-Ree; Lee, Kyu-Yeon; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2018-01-01

    In the present paper, we report the synthesis of tetrapropoxysilane (TPOS)-based silica aerogels with high surface area and large pore volume. The silica aerogels were prepared by a two-step sol-gel process followed by surface modification via a simple ambient pressure drying approach. In order to minimize drying shrinkage and obtain hydrophobic aerogels, the surface of the alcogels was modified using trichloromethylsilane as a silylating agent. The effect of the sol-gel compositional parameters on the polymerization of aerogels prepared by TPOS, one of the precursors belonging to the Si(OR)4 family, was reported for the first time. The oxalic acid and NH4OH concentrations were adjusted to achieve good-quality aerogels with high surface area, low density, and high transparency. Controlling the hydrolysis and condensation reactions of the TPOS precursor turned out to be the most important factor to determine the pore characteristics of the aerogel. Highly transparent aerogels with high specific surface area (938 m2/g) and low density (0.047 g/cm3) could be obtained using an optimized TPOS/MeOH molar ratio with appropriate concentrations of oxalic acid and NH4OH.

  19. Impact of microstructure evolution on the difference between geometric and reactive surface areas in natural chalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Bruns, S.; Stipp, S. L. S.; Sørensen, H. O.

    2018-05-01

    The coupling between flow and mineral dissolution drives the evolution of many natural and engineered flow systems. Pore surface changes as microstructure evolves but this transient behaviour has traditionally been difficult to model. We combined a reactor network model with experimental, greyscale tomography data to establish the morphological grounds for differences among geometric, reactive and apparent surface areas in dissolving chalk. This approach allowed us to study the effects of initial geometry and macroscopic flow rate independently. The simulations showed that geometric surface, which represents a form of local transport heterogeneity, increases in an imposed flow field, even when the porous structure is chemically homogeneous. Hence, the fluid-reaction coupling leads to solid channelisation, which further results in fluid focusing and an increase in geometric surface area. Fluid focusing decreases the area of reactive surface and the residence time of reactant, both contribute to the over-normalisation of reaction rate. In addition, the growing and merging of microchannels, near the fluid entrance, contribute to the macroscopic, fast initial dissolution rate of rocks.

  20. Device and method for enhanced collection and assay of chemicals with high surface area ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addleman, Raymond S.; Li, Xiaohong Shari; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Cinson, Anthony D.; Bays, John T.; Wallace, Krys

    2016-02-16

    A method and device for enhanced capture of target analytes is disclosed. This invention relates to collection of chemicals for separations and analysis. More specifically, this invention relates to a solid phase microextraction (SPME) device having better capability for chemical collection and analysis. This includes better physical stability, capacity for chemical collection, flexible surface chemistry and high affinity for target analyte.

  1. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgino, M.J.; Rasmussen, R.B.; Pfeifle, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area's water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2007 through September 2008. Major findings for this period include:

  2. Aggregate surface areas quantified through laser measurements for South African asphalt mixtures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available design. This paper introduces the use of a three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning method to directly measure the surface area of aggregates used in road pavements in South Africa. As an application of the laser-based measurements, the asphalt film...

  3. Uncovering surface area and micropores in almond shell biochars by rainwater wash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochars have been considered for adsorption of contaminants in soil and water, as well as conditioning and improving soil quality. One important property of the biochar is surface area in the pores of the biochar. Biochars were created from almond shells from two almond varieties with different ash...

  4. Specific surface area behavior of a dissolving population of particles. Augmenting Mercer Dissolution Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scripsick, R.C.; Rothenberg, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Specific surface area (Sp) measurements were made on two uranium oxide aerosol materials before and after in vitro dissolution studies were performed on the materials. The results of these Sp measurements were evaluated relative to predictions made from extending Mercer dissolution theory to describe the Sp behavior of a dissolving population of particles

  5. An empirical method for estimating surface area of aggregates in hot mix asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Panda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bitumen requirement in hot mix asphalt (HMA is directly dependent on the surface area of the aggregates in the mix, which in turn has effect on the asphalt film thickness and the flow characteristics. The surface area of aggregate blend in HMA is calculated using the specific surface area factors assigned to percentage passing through some specific standard sieve sizes and the imaging techniques. The first process is less capital intensive, but purely manual and labour intensive and prone to human errors. Imaging techniques though eliminating the human errors, still have limited use due to capital intensiveness and requirement of well-established laboratories with qualified technicians. Most of the developing countries like India are shortage of well-equipped laboratories and qualified technicians. To overcome these difficulties, the present mathematical model has been developed to estimate the surface area of aggregate blend of HMA from physical properties of aggregates evaluated using simple laboratory equipment. This model has been validated compared with the existing established methods of calculations and can be used as one of the tools in different developing and under developed countries for proper design of HMA.

  6. Developing Open-Ended Questions for Surface Area and Volume of Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Henry; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Hartono, Yusuf

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to show open-ended questions about surface area and beam volume which valid and practice, have potential effect. This research is research development which consists of two main phases: preliminary phase (preparation phase and problem design) and formative evaluation phase (evaluation and revision phases). The…

  7. Dose banding as an alternative to body surface area-based dosing of chemotherapeutic agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Chatelut (Etienne); M.L. White-Koning (M.); A.H.J. Mathijssen (Ron); F. Puisset (F.); S.D. Baker (Sharyn); A. Sparreboom (Alex)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Dose banding is a recently suggested dosing method that uses predefined ranges (bands) of body surface area (BSA) to calculate each patients dose by using a single BSA-value per band. Thus, drugs with sufficient long-term stability can be prepared in advance. The main

  8. Amylolytic hydrolysis of native starch granules affected by granule surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J C; Kong, B W; Kim, M J; Lee, S H

    2008-11-01

    Initial stage of hydrolysis of native starch granules with various amylolytic enzymes, alpha-amylase from Bacillus subtilis, glucoamylase I (GA-I) and II (GA-II) from Aspergillus niger, and beta-amylase from sweet potato showed that the reaction was apparently affected by a specific surface area of the starch granules. The ratios of the reciprocal of initial velocity of each amylolytic hydrolysis for native potato and maize starch to that for rice with the amylolytic enzymes were nearly equivalent to the ratio of surface area per mass of the 2 starch granules to that of rice, that is, 6.94 and 2.25, respectively. Thus, the reciprocal of initial velocity of each enzymatic hydrolysis as expressed in a Lineweaver-Burk plot was a linear function of the reciprocal of surface area for each starch granule. As a result, it is concluded that amylolytic hydrolysis of native starch granules is governed by the specific surface area, not by the mass concentration, of each granule.

  9. High surface area carbon for bifunctional air electrodes applied in zinc-air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, H [on leave from NTT Laboratories (Japan); Mueller, S; Haas, O [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Bifunctional air electrodes with high surface area carbon substrates showed low reduction overpotential, thus are promising for enhancing the energy efficiency and power capability of zinc-air batteries. The improved performance is attributed to lower overpotential due to diffusion of the reaction intermediate, namely the peroxide ion. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  10. Preparation of MgO Catalytic Support in Shaped Mesoporous High Surface Area Form

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gulková, Daniela; Šolcová, Olga; Zdražil, Miroslav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 76, 1-3 (2004), s. 137-149 ISSN 1387-1811 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : MgO support * sigh Surface area * texture Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.093, year: 2004

  11. Escaping the correction for body surface area when calculating glomerular filtration rate in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepsz, Amy; Tondeur, Marianne; Ham, Hamphrey

    2008-01-01

    51 Cr ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid ( 51 Cr EDTA) clearance is nowadays considered as an accurate and reproducible method for measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children. Normal values in function of age, corrected for body surface area, have been recently updated. However, much criticism has been expressed about the validity of body surface area correction. The aim of the present paper was to present the normal GFR values, not corrected for body surface area, with the associated percentile curves. For that purpose, the same patients as in the previous paper were selected, namely those with no recent urinary tract infection, having a normal left to right 99m Tc MAG3 uptake ratio and a normal kidney morphology on the early parenchymal images. A single blood sample method was used for 51 Cr EDTA clearance measurement. Clearance values, not corrected for body surface area, increased progressively up to the adolescence. The percentile curves were determined and allow, for a single patient, to estimate accurately the level of non-corrected clearance and the evolution with time, whatever the age. (orig.)

  12. Allometric relationships for surface area and dry mass of young Norway spruce aboveground organs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Radek; Tomášková, Ivana

    53 2007, č. 12 (2007), s. 548-554 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/93/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : allometry * biomass, * Picea abies * sapwood * surface area Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  13. Proportional Reasoning Ability and Concepts of Scale: Surface Area to Volume Relationships in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Amy; Jones, Gail

    2009-01-01

    The "National Science Education Standards" emphasise teaching unifying concepts and processes such as basic functions of living organisms, the living environment, and scale. Scale influences science processes and phenomena across the domains. One of the big ideas of scale is that of surface area to volume. This study explored whether or not there…

  14. Should blood flow during cardiopulmonary bypass be individualized more than to body surface area?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Sisse Anette; Larsson, A; Andreasen, Jan Jesper

    Blood flow during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is calculated on body surface area (BSA). Increasing comorbidity, age and weight of today's cardiac patients question this calculation as it may not reflect individual metabolic requirement. The hypothesis was that a measured cardiac index (CI) prior...

  15. Escaping the correction for body surface area when calculating glomerular filtration rate in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepsz, Amy; Tondeur, Marianne [CHU St. Pierre, Department of Radioisotopes, Brussels (Belgium); Ham, Hamphrey [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-09-15

    {sup 51}Cr ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid ({sup 51}Cr EDTA) clearance is nowadays considered as an accurate and reproducible method for measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children. Normal values in function of age, corrected for body surface area, have been recently updated. However, much criticism has been expressed about the validity of body surface area correction. The aim of the present paper was to present the normal GFR values, not corrected for body surface area, with the associated percentile curves. For that purpose, the same patients as in the previous paper were selected, namely those with no recent urinary tract infection, having a normal left to right {sup 99m}Tc MAG3 uptake ratio and a normal kidney morphology on the early parenchymal images. A single blood sample method was used for {sup 51}Cr EDTA clearance measurement. Clearance values, not corrected for body surface area, increased progressively up to the adolescence. The percentile curves were determined and allow, for a single patient, to estimate accurately the level of non-corrected clearance and the evolution with time, whatever the age. (orig.)

  16. Surface area of lactose and lactose granulates on consolidation and compaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riepma, Klaas Alouis

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation discusses the effect of short time storage at different conditions on the strength and the specific BET surface area of lactose tablets. In addition, some aspects are studied of the consolidation and compaction properties of crystalline lactose fractions in heterogeneous systems.

  17. Turbostratic boron nitride coated on high-surface area metal oxide templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Søren Kegnæs; Egeblad, Kresten; Brorson, M.

    2007-01-01

    Boron nitride coatings on high-surface area MgAl2O4 and Al2O3 have been synthesized and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and by X-ray powder diffraction. The metal oxide templates were coated with boron nitride using a simple nitridation in a flow of ammonia starting from ammonium...

  18. Oscillations of centroid position and surface area of soccer teams in small-sided games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, Wouter; Lemmink, Koen; Delleman, Nico; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for a collective variable that captures the dynamics of team sports like soccer at match level. The centroid positions and surface areas of two soccer teams potentially describe the coordinated flow of attacking and defending in small-sided soccer games at team level. The aim of the

  19. RBSURFpred: Modeling protein accessible surface area in real and binary space using regularized and optimized regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafder, Sumit; Toukir Ahmed, Md; Iqbal, Sumaiya; Tamjidul Hoque, Md; Sohel Rahman, M

    2018-03-14

    Accessible surface area (ASA) of a protein residue is an effective feature for protein structure prediction, binding region identification, fold recognition problems etc. Improving the prediction of ASA by the application of effective feature variables is a challenging but explorable task to consider, specially in the field of machine learning. Among the existing predictors of ASA, REGAd 3 p is a highly accurate ASA predictor which is based on regularized exact regression with polynomial kernel of degree 3. In this work, we present a new predictor RBSURFpred, which extends REGAd 3 p on several dimensions by incorporating 58 physicochemical, evolutionary and structural properties into 9-tuple peptides via Chou's general PseAAC, which allowed us to obtain higher accuracies in predicting both real-valued and binary ASA. We have compared RBSURFpred for both real and binary space predictions with state-of-the-art predictors, such as REGAd 3 p and SPIDER2. We also have carried out a rigorous analysis of the performance of RBSURFpred in terms of different amino acids and their properties, and also with biologically relevant case-studies. The performance of RBSURFpred establishes itself as a useful tool for the community. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Surface water and groundwater interaction in selected areas of Indus basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, W.; Ahmad, M.; Tariq, J.A.; Latif, Z.; Malik, M.R.

    2011-08-01

    Isotope hydrological investigations were carried out in Marala-Khanki Area of Punjab for elucidating various aspects of surface water and groundwater interaction. Groundwater samples were collected on seasonal basis (low and high river discharge periods) while surface water (Chenab River) samples were collected more frequently (weekly or monthly basis). Isotopic data suggested that there is no significant contribution of surface water to groundwater recharge in Marala-Khanki Area and rain is the prevailing source of groundwater recharge. The data further revealed that isotopic values of Tarbala lake are higher than those of main lake. Indus river meaning that there is significant contribution of base flow in this pocket. Isotopic data of Indus river showed an increase at Tunsa as compared to Chashma in flow period indicating the high contribution of base flow at this point in time. Stable isotopes were successfully used to quantify the base flow contribution. (author)

  1. Effect of high surface area activated carbon on thermal degradation of jet fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gergova, K.; Eser, S.; Arumugam, R.; Schobert, H.H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Different solid carbons added to jet fuel during thermal stressing cause substantial changes in pyrolytic degradation reactions. Activated carbons, especially high surface area activated carbons were found to be very effective in suppressing solid deposition on metal reactor walls during stressing at high temperatures (425 and 450{degrees}C). The high surface area activated carbon PX-21 prevented solid deposition on reactor walls even after 5h at 450{degrees}C. The differences seen in the liquid product composition when activated carbon is added indicated that the carbon surfaces affect the degradation reactions. Thermal stressing experiments were carried out on commercial petroleum-derived JPTS jet fuel. We also used n-octane and n-dodecane as model compounds in order to simplify the study of the chemical changes which take place upon activated carbon addition. In separate experiments, the presence of a hydrogen donor, decalin, together with PX-21 was also studied.

  2. A Three-Dimensional Enormous Surface Area Aluminum Microneedle Array with Nanoporous Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Chun Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We proposed fabricating an aluminum microneedle array with a nanochannel structure on the surface by combining micromachining, electrolyte polishing, and anodization methods. The microneedle array provides a three-dimensional (3D structure that possesses several hundred times more surface area than a traditional nanochannel template. Therefore, the microneedle array can potentially be used in many technology applications. This 3D microneedle array device can not only be used for painless injection or extraction, but also for storage, highly sensitive detection, drug delivery, and microelectrodes. From the calculation we made, the microneedle array not only increases surface area, but also enlarges the capacity of the device. Therefore, the microneedle array can further be used on many detecting, storing, or drug delivering applications.

  3. A Three-Dimensional Enormous Surface Area Aluminum Microneedle Array with Nanoporous Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.Ch.; Zou, J.; Hsieh, Sh.J.; Chen, Ch.Ch.

    2013-01-01

    We proposed fabricating an aluminum micro needle array with a nano channel structure on the surface by combining micromachining, electrolyte polishing, and anodization methods. The micro needle array provides a three-dimensional (3D) structure that possesses several hundred times more surface area than a traditional nano channel template. Therefore, the micro needle array can potentially be used in many technology applications. This 3D micro needle array device can not only be used for painless injection or extraction, but also for storage, highly sensitive detection, drug delivery, and microelectrodes. From the calculation we made, the micro needle array not only increases surface area, but also enlarges the capacity of the device. Therefore, the micro needle array can further be used on many detecting, storing, or drug delivering applications.

  4. ROUGHNESS ANALYSIS OF VARIOUSLY POLISHED NIOBIUM SURFACES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeill, G.; Reece, C.

    2008-01-01

    Niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities have gained widespread use in accelerator systems. It has been shown that surface roughness is a determining factor in the cavities’ effi ciency and maximum accelerating potential achievable through this technology. Irregularities in the surface can lead to spot heating, undesirable local electrical fi eld enhancement and electron multipacting. Surface quality is typically ensured through the use of acid etching in a Buffered Chemical Polish (BCP) bath and electropolishing (EP). In this study, the effects of these techniques on surface morphology have been investigated in depth. The surface of niobium samples polished using different combinations of these techniques has been characterized through atomic force microscopy (AFM) and stylus profi lometry across a range of length scales. The surface morphology was analyzed using spectral techniques to determine roughness and characteristic dimensions. Experimentation has shown that this method is a valuable tool that provides quantitative information about surface roughness at different length scales. It has demonstrated that light BCP pretreatment and lower electrolyte temperature favors a smoother electropolish. These results will allow for the design of a superior polishing process for niobium SRF cavities and therefore increased accelerator operating effi ciency and power.

  5. MEASURING SURFACE DEFORMATION IN GLACIER RETREATED AREAS BASED ON PS-INSAR – GELADANDONG GLACIER AS A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mohamadi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers are retreating in many parts of the world as a result of global warming. Many researchers consider Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau as a reference for climate change by measuring glaciers retreat on the plateau. This retreat resulted in some topographic changes in retreated areas, and in some cases can lead to geohazards as landslides, and rock avalanches, which is known in glacier retreated areas as paraglacial slope failure (PSF. In this study, Geladandong biggest and main glacier mass was selected to estimate surface deformation on its glacier retreated areas and define potential future PSF based on PS-InSAR technique. 56 ascending and 49 descending images were used to fulfill this aim. Geladandong glacier retreated areas were defined based on the maximum extent of the glacier in the little ice age. Results revealed a general uplift in the glacier retreated areas with velocity less than 5mm/year. Obvious surface motion was revealed in seven parts surround glacier retreated areas with high relative velocity reached ±60mm/year in some parts. Four parts were considered as PSF potential motion, and two of them showed potential damage for the main road in the study area in case of rock avalanche into recent glacier lakes that could result in glacier lake outburst flooding heading directly to the road. Finally, further analysis and field investigations are needed to define the main reasons for different types of deformation and estimate future risks of these types of surface motion in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  6. Investigation on large-area fabrication of vivid shark skin with superior surface functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huawei; Zhang, Xin; Ma, Lingxi; Che, Da; Zhang, Deyuan; Sudarshan, T. S.

    2014-10-01

    Shark skin has attracted worldwide attention because of its superior drag reduction, antifouling performance induced from its unique surface morphology. Although the vivid shark skin has been fabricated by a bio-replicated micro-imprinting approach in previous studies and superior drag reduction effect has been validated in water tunnel, continuous large-area fabrication is still an obstacle to wide apply. In this paper, one novel bio-replication coating technology is proposed for large-area transfer of shark skin based on rapid UV curable paint. Apart from design of coating system, bio-replication accuracy of surface morphology was validated about 97% by comparison between shark skin template and coating surface morphology. Finally, the drag reduction and anti-fouling function of coating surface were tested in water tunnel and open algae pond respectively. Drag reduction rate of coating surface was validated about 12% higher and anti-fouling was proved to about hundred times ameliorate, all of which are more excellent than simple 2D riblet surface.

  7. Groundwater recharge in suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam: effect of decreasing surface-water bodies and land-use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Keisuke; Hayashi, Takeshi; Do, An Thuan; Canh, Vu Duc; Nga, Tran Thi Viet; Funabiki, Ayako; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2017-05-01

    Over-exploited groundwater is expected to remain the predominant source of domestic water in suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam. In order to evaluate the effect on groundwater recharge, of decreasing surface-water bodies and land-use change caused by urbanization, the relevant groundwater systems and recharge pathways must be characterized in detail. To this end, water levels and water quality were monitored for 3 years regarding groundwater and adjacent surface-water bodies, at two typical suburban sites in Hanoi. Stable isotope (δ18O, δD of water) analysis and hydrochemical analysis showed that the water from both aquifers and aquitards, including the groundwater obtained from both the monitoring wells and the neighboring household tubewells, was largely derived from evaporation-affected surface-water bodies (e.g., ponds, irrigated farmlands) rather than from rivers. The water-level monitoring results suggested distinct local-scale flow systems for both a Holocene unconfined aquifer (HUA) and Pleistocene confined aquifer (PCA). That is, in the case of the HUA, lateral recharge through the aquifer from neighboring ponds and/or irrigated farmlands appeared to be dominant, rather than recharge by vertical rainwater infiltration. In the case of the PCA, recharge by the above-lying HUA, through areas where the aquitard separating the two aquifers was relatively thin or nonexistent, was suggested. As the decrease in the local surface-water bodies will likely reduce the groundwater recharge, maintaining and enhancing this recharge (through preservation of the surface-water bodies) is considered as essential for the sustainable use of groundwater in the area.

  8. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 300: Surface Release Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 300 is located in Areas 23, 25, and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, which is located approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 300 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Surface Release Areas and is comprised of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), which are associated with the identified Building (Bldg): (sm b ullet) CAS 23-21-03, Bldg 750 Surface Discharge (sm b ullet) CAS 23-25-02, Bldg 750 Outfall (sm b ullet) CAS 23-25-03, Bldg 751 Outfall (sm b ullet) CAS 25-60-01, Bldg 3113A Outfall (sm b ullet) CAS 25-60-02, Bldg 3901 Outfall (sm b ullet) CAS 25-62-01, Bldg 3124 Contaminated Soil (sm b ullet) CAS 26-60-01, Bldg 2105 Outfall and Decon Pad The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 23-21-03, 23-25-02, and 23-25-03 is no further action. As a best management practice, approximately 48 feet of metal piping was removed from CAS 23-25-02 and disposed of as sanitary waste. The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 25-60-01, 25-60-02, 25-62-01, and 26-60-01, is clean closure. Closure activities for these CASs included removing and disposing of soil impacted with total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel range organics (TPH-DRO), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and cesium (Cs)-137, concrete impacted with TPH-DRO, and associated piping impacted with TPH-DRO. CAU 300 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 300 Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 300 Corrective Action Decision Document (NNSA/NSO, 2005). This Closure Report documents CAU 300 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 40 cubic yards (yd3) of low-level waste consisting of TPH

  9. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 300: Surface Release Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 300 is located in Areas 23, 25, and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, which is located approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 300 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Surface Release Areas and is comprised of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), which are associated with the identified Building (Bldg): {sm_bullet} CAS 23-21-03, Bldg 750 Surface Discharge {sm_bullet} CAS 23-25-02, Bldg 750 Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 23-25-03, Bldg 751 Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 25-60-01, Bldg 3113A Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 25-60-02, Bldg 3901 Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 25-62-01, Bldg 3124 Contaminated Soil {sm_bullet} CAS 26-60-01, Bldg 2105 Outfall and Decon Pad The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 23-21-03, 23-25-02, and 23-25-03 is no further action. As a best management practice, approximately 48 feet of metal piping was removed from CAS 23-25-02 and disposed of as sanitary waste. The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 25-60-01, 25-60-02, 25-62-01, and 26-60-01, is clean closure. Closure activities for these CASs included removing and disposing of soil impacted with total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel range organics (TPH-DRO), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and cesium (Cs)-137, concrete impacted with TPH-DRO, and associated piping impacted with TPH-DRO. CAU 300 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 300 Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 300 Corrective Action Decision Document (NNSA/NSO, 2005). This Closure Report documents CAU 300 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 40 cubic yards (yd3) of low-level waste consisting of TPH-DRO-, PCB

  10. Effect of uncertainty in Digital Surface Models on the boundary of inundated areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantis, I.; Papageorgaki, I.; Sioras, P.; Ioannidis, Ch.

    2012-04-01

    The planning, design and operation of flood damage reduction works or non-structural measures require the construction of maps that indicate zones to be potentially inundated during floods. Referring to floods due to heavy rainfall, the common procedure for flood mapping consists of the following five computational steps: (1) Frequency analysis of extreme rainfall; (2) construction of design hyetographs for various return periods; (3) construction of the related direct runoff hydrographs; (4) routing of these hydrographs through the hydrographic network; (5) mapping of the inundated area that corresponds to the temporally maximum depth for each location in the flood plain. Steps 3 through 5 require the use of spatial information which can be easily obtained from a Digital Surface Model (DSM). The DSM contains grid-based elevations of the ground or overlying objects that influence the propagation of flood waves. In this work, the SCS-CN method is used in step 3 in combination with a synthetic Unit Hydrograph based on the SCS dimensionless Unit Hydrograph. In step 4, the full one-dimensional Saint Venant equations for non-uniform unsteady flow on fixed bed are used, which are numerically solved. The impact of uncertainty in the DSM on the inundated area boundary is investigated. For this the Monte Carlo simulation method is employed to produce a large number of erroneous DSMs through introducing errors in elevation with a standard deviation equal to σ. These DSMs are then used for delineating potentially flooded areas. The standard deviation of the distance (from the riverbed axis) of the boundary of these areas, herein denoted as σF, is used as the measure of the resulting uncertainty. The link between σ and σF is examined for a spectrum of large return periods (100 to 10000). A computer experiment was set up based on data from two drainage basins. The first basin is located in East Attica and is drained by a branch of the Erasinos Torrent named the South

  11. Comparison of deposited surface area of airborne ultrafine particles generated from two welding processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, J F; Albuquerque, P C; Miranda, Rosa M; Santos, Telmo G; Vieira, M T

    2012-09-01

    This article describes work performed on the assessment of the levels of airborne ultrafine particles emitted in two welding processes metal-active gas (MAG) of carbon steel and friction-stir welding (FSW) of aluminium in terms of deposited area in alveolar tract of the lung using a nanoparticle surface area monitor analyser. The obtained results showed the dependence from process parameters on emitted ultrafine particles and clearly demonstrated the presence of ultrafine particles, when compared with background levels. The obtained results showed that the process that results on the lower levels of alveolar-deposited surface area is FSW, unlike MAG. Nevertheless, all the tested processes resulted in important doses of ultrafine particles that are to be deposited in the human lung of exposed workers.

  12. Surface water quality assessment using factor analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-01-16

    Jan 16, 2006 ... Surface water, groundwater quality assessment and environ- .... Urbanisation influences the water cycle through changes in flow and water ..... tion of aquatic life, CCME water quality Index 1, 0. User`s ... Water, Air Soil Pollut.

  13. Trace drug analysis by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Lee, Vincent Y.

    2000-12-01

    Drug overdose involves more than 10 percent of emergency room (ER) cases, and a method to rapidly identify and quantify the abused drug is critical to the ability of the ER physician to administer the appropriate care. To this end, we have been developing a surface-enhanced Raman (SER) active material capable of detecting target drugs at physiological concentrations in urine. The SER-active material consists of a metal-doped sol-gel that provides not only a million fold increase in sensitivity but also reproducible measurements. The porous silica network offers a unique environment for stabilizing SER active metal particles and the high surface area increase the interaction between the analyte and metal particles. The sol-gel has been coated on the inside walls of glass samples vials, such that urine specimens may simply be introduced for analysis. Here we present the surface-enhanced Raman spectra of a series of barbiturates, actual urine specimens, and a drug 'spiked' urine specimen. The utility of pH adjustment to suppress dominant biochemicals associated with urine is also presented.

  14. Location of unaccessible implant surface areas during debridement in simulated peri-implantitis therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger-Ronay, Valerie; Merlini, Andrea; Wiedemeier, Daniel B; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Attin, Thomas; Sahrmann, Philipp

    2017-11-28

    An in vitro model for peri-implantitis treatment was used to identify areas that are clinically difficult to clean by analyzing the pattern of residual stain after debridement with commonly employed instruments. Original data from two previous publications, which simulated surgical (SA) and non-surgical (NSA) implant debridement on two different implant systems respectively, were reanalyzed regarding the localization pattern of residual stains after instrumentation. Two blinded examiners evaluated standardized photographs of 360 initially ink-stained dental implants, which were cleaned at variable defect angulations (30, 60, or 90°), using different instrument types (Gracey curette, ultrasonic scaler or air powder abrasive device) and treatment approaches (SA or NSA). Predefined implant surface areas were graded for residual stain using scores ranging from one (stain-covered) to six (clean). Score differences between respective implant areas were tested for significance by pairwise comparisons using Wilcoxon-rank-sum-tests with a significance level α = 5%. Best scores were found at the machined surface areas (SA: 5.58 ± 0.43, NSA: 4.76 ± 1.09), followed by the tips of the threads (SA: 4.29 ± 0.44, NSA: 4.43 ± 0.61), and areas between threads (SA: 3.79 ± 0.89, NSA: 2.42 ± 1.11). Apically facing threads were most difficult to clean (SA: 1.70 ± 0.92, NSA: 2.42 ± 1.11). Here, air powder abrasives provided the best results. Machined surfaces at the implant shoulder were well accessible and showed least amounts of residual stain. Apically facing thread surfaces constituted the area with most residual stain regardless of treatment approach.

  15. Description of climate, surface hydrology, and near-surface hydrogeology. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Per-Olof; Werner, Kent; Bosson, Emma; Berglund, Sten; Juston, John

    2005-06-01

    The present report is a background report describing the meteorological conditions and the modelling of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology in support of the Forsmark version 1.2 SDM based on the data available in the Forsmark 1.2 ''data freeze'' (July 31, 2004). The area covered in the conceptual and descriptive modelling is characterised by a low relief and a small-scale topography. Almost the whole area is located below 20 m a s l (metres above sea level). The corrected mean annual precipitation is 600-650 mm and the mean annual evapotranspiration can be estimated to a little more than 400 mm, leaving approximately 200 mm x year-1 for runoff. Till is the dominating Quaternary deposit covering approximately 75% of the area. In most of the area, the till is sandy. Bedrock outcrops are frequent but cover only approximately 5% of the area. Direct groundwater recharge from precipitation is the dominant source of groundwater recharge. The small-scale topography implies that many local, shallow groundwater flow systems are formed in the Quaternary deposits, overlaying more large-scale flow systems associated with groundwater flows at greater depths. Groundwater level time series from wells in till and bedrock within the same areas show a considerably higher groundwater level in the till than in the bedrock. The sediment stratigraphy of lakes and wetlands is crucial for their function as discharge areas for groundwater. Comparisons between measured lake water levels and groundwater levels below and around lakes indicate that the lakes in some cases may act as sources of groundwater recharge. Specifically, observations from Lake Bolundsfjaerden and Lake Eckarfjaerden show that such conditions were at hand during the dry summer of 2003. However, whether the observed water level relations correspond to significant water fluxes depends also on the hydrogeological properties of the lake sediments and the underlying Quaternary deposits. ''Old'' water with high

  16. Preliminary study of Songa-Wayaua geothermal prospect area using volcanostratigraphy and remote sensing analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokawaty, Ribka; Nugroho, Indra; Satriana, Joshua; Hafidz, Muhamad; Suryantini

    2017-12-01

    Songa-Wayaua geothermal prospect area is located on Bacan Island, Northern Molluca Province. Geothermal systems in this area associated with three Quartenary volcanoes, such as Mt. Pele-pele, Mt. Lansa, and Mt. Bibinoi. Based on literature study, five surface manifestations such as hot springs and alteration occurred within this area. The active manifestations indicate that Songa-Wayaua area has potential geothermal resource. This study objective is to evaluate Songa-Wayaua geothermal system on preliminary study stage by using volcanostratigraphy and remote sensing analysis to delineate the boundary of geothermal system area. The result of this study showed that Songa-Wayaua prospect area has four heat sources potential (e.g. Pele-pele Hummock, Lansa Hummock, Songa Hummock, and Bibinoi Hummock), controlled by geological structure presented by Pele-pele Normal Fault, and had three places as the recharge and discharge area which are very fulfilling as a geothermal system.

  17. Surface structure analysis by means of Rutherford scattering: methods to study surface relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkenburg, W.C.; Soszka, W.; Saris, F.W.; Kersten, H.H.; Colenbrander, B.G.

    1976-01-01

    The use of Rutherford backscattering for structural analysis of single crystal surfaces is reviewed, and a new method is introduced. With this method, which makes use of the channeling and blocking phenomenon of light ions of medium energy, surface atoms can be located with a precision of 0.02 A. This is demonstrated in a measurement of surface relaxation for the Cu(110) surface. (Auth.)

  18. Aquatic Natural Areas Analysis and Evaluation: Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranski, Dr. Michael J. [Catawba College

    2011-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of the natural area value of eight Aquatic Natural Areas (ANAs) and seven Aquatic Reference Areas (ARAs) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Anderson and Roane Counties in east Tennessee. It follows a previous study in 2009 that analyzed and evaluated terrestrial natural areas on the Reservation. The purpose of both studies was to evaluate and rank those specially designated areas on the Reservation that contain sensitive species, special habitats, and natural area value. Natural areas receive special protections through established statutes, regulations, and policies. The ORR contains 33,542 acres (13,574 ha) administered by the Department of Energy. The surface waters of the Reservation range from 1st-order to 5th-order streams, but the majority of the streams recognized as ANAs and ARAs are 1st- and 2nd-order streams. East Fork Poplar Creek is a 4th-order stream and the largest watershed that drains Reservation lands. All the waters of the Reservation eventually reach the Clinch River on the southern and western boundaries of the ORR. All available information was collected, synthesized, and evaluated. Field observations were made to support and supplement the available information. Geographic information system mapping techniques were used to develop several quantitative attributes about the study areas. Narrative descriptions of each ANA and ARA and tables of numerical data were prepared. Criteria for assessment and evaluation were developed, and eight categories of factors were devised to produce a ranking system. The evaluation factors used in the ranking system were: (A) size of area, (B) percentage of watershed protected, (C) taxa present with protected status, (D) overall biotic diversity, (E) stream features, (F) water quality and use support ratings, (G) disturbance regime, and (H) other factors. Each factor was evaluated on a 5-point ranking scale (0-4), and each area received a composite score, where 32 was the

  19. Multi-channel Analysis of Passive Surface Waves (MAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J.; Cheng, F. Mr; Xu, Z.; Wang, L.; Shen, C.; Liu, R.; Pan, Y.; Mi, B.; Hu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Urbanization is an inevitable trend in modernization of human society. In the end of 2013 the Chinese Central Government launched a national urbanization plan—"Three 100 Million People", which aggressively and steadily pushes forward urbanization. Based on the plan, by 2020, approximately 100 million people from rural areas will permanently settle in towns, dwelling conditions of about 100 million people in towns and villages will be improved, and about 100 million people in the central and western China will permanently settle in towns. China's urbanization process will run at the highest speed in the urbanization history of China. Environmentally friendly, non-destructive and non-invasive geophysical assessment method has played an important role in the urbanization process in China. Because human noise and electromagnetic field due to industrial life, geophysical methods already used in urban environments (gravity, magnetics, electricity, seismic) face great challenges. But humanity activity provides an effective source of passive seismic methods. Claerbout pointed out that wavefileds that are received at one point with excitation at the other point can be reconstructed by calculating the cross-correlation of noise records at two surface points. Based on this idea (cross-correlation of two noise records) and the virtual source method, we proposed Multi-channel Analysis of Passive Surface Waves (MAPS). MAPS mainly uses traffic noise recorded with a linear receiver array. Because Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves can produces a shear (S) wave velocity model with high resolution in shallow part of the model, MPAS combines acquisition and processing of active source and passive source data in a same flow, which does not require to distinguish them. MAPS is also of ability of real-time quality control of noise recording that is important for near-surface applications in urban environment. The numerical and real-world examples demonstrated that MAPS can be

  20. Surface area and volume determination of subgingival calculus using laser fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaie, Fardad; Walsh, Laurence J

    2014-03-01

    Visible red (655 nm) laser fluorescence (LF) devices are currently used for identifying deposits of subgingival calculus on the root surfaces of teeth during dental examination and treatment; however, it is not known how the fluorescence readings produced by commercially available LF systems correlate to the nature of the deposits. This laboratory study explored the correlation between LF digital readings and the surface area and volume of subgingival calculus deposits on teeth. A collection of 30 extracted human posterior teeth with various levels of subgingival deposits of calculus across 240 sites were used in a clinical simulation, with silicone impression material used to replicate periodontal soft tissues. The teeth were scored by two examiners by using three commercial LF systems (DIAGNOdent, DIAGNOdent Pen and KEY3). The silicone was removed, and the teeth were removed for photography at × 20 magnification under white or ultraviolet light. The surface area, thickness, and volume were calculated, and both linear least squares regression and nonlinear (Spearman's rank method) correlation coefficients were determined. Visible red LF digital readings showed better correlation to calculus volume than to surface area. Overall, the best performance was found for the KEY3 system (Spearman coefficient 0.59), compared to the Classic DIAGNOdent (0.56) and the DIAGNOdent Pen (0.49). These results indicate that while visible red LF systems vary somewhat in performance, their LF readings provide a useful estimation of the volume of subgingival calculus deposits present on teeth.

  1. Annex D-200 Area Interim Storage Area Final Safety Analysis Report [FSAR] [Section 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARRELL, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    The 200 Area Interim Storage Area (200 Area ISA) at the Hanford Site provides for the interim storage of non-defense reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) housed in aboveground dry cask storage systems. The 200 Area ISA is a relatively simple facility consisting of a boundary fence with gates, perimeter lighting, and concrete and gravel pads on which to place the dry storage casks. The fence supports safeguards and security and establishes a radiation protection buffer zone. The 200 Area ISA is nominally 200,000 ft 2 and is located west of the Canister Storage Building (CSB). Interim storage at the 200 Area ISA is intended for a period of up to 40 years until the materials are shipped off-site to a disposal facility. This Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) does not address removal from storage or shipment from the 200 Area ISA. Three different SNF types contained in three different dry cask storage systems are to be stored at the 200 Area ISA, as follows: (1) Fast Flux Test Facility Fuel--Fifty-three interim storage casks (ISC), each holding a core component container (CCC), will be used to store the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) SNF currently in the 400 Area. (2) Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA'--One Rad-Vault' container will store two DOT-6M3 containers and six NRF TRIGA casks currently stored in the 400 Area. (3) Commercial Light Water Reactor Fuel--Six International Standards Organization (ISO) containers, each holding a NAC-I cask4 with an inner commercial light water reactor (LWR) canister, will be used for commercial LWR SNF from the 300 Area. An aboveground dry cask storage location is necessary for the spent fuel because the current storage facilities are being shut down and deactivated. The spent fuel is being transferred to interim storage because there is no permanent repository storage currently available

  2. Annex D-200 Area Interim Storage Area Final Safety Analysis Report [FSAR] [Section 1 & 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARRELL, R D

    2002-07-16

    The 200 Area Interim Storage Area (200 Area ISA) at the Hanford Site provides for the interim storage of non-defense reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) housed in aboveground dry cask storage systems. The 200 Area ISA is a relatively simple facility consisting of a boundary fence with gates, perimeter lighting, and concrete and gravel pads on which to place the dry storage casks. The fence supports safeguards and security and establishes a radiation protection buffer zone. The 200 Area ISA is nominally 200,000 ft{sup 2} and is located west of the Canister Storage Building (CSB). Interim storage at the 200 Area ISA is intended for a period of up to 40 years until the materials are shipped off-site to a disposal facility. This Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) does not address removal from storage or shipment from the 200 Area ISA. Three different SNF types contained in three different dry cask storage systems are to be stored at the 200 Area ISA, as follows: (1) Fast Flux Test Facility Fuel--Fifty-three interim storage casks (ISC), each holding a core component container (CCC), will be used to store the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) SNF currently in the 400 Area. (2) Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA'--One Rad-Vault' container will store two DOT-6M3 containers and six NRF TRIGA casks currently stored in the 400 Area. (3) Commercial Light Water Reactor Fuel--Six International Standards Organization (ISO) containers, each holding a NAC-I cask4 with an inner commercial light water reactor (LWR) canister, will be used for commercial LWR SNF from the 300 Area. An aboveground dry cask storage location is necessary for the spent fuel because the current storage facilities are being shut down and deactivated. The spent fuel is being transferred to interim storage because there is no permanent repository storage currently available.

  3. 2nd international conference on ion beam surface layer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The papers of this conference are concerned with the fundamental aspects and with the application of surface layer analysis. It is reported amongst others about backscattering analysis, Auger electron spectroscopy, channelling and microprobe. (HPOE) [de

  4. Verification of surface source's characteristics using large-area 2π gas flow counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Naser Waheed, M.M.; Mikami, S.; Kobayashi, H.; Noda, K.

    1998-09-01

    Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) has large-area 2π gas flow counter for the purpose of measuring activity of surface sources of alpha or beta ray emitter. Surface sources are used for the calibration of radiation measuring equipment for radiation control. Due to sequent use of sources, the surface of these sources are inclined to go in bad condition because of unwanted accidental incidents. For the better calibration achievement of radiation measuring instruments the rate of emission of these sources are to be checked periodically by the large-area 2π gas flow counter. In this paper described that eight U 3 O 8 surface sources were selected from many sources of PNC Tokai Works and activity of these sources was measured by the 2π gas flow counter. The results were compared with the values certified by Japan Radio Isotope Association (JRIA). It is evident from the result of comparison that the surface sources are in good condition, i.e., the sources are reliable to calibrate the radiation control instruments. (author)

  5. Cortical Thickness, Surface Area and Subcortical Volume Differentially Contribute to Cognitive Heterogeneity in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, Niels J H M; van Loenhoud, Anita C; van den Berg, Stan F; Berendse, Henk W; Foncke, Elisabeth M J; Klein, Martin; Stoffers, Diederick; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; van den Heuvel, Odile A

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is often associated with cognitive deficits, although their severity varies considerably between patients. Recently, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to show that individual differences in gray matter (GM) volume relate to cognitive heterogeneity in PD. VBM does, however, not differentiate between cortical thickness (CTh) and surface area (SA), which might be independently affected in PD. We therefore re-analyzed our cohort using the surface-based method FreeSurfer, and investigated (i) CTh, SA, and (sub)cortical GM volume differences between 93 PD patients and 45 matched controls, and (ii) the relation between these structural measures and cognitive performance on six neuropsychological tasks within the PD group. We found cortical thinning in PD patients in the left pericalcarine gyrus, extending to cuneus, precuneus and lingual areas and left inferior parietal cortex, bilateral rostral middle frontal cortex, and right cuneus, and increased cortical surface area in the left pars triangularis. Within the PD group, we found negative correlations between (i) CTh of occipital areas and performance on a verbal memory task, (ii) SA and volume of the frontal cortex and visuospatial memory performance, and, (iii) volume of the right thalamus and scores on two verbal fluency tasks. Our primary findings illustrate that i) CTh and SA are differentially affected in PD, and ii) VBM and FreeSurfer yield non-overlapping results in an identical dataset. We argue that this discrepancy is due to technical differences and the subtlety of the PD-related structural changes.

  6. Nanotechnological Advances in Catalytic Thin Films for Green Large-Area Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Biran Ay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-area catalytic thin films offer great potential for green technology applications in order to save energy, combat pollution, and reduce global warming. These films, either embedded with nanoparticles, shaped with nanostructuring techniques, hybridized with other systems, or functionalized with bionanotechnological methods, can include many different surface properties including photocatalytic, antifouling, abrasion resistant and mechanically resistive, self-cleaning, antibacterial, hydrophobic, and oleophobic features. Thus, surface functionalization with such advanced structuring methods is of significance to increase the performance and wide usage of large-area thin film coatings specifically for environmental remediation. In this review, we focus on methods to increase the efficiency of catalytic reactions in thin film and hence improve the performance in relevant applications while eliminating high cost with the purpose of widespread usage. However, we also include the most recent hybrid architectures, which have potential to make a transformational change in surface applications as soon as high quality and large area production techniques are available. Hence, we present and discuss research studies regarding both organic and inorganic methods that are used to structure thin films that have potential for large-area and eco-friendly coatings.

  7. The reliability of three psoriasis assessment tools: Psoriasis area and severity index, body surface area and physician global assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bożek, Agnieszka; Reich, Adam

    2017-08-01

    A wide variety of psoriasis assessment tools have been proposed to evaluate the severity of psoriasis in clinical trials and daily practice. The most frequently used clinical instrument is the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI); however, none of the currently published severity scores used for psoriasis meets all the validation criteria required for an ideal score. The aim of this study was to compare and assess the reliability of 3 commonly used assessment instruments for psoriasis severity: the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI), body surface area (BSA) and physician global assessment (PGA). On the scoring day, 10 trained dermatologists evaluated 9 adult patients with plaque-type psoriasis using the PASI, BSA and PGA. All the subjects were assessed twice by each physician. Correlations between the assessments were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to analyze intra-rater reliability, and the coefficient of variation (CV) was used to assess inter-rater variability. Significant correlations were observed among the 3 scales in both assessments. In all 3 scales the ICCs were > 0.75, indicating high intra-rater reliability. The highest ICC was for the BSA (0.96) and the lowest one for the PGA (0.87). The CV for the PGA and PASI were 29.3 and 36.9, respectively, indicating moderate inter-rater variability. The CV for the BSA was 57.1, indicating high inter-rater variability. Comparing the PASI, PGA and BSA, it was shown that the PGA had the highest inter-rater reliability, whereas the BSA had the highest intra-rater reliability. The PASI showed intermediate values in terms of interand intra-rater reliability. None of the 3 assessment instruments showed a significant advantage over the other. A reliable assessment of psoriasis severity requires the use of several independent evaluations simultaneously.

  8. Surface Analysis of the Laser Cleaned Metal Threads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhan, M.; Hartog, F.; McPhail, D.

    The laser cleaning of the tarnished silver threads was carried out using Nd:YAG laser radiation at IR (1064 nm) and visible wavelengths (532 nm). The preliminary tests were made on the piece of silk with the silver embroidery with the clean and tarnished areas. FIBS and SIMS analysis were used for analysing the condition of the surface before and after laser irradiation. It was found that irradiation below 0.4 J/cm-2 and higher than 1.0 J/cm-2 fluences aggravates the process of tarnishing and leads to the yellowing effect. The results of preliminary tests were used for finding the optimum cleaning regime for the laser cleaning of the real museum artefact: "Women Riding Jacket" dated to the beginning of 18th century.

  9. The triazine-based porous organic polymer: Novel synthetic strategy for high specific surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Kuen

    2017-01-01

    A new type of microporous polymer has been successively synthesized via a simple polycondensation reaction with the 2,4-diaminotriazine moiety and dianhydride monomer. Diaminotriazine moieties in M1 especially can provide effective branching sites, resulting in high surface areas up to 1150 m"2 /g. In addition, the specific pore structure of the polyimide POP in its solid state can be modified by the surface activation method. Therefore, it can be expected that the resulting material will be a promising candidate for gas storage, and with this synthetic strategy, various type of derivatives will also be optimized

  10. The triazine-based porous organic polymer: Novel synthetic strategy for high specific surface area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Kuen [Dept. of Chemistry, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    A new type of microporous polymer has been successively synthesized via a simple polycondensation reaction with the 2,4-diaminotriazine moiety and dianhydride monomer. Diaminotriazine moieties in M1 especially can provide effective branching sites, resulting in high surface areas up to 1150 m{sup 2} /g. In addition, the specific pore structure of the polyimide POP in its solid state can be modified by the surface activation method. Therefore, it can be expected that the resulting material will be a promising candidate for gas storage, and with this synthetic strategy, various type of derivatives will also be optimized.

  11. Optimization of operating variables for production of ultra-fine talc in a stirred mill. Specific surface area investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toraman Oner Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its properties such as chemical inertness, softness, whiteness, high thermal conductivity, low electrical conductivity and adsorption properties talc has wide industrial applications in paper, cosmetics, paints, polymer, ceramics, refractory materials and pharmaceutical. The demand for ultra-fine talc is emerging which drives the mineral industry to produce value added products. In this study, it was investigated how certain grinding parameters such as mill speed, ball filling ratio, powder filling ratio and grinding time of dry stirred mill affect grindability of talc ore (d97=127 μm. A series of laboratory experiments using a 24 full factorial design was conducted to determine the optimal operational parameters of a stirred mill in order to minimize the specific surface area. The main and interaction effects on the volume specific surface area (SV, m2.cm−3 of the ground product were evaluated using the Yates analysis. Under the optimal conditions at the stirrer speed of 600 rpm, grinding time of 20 min, sample mass of 5% and ball ratio of 70%, the resulting talc powder had larger volume specific surface area (i.e., 3.48 m2.cm−3 than the starting material (i.e., 1.84 m2.cm−3.

  12. Comparison of surface area changes during sulfation of sodium bicarbonate in a simulated flue gas with and without NO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weil, A.E.; Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1994-12-31

    Sodium bicarbonate has been identified as one of the most efficient reagents for flue gas desulfurization. Sodium bicarbonate has been demonstrated both in bench scale and large scale applications by a number of researchers globally. Scattered reporting of plume discolouration during demonstrations of sodium bicarbonate injection have been attributed to the formation of the reddish-brown gas NO{sub 2}. The purpose of this study was to compare the surface area changes of sodium bicarbonate during flue gas desulfurization as it relates to the formation of NO{sub 2} The results of this study have indicated an anomolous behaviour with respect to previously published data for non reactive gas environments. Notably it was shown that flue gas with NO lowered the surface area, most likely due to the formation of a low melting eutectic of sodium nitrate and sulphate. Nitrogen uptake was found to coincide with water evolution from decomposition. The results of this study more clearly define, on the microstructural level, the sulphur uptake mode. A unique laboratory differential fixed bed reactor was designed for this study. The setup included a quick quench zone to quench the reactions for data acquisition. BET surface area, IR elemental analysis, XRD crystallographic identification and SEM imaging were used to characterize microstructural mechanisms and to confirm reaction paths. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Uncertainty analysis of an interfacial area reconstruction algorithm and its application to two group interfacial area transport equation validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, A.J.; Manera, A.; Beyer, M.; Lucas, D.; Prasser, H.-M.

    2016-01-01

    Wire mesh sensors (WMS) are state of the art devices that allow high resolution (in space and time) measurement of 2D void fraction distribution over a wide range of two-phase flow regimes, from bubbly to annular. Data using WMS have been recorded at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) (Lucas et al., 2010; Beyer et al., 2008; Prasser et al., 2003) for a wide combination of superficial gas and liquid velocities, providing an excellent database for advances in two-phase flow modeling. In two-phase flow, the interfacial area plays an integral role in coupling the mass, momentum and energy transport equations of the liquid and gas phase. While current models used in best-estimate thermal-hydraulic codes (e.g. RELAP5, TRACE, TRACG, etc.) are still based on algebraic correlations for the estimation of the interfacial area in different flow regimes, interfacial area transport equations (IATE) have been proposed to predict the dynamic propagation in space and time of interfacial area (Ishii and Hibiki, 2010). IATE models are still under development and the HZDR WMS experimental data provide an excellent basis for the validation and further advance of these models. The current paper is focused on the uncertainty analysis of algorithms used to reconstruct interfacial area densities from the void-fraction voxel data measured using WMS and their application towards validation efforts of two-group IATE models. In previous research efforts, a surface triangularization algorithm has been developed in order to estimate the surface area of individual bubbles recorded with the WMS, and estimate the interfacial area in the given flow condition. In the present paper, synthetically generated bubbles are used to assess the algorithm’s accuracy. As the interfacial area of the synthetic bubbles are defined by user inputs, the error introduced by the algorithm can be quantitatively obtained. The accuracy of interfacial area measurements is characterized for different bubbles

  14. Uncertainty analysis of an interfacial area reconstruction algorithm and its application to two group interfacial area transport equation validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave, A.J., E-mail: akshayjd@umich.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Rad. Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Manera, A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Rad. Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Beyer, M.; Lucas, D. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Prasser, H.-M. [Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-12-15

    Wire mesh sensors (WMS) are state of the art devices that allow high resolution (in space and time) measurement of 2D void fraction distribution over a wide range of two-phase flow regimes, from bubbly to annular. Data using WMS have been recorded at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) (Lucas et al., 2010; Beyer et al., 2008; Prasser et al., 2003) for a wide combination of superficial gas and liquid velocities, providing an excellent database for advances in two-phase flow modeling. In two-phase flow, the interfacial area plays an integral role in coupling the mass, momentum and energy transport equations of the liquid and gas phase. While current models used in best-estimate thermal-hydraulic codes (e.g. RELAP5, TRACE, TRACG, etc.) are still based on algebraic correlations for the estimation of the interfacial area in different flow regimes, interfacial area transport equations (IATE) have been proposed to predict the dynamic propagation in space and time of interfacial area (Ishii and Hibiki, 2010). IATE models are still under development and the HZDR WMS experimental data provide an excellent basis for the validation and further advance of these models. The current paper is focused on the uncertainty analysis of algorithms used to reconstruct interfacial area densities from the void-fraction voxel data measured using WMS and their application towards validation efforts of two-group IATE models. In previous research efforts, a surface triangularization algorithm has been developed in order to estimate the surface area of individual bubbles recorded with the WMS, and estimate the interfacial area in the given flow condition. In the present paper, synthetically generated bubbles are used to assess the algorithm’s accuracy. As the interfacial area of the synthetic bubbles are defined by user inputs, the error introduced by the algorithm can be quantitatively obtained. The accuracy of interfacial area measurements is characterized for different bubbles

  15. Inverse analysis of inner surface temperature history from outer surface temperature measurement of a pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, S; Ioka, S; Onchi, S; Matsumoto, Y

    2010-01-01

    When slug flow runs through a pipe, nonuniform and time-varying thermal stresses develop and there is a possibility that thermal fatigue occurs. Therefore it is necessary to know the temperature distributions and the stress distributions in the pipe for the integrity assessment of the pipe. It is, however, difficult to measure the inner surface temperature directly. Therefore establishment of the estimation method of the temperature history on inner surface of pipe is needed. As a basic study on the estimation method of the temperature history on the inner surface of a pipe with slug flow, this paper presents an estimation method of the temperature on the inner surface of a plate from the temperature on the outer surface. The relationship between the temperature history on the outer surface and the inner surface is obtained analytically. Using the results of the mathematical analysis, the inverse analysis method of the inner surface temperature history estimation from the outer surface temperature history is proposed. It is found that the inner surface temperature history can be estimated from the outer surface temperature history by applying the inverse analysis method, even when it is expressed by the multiple frequency components.

  16. A program to compute the area of an irregular polygon on a spheroidal surface

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivakholundu, K.M.; Prabaharan, N.

    (MATLAB). Short Note824 lar shapes. The analytical integrations were carried out with the software package MATLAB on a SUN workstation. The comparisons were made to check: 1. The eC128ect of varying strip width for integration. 2. Variation of accuracy... this program can be used to calculate the area on the spheroidal surface for irregular shapes without losing accuracy. REFERENCES Bomford, G. (1977) Geodesy. Oxford University Press, 731 pp. Larkin, B. J. (1988) A FORTRAN 77 program to calcu- late areas...

  17. Surface and ground waters evaluation at Brazilian Multiproposed Reactor installation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellato, Thamiris B.; Silva, Tatiane B.S.C.da; Soares, Sabrina M.V.; Faustino, Mainara G.; Marques, Joyce R.; Oliveira, Cintia C. de; Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Pires, Maria A.F.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates six surface and ground waters physicochemical characteristics on the area of the future Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB), at Iperó/SP. One of the main goals is to establish reference values for future operation monitoring programs, as well as for environmental permits and regulation. Considering analyzed parameters, all collection points presented values within CONAMA Resolution 396/08 and 357/05 regulation limits, showing similar characteristics among collection points.Only two points groundwater (RMB-005 and RMB-006) presented higher alkalinity, total dissolved solids and conductivity. The studied area was considered in good environmental conservation condition, as far as water quality is concerned. (author)

  18. An Intelligent Method for Structural Reliability Analysis Based on Response Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂劲松; 刘红; 康海贵

    2004-01-01

    As water depth increases, the structural safety and reliability of a system become more and more important and challenging. Therefore, the structural reliability method must be applied in ocean engineering design such as offshore platform design. If the performance function is known in structural reliability analysis, the first-order second-moment method is often used. If the performance function could not be definitely expressed, the response surface method is always used because it has a very clear train of thought and simple programming. However, the traditional response surface method fits the response surface of quadratic polynomials where the problem of accuracy could not be solved, because the true limit state surface can be fitted well only in the area near the checking point. In this paper, an intelligent computing method based on the whole response surface is proposed, which can be used for the situation where the performance function could not be definitely expressed in structural reliability analysis. In this method, a response surface of the fuzzy neural network for the whole area should be constructed first, and then the structural reliability can be calculated by the genetic algorithm. In the proposed method, all the sample points for the training network come from the whole area, so the true limit state surface in the whole area can be fitted. Through calculational examples and comparative analysis, it can be known that the proposed method is much better than the traditional response surface method of quadratic polynomials, because, the amount of calculation of finite element analysis is largely reduced, the accuracy of calculation is improved,and the true limit state surface can be fitted very well in the whole area. So, the method proposed in this paper is suitable for engineering application.

  19. Measuring the specific surface area of natural and manmade glasses: effects of formation process, morphology, and particle size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papelis, Charalambos; Um, Wooyong; Russel, Charles E.; Chapman, Jenny B.

    2003-01-01

    The specific surface area of natural and manmade solid materials is a key parameter controlling important interfacial processes in natural environments and engineered systems, including dissolution reactions and sorption processes at solid-fluid interfaces. To improve our ability to quantify the release of trace elements trapped in natural glasses, the release of hazardous compounds trapped in manmade glasses, or the release of radionuclides from nuclear melt glass, we measured the specific surface area of natural and manmade glasses as a function of particle size, morphology, and composition. Volcanic ash, volcanic tuff, tektites, obsidian glass, and in situ vitrified rock were analyzed. Specific surface area estimates were obtained using krypton as gas adsorbent and the BET model. The range of surface areas measured exceeded three orders of magnitude. A tektite sample had the highest surface area (1.65 m2/g), while one of the samples of in situ vitrified rock had the lowest surf ace area (0.0016 m2/g). The specific surface area of the samples was a function of particle size, decreasing with increasing particle size. Different types of materials, however, showed variable dependence on particle size, and could be assigned to one of three distinct groups: (1) samples with low surface area dependence on particle size and surface areas approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the surface area of smooth spheres of equivalent size. The specific surface area of these materials was attributed mostly to internal porosity and surface roughness. (2) samples that showed a trend of decreasing surface area dependence on particle size as the particle size increased. The minimum specific surface area of these materials was between 0.1 and 0.01 m2/g and was also attributed to internal porosity and surface roughness. (3) samples whose surface area showed a monotonic decrease with increasing particle size, never reaching an ultimate surface area limit within the particle

  20. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public.

  1. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public

  2. Specific surface area of overlapping spheres in the presence of obstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, D R

    2013-02-21

    This study considers the random placement of uniform sized spheres, which may overlap, in the presence of another set of randomly placed (hard) spheres, which do not overlap. The overlapping spheres do not intersect the hard spheres. It is shown that the specific surface area of the collection of overlapping spheres is affected by the hard spheres, such that there is a minimum in the specific surface area as a function of the relative size of the two sets of spheres. The occurrence of the minimum is explained in terms of the break-up of pore connectivity. The configuration can be considered to be a simple model of the structure of a porous composite material. In particular, the overlapping particles represent voids while the hard particles represent fillers. Example materials are pervious concrete, metallurgical coke, ice cream, and polymer composites. We also show how the material properties of such composites are affected by the void structure.

  3. A method of surface area measurement of fuel materials by fission gas release at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaimal, K.N.G.; Naik, M.C.; Paul, A.R.; Venkateswarlu, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    The present report deals with the development of a method for surface area measurement of nuclear fuel as well as fissile doped materials by fission gas release study at low temperature. The method is based on the evaluation of knock-out release rate of fission 133 Xe from irradiated fuel after sufficient cooling to decay the short lived activity. The report also describes the fabrication of an ampoule breaker unit for such study. Knock-out release rate of 133 Xe has been studied from UO 2 powders having varying surface area 'S' ranging from 270 cm 2 /gm to 4100 cm 2 /gm at two fissioning rates 10 12 f/cm 3 . sec. and 3.2x10 10 f/cm.sec. A relation between K and A has been established and discussed in this report. (author). 6 refs

  4. Phenomenological study of aerosol dry deposition in urban area: surface properties, turbulence and local meteorology influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roupsard, P.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol dry deposition is not much known for urban areas due to the lack of data. Knowledge on this phenomenon is necessary to understand pollutant fluxes in cities and to estimate inhabitant exposition to ionizing radiation of radioactive aerosols. A data providing could enable to enhance dry deposition models for these areas. An original experimental approach is performed to study submicron aerosol dry deposition on urban surfaces. Wind tunnel coupled to in situ experiments give results to study different physical phenomenon governing dry deposition. Dry deposition velocities are measured using aerosol tracers. These data are associated to turbulent and meteorological measured conditions. This database permits to classify the principal physical phenomenon for each experiment type. Finally, different phenomenon must be considered for chronic and acute exposition of urban surfaces to atmospheric particles. (author)

  5. n-Alkylamine-assisted preparation of a high surface area vanadyl phosphate/tetraethylorthosilicate nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, João Paulo L., E-mail: billbrujah@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, Ribeirão Preto, SP 14040-901 (Brazil); Zampronio, Elaine C.; Oliveira, Herenilton P. [Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, Ribeirão Preto, SP 14040-901 (Brazil)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: CuK{sub α} X-ray diffraction patterns of the VP, VPOc, VPOcT, VPOcT200 and VPOcT500. Highlights: ► TEOS and octylamine incorporation into the VP was achieved by expanding the lamellar. ► The specific surface area increased from 15 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} in VP to 237 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} in VPOcT. ► The VPOcT exhibited thermal resistance up to 200 °C in air. ► Upon thermal treatment up to 500 °C, the surface area increased to 838 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. -- Abstract: We have developed a vanadyl phosphate/tetraethylorthosilicate (VPO/TEOS) nanocomposite comprised of silicate chains interleaved with VPO layers, prepared by using an n-alkylamines such as octylamine as the structure directing agent. The nanocomposites were synthesized by reacting amine-intercalated vanadyl phosphate with tetraethylorthosilicate via the soft chemistry approach. The synthetic procedure encompassed the exfoliation of the layered vanadyl phosphate as well as the reorganization of this exfoliated solid into a mesostructured lamellar phase with the same V–P–O connectivity as in the original matrix. TEOS incorporation into the vanadyl phosphate was achieved by expanding the lamellar structure with n-alkylamine (Δd = 13 Å with n-octylamine). The specific surface area increased from 15 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} in the vanadyl phosphate matrix to 237 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} in VPOcT, and the isotherm curves revealed the characteristic hysteresis of mesoporous materials. Upon thermal treatment up to 500 °C, the surface area increased to 837 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, which is suitable for catalytic purposes.

  6. Target Surface Area Effects on Hot Electron Dynamics from High Intensity Laser-Plasma Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-19

    Science, University ofMichigan, AnnArbor,MI 48109-2099, USA E-mail: czulick@umich.edu Keywords: laser- plasma ,mass-limited, fast electrons , sheath...New J. Phys. 18 (2016) 063020 doi:10.1088/1367-2630/18/6/063020 PAPER Target surface area effects on hot electron dynamics from high intensity laser... plasma interactions CZulick, ARaymond,AMcKelvey, VChvykov, AMaksimchuk, AGRThomas, LWillingale, VYanovsky andKKrushelnick Center forUltrafast Optical

  7. Synthesis of high-surface-area spinel-type MgAl2O4 nanoparticles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 40; Issue 1. Synthesis of high-surface-area spinel-type MgAl 2 O 4 nanoparticles by [Al(sal) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ] 2 [Mg(dipic) 2 ] and [Mg(H 2 O) 6 ][Al(ox) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ] 2 ·5H 2 O: influence of inorganic precursor type. Volume 40 Issue 1 February 2017 pp 45-53 ...

  8. Surface area of lactose and lactose granulates on consolidation and compaction

    OpenAIRE

    Riepma, Klaas Alouis

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation discusses the effect of short time storage at different conditions on the strength and the specific BET surface area of lactose tablets. In addition, some aspects are studied of the consolidation and compaction properties of crystalline lactose fractions in heterogeneous systems. The crystalline lactose types used are: a-lactose monohydrate, anhydrous a-lactose, crystalline B-lactose and roller dried B-lactose. ... Zie: Summary

  9. Surface area-dependence of gas-particle interactions influences pulmonary and neuroinflammatory outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Christina R.; Zychowski, Katherine E.; Sanchez, Bethany N.; Rivero, Valeria; Lucas, Selita; Herbert, Guy; Liu, June; Irshad, Hammad; McDonald, Jacob D.; Bleske, Barry E.; Campen, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Deleterious consequences of exposure to traffic emissions may derive from interactions between carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) and gaseous components in a manner that is dependent on the surface area or complexity of the particles. To determine the validity of this hypothesis, we examined pulmonary and neurological inflammatory outcomes in C57BL/6 and apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE?/?) male mice after acute and chronic exposure to vehicle engine-derived particulate matter, ge...

  10. Objective image analysis of the meibomian gland area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Reiko; Suehiro, Jun; Haraguchi, Tsuyoshi; Shirakawa, Rika; Tokoro, Hideaki; Amano, Shiro

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate objectively the meibomian gland area using newly developed software for non-invasive meibography. Eighty eyelids of 42 patients without meibomian gland loss (meiboscore=0), 105 eyelids of 57 patients with loss of less than one-third total meibomian gland area (meiboscore=1), 13 eyelids of 11 patients with between one-third and two-thirds loss of meibomian gland area (meiboscore=2) and 20 eyelids of 14 patients with two-thirds loss of meibomian gland area (meiboscore=3) were studied. Lid borders were automatically determined. The software evaluated the distribution of the luminance and, by enhancing the contrast and reducing image noise, the meibomian gland area was automatically discriminated. The software calculated the ratio of the total meibomian gland area relative to the total analysis area in all subjects. Repeatability of the software was also evaluated. The mean ratio of the meibomian gland area to the total analysis area in the upper/lower eyelids was 51.9±5.7%/54.7±5.4% in subjects with a meiboscore of 0, 47.7±6.0%/51.5±5.4% in those with a meiboscore of 1, 32.0±4.4%/37.2±3.5% in those with a meiboscore of 2 and 16.7±6.4%/19.5±5.8% in subjects with a meiboscore of 3. The meibomian gland area was objectively evaluated using the developed software. This system could be useful for objectively evaluating the effect of treatment on meibomian gland dysfunction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Lake Storage Measurements For Water Resources Management: Combining Remotely Sensed Water Levels and Surface Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Presently operating satellite-based radar altimeters have the ability to monitor variations in surface water height for large lakes and reservoirs, and future sensors will expand observational capabilities to many smaller water bodies. Such remote sensing provides objective, independent information where in situ data are lacking or access is restricted. A USDA/NASA (http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir/) program is performing operational altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs around the world using data from the NASA/CNES, NRL, and ESA missions. Public lake-level products from the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor (GRLM) are a combination of archived and near real time information. The USDA/FAS utilizes the products for assessing international irrigation potential and for crop production estimates; other end-users study climate trends, observe anthropogenic effects, and/or are are involved in other water resources management and regional water security issues. At the same time, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (http://floodobservatory.colorado.edu/), its NASA GSFC partners (http://oas.gsfc.nasa.gov/floodmap/home.html), and associated MODIS data and automated processing algorithms are providing public access to a growing GIS record of the Earth's changing surface water extent, including changes related to floods and droughts. The Observatory's web site also provide both archival and near real time information, and is based mainly on the highest spatial resolution (250 m) MODIS bands. Therefore, it is now possible to provide on an international basis reservoir and lake storage change measurements entirely from remote sensing, on a frequently updating basis. The volume change values are based on standard numerical procedures used for many decades for analysis of coeval lake area and height data. We provide first results of this combination, including prototype displays for public access and data retrieval of water storage

  12. Description of climate, surface hydrology, and near-surface hydrogeology. Preliminary site description. Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Per-Olof [Artesia Grundvattenkonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Werner, Kent [SWECO VIAK AB/Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Bosson, Emma; Berglund, Sten [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Juston, John [DBE Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-06-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is conducting site investigations at two different locations, the Forsmark and Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The results from the investigations at the sites are used as a basic input to the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDM). The SDM shall summarise the current state of knowledge of the site, and provide parameters and models to be used in further analyses within Safety Assessment, Repository Design and Environmental Impact Assessment. The present report is a background report describing the meteorological conditions and the modelling of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology in support of the Forsmark version 1.2 SDM based on the data available in the Forsmark 1.2 'data freeze' (July 31, 2004). The groundwater is very shallow, with groundwater levels within one meter below ground as an annual mean for almost all groundwater monitoring wells. Also, the annual groundwater level amplitude is less than 1.5 m for most wells. The shallow groundwater levels mean that there is a strong interaction between evapotranspiration, soil moisture and groundwater. In the modelling, surface water and near-surface groundwater divides are assumed to coincide. The small-scale topography implies that many local, shallow groundwater flow systems are formed in the Quaternary deposits, overlaying more large-scale flow systems associated with groundwater flows at greater depths. Groundwater level time series from wells in till and bedrock within the same areas show a considerably higher groundwater level in the till than in the bedrock. The observed differences in levels are not fully consistent with the good hydraulic contact between overburden and bedrock indicated by the hydraulic tests in the Quaternary deposits. However, the relatively lower groundwater levels in the bedrock may be caused by the horizontal to sub-horizontal highly

  13. Regional myocardial flow and capillary permeability-surface area products are nearly proportional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, J H; Martin, G V; Raymond, G M; Bassingthwaighte, J B

    1994-08-01

    Analyses of data on the transcapillary exchange and cellular uptake in the normal heart have generally been based on the assumption that local membrane conductances and volumes of distribution are everywhere the same. The question is whether such an assumption is justified in view of the marked (sixfold) heterogeneity of local blood flows per gram tissue. The method was to estimate both flow and capillary membrane permeability-surface area products (PS) locally in the heart. For each of five dogs running on a sloped treadmill, the deposition of tracer microspheres and of [131I]iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA), after left atrial injection, was determined in 256 pieces of left ventricular myocardium by killing the animals at approximately 100 s after radiotracer injection. A hydraulic occluder stopped the flow to a portion of the myocardium supplied by the left circumflex coronary artery 30 s before tracer injection. Regional flows ranged from 0.1 to 7.0 ml.g-1.min-1. IPPA extractions ranged from 20 to 49%. Using the known flows, we assumed the applicability of an axially distributed blood-tissue exchange model to estimate the PS for the capillary (PSc) and the parenchymal cell. It was impossible to explain the data if the PSc values for membrane transport were uniform throughout the organ. Rather, the only reasonable descriptors of the data required that local PSc values increase with local flow, almost in proportion. Current methods of analysis using data based on deposition methods need to be revised to take into account the near proportionality of PS to flow for at least some substrates.

  14. Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmur, N.F.

    1986-12-01

    It is known that various crystalline and liquid compounds form on the downstream surfaces of beryllium windows exposed to air. It is also known that the integrity of such windows may be compromised resulting in leaks through the window. The purpose of this report is to document the occurrences described as they pertain to the NSLS and to analyze, where possible, the various substances formed

  15. [Distribution, surface and protected area of palm-swamps in Costa Rica and Nicaragua].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Sandí, Juan; Bonilla-Murillo, Fabian; Sasa, Mahmood

    2013-09-01

    In Central America, palm swamps are known collectively as yolillales. These wetlands are usually dominated by the raffia palm Raphia taedigera, but also by the royal palm Manicaria saccifera and -in lower extensions- by the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera. The yolillales tend to be poor in woody species and are characteristic of regions with high rainfall and extensive hydroperiods, so they remain flooded most of the year. The dominance of large raffia palm leaves in the canopy, allow these environments to be distinguishable in aerial photographs, which consequently has helped to map them along most of their distribution. However, while maps depicting yolillales are available, the extent of their surface area, perimeter and connectivity remains poorly understood. This is particularly true for yolillales in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, countries that share a good proportion of palm dominated swaps in the Rio San Juan Basin. In addition, it is not known the actual area of these environments that is under any category of protection according to the conservation systems of both countries. As a first step to catalog yolillal wetlands in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, this paper evaluates cartographic maps to delineate yolillales in the region. A subsample of yolillales mapped in this study were visited and we geo-referenced them and evaluate the extent and condition of the swamp. A total of 110 883.2ha are classified as yolillales in Nicaragua, equivalent to 22% of wetland surface area recorded for that country (excluding the Cocibolca and Xolothn Lakes). In Costa Rica, 53 931.3ha are covered by these palm dominated swamps, which represent 16.24% of the total surface area covered by wetlands. About 47% of the area covered by yolillales in Nicaragua is under some category of protection, the largest extensions protected by Cerro Silva, Laguna Tale Sulumas and Indio Maiz Nature Reserves. In Costa Rica, 55.5% of the area covered by yolillal is located within protected areas

  16. Polyaniline nanofibers with a high specific surface area and an improved pore structure for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hailing; Li, Xingwei; Wang, Gengchao

    2015-10-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) with a high specific surface area and an improved pore structure (HSSA-PANI) has been prepared by using a facile method, treating PANI nanofibers with chloroform (CHCl3), and its structure, morphology and pore structure are investigated. The specific surface area and pore volume of HSSA-PANI are 817.3 m2 g-1 and 0.6 cm3 g-1, and those of PANI are 33.6 m2 g-1 and 0.2 cm3 g-1. As electrode materials, a large specific surface area and pore volume can provide high electroactive regions, accelerate the diffusion of ions, and mitigate the electrochemical degradation of active materials. Compared with PANI, the capacity retention rate of HSSA-PANI is 90% with a growth of current density from 5.0 to 30 A g-1, and that of PANI is 29%. At a current density of 30 A g-1, the specific capacitance of HSSA-PANI still reaches 278.3 F g-1, and that of PANI is 86.7 F g-1. At a current density of 5.0 A g-1, the capacitance retention of HSSA-PANI is 53.1% after 2000 cycles, and that of PANI electrode is only 28.1%.

  17. Effects of acid treatment on the clay palygorskite: XRD, surface area, morphological and chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Katiane Cruz Magalhaes; Santos, Maria do Socorro Ferreira dos; Santos, Maria Rita Morais Chaves; Oliveira, Marilia Evelyn Rodrigues; Osajima, Josy Antevelli; Silva Filho, Edson Cavalcanti da [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil); Carvalho, Maria Wilma Nunes Cordeiro, E-mail: edsonfilho@ufpi.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The palygorskite is an aluminum-magnesium silicate that has a fibrous morphology. Their physicochemical characteristics are the result of high surface area, porosity and thermal resistance which make it an attractive adsorbent. Its adsorption capacity can be increased through chemical reactions and/or heat treatments. The objective of this work is to verify the effects of acid activation on the palygorskite, treated with HCl at 90 °C at concentrations of 2, 4 and 6 mol L{sup -1} in 2 and 4 hours, with clay/acid solution ratio 1 g 10 mL{sup -1} and characterized by techniques: XRF, XRD and surface area. A significant increase in specific surface area was observed in the sample treated with HCl at the concentration 6 mol L{sup -1}. The changes were more pronounced at stricter concentrations of acidity, with decreasing intensity of reflection of the clay indicated in the XRD. These changes were confirmed in the XRF with the leaching of some oxides and with increasing concentration of SiO{sub 2}. (author)

  18. Evaluation of The Surface Ozone Concentrations In Greater Cairo Area With Emphasis On Helwan, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.; Kandil, A.T.; Abd Elmaged, S.M.; Mubarak, I.

    2011-01-01

    Various biogenic and anthropogenic sources emit huge quantities of surface ozone. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the surface ozone levels present at Helwan area in order to improve the knowledge and understanding troposphere processes. Surface Ozone has been measured at 2 sites at Helwan; these sites cover the most populated area in Helwan. Ozone concentration is continuously monitored by UV absorption photometry using the equipment O 3 41 M UV Photometric Ozone Analyzer. The daily maximum values of the ozone concentration in the greater Cairo area have approached but did not exceeded the critical levels during the year 2008. Higher ozone concentrations at Helwan are mainly due to the transport of ozone from regions further to the north of greater Cairo and to a lesser extent of ozone locally generated by photochemical smog process. The summer season has the largest diurnal variation, with the tendency of the daily ozone maxima occur in the late afternoon. The night time concentration of ozone was significantly higher at Helwan because there are no fast acting sinks, destroying ozone since the average night time concentration of ozone is maintained at 40 ppb at the site. No correlation between the diurnal total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and the diurnal cumulative ozone concentration was observed during the Khamasin period

  19. Detailed effects of particle size and surface area on 222Rn emanation of a phosphate rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haquin, Gustavo; Yungrais, Zohar; Ilzycer, Danielle; Zafrir, Hovav; Weisbrod, Noam

    2017-12-01

    The dependency of radon emanation on soil texture was investigated using the closed chamber method. Ground phosphate rock with a large specific surface area was analyzed, and the presence of inner pores, as well as a high degree of roughness and heterogeneity in the phosphate particles, was found. The average radon emanation of the dry phosphate was 0.145 ± 0.016. The emanation coefficient was highest (0.169 ± 0.019) for the smallest particles (210 μm). The reduction rate followed an inverse power law. As expected, a linear dependence between the emanation coefficient and the specific surface area was found, being lower than predicted for the large specific surface area. This was most likely due to an increase in the embedding effect of radon atoms in adjacent grains separated by micropores. Results indicate that knowledge of grain radium distribution is crucial to making accurate emanation predictions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Surface area, crystal morphology and characterization of transition alumina powders from a new gibbsite precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Vieira Coelho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure was used to prepare a microcrystalline powder constituted by thin euhedral hexagonal gibbsite plates, 0.2 to 0.6 µm in diameter and 32 nm thick. The powder, fired between 200 and 1000 °C, produced chi and kappa transition aluminas. Alpha-alumina is formed from 1000 °C and recrystallized up to 1500 °C. At 1000 °C, kappa- and alpha-alumina coexisted, but kappa-alumina could only be characterized by SAED. The details of the internal organization of the transition alumina pseudomorphs were clearly observable in TEM due to the great thinness of the I-gibbsite plates. The specific surface area varied from pristine I-gibbsite (24.9 m².g-1 to chi- and kappa transition aluminas (25.4 m².g-1 at 1000 °C to alpha-alumina (4.0 m².g-1 at 1500 °C. The maximum value of specific surface area is 347 m².g-1 in chi-alumina powder at 300 °C, a difference from Bayer gibbsite, in which the chi-alumina highest surface area is 370 m².g-1 at 400 °C.

  1. Preparation of high surface area and high conductivity polyaniline nanoparticles using chemical oxidation polymerization technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, S.; Yusmaniar; Juliana, A.; Cahyana, U.; Purwanto, A.; Imaduddin, A.; Handoko, E.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, polyaniline nanoparticles were synthesized using a chemical oxidation polymerization technique. The ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS)/aniline ratio, APS dropping time, and polymerization temperature were optimized to increase the surface area and conductivity of the polyaniline.The Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum confirmed the formation of emeraldine salt polyaniline. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated that amorphous and crystalline phases of the polyaniline were formed with crystallinity less than 40%. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs showed that the finest nanoparticles with uniform size distribution were obtained at the polymerization temperature of 0°C. A surface area analyzer (SAA) showed that the highest Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area (SBET ) of 42.14 m2/gwas obtained from an APS/aniline ratio of 0.75 with a dropping time of 0 s at a polymerization temperature of 0°C. A four-point probe measurement conducted at 75–300K indicated relatively high conductivity of the semiconductor characteristic of the polyaniline.

  2. Mineral paragenesis on Mars: The roles of reactive surface area and diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairén, Alberto G; Gil-Lozano, Carolina; Uceda, Esther R; Losa-Adams, Elisabeth; Davila, Alfonso F; Gago-Duport, Luis

    2017-09-01

    Geochemical models of secondary mineral precipitation on Mars generally assume semiopen systems (open to the atmosphere but closed at the water-sediment interface) and equilibrium conditions. However, in natural multicomponent systems, the reactive surface area of primary minerals controls the dissolution rate and affects the precipitation sequences of secondary phases, and simultaneously, the transport of dissolved species may occur through the atmosphere-water and water-sediment interfaces. Here we present a suite of geochemical models designed to analyze the formation of secondary minerals in basaltic sediments on Mars, evaluating the role of (i) reactive surface areas and (ii) the transport of ions through a basalt sediment column. We consider fully open conditions, both to the atmosphere and to the sediment, and a kinetic approach for mineral dissolution and precipitation. Our models consider a geochemical scenario constituted by a basin (i.e., a shallow lake) where supersaturation is generated by evaporation/cooling and the starting point is a solution in equilibrium with basaltic sediments. Our results show that cation removal by diffusion, along with the input of atmospheric volatiles and the influence of the reactive surface area of primary minerals, plays a central role in the evolution of the secondary mineral sequences formed. We conclude that precipitation of evaporites finds more restrictions in basaltic sediments of small grain size than in basaltic sediments of greater grain size.

  3. ERROR BOUNDS FOR SURFACE AREA ESTIMATORS BASED ON CROFTON’S FORMULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kiderlen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Crofton's formula, the surface area S(A of a sufficiently regular compact set A in Rd is proportional to the mean of all total projections pA (u on a linear hyperplane with normal u, uniformly averaged over all unit vectors u. In applications, pA (u is only measured in k directions and the mean is approximated by a finite weighted sum bS(A of the total projections in these directions. The choice of the weights depends on the selected quadrature rule. We define an associated zonotope Z (depending only on the projection directions and the quadrature rule, and show that the relative error bS (A/S (A is bounded from below by the inradius of Z and from above by the circumradius of Z. Applying a strengthened isoperimetric inequality due to Bonnesen, we show that the rectangular quadrature rule does not give the best possible error bounds for d =2. In addition, we derive asymptotic behavior of the error (with increasing k in the planar case. The paper concludes with applications to surface area estimation in design-based digital stereology where we show that the weights due to Bonnesen's inequality are better than the usual weights based on the rectangular rule and almost optimal in the sense that the relative error of the surface area estimator is very close to the minimal error.

  4. Dependence of the specific surface area of the nuclear fuel with the matrix oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, F.; Quinones, J.; Iglesias, E.; Rodriguez, N.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is focused on the study of the changes in the specific surface area measured using BET techniques. The objective is to obtain a relation between this parameter and the change in the matrix stoichiometry (i.e., oxidation increase). None of the actual models used for extrapolating the behaviour of the spent fuel matrix under repository conditions have included this dependence yet. In this work the specific surface area of different uranium oxide were measured using N 2 (g) and Kr(g). The starting material was UO 2+x (s) with a size powder distribution lower than 20 μm. The results included in this paper shown a strong dependence on specific surface area with the matrix stoichiometry, i.e., and increase of more than one order of magnitude (SUO 2 = 6 m 2 *g -1 and SU 3 O 8 = 16.07 m 2 *g -1 ). Furthermore, the particle size distribution measured as a function of the thermal treatment done shows changes on the powder size related to the changes observed in the uranium oxide stoichiometry. (authors)

  5. Surface water areas significantly impacted 2014 dengue outbreaks in Guangzhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Huaiyu; Huang, Shanqian [State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Zhou, Sen [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modelling, Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Bi, Peng [Discipline of Public Health, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Yang, Zhicong, E-mail: yangzc@gzcdc.org.cn [Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou (China); Li, Xiujun [School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Chen, Lifan [State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Cazelles, Bernard [UMMISCO, UMI 209 IRD – UPMC, 93142 Bondy (France); Eco-Evolutionary Mathematic, IBENS UMR 8197, ENS, 75230 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Yang, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Luo, Lei; Jing, Qinlong [Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou (China); Yuan, Wenping [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Pei, Yao; Sun, Zhe [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modelling, Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Yue, Tianxiang [State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environment Information System, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Kwan, Mei-Po [Department of Geography and Geographic Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61820 (United States); and others

    2016-10-15

    Dengue transmission in urban areas is strongly influenced by a range of biological and environmental factors, yet the key drivers still need further exploration. To better understand mechanisms of environment–mosquito–urban dengue transmission, we propose an empirical model parameterized and cross-validated from a unique dataset including viral gene sequences, vector dynamics and human dengue cases in Guangzhou, China, together with a 36-year urban environmental change maps investigated by spatiotemporal satellite image fusion. The dengue epidemics in Guangzhou are highly episodic and were not associated with annual rainfall over time. Our results indicate that urban environmental changes, especially variations in surface area covered by water in urban areas, can substantially alter the virus population and dengue transmission. The recent severe dengue outbreaks in Guangzhou may be due to the surge in an artificial lake construction, which could increase infection force between vector (mainly Aedes albopictus) and host when urban water area significantly increased. Impacts of urban environmental change on dengue dynamics may not have been thoroughly investigated in the past studies and more work needs to be done to better understand the consequences of urbanization processes in our changing world. - Highlights: • Urban dengue outbreak is associated with water area in Guangzhou, 1978–2014. • Surface water area can alter population size of dengue virus in urban area. • Urban dengue outbreak is not associated with annual rainfall in Guangzhou. • Spatiotemporal satellite image fusion can investigate urban environmental change. • Urban environmental change could induce virus, vector, and dengue epidemic change.

  6. Surface water areas significantly impacted 2014 dengue outbreaks in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Huaiyu; Huang, Shanqian; Zhou, Sen; Bi, Peng; Yang, Zhicong; Li, Xiujun; Chen, Lifan; Cazelles, Bernard; Yang, Jing; Luo, Lei; Jing, Qinlong; Yuan, Wenping; Pei, Yao; Sun, Zhe; Yue, Tianxiang; Kwan, Mei-Po

    2016-01-01

    Dengue transmission in urban areas is strongly influenced by a range of biological and environmental factors, yet the key drivers still need further exploration. To better understand mechanisms of environment–mosquito–urban dengue transmission, we propose an empirical model parameterized and cross-validated from a unique dataset including viral gene sequences, vector dynamics and human dengue cases in Guangzhou, China, together with a 36-year urban environmental change maps investigated by spatiotemporal satellite image fusion. The dengue epidemics in Guangzhou are highly episodic and were not associated with annual rainfall over time. Our results indicate that urban environmental changes, especially variations in surface area covered by water in urban areas, can substantially alter the virus population and dengue transmission. The recent severe dengue outbreaks in Guangzhou may be due to the surge in an artificial lake construction, which could increase infection force between vector (mainly Aedes albopictus) and host when urban water area significantly increased. Impacts of urban environmental change on dengue dynamics may not have been thoroughly investigated in the past studies and more work needs to be done to better understand the consequences of urbanization processes in our changing world. - Highlights: • Urban dengue outbreak is associated with water area in Guangzhou, 1978–2014. • Surface water area can alter population size of dengue virus in urban area. • Urban dengue outbreak is not associated with annual rainfall in Guangzhou. • Spatiotemporal satellite image fusion can investigate urban environmental change. • Urban environmental change could induce virus, vector, and dengue epidemic change.

  7. Spreading of 137 C in the Goiania urban area by resuspension and transport of surface soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Monica Pires do; Amaral, Eliana

    2002-01-01

    The resuspension of surface soil was considered the mechanism responsible by the spreading of 137 Cs after the Goiania accident, which affected an urban area of about 1 km 2 . Studies on the transport of 137 Cs associated to the surface soil were performed in a house located at 57 th Street, close to the main focus of contamination, from 05/89 to 07/00. Periodically, samples of surface soil and soil profile were collected at the house yards and street dust sampling at representative locations was performed in order to know the extension of the contamination in the city. The soil profile samples have shown the low mobility of 137 Cs in deep layers of the soil, although a slight long-term decrease of the 137 Cs activity concentration in the surface soil were observed. The 137 Cs activity concentration in the street dust samples also decrease with time, suggesting a natural dilution of the contamination in those samples; higher values were only found in few locations close to the foci of primary deposition and no additional spreading of the radionuclide is expected to occur from that area. Street dust sampling is a suitable method to assess the spreading of caesium in urban environment. (author)

  8. Monitoring of Surface Subsidence of the Mining Area Based on Sbas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y.; Zhou, S.; Zang, D.; Lu, T.

    2018-05-01

    This paper has collected 7 scenes of L band PALSAR sensor radar data of a mine in FengCheng city, jiangxi province, using the Small-baseline Subset (SBAS) method to invert the surface subsidence of the mine. Baselines of interference less than 800m has been chosen to constitute short baseline differential interference atlas, using pixels whose average coherent coefficient was larger than or equal to 0.3 as like high coherent point target, using singular value decomposition (SVD) method to calculate deformation phase sequence based on these high coherent points, and the accumulation of settlements of study area of different period had been obtained, so as to reflect the ground surface settlement evolution of the settlement of the area. The results of the study has showed that: SBAS technology has overcome coherent problem of the traditionality D-InSAR technique, continuous deformation field of surface mining in time dimension of time could been obtained, characteristics of ground surface settlement of mining subsidence in different period has been displayed, so to improve the accuracy and reliability of the monitoring results.

  9. Potential effects of groundwater and surface water contamination in an urban area, Qus City, Upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Fathy; Khalil, Ramadan

    2018-05-01

    The potential effects of anthropogenic activities, in particular, unsafe sewage disposal practices, on shallow groundwater in an unconfined aquifer and on surface water were evaluated within an urban area by the use of hydrogeological, hydrochemical, and bacteriological analyses. Physicochemical and bacteriological data was obtained from forty-five sampling points based on33 groundwater samples from variable depths and 12 surface water samples. The pollution sources are related to raw sewage and wastewater discharges, agricultural runoff, and wastewater from the nearby Paper Factory. Out of the 33 groundwater samples studied, 17 had significant concentrations of NO3-, Cl- and SO42-, and high bacteria counts. Most of the water samples from the wells contained high Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr. The majority of surface water samples presented high NO3- concentrations and high bacteria counts. A scatter plot of HCO3- versus Ca indicates that 58% of the surface water samples fall within the extreme contamination zone, while the others are within the mixing zone; whereas 94% of groundwater samples showed evidence of mixing between groundwater and wastewater. The bacteriological assessment showed that all measured surface and groundwater samples contained Escherichia coli and total coliform bacteria. A risk map delineated four classes of contamination, namely, those sampling points with high (39.3%), moderate (36.3%), low (13.3%), and very low (11.1%) levels of contamination. Most of the highest pollution points were in the middle part of the urban area, which suffers from unmanaged sewage and industrial effluents. Overall, the results demonstrate that surface and groundwater in Qus City are at high risk of contamination by wastewater since the water table is shallow and there is a lack of a formal sanitation network infrastructure. The product risk map is a useful tool for prioritizing zones that require immediate mitigation and monitoring.

  10. Color Shaded-Relief and Surface-Classification Maps of the Fish Creek Area, Harrison Bay Quadrangle, Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Houseknecht, David W.; Amoroso, Lee; Meares, Donald C.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The northeastern part of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) has become an area of active petroleum exploration during the past five years. Recent leasing and exploration drilling in the NPRA requires the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to manage and monitor a variety of surface activities that include seismic surveying, exploration drilling, oil-field development drilling, construction of oil-production facilities, and construction of pipelines and access roads. BLM evaluates a variety of permit applications, environmental impact studies, and other documents that require rapid compilation and analysis of data pertaining to surface and subsurface geology, hydrology, and biology. In addition, BLM must monitor these activities and assess their impacts on the natural environment. Timely and accurate completion of these land-management tasks requires elevation, hydrologic, geologic, petroleum-activity, and cadastral data, all integrated in digital formats at a higher resolution than is currently available in nondigital (paper) formats. To support these land-management tasks, a series of maps was generated from remotely sensed data in an area of high petroleum-industry activity (fig. 1). The maps cover an area from approximately latitude 70?00' N. to 70?30' N. and from longitude 151?00' W. to 153?10' W. The area includes the Alpine oil field in the east, the Husky Inigok exploration well (site of a landing strip) in the west, many of the exploration wells drilled in NPRA since 2000, and the route of a proposed pipeline to carry oil from discovery wells in NPRA to the Alpine oil field. This map area is referred to as the 'Fish Creek area' after a creek that flows through the region. The map series includes (1) a color shaded-relief map based on 5-m-resolution data (sheet 1), (2) a surface-classification map based on 30-m-resolution data (sheet 2), and (3) a 5-m-resolution shaded relief-surface classification map that combines the shaded

  11. Spectral Analysis of Traffic Functions in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Nemtanu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the Fourier transform application in urban traffic analysis and the use of said transform in traffic decomposition. The traffic function is defined as traffic flow generated by different categories of traffic participants. A Fourier analysis was elaborated in terms of identifying the main traffic function components, called traffic sub-functions. This paper presents the results of the method being applied in a real case situation, that is, an intersection in the city of Bucharest where the effect of a bus line was analysed. The analysis was done using different time scales, while three different traffic functions were defined to demonstrate the theoretical effect of the proposed method of analysis. An extension of the method is proposed to be applied in urban areas, especially in the areas covered by predictive traffic control.

  12. Analysis of Offshore Wind Energy Leasing Areas for the Rhode Island/Massachusetts Wind Energy Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W.; Elliott, D.; Fields, J.; Parker, Z.; Scott, G.

    2013-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under an interagency agreement with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), is providing technical assistance to BOEM on the identification and delineation of offshore leasing areas for offshore wind energy development within the Atlantic Coast Wind Energy Areas (WEAs) established by BOEM in 2012. This report focuses on NREL's evaluation of BOEM's Rhode Island/Massachusetts (RIMA) WEA leasing areas. The objective of the NREL evaluation was to assess the proposed delineation of the two leasing areas and determine if the division is reasonable and technically sound. Additionally, the evaluation aimed to identify any deficiencies in the delineation. As part of the review, NREL performed the following tasks: 1. Performed a limited review of relevant literature and RIMA call nominations. 2. Executed a quantitative analysis and comparison of the two proposed leasing areas 3. Conducted interviews with University of Rhode Island (URI) staff involved with the URI Special Area Management Plan (SAMP) 4. Prepared this draft report summarizing the key findings.

  13. Small area analysis using micro-diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehner, Raymond P.; Tissot, Ralph G. Jr.; Michael, Joseph R.

    2000-01-01

    An overall trend toward smaller electronic packages and devices makes it increasingly important and difficult to obtain meaningful diffraction information from small areas. X-ray micro-diffraction, electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and Kossel are micro-diffraction techniques used for crystallographic analysis including texture, phase identification and strain measurements. X-ray micro-diffraction primarily is used for phase analysis and residual strain measurements. X-ray micro-diffraction primarily is used for phase analysis and residual strain measurements of areas between 10 microm to 100 microm. For areas this small glass capillary optics are used for producing a usable collimated x-ray beam. These optics are designed to reflect x-rays below the critical angle therefore allowing for larger solid acceptance angle at the x-ray source resulting in brighter smaller x-ray beams. The determination of residual strain using micro-diffraction techniques is very important to the semiconductor industry. Residual stresses have caused voiding of the interconnect metal which then destroys electrical continuity. Being able to determine the residual stress helps industry to predict failures from the aging effects of interconnects due to this stress voiding. Stress measurements would be impossible using a conventional x-ray diffractometer; however, utilizing a 30 microm glass capillary these small areas are readily assessable for analysis. Kossel produces a wide angle diffraction pattern from fluorescent x-rays generated in the sample by an e-beam in a SEM. This technique can yield very precise lattice parameters for determining strain. Fig. 2 shows a Kossel pattern from a Ni specimen. Phase analysis on small areas is also possible using an energy dispersive spectrometer (EBSD) and x-ray micro-diffraction techniques. EBSD has the advantage of allowing the user to observe the area of interest using the excellent imaging capabilities of the SEM. An EDS detector has been

  14. Log-Normality and Multifractal Analysis of Flame Surface Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Abhishek; Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Law, Chung K.

    2013-11-01

    The turbulent flame surface is typically highly wrinkled and folded at a multitude of scales controlled by various flame properties. It is useful if the information contained in this complex geometry can be projected onto a simpler regular geometry for the use of spectral, wavelet or multifractal analyses. Here we investigate local flame surface statistics of turbulent flame expanding under constant pressure. First the statistics of local length ratio is experimentally obtained from high-speed Mie scattering images. For spherically expanding flame, length ratio on the measurement plane, at predefined equiangular sectors is defined as the ratio of the actual flame length to the length of a circular-arc of radius equal to the average radius of the flame. Assuming isotropic distribution of such flame segments we convolute suitable forms of the length-ratio probability distribution functions (pdfs) to arrive at corresponding area-ratio pdfs. Both the pdfs are found to be near log-normally distributed and shows self-similar behavior with increasing radius. Near log-normality and rather intermittent behavior of the flame-length ratio suggests similarity with dissipation rate quantities which stimulates multifractal analysis. Currently at Indian Institute of Science, India.

  15. Evolution of the Contact Area with Normal Load for Rough Surfaces: from Atomic to Macroscopic Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shiping

    2017-11-13

    The evolution of the contact area with normal load for rough surfaces has great fundamental and practical importance, ranging from earthquake dynamics to machine wear. This work bridges the gap between the atomic scale and the macroscopic scale for normal contact behavior. The real contact area, which is formed by a large ensemble of discrete contacts (clusters), is proven to be much smaller than the apparent surface area. The distribution of the discrete contact clusters and the interaction between them are key to revealing the mechanism of the contacting solids. To this end, Green's function molecular dynamics (GFMD) is used to study both how the contact cluster evolves from the atomic scale to the macroscopic scale and the interaction between clusters. It is found that the interaction between clusters has a strong effect on their formation. The formation and distribution of the contact clusters is far more complicated than that predicted by the asperity model. Ignorance of the interaction between them leads to overestimating the contacting force. In real contact, contacting clusters are smaller and more discrete due to the interaction between the asperities. Understanding the exact nature of the contact area with the normal load is essential to the following research on friction.

  16. Hydrological Modelling and data assimilation of Satellite Snow Cover Area using a Land Surface Model, VIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Naha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The snow cover plays an important role in Himalayan region as it contributes a useful amount to the river discharge. So, besides estimating rainfall runoff, proper assessment of snowmelt runoff for efficient management and water resources planning is also required. A Land Surface Model, VIC (Variable Infiltration Capacity is used at a high resolution grid size of 1 km. Beas river basin up to Thalot in North West Himalayas (NWH have been selected as the study area. At first model setup is done and VIC has been run in its energy balance mode. The fluxes obtained from VIC has been routed to simulate the discharge for the time period of (2003-2006. Data Assimilation is done for the year 2006 and the techniques of Data Assimilation considered in this study are Direct Insertion (D.I and Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF that uses observations of snow covered area (SCA to update hydrologic model states. The meteorological forcings were taken from 0.5 deg. resolution VIC global forcing data from 1979-2006 with daily maximum temperature, minimum temperature from Climate Research unit (CRU, rainfall from daily variability of NCEP and wind speed from NCEP-NCAR analysis as main inputs and Indian Meteorological Department (IMD data of 0.25 °. NBSSLUP soil map and land use land cover map of ISRO-GBP project for year 2014 were used for generating the soil parameters and vegetation parameters respectively. The threshold temperature i.e. the minimum rain temperature is -0.5°C and maximum snow temperature is about +0.5°C at which VIC can generate snow fluxes. Hydrological simulations were done using both NCEP and IMD based meteorological Forcing datasets, but very few snow fluxes were obtained using IMD data met forcing, whereas NCEP based met forcing has given significantly better snow fluxes throughout the simulation years as the temperature resolution as given by IMD data is 0.5°C and rainfall resolution of 0.25°C. The simulated discharge has been validated

  17. Plasma diagnostics surface analysis and interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Auciello, Orlando

    2013-01-01

    Plasmas and their interaction with materials have become subjects of major interest because of their importance in modern forefront technologies such as microelectronics, fusion energy, and space. Plasmas are used in microelectronics to process semiconductors (etching of patterns for microcircuits, plasma-induced deposition of thin films, etc.); plasmas produce deleterious erosion effects on surfaces of materials used for fusion devices and spaceships exposed to the low earth environment.Diagnostics of plasmas and materials exposed to them are fundamental to the understanding of the physical a

  18. Analysis of surface with low energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, A.; Miranda, J.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear techniques applied to element analysis presents different characteristics depending on projectile energy. It can seen observed than an energy (E ≅ 1 MeV) exists which separate two regions for which sensitivity, information analysis and resolution in detection are different. For this work, we describe for the energy region E ≤ 1 MeV, the advantage of the three most used techniques which are PIXE, RBS y RNR. (Author)

  19. Decadal changes of surface elevation over permafrost area estimated using reflected GPS signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Larson, Kristine M.

    2018-02-01

    Conventional benchmark-based survey and Global Positioning System (GPS) have been used to measure surface elevation changes over permafrost areas, usually once or a few times a year. Here we use reflected GPS signals to measure temporal changes of ground surface elevation due to dynamics of the active layer and near-surface permafrost. Applying the GPS interferometric reflectometry technique to the multipath signal-to-noise ratio data collected by a continuously operating GPS receiver mounted deep in permafrost in Barrow, Alaska, we can retrieve the vertical distance between the antenna and reflecting surface. Using this unique kind of observables, we obtain daily changes of surface elevation during July and August from 2004 to 2015. Our results show distinct temporal variations at three timescales: regular thaw settlement within each summer, strong interannual variability that is characterized by a sub-decadal subsidence trend followed by a brief uplift trend, and a secular subsidence trend of 0.26 ± 0.02 cm year-1 during 2004 and 2015. This method provides a new way to fully utilize data from continuously operating GPS sites in cold regions for studying dynamics of the frozen ground consistently and sustainably over a long time.

  20. Quantitative analysis of surface characteristics and morphology in Death Valley, California using AIRSAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierein-Young, K. S.; Kruse, F. A.; Lefkoff, A. B.

    1992-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (JPL-AIRSAR) is used to collect full polarimetric measurements at P-, L-, and C-bands. These data are analyzed using the radar analysis and visualization environment (RAVEN). The AIRSAR data are calibrated using in-scene corner reflectors to allow for quantitative analysis of the radar backscatter. RAVEN is used to extract surface characteristics. Inversion models are used to calculate quantitative surface roughness values and fractal dimensions. These values are used to generate synthetic surface plots that represent the small-scale surface structure of areas in Death Valley. These procedures are applied to a playa, smooth salt-pan, and alluvial fan surfaces in Death Valley. Field measurements of surface roughness are used to verify the accuracy.

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, and consisting of three separate land withdrawal areas (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4), CAU 417 is comprised of 34 corrective action sites (CASs) including 2 underground storage tanks, 5 septic systems, 8 shaker pad/cuttings disposal areas, 1 decontamination facility pit, 1 burn area, 1 scrap/trash dump, 1 outlier area, 8 housekeeping sites, and 16 mud pits. Four field events were conducted between September 1996 and June 1998 to complete a corrective action investigation indicating that the only contaminant of concern was total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) which was found in 18 of the CASs. A total of 1,028 samples were analyzed. During this investigation, a statistical approach was used to determine which depth intervals or layers inside individual mud pits and shaker pad areas were above the State action levels for the TPH. Other related field sampling activities (i.e., expedited site characterization methods, surface geophysical surveys, direct-push geophysical surveys, direct-push soil sampling, and rotosonic drilling located septic leachfields) were conducted in this four-phase investigation; however, no further contaminants of concern (COCs) were identified. During and after the investigation activities, several of the sites which had surface debris but no COCs were cleaned up as housekeeping sites, two septic tanks were closed in place, and two underground storage tanks were removed. The focus of this CADD was to identify CAAs which would promote the prevention or mitigation of human exposure to surface and subsurface soils with contaminant

  2. Chemical characteristics of surface systems in the Forsmark area. Visualisation and statistical evaluation of data from surface water, precipitation, shallow groundwater, and regolith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste management Co (SKB) initiated site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel at two different sites in Sweden, Forsmark and Oskarshamn, in 2002. This report evaluates the results from chemical investigations of the surface system in the Forsmark area during the period November 2002 - March 2005. The evaluation includes data from surface waters (lakes, streams and the sea), precipitation, shallow groundwater and regolith (till, soil, peat, sediments and biota) in the area. Results from surface waters are not presented in this report since these were treated in a recently published report. The main focus of the study is to visualize the vast amount of data collected hitherto in the site investigations, and to give a chemical characterisation of the investigated media at the site. The results will be used to support the site descriptive models, which in turn are used for safety assessment studies and for the environmental impact assessment. The data used consist of water chemical composition in lakes, streams, coastal sites, and in precipitation, predominantly sampled on a monthly basis, and in groundwater from soil tubes and wells, sampled up to four times per year. Moreover, regolith data includes information on the chemical composition of till, soil, sediment and vegetation samples from the area. The characterisations include all measured chemical parameters, i.e. major and minor constituents, trace elements, nutrients, isotopes and radio nuclides, as well as field measured parameters. The evaluation of data from each medium has been divided into the following parts: Characterisation of individual sampling sites, and comparisons within and among sampling sites as well as comparisons with local, regional and national reference data; Analysis of time trends and seasonal variation (for shallow groundwater); Exploration of relationships among the various chemical parameters. For all investigated parameters, the

  3. Chemical characteristics of surface systems in the Simpevarp area. Visualisation and statistical evaluation of data from surface water, precipitation, shallow groundwater, and regolith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste management Co (SKB) initiated site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel at two different sites in Sweden, Forsmark and Oskarshamn, in 2002. This report evaluates the results from chemical investigations of the surface system in the Simpevarp area in Oskarshamn, i.e. both the Laxemar subarea and the Simpevarp subarea, during the period Nov 2002 - Mar 2005. The evaluation includes data from surface waters (lakes, streams and the sea), precipitation, shallow groundwater and regolith (till, soil, peat, sediments and biota) in the area. The main focus of the study is to visualize the vast amount of data collected hitherto in the site investigations, and to give a chemical characterisation of the investigated media at the site. The results will be used to support the site descriptive models, which in turn are used for safety assessment studies and for the environmental impact assessment. The data used consist of water chemical composition in lakes, streams and coastal sites, and in precipitation, predominantly sampled on a monthly basis, and in groundwater from soil tubes and wells. Moreover, regolith data includes information on the chemical composition of till, soil, sediment and vegetation samples from the area. The characterisations include all measured chemical parameters, i.e. major and minor constituents, trace elements, nutrients, isotopes and radio nuclides, as well as field measured parameters. The evaluation of data from each medium has been divided into the following parts: Characterisation of individual sampling sites, and comparisons within and among sampling sites as well as comparisons with local, regional and national reference data. Analysis of time trends and seasonal variation (for surface waters). Exploration of relationships among the various chemical parameters. For all investigated parameters, the report presents selected statistics for each sampling site, as well as for available reference

  4. Chemical characteristics of surface systems in the Simpevarp area. Visualisation and statistical evaluation of data from surface water, precipitation, shallow groundwater, and regolith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troejbom, Mats; Soederbaeck, Bjoern

    2006-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste management Co (SKB) initiated site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel at two different sites in Sweden, Forsmark and Oskarshamn, in 2002. This report evaluates the results from chemical investigations of the surface system in the Simpevarp area in Oskarshamn, i.e. both the Laxemar subarea and the Simpevarp subarea, during the period Nov 2002 - Mar 2005. The evaluation includes data from surface waters (lakes, streams and the sea), precipitation, shallow groundwater and regolith (till, soil, peat, sediments and biota) in the area. The main focus of the study is to visualize the vast amount of data collected hitherto in the site investigations, and to give a chemical characterisation of the investigated media at the site. The results will be used to support the site descriptive models, which in turn are used for safety assessment studies and for the environmental impact assessment. The data used consist of water chemical composition in lakes, streams and coastal sites, and in precipitation, predominantly sampled on a monthly basis, and in groundwater from soil tubes and wells. Moreover, regolith data includes information on the chemical composition of till, soil, sediment and vegetation samples from the area. The characterisations include all measured chemical parameters, i.e. major and minor constituents, trace elements, nutrients, isotopes and radio nuclides, as well as field measured parameters. The evaluation of data from each medium has been divided into the following parts: Characterisation of individual sampling sites, and comparisons within and among sampling sites as well as comparisons with local, regional and national reference data. Analysis of time trends and seasonal variation (for surface waters). Exploration of relationships among the various chemical parameters. For all investigated parameters, the report presents selected statistics for each sampling site, as well as for available reference

  5. Social Area Analysis in Program Evaluation and Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Joseph R.; Kamis-Gould, Edna

    1981-01-01

    Social area analysis (SAA) is defined, and its conceptual roots and principal applications identified. The utility of SAA is assessed by reviewing use of demographic data among several disciplines. Authors review seminal and recent contributions to the field. Ecological fallacies and other problematic facets of SAA are considered. (Author/DWH)

  6. Controller Area Network (CAN) schedulability analysis : refuted, revisited and revised

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, R.I.; Burns, A.; Bril, R.J.; Lukkien, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Controller Area Network (CAN) is used extensively in automotive applications, with in excess of 400 million CAN enabled microcontrollers manufactured each year. In 1994 schedulability analysis was developed for CAN, showing how worst-case response times of CAN messages could be calculated and hence

  7. Investigation on the growth of DAST crystals of large surface area for THz applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijay, R. Jerald; Melikechi, N.; Thomas, Tina; Gunaseelan, R.; Arockiaraj, M. Antony; Sagayaraj, P.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: It is evident from the photographs that the crystal tend to grow as a needle (Fig. 1a) in the lower concentration region (2–3 g/200 mL); whereas, in the high concentration region (5 g/200 mL) though there is a marked enlargement in the size of the crystal, the morphology of the resulting DAST crystal is slightly irregular (Fig. 1d) in nature. Among the four concentrations employed, best result was obtained with the DAST–methanol solution of concentration 4 g/200 mL; which resulted in the DAST crystal of large surface area (270 mm 2 ) with high transparency and nearly square shape (Fig. 1c) in a growth period of 20–25 days. Highlights: ► DAST crystals of different sizes are obtained for different concentrations. ► The main focus is to grow DAST crystals with large surface area. ► Structural, optical, thermal and mechanical properties are investigated. - Abstract: The growth of high quality 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4-N-methyl-stilbazoliumtosylate (DAST) crystal with large surface area is reported by adopting the slope nucleation coupled slow evaporation method (SNM-SE). The structure and composition of the crystal are studied by single crystal X-ray diffraction and CHN analyses. The linear optical properties are investigated by UV–vis absorption. The melting point and thermal behavior of DAST are investigated using differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). The Vickers microhardness number (VHN) and work hardening coefficient of the grown crystal have been determined. The surface features of the DAST crystal are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and it confirmed the presence of narrow line defects (NLDs) in the sample.

  8. Air quality impacts analysis for area G. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewsky, K.; Eklund, B.; Vold, E.L.

    1995-01-01

    The impact of fugitive radioactive emissions from the disposal site, Area G, was evaluated in support of site characterization for the Performance Assessment and for the Radioactive Air Emissions Management (RAEM) program. Fugitive emissions of tritiated water and contaminated windblown dust were considered. Data from an extensive field measurement program were used to estimate annual emissions of tritiated water. Fugitive dust models were used to calculate estimates of the annual emissions of windblown dust. These estimates were combined with data on contamination levels in surface soils to develop annual emission rates for specific radionuclides: tritium, uranium-238, cesium-137, plutonium-238, plutonium-239,240, and strontium-90. The CAP-88 atmospheric transport model was used to predict areas potentially affected by long-term dust deposition and atmospheric concentrations. The annual emission rate of tritiated water was estimated from the field data to be 14.0 Ci/yr. The emission rate of soil-borne radionuclides from open areas and from soils handling operations totaled less than 1x10 -4 Ci/yr. The CAP-88 results were used to develop effective dose equivalents (EDEs) for receptor locations downwind of Area G. All EDEs were several orders of magnitude below the national standard of 10 mrem/yr. Fugitive air emissions from Area G were found not to pose a health threat to persons living or working downwind of the facility

  9. Surface characterization and chemical analysis of bamboo substrates pretreated by alkali hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xueping; Jiang, Yan; Rong, Xianjian; Wei, Wei; Wang, Shuangfei; Nie, Shuangxi

    2016-09-01

    The surface characterization and chemical analysis of bamboo substrates by alkali hydrogen peroxide pretreatment (AHPP) were investigated in this study. The results tended to manifest that AHPP prior to enzymatic and chemical treatment was potential for improving accessibility and reactivity of bamboo substrates. The inorganic components, organic solvent extractives and acid-soluble lignin were effectively removed by AHPP. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that the surface of bamboo chips had less lignin but more carbohydrate after pre-treatment. Fiber surfaces became etched and collapsed, and more pores and debris on the substrate surface were observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Brenauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) results showed that both of pore volume and surface area were increased after AHPP. Although XRD analysis showed that AHPP led to relatively higher crystallinity, pre-extraction could overall enhance the accessibility of enzymes and chemicals into the bamboo structure. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Ontogenetic body-mass scaling of nitrogen excretion relates to body surface area in diverse pelagic invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirst, Andrew G.; Lilley, M.K.S.; Glazier, D.S.

    2017-01-01

    . Among diverse pelagic invertebrates that change shape during ontogeny, recent analysis has demonstrated a significant positive correlation between the body-mass allometry of respiration rates (measured as the ontogenetic body mass-scaling exponent bR) and the allometry of body surface area (b......A, as predicted from body-shape changes using a Euclidean model). As many pelagic invertebrates use a large portion of their external body surface for both resource uptake and waste excretion, we predicted that body-mass scaling exponents for rates of excretion of soluble N (bN) should also then relate...... to the degree of body-shape change during growth. We tested this hypothesis using literature data on bN for 39 species of pelagic invertebrates across five different phyla, and find strong support: bN is significantly positively correlated with predicted bA, whilst also co-varying with bR. Intraspecific...

  11. Interaction between surface water areas and groundwater in Hanoi city, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, T.; Kuroda, K.; Do Thuan, A.; Tran Thi Viet, N.; Takizawa, S.

    2012-12-01

    Hanoi is the capital of Viet Nam and the second largest city in this country (population: 6.45 million in 2009). Hanoi city has developed along the Red River and has many lakes, ponds and canals. However, recent rapid urbanization of this city has reduced number of natural water areas such as ponds and lakes by reclamation not only in the central area but the suburban area. Canals also have been reclaimed or cut into pieces. Contrary, number of artificial water areas such as fish cultivation pond has rapidly increased. On the other hand, various kind of waste water flows into these natural and artificial water areas and induces pollution and eutrophication. These waste waters also have possibility of pollution of groundwater that is one of major water resources in this city. In addition, groundwater in this area has high concentrations of Arsenic, Fe and NH4. Thus, groundwater use may causes re-circulation of Arsenic. However, studies on the interaction between surface water areas and groundwater and on the role of surface water areas for solute transport with water cycle are a few. Therefore, we focused on these points and took water samples of river, pond and groundwater from four communities in suburban areas: two communities are located near the Red River and other two are far from the River. Also, columnar sediment samples of these ponds were taken and pore water was abstracted. Major dissolved ions, metals and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen of water samples were analyzed. As for water cycle, from the correlation between δ18O and δD, the Red River water (after GNIR) were distributed along the LMWL (δD=8.2δ18O+14.1, calculated from precipitation (after GNIP)). On the other hand, although the pond waters in rainy season were distributed along the LMWL, that in dry season were distributed along the local evaporation line (LEL, slope=5.6). The LEL crossed with the LMWL at around the point of weighted mean values of precipitation in rainy season and of

  12. Radionuclide contaminant analysis of small mammals at Area G, Technical Area 54, 1996 (with cumulative summary for 1994--1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, J.R.; Bennett, K.D.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1997-07-01

    Small mammals were sampled at two waste burial sites at Area G, Technical Area (TA) 54 and a control site within the proposed Area G expansion area in 1996 to (1) identify radionuclides that are present within rodent tissues at waste burial sites, (2) to compare the amount of radionuclide uptake by small mammals at waste burial sites to a control site, and (3) to identify the primary mode of contamination to small mammals, either through surface contact or ingestion/inhalation. Three composite samples of approximately five animals per sample were collected at each site. Pelts and carcasses of each animal were separated and analyzed independently. Samples were analyzed for 241 Am, 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, total U, 137 Cs, and 3 H. Higher levels of total U, 241 Am, 238 Pu, and 239 Pu were detected in pelts as compared to the carcasses of small mammals at TA-54. Concentrations of other measured radionuclides in carcasses were nearly equal to or exceeded the mean concentrations in the pelts. Due to low sample sizes in total number of animals captured, statistical analysis to compare site to site could not be conducted. However, mean concentrations of total U, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and 137 Cs in rodent carcasses were higher at Site 1 than site 2 or the Control Site and 241 Am was higher at Site 2 than Site 1 or the Control Site

  13. Supporting documents for LLL area 27 (410 area) safety analysis reports, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odell, B. N. [comp.

    1977-02-01

    The following appendices are common to the LLL Safety Analysis Reports Nevada Test Site and are included here as supporting documents to those reports: Environmental Monitoring Report for the Nevada Test Site and Other Test Areas Used for Underground Nuclear Detonations, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, Rept. EMSL-LV-539-4 (1976); Selected Census Information Around the Nevada Test Site, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, Rept. NERC-LV-539-8 (1973); W. J. Hannon and H. L. McKague, An Examination of the Geology and Seismology Associated with Area 410 at the Nevada Test Site, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Rept. UCRL-51830 (1975); K. R. Peterson, Diffusion Climatology for Hypothetical Accidents in Area 410 of the Nevada Test Site, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Rept. UCRL-52074 (1976); J. R. McDonald, J. E. Minor, and K. C. Mehta, Development of a Design Basis Tornado and Structural Design Criteria for the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Rept. UCRL-13668 (1975); A. E. Stevenson, Impact Tests of Wind-Borne Wooden Missiles, Sandia Laboratories, Tonopah, Rept. SAND 76-0407 (1976); and Hydrology of the 410 Area (Area 27) at the Nevada Test Site.

  14. Dry deposition fluxes and deposition velocities of trace metals in the Tokyo metropolitan area measured with a water surface sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Masahiro; Marumoto, Kohji

    2004-04-01

    Dry deposition fluxes and deposition velocities (=deposition flux/atmospheric concentration) for trace metals including Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn in the Tokyo metropolitan area were measured using an improved water surface sampler. Mercury is deposited on the water surface in both gaseous (reactive gaseous mercury, RGM) and particulate (particulate mercury, Hg(p)) forms. The results based on 1 yr observations found that dry deposition plays a significant if not dominant role in trace metal deposition in this urban area, contributing fluxes ranging from 0.46 (Cd) to 3.0 (Zn) times those of concurrent wet deposition fluxes. The deposition velocities were found to be dependent on the deposition of coarse particles larger than approximately 5 microm in diameter on the basis of model calculations. Our analysis suggests that the 84.13% diameter is a more appropriate index for each deposited metal than the 50% diameter in the assumed undersize log-normal distribution, because larger particles are responsible for the flux. The deposition velocities for trace metals other than mercury increased exponentially with an increase in their 84.13% diameters. Using this regression equation, the deposition velocities for Hg(p) were estimated from its 84.13% diameter. The deposition fluxes for Hg(p) calculated from the estimated velocities tended to be close to the mercury fluxes measured with the water surface sampler during the study periods except during summer.

  15. Changes in surface area of the Böön Tsagaan and Orog lakes (Mongolia, Valley of the Lakes, 1974-2013) compared to climate and permafrost changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumińska, Danuta

    2016-07-01

    The main aim of the study is the analysis of changes in surface area of lake Böön Tsagaan (45°35‧N, 99°8‧E) and lake Orog (45°3‧N, 100°44‧E) taking place in the last 40 years in the context of climate conditions and permafrost degradation. The lakes, located in Central Mongolia, at the borderline of permafrost range are fed predominantly by river waters and groundwater from the surrounding mountain areas, characterized by continuous and discontinuous permafrost occurrence - mostly the Khangai. The analysis of the Böön Tsagaan and Orog lake surface area in 1974-2013 was conducted based on satellite images, whereas climate conditions were analysed using the NOAA climate data and CRU dataset. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to study the relationship patterns between the climatic factors and changes in the surface area of the lakes. A tendency for a decrease in surface area, intermittent with short episodes of resupply, was observed in both studied lakes. Climate changes recorded in the analysed period had both direct and indirect impacts on water supply to lakes. Taking into account the results of PCA analysis, the most significant factors include: fluctuation of annual precipitation, increase in air temperature and thickness of snow cover. The extended duration of snow cover in the last decades of the 20th century may constitute a key factor in relation to permafrost degradation.

  16. Natural Areas Analysis and Evaluation: Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranski, Micahel J [self

    2009-11-01

    relatively large in size with mature or old-growth community composition; lack current disturbance factors or potential threats and disturbances; are in excellent condition with good buffers; are places where ecological and evolutionary processes can occur relatively unaffected by humans; and can be reasonably defended and maintained as natural areas in an undeveloped condition. Highly ranked sites are the most significant and should receive the greatest protections. Composite scores of the ranked areas ranged from 1-25.5, with a mean score of 12. The ranked areas were divided into three Priority Groups. Group I, the most highly ranked group, included 20 sites and covered 5189 acres or 15.4% of Reservation lands; Group II included 31 sites and covered 4108 acres; Group III included 19 sites covering 400 acres of Reservation lands. All sites together comprise 9697 acres or 28.8% of Reservation lands. Six sites emerged as clearly the most significant natural areas on the Reservation. The study developed a number of recommendations that should be implemented in order to enhance and refine the natural areas data for the Reservation. There is a clear need for better and standardized ecological community classification and identification. Several areas are proposed for merger into larger units, and some new areas are proposed for inclusion and recognition in a natural areas system. Various gaps and discrepancies in the existing data are described and should be corrected. Other recommendations are made, including the development of a corollary system that can accommodate aquatic natural areas. The study relied primarily on the synthesis of information from many sources and from limited reconnaissance and direct observation during field work to produce a methodology for assessing natural area importance and assigning priorities for protection. Many instances of incomplete, missing or conflicting information made it difficult to complete thorough analysis. Further review and

  17. Surface analysis of titanium dental implants with different topographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva M.H. Prado da

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrical dental implants made of commercially pure titanium were analysed in four different surface finishes: as-machined, Al2O3 blasted with Al2O3 particles, plasma-sprayed with titanium beads and electrolytically coated with hydroxyapatite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM with Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX revealed the topography of the surfaces and provided qualitative results of the chemical composition of the different implants. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS was used to perform chemical analysis on the surface of the implants while Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSM produced topographic maps of the analysed surfaces. Optical Profilometry was used to quantitatively characterise the level of roughness of the surfaces. The implant that was plasma-sprayed and the hydroxyapatite coated implant showed the roughest surface, followed by the implant blasted with alumina and the as-machined implant. Some remnant contamination from the processes of blasting, coating and cleaning was detected by XPS.

  18. Probing hot-electron effects in wide area plasmonic surfaces using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayas, Sencer; Cupallari, Andi; Dana, Aykutlu, E-mail: aykutlu@unam.bilkent.edu.tr [UNAM Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-12-01

    Plasmon enhanced hot carrier formation in metallic nanostructures increasingly attracts attention due to potential applications in photodetection, photocatalysis, and solar energy conversion. Here, hot-electron effects in nanoscale metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures are investigated using a non-contact X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy based technique using continuous wave X-ray and laser excitations. The effects are observed through shifts of the binding energy of the top metal layer upon excitation with lasers of 445, 532, and 650 nm wavelength. The shifts are polarization dependent for plasmonic MIM grating structures fabricated by electron beam lithography. Wide area plasmonic MIM surfaces fabricated using a lithography free route by the dewetting of evaporated Ag on HfO{sub 2} exhibit polarization independent optical absorption and surface photovoltage. Using a simple model and making several assumptions about the magnitude of the photoemission current, the responsivity and external quantum efficiency of wide area plasmonic MIM surfaces are estimated as 500 nA/W and 11 × 10{sup −6} for 445 nm illumination.

  19. Influence of Alkali Treatment on the Surface Area of Aluminium Dross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Ahmad Zauzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium dross is an industrial waste from aluminium refining industry and classified as toxic substances. However, the disposal of dross as a waste is a burden to aluminium manufacturer industries due to its negative effects to the ecosystem, surface, and ground water. Therefore the purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of sodium hydroxide (NaOH on the surface area and pore size of aluminium dross. There were 3 stages in the treatment activities, which were leaching, precipitation, and calcination process. The optimum result from this study was the surface area of aluminium dross increases from 10.1 m2/g up to 80.0 m2/g at 40°C, 1% NaOH, and 15-minute reaction time. Thus, aluminium dross has a potential to be converted into other useful material such as catalyst and absorbent. The benefit of this research is that the hazardous industrial waste can be turned into wealth to be used in other applications such as in catalytic activities and absorber in waste water treatment. Further investigation on the physicochemical of aluminium dross with different acid or alkali should be conducted to get deeper understanding on the aluminium dross as a catalyst-type material.

  20. A highly permeable and enhanced surface area carbon-cloth electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X. L.; Zhao, T. S.; Zeng, Y. K.; An, L.; Wei, L.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a high-performance porous electrode, made of KOH-activated carbon-cloth, is developed for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). The macro-scale porous structure in the carbon cloth formed by weaving the carbon fibers in an ordered manner offers a low tortuosity (∼1.1) and a broad pore distribution from 5 μm to 100 μm, rendering the electrode a high hydraulic permeability and high effective ionic conductivity, which are beneficial for the electrolyte flow and ion transport through the porous electrode. The use of KOH activation method to create nano-scale pores on the carbon-fiber surfaces leads to a significant increase in the surface area for redox reactions from 2.39 m2 g-1 to 15.4 m2 g-1. The battery assembled with the present electrode delivers an energy efficiency of 80.1% and an electrolyte utilization of 74.6% at a current density of 400 mA cm-2, as opposed to an electrolyte utilization of 61.1% achieved by using a conventional carbon-paper electrode. Such a high performance is mainly attributed to the combination of the excellent mass/ion transport properties and the high surface area rendered by the present electrode. It is suggested that the KOH-activated carbon-cloth electrode is a promising candidate in redox flow batteries.

  1. Detailed analysis of surface asperity deformation mechanism in diffusion bonding of steel hollow structural components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Laboratoire de Mecanique des Contacts et des Structures (LaMCoS), INSA Lyon, 20 Avenue des Sciences, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Li, H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Li, M.Q., E-mail: zc9997242256@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Graphical abstract: This study focused on the detailed analysis of surface asperity deformation mechanism in diffusion bonding of steel hollow structural component. A special surface with regular patterns was processed to be joined so as to observe the extent of surface asperity deformation under different applied bonding pressures. Fracture surface characteristic combined with surface roughness profiles distinctly revealed the enhanced surface asperity deformation as the applied pressure increases. The influence of surface asperity deformation mechanism on joint formation was analyzed: (a) surface asperity deformation not only directly expanded the interfacial contact areas, but also released deformation heat and caused defects, indirectly accelerating atomic diffusion, then benefits to void shrinkage; (b) surface asperity deformation readily introduced stored energy difference between two opposite sides of interface grain boundary, resulting in strain induced interface grain boundary migration. In addition, the influence of void on interface grain boundary migration was analyzed in detail. - Highlights: • A high quality hollow structural component has been fabricated by diffusion bonding. • Surface asperity deformation not only expands the interfacial contact areas, but also causes deformation heat and defects to improve the atomic diffusion. • Surface asperity deformation introduces the stored energy difference between the two opposite sides of interface grain boundary, leading to strain induced interface grain boundary migration. • The void exerts a dragging force on the interface grain boundary to retard or stop interface grain boundary migration. - Abstract: This study focused on the detailed analysis of surface asperity deformation mechanism in similar diffusion bonding as well as on the fabrication of high quality martensitic stainless steel hollow structural components. A special surface with regular patterns was processed to be joined so as to

  2. The analysis of pigments on rock surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fankhauser, B.; O'Connor, S.; Pittelkow, Y.

    1997-01-01

    A limestone slab of roof fall coated with a red pigment was recovered from a Rockshelter in the Napier Ranges of the Kimberley region, Western Australia. Next to the roof fall fragment in the same stratigraphic layer was a piece of ochre. Three questions were presented: (1) is the red substance an ochre? (2) is the piece of ochre identical to the red substance on the roof fall? and (3) are the layers of pigment on the top and bottom of the limestone slab the same? In addition, as an extension from these questions, a general method was developed for the in situ analysis of ochre pigments on substrates to determine likely compositions and ochre sources. The analysis of the red pigment presented an analytical problem because the substance was intimately associated with the rock slab and therefore the analysis had to be done in situ. Not only was the red layer thin, but on a micro level it was uneven. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) penetrated the red layer, simultaneously analysing this layer and the rock substrate to different degrees depending upon the thickness of the red layer. Determining if the substance was actually ochre involved a comparison of elemental analyses between the background (slab) and background with red coating. Coatings of other ochres with known elemental concentrations on the same limestone background gave a comparison of the effect of simultaneously analysing a thin layer and background with different compositions. Three graphical methods useful for insitu analysis are demeonstrated. The find dates (around 40,000 BP) add to a growing body of data in support of the widespread use of ochre accompanying the earliest documented use of widely separated and environmentally diverse regions of Australia by Aboriginal people

  3. The analysis of pigments on rock surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fankhauser, B.; O`Connor, S. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Division of Archaeology and Natural History; Pittelkow, Y. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Coombs Computing Unit

    1997-12-31

    A limestone slab of roof fall coated with a red pigment was recovered from a Rockshelter in the Napier Ranges of the Kimberley region, Western Australia. Next to the roof fall fragment in the same stratigraphic layer was a piece of ochre. Three questions were presented: (1) is the red substance an ochre? (2) is the piece of ochre identical to the red substance on the roof fall? and (3) are the layers of pigment on the top and bottom of the limestone slab the same? In addition, as an extension from these questions, a general method was developed for the in situ analysis of ochre pigments on substrates to determine likely compositions and ochre sources. The analysis of the red pigment presented an analytical problem because the substance was intimately associated with the rock slab and therefore the analysis had to be done in situ. Not only was the red layer thin, but on a micro level it was uneven. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) penetrated the red layer, simultaneously analysing this layer and the rock substrate to different degrees depending upon the thickness of the red layer. Determining if the substance was actually ochre involved a comparison of elemental analyses between the background (slab) and background with red coating. Coatings of other ochres with known elemental concentrations on the same limestone background gave a comparison of the effect of simultaneously analysing a thin layer and background with different compositions. Three graphical methods useful for insitu analysis are demeonstrated. The find dates (around 40,000 BP) add to a growing body of data in support of the widespread use of ochre accompanying the earliest documented use of widely separated and environmentally diverse regions of Australia by Aboriginal people.

  4. On the Possibility of the Existence of a Surface Electromagnetic Wave in the Permafrost Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkhanov, V. K.; Bashkuev, Yu. B.; Advokatov, V. R.

    2018-01-01

    The results of measurements of the vertical component of electric field at a radio path with the permafrost at a frequency of 255 kHz have been interpreted. An analysis of the results has shown that the considered radio path exhibits the properties of a two-part impedance surface, i.e., it consists of two sections. At a distance of 70 km from a radiation source and at a frequency of 255 kHz of the electromagnetic wave, the field decreases with the distance R according to the power law as R -1.5 and a power index takes an intermediate value between the power indices for decreasing the field in free space R -2 and for the decrease in the field above an ideal conducting surface R -1. With further propagation at a distance of 70-220 km, the field shows the specific behavior of a surface electromagnetic wave.

  5. Internal reflection spectroscopic analysis of sulphide mineral surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaoma, J.

    1989-01-01

    To establish the reason for flotation of sulfide minerals in the absence of any conventional collector, internal reflection spectroscopic analysis (IRS) of their surfaces was conducted. sulfur, sulfates, thiosulfates, and hydrocarbonates have been detected on the surface of as-grand sulfide minerals. On sodium sulfide-treated surfaces, both sulfur and polysulfide have also been found to be present. From these findings, the flotation of sulfide minerals without collectors is discussed. (author). 26 refs

  6. Assessment of mercury erosion by surface water in Wanshan mercury mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, ZhiHui; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Chao; Shang, Lihai; Qiu, Guangle

    2013-08-01

    Soil erosion is a main cause of land degradation, and in its accelerated form is also one of the most serious ecological environmental problems. Moreover, there are few studies on migration of mercury (Hg) induced by soil erosion in seriously Hg-polluted districts. This paper selected Wanshan Hg mining area, SW China as the study area. Revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) and Geographic information system (GIS) methods were applied to calculate soil and Hg erosion and to classify soil erosion intensity. Our results show that the soil erosion rate can reach up to 600,884tkm(-2)yr(-1). Surfaces associated with very slight and extremely severe erosion include 76.6% of the entire land in Wanshan. Furthermore, the cumulative erosion rates in the area impacted by extremely severe erosion make up 90.5% of the total. On an annual basis, Hg surface erosion load was predicted to be 505kgyr(-1) and the corresponding mean migration flux of Hg was estimated to be 3.02kgkm(-2)yr(-1). The erosion loads of Hg resulting from farmland and meadow soil were 175 and 319kgyr(-1) respectively, which were enhanced compared to other landscape types due to the fact that they are generally located in the steep zones associated with significant reclamation. Contributing to establish a mass balance of Hg in Wanshan Hg mining area, this study supplies a dependable scientific basis for controlling soil and water erosion in the local ecosystems. Land use change is the most effective way for reducing Hg erosion load in Wanshan mining area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Crane Creek known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Crane Creek known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is located in Washington County, in southwestern Idaho. Estimated hydrothermal resource temperatures for the region are 166/sup 0/C (Na-K-Ca) and 176/sup 0/C (quartz). The KGRA is situated along the west side of the north-south trending western Idaho Fault Zone. Historic seismicity data for the region identify earthquake activity within 50 km. The hot springs surface along the margin of a siliceous sinter terrace or in adjacent sediments. Approximately 75% of the KGRA is underlain by shallow, stony soils on steep slopes indicating topographic and drainage limitations to geothermal development. Species of concern include sage grouse, antelope, and mule deer. There is a high probability of finding significant prehistoric cultural resources within the proposed area of development.

  8. Estimation of small reservoir storage capacities in the São Francisco, Limpopo, Bandama and Volta river basins using remotely sensed surface areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Lineu; Senzanje, Aidan; Cecchi, Philippe; Liebe, Jens

    2010-05-01

    area, depth and shape. Depth was measured using a stadia rod or a manual echosounder. For reservoirs in the sub-set, estimated surface area was used as an input into the triangulated irregular network model. With the surface area and depth, measured volume was calculated. Comparisons were made between estimates of surface area from field surveys and estimates of surface area from remote sensing. A linear regression analysis was carried out to establish the relationship between surface area and storage capacities. Within geomorphologically homogenous regions, one may expect a good correlation between the surface area, which may be determined through satellite observations, and the stored volume. Such a relation depends on the general shape of the slopes (convex, through straight, to concave). The power relationships between remotely sensed surface areas (m^2) and storage capacities of reservoirs (m^3) obtained were - Limpopo basin (Lower Mzingwane sub-catchment): Volume = 0.023083 x Area^1.3272 (R2 = 95%); Bandama basin (North of the basin in Ivory Coast): Volume = 0.00405 x Area^1.4953 (R2 = 88.9%); Volta basin (Upper East region of the Volta Basin in Ghana): Volume = 0.00857 × Area^1.43 (R2 = 97.5%); São Francisco basin (Preto river sub-catchment): Volume = 0.2643 x Area^1.1632 (R2 = 92.1%). Remote sensing was found to be a suitable means to detect small reservoirs and accurately measure their surface areas. The general relationship between measured reservoir volumes and their remotely sensed surface areas showed good accuracy for all four basins. Combining such relationships with periodical satellite-based reservoir area measurements may allow hydrologists and planners to have clear picture of water resource system in the Basins, especially in ungauged sub-basins.

  9. Fabrication of a Horizontal and a Vertical Large Surface Area Nanogap Electrochemical Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules L. Hammond

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanogap sensors have a wide range of applications as they can provide accurate direct detection of biomolecules through impedimetric or amperometric signals. Signal response from nanogap sensors is dependent on both the electrode spacing and surface area. However, creating large surface area nanogap sensors presents several challenges during fabrication. We show two different approaches to achieve both horizontal and vertical coplanar nanogap geometries. In the first method we use electron-beam lithography (EBL to pattern an 11 mm long serpentine nanogap (215 nm between two electrodes. For the second method we use inductively-coupled plasma (ICP reactive ion etching (RIE to create a channel in a silicon substrate, optically pattern a buried 1.0 mm × 1.5 mm electrode before anodically bonding a second identical electrode, patterned on glass, directly above. The devices have a wide range of applicability in different sensing techniques with the large area nanogaps presenting advantages over other devices of the same family. As a case study we explore the detection of peptide nucleic acid (PNA−DNA binding events using dielectric spectroscopy with the horizontal coplanar device.

  10. Estimating Surface Area of Sponges and Marine Gorgonians as Indicators of Habitat Availability on Caribbean Coral Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface area and topographical complexity are fundamental attributes of shallow tropical coral reefs and can be used to estimate habitat for fish and invertebrates. This study presents empirical methods for estimating surface area provided by sponges and gorgonians in the Central...

  11. Atomic layer deposition of highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles on a high surface area electrode backbone for electrochemical promotion of catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajar, Y.; di Palma, V.; Kyriakou, V.; Verheijen, M. A.; Baranova, E. A.; Vernoux, P.; Kessels, W. M. M.; Creatore, M.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Tsampas, M. N.

    2017-01-01

    A novel catalyst design for electrochemical promotion of catalysis (EPOC) is proposed which overcomes the main bottlenecks that limit EPOC commercialization, i.e., the low dispersion and small surface area of metal catalysts. We have increased the surface area by using a porous composite electrode

  12. Indian Ocean surface winds from NCMRWF analysis as compared

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The quality of the surface wind analysis at the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (NCMRWF), New Delhi over the tropical Indian Ocean and its improvement in 2001 are examined by comparing it with in situ buoy measurements and satellite derived surface winds from NASA QuikSCAT satellite (QSCT) ...

  13. Surface reactivity and layer analysis of chemisorbed reaction films in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Surface reactivity and layer analysis of chemisorbed reaction films in ... in the nitrogen environment. Keywords. Surface reactivity ... sium (Na–K) compounds in the coating or core of the ..... Barkshire I R, Pruton M and Smith G C 1995 Appl. Sur.

  14. Indian Ocean surface winds from NCMRWF analysis as compared to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The quality of the surface wind analysis at the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Fore- casts (NCMRWF), New .... mization of a generalized cost function using the. Spectral ... power from a given location on the sea surface at multiple ...

  15. Assessing ground compaction via time lapse surface wave analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dal Moro, Giancarlo; Al-Arifi, N.; Moustafa, S.S.R.

    2016-01-01