WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface analytical tools

  1. Laser-induced plasma spectrometry: truly a surface analytical tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadillo, Jose M.; Laserna, J.

    2004-01-01

    For a long period, analytical applications of laser induced plasma spectrometry (LIPS) have been mainly restricted to overall and quantitative determination of elemental composition in bulk, solid samples. However, introduction of new compact and reliable solid state lasers and technological development in multidimensional intensified detectors have made possible the seeking of new analytical niches for LIPS where its analytical advantages (direct sampling from any material irrespective of its conductive status without sample preparation and with sensitivity adequate for many elements in different matrices) could be fully exploited. In this sense, the field of surface analysis could take advantage from the cited advantages taking into account in addition, the capability of LIPS for spot analysis, line scan, depth-profiling, area analysis and compositional mapping with a single instrument in air at atmospheric pressure. This review paper outlines the fundamental principles of laser-induced plasma emission relevant to sample surface studies, discusses the experimental parameters governing the spatial (lateral and in-depth) resolution in LIPS analysis and presents the applications concerning surface examination

  2. Practical applications of surface analytic tools in tribology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, J.

    1980-01-01

    Many of the currently, widely used tools available for surface analysis are described. Those which have the highest applicability for giving elemental and/or compound analysis for problems of interest in tribology and are truly surface sensitive (that is, less than 10 atomic layers) are presented. The latter group is evaluated in detail in terms of strengths and weaknesses. Emphasis is placed on post facto analysis of experiments performed under 'real' conditions (e.g., in air with lubricants). It is further indicated that such equipment could be used for screening and quality control.

  3. Thermodynamics and structure of liquid surfaces investigated directly with surface analytical tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Gunther [Flinders Univ., Adelaide, SA (Australia). Centre for NanoScale Science and Technology; Morgner, Harald [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Wilhelm Ostwald Inst. for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

    2017-06-15

    Measuring directly the composition, the distribution of constituents as function of the depth and the orientation of molecules at liquid surfaces is essential for determining physicochemical properties of liquid surfaces. While the experimental tools that have been developed for analyzing solid surfaces can in principal be applied to liquid surfaces, it turned out that they had to be adjusted to the particular challenges imposed by liquid samples, e.g. by the unavoidable vapor pressure and by the mobility of the constituting atoms/molecules. In the present work it is shown, how electron spectroscopy and ion scattering spectroscopy have been used for analyzing liquid surfaces. The emphasis of this review is on using the structural information gained for determining the physicochemical properties of liquid surfaces. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Social Data Analytics Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Abid; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design, development and demonstrative case studies of the Social Data Analytics Tool, SODATO. Adopting Action Design Framework [1], the objective of SODATO [2] is to collect, store, analyze, and report big social data emanating from the social media engagement of and social...... media conversations about organizations. We report and discuss results from two demonstrative case studies that were conducted using SODATO and conclude with implications and future work....

  5. An analytical method on the surface residual stress for the cutting tool orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueen; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Wei

    2010-03-01

    The residual stress is measured by choosing 8 kinds orientations on cutting the H13 dies steel on the HSM in the experiment of this paper. The measured data shows on that the residual stress exists periodicity for the different rake angle (β) and side rake angle (θ) parameters, further study find that the cutting tool orientations have closed relationship with the residual stresses, and for the original of the machined residual stress on the surface from the cutting force and the axial force, it can be gained the simply model of tool-workpiece force, using the model it can be deduced the residual stress model, which is feasible to calculate the size of residual stress. And for almost all the measured residual stresses are compressed stress, the compressed stress size and the direction could be confirmed by the input data for the H13 on HSM. As the result, the residual stress model is the key for optimization of rake angle (β) and side rake angle (θ) in theory, using the theory the more cutting mechanism can be expressed.

  6. Encyclopedia of analytical surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Krivoshapko, S N

    2015-01-01

    This encyclopedia presents an all-embracing collection of analytical surface classes. It provides concise definitions  and description for more than 500 surfaces and categorizes them in 38 classes of analytical surfaces. All classes are cross references to the original literature in an excellent bibliography. The encyclopedia is of particular interest to structural and civil engineers and serves as valuable reference for mathematicians.

  7. Biosensors: Future Analytical Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors offer considerable promises for attaining the analytic information in a faster, simpler and cheaper manner compared to conventional assays. Biosensing approach is rapidly advancing and applications ranging from metabolite, biological/ chemical warfare agent, food pathogens and adulterant detection to genetic screening and programmed drug delivery have been demonstrated. Innovative efforts, coupling micromachining and nanofabrication may lead to even more powerful devices that would accelerate the realization of large-scale and routine screening. With gradual increase in commercialization a wide range of new biosensors are thus expected to reach the market in the coming years.

  8. Developing a learning analytics tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Christian; Belle, Gianna; Clemmensen, Anita Lykke

    This poster describes how learning analytics and collective intelligence can be combined in order to develop a tool for providing support and feedback to learners and teachers regarding students self-initiated learning activities.......This poster describes how learning analytics and collective intelligence can be combined in order to develop a tool for providing support and feedback to learners and teachers regarding students self-initiated learning activities....

  9. Analytical Web Tool for CERES Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrescu, C.; Chu, C.; Doelling, D.

    2012-12-01

    The CERES project provides the community climate quality observed TOA fluxes, consistent cloud properties, and computed profile and surface fluxes. The 11-year long data set proves invaluable for remote sensing and climate modeling communities for annual global mean energy, meridianal heat transport, consistent cloud and fluxes and climate trends studies. Moreover, a broader audience interested in Earth's radiative properties such as green energy, health and environmental companies have showed their interest in CERES derived products. A few years ago, the CERES team start developing a new web-based Ordering Tool tailored for this wide diversity of users. Recognizing the potential that web-2.0 technologies can offer to both Quality Control (QC) and scientific data visualization and manipulation, the CERES team began introducing a series of specialized functions that addresses the above. As such, displaying an attractive, easy to use modern web-based format, the Ordering Tool added the following analytical functions: i) 1-D Histograms to display the distribution of the data field to identify outliers that are useful for QC purposes; ii) an "Anomaly" map that shows the regional differences between the current month and the climatological monthly mean; iii) a 2-D Histogram that can identify either potential problems with the data (i.e. QC function) or provides a global view of trends and/or correlations between various CERES flux, cloud, aerosol, and atmospheric properties. The large volume and diversity of data, together with the on-the-fly execution were the main challenges that had to be tackle with. Depending on the application, the execution was done on either the browser side or the server side with the help of auxiliary files. Additional challenges came from the use of various open source applications, the multitude of CERES products and the seamless transition from previous development. For the future, we plan on expanding the analytical capabilities of the

  10. Cryogenic Propellant Feed System Analytical Tool Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusby, Brian S.; Miranda, Bruno M.; Collins, Jacob A.

    2011-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Branch at NASA s Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) has developed a parametric analytical tool to address the need to rapidly predict heat leak into propellant distribution lines based on insulation type, installation technique, line supports, penetrations, and instrumentation. The Propellant Feed System Analytical Tool (PFSAT) will also determine the optimum orifice diameter for an optional thermodynamic vent system (TVS) to counteract heat leak into the feed line and ensure temperature constraints at the end of the feed line are met. PFSAT was developed primarily using Fortran 90 code because of its number crunching power and the capability to directly access real fluid property subroutines in the Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties (REFPROP) Database developed by NIST. A Microsoft Excel front end user interface was implemented to provide convenient portability of PFSAT among a wide variety of potential users and its ability to utilize a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) developed in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The focus of PFSAT is on-orbit reaction control systems and orbital maneuvering systems, but it may be used to predict heat leak into ground-based transfer lines as well. PFSAT is expected to be used for rapid initial design of cryogenic propellant distribution lines and thermodynamic vent systems. Once validated, PFSAT will support concept trades for a variety of cryogenic fluid transfer systems on spacecraft, including planetary landers, transfer vehicles, and propellant depots, as well as surface-based transfer systems. The details of the development of PFSAT, its user interface, and the program structure will be presented.

  11. The use of a quartz crystal microbalance as an analytical tool to monitor particle/surface and particle/particle interactions under dry ambient and pressurized conditions: a study using common inhaler components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, N W; Bloxham, M; Piletsky, S A; Whitcombe, M J; Chianella, I

    2016-12-19

    Metered dose inhalers (MDI) and multidose powder inhalers (MPDI) are commonly used for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and asthma. Currently, analytical tools to monitor particle/particle and particle/surface interaction within MDI and MPDI at the macro-scale do not exist. A simple tool capable of measuring such interactions would ultimately enable quality control of MDI and MDPI, producing remarkable benefits for the pharmaceutical industry and the users of inhalers. In this paper, we have investigated whether a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) could become such a tool. A QCM was used to measure particle/particle and particle/surface interactions on the macroscale, by additions of small amounts of MDPI components, in the powder form into a gas stream. The subsequent interactions with materials on the surface of the QCM sensor were analyzed. Following this, the sensor was used to measure fluticasone propionate, a typical MDI active ingredient, in a pressurized gas system to assess its interactions with different surfaces under conditions mimicking the manufacturing process. In both types of experiments the QCM was capable of discriminating interactions of different components and surfaces. The results have demonstrated that the QCM is a suitable platform for monitoring macro-scale interactions and could possibly become a tool for quality control of inhalers.

  12. Analytic vortex solutions on compact hyperbolic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, Rafael; Manton, Nicholas S

    2015-01-01

    We construct, for the first time, abelian Higgs vortices on certain compact surfaces of constant negative curvature. Such surfaces are represented by a tessellation of the hyperbolic plane by regular polygons. The Higgs field is given implicitly in terms of Schwarz triangle functions and analytic solutions are available for certain highly symmetric configurations. (paper)

  13. Evaluation of Linked Data tools for Learning Analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Herder, Eelco; d'Aquin, Mathieu; Dietze, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Drachsler, H., Herder, E., d'Aquin, M., & Dietze, S. (2013, 8-12 April). Evaluation of Linked Data tools for Learning Analytics. Presentation given in the tutorial on 'Using Linked Data for Learning Analytics' at LAK2013, the Third Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge, Leuven, Belgium.

  14. PIXE as an analytical/educational tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, E.T.

    1991-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of PIXE as an analytical method will be summarized. The authors will also discuss the advantages of PIXE as a means of providing interesting and feasible research projects for undergraduate science students

  15. Method for effective usage of Google Analytics tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Николаевна Егорова

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern Google Analytics tools have been investigated against effective attraction channels for users and bottlenecks detection. Conducted investigation allowed to suggest modern method for effective usage of Google Analytics tools. The method is based on main traffic indicators analysis, as well as deep analysis of goals and their consecutive tweaking. Method allows to increase website conversion and might be useful for SEO and Web analytics specialists

  16. Dynamically triangulated surfaces - some analytical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, I.K.

    1987-01-01

    We give a brief review of the analytical results concerning the model of dynamically triangulated surfaces. We will discuss the possible types of critical behaviour (depending on the dimension D of the embedding space) and the exact solutions obtained for D=0 and D=-2. The latter are important as a check of the Monte Carlo simulations applyed to study the model in more physical dimensions. They give also some general insight of its critical properties

  17. Analytical Tools for Space Suit Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitchison, Lindsay

    2011-01-01

    As indicated by the implementation of multiple small project teams within the agency, NASA is adopting a lean approach to hardware development that emphasizes quick product realization and rapid response to shifting program and agency goals. Over the past two decades, space suit design has been evolutionary in approach with emphasis on building prototypes then testing with the largest practical range of subjects possible. The results of these efforts show continuous improvement but make scaled design and performance predictions almost impossible with limited budgets and little time. Thus, in an effort to start changing the way NASA approaches space suit design and analysis, the Advanced Space Suit group has initiated the development of an integrated design and analysis tool. It is a multi-year-if not decadal-development effort that, when fully implemented, is envisioned to generate analysis of any given space suit architecture or, conversely, predictions of ideal space suit architectures given specific mission parameters. The master tool will exchange information to and from a set of five sub-tool groups in order to generate the desired output. The basic functions of each sub-tool group, the initial relationships between the sub-tools, and a comparison to state of the art software and tools are discussed.

  18. Developing Healthcare Data Analytics APPs with Open Data Science Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Bibo; Sun, Wen; Yu, Yiqin; Xie, Guotong

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in big data analytics provide more flexible, efficient, and open tools for researchers to gain insight from healthcare data. Whilst many tools require researchers to develop programs with programming languages like Python, R and so on, which is not a skill set grasped by many researchers in the healthcare data analytics area. To make data science more approachable, we explored existing tools and developed a practice that can help data scientists convert existing analytics pipelines to user-friendly analytics APPs with rich interactions and features of real-time analysis. With this practice, data scientists can develop customized analytics pipelines as APPs in Jupyter Notebook and disseminate them to other researchers easily, and researchers can benefit from the shared notebook to perform analysis tasks or reproduce research results much more easily.

  19. Artist - analytical RT inspection simulation tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellon, C.; Jaenisch, G.R.

    2007-01-01

    The computer simulation of radiography is applicable for different purposes in NDT such as for the qualification of NDT systems, the prediction of its reliability, the optimization of system parameters, feasibility analysis, model-based data interpretation, education and training of NDT/NDE personnel, and others. Within the framework of the integrated project FilmFree the radiographic testing (RT) simulation software developed by BAM is being further developed to meet practical requirements for inspection planning in digital industrial radiology. It combines analytical modelling of the RT inspection process with the CAD-orientated object description applicable to various industrial sectors such as power generation, railways and others. (authors)

  20. Electronic tongue: An analytical gustatory tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rewanthwar Swathi Latha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Taste is an important organoleptic property governing acceptance of products for administration through mouth. But majority of drugs available are bitter in taste. For patient acceptability and compliance, bitter taste drugs are masked by adding several flavoring agents. Thus, taste assessment is one important quality control parameter for evaluating taste-masked formulations. The primary method for the taste measurement of drug substances and formulations is by human panelists. The use of sensory panelists is very difficult and problematic in industry and this is due to the potential toxicity of drugs and subjectivity of taste panelists, problems in recruiting taste panelists, motivation and panel maintenance are significantly difficult when working with unpleasant products. Furthermore, Food and Drug Administration (FDA-unapproved molecules cannot be tested. Therefore, analytical taste-sensing multichannel sensory system called as electronic tongue (e-tongue or artificial tongue which can assess taste have been replacing the sensory panelists. Thus, e-tongue includes benefits like reducing reliance on human panel. The present review focuses on the electrochemical concepts in instrumentation, performance qualification of E-tongue, and applications in various fields.

  1. Analytical and numerical tools for vacuum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kersevan, R

    2007-01-01

    Modern particle accelerators have reached a level of sophistication which require a thorough analysis of all their sub-systems. Among the latter, the vacuum system is often a major contributor to the operating performance of a particle accelerator. The vacuum engineer has nowadays a large choice of computational schemes and tools for the correct analysis, design, and engineering of the vacuum system. This paper is a review of the different type of algorithms and methodologies which have been developed and employed in the field since the birth of vacuum technology. The different level of detail between simple back-of-the-envelope calculations and more complex numerical analysis is discussed by means of comparisons. The domain of applicability of each method is discussed, together with its pros and cons.

  2. Guidance for the Design and Adoption of Analytic Tools.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandlow, Alisa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The goal is to make software developers aware of common issues that can impede the adoption of analytic tools. This paper provides a summary of guidelines, lessons learned and existing research to explain what is currently known about what analysts want and how to better understand what tools they do and don't need.

  3. A new tool for the evaluation of the analytical procedure: Green Analytical Procedure Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płotka-Wasylka, J

    2018-05-01

    A new means for assessing analytical protocols relating to green analytical chemistry attributes has been developed. The new tool, called GAPI (Green Analytical Procedure Index), evaluates the green character of an entire analytical methodology, from sample collection to final determination, and was created using such tools as the National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI) or Analytical Eco-Scale to provide not only general but also qualitative information. In GAPI, a specific symbol with five pentagrams can be used to evaluate and quantify the environmental impact involved in each step of an analytical methodology, mainly from green through yellow to red depicting low, medium to high impact, respectively. The proposed tool was used to evaluate analytical procedures applied in the determination of biogenic amines in wine samples, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon determination by EPA methods. GAPI tool not only provides an immediately perceptible perspective to the user/reader but also offers exhaustive information on evaluated procedures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Web analytics tools and web metrics tools: An overview and comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bekavac

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to compare and analyze the impact of web analytics tools for measuring the performance of a business model. Accordingly, an overview of web analytics and web metrics tools is given, including their characteristics, main functionalities and available types. The data acquisition approaches and proper choice of web tools for particular business models are also reviewed. The research is divided in two sections. First, a qualitative focus is placed on reviewing web analytics tools to exploring their functionalities and ability to be integrated into the respective business model. Web analytics tools support the business analyst’s efforts in obtaining useful and relevant insights into market dynamics. Thus, generally speaking, selecting a web analytics and web metrics tool should be based on an investigative approach, not a random decision. The second section is a quantitative focus shifting from theory to an empirical approach, and which subsequently presents output data resulting from a study based on perceived user satisfaction of web analytics tools. The empirical study was carried out on employees from 200 Croatian firms from either an either IT or marketing branch. The paper contributes to highlighting the support for management that available web analytics and web metrics tools available on the market have to offer, and based on the growing needs of understanding and predicting global market trends.

  5. Analytical framework and tool kit for SEA follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Mans; Wiklund, Hans; Finnveden, Goeran; Jonsson, Daniel K.; Lundberg, Kristina; Tyskeng, Sara; Wallgren, Oskar

    2009-01-01

    Most Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) research and applications have so far neglected the ex post stages of the process, also called SEA follow-up. Tool kits and methodological frameworks for engaging effectively with SEA follow-up have been conspicuously missing. In particular, little has so far been learned from the much more mature evaluation literature although many aspects are similar. This paper provides an analytical framework and tool kit for SEA follow-up. It is based on insights and tools developed within programme evaluation and environmental systems analysis. It is also grounded in empirical studies into real planning and programming practices at the regional level, but should have relevance for SEA processes at all levels. The purpose of the framework is to promote a learning-oriented and integrated use of SEA follow-up in strategic decision making. It helps to identify appropriate tools and their use in the process, and to systematise the use of available data and knowledge across the planning organization and process. It distinguishes three stages in follow-up: scoping, analysis and learning, identifies the key functions and demonstrates the informational linkages to the strategic decision-making process. The associated tool kit includes specific analytical and deliberative tools. Many of these are applicable also ex ante, but are then used in a predictive mode rather than on the basis of real data. The analytical element of the framework is organized on the basis of programme theory and 'DPSIR' tools. The paper discusses three issues in the application of the framework: understanding the integration of organizations and knowledge; understanding planners' questions and analytical requirements; and understanding interests, incentives and reluctance to evaluate

  6. Big Data Analytics Tools as Applied to ATLAS Event Data

    CERN Document Server

    Vukotic, Ilija; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Big Data technologies have proven to be very useful for storage, processing and visualization of derived metrics associated with ATLAS distributed computing (ADC) services. Log file data and database records, and metadata from a diversity of systems have been aggregated and indexed to create an analytics platform for ATLAS ADC operations analysis. Dashboards, wide area data access cost metrics, user analysis patterns, and resource utilization efficiency charts are produced flexibly through queries against a powerful analytics cluster. Here we explore whether these techniques and analytics ecosystem can be applied to add new modes of open, quick, and pervasive access to ATLAS event data so as to simplify access and broaden the reach of ATLAS public data to new communities of users. An ability to efficiently store, filter, search and deliver ATLAS data at the event and/or sub-event level in a widely supported format would enable or significantly simplify usage of big data, statistical and machine learning tools...

  7. Analytical Modelling Of Milling For Tool Design And Selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, M.; Devillez, A.; Dudzinski, D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient analytical model which allows to simulate a large panel of milling operations. A geometrical description of common end mills and of their engagement in the workpiece material is proposed. The internal radius of the rounded part of the tool envelope is used to define the considered type of mill. The cutting edge position is described for a constant lead helix and for a constant local helix angle. A thermomechanical approach of oblique cutting is applied to predict forces acting on the tool and these results are compared with experimental data obtained from milling tests on a 42CrMo4 steel for three classical types of mills. The influence of some tool's geometrical parameters on predicted cutting forces is presented in order to propose optimisation criteria for design and selection of cutting tools

  8. Applications of Spatial Data Using Business Analytics Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Ioana ANDREESCU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the possibilities of using spatial data in business analytics tools, with emphasis on SAS software. Various kinds of map data sets containing spatial data are presented and discussed. Examples of map charts illustrating macroeconomic parameters demonstrate the application of spatial data for the creation of map charts in SAS Enterprise Guise. Extended features of map charts are being exemplified by producing charts via SAS programming procedures.

  9. Ultrasonic trap as analytical tool; Die Ultraschallfalle als analytisches Werkzeug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiterer, Jork

    2009-11-30

    The ultrasonic trap offers an exceptional possibility for sample handling in the scale of microlitres. Using acoustic levitation the sample is positioned in a containerless gaseous environment and therefore evades the influence of solid surfaces. In this work, the possibilities of the ultrasonic trap are investigated experimentally for its operation in analytics. In combination with typical contactless analytical methods, like spectroscopy and X-ray scattering, the advantages of this levitation technique are demonstrated at several materials, such as inorganic, organic and pharmaceutical substances as far as proteins, nano and micro particles. It is shown that the utilization of acoustic levitation enables reliable a contactless sample handling for the use of spectroscopic methods (LIF, Raman) as well as for the first time of methods of X-ray scattering (EDXD, SAXS, WAXS) und X-ray fluorescence (RFA, XANES). For all these methods the containerless sample handling turns out to be advantageous. The obtained results are comparable with those of conventional sample holders and, moreover, they partly surpass them with regard to the obtained data quality. A novel experimental approach was the integration of the acoustic levitator in the experimental set-up at the synchrotron. The application of the ultrasonic trap at BESSY was established during this work and actually represents the basis of intensive interdisciplinary research. Additionally the potential of the trap for enrichment was recognized and applied to study evaporation controlled processes. The containerless and concentration dependent analysis over a sample volume region of three orders of magnitude at the same sample is a unique possibility. It allowed essentially contributing to the elucidation of questions of several areas of research. These investigations are the first in situ studies of the agglomeration in an acoustic levitated droplet, starting from small (in)organical molecules over proteins up to

  10. Surface enhanced raman spectroscopy analytical, biophysical and life science applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schlücker, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Covering everything from the basic theoretical and practical knowledge to new exciting developments in the field with a focus on analytical and life science applications, this monograph shows how to apply surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for solving real world problems. From the contents: * Theory and practice of SERS * Analytical applications * SERS combined with other analytical techniques * Biophysical applications * Life science applications including various microscopies Aimed at analytical, surface and medicinal chemists, spectroscopists, biophysicists and materials scientists. Includes a Foreword by the renowned Raman spectroscopist Professor Wolfgang Kiefer, the former Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Raman Spectroscopy.

  11. Surface solitons in waveguide arrays: Analytical solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominis, Yannis; Papadopoulos, Aristeidis; Hizanidis, Kyriakos

    2007-08-06

    A novel phase-space method is employed for the construction of analytical stationary solitary waves located at the interface between a periodic nonlinear lattice of the Kronig-Penney type and a linear or nonlinear homogeneous medium as well as at the interface between two dissimilar nonlinear lattices. The method provides physical insight and understanding of the shape of the solitary wave profile and results to generic classes of localized solutions having either zero or nonzero semi-infinite backgrounds. For all cases, the method provides conditions involving the values of the propagation constant of the stationary solutions, the linear refractive index and the dimensions of each part in order to assure existence of solutions with specific profile characteristics. The evolution of the analytical solutions under propagation is investigated for cases of realistic configurations and interesting features are presented such as their remarkable robustness which could facilitate their experimental observation.

  12. Ball assisted device for analytical surface sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElNaggar, Mariam S; Van Berkel, Gary J; Covey, Thomas R

    2015-11-03

    A system for sampling a surface includes a sampling probe having a housing and a socket, and a rolling sampling sphere within the socket. The housing has a sampling fluid supply conduit and a sampling fluid exhaust conduit. The sampling fluid supply conduit supplies sampling fluid to the sampling sphere. The sampling fluid exhaust conduit has an inlet opening for receiving sampling fluid carried from the surface by the sampling sphere. A surface sampling probe and a method for sampling a surface are also disclosed.

  13. Micromechanical String Resonators: Analytical Tool for Thermal Characterization of Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Sanjukta; Schmid, Silvan; Larsen, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Resonant microstrings show promise as a new analytical tool for thermal characterization of polymers with only few nanograms of sample. The detection of the glass transition temperature (Tg) of an amorphous poly(d,l-lactide) (PDLLA) and a semicrystalline poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) is investigated....... The polymers are spray coated on one side of the resonating microstrings. The resonance frequency and quality factor (Q) are measured simultaneously as a function of temperature. Change in the resonance frequency reflects a change in static tensile stress, which yields information about the Young’s modulus...... of the polymer, and a change in Q reflects the change in damping of the polymer-coated string. The frequency response of the microstring is validated with an analytical model. From the frequency independent tensile stress change, static Tg values of 40.6 and 57.6 °C were measured for PDLLA and PLLA, respectively...

  14. Selecting analytical tools for characterization of polymersomes in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habel, Joachim Erich Otto; Ogbonna, Anayo; Larsen, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    Selecting the appropriate analytical methods for characterizing the assembly and morphology of polymer-based vesicles, or polymersomes are required to reach their full potential in biotechnology. This work presents and compares 17 different techniques for their ability to adequately report size....../purification. Of the analytical methods tested, Cryo-transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) turned out to be advantageous for polymersomes with smaller diameter than 200 nm, whereas confocal microscopy is ideal for diameters >400 nm. Polymersomes in the intermediate diameter range can be characterized...... using freeze fracture Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (FF-Cryo-SEM) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) provides reliable data on bilayer thickness and internal structure, Cryo-TEM on multilamellarity. Taken together, these tools are valuable...

  15. A Tool Supporting Collaborative Data Analytics Workflow Design and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Bao, Q.; Lee, T. J.

    2016-12-01

    Collaborative experiment design could significantly enhance the sharing and adoption of the data analytics algorithms and models emerged in Earth science. Existing data-oriented workflow tools, however, are not suitable to support collaborative design of such a workflow, to name a few, to support real-time co-design; to track how a workflow evolves over time based on changing designs contributed by multiple Earth scientists; and to capture and retrieve collaboration knowledge on workflow design (discussions that lead to a design). To address the aforementioned challenges, we have designed and developed a technique supporting collaborative data-oriented workflow composition and management, as a key component toward supporting big data collaboration through the Internet. Reproducibility and scalability are two major targets demanding fundamental infrastructural support. One outcome of the project os a software tool, supporting an elastic number of groups of Earth scientists to collaboratively design and compose data analytics workflows through the Internet. Instead of recreating the wheel, we have extended an existing workflow tool VisTrails into an online collaborative environment as a proof of concept.

  16. Analytical Aerodynamic Simulation Tools for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deglaire, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Wind power is a renewable energy source that is today the fastest growing solution to reduce CO 2 emissions in the electric energy mix. Upwind horizontal axis wind turbine with three blades has been the preferred technical choice for more than two decades. This horizontal axis concept is today widely leading the market. The current PhD thesis will cover an alternative type of wind turbine with straight blades and rotating along the vertical axis. A brief overview of the main differences between the horizontal and vertical axis concept has been made. However the main focus of this thesis is the aerodynamics of the wind turbine blades. Making aerodynamically efficient turbines starts with efficient blades. Making efficient blades requires a good understanding of the physical phenomena and effective simulations tools to model them. The specific aerodynamics for straight bladed vertical axis turbine flow are reviewed together with the standard aerodynamic simulations tools that have been used in the past by blade and rotor designer. A reasonably fast (regarding computer power) and accurate (regarding comparison with experimental results) simulation method was still lacking in the field prior to the current work. This thesis aims at designing such a method. Analytical methods can be used to model complex flow if the geometry is simple. Therefore, a conformal mapping method is derived to transform any set of section into a set of standard circles. Then analytical procedures are generalized to simulate moving multibody sections in the complex vertical flows and forces experienced by the blades. Finally the fast semi analytical aerodynamic algorithm boosted by fast multipole methods to handle high number of vortices is coupled with a simple structural model of the rotor to investigate potential aeroelastic instabilities. Together with these advanced simulation tools, a standard double multiple streamtube model has been developed and used to design several straight bladed

  17. Identity as an Analytical Tool to Explore Students’ Mathematical Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Steffen Møllegaard

    Learning to communicate in, with and about mathematics is a key part of learning mathematics (Niss & Højgaard, 2011). Therefore, understanding how students’ mathematical writing is shaped is important to mathematics education research. In this paper the notion of ‘writer identity’ (Ivanič, 1998; ......; Burgess & Ivanič, 2010) is introduced and operationalised in relation to students’ mathematical writing and through a case study it is illustrated how this analytic tool can facilitate valuable insights when exploring students’ mathematical writing....

  18. Selecting analytical tools for characterization of polymersomes in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habel, Joachim Erich Otto; Ogbonna, Anayo; Larsen, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    /purification. Of the analytical methods tested, Cryo-transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) turned out to be advantageous for polymersomes with smaller diameter than 200 nm, whereas confocal microscopy is ideal for diameters >400 nm. Polymersomes in the intermediate diameter range can be characterized...... using freeze fracture Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (FF-Cryo-SEM) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) provides reliable data on bilayer thickness and internal structure, Cryo-TEM on multilamellarity. Taken together, these tools are valuable...

  19. Surface analytical techniques applied to minerals processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, R.St.C.

    1991-01-01

    An understanding of the chemical and physical forms of the chemically altered layers on the surfaces of base metal sulphides, particularly in the form of hydroxides, oxyhydroxides and oxides, and the changes that occur in them during minerals processing lies at the core of a complete description of flotation chemistry. This paper reviews the application of a variety of surface-sensitive techniques and methodologies applied to the study of surface layers on single minerals, mixed minerals, synthetic ores and real ores. Evidence from combined XPS/SAM/SEM studies have provided images and analyses of three forms of oxide, oxyhydroxide and hydroxide products on the surfaces of single sulphide minerals, mineral mixtures and complex sulphide ores. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  20. Surface metallurgy of cemented carbide tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, K.L.; Kashyap, S.C.; Rao, T.V.; Rajagopalan, S.; Srivastava, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    Transition metal carbides, owing to their high melting point, hardness and wear resistance, are potential candidates for specific application in rockets, nuclear engineering equipment and cutting tools. Tungsten carbide sintered with a binder (either cobalt metal or a mixture of Co + TiC and/or TaC(NbC)) is used for cutting tools. The surface metallurgy of several commercially available cemented carbide tools was studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. The tool surfaces were contaminated by adsorbed oxygen up to a depth of nearly 0.3 μm causing deterioration of the mechanical properties of the tools. Studies of fractured samples indicated that the tool surfaces were prone to oxygen adsorption. The fracture path passes through the cobalt-rich regions. The ineffectiveness of a worn cutting tool is attributed to the presence of excessive iron from the steel workpiece and carbon and oxygen in the surface layers of the tool. The use of appropriate hard coatings on cemented carbide tools is suggested. (Auth.)

  1. Number series of atoms, interatomic bonds and interface bonds defining zinc-blende nanocrystals as function of size, shape and surface orientation: Analytic tools to interpret solid state spectroscopy data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk König

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs experience stress and charge transfer by embedding materials or ligands and impurity atoms. In return, the environment of NCs experiences a NC stress response which may lead to matrix deformation and propagated strain. Up to now, there is no universal gauge to evaluate the stress impact on NCs and their response as a function of NC size dNC. I deduce geometrical number series as analytical tools to obtain the number of NC atoms NNC(dNC[i], bonds between NC atoms Nbnd(dNC[i] and interface bonds NIF(dNC[i] for seven high symmetry zinc-blende (zb NCs with low-index faceting: {001} cubes, {111} octahedra, {110} dodecahedra, {001}-{111} pyramids, {111} tetrahedra, {111}-{001} quatrodecahedra and {001}-{111} quadrodecahedra. The fundamental insights into NC structures revealed here allow for major advancements in data interpretation and understanding of zb- and diamond-lattice based nanomaterials. The analytical number series can serve as a standard procedure for stress evaluation in solid state spectroscopy due to their deterministic nature, easy use and general applicability over a wide range of spectroscopy methods as well as NC sizes, forms and materials.

  2. Number series of atoms, interatomic bonds and interface bonds defining zinc-blende nanocrystals as function of size, shape and surface orientation: Analytic tools to interpret solid state spectroscopy data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    König, Dirk, E-mail: dirk.koenig@unsw.edu.au [Integrated Materials Design Centre (IMDC) and School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering (SPREE), University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2016-08-15

    Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) experience stress and charge transfer by embedding materials or ligands and impurity atoms. In return, the environment of NCs experiences a NC stress response which may lead to matrix deformation and propagated strain. Up to now, there is no universal gauge to evaluate the stress impact on NCs and their response as a function of NC size d{sub NC}. I deduce geometrical number series as analytical tools to obtain the number of NC atoms N{sub NC}(d{sub NC}[i]), bonds between NC atoms N{sub bnd}(d{sub NC}[i]) and interface bonds N{sub IF}(d{sub NC}[i]) for seven high symmetry zinc-blende (zb) NCs with low-index faceting: {001} cubes, {111} octahedra, {110} dodecahedra, {001}-{111} pyramids, {111} tetrahedra, {111}-{001} quatrodecahedra and {001}-{111} quadrodecahedra. The fundamental insights into NC structures revealed here allow for major advancements in data interpretation and understanding of zb- and diamond-lattice based nanomaterials. The analytical number series can serve as a standard procedure for stress evaluation in solid state spectroscopy due to their deterministic nature, easy use and general applicability over a wide range of spectroscopy methods as well as NC sizes, forms and materials.

  3. Analytical Tools to Improve Optimization Procedures for Lateral Flow Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen V. Hsieh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Immunochromatographic or lateral flow assays (LFAs are inexpensive, easy to use, point-of-care medical diagnostic tests that are found in arenas ranging from a doctor’s office in Manhattan to a rural medical clinic in low resource settings. The simplicity in the LFA itself belies the complex task of optimization required to make the test sensitive, rapid and easy to use. Currently, the manufacturers develop LFAs by empirical optimization of material components (e.g., analytical membranes, conjugate pads and sample pads, biological reagents (e.g., antibodies, blocking reagents and buffers and the design of delivery geometry. In this paper, we will review conventional optimization and then focus on the latter and outline analytical tools, such as dynamic light scattering and optical biosensors, as well as methods, such as microfluidic flow design and mechanistic models. We are applying these tools to find non-obvious optima of lateral flow assays for improved sensitivity, specificity and manufacturing robustness.

  4. Exact analytical density profiles and surface tension

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. May 2005 physics pp. 785–801. Classical charged fluids at equilibrium near ... is provided by the excess surface tension for an air–water interface, which is determined ... the potential drop created by the electric layer which appears as soon as the fluid has ...... radii, by symmetry, the charge density profile is flat,.

  5. 33 CFR 385.33 - Revisions to models and analytical tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... on a case-by-case basis what documentation is appropriate for revisions to models and analytic tools... analytical tools. 385.33 Section 385.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Incorporating New Information Into the Plan § 385.33 Revisions to models and analytical tools. (a) In carrying...

  6. Surface analytical methods in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgaertner, F.

    1985-06-01

    Application of SEM-EDX, AES, XPS are exemplarily demonstrated for highly radioactive materials with ionizing dose rates of about 1 Sv near the surface. The samples studied are aerosols from the high level waste vitrification process, postprecipitation in a pretreated fuel solution and emulsifying sludge from a solvent extraction process. The results of the chemical composition differentiated down to microscopic level reveal much more information about the history of a sample than those available from the integral macro-methods analysing. Elucidication of chemical composition and body structure in micrometer level may give insight into the origin and generation processes of samples under investigation. (orig.)

  7. Analytical Tools for the Routine Use of the UMAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Auria, F.; Eramo, A.; Gianotti, W.

    1998-01-01

    UMAE (Uncertainty Methodology based on Accuracy Extrapolation) is methodology developed to calculate the uncertainties related to thermal-hydraulic code results in Nuclear Power Plant transient analysis. The use of the methodology has shown the need of specific analytical tools to simplify some steps of its application and making clearer individual procedures adopted in the development. Three of these have been recently completed and are illustrated in this paper. The first one makes it possible to attribute ''weight factors'' to the experimental Integral Test Facilities; results are also shown. The second one deals with the calculation of the accuracy of a code results. The concerned computer program makes a comparison between experimental and calculated trends of any quantity and gives as output the accuracy of the calculation. The third one consists in a computer program suitable to get continuous uncertainty bands from single valued points. (author)

  8. Improving web site performance using commercially available analytical tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, James A

    2010-10-01

    It is easy to accurately measure web site usage and to quantify key parameters such as page views, site visits, and more complex variables using commercially available tools that analyze web site log files and search engine use. This information can be used strategically to guide the design or redesign of a web site (templates, look-and-feel, and navigation infrastructure) to improve overall usability. The data can also be used tactically to assess the popularity and use of new pages and modules that are added and to rectify problems that surface. This paper describes software tools used to: (1) inventory search terms that lead to available content; (2) propose synonyms for commonly used search terms; (3) evaluate the effectiveness of calls to action; (4) conduct path analyses to targeted content. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) uses SurfRay's Behavior Tracking software (Santa Clara CA, USA, and Copenhagen, Denmark) to capture and archive the search terms that have been entered into the site's Google Mini search engine. The AAOS also uses Unica's NetInsight program to analyze its web site log files. These tools provide the AAOS with information that quantifies how well its web sites are operating and insights for making improvements to them. Although it is easy to quantify many aspects of an association's web presence, it also takes human involvement to analyze the results and then recommend changes. Without a dedicated resource to do this, the work often is accomplished only sporadically and on an ad hoc basis.

  9. Network analytical tool for monitoring global food safety highlights China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Nepusz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Beijing Declaration on food safety and security was signed by over fifty countries with the aim of developing comprehensive programs for monitoring food safety and security on behalf of their citizens. Currently, comprehensive systems for food safety and security are absent in many countries, and the systems that are in place have been developed on different principles allowing poor opportunities for integration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed a user-friendly analytical tool based on network approaches for instant customized analysis of food alert patterns in the European dataset from the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed. Data taken from alert logs between January 2003-August 2008 were processed using network analysis to i capture complexity, ii analyze trends, and iii predict possible effects of interventions by identifying patterns of reporting activities between countries. The detector and transgressor relationships are readily identifiable between countries which are ranked using i Google's PageRank algorithm and ii the HITS algorithm of Kleinberg. The program identifies Iran, China and Turkey as the transgressors with the largest number of alerts. However, when characterized by impact, counting the transgressor index and the number of countries involved, China predominates as a transgressor country. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study reports the first development of a network analysis approach to inform countries on their transgressor and detector profiles as a user-friendly aid for the adoption of the Beijing Declaration. The ability to instantly access the country-specific components of the several thousand annual reports will enable each country to identify the major transgressors and detectors within its trading network. Moreover, the tool can be used to monitor trading countries for improved detector/transgressor ratios.

  10. Analytical fitting model for rough-surface BRDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renhorn, Ingmar G E; Boreman, Glenn D

    2008-08-18

    A physics-based model is developed for rough surface BRDF, taking into account angles of incidence and scattering, effective index, surface autocovariance, and correlation length. Shadowing is introduced on surface correlation length and reflectance. Separate terms are included for surface scatter, bulk scatter and retroreflection. Using the FindFit function in Mathematica, the functional form is fitted to BRDF measurements over a wide range of incident angles. The model has fourteen fitting parameters; once these are fixed, the model accurately describes scattering data over two orders of magnitude in BRDF without further adjustment. The resulting analytical model is convenient for numerical computations.

  11. Using complaints to enhance quality improvement: developing an analytical tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sophie Yahui

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to construct an instrument for identifying certain attributes or capabilities that might enable healthcare staff to use complaints to improve service quality. PubMed and ProQuest were searched, which in turn expanded access to other literature. Three paramount dimensions emerged for healthcare quality management systems: managerial, operational, and technical (MOT). The paper reveals that the managerial dimension relates to quality improvement program infrastructure. It contains strategy, structure, leadership, people and culture. The operational dimension relates to implementation processes: organizational changes and barriers when using complaints to enhance quality. The technical dimension emphasizes the skills, techniques or information systems required to achieve successfully continuous quality improvement. The MOT model was developed by drawing from the relevant literature. However, individuals have different training, interests and experiences and, therefore, there will be variance between researchers when generating the MOT model. The MOT components can be the guidelines for examining whether patient complaints are used to improve service quality. However, the model needs testing and validating by conducting further research before becoming a theory. Empirical studies on patient complaints did not identify any analytical tool that could be used to explore how complaints can drive quality improvement. This study developed an instrument for identifying certain attributes or capabilities that might enable healthcare professionals to use complaints and improve service quality.

  12. Surface science tools for nanomaterials characterization

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Fourth volume of a 40volume series on nano science and nanotechnology, edited by the renowned scientist Challa S.S.R. Kumar. This handbook gives a comprehensive overview about Surface Science Tools for Nanomaterials Characterization. Modern applications and state-of-the-art techniques are covered and make this volume an essential reading for research scientists in academia and industry.

  13. Forensic surface metrology: tool mark evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Carol; McLaughlin, Patrick; Kuo, Loretta; Kammerman, Frani; Shenkin, Peter; Diaczuk, Peter; Petraco, Nicholas; Hamby, James; Petraco, Nicholas D K

    2011-01-01

    Over the last several decades, forensic examiners of impression evidence have come under scrutiny in the courtroom due to analysis methods that rely heavily on subjective morphological comparisons. Currently, there is no universally accepted system that generates numerical data to independently corroborate visual comparisons. Our research attempts to develop such a system for tool mark evidence, proposing a methodology that objectively evaluates the association of striated tool marks with the tools that generated them. In our study, 58 primer shear marks on 9 mm cartridge cases, fired from four Glock model 19 pistols, were collected using high-resolution white light confocal microscopy. The resulting three-dimensional surface topographies were filtered to extract all "waviness surfaces"-the essential "line" information that firearm and tool mark examiners view under a microscope. Extracted waviness profiles were processed with principal component analysis (PCA) for dimension reduction. Support vector machines (SVM) were used to make the profile-gun associations, and conformal prediction theory (CPT) for establishing confidence levels. At the 95% confidence level, CPT coupled with PCA-SVM yielded an empirical error rate of 3.5%. Complementary, bootstrap-based computations for estimated error rates were 0%, indicating that the error rate for the algorithmic procedure is likely to remain low on larger data sets. Finally, suggestions are made for practical courtroom application of CPT for assigning levels of confidence to SVM identifications of tool marks recorded with confocal microscopy. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Neutron activation analysis as analytical tool of environmental issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otoshi, Tsunehiko

    2004-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) ia applicable to the sample of wide range of research fields, such as material science, biology, geochemistry and so on. However, respecting the advantages of NAA, a sample with small amounts or a precious sample is the most suitable samples for NAA, because NAA is capable of trace analysis and non-destructive determination. In this paper, among these fields, NAA of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) sample is discussed emphasizing on the use of obtained data as an analytical tool of environmental issue. Concentration of PM in air is usually very low, and it is not easy to get vast amount of sample even using a high volume air sampling devise. Therefore, high sensitive NAA is suitable to determine elements in PM samples. Main components of PM is crust oriented silicate, and so on in rural/remote area, and carbonic materials and heavy metals are concentrated in PM in urban area, because of automobile exhaust and other anthropogenic emission source. Elemental pattern of PM reflects a condition of air around the monitoring site. Trends of air pollution can be traced by periodical monitoring of PM by NAA method. Elemental concentrations in air change by season. For example, crustal elements increase in dry season, and sea salts components increase their concentration when wind direction from sea is dominant. Elements that emitted from anthropogenic sources are mainly contained in fine portion of PM, and increase their concentration during winter season, when emission from heating system is high and air is stable. For further analysis and understanding of environmental issues, indicator elements for various emission sources, and elemental concentration ratios of some environmental samples and source portion assignment techniques are useful. (author)

  15. Laser surface texturing of tool steel: textured surfaces quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šugár, Peter; Šugárová, Jana; Frnčík, Martin

    2016-05-01

    In this experimental investigation the laser surface texturing of tool steel of type 90MnCrV8 has been conducted. The 5-axis highly dynamic laser precision machining centre Lasertec 80 Shape equipped with the nano-second pulsed ytterbium fibre laser and CNC system Siemens 840 D was used. The planar and spherical surfaces first prepared by turning have been textured. The regular array of spherical and ellipsoidal dimples with a different dimensions and different surface density has been created. Laser surface texturing has been realized under different combinations of process parameters: pulse frequency, pulse energy and laser beam scanning speed. The morphological characterization of ablated surfaces has been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. The results show limited possibility of ns pulse fibre laser application to generate different surface structures for tribological modification of metallic materials. These structures were obtained by varying the processing conditions between surface ablation, to surface remelting. In all cases the areas of molten material and re-cast layers were observed on the bottom and walls of the dimples. Beside the influence of laser beam parameters on the machined surface quality during laser machining of regular hemispherical and elipsoidal dimple texture on parabolic and hemispherical surfaces has been studied.

  16. Factors Influencing Beliefs for Adoption of a Learning Analytics Tool: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Liaqat; Asadi, Mohsen; Gasevic, Dragan; Jovanovic, Jelena; Hatala, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Present research and development offer various learning analytics tools providing insights into different aspects of learning processes. Adoption of a specific tool for practice is based on how its learning analytics are perceived by educators to support their pedagogical and organizational goals. In this paper, we propose and empirically validate…

  17. Analytical quality by design: a tool for regulatory flexibility and robust analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraman, Ramalingam; Bhadraya, Kalva; Padmanabha Reddy, Yiragamreddy

    2015-01-01

    Very recently, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a few new drug applications (NDA) with regulatory flexibility for quality by design (QbD) based analytical approach. The concept of QbD applied to analytical method development is known now as AQbD (analytical quality by design). It allows the analytical method for movement within method operable design region (MODR). Unlike current methods, analytical method developed using analytical quality by design (AQbD) approach reduces the number of out-of-trend (OOT) results and out-of-specification (OOS) results due to the robustness of the method within the region. It is a current trend among pharmaceutical industry to implement analytical quality by design (AQbD) in method development process as a part of risk management, pharmaceutical development, and pharmaceutical quality system (ICH Q10). Owing to the lack explanatory reviews, this paper has been communicated to discuss different views of analytical scientists about implementation of AQbD in pharmaceutical quality system and also to correlate with product quality by design and pharmaceutical analytical technology (PAT).

  18. Factors Influencing Attitudes Towards the Use of CRM’s Analytical Tools in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šebjan Urban

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Information solutions for analytical customer relationship management CRM (aCRM IS that include the use of analytical tools are becoming increasingly important, due organizations’ need for knowledge of their customers and the ability to manage big data. The objective of the research is, therefore, to determine how the organizations’ orientations (process, innovation, and technology as critical organizational factors affect the attitude towards the use of the analytical tools of aCRM IS.

  19. Laser: a Tool for Optimization and Enhancement of Analytical Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preisler, Jan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In this work, we use lasers to enhance possibilities of laser desorption methods and to optimize coating procedure for capillary electrophoresis (CE). We use several different instrumental arrangements to characterize matrix-assisted laser desorption (MALD) at atmospheric pressure and in vacuum. In imaging mode, 488-nm argon-ion laser beam is deflected by two acousto-optic deflectors to scan plumes desorbed at atmospheric pressure via absorption. All absorbing species, including neutral molecules, are monitored. Interesting features, e.g. differences between the initial plume and subsequent plumes desorbed from the same spot, or the formation of two plumes from one laser shot are observed. Total plume absorbance can be correlated with the acoustic signal generated by the desorption event. A model equation for the plume velocity as a function of time is proposed. Alternatively, the use of a static laser beam for observation enables reliable determination of plume velocities even when they are very high. Static scattering detection reveals negative influence of particle spallation on MS signal. Ion formation during MALD was monitored using 193-nm light to photodissociate a portion of insulin ion plume. These results define the optimal conditions for desorbing analytes from matrices, as opposed to achieving a compromise between efficient desorption and efficient ionization as is practiced in mass spectrometry. In CE experiment, we examined changes in a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) coating by continuously monitoring the electroosmotic flow (EOF) in a fused-silica capillary during electrophoresis. An imaging CCD camera was used to follow the motion of a fluorescent neutral marker zone along the length of the capillary excited by 488-nm Ar-ion laser. The PEO coating was shown to reduce the velocity of EOF by more than an order of magnitude compared to a bare capillary at pH 7.0. The coating protocol was important, especially at an intermediate pH of 7.7. The increase of p

  20. Advances in analytical tools for high throughput strain engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcellin, Esteban; Nielsen, Lars Keld

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of inexpensive, base-perfect genome editing is revolutionising biology. Modern industrial biotechnology exploits the advances in genome editing in combination with automation, analytics and data integration to build high-throughput automated strain engineering pipelines also known...... as biofoundries. Biofoundries replace the slow and inconsistent artisanal processes used to build microbial cell factories with an automated design–build–test cycle, considerably reducing the time needed to deliver commercially viable strains. Testing and hence learning remains relatively shallow, but recent...... advances in analytical chemistry promise to increase the depth of characterization possible. Analytics combined with models of cellular physiology in automated systems biology pipelines should enable deeper learning and hence a steeper pitch of the learning cycle. This review explores the progress...

  1. Analytical Tools for Functional Assessment of Architectural Layouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąkowski, Jarosław

    2017-10-01

    Functional layout of the building, understood as a layout or set of the facility rooms (or groups of rooms) with a system of internal communication, creates an environment and a place of mutual relations between the occupants of the object. Achieving optimal (from the occupants’ point of view) spatial arrangement is possible through activities that often go beyond the stage of architectural design. Adopted in the architectural design, most often during trial and error process or on the basis of previous experience (evidence-based design), functional layout is subject to continuous evaluation and dynamic changing since the beginning of its use. Such verification of the occupancy phase allows to plan future, possible transformations, as well as to develop model solutions for use in other settings. In broader terms, the research hypothesis is to examine whether and how the collected datasets concerning the facility and its utilization can be used to develop methods for assessing functional layout of buildings. In other words, if it is possible to develop an objective method of assessing functional layouts basing on a set of buildings’ parameters: technical, technological and functional ones and whether the method allows developing a set of tools enhancing the design methodology of complex functional objects. By linking the design with the construction phase it is possible to build parametric models of functional layouts, especially in the context of sustainable design or lean design in every aspect: ecological (by reducing the property’s impact on environment), economic (by optimizing its cost) and social (through the implementation of high-performance work environment). Parameterization of size and functional connections of the facility become part of the analyses, as well as the element of model solutions. The “lean” approach means the process of analysis of the existing scheme and consequently - finding weak points as well as means for eliminating these

  2. Analytical models for the rewetting of hot surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olek, S.

    1988-10-01

    Some aspects concerning analytical models for the rewetting of hot surface are discussed. These include the problems with applying various forms of boundary conditions, compatibility of boundary conditions with the physics of the rewetting problems, recent analytical models, the use of the separation of variables method versus the Wiener-Hopf technique, and the use of transformations. The report includes an updated list of rewetting models as well as benchmark solutions in tabular form for several models. It should be emphasized that this report is not meant to cover the topic of rewetting models. It merely discusses some points which are less commonly referred to in the literature. 93 refs., 3 figs., 22 tabs

  3. Electrochemical sensors: a powerful tool in analytical chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stradiotto Nelson R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Potentiometric, amperometric and conductometric electrochemical sensors have found a number of interesting applications in the areas of environmental, industrial, and clinical analyses. This review presents a general overview of the three main types of electrochemical sensors, describing fundamental aspects, developments and their contribution to the area of analytical chemistry, relating relevant aspects of the development of electrochemical sensors in Brazil.

  4. Analytical characterization using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and microfluidic sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Chenxu

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of analytical techniques, it has become much easier to detect chemical and biological analytes, even at very low detection limits. In recent years, techniques based on vibrational spectroscopy, such as surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), have been developed for non-destructive detection of pathogenic microorganisms. SERS is a highly sensitive analytical tool that can be used to characterize chemical and biological analytes interacting with SERS-active substrates. However, it has always been a challenge to obtain consistent and reproducible SERS spectroscopic results at complicated experimental conditions. Microfluidics, a tool for highly precise manipulation of small volume liquid samples, can be used to overcome the major drawbacks of SERS-based techniques. High reproducibility of SERS measurement could be obtained in continuous flow generated inside microfluidic devices. This article provides a thorough review of the principles, concepts and methods of SERS-microfluidic platforms, and the applications of such platforms in trace analysis of chemical and biological analytes. (topical review)

  5. Application of quantum dots as analytical tools in automated chemical analysis: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigerio, Christian; Ribeiro, David S.M.; Rodrigues, S. Sofia M.; Abreu, Vera L.R.G.; Barbosa, João A.C.; Prior, João A.V.; Marques, Karine L.; Santos, João L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Review on quantum dots application in automated chemical analysis. ► Automation by using flow-based techniques. ► Quantum dots in liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. ► Detection by fluorescence and chemiluminescence. ► Electrochemiluminescence and radical generation. - Abstract: Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) are one of the most relevant developments in the fast-growing world of nanotechnology. Initially proposed as luminescent biological labels, they are finding new important fields of application in analytical chemistry, where their photoluminescent properties have been exploited in environmental monitoring, pharmaceutical and clinical analysis and food quality control. Despite the enormous variety of applications that have been developed, the automation of QDs-based analytical methodologies by resorting to automation tools such as continuous flow analysis and related techniques, which would allow to take advantage of particular features of the nanocrystals such as the versatile surface chemistry and ligand binding ability, the aptitude to generate reactive species, the possibility of encapsulation in different materials while retaining native luminescence providing the means for the implementation of renewable chemosensors or even the utilisation of more drastic and even stability impairing reaction conditions, is hitherto very limited. In this review, we provide insights into the analytical potential of quantum dots focusing on prospects of their utilisation in automated flow-based and flow-related approaches and the future outlook of QDs applications in chemical analysis.

  6. Surface analytical investigations at Sandia Labs./Albuquerque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, H.H.

    1978-01-01

    An overview is given of some projects which (1) have used surface analytical techniques in a conventional way to investigate specific surface-related problems; (2) have utilized surface studies to get a more fundamental understanding of the operations of various devices and components, and of the factors that determine such parameters as the lifetime and reliability of such devices; and (3) have been undertaken to better understand just what additional information can be extracted from two of the myriad surface analytical techniques, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and electron-stimulated desorption (ESD). The examples in the first two categories are directly related weapons work while the examples discussed in the third category provide more general support to weapons programs. Only work in the first category is tabulated. Two examples of work in the second category are the neutron generator project and the design and production of integrated circuits (IC). Tritide-film targets in neutron generator tubes lose their efficiency for neutron production when they have adsorbed surface contaminants such as oxygen. Ion microprobe analysis has been applied to the study of contaminants on and in these films; and thermal desorption spectroscopy has been used to identify, and to determine the binding energy of gases evolved during outgassing of materials used in tube construction. Long-term outgassing determines the lifetime of the vacuum tubes. AES serves as the common thread in the third category projects. Gas phase, core-valence-valence (CVV) Auger lines have been measured in a systematic attempt, utilizing both theory and experimental results, to determine the factors that influence the shapes of the lines. This work demonstrates the local nature of the information on the energy distribution of valence levels contained in the Auger lineshapes

  7. Mapping healthcare systems: a policy relevant analytic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhri Feachem, Neelam; Afshar, Ariana; Pruett, Cristina; Avanceña, Anton L V

    2017-07-01

    In the past decade, an international consensus on the value of well-functioning systems has driven considerable health systems research. This research falls into two broad categories. The first provides conceptual frameworks that take complex healthcare systems and create simplified constructs of interactions and functions. The second focuses on granular inputs and outputs. This paper presents a novel translational mapping tool - the University of California, San Francisco mapping tool (the Tool) - which bridges the gap between these two areas of research, creating a platform for multi-country comparative analysis. Using the Murray-Frenk framework, we create a macro-level representation of a country's structure, focusing on how it finances and delivers healthcare. The map visually depicts the fundamental policy questions in healthcare system design: funding sources and amount spent through each source, purchasers, populations covered, provider categories; and the relationship between these entities. We use the Tool to provide a macro-level comparative analysis of the structure of India's and Thailand's healthcare systems. As part of the systems strengthening arsenal, the Tool can stimulate debate about the merits and consequences of different healthcare systems structural designs, using a common framework that fosters multi-country comparative analyses. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. Web analytics as tool for improvement of website taxonomies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasen, Tanja Svarre; Ådland, Marit Kristine; Lykke, Marianne

    The poster examines how web analytics can be used to provide information about users and inform design and redesign of taxonomies. It uses a case study of the website Cancer.dk by the Danish Cancer Society. The society is a private organization with an overall goal to prevent the development...... provides information about e.g. subjects of interest, searching behaviour, browsing patterns in website structure as well as tag clouds, page views. The poster discusses benefits and challenges of the two web metrics, with a model of how to use search and tag data for the design of taxonomies, e.g. choice...

  9. Enhancing Safeguards through Information Analysis: Business Analytics Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, J.; Midwinter, J.

    2015-01-01

    For the past 25 years the IBM i2 Intelligence Analysis product portfolio has assisted over 4,500 organizations across law enforcement, defense, government agencies, and commercial private sector businesses to maximize the value of the mass of information to discover and disseminate actionable intelligence that can help identify, investigate, predict, prevent, and disrupt criminal, terrorist, and fraudulent acts; safeguarding communities, organizations, infrastructures, and investments. The collaborative Intelligence Analysis environment delivered by i2 is specifically designed to be: · scalable: supporting business needs as well as operational and end user environments · modular: an architecture which can deliver maximum operational flexibility with ability to add complimentary analytics · interoperable: integrating with existing environments and eases information sharing across partner agencies · extendable: providing an open source developer essential toolkit, examples, and documentation for custom requirements i2 Intelligence Analysis brings clarity to complex investigations and operations by delivering industry leading multidimensional analytics that can be run on-demand across disparate data sets or across a single centralized analysis environment. The sole aim is to detect connections, patterns, and relationships hidden within high-volume, all-source data, and to create and disseminate intelligence products in near real time for faster informed decision making. (author)

  10. Distributed Engine Control Empirical/Analytical Verification Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCastro, Jonathan; Hettler, Eric; Yedavalli, Rama; Mitra, Sayan

    2013-01-01

    NASA's vision for an intelligent engine will be realized with the development of a truly distributed control system featuring highly reliable, modular, and dependable components capable of both surviving the harsh engine operating environment and decentralized functionality. A set of control system verification tools was developed and applied to a C-MAPSS40K engine model, and metrics were established to assess the stability and performance of these control systems on the same platform. A software tool was developed that allows designers to assemble easily a distributed control system in software and immediately assess the overall impacts of the system on the target (simulated) platform, allowing control system designers to converge rapidly on acceptable architectures with consideration to all required hardware elements. The software developed in this program will be installed on a distributed hardware-in-the-loop (DHIL) simulation tool to assist NASA and the Distributed Engine Control Working Group (DECWG) in integrating DCS (distributed engine control systems) components onto existing and next-generation engines.The distributed engine control simulator blockset for MATLAB/Simulink and hardware simulator provides the capability to simulate virtual subcomponents, as well as swap actual subcomponents for hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) analysis. Subcomponents can be the communication network, smart sensor or actuator nodes, or a centralized control system. The distributed engine control blockset for MATLAB/Simulink is a software development tool. The software includes an engine simulation, a communication network simulation, control algorithms, and analysis algorithms set up in a modular environment for rapid simulation of different network architectures; the hardware consists of an embedded device running parts of the CMAPSS engine simulator and controlled through Simulink. The distributed engine control simulation, evaluation, and analysis technology provides unique

  11. An Analytical Study of Tools and Techniques for Movie Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Maik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Bollywood or Hindi movie industry is one of the fastest growing sector in the media and entertainment space creating numerous business and employment opportunities. Movies in India are a major source of entertainment for all sects of society. They not only face competition from other movie industries and movies but from other source of entertainment such as adventure sports, amusement parks, theatre and drama, pubs and discothèques. A lot of man power, man hours, creative brains, and money are put in to build a quality feature film. Bollywood is the industry which continuously works towards providing the 7 billion population with something new always. So it is important for the movie and production team to stand out, to grab the due attention of the maximum audience. Movie makers employ various tools and techniques today to market their movies. They leave no stone unturned. They roll out teasers, First look, Theatrical trailer release, Music launch, City tours, Producer’s and director’s interview, Movie premier, Movie release, post release follow up and etc. to pull the viewers to the Cineplex. The audience today which comprises mainly of youth requires photos, videos, meet ups, gossip, debate, collaboration and content creation. These requirements of today’s generation are most fulfilled through digital platforms. However, the traditional media like newspapers, radio, and television are not old school. They reach out to mass audience and play an upper role in effective marketing. This study aims at analysing these tools for their effectiveness. The objectives are fulfilled through a consumer survey. This study will bring out the effectiveness and relational importance of various tools which are employed by movie marketers to generate maximum returns on the investments by using various data reduction techniques like factor analysis and statistical techniques like chi-square test with data visualization using pie charts

  12. Median of patient results as a tool for assessment of analytical stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lars Mønster; Hansen, Steen Ingemann; Petersen, Per Hyltoft

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In spite of the well-established external quality assessment and proficiency testing surveys of analytical quality performance in laboratory medicine, a simple tool to monitor the long-term analytical stability as a supplement to the internal control procedures is often needed. METHOD......: Patient data from daily internal control schemes was used for monthly appraisal of the analytical stability. This was accomplished by using the monthly medians of patient results to disclose deviations from analytical stability, and by comparing divergences with the quality specifications for allowable...... analytical bias based on biological variation. RESULTS: Seventy five percent of the twenty analytes achieved on two COBASs INTEGRA 800 instruments performed in accordance with the optimum and with the desirable specifications for bias. DISCUSSION: Patient results applied in analytical quality performance...

  13. Microplasmas for chemical analysis: analytical tools or research toys?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanassios, Vassili

    2004-01-01

    An overview of the activities of the research groups that have been involved in fabrication, development and characterization of microplasmas for chemical analysis over the last few years is presented. Microplasmas covered include: miniature inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs); capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs); microwave-induced plasmas (MIPs); a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD); microhollow cathode discharge (MCHD) or microstructure electrode (MSE) discharges, other microglow discharges (such as those formed between 'liquid' electrodes); microplasmas formed in micrometer-diameter capillary tubes for gas chromatography (GC) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) applications, and a stabilized capacitive plasma (SCP) for GC applications. Sample introduction into microplasmas, in particular, into a microplasma device (MPD), battery operation of a MPD and of a mini- in-torch vaporization (ITV) microsample introduction system for MPDs, and questions of microplasma portability for use on site (e.g., in the field) are also briefly addressed using examples of current research. To emphasize the significance of sample introduction into microplasmas, some previously unpublished results from the author's laboratory have also been included. And an overall assessment of the state-of-the-art of analytical microplasma research is provided

  14. Harnessing scientific literature reports for pharmacovigilance. Prototype software analytical tool development and usability testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbello, Alfred; Ripple, Anna; Tonning, Joseph; Munoz, Monica; Hasan, Rashedul; Ly, Thomas; Francis, Henry; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2017-03-22

    We seek to develop a prototype software analytical tool to augment FDA regulatory reviewers' capacity to harness scientific literature reports in PubMed/MEDLINE for pharmacovigilance and adverse drug event (ADE) safety signal detection. We also aim to gather feedback through usability testing to assess design, performance, and user satisfaction with the tool. A prototype, open source, web-based, software analytical tool generated statistical disproportionality data mining signal scores and dynamic visual analytics for ADE safety signal detection and management. We leveraged Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) indexing terms assigned to published citations in PubMed/MEDLINE to generate candidate drug-adverse event pairs for quantitative data mining. Six FDA regulatory reviewers participated in usability testing by employing the tool as part of their ongoing real-life pharmacovigilance activities to provide subjective feedback on its practical impact, added value, and fitness for use. All usability test participants cited the tool's ease of learning, ease of use, and generation of quantitative ADE safety signals, some of which corresponded to known established adverse drug reactions. Potential concerns included the comparability of the tool's automated literature search relative to a manual 'all fields' PubMed search, missing drugs and adverse event terms, interpretation of signal scores, and integration with existing computer-based analytical tools. Usability testing demonstrated that this novel tool can automate the detection of ADE safety signals from published literature reports. Various mitigation strategies are described to foster improvements in design, productivity, and end user satisfaction.

  15. Cluster Analysis as an Analytical Tool of Population Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Mikhaylovna Shubat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The predicted negative trends in Russian demography (falling birth rates, population decline actualize the need to strengthen measures of family and population policy. Our research purpose is to identify groups of Russian regions with similar characteristics in the family sphere using cluster analysis. The findings should make an important contribution to the field of family policy. We used hierarchical cluster analysis based on the Ward method and the Euclidean distance for segmentation of Russian regions. Clustering is based on four variables, which allowed assessing the family institution in the region. The authors used the data of Federal State Statistics Service from 2010 to 2015. Clustering and profiling of each segment has allowed forming a model of Russian regions depending on the features of the family institution in these regions. The authors revealed four clusters grouping regions with similar problems in the family sphere. This segmentation makes it possible to develop the most relevant family policy measures in each group of regions. Thus, the analysis has shown a high degree of differentiation of the family institution in the regions. This suggests that a unified approach to population problems’ solving is far from being effective. To achieve greater results in the implementation of family policy, a differentiated approach is needed. Methods of multidimensional data classification can be successfully applied as a relevant analytical toolkit. Further research could develop the adaptation of multidimensional classification methods to the analysis of the population problems in Russian regions. In particular, the algorithms of nonparametric cluster analysis may be of relevance in future studies.

  16. Median of patient results as a tool for assessment of analytical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Lars Mønster; Hansen, Steen Ingemann; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Sölétormos, György

    2015-06-15

    In spite of the well-established external quality assessment and proficiency testing surveys of analytical quality performance in laboratory medicine, a simple tool to monitor the long-term analytical stability as a supplement to the internal control procedures is often needed. Patient data from daily internal control schemes was used for monthly appraisal of the analytical stability. This was accomplished by using the monthly medians of patient results to disclose deviations from analytical stability, and by comparing divergences with the quality specifications for allowable analytical bias based on biological variation. Seventy five percent of the twenty analytes achieved on two COBASs INTEGRA 800 instruments performed in accordance with the optimum and with the desirable specifications for bias. Patient results applied in analytical quality performance control procedures are the most reliable sources of material as they represent the genuine substance of the measurements and therefore circumvent the problems associated with non-commutable materials in external assessment. Patient medians in the monthly monitoring of analytical stability in laboratory medicine are an inexpensive, simple and reliable tool to monitor the steadiness of the analytical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Surface dimpling on rotating work piece using rotation cutting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhapkar, Rohit Arun; Larsen, Eric Richard

    2015-03-31

    A combined method of machining and applying a surface texture to a work piece and a tool assembly that is capable of machining and applying a surface texture to a work piece are disclosed. The disclosed method includes machining portions of an outer or inner surface of a work piece. The method also includes rotating the work piece in front of a rotating cutting tool and engaging the outer surface of the work piece with the rotating cutting tool to cut dimples in the outer surface of the work piece. The disclosed tool assembly includes a rotating cutting tool coupled to an end of a rotational machining device, such as a lathe. The same tool assembly can be used to both machine the work piece and apply a surface texture to the work piece without unloading the work piece from the tool assembly.

  18. Positron spectroscopy as an analytical tool in material sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujari, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Positron annihilation spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful tool in material sciences due to its ability to provide information about the electron momentum distribution and electron density in a given medium. These features help in identifying altered state of electronic rearrangements as one encounters in phase transitions. In addition, positrons prefer regions of lower electron density such as open volume defects i.e. vacancies or vacancy clusters in metals, alloys and semiconductors or free-volumes in molecular solids. Its sensitivity to defects is extremely high e.g. it can detect as small a defect as monovacancy to concentration as low as parts per million(ppm). Innovative nuclear instrumentation has helped in getting chemical specificity at the annihilation site. For example, precipitates, embedded, nanoparticles or element decorated vacancies can now be easily identified. This presentation is structured to introduce the technique and provide a global perspective on area of applications. Specific examples on defect characterization, nanostructure-property correlations in polymers, advantages of elemental specificity by indexing the core electron momentum will be given. In addition, slow positron beam based studies on nanostructured materials as well as particle accelerator based positron spectroscopy for volumetric assay of defects in large engineering samples will be presented

  19. Analytical Modeling Tool for Design of Hydrocarbon Sensitive Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Al Handawi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pipelines are the main transportation means for oil and gas products across large distances. Due to the severe conditions they operate in, they are regularly inspected using conventional Pipeline Inspection Gages (PIGs for corrosion damage. The motivation for researching a real-time distributed monitoring solution arose to mitigate costs and provide a proactive indication of potential failures. Fiber optic sensors with polymer claddings provide a means of detecting contact with hydrocarbons. By coating the fibers with a layer of metal similar in composition to that of the parent pipeline, corrosion of this coating may be detected when the polymer cladding underneath is exposed to the surrounding hydrocarbons contained within the pipeline. A Refractive Index (RI change occurs in the polymer cladding causing a loss in intensity of a traveling light pulse due to a reduction in the fiber’s modal capacity. Intensity losses may be detected using Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR while pinpointing the spatial location of the contact via time delay calculations of the back-scattered pulses. This work presents a theoretical model for the above sensing solution to provide a design tool for the fiber optic cable in the context of hydrocarbon sensing following corrosion of an external metal coating. Results are verified against the experimental data published in the literature.

  20. Analytical Modeling Tool for Design of Hydrocarbon Sensitive Optical Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Handawi, Khalil; Vahdati, Nader; Shiryayev, Oleg; Lawand, Lydia

    2017-09-28

    Pipelines are the main transportation means for oil and gas products across large distances. Due to the severe conditions they operate in, they are regularly inspected using conventional Pipeline Inspection Gages (PIGs) for corrosion damage. The motivation for researching a real-time distributed monitoring solution arose to mitigate costs and provide a proactive indication of potential failures. Fiber optic sensors with polymer claddings provide a means of detecting contact with hydrocarbons. By coating the fibers with a layer of metal similar in composition to that of the parent pipeline, corrosion of this coating may be detected when the polymer cladding underneath is exposed to the surrounding hydrocarbons contained within the pipeline. A Refractive Index (RI) change occurs in the polymer cladding causing a loss in intensity of a traveling light pulse due to a reduction in the fiber's modal capacity. Intensity losses may be detected using Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR) while pinpointing the spatial location of the contact via time delay calculations of the back-scattered pulses. This work presents a theoretical model for the above sensing solution to provide a design tool for the fiber optic cable in the context of hydrocarbon sensing following corrosion of an external metal coating. Results are verified against the experimental data published in the literature.

  1. Degradation of glass artifacts: application of modern surface analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Michael; Wiesinger, Rita; Schreiner, Manfred

    2010-06-15

    A detailed understanding of the stability of glasses toward liquid or atmospheric attack is of considerable importance for preserving numerous objects of our cultural heritage. Glasses produced in the ancient periods (Egyptian, Greek, or Roman glasses), as well as modern glass, can be classified as soda-lime-silica glasses. In contrast, potash was used as a flux in medieval Northern Europe for the production of window panes for churches and cathedrals. The particular chemical composition of these potash-lime-silica glasses (low in silica and rich in alkali and alkaline earth components), in combination with increased levels of acidifying gases (such as SO(2), CO(2), NO(x), or O(3)) and airborne particulate matter in today's urban or industrial atmospheres, has resulted in severe degradation of important cultural relics, particularly over the last century. Rapid developments in the fields of microelectronics and computer sciences, however, have contributed to the development of a variety of nondestructive, surface analytical techniques for the scientific investigation and material characterization of these unique and valuable objects. These methods include scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy- or wavelength-dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDX or SEM/WDX), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In this Account, we address glass analysis and weathering mechanisms, exploring the possibilities (and limitations) of modern analytical techniques. Corrosion by liquid substances is well investigated in the glass literature. In a tremendous number of case studies, the basic reaction between aqueous solutions and the glass surfaces was identified as an ion-exchange reaction between hydrogen-bearing species of the attacking liquid and the alkali and alkaline earth ions in the glass, causing a depletion of the latter in the outermost surface layers. Although mechanistic analogies to liquid corrosion are obvious, atmospheric

  2. Electrochemical immunosensors - A powerful tool for analytical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Fabiana S; Angnes, Lúcio

    2018-04-15

    Immunosensors are biosensors based on interactions between an antibody and antigen on a transducer surface. Either antibody or antigen can be the species immobilized on the transducer to detect antigen or antibody, respectively. Because of the strong binding forces between these biomolecules, immunosensors present high selectivity and very high sensitivity, making them very attractive for many applications in different science fields. Electrochemical immunosensors explore measurements of an electrical signal produced on an electrochemical transductor. This signal can be voltammetric, potentiometric, conductometric or impedimetric. Immunosensors utilizing electrochemical detection have been explored in several analyses since they are specific, simple, portable, and generally disposable and can carry out in situ or automated detection. This review addresses the potential of immunosensors destined for application in food and environmental analysis, and cancer biomarker diagnosis. Emphasis is given to the approaches that have been used for construction of electrochemical immunosensors. Additionally, the fundamentals of immunosensors, technology of transducers and nanomaterials and a general overview of the possible applications of electrochemical immunosensors to the food, environmental and diseases analysis fields are described. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The Rack-Gear Tool Generation Modelling. Non-Analytical Method Developed in CATIA, Using the Relative Generating Trajectories Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodor, V. G.; Baroiu, N.; Susac, F.; Oancea, N.

    2016-11-01

    The modelling of a curl of surfaces associated with a pair of rolling centrodes, when it is known the profile of the rack-gear's teeth profile, by direct measuring, as a coordinate matrix, has as goal the determining of the generating quality for an imposed kinematics of the relative motion of tool regarding the blank. In this way, it is possible to determine the generating geometrical error, as a base of the total error. The generation modelling allows highlighting the potential errors of the generating tool, in order to correct its profile, previously to use the tool in machining process. A method developed in CATIA is proposed, based on a new method, namely the method of “relative generating trajectories”. They are presented the analytical foundation, as so as some application for knows models of rack-gear type tools used on Maag teething machines.

  4. SNMS/SIMS. A new surface analytical device in ATOMKI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berenyi, Z.; Vad, K.; Katona, G.L.; Koever, A.

    2004-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. A Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometer (SNMS) was installed in the institute in 2004. The aim of the investment was to complement the surface analytical methods of the Section of Electron Spectroscopy and Materials Sciences of ATOMKI (eg. preparation, characterization and depth profiling of thin layer and thin multilayer samples) as well as to establish a new surface analytical technique in the institute to be offered for other internal and external users. This equipment is the first SNMS apparatus in Hungary. The device is capable to measure the elemental composition of the surface region (i.e. the topmost 1 μm) of conductor, semiconductor and insulator surfaces with a unique in-depth resolution of some nanometers. As an example figure 1. shows a measured depth profile of a Ru-Co multilayer sample, consisting of 25 bilayers of Co(3nm)-Ru(3nm) sandwiched between two Ru(10nm) layers on the top of a Si substrate. This SNMS method is based on the mass spectrometry of the neutral particles of the analyzed material removed by ion bombardment and ionized in a radio-frequency plasma generated above the sample. In addition to the SNMS method the apparatus is equipped with a Specs IQE 12/38 scanning ion gun and offers the application of elemental mapping of surface layers using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) technique with moderate lateral resolution (∼ 120 μm), as well. Application for financial support was submitted to the R and D Programme of the Ministry of Education of Hungary together with the Department of Solid State Physics of the University of Debrecen. Besides the 59.5 MFt supported by the programme a significant contribution of 25.5 MFt from the two applying institutes had to be made. The device was purchased in accordance with the public procurement procedure. Out of the three candidates answering the call for the tender the one submitted by Specs GmbH offering their Specs-INA device was the most appropriate to

  5. Analytical sensitivity analysis of geometric errors in a three axis machine tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Ryung; Yang, Seung Han

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an analytical method is used to perform a sensitivity analysis of geometric errors in a three axis machine tool. First, an error synthesis model is constructed for evaluating the position volumetric error due to the geometric errors, and then an output variable is defined, such as the magnitude of the position volumetric error. Next, the global sensitivity analysis is executed using an analytical method. Finally, the sensitivity indices are calculated using the quantitative values of the geometric errors

  6. Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation Tool, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort undertook the creation of a Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation (SODAA) tool to store data relevant to airport surface research and...

  7. Analytical modelling for ultrasonic surface mechanical attrition treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Rong Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The grain refinement, gradient structure, fatigue limit, hardness, and tensile strength of metallic materials can be effectively enhanced by ultrasonic surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT, however, never before has SMAT been treated with rigorous analytical modelling such as the connection among the input energy and power and resultant temperature of metallic materials subjected to SMAT. Therefore, a systematic SMAT model is actually needed. In this article, we have calculated the averaged speed, duration time of a cycle, kinetic energy and kinetic energy loss of flying balls in SMAT for structural metallic materials. The connection among the quantities such as the frequency and amplitude of attrition ultrasonic vibration motor, the diameter, mass and density of balls, the sample mass, and the height of chamber have been considered and modelled in details. And we have introduced the one-dimensional heat equation with heat source within uniform-distributed depth in estimating the temperature distribution and heat energy of sample. In this approach, there exists a condition for the frequency of flying balls reaching a steady speed. With these known quantities, we can estimate the strain rate, hardness, and grain size of sample.

  8. Process analytical technology (PAT) tools for the cultivation step in biopharmaceutical production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streefland, M.; Martens, D.E.; Beuvery, E.C.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2013-01-01

    The process analytical technology (PAT) initiative is now 10 years old. This has resulted in the development of many tools and software packages dedicated to PAT application on pharmaceutical processes. However, most applications are restricted to small molecule drugs, mainly for the relatively

  9. Current research relevant to the improvement of γ-ray spectroscopy as an analytical tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.A.; Tirsell, K.G.; Armantrout, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Four areas of research that will have significant impact on the further development of γ-ray spectroscopy as an accurate analytical tool are considered. The areas considered are: (1) automation; (2) accurate multigamma ray sources; (3) accuracy of the current and future γ-ray energy scale, and (4) new solid state X and γ-ray detectors

  10. Simulation Tool for GNSS Ocean Surface Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Per; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Durgonics, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    GNSS coherent and incoherent reflected signals have the potential of deriving large scale parameters of ocean surfaces, as barotropic variability, eddy currents and fronts, Rossby waves, coastal upwelling, mean ocean surfaceheights, and patterns of the general ocean circulation. In the reflection...... zone the measurements may deriveparameters as sea surface roughness, winds, waves, heights and tilts from the spectral measurements. Previous measurements from the top of mountains and airplanes have shown such results leading.The coming satellite missions, CYGNSS, COSMIC-2, and GEROS...

  11. Surface enhancement of cold work tool steels by friction stir processing with a pinless tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M. I.; Verdera, D.; Vieira, M. T.; Rodrigues, D. M.

    2014-03-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of enhanced tool steel (AISI D2) surfaces produced using a friction stir welding (FSW) related procedure, called friction stir processing (FSP), are analysed in this work. The surface of the tool steel samples was processed using a WC-Co pinless tool and varying processing conditions. Microstructural analysis revealed that meanwhile the original substrate structure consisted of a heterogeneous distribution of coarse carbides in a ferritic matrix, the transformed surfaces consisted of very small carbides, homogenously distributed in a ferrite- bainite- martensite matrix. The morphology of the surfaces, as well as its mechanical properties, evaluated by hardness and tensile testing, were found to vary with increasing tool rotation speed. Surface hardness was drastically increased, relative to the initial hardness of bulk steel. This was attributed to ferrite and carbide refinement, as well as to martensite formation during solid state processing. At the highest rotation rates, tool sliding during processing deeply compromised the characteristics of the processed surfaces.

  12. Hasse diagram as a green analytical metrics tool: ranking of methods for benzo[a]pyrene determination in sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigus, Paulina; Tsakovski, Stefan; Simeonov, Vasil; Namieśnik, Jacek; Tobiszewski, Marek

    2016-05-01

    This study presents an application of the Hasse diagram technique (HDT) as the assessment tool to select the most appropriate analytical procedures according to their greenness or the best analytical performance. The dataset consists of analytical procedures for benzo[a]pyrene determination in sediment samples, which were described by 11 variables concerning their greenness and analytical performance. Two analyses with the HDT were performed-the first one with metrological variables and the second one with "green" variables as input data. Both HDT analyses ranked different analytical procedures as the most valuable, suggesting that green analytical chemistry is not in accordance with metrology when benzo[a]pyrene in sediment samples is determined. The HDT can be used as a good decision support tool to choose the proper analytical procedure concerning green analytical chemistry principles and analytical performance merits.

  13. New Tools to Prepare ACE Cross-section Files for MCNP Analytic Test Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Forrest B.

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations using one-group cross sections, multigroup cross sections, or simple continuous energy cross sections are often used to: (1) verify production codes against known analytical solutions, (2) verify new methods and algorithms that do not involve detailed collision physics, (3) compare Monte Carlo calculation methods with deterministic methods, and (4) teach fundamentals to students. In this work we describe 2 new tools for preparing the ACE cross-section files to be used by MCNP ® for these analytic test problems, simple a ce.pl and simple a ce m g.pl.

  14. Response Surface Modeling Tool Suite, Version 1.x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-05

    The Response Surface Modeling (RSM) Tool Suite is a collection of three codes used to generate an empirical interpolation function for a collection of drag coefficient calculations computed with Test Particle Monte Carlo (TPMC) simulations. The first code, "Automated RSM", automates the generation of a drag coefficient RSM for a particular object to a single command. "Automated RSM" first creates a Latin Hypercube Sample (LHS) of 1,000 ensemble members to explore the global parameter space. For each ensemble member, a TPMC simulation is performed and the object drag coefficient is computed. In the next step of the "Automated RSM" code, a Gaussian process is used to fit the TPMC simulations. In the final step, Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is used to evaluate the non-analytic probability distribution function from the Gaussian process. The second code, "RSM Area", creates a look-up table for the projected area of the object based on input limits on the minimum and maximum allowed pitch and yaw angles and pitch and yaw angle intervals. The projected area from the look-up table is used to compute the ballistic coefficient of the object based on its pitch and yaw angle. An accurate ballistic coefficient is crucial in accurately computing the drag on an object. The third code, "RSM Cd", uses the RSM generated by the "Automated RSM" code and the projected area look-up table generated by the "RSM Area" code to accurately compute the drag coefficient and ballistic coefficient of the object. The user can modify the object velocity, object surface temperature, the translational temperature of the gas, the species concentrations of the gas, and the pitch and yaw angles of the object. Together, these codes allow for the accurate derivation of an object's drag coefficient and ballistic coefficient under any conditions with only knowledge of the object's geometry and mass.

  15. Chemometrics-based process analytical technology (PAT) tools: applications and adaptation in pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challa, Shruthi; Potumarthi, Ravichandra

    2013-01-01

    Process analytical technology (PAT) is used to monitor and control critical process parameters in raw materials and in-process products to maintain the critical quality attributes and build quality into the product. Process analytical technology can be successfully implemented in pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical industries not only to impart quality into the products but also to prevent out-of-specifications and improve the productivity. PAT implementation eliminates the drawbacks of traditional methods which involves excessive sampling and facilitates rapid testing through direct sampling without any destruction of sample. However, to successfully adapt PAT tools into pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical environment, thorough understanding of the process is needed along with mathematical and statistical tools to analyze large multidimensional spectral data generated by PAT tools. Chemometrics is a chemical discipline which incorporates both statistical and mathematical methods to obtain and analyze relevant information from PAT spectral tools. Applications of commonly used PAT tools in combination with appropriate chemometric method along with their advantages and working principle are discussed. Finally, systematic application of PAT tools in biopharmaceutical environment to control critical process parameters for achieving product quality is diagrammatically represented.

  16. Scattered surface charge density: A tool for surface characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Naydenov, Borislav; Mantega, Mauro; Rungger, Ivan; Sanvito, Stefano; Boland, John J.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of nonlocal scanning tunneling spectroscopic measurements to characterize the local structure of adspecies in their states where they are significantly less perturbed by the probe, which is accomplished by mapping the amplitude and phase of the scattered surface charge density. As an example, we study single-H-atom adsorption on the n-type Si(100)-(4 × 2) surface, and demonstrate the existence of two different configurations that are distinguishable using the nonlocal approach and successfully corroborated by density functional theory. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  17. Scattered surface charge density: A tool for surface characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Naydenov, Borislav

    2011-11-28

    We demonstrate the use of nonlocal scanning tunneling spectroscopic measurements to characterize the local structure of adspecies in their states where they are significantly less perturbed by the probe, which is accomplished by mapping the amplitude and phase of the scattered surface charge density. As an example, we study single-H-atom adsorption on the n-type Si(100)-(4 × 2) surface, and demonstrate the existence of two different configurations that are distinguishable using the nonlocal approach and successfully corroborated by density functional theory. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  18. An algorithm for analytical solution of basic problems featuring elastostatic bodies with cavities and surface flaws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkov, V. B.; Levina, L. V.; Novikova, O. S.; Shulmin, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    Herein we propose a methodology for structuring a full parametric analytical solution to problems featuring elastostatic media based on state-of-the-art computing facilities that support computerized algebra. The methodology includes: direct and reverse application of P-Theorem; methods of accounting for physical properties of media; accounting for variable geometrical parameters of bodies, parameters of boundary states, independent parameters of volume forces, and remote stress factors. An efficient tool to address the task is the sustainable method of boundary states originally designed for the purposes of computerized algebra and based on the isomorphism of Hilbertian spaces of internal states and boundary states of bodies. We performed full parametric solutions of basic problems featuring a ball with a nonconcentric spherical cavity, a ball with a near-surface flaw, and an unlimited medium with two spherical cavities.

  19. Tribological influence of tool surface roughness within microforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer; Weidel, S.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2010-01-01

    A comparative friction study of tooling dies with a simple internal cylindrical geometry has been performed. The purpose of the experiment consist of studying the influence of the surface characteristics of tooling dies on the frictional behaviour in a micro bulk forming operation. This research ...

  20. Analytical and Empirical Modeling of Wear and Forces of CBN Tool in Hard Turning - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vallabh Dahyabhai; Gandhi, Anishkumar Hasmukhlal

    2017-08-01

    Machining of steel material having hardness above 45 HRC (Hardness-Rockwell C) is referred as a hard turning. There are numerous models which should be scrutinized and implemented to gain optimum performance of hard turning. Various models in hard turning by cubic boron nitride tool have been reviewed, in attempt to utilize appropriate empirical and analytical models. Validation of steady state flank and crater wear model, Usui's wear model, forces due to oblique cutting theory, extended Lee and Shaffer's force model, chip formation and progressive flank wear have been depicted in this review paper. Effort has been made to understand the relationship between tool wear and tool force based on the different cutting conditions and tool geometries so that appropriate model can be used according to user requirement in hard turning.

  1. Development of a Suite of Analytical Tools for Energy and Water Infrastructure Knowledge Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, A.; Piburn, J.; Stewart, R.; Chandola, V.

    2017-12-01

    Energy and water generation and delivery systems are inherently interconnected. With demand for energy growing, the energy sector is experiencing increasing competition for water. With increasing population and changing environmental, socioeconomic, and demographic scenarios, new technology and investment decisions must be made for optimized and sustainable energy-water resource management. This also requires novel scientific insights into the complex interdependencies of energy-water infrastructures across multiple space and time scales. To address this need, we've developed a suite of analytical tools to support an integrated data driven modeling, analysis, and visualization capability for understanding, designing, and developing efficient local and regional practices related to the energy-water nexus. This work reviews the analytical capabilities available along with a series of case studies designed to demonstrate the potential of these tools for illuminating energy-water nexus solutions and supporting strategic (federal) policy decisions.

  2. Analytics for smart energy management tools and applications for sustainable manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Seog-Chan

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the issues and problems that arise when implementing smart energy management for sustainable manufacturing in the automotive manufacturing industry and the analytical tools and applications to deal with them. It uses a number of illustrative examples to explain energy management in automotive manufacturing, which involves most types of manufacturing technology and various levels of energy consumption. It demonstrates how analytical tools can help improve energy management processes, including forecasting, consumption, and performance analysis, emerging new technology identification as well as investment decisions for establishing smart energy consumption practices. It also details practical energy management systems, making it a valuable resource for professionals involved in real energy management processes, and allowing readers to implement the procedures and applications presented.

  3. Development of computer-based analytical tool for assessing physical protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardhi, Alim; Pengvanich, Phongphaeth

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of physical protection system effectiveness is the priority for ensuring the optimum protection caused by unlawful acts against a nuclear facility, such as unauthorized removal of nuclear materials and sabotage of the facility itself. Since an assessment based on real exercise scenarios is costly and time-consuming, the computer-based analytical tool can offer the solution for approaching the likelihood threat scenario. There are several currently available tools that can be used instantly such as EASI and SAPE, however for our research purpose it is more suitable to have the tool that can be customized and enhanced further. In this work, we have developed a computer–based analytical tool by utilizing the network methodological approach for modelling the adversary paths. The inputs are multi-elements in security used for evaluate the effectiveness of the system’s detection, delay, and response. The tool has capability to analyze the most critical path and quantify the probability of effectiveness of the system as performance measure

  4. Development of computer-based analytical tool for assessing physical protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardhi, Alim, E-mail: alim-m@batan.go.id [National Nuclear Energy Agency Indonesia, (BATAN), PUSPIPTEK area, Building 80, Serpong, Tangerang Selatan, Banten (Indonesia); Chulalongkorn University, Faculty of Engineering, Nuclear Engineering Department, 254 Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok Thailand. 10330 (Thailand); Pengvanich, Phongphaeth, E-mail: ppengvan@gmail.com [Chulalongkorn University, Faculty of Engineering, Nuclear Engineering Department, 254 Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok Thailand. 10330 (Thailand)

    2016-01-22

    Assessment of physical protection system effectiveness is the priority for ensuring the optimum protection caused by unlawful acts against a nuclear facility, such as unauthorized removal of nuclear materials and sabotage of the facility itself. Since an assessment based on real exercise scenarios is costly and time-consuming, the computer-based analytical tool can offer the solution for approaching the likelihood threat scenario. There are several currently available tools that can be used instantly such as EASI and SAPE, however for our research purpose it is more suitable to have the tool that can be customized and enhanced further. In this work, we have developed a computer–based analytical tool by utilizing the network methodological approach for modelling the adversary paths. The inputs are multi-elements in security used for evaluate the effectiveness of the system’s detection, delay, and response. The tool has capability to analyze the most critical path and quantify the probability of effectiveness of the system as performance measure.

  5. Development of computer-based analytical tool for assessing physical protection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardhi, Alim; Pengvanich, Phongphaeth

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of physical protection system effectiveness is the priority for ensuring the optimum protection caused by unlawful acts against a nuclear facility, such as unauthorized removal of nuclear materials and sabotage of the facility itself. Since an assessment based on real exercise scenarios is costly and time-consuming, the computer-based analytical tool can offer the solution for approaching the likelihood threat scenario. There are several currently available tools that can be used instantly such as EASI and SAPE, however for our research purpose it is more suitable to have the tool that can be customized and enhanced further. In this work, we have developed a computer-based analytical tool by utilizing the network methodological approach for modelling the adversary paths. The inputs are multi-elements in security used for evaluate the effectiveness of the system's detection, delay, and response. The tool has capability to analyze the most critical path and quantify the probability of effectiveness of the system as performance measure.

  6. Manuscript title: antifungal proteins from moulds: analytical tools and potential application to dry-ripened foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Josué; Owens, Rebecca A; Doyle, Sean; Asensio, Miguel A; Núñez, Félix

    2016-08-01

    Moulds growing on the surface of dry-ripened foods contribute to their sensory qualities, but some of them are able to produce mycotoxins that pose a hazard to consumers. Small cysteine-rich antifungal proteins (AFPs) from moulds are highly stable to pH and proteolysis and exhibit a broad inhibition spectrum against filamentous fungi, providing new chances to control hazardous moulds in fermented foods. The analytical tools for characterizing the cellular targets and affected pathways are reviewed. Strategies currently employed to study these mechanisms of action include 'omics' approaches that have come to the forefront in recent years, developing in tandem with genome sequencing of relevant organisms. These techniques contribute to a better understanding of the response of moulds against AFPs, allowing the design of complementary strategies to maximize or overcome the limitations of using AFPs on foods. AFPs alter chitin biosynthesis, and some fungi react inducing cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway. However, moulds able to increase chitin content at the cell wall by increasing proteins in either CWI or calmodulin-calcineurin signalling pathways will resist AFPs. Similarly, AFPs increase the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and moulds increasing G-protein complex β subunit CpcB and/or enzymes to efficiently produce glutathione may evade apoptosis. Unknown aspects that need to be addressed include the interaction with mycotoxin production by less sensitive toxigenic moulds. However, significant steps have been taken to encourage the use of AFPs in intermediate-moisture foods, particularly for mould-ripened cheese and meat products.

  7. Experiments with Analytic Centers: A confluence of data, tools and help in using them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M. M.; Crichton, D. J.; Hines, K.; Cole, M.; Quam, B. M.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional repositories have been primarily focused on data stewardship. Over the past two decades, data scientists have attempted to overlay a superstructure to make these repositories more amenable to analysis tasks, with limited success. This poster will summarize lessons learned and some realizations regarding what it takes to create an analytic center. As the volume of Earth Science data grows and the sophistication of analytic tools improves, a pattern has emerged that indicates different science communities uniquely apply a selection of tools to the data to produce scientific results. Infrequently do the experiences of one group help steer other groups. How can the information technology community seed these domains with tools that conform to the thought processes and experiences of that particular science group? What types of succcessful technology infusions have occured and how does technology get adopted. AIST has been experimenting with the management of this analytic center process; this paper will summarize the results and indicate a direction for future infusion attempts.

  8. Analytical methods for the characterization of surface finishing in bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardini, I.; Zendri, E.; Biscontin, G.; Brunetin, A.

    2006-01-01

    The recent restoration works of Santo Stefano Church Facade (XV century) in Venice have shown traces variously saved of different kind of surface finishes. These finishes were found on the brick's surface both in the masonry and in the decorative elements. Different brick's surface and decorative tile samples were investigated using several techniques: optical microscopy, scanning electron-microscopy, thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy and reflectance Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. The evaluation of the reached results was used to understand the decorative techniques and to recognize the material employed

  9. A new analytical potential energy surface for the adsorption systemk CO/Cu(100)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquardt, R.; Cuvelier, F.; Olsen, R.A.; Baerends, E.J.; Tremblay, J.C.; Saalfrank, P.

    2010-01-01

    Electronic structure data and analytical representations of the potential energy surface for the adsorption of carbon monoxide on a crystalline copper Cu(100) substrate are reviewed. It is found that a previously published and widely used analytical hypersurface for this process [J. C. Tully, M.

  10. A Business Analytics Software Tool for Monitoring and Predicting Radiology Throughput Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephen; Cournane, Seán; Sheehy, Niall; Hederman, Lucy

    2016-12-01

    Business analytics (BA) is increasingly being utilised by radiology departments to analyse and present data. It encompasses statistical analysis, forecasting and predictive modelling and is used as an umbrella term for decision support and business intelligence systems. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether utilising BA technologies could contribute towards improved decision support and resource management within radiology departments. A set of information technology requirements were identified with key stakeholders, and a prototype BA software tool was designed, developed and implemented. A qualitative evaluation of the tool was carried out through a series of semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders. Feedback was collated, and emergent themes were identified. The results indicated that BA software applications can provide visibility of radiology performance data across all time horizons. The study demonstrated that the tool could potentially assist with improving operational efficiencies and management of radiology resources.

  11. Ernst Equation and Riemann Surfaces: Analytical and Numerical Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, Frederick J

    2007-01-01

    extending the techniques espoused by these authors to other physica lly interesting problems (e.g., when electromagnetic fields are involved) are discussed. In addition to these eight chapters, there are two appendices. The first concerns the theory of Riemann surfaces and the second describes the relationship between the Ernst equation and twistor theory. It should be mentioned that this book may be considered to be an homage to Olaf Richter, whose very promising research life ended prematurely in November 2003. Indeed, a substantial part of the book is based upon his habilitation thesis. It is the reviewer's opinion that the resulting book will be more useful as a resource for those who are already well versed in the subject of integrable systems than as an educational tool for novices who would like to enter this exciting branch of mathematical physics. (book review)

  12. Heat as a groundwater tracer in shallow and deep heterogeneous media: Analytical solution, spreadsheet tool, and field applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurylyk, Barret L.; Irvine, Dylan J.; Carey, Sean K.; Briggs, Martin A.; Werkema, Dale D.; Bonham, Mariah

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater flow advects heat, and thus, the deviation of subsurface temperatures from an expected conduction‐dominated regime can be analysed to estimate vertical water fluxes. A number of analytical approaches have been proposed for using heat as a groundwater tracer, and these have typically assumed a homogeneous medium. However, heterogeneous thermal properties are ubiquitous in subsurface environments, both at the scale of geologic strata and at finer scales in streambeds. Herein, we apply the analytical solution of Shan and Bodvarsson (2004), developed for estimating vertical water fluxes in layered systems, in 2 new environments distinct from previous vadose zone applications. The utility of the solution for studying groundwater‐surface water exchange is demonstrated using temperature data collected from an upwelling streambed with sediment layers, and a simple sensitivity analysis using these data indicates the solution is relatively robust. Also, a deeper temperature profile recorded in a borehole in South Australia is analysed to estimate deeper water fluxes. The analytical solution is able to match observed thermal gradients, including the change in slope at sediment interfaces. Results indicate that not accounting for layering can yield errors in the magnitude and even direction of the inferred Darcy fluxes. A simple automated spreadsheet tool (Flux‐LM) is presented to allow users to input temperature and layer data and solve the inverse problem to estimate groundwater flux rates from shallow (e.g., regimes.

  13. Tool life and surface roughness of ceramic cutting tool when turning AISI D2 tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Emri Wan Abdul Rahaman

    2007-01-01

    The tool life of physical vapor deposition (PVD) titanium nitride (TiN) coated ceramic when turning AISI D2 tool steel of hardness 54-55 HRC was investigated. The experiments were conducted at various cutting speed and feed rate combinations with constant depth of cut and under dry cutting condition. The tool life of the cutting tool for all cutting conditions was obtained. The tool failure mode and wear mechanism were also investigated. The wear mechanism that is responsible for the wear form is abrasion and diffusion. Flank wear and crater wear are the main wear form found when turning AISI D2 grade hardened steel with 54-55 HRC using KY 4400 ceramic cutting tool. Additionally catastrophic failure is observed at cutting speed of 183 m/min and feed rate of 0.16 mm/ rev. (author)

  14. ATTIRE (analytical tools for thermal infrared engineering): A sensor simulation and modeling package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, S.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Sensor Development Laboratory (ASDL) at the Stennis Space Center develops, maintains and calibrates remote sensing instruments for the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA). To perform system design trade-offs, analysis, and establish system parameters, ASDL has developed a software package for analytical simulation of sensor systems. This package called 'Analytical Tools for Thermal InfraRed Engineering' - ATTIRE, simulates the various components of a sensor system. The software allows each subsystem of the sensor to be analyzed independently for its performance. These performance parameters are then integrated to obtain system level information such as Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Noise Equivalent Radiance (NER), Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) etc. This paper describes the uses of the package and the physics that were used to derive the performance parameters.

  15. Can We Practically Bring Physics-based Modeling Into Operational Analytics Tools?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granderson, Jessica [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bonvini, Marco [Whisker Labs, Oakland, CA (United States); Piette, Mary Ann [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Page, Janie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lin, Guanjing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hu, R. Lilly [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-11

    We present that analytics software is increasingly used to improve and maintain operational efficiency in commercial buildings. Energy managers, owners, and operators are using a diversity of commercial offerings often referred to as Energy Information Systems, Fault Detection and Diagnostic (FDD) systems, or more broadly Energy Management and Information Systems, to cost-effectively enable savings on the order of ten to twenty percent. Most of these systems use data from meters and sensors, with rule-based and/or data-driven models to characterize system and building behavior. In contrast, physics-based modeling uses first-principles and engineering models (e.g., efficiency curves) to characterize system and building behavior. Historically, these physics-based approaches have been used in the design phase of the building life cycle or in retrofit analyses. Researchers have begun exploring the benefits of integrating physics-based models with operational data analytics tools, bridging the gap between design and operations. In this paper, we detail the development and operator use of a software tool that uses hybrid data-driven and physics-based approaches to cooling plant FDD and optimization. Specifically, we describe the system architecture, models, and FDD and optimization algorithms; advantages and disadvantages with respect to purely data-driven approaches; and practical implications for scaling and replicating these techniques. Finally, we conclude with an evaluation of the future potential for such tools and future research opportunities.

  16. Development of the oil spill response cost-effectiveness analytical tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, D.S.; Welch, J.

    2005-01-01

    Decision-making during oil spill response operations or contingency planning requires balancing the need to remove as much oil as possible from the environment with the desire to minimize the impact of response operations on the environment they are intended to protect. This paper discussed the creation of a computer tool developed to help in planning and decision-making during response operations. The Oil Spill Response Cost-Effectiveness Analytical Tool (OSRCEAT) was developed to compare the costs of response with the benefits of response in both hypothetical and actual oil spills. The computer-based analytical tool can assist responders and contingency planners in decision-making processes as well as act as a basis of discussion in the evaluation of response options. Using inputs on spill parameters, location and response options, OSRCEAT can calculate response cost, costs of environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the oil spill and response impacts. Oil damages without any response are contrasted to oil damages with response, with expected improvements. Response damages are subtracted from the difference in damages with and without response in order to derive a more accurate response benefit. An OSRCEAT user can test various response options to compare potential benefits in order to maximize response benefit. OSRCEAT is best used to compare and contrast the relative benefits and costs of various response options. 50 refs., 19 tabs., 2 figs

  17. Analytical Design Package (ADP2): A computer aided engineering tool for aircraft transparency design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuerer, J. E.; Gran, M.; Held, T. W.

    1994-01-01

    The Analytical Design Package (ADP2) is being developed as a part of the Air Force Frameless Transparency Program (FTP). ADP2 is an integrated design tool consisting of existing analysis codes and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) software. The objective of the ADP2 is to develop and confirm an integrated design methodology for frameless transparencies, related aircraft interfaces, and their corresponding tooling. The application of this methodology will generate high confidence for achieving a qualified part prior to mold fabrication. ADP2 is a customized integration of analysis codes, CAE software, and material databases. The primary CAE integration tool for the ADP2 is P3/PATRAN, a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software tool. The open architecture of P3/PATRAN allows customized installations with different applications modules for specific site requirements. Integration of material databases allows the engineer to select a material, and those material properties are automatically called into the relevant analysis code. The ADP2 materials database will be composed of four independent schemas: CAE Design, Processing, Testing, and Logistics Support. The design of ADP2 places major emphasis on the seamless integration of CAE and analysis modules with a single intuitive graphical interface. This tool is being designed to serve and be used by an entire project team, i.e., analysts, designers, materials experts, and managers. The final version of the software will be delivered to the Air Force in Jan. 1994. The Analytical Design Package (ADP2) will then be ready for transfer to industry. The package will be capable of a wide range of design and manufacturing applications.

  18. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR WAVES IN PLANETS WITH ATMOSPHERIC SUPERROTATION. II. LAMB, SURFACE, AND CENTRIFUGAL WAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A.; Imamura, T.; Read, P. L.; Luz, D.; Piccialli, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is the second in a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases where the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this second part, we study the waves' solutions when several atmospheric approximations are applied: Lamb, surface, and centrifugal waves. Lamb and surface waves are found to be quite similar to those in a geostrophic regime. By contrast, centrifugal waves turn out to be a special case of Rossby waves that arise in atmospheres in cyclostrophic balance. Finally, we use our results to identify the nature of the waves behind atmospheric periodicities found in polar and lower latitudes of Venus's atmosphere

  19. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR WAVES IN PLANETS WITH ATMOSPHERIC SUPERROTATION. II. LAMB, SURFACE, AND CENTRIFUGAL WAVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada (Spain); Imamura, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science-Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Read, P. L. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom); Luz, D. [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofísica da Universidade de Lisboa (CAAUL), Observatório Astronómico de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-018 Lisboa (Portugal); Piccialli, A., E-mail: peralta@iaa.es [LATMOS, UVSQ, 11 bd dAlembert, 78280 Guyancourt (France)

    2014-07-01

    This paper is the second in a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases where the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this second part, we study the waves' solutions when several atmospheric approximations are applied: Lamb, surface, and centrifugal waves. Lamb and surface waves are found to be quite similar to those in a geostrophic regime. By contrast, centrifugal waves turn out to be a special case of Rossby waves that arise in atmospheres in cyclostrophic balance. Finally, we use our results to identify the nature of the waves behind atmospheric periodicities found in polar and lower latitudes of Venus's atmosphere.

  20. Surface Analytical Techniques for Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion. A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    chemical process, oil and gas. and power generation industries and the U.S. pitting of stainle steels is 1h military have acknowledged the occurrence...ony on metal surface. photosynthetic biofilm may influence ennoblement of the open circuit potential of type 316L stainless steel so that it approaches...at depths within an estuarine biofilm on type 304 stainless steel . fur-oxidizing. iron-red ing. sulfate- -producing, and hydr en-producing b

  1. Comparison of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy by Electrocardiography and Echocardiography in Children Using Analytics Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tague, Lauren; Wiggs, Justin; Li, Qianxi; McCarter, Robert; Sherwin, Elizabeth; Weinberg, Jacqueline; Sable, Craig

    2018-05-17

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a common finding on pediatric electrocardiography (ECG) leading to many referrals for echocardiography (echo). This study utilizes a novel analytics tool that combines ECG and echo databases to evaluate ECG as a screening tool for LVH. SQL Server 2012 data warehouse incorporated ECG and echo databases for all patients from a single institution from 2006 to 2016. Customized queries identified patients 0-18 years old with LVH on ECG and an echo performed within 24 h. Using data visualization (Tableau) and analytic (Stata 14) software, ECG and echo findings were compared. Of 437,699 encounters, 4637 met inclusion criteria. ECG had high sensitivity (≥ 90%) but poor specificity (43%), and low positive predictive value (< 20%) for echo abnormalities. ECG performed only 11-22% better than chance (AROC = 0.50). 83% of subjects with LVH on ECG had normal left ventricle (LV) structure and size on echo. African-Americans with LVH were least likely to have an abnormal echo. There was a low correlation between V 6 R on ECG and echo-derived Z score of left ventricle diastolic diameter (r = 0.14) and LV mass index (r = 0.24). The data analytics client was able to mine a database of ECG and echo reports, comparing LVH by ECG and LV measurements and qualitative findings by echo, identifying an abnormal LV by echo in only 17% of cases with LVH on ECG. This novel tool is useful for rapid data mining for both clinical and research endeavors.

  2. ANALYTICAL MODEL FOR LATHE TOOL DISPLACEMENTS CALCULUS IN THE MANUFACTURING P ROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catălin ROŞU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an analytical model for lathe tools displacements calculus in the manufacturing process. We will present step by step the methodology for the displacements calculus and in the end we will insert these relations in a program for automatic calculus and we extract the conclusions. There is taken into account only the effects of the bending moments (because these insert the highest displacements. The simplifying assumptions and the calculus relations for the displacements (linea r and angular ones are presented in an original way.

  3. FIGURED WORLDS AS AN ANALYTIC AND METHODOLOGICAL TOOL IN PROFESSIONAL TEACHER DEVELOPMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Hanne; Brok, Lene Storgaard

    . Hasse (2015) and Holland (1998) have inspired our study; i.e., learning is conceptualized as a social phenomenon, implying that contexts of learning are decisive for learner identity. The concept of Figured Worlds is used to understand the development and the social constitution of emergent interactions......,“(Holland et al., 1998, p. 52) and gives a framework for understanding meaning-making in particular pedagogical settings. We exemplify our use of the term Figured Worlds, both as an analytic and methodological tool for empirical studies in kindergarten and school. Based on data sources, such as field notes...

  4. Predictive analytics tools to adjust and monitor performance metrics for the ATLAS Production System

    CERN Document Server

    Barreiro Megino, Fernando Harald; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Having information such as an estimation of the processing time or possibility of system outage (abnormal behaviour) helps to assist to monitor system performance and to predict its next state. The current cyber-infrastructure presents computing conditions in which contention for resources among high-priority data analysis happens routinely, that might lead to significant workload and data handling interruptions. The lack of the possibility to monitor and to predict the behaviour of the analysis process (its duration) and system’s state itself caused to focus on design of the built-in situational awareness analytic tools.

  5. Tool for assessment of process importance at the groundwater/surface water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakodeti, Ravi C; LeBoeuf, Eugene J; Clarke, James H

    2009-10-01

    The groundwater/surface water interface (GWSWI) represents an important transition zone between groundwater and surface water environments that potentially changes the nature and flux of contaminants exchanged between the two systems. Identifying dominant and rate-limiting contaminant transformation processes is critically important for estimating contaminant fluxes and compositional changes across the GWSWI. A new, user-friendly, spreadsheet- and Visual Basic-based analytical screening tool that assists in evaluating the dominance of controlling kinetic processes across the GWSWI is presented. Based on contaminant properties, first-order processes that may play a significant role in solute transport/transformation are evaluated in terms of a ratio of process importance (P(i)) that relates the process rate to the rate of fluid transfer. Besides possessing several useful compilations of contaminant and process data, the screening tool also includes 1-D analytical models that assist users in evaluating contaminant transport across the GWSWI. The tool currently applies to 29 organics and 10 inorganics of interest within the context of the GWSWI. Application of the new screening tool is demonstrated through an evaluation of natural attenuation at a site with trichloroethylene and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane contaminated groundwater discharging into wetlands.

  6. Kalisphera: an analytical tool to reproduce the partial volume effect of spheres imaged in 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tengattini, Alessandro; Andò, Edward

    2015-01-01

    In experimental mechanics, where 3D imaging is having a profound effect, spheres are commonly adopted for their simplicity and for the ease of their modeling. In this contribution we develop an analytical tool, ‘kalisphera’, to produce 3D raster images of spheres including their partial volume effect. This allows us to evaluate the metrological performance of existing image-based measurement techniques (knowing a priori the ground truth). An advanced application of ‘kalisphera’ is developed here to identify and accurately characterize spheres in real 3D x-ray tomography images with the objective of improving trinarization and contact detection. The effect of the common experimental imperfections is assessed and the overall performance of the tool tested on real images. (paper)

  7. An analytical model for the description of the full-polarimetric sea surface Doppler signature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fois, F.; Hoogeboom, P.; Le Chevalier, F.; Stoffelen, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an analytical model of the full-polarimetric sea surface scattering and Doppler signature. The model combines the small-slope-approximation theory (at the second order) with a weak nonlinear sea surface representation. Such a model is used to examine the variation of the Doppler

  8. XCluSim: a visual analytics tool for interactively comparing multiple clustering results of bioinformatics data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Though cluster analysis has become a routine analytic task for bioinformatics research, it is still arduous for researchers to assess the quality of a clustering result. To select the best clustering method and its parameters for a dataset, researchers have to run multiple clustering algorithms and compare them. However, such a comparison task with multiple clustering results is cognitively demanding and laborious. Results In this paper, we present XCluSim, a visual analytics tool that enables users to interactively compare multiple clustering results based on the Visual Information Seeking Mantra. We build a taxonomy for categorizing existing techniques of clustering results visualization in terms of the Gestalt principles of grouping. Using the taxonomy, we choose the most appropriate interactive visualizations for presenting individual clustering results from different types of clustering algorithms. The efficacy of XCluSim is shown through case studies with a bioinformatician. Conclusions Compared to other relevant tools, XCluSim enables users to compare multiple clustering results in a more scalable manner. Moreover, XCluSim supports diverse clustering algorithms and dedicated visualizations and interactions for different types of clustering results, allowing more effective exploration of details on demand. Through case studies with a bioinformatics researcher, we received positive feedback on the functionalities of XCluSim, including its ability to help identify stably clustered items across multiple clustering results. PMID:26328893

  9. Factors influencing the surface quality of polished tool steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebeggiani, S; Rosén, B-G

    2014-01-01

    Today’s demands on surface quality of moulds for injection moulding of plastic components involve no/low defect contents and roughness levels in the nm-range for high gloss applications. Material properties as well as operating conditions influence the mould finish, and thus the final surface of moulded products. This paper focuses on how particle content and different polishing strategies influence final surface qualities of moulds. Visual estimations of polished tool steel samples were combined with non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis in order to correlate traditional assessments to more quantitative methods, and to be able to analyse the surfaces at nanometre-level. It was found that steels with a lower proportion of particles, like carbides and oxides, gave rise to smoother polished surfaces. In a comparative study of polishers from different polishing shops, it was found that while different surface preparation strategies can lead to similar final roughness, similar preparation techniques can produce high-quality surfaces from different steel grades. However, the non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis showed that not all smooth polished surfaces have desirable functional topographies for injection moulding of glossy plastic components. (paper)

  10. Preanalytical and analytical variation of surface-enhanced laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of human serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrethsen, Jakob; Bøgebo, Rikke; Olsen, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surface-enhanced laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry of human serum is a potential diagnostic tool in human diseases. In the present study, the preanalytical and analytical variation of SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry of serum was assessed in healthy...... was 18% (6%-34%, n=4) for 16 peaks, and inter-individual CV was 38% (16%-56%, n=16) for 20 peaks. CONCLUSIONS: The pre-analytical and analytical conditions of SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry of serum have a significant impact on the protein peaks, with the number of peaks low and the assay variation high...

  11. Enhanced surface sampler and process for collection and release of analytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addleman, Raymond S; Atkinson, David A; Bays, John T; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Cinson, Anthony D; Ewing, Robert G; Gerasimenko, Aleksandr A

    2015-02-03

    An enhanced swipe sampler and method of making are described. The swipe sampler is made of a fabric containing selected glass, metal oxide, and/or oxide-coated glass or metal fibers. Fibers are modified with silane ligands that are directly attached to the surface of the fibers to functionalize the sampling surface of the fabric. The swipe sampler collects various target analytes including explosives and other threat agents on the surface of the sampler.

  12. In situ preparation, electrical and surface analytical characterization of pentacene thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassnig, R.; Striedinger, B.; Hollerer, M.; Fian, A.; Stadlober, B.; Winkler, A.

    2015-01-01

    The fabrication of organic thin film transistors with highly reproducible characteristics presents a very challenging task. We have prepared and analyzed model pentacene thin film transistors under ultra-high vacuum conditions, employing surface analytical tools and methods. Intentionally contaminating the gold contacts and SiO2 channel area with carbon through repeated adsorption, dissociation, and desorption of pentacene proved to be very advantageous in the creation of devices with stable and reproducible parameters. We mainly focused on the device properties, such as mobility and threshold voltage, as a function of film morphology and preparation temperature. At 300 K, pentacene displays Stranski-Krastanov growth, whereas at 200 K fine-grained, layer-like film growth takes place, which predominantly influences the threshold voltage. Temperature dependent mobility measurements demonstrate good agreement with the established multiple trapping and release model, which in turn indicates a predominant concentration of shallow traps in the crystal grains and at the oxide-semiconductor interface. Mobility and threshold voltage measurements as a function of coverage reveal that up to four full monolayers contribute to the overall charge transport. A significant influence on the effective mobility also stems from the access resistance at the gold contact-semiconductor interface, which is again strongly influenced by the temperature dependent, characteristic film growth mode. PMID:25814770

  13. 2D Analytical Modeling of Magnetic Vector Potential in Surface Mounted and Surface Inset Permanent Magnet Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jabbari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A 2D analytical method for magnetic vector potential calculation in inner rotor surface mounted and surface inset permanent magnet machines considering slotting effects, magnetization orientation and winding layout has been proposed in this paper. The analytical method is based on the resolution of Laplace and Poisson equations as well as Maxwell equation in quasi- Cartesian coordinate by using sub-domain method and hyperbolic functions. The developed method is applied on the performance computation of two prototypes surface mounted permanent magnet motors and two prototypes surface inset permanent magnet motors. A radial and a parallel magnetization orientation is considered for each type of motor. The results of these models are validated through FEM method.

  14. Tool steel quality and surface finishing of plastic molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Agnelli Mesquita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic industry is today in a constant growth, demanding several products from other segments, which includes the plastic molds, mainly used in the injection molding process. Considering all the requirements of plastic molds, the surface finishing is of special interest, as the injected plastic part is able to reproduce any details (and also defects from the mold surface. Therefore, several aspects on mold finishing are important, mainly related to manufacturing conditions - machining, grinding, polishing and texturing, and also related to the tool steel quality, in relation to microstructure homogeneity and non-metallic inclusions (cleanliness. The present paper is then focused on this interrelationship between steel quality and manufacturing process, which are both related to the final quality of plastic mold surfaces. Examples are discussed in terms of surface finishing of plastic molds and the properties or the microstructure of mold steels.

  15. Micro-Bulges Investigation on Laser Modified Tool Steel Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauzun Fazliana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents micro-bulges investigation on laser modified tool steel. The aim of this study is to understand the effect of laser irradiance and interaction time on surface morphology configuration. An Nd:YAG laser system with TEM00 pulse processing mode was used to modify the samples. Metallographic study shows samples were analyzed for focal position effect on melted pool size, angle of peaks geometry and laser modified layer depth. Surface morphology were analyzed for surface roughness. Laser modified layer shows depth ranged between 42.22 and 420.12 μm. Angle of peak bulge was found to be increase with increasing peak power. The maximum roughness, Ra, achieved in modified H13 was 21.10 μm. These findings are significant to enhance surface properties of laser modified steel and cast iron for dies and high wear resistance applications.

  16. Comprehensive surface treatment of high-speed steel tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Sergey V.; Aleshin, Sergey V.; Swe, Min Htet; Abdirova, Raushan D.; Kapitanov, Alexey V.; Egorov, Sergey B.

    2018-03-01

    One of the promising directions of hardening of high-speed steel tool is the creation on their surface of the layered structures with the gradient of physic-chemical properties between the wear-resistant coatings to the base material. Among the methods of such surface modification, a special process takes place based on the use of pulsed high-intensity charged particle beams. The high speed of heating and cooling allows structural-phase transformations in the surface layer, which cannot be realized in a stationary mode. The treatment was conducted in a RITM-SP unit, which constitutes a combination of a source of low-energy high-current electron beams "RITM" and two magnetron spraying systems on a single vacuum chamber. The unit enables deposition of films on the surface of the desired product and subsequent liquid-phase mixing of materials of the film and the substrate by an intense pulse electron beam. The article discusses features of the structure of the subsurface layer of high-speed steel M2, modified by surface alloying of a low-energy high-current electron beam, and its effect on the wear resistance of the tool when dry cutting hard to machine Nickel alloy. A significant decrease of intensity of wear of high-speed steel with combined treatment happens due to the displacement of the zone of wear and decrease the radius of rounding of the cutting edge because of changes in conditions of interaction with the material being treated.

  17. Analytical mass formula and nuclear surface properties in the ETF approximation. Part I: symmetric nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymard, François; Gulminelli, Francesca; Margueron, Jérôme

    2016-08-01

    The problem of determination of nuclear surface energy is addressed within the framework of the extended Thomas Fermi (ETF) approximation using Skyrme functionals. We propose an analytical model for the density profiles with variationally determined diffuseness parameters. In this first paper, we consider the case of symmetric nuclei. In this situation, the ETF functional can be exactly integrated, leading to an analytical formula expressing the surface energy as a function of the couplings of the energy functional. The importance of non-local terms is stressed and it is shown that they cannot be deduced simply from the local part of the functional, as it was suggested in previous works.

  18. Evaluating empirical/analytical techniques to predict structural integrity of pipe containing surface flaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, W.G.; Server, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    Data from flat-plate specimens containing either triangular-, ellipsoidal- or rectangular-shaped surface flaws were evaluated by several potential analytical techniques. These techniques were modified as needed to predict conditions for initiation of subcritical crack growth, for the defect to penetrate the 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) wall thickness, and for instability (plastic or unstable). The modified analytical techniques developed from the plate specimens were then used to make predictions which are compared with test results obtained from pipe specimens containing triangular-shaped surface flaws

  19. Online Analytical Processing (OLAP: A Fast and Effective Data Mining Tool for Gene Expression Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkharouf Nadim W.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression databases contain a wealth of information, but current data mining tools are limited in their speed and effectiveness in extracting meaningful biological knowledge from them. Online analytical processing (OLAP can be used as a supplement to cluster analysis for fast and effective data mining of gene expression databases. We used Analysis Services 2000, a product that ships with SQLServer2000, to construct an OLAP cube that was used to mine a time series experiment designed to identify genes associated with resistance of soybean to the soybean cyst nematode, a devastating pest of soybean. The data for these experiments is stored in the soybean genomics and microarray database (SGMD. A number of candidate resistance genes and pathways were found. Compared to traditional cluster analysis of gene expression data, OLAP was more effective and faster in finding biologically meaningful information. OLAP is available from a number of vendors and can work with any relational database management system through OLE DB.

  20. Capturing student mathematical engagement through differently enacted classroom practices: applying a modification of Watson's analytical tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patahuddin, Sitti Maesuri; Puteri, Indira; Lowrie, Tom; Logan, Tracy; Rika, Baiq

    2018-04-01

    This study examined student mathematical engagement through the intended and enacted lessons taught by two teachers in two different middle schools in Indonesia. The intended lesson was developed using the ELPSA learning design to promote mathematical engagement. Based on the premise that students will react to the mathematical tasks in the forms of words and actions, the analysis focused on identifying the types of mathematical engagement promoted through the intended lesson and performed by students during the lesson. Using modified Watson's analytical tool (2007), students' engagement was captured from what the participants' did or said mathematically. We found that teachers' enacted practices had an influence on student mathematical engagement. The teacher who demonstrated content in explicit ways tended to limit the richness of the engagement; whereas the teacher who presented activities in an open-ended manner fostered engagement.

  1. Online analytical processing (OLAP): a fast and effective data mining tool for gene expression databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkharouf, Nadim W; Jamison, D Curtis; Matthews, Benjamin F

    2005-06-30

    Gene expression databases contain a wealth of information, but current data mining tools are limited in their speed and effectiveness in extracting meaningful biological knowledge from them. Online analytical processing (OLAP) can be used as a supplement to cluster analysis for fast and effective data mining of gene expression databases. We used Analysis Services 2000, a product that ships with SQLServer2000, to construct an OLAP cube that was used to mine a time series experiment designed to identify genes associated with resistance of soybean to the soybean cyst nematode, a devastating pest of soybean. The data for these experiments is stored in the soybean genomics and microarray database (SGMD). A number of candidate resistance genes and pathways were found. Compared to traditional cluster analysis of gene expression data, OLAP was more effective and faster in finding biologically meaningful information. OLAP is available from a number of vendors and can work with any relational database management system through OLE DB.

  2. Laser grooving of surface cracks on hot work tool steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Klobčar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of laser grooving of 1.2343 tool steel hardened to 46 HRC. The effect of laser power and grooving speed on groove shape (i.e. depth and width, the material removal rate and the purity of produced groove as a measure of groove quality was investigated and analyzed using response surface methodology. Optimal parameters of laser grooving were found, which enables pure grooves suitable for laser welding.

  3. Phonon dispersion on Ag (100) surface: A modified analytic embedded atom method study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiao-Jun; Chen Chang-Le

    2016-01-01

    Within the harmonic approximation, the analytic expression of the dynamical matrix is derived based on the modified analytic embedded atom method (MAEAM) and the dynamics theory of surface lattice. The surface phonon dispersions along three major symmetry directions, and XM-bar are calculated for the clean Ag (100) surface by using our derived formulas. We then discuss the polarization and localization of surface modes at points X-bar and M-bar by plotting the squared polarization vectors as a function of the layer index. The phonon frequencies of the surface modes calculated by MAEAM are compared with the available experimental and other theoretical data. It is found that the present results are generally in agreement with the referenced experimental or theoretical results, with a maximum deviation of 10.4%. The agreement shows that the modified analytic embedded atom method is a reasonable many-body potential model to quickly describe the surface lattice vibration. It also lays a significant foundation for studying the surface lattice vibration in other metals. (paper)

  4. An Analytical Model for Prediction of Magnetic Flux Leakage from Surface Defects in Ferromagnetic Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an analytical model is proposed to predict magnetic flux leakage (MFL signals from the surface defects in ferromagnetic tubes. The analytical expression consists of elliptic integrals of first kind based on the magnetic dipole model. The radial (Bz component of leakage fields is computed from the cylindrical holes in ferromagnetic tubes. The effectiveness of the model has been studied by analyzing MFL signals as a function of the defect parameters and lift-off. The model predicted results are verified with experimental results and a good agreement is observed between the analytical and the experimental results. This analytical expression could be used for quick prediction of MFL signals and also input data for defect reconstructions in inverse MFL problem.

  5. Analytical mass formula and nuclear surface properties in the ETF approximation. Part II: asymmetric nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymard, François; Gulminelli, Francesca; Margueron, Jérôme

    2016-08-01

    We have recently addressed the problem of the determination of the nuclear surface energy for symmetric nuclei in the framework of the extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) approximation using Skyrme functionals. We presently extend this formalism to the case of asymmetric nuclei and the question of the surface symmetry energy. We propose an approximate expression for the diffuseness and the surface energy. These quantities are analytically related to the parameters of the energy functional. In particular, the influence of the different equation of state parameters can be explicitly quantified. Detailed analyses of the different energy components (local/non-local, isoscalar/isovector, surface/curvature and higher order) are also performed. Our analytical solution of the ETF integral improves previous models and leads to a precision of better than 200 keV per nucleon in the determination of the nuclear binding energy for dripline nuclei.

  6. Stable isotope ratio analysis: A potential analytical tool for the authentication of South African lamb meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Sara Wilhelmina; Muller, Magdalena; van der Rijst, Marieta; Hoffman, Louwrens Christiaan

    2016-02-01

    Stable isotope ratios ((13)C/(12)C and (15)N/(14)N) of South African Dorper lambs from farms with different vegetation types were measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), to evaluate it as a tool for the authentication of origin and feeding regime. Homogenised and defatted meat of the Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle of lambs from seven different farms was assessed. The δ(13)C values were affected by the origin of the meat, mainly reflecting the diet. The Rûens and Free State farms had the lowest (p ⩽ 0.05) δ(15)N values, followed by the Northern Cape farms, with Hantam Karoo/Calvinia having the highest δ(15)N values. Discriminant analysis showed δ(13)C and δ(15)N differences as promising results for the use of IRMS as a reliable analytical tool for lamb meat authentication. The results suggest that diet, linked to origin, is an important factor to consider regarding region of origin classification for South African lamb. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ecotoxicity on a stick: A novel analytical tool for predicting the ecotoxicity of petroleum contaminated samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkerton, T.F.; Stone, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrocarbons generally elicit toxicity via a nonpolar narcotic mechanism. Recent research suggests that chemicals acting by this mode invoke ecotoxicity when the molar concentration in organisms lipid exceeds a critical threshold. Since ecotoxicity of nonpolar narcotic mixtures appears to be additive, the ecotoxicity of hydrocarbon mixtures thus depends upon: (1) the partitioning of individual hydrocarbons comprising the mixture from the environment to lipids and (2) the total molar sum of the constituent hydrocarbons in lipids. These insights have led previous investigators to advance the concept of biomimetic extraction as a novel tool for assessing potential narcosis-type or baseline ecotoxicity in aqueous samples. Drawing from this earlier work, the authors have developed a method to quantify Bioavailable Petroleum Hydrocarbons (BPHS) in hydrocarbon-contaminated aqueous and soil/sediment samples. A sample is equilibrated with a solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber that serves as a surrogate for organism lipids. The total moles of hydrocarbons that partition to the SPME fiber is then quantified using a simple GC/FID procedure. Research conducted to support the development and initial validation of this method will be presented. Results suggest that BPH analyses provide a promising, cost-effective approach for predicting the ecotoxicity of environmental samples contaminated with hydrocarbon mixtures. Consequently, BPH analyses may provide a valuable analytical screening tool for ecotoxicity assessment in product and effluent testing, environmental monitoring and site remediation applications

  8. VisualUrText: A Text Analytics Tool for Unstructured Textual Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainol, Zuraini; Jaymes, Mohd T. H.; Nohuddin, Puteri N. E.

    2018-05-01

    The growing amount of unstructured text over Internet is tremendous. Text repositories come from Web 2.0, business intelligence and social networking applications. It is also believed that 80-90% of future growth data is available in the form of unstructured text databases that may potentially contain interesting patterns and trends. Text Mining is well known technique for discovering interesting patterns and trends which are non-trivial knowledge from massive unstructured text data. Text Mining covers multidisciplinary fields involving information retrieval (IR), text analysis, natural language processing (NLP), data mining, machine learning statistics and computational linguistics. This paper discusses the development of text analytics tool that is proficient in extracting, processing, analyzing the unstructured text data and visualizing cleaned text data into multiple forms such as Document Term Matrix (DTM), Frequency Graph, Network Analysis Graph, Word Cloud and Dendogram. This tool, VisualUrText, is developed to assist students and researchers for extracting interesting patterns and trends in document analyses.

  9. Nuclear stimulated desorption as a potential tool for surface study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nir, Dror.

    1993-03-01

    The described research work constitutes a base for an experimental method to be implemented in the study of solid surfaces. Nuclear Stimulated Desorption (NSD) is a new mode of experimentation in thin film and surface physics. It Is based on the interplay between nuclear phenomena (reactions and spontaneous decays), and atomic - scale induced effects on surfaces and very thin films. One may distinguish between two generically different relationships between the two. First, the dynamics of the nuclear reaction -primarily the recoil of the nucleus - may effect the position of the atom or molecule containing it. Second, the nuclear reaction (or decay) may serve as an analytical indicator of the whereabouts of the atom, or molecule, in question. In nuclear stimulated desorption, both thee aspects combine in an essential way. Namely, one employs a series of two consecutive decays (normally weak decays or isomeric transition) . The first of these decays causes the nucleus to desorb from a surface onto which it had been placed; the second serves to determine the position of the daughter and thereby the characteristics of the primary desorption . The essential feature in NSD is that it occurs almost exclusively from the outermost surface layer. This is because we choose to work with nuclei whose recoil energy Is of the same order of magnitude of the binding energy of the atom to the surface . Furthermore, the desorption probability and its angular (and temporal) characteristics, depend on the features (topology, morphology) of its immediate neighborhood. This work describes experiments which were designed to give relevant, phenomenological information about the outgoing flux of the radioactive daughters (for specifically chosen nuclear species) , and in particular the magnitude of the flux, its time dependence and its charged state. In addition. the basic phenomena itself is being distinguished from competing processes (thermal desorption, in particular). We will now

  10. Lowering the Barrier to Reproducible Research by Publishing Provenance from Common Analytical Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. B.; Slaughter, P.; Walker, L.; Jones, C. S.; Missier, P.; Ludäscher, B.; Cao, Y.; McPhillips, T.; Schildhauer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific provenance describes the authenticity, origin, and processing history of research products and promotes scientific transparency by detailing the steps in computational workflows that produce derived products. These products include papers, findings, input data, software products to perform computations, and derived data and visualizations. The geosciences community values this type of information, and, at least theoretically, strives to base conclusions on computationally replicable findings. In practice, capturing detailed provenance is laborious and thus has been a low priority; beyond a lab notebook describing methods and results, few researchers capture and preserve detailed records of scientific provenance. We have built tools for capturing and publishing provenance that integrate into analytical environments that are in widespread use by geoscientists (R and Matlab). These tools lower the barrier to provenance generation by automating capture of critical information as researchers prepare data for analysis, develop, test, and execute models, and create visualizations. The 'recordr' library in R and the `matlab-dataone` library in Matlab provide shared functions to capture provenance with minimal changes to normal working procedures. Researchers can capture both scripted and interactive sessions, tag and manage these executions as they iterate over analyses, and then prune and publish provenance metadata and derived products to the DataONE federation of archival repositories. Provenance traces conform to the ProvONE model extension of W3C PROV, enabling interoperability across tools and languages. The capture system supports fine-grained versioning of science products and provenance traces. By assigning global identifiers such as DOIs, reseachers can cite the computational processes used to reach findings. And, finally, DataONE has built a web portal to search, browse, and clearly display provenance relationships between input data, the software

  11. Studying Behaviors Among Neurosurgery Residents Using Web 2.0 Analytic Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Benjamin; Alotaibi, Naif M; Guha, Daipayan; Amaral, Sandi; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Lozano, Andres M

    Web 2.0 technologies (e.g., blogs, social networks, and wikis) are increasingly being used by medical schools and postgraduate training programs as tools for information dissemination. These technologies offer the unique opportunity to track metrics of user engagement and interaction. Here, we employ Web 2.0 tools to assess academic behaviors among neurosurgery residents. We performed a retrospective review of all educational lectures, part of the core Neurosurgery Residency curriculum at the University of Toronto, posted on our teaching website (www.TheBrainSchool.net). Our website was developed using publicly available Web 2.0 platforms. Lecture usage was assessed by the number of clicks, and associations were explored with lecturer academic position, timing of examinations, and lecture/subspecialty topic. The overall number of clicks on 77 lectures was 1079. Most of these clicks were occurring during the in-training examination month (43%). Click numbers were significantly higher on lectures presented by faculty (mean = 18.6, standard deviation ± 4.1) compared to those delivered by residents (mean = 8.4, standard deviation ± 2.1) (p = 0.031). Lectures covering topics in functional neurosurgery received the most clicks (47%), followed by pediatric neurosurgery (22%). This study demonstrates the value of Web 2.0 analytic tools in examining resident study behavior. Residents tend to "cram" by downloading lectures in the same month of training examinations and display a preference for faculty-delivered lectures. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Measuring the bright side of being blue: a new tool for assessing analytical rumination in depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skye P Barbic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnosis and management of depression occurs frequently in the primary care setting. Current diagnostic and management of treatment practices across clinical populations focus on eliminating signs and symptoms of depression. However, there is debate that some interventions may pathologize normal, adaptive responses to stressors. Analytical rumination (AR is an example of an adaptive response of depression that is characterized by enhanced cognitive function to help an individual focus on, analyze, and solve problems. To date, research on AR has been hampered by the lack of theoretically-derived and psychometrically sound instruments. This study developed and tested a clinically meaningful measure of AR. METHODS: Using expert panels and an extensive literature review, we developed a conceptual framework for AR and 22 candidate items. Items were field tested to 579 young adults; 140 of whom completed the items at a second time point. We used Rasch measurement methods to construct and test the item set; and traditional psychometric analyses to compare items to existing rating scales. RESULTS: Data were high quality (0.81; evidence for divergent validity. Evidence of misfit for 2 items suggested that a 20-item scale with 4-point response categories best captured the concept of AR, fitting the Rasch model (χ2 = 95.26; df = 76, p = 0.07, with high reliability (rp = 0.86, ordered response scale structure, and no item bias (gender, age, time. CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence for a 20-item Analytical Rumination Questionnaire (ARQ that can be used to quantify AR in adults who experience symptoms of depression. The ARQ is psychometrically robust and a clinically useful tool for the assessment and improvement of depression in the primary care setting. Future work is needed to establish the validity of this measure in people with major depression.

  13. Web Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Web Analytics Program collects, analyzes, and provides reports on traffic, quality assurance, and customer satisfaction metrics for EPA’s website. The program uses a variety of analytics tools, including Google Analytics and CrazyEgg.

  14. Tool life and surface integrity aspects when drilling nickel alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, S.; Pervaiz, S.; Vincent, S.; Karthikeyan, R.

    2018-04-01

    Nickel based super alloys manufactured through powder metallurgy (PM) route are required to increase the operational efficiency of gas turbine engines. They are material of choice for high pressure components due to their superior high temperature strength, excellent corrosion, oxidation and creep resistance. This unique combination of mechanical and thermal properties makes them even more difficult-to-machine. In this paper, the hole making process using coated carbide inserts by drilling and plunge milling for a nickel-based powder metallurgy super alloy has been investigated. Tool life and process capability studies were conducted using optimized process parameters using high pressure coolants. The experimental trials were directed towards an assessment of the tendency for surface malformations and detrimental residual stress profiles. Residual stresses in both the radial and circumferential directions have been evaluated as a function of depth from the machined surface using the target strain gauge / center hole drilling method. Circumferential stresses near workpiece surface and at depth of 512 µm in the starting material was primarily circumferential compression which was measured to be average of –404 MPa. However, the radial stresses near workpiece surface was tensile and transformed to be compressive in nature at depth of 512 µm in the starting material (average: -87 Mpa). The magnitude and the depth below the machined surface in both radial and circumferential directions were primarily tensile in nature which increased with hole number due to a rise of temperature at the tool–workpiece interface with increasing tool wear. These profiles are of critical importance for the selection of cutting strategies to ensure avoidance/minimization of tensile residual stresses that can be detrimental to the fatigue performance of the components. These results clearly show a tendency for the circumferential stresses to be more tensile than the radial stresses

  15. Low energy ion beam systems for surface analytical and structural studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, G.C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reviews the use of low energy ion beam systems for surface analytical and structural studies. Areas where analytical methods which utilize ion beams can provide a unique insight into materials problems are discussed. The design criteria of ion beam systems for performing materials studies are described and the systems now being used by a number of laboratories are reviewed. Finally, several specific problems are described where the solution was provided at least in part by information provided by low energy ion analysis techniques

  16. Fast simulation tool for ultraviolet radiation at the earth's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelsen, Ola; Kylling, Arve

    2005-04-01

    FastRT is a fast, yet accurate, UV simulation tool that computes downward surface UV doses, UV indices, and irradiances in the spectral range 290 to 400 nm with a resolution as small as 0.05 nm. It computes a full UV spectrum within a few milliseconds on a standard PC, and enables the user to convolve the spectrum with user-defined and built-in spectral response functions including the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) erythemal response function used for UV index calculations. The program accounts for the main radiative input parameters, i.e., instrumental characteristics, solar zenith angle, ozone column, aerosol loading, clouds, surface albedo, and surface altitude. FastRT is based on look-up tables of carefully selected entries of atmospheric transmittances and spherical albedos, and exploits the smoothness of these quantities with respect to atmospheric, surface, geometrical, and spectral parameters. An interactive site, http://nadir.nilu.no/~olaeng/fastrt/fastrt.html, enables the public to run the FastRT program with most input options. This page also contains updated information about FastRT and links to freely downloadable source codes and binaries.

  17. Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy (FLIM) as an analytical tool in skin nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiev, Ulrike; Volz, Pierre; Boreham, Alexander; Brodwolf, Robert

    2017-07-01

    The emerging field of nanomedicine provides new approaches for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, for symptom relief, and for monitoring of disease progression. Topical application of drug-loaded nanoparticles for the treatment of skin disorders is a promising strategy to overcome the stratum corneum, the upper layer of the skin, which represents an effective physical and biochemical barrier. The understanding of drug penetration into skin and enhanced penetration into skin facilitated by nanocarriers requires analytical tools that ideally allow to visualize the skin, its morphology, the drug carriers, drugs, their transport across the skin and possible interactions, as well as effects of the nanocarriers within the different skin layers. Here, we review some recent developments in the field of fluorescence microscopy, namely Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM)), for improved characterization of nanocarriers, their interactions and penetration into skin. In particular, FLIM allows for the discrimination of target molecules, e.g. fluorescently tagged nanocarriers, against the autofluorescent tissue background and, due to the environmental sensitivity of the fluorescence lifetime, also offers insights into the local environment of the nanoparticle and its interactions with other biomolecules. Thus, FLIM shows the potential to overcome several limits of intensity based microscopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry: the analytical tool for heavy oil and bitumen characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Thomas B.P; Brown, Melisa; Hsieh, Ben; Larter, Steve [Petroleum Reservoir Group (prg), Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FTICRMS), developed in the 1970's by Marshall and Comisarow at the University of British Columbia, has become a commercially available tool capable of analyzing several hundred thousand components in a petroleum mixture at once. This analytical technology will probably usher a dramatic revolution in geochemical capability, equal to or greater than the molecular revolution that occurred when GCMS technologies became cheaply available. The molecular resolution and information content given by the FTICRMS petroleum analysis can be compared to the information in the human genome. With current GCMS-based petroleum geochemical protocols perhaps a few hundred components can be quantitatively determined, but with FTICRMS, 1000 times this number of components could possibly be resolved. However, fluid and other properties depend on interaction of this multitude of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon components, not the components themselves, and access to the full potential of this new petroleomics will depend on the definition of this interactome.

  19. The 'secureplan' bomb utility: A PC-based analytic tool for bomb defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper illustrates a recently developed, PC-based software system for simulating the effects of an infinite variety of hypothetical bomb blasts on structures and personnel in the immediate vicinity of such blasts. The system incorporates two basic rectangular geometries in which blast assessments can be made - an external configuration (highly vented) and an internal configuration (vented and unvented). A variety of explosives can be used - each is translated to an equivalent TNT weight. Provisions in the program account for bomb cases (person, satchel, case and vehicle), mixes of explosives and shrapnel aggregates and detonation altitudes. The software permits architects, engineers, security personnel and facility managers, without specific knowledge of explosives, to incorporate realistic construction hardening, screening programs, barriers and stand-off provisions in the design and/or operation of diverse facilities. System outputs - generally represented as peak incident or reflected overpressure or impulses - are both graphic and analytic and integrate damage threshold data for common construction materials including window glazing. The effects of bomb blasts on humans is estimated in terms of temporary and permanent hearing damage, lung damage (lethality) and whole body translation injury. The software system has been used in the field in providing bomb defense services to a number of commercial clients since July of 1986. In addition to the design of siting, screening and hardening components of bomb defense programs, the software has proven very useful in post-incident analysis and repair scenarios and as a teaching tool for bomb defense training

  20. Impact of population and economic growth on carbon emissions in Taiwan using an analytic tool STIRPAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Chao Yeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon emission has increasingly become an issue of global concern because of climate change. Unfortunately, Taiwan was listed as top 20 countries of carbon emission in 2014. In order to provide appropriate measures to control carbon emission, it appears that there is an urgent need to address how such factors as population and economic growth impact the emission of carbon dioxide in any developing countries. In addition to total population, both the percentages of population living in urban area (i.e., urbanization percentage, and non-dependent population may also serve as limiting factors. On the other hand, the total energy-driven gross domestic production (GDP and the percentage of GDP generated by the manufacturing industries are assessed to see their respective degree of impact on carbon emission. Therefore, based on the past national data in the period 1990–2014 in Taiwan, an analytic tool of Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology (STIRPAT was employed to see how well those aforementioned factors can describe their individual potential impact on global warming, which is measured by the total amount of carbon emission into the atmosphere. Seven scenarios of STIRPAT model were proposed and tested statistically for the significance of each proposed model. As a result, two models were suggested to predict the impact of carbon emission due to population and economic growth by the year 2025 in Taiwan.

  1. Surveillance of emerging drugs of abuse in Hong Kong: validation of an analytical tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Magdalene H Y; Ching, C K; Tse, M L; Ng, Carol; Lee, Caroline; Chong, Y K; Wong, Watson; Mak, Tony W L

    2015-04-01

    To validate a locally developed chromatography-based method to monitor emerging drugs of abuse whilst performing regular drug testing in abusers. Cross-sectional study. Eleven regional hospitals, seven social service units, and a tertiary level clinical toxicology laboratory in Hong Kong. A total of 972 drug abusers and high-risk individuals were recruited from acute, rehabilitation, and high-risk settings between 1 November 2011 and 31 July 2013. A subset of the participants was of South Asian ethnicity. In total, 2000 urine or hair specimens were collected. Proof of concept that surveillance of emerging drugs of abuse can be performed whilst conducting routine drug of abuse testing in patients. The method was successfully applied to 2000 samples with three emerging drugs of abuse detected in five samples: PMMA (paramethoxymethamphetamine), TFMPP [1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine], and methcathinone. The method also detected conventional drugs of abuse, with codeine, methadone, heroin, methamphetamine, and ketamine being the most frequently detected drugs. Other findings included the observation that South Asians had significantly higher rates of using opiates such as heroin, methadone, and codeine; and that ketamine and cocaine had significantly higher detection rates in acute subjects compared with the rehabilitation population. This locally developed analytical method is a valid tool for simultaneous surveillance of emerging drugs of abuse and routine drug monitoring of patients at minimal additional cost and effort. Continued, proactive surveillance and early identification of emerging drugs will facilitate prompt clinical, social, and legislative management.

  2. Raman-in-SEM, a multimodal and multiscale analytical tool: performance for materials and expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Guillaume; Bourrat, Xavier; Maubec, Nicolas; Lahfid, Abdeltif

    2014-12-01

    The availability of Raman spectroscopy in a powerful analytical scanning electron microscope (SEM) allows morphological, elemental, chemical, physical and electronic analysis without moving the sample between instruments. This paper documents the metrological performance of the SEMSCA commercial Raman interface operated in a low vacuum SEM. It provides multiscale and multimodal analyses as Raman/EDS, Raman/cathodoluminescence or Raman/STEM (STEM: scanning transmission electron microscopy) as well as Raman spectroscopy on nanomaterials. Since Raman spectroscopy in a SEM can be influenced by several SEM-related phenomena, this paper firstly presents a comparison of this new tool with a conventional micro-Raman spectrometer. Then, some possible artefacts are documented, which are due to the impact of electron beam-induced contamination or cathodoluminescence contribution to the Raman spectra, especially with geological samples. These effects are easily overcome by changing or adapting the Raman spectrometer and the SEM settings and methodology. The deletion of the adverse effect of cathodoluminescence is solved by using a SEM beam shutter during Raman acquisition. In contrast, this interface provides the ability to record the cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrum of a phase. In a second part, this study highlights the interest and efficiency of the coupling in characterizing micrometric phases at the same point. This multimodal approach is illustrated with various issues encountered in geosciences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analytical study on optically measured surface profiles of referential geometry using a finite-difference time-domain method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, A; Hayashi, S; Fujii, S; Yanagi, K

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the functional performance of optical surface texture measuring instruments on the market. It is well known that their height response curves against certain referential geometry are not always identical to each other. So, a more precise study on the optical instrument's characteristics is greatly needed. Firstly, we developed a new simulation tool using a finite-difference time-domain technique, which enables the prediction of the height response curve against the fundamental surface geometry in the case of the confocal laser scanning microscope. Secondly, by utilizing this new simulation tool, measurement results, including outliers, were compared with the analytical simulation results. The comparison showed the consistency, which indicates that necessary conditions of surface measurement standards for verifying the instrument performance can be established. Consequently, we suggest that the maximum measurable slope angle must be added to evaluation subjects as significant metrological characteristics of measuring instruments, along with the lateral period limit. Finally, we propose a procedure to determine the lateral period limit in an ISO standard. (paper)

  4. Analytical model of radiation-induced precipitation at the surface of dilute binary alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechenkin, V. A.; Stepanov, I. A.; Konobeev, Yu. V.

    2002-12-01

    Growth of precipitate layer at the foil surface of an undersaturated binary alloy under uniform irradiation is treated analytically. Analytical expressions for the layer growth rate, layer thickness limit and final component concentrations in the matrix are derived for coherent and incoherent precipitate-matrix interfaces. It is shown that the high temperature limit of radiation-induced precipitation is the same for both types of interfaces, whereas layer thickness limits are different. A parabolic law of the layer growth predicted for both types of interfaces is in agreement with experimental data on γ '-phase precipitation at the surface of Ni-Si dilute alloys under ion irradiation. Effect of sputtering on the precipitation rate and on the low temperature limit of precipitation under ion irradiation is discussed.

  5. Quantitative determination of the intensities of known components in spectra obtained from surface analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    Linear least-squares methods have been used to quantitatively decompose experimental data obtained from surface analytical techniques into its separate components. The mathematical procedure for accomplishing this is described and examples are given of the use of this method with data obtained from Auger electron spectroscopy [both N(E) and derivative], x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and low energy ion scattering spectroscopy. The requirements on the quality of the data are discussed

  6. Directed transport by surface chemical potential gradients for enhancing analyte collection in nanoscale sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitt, Amit; Hess, Henry

    2015-05-13

    Nanoscale detectors hold great promise for single molecule detection and the analysis of small volumes of dilute samples. However, the probability of an analyte reaching the nanosensor in a dilute solution is extremely low due to the sensor's small size. Here, we examine the use of a chemical potential gradient along a surface to accelerate analyte capture by nanoscale sensors. Utilizing a simple model for transport induced by surface binding energy gradients, we study the effect of the gradient on the efficiency of collecting nanoparticles and single and double stranded DNA. The results indicate that chemical potential gradients along a surface can lead to an acceleration of analyte capture by several orders of magnitude compared to direct collection from the solution. The improvement in collection is limited to a relatively narrow window of gradient slopes, and its extent strongly depends on the size of the gradient patch. Our model allows the optimization of gradient layouts and sheds light on the fundamental characteristics of chemical potential gradient induced transport.

  7. Chemometrics in analytical chemistry-part I: history, experimental design and data analysis tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, Richard G; Jansen, Jeroen; Lopes, João; Marini, Federico; Pomerantsev, Alexey; Rodionova, Oxana; Roger, Jean Michel; Walczak, Beata; Tauler, Romà

    2017-10-01

    Chemometrics has achieved major recognition and progress in the analytical chemistry field. In the first part of this tutorial, major achievements and contributions of chemometrics to some of the more important stages of the analytical process, like experimental design, sampling, and data analysis (including data pretreatment and fusion), are summarised. The tutorial is intended to give a general updated overview of the chemometrics field to further contribute to its dissemination and promotion in analytical chemistry.

  8. Evaluating the performance of free-formed surface parts using an analytic network process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xueming; Ma, Yanqiao; Liang, Dezhi

    2018-03-01

    To successfully design parts with a free-formed surface, the critical issue of how to evaluate and select a favourable evaluation strategy before design is raised. The evaluation of free-formed surface parts is a multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem that requires the consideration of a large number of interdependent factors. The analytic network process (ANP) is a relatively new MCDM method that can systematically deal with all kinds of dependences. In this paper, the factors, which come from the life-cycle and influence the design of free-formed surface parts, are proposed. After analysing the interdependence among these factors, a Hybrid ANP (HANP) structure for evaluating the part’s curved surface is constructed. Then, a HANP evaluation of an impeller is presented to illustrate the application of the proposed method.

  9. Topological data analysis: A promising big data exploration tool in biology, analytical chemistry and physical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offroy, Marc; Duponchel, Ludovic

    2016-03-03

    An important feature of experimental science is that data of various kinds is being produced at an unprecedented rate. This is mainly due to the development of new instrumental concepts and experimental methodologies. It is also clear that the nature of acquired data is significantly different. Indeed in every areas of science, data take the form of always bigger tables, where all but a few of the columns (i.e. variables) turn out to be irrelevant to the questions of interest, and further that we do not necessary know which coordinates are the interesting ones. Big data in our lab of biology, analytical chemistry or physical chemistry is a future that might be closer than any of us suppose. It is in this sense that new tools have to be developed in order to explore and valorize such data sets. Topological data analysis (TDA) is one of these. It was developed recently by topologists who discovered that topological concept could be useful for data analysis. The main objective of this paper is to answer the question why topology is well suited for the analysis of big data set in many areas and even more efficient than conventional data analysis methods. Raman analysis of single bacteria should be providing a good opportunity to demonstrate the potential of TDA for the exploration of various spectroscopic data sets considering different experimental conditions (with high noise level, with/without spectral preprocessing, with wavelength shift, with different spectral resolution, with missing data). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Manufacture of functional surfaces through combined application of tool manufacturing processes and Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer; Arentoft, Mogens; Grønbæk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The tool surface topography is often a key parameter in the tribological performance of modern metal forming tools. A new generation of multifunctional surfaces is achieved by combination of conventional tool manufacturing processes with a novel Robot Assisted Polishing process. This novel surface...

  11. The Broad Application of Data Science and Analytics: Essential Tools for the Liberal Arts Graduate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Navia, Isabel; Fitzgerald, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    New technologies and data science are transforming a wide range of organizations into analytics-intensive enterprises. Despite the resulting demand for graduates with experience in the application of analytics, though, undergraduate education has been slow to change. The academic and policy communities have engaged in a decade-long conversation…

  12. Automation of analytical processes. A tool for higher efficiency and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groll, P.

    1976-01-01

    The analytical laboratory of a radiochemical facility is usually faced with the fact that numerous analyses of a similar type must be routinely carried out. Automation of such routine analytical procedures helps in increasing the efficiency and safety of the work. A review of the requirements for automation and its advantages is given and demonstrated on three examples. (author)

  13. Airborne laser: a tool to study landscape surface features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.C.; Jackson, T.J.; Everitt, J.H.; Escobar, D.E.; Murphey, J.B.; Grissinger, E.H.

    1992-01-01

    Landscape surface features related to erosion and hydrology were measured using an airborne laser profiler. The airborne laser profiler made 4,000 measurements per second with a recording accuracy of 5 cm (1.9 inches) on a single measurement. Digital data from the laser are recorded and analyzed with a personal computer. These airborne laser profiles provide information on surface landscape features. Topography and canopy heights, cover, and distribution of natural vegetation were determined in studies in South Texas. Laser measurements of shrub cover along flightlines were highly correlated (R 2 = 0.98) with ground measurements made with line-intercept methods. Stream channel cross sections on Goodwin Creek in Mississippi were measured quickly and accurately with airborne laser data. Airborne laser profile data were used to measure small gullies in a level fallow field and in field with mature soybeans. While conventional ground-based techniques can be used to make these measurements, airborne laser profiler techniques allow data to be collected quickly, at a high density, and in areas that are essentially inaccessible for ground surveys. Airborne laser profiler data can quantify landscape features related to erosion and runoff, and the laser proler has the potential to be a useful tool for providing other data for studying and managing natural resources

  14. Perfect imaging of three object points with only two analytic lens surfaces in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Fabian; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan Carlos; Meuret, Youri; Thienpont, Hugo

    2012-06-01

    In this work, a new two-dimensional analytic optics design method is presented that enables the coupling of three ray sets with two lens profiles. This method is particularly promising for optical systems designed for wide field of view and with clearly separated optical surfaces. However, this coupling can only be achieved if different ray sets will use different portions of the second lens profile. Based on a very basic example of a single thick lens, the Simultaneous Multiple Surfaces design method in two dimensions (SMS2D) will help to provide a better understanding of the practical implications on the design process by an increased lens thickness and a wider field of view. Fermat's principle is used to deduce a set of functional differential equations fully describing the entire optical system. The transformation of these functional differential equations into an algebraic linear system of equations allows the successive calculation of the Taylor series coefficients up to an arbitrary order. The evaluation of the solution space reveals the wide range of possible lens configurations covered by this analytic design method. Ray tracing analysis for calculated 20th order Taylor polynomials demonstrate excellent performance and the versatility of this new analytical optics design concept.

  15. Analytical tools and functions of GIS in the process control and decision support of mining company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semrád Peter

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of computer techniques, the increase in demands for the professional and possible fastest data processing, as well as for the fluency and efficiency of information gaining, exchanging and providing has a strong influence on forming the new generation of information technologies - Geografic Information Systems (GIS that rose in the second half of the twentieth century.Advancement in this area is still progressing and GIS gradually find the enforcement in individual fields where they play a great role in the process control and decision support. Nowadays, there are applications in mining and geology, where are used especially at processing and evaluating of mining - geological documentation, optimalization of mining and technical processes, planning, distributing and managing of mining as well as economic analysis that are important in terms of investment decisions to mining business.GIS are the systems for the effective keeping, updating, processing, analysing, modelling, simulating and presenting geographically oriented information. We can identify them as computer systems helping to solve real problems that should be normally required to solve by human expert.Well equipped GIS have graphic ability and accordingly manage descriptive (attribute data. They are able to secure mutual connection between graphical and descriptive data and in addition to command countless number of functions that enable the execution of spatial analysis. This fact is very important in mining and geological application.There are exploited mostly geostatistical analysis (e. g. modelling of distribution valuable and harmful components of mineral resouce in a mineral deposit, surface modelling and surface model analysis (e. g. at modelling the subsidence of mining territory, different methods of creating spatial and attribute queries about database for seeking necessary data (e. g. to find all mining blocks of deposit that meet required conditions and to

  16. Analytical tools for thermal infrared engineerig: a thermal sensor simulation package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, Sandeep

    1992-09-01

    The Advanced Sensor Development Laboratory (ASDL) at the Stennis Space Center develops, maintains and calibrates remote sensing instruments for the National Aeronautics & Space Administration. To perform system design trade-offs, analysis, and establish system parameters, ASDL has developed a software package for analytical simulation of sensor systems. This package called 'Analytical Tools for Thermal InfraRed Engineering'--ATTIRE, simulates the various components of a sensor system. The software allows each subsystem of the sensor to be analyzed independently for its performance. These performance parameters are then integrated to obtain system level information such as SNR, NER, NETD etc. This paper describes the uses of the package and the physics that were used to derive the performance parameters. In addition, ATTIRE can be used as a tutorial for understanding the distribution of thermal flux or solar irradiance over selected bandwidths of the spectrum. This spectrally distributed incident flux can then be analyzed as it propagates through the subsystems that constitute the entire sensor. ATTIRE provides a variety of functions ranging from plotting black-body curves for varying bandwidths and computing the integral flux, to performing transfer function analysis of the sensor system. The package runs from a menu- driven interface in a PC-DOS environment. Each sub-system of the sensor is represented by windows and icons. A user-friendly mouse-controlled point-and-click interface allows the user to simulate various aspects of a sensor. The package can simulate a theoretical sensor system. Trade-off studies can be easily done by changing the appropriate parameters and monitoring the effect of the system performance. The package can provide plots of system performance versus any system parameter. A parameter (such as the entrance aperture of the optics) could be varied and its effect on another parameter (e.g., NETD) can be plotted. A third parameter (e.g., the

  17. Analytic solution to leading order coupled DGLAP evolution equations: A new perturbative QCD tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, Martin M.; Durand, Loyal; Ha, Phuoc; McKay, Douglas W.

    2011-01-01

    We have analytically solved the LO perturbative QCD singlet DGLAP equations [V. N. Gribov and L. N. Lipatov, Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 15, 438 (1972)][G. Altarelli and G. Parisi, Nucl. Phys. B126, 298 (1977)][Y. L. Dokshitzer, Sov. Phys. JETP 46, 641 (1977)] using Laplace transform techniques. Newly developed, highly accurate, numerical inverse Laplace transform algorithms [M. M. Block, Eur. Phys. J. C 65, 1 (2010)][M. M. Block, Eur. Phys. J. C 68, 683 (2010)] allow us to write fully decoupled solutions for the singlet structure function F s (x,Q 2 ) and G(x,Q 2 ) as F s (x,Q 2 )=F s (F s0 (x 0 ),G 0 (x 0 )) and G(x,Q 2 )=G(F s0 (x 0 ),G 0 (x 0 )), where the x 0 are the Bjorken x values at Q 0 2 . Here F s and G are known functions--found using LO DGLAP splitting functions--of the initial boundary conditions F s0 (x)≡F s (x,Q 0 2 ) and G 0 (x)≡G(x,Q 0 2 ), i.e., the chosen starting functions at the virtuality Q 0 2 . For both G(x) and F s (x), we are able to either devolve or evolve each separately and rapidly, with very high numerical accuracy--a computational fractional precision of O(10 -9 ). Armed with this powerful new tool in the perturbative QCD arsenal, we compare our numerical results from the above equations with the published MSTW2008 and CTEQ6L LO gluon and singlet F s distributions [A. D. Martin, W. J. Stirling, R. S. Thorne, and G. Watt, Eur. Phys. J. C 63, 189 (2009)], starting from their initial values at Q 0 2 =1 GeV 2 and 1.69 GeV 2 , respectively, using their choice of α s (Q 2 ). This allows an important independent check on the accuracies of their evolution codes and, therefore, the computational accuracies of their published parton distributions. Our method completely decouples the two LO distributions, at the same time guaranteeing that both G and F s satisfy the singlet coupled DGLAP equations. It also allows one to easily obtain the effects of the starting functions on the evolved gluon and singlet structure functions, as functions of both Q

  18. GeneAnalytics: An Integrative Gene Set Analysis Tool for Next Generation Sequencing, RNAseq and Microarray Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari Fuchs, Shani; Lieder, Iris; Stelzer, Gil; Mazor, Yaron; Buzhor, Ella; Kaplan, Sergey; Bogoch, Yoel; Plaschkes, Inbar; Shitrit, Alina; Rappaport, Noa; Kohn, Asher; Edgar, Ron; Shenhav, Liraz; Safran, Marilyn; Lancet, Doron; Guan-Golan, Yaron; Warshawsky, David; Shtrichman, Ronit

    2016-03-01

    Postgenomics data are produced in large volumes by life sciences and clinical applications of novel omics diagnostics and therapeutics for precision medicine. To move from "data-to-knowledge-to-innovation," a crucial missing step in the current era is, however, our limited understanding of biological and clinical contexts associated with data. Prominent among the emerging remedies to this challenge are the gene set enrichment tools. This study reports on GeneAnalytics™ ( geneanalytics.genecards.org ), a comprehensive and easy-to-apply gene set analysis tool for rapid contextualization of expression patterns and functional signatures embedded in the postgenomics Big Data domains, such as Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), RNAseq, and microarray experiments. GeneAnalytics' differentiating features include in-depth evidence-based scoring algorithms, an intuitive user interface and proprietary unified data. GeneAnalytics employs the LifeMap Science's GeneCards suite, including the GeneCards®--the human gene database; the MalaCards-the human diseases database; and the PathCards--the biological pathways database. Expression-based analysis in GeneAnalytics relies on the LifeMap Discovery®--the embryonic development and stem cells database, which includes manually curated expression data for normal and diseased tissues, enabling advanced matching algorithm for gene-tissue association. This assists in evaluating differentiation protocols and discovering biomarkers for tissues and cells. Results are directly linked to gene, disease, or cell "cards" in the GeneCards suite. Future developments aim to enhance the GeneAnalytics algorithm as well as visualizations, employing varied graphical display items. Such attributes make GeneAnalytics a broadly applicable postgenomics data analyses and interpretation tool for translation of data to knowledge-based innovation in various Big Data fields such as precision medicine, ecogenomics, nutrigenomics, pharmacogenomics, vaccinomics

  19. Effect of Micro Electrical Discharge Machining Process Conditions on Tool Wear Characteristics: Results of an Analytic Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puthumana, Govindan; P., Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    Micro electrical discharge machining is one of the established techniques to manufacture high aspect ratio features on electrically conductive materials. This paper presents the results and inferences of an analytical study for estimating theeffect of process conditions on tool electrode wear...... characteristicsin micro-EDM process. A new approach with two novel factors anticipated to directly control the material removal mechanism from the tool electrode are proposed; using discharge energyfactor (DEf) and dielectric flushing factor (DFf). The results showed that the correlation between the tool wear rate...... (TWR) and the factors is poor. Thus, individual effects of each factor on TWR are analyzed. The factors selected for the study of individual effects are pulse on-time, discharge peak current, gap voltage and gap flushing pressure. The tool wear rate decreases linearly with an increase in the pulse on...

  20. Learning analytics as a tool for closing the assessment loop in higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Karen D. Mattingly; Margaret C. Rice; Zane L. Berge

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines learning and academic analytics and its relevance to distance education in undergraduate and graduate programs as it impacts students and teaching faculty, and also academic institutions. The focus is to explore the measurement, collection, analysis, and reporting of data as predictors of student success and drivers of departmental process and program curriculum. Learning and academic analytics in higher education is used to predict student success by examining how and wha...

  1. Clays causing adhesion with tool surfaces during mechanical tunnel driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnoli, G.; Fernández-Steeger, T.; Stanjek, H.; Feinendegen, M.; Post, C.; Azzam, R.

    2009-04-01

    During mechanical excavation with a tunnel boring machine (TBM) it is possible that clays stick to the cutting wheel and to other metal parts. The resulting delays in the progress of construction work, cause great economic damage and often disputes between the public awarding authorities and executing companies. One of the most important factors to reduce successfully the clay adhesion is the use of special polymers and foams. But why does the clay stick to the metal parts? A first step is to recognize which kind of clay mineralogy shows serious adhesion problems. The mechanical properties of clay and clay suspensions are primarily determined by surface chemistry and charge distribution at the interfaces, which in turn affect the arrangement of the clay structure. As we know, clay is a multi-phase material and its behaviour depends on numerous parameters such as: clay mineralogy, clay fraction, silt fraction, sand fraction, water content, water saturation, Atterberg limits, sticky limit, activity, cation exchange capacity, degree of consolidation and stress state. It is therefore likely that adhesion of clay on steel is also affected by these clay parameters. Samples of clay formations, which caused problems during tunnel driving, will be analyzed in laboratory. Mineralogical analyses (diffractometry, etc.) will be carried out to observe which minerals are responsible for adherence problems. To manipulate the physical properties, batch tests will be carried out in order to eliminate or reduce the adhesion on tool surfaces through variation of the zeta potential. Second step is the performance of vane shear tests on clay samples. Different pore fluid (distilled water, pure NaCl solution, ethanol and methanol) will be used to study the variation of the mechanical behaviour of clay depending on the dielectric constant of the fluids. This project is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the DFG (German Research Foundation) in the

  2. EPIPOI: A user-friendly analytical tool for the extraction and visualization of temporal parameters from epidemiological time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Wladimir J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing need for processing and understanding relevant information generated by the systematic collection of public health data over time. However, the analysis of those time series usually requires advanced modeling techniques, which are not necessarily mastered by staff, technicians and researchers working on public health and epidemiology. Here a user-friendly tool, EPIPOI, is presented that facilitates the exploration and extraction of parameters describing trends, seasonality and anomalies that characterize epidemiological processes. It also enables the inspection of those parameters across geographic regions. Although the visual exploration and extraction of relevant parameters from time series data is crucial in epidemiological research, until now it had been largely restricted to specialists. Methods EPIPOI is freely available software developed in Matlab (The Mathworks Inc that runs both on PC and Mac computers. Its friendly interface guides users intuitively through useful comparative analyses including the comparison of spatial patterns in temporal parameters. Results EPIPOI is able to handle complex analyses in an accessible way. A prototype has already been used to assist researchers in a variety of contexts from didactic use in public health workshops to the main analytical tool in published research. Conclusions EPIPOI can assist public health officials and students to explore time series data using a broad range of sophisticated analytical and visualization tools. It also provides an analytical environment where even advanced users can benefit by enabling a higher degree of control over model assumptions, such as those associated with detecting disease outbreaks and pandemics.

  3. A surface-analytical examination of stringer particles in aluminum-lithium-copper alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, L. A.; Avalos-Borja, M.; Pizzo, P. P.

    1984-01-01

    A surface analytical examination of powder metallurgy processed Al-Li-Cu alloys was conducted. The oxide stringer particles often found in these alloys are characterized. Particle characterization is important to more fully understand their impact on the stress corrosion and fracture properties of the alloy. The techniques used where SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy) and SAM (Scanning Auger Microscopy). The results indicate that the oxide stringer particles contain both Al and LI with relatively high Li content and the Li compounds may be associated with the stringer particles, thereby locally depleting the adjacent matrix of Li solute.

  4. Some recent developments in the surface-analytical application of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gries, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Standard depth profiles of an analyte deposited into (diffusion or ion implantation) or on (thin-film deposition) a plane surface can be analyzed for profile type and centroid depth or film thickness by means of a standardless method in which the matrix-attenuated signals of the fluorescing analyte measured at two different take-off angles are related to the mathematical distribution moments of the profile. For a binary thin film the element ratio can also be established. Results obtained on phosphorus profiles in silicon and on zinc sulphide optical coatings are referred to. The quantity or concentration level can be determined by use of a reference standard which may contain the analyte in an entirely different distribution. This simplifies the calibration of secondary reference standards. A good lateral resolution in the sub-millimeter range can be achieved with synchrotron radiation. A further improvement of lateral resolution is possible by direct excitation with electron microbeams, though at significantly inferior detection limits. (orig.)

  5. Analytical real-time measurement of a three-dimensional weld pool surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, WeiJie; Zhang, YuMing; Wang, XueWu

    2013-01-01

    The ability to observe and measure weld pool surfaces in real-time is the core of the foundation for next generation intelligent welding that can partially imitate skilled welders who observe the weld pool to acquire information on the welding process. This study aims at the real-time measurement of the specular three-dimensional (3D) weld pool surface under a strong arc in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). An innovative vision system is utilized in this study to project a dot-matrix laser pattern on the specular weld pool surface. Its reflection from the surface is intercepted at a distance from the arc by a diffuse plane. The intercepted laser dots illuminate this plane producing an image showing the reflection pattern. The deformation of this reflection pattern from the projected pattern (e.g. the dot matrix) is used to derive the 3D shape of the reflection surface, i.e., the weld pool surface. Based on careful analysis, the underlying reconstruction problem is formulated mathematically. An analytic solution is proposed to solve this formulated problem resulting in the weld pool surface being reconstructed on average in 3.04 ms during welding experiments. A vision-based monitoring system is thus established to measure the weld pool surface in GTAW in real-time. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed reconstruction algorithm, first numerical simulation is conducted. The proposed algorithm is then tested on a spherical convex mirror with a priori knowledge of its geometry. The detailed analysis of the measurement error validates the accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Results from the real-time experiments verify the robustness of the proposed reconstruction algorithm. (paper)

  6. Quantum confinement and heavy surface states of Dirac fermions in bismuth (111) films: An analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enaldiev, V. V.; Volkov, V. A.

    2018-03-01

    Recent high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments have given a reason to believe that pure bismuth is a topologically nontrivial semimetal. We derive an analytic theory of surface and size-quantized states of Dirac fermions in Bi(111) films taking into account the new data. The theory relies on a new phenomenological momentum-dependent boundary condition for the effective Dirac equation. The boundary condition is described by two real parameters that are expressed by a linear combination of the Dresselhaus and Rashba interface spin-orbit interaction parameters. In semi-infinite Bi(111), near the M ¯ point the surface states possess anisotropical parabolic dispersion with very heavy effective mass in the Γ ¯-M ¯ direction order of ten free electron masses and light effective mass in the M ¯-K ¯ direction order of one hundredth of free electron mass. In Bi(111) films with equivalent surfaces, the surface states from top and bottom surfaces are not split. In such a symmetric film with arbitrary thickness, the bottom of the lowest quantum confinement subband in the conduction band coincides with the bottom of the bulk conduction band in the M ¯ point.

  7. Cross learning synergies between Operation Management content and the use of generic analytic tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Marimon

    2017-06-01

    By presenting both objectives simultaneously students are found to be more motivated towards working deeply in both objectives. Students know that the theoretical content will be put in practice through certain tools, strengthening the student's interest on the conceptual issues of the chapter. In turn, because students know that they will use a generic tool in a known context, their interests in these tools is reinforced. The result is a cross learning synergy.

  8. Visualization and analytics tools for infectious disease epidemiology: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Lauren N; Au, Alan P; Detwiler, Landon Todd; Fu, Tsung-Chieh; Painter, Ian S; Abernethy, Neil F

    2014-10-01

    A myriad of new tools and algorithms have been developed to help public health professionals analyze and visualize the complex data used in infectious disease control. To better understand approaches to meet these users' information needs, we conducted a systematic literature review focused on the landscape of infectious disease visualization tools for public health professionals, with a special emphasis on geographic information systems (GIS), molecular epidemiology, and social network analysis. The objectives of this review are to: (1) identify public health user needs and preferences for infectious disease information visualization tools; (2) identify existing infectious disease information visualization tools and characterize their architecture and features; (3) identify commonalities among approaches applied to different data types; and (4) describe tool usability evaluation efforts and barriers to the adoption of such tools. We identified articles published in English from January 1, 1980 to June 30, 2013 from five bibliographic databases. Articles with a primary focus on infectious disease visualization tools, needs of public health users, or usability of information visualizations were included in the review. A total of 88 articles met our inclusion criteria. Users were found to have diverse needs, preferences and uses for infectious disease visualization tools, and the existing tools are correspondingly diverse. The architecture of the tools was inconsistently described, and few tools in the review discussed the incorporation of usability studies or plans for dissemination. Many studies identified concerns regarding data sharing, confidentiality and quality. Existing tools offer a range of features and functions that allow users to explore, analyze, and visualize their data, but the tools are often for siloed applications. Commonly cited barriers to widespread adoption included lack of organizational support, access issues, and misconceptions about tool

  9. Auxiliary fields as a tool for computing analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre-Brac, Bernard; Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new method to obtain approximate solutions for the Schroedinger equation with an arbitrary potential that possesses bound states. This method, relying on the auxiliary field technique, allows to find in many cases, analytical solutions. It offers a convenient way to study the qualitative features of the energy spectrum of bound states in any potential. In particular, we illustrate our method by solving the case of central potentials with power-law form and with logarithmic form. For these types of potentials, we propose very accurate analytical energy formulae which greatly improves the corresponding formulae that can be found in the literature

  10. Auxiliary fields as a tool for computing analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre-Brac, Bernard [LPSC Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, Avenue des Martyrs 53, F-38026 Grenoble-Cedex (France); Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien [Groupe de Physique Nucleaire Theorique, Universite de Mons-Hainaut, Academie universitaire Wallonie-Bruxelles, Place du Parc 20, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)], E-mail: silvestre@lpsc.in2p3.fr, E-mail: claude.semay@umh.ac.be, E-mail: fabien.buisseret@umh.ac.be

    2008-07-11

    We propose a new method to obtain approximate solutions for the Schroedinger equation with an arbitrary potential that possesses bound states. This method, relying on the auxiliary field technique, allows to find in many cases, analytical solutions. It offers a convenient way to study the qualitative features of the energy spectrum of bound states in any potential. In particular, we illustrate our method by solving the case of central potentials with power-law form and with logarithmic form. For these types of potentials, we propose very accurate analytical energy formulae which greatly improves the corresponding formulae that can be found in the literature.

  11. Monte Carlo simulation: tool for the calibration in analytical determination of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Jorge A. Carrazana; Ferrera, Eduardo A. Capote; Gomez, Isis M. Fernandez; Castro, Gloria V. Rodriguez; Ricardo, Niury Martinez

    2013-01-01

    This work shows how is established the traceability of the analytical determinations using this calibration method. Highlights the advantages offered by Monte Carlo simulation for the application of corrections by differences in chemical composition, density and height of the samples analyzed. Likewise, the results obtained by the LVRA in two exercises organized by the International Agency for Atomic Energy (IAEA) are presented. In these exercises (an intercomparison and a proficiency test) all reported analytical results were obtained based on calibrations in efficiency by Monte Carlo simulation using the DETEFF program

  12. Analytical modelling of acoustic emission from buried or surface-breaking cracks under stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Khalifa, W; Jezzine, K; Hello, G; Grondel, S

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) is a non-destructive testing method used in various industries (aerospace, petrochemical and pressure-vessel industries in general, power generation, civil engineering, mechanical engineering, etc...) for the examination of large structures subjected to various stresses (e.g. mechanical loading).The energy released by a defect under stress (the AE phenomenon) can propagate as guided waves in thin structures or as surface Rayleigh waves in thick ones. Sensors (possibly permanently) are positioned at various locations on the structure under examination and are assumed to be sensitive to these waves. Then, post-processing tools typically based on signal processing and triangulation algorithms can be used to inverse these data, allowing one to estimate the position of the defect from which emanates the waves measured. The French Atomic Energy Commission is engaged in the development of tools for simulating AE examinations. These tools are based on specific models for the AE sources, for the propagation of guided or Rayleigh waves and for the behaviour of AE sensors. Here, the coupling of a fracture mechanics based model for AE source and surface/guided wave propagation models is achieved through an integral formulation relying on the elastodynamic reciprocity principle. As a first approximation, a simple piston-like model is used to predict the sensitivity of AE sensors. Predictions computed by our simulation tool are compared to results from the literature for validation purpose.

  13. An analytical and numerical study of the nonlinear reflection at a stress-free surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romer, Anne, E-mail: anne.romer@gmx.net; Kim, Jin-Yeon, E-mail: anne.romer@gmx.net [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Jacobs, Laurence J. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA and G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Implementation of the ultrasonic second harmonic generation has typically been restricted to simple setups such as through-transmission or Rayleigh surface waves. Recent research has evaluated the second harmonic waves generation in P- and SV- waves reflected from a stress-free surface to enable the single-sided interrogation of a specimen. This research considers the second harmonic generation in an aluminum specimen, which is analytically evaluated using an approach based on a perturbation method. Here, the model is chosen to mimic an experimental setup where the longitudinal wave is generated at oblique angle using a wedge transducer. Due to the mode conversion at the interface of the wedge and the specimen, it is necessary to evaluate longitudinal and shear waves, determining all second harmonic waves generated in the bulk and at the stress-free boundary. The theoretically developed model is then implemented in a commercial finite element code, COMSOL, using increasing fundamental wave amplitudes for different values of third order elastic constants. The results of this computational model verify the analytical approach and the proposed measurement setup, taking into account assumptions and approximations of the solution procedure. Furthermore, the computational model is used to draw important conclusions relevant to the experimental setup, including the need to avoid interaction with diffracted waves.

  14. Investigation of Tooling for Anisotropic Optical Functional Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dongya; Regi, Francesco; Zhang, Yang

    This paper studied steel inserts with anisotropic surfaces for injection moulding. The inserts surfaces were machined by a five-axis micro-milling machine and the surface structures will be replicated by injection moulding. The aim of the surface structuring is to maximize visible contrast betwee...

  15. The Efficacy of Violence Prediction: A Meta-Analytic Comparison of Nine Risk Assessment Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Wong, Stephen C. P.; Coid, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Actuarial risk assessment tools are used extensively to predict future violence, but previous studies comparing their predictive accuracies have produced inconsistent findings as a result of various methodological issues. We conducted meta-analyses of the effect sizes of 9 commonly used risk assessment tools and their subscales to compare their…

  16. Drawing of metals inclined to sticking to tools surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatrushin, L.S.; Osintsev, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    A technological process is described of coating metals and alloys which have a tendency to stick to tools during rolling and drawing of wires and pipes. For electrodeposition it is the best to use chlorides of tin, bismuth, zinc, copper and indium bromide or a combination of metal salts with nonmetallic salts. Such coatings are applied to such stock materials as stainless steel, Kh18N10T and titanium alloys, VT1-0, OT4, VT16, VT20. The speeds employed during wire drawing reach 8-15 m/min and during rolling- 1-3.6 m/min. When applying a mixture of zinc chloride and nonmetallic salt the surface of titanium and zirconium alloys is first coated with a metallic sublayer. In drawing and rolling pipes of T10 alloys, the degree of elongation between the intermediate annealings reach 6.34%, and for alloys 100, VT1-0 and VT22- 23, 10 and 2.3% respectively. The coating has a strong adhesion to base metal and good plasticity characteristics. Industrial-scale tests show that a preliminary zinc coating on zirconium semi-finished stock makes it possible to shorten the technological process 1.5 times and achieve a twofold decrease in labor intensiveness and the cost of the treatment, to obtain a 7% increase in the output of non-detective product and to exclude sandblasting and hand scouring. Preliminary estimates indicate that about 4.4 thousand rubles per ton of wire can be saved by using the coating procedure

  17. Minimization of Surface Roughness and Tool Vibration in CNC Milling Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhdev S. Bhogal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tool vibration and surface roughness are two important parameters which affect the quality of the component and tool life which indirectly affect the component cost. In this paper, the effect of cutting parameters on tool vibration, and surface roughness has been investigated during end milling of EN-31 tool steel. Response surface methodology (RSM has been used to develop mathematical model for predicting surface finish, tool vibration and tool wear with different combinations of cutting parameters. The experimental results show that feed rate is the most dominating parameter affecting surface finish, whereas cutting speed is the major factor effecting tool vibration. The results of mathematical model are in agreement with experimental investigations done to validate the mathematical model.

  18. Online Programs as Tools to Improve Parenting: A meta-analytic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof. Dr. Jo J.M.A Hermanns; Prof. Dr. Ruben R.G. Fukkink; dr. Christa C.C. Nieuwboer

    2013-01-01

    Background. A number of parenting programs, aimed at improving parenting competencies,have recently been adapted or designed with the use of online technologies. Although webbased services have been claimed to hold promise for parent support, a meta-analytic review of online parenting interventions

  19. Online programs as tools to improve parenting: A meta-analytic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwboer, C.C.; Fukkink, R.G.; Hermanns, J.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A number of parenting programs, aimed at improving parenting competencies, have recently been adapted or designed with the use of online technologies. Although web-based services have been claimed to hold promise for parent support, a meta-analytic review of online parenting

  20. Moving standard deviation and moving sum of outliers as quality tools for monitoring analytical precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiakai; Tan, Chin Hon; Badrick, Tony; Loh, Tze Ping

    2018-02-01

    An increase in analytical imprecision (expressed as CV a ) can introduce additional variability (i.e. noise) to the patient results, which poses a challenge to the optimal management of patients. Relatively little work has been done to address the need for continuous monitoring of analytical imprecision. Through numerical simulations, we describe the use of moving standard deviation (movSD) and a recently described moving sum of outlier (movSO) patient results as means for detecting increased analytical imprecision, and compare their performances against internal quality control (QC) and the average of normal (AoN) approaches. The power of detecting an increase in CV a is suboptimal under routine internal QC procedures. The AoN technique almost always had the highest average number of patient results affected before error detection (ANPed), indicating that it had generally the worst capability for detecting an increased CV a . On the other hand, the movSD and movSO approaches were able to detect an increased CV a at significantly lower ANPed, particularly for measurands that displayed a relatively small ratio of biological variation to CV a. CONCLUSION: The movSD and movSO approaches are effective in detecting an increase in CV a for high-risk measurands with small biological variation. Their performance is relatively poor when the biological variation is large. However, the clinical risks of an increase in analytical imprecision is attenuated for these measurands as an increased analytical imprecision will only add marginally to the total variation and less likely to impact on the clinical care. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Benefits and limitations of using decision analytic tools to assess uncertainty and prioritize Landscape Conservation Cooperative information needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post van der Burg, Max; Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Nelson, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    The Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are a network of partnerships throughout North America that are tasked with integrating science and management to support more effective delivery of conservation at a landscape scale. In order to achieve this integration, some LCCs have adopted the approach of providing their partners with better scientific information in an effort to facilitate more effective and coordinated conservation decisions. Taking this approach has led many LCCs to begin funding research to provide the information for improved decision making. To ensure that funding goes to research projects with the highest likelihood of leading to more integrated broad scale conservation, some LCCs have also developed approaches for prioritizing which information needs will be of most benefit to their partnerships. We describe two case studies in which decision analytic tools were used to quantitatively assess the relative importance of information for decisions made by partners in the Plains and Prairie Potholes LCC. The results of the case studies point toward a few valuable lessons in terms of using these tools with LCCs. Decision analytic tools tend to help shift focus away from research oriented discussions and toward discussions about how information is used in making better decisions. However, many technical experts do not have enough knowledge about decision making contexts to fully inform the latter type of discussion. When assessed in the right decision context, however, decision analyses can point out where uncertainties actually affect optimal decisions and where they do not. This helps technical experts understand that not all research is valuable in improving decision making. But perhaps most importantly, our results suggest that decision analytic tools may be more useful for LCCs as way of developing integrated objectives for coordinating partner decisions across the landscape, rather than simply ranking research priorities.

  2. Planetary SUrface Portal (PSUP): a tool for easy visualization and analysis of Martian surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, Francois; Quantin-Nataf, Cathy; Ballans, Hervé; Lozac'h, Loic; Audouard, Joachim; Carter, John; Dassas, karin; Malapert, Jean-Christophe; Marmo, Chiara; Poulleau, Gilles; Riu, Lucie; Séjourné, antoine

    2016-10-01

    PSUP is two software application platforms for working with raster, vector, DTM, and hyper-spectral data acquired by various space instruments analyzing the surface of Mars from orbit. The first platform of PSUP is MarsSI (Martian surface data processing Information System, http://emars.univ-lyon1.fr). It provides data analysis functionalities to select and download ready-to-use products or to process data though specific and validated pipelines. To date, MarsSI handles CTX, HiRISE and CRISM data of NASA/MRO mission, HRSC and OMEGA data of ESA/MEx mission and THEMIS data of NASA/ODY mission (Lozac'h et al., EPSC 2015). The second part of PSUP is also open to the scientific community and can be visited at http://psup.ias.u-psud.fr/. This web-based user interface provides access to many data products for Mars: image footprints and rasters from the MarsSI tool; compositional maps from OMEGA and TES; albedo and thermal inertia from OMEGA and TES; mosaics from THEMIS, Viking, and CTX; high level specific products (defined as catalogues) such as hydrated mineral sites derived from CRISM and OMEGA data, central peaks mineralogy,… In addition, OMEGA C channel data cubes corrected for atmospheric and aerosol contributions can be downloaded. The architecture of PSUP data management and visualization is based on SITools2 and MIZAR, two CNES generic tools developed by a joint effort between CNES and scientific laboratories. SITools2 provides a self-manageable data access layer deployed on the PSUP data, while MIZAR is 3D application in a browser for discovering and visualizing geospatial data. Further developments including the addition of high level products of Mars (regional geological maps, new global compositional maps,…) are foreseen. Ultimately, PSUP will be adapted to other planetary surfaces and space missions in which the French research institutes are involved.

  3. Visualizing the Geography of the Diseases of China: Western Disease Maps from Analytical Tools to Tools of Empire, Sovereignty, and Public Health Propaganda, 1878-1929.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Marta

    2017-09-01

    Argument This article analyzes for the first time the earliest western maps of diseases in China spanning fifty years from the late 1870s to the end of the 1920s. The 24 featured disease maps present a visual history of the major transformations in modern medicine from medical geography to laboratory medicine wrought on Chinese soil. These medical transformations occurred within new political formations from the Qing dynasty (1644-1911) to colonialism in East Asia (Hong Kong, Taiwan, Manchuria, Korea) and hypercolonialism within China (Tianjin, Shanghai, Amoy) as well as the new Republican Chinese nation state (1912-49). As a subgenre of persuasive graphics, physicians marshaled disease maps for various rhetorical functions within these different political contexts. Disease maps in China changed from being mostly analytical tools to functioning as tools of empire, national sovereignty, and public health propaganda legitimating new medical concepts, public health interventions, and political structures governing over human and non-human populations.

  4. A Review on the Design Structure Matrix as an Analytical Tool for Product Development Management

    OpenAIRE

    Mokudai, Takefumi

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews fundamental concepts and analytical techniques of design structure matrix (DSM) as well as recent development of DSM studies. The DSM is a matrix representation of relationships between components of a complex system, such as products, development organizations and processes. Depending on targets of analysis, there are four basic types of DSM: Component-based DSM, Team-based DSM, Task-based DSM, and Parameter-based DSM. There are two streams of recent DSM studies: 1) ...

  5. Earth Science Data Analytics: Bridging Tools and Techniques with the Co-Analysis of Large, Heterogeneous Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempler, Steve; Mathews, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    The continuum of ever-evolving data management systems affords great opportunities to the enhancement of knowledge and facilitation of science research. To take advantage of these opportunities, it is essential to understand and develop methods that enable data relationships to be examined and the information to be manipulated. This presentation describes the efforts of the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation Earth Science Data Analytics (ESDA) Cluster to understand, define, and facilitate the implementation of ESDA to advance science research. As a result of the void of Earth science data analytics publication material, the cluster has defined ESDA along with 10 goals to set the framework for a common understanding of tools and techniques that are available and still needed to support ESDA.

  6. Electrochemical immunoassay using magnetic beads for the determination of zearalenone in baby food: an anticipated analytical tool for food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervás, Miriam; López, Miguel Angel; Escarpa, Alberto

    2009-10-27

    In this work, electrochemical immunoassay involving magnetic beads to determine zearalenone in selected food samples has been developed. The immunoassay scheme has been based on a direct competitive immunoassay method in which antibody-coated magnetic beads were employed as the immobilisation support and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as enzymatic label. Amperometric detection has been achieved through the addition of hydrogen peroxide substrate and hydroquinone as mediator. Analytical performance of the electrochemical immunoassay has been evaluated by analysis of maize certified reference material (CRM) and selected baby food samples. A detection limit (LOD) of 0.011 microg L(-1) and EC(50) 0.079 microg L(-1) were obtained allowing the assessment of the detection of zearalenone mycotoxin. In addition, an excellent accuracy with a high recovery yield ranging between 95 and 108% has been obtained. The analytical features have shown the proposed electrochemical immunoassay to be a very powerful and timely screening tool for the food safety scene.

  7. Learning analytics as a tool for closing the assessment loop in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen D. Mattingly

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines learning and academic analytics and its relevance to distance education in undergraduate and graduate programs as it impacts students and teaching faculty, and also academic institutions. The focus is to explore the measurement, collection, analysis, and reporting of data as predictors of student success and drivers of departmental process and program curriculum. Learning and academic analytics in higher education is used to predict student success by examining how and what students learn and how success is supported by academic programs and institutions. The paper examines what is being done to support students, whether or not it is effective, and if not why, and what educators can do. The paper also examines how these data can be used to create new metrics and inform a continuous cycle of improvement. It presents examples of working models from a sample of institutions of higher education: The Graduate School of Medicine at the University of Wollongong, the University of Michigan, Purdue University, and the University of Maryland, Baltimore County. Finally, the paper identifies considerations and recommendations for using analytics and offer suggestions for future research.

  8. Potential of Near-Infrared Chemical Imaging as Process Analytical Technology Tool for Continuous Freeze-Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouckaert, Davinia; De Meyer, Laurens; Vanbillemont, Brecht; Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Lammens, Joris; Mortier, Séverine; Corver, Jos; Vervaet, Chris; Nopens, Ingmar; De Beer, Thomas

    2018-04-03

    Near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) is an emerging tool for process monitoring because it combines the chemical selectivity of vibrational spectroscopy with spatial information. Whereas traditional near-infrared spectroscopy is an attractive technique for water content determination and solid-state investigation of lyophilized products, chemical imaging opens up possibilities for assessing the homogeneity of these critical quality attributes (CQAs) throughout the entire product. In this contribution, we aim to evaluate NIR-CI as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool for at-line inspection of continuously freeze-dried pharmaceutical unit doses based on spin freezing. The chemical images of freeze-dried mannitol samples were resolved via multivariate curve resolution, allowing us to visualize the distribution of mannitol solid forms throughout the entire cake. Second, a mannitol-sucrose formulation was lyophilized with variable drying times for inducing changes in water content. Analyzing the corresponding chemical images via principal component analysis, vial-to-vial variations as well as within-vial inhomogeneity in water content could be detected. Furthermore, a partial least-squares regression model was constructed for quantifying the water content in each pixel of the chemical images. It was hence concluded that NIR-CI is inherently a most promising PAT tool for continuously monitoring freeze-dried samples. Although some practicalities are still to be solved, this analytical technique could be applied in-line for CQA evaluation and for detecting the drying end point.

  9. Prognostic risk estimates of patients with multiple sclerosis and their physicians: comparison to an online analytical risk counseling tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Heesen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prognostic counseling in multiple sclerosis (MS is difficult because of the high variability of disease progression. Simultaneously, patients and physicians are increasingly confronted with making treatment decisions at an early stage, which requires taking individual prognoses into account to strike a good balance between benefits and harms of treatments. It is therefore important to understand how patients and physicians estimate prognostic risk, and whether and how these estimates can be improved. An online analytical processing (OLAP tool based on pooled data from placebo cohorts of clinical trials offers short-term prognostic estimates that can be used for individual risk counseling. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to clarify if personalized prognostic information as presented by the OLAP tool is considered useful and meaningful by patients. Furthermore, we used the OLAP tool to evaluate patients' and physicians' risk estimates. Within this evaluation process we assessed short-time prognostic risk estimates of patients with MS (final n = 110 and their physicians (n = 6 and compared them with the estimates of OLAP. RESULTS: Patients rated the OLAP tool as understandable and acceptable, but to be only of moderate interest. It turned out that patients, physicians, and the OLAP tool ranked patients similarly regarding their risk of disease progression. Both patients' and physicians' estimates correlated most strongly with those disease covariates that the OLAP tool's estimates also correlated with most strongly. Exposure to the OLAP tool did not change patients' risk estimates. CONCLUSION: While the OLAP tool was rated understandable and acceptable, it was only of modest interest and did not change patients' prognostic estimates. The results suggest, however, that patients had some idea regarding their prognosis and which factors were most important in this regard. Future work with OLAP should assess long-term prognostic

  10. Prognostic risk estimates of patients with multiple sclerosis and their physicians: comparison to an online analytical risk counseling tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesen, Christoph; Gaissmaier, Wolfgang; Nguyen, Franziska; Stellmann, Jan-Patrick; Kasper, Jürgen; Köpke, Sascha; Lederer, Christian; Neuhaus, Anneke; Daumer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Prognostic counseling in multiple sclerosis (MS) is difficult because of the high variability of disease progression. Simultaneously, patients and physicians are increasingly confronted with making treatment decisions at an early stage, which requires taking individual prognoses into account to strike a good balance between benefits and harms of treatments. It is therefore important to understand how patients and physicians estimate prognostic risk, and whether and how these estimates can be improved. An online analytical processing (OLAP) tool based on pooled data from placebo cohorts of clinical trials offers short-term prognostic estimates that can be used for individual risk counseling. The aim of this study was to clarify if personalized prognostic information as presented by the OLAP tool is considered useful and meaningful by patients. Furthermore, we used the OLAP tool to evaluate patients' and physicians' risk estimates. Within this evaluation process we assessed short-time prognostic risk estimates of patients with MS (final n = 110) and their physicians (n = 6) and compared them with the estimates of OLAP. Patients rated the OLAP tool as understandable and acceptable, but to be only of moderate interest. It turned out that patients, physicians, and the OLAP tool ranked patients similarly regarding their risk of disease progression. Both patients' and physicians' estimates correlated most strongly with those disease covariates that the OLAP tool's estimates also correlated with most strongly. Exposure to the OLAP tool did not change patients' risk estimates. While the OLAP tool was rated understandable and acceptable, it was only of modest interest and did not change patients' prognostic estimates. The results suggest, however, that patients had some idea regarding their prognosis and which factors were most important in this regard. Future work with OLAP should assess long-term prognostic estimates and clarify its usefulness for patients and physicians

  11. An Analytical Model for Adsorption and Diffusion of Atoms/Ions on Graphene Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Zi Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical investigations are made on adsorption and diffusion of atoms/ions on graphene surface based on an analytical continuous model. An atom/ion interacts with every carbon atom of graphene through a pairwise potential which can be approximated by the Lennard-Jones (L-J potential. Using the Fourier expansion of the interaction potential, the total interaction energy between the adsorption atom/ion and a monolayer graphene is derived. The energy-distance relationships in the normal and lateral directions for varied atoms/ions, including gold atom (Au, platinum atom (Pt, manganese ion (Mn2+, sodium ion (Na1+, and lithium-ion (Li1+, on monolayer graphene surface are analyzed. The equilibrium position and binding energy of the atoms/ions at three particular adsorption sites (hollow, bridge, and top are calculated, and the adsorption stability is discussed. The results show that H-site is the most stable adsorption site, which is in agreement with the results of other literatures. What is more, the periodic interaction energy and interaction forces of lithium-ion diffusing along specific paths on graphene surface are also obtained and analyzed. The minimum energy barrier for diffusion is calculated. The possible applications of present study include drug delivery system (DDS, atomic scale friction, rechargeable lithium-ion graphene battery, and energy storage in carbon materials.

  12. LOW-TEMPERATURE SURFACE HARDENING FOR DIAMOND TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shmatov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure and properties of cutting diamond tools subjected to thermo-hydro-chemical treatment are examined in the paper. The process involves a chemical treatment of tools in a specially prepared aqueous suspension of oxides Ti, Mo and other ingredients and subsequent heat treatment (minimal process temperature 130 °C. Thermo-hydro-chemical method permits to increase a wear resistance of cutting diamond tools by the factor of 1.3–4.0 in comparison with traditional one.

  13. Investigations of phosphate coatings of galvanized steel sheets by a surface-analytical multi-method approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubert, H.; Garten, R.; Klockenkaemper, R.; Puderbach, H.

    1983-01-01

    Corrosion protective coatings on galvanized steel sheets have been studied by a combination of SEM, EDX, AES, ISS and SIMS. Analytical statements concerning such rough, poly-crystalline and contaminated surfaces of technical samples are quite difficult to obtain. The use of a surface-analytical multi-method approach overcomes, the intrinsic limitations of the individual method applied, thus resulting in a consistent picture of those technical surfaces. Such results can be used to examine technical faults and to optimize the technical process. (Author)

  14. Analytic simulation of the Poincare surface of sections for the diamagnetic Kepler problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.; Harada, A.; Okazaki, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The Poincare surface-of-section analysis which the authors previously reported on the diamagnetic Kepler problem (classical hydrogen atom in a uniform magnetic field) in a transition region from regular to chaotic motions is simulated by an analytic means, by taking intersections of the energy integral and the approximate integral Λ of Solovev to obtain sections of the two separate regions of the motion that exist in the limit of a weak magnetic field (B → 0). The origin of the unique hyperbolic point and the separatrix around which the onset of chaos takes place are thus identified. The invariant tori arising near the full chaos are shown to be simulated by this method but with modified parameter values in the expression Λ. (author)

  15. Analytic simulation of the Poincare surface of sections for the diamagnetic Kepler problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H; Harada, A; Okazaki, Y [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1984-11-11

    The Poincare surface-of-section analysis which the authors previously reported on the diamagnetic Kepler problem (classical hydrogen atom in a uniform magnetic field) in a transition region from regular to chaotic motions is simulated by an analytic means, by taking intersections of the energy integral and the approximate integral ..lambda.. of Solovev to obtain sections of the two separate regions of the motion that exist in the limit of a weak magnetic field (B ..-->.. 0). The origin of the unique hyperbolic point and the separatrix around which the onset of chaos takes place are thus identified. The invariant tori arising near the full chaos are shown to be simulated by this method but with modified parameter values in the expression ..lambda...

  16. Analytical Solution for Elliptical Cloaks Based on The Frequency Selective Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ghasemi Mizuji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the elliptical dielectric cylinder which is covered with FSS cloak is considered. Frequency selective surface cloak which Alu named it mantle cloak is one of the recent techniques for cloaking. In this method an appropriate FSS can act as cloaking device for suppressing  the scattering of object  in the desired frequency. With using this method the dimension of the cloaks is extremely reduced. By this proposed structure, the RCS of elliptical cylinder  is reduced about 10-20 dB and designed cloak has an appropriate performance.  The analytical solution for the wave in each layer is presented and with using simulation, the electric field and the scattering pattern has been drawn.

  17. Surface analytical characterization of Streptavidin/poly(3-hexylthiophene) bilayers for bio-electronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sportelli, M. C.; Picca, R. A.; Manoli, K.; Re, M.; Pesce, E.; Tapfer, L.; Di Franco, C.; Cioffi, N.; Torsi, L.

    2017-10-01

    The analytical performance of bioelectronic devices is highly influenced by their fabrication methods. In particular, the final architecture of field-effect transistor biosensors combining spin-cast poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) film and a biomolecule interlayer deposited on a SiO2/Si substrate can lead to the development of highly performing sensing systems, such as for the case of streptavidin (SA) used for biotin sensing. To gain a better understanding of the quality of the interfacial area, critical is the assessment of the morphological features characteristic of the adopted biolayer deposition protocol, namely: the layer-by-layer (LbL) approach and the spin coating technique. The present study relies on a combined surface spectroscopic and morphological characterization. Specifically, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy operated in the parallel angle-resolved mode allowed the non-destructive investigation of the in-depth chemical composition of the SA film, alone or in the presence of the P3HT overlayer. Spectroscopic data were supported and corroborated by the results obtained with a Scanning Electron and a Helium Ion microscope investigation performed on the SA layer that provided relevant information on the protein structural arrangement or on its surface morphology. Clear differences emerged between the SA layers prepared by the two approaches, with the layer-by-layer deposition resulting in a smoother and better defined bio-electronic interface. Such findings support the superior analytical performance shown by bioelectronic devices based on LbL-deposited protein layers over spin coated ones.

  18. Program to develop analytical tools for environmental and safety assessment of nuclear material shipping container systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, T.A.

    1978-11-01

    This paper describes a program for developing analytical techniques to evaluate the response of nuclear material shipping containers to severe accidents. Both lumped-mass and finite element techniques are employed to predict shipping container and shipping container-carrier response to impact. The general impact problem is computationally expensive because of its nonlinear, three-dimensional nature. This expense is minimized by using approximate models to parametrically identify critical cases before more exact analyses are performed. The computer codes developed for solving the problem are being experimentally substantiated with test data from full-scale and scale-model container drop tests. 6 figures, 1 table

  19. Room temperature phosphorescence in the liquid state as a tool in analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuijt, Jacobus; Ariese, Freek; Brinkman, Udo A.Th.; Gooijer, Cees

    2003-01-01

    A wide-ranging overview of room temperature phosphorescence in the liquid state (RTPL ) is presented, with a focus on recent developments. RTPL techniques like micelle-stabilized (MS)-RTP, cyclodextrin-induced (CD)-RTP, and heavy atom-induced (HAI)-RTP are discussed. These techniques are mainly applied in the stand-alone format, but coupling with some separation techniques appears to be feasible. Applications of direct, sensitized and quenched phosphorescence are also discussed. As regards sensitized and quenched RTP, emphasis is on the coupling with liquid chromatography (LC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE), but stand-alone applications are also reported. Further, the application of RTPL in immunoassays and in RTP optosensing - the optical sensing of analytes based on RTP - is reviewed. Next to the application of RTPL in quantitative analysis, its use for the structural probing of protein conformations and for time-resolved microscopy of labelled biomolecules is discussed. Finally, an overview is presented of the various analytical techniques which are based on the closely related phenomenon of long-lived lanthanide luminescence. The paper closes with a short evaluation of the state-of-the-art in RTP and a discussion on future perspectives

  20. Solution Exchange Lithography: A Versatile Tool for Sequential Surface Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pester, Christian; Mattson, Kaila; Bothman, David; Klinger, Daniel; Lee, Kenneth; Discekici, Emre; Narupai, Benjaporn; Hawker, Craig

    The covalent attachment of polymers has emerged as a viable strategy for the preparation of multi-functional surfaces. Patterned, surface-grafted polymer brushes provide spatial control over wetting, mechanical, biological or electronic properties, and allow fabrication of `intelligent' substrates which selectively adapt to their environment. However, the route towards patterned polymer brush surfaces often remains challenging, creating a demand for more efficient and less complicated fabrication strategies. We describe the design and application of a novel experimental setup to combine light-mediated and flow chemistry for the fabrication of hierarchical surface-grafted polymer brushes. Using light-mediated, surface initiated controlled radical polymerization and post-functionalization via well-established, and highly efficient chemistries, polymer brush films of previously unimaginable complexity are now shown to be accessible. This methodology allows full flexibility to exchange both lithographic photomasks and chemical environments in-situ, readily affording multidimensional thin film architectures, all from uniformly functionalized substrates.

  1. The impact of tool wear on the functionality of replicated polymer surface with micro structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dongya; Zhang, Yang; Regi, Francesco

    Wear happened frequently in the tooling process of mold for polymer production. The scope of this paper is to understand how the wear of the milling tool affected the function of the replicated polymer surface. This study is part of the process chain of fabrication of optical functional surfaces ...

  2. Integrable perturbed magnetic fields in toroidal geometry: An exact analytical flux surface label for large aspect ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallinikos, N.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.; Meletlidou, E. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2014-06-15

    An analytical description of magnetic islands is presented for the typical case of a single perturbation mode introduced to tokamak plasma equilibrium in the large aspect ratio approximation. Following the Hamiltonian structure directly in terms of toroidal coordinates, the well known integrability of this system is exploited, laying out a precise and practical way for determining the island topology features, as required in various applications, through an analytical and exact flux surface label.

  3. Integrable perturbed magnetic fields in toroidal geometry: An exact analytical flux surface label for large aspect ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallinikos, N.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.; Meletlidou, E.

    2014-06-01

    An analytical description of magnetic islands is presented for the typical case of a single perturbation mode introduced to tokamak plasma equilibrium in the large aspect ratio approximation. Following the Hamiltonian structure directly in terms of toroidal coordinates, the well known integrability of this system is exploited, laying out a precise and practical way for determining the island topology features, as required in various applications, through an analytical and exact flux surface label.

  4. Integrable perturbed magnetic fields in toroidal geometry: An exact analytical flux surface label for large aspect ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallinikos, N.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.; Meletlidou, E.

    2014-01-01

    An analytical description of magnetic islands is presented for the typical case of a single perturbation mode introduced to tokamak plasma equilibrium in the large aspect ratio approximation. Following the Hamiltonian structure directly in terms of toroidal coordinates, the well known integrability of this system is exploited, laying out a precise and practical way for determining the island topology features, as required in various applications, through an analytical and exact flux surface label

  5. Identifying problems and generating recommendations for enhancing complex systems: applying the abstraction hierarchy framework as an analytical tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei

    2007-12-01

    This study adopts J. Rasmussen's (1985) abstraction hierarchy (AH) framework as an analytical tool to identify problems and pinpoint opportunities to enhance complex systems. The process of identifying problems and generating recommendations for complex systems using conventional methods is usually conducted based on incompletely defined work requirements. As the complexity of systems rises, the sheer mass of data generated from these methods becomes unwieldy to manage in a coherent, systematic form for analysis. There is little known work on adopting a broader perspective to fill these gaps. AH was used to analyze an aircraft-automation system in order to further identify breakdowns in pilot-automation interactions. Four steps follow: developing an AH model for the system, mapping the data generated by various methods onto the AH, identifying problems based on the mapped data, and presenting recommendations. The breakdowns lay primarily with automation operations that were more goal directed. Identified root causes include incomplete knowledge content and ineffective knowledge structure in pilots' mental models, lack of effective higher-order functional domain information displayed in the interface, and lack of sufficient automation procedures for pilots to effectively cope with unfamiliar situations. The AH is a valuable analytical tool to systematically identify problems and suggest opportunities for enhancing complex systems. It helps further examine the automation awareness problems and identify improvement areas from a work domain perspective. Applications include the identification of problems and generation of recommendations for complex systems as well as specific recommendations regarding pilot training, flight deck interfaces, and automation procedures.

  6. Analytical tools for managing rock fall hazards in Australian coal mine roadways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross Seedsman; Nick Gordon; Naj Aziz [University of Wollongong (Australia)

    2009-03-15

    This report provides a reference source for the design of ground control measures in coal mine roadways using analytical methods. Collapse models are provided for roof and rib. The roof models recognise that different collapse modes can apply in different stress fields - high, intermediate, and zero compressive stresses. The rib models draw analogies to rock slope stability and also the impact of high vertical stresses. Methods for determining support or reinforcement requirements are provided. Suspension of collapsed masses is identified as the basis for roof support in both very high and zero compressive stress regimes. Reinforcement of bedding discontinuities is advocated for intermediate compressive stresses. For the ribs, restraint of coal blocks defined by pre-existing joints or by mining induced fractures is required.

  7. saltPAD: A New Analytical Tool for Monitoring Salt Iodization in Low Resource Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M. Myers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We created a paper test card that measures a common iodizing agent, iodate, in salt. To test the analytical metrics, usability, and robustness of the paper test card when it is used in low resource settings, the South African Medical Research Council and GroundWork performed independ‐ ent validation studies of the device. The accuracy and precision metrics from both studies were comparable. In the SAMRC study, more than 90% of the test results (n=1704 were correctly classified as corresponding to adequately or inadequately iodized salt. The cards are suitable for market and household surveys to determine whether salt is adequately iodized. Further development of the cards will improve their utility for monitoring salt iodization during production.

  8. PLS2 regression as a tool for selection of optimal analytical modality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Esbensen, Kim

    Intelligent use of modern process analysers allows process technicians and engineers to look deep into the dynamic behaviour of production systems. This opens up for a plurality of new possibilities with respect to process optimisation. Oftentimes, several instruments representing different...... technologies and price classes are able to decipher relevant process information simultaneously. The question then is: how to choose between available technologies without compromising the quality and usability of the data. We apply PLS2 modelling to quantify the relative merits of competing, or complementing......, analytical modalities. We here present results from a feasibility study, where Fourier Transform Near InfraRed (FT-NIR), Fourier Transform Mid InfraRed (FT-MIR), and Raman laser spectroscopy were applied on the same set of samples obtained from a pilot-scale beer brewing process. Quantitative PLS1 models...

  9. Accept or Decline? An Analytics-Based Decision Tool for Kidney Offer Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsimas, Dimitris; Kung, Jerry; Trichakis, Nikolaos; Wojciechowski, David; Vagefi, Parsia A

    2017-12-01

    When a deceased-donor kidney is offered to a waitlisted candidate, the decision to accept or decline the organ relies primarily upon a practitioner's experience and intuition. Such decisions must achieve a delicate balance between estimating the immediate benefit of transplantation and the potential for future higher-quality offers. However, the current experience-based paradigm lacks scientific rigor and is subject to the inaccuracies that plague anecdotal decision-making. A data-driven analytics-based model was developed to predict whether a patient will receive an offer for a deceased-donor kidney at Kidney Donor Profile Index thresholds of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6, and at timeframes of 3, 6, and 12 months. The model accounted for Organ Procurement Organization, blood group, wait time, DR antigens, and prior offer history to provide accurate and personalized predictions. Performance was evaluated on data sets spanning various lengths of time to understand the adaptability of the method. Using United Network for Organ Sharing match-run data from March 2007 to June 2013, out-of-sample area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was approximately 0.87 for all Kidney Donor Profile Index thresholds and timeframes considered for the 10 most populous Organ Procurement Organizations. As more data becomes available, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values increase and subsequently level off. The development of a data-driven analytics-based model may assist transplant practitioners and candidates during the complex decision of whether to accept or forgo a current kidney offer in anticipation of a future high-quality offer. The latter holds promise to facilitate timely transplantation and optimize the efficiency of allocation.

  10. Innovative analytical tools to characterize prebiotic carbohydrates of functional food interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Claudio; Lantano, Claudia; Cavazza, Antonella

    2013-05-01

    Functional foods are one of the most interesting areas of research and innovation in the food industry. A functional food or functional ingredient is considered to be any food or food component that provides health benefits beyond basic nutrition. Recently, consumers have shown interest in natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in the diet owing to their various beneficial effects for health. Water-soluble fibers and nondigestible oligosaccharides and polysaccharides can be defined as functional food ingredients. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin are resistant to direct metabolism by the host and reach the caecocolon, where they are used by selected groups of beneficial bacteria. Furthermore, they are able to improve physical and structural properties of food, such as hydration, oil-holding capacity, viscosity, texture, sensory characteristics, and shelf-life. This article reviews major innovative analytical developments to screen and identify FOS, inulins, and the most employed nonstarch carbohydrates added or naturally present in functional food formulations. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed electrochemical detection (HPAEC-PED) is one of the most employed analytical techniques for the characterization of those molecules. Mass spectrometry is also of great help, in particularly matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), which is able to provide extensive information regarding the molecular weight and length profiles of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Moreover, MALDI-TOF-MS in combination with HPAEC-PED has been shown to be of great value for the complementary information it can provide. Some other techniques, such as NMR spectroscopy, are also discussed, with relevant examples of recent applications. A number of articles have appeared in the literature in recent years regarding the analysis of inulin, FOS, and other carbohydrates of interest in the field and

  11. The Influence of the Tool Surface Texture on Friction and the Surface Layers Properties of Formed Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Šugárová

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphological texturing of forming tool surfaces has high potential to reduce friction and tool wear and also has impact on the surface layers properties of formed material. In order to understand the effect of different types of tool textures, produced by nanosecond fibre laser, on the tribological conditions at the interface tool-formed material and on the integrity of formed part surface layers, the series of experimental investigations have been carried out. The coefficient of friction for different texture parameters (individual feature shape, including the depth profile of the cavities and orientation of the features relative to the material flow was evaluated via a Ring Test and the surface layers integrity of formed material (surface roughness and subsurface micro hardness was also experimentally analysed. The results showed a positive effect of surface texturing on the friction coefficients and the strain hardening of test samples material. Application of surface texture consisting of dimple-like depressions arranged in radial layout contributed to the most significant friction reduction of about 40%. On the other hand, this surface texture contributed to the increase of surface roughness parameters, Ra parameter increased from 0.49 μm to 2.19 μm and the Rz parameter increased from 0.99 μm to 16.79 μm.

  12. Scanning tunneling microscopy: A powerful tool for surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walle, G.F.A. van de; Nelissen, B.J.; Soethout, L.L.; Kempen, H. van

    1987-01-01

    The invention of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) has opened a new area of surface analysis. A description of the principle of operation is given in this paper. Also the technical problems encountered and their solution are described. Two examples demonstrating the possibilities of the STM are presented: topographic and spectroscopic measurements on a stepped Ni (111) surface and photoconductive measurements on GaAs. (orig.)

  13. A Complete Analytical Screening Identifies the Real Pesticide Contamination of Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschet, Christoph; Wittmer, Irene; Simovic, Jelena; Junghans, Marion; Singer, Heinz; Stamm, Christian; Leu, Christian; Hollender, Juliane

    2014-05-01

    A comprehensive assessment of pesticides in surface waters is challenging due to the large number of potential contaminants. In Switzerland for example, roughly 500 active ingredients are registered as either plant protection agent (PPA) or as biocide. In addition, an unlimited number of transformations products (TPs) can enter or be formed in surfaced waters. Most scientific publications or regulatory monitoring authorities have implemented 15-40 pesticides in their analytics. Only a few TPs are normally included. Interpretations of the surface water quality based on these subsets remains error prone. In the presented study, we carried out a nearly complete analytical screening covering 86% of all polar organic pesticides (from agricultural and urban sources) in Switzerland (300 substances) and 134 TPs with limits of quantification in the low ng/L range. The comprehensive pesticide screening was conducted by liquid-chromatography coupled to high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Five medium-sized rivers (Strahler stream order 3-4, catchment size 35-105 km2), containing high percentiles of diverse crops, orchards and urban settlements in their catchments, were sampled from March till July 2012. Nine subsequent time-proportional bi-weekly composite samples were taken in order to quantify average concentrations. In total, 104 different active ingredients could be detected in at least one of the five rivers. Thereby, 82 substances were only registered as PPA, 20 were registered as PPA and as biocide and 2 were only registered as biocide. Within the PPAs, herbicides had the most frequent detections and the highest concentrations, followed by fungicides and insecticides. Most concentrations were found between 1 and 50 ng/L; however 31 substances (mainly herbicides) had concentrations above 100 ng/L and 3 herbicides above 1000 ng/L. It has to be noted that the measured concentrations are average concentrations over two weeks in medium sized streams and that maximum

  14. Transient flow between aquifers and surface water: analytically derived field-scale hydraulic heads and fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. de Rooij

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance of catchment-scale and basin-scale models of the hydrological cycle makes it desirable to have a simple, yet physically realistic model for lateral subsurface water flow. As a first building block towards such a model, analytical solutions are presented for horizontal groundwater flow to surface waters held at prescribed water levels for aquifers with parallel and radial flow. The solutions are valid for a wide array of initial and boundary conditions and additions or withdrawals of water, and can handle discharge into as well as lateral infiltration from the surface water. Expressions for the average hydraulic head, the flux to or from the surface water, and the aquifer-scale hydraulic conductivity are developed to provide output at the scale of the modelled system rather than just point-scale values. The upscaled conductivity is time-variant. It does not depend on the magnitude of the flux but is determined by medium properties as well as the external forcings that drive the flow. For the systems studied, with lateral travel distances not exceeding 10 m, the circular aquifers respond very differently from the infinite-strip aquifers. The modelled fluxes are sensitive to the magnitude of the storage coefficient. For phreatic aquifers a value of 0.2 is argued to be representative, but considerable variations are likely. The effect of varying distributions over the day of recharge damps out rapidly; a soil water model that can provide accurate daily totals is preferable over a less accurate model hat correctly estimates the timing of recharge peaks.

  15. Beta Autoradiography. An analytical technique to investigate radionuclides contamination on surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ficher, P.; Goutelard, F.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.

    2012-01-01

    In decommissioning of old buildings and after disposal of nuclear facilities (materials, glove boxes,...), the inventory of the radioactive contamination of various building materials needs to be obtained in order to fix the working condition for dismantling. The challenge of this study was to classify different building materials of a whole research laboratory that was dedicated to research on organic molecules labeled with H-3 and C-14. The problem of waste classification is essential for safety treatment of waste and also for its cost. The analytical technique of beta autoradiography particularly well known for biological researches has been tested to investigate radionuclides contamination on surface. This technique is mainly interesting for beta and alpha emitters but also sensitive to gamma radiation. The first step of this technique is the deposit of a film on the surface of material to be analyzed. Films can be deposited on the ground or also fixed on the walls or even on the ceiling. The film is a plastic sheet covered with an emulsion containing photostimulable crystals and Eu that is activated when the film is exposed on radioactive source. The exposed films are then scanned with the Cyclone Plus equipment to get a digitized image. This image represents the radioactivity of the surface studied. The possibility to re-use the films is very important to investigate a large area. This autoradiography technique has retained our attention for its sensitivity and moreover the possibility of 2-dimensional investigation has been found as a real advantage. However it remains now as a qualitative technique and new studies must be launched to prove its quantitative potentialities. The high spatial resolution was not as important as in biological observation, and the mm resolution is totally sufficient

  16. Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile fiber for immobilization of antibodies and detection of analyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Swati, E-mail: swatijain.iitd@gmail.com [Center for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, 110016 (India); Chattopadhyay, Sruti, E-mail: srutic@hotmail.com [Center for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, 110016 (India); Jackeray, Richa, E-mail: richajackeray.iitd@gmail.com [Center for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, 110016 (India); Singh, Harpal, E-mail: harpal2000@yahoo.com [Center for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, 110016 (India)

    2009-11-10

    Pendent nitrile groups of multifilamentous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers were reduced to amino groups using lithium aluminum hydride for different time of reduction and amine content was estimated by performing acid-base titrations. Attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) were used for the characterization of the generated amino groups and thermal properties of the reduced fibers, respectively. The surface morphology of the fibers after reduction and immobilization was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The newly formed amino groups of the fibers were activated by using glutaraldehyde for the covalent linking of Goat anti-Rabbit IgG-HRP (GAR-HRP) antibody enzyme conjugate. Modified PAN fibers were evaluated as a matrix for sandwich ELISA by using Goat anti-Rabbit antibody (GAR-IgG), Rabbit anti-Goat (RAG-IgG) as analyte and enzyme conjugate GAR-HRP. The fibers reduced for 24 h were able to detect the analyte RAG-IgG at a concentration as low as 3.75 ng mL{sup -1} with 12% skimmed milk as blocking reagent for the optimized concentration of primary antibody GAR-IgG 3 {mu}g mL{sup -1} and peroxidase conjugate GAR-HRP dilution of 8000 fold. The sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility of the developed immunoassay was further established with antibodies present in human blood using Rabbit anti-Human (RAH-IgG) antibody and the corresponding HRP enzyme conjugate. As low as 0.1 {mu}L of human blood was sufficient to perform the assay with the modified fibers.

  17. Optimization of Surface Finish in Turning Operation by Considering the Machine Tool Vibration using Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Munawar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of surface roughness has been one of the primary objectives in most of the machining operations. Poor control on the desired surface roughness generates non conforming parts and results into increase in cost and loss of productivity due to rework or scrap. Surface roughness value is a result of several process variables among which machine tool condition is one of the significant variables. In this study, experimentation was carried out to investigate the effect of machine tool condition on surface roughness. Variable used to represent machine tool\\'s condition was vibration amplitude. Input parameters used, besides vibration amplitude, were feed rate and insert nose radius. Cutting speed and depth of cut were kept constant. Based on Taguchi orthogonal array, a series of experimentation was designed and performed on AISI 1040 carbon steel bar at default and induced machine tool\\'s vibration amplitudes. ANOVA (Analysis of Variance, revealed that vibration amplitude and feed rate had moderate effect on the surface roughness and insert nose radius had the highest significant effect on the surface roughness. It was also found that a machine tool with low vibration amplitude produced better surface roughness. Insert with larger nose radius produced better surface roughness at low feed rate.

  18. Springback Simulation and Tool Surface Compensation Algorithm for Sheet Metal Forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Guozhe; Hu Ping; Zhang Xiangkui; Chen Xiaobin; Li Xiaoda

    2005-01-01

    Springback is an unquenchable forming defect in the sheet metal forming process. How to calculate springback accurately is a big challenge for a lot of FEA software. Springback compensation makes the stamped final part accordant with the designed part shape by modifying tool surface, which depends on the accurate springback amount. How ever, the meshing data based on numerical simulation is expressed by nodes and elements, such data can not be supplied directly to tool surface CAD data. In this paper, a tool surface compensation algorithm based on numerical simulation technique of springback process is proposed in which the independently developed dynamic explicit springback algorithm (DESA) is used to simulate springback amount. When doing the tool surface compensation, the springback amount of the projected point can be obtained by interpolation of the springback amount of the projected element nodes. So the modified values of tool surface can be calculated reversely. After repeating the springback and compensation calculations for 1∼3 times, the reasonable tool surface mesh is gained. Finally, the FEM data on the compensated tool surface is fitted into the surface by CAD modeling software. The examination of a real industrial part shows the validity of the present method

  19. An analytic model of pool boiling critical heat flux on an immerged downward facing curved surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Hui; Pan, Liang-ming; Wu, Yao; Chen, De-qi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thin liquid film and supplement of liquid contribute to the CHF. • CHF increases from the bottom to the upper of the lowerhead. • Evaporation of thin liquid film is dominant nearby bottom region. • The subcooling has significant effects on the CHF. - Abstract: In this paper, an analytical model of the critical heat flux (CHF) on the downward facing curved surface for pool boiling has been proposed, which hypothesizes that the CHF on the downward facing curved is composed of two parts, i.e. the evaporation of the thin liquid film underneath the elongated bubble adhering to the lower head outer surface and the depletion of supplement of liquid due to the relative motion of vapor bubbles along with the downward facing curved. The former adopts the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability analysis of vapor–liquid interface of the vapor jets which penetrating in the thin liquid film. When the heat flux closing to the CHF point, the vapor–liquid interface becomes highly distorted, which block liquid to feed the thin liquid film and the thin liquid film will dry out gradually. While the latter considers that the vapor bubbles move along with the downward facing curved surface, and the liquid in two-phase boundary layer enter the liquid film that will be exhausted when the CHF occurs. Based on the aforementioned mechanism and the energy balance between the thin liquid film evaporation and water feeding, and taking the subcooling of the bulk water into account, the mathematic model about the downward facing curved surface CHF has been proposed. The CHF of the downward facing curved surface for pool boiling increases along with the downward facing orientation except in the vicinity of bottom center region, because in this region the vapor bubble almost stagnates and the evaporation of the thin liquid film is dominant. In addition, the subcooling has significant effect on the CHF. Comparing the result of this model with the published experimental results show

  20. Surface analysis and techniques in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Smentkowski, Vincent S

    2014-01-01

    This book highlights state-of-the-art surface analytical instrumentation, advanced data analysis tools, and the use of complimentary surface analytical instrumentation to perform a complete analysis of biological systems.

  1. Study of an ultrasound-based process analytical tool for homogenization of nanoparticulate pharmaceutical vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavegn, Martin; Douglas, Ryan; Akkermans, Guy; Kuentz, Martin

    2011-08-01

    There are currently no adequate process analyzers for nanoparticulate viscosity enhancers. This article aims to evaluate ultrasonic resonator technology as a monitoring tool for homogenization of nanoparticulate gels. Aqueous dispersions of colloidal microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and a mixture of clay particles with xanthan gum were compared with colloidal silicon dioxide in oil. The processing was conducted using a laboratory-scale homogenizing vessel. The study investigated first the homogenization kinetics of the different systems to focus then on process factors in the case of colloidal MCC. Moreover, rheological properties were analyzed offline to assess the structure of the resulting gels. Results showed the suitability of ultrasound velocimetry to monitor the homogenization process. The obtained data were fitted using a novel heuristic model. It was possible to identify characteristic homogenization times for each formulation. The subsequent study of the process factors demonstrated that ultrasonic process analysis was equally sensitive as offline rheological measurements in detecting subtle manufacturing changes. It can be concluded that the ultrasonic method was able to successfully assess homogenization of nanoparticulate viscosity enhancers. This novel technique can become a vital tool for development and production of pharmaceutical suspensions in the future. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Tools for the quantitative analysis of sedimentation boundaries detected by fluorescence optical analytical ultracentrifugation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaying Zhao

    Full Text Available Fluorescence optical detection in sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation allows the study of macromolecules at nanomolar concentrations and below. This has significant promise, for example, for the study of systems of high-affinity protein interactions. Here we describe adaptations of the direct boundary modeling analysis approach implemented in the software SEDFIT that were developed to accommodate unique characteristics of the confocal fluorescence detection system. These include spatial gradients of signal intensity due to scanner movements out of the plane of rotation, temporal intensity drifts due to instability of the laser and fluorophores, and masking of the finite excitation and detection cone by the sample holder. In an extensive series of experiments with enhanced green fluorescent protein ranging from low nanomolar to low micromolar concentrations, we show that the experimental data provide sufficient information to determine the parameters required for first-order approximation of the impact of these effects on the recorded data. Systematic deviations of fluorescence optical sedimentation velocity data analyzed using conventional sedimentation models developed for absorbance and interference optics are largely removed after these adaptations, resulting in excellent fits that highlight the high precision of fluorescence sedimentation velocity data, thus allowing a more detailed quantitative interpretation of the signal boundaries that is otherwise not possible for this system.

  3. Thermal Lens Spectroscopy as a 'new' analytical tool for actinide determination in nuclear reprocessing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canto, Fabrice; Couston, Laurent; Magnaldo, Alastair; Broquin, Jean-Emmanuel; Signoret, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Thermal Lens Spectroscopy (TLS) consists of measuring the effects induced by the relaxation of molecules excited by photons. Twenty years ago, the Cea already worked on TLS. Technologic reasons impeded. But, needs in sensitive analytical methods coupled with very low sample volumes (for example, traces of Np in the COEX TM process) and also the reduction of the nuclear wastes encourage us to revisit this method thanks to the improvement of optoelectronic technologies. We can also imagine coupling TLS with micro-fluidic technologies, decreasing significantly the experiments cost. Generally two laser beams are used for TLS: one for the selective excitation by molecular absorption (inducing the thermal lens) and one for probing the thermal lens. They can be coupled with different geometries, collinear or perpendicular, depending on the application and on the laser mode. Also, many possibilities of measurement have been studied to detect the thermal lens signal: interferometry, direct intensities variations, deflection etc... In this paper, one geometrical configuration and two measurements have been theoretically evaluated. For a single photodiode detection (z-scan) the limit of detection is calculated to be near 5*10 -6 mol*L -1 for Np(IV) in dodecane. (authors)

  4. External beam milli-PIXE as analytical tool for Neolithic obsidian provenance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantinescu, B.; Cristea-Stan, D. [National Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering Horia Hulubei, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Kovács, I.; Szõkefalvi-Nagy, Z. [Wigner Research Centre for Phyics, Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Budapest (Hungary)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Obsidian is the most important archaeological material used for tools and weapons before metals appearance. Its geological sources are limited and concentrated in few geographical zones: Armenia, Eastern Anatolia, Italian Lipari and Sardinia islands, Greek Melos and Yali islands, Hungarian and Slovak Tokaj Mountains. Due to this fact, in Mesolithic and Neolithic periods obsidian was the first archaeological material intensively traded even at long distances. To determine the geological provenance of obsidian and to identify the prehistoric long-range trade routes and possible population migrations elemental concentration ratios can help a 101, since each geological source has its 'fingerprints'. In this work external milli-PIXE technique was applied for elemental concentration ratio determinations in some Neolithic tools found in Transylvania and in the lron Gales region near Danube, and on few relevant geological samples (Slovak Tokaj Mountains, Lipari,Armenia). In Transylvania (the North-Western part of Romania, a region surrounded by Carpathian Mountains), Neolithic obsidian tools were discovered mainly in three regions: North-West - Oradea (near the border with Hungary, Slovakia and Ukraine), Centre -Cluj and Southwest- Banat (near the border with Serbia). A special case is lron Gales - Mesolithic and Early Neolithic sites, directly related to the appearance of agriculture replacing the Mesolithic economy based on hunting and fishing. Three long-distance trade routes could be considered: from Caucasus Mountains via North of the Black Sea, from Greek islands or Asia Minor via ex-Yugoslavia area or via Greece-Bulgaria or from Central Europe- Tokaj Mountains in the case of obsidian. As provenance 'fingerprints', we focused on Ti to Mn, and Rb-Sr-Y-Zr ratios. The measurements were performed at the external milli-PIXE beam-line of the 5MV VdG accelerator of the Wigner RCP. Proton energy of 3MeV and beam currents in the range of 1 ±1 D

  5. External beam milli-PIXE as analytical tool for Neolithic obsidian provenance studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Cristea-Stan, D.; Kovács, I.; Szõkefalvi-Nagy, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Obsidian is the most important archaeological material used for tools and weapons before metals appearance. Its geological sources are limited and concentrated in few geographical zones: Armenia, Eastern Anatolia, Italian Lipari and Sardinia islands, Greek Melos and Yali islands, Hungarian and Slovak Tokaj Mountains. Due to this fact, in Mesolithic and Neolithic periods obsidian was the first archaeological material intensively traded even at long distances. To determine the geological provenance of obsidian and to identify the prehistoric long-range trade routes and possible population migrations elemental concentration ratios can help a 101, since each geological source has its 'fingerprints'. In this work external milli-PIXE technique was applied for elemental concentration ratio determinations in some Neolithic tools found in Transylvania and in the lron Gales region near Danube, and on few relevant geological samples (Slovak Tokaj Mountains, Lipari,Armenia). In Transylvania (the North-Western part of Romania, a region surrounded by Carpathian Mountains), Neolithic obsidian tools were discovered mainly in three regions: North-West - Oradea (near the border with Hungary, Slovakia and Ukraine), Centre -Cluj and Southwest- Banat (near the border with Serbia). A special case is lron Gales - Mesolithic and Early Neolithic sites, directly related to the appearance of agriculture replacing the Mesolithic economy based on hunting and fishing. Three long-distance trade routes could be considered: from Caucasus Mountains via North of the Black Sea, from Greek islands or Asia Minor via ex-Yugoslavia area or via Greece-Bulgaria or from Central Europe- Tokaj Mountains in the case of obsidian. As provenance 'fingerprints', we focused on Ti to Mn, and Rb-Sr-Y-Zr ratios. The measurements were performed at the external milli-PIXE beam-line of the 5MV VdG accelerator of the Wigner RCP. Proton energy of 3MeV and beam currents in the range of 1 ±1 D

  6. A software tool for simulation of surfaces generated by ball nose end milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano

    2004-01-01

    , for prediction of surface topography of ball nose end milled surfaces, was developed. Such software tool is based on a simplified model of the ideal tool motion and neglects the effects due to run-out, static and dynamic deflections and error motions, but has the merit of generating in output a file in a format...... readable by a surface processor software (SPIP [2]), for calculation of a number of surface roughness parameters. In the next paragraph a description of the basic features of ball nose end milled surfaces is given, while in paragraph 3 the model is described....

  7. Temperature-controlled micro-TLC: a versatile green chemistry and fast analytical tool for separation and preliminary screening of steroids fraction from biological and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Slączka, Magdalena M; Zarzycka, Magdalena B; Bartoszuk, Małgorzata A; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Baran, Michał J

    2011-11-01

    This paper is a continuation of our previous research focusing on development of micro-TLC methodology under temperature-controlled conditions. The main goal of present paper is to demonstrate separation and detection capability of micro-TLC technique involving simple analytical protocols without multi-steps sample pre-purification. One of the advantages of planar chromatography over its column counterpart is that each TLC run can be performed using non-previously used stationary phase. Therefore, it is possible to fractionate or separate complex samples characterized by heavy biological matrix loading. In present studies components of interest, mainly steroids, were isolated from biological samples like fish bile using single pre-treatment steps involving direct organic liquid extraction and/or deproteinization by freeze-drying method. Low-molecular mass compounds with polarity ranging from estetrol to progesterone derived from the environmental samples (lake water, untreated and treated sewage waters) were concentrated using optimized solid-phase extraction (SPE). Specific bands patterns for samples derived from surface water of the Middle Pomerania in northern part of Poland can be easily observed on obtained micro-TLC chromatograms. This approach can be useful as simple and non-expensive complementary method for fast control and screening of treated sewage water discharged by the municipal wastewater treatment plants. Moreover, our experimental results show the potential of micro-TLC as an efficient tool for retention measurements of a wide range of steroids under reversed-phase (RP) chromatographic conditions. These data can be used for further optimalization of SPE or HPLC systems working under RP conditions. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that micro-TLC based analytical approach can be applied as an effective method for the internal standard (IS) substance search. Generally, described methodology can be applied for fast fractionation or screening of the

  8. An analytical tool to support the pedestrianisation process: The case of via Roma, Cagliari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Annunziata

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the case of the modification of an urban road network: the transformation of a portion of an important distributor road in the urban area of Cagliari into a pedestrian space. By means of this case study the article aims to point out how pedestrianisation interventions have not been completely defined within a theoretical system that clearly establishes modes and conditions of implementation. This lack of theorization has led to the common understanding of pedestrianisation as good operations in and of itself and, as such, exportable, meant to produce the same effects everywhere (Bianchetti, 2016. This analysis uses the fundamental conditions of hierarchy as a tool to assess to what extent the modification of the road network articulation has resulted in conditions of lesser inter-connectivity, legibility and functionality. In this perspective the article proposes a system of criteria, founded on the principles of hierarchy, meant to be a theoretical support for processes of pedestrianisation.

  9. Puzzle test: A tool for non-analytical clinical reasoning assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monajemi, Alireza; Yaghmaei, Minoo

    2016-01-01

    Most contemporary clinical reasoning tests typically assess non-automatic thinking. Therefore, a test is needed to measure automatic reasoning or pattern recognition, which has been largely neglected in clinical reasoning tests. The Puzzle Test (PT) is dedicated to assess automatic clinical reasoning in routine situations. This test has been introduced first in 2009 by Monajemi et al in the Olympiad for Medical Sciences Students.PT is an item format that has gained acceptance in medical education, but no detailed guidelines exist for this test's format, construction and scoring. In this article, a format is described and the steps to prepare and administer valid and reliable PTs are presented. PT examines a specific clinical reasoning task: Pattern recognition. PT does not replace other clinical reasoning assessment tools. However, it complements them in strategies for assessing comprehensive clinical reasoning.

  10. Interactive network analytical tool for instantaneous bespoke interrogation of food safety notifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepusz, Tamás; Petróczi, Andrea; Naughton, Declan P

    2012-01-01

    The globalization of food supply necessitates continued advances in regulatory control measures to ensure that citizens enjoy safe and adequate nutrition. The aim of this study was to extend previous reports on network analysis relating to food notifications by including an optional filter by type of notification and in cases of contamination, by type of contaminant in the notified foodstuff. A filter function has been applied to enable processing of selected notifications by contaminant or type of notification to i) capture complexity, ii) analyze trends, and iii) identify patterns of reporting activities between countries. The program rapidly assesses nations' roles as transgressor and/or detector for each category of contaminant and for the key class of border rejection. In the open access demonstration version, the majority of notifications in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed were categorized by contaminant type as mycotoxin (50.4%), heavy metals (10.9%) or bacteria (20.3%). Examples are given demonstrating how network analytical approaches complement, and in some cases supersede, descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, which may give limited or potentially misleading information. One key feature is that network analysis takes the relationship between transgressor and detector countries, along with number of reports and impact simultaneously into consideration. Furhermore, the indices that compliment the network maps and reflect each country's transgressor and detector activities allow comparisons to be made between (transgressing vs. detecting) as well as within (e.g. transgressing) activities. This further development of the network analysis approach to food safety contributes to a better understanding of the complexity of the effort ensuring food is safe for consumption in the European Union. The unique patterns of the interplay between detectors and transgressors, instantly revealed by our approach, could supplement the intelligence

  11. Interactive network analytical tool for instantaneous bespoke interrogation of food safety notifications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Nepusz

    Full Text Available The globalization of food supply necessitates continued advances in regulatory control measures to ensure that citizens enjoy safe and adequate nutrition. The aim of this study was to extend previous reports on network analysis relating to food notifications by including an optional filter by type of notification and in cases of contamination, by type of contaminant in the notified foodstuff.A filter function has been applied to enable processing of selected notifications by contaminant or type of notification to i capture complexity, ii analyze trends, and iii identify patterns of reporting activities between countries. The program rapidly assesses nations' roles as transgressor and/or detector for each category of contaminant and for the key class of border rejection. In the open access demonstration version, the majority of notifications in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed were categorized by contaminant type as mycotoxin (50.4%, heavy metals (10.9% or bacteria (20.3%. Examples are given demonstrating how network analytical approaches complement, and in some cases supersede, descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, which may give limited or potentially misleading information. One key feature is that network analysis takes the relationship between transgressor and detector countries, along with number of reports and impact simultaneously into consideration. Furhermore, the indices that compliment the network maps and reflect each country's transgressor and detector activities allow comparisons to be made between (transgressing vs. detecting as well as within (e.g. transgressing activities.This further development of the network analysis approach to food safety contributes to a better understanding of the complexity of the effort ensuring food is safe for consumption in the European Union. The unique patterns of the interplay between detectors and transgressors, instantly revealed by our approach, could supplement the

  12. Algorithms for optimized maximum entropy and diagnostic tools for analytic continuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Dominic; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    2016-08-01

    Analytic continuation of numerical data obtained in imaginary time or frequency has become an essential part of many branches of quantum computational physics. It is, however, an ill-conditioned procedure and thus a hard numerical problem. The maximum-entropy approach, based on Bayesian inference, is the most widely used method to tackle that problem. Although the approach is well established and among the most reliable and efficient ones, useful developments of the method and of its implementation are still possible. In addition, while a few free software implementations are available, a well-documented, optimized, general purpose, and user-friendly software dedicated to that specific task is still lacking. Here we analyze all aspects of the implementation that are critical for accuracy and speed and present a highly optimized approach to maximum entropy. Original algorithmic and conceptual contributions include (1) numerical approximations that yield a computational complexity that is almost independent of temperature and spectrum shape (including sharp Drude peaks in broad background, for example) while ensuring quantitative accuracy of the result whenever precision of the data is sufficient, (2) a robust method of choosing the entropy weight α that follows from a simple consistency condition of the approach and the observation that information- and noise-fitting regimes can be identified clearly from the behavior of χ2 with respect to α , and (3) several diagnostics to assess the reliability of the result. Benchmarks with test spectral functions of different complexity and an example with an actual physical simulation are presented. Our implementation, which covers most typical cases for fermions, bosons, and response functions, is available as an open source, user-friendly software.

  13. Surface analytical investigation of diamond coatings and nucleation processes by secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, R.

    1993-10-01

    Imaging SIMS for the investigation of substrate surfaces: the influence of the substrate surface on diamond nucleation is a major topic in the investigation of the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of diamond. It is well known that the nucleation density can be enhanced by scratching the substrate surface with abrasive powders. Diamond can nucleate at scratches or at residues of the polishing material. In the present work the surface of refractory metals (Mo, Nb, Ta, W) polished with silicon carbide and diamond powder is studied by imaging (2- or 3-D) secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). In first experiments the distribution of SiC and/or diamond residues after polishing was determined. The reaction of diamond with the substrate during heating to deposition temperatures was investigated. Investigation of WC/Co hardmetal substrates: it is well known that Co contained in the binder phase of the hard metal inhibits a strong adhesion between the diamond film and the substrate, which is need for an application as cutting tool. Several attempts to improve the adhesion have been reported up to now. In this work a pre-treatment procedure leading to the formation of Co compounds (borides and silicides) which are stable under diamond deposition conditions were investigated. Furthermore, the application of intermediate sputter layers consisting of chromium and titanium were studied. Investigation of P-doped diamond coatings: in the quaternary phase diagram C-P-B-N exist some phases with diamond structure and superhard phases (e.g BP, c-BN). Also a hypothetical superhard phase of the composition C 3 N 4 is predicted. A scientific objective is the synthesis of such phases by chemical vapour deposition. An increase of the phosphorus concentration effects a distinct change in the morphology of the deposited coatings. A major advantage of SIMS is that the concentration profiles can be measured through the whole film, due to the sputter removal of the sample, and the interface

  14. EDXRF as an analytical tool in art. Case studies from pigment identification and treatment assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallithrakas-Kontos, N.; Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki, P.

    2004-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) was employed for the identification of pigments decorating Hellenistic figurines, and the assessment of the efficiency of a treatment with barium hydroxide applied to stone. Elements present in the colored areas of the figurines, as well as the treated stone was identified by EDXRF. These data together with complementary information obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) led to the identification of several precious pigments. As far as the treatment efficiency is concerned, EDXRF analysis revealed that barium is unevenly distributed on the treated surface and reaches a maximum depth of 2.5 mm. (author)

  15. Effect of different machining processes on the tool surface integrity and fatigue life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Chuan Liang [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang (China); Zhang, Xianglin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2016-08-15

    Ultra-precision grinding, wire-cut electro discharge machining and lapping are often used to machine the tools in fine blanking industry. And the surface integrity from these machining processes causes great concerns in the research field. To study the effect of processing surface integrity on the fine blanking tool life, the surface integrity of different tool materials under different processing conditions and its influence on fatigue life were thoroughly analyzed in the present study. The result shows that the surface integrity of different materials was quite different on the same processing condition. For the same tool material, the surface integrity on varying processing conditions was quite different too and deeply influenced the fatigue life.

  16. An analytical model for particulate deposition on vertical heat transfer surfaces in a boiling environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefer, R.H.; Rider, J.L.; Waldman, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    A frequent problem in heat exchange equipment is the deposition of particulates entrained in the working fluid onto heat transfer surfaces. These deposits increase the overall heat transfer resistance and can significantly degrade the performance of the heat exchanger. Accurate prediction of the deposition rate is necessary to ensure that the design and specified operating conditions of the heat exchanger adequately address the effects of this deposit layer. Although the deposition process has been studied in considerable detail, much of the work has focused on investigating individual aspects of the deposition process. This paper consolidates this previous research into a mechanistically based analytical prediction model for particulate deposition from a boiling liquid onto vertical heat transfer surfaces. Consistent with the well known Kern-Seaton approach, the model postulates net particulate accumulation to depend on the relative contributions of deposition and reentrainment processes. Mechanisms for deposition include boiling, momentum, and diffusion effects. Reentrainment is presumed to occur via an intermittent erosion process, with the energy for particle removal being supplied by turbulent flow instabilities. The contributions of these individual mechanisms are integrated to obtain a single equation for the deposit thickness versus time. The validity of the resulting model is demonstrated by comparison with data published in the open literature. Model estimates show good agreement with data obtained over a range of thermal-hydraulic conditions in both flow and pool boiling environments. The utility of the model in performing parametric studies (e.g. to determine the effect of flow velocity on net deposition) is also demonstrated. The initial success of the model suggests that it could prove useful in establishing a range of heat exchanger. operating conditions to minimize deposition

  17. Analytical solution describing pesticide volatilization from soil affected by a change in surface condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, S R

    2009-01-01

    An analytical solution describing the fate and transport of pesticides applied to soils has been developed. Two pesticide application methods can be simulated: point-source applications, such as idealized shank or a hot-gas injection method, and a more realistic shank-source application method that includes a vertical pesticide distribution in the soil domain due to a soil fracture caused by a shank. The solutions allow determination of the volatilization rate and other information that could be important for understanding fumigant movement and in the development of regulatory permitting conditions. The solutions can be used to characterize differences in emissions relative to changes in the soil degradation rate, surface barrier conditions, application depth, and soil packing. In some cases, simple algebraic expressions are provided that can be used to obtain the total emissions and total soil degradation. The solutions provide a consistent methodology for determining the total emissions and can be used with other information, such as field and laboratory experimental data, to support the development of fumigant regulations. The uses of the models are illustrated by several examples.

  18. High-Performance, Large Format Surfaces for Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy: Increasing the Accessibility of an Analytical Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanipe, Katherine Nicole

    Although surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a spectroscopic technique with unusually high sensitivity and molecular specificity, few practical analytical applications have been implemented that take advantage of its power. Based on what is understood about SERS from the experimental and theoretical research of the past forty years, we developed a few well-defined design principles on the basis of which a reliable and reproducibly manufacturable SERS-active substrate could be fabricated that is highly enhancing, highly uniform, stable, and based on a broad range of metals so that various chemical processes could be probed. Finally, we restricted ourselves to using only readily scalable fabrication techniques. The resulting SERS-active device was a metal over silica, two-dimensional nano-grating that was shown to produce enhancements of ˜107 when compared to a smooth surface of the same metal. This SERS substrate also shows unprecedented signal uniformity over square centimeters, and is fabricated using commonly-available foundry-based approaches exclusively. Initially, we explored the properties of a gold-coated substrates in which a first-order grating resonance due to long-range symmetry is augmented by a local resonance due to the individual core-shell grating elements. The SERS properties of such grating systems were systematically studied as a function of various structural parameters such as the grating pitch, the inter-element gap and the thickness of the metal layer. The most enhancing substrates were found to have a grating parameter with a radiative, rather than evanescent, first-order resonance; a sufficiently small gap between nearest neighbor grating elements to produce near-field interactions; and a gold layer whose thickness was larger than the electronic mean-free-path of the conduction electrons, so as to ensure a high conductivity for the metal layer to sustain strong surface plasmons. We applied these same architectural principles to

  19. Experimental anti-GBM nephritis as an analytical tool for studying spontaneous lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong; Fu, Yuyang; Mohan, Chandra

    2008-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that results in immune-mediated damage to multiple organs. Among these, kidney involvement is the most common and fatal. Spontaneous lupus nephritis (SLN) in mouse models has provided valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of human lupus nephritis. However, SLN in mouse models takes 6-12 months to manifest; hence there is clearly the need for a mouse model that can be used to unveil the pathogenic processes that lead to immune nephritis over a shorter time frame. In this article more than 25 different molecules are reviewed that have been studied both in the anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) model and in SLN and it was found that these molecules influence both diseases in a parallel fashion, suggesting that the two disease settings share common molecular mechanisms. Based on these observations, the authors believe the experimental anti-GBM disease model might be one of the best tools currently available for uncovering the downstream molecular mechanisms leading to SLN.

  20. Evaluation of Heat Flux Measurement as a New Process Analytical Technology Monitoring Tool in Freeze Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollrath, Ilona; Pauli, Victoria; Friess, Wolfgang; Freitag, Angelika; Hawe, Andrea; Winter, Gerhard

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the suitability of heat flux measurement as a new technique for monitoring product temperature and critical end points during freeze drying. The heat flux sensor is tightly mounted on the shelf and measures non-invasively (no contact with the product) the heat transferred from shelf to vial. Heat flux data were compared to comparative pressure measurement, thermocouple readings, and Karl Fischer titration as current state of the art monitoring techniques. The whole freeze drying process including freezing (both by ramp freezing and controlled nucleation) and primary and secondary drying was considered. We found that direct measurement of the transferred heat enables more insights into thermodynamics of the freezing process. Furthermore, a vial heat transfer coefficient can be calculated from heat flux data, which ultimately provides a non-invasive method to monitor product temperature throughout primary drying. The end point of primary drying determined by heat flux measurements was in accordance with the one defined by thermocouples. During secondary drying, heat flux measurements could not indicate the progress of drying as monitoring the residual moisture content. In conclusion, heat flux measurements are a promising new non-invasive tool for lyophilization process monitoring and development using energy transfer as a control parameter. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. DR-Integrator: a new analytic tool for integrating DNA copy number and gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Keyan; Tibshirani, Robert; Pollack, Jonathan R

    2010-02-01

    DNA copy number alterations (CNA) frequently underlie gene expression changes by increasing or decreasing gene dosage. However, only a subset of genes with altered dosage exhibit concordant changes in gene expression. This subset is likely to be enriched for oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, and can be identified by integrating these two layers of genome-scale data. We introduce DNA/RNA-Integrator (DR-Integrator), a statistical software tool to perform integrative analyses on paired DNA copy number and gene expression data. DR-Integrator identifies genes with significant correlations between DNA copy number and gene expression, and implements a supervised analysis that captures genes with significant alterations in both DNA copy number and gene expression between two sample classes. DR-Integrator is freely available for non-commercial use from the Pollack Lab at http://pollacklab.stanford.edu/ and can be downloaded as a plug-in application to Microsoft Excel and as a package for the R statistical computing environment. The R package is available under the name 'DRI' at http://cran.r-project.org/. An example analysis using DR-Integrator is included as supplemental material. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  2. Demonstration of FBRM as process analytical technology tool for dewatering processes via CST correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbledick, Jeffrey; Nguyen, Alexander; Latulippe, David R

    2014-07-01

    The current challenges associated with the design and operation of net-energy positive wastewater treatment plants demand sophisticated approaches for the monitoring of polymer-induced flocculation. In anaerobic digestion (AD) processes, the dewaterability of the sludge is typically assessed from off-line lab-bench tests - the capillary suction time (CST) test is one of the most common. Focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) is a promising technique for real-time monitoring of critical performance attributes in large scale processes and is ideally suited for dewatering applications. The flocculation performance of twenty-four cationic polymers, that spanned a range of polymer size and charge properties, was measured using both the FBRM and CST tests. Analysis of the data revealed a decreasing monotonic trend; the samples that had the highest percent removal of particles less than 50 microns in size as determined by FBRM had the lowest CST values. A subset of the best performing polymers was used to evaluate the effects of dosage amount and digestate sources on dewatering performance. The results from this work show that FBRM is a powerful tool that can be used for optimization and on-line monitoring of dewatering processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analytical tool for the periodic safety analysis of NPP according to the PSA guideline. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balfanz, H.P.; Boehme, E.; Musekamp, W.; Hussels, U.; Becker, G.; Behr, H.; Luettgert, H.

    1994-01-01

    The SAIS (Safety Analysis and Informationssystem) Programme System is based on an integrated data base, which consists of a plant-data and a PSA related data part. Using SAIS analyses can be performed by special tools, which are connected directly to the data base. Two main editors, RISA+ and DEDIT, are used for data base management. The access to the data base is done via different types of pages, which are displayed on a displayed on a computer screen. The pages are called data sheets. Sets of input and output data sheets were implemented, such as system or component data sheets, fault trees or event trees. All input information, models and results needed for updated results of PSA (Living PSA) can be stored in the SAIS. The programme system contains the editor KVIEW which guarantees consistency of the stored data, e.g. with respect to names and codes of components and events. The information contained in the data base are called in by a standardized users guide programme, called Page Editor. (Brunsbuettel on reference NPP). (orig./HP) [de

  4. Evaluation And Selection Process of Suppliers Through Analytical Framework: An Emprical Evidence of Evaluation Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imeri Shpend

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The supplier selection process is very important to companies as selecting the right suppliers that fit companies strategy needs brings drastic savings. Therefore, this paper seeks to address the key area of supplies evaluation from the supplier review perspective. The purpose was to identify the most important criteria for suppliers’ evaluation and develop evaluation tool based on surveyed criteria. The research was conducted through structured questionnaire and the sample focused on small to medium sized companies (SMEs in Greece. In total eighty companies participated in the survey answering the full questionnaire which consisted of questions whether these companies utilize some suppliers’ evaluation criteria and what criteria if any is applied. The main statistical instrument used in the study is Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Thus, the research has shown that the main criteria are: the attitude of the vendor towards the customer, supplier delivery time, product quality and price. Conclusions are made on the suitability and usefulness of suppliers’ evaluation criteria and in way they are applied in enterprises.

  5. ProteoLens: a visual analytic tool for multi-scale database-driven biological network data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Tianxiao; Sivachenko, Andrey Y; Harrison, Scott H; Chen, Jake Y

    2008-08-12

    New systems biology studies require researchers to understand how interplay among myriads of biomolecular entities is orchestrated in order to achieve high-level cellular and physiological functions. Many software tools have been developed in the past decade to help researchers visually navigate large networks of biomolecular interactions with built-in template-based query capabilities. To further advance researchers' ability to interrogate global physiological states of cells through multi-scale visual network explorations, new visualization software tools still need to be developed to empower the analysis. A robust visual data analysis platform driven by database management systems to perform bi-directional data processing-to-visualizations with declarative querying capabilities is needed. We developed ProteoLens as a JAVA-based visual analytic software tool for creating, annotating and exploring multi-scale biological networks. It supports direct database connectivity to either Oracle or PostgreSQL database tables/views, on which SQL statements using both Data Definition Languages (DDL) and Data Manipulation languages (DML) may be specified. The robust query languages embedded directly within the visualization software help users to bring their network data into a visualization context for annotation and exploration. ProteoLens supports graph/network represented data in standard Graph Modeling Language (GML) formats, and this enables interoperation with a wide range of other visual layout tools. The architectural design of ProteoLens enables the de-coupling of complex network data visualization tasks into two distinct phases: 1) creating network data association rules, which are mapping rules between network node IDs or edge IDs and data attributes such as functional annotations, expression levels, scores, synonyms, descriptions etc; 2) applying network data association rules to build the network and perform the visual annotation of graph nodes and edges

  6. Electrochemical immunoassay using magnetic beads for the determination of zearalenone in baby food: An anticipated analytical tool for food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervas, Miriam; Lopez, Miguel Angel; Escarpa, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    In this work, electrochemical immunoassay involving magnetic beads to determine zearalenone in selected food samples has been developed. The immunoassay scheme has been based on a direct competitive immunoassay method in which antibody-coated magnetic beads were employed as the immobilisation support and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as enzymatic label. Amperometric detection has been achieved through the addition of hydrogen peroxide substrate and hydroquinone as mediator. Analytical performance of the electrochemical immunoassay has been evaluated by analysis of maize certified reference material (CRM) and selected baby food samples. A detection limit (LOD) of 0.011 μg L -1 and EC 50 0.079 μg L -1 were obtained allowing the assessment of the detection of zearalenone mycotoxin. In addition, an excellent accuracy with a high recovery yield ranging between 95 and 108% has been obtained. The analytical features have shown the proposed electrochemical immunoassay to be a very powerful and timely screening tool for the food safety scene.

  7. Photography by Cameras Integrated in Smartphones as a Tool for Analytical Chemistry Represented by an Butyrylcholinesterase Activity Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohanka, Miroslav

    2015-06-11

    Smartphones are popular devices frequently equipped with sensitive sensors and great computational ability. Despite the widespread availability of smartphones, practical uses in analytical chemistry are limited, though some papers have proposed promising applications. In the present paper, a smartphone is used as a tool for the determination of cholinesterasemia i.e., the determination of a biochemical marker butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The work should demonstrate suitability of a smartphone-integrated camera for analytical purposes. Paper strips soaked with indoxylacetate were used for the determination of BChE activity, while the standard Ellman's assay was used as a reference measurement. In the smartphone-based assay, BChE converted indoxylacetate to indigo blue and coloration was photographed using the phone's integrated camera. A RGB color model was analyzed and color values for the individual color channels were determined. The assay was verified using plasma samples and samples containing pure BChE, and validated using Ellmans's assay. The smartphone assay was proved to be reliable and applicable for routine diagnoses where BChE serves as a marker (liver function tests; some poisonings, etc.). It can be concluded that the assay is expected to be of practical applicability because of the results' relevance.

  8. Photography by Cameras Integrated in Smartphones as a Tool for Analytical Chemistry Represented by an Butyrylcholinesterase Activity Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Pohanka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones are popular devices frequently equipped with sensitive sensors and great computational ability. Despite the widespread availability of smartphones, practical uses in analytical chemistry are limited, though some papers have proposed promising applications. In the present paper, a smartphone is used as a tool for the determination of cholinesterasemia i.e., the determination of a biochemical marker butyrylcholinesterase (BChE. The work should demonstrate suitability of a smartphone-integrated camera for analytical purposes. Paper strips soaked with indoxylacetate were used for the determination of BChE activity, while the standard Ellman’s assay was used as a reference measurement. In the smartphone-based assay, BChE converted indoxylacetate to indigo blue and coloration was photographed using the phone’s integrated camera. A RGB color model was analyzed and color values for the individual color channels were determined. The assay was verified using plasma samples and samples containing pure BChE, and validated using Ellmans’s assay. The smartphone assay was proved to be reliable and applicable for routine diagnoses where BChE serves as a marker (liver function tests; some poisonings, etc.. It can be concluded that the assay is expected to be of practical applicability because of the results’ relevance.

  9. Electrochemical immunoassay using magnetic beads for the determination of zearalenone in baby food: An anticipated analytical tool for food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hervas, Miriam; Lopez, Miguel Angel [Departamento Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Alcala, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona, Km. 33600, E-28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Escarpa, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.escarpa@uah.es [Departamento Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Alcala, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona, Km. 33600, E-28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-10-27

    In this work, electrochemical immunoassay involving magnetic beads to determine zearalenone in selected food samples has been developed. The immunoassay scheme has been based on a direct competitive immunoassay method in which antibody-coated magnetic beads were employed as the immobilisation support and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as enzymatic label. Amperometric detection has been achieved through the addition of hydrogen peroxide substrate and hydroquinone as mediator. Analytical performance of the electrochemical immunoassay has been evaluated by analysis of maize certified reference material (CRM) and selected baby food samples. A detection limit (LOD) of 0.011 {mu}g L{sup -1} and EC{sub 50} 0.079 {mu}g L{sup -1} were obtained allowing the assessment of the detection of zearalenone mycotoxin. In addition, an excellent accuracy with a high recovery yield ranging between 95 and 108% has been obtained. The analytical features have shown the proposed electrochemical immunoassay to be a very powerful and timely screening tool for the food safety scene.

  10. Towards a green analytical laboratory: microextraction techniques as a useful tool for the monitoring of polluted soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Garcia, Ignacio; Viñas, Pilar; Campillo, Natalia; Hernandez Cordoba, Manuel; Perez Sirvent, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Microextraction techniques are a valuable tool at the analytical laboratory since they allow sensitive measurements of pollutants to be carried out by means of easily available instrumentation. There is a large number of such procedures involving miniaturized liquid-liquid or liquid-solid extractions with the common denominator of using very low amounts (only a few microliters) or even none of organic solvents. Since minimal amounts of reagents are involved, and the generation of residues is consequently minimized, the approach falls within the concept of Green Analytical Chemistry. This general methodology is useful both for inorganic and organic pollutants. Thus, low amounts of metallic ions can be measured without the need of using ICP-MS since this instrument can be replaced by a simple AAS spectrometer which is commonly present in any laboratory and involves low acquisition and maintenance costs. When dealing with organic pollutants, the microextracts obtained can be introduced into liquid or gas chromatographs equipped with common detectors and there is no need for the most sophisticated and expensive mass spectrometers. This communication reports an overview of the advantages of such a methodology, and gives examples for the determination of some particular contaminants in soil and water samples The authors are grateful to the Comunidad Autonóma de la Región de Murcia , Spain (Fundación Séneca, 19888/GERM/15) for financial support

  11. LitPathExplorer: a confidence-based visual text analytics tool for exploring literature-enriched pathway models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Axel J; Zerva, Chrysoula; Batista-Navarro, Riza; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2018-04-15

    Pathway models are valuable resources that help us understand the various mechanisms underpinning complex biological processes. Their curation is typically carried out through manual inspection of published scientific literature to find information relevant to a model, which is a laborious and knowledge-intensive task. Furthermore, models curated manually cannot be easily updated and maintained with new evidence extracted from the literature without automated support. We have developed LitPathExplorer, a visual text analytics tool that integrates advanced text mining, semi-supervised learning and interactive visualization, to facilitate the exploration and analysis of pathway models using statements (i.e. events) extracted automatically from the literature and organized according to levels of confidence. LitPathExplorer supports pathway modellers and curators alike by: (i) extracting events from the literature that corroborate existing models with evidence; (ii) discovering new events which can update models; and (iii) providing a confidence value for each event that is automatically computed based on linguistic features and article metadata. Our evaluation of event extraction showed a precision of 89% and a recall of 71%. Evaluation of our confidence measure, when used for ranking sampled events, showed an average precision ranging between 61 and 73%, which can be improved to 95% when the user is involved in the semi-supervised learning process. Qualitative evaluation using pair analytics based on the feedback of three domain experts confirmed the utility of our tool within the context of pathway model exploration. LitPathExplorer is available at http://nactem.ac.uk/LitPathExplorer_BI/. sophia.ananiadou@manchester.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  12. An investigation on the effect of surface characteristics on adhesion between polymer melts and replication tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delaney, Kevin D.; Kennedy, Jonathan David; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Understanding interfacial characteristics between a polymer and its associated tool surface is critical to successful optimization of processes such as injection moulding, embossing and extrusion used to produce polymer parts. One of the factors characterizing the strength of the polymer-tool int......Understanding interfacial characteristics between a polymer and its associated tool surface is critical to successful optimization of processes such as injection moulding, embossing and extrusion used to produce polymer parts. One of the factors characterizing the strength of the polymer...... the results of an experimental study aimed at determining the effect of selected tool surface characteristics on the work of adhesion, by measuring contact angles of polymer droplets on the surfaces. The experimental set-up, selection of test parameters and main challenges faced to date are described...

  13. Real-time imaging as an emerging process analytical technology tool for monitoring of fluid bed coating process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Venkata Ramana; Deshpande, Rucha S; Syed, Moinuddin R; Wakte, Pravin S

    2018-07-01

    A direct imaging system (Eyecon TM ) was used as a Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tool to monitor fluid bed coating process. Eyecon TM generated real-time onscreen images, particle size and shape information of two identically manufactured laboratory-scale batches. Eyecon TM has accuracy of measuring the particle size increase of ±1 μm on particles in the size range of 50-3000 μm. Eyecon TM captured data every 2 s during the entire process. The moving average of D90 particle size values recorded by Eyecon TM were calculated for every 30 min to calculate the radial coating thickness of coated particles. After the completion of coating process, the radial coating thickness was found to be 11.3 and 9.11 μm, with a standard deviation of ±0.68 and 1.8 μm for Batch 1 and Batch 2, respectively. The coating thickness was also correlated with percent weight build-up by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and dissolution. GPC indicated weight build-up of 10.6% and 9.27% for Batch 1 and Batch 2, respectively. In conclusion, weight build-up of 10% can also be correlated with 10 ± 2 μm increase in the coating thickness of pellets, indicating the potential applicability of real-time imaging as an endpoint determination tool for fluid bed coating process.

  14. Rapid process development of chromatographic process using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry as a process analytical technology tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Binjun; Chen, Teng; Xu, Zhilin; Qu, Haibin

    2014-06-01

    The concept of quality by design (QbD) is widely applied in the process development of pharmaceuticals. However, the additional cost and time have caused some resistance about QbD implementation. To show a possible solution, this work proposed a rapid process development method, which used direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool for studying the chromatographic process of Ginkgo biloba L., as an example. The breakthrough curves were fast determined by DART-MS at-line. A high correlation coefficient of 0.9520 was found between the concentrations of ginkgolide A determined by DART-MS and HPLC. Based on the PAT tool, the impacts of process parameters on the adsorption capacity were discovered rapidly, which showed a decreased adsorption capacity with the increase of the flow rate. This work has shown the feasibility and advantages of integrating PAT into QbD implementation for rapid process development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Statistical analysis of surface roughness in turning based on cutting parameters and tool vibrations with response surface methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Soufiane; Mekhilef, Slimane

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we present an experimental study to determine the effect of the cutting conditions and tool vibration on the surface roughness in finish turning of 32CrMoV12-28 steel, using carbide cutting tool YT15. For these purposes, a linear quadratic model in interaction of connecting surface roughness (Ra, Rz) with different combinations of cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool vibration, in radial and in tangential cutting force directions (Vy) and (Vz) is elaborated. In order to express the degree of interaction of cutting parameters and tool vibration, a multiple linear regression and response surface methodology are adopted. The application of this statistical technique for predicting the surface roughness shows that the feed rate is the most dominant factor followed by the cutting speed. However, the depth of the cut and tool vibrations have secondary effect. The presented models have some interest since they are used in the cutting process optimization.

  16. Analytical tools and methodologies for evaluation of residual life of contacting pressure tubes in the early generation of Indian PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, S.K.; Madhusoodanan, K.; Rupani, B.B.; Sinha, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    In-service life of a contacting Zircaloy-2 pressure tube (PT) in the earlier generation of Indian PHWRs, is limited mainly due to the accelerated hydrogen pick-up and nucleation and growth of hydride blister(s) at the cold spot(s) formed on outside surface of pressure tube as a result of its contact with the calandria tube (CT). The activities involving development of the analytical models for simulating the degradation mechanisms leading to PT-CT contact and the methodologies for the revaluation of their safe life under such condition form the important part of our extensive programme for the life management of contacting pressure tubes. Since after the PT-CT contact, rate of hydrogen pick-up and nucleation and growth of hydride blisters govern the safe residual life of the pressure tube, two analytical models (a) hydrogen pick-up model ('HYCON') and (b) model for the nucleation and growth of hydride blister at the contact spot ('BLIST -2D') have been developed in-house to estimate the extent of degradation caused by them. Along with them, a methodology for evaluation of safe residual life has also been formulated for evaluating the safe residual life of the contacting channels. This paper gives the brief description of the models and the methodologies relevant for the contacting Zircaloy-2 pressure tubes. (author)

  17. Surface characteristics analysis of dry EDMed AISI D2 steel using modified tool design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pragadish, N.; Kumar, M. Pradeep [Anna University, Chennai (China)

    2015-04-15

    A modified tool design is proposed which helps in drilling holes without any central core, and also enables the effective removal of the debris particles. Experiments were conducted on AISI D2 Steel using copper electrode as tool in both conventional EDM and dry EDM processes and the performance of both processes is compared. Experiments were designed using Taguchi's L27 orthogonal array. Discharge current (I), gap voltage (V), pulse on time (T{sub ON}), gas pressure (P) and tool rotational speed (N) were chosen as the various input parameters, and their effect on the material removal rate (MRR), surface roughness (SR), surface morphology, microstructure and elemental composition of the machined surface is analyzed. The experimental results show better surface characteristics in the surface machined under dry EDM process.

  18. Surface characteristics analysis of dry EDMed AISI D2 steel using modified tool design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pragadish, N.; Kumar, M. Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    A modified tool design is proposed which helps in drilling holes without any central core, and also enables the effective removal of the debris particles. Experiments were conducted on AISI D2 Steel using copper electrode as tool in both conventional EDM and dry EDM processes and the performance of both processes is compared. Experiments were designed using Taguchi's L27 orthogonal array. Discharge current (I), gap voltage (V), pulse on time (T ON ), gas pressure (P) and tool rotational speed (N) were chosen as the various input parameters, and their effect on the material removal rate (MRR), surface roughness (SR), surface morphology, microstructure and elemental composition of the machined surface is analyzed. The experimental results show better surface characteristics in the surface machined under dry EDM process.

  19. Solar Ion Processing of Major Element Surface Compositions of Mature Mare Soils: Insights from Combined XPS and Analytical TEM Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, R.; Dukes, C.; Keller, L. P.; Baragiola, R.

    2012-01-01

    Solar wind ions are capable of altering the sur-face chemistry of the lunar regolith by a number of mechanisms including preferential sputtering, radiation-enhanced diffusion and sputter erosion of space weathered surfaces containing pre-existing compositional profiles. We have previously reported in-situ ion irradiation experiments supported by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and analytical TEM that show how solar ions potentially drive Fe and Ti reduction at the monolayer scale as well as the 10-100 nm depth scale in lunar soils [1]. Here we report experimental data on the effect of ion irradiation on the major element surface composition in a mature mare soil.

  20. On the analytical flux distribution modeling of an axial-flux surface-mounted permanent magnet motor for control applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.-T.; Lin, S.-C.; Chiang, T.-S.

    2004-01-01

    By combining the recoil line characteristics of permanent magnet and the equivalent operational magnetic circuits at various rotor positions, a systematic procedure for developing the desired analytical model of an axial-flux surface-mounted permanent magnet motor can be devised. Supported by detailed three-dimensional finite element analysis results and statistical evaluations, accuracies of the developed analytical model can be guaranteed. With such well developed system model, the relative high-precision controls and operations of the motor can then be conveniently realized

  1. Born analytical or adopted over time? a study investigating if new analytical tools can ensure the survival of market oriented startups.

    OpenAIRE

    Skogen, Hege Janson; De la Cruz, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Masteroppgave(MSc) in Master of Science in Strategic Marketing Management - Handelshøyskolen BI, 2017 This study investigates whether the prevalence of technological advances within quantitative analytics moderates the effect market orientation has on firm performance, and if startups can take advantage of the potential opportunities to ensure their own survival. For this purpose, the authors review previous literature in marketing orientation, startups, marketing analytics, an...

  2. Discrimination of surface wear on obsidian tools using LSCM and RelA: pilot study results (area-scale analysis of obsidian tool surfaces).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemp, W James; Chung, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study tests the reliability of laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) to quantitatively measure wear on experimental obsidian tools. To our knowledge, this is the first use of confocal microscopy to study wear on stone flakes made from an amorphous silicate like obsidian. Three-dimensional surface roughness or texture area scans on three obsidian flakes used on different contact materials (hide, shell, wood) were documented using the LSCM to determine whether the worn surfaces could be discriminated using area-scale analysis, specifically relative area (RelA). When coupled with the F-test, this scale-sensitive fractal analysis could not only discriminate the used from unused surfaces on individual tools, but was also capable of discriminating the wear histories of tools used on different contact materials. Results indicate that such discriminations occur at different scales. Confidence levels for the discriminations at different scales were established using the F-test (mean square ratios or MSRs). In instances where discrimination of surface roughness or texture was not possible above the established confidence level based on MSRs, photomicrographs and RelA assisted in hypothesizing why this was so. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Measurement of very low amounts of arsenic in soils and waters: is ICP-MS the indispensable analytical tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, Ignacio; Marín-Hernández, Juan Jose; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    The toxicity of arsenic and its wide distribution in the nature needs nowadays not to be emphasized, and the convenience of reliable analytical tools for arsenic determination at very low levels is clear. Leaving aside atomic fluorescence spectrometers specifically designed for this purpose, the task is currently carried out by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), a powerful but expensive technique that is not available in all laboratories. However, as the recent literature clearly shows, a similar or even better analytical performance for the determination of several elements can be achieved by replacing the ICP-MS instrument by an AAS spectrometer (which is commonly present in any laboratory and involves low acquisition and maintenance costs) provided that a simple microextraction step is used to preconcentrate the sample. This communication reports the optimization and results obtained with a new analytical procedure based on this idea and focused to the determination of very low concentrations of arsenic in waters and extracts from soils and sediments. The procedure is based on a micro-solid phase extraction process for the separation and preconcentration of arsenic that uses magnetic particles covered with silver nanoparticles functionalized with the sodium salt of 2-mercaptoethane-sulphonate (MESNa). This composite is obtained in an easy way in the laboratory. After the sample is treated with a low amount (only a few milligrams) of the magnetic material, the solid phase is separated by means of a magnetic field, and then introduced into an electrothermal atomizer (ETAAS) for arsenic determination. The preconcentration factor is close to 200 with a detection limit below 0.1 µg L-1 arsenic. Speciation of As(III) and As(V) can be achieved by means of two extractions carried out at different acidity. The results for total arsenic are verified using certified reference materials. The authors are grateful to the Comunidad Autonóma de la

  4. Nanocapillary Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet: A Tool for Ultrafine Maskless Surface Modification at Atmospheric Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motrescu, Iuliana; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2016-05-18

    With respect to microsized surface functionalization techniques we proposed the use of a maskless, versatile, simple tool, represented by a nano- or microcapillary atmospheric pressure plasma jet for producing microsized controlled etching, chemical vapor deposition, and chemical modification patterns on polymeric surfaces. In this work we show the possibility of size-controlled surface amination, and we discuss it as a function of different processing parameters. Moreover, we prove the successful connection of labeled sugar chains on the functionalized microscale patterns, indicating the possibility to use ultrafine capillary atmospheric pressure plasma jets as versatile tools for biosensing, tissue engineering, and related biomedical applications.

  5. 3D thermal model of laser surface glazing for H13 tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, I. R.; Yin, D.; Naher, S.

    2017-10-01

    In this work a three dimensional (3D) finite element model of laser surface glazing (LSG) process has been developed. The purpose of the 3D thermal model of LSG was to achieve maximum accuracy towards the predicted outcome for optimizing the process. A cylindrical geometry of 10mm diameter and 1mm length was used in ANSYS 15 software. Temperature distribution, depth of modified zone and cooling rates were analysed from the thermal model. Parametric study was carried out varying the laser power from 200W-300W with constant beam diameter and residence time which were 0.2mm and 0.15ms respectively. The maximum surface temperature 2554°K was obtained for power 300W and minimum surface temperature 1668°K for power 200W. Heating and cooling rates increased with increasing laser power. The depth of the laser modified zone attained for 300W power was 37.5µm and for 200W power was 30µm. No molten zone was observed at 200W power. Maximum surface temperatures obtained from 3D model increased 4% than 2D model presented in author's previous work. In order to verify simulation results an analytical solution of temperature distribution for laser surface modification was used. The surface temperature after heating was calculated for similar laser parameters which is 1689°K. The difference in maximum surface temperature is around 20.7°K between analytical and numerical analysis of LSG for power 200W.

  6. The Application of State-of-the-Art Analytic Tools (Biosensors and Spectroscopy in Beverage and Food Fermentation Process Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaneel Chandra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of several agricultural products and foods are linked with fermentation. Traditional methods used to control and monitor the quality of the products and processes are based on the use of simple chemical analysis. However, these methods are time-consuming and do not provide sufficient relevant information to guarantee the chemical changes during the process. Commonly used methods applied in the agriculture and food industries to monitor fermentation are those based on simple or single-point sensors, where only one parameter is measured (e.g., temperature or density. These sensors are used several times per day and are often the only source of data available from which the conditions and rate of fermentation are monitored. In the modern food industry, an ideal method to control and monitor the fermentation process should enable a direct, rapid, precise, and accurate determination of several target compounds, with minimal to no sample preparation or reagent consumption. Here, state-of-the-art advancements in both the application of sensors and analytical tools to monitor beverage and food fermentation processes will be discussed.

  7. Simulating the Effect of Modulated Tool-Path Chip Breaking On Surface Texture and Chip Length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.S.; McFarland, J.T.; Tursky, D. A.; Assaid, T. S.; Barkman, W. E.; Babelay, Jr., E. F.

    2010-04-30

    One method for creating broken chips in turning processes involves oscillating the cutting tool in the feed direction utilizing the CNC machine axes. The University of North Carolina at Charlotte and the Y-12 National Security Complex have developed and are refining a method to reliably control surface finish and chip length based on a particular machine's dynamic performance. Using computer simulations it is possible to combine the motion of the machine axes with the geometry of the cutting tool to predict the surface characteristics and map the surface texture for a wide range of oscillation parameters. These data allow the selection of oscillation parameters to simultaneously ensure broken chips and acceptable surface characteristics. This paper describes the machine dynamic testing and characterization activities as well as the computational method used for evaluating and predicting chip length and surface texture.

  8. Surface modeling of workpiece and tool trajectory planning for spray painting robot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tang

    Full Text Available Automated tool trajectory planning for spray-painting robots is still a challenging problem, especially for a large free-form surface. A grid approximation of a free-form surface is adopted in CAD modeling in this paper. A free-form surface model is approximated by a set of flat patches. We describe here an efficient and flexible tool trajectory optimization scheme using T-Bézier curves calculated in a new way from trigonometrical bases. The distance between the spray gun and the free-form surface along the normal vector is varied. Automotive body parts, which are large free-form surfaces, are used to test the scheme. The experimental results show that the trajectory planning algorithm achieves satisfactory performance. This algorithm can also be extended to other applications.

  9. Effect of laser parameters on surface roughness of laser modified tool steel after thermal cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau Sheng, Annie; Ismail, Izwan; Nur Aqida, Syarifah

    2018-03-01

    This study presents the effects of laser parameters on the surface roughness of laser modified tool steel after thermal cyclic loading. Pulse mode Nd:YAG laser was used to perform the laser surface modification process on AISI H13 tool steel samples. Samples were then treated with thermal cyclic loading experiments which involved alternate immersion in molten aluminium (800°C) and water (27°C) for 553 cycles. A full factorial design of experiment (DOE) was developed to perform the investigation. Factors for the DOE are the laser parameter namely overlap rate (η), pulse repetition frequency (f PRF) and peak power (Ppeak ) while the response is the surface roughness after thermal cyclic loading. Results indicate the surface roughness of the laser modified surface after thermal cyclic loading is significantly affected by laser parameter settings.

  10. Analytical modeling of AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures including effects of distributed surface donor states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, Nitin, E-mail: nitin@unik.no [Carinthian Tech Research CTR AG, Europastraße 4/1, Technologiepark Villach, A-9524 Villach/St. Magdalen (Austria); Department of Electronics and Telecommunication, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO7034 (Norway); Fjeldly, Tor A. [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO7034 (Norway)

    2014-07-14

    In this paper, a physics based analytical model is presented for calculation of the two-dimensional electron gas density and the bare surface barrier height of AlGaN/AlN/GaN material stacks. The presented model is based on the concept of distributed surface donor states and the self-consistent solution of Poisson equation at the different material interfaces. The model shows good agreement with the reported experimental data and can be used for the design and characterization of advanced GaN devices for power and radio frequency applications.

  11. The effect of inclined soil layers on surface vibration from underground railways using a semi-analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S; Hunt, H

    2009-01-01

    Ground vibration due to underground railways is a significant source of disturbance for people living or working near the subways. The numerical models used to predict vibration levels have inherent uncertainty which must be understood to give confidence in the predictions. A semi-analytical approach is developed herein to investigate the effect of soil layering on the surface vibration of a halfspace where both soil properties and layer inclination angles are varied. The study suggests that both material properties and inclination angle of the layers have significant effect (± 10dB) on the surface vibration response.

  12. Measurements of x-ray scattering from accelerator vacuum chamber surfaces, and comparison with an analytical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Dugan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares measurements and calculations of scattering of photons from technical vacuum chamber surfaces typical of accelerators. Synchrotron radiation generated by a charged particle beam in the accelerator is either absorbed, specularly reflected, or scattered by the vacuum chamber surface. This phenomenon has important implications on the operation of the accelerator. Measurements of photon scattering were made at the BESSY-II synchrotron radiation facility using samples of aluminum vacuum chamber from Cornell electron storage ring (CESR. A description of the analytic model used in the calculation is given, which takes into account the reflectivity of the material, the surface features of the sample, the wavelengths and the incident angles of the photons. The surface properties used in these calculations were obtained from measurements made from an atomic force microscope.

  13. Experimental investigation into effect of cutting parameters on surface integrity of hardened tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, K.; Alkali, A. U.; Elmunafi, M. H. S.; Yusof, N. M.

    2018-04-01

    Recent trend in turning hardened materials have gained popularity because of its immense machinability benefits. However, several machining processes like thermal assisted machining and cryogenic machining have reveal superior machinability benefits over conventional dry turning of hardened materials. Various engineering materials have been studied. However, investigations on AISI O1 tool steel have not been widely reported. In this paper, surface finish and surface integrity dominant when hard turning AISI O1 tool steel is analysed. The study is focused on the performance of wiper coated ceramic tool with respect to surface roughness and surface integrity of hardened tool steel. Hard turned tool steel was machined at varying cutting speed of 100, 155 and 210 m/min and feed rate of 0.05, 0.125 and 0.20mm/rev. The depth of cut of 0.2mm was maintained constant throughout the machining trials. Machining was conducted using dry turning on 200E-axis CNC lathe. The experimental study revealed that the surface finish is relatively superior at higher cutting speed of 210m/min. The surface finish increases when cutting speed increases whereas surface finish is generally better at lower feed rate of 0.05mm/rev. The experimental study conducted have revealed that phenomena such as work piece vibration due to poor or improper mounting on the spindle also contributed to higher surface roughness value of 0.66Ra during turning at 0.2mm/rev. Traces of white layer was observed when viewed with optical microscope which shows evidence of cutting effects on the turned work material at feed rate of 0.2 rev/min

  14. Development of simulation tools for improvement of measurement accuracy and efficiency in ultrasonic testing. Part 2. Development of fast simulator based on analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hisao; Fukutomi, Hiroyuki; Lin, Shan; Ogata, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    CRIEPI developed a high speed simulation method to predict B scope images for crack-like defects under ultrasonic testing. This method is based on the geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) to follow ultrasonic waves transmitted from the angle probe and with the aid of reciprocity relations to find analytical equations to express echoes received by the probe. The tip and mirror echoes from a slit with an arbitrary angle in the direction of thickness of test article and an arbitrary depth can be calculated by this method. Main object of the study is to develop a high speed simulation tool to gain B scope displays from the crack-like defect. This was achieved for the simple slits in geometry change regions by the prototype software based on the method. Fairy complete B scope images for slits could be obtained by about a minute on a current personal computer. The numerical predictions related to the surface opening slits were in excellent agreement with the relative experimental measurements. (author)

  15. Tracking pyrethroid toxicity in surface water samples: Exposure dynamics and toxicity identification tools for laboratory tests with Hyalella azteca (Amphipoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deanovic, Linda A; Stillway, Marie; Hammock, Bruce G; Fong, Stephanie; Werner, Inge

    2018-02-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are commonly used in pest control and are present at toxic concentrations in surface waters of agricultural and urban areas worldwide. Monitoring is challenging as a result of their high hydrophobicity and low toxicity thresholds, which often fall below the analytical methods detection limits (MDLs). Standard daphnid bioassays used in surface water monitoring are not sensitive enough to protect more susceptible invertebrate species such as the amphipod Hyalella azteca and chemical loss during toxicity testing is of concern. In the present study, we quantified toxicity loss during storage and testing, using both natural and synthetic water, and presented a tool to enhance toxic signal strength for improved sensitivity of H. azteca toxicity tests. The average half-life during storage in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) cubitainers (Fisher Scientific) at 4 °C of 5 pyrethroids (permethrin, bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, cyfluthrin, and esfenvalerate) and one organophosphate (chlorpyrifos; used as reference) was 1.4 d, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) proved an effective tool to potentiate toxicity. We conclude that toxicity tests on ambient water samples containing these hydrophobic insecticides are likely to underestimate toxicity present in the field, and mimic short pulse rather than continuous exposures. Where these chemicals are of concern, the addition of PBO during testing can yield valuable information on their presence or absence. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:462-472. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  16. Commentary on "Theory-Led Design of Instruments and Representations in Learning Analytics: Developing a Novel Tool for Orchestration of Online Collaborative Learning"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplovs, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This commentary reflects on the contributions to learning analytics and theory by a paper that describes how multiple theoretical frameworks were woven together to inform the creation of a new, automated discourse analysis tool. The commentary highlights the contributions of the original paper, provides some alternative approaches, and touches on…

  17. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in food analytics: Detection of vitamins B2 and B12 in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Andreea Ioana; Kuellmer, Maria; Giese, Bernd; Huebner, Uwe; Weber, Karina; Cialla-May, Dana; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-11-01

    Food analysis has been gaining interest throughout recent decades for different reasons: the detection of hazardous substances in food and routine investigations of food composition and vitamin/nutrient contents. Regardless of the targeted component, food analysis raises a few challenges regarding the complexity of the matrix and detecting trace amounts of substances. We report herein the results obtained regarding the simultaneous detection of two B vitamins (riboflavin, vitamin B2 and cyanocobalamin, vitamin B12) by means of SERS. SERS provides molecular fingerprint identification and high analytical sensitivity together with a low processing time and cost. All these make SERS a promising tool for the development of food analytical methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Finite Element Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming Process Using Local Interpolation for Tool Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hama, Takayuki; Takuda, Hirohiko; Takamura, Masato; Makinouchi, Akitake; Teodosiu, Cristian

    2005-01-01

    Treatment of contact between a sheet and tools is one of the most difficult problems to deal with in finite-element simulations of sheet forming processes. In order to obtain more accurate tool models without increasing the number of elements, this paper describes a new formulation for contact problems using interpolation proposed by Nagata for tool surfaces. A contact search algorithm between sheet nodes and the interpolated tool surfaces was developed and was introduced into the static-explicit elastoplastic finite-element method code STAMP3D. Simulations of a square cup deep drawing process with a very coarsely discretized punch model were carried out. The simulated results showed that the proposed algorithm gave the proper drawn shape, demonstrating the validity of the proposed algorithm

  19. Forward impact extrusion of surface textured steel blanks using coated tooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hild, Rafael; Feuerhack, Andreas; Trauth, Daniel; Arghavani, Mostafa; Kruppe, Nathan C.; Brögelmann, Tobias; Bobzin, Kirsten; Klocke, Fritz

    2017-10-01

    A method to enable dry metal forming by the means of a self-lubricating coating and surface textures was researched using an innovative Pin-On-Cylinder-Tribometer. The experimental analysis was complemented by a numerical model of the complex contact conditions between coated tools and the surface textured specimen at the micro-level. Based on the results, the explanation of the tribological interactions between surface textured specimens and the tool in dry full forward extrusion is the objective of this work. Therefore, experimental dry extrusion tests were performed using a tool system. The extruded specimens were evaluated regarding their geometry as well as by the required punch force. Thereby, the effectiveness and the feasibility of dry metal forming on the example of full forward extrusion was evaluated. Thus, one more step towards the technical realization of dry metal forming of low alloy steels under industrial conditions was realized.

  20. One-dimensional model of interacting-step fluctuations on vicinal surfaces: Analytical formulas and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrone, Paul N.; Einstein, T. L.; Margetis, Dionisios

    2010-12-01

    We study analytically and numerically a one-dimensional model of interacting line defects (steps) fluctuating on a vicinal crystal. Our goal is to formulate and validate analytical techniques for approximately solving systems of coupled nonlinear stochastic differential equations (SDEs) governing fluctuations in surface motion. In our analytical approach, the starting point is the Burton-Cabrera-Frank (BCF) model by which step motion is driven by diffusion of adsorbed atoms on terraces and atom attachment-detachment at steps. The step energy accounts for entropic and nearest-neighbor elastic-dipole interactions. By including Gaussian white noise to the equations of motion for terrace widths, we formulate large systems of SDEs under different choices of diffusion coefficients for the noise. We simplify this description via (i) perturbation theory and linearization of the step interactions and, alternatively, (ii) a mean-field (MF) approximation whereby widths of adjacent terraces are replaced by a self-consistent field but nonlinearities in step interactions are retained. We derive simplified formulas for the time-dependent terrace-width distribution (TWD) and its steady-state limit. Our MF analytical predictions for the TWD compare favorably with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations under the addition of a suitably conservative white noise in the BCF equations.

  1. Estimation of the solubility parameters of model plant surfaces and agrochemicals: a valuable tool for understanding plant surface interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayet, Mohamed; Fernández, Victoria

    2012-11-14

    Most aerial plant parts are covered with a hydrophobic lipid-rich cuticle, which is the interface between the plant organs and the surrounding environment. Plant surfaces may have a high degree of hydrophobicity because of the combined effects of surface chemistry and roughness. The physical and chemical complexity of the plant cuticle limits the development of models that explain its internal structure and interactions with surface-applied agrochemicals. In this article we introduce a thermodynamic method for estimating the solubilities of model plant surface constituents and relating them to the effects of agrochemicals. Following the van Krevelen and Hoftyzer method, we calculated the solubility parameters of three model plant species and eight compounds that differ in hydrophobicity and polarity. In addition, intact tissues were examined by scanning electron microscopy and the surface free energy, polarity, solubility parameter and work of adhesion of each were calculated from contact angle measurements of three liquids with different polarities. By comparing the affinities between plant surface constituents and agrochemicals derived from (a) theoretical calculations and (b) contact angle measurements we were able to distinguish the physical effect of surface roughness from the effect of the chemical nature of the epicuticular waxes. A solubility parameter model for plant surfaces is proposed on the basis of an increasing gradient from the cuticular surface towards the underlying cell wall. The procedure enabled us to predict the interactions among agrochemicals, plant surfaces, and cuticular and cell wall components, and promises to be a useful tool for improving our understanding of biological surface interactions.

  2. AFM surface imaging of AISI D2 tool steel machined by the EDM process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guu, Y.H.

    2005-01-01

    The surface morphology, surface roughness and micro-crack of AISI D2 tool steel machined by the electrical discharge machining (EDM) process were analyzed by means of the atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique. Experimental results indicate that the surface texture after EDM is determined by the discharge energy during processing. An excellent machined finish can be obtained by setting the machine parameters at a low pulse energy. The surface roughness and the depth of the micro-cracks were proportional to the power input. Furthermore, the AFM application yielded information about the depth of the micro-cracks is particularly important in the post treatment of AISI D2 tool steel machined by EDM

  3. AFM surface imaging of AISI D2 tool steel machined by the EDM process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guu, Y. H.

    2005-04-01

    The surface morphology, surface roughness and micro-crack of AISI D2 tool steel machined by the electrical discharge machining (EDM) process were analyzed by means of the atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique. Experimental results indicate that the surface texture after EDM is determined by the discharge energy during processing. An excellent machined finish can be obtained by setting the machine parameters at a low pulse energy. The surface roughness and the depth of the micro-cracks were proportional to the power input. Furthermore, the AFM application yielded information about the depth of the micro-cracks is particularly important in the post treatment of AISI D2 tool steel machined by EDM.

  4. IsoNose - Isotopic Tools as Novel Sensors of Earth Surfaces Resources - A new Marie Curie Initial Training Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Bouchez, Julien; Bouman, Caludia; Kamber, Balz; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Gorbushina, Anna; James, Rachael; Oelkers, Eric; Tesmer, Maja; Ashton, John

    2015-04-01

    The Marie Curie Initial Training Network »Isotopic Tools as Novel Sensors of Earth Surfaces Resources - IsoNose« is an alliance of eight international partners and five associated partners from science and industry. The project is coordinated at the Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and will run until February 2018. In the last 15 years advances in novel mass-spectrometric methods have opened opportunities to identify "isotopic fingerprints" of virtually all metals and to make use of the complete information contained in these fingerprints. The understanding developed with these new tools will ultimately guide the exploitation of Earth surface environments. However, progress in bringing these methods to end-users depends on a multi transfer of knowledge between (1) isotope Geochemistry and Microbiology, Environmental Sciences (2), Economic Geology and (3) instrument developers and users in the development of user-friendly and new mass spectrometric methods. IsoNose will focus on three major Earth surface resources: soil, water and metals. These resources are currently being exploited to an unprecedented extent and their efficient management is essential for future sustainable development. Novel stable isotope techniques will disclose the processes generating (e.g. weathering, mineral ore formation) and destroying (e.g. erosion, pollution) these resources. Within this field the following questions will be addressed and answered: - How do novel stable isotope signatures characterize weathering processes? - How do novel stable isotope signatures trace water transport? - How to use novel stable isotope as environmental tracers? - How to use novel stable isotope for detecting and exploring metal ores? - How to improve analytical capabilities and develop robust routine applications for novel stable isotopes? Starting from the central questions mentioned above the IsoNose activities are organized in five scientific work packages: 1

  5. HYDROLOGIC AND FEATURE-BASED SURFACE ANALYSIS FOR TOOL MARK INVESTIGATION ON ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kovács

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of detailed surface documentation methods provides unique tool mark-study opportunities in the field of archaeological researches. One of these data collection techniques is short-range laser scanning, which creates a digital copy of the object’s morphological characteristics from high-resolution datasets. The aim of our work was the accurate documentation of a Bronze Age sluice box from Mitterberg, Austria with a spatial resolution of 0.2 mm. Furthermore, the investigation of the entirely preserved tool marks on the surface of this archaeological find was also accomplished by these datasets. The methodology of this tool mark-study can be summarized in the following way: At first, a local hydrologic analysis has been applied to separate the various patterns of tools on the finds’ surface. As a result, the XYZ coordinates of the special points, which represent the edge lines of the sliding tool marks, were calculated by buffer operations in a GIS environment. During the second part of the workflow, these edge points were utilized to manually clip the triangle meshes of these patterns in reverse engineering software. Finally, circle features were generated and analysed to determine the different sections along these sliding tool marks. In conclusion, the movement of the hand tool could be reproduced by the spatial analysis of the created features, since the horizontal and vertical position of the defined circle centre points indicated the various phases of the movements. This research shows an exact workflow to determine the fine morphological structures on the surface of the archaeological find.

  6. The pH-dependant attachment of ceria nanoparticles to silica using surface analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawkins, K.; Rudyk, B.W.; Xu, Z.; Cadien, K.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A model for interaction between ceria nanoparticles and silica surfaces is proposed. • Proposed model investigated using zeta potential measurements and XPS. • Surface contamination is minimized at higher slurry pH levels. • High-resolution Ce 3d XPS and surface composition measured at different pH levels. • Variations in ceria contamination on silica surfaces via SEM and AES are studied. - Abstract: The adhesion and removal of ceria particles to a silica surface was investigated with the use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and auger electron spectroscopy (AES) measurements. A model is presented based on electrophoretic mobility measurements of ceria slurry and silica particles at different pH's. XPS results show that at acidic pH values, ceria is present on silica surfaces, but at alkaline pH values, far less ceria is present, or no ceria is present in the extreme case. SEM results corroborated the XPS results showing uniform distribution of ceria particles on silica surface at pH 6 while a clean silica surface is observed at pH 12. However, SEM images show agglomeration of ceria particles occurring at the isoelectric point of ceria at ∼pH 9.6. High resolution Ce 3d XPS analysis indicates that ceria present on the surface is composed ∼31% Ce(III) and ∼69% Ce(IV). AES mapping done at specific points on the silica surface validated both XPS and SEM results. Based on XPS, SEM and AES analyses, it is clear that an alkaline pH is necessary to minimize particulate contamination of silica surface by ceria

  7. An analytical model for force prediction in ball nose micro milling of inclined surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    Ball nose micro milling is a key process for the generation of free form surfaces and inclined surfaces often present in mould inserts for micro replication. This paper presents a new cutting force model for ball nose micro milling that is capable of taking into account the effect of the edge...

  8. Geometric Parameters of Cutting Tools that Can be Used for Forming Sided Surfaces with Variable Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razumov M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes machining technology of polyhedral surfaces with varying profile, which is provided by planetary motion of multiblade block tools. The features of the technology and urgency of the problem is indicated. The purpose of the study is to determine the minimum value of the clearance angle of the tool. Also, the study is carried out about changing the value of the front and rear corners during the formation of polygonal surface using a planetary gear. The scheme of calculating the impact of various factors on the value of the minimum clearance angle of the tool and kinematic front and rear corners of the instrument is provided. The mathematical formula for calculating the minimum clearance angle of the tool is given. Also, given the formula for determining the front and rear corners of the tool during driving. This study can be used in the calculation of the design operations forming multifaceted external surfaces with a variable profile by using the planetary gear.

  9. Thermomechanical modelling of laser surface glazing for H13 tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, I. R.; Yin, D.; Tamanna, N.; Naher, S.

    2018-03-01

    A two-dimensional thermomechanical finite element (FE) model of laser surface glazing (LSG) has been developed for H13 tool steel. The direct coupling technique of ANSYS 17.2 (APDL) has been utilised to solve the transient thermomechanical process. A H13 tool steel cylindrical cross-section has been modelled for laser power 200 W and 300 W at constant 0.2 mm beam width and 0.15 ms residence time. The model can predict temperature distribution, stress-strain increments in elastic and plastic region with time and space. The crack formation tendency also can be assumed by analysing the von Mises stress in the heat-concentrated zone. Isotropic and kinematic hardening models have been applied separately to predict the after-yield phenomena. At 200 W laser power, the peak surface temperature achieved is 1520 K which is below the melting point (1727 K) of H13 tool steel. For laser power 300 W, the peak surface temperature is 2523 K. Tensile residual stresses on surface have been found after cooling, which are in agreement with literature. Isotropic model shows higher residual stress that increases with laser power. Conversely, kinematic model gives lower residual stress which decreases with laser power. Therefore, both plasticity models could work in LSG for H13 tool steel.

  10. Multi-Parameter Analysis of Surface Finish in Electro-Discharge Machining of Tool Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Victoria Anghel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a multi- parameter analysis of surface finish imparted to tool-steel plates by electro-discharge machining (EDM is presented. The interrelationship between surface texture parameters and process parameters is emphasized. An increased number of parameters is studied including amplitude, spacing, hybrid and fractal parameters,, as well. The correlation of these parameters with the machining conditions is investigated. Observed characteristics become more pronounced, when intensifying machining conditions. Close correlation exists between certain surface finish parameters and EDM input variables and single and multiple statistical regression models are developed.

  11. Exact analytical modeling of magnetic vector potential in surface inset permanent magnet DC machines considering magnet segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Surface inset permanent magnet DC machine can be used as an alternative in automation systems due to their high efficiency and robustness. Magnet segmentation is a common technique in order to mitigate pulsating torque components in permanent magnet machines. An accurate computation of air-gap magnetic field distribution is necessary in order to calculate machine performance. An exact analytical method for magnetic vector potential calculation in surface inset permanent magnet machines considering magnet segmentation has been proposed in this paper. The analytical method is based on the resolution of Laplace and Poisson equations as well as Maxwell equation in polar coordinate by using sub-domain method. One of the main contributions of the paper is to derive an expression for the magnetic vector potential in the segmented PM region by using hyperbolic functions. The developed method is applied on the performance computation of two prototype surface inset magnet segmented motors with open circuit and on load conditions. The results of these models are validated through FEM method.

  12. Analytical Model of the Nonlinear Dynamics of Cantilever Tip-Sample Surface Interactions for Various Acoustic-Atomic Force Microscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, John H., Jr.; Cantrell, Sean A.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical model of the interaction of the cantilever tip of the atomic force microscope (AFM) with the sample surface is developed that accounts for the nonlinearity of the tip-surface interaction force. The interaction is modeled as a nonlinear spring coupled at opposite ends to linear springs representing cantilever and sample surface oscillators. The model leads to a pair of coupled nonlinear differential equations that are solved analytically using a standard iteration procedure. Solutions are obtained for the phase and amplitude signals generated by various acoustic-atomic force microscope (A-AFM) techniques including force modulation microscopy, atomic force acoustic microscopy, ultrasonic force microscopy, heterodyne force microscopy, resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscopy (RDF-AFUM), and the commonly used intermittent contact mode (TappingMode) generally available on AFMs. The solutions are used to obtain a quantitative measure of image contrast resulting from variations in the Young modulus of the sample for the amplitude and phase images generated by the A-AFM techniques. Application of the model to RDF-AFUM and intermittent soft contact phase images of LaRC-cp2 polyimide polymer is discussed. The model predicts variations in the Young modulus of the material of 24 percent from the RDF-AFUM image and 18 percent from the intermittent soft contact image. Both predictions are in good agreement with the literature value of 21 percent obtained from independent, macroscopic measurements of sheet polymer material.

  13. Life cycle assessment as an analytical tool in strategic environmental assessment. Lessons learned from a case study on municipal energy planning in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Björklund, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is explored as an analytical tool in strategic environmental assessment (SEA), illustrated by case where a previously developed SEA process was applied to municipal energy planning in Sweden. The process integrated decision-making tools for scenario planning, public participation and environmental assessment. This article describes the use of LCA for environmental assessment in this context, with focus on methodology and practical experiences. While LCA provides a systematic framework for the environmental assessment and a wider systems perspective than what is required in SEA, LCA cannot address all aspects of environmental impact required, and therefore needs to be complemented by other tools. The integration of LCA with tools for public participation and scenario planning posed certain methodological challenges, but provided an innovative approach to designing the scope of the environmental assessment and defining and assessing alternatives. - Research highlights: ► LCA was explored as analytical tool in an SEA process of municipal energy planning. ► The process also integrated LCA with scenario planning and public participation. ► Benefits of using LCA were a systematic framework and wider systems perspective. ► Integration of tools required some methodological challenges to be solved. ► This proved an innovative approach to define alternatives and scope of assessment.

  14. An approximate analytical solution for describing surface runoff and sediment transport over hillslope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wanghai; Wang, Quanjiu; Lin, Henry

    2018-03-01

    Soil and water loss from farmland causes land degradation and water pollution, thus continued efforts are needed to establish mathematical model for quantitative analysis of relevant processes and mechanisms. In this study, an approximate analytical solution has been developed for overland flow model and sediment transport model, offering a simple and effective means to predict overland flow and erosion under natural rainfall conditions. In the overland flow model, the flow regime was considered to be transitional with the value of parameter β (in the kinematic wave model) approximately two. The change rate of unit discharge with distance was assumed to be constant and equal to the runoff rate at the outlet of the plane. The excess rainfall was considered to be constant under uniform rainfall conditions. The overland flow model developed can be further applied to natural rainfall conditions by treating excess rainfall intensity as constant over a small time interval. For the sediment model, the recommended values of the runoff erosion calibration constant (cr) and the splash erosion calibration constant (cf) have been given in this study so that it is easier to use the model. These recommended values are 0.15 and 0.12, respectively. Comparisons with observed results were carried out to validate the proposed analytical solution. The results showed that the approximate analytical solution developed in this paper closely matches the observed data, thus providing an alternative method of predicting runoff generation and sediment yield, and offering a more convenient method of analyzing the quantitative relationships between variables. Furthermore, the model developed in this study can be used as a theoretical basis for developing runoff and erosion control methods.

  15. Sample handling in surface sensitive chemical and biological sensing: a practical review of basic fluidics and analyte transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgovan, Norbert; Patko, Daniel; Hos, Csaba; Kurunczi, Sándor; Szabó, Bálint; Ramsden, Jeremy J; Horvath, Robert

    2014-09-01

    This paper gives an overview of the advantages and associated caveats of the most common sample handling methods in surface-sensitive chemical and biological sensing. We summarize the basic theoretical and practical considerations one faces when designing and assembling the fluidic part of the sensor devices. The influence of analyte size, the use of closed and flow-through cuvettes, the importance of flow rate, tubing length and diameter, bubble traps, pressure-driven pumping, cuvette dead volumes, and sample injection systems are all discussed. Typical application areas of particular arrangements are also highlighted, such as the monitoring of cellular adhesion, biomolecule adsorption-desorption and ligand-receptor affinity binding. Our work is a practical review in the sense that for every sample handling arrangement considered we present our own experimental data and critically review our experience with the given arrangement. In the experimental part we focus on sample handling in optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS) measurements, but the present study is equally applicable for other biosensing technologies in which an analyte in solution is captured at a surface and its presence is monitored. Explicit attention is given to features that are expected to play an increasingly decisive role in determining the reliability of (bio)chemical sensing measurements, such as analyte transport to the sensor surface; the distorting influence of dead volumes in the fluidic system; and the appropriate sample handling of cell suspensions (e.g. their quasi-simultaneous deposition). At the appropriate places, biological aspects closely related to fluidics (e.g. cellular mechanotransduction, competitive adsorption, blood flow in veins) are also discussed, particularly with regard to their models used in biosensing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Shotgun proteomic analytical approach for studying proteins adsorbed onto liposome surface

    KAUST Repository

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Caracciolo, Giulio; Cavaliere, Chiara; Crescenzi, Carlo; Pozzi, Daniela; Laganà , Aldo

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge about the interaction between plasma proteins and nanocarriers employed for in vivo delivery is fundamental to understand their biodistribution. Protein adsorption onto nanoparticle surface (protein corona) is strongly affected

  17. DIAGNOSTICS OF WORKPIECE SURFACE CONDITION BASED ON CUTTING TOOL VIBRATIONS DURING MACHINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Józwik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents functional relationships between surface geometry parameters, feed and vibrations level in the radial direction of the workpiece. Time characteristics of the acceleration of cutting tool vibration registered during C45 steel and stainless steel machining for separate axes (X, Y, Z were presented as a function of feedrate f. During the tests surface geometric accuracy assessment was performed and 3D surface roughness parameters were determined. The Sz parameter was selected for the analysis, which was then collated with RMS vibration acceleration and feedrate f. The Sz parameter indirectly provides information on peak to valley height and is characterised by high generalising potential i.e. it is highly correlated to other surface and volume parameters of surface roughness. Test results presented in this paper may constitute a valuable source of information considering the influence of vibrations on geometric accuracy of elements for engineers designing technological processes.

  18. Development of reliable analytical tools for evaluating the influence of reductive winemaking on the quality of Lugana wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattivi, Fulvio; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Zenato, Alberto; Tiefenthaler, Paolo; Tempesta, Silvano; Perenzoni, Daniele; Cantarella, Paolo; Simeoni, Federico; Vrhovsek, Urska

    2012-06-30

    This paper presents methods for the definition of important analytical tools, such as the development of sensitive and rapid methods for analysing reduced and oxidised glutathione (GSH and GSSG), hydroxycinnamic acids (HCA), bound thiols (GSH-3MH and Cys-3MH) and free thiols (3MH and 3MHA), and their first application to evaluate the effect of reductive winemaking on the composition of Lugana juices and wines. Lugana is a traditional white wine from the Lake Garda region (Italy), produced using a local grape variety, Trebbiano di Lugana. An innovative winemaking procedure based on preliminary cooling of grape berries followed by crushing in an inert environment was implemented and explored on a winery scale. The effects of these procedures on hydroxycinnamic acids, GSH, GSSG, free and bound thiols and flavanols content were investigated. The juices and wines produced using different protocols were examined. Moreover, wines aged in tanks for 1, 2 and 3 months were analysed. The high level of GSH found in Lugana grapes, which can act as a natural antioxidant and be preserved in must and young wines, thus reducing the need of exogenous antioxidants, was particularly interesting. Moreover, it was clear that polyphenol concentrations (hydroxycinnamic acids and catechins) were strongly influenced by winemaking and pressing conditions, which required fine tuning of pressing. Above-threshold levels of 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH) and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA) were found in the wines and changed according to the winemaking procedure applied. Interestingly, the evolution during the first three months also varied depending on the procedure adopted. Organic synthesis of cysteine and glutathione conjugates was carried out and juices and wines were subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis. These two molecules appeared to be strongly affected by the winemaking procedure, but did not show any significant change during the first 3 months of post-bottling ageing. This supports the theory

  19. On-line near infrared spectroscopy as a Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tool to control an industrial seeded API crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C; Lecomte, C; Clicq, D; Merschaert, A; Norrant, E; Fotiadu, F

    2013-09-01

    The final step of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) manufacturing synthesis process consists of a crystallization during which the API and residual solvent contents have to be quantified precisely in order to reach a predefined seeding point. A feasibility study was conducted to demonstrate the suitability of on-line NIR spectroscopy to control this step in line with new version of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) guideline [1]. A quantitative method was developed at laboratory scale using statistical design of experiments (DOE) and multivariate data analysis such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression. NIR models were built to quantify the API in the range of 9-12% (w/w) and to quantify the residual methanol in the range of 0-3% (w/w). To improve the predictive ability of the models, the development procedure encompassed: outliers elimination, optimum model rank definition, spectral range and spectral pre-treatment selection. Conventional criteria such as, number of PLS factors, R(2), root mean square errors of calibration, cross-validation and prediction (RMSEC, RMSECV, RMSEP) enabled the selection of three model candidates. These models were tested in the industrial pilot plant during three technical campaigns. Results of the most suitable models were evaluated against to the chromatographic reference methods. Maximum relative bias of 2.88% was obtained about API target content. Absolute bias of 0.01 and 0.02% (w/w) respectively were achieved at methanol content levels of 0.10 and 0.13% (w/w). The repeatability was assessed as sufficient for the on-line monitoring of the 2 analytes. The present feasibility study confirmed the possibility to use on-line NIR spectroscopy as a PAT tool to monitor in real-time both the API and the residual methanol contents, in order to control the seeding of an API crystallization at industrial scale. Furthermore, the successful scale-up of the method proved its capability to be

  20. Wear characterization of a tool steel surface modified by melting and gaseous alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizvi, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Hot forging dies are subjected to laborious service conditions and so there is a need to explore means of improving die life to increase productivity and quality of forgings. Surface modification in order to produce wear resistant surface is an attractive method as it precludes the need to use expensive and highly alloyed steels. In this study, a novel, inexpensive surface modification technique is used to improve the tri biological properties of an H13 tool steel. Surface melting was achieved using a tungsten heat source and gaseous alloying produced under a shield of argon, carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide-argon mixture and nitrogen gases. The change in wear behaviour was compared through micro-hardness indentation measurements and using a dry sliding pin-on-plate wear testing machine. This study shows superior wear behaviour of the modified surfaces when compared to the untreated surfaces. The increase in wear resistance is attributed to the formation of carbides when surfaces are melted under a carbon dioxide shield. However, in the case of nitrogen and argon gaseous alloying, an increase in wear resistance can be attributed to an increase in surface hardness which in turn effects surface deformation behaviour. (author)

  1. Shotgun proteomic analytical approach for studying proteins adsorbed onto liposome surface

    KAUST Repository

    Capriotti, Anna Laura

    2011-07-02

    The knowledge about the interaction between plasma proteins and nanocarriers employed for in vivo delivery is fundamental to understand their biodistribution. Protein adsorption onto nanoparticle surface (protein corona) is strongly affected by vector surface characteristics. In general, the primary interaction is thought to be electrostatic, thus surface charge of carrier is supposed to play a central role in protein adsorption. Because protein corona composition can be critical in modifying the interactive surface that is recognized by cells, characterizing its formation onto lipid particles may serve as a fundamental predictive model for the in vivo efficiency of a lipidic vector. In the present work, protein coronas adsorbed onto three differently charged cationic liposome formulations were compared by a shotgun proteomic approach based on nano-liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. About 130 proteins were identified in each corona, with only small differences between the different cationic liposome formulations. However, this study could be useful for the future controlled design of colloidal drug carriers and possibly in the controlled creation of biocompatible surfaces of other devices that come into contact with proteins into body fluids. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Analytical study of condensation heat transfer on titanium tube with super-hydrophobic surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Dae Yun; Park, Hyun Gyu; Lee, Kwon Yeong [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    There are many nuclear or fossil power plants which occupy more than 85% among entire power plants in the world. These plants release heat through condenser into nature. The condenser is an important component for cooling the working fluid after the turbine. Its performance is related with material and size of its tubes. To have good performance or to reduce condenser size, it is important to increase condensation heat transfer coefficient on condenser tubes. Ma et al. executed heat transfer experiment in dropwise condensation with non-condensable gas, and studied how the amount of air and pressure difference affect condensation heat transfer coefficient. The more non-condensable gas existed, the condensation heat transfer coefficient was decreased. Shen et al. studied condensation heat transfer at horizontal bundle tubes. Several variables such as coolant velocity, saturated pressure, and surface conditions were studied. As a result, surface modified brass tube and stainless tube showed higher condensation heat transfer coefficient as much as 1.3 and 1.4 times comparing with their bare tubes, in 70 kPa vacuum condition respectively. Rausch et al. studied dropwise condensation on ion-implanted titanium surface. Experimental study is performed to evaluate the performance of surface modified titanium tube in vacuum state. SAM coating is used to make super-hydrophobic surface of titanium tube. Preliminary analysis were performed considering filmwise and dropwise condensations, respectively. Experiment facility is almost prepared and the test result will be shown soon.

  3. Big data analytics from strategic planning to enterprise integration with tools, techniques, NoSQL, and graph

    CERN Document Server

    Loshin, David

    2013-01-01

    Big Data Analytics will assist managers in providing an overview of the drivers for introducing big data technology into the organization and for understanding the types of business problems best suited to big data analytics solutions, understanding the value drivers and benefits, strategic planning, developing a pilot, and eventually planning to integrate back into production within the enterprise. Guides the reader in assessing the opportunities and value propositionOverview of big data hardware and software architecturesPresents a variety of te

  4. Three Software Tools for Viewing Sectional Planes, Volume Models, and Surface Models of a Cadaver Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Chung, Min Suk; Shin, Byeong Seok; Kwon, Koojoo

    2018-02-19

    The hand anatomy, including the complicated hand muscles, can be grasped by using computer-assisted learning tools with high quality two-dimensional images and three-dimensional models. The purpose of this study was to present up-to-date software tools that promote learning of stereoscopic morphology of the hand. On the basis of horizontal sectioned images and outlined images of a male cadaver, vertical planes, volume models, and surface models were elaborated. Software to browse pairs of the sectioned and outlined images in orthogonal planes and software to peel and rotate the volume models, as well as a portable document format (PDF) file to select and rotate the surface models, were produced. All of the software tools were downloadable free of charge and usable off-line. The three types of tools for viewing multiple aspects of the hand could be adequately employed according to individual needs. These new tools involving the realistic images of a cadaver and the diverse functions are expected to improve comprehensive knowledge of the hand shape. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  5. Analytical and numerical studies of positive ion beam expansion for surface treatment applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounes-Mahloul, Soumya; Bendib, Abderrezeg; Oudini, Noureddine

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the expansion in vacuum, of a positive ion beam with the use of one dimensional (1D) analytic model and a two dimensional Particle-In-Cell (2D-PIC) simulation. The ion beam is extracted and accelerated from preformed plasma by an extraction system composed of two polarized parallel perforated grids. The results obtained with both approaches reveal the presence of a potential barrier downstream the extraction system which tends to reflect the ion flux. The dependence of the critical distance for which all extracted ions are reflected, is investigated as a function of the extracted ion beam current density. In particular, it is shown that the 1D model recovers the well-known Child-Langmuir law and that the 2D simulation presents a significant discrepancy with respect to the 1D prediction. Indeed, for a given value of current density, the transverse effects lead to a greater critical distance.

  6. Ion implanters contamination on wafer surface analyzed by ToF-SIMS and SPV analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricciari, R.; Bertini, M.; Ferlito, E.P.; Pizzo, G.; Anastasi, G.; Mello, D.; Franco, G.

    2007-01-01

    In ULSI processes, metallic contamination controls are very important issues. For the ion implantation process it is known that several sources of contaminations still need to be controlled: metals from sputtering of the apertures or wafer holders, Na + contaminations from filament impurities and messy maintenance procedure. ToF-SIMS is one of the most promising candidates to perform in-line surface analysis due to its high sensitivity. It is very common to use surface photo-voltage (SPV) techniques to control ion implanter equipments but this kind of analysis is an indirect measure for metallic contamination. The aim of this work is to study the possibility to use ToF-SIMS instead of SPV for in line equipment contamination monitoring. For this reason a comparison between SPV and ToF-SIMS data occurred. Good correlation between the data is shown; moreover ToF-SIMS spectra give detailed information about the other contaminations present on the wafer surface

  7. Characterization of D2 tool steel friction surfaced coatings over low carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekharbabu, R.; Rafi, H. Khalid; Rao, K. Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Solid state coating by friction surfacing method. • D2 tool steel is coated over relatively softer low carbon steel. • Defect free interface between tool steel coating and low carbon steel substrate. • D2 coatings exhibited higher hardness and good wear resistance. • Highly refined martensitic microstructure in the coating. - Abstract: In this work D2 tool steel coating is produced over a low carbon steel substrate using friction surfacing process. The process parameters are optimized to get a defect free coating. Microstructural characterization is carried out using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Infrared thermography is used to measure the thermal profile during friction surfacing of D2 steel. Wear performance of the coating is studied using Pin-on-Disk wear tests. A lower rotational speed of the consumable rod and higher translational speed of the substrate is found to result in thinner coatings. Friction surfaced D2 steel coating showed fine-grained martensitic microstructure compared to the as-received consumable rod which showed predominantly ferrite microstructure. Refinement of carbides in the coating is observed due to the stirring action of the process. The infrared thermography studies showed the peak temperature attained by the D2 coating to be about 1200 °C. The combined effect of martensitic microstructure and refined carbides resulted in higher hardness and wear resistance of the coating

  8. Influence of Cooling Lubricants on the Surface Roughness and Energy Efficiency of the Cutting Machine Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jersák J.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Technical University of Liberec and Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg investigated the influence of cooling lubricants on the surface roughness and energy efficiency of cutting machine tools. After summarizing the achieved experimental results, the authors conclude that cooling lubricants extensively influence the cutting temperature, cutting forces and energy consumption. Also, it is recognizable that cooling lubricants affect the cutting tools lifetime and the workpiece surface quality as well. Furthermore, costs of these cooling lubricants and the related environmental burden need to be considered. A current trend is to reduce the amount of lubricants that are used, e.g., when the Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL technique is applied. The lubricant or process liquid is thereby transported by the compressed air in the form of an aerosol to the contact area between the tool and workpiece. The cutting process was monitored during testing by the three following techniques: lubricant-free cutting, cutting with the use of a lubricant with the MQL technique, and only utilizing finish-turning and finish-face milling. The research allowed the authors to monitor the cutting power and mark the achieved surface quality in relation to the electrical power consumption of the cutting machine. In conclusions, the coherence between energy efficiency of the cutting machine and the workpiece surface quality regarding the used cooling lubricant is described.

  9. Real-time particle size analysis using focused beam reflectance measurement as a process analytical technology tool for a continuous granulation-drying-milling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Taylor, Michael K; Mehrotra, Amit; Stagner, William C

    2013-06-01

    Focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) was used as a process analytical technology tool to perform inline real-time particle size analysis of a proprietary granulation manufactured using a continuous twin-screw granulation-drying-milling process. A significant relationship between D20, D50, and D80 length-weighted chord length and sieve particle size was observed with a p value of 0.05).

  10. Study on effect of tool electrodes on surface finish during electrical discharge machining of Nitinol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Anshuman Kumar; Chatterjee, Suman; Nayak, Praveen Kumar; Sankar Mahapatra, Siba

    2018-03-01

    Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a non-traditional machining process which is widely used in machining of difficult-to-machine materials. EDM process can produce complex and intrinsic shaped component made of difficult-to-machine materials, largely applied in aerospace, biomedical, die and mold making industries. To meet the required applications, the EDMed components need to possess high accuracy and excellent surface finish. In this work, EDM process is performed using Nitinol as work piece material and AlSiMg prepared by selective laser sintering (SLS) as tool electrode along with conventional copper and graphite electrodes. The SLS is a rapid prototyping (RP) method to produce complex metallic parts by additive manufacturing (AM) process. Experiments have been carried out varying different process parameters like open circuit voltage (V), discharge current (Ip), duty cycle (τ), pulse-on-time (Ton) and tool material. The surface roughness parameter like average roughness (Ra), maximum height of the profile (Rt) and average height of the profile (Rz) are measured using surface roughness measuring instrument (Talysurf). To reduce the number of experiments, design of experiment (DOE) approach like Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array has been chosen. The surface properties of the EDM specimen are optimized by desirability function approach and the best parametric setting is reported for the EDM process. Type of tool happens to be the most significant parameter followed by interaction of tool type and duty cycle, duty cycle, discharge current and voltage. Better surface finish of EDMed specimen can be obtained with low value of voltage (V), discharge current (Ip), duty cycle (τ) and pulse on time (Ton) along with the use of AlSiMg RP electrode.

  11. Effect of dental tool surface texture and material on static friction with a wet gloved fingertip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, Charles; Barr, Alan; Dong, Hui; Rempel, David

    2007-01-01

    Hand injuries are an important cause of pain and disability among dentists and dental hygienists and may be due to the high pinch forces involved in periodontal work. The pinch forces required to perform scaling may be reduced by increasing the friction between the tool and fingers. The purpose of this study was to determine whether modifying the tool material, surface texture, or glove type altered the coefficient of static friction for a wet gloved finger. Seven tools with varying surface topography were machined from 13 mm diameter stainless steel and Delrin and mounted to a 6-component force plate. The textures tested were a fine, medium and coarse diamond knurled pattern and a medium and fine annular pattern (concentric rings). Thirteen subjects pulled their gloved, wet thumb pad along the long axis of the tool while maintaining a normal force of 40 N. Latex and nitrile gloves were tested. The coefficient of static friction was calculated from the shear force history. The mean coefficients of static friction ranged from 0.20 to 0.65. The coefficient of static friction was higher for a smooth tool of Delrin than one of stainless steel. Differences in the coefficient of static friction were observed between the coarse and medium knurled patterns and the fine knurled and annular patterns. Coefficients of static friction were higher for the nitrile glove than the latex glove for tools with texture. These findings may be applied to the design of hand tools that require fine motor control with a wet, gloved hand.

  12. Characterization of thin films and surfaces by ion-beam analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelicon, P.; Budnar, M.; Zorko, B.; Razpet, A.

    1999-01-01

    The optimization of Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) and Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) at the tandetron facility of J. Stefan Inst.e is reported. The most recent applications of these techniques for the analysis of thin films and surfaces are presented. The construction of the isotope - resolved Time-Of-Flight ERDA telescope for depth profiling of light elements is reviewed.(author)

  13. Analytic model for surface ground motion with spall induced by underground nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacQueen, D.H.

    1982-04-01

    This report provides a detailed presentation and critique of a model used to characterize the surface ground motion following a contained, spalling underground nuclear explosion intended for calculation of the resulting atmospheric acoustic pulse. Some examples of its use are included. Some discussion of the general approach of ground motion model parameter extraction, not dependent on the specific model, is also presented

  14. Analytical description of concentration dependence of surface tension in multicomponent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadashev, R; Kutuev, R [Complex Science Research Institute of the Science Academy of the Chechen Republic, 21 Staropromisl. shosse, Grozny 364096 (Russian Federation); Elimkhanov, D [Science Academy of the Chechen Republic (Russian Federation)], E-mail: edzhabrail@mail.ru

    2008-02-15

    From the basic fundamental thermodynamic expressions the equation of isotherms of the surface tension of a ternary system is received. Various assumptions concerning the concentration dependence of molar areas are usually made when the equation is derived. The dependence of the molar areas is calculated as an additive function of the structure of a volumetric phase or the structure of a surface layer. To define the concentration dependence of the molar areas we used a stricter thermodynamic expression offered by Butler. In the received equation the dependence of molar areas on the structure of the solution is taken into account. Therefore, the equation can be applied for the calculation of surface tension over a wide concentration range of the components. Unlike the known expressions, the equation includes the surface tension properties of lateral binary systems, which makes the accuracy of the calculated values considerably higher. Thus, among the advantages of the offered equation we can point out the mathematical simplicity of the received equation and the fact that the equation includes physical parameters the experimental definition of which does not present any special difficulties.

  15. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of pulsed laser surface melted AISI D2 cold work tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasavol, N.; Abdollah-zadeh, A.; Ganjali, M.; Alidokht, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    D2 cold work tool steel (CWTS) was subjected to pulse laser surface melting (PLSM) at constant frequency of 20 Hz Nd: YAG laser with different energies, scanning rate and pulse durations radiated to the surface. Characterizing the PLSM, with optical and field emission scanning electron microscopy, electron backscattered diffraction and surface hardness mapping technique was used to evaluate the microhardness and mechanical behavior of different regions of melting pool. Increasing laser energy and reducing the laser scanning rate results in deeper melt pool formation. Moreover, PLSM has led to entirely dissolution of the carbides and re-solidification of cellular/dendritic structure of a fine scale surrounded by a continuous interdendritic network. This caused an increase in surface microhardness, 2-4 times over that of the base metal.

  16. Experimental Investigation of Surface Layer Properties of High Thermal Conductivity Tool Steel after Electrical Discharge Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Świercz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available New materials require the use of advanced technology in manufacturing complex shape parts. One of the modern materials widely used in the tool industry for injection molds or hot stamping dies is high conductivity tool steel (HTCS 150. Due to its hardness (55 HRC and thermal conductivity at 66 W/mK, this material is difficult to machine by conventional treatment and is being increasingly manufactured by nonconventional technology such as electrical discharge machining (EDM. In the EDM process, material is removed from the workpiece by a series of electrical discharges that cause changes to the surface layers properties. The final state of the surface layer directly influences the durability of the produced elements. This paper presents the influence of EDM process parameters: discharge current Ic and the pulse time ton on surface layer properties. The experimental investigation was carried out with an experimental methodology design. Surface layers properties including roughness 3D parameters, the thickness of the white layer, heat affected zone, tempered layer and occurring micro cracks were investigated and described. The influence of the response surface methodology (RSM of discharge current Ic and the pulse time ton on the thickness of the white layer and roughness parameters Sa, Sds and Ssc were described and established.

  17. Characterization of Natural Dyes and Traditional Korean Silk Fabric by Surface Analytical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhee Lee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS are well established surface techniques that provide both elemental and organic information from several monolayers of a sample surface, while also allowing depth profiling or image mapping to be carried out. The static TOF-SIMS with improved performances has expanded the application of TOF-SIMS to the study of a variety of organic, polymeric and biological materials. In this work, TOF-SIMS, XPS and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR measurements were used to characterize commercial natural dyes and traditional silk fabric dyed with plant extracts dyes avoiding the time-consuming and destructive extraction procedures necessary for the spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods previously used. Silk textiles dyed with plant extracts were then analyzed for chemical and functional group identification of their dye components and mordants. TOF-SIMS spectra for the dyed silk fabric showed element ions from metallic mordants, specific fragment ions and molecular ions from plant-extracted dyes. The results of TOF-SIMS, XPS and FTIR are very useful as a reference database for comparison with data about traditional Korean silk fabric and to provide an understanding of traditional dyeing materials. Therefore, this study shows that surface techniques are useful for micro-destructive analysis of plant-extracted dyes and Korean dyed silk fabric.

  18. Characterization of Natural Dyes and Traditional Korean Silk Fabric by Surface Analytical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihye; Kang, Min Hwa; Lee, Kang-Bong; Lee, Yeonhee

    2013-01-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are well established surface techniques that provide both elemental and organic information from several monolayers of a sample surface, while also allowing depth profiling or image mapping to be carried out. The static TOF-SIMS with improved performances has expanded the application of TOF-SIMS to the study of a variety of organic, polymeric and biological materials. In this work, TOF-SIMS, XPS and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) measurements were used to characterize commercial natural dyes and traditional silk fabric dyed with plant extracts dyes avoiding the time-consuming and destructive extraction procedures necessary for the spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods previously used. Silk textiles dyed with plant extracts were then analyzed for chemical and functional group identification of their dye components and mordants. TOF-SIMS spectra for the dyed silk fabric showed element ions from metallic mordants, specific fragment ions and molecular ions from plant-extracted dyes. The results of TOF-SIMS, XPS and FTIR are very useful as a reference database for comparison with data about traditional Korean silk fabric and to provide an understanding of traditional dyeing materials. Therefore, this study shows that surface techniques are useful for micro-destructive analysis of plant-extracted dyes and Korean dyed silk fabric. PMID:28809257

  19. Electrospray ionization and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: powerful analytical tools in recombinant protein chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens S.; Svensson, B; Roepstorff, P

    1996-01-01

    Electrospray ionization and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization are effective ionization methods for mass spectrometry of biomolecules. Here we describe the capabilities of these methods for peptide and protein characterization in biotechnology. An integrated analytical strategy is presen......Electrospray ionization and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization are effective ionization methods for mass spectrometry of biomolecules. Here we describe the capabilities of these methods for peptide and protein characterization in biotechnology. An integrated analytical strategy...... is presented encompassing protein characterization prior to and after cloning of the corresponding gene....

  20. Surface analytical investigations of the release behaviour of volatile fission products during simulated core meltdown accidents and of the reaction behaviour of iodine with silver surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moers, H.

    1986-07-01

    The report presents the results of the analysis of aerosol particles formed in simulated laboratory scale core meltdown experiments. In addition the interaction of silver surfaces with gaseous molecular iodine and with iodide and molecular iodine in aqueous solution was investigated. The composition of the aerosol samples and the progress of the reactions mentioned were determined by use of surface analytical techniques (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy). The major information can be evaluated from X-ray photoelectron spectra which exhibit chemical shifts of the photoelectron lines which allowing a discrimination between different chemical species of the same element. The analyses showed that iodine is present in the aerosol particles mainly as caesium iodide and, to a smaller fraction, as silver iodide. During the adsorption of gaseous molecular iodine at metallic silver surfaces a closed silver iodide overlayer is formed. In aqueous iodide solutions one observes chemisorption of the iodide anions up to a coverage of the metallic silver surface of about half a monolayer. Molecular iodine in aqueous solution is completely converted to silver iodide which covers the substrate irregularly. (orig./HP) [de

  1. An analytical model for displacement velocity of liquid film on a hot vertical surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Shu

    1975-01-01

    The downward progress of the advancing front of a liquid film streaming down a heated vertical surface, as it would occur in emergency core cooling, is much slower than in the case of ordinary streaming down along a heated surface already wetted with the liquid. A two-dimensional heat conduction model is developed for evaluating this velocity of the liquid front, which takes account of the heat removal by ordinary flow boiling mechanism. In the analysis, the maximum heat flux and the calefaction temperature are taken up as parameters in addition to the initial dry heated wall temperature, the flow rate and the velocity of downward progress of the liquid front. The temperature profile is calculated for various combinations of these parameters. Two criteria are proposed for choosing the most suitable combination of the parameters. One is to reject solutions that represent an oscillating wall temperature distribution, and the second criterion requires that the length of the zone of violent boiling immediately following the liquid front should not be longer than about 1 mm, this value being determined from comparisons made between experiment and calculation. Application of the above two criteria resulted in reasonable values obtained for the calefaction temperature and the maximum heat flux, and the velocity of the liquid front derived therefrom showed good agreement with experiment. (auth.)

  2. I-HASTREAM : density-based hierarchical clustering of big data streams and its application to big graph analytics tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassani, M.; Spaus, P.; Cuzzocrea, A.; Seidl, T.

    2016-01-01

    Big Data Streams are very popular at now, as stirred-up by a plethora of modern applications such as sensor networks, scientific computing tools, Web intelligence, social network analysis and mining tools, and so forth. Here, the main research issue consists in how to effectively and efficiently

  3. Optimization of IC/HPLC as a rapid analytical tool for characterization of total impurities in UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkar, A.G.; Kapoor, Y.S.; Mahanty, B.N.; Fulzele, A.K.; Mallik, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Use of ion chromatography in the determination of metallic and non metallic impurities has been studied and observed to be very satisfactory. In the present paper the total time was monitored in all these experiments and compared with the conventional analytical techniques. (author)

  4. Methodological framework, analytical tool and database for the assessment of climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Gregg, Jay Sterling

    . The project is one of seven initiatives proposed by KFT for 2012. The methodology report includes definitions of major concepts, an outline of an analytical structure, a presentation of models and their applicability, and the results of case studies. The work presented in this report draws on intensive...

  5. Modelling and analysis of tool wear and surface roughness in hard turning of AISI D2 steel using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Junaid Mir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with some machinability studies on tool wear and surface roughness, in finish hard turning of AISI D2 steel using PCBN, Mixed ceramic and coated carbide inserts. The machining experiments are conducted based on the response surface methodology (RSM. Combined effects of three cutting parameters viz., cutting speed, cutting time and tool hardness on the two performance outputs (i.e. VB and Ra, are explored employing the analysis of variance (ANOVA.The relationship(s between input variables and the response parameters are determined using a quadratic regression model. The results show that the tool wear was influenced principally by the cutting time and in the second level by the cutting tool hardness. On the other hand, cutting time was the dominant factor affecting workpiece surface roughness followed by cutting speed. Finally, the multiple response optimizations of tool wear and surface roughness were carried out using the desirability function approach (DFA.

  6. Analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Burdette, A C

    1971-01-01

    Analytic Geometry covers several fundamental aspects of analytic geometry needed for advanced subjects, including calculus.This book is composed of 12 chapters that review the principles, concepts, and analytic proofs of geometric theorems, families of lines, the normal equation of the line, and related matters. Other chapters highlight the application of graphing, foci, directrices, eccentricity, and conic-related topics. The remaining chapters deal with the concept polar and rectangular coordinates, surfaces and curves, and planes.This book will prove useful to undergraduate trigonometric st

  7. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool. Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Flapper, Joris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kramer, Klaas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop a computer-based benchmarking and energy and water savings tool (BEST-Dairy) for use in the California dairy industry - including four dairy processes - cheese, fluid milk, butter, and milk powder. BEST-Dairy tool developed in this project provides three options for the user to benchmark each of the dairy product included in the tool, with each option differentiated based on specific detail level of process or plant, i.e., 1) plant level; 2) process-group level, and 3) process-step level. For each detail level, the tool accounts for differences in production and other variables affecting energy use in dairy processes. The dairy products include cheese, fluid milk, butter, milk powder, etc. The BEST-Dairy tool can be applied to a wide range of dairy facilities to provide energy and water savings estimates, which are based upon the comparisons with the best available reference cases that were established through reviewing information from international and national samples. We have performed and completed alpha- and beta-testing (field testing) of the BEST-Dairy tool, through which feedback from voluntary users in the U.S. dairy industry was gathered to validate and improve the tool's functionality. BEST-Dairy v1.2 was formally published in May 2011, and has been made available for free downloads from the internet (i.e., http://best-dairy.lbl.gov). A user's manual has been developed and published as the companion documentation for use with the BEST-Dairy tool. In addition, we also carried out technology transfer activities by engaging the dairy industry in the process of tool development and testing, including field testing, technical presentations, and technical assistance throughout the project. To date, users from more than ten countries in addition to those in the U.S. have downloaded the BEST-Dairy from the LBNL website. It is expected that the use of BEST-Dairy tool will advance understanding of energy and

  8. Analytical Solutions for the Surface States of Bi1-xSbx (0 ≤ x ≲ 0.1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuseya, Yuki; Fukuyama, Hidetoshi

    2018-04-01

    Analytical solutions for the surface state (SS) of an extended Wolff Hamiltonian, which is a common Hamiltonian for strongly spin-orbit coupled systems, are obtained both for semi-infinite and finite-thickness boundary conditions. For the semi-infinite system, there are two types of SS solutions: (I-a) linearly crossing SSs in the direct bulk band gap, and (I-b) SSs with linear dispersions entering the bulk conduction or valence bands away from the band edge. For the finite-thickness system, a gap opens in the SS of solution I-a. Numerical solutions for the SS are also obtained based on the tight-binding model of Liu and Allen [https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.52.1566" xlink:type="simple">Phys. Rev. B 52, 1566 (1995)] for Bi1-xSbx (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1). A perfect correspondence between the analytic and numerical solutions is obtained around the \\bar{M} point including their thickness dependence. This is the first time that the character of the SS numerically obtained is identified with the help of analytical solutions. The size of the gap for I-a SS can be larger than that of bulk band gap even for a "thick" films ( ≲ 200 bilayers ≃ 80 nm) of pure bismuth. Consequently, in such a film of Bi1-xSbx, there is no apparent change in the SSs through the band inversion at x ≃ 0.04, even though the nature of the SS is changed from solution I-a to I-b. Based on our theoretical results, the experimental results on the SS of Bi1-xSbx (0 ≤ x ≲ 0.1) are discussed.

  9. Surface modification of AISI H13 tool steel by laser cladding with NiTi powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhafzan, B.; Aqida, S. N.; Chikarakara, E.; Brabazon, D.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents laser cladding of NiTi powder on AISI H13 tool steel surface for surface properties enhancement. The cladding process was conducted using Rofin DC-015 diffusion-cooled CO2 laser system with wavelength of 10.6 µm. NiTi powder was pre-placed on H13 tool steel surface. The laser beam was focused with a spot size of 90 µm on the sample surface. Laser parameters were set to 1515 and 1138 W peak power, 18 and 24 % duty cycle and 2300-3500 Hz laser pulse repetition frequency. Hardness properties of the modified layer were characterized by Wilson Hardness tester. Metallographic study and chemical composition were conducted using field emission scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDXS) analysis. Results showed that hardness of NiTi clad layer increased three times that of the substrate material. The EDXS analysis detected NiTi phase presence in the modified layer up to 9.8 wt%. The metallographic study shows high metallurgical bonding between substrate and modified layer. These findings are significant to both increased hardness and erosion resistance of high-wear-resistant components and elongating their lifetime.

  10. Surface and material analytics based on Dresden-EBIS platform technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M., E-mail: mike.schmidt@dreebit.com; König, J., E-mail: mike.schmidt@dreebit.com [DREEBIT GmbH, Grossroehrsdorf (Germany); Bischoff, L. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Pilz, W. [Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany); Zschornack, G. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden, Germany and Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany)

    2015-01-09

    Nowadays widely used mass spectrometry systems utilize energetic ions hitting a sample and sputter material from the surface of a specimen. The generated secondary ions are separated and detected with high mass resolution to determine the target materials constitution. Based on this principle, we present an alternative approach implementing a compact Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) in combination with a Liquid Metal Ion Source (LMIS). An LMIS can deliver heavy elements which generate high sputter yields on a target surface. More than 90% of this sputtered material consists of mono- and polyatomic neutrals. These particles are able to penetrate the magnetic field of an EBIS and they will be ionized within the electron beam. A broad spectrum of singly up to highly charged ions can be extracted depending on the operation conditions. Polyatomic ions will decay during the charge-up process. A standard bending magnet or a Wien filter is used to separate the different ion species due to their mass-to-charge ratio. Using different charge states of ions as it is common with EBIS it is also possible to resolve interfering charge-to-mass ratios of only singly charged ions. Different setups for the realization of feeding the electron beam with sputtered atoms of solids will be presented and discussed. As an example the analysis of a copper surface is used to show high-resolution spectra with low background noise. Individual copper isotopes and clusters with different isotope compositions can be resolved at equal atomic numbers. These results are a first step for the development of a new compact low-cost and high-resolution mass spectrometry system. In a more general context, the described technique demonstrates an efficient method for feeding an EBIS with atoms of nearly all solid elements from various solid target materials. The new straightforward design of the presented setup should be of high interest for a broad range of applications in materials research as well as for

  11. Improved analytical formulas for x-ray and neutron reflection from surface films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X.; Chen, S.; Felcher, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    A general and exact expression for x-ray and neutron reflectance and transmittance is given in terms of an integral of the real-space scattering-length-density profile fluctuation of the film, with respect to an arbitrary constant reference density level, over the wave function inside the film. Various special cases and approximations are then derived from this exact form by suitable approximations of the wave function. In particular, two practical approximate formulas are derived which are improvement over the corresponding distorted-wave Born approximations. One is for an arbitrary film deposited on a known substrate and the other for a free liquid surface. Numerical results are used to illustrate the accuracy of these formulas

  12. Synthesis and analytical applications of molecularly imprinted polymers on the surface of carbon nanotubes: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Hao; Xiao, Deli; Li, Hui; Yuan, Danhua; Zhang, Chan; He, Hua

    2015-01-01

    This review (with 142 references) summarize the state of the art in molecularly imprinting technology as applied to the surface of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) which result in so-called CNTs-MIPs. These nanomaterials offer a remedy to the flaws of traditional MIPs, such as poor site accessibility for templates, slow mass transfer and template leakage. They also are flexible in that different materials can be integrated with CNTs. Given the advantages of using CNT-MIPs, this technology has experienced rapid expansion, not the least because CNT-MIPs can be produced at low cost and by a variety of synthetic approaches. We summarize methods of, and recent advances in the synthesis of CNT-MIPs, and then highlight some representative applications. We also comment on their potential future developments and research directions. (author)

  13. A general analytical equation for phase diagrams of an N-layer ferroelectric thin film with two surface layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z X; Teng, B H; Rong, Y H; Lu, X H; Yang, X [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)], E-mail: phytbh@163.com

    2010-03-15

    Within the framework of effective-field theory with correlations, the phase diagrams of an N-layer ferroelectric thin film with two surface layers are studied by the differential operator technique based on the spin-1/2 transverse Ising model. A general analytical equation for the phase diagram of a ferroelectric thin film with arbitrary layer number as well as exchange interactions and transverse fields is derived, and then the effects of exchange interactions and transverse fields on phase diagrams are discussed for an arbitrary layer number N. Meanwhile, the crossover features, from the ferroelectric-dominant phase diagram (FPD) to the paraelectric-dominant phase diagram (PPD), for various parameters of an N-layer ferroelectric thin film with two surface layers are investigated. As a result, an N-independent common intersection point equation is obtained, and the three-dimensional curved surfaces for the crossover values are constructed. In comparison with the usual mean-field approximation, the differential operator technique with correlations reduces to some extent the ferroelectric features of a ferroelectric thin film.

  14. UV Direct Laser Interference Patterning of polyurethane substrates as tool for tuning its surface wettability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estevam-Alves, Regina [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, 13560-970 São Carlos (Brazil); Günther, Denise; Dani, Sophie; Eckhardt, Sebastian; Roch, Teja [Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology IWS, Winterbergstr. 28, Dresden 01277 (Germany); Chair for Large Area Laser Based Surface Micro/Nano-Structuring, Institute for Manufacturing Technology, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Str. 3c, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Mendonca, Cleber R., E-mail: crmendon@ifsc.usp.br [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, 13560-970 São Carlos (Brazil); Cestari, Ismar N. [Heart Institute (InCOr), University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo 05403-000 (Brazil); Lasagni, Andrés F., E-mail: andres_fabian.lasagni@tu-dresden.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology IWS, Winterbergstr. 28, Dresden 01277 (Germany); Chair for Large Area Laser Based Surface Micro/Nano-Structuring, Institute for Manufacturing Technology, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Str. 3c, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • First reported experiments on Direct Laser Interference Patterning of polyurethane. • First reported sub-micrometer structures (feature size ∼250 nm) fabricated in polyurethane materials using laser processing technologies. • Anisotropic wetting behavior of structured surfaces and possibility to tune the contact angle as function of surface structure parameters. - Abstract: Direct Laser Interference Patterning (DLIP) is a versatile tool for the fabrication of micro and sub-micropatterns on different materials. In this work, DLIP was used to produce periodic surface structures on polyurethane (PU) substrates with spatial periods ranging from 0.5 to 5.0 μm. The influence of the laser energy density on the quality and topographical characteristics of the produced micropatterns was investigated. To characterize the surface topography of the produced structures, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Confocal Microscopy (CFM) were utilized. It was found that high quality and defect free periodic line-like patterns with spatial periods down to 500 nm could be fabricated, with structure depths between 0.88 up to 1.25 μm for spatial periods larger than 2.0 μm and up to 270 nm for spatial periods between 500 nm and 1.0 μm. Measurements of the contact angle of water on the treated surface allowed to identify an anisotropic wetting behavior depending mainly on the spatial period and filling factor of the structured surfaces.

  15. Fabrication and correction of freeform surface based on Zernike polynomials by slow tool servo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Hsu, Ming-Ying; Peng, Wei-Jei; Hsu, Wei-Yao

    2017-10-01

    Recently, freeform surface widely using to the optical system; because it is have advance of optical image and freedom available to improve the optical performance. For freeform optical fabrication by integrating freeform optical design, precision freeform manufacture, metrology freeform optics and freeform compensate method, to modify the form deviation of surface, due to production process of freeform lens ,compared and provides more flexibilities and better performance. This paper focuses on the fabrication and correction of the free-form surface. In this study, optical freeform surface using multi-axis ultra-precision manufacturing could be upgrading the quality of freeform. It is a machine equipped with a positioning C-axis and has the CXZ machining function which is also called slow tool servo (STS) function. The freeform compensate method of Zernike polynomials results successfully verified; it is correction the form deviation of freeform surface. Finally, the freeform surface are measured experimentally by Ultrahigh Accurate 3D Profilometer (UA3P), compensate the freeform form error with Zernike polynomial fitting to improve the form accuracy of freeform.

  16. Analytical model of surface potential profiles and transfer characteristics for hetero stacked tunnel field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui Fang; Sun, Wen; Han, Xin Feng

    2018-06-01

    An analytical model of surface potential profiles and transfer characteristics for hetero stacked tunnel field-effect transistors (HS-TFETs) is presented for the first time, where hetero stacked materials are composed of two different bandgaps. The bandgap of the underlying layer is smaller than that of the upper layer. Under different device parameters (upper layer thickness, underlying layer thickness, and hetero stacked materials) and temperature, the validity of the model is demonstrated by the agreement of its results with the simulation results. Moreover, the results show that the HS-TFETs can obtain predominant performance with relatively slow changes of subthreshold swing (SS) over a wide drain current range, steep average subthreshold swing, high on-state current, and large on–off state current ratio.

  17. Analytical Retrieval of Global Land Surface Emissivity Maps at AMSR-E passive microwave frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, H.; Temimi, M.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2009-12-01

    Land emissivity is a crucial boundary condition in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) modeling. Land emissivity is also a key indicator of land surface and subsurface properties. The objective of this study, supported by NOAA-NESDIS, is to develop global land emissivity maps using AMSR-E passive microwave measurements along with several ancillary data. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) database has been used to obtain several inputs for the proposed approach such as land surface temperature, cloud mask and atmosphere profile. The Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) has been used to estimate upwelling and downwelling atmospheric contributions. Although it is well known that correction of the atmospheric effect on brightness temperature is required at higher frequencies (over 19 GHz), our preliminary results have shown that a correction at 10.7 GHz is also necessary over specific areas. The proposed approach is based on three main steps. First, all necessary data have been collected and processed. Second, a global cloud free composite of AMSR-E data and corresponding ancillary images is created. Finally, monthly composting of emissivity maps has been performed. AMSR-E frequencies at 6.9, 10.7, 18.7, 36.5 and 89.0 GHz have been used to retrieve the emissivity. Water vapor information obtained from ISCCP (TOVS data) was used to calculate upwelling, downwelling temperatures and atmospheric transmission in order to assess the consistency of those derived from the CRTM model. The frequent land surface temperature (LST) determination (8 times a day) in the ISCCP database has allowed us to assess the diurnal cycle effect on emissivity retrieval. Differences in magnitude and phase between thermal temperature and low frequencies microwave brightness temperature have been noticed. These differences seem to vary in space and time. They also depend on soil texture and thermal inertia. The proposed methodology accounts for these factors and

  18. Teachers’ Relationship Closeness with Students as a Resource for Teacher Wellbeing: A Response Surface Analytical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milatz, Anne; Lüftenegger, Marko; Schober, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Teachers’ relationship quality with students has been argued to be an important source of teacher wellbeing. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate to what extent teachers’ relationship closeness toward students, combined with attachment security is a resource protecting against teacher burnout. Eighty-three elementary school teachers reported on their most and least attached student’s relationship closeness, their attachment security and levels of burnout, as measured by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. Response surface analysis (RSA), enabling researchers to investigate the effect of congruence/incongruence of two predictors on an outcome, revealed that teachers’ depersonalization and emotional exhaustion were lowest when they developed homogenous close relationships toward the students within their classroom and when teachers in general made congruent relationship experiences. No RSA model could be specified for personal accomplishment, even though a correlational analysis revealed that increasing closeness with students fostered teachers’ personal accomplishment. Teachers’ secure attachment experiences were not directly related to burnout, but enhanced their capability to establish close relationships toward their students. Findings suggest that teachers’ relationships toward students are a resource for the teacher’s wellbeing, which highlights once again the importance of student–teacher relationships in education. PMID:26779045

  19. Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool. Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Flapper, Joris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kramer, Klaas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop a computer-based benchmarking and energy and water savings tool (BEST-Dairy) for use in the California dairy industry – including four dairy processes – cheese, fluid milk, butter, and milk powder.

  20. Analytical solutions for the surface response to small amplitude perturbations in boundary data in the shallow-ice-stream approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. Gudmundsson

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available New analytical solutions describing the effects of small-amplitude perturbations in boundary data on flow in the shallow-ice-stream approximation are presented. These solutions are valid for a non-linear Weertman-type sliding law and for Newtonian ice rheology. Comparison is made with corresponding solutions of the shallow-ice-sheet approximation, and with solutions of the full Stokes equations. The shallow-ice-stream approximation is commonly used to describe large-scale ice stream flow over a weak bed, while the shallow-ice-sheet approximation forms the basis of most current large-scale ice sheet models. It is found that the shallow-ice-stream approximation overestimates the effects of bed topography perturbations on surface profile for wavelengths less than about 5 to 10 ice thicknesses, the exact number depending on values of surface slope and slip ratio. For high slip ratios, the shallow-ice-stream approximation gives a very simple description of the relationship between bed and surface topography, with the corresponding transfer amplitudes being close to unity for any given wavelength. The shallow-ice-stream estimates for the timescales that govern the transient response of ice streams to external perturbations are considerably more accurate than those based on the shallow-ice-sheet approximation. In particular, in contrast to the shallow-ice-sheet approximation, the shallow-ice-stream approximation correctly reproduces the short-wavelength limit of the kinematic phase speed given by solving a linearised version of the full Stokes system. In accordance with the full Stokes solutions, the shallow-ice-sheet approximation predicts surface fields to react weakly to spatial variations in basal slipperiness with wavelengths less than about 10 to 20 ice thicknesses.

  1. Reliable identification of deep sulcal pits: the effects of scan session, scanner, and surface extraction tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiho Im

    Full Text Available Sulcal pit analysis has been providing novel insights into brain function and development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of sulcal pit extraction with respect to the effects of scan session, scanner, and surface extraction tool. Five subjects were scanned 4 times at 3 MRI centers and other 5 subjects were scanned 3 times at 2 MRI centers, including 1 test-retest session. Sulcal pits were extracted on the white matter surfaces reconstructed with both Montreal Neurological Institute and Freesurfer pipelines. We estimated similarity of the presence of sulcal pits having a maximum value of 1 and their spatial difference within the same subject. The tests showed high similarity of the sulcal pit presence and low spatial difference. The similarity was more than 0.90 and the spatial difference was less than 1.7 mm in most cases according to different scan sessions or scanners, and more than 0.85 and about 2.0 mm across surface extraction tools. The reliability of sulcal pit extraction was more affected by the image processing-related factors than the scan session or scanner factors. Moreover, the similarity of sulcal pit distribution appeared to be largely influenced by the presence or absence of the sulcal pits on the shallow and small folds. We suggest that our sulcal pit extraction from MRI is highly reliable and could be useful for clinical applications as an imaging biomarker.

  2. Reliable identification of deep sulcal pits: the effects of scan session, scanner, and surface extraction tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Kiho; Lee, Jong-Min; Jeon, Seun; Kim, Jong-Heon; Seo, Sang Won; Na, Duk L; Grant, P Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Sulcal pit analysis has been providing novel insights into brain function and development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of sulcal pit extraction with respect to the effects of scan session, scanner, and surface extraction tool. Five subjects were scanned 4 times at 3 MRI centers and other 5 subjects were scanned 3 times at 2 MRI centers, including 1 test-retest session. Sulcal pits were extracted on the white matter surfaces reconstructed with both Montreal Neurological Institute and Freesurfer pipelines. We estimated similarity of the presence of sulcal pits having a maximum value of 1 and their spatial difference within the same subject. The tests showed high similarity of the sulcal pit presence and low spatial difference. The similarity was more than 0.90 and the spatial difference was less than 1.7 mm in most cases according to different scan sessions or scanners, and more than 0.85 and about 2.0 mm across surface extraction tools. The reliability of sulcal pit extraction was more affected by the image processing-related factors than the scan session or scanner factors. Moreover, the similarity of sulcal pit distribution appeared to be largely influenced by the presence or absence of the sulcal pits on the shallow and small folds. We suggest that our sulcal pit extraction from MRI is highly reliable and could be useful for clinical applications as an imaging biomarker.

  3. Two dimensional finite element thermal model of laser surface glazing for H13 tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, I. R.; Yin, D.; Naher, S.

    2016-10-01

    A two dimensional (2D) transient thermal model with line-heat-source was developed by Finite Element Method (FEM) for laser surface glazing of H13 tool steel using commercial software-ANSYS 15. The geometry of the model was taken as a transverse circular cross-section of cylindrical specimen. Two different power levels (300W, 200W) were used with 0.2mm width of laser beam and 0.15ms exposure time. Temperature distribution, heating and cooling rates, and the dimensions of modified surface were analysed. The maximum temperatures achieved were 2532K (2259°C) and 1592K (1319°C) for laser power 300W and 200W respectively. The maximum cooling rates were 4.2×107 K/s for 300W and 2×107 K/s for 200W. Depths of modified zone increased with increasing laser power. From this analysis, it can be predicted that for 0.2mm beam width and 0.15ms time exposer melting temperature of H13 tool steel is achieved within 200-300W power range of laser beam in laser surface glazing.

  4. Nanostructured surfaces for analysis of anticancer drug and cell diagnosis based on electrochemical and SERS tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, Waleed A.; Yoon, Jinho; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2018-04-01

    Discovering new anticancer drugs and screening their efficacy requires a huge amount of resources and time-consuming processes. The development of fast, sensitive, and nondestructive methods for the in vitro and in vivo detection of anticancer drugs' effects and action mechanisms have been done to reduce the time and resources required to discover new anticancer drugs. For the in vitro and in vivo detection of the efficiency, distribution, and action mechanism of anticancer drugs, the applications of electrochemical techniques such as electrochemical cell chips and optical techniques such as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) have been developed based on the nanostructured surface. Research focused on electrochemical cell chips and the SERS technique have been reviewed here; electrochemical cell chips based on nanostructured surfaces have been developed for the in vitro detection of cell viability and the evaluation of the effects of anticancer drugs, which showed the high capability to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of several chemicals at low concentrations. SERS technique based on the nanostructured surface have been used as label-free, simple, and nondestructive techniques for the in vitro and in vivo monitoring of the distribution, mechanism, and metabolism of different anticancer drugs at the cellular level. The use of electrochemical cell chips and the SERS technique based on the nanostructured surface should be good tools to detect the effects and action mechanisms of anticancer drugs.

  5. Fractal analysis as a potential tool for surface morphology of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumya, S.; Swapna, M. S.; Raj, Vimal; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.; Sankararaman, S.

    2017-12-01

    Fractal geometry developed by Mandelbrot has emerged as a potential tool for analyzing complex systems in the diversified fields of science, social science, and technology. Self-similar objects having the same details in different scales are referred to as fractals and are analyzed using the mathematics of non-Euclidean geometry. The present work is an attempt to correlate fractal dimension for surface characterization by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Taking the AFM images of zinc sulphide (ZnS) thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique, under different annealing temperatures, the effect of annealing temperature and surface roughness on fractal dimension is studied. The annealing temperature and surface roughness show a strong correlation with fractal dimension. From the regression equation set, the surface roughness at a given annealing temperature can be calculated from the fractal dimension. The AFM images are processed using Photoshop and fractal dimension is calculated by box-counting method. The fractal dimension decreases from 1.986 to 1.633 while the surface roughness increases from 1.110 to 3.427, for a change of annealing temperature 30 ° C to 600 ° C. The images are also analyzed by power spectrum method to find the fractal dimension. The study reveals that the box-counting method gives better results compared to the power spectrum method.

  6. Effect of magnetic polarity on surface roughness during magnetic field assisted EDM of tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendee, A. M.; Saifuldin, M.; Gebremariam, MA; Azhari, A.

    2018-04-01

    Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is one of the non-traditional machining techniques where the process offers wide range of parameters manipulation and machining applications. However, surface roughness, material removal rate, electrode wear and operation costs were among the topmost issue within this technique. Alteration of magnetic device around machining area offers exciting output to be investigated and the effects of magnetic polarity on EDM remain unacquainted. The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of magnetic polarity on surface roughness during magnetic field assisted electrical discharge machining (MFAEDM) on tool steel material (AISI 420 mod.) using graphite electrode. A Magnet with a force of 18 Tesla was applied to the EDM process at selected parameters. The sparks under magnetic field assisted EDM produced better surface finish than the normal conventional EDM process. At the presence of high magnetic field, the spark produced was squeezed and discharge craters generated on the machined surface was tiny and shallow. Correct magnetic polarity combination of MFAEDM process is highly useful to attain a high efficiency machining and improved quality of surface finish to meet the demand of modern industrial applications.

  7. An analytical model of a broadband magnetic energy nanoharvester array with consideration of flexoelectricity and surface effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjun; Li, Peng; Jin, Feng

    2018-04-01

    Based on Hamilton’s principle and Mindlin plate theory, a series of 2D equations to describe the mechanical behaviors of magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) laminated nanoplates, is established for the first time with consideration of flexoelectricity and surface effect. The equations derived are general, which not only can be reduced to the corresponding piezoelectric, piezomagnetic, and elastic cases, but can also be degenerated to the classical higher-order plate theory of conventional macroscopic MEE laminates if flexoelectricity and surface effect are neglected. As the typical application, a flexoelectric magnetic energy nanoharvester array with surface effect, consisting of a giant magnetostrictive material Terfenol-D with a nonlinear magneto-thermo-mechanical coupling constitutive relation and a linear piezoelectric layer PZT-4, is investigated systematically under coupled extensional and flexural deformations. After the correctness is confirmed, an important performance index (i.e. output current) of the harvester is discussed for different conditions, including flexoelectricity, surface effect, and nonlinear magneto-mechanical coupling. It has been revealed that flexoelectricity, surface effect, external magnetic field, and pre-stress can dramatically improve the performance of characteristics such as resonant frequencies, bandwidth, and output current of the nanoharvester. Especially, a critical thickness corresponding to the flexoelectricity or surface effect is proposed, below which the size-dependent effect is obvious and must be considered. The current work can be viewed as an innovative theoretical tool for evaluating the size-dependent and nonlinear characteristics qualitatively and quantitatively, which is essential and crucial to understanding the physical and mechanical properties of MEE nanostructures.

  8. Evaluation of Four Different Analytical Tools to Determine the Regional Origin of Gastrodia elata and Rehmannia glutinosa on the Basis of Metabolomics Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kyu Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical profiles of medicinal plants could be dissimilar depending on the cultivation environments, which may influence their therapeutic efficacy. Accordingly, the regional origin of the medicinal plants should be authenticated for correct evaluation of their medicinal and market values. Metabolomics has been found very useful for discriminating the origin of many plants. Choosing the adequate analytical tool can be an essential procedure because different chemical profiles with different detection ranges will be produced according to the choice. In this study, four analytical tools, Fourier transform near‑infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H‑NMR, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS, and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS were applied in parallel to the same samples of two popular medicinal plants (Gastrodia elata and Rehmannia glutinosa cultivated either in Korea or China. The classification abilities of four discriminant models for each plant were evaluated based on the misclassification rate and Q2 obtained from principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS‑DA, respectively. 1H-NMR and LC-MS, which were the best techniques for G. elata and R. glutinosa, respectively, were generally preferable for origin discrimination over the others. Reasoned by integrating all the results, 1H-NMR is the most prominent technique for discriminating the origins of two plants. Nonetheless, this study suggests that preliminary screening is essential to determine the most suitable analytical tool and statistical method, which will ensure the dependability of metabolomics-based discrimination.

  9. An analytical solution for the elastic response to surface loads imposed on a layered, transversely isotropic and self-gravitating Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, E.; Chen, J.Y.; Bevis, M.; Bordoni, Andrea; Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Tabrizi, A. Molavi

    2015-01-01

    We present an analytical solution for the elastic deformation of an elastic, transversely isotropic, layered and self-gravitating Earth by surface loads. We first introduce the vector spherical harmonics to express the physical quantities in the layered Earth. This reduces the governing equations to a linear system of equations for the expansion coefficients. We then solve for the expansion coefficients analytically under the assumption (i.e. approximation) that in the mantle, the density in ...

  10. New Analytical Methods for the Surface/ Interface and the Micro-Structures in Advanced Nanocomposite Materials by Synchrotron Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nakamae

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical methods of surface/interface structure and micro-structure in advanced nanocomposite materials by using the synchrotron radiation are introduced. Recent results obtained by the energy-tunable and highly collimated brilliant X-rays, in-situ wide angle/small angle X-ray diffraction with high accuracy are reviewed. It is shown that small angle X-ray scattering is one of the best methods to characterize nanoparticle dispersibility, filler aggregate/agglomerate structures and in-situ observation of hierarchical structure deformation in filled rubber under cyclic stretch. Grazing Incidence(small and wide angle X-ray Scattering are powerful to analyze the sintering process of metal nanoparticle by in-situ observation as well as the orientation of polymer molecules and crystalline orientation at very thin surface layer (ca 7nm of polymer film. While the interaction and conformation of adsorbed molecule at interface can be investigated by using high energy X-ray XPS with Enough deep position (ca 9 micron m.

  11. Analytical prediction of friction factors and Nusselt numbers of turbulent forced convection in rod bundles with smooth and rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Jian; Silva Freire, Atila P.

    2002-01-01

    A simple analytical method was developed for the prediction of the friction factor, f, of fully developed turbulent flow and the Nusselt number, Nu, of fully developed turbulent forced convection in rod bundles arranged in square or hexagonal arrays. The friction factor equation for smooth rod bundles was presented in a form similar to the friction factor equation for turbulent flow in a circular pipe. An explicit equation for the Nusselt number of turbulent forced convection in rod bundles with smooth surface was developed. In addition, we extended the analysis to rod bundles with rough surface and provided a method for the prediction of the friction factor and the Nusselt number. The method was based on the law of the wall for velocity and the law of the wall for the temperature, which were integrated over the entire flow area to yield algebraic equations for the prediction of f and Nu. The present method is applicable to infinite rod bundles in square and hexagonal arrays with low pitch to rod diameter ratio, P/D<1.2

  12. GWSCREEN: A semi-analytical model for assessment of the groundwater pathway from surface or buried contamination: Version 2.0 theory and user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rood, A.S.

    1993-06-01

    GWSCREEN was developed for assessment of the groundwater pathway from leaching of radioactive and non radioactive substances from surface or buried sources. The code was designed for implementation in the Track I and Track II assessment of CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) sites identified as low probability hazard at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (DOE, 1992). The code calculates the limiting soil concentration such that, after leaching and transport to the aquifer, regulatory contaminant levels in groundwater are not exceeded. The code uses a mass conservation approach to model three processes: contaminant release from a source volume, contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone, and contaminant transport in the saturated zone. The source model considers the sorptive properties and solubility of the contaminant. Transport in the unsaturated zone is described by a plug flow model. Transport in the saturated zone is calculated with a semi-analytical solution to the advection dispersion equation in groundwater. In Version 2.0, GWSCREEN has incorporated an additional source model to calculate the impacts to groundwater resulting from the release to percolation ponds. In addition, transport of radioactive progeny has also been incorporated. GWSCREEN has shown comparable results when compared against other codes using similar algorithms and techniques. This code was designed for assessment and screening of the groundwater pathway when field data is limited. It was not intended to be a predictive tool

  13. GWSCREEN: A semi-analytical model for assessment of the groundwater pathway from surface or buried contamination: Version 2.0 theory and user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, A.S.

    1993-06-01

    GWSCREEN was developed for assessment of the groundwater pathway from leaching of radioactive and non radioactive substances from surface or buried sources. The code was designed for implementation in the Track I and Track II assessment of CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) sites identified as low probability hazard at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (DOE, 1992). The code calculates the limiting soil concentration such that, after leaching and transport to the aquifer, regulatory contaminant levels in groundwater are not exceeded. The code uses a mass conservation approach to model three processes: contaminant release from a source volume, contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone, and contaminant transport in the saturated zone. The source model considers the sorptive properties and solubility of the contaminant. Transport in the unsaturated zone is described by a plug flow model. Transport in the saturated zone is calculated with a semi-analytical solution to the advection dispersion equation in groundwater. In Version 2.0, GWSCREEN has incorporated an additional source model to calculate the impacts to groundwater resulting from the release to percolation ponds. In addition, transport of radioactive progeny has also been incorporated. GWSCREEN has shown comparable results when compared against other codes using similar algorithms and techniques. This code was designed for assessment and screening of the groundwater pathway when field data is limited. It was not intended to be a predictive tool.

  14. Analytical tools for solitons and periodic waves corresponding to phonons on Lennard-Jones lattices in helical proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'ovidio, Francesco; Bohr, Henrik; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    2005-01-01

    We study the propagation of solitons along the hydrogen bonds of an alpha helix. Modeling the hydrogen and peptide bonds with Lennard-Jones potentials, we show that the solitons can appear spontaneously and have long lifetimes. Remarkably, even if no explicit solution is known for the Lennard-Jones...... potential, the solitons can be characterized analytically with a good quantitative agreement using formulas for a Toda potential with parameters fitted to the Lennard-Jones potential. We also discuss and show the robustness of the family of periodic solutions called cnoidal waves, corresponding to phonons...

  15. Modeling of edge effect in subaperture tool influence functions of computer controlled optical surfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Songlin; Zhang, Xiangchao; He, Xiaoying; Xu, Min

    2016-12-20

    Computer controlled optical surfacing requires an accurate tool influence function (TIF) for reliable path planning and deterministic fabrication. Near the edge of the workpieces, the TIF has a nonlinear removal behavior, which will cause a severe edge-roll phenomenon. In the present paper, a new edge pressure model is developed based on the finite element analysis results. The model is represented as the product of a basic pressure function and a correcting function. The basic pressure distribution is calculated according to the surface shape of the polishing pad, and the correcting function is used to compensate the errors caused by the edge effect. Practical experimental results demonstrate that the new model can accurately predict the edge TIFs with different overhang ratios. The relative error of the new edge model can be reduced to 15%.

  16. Extensions of the Johnson-Neyman Technique to Linear Models with Curvilinear Effects: Derivations and Analytical Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jason W.; Stromeyer, William R.; Schwieterman, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed renewed interest in the use of the Johnson-Neyman (J-N) technique for calculating the regions of significance for the simple slope of a focal predictor on an outcome variable across the range of a second, continuous independent variable. Although tools have been developed to apply this technique to probe 2- and 3-way…

  17. Effect of Tip Shape of Frictional Stir Burnishing Tool on Processed Layer’s Hardness, Residual Stress and Surface Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimasa Takada

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir burnishing (FSB is a surface-enhancement method used after machining, without the need for an additional device. The FSB process is applied on a machine that uses rotation tools (e.g., machining center or multi-tasking machine. Therefore, the FSB process can be applied immediately after the cutting process using the same machine tool. Here, we apply the FSB to the shaft materials of 0.45% C steel using a multi-tasking machine. In the FSB process, the burnishing tool rotates at a high-revolution speed. The thin surface layer is rubbed and stirred as the temperature is increased and decreased. With the FSB process, high hardness or compressive residual stress can be obtained on the surface layer. However, when we applied the FSB process using a 3 mm diameter sphere tip shape tool, the surface roughness increased substantially (Ra = 20 µm. We therefore used four types of tip shape tools to examine the effect of burnishing tool tip radius on surface roughness, hardness, residual stress in the FSB process. Results indicated that the surface roughness was lowest (Ra = 10 µm when the tip radius tool diameter was large (30 mm.

  18. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of pulsed laser surface melted AISI D2 cold work tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasavol, N.; Abdollah-zadeh, A.; Ganjali, M.; Alidokht, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Melted zone contained fine dendrites in the bottom and equiaxed grains on the top. ► Microstructural refinements of PLSM led to microhardness enhancement. ► Higher scanning rate and lower laser energy were more effective to refine the microstructure. - Abstract: D2 cold work tool steel (CWTS) was subjected to pulse laser surface melting (PLSM) at constant frequency of 20 Hz Nd: YAG laser with different energies, scanning rate and pulse durations radiated to the surface. Characterizing the PLSM, with optical and field emission scanning electron microscopy, electron backscattered diffraction and surface hardness mapping technique was used to evaluate the microhardness and mechanical behavior of different regions of melting pool. Increasing laser energy and reducing the laser scanning rate results in deeper melt pool formation. Moreover, PLSM has led to entirely dissolution of the carbides and re-solidification of cellular/dendritic structure of a fine scale surrounded by a continuous interdendritic network. This caused an increase in surface microhardness, 2–4 times over that of the base metal.

  19. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of pulsed laser surface melted AISI D2 cold work tool steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasavol, N. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollah-zadeh, A., E-mail: zadeh@modares.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjali, M. [Materials and Energy Research Center, P.O. Box 14155-4777, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alidokht, S.A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Melted zone contained fine dendrites in the bottom and equiaxed grains on the top. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructural refinements of PLSM led to microhardness enhancement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher scanning rate and lower laser energy were more effective to refine the microstructure. - Abstract: D2 cold work tool steel (CWTS) was subjected to pulse laser surface melting (PLSM) at constant frequency of 20 Hz Nd: YAG laser with different energies, scanning rate and pulse durations radiated to the surface. Characterizing the PLSM, with optical and field emission scanning electron microscopy, electron backscattered diffraction and surface hardness mapping technique was used to evaluate the microhardness and mechanical behavior of different regions of melting pool. Increasing laser energy and reducing the laser scanning rate results in deeper melt pool formation. Moreover, PLSM has led to entirely dissolution of the carbides and re-solidification of cellular/dendritic structure of a fine scale surrounded by a continuous interdendritic network. This caused an increase in surface microhardness, 2-4 times over that of the base metal.

  20. Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems (DE-EE0002961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitler, J. D.; Culling, J. R.; Conjeevaram, K.; Ramesh, M.; Selvakumar, M.

    2012-11-30

    Ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems are perhaps the most widely used “sustainable” heating and cooling systems, with an estimated 1.7 million installed units with total installed heating capacity on the order of 18 GW. They are widely used in residential, commercial, and institutional buildings. Standing column wells (SCW) are one form of ground heat exchanger that, under the right geological conditions, can provide excellent energy efficiency at a relatively low capital cost. Closed-loop surface water heat pump (SWHP) systems utilize surface water heat exchangers (SWHE) to reject or extract heat from nearby surface water bodies. For building near surface water bodies, these systems also offer a high degree of energy efficiency at a low capital cost. However, there have been few design tools available for properly sizing standing column wells or surface water heat exchangers. Nor have tools for analyzing the energy consumption and supporting economics-based design decisions been available. The main contributions of this project lie in providing new tools that support design and energy analysis. These include a design tool for sizing surface water heat exchangers, a design tool for sizing standing column wells, a new model of surface water heat pump systems implemented in EnergyPlus and a new model of standing column wells implemented in EnergyPlus. These tools will better help engineers design these systems and determine the economic and technical feasibility.

  1. The use of selective adsorbents in capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for analyte preconcentration and microreactions: a powerful three-dimensional tool for multiple chemical and biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, N A; Stubbs, R J

    2001-10-01

    Much attention has recently been directed to the development and application of online sample preconcentration and microreactions in capillary electrophoresis using selective adsorbents based on chemical or biological specificity. The basic principle involves two interacting chemical or biological systems with high selectivity and affinity for each other. These molecular interactions in nature usually involve noncovalent and reversible chemical processes. Properly bound to a solid support, an "affinity ligand" can selectively adsorb a "target analyte" found in a simple or complex mixture at a wide range of concentrations. As a result, the isolated analyte is enriched and highly purified. When this affinity technique, allowing noncovalent chemical interactions and biochemical reactions to occur, is coupled on-line to high-resolution capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, a powerful tool of chemical and biological information is created. This paper describes the concept of biological recognition and affinity interaction on-line with high-resolution separation, the fabrication of an "analyte concentrator-microreactor", optimization conditions of adsorption and desorption, the coupling to mass spectrometry, and various applications of clinical and pharmaceutical interest.

  2. A new multi-domain method based on an analytical control surface for linear and second-order mean drift wave loads on floating bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hui; Chen, Xiaobo

    2017-10-01

    A novel multi-domain method based on an analytical control surface is proposed by combining the use of free-surface Green function and Rankine source function. A cylindrical control surface is introduced to subdivide the fluid domain into external and internal domains. Unlike the traditional domain decomposition strategy or multi-block method, the control surface here is not panelized, on which the velocity potential and normal velocity components are analytically expressed as a series of base functions composed of Laguerre function in vertical coordinate and Fourier series in the circumference. Free-surface Green function is applied in the external domain, and the boundary integral equation is constructed on the control surface in the sense of Galerkin collocation via integrating test functions orthogonal to base functions over the control surface. The external solution gives rise to the so-called Dirichlet-to-Neumann [DN2] and Neumann-to-Dirichlet [ND2] relations on the control surface. Irregular frequencies, which are only dependent on the radius of the control surface, are present in the external solution, and they are removed by extending the boundary integral equation to the interior free surface (circular disc) on which the null normal derivative of potential is imposed, and the dipole distribution is expressed as Fourier-Bessel expansion on the disc. In the internal domain, where the Rankine source function is adopted, new boundary integral equations are formulated. The point collocation is imposed over the body surface and free surface, while the collocation of the Galerkin type is applied on the control surface. The present method is valid in the computation of both linear and second-order mean drift wave loads. Furthermore, the second-order mean drift force based on the middle-field formulation can be calculated analytically by using the coefficients of the Fourier-Laguerre expansion.

  3. Research of Tool Durability in Surface Plastic Deformation Processing by Burnishing of Steel Without Metalworking Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, S. N.; Bobrovskij, N. M.; Melnikov, P. A.; Bobrovskij, I. N.

    2017-05-01

    Modern vector of development of machining technologies aimed at the transition to environmentally safe technologies - “green” technologies. The concept of “green technology” includes a set of signs of knowledge intended for practical use (“technology”). One of the ways to improve the quality of production is the use of surface plastic deformation (SPD) processing methods. The advantage of the SPD is a capability to combine effects of finishing and strengthening treatment. The SPD processing can replace operations: fine turning, grinding or polishing. The SPD is a forceful contact impact of indentor on workpiece’s surface in condition of their relative motion. It is difficult to implement the core technology of the SPD (burnishing, roller burnishing, etc.) while maintaining core technological advantages without the use of lubricating and cooling technology (metalworking fluids, MWF). The “green” SPD technology was developed by the authors for dry processing and has not such shortcomings. When processing with SPD without use of MWF requirements for tool’s durability is most significant, especially in the conditions of mass production. It is important to determine the period of durability of tool at the design stage of the technological process with the purpose of wastage preventing. This paper represents the results of durability research of natural and synthetic diamonds (polycrystalline diamond - ASPK) as well as precision of polycrystalline superabrasive tools made of dense boron nitride (DBN) during SPD processing without application of MWF.

  4. Biofilm removal technique using sands as a research tool for accessing microbial attachment on surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanon Trachoo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms have profound impacts on improved survival of the constituent microorganisms in nature. Biofilms were believed to protect constituent microorganisms from sanitizer treatment, provide a more suitable habitat for microorganisms, and become a site for genetic material exchanges between microorganisms. As we realize more about the significance of biofilm, methods used for biofilm study should be consistently developed and evaluated. To determine microbial attachment on surfaces, usually biofilms are grown on substratum surfaces and removed by vortexing with glass beads or scraping. However, scraping is not as effective as vortexing with glass beads. Another approach is direct-agar overlaying which cannot be used with high density biofilm. In this experiment, we compared effectiveness of glass beads (298±28 μm in diameter and sands (width: 221±55 μm and length: 329±118 μm in removing biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by vortexing method. The results suggested that acid-washed sands, which are significantly less inexpensive than glass beads, were as effective as (P>0.05 analytical grade glass beads in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm removal without inhibiting growth of the organism.

  5. A Useful Tool for Atmospheric Correction and Surface Temperature Estimation of Landsat Infrared Thermal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivalland, Vincent; Tardy, Benjamin; Huc, Mireille; Hagolle, Olivier; Marcq, Sébastien; Boulet, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    Land Surface temperature (LST) is a critical variable for studying the energy and water budgets at the Earth surface, and is a key component of many aspects of climate research and services. The Landsat program jointly carried out by NASA and USGS has been providing thermal infrared data for 40 years, but no associated LST product has been yet routinely proposed to community. To derive LST values, radiances measured at sensor-level need to be corrected for the atmospheric absorption, the atmospheric emission and the surface emissivity effect. Until now, existing LST products have been generated with multi channel methods such as the Temperature/Emissivity Separation (TES) adapted to ASTER data or the generalized split-window algorithm adapted to MODIS multispectral data. Those approaches are ill-adapted to the Landsat mono-window data specificity. The atmospheric correction methodology usually used for Landsat data requires detailed information about the state of the atmosphere. This information may be obtained from radio-sounding or model atmospheric reanalysis and is supplied to a radiative transfer model in order to estimate atmospheric parameters for a given coordinate. In this work, we present a new automatic tool dedicated to Landsat thermal data correction which improves the common atmospheric correction methodology by introducing the spatial dimension in the process. The python tool developed during this study, named LANDARTs for LANDsat Automatic Retrieval of surface Temperature, is fully automatic and provides atmospheric corrections for a whole Landsat tile. Vertical atmospheric conditions are downloaded from the ERA Interim dataset from ECMWF meteorological organization which provides them at 0.125 degrees resolution, at a global scale and with a 6-hour-time step. The atmospheric correction parameters are estimated on the atmospheric grid using the commercial software MODTRAN, then interpolated to 30m resolution. We detail the processing steps

  6. Performance improvement studies for cutting tools with perforated surface in turning of titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charitha Rao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In turning process, the cutting tool is essential for shaping materials. The cutting tools with various perforated surfaces help to increase the cutting tool life. Also, advances in CNC machining technologies have enhanced the productivity of machining process. One of the best or futuristic approaches in modern manufacturing engineering is the use of FEM Simulation for the metal cutting process. FEM simulation helps in understanding the metal deformation process and also helps in the reduction of experiments. The simulation helps the researchers to predict the major influencing cutting variable values without carrying out any experiment which is time-consuming and expensive. This research presents the simulation study of the performance of micro-hole patterned Polycrystalline Diamond cutting insert in machining Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V. Micro-holes are drilled using Electrical Discharge Wire Drilling machine on the rake face of Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD cutting inserts. FEM analysis is carried out to evaluate the effect of perforations on the mechanical integrity of insert. The micro-hole patterned insert is modeled in PRO-E modeler and simulated using DEFORM-3D software. The effective stress, strain, and temperature distribution are analyzed and the results are compared with the normal insert.

  7. Developing an analytical tool for evaluating EMS system design changes and their impact on cardiac arrest outcomes: combining geographic information systems with register data on survival rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sund Björn

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA is a frequent and acute medical condition that requires immediate care. We estimate survival rates from OHCA in the area of Stockholm, through developing an analytical tool for evaluating Emergency Medical Services (EMS system design changes. The study also is an attempt to validate the proposed model used to generate the outcome measures for the study. Methods and results This was done by combining a geographic information systems (GIS simulation of driving times with register data on survival rates. The emergency resources comprised ambulance alone and ambulance plus fire services. The simulation model predicted a baseline survival rate of 3.9 per cent, and reducing the ambulance response time by one minute increased survival to 4.6 per cent. Adding the fire services as first responders (dual dispatch increased survival to 6.2 per cent from the baseline level. The model predictions were validated using empirical data. Conclusion We have presented an analytical tool that easily can be generalized to other regions or countries. The model can be used to predict outcomes of cardiac arrest prior to investment in EMS design changes that affect the alarm process, e.g. (1 static changes such as trimming the emergency call handling time or (2 dynamic changes such as location of emergency resources or which resources should carry a defibrillator.

  8. Leningrad NPP full scope and analytical simulators as tools for MMI improvement and operator support systems development and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakitin, I.D.; Malkin, S.D.; Shalia, V.V.; Fedorov, E.M.; Lebedev, N.N.; Khoudiakov, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Training Support Center (TSC) created at the Leningrad NPP (LNPP), Sosnovy Bor, Russia, incorporates full-scope and analytical simulators working in parallel with the prototypes of the expert and interactive systems to provide a new scope of R and D MMI improvement work as for the developer as well as for the user. Possibilities of development, adjusting and testing of any new or up-graded Operators' Support System before its installation at the reference unit's Control Room are described in the paper. These Simulators ensure the modeling of a wide range of accidents and transients and provide with special software and ETHERNET data process communications with the Operators' Support systems' prototypes. The development and adjustment of two state-of-the-art Operators' Support Systems of interest with using of Simulators are described in the paper as an example. These systems have been developed jointly by RRC KI and LNPP team. (author)

  9. Single-cell MALDI-MS as an analytical tool for studying intrapopulation metabolic heterogeneity of unicellular organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amantonico, Andrea; Urban, Pawel L; Fagerer, Stephan R; Balabin, Roman M; Zenobi, Renato

    2010-09-01

    Heterogeneity is a characteristic feature of all populations of living organisms. Here we make an attempt to validate a single-cell mass spectrometric method for detection of changes in metabolite levels occurring in populations of unicellular organisms. Selected metabolites involved in central metabolism (ADP, ATP, GTP, and UDP-Glucose) could readily be detected in single cells of Closterium acerosum by means of negative-mode matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS). The analytical capabilities of this approach were characterized using standard compounds. The method was then used to study populations of individual cells with different levels of the chosen metabolites. With principal component analysis and support vector machine algorithms, it was possible to achieve a clear separation of individual C. acerosum cells in different metabolic states. This study demonstrates the suitability of mass spectrometric analysis of metabolites in single cells to measure cell-population heterogeneity.

  10. Embodying resistance : a discourse analytical study of the selfie as political tool within the fourth wave of feminism

    OpenAIRE

    Barbala, Astri Moksnes

    2017-01-01

    This Master’s thesis is exploring whether the selfie can be utilised as a political tool in order to challenge the stereotypical ideas of femininity and female beauty that currently dominate the visual social media landscape. Focusing on the photo-sharing application Instagram, the emphasis is here on how the selfie can position the portrayed subject’s body as a site of resistance. By publishing images depicting their non-normative physical appearances, social media-participating feminists ar...

  11. Methodological framework, analytical tool and database for the assessment of climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skougaard Kaspersen, P.; Halsnaes, K.; Gregg, J.; Drews, M.

    2012-12-15

    In this report we provide recommendations about how more consistent studies and data can be provided based on available modelling tools and data for integrated assessment of climate change risks and adaptation options. It is concluded that integrated assessments within this area requires the use of a wide range of data and models in order to cover the full chain of elements including climate modelling, impact, risks, costs, social issues, and decision making. As an outcome of this activity a comprehensive data and modelling tool named Danish Integrated Assessment System (DIAS) has been developed, this may be used by researchers within the field. DIAS has been implemented and tested in a case study on urban flooding caused by extreme precipitation in Aarhus, and this study highlights the usefulness of integrating data, models, and methods from several disciplines into a common framework. DIAS is an attempt to describe such a framework with regards to integrated analysis of climate impacts and adaptation. The final product of the DTU KFT project ''Tool for Vulnerability analysis'' is NOT a user friendly Climate Adaptation tool ready for various types of analysis that may directly be used by decision makers and consultant on their own. Rather developed methodology and collected/available data can serve as a starting point for case specific analyses. For this reason alone this work should very much be viewed as an attempt to coordinate research, data and models outputs between different research institutes from various disciplines. It is unquestionable that there is a future need to integrate information for areas not yet included, and it is very likely that such efforts will depend on research projects conducted in different climate change adaptation areas and sectors in Denmark. (Author)

  12. Database and Analytical Tool Development for the Management of Data Derived from US DOE (NETL) Funded Fine Particulate (PM2.5) Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson Khosah

    2007-07-31

    Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) was contracted by the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL) to develop a state-of-the-art, scalable and robust web-accessible database application to manage the extensive data sets resulting from the DOE-NETL-sponsored ambient air monitoring programs in the upper Ohio River valley region. The data management system was designed to include a web-based user interface that will allow easy access to the data by the scientific community, policy- and decision-makers, and other interested stakeholders, while providing detailed information on sampling, analytical and quality control parameters. In addition, the system will provide graphical analytical tools for displaying, analyzing and interpreting the air quality data. The system will also provide multiple report generation capabilities and easy-to-understand visualization formats that can be utilized by the media and public outreach/educational institutions. The project was conducted in two phases. Phase One included the following tasks: (1) data inventory/benchmarking, including the establishment of an external stakeholder group; (2) development of a data management system; (3) population of the database; (4) development of a web-based data retrieval system, and (5) establishment of an internal quality assurance/quality control system on data management. Phase Two involved the development of a platform for on-line data analysis. Phase Two included the following tasks: (1) development of a sponsor and stakeholder/user website with extensive online analytical tools; (2) development of a public website; (3) incorporation of an extensive online help system into each website; and (4) incorporation of a graphical representation (mapping) system into each website. The project is now technically completed.

  13. Database and Analytical Tool Development for the Management of Data Derived from US DOE (NETL) Funded Fine Particulate (PM2.5) Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson P. Khosah; Frank T. Alex

    2007-02-11

    Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) was contracted by the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL) to develop a state-of-the-art, scalable and robust web-accessible database application to manage the extensive data sets resulting from the DOE-NETL-sponsored ambient air monitoring programs in the upper Ohio River valley region. The data management system was designed to include a web-based user interface that will allow easy access to the data by the scientific community, policy- and decision-makers, and other interested stakeholders, while providing detailed information on sampling, analytical and quality control parameters. In addition, the system will provide graphical analytical tools for displaying, analyzing and interpreting the air quality data. The system will also provide multiple report generation capabilities and easy-to-understand visualization formats that can be utilized by the media and public outreach/educational institutions. The project is being conducted in two phases. Phase One includes the following tasks: (1) data inventory/benchmarking, including the establishment of an external stakeholder group; (2) development of a data management system; (3) population of the database; (4) development of a web-based data retrieval system, and (5) establishment of an internal quality assurance/quality control system on data management. Phase Two, which is currently underway, involves the development of a platform for on-line data analysis. Phase Two includes the following tasks: (1) development of a sponsor and stakeholder/user website with extensive online analytical tools; (2) development of a public website; (3) incorporation of an extensive online help system into each website; and (4) incorporation of a graphical representation (mapping) system into each website. The project is now into its forty-eighth month of development activities.

  14. DATABASE AND ANALYTICAL TOOL DEVELOPMENT FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DATA DERIVED FROM US DOE (NETL) FUNDED FINE PARTICULATE (PM2.5) RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson P. Khosah; Charles G. Crawford

    2003-03-13

    Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) was contracted by the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL) to develop a state-of-the-art, scalable and robust web-accessible database application to manage the extensive data sets resulting from the DOE-NETL-sponsored ambient air monitoring programs in the upper Ohio River valley region. The data management system was designed to include a web-based user interface that will allow easy access to the data by the scientific community, policy- and decision-makers, and other interested stakeholders, while providing detailed information on sampling, analytical and quality control parameters. In addition, the system will provide graphical analytical tools for displaying, analyzing and interpreting the air quality data. The system will also provide multiple report generation capabilities and easy-to-understand visualization formats that can be utilized by the media and public outreach/educational institutions. The project is being conducted in two phases. Phase 1, which is currently in progress and will take twelve months to complete, will include the following tasks: (1) data inventory/benchmarking, including the establishment of an external stakeholder group; (2) development of a data management system; (3) population of the database; (4) development of a web-based data retrieval system, and (5) establishment of an internal quality assurance/quality control system on data management. In Phase 2, which will be completed in the second year of the project, a platform for on-line data analysis will be developed. Phase 2 will include the following tasks: (1) development of a sponsor and stakeholder/user website with extensive online analytical tools; (2) development of a public website; (3) incorporation of an extensive online help system into each website; and (4) incorporation of a graphical representation (mapping) system into each website. The project is now into its sixth month of Phase

  15. ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE FINISH AND DIMENSIONAL ACCURACY OF TOOLS MANUFACTURED BY METAL CASTING IN RAPID PROTOTYPING SAND MOULDS

    OpenAIRE

    Nyembwe, K.; De Beer, D. J.; Van der Walt, J. G.; Bhero, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an initial assessment of the quality parameters of the surface finish and dimensional accuracy of tools made by metal casting in rapid prototyping (RP) sand moulds is undertaken. A case study from a local tool room, dealing with the manufacturing of an aluminium die for the lost wax process, is employed. Modern techniques, including surface roughness analysis and three dimensional scanning, are used to determine and understand how each manufacturing step influences the final qu...

  16. Improvement of the surface finish obtained by laser ablation with a Nd: YAG laser on pre-ablated tool steel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available . In recent years, these lasers have been used in other fields, such as laser ablation of small tools for plastics injection moulding. Laser ablation is a technology that is investigated as a method to improve the surface finish in tool steel. Different...

  17. Measuring agglomerate size distribution and dependence of localized surface plasmon resonance absorbance on gold nanoparticle agglomerate size using analytical ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zook, Justin M; Rastogi, Vinayak; Maccuspie, Robert I; Keene, Athena M; Fagan, Jeffrey

    2011-10-25

    Agglomeration of nanoparticles during measurements in relevant biological and environmental media is a frequent problem in nanomaterial property characterization. The primary problem is typically that any changes to the size distribution can dramatically affect the potential nanotoxicity or other size-determined properties, such as the absorbance signal in a biosensor measurement. Herein we demonstrate analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) as a powerful method for measuring two critical characteristics of nanoparticle (NP) agglomerates in situ in biological media: the NP agglomerate size distribution, and the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorbance spectrum of precise sizes of gold NP agglomerates. To characterize the size distribution, we present a theoretical framework for calculating the hydrodynamic diameter distribution of NP agglomerates from their sedimentation coefficient distribution. We measure sedimentation rates for monomers, dimers, and trimers, as well as for larger agglomerates with up to 600 NPs. The AUC size distributions were found generally to be broader than the size distributions estimated from dynamic light scattering and diffusion-limited colloidal aggregation theory, an alternative bulk measurement method that relies on several assumptions. In addition, the measured sedimentation coefficients can be used in nanotoxicity studies to predict how quickly the agglomerates sediment out of solution under normal gravitational forces, such as in the environment. We also calculate the absorbance spectra for monomer, dimer, trimer, and larger gold NP agglomerates up to 600 NPs, to enable a better understanding of LSPR biosensors. Finally, we validate a new method that uses these spectra to deconvolute the net absorbance spectrum of an unknown bulk sample and approximate the proportions of monomers, dimers, and trimers in a polydisperse sample of small agglomerates, so that every sample does not need to be measured by AUC. These results

  18. Photoelectron transport in the surface region of solids: universal analytical formalism for quantitative applications of electron spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonski, A

    2015-01-01

    An advanced analytical theory describing electron transport in the surface region of solids may have accuracy comparable to Monte Carlo simulations of electron trajectories, however such an approach requires knowledge of a parameter called the single scattering albedo. This parameter is material dependent and can be calculated from the elastic mean free path and transport mean free path for signal electrons. An attempt is made to derive a simple expression that accurately describes the energy dependence of single scattering albedo in a wide energy range from 50 eV to 30 keV for 78 elemental solids. For these solids and the considered energy range, the mean percentage deviations between the reference values and values calculated from the fitted function were found to be generally well below 1%; the largest value of this deviation was equal to 0.86% (europium). Calculation of the single scattering albedo with high accuracy requires only five fitted coefficients for a given element. Recommendations are also given for calculations of this parameter for compounds. Different predictive formulas expressed in terms of the single scattering albedo are briefly discussed. (paper)

  19. CONDITIONS FOR STABLE CHIP BREAKING AND PROVISION OF MACHINED SURFACE QUALITY WHILE TURNING WITH ASYMMETRIC TOOL VIBRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Sheleh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a process of turning structural steel with asymmetric tool vibrations directed along feeding. Asymmetric vibrations characterized by asymmetry coefficient of vibration cycle, their frequency and amplitude are additionally transferred to the tool in the turning process with the purpose to crush chips. Conditions of stable chip breaking and obtaining optimum dimensions of chip elements have been determined in the paper. In order to reduce a negative impact of the vibration amplitude on a cutting process and quality of the machined surfaces machining must be carried out with its minimum value. In this case certain ratio of the tool vibration frequency to the work-piece rotation speed has been ensured in the paper. A formula has been obtained for calculation of this ratio with due account of the expected length of chip elements and coefficient of vibration cycle asymmetry.Influence of the asymmetric coefficient of the tool vibration cycle on roughness of the machined surfaces and cutting tool wear has been determined in the paper. According to the results pertaining to machining of work-pieces made of 45 and ШХ15 steel the paper presents mathematical relationships of machined surface roughness with cutting modes and asymmetry coefficient of tool vibration cycle. Tool feeding being one of the cutting modes exerts the most significant impact on the roughness value and increase of the tool feeding entails increase in roughness. Reduction in coefficient of vibration cycle asymmetry contributes to surface roughness reduction. However, the cutting tool wear occurs more intensive. Coefficient of the vibration cycle asymmetry must be increased in order to reduce wear rate. Therefore, the choice of the coefficient of the vibration cycle asymmetry is based on the parameters of surface roughness which must be obtained after machining and intensity of tool wear rate.The paper considers a process of turning structural steel with asymmetric

  20. Synthesis of laser beam rapidly solidified novel surfaces on D2 tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, B.A.; Rizwan, K.F.; Minhas, J.A.; Waheed-ul-Haq, S.; Shahid, M.

    2011-01-01

    Surface layer of D2 tool steel was subjected to laser surface melting using continuous wave 2.5 kW CO/sub 2/ laser in point source melting mode. The processing parameters were varied to achieve a uniform depth of around 2 mm. Microstructural study revealed epitaxial growth of fine dendritic structure with secondary dendrite arm spacing in the range of 20-25 mu m. The phases in the parent annealed sample were BCC ferrite and chromium rich M7C3 carbide. The major phase after laser treatment was austenite and M7C3. The average hardness of annealed sample was 195 HV which increased to 410 HV after laser melting. Corrosion studies in 2% HCl solution exhibited a drastic improvement in corrosion resistance in laser treated samples. Improvement in properties is attributed to the refinement and uniformity of microstructure in the rapidly solidified surface. The case of a moving heat source was subjected to computer aided simulation to predict the melt depth at different processing conditions in point source melting mode. The calculated depths using the model, in ABAQUS software was found in good agreement with the experimental data. (author)

  1. Polar Bears or People?: How Framing Can Provide a Useful Analytic Tool to Understand & Improve Climate Change Communication in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    Not only will young adults bear the brunt of climate change's effects, they are also the ones who will be required to take action - to mitigate and to adapt. The Next Generation Science Standards include climate change, ensuring the topic will be covered in U.S. science classrooms in the near future. Additionally, school is a primary source of information about climate change for young adults. The larger question, though, is how can the teaching of climate change be done in such a way as to ascribe agency - a willingness to act - to students? Framing - as both a theory and an analytic method - has been used to understand how language in the media can affect the audience's intention to act. Frames function as a two-way filter, affecting both the message sent and the message received. This study adapted both the theory and the analytic methods of framing, applying them to teachers in the classroom to answer the research question: How do teachers frame climate change in the classroom? To answer this question, twenty-five lessons from seven teachers were analyzed using semiotic discourse analysis methods. It was found that the teachers' frames overlapped to form two distinct discourses: a Science Discourse and a Social Discourse. The Science Discourse, which was dominant, can be summarized as: Climate change is a current scientific problem that will have profound global effects on the Earth's physical systems. The Social Discourse, used much less often, can be summarized as: Climate change is a future social issue because it will have negative impacts at the local level on people. While it may not be surprising that the Science Discourse was most often heard in these science classrooms, it is possibly problematic if it were the only discourse used. The research literature on framing indicates that the frames found in the Science Discourse - global scale, scientific statistics and facts, and impact on the Earth's systems - are not likely to inspire action-taking. This

  2. Influence of pre-heating on the surface modification of powder-metallurgy processed cold-work tool steel during laser surface melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šturm, Roman, E-mail: roman.sturm@fs.uni-lj.si [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Aškerčeva 6, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Štefanikova, Maria [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Aškerčeva 6, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Steiner Petrovič, Darja [Institute of Metals and Technology, Lepi pot 11, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Heat-treatment protocol for laser surface melting of cold-work tool steel is proposed. • The laser melted steel surface is hardened, and morphologically modified. • The pre-heating of substrate creates a crack-and pore-free steel surface. • The optimum pre-heating temperature is determined to be 350 °C. • Using pre-heating the quantity of retained austenite is reduced. - Abstract: In this study we determine the optimal parameters for surface modification using the laser surface melting of powder-metallurgy processed, vanadium-rich, cold-work tool steel. A combination of steel pre-heating, laser surface melting and a subsequent heat treatment creates a hardened and morphologically modified surface of the selected high-alloy tool steel. The pre-heating of the steel prior to the laser surface melting ensures a crack- and pore-free modified surface. Using a pre-heating temperature of 350 °C, the extremely fine microstructure, which typically evolves during the laser-melting, became slightly coarser and the volume fraction of retained austenite was reduced. In the laser-melted layer the highest values of microhardness were achieved in the specimens where a subsequent heat treatment at 550 °C was applied. The performed thermodynamic calculations were able to provide a very valuable assessment of the liquidus temperature and, especially, a prediction of the chemical composition as well as the precipitation and dissolution sequence for the carbides.

  3. Surface analytical investigations of the thermal behaviour of passivated Zircaloy-4 surfaces and of the reaction behaviour of iodine with Zircaloy-4 surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, R.

    1988-07-01

    In the first part of the present work the thermal behaviour of atmospherically oxidized Zircaloy-4 samples was investigated at various temperatures. In a next step the amount of iodine adsorbed at the metallic surface was determined as well at room temperature with varying iodine exposures as for constant exposure but varying temperatures. Furthermore, the zirconium iodide species resulting from the interaction of iodine with the Zircaloy-4 and desorbed at higher temperatures were identified by means of residual gas analysis. During these studies it was found that the oxidic overlayer of the passivated Zircaloy-4 samples is decomposed at temperatures above 200 0 C. The iodine uptake at metallic surfaces (cleaned by Ar-ion sputtering) at room temperature slows markedly down after formation of a closed zirconium-iodide overlayer and consequently the further reaction proceeds diffusion-controlled. At 200 0 C ZrI 4 is formed being the thermodynamically most stable Zr-iodide. During desorption experiments using iodine exposed Zircaloy-4 samples the release of ZrI 4 was proved. The results obtained from the various experiments are finally discussed with respect to the iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking process and the underlying basic mechanisms and a transport mechanism for the SCC in nuclear fuel rods is proposed. (orig./RB) [de

  4. NIR spectroscopy as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool for monitoring and understanding of a hydrolysis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhisheng; Peng, Yanfang; Chen, Wei; Xu, Bing; Ma, Qun; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2013-06-01

    The use of near infrared spectroscopy was investigated as a process analytical technology to monitor the amino acids concentration profile during hydrolysis process of Cornu Bubali. A protocol was followed, including outlier selection using relationship plot of residuals versus the leverage level, calibration models using interval partial least squares and synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS). A strategy of four robust root mean square error of predictions (RMSEP) values have been developed to assess calibration models by means of the desirability index. Furthermore, multivariate quantification limits (MQL) values of the optimum model were determined using two types of error. The SiPLS(3) models for L-proline, L-tyrosine, L-valine, L-phenylalanine and L-lysine provided excellent accuracies with RMSEP values of 0.0915 mg/mL, 0.1605 mg/mL, 0.0515 mg/mL, 0.0586 mg/mL and 0.0613 mg/mL, respectively. The MQL ranged from 90 ppm to 810 ppm, which confirmed that these models can be suitable for most applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analytical solution of concentric two-pole Halbach cylinders as a preliminary design tool for magnetic refrigeration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortkamp, F. P.; Lozano, J. A.; Barbosa, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    This work presents a parametric analysis of the performance of nested permanent magnet Halbach cylinders intended for applications in magnetic refrigeration and heat pumping. An analytical model for the magnetic field generated by the cylinders is used to systematically investigate the influence of their geometric parameters. The proposed configuration generates two poles in the air gap between the cylinders, where active magnetic regenerators are positioned for conversion of magnetic work into cooling capacity or heat power. A sample geometry based on previous designs of magnetic refrigerators is investigated, and the results show that the magnetic field in the air gap oscillates between 0 to approximately 1 T, forming a rectified cosine profile along the circumference of the gap. Calculations of the energy density of the magnets indicate the need to operate at a low energy (particular the inner cylinder) in order to generate a magnetic profile suitable for a magnetic cooler. In practice, these low-energy regions of the magnet can be potentially replaced by soft ferromagnetic material. A parametric analysis of the air gap height has been performed, showing that there are optimal values which maximize the magnet efficiency parameter Λcool . Some combinations of cylinder radii resulted in magnetic field changes that were too small for practical purposes. No demagnetization of the cylinders has been found for the range of parameters considered.

  6. GWSCREEN: A Semi-analytical Model for Assessment of the Groundwater Pathway from Surface or Buried Contamination, Theory and User's Manual, Version 2.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, Arthur South

    1998-08-01

    GWSCREEN was developed for assessment of the groundwater pathway from leaching of radioactive and non-radioactive substances from surface or buried sources. The code was designed for implementation in the Track I and Track II assessment of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act sites identified as low probability hazard at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The code calculates 1) the limiting soil concentration such that, after leaching and transport to the aquifer regulatory contaminant levels in groundwater are not exceeded, 2) peak aquifer concentration and associated human health impacts, and 3) aquifer concentrations and associated human health impacts as a function of time and space. The code uses a mass conservation approach to model three processes: contaminant release from a source volume, vertical contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone, and 2D or 3D contaminant transport in the saturated zone. The source model considers the sorptive properties and solubility of the contaminant. In Version 2.5, transport in the unsaturated zone is described by a plug flow or dispersive solution model. Transport in the saturated zone is calculated with a semi-analytical solution to the advection dispersion equation in groundwater. Three source models are included; leaching from a surface or buried source, infiltration pond, or user-defined arbitrary release. Dispersion in the aquifer may be described by fixed dispersivity values or three, spatial-variable dispersivity functions. Version 2.5 also includes a Monte Carlo sampling routine for uncertainty/sensitivity analysis and a preprocessor to allow multiple input files and multiple contaminants to be run in a single simulation. GWSCREEN has been validated against other codes using similar algorithms and techniques. The code was originally designed for assessment and screening of the groundwater pathway when field data are limited. It was intended to simulate relatively simple

  7. Effect of cutting fluids and cutting conditions on surface integrity and tool wear in turning of Inconel 713C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikiji, R.

    2018-01-01

    The trend toward downsizing of engines helps to increase the number of turbochargers around Europe. As for the turbocharger, the temperature of the exhaust gas is so high that the parts made of nickel base super alloy Inconel 713C are used as high temperature strength metals. External turning of Inconel 713C which is used as the actual automotive parts was carried out. The effect of the cutting fluids and cutting conditions on the surface integrity and tool wear was investigated, considering global environment and cost performance. As a result, in the range of the cutting conditions used this time, when the depth of cut was small, the good surface integrity and tool life were obtained. However, in the case of the large corner radius, it was found that the more the cutting length increased, the more the tool wear increased. When the cutting length is so large, the surface integrity and tool life got worse. As for the cutting fluids, it was found that the synthetic type showed better performance in the surface integrity and tool life than the conventional emulsion. However, it was clear that the large corner radius made the surface roughness and tool life good, but it affected the size error etc. in machining the workpiece held in a cantilever style.

  8. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry as a surface sensitive tool to probe thin film growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.

    1999-01-01

    Sputtered thin film and multilayer x-ray mirrors are made routinely at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) for the APS users. Precise film growth control and characterization are very critical in fabricating high-quality x-ray mirrors. Film thickness calibrations are carried out using in situ and ex situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, interferometry, and x-ray scattering. To better understand the growth and optical properties of different thin film systems, we have carried out a systematic study of sputtered thin films of Au, Rh, Pg Pd, Cu, and Cr, using in situ ellipsometry. Multiple data sets were obtained in situ for each film material with incremental thicknesses and were analyzed with their correlation in mind. We found that in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry as a surface-sensitive tool can also be used to probe the growth and morphology of the thin film system. This application of in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry for metal thin film systems will be discussed

  9. Development and Testing of Tailored Tool Surfaces for Sheet Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulaiman, Mohd Hafis Bin

    MPa. The above mentioned simple experimental procedure for determining lubricant bulk modulus gives a first rough estimate, and it is supplemented by a more advanced laboratory test based on a newly designed equipment. The lubricant compressibility experiment with a direct pressure measurement inside...... to achieve this purpose. A simple laboratory test consisting of upsetting a specially designed metal cylinder with a lubricant reservoir together with elasto-plastic, numerical modelling of the metal cylinder is carried out in order to determine the bulk modulus at low pressure regimes of approximately 100...... for the manufacturing. The SRT tools were manufactured with longitudinal, shallow pocket geometries oriented perpendicular to the sliding direction. The pockets have small angles to the workpiece surface and varying distance. The experiments show an optimum distance between the pockets to exist that creates a table...

  10. Effect of electrical discharge machining on surface characteristics and machining damage of AISI D2 tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guu, Y.H.; Hocheng, H.; Chou, C.Y.; Deng, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    In this work the electrical discharge machining (EDM) of AISI D2 tool steel was investigated. The surface characteristics and machining damage caused by EDM were studied in terms of machining parameters. Based on the experimental data, an empirical model of the tool steel was also proposed. A new damage variable was used to study the EDM damage. The workpiece surface and re-solidified layers were examined by a scanning electron microscopy. Surface roughness was determined with a surface profilometer. The residual stress acting on the EDM specimen was measured by the X-ray diffraction technique. Experimental results indicate that the thickness of the recast layer, and surface roughness are proportional to the power input. The EDM process introduces tensile residual stress on the machined surface. The EDM damage leads to strength degradation

  11. The optimization study on the tool wear of carbide cutting tool during milling Carbon Fibre Reinforced (CFRP) using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor Khairusshima, M. K.; Hafiz Zakwan, B. Muhammad; Suhaily, M.; Sharifah, I. S. S.; Shaffiar, N. M.; Rashid, M. A. N.

    2018-01-01

    Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) composite has become one of famous materials in industry, such as automotive, aeronautics, aerospace and aircraft. CFRP is attractive due to its properties, which promising better strength and high specification of mechanical properties other than its high resistance to corrosion. Other than being abrasive material due to the carbon nature, CFRP is an anisotropic material, which the knowledge of machining metal and steel cannot be applied during machining CFRP. The improper technique and parameters used to machine CFRP may result in high tool wear. This paper is to study the tool wear of 8 mm diameter carbide cutting tool during milling CFRP. To predict the suitable cutting parameters within range of 3500-6220 (rev/min), 200-245 (mm/min), and 0.4-1.8 (mm) for cutting speed, speed, feed rate and depth of cut respectively, which produce optimized result (less tool wear), Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been used. Based on the developed mathematical model, feed rate was identified as the primary significant item that influenced tool wear. The optimized cutting parameters are cutting speed, feed and depth of cut of 3500 rev/min, 200 mm/min and 0.5 mm, respectively, with tool wear of 0.0267 mm. It is also can be observed that as the cutting speed and feed rate increased the tool wear is increasing.

  12. Strategic Evaluation Tool for Surface Water Quality Management Remedies in Drinking Water Catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Almaaofi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water catchments (DWC are under pressure from point and nonpoint source pollution due to the growing human activities. This worldwide challenge is causing number of adverse effects, such as degradation in water quality, ecosystem health, and other economic and social pressures. Different evaluation tools have been developed to achieve sustainable and healthy drinking water catchments. However, a holistic and strategic framework is still required to adequately consider the uncertainty associated with feasible management remedies of surface water quality in drinking water catchments. A strategic framework was developed to adequately consider the uncertainty associated with management remedies for surface water quality in drinking water catchments. A Fuzzy Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis (FMCDA approach was embedded into a strategic decision support framework to evaluate and rank water quality remediation options within a typical fixed budget constraint faced by bulk water providers. The evaluation framework consists of four core aspects; namely, water quality, environmental, economic and social, and number of associated quantitative and qualitative criteria and sub-criteria. Final remediation strategy ranking was achieved through the application of the Euclidean Distance by the In-center of Centroids (EDIC.

  13. Temporal aspects of surface water quality variation using robust statistical tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Adamu; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Juahir, Hafizan

    2012-01-01

    Robust statistical tools were applied on the water quality datasets with the aim of determining the most significance parameters and their contribution towards temporal water quality variation. Surface water samples were collected from four different sampling points during dry and wet seasons and analyzed for their physicochemical constituents. Discriminant analysis (DA) provided better results with great discriminatory ability by using five parameters with (P < 0.05) for dry season affording more than 96% correct assignation and used five and six parameters for forward and backward stepwise in wet season data with P-value (P < 0.05) affording 68.20% and 82%, respectively. Partial correlation results revealed that there are strong (r(p) = 0.829) and moderate (r(p) = 0.614) relationships between five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), total solids (TS) and dissolved solids (DS) controlling for the linear effect of nitrogen in the form of ammonia (NH(3)) and conductivity for dry and wet seasons, respectively. Multiple linear regression identified the contribution of each variable with significant values r = 0.988, R(2) = 0.976 and r = 0.970, R(2) = 0.942 (P < 0.05) for dry and wet seasons, respectively. Repeated measure t-test confirmed that the surface water quality varies significantly between the seasons with significant value P < 0.05.

  14. Fluorescence spectral imaging as a tool for locating uranium deposited on surfaces - 16089

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monts, David L.; Wang, Guangjun; Su, Yi; Jang, Ping-Rey; Waggoner, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    In the environment, metallic uranium readily oxidizes to form uranium compounds that contain the uranyl (UO 2 +2 ) moiety. For more than a hundred and fifty years, it has been known that when illuminated with ultraviolet (UV) light, uranyl compounds exhibit characteristic fluorescence in the visible region (450-650 nm). We report our efforts to develop a transportable, quantitative Fluorescence Spectral Imaging (FSI) system as a tool for locating and quantifying uranyl compounds dispersed in soils and on other surfaces. A project is underway to develop a set of sensors to locate expended depleted uranium (DU) rounds and to process soil and debris to recover the material from domestic firing ranges. The FSI system can also be utilized to monitor excavation of DU munitions and separation of uranyl compounds from soils. FSI images are acquired by illuminating a surface with a UV light and using a narrow band pass filter on a camera, recording an image of the resulting fluorescence. The FSI image provides both spatial and spectral information. The FSI system is described and its performance characterized using field samples. (authors)

  15. GEOQUIMICO : an interactive tool for comparing sorption conceptual models (surface complexation modeling versus K[D])

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Glenn E.; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Within reactive geochemical transport, several conceptual models exist for simulating sorption processes in the subsurface. Historically, the K D approach has been the method of choice due to ease of implementation within a reactive transport model and straightforward comparison with experimental data. However, for modeling complex sorption phenomenon (e.g. sorption of radionuclides onto mineral surfaces), this approach does not systematically account for variations in location, time, or chemical conditions, and more sophisticated methods such as a surface complexation model (SCM) must be utilized. It is critical to determine which conceptual model to use; that is, when the material variation becomes important to regulatory decisions. The geochemical transport tool GEOQUIMICO has been developed to assist in this decision-making process. GEOQUIMICO provides a user-friendly framework for comparing the accuracy and performance of sorption conceptual models. The model currently supports the K D and SCM conceptual models. The code is written in the object-oriented Java programming language to facilitate model development and improve code portability. The basic theory underlying geochemical transport and the sorption conceptual models noted above is presented in this report. Explanations are provided of how these physicochemical processes are instrumented in GEOQUIMICO and a brief verification study comparing GEOQUIMICO results to data found in the literature is given

  16. Nexusing Charcoal in South Mozambique: A Proposal To Integrate the Nexus Charcoal-Food-Water Analysis With a Participatory Analytical and Systemic Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Martins

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Nexus analysis identifies and explores the synergies and trade-offs between energy, food and water systems, considered as interdependent systems interacting with contextual drivers (e.g., climate change, poverty. The nexus is, thus, a valuable analytical and policy design supporting tool to address the widely discussed links between bioenergy, food and water. In fact, the Nexus provides a more integrative and broad approach in relation to the single isolated system approach that characterizes many bioenergy analysis and policies of the last decades. In particular, for the South of Mozambique, charcoal production, food insecurity and water scarcity have been related in separated studies and, thus, it would be expected that Nexus analysis has the potential to provide the basis for integrated policies and strategies focused on charcoal as a development factor. However, to date there is no Nexus analysis focused on charcoal in Mozambique, neither is there an assessment of the comprehensiveness and relevance of Nexus analysis when applied to charcoal energy systems. To address these gaps, this work applies the Nexus to the charcoal-food-water system in Mozambique, integrating national, regional and international studies analysing the isolated, or pairs of, systems. This integration results in a novel Nexus analysis graphic for charcoal-food-water relationship. Then, to access the comprehensiveness and depth of analysis, this Nexus analysis is critically compared with the 2MBio-A, a systems analytical and design framework based on a design tool specifically developed for Bioenergy (the 2MBio. The results reveal that Nexus analysis is “blind” to specific fundamental social, ecological and socio-historical dynamics of charcoal energy systems. The critical comparison also suggests the need to integrate the high level systems analysis of Nexus with non-deterministic, non-prescriptive participatory analysis tools, like the 2MBio-A, as a means to

  17. Laser surface modification of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coating on AISI H13 tool steel substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, M. S.; Aqida, S. N.; Ismail, I.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents laser surface modification of plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating to seal porosity defect. Laser surface modification on plasma sprayed YSZ was conducted using 300W JK300HPS Nd: YAG laser at different operating parameters. Parameters varied were laser power and pulse frequency with constant residence time. The coating thickness was measured using IM7000 inverted optical microscope and surface roughness was analysed using two-dimensional Mitutoyo Surface Roughness Tester. Surface roughness of laser surface modification of YSZ H-13 tool steel decreased significantly with increasing laser power and decreasing pulse frequency. The re-melted YSZ coating showed higher hardness properties compared to as-sprayed coating surface. These findings were significant to enhance thermal barrier coating surface integrity for dies in semi-solid processing.

  18. Neurophysiological analytics for all! Free open-source software tools for documenting, analyzing, visualizing, and sharing using electronic notebooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, David M; Horn, Charles C

    2016-08-01

    Neurophysiology requires an extensive workflow of information analysis routines, which often includes incompatible proprietary software, introducing limitations based on financial costs, transfer of data between platforms, and the ability to share. An ecosystem of free open-source software exists to fill these gaps, including thousands of analysis and plotting packages written in Python and R, which can be implemented in a sharable and reproducible format, such as the Jupyter electronic notebook. This tool chain can largely replace current routines by importing data, producing analyses, and generating publication-quality graphics. An electronic notebook like Jupyter allows these analyses, along with documentation of procedures, to display locally or remotely in an internet browser, which can be saved as an HTML, PDF, or other file format for sharing with team members and the scientific community. The present report illustrates these methods using data from electrophysiological recordings of the musk shrew vagus-a model system to investigate gut-brain communication, for example, in cancer chemotherapy-induced emesis. We show methods for spike sorting (including statistical validation), spike train analysis, and analysis of compound action potentials in notebooks. Raw data and code are available from notebooks in data supplements or from an executable online version, which replicates all analyses without installing software-an implementation of reproducible research. This demonstrates the promise of combining disparate analyses into one platform, along with the ease of sharing this work. In an age of diverse, high-throughput computational workflows, this methodology can increase efficiency, transparency, and the collaborative potential of neurophysiological research. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. A new mathematical model of the surface degradation causing wear on the cutting tool`s flank land

    OpenAIRE

    Pаlmai, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Having reviewed the extensive literature on the wear of the cutting tool, we chose the theoretical description of flank wear as the subject matter of this paper. Based on the optical electron-optical and morphological studies of the physical characteristics of wear processes we came to the conclusion that the cutting distance need not only be taken into consideration in abrasive, adhesive processes but also in thermally activated diffusion, oxidation processes. Consequently, we propose the ap...

  20. Evaluation on machined surface of hardened stainless steel generated by hard turning using coated carbide tools with wiper geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noordin, M.Y.; Kurniawan, D.; Sharif, S.

    2007-01-01

    Hard turning has been explored to be the finish machining operation for parts made of hardened steel. Its feasibility is determined partially by the quality of the resulting machined surface. This study evaluates the surface integrity of martensitic stainless steel (48 HRC) resulting from hard turning using coated carbide tool with wiper geometry at various cutting speed and feed and compares to that obtained using coated carbide tool with conventional geometry. The wiper coated carbide tool is able to produce machined surface which is of finer finish (Ra is finer than 0.4 μm at most cutting parameters) and yet is similarly inducing only minor microstructural alteration compared to its conventional counterpart. From the view of the chip morphology where continuous type of chip is desired rather than sawtooth chip type, the wiper tool generates continuous chip at almost similar range of cutting parameters compared to the case when using conventional tool. Additionally, the use of wiper tool also induces the preferred compressive residual stress at the machined surface. (author)

  1. ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE FINISH AND DIMENSIONAL ACCURACY OF TOOLS MANUFACTURED BY METAL CASTING IN RAPID PROTOTYPING SAND MOULDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyembwe, K.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an initial assessment of the quality parameters of the surface finish and dimensional accuracy of tools made by metal casting in rapid prototyping (RP sand moulds is undertaken. A case study from a local tool room, dealing with the manufacturing of an aluminium die for the lost wax process, is employed. Modern techniques, including surface roughness analysis and three dimensional scanning, are used to determine and understand how each manufacturing step influences the final quality of the cast tool. The best surface finish obtained for the cast die had arithmetic average roughness (Ra and mean average roughness (Rz respectively equal to 3.23m and 11.38m. In terms of dimensional accuracy, 82% of cast-die points coincided with the Computer Aided Design (CAD data, which is within the typical tolerances of sand cast products. The investigation shows that mould coating contributes slightly to the improvement of the cast tool surface finish. The study also found that the additive manufacturing of the sand mould was the chief factor responsible for the loss of dimensional accuracy. These findings indicate that machining will always be required to improve the surface finish and the dimensional accuracy of cast tools in RP sand moulds.

  2. SWRT: A package for semi-analytical solutions of surface wave propagation, including mode conversion, across transversely aligned vertical discontinuities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Arjun

    2018-03-01

    We present a suite of programs that implement decades-old algorithms for computation of seismic surface wave reflection and transmission coefficients at a welded contact between two laterally homogeneous quarter-spaces. For Love as well as Rayleigh waves, the algorithms are shown to be capable of modelling multiple mode conversions at a lateral discontinuity, which was not shown in the original publications or in the subsequent literature. Only normal incidence at a lateral boundary is considered so there is no Love-Rayleigh coupling, but incidence of any mode and coupling to any (other) mode can be handled. The code is written in Python and makes use of SciPy's Simpson's rule integrator and NumPy's linear algebra solver for its core functionality. Transmission-side results from this code are found to be in good agreement with those from finite-difference simulations. In today's research environment of extensive computing power, the coded algorithms are arguably redundant but SWRT can be used as a valuable testing tool for the ever evolving numerical solvers of seismic wave propagation. SWRT is available via GitHub (https://github.com/arjundatta23/SWRT.git).

  3. SWRT: A package for semi-analytical solutions of surface wave propagation, including mode conversion, across transversely aligned vertical discontinuities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Datta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a suite of programs that implement decades-old algorithms for computation of seismic surface wave reflection and transmission coefficients at a welded contact between two laterally homogeneous quarter-spaces. For Love as well as Rayleigh waves, the algorithms are shown to be capable of modelling multiple mode conversions at a lateral discontinuity, which was not shown in the original publications or in the subsequent literature. Only normal incidence at a lateral boundary is considered so there is no Love–Rayleigh coupling, but incidence of any mode and coupling to any (other mode can be handled. The code is written in Python and makes use of SciPy's Simpson's rule integrator and NumPy's linear algebra solver for its core functionality. Transmission-side results from this code are found to be in good agreement with those from finite-difference simulations. In today's research environment of extensive computing power, the coded algorithms are arguably redundant but SWRT can be used as a valuable testing tool for the ever evolving numerical solvers of seismic wave propagation. SWRT is available via GitHub (https://github.com/arjundatta23/SWRT.git.

  4. Study on Surface Integrity of AISI 1045 Carbon Steel when machined by Carbide Cutting Tool under wet conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamin N. Fauzi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of surface roughness and roughness profiles when machining carbon steel under wet conditions with low and high cutting speeds. The workpiece materials and cutting tools selected in this research were AISI 1045 carbon steel and canela carbide inserts graded PM25, respectively. The cutting tools undergo machining tests by CNC turning operations and their performances were evaluated by their surface roughness value and observation of the surface roughness profile. The machining tests were held at varied cutting speeds of 35 to 53 m/min, feed rate of 0.15 to 0.50 mm/rev and a constant depth of cut of 1 mm. From the analysis, it was found that surface roughness increased as the feed rate increased. Varian of surface roughness was suspected due to interaction between cutting speeds and feed rates as well as nose radius conditions; whether from tool wear or the formation of a built-up edge. This study helps us understand the effect of cutting speed and feed rate on surface integrity, when machining AISI 1045 carbon steel using carbide cutting tools, under wet cutting conditions.

  5. Development of Pseudorandom Binary Arrays for Calibration of Surface Profile Metrology Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, S.K.; Takacs, P.; Soldate, P.; Anderson, E.H.; Cambie, R.; McKinney, W.R.; Voronov, D.L.; Yashchuk, V.V.

    2009-01-01

    Optical metrology tools, especially for short wavelengths (extreme ultraviolet and x-ray), must cover a wide range of spatial frequencies from the very low, which affects figure, to the important mid-spatial frequencies and the high spatial frequency range, which produces undesirable scattering. A major difficulty in using surface profilometers arises due to the unknown point-spread function (PSF) of the instruments [G. D. Boreman, Modulation Transfer Function in Optical and Electro-Optical Systems (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 2001)] that is responsible for distortion of the measured surface profile. Generally, the distortion due to the PSF is difficult to account for because the PSF is a complex function that comes to the measurement via the convolution operation, while the measured profile is described with a real function. Accounting for instrumental PSF becomes significantly simpler if the result of measurement of a profile is presented in the spatial frequency domain as a power spectral density (PSD) distribution [J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 3rd ed. (Roberts and Company, Englewood, CO, 2005)]. For example, measured PSD distributions provide a closed set of data necessary for three-dimensional calculations of scattering of light by the optical surfaces [E. L. Church et al., Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 18, 125 (1979); J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering, 2nd ed. (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA, 1995)]. The distortion of the surface PSD distribution due to the PSF can be modeled with the modulation transfer function (MTF), which is defined over the spatial frequency bandwidth of the instrument. The measured PSD distribution can be presented as a product of the squared MTF and the ideal PSD distribution inherent for the system under test. Therefore, the instrumental MTF can be evaluated by comparing a measured PSD distribution of a known test surface with the corresponding ideal numerically simulated PSD. The square root of the ratio of the

  6. Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry, a process analytical technology tool for real-time process monitoring in botanical drug manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Zeng, Shanshan; Chen, Teng; Qu, Haibin

    2014-03-01

    A promising process analytical technology (PAT) tool has been introduced for batch processes monitoring. Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS), a means of rapid fingerprint analysis, was applied to a percolation process with multi-constituent substances for an anti-cancer botanical preparation. Fifteen batches were carried out, including ten normal operations and five abnormal batches with artificial variations. The obtained multivariate data were analyzed by a multi-way partial least squares (MPLS) model. Control trajectories were derived from eight normal batches, and the qualification was tested by R(2) and Q(2). Accuracy and diagnosis capability of the batch model were then validated by the remaining batches. Assisted with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination, process faults were explained by corresponding variable contributions. Furthermore, a batch level model was developed to compare and assess the model performance. The present study has demonstrated that DART-MS is very promising in process monitoring in botanical manufacturing. Compared with general PAT tools, DART-MS offers a particular account on effective compositions and can be potentially used to improve batch quality and process consistency of samples in complex matrices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Health Heritage© a web-based tool for the collection and assessment of family health history: initial user experience and analytic validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, W F; Ropka, M E; Pelletier, S L; Barrett, J R; Kinzie, M B; Harrison, M B; Liu, Z; Miesfeldt, S; Tucker, A L; Worrall, B B; Gibson, J; Mullins, I M; Elward, K S; Franko, J; Guterbock, T M; Knaus, W A

    2010-01-01

    A detailed family health history is currently the most potentially useful tool for diagnosis and risk assessment in clinical genetics. We developed and evaluated the usability and analytic validity of a patient-driven web-based family health history collection and analysis tool. Health Heritage(©) guides users through the collection of their family health history by relative, generates a pedigree, completes risk assessment, stratification, and recommendations for 89 conditions. We compared the performance of Health Heritage to that of Usual Care using a nonrandomized cohort trial of 109 volunteers. We contrasted the completeness and sensitivity of family health history collection and risk assessments derived from Health Heritage and Usual Care to those obtained by genetic counselors and genetic assessment teams. Nearly half (42%) of the Health Heritage participants reported discovery of health risks; 63% found the information easy to understand and 56% indicated it would change their health behavior. Health Heritage consistently outperformed Usual Care in the completeness and accuracy of family health history collection, identifying 60% of the elevated risk conditions specified by the genetic team versus 24% identified by Usual Care. Health Heritage also had greater sensitivity than Usual Care when comparing the identification of risks. These results suggest a strong role for automated family health history collection and risk assessment and underscore the potential of these data to serve as the foundation for comprehensive, cost-effective personalized genomic medicine. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Pulse laser induced change in thermal radiation from a single spherical particle on thermally bad conducting surface : an analytical solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moksin, M.M.; Grozescu, V.I.; Yunus, W.M.M.; Azmi, B.Z.; Talib, Z.A.; Wahab, Z.A.

    1996-01-01

    A relatively simple analytical expression was derived that provided a description of the radius and thermal properties of a single particle from the change in grey body radiation emission subsequent to pulse laser heating of the particle

  9. Analytical and numerical calculation of magnetic field distribution in the slotted air-gap of tangential surface permanent-magnet motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boughrara Kamel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analytical and numerical analysis of the flux density distribution in the slotted air gap of permanent magnet motors with surface mounted tangentially magnetized permanent magnets. Two methods for magnetostatic field calculations are developed. The first one is an analytical method in which the effect of stator slots is taken into account by modulating the magnetic field distribution by the complex relative air gap permeance. The second one is a numerical method using 2-D finite element analysis with consideration of Dirichlet and anti-periodicity (periodicity boundary conditions and Lagrange Multipliers for simulation of movement. The results obtained by the analytical method are compared to the results of finite-element analysis.

  10. Prediction Of Tensile And Shear Strength Of Friction Surfaced Tool Steel Deposit By Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Hussain, M.; Pitchi Raju, V.; Kandasamy, J.; Govardhan, D.

    2018-04-01

    Friction surface treatment is well-established solid technology and is used for deposition, abrasion and corrosion protection coatings on rigid materials. This novel process has wide range of industrial applications, particularly in the field of reclamation and repair of damaged and worn engineering components. In this paper, we present the prediction of tensile and shear strength of friction surface treated tool steel using ANN for simulated results of friction surface treatment. This experiment was carried out to obtain tool steel coatings of low carbon steel parts by changing contribution process parameters essentially friction pressure, rotational speed and welding speed. The simulation is performed by a 33-factor design that takes into account the maximum and least limits of the experimental work performed with the 23-factor design. Neural network structures, such as the Feed Forward Neural Network (FFNN), were used to predict tensile and shear strength of tool steel sediments caused by friction.

  11. Distributed Temperature Sensing - a Useful Tool for Investigation of Surface Water - Groundwater Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, T.; Hahn-Woernle, L.; Sunarjo, B.; Thum, T.; Schneider, P.; Schirmer, M.; Cirpka, O. A.

    2009-04-01

    ). From the travel time and attenuation of the diurnal time signal, we estimated the apparent velocity and diffusivity of temperature propagation, which then can be used to quantify infiltration rates. A particular strength of the new measuring technique lies in the high spatial and temporal resolution, enabling us to detect non-uniformity and temporal changes in vertical water fluxes. In the side-channels, we have laterally laid out optical fibers to detect zones of groundwater discharge. As groundwater temperatures differ from river temperatures, local exfiltration of groundwater leads to a local change of the temperature at the river bottom. A limitation of lateral DTS data is that exchange rates cannot directly be quantified. Therefore, we used DTS for streambed temperature mapping. Then certain exfiltration zones undergo further investigation using time series of streambed temperature profiles obtained in piezometers. J. Keery, A. Binley, N. Crook and J.W.N. Smith (2007) Temporal and spatial variability of groundwater-surface water fluxes: Development and application of an analytical method using temperature time series, Journal of Hydrology, 336, 1-16.

  12. CorRECTreatment: a web-based decision support tool for rectal cancer treatment that uses the analytic hierarchy process and decision tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suner, A; Karakülah, G; Dicle, O; Sökmen, S; Çelikoğlu, C C

    2015-01-01

    The selection of appropriate rectal cancer treatment is a complex multi-criteria decision making process, in which clinical decision support systems might be used to assist and enrich physicians' decision making. The objective of the study was to develop a web-based clinical decision support tool for physicians in the selection of potentially beneficial treatment options for patients with rectal cancer. The updated decision model contained 8 and 10 criteria in the first and second steps respectively. The decision support model, developed in our previous study by combining the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method which determines the priority of criteria and decision tree that formed using these priorities, was updated and applied to 388 patients data collected retrospectively. Later, a web-based decision support tool named corRECTreatment was developed. The compatibility of the treatment recommendations by the expert opinion and the decision support tool was examined for its consistency. Two surgeons were requested to recommend a treatment and an overall survival value for the treatment among 20 different cases that we selected and turned into a scenario among the most common and rare treatment options in the patient data set. In the AHP analyses of the criteria, it was found that the matrices, generated for both decision steps, were consistent (consistency ratiodecisions of experts, the consistency value for the most frequent cases was found to be 80% for the first decision step and 100% for the second decision step. Similarly, for rare cases consistency was 50% for the first decision step and 80% for the second decision step. The decision model and corRECTreatment, developed by applying these on real patient data, are expected to provide potential users with decision support in rectal cancer treatment processes and facilitate them in making projections about treatment options.

  13. Effect of tool plunge depth on reinforcement particles distribution in surface composite fabrication via friction stir processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Rathee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium matrix surface composites are gaining alluring role especially in aerospace, defence, and marine industries. Friction stir processing (FSP is a promising novel solid state technique for surface composites fabrication. In this study, AA6061/SiC surface composites were fabricated and the effect of tool plunge depth on pattern of reinforcement particles dispersion in metal matrix was investigated. Six varying tool plunge depths were chosen at constant levels of shoulder diameter and tool tilt angle to observe the exclusive effect of plunge variation. Process parameters chosen for the experimentation are speed of rotation, travel speed and tool tilt angle which were taken as 1400 rpm, 40 mm/min, and 2.5°respectively. Macro and the microstructural study were performed using stereo zoom and optical microscope respectively. Results reflected that lower plunge depth levels lead to insufficient heat generation and cavity formation towards the stir zone center. On the other hand, higher levels of plunge depth result in ejection of reinforcement particles and even sticking of material to tool shoulder. Thus, an optimal plunge depth is needed in developing defect free surface composites.

  14. Surface Roughness and Tool Wear on Cryogenic Treated CBN Insert on Titanium and Inconel 718 Alloy Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thamizhmanii, S; Mohideen, R; Zaidi, A M A; Hasan, S

    2015-01-01

    Machining of materials by super hard tools like cubic boron nitride (cbn) and poly cubic boron nitride (pcbn) is to reduce tool wear to obtain dimensional accuracy, smooth surface and more number of parts per cutting edge. wear of tools is inevitable due to rubbing action between work material and tool edge. however, the tool wear can be minimized by using super hard tools by enhancing the strength of the cutting inserts. one such process is cryogenic process. this process is used in all materials and cutting inserts which requires wear resistance. the cryogenic process is executed under subzero temperature -186° celsius for longer period of time in a closed chamber which contains liquid nitrogen. in this research, cbn inserts with cryogenically treated was used to turn difficult to cut metals like titanium, inconel 718 etc. the turning parameters used is different cutting speeds, feed rates and depth of cut. in this research, titanium and inconel 718 material were used. the results obtained are surface roughness, flank wear and crater wear. the surface roughness obtained on titanium was lower at high cutting speed compared with inconel 718. the flank wear was low while turning titanium than inconel 718. crater wear is less on inconel 718 than titanium alloy. all the two materials produced saw tooth chips. (paper)

  15. Evaluation of Surface Roughness and Power Consumption in Machining FCD 450 Cast Iron using Coated and Uncoated Irregular Milling Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusoff, Ahmad Razlan; Arsyad, Fitriyanti

    2016-01-01

    In this project, the effects of different cutting parameters on surface roughness and power consumption when machining FCD450 cast iron were studied using coated and uncoated irregular milling tool geometry of variable helix and pitch. Their responses on roughness and power consumption were evaluated based on the spindle speed, feed rate, and depth of cut, machining length and machining time. Results showed that except spindle speed and machining length, other parameters such as feed rate, axial and radial depth of cut and also machining time proportionate with surface roughness. The power consumption proportionately increase for all cutting parameters except feedrate. It is showed that the average decrement 27.92 percent for surface roughness and average decrement 9.32 percent for power consumption by using coated compared to uncoated tool. Optimum cutting parameters for both minimum surface roughness and power consumption can be determined. The coated tools performed better than uncoated milling tools for responses of surface roughness and power consumption to increase machining productivity and profit. (paper)

  16. Analyticity and the Global Information Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeni A. Solov'ev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The relation between analyticity in mathematics and the concept of a global information field in physics is reviewed. Mathematics is complete in the complex plane only. In the complex plane, a very powerful tool appears—analyticity. According to this property, if an analytic function is known on the countable set of points having an accumulation point, then it is known everywhere. This mysterious property has profound consequences in quantum physics. Analyticity allows one to obtain asymptotic (approximate results in terms of some singular points in the complex plane which accumulate all necessary data on a given process. As an example, slow atomic collisions are presented, where the cross-sections of inelastic transitions are determined by branch-points of the adiabatic energy surface at a complex internuclear distance. Common aspects of the non-local nature of analyticity and a recently introduced interpretation of classical electrodynamics and quantum physics as theories of a global information field are discussed.

  17. SWToolbox: A surface-water tool-box for statistical analysis of streamflow time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Julie E.; Flynn, Kate; Zhai, Tong; Hummel, Paul; Granato, Gregory

    2018-03-07

    This report is a user guide for the low-flow analysis methods provided with version 1.0 of the Surface Water Toolbox (SWToolbox) computer program. The software combines functionality from two software programs—U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) SWSTAT and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) DFLOW. Both of these programs have been used primarily for computation of critical low-flow statistics. The main analysis methods are the computation of hydrologic frequency statistics such as the 7-day minimum flow that occurs on average only once every 10 years (7Q10), computation of design flows including biologically based flows, and computation of flow-duration curves and duration hydrographs. Other annual, monthly, and seasonal statistics can also be computed. The interface facilitates retrieval of streamflow discharge data from the USGS National Water Information System and outputs text reports for a record of the analysis. Tools for graphing data and screening tests are available to assist the analyst in conducting the analysis.

  18. Assessing total nitrogen in surface-water samples--precision and bias of analytical and computational methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, David L.; Patton, Charles J.; Mueller, David K.; Crawford, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    concentrations up to 750 mg/L (median of -4.4 percent). This lent support to the laboratory-experiment finding that some particulate nitrogen is sequestered during the digestion process, and demonstrated that negative TN-A bias was present in samples with very low suspended-sediment concentrations. At sediment concentrations above 750 mg/L, the negative TN-A bias became more likely and larger (median of -13.2 percent), suggesting a secondary mechanism of bias, such as reagent limitation. From a geospatial perspective, trends in TN-A bias were not explained by selected basin characteristics. Though variable, TN-K bias generally was positive in the synoptic-field study (median of 3.1 percent), probably as a result of the reduction of nitrate. Three alternative approaches for assessing TN in surface water were evaluated for their impacts on existing and future sampling programs. Replacing TN-A with TN-C would remove the bias from subsequent data, but this approach also would introduce discontinuity in historical records. Replacing TN-K with TN-C would lead to the removal of positive bias in TN-K in the presence of elevated nitrate. However, in addition to the issues that may arise from a discontinuity in the data record, this approach may not be applicable to regulatory programs that require the use of total Kjeldahl nitrogen for stream assessment. By adding TN-C to existing TN-A or TN-K analyses, historical-data continuity would be preserved and the transitional period could be used to minimize the impact of bias on data analyses. This approach, however, imposes the greatest burdens on field operations and in terms of analytical costs. The variation in these impacts on different sampling programs will challenge U.S. Geological Survey scientists attempting to establish uniform standards for TN sample collection and analytical determinations.

  19. Mathematical Modelling and Optimization of Cutting Force, Tool Wear and Surface Roughness by Using Artificial Neural Network and Response Surface Methodology in Milling of Ti-6242S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Kilickap

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental study was conducted to determine the effect of different cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut on cutting force, surface roughness, and tool wear in the milling of Ti-6242S alloy using the cemented carbide (WC end mills with a 10 mm diameter. Data obtained from experiments were defined both Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Response Surface Methodology (RSM. ANN trained network using Levenberg-Marquardt (LM and weights were trained. On the other hand, the mathematical models in RSM were created applying Box Behnken design. Values obtained from the ANN and the RSM was found to be very close to the data obtained from experimental studies. The lowest cutting force and surface roughness were obtained at high cutting speeds and low feed rate and depth of cut. The minimum tool wear was obtained at low cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut.

  20. Effect of the Ultrasonic Nanocrystalline Surface Modification (UNSM on Bulk and 3D-Printed AISI H13 Tool Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sik Cho

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the microstructure, hardness, and tribological properties of two different AISI H13 tool steels—classified as the bulk with no heat treatment steel or the 3D-printed steel—was undertaken. Both samples were subjected to ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM to further enhance their mechanical properties and improve their tribological behavior. The objective of this study was to compare the mechanical properties and tribological behavior of these tool steels since steel can exhibit a wide variety of mechanical properties depending on different manufacturing processes. The surface hardness of the samples was measured using a micro-Vickers hardness tester. The hardness of the 3D-printed AISI H13 tool steel was found to be much higher than that of the bulk one. The surface morphology of the samples was characterized by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD in order to analyze the grain size and number of fractions with respect to the misorientation angle. The results revealed that the grain size of the 3D-printed AISI H13 tool steel was less than 0.5 μm, whereas that of the bulk tool steel was greater than 4 μm. The number of fractions of the bulk tool steel was about 0.5 μm at a low misorientation angle, and it decreased gradually with increasing misorientation angle. The low-angle grain boundary (LAGB and high-angle grain boundary (HAGB of the bulk sample were about 21% and 79%, respectively, and those of the 3D-printed sample were about 8% and 92%, respectively. Moreover, the friction and wear behavior of the UNSM-treated AISI H13 tool steel specimen was better than those of the untreated one. This study demonstrated the capability of 3D-printed AISI H13 tool steel to exhibit excellent mechanical and tribological properties for industrial applications.

  1. The hydrogen abstraction reaction O(3P) + CH4: A new analytical potential energy surface based on fit to ab initio calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Lavado, Eloisa; Corchado, Jose C.; Espinosa-Garcia, Joaquin

    2014-01-01

    Based exclusively on high-level ab initio calculations, a new full-dimensional analytical potential energy surface (PES-2014) for the gas-phase reaction of hydrogen abstraction from methane by an oxygen atom is developed. The ab initio information employed in the fit includes properties (equilibrium geometries, relative energies, and vibrational frequencies) of the reactants, products, saddle point, points on the reaction path, and points on the reaction swath, taking especial caution respecting the location and characterization of the intermediate complexes in the entrance and exit channels. By comparing with the reference results we show that the resulting PES-2014 reproduces reasonably well the whole set of ab initio data used in the fitting, obtained at the CCSD(T) = FULL/aug-cc-pVQZ//CCSD(T) = FC/cc-pVTZ single point level, which represents a severe test of the new surface. As a first application, on this analytical surface we perform an extensive dynamics study using quasi-classical trajectory calculations, comparing the results with recent experimental and theoretical data. The excitation function increases with energy (concave-up) reproducing experimental and theoretical information, although our values are somewhat larger. The OH rotovibrational distribution is cold in agreement with experiment. Finally, our results reproduce experimental backward scattering distribution, associated to a rebound mechanism. These results lend confidence to the accuracy of the new surface, which substantially improves the results obtained with our previous surface (PES-2000) for the same system

  2. Analytic model of the stress waves propagation in thin wall tubes, seeking the location of a harmonic point source in its surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boaratti, Mario Francisco Guerra

    2006-01-01

    Leaks in pressurized tubes generate acoustic waves that propagate through the walls of these tubes, which can be captured by accelerometers or by acoustic emission sensors. The knowledge of how these walls can vibrate, or in another way, how these acoustic waves propagate in this material is fundamental in the detection and localization process of the leak source. In this work an analytic model was implemented, through the motion equations of a cylindrical shell, with the objective to understand the behavior of the tube surface excited by a point source. Since the cylindrical surface has a closed pattern in the circumferential direction, waves that are beginning their trajectory will meet with another that has already completed the turn over the cylindrical shell, in the clockwise direction as well as in the counter clockwise direction, generating constructive and destructive interferences. After enough time of propagation, peaks and valleys in the shell surface are formed, which can be visualized through a graphic representation of the analytic solution created. The theoretical results were proven through measures accomplished in an experimental setup composed of a steel tube finished in sand box, simulating the condition of infinite tube. To determine the location of the point source on the surface, the process of inverse solution was adopted, that is to say, known the signals of the sensor disposed in the tube surface , it is determined through the theoretical model where the source that generated these signals can be. (author)

  3. Analytical tools in accelerator physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, V.N.

    2010-09-01

    This paper is a sub-set of my lectures presented in the Accelerator Physics course (USPAS, Santa Rosa, California, January 14-25, 2008). It is based on my notes I wrote during period from 1976 to 1979 in Novosibirsk. Only few copies (in Russian) were distributed to my colleagues in Novosibirsk Institute of Nuclear Physics. The goal of these notes is a complete description starting from the arbitrary reference orbit, explicit expressions for 4-potential and accelerator Hamiltonian and finishing with parameterization with action and angle variables. To a large degree follow logic developed in Theory of Cyclic Particle Accelerators by A.A.Kolmensky and A.N.Lebedev [Kolomensky], but going beyond the book in a number of directions. One of unusual feature is these notes use of matrix function and Sylvester formula for calculating matrices of arbitrary elements. Teaching the USPAS course motivated me to translate significant part of my notes into the English. I also included some introductory materials following Classical Theory of Fields by L.D. Landau and E.M. Liftsitz [Landau]. A large number of short notes covering various techniques are placed in the Appendices.

  4. Analytic tools for Feynman integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, Vladimir A. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics

    2012-07-01

    Most powerful methods of evaluating Feynman integrals are presented. Reader will be able to apply them in practice. Contains numerous examples. The goal of this book is to describe the most powerful methods for evaluating multiloop Feynman integrals that are currently used in practice. This book supersedes the author's previous Springer book ''Evaluating Feynman Integrals'' and its textbook version ''Feynman Integral Calculus.'' Since the publication of these two books, powerful new methods have arisen and conventional methods have been improved on in essential ways. A further qualitative change is the fact that most of the methods and the corresponding algorithms have now been implemented in computer codes which are often public. In comparison to the two previous books, three new chapters have been added: One is on sector decomposition, while the second describes a new method by Lee. The third new chapter concerns the asymptotic expansions of Feynman integrals in momenta and masses, which were described in detail in another Springer book, ''Applied Asymptotic Expansions in Momenta and Masses,'' by the author. This chapter describes, on the basis of papers that appeared after the publication of said book, how to algorithmically discover the regions relevant to a given limit within the strategy of expansion by regions. In addition, the chapters on the method of Mellin-Barnes representation and on the method of integration by parts have been substantially rewritten, with an emphasis on the corresponding algorithms and computer codes.

  5. Analytic tools for Feynman integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Vladimir A.

    2012-01-01

    Most powerful methods of evaluating Feynman integrals are presented. Reader will be able to apply them in practice. Contains numerous examples. The goal of this book is to describe the most powerful methods for evaluating multiloop Feynman integrals that are currently used in practice. This book supersedes the author's previous Springer book ''Evaluating Feynman Integrals'' and its textbook version ''Feynman Integral Calculus.'' Since the publication of these two books, powerful new methods have arisen and conventional methods have been improved on in essential ways. A further qualitative change is the fact that most of the methods and the corresponding algorithms have now been implemented in computer codes which are often public. In comparison to the two previous books, three new chapters have been added: One is on sector decomposition, while the second describes a new method by Lee. The third new chapter concerns the asymptotic expansions of Feynman integrals in momenta and masses, which were described in detail in another Springer book, ''Applied Asymptotic Expansions in Momenta and Masses,'' by the author. This chapter describes, on the basis of papers that appeared after the publication of said book, how to algorithmically discover the regions relevant to a given limit within the strategy of expansion by regions. In addition, the chapters on the method of Mellin-Barnes representation and on the method of integration by parts have been substantially rewritten, with an emphasis on the corresponding algorithms and computer codes.

  6. Analytical tools in accelerator physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinenko, V.N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a sub-set of my lectures presented in the Accelerator Physics course (USPAS, Santa Rosa, California, January 14-25, 2008). It is based on my notes I wrote during period from 1976 to 1979 in Novosibirsk. Only few copies (in Russian) were distributed to my colleagues in Novosibirsk Institute of Nuclear Physics. The goal of these notes is a complete description starting from the arbitrary reference orbit, explicit expressions for 4-potential and accelerator Hamiltonian and finishing with parameterization with action and angle variables. To a large degree follow logic developed in Theory of Cyclic Particle Accelerators by A.A.Kolmensky and A.N.Lebedev (Kolomensky), but going beyond the book in a number of directions. One of unusual feature is these notes use of matrix function and Sylvester formula for calculating matrices of arbitrary elements. Teaching the USPAS course motivated me to translate significant part of my notes into the English. I also included some introductory materials following Classical Theory of Fields by L.D. Landau and E.M. Liftsitz (Landau). A large number of short notes covering various techniques are placed in the Appendices.

  7. Analytic Tools for Feynman Integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, Vladimir A

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this book is to describe the most powerful methods for evaluating multiloop Feynman integrals that are currently used in practice.  This book supersedes the author’s previous Springer book “Evaluating Feynman Integrals” and its textbook version “Feynman Integral Calculus.” Since the publication of these two books, powerful new methods have arisen and conventional methods have been improved on in essential ways. A further qualitative change is the fact that most of the methods and the corresponding algorithms have now been implemented in computer codes which are often public. In comparison to the two previous books, three new chapters have been added:  One is on sector decomposition, while the second describes a new method by Lee. The third new chapter concerns the asymptotic expansions of Feynman integrals in momenta and masses, which were described in detail in another Springer book, “Applied Asymptotic Expansions in Momenta and Masses,” by the author. This chapter describes, on t...

  8. Surface wear of TiN coated nickel tool during the injection moulding of polymer micro Fresnel lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gasparin, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Limited tool life of nickel mould inserts represents an issue for the mass-production of polymer optics with complex micro three-dimensional geometries by injection moulding. TiN coating was applied to a nickel insert for the injection moulding of polycarbonate micro Fresnel lenses. Surface wear...

  9. Friction Surface Cladding of AA1050 on AA2024-T351; influence of clad layer thickness and tool rotation rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shaojie; Bor, Teunis Cornelis; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Akkerman, Remko

    2015-01-01

    Friction Surfacing Cladding (FSC) is a recently developed solid state process to deposit thin metallic clad layers on a substrate. The process employs a rotating tool with a central opening to supply clad material and support the distribution and bonding of the clad material to the substrate. The

  10. SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION DEVELOPING NONINVASIVE TOOLS TO MONITOR PAST LEAKS AROUND HANFORD TANK FARMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MYERS DA; RUCKER DF; LEVITT MT; CUBBAGE B; NOONAN GE; MCNEILL M; HENDERSON C

    2011-06-17

    A characterization program has been developed at Hanford to image past leaks in and around the underground storage tank facilities. The program is based on electrical resistivity, a geophysical technique that maps the distribution of electrical properties of the subsurface. The method was shown to be immediately successful in open areas devoid of underground metallic infrastructure, due to the large contrast in material properties between the highly saline waste and the dry sandy host environment. The results in these areas, confirmed by a limited number of boreholes, demonstrate a tendency for the lateral extent of the underground waste plume to remain within the approximate footprint of the disposal facility. In infrastructure-rich areas, such as tank farms, the conventional application of electrical resistivity using small point-source surface electrodes initially presented a challenge for the resistivity method. The method was then adapted to directly use the buried infrastructure as electrodes for both transmission of electrical current and measurements of voltage. For example, steel-cased wells that surround the tanks were used as long electrodes, which helped to avoid much of the infrastructure problems. Overcoming the drawbacks of the long electrode method has been the focus of our work over the past seven years. The drawbacks include low vertical resolution and limited lateral coverage. The lateral coverage issue has been improved by supplementing the long electrodes with surface electrodes in areas devoid of infrastructure. The vertical resolution has been increased by developing borehole electrode arrays that can fit within the small-diameter drive casing of a direct push rig. The evolution of the program has led to some exceptional advances in the application of geophysical methods, including logistical deployment of the technology in hazardous areas, development of parallel processing resistivity inversion algorithms, and adapting the processing tools

  11. Cocaine in surface waters: a new evidence-based tool to monitor community drug abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccato, Ettore; Chiabrando, Chiara; Castiglioni, Sara; Calamari, Davide; Bagnati, Renzo; Schiarea, Silvia; Fanelli, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Background Cocaine use seems to be increasing in some urban areas worldwide, but it is not straightforward to determine the real extent of this phenomenon. Trends in drug abuse are currently estimated indirectly, mainly by large-scale social, medical, and crime statistics that may be biased or too generic. We thus tested a more direct approach based on 'field' evidence of cocaine use by the general population. Methods Cocaine and its main urinary metabolite (benzoylecgonine, BE) were measured by mass spectrometry in water samples collected from the River Po and urban waste water treatment plants of medium-size Italian cities. Drug concentration, water flow rate, and population at each site were used to estimate local cocaine consumption. Results We showed that cocaine and BE are present, and measurable, in surface waters of populated areas. The largest Italian river, the Po, with a five-million people catchment basin, steadily carried the equivalent of about 4 kg cocaine per day. This would imply an average daily use of at least 27 ± 5 doses (100 mg each) for every 1000 young adults, an estimate that greatly exceeds official national figures. Data from waste water treatment plants serving medium-size Italian cities were consistent with this figure. Conclusion This paper shows for the first time that an illicit drug, cocaine, is present in the aquatic environment, namely untreated urban waste water and a major river. We used environmental cocaine levels for estimating collective consumption of the drug, an approach with the unique potential ability to monitor local drug abuse trends in real time, while preserving the anonymity of individuals. The method tested here – in principle extendable to other drugs of abuse – might be further refined to become a standardized, objective tool for monitoring drug abuse. PMID:16083497

  12. Cocaine in surface waters: a new evidence-based tool to monitor community drug abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagnati Renzo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cocaine use seems to be increasing in some urban areas worldwide, but it is not straightforward to determine the real extent of this phenomenon. Trends in drug abuse are currently estimated indirectly, mainly by large-scale social, medical, and crime statistics that may be biased or too generic. We thus tested a more direct approach based on 'field' evidence of cocaine use by the general population. Methods Cocaine and its main urinary metabolite (benzoylecgonine, BE were measured by mass spectrometry in water samples collected from the River Po and urban waste water treatment plants of medium-size Italian cities. Drug concentration, water flow rate, and population at each site were used to estimate local cocaine consumption. Results We showed that cocaine and BE are present, and measurable, in surface waters of populated areas. The largest Italian river, the Po, with a five-million people catchment basin, steadily carried the equivalent of about 4 kg cocaine per day. This would imply an average daily use of at least 27 ± 5 doses (100 mg each for every 1000 young adults, an estimate that greatly exceeds official national figures. Data from waste water treatment plants serving medium-size Italian cities were consistent with this figure. Conclusion This paper shows for the first time that an illicit drug, cocaine, is present in the aquatic environment, namely untreated urban waste water and a major river. We used environmental cocaine levels for estimating collective consumption of the drug, an approach with the unique potential ability to monitor local drug abuse trends in real time, while preserving the anonymity of individuals. The method tested here – in principle extendable to other drugs of abuse – might be further refined to become a standardized, objective tool for monitoring drug abuse.

  13. A new dry-surface biofilm model: An essential tool for efficacy testing of hospital surface decontamination procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almatroudi, Ahmad; Hu, Honghua; Deva, Anand; Gosbell, Iain B; Jacombs, Anita; Jensen, Slade O; Whiteley, Greg; Glasbey, Trevor; Vickery, Karen

    2015-10-01

    The environment has been shown to be a source of pathogens causing infections in hospitalised patients. Incorporation of pathogens into biofilms, contaminating dry hospital surfaces, prolongs their survival and renders them tolerant to normal hospital cleaning and disinfection procedures. Currently there is no standard method for testing efficacy of detergents and disinfectants against biofilm formed on dry surfaces. The aim of this study was to develop a reproducible method of producing Staphylococcus aureus biofilm with properties similar to those of biofilm obtained from dry hospital clinical surfaces, for use in efficacy testing of decontamination products. The properties (composition, architecture) of model biofilm and biofilm obtained from clinical dry surfaces within an intensive care unit were compared. The CDC Biofilm Reactor was adapted to create a dry surface biofilm model. S. aureus ATCC 25923 was grown on polycarbonate coupons. Alternating cycles of dehydration and hydration in tryptone soy broth (TSB) were performed over 12 days. Number of biofilm bacteria attached to individual coupons was determined by plate culture and the coefficient of variation (CV%) calculated. The DNA, glycoconjugates and protein content of the biofilm were determined by analysing biofilm stained with SYTO 60, Alexa-488-labelled Aleuria aurantia lectin and SyproOrange respectively using Image J and Imaris software. Biofilm architecture was analysed using live/dead staining and confocal microscopy (CM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Model biofilm was compared to naturally formed biofilm containing S. aureus on dry clinical surfaces. The CDC Biofilm reactor reproducibly formed a multi-layered, biofilm containing about 10(7) CFU/coupon embedded in thick extracellular polymeric substances. Within run CV was 9.5% and the between run CV was 10.1%. Protein was the principal component of both the in vitro model biofilm and the biofilms found on clinical surfaces. Continued

  14. Development of a new analytical tool for assessing the mutagen 2-methyl-1,4-dinitro-pyrrole in meat products by LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molognoni, Luciano; Daguer, Heitor; de Sá Ploêncio, Leandro Antunes; Yotsuyanagi, Suzana Eri; da Silva Correa Lemos, Ana Lucia; Joussef, Antonio Carlos; De Dea Lindner, Juliano

    2018-08-01

    The use of sorbate and nitrite in meat processing may lead to the formation of 2-methyl-1,4-dinitro-pyrrole (DNMP), a mutagenic compound. This work was aimed at developing and validating an analytical method for the quantitation of DNMP by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Full validation was performed in accordance to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and method applicability was checked in several samples of meat products. A simple procedure, with low temperature partitioning solid-liquid extraction, was developed. The nitrosation during the extraction was monitored by the N-nitroso-DL-pipecolic acid content. Chromatographic separation was achieved in 8 min with di-isopropyl-3-aminopropyl silane bound to hydroxylated silica as stationary phase. Samples of bacon and cooked sausage yielded the highest concentrations of DNMP (68 ± 3 and 50 ± 3 μg kg -1 , respectively). The developed method proved to be a reliable, selective, and sensitive tool for DNMP measurements in meat products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The use of generalised audit software by internal audit functions in a developing country: The purpose of the use of generalised audit software as a data analytics tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. van der Nest

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the purpose of the use of generalised audit software as a data analytics tool by internal audit functions in the locally controlled banking industry of South Africa. The evolution of the traditional internal audit methodology of collecting audit evidence through the conduct of interviews, the completion of questionnaires, and by testing controls on a sample basis, is long overdue, and such practice in the present technological, data-driven era will soon render such an internal audit function obsolete. The research results indicate that respondents are utilising GAS for a variety of purposes but that its frequency of use is not yet optimal and that there is still much room for improvement for tests of controls purposes. The top five purposes for which the respondents make use of GAS often to always during separate internal audit engagements are: (1 to identify transactions with specific characteristics or control criteria for tests of control purposes; (2 for conducting full population analysis; (3 to identify account balances over a certain amount; (4 to identify and report on the frequency of occurrence of risks or frequency of occurrence of specific events; and (5 to obtain audit evidence about control effectiveness

  16. Investigations of Surface Topography of Hot Working Tool Steel Manufactured with the Use of 3D Print

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grobelny Pawel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the possibilities of 3D printing of chosen hot working tool steel for manufacturing ready made parts. Results of examination of the surface topography of material manufactured by the technology Laser CUSING®B (Laser melting with metals on the machine, Concept Laser M1 3D printing of metal parts has the potential to revolutionize the market of manufacturing and supplying parts. It makes it possible to dissipate manufacturing and to produce parts on request at lower cost and less energy consumption. The parameters of the surface topography of the hot working tool steel directly after printing can differ depending on the distance from the base plate. The differences of surface roughness values can amount from 32% to 85% for Ra and from 59% to 85% for Rz in comparison of the sample bottom to its top.

  17. Second International Workshop on Teaching Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatrapu, Ravi; Reimann, Peter; Halb, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Teaching Analytics is conceived as a subfield of learning analytics that focuses on the design, development, evaluation, and education of visual analytics methods and tools for teachers in primary, secondary, and tertiary educational settings. The Second International Workshop on Teaching Analytics...... (IWTA) 2013 seeks to bring together researchers and practitioners in the fields of education, learning sciences, learning analytics, and visual analytics to investigate the design, development, use, evaluation, and impact of visual analytical methods and tools for teachers’ dynamic diagnostic decision...

  18. Nano-objects as biomaterials: immense opportunities, significant challenges and the important use of surface analytical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, Donald R.; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam

    2017-05-30

    Nano-sized objects are increasingly important as biomaterials and their surfaces play critical roles in determining their beneficial or deleterious behaviors in biological systems. Important characteristics of nanomaterials that impact their application in many areas are described with a strong focus on the importance of particle surfaces and surface characterization. Understanding aspects of the inherent nature of nano-objects and the important role that surfaces play in these applications is a universal need for any research or product development using such materials in biological applications. The role of surface analysis methods in collecting critical information about the nature of particle surfaces and physicochemical properties of nano-objects is described along with the importance of including sample history and analysis results in a record of provenance information regarding specific batches of nano-objects.

  19. Reinforcement Toolbox, a Parametric Reinforcement Modelling Tool for Curved Surface Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauppe, J.; Rolvink, A.; Coenders, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a computational strategy and parametric modelling toolbox which aim at enhancing the design- and production process of reinforcement in freeform curved surface structures. The computational strategy encompasses the necessary steps of raising an architectural curved surface model

  20. An analytical solution to calculate bulk mole fractions for any number of components in aerosol droplets after considering partitioning to a surface layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Topping

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Calculating the equilibrium composition of atmospheric aerosol particles, using all variations of Köhler theory, has largely assumed that the total solute concentrations define both the water activity and surface tension. Recently however, bulk to surface phase partitioning has been postulated as a process which significantly alters the predicted point of activation. In this paper, an analytical solution to calculate the removal of material from a bulk to a surface layer in aerosol particles has been derived using a well established and validated surface tension framework. The applicability to an unlimited number of components is possible via reliance on data from each binary system. Whilst assumptions regarding behaviour at the surface layer have been made to facilitate derivation, it is proposed that the framework presented can capture the overall impact of bulk-surface partitioning. Demonstrations of the equations for two and five component mixtures are given while comparisons are made with more detailed frameworks capable at modelling ternary systems at higher levels of complexity. Predictions made by the model across a range of surface active properties should be tested against measurements. Indeed, reccomendations are given for experimental validation and to assess sensitivities to accuracy and required level of complexity within large scale frameworks. Importantly, the computational efficiency of using the solution presented in this paper is roughly a factor of 20 less than a similar iterative approach, a comparison with highly coupled approaches not available beyond a 3 component system.

  1. Laser transformation hardening effect on hardening zone features and surface hardness of tool steel AISI D2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lesyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship of technological input regimes of the laser transformation hardening on change the hardening depth, hardening width, and hardening angle, as well as surface hardness of the tool steel AISI D2 using multifactor experiment with elements of the analysis of variance and regression equations was determined. The laser transformation hardening process implemented by controlling the heating temperature using Nd:YAG fiber laser with scanner, pyrometer and proportional-integral-differential controller. The linear and quadratic regression models are developed, as well as response surface to determine the effect of the heating temperature and feed rate of the treated surface on the energy density of the laser beam, hardening depths, hardening width, hardening angle, and surface hardness are designed. The main effect on the energy density of the laser beam has a velocity laser treatment, on the other hand, the main effect on the geometrical parameters of the laser hardened zone and surface hardness has temperature heating are shown. The optimum magnitudes of the heating temperature (1270 °C and feed rate of the treated surface (90 mm/min for laser transformation hardening of the tool steel AISI D2 using fiber laser with scanner were defined.

  2. Analyzing the effect of cutting parameters on surface roughness and tool wear when machining nickel based hastelloy - 276

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khidhir, Basim A; Mohamed, Bashir

    2011-01-01

    Machining parameters has an important factor on tool wear and surface finish, for that the manufacturers need to obtain optimal operating parameters with a minimum set of experiments as well as minimizing the simulations in order to reduce machining set up costs. The cutting speed is one of the most important cutting parameter to evaluate, it clearly most influences on one hand, tool life, tool stability, and cutting process quality, and on the other hand controls production flow. Due to more demanding manufacturing systems, the requirements for reliable technological information have increased. For a reliable analysis in cutting, the cutting zone (tip insert-workpiece-chip system) as the mechanics of cutting in this area are very complicated, the chip is formed in the shear plane (entrance the shear zone) and is shape in the sliding plane. The temperature contributed in the primary shear, chamfer and sticking, sliding zones are expressed as a function of unknown shear angle on the rake face and temperature modified flow stress in each zone. The experiments were carried out on a CNC lathe and surface finish and tool tip wear are measured in process. Machining experiments are conducted. Reasonable agreement is observed under turning with high depth of cut. Results of this research help to guide the design of new cutting tool materials and the studies on evaluation of machining parameters to further advance the productivity of nickel based alloy Hastelloy - 276 machining.

  3. Time-varying surface electromyography topography as a prognostic tool for chronic low back pain rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong; Kwok, Jerry Weilun; Tse, Jessica Yuk-Hang; Luk, Keith Dip-Kei

    2014-06-01

    Nonsurgical rehabilitation therapy is a commonly used strategy to treat chronic low back pain (LBP). The selection of the most appropriate therapeutic options is still a big challenge in clinical practices. Surface electromyography (sEMG) topography has been proposed to be an objective assessment of LBP rehabilitation. The quantitative analysis of dynamic sEMG would provide an objective tool of prognosis for LBP rehabilitation. To evaluate the prognostic value of quantitative sEMG topographic analysis and to verify the accuracy of the performance of proposed time-varying topographic parameters for identifying the patients who have better response toward the rehabilitation program. A retrospective study of consecutive patients. Thirty-eight patients with chronic nonspecific LBP and 43 healthy subjects. The accuracy of the time-varying quantitative sEMG topographic analysis for monitoring LBP rehabilitation progress was determined by calculating the corresponding receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Physiologic measure was the sEMG during lumbar flexion and extension. Patients who suffered from chronic nonspecific LBP without the history of back surgery and any medical conditions causing acute exacerbation of LBP during the clinical test were enlisted to perform the clinical test during the 12-week physiotherapy (PT) treatment. Low back pain patients were classified into two groups: "responding" and "nonresponding" based on the clinical assessment. The responding group referred to the LBP patients who began to recover after the PT treatment, whereas the nonresponding group referred to some LBP patients who did not recover or got worse after the treatment. The results of the time-varying analysis in the responding group were compared with those in the nonresponding group. In addition, the accuracy of the analysis was analyzed through ROC curves. The time-varying analysis showed discrepancies in the root-mean-square difference (RMSD) parameters between the

  4. A novel optical tool for controlling and probing ultrafast surface dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yudong

    2017-12-01

    Ultrashort pulse laser sources have been greatly developed over the past few decades. The available pulse duration has been reduced to the single-cycle pulse regime. The discovery of high harmonic generation has freed us from the limitation of the laser wavelength. Moreover, the demonstration of isolated attosecond pulse generation has indicated the advent of the attosecond science era. Attosecond pulses undoubtedly allow one to study ultrafast dynamics with unprecedented time resolution. However, physical systems with genuine attosecond time scale dynamics are rather challenging to find. Ultrafast surface charge transfer, which is an important process in photochemistry and electrochemistry, is a good candidate experimental system exhibiting attosecond electronic dynamics. Specifically, the ultrafast surface charge transfer on the c(4 x 2)S/Ru(0001) surface was previously studied and the charge transfer time inferred to be 320 as using core-hole clock spectroscopy at a synchrotron facility. In order to measure this benchmark attosecond electronic dynamics with real time-resolving methods, pump pulses centered at 160 eV and probe pulses centered at 40 eV are required. To this end, a dedicated attosecond experimental beamline including an ultrashort laser pulse source and an attosecond pulse generation and characterization setup has been designed and is being developed. The author of this thesis was responsible for the construction of the attosecond experimental beamline which will be used ultrafast surface charge transfer studies. In this thesis, a completely functional attosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) beamline, which includes a few-cycle laser pulse source, an attosecond pulse generation and characterization setup, is described. A commercial Ti:sapphire-based chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) laser system is the overall source of the beamline. The laser system is actively carrier-envelope phase (CEP) stabilized and the output pulse duration is ∝35 fs. The

  5. A novel optical tool for controlling and probing ultrafast surface dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yudong

    2017-12-15

    Ultrashort pulse laser sources have been greatly developed over the past few decades. The available pulse duration has been reduced to the single-cycle pulse regime. The discovery of high harmonic generation has freed us from the limitation of the laser wavelength. Moreover, the demonstration of isolated attosecond pulse generation has indicated the advent of the attosecond science era. Attosecond pulses undoubtedly allow one to study ultrafast dynamics with unprecedented time resolution. However, physical systems with genuine attosecond time scale dynamics are rather challenging to find. Ultrafast surface charge transfer, which is an important process in photochemistry and electrochemistry, is a good candidate experimental system exhibiting attosecond electronic dynamics. Specifically, the ultrafast surface charge transfer on the c(4 x 2)S/Ru(0001) surface was previously studied and the charge transfer time inferred to be 320 as using core-hole clock spectroscopy at a synchrotron facility. In order to measure this benchmark attosecond electronic dynamics with real time-resolving methods, pump pulses centered at 160 eV and probe pulses centered at 40 eV are required. To this end, a dedicated attosecond experimental beamline including an ultrashort laser pulse source and an attosecond pulse generation and characterization setup has been designed and is being developed. The author of this thesis was responsible for the construction of the attosecond experimental beamline which will be used ultrafast surface charge transfer studies. In this thesis, a completely functional attosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) beamline, which includes a few-cycle laser pulse source, an attosecond pulse generation and characterization setup, is described. A commercial Ti:sapphire-based chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) laser system is the overall source of the beamline. The laser system is actively carrier-envelope phase (CEP) stabilized and the output pulse duration is ∝35 fs. The

  6. Surface modification of multi-point cutting tools using ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Ahmed, W.; Ahmed, M.

    1995-01-01

    Ion-implantation has been used to treat multi-point cutting tools using a 'systems approach' in order to improve the performance of these tools in dynamic cutting conditions. The effects of energy, species and system pressure on life and performance of circular saws have been investigated. For both nitrogen and argon ion-implantation an improvement in cutting performance has been observed as compared to untreated edges. As the energy of the nitrogen ions is increased there is a gradual improvement in the performance of the cutting edge. Ion-implanted tools were compared to those coated with TiN and these results are also presented. (author) 5 figs

  7. Boehm Titration Revisited (Part II: A Comparison of Boehm Titration with Other Analytical Techniques on the Quantification of Oxygen-Containing Surface Groups for a Variety of Carbon Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Schönherr

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of the Boehm titration (BT method as an analytical tool for the quantification of oxygen-containing surface groups is systematically investigated for oxidized carbon black, carbon nanotubes and two active carbons with specific surface areas between 60 and 1750 m2 g−1. The accuracy of the BT method is quantitatively compared with results from elemental analysis (EA, temperature programmed desorption (TPD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. Overall, the results from TPD are in line with the values obtained by BT. Both show the equal ratio of the oxygen groups to each other. Within the series of carbon samples, all methods provide similar trends for the total oxygen content yet the absolute numbers are deviating significantly. Reasons for these discrepancies are discussed and linked to the specific characteristics of the different methods. As the BT method is a solution based method, it only probes the surface fraction of the carbon that is accessible to the base solution. That means, it probes the relevant fraction for applications where carbon is in contact to aqueous solutions. Overall, the BT method can be conveniently applied to a broad range of carbon materials as long as the samples are sufficiently hydrophilic and of the enough sample amount is provided.

  8. The wire optical test: a thorough analytical study in and out of caustic surface, and advantages of a dynamical adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandro Juárez-Reyes, Salvador; Sosa-Sánchez, Citlalli Teresa; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto; de Jesús Cabrera-Rosas, Omar; Espíndola-Ramos, Ernesto; Ortega-Vidals, Paula

    2018-03-01

    Among the best known non-interferometric optical tests are the wire test, the Foucault test and Ronchi test with a low frequency grating. Since the wire test is the seed to understand the other ones, the aim of the present work is to do a thorough study of this test for a lens with symmetry of revolution and to do this study for any configuration of the object and detection planes where both planes could intersect: two, one or no branches of the caustic region (including the marginal and paraxial foci). To this end, we calculated the vectorial representation for the caustic region, and we found the analytical expression for the pattern; we report that the analytical pattern explicitly depends on the magnitude of a branch of the caustic. With the analytical pattern we computed a set of simulations of a dynamical adaptation of the optical wire test. From those simulations, we have done a thorough analysis of the topological structure of the pattern; so we explain how the multiple image formation process and the image collapse process take place for each configuration, in particular, when both the wire and the detection planes are placed inside the caustic region, which has not been studied before. For the first time, we remark that not only the intersections of the object and detection planes with the caustic are important in the change of pattern topology; but also the projection of the intersection between the caustic and the object plane mapped onto the detection plane; and the virtual projection of the intersection between the caustic and the detection plane mapped onto the object plane. We present that for the new configurations of the optical system, the wire image is curves of the Tschirnhausen’s cubic, the piriform and the deformed eight-curve types.

  9. A new optimization tool path planning for 3-axis end milling of free-form surfaces based on efficient machining intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Duy-Duc; Monies, Frédéric; Rubio, Walter

    2018-05-01

    A large number of studies, based on 3-axis end milling of free-form surfaces, seek to optimize tool path planning. Approaches try to optimize the machining time by reducing the total tool path length while respecting the criterion of the maximum scallop height. Theoretically, the tool path trajectories that remove the most material follow the directions in which the machined width is the largest. The free-form surface is often considered as a single machining area. Therefore, the optimization on the entire surface is limited. Indeed, it is difficult to define tool trajectories with optimal feed directions which generate largest machined widths. Another limiting point of previous approaches for effectively reduce machining time is the inadequate choice of the tool. Researchers use generally a spherical tool on the entire surface. However, the gains proposed by these different methods developed with these tools lead to relatively small time savings. Therefore, this study proposes a new method, using toroidal milling tools, for generating toolpaths in different regions on the machining surface. The surface is divided into several regions based on machining intervals. These intervals ensure that the effective radius of the tool, at each cutter-contact points on the surface, is always greater than the radius of the tool in an optimized feed direction. A parallel plane strategy is then used on the sub-surfaces with an optimal specific feed direction for each sub-surface. This method allows one to mill the entire surface with efficiency greater than with the use of a spherical tool. The proposed method is calculated and modeled using Maple software to find optimal regions and feed directions in each region. This new method is tested on a free-form surface. A comparison is made with a spherical cutter to show the significant gains obtained with a toroidal milling cutter. Comparisons with CAM software and experimental validations are also done. The results show the

  10. An Analytical Model of Nanometer Scale Viscoelastic Properties of Polymer Surfaces Measured Using an Atomic Force Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    have been developed ranging from measuring surface details to modifying surface structures . This chapter focuses on aspects of AFM modeling the- ory and...how far apart they are. An example of a poten- tial function is the Lennard-Jones potential, which is also called the 6-12 potential. It can be...γ1 + γ2 + γ12, (31) where γ1 and γ2 are the surface energies of the two adhering spheres, and γ12 is the interfacial energy between the two spheres

  11. Development of low-friction and wear-resistant surfaces for low-cost Al hot stamping tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Y.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, advanced surfaces and coatings have been developed using plasma thermochemical treatment, PVD coating, electroless Ni-BN plating and duplex surface engineering to produce low-friction and wear-resistant surfaces for cast iron stamping tools. Their microstructural and nano-mechanical properties were systematically analysed and the tribological behaviour of these new surfaces and coatings were evaluated. The experimental results have shown that under dry sliding condition, the tribological behaviour of aluminium differed great from that of steel regardless of the counterpart material. Highly reactive aluminium had a strong tendency to solder with tool surfaces during dry sliding. However, the lubricity of gray cast irons can be significantly improved by Ni-BN and DLC coatings. The coefficient of friction reduced from about 0.5 for untreated cast irons to about 0.2 sliding against aluminium. Duplex treatment combining plasma nitrocarburising with low-friction coatings showed superior durability than both DLC and Ni-BN coatings.

  12. Note: A single-chamber tool for plasma activation and surface functionalization in microfabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Adam J.; Scherrer, Joseph R.; Reiserer, Ronald S., E-mail: ron.reiserer@vanderbilt.edu [Vanderbilt Institute for Integrative Biosystems Research and Education and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present a simple apparatus for improved surface modification of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic devices. A single treatment chamber for plasma activation and chemical/physical vapor deposition steps minimizes the time-dependent degradation of surface activation that is inherent in multi-chamber techniques. Contamination and deposition irregularities are also minimized by conducting plasma activation and treatment phases in the same vacuum environment. An inductively coupled plasma driver allows for interchangeable treatment chambers. Atomic force microscopy confirms that silane deposition on PDMS gives much better surface quality than standard deposition methods, which yield a higher local roughness and pronounced irregularities in the surface.

  13. The creation of the analytical information system to serve the process of complex decommissioning of nuclear submarines (NSM) and surface ships (SS) with nuclear power installations (NPI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terentiev, V.G.; Yakovlev, N.E.; Tyurin, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    Management of the decommissioning of nuclear vessels includes information collection, accumulation, systematisation and analysis on the complex utilization of nuclear submarines and surface ships with nuclear power installations and on treatment of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes. The relevant data on radiation and ecology, science and technology, law and economy, administration and management should be properly processed. The general objective of the analytical information system (AIS) development, described in the present paper, is the efficiency upgrading for nuclear submarine utilization management and decision making. The report considers information provision and functioning principles as well as software/hardware solutions associated with the AIS creation. (author)

  14. Analytical prediction of the heat transfer from a blood vessel near the skin surface when cooled by a symmetrical cooling strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chato, J. C.; Shitzer, A.

    1971-01-01

    An analytical method was developed to estimate the amount of heat extracted from an artery running close to the skin surface which is cooled in a symmetrical fashion by a cooling strip. The results indicate that the optimum width of a cooling strip is approximately three times the depth to the centerline of the artery. The heat extracted from an artery with such a strip is about 0.9 w/m-C which is too small to affect significantly the temperature of the blood flow through a main blood vessel, such as the carotid artery. The method is applicable to veins as well.

  15. An analytical two-flow model to simulate the distribution of irradiance in coastal waters with a wind-roughed surface and bottom reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Ming

    1997-06-01

    An analytical two-flow model is derived from the radiative transfer equation to simulate the distribution of irradiance in coastal waters with a wind-roughed surface and bottom reflectance. The model utilizes unique boundary conditions, including the surface slope of the downwelling and upwelling irradiance as well as the influence of wind and bottom reflectance on simulated surface reflectance. The developed model provides a simple mathematical concept for understanding the irradiant light flux and associated processes in coastal or fresh water as well as turbid estuarine waters. The model is applied to data from the Banana River and coastal Atlantic Ocean water off the east coast of central Florida, USA. The two-flow irradiance model is capable of simulating realistic above-surface reflectance signatures under wind-roughened air-water surface given realistic input parameters including a specular flux conversion coefficient, absorption coefficient, backscattering coefficient, atmospheric visibility, bottom reflectance, and water depth. The root-mean-squared error of the calculated above-surface reflectances is approximately 3% in the Banana River and is less than 15% in coastal Atlantic Ocean off the east of Florida. Result of the subsurface reflectance sensitivity analysis indicates that the specular conversion coefficient is the most sensitive parameter in the model, followed by the beam attenuation coefficient, absorption coefficient, water depth, backscattering coefficient, specular irradiance, diffuse irradiance, bottom reflectance, and wind speed. On the other hand, result of the above-surface reflectance sensitivity analysis indicates that the wind speed is the most important parameter, followed by bottom reflectance, attenuation coefficient, water depth, conversion coefficient, specular irradiance, downwelling irradiance, absorption coefficient, and backscattering coefficient. Model results depend on the accuracy of these parameters to a large degree and

  16. Surface Nano Structures Manufacture Using Batch Chemical Processing Methods for Tooling Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Calaon, Matteo; Gavillet, J.

    2011-01-01

    The patterning of large surface areas with nano structures by using chemical batch processes to avoid using highenergy intensive nano machining processes was investigated. The capability of different surface treatment methods of creating micro and nano structured adaptable mould inserts for subse...

  17. Modeling and evaluating of surface roughness prediction in micro-grinding on soda-lime glass considering tool characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Gong, Yadong; Wang, Jinsheng

    2013-11-01

    The current research of micro-grinding mainly focuses on the optimal processing technology for different materials. However, the material removal mechanism in micro-grinding is the base of achieving high quality processing surface. Therefore, a novel method for predicting surface roughness in micro-grinding of hard brittle materials considering micro-grinding tool grains protrusion topography is proposed in this paper. The differences of material removal mechanism between convention grinding process and micro-grinding process are analyzed. Topography characterization has been done on micro-grinding tools which are fabricated by electroplating. Models of grain density generation and grain interval are built, and new predicting model of micro-grinding surface roughness is developed. In order to verify the precision and application effect of the surface roughness prediction model proposed, a micro-grinding orthogonally experiment on soda-lime glass is designed and conducted. A series of micro-machining surfaces which are 78 nm to 0.98 μm roughness of brittle material is achieved. It is found that experimental roughness results and the predicting roughness data have an evident coincidence, and the component variable of describing the size effects in predicting model is calculated to be 1.5×107 by reverse method based on the experimental results. The proposed model builds a set of distribution to consider grains distribution densities in different protrusion heights. Finally, the characterization of micro-grinding tools which are used in the experiment has been done based on the distribution set. It is concluded that there is a significant coincidence between surface prediction data from the proposed model and measurements from experiment results. Therefore, the effectiveness of the model is demonstrated. This paper proposes a novel method for predicting surface roughness in micro-grinding of hard brittle materials considering micro-grinding tool grains protrusion

  18. Metal Oxide Thin Films Grafted on Silica Gel Surfaces: Recent Advances on the Analytical Application of these Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gushikem Yoshitaka

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the highly dispersed MxOy monolayer film on a porous SiO2 surface, denoted as SiO2/MxOy, the Si-O-M covalent bond formed on the SiO2 surface restricts the mobility of the attached oxide resulting in coordinatively unsaturated metal oxides (LAS in addition to the Brønsted acid sites (BAS. The BAS arise from the MOH and SiOH groups, the latter due to the unreacted silanol groups. As the attached oxides are strongly immobilized on the surface, they are also thermally very stable. The amphoteric character of most of the attached oxides allows the immobilization of various chemical species, acid or bases, resulting in a wide application of these surface modified materials. In this work many of the recent applications of these MxOy coated silica surfaces are described, such as selective adsorbents, in preconcentration processes, as new packing material for use in HPLC, support for immobilization of enzymes, amperometric electrodes, sensors and biosensors

  19. High-rate production of micro- and nanostructured surfaces: Injection molding and novel process for metal tooling manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus Vega, Marisely

    Devices containing micro and nanostructured surfaces are developing and constantly finding new applications, especially for medical diagnostics, point-of-care applications, and microneedles. They are also employed in the functionalization of surfaces for superhydrophobicity, drag reduction, or reversible adhesion by mimicking bio-inspired surfaces. This research provides a thorough investigation on the effects of different polymeric materials and processing conditions on the replication of micro and nanostructured surfaces via injection molding. In addition, this dissertation also presents a novel approach for the production of durable microstructured metal tooling to be used for the production of surfaces with microchannels via injection molding. Materials such as thermoplastic vulcanizates are substituting regular thermoplastic materials and vulcanized elastomers in many applications due to their outstanding properties and ease of processability. These material properties broaden the scope of applications for microstructured surfaces. However, there is a need for understanding how these materials behave in microinjection molding since thermoplastic elastomers' behavior during injection molding have been shown to differ from that of the widely understood behavior of thermoplastics. Replication of microstructured surfaces using thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV) was studied in the first part of this thesis. TPVs with different hardness's were molded using microinjection molding with various processing conditions and the replication and surface details of 20 microm pillars (aspect ratio of 1:1) were characterized. In the second part of this research liquid silicone rubber (LSR) was studied as a material for the production of micro and nanostructured surfaces. LSR is a silicone based material such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which is widely used for research and development of micro and nanostructured devices, and thus provides all the benefits of PDMS but can be

  20. A two dimensional analytical modeling of surface potential in triple metal gate (TMG) fully-depleted Recessed-Source/Drain (Re-S/D) SOI MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Anjali; Mishra, Ram Awadh

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, analytical modeling of surface potential is proposed for new Triple Metal Gate (TMG) fully depleted Recessed-Source/Dain Silicon On Insulator (SOI) Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET). The metal with the highest work function is arranged near the source region and the lowest one near the drain. Since Recessed-Source/Drain SOI MOSFET has higher drain current as compared to conventional SOI MOSFET due to large source and drain region. The surface potential model developed by 2D Poisson's equation is verified by comparison to the simulation result of 2-dimensional ATLAS simulator. The model is compared with DMG and SMG devices and analysed for different device parameters. The ratio of metal gate length is varied to optimize the result.

  1. Fluorescent proteins as efficient tools for evaluating the surface PEGylation of silica nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Ma, Minyan; Zhang, Xiao-ai; Zhang, Ze-yu; Saleh, Sayed M.; Wang, Xu-dong

    2017-06-01

    Surface PEGylation is essential for preventing non-specific binding of biomolecules when silica nanoparticles are utilized for in vivo applications. Methods for installing poly(ethylene glycol) on a silica surface have been widely explored but varies from study to study. Because there is a lack of a satisfactory method for evaluating the properties of silica surface after PEGylation, the prepared nanoparticles are not fully characterized before use. In some cases, even non-PEGylated silica nanoparticles were produced, which is unfortunately not recognized by the end-user. In this work, a fluorescent protein was employed, which acts as a sensitive material for evaluating the surface protein adsorption properties of silica nanoparticles. Eleven different methods were systematically investigated for their reaction efficiency towards surface PEGylation. Results showed that both reaction conditions (including pH, catalyst) and surface functional groups of parent silica nanoparticles play critical roles in producing fully PEGylated silica nanoparticles. Great care needs to be taken in choosing the proper coupling chemistry for surface PEGylation. The data and method shown here will guarantee high-quality PEGylated silica nanoparticles to be produced and guide their applications in biology, chemistry, industry and medicine.

  2. A 1-D Analytical Model for the Thermally Induced Stresses in the Mould Surface During Die Casting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattel, Jesper; Hansen, Preben

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an anlytically based method for predicting the normal stresses in a die mold surface exposed to a thermal load. A example of application of the method is the high-pressure di casting process where the surface stresses in critical cases lead to cracks. Expressions for the normal...... stresses as afunction of the thermal and mechanical properties have been developed for a casting both without and with a coating. Finally, the resulting relationships are derived and evaluated, with particular emphasis on the effect of the heat transfer coefficient between the casting and the mold....

  3. Online characterization of planetary surfaces: PlanetServer, an open-source analysis and visualization tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco Figuera, R.; Pham Huu, B.; Rossi, A. P.; Minin, M.; Flahaut, J.; Halder, A.

    2018-01-01

    The lack of open-source tools for hyperspectral data visualization and analysis creates a demand for new tools. In this paper we present the new PlanetServer, a set of tools comprising a web Geographic Information System (GIS) and a recently developed Python Application Programming Interface (API) capable of visualizing and analyzing a wide variety of hyperspectral data from different planetary bodies. Current WebGIS open-source tools are evaluated in order to give an overview and contextualize how PlanetServer can help in this matters. The web client is thoroughly described as well as the datasets available in PlanetServer. Also, the Python API is described and exposed the reason of its development. Two different examples of mineral characterization of different hydrosilicates such as chlorites, prehnites and kaolinites in the Nili Fossae area on Mars are presented. As the obtained results show positive outcome in hyperspectral analysis and visualization compared to previous literature, we suggest using the PlanetServer approach for such investigations.

  4. Ground Radiometric Method as a Tool for Determining the Surface Boundary of a Buried Bauxitic Karst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Kareem Ali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Forty two ground radiometric measurements along nine traverses within a rectangular network area were taken across a bauxitic karst within the Ubaid Formation (Lower Jurassic in the Western Desert of Iraq. A 4-Channel Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GAD-6 with sodium iodide NaI (Tl crystal (GSP-4S was used in the field to measure the total radioactivity of the surface soil. Soil samples collected from the surface at each measurement point and core samples collected from a test well penetrating the karst were analyzed by Gamma ray spectrometer. The main objective of this study was to detect the hidden bauxitic karst and determine its surface boundary. The radioactivity on the surface of the karst was ranging between 60 and 80 count per second (c/s, while the background radioactivity of the Ubaid Formation, which hosts the karst, was ranging between 100 and150 c/s. Chemical weathering, especially dissolution and leaching moved uranium (238U and thorium(232Th from the overburden downward. Accordingly, these elements have been adsorbed on the surface of clay minerals and bauxite buried at a depth of about 5m causing enrichment with radioactivity. The leached overburden lack radioelements, so its radioactivity was less than background radioactivity level. The gamma ray spectroanalysis showed that the radioactivity of 238U and 232Th in the overburden was 0.5 and 3 Bq/Kg, whereas, in the bauxite and flint clay bed, it was 240 and 160 Bq/Kg respectively. Based on the radioactivity anomaly contrast on the surface, an isorad map was plotted and the karst diameter which represents low anomaly was determined to be ranging from 150 to 200m. The current study demonstrates that the ground radiometric method is quite useful for detecting the bauxitic karst and inferring its surface boundaries.

  5. Estimating the Analytical and Surface Enhancement Factors in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS): A Novel Physical Chemistry and Nanotechnology Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Ioana E.; Alnajjar, Khadijeh S.; Monahan, Jennifer L.; Stahler, Adam; Hunter, Nora E.; Weaver, Kent M.; Baker, Joshua D.; Meyerhoefer, Allie J.; Dolson, David A.

    2012-01-01

    A novel laboratory experiment was successfully implemented for undergraduate and graduate students in physical chemistry and nanotechnology. The main goal of the experiment was to rigorously determine the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based sensing capabilities of colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). These were quantified by…

  6. Surface Analytical Study of CuInSe2 Treated in Cd-Containing Partial Electrolyte Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niles, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    Junction formation in CuInSe2 (CIS) has been studied by exposing thin films and single-crystal samples to solutions containing NH4OH and CdSO4. The treated samples were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry to determine the amount and distribution of Cd deposited on the surface of the films. Cadmium is found to react with the surface for all the solution exposure times and temperatures studied. The reaction rapidly approaches the endpoint and remains relatively unchanged for subsequent solution exposure. Cadmium in-diffusion, as measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry, is obscured by topography effects in the thin-film samples and by ion-beam mixing and topography in the single-crystal sample

  7. Nanopatterning of tools for replication of non-planar polymer surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cech, Jiri

    in the order of expected lifetime in descending order: aluminum, titanium, and nickel. The second problem addressed is the forming of a nanostructured surface on a non-planar substrate. We used the hydrostatic nanoimprinting technique, with the HSQ films deposited by spin-coating and spray-coating methods...... with nanostructured surfaces, we need to fabricate molds facing the same problem. In this work, we address this problem. At first, we need to verify if the previously reported monolayer adhesion-reducing coating (FDTS) can be used under different conditions during actual injection molding. Such coatings are critical...... to facilitate de-molding of the nanopatterned parts. We analyzed the coated surfaces of aluminum, titanium, and nickel molds before and after 500 molding cycles, using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, AFM and contact angle measurements. We show that the contact angle and that the fluorine concentration...

  8. Low energy ion scattering as a tool for surface structure and composition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    Low energy ion scattering is finding increasing application in the study of areas such as gas adsorption, thin film deposition and surface damage creation and annealing during ion irradiation where structural and compositional changes occurring in only the outermost atomic layer need to be monitored. The capabilities of the technique and the ways in which it has been developed for different types of analysis depend strongly on the fundamental atomic collision processes taking place at the surface and it is these processes, together with examples of their role in analysis applications, that form the subject of this paper. (author)

  9. Quality Indicators for Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffel, Maren; Drachsler, Hendrik; Stoyanov, Slavi; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a framework of quality indicators for learning analytics that aims to standardise the evaluation of learning analytics tools and to provide a mean to capture evidence for the impact of learning analytics on educational practices in a standardised manner. The criteria of the framework and its quality indicators are based on…

  10. Surface Plasmon Resonance biosensor analysis as a useful tool in FBDD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retra, K.; Irth, H.; van Muijlwijk- Koezen, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    SPR (Surface Plasmon Resonance) biosensor instruments are more and more equipped to sensitively measure the binding characteristics of small molecules to their target. Via SPR biosensor measurements, not only the affinity of compounds but also other features such as the kinetics and thermodynamics

  11. Computer simulation of the relationship between selected properties of laser remelted tool steel surface layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonek, Mirosław, E-mail: miroslaw.bonek@polsl.pl; Śliwa, Agata; Mikuła, Jarosław

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Prediction of the properties of laser remelted surface layer with the use of FEM analysis. • The simulation was applied to determine the shape of molten pool of remelted surface. • Applying of numerical model MES for simulation of surface laser treatment to meaningfully shorten time of selection of optimum parameters. • An FEM model was established for the purpose of building a computer simulation. - Abstract: Investigations >The language in this paper has been slightly changed. Please check for clarity of thought, and that the meaning is still correct, and amend if necessary.include Finite Element Method simulation model of remelting of PMHSS6-5-3 high-speed steel surface layer using the high power diode laser (HPDL). The Finite Element Method computations were performed using ANSYS software. The scope of FEM simulation was determination of temperature distribution during laser alloying process at various process configurations regarding the laser beam power and method of powder deposition, as pre-coated past or surface with machined grooves. The Finite Element Method simulation was performed on five different 3-dimensional models. The model assumed nonlinear change of thermal conductivity, specific heat and density that were depended on temperature. The heating process was realized as heat flux corresponding to laser beam power of 1.4, 1.7 and 2.1 kW. Latent heat effects are considered during solidification. The molten pool is composed of the same material as the substrate and there is no chemical reaction. The absorptivity of laser energy was dependent on the simulated materials properties and their surface condition. The Finite Element Method simulation allows specifying the heat affected zone and the temperature distribution in the sample as a function of time and thus allows the estimation of the structural changes taking place during laser remelting process. The simulation was applied to determine the shape of molten pool and the

  12. A comparative investigation of bone surface after cutting with mechanical tools and Er:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Kyung-Won; Deibel, Waldemar; Marinov, Dilyan; Griessen, Mathias; Dard, Michel; Bruno, Alfredo; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Cattin, Philippe; Juergens, Philipp

    2015-07-01

    Despite of the long history of medical application, laser ablation of bone tissue became successful only recently. Laser bone cutting is proven to have higher accuracy and to increase bone healing compared to conventional mechanical bone cutting. But the reason of subsequent better healing is not biologically explained yet. In this study we present our experience with an integrated miniaturized laser system mounted on a surgical lightweight robotic arm. An Erbium-doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Er:YAG) laser and a piezoelectric (PZE) osteotome were used for comparison. In six grown up female Göttingen minipigs, comparative surgical interventions were done on the edentulous mandibular ridge. Our laser system was used to create different shapes of bone defects on the left side of the mandible. On the contralateral side, similar bone defects were created by PZE osteotome. Small bone samples were harvested to compare the immediate post-operative cut surface. The analysis of the cut surface of the laser osteotomy and conventional mechanical osteotomy revealed an essential difference. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed biologically open cut surfaces from the laser osteotomy. The samples from PZE osteotomy showed a flattened tissue structure over the cut surface, resembling the "smear layer" from tooth preparation. We concluded that our new finding with the mechanical osteotomy suggests a biological explanation to the expected difference in subsequent bone healing. Our hypothesis is that the difference of surface characteristic yields to different bleeding pattern and subsequently results in different bone healing. The analyses of bone healing will support our hypothesis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Semi-permeable surface analytical reversed-phase column for the improved trace analysis of acidic pesticides in water with coupled-column reversed-phase liquid chromatography with UV detection. Determination of bromoxynil and bentazone in surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogendoorn, E A; Westhuis, K; Dijkman, E; Heusinkveld, H A; den Boer, A C; Evers, E A; Baumann, R A

    1999-10-08

    The coupled-column (LC-LC) configuration consisting of a 3 microm C18 column (50 x 4.6 mm I.D.) as the first column and a 5 microm C18 semi-permeable-surface (SPS) column (150 x 4.6 mm I.D.) as the second column appeared to be successful for the screening of acidic pesticides in surface water samples. In comparison to LC-LC employing two C18 columns, the combination of C18/SPS-C18 significantly decreased the baseline deviation caused by the hump of the co-extracted humic substances when using UV detection (217 nm). The developed LC-LC procedure allowed the simultaneous determination of the target analytes bentazone and bromoxynil in uncleaned extracts of surface water samples to a level of 0.05 microg/l in less than 15 min. In combination with a simple solid-phase extraction step (200 ml of water on a 500 mg C18-bonded silica) the analytical procedure provides a high sample throughput. During a period of about five months more than 200 ditch-water samples originating from agricultural locations were analyzed with the developed procedure. Validation of the method was performed by randomly analyzing recoveries of water samples spiked at levels of 0.1 microg/l (n=10), 0.5 microg/l (n=7) and 2.5 microg/l (n=4). Weighted regression of the recovery data showed that the method provides overall recoveries of 95 and 100% for bentazone and bromoxynil, respectively, with corresponding intra-laboratory reproducibilities of 10 and 11%, respectively. Confirmation of the analytes in part of the samples extracts was carried out with GC-negative ion chemical ionization MS involving a derivatization step with bis(trifluoromethyl)benzyl bromide. No false negatives or positives were observed.

  14. Synthesis of biocompatible and highly photoluminescent nitrogen doped carbon dots from lime: Analytical applications and optimization using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barati, Ali [Faculty of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamsipur, Mojtaba, E-mail: mshamsipur@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Arkan, Elham [Nano Drug Delivery Research Center Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseinzadeh, Leila [Novel Drug Delivery Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Hamid, E-mail: abd@iasbs.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-01

    Herein, a facile hydrothermal treatment of lime juice to prepare biocompatible nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CQDs) in the presence of ammonium bicarbonate as a nitrogen source has been presented. The resulting N-CQDs exhibited excitation and pH independent emission behavior; with the quantum yield (QY) up to 40%, which was several times greater than the corresponding value for CQDs with no added nitrogen source. The N-CQDs were applied as a fluorescent probe for the sensitive and selective detection of Hg{sup 2+} ions with a detection limit of 14 nM. Moreover, the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of N-CQDs at different concentration ranges from 0.0 to 0.8 mg/ml were investigated by using PC12 cells as a model system. Response surface methodology was used for optimization and systematic investigation of the main variables that influence the QY, including reaction time, reaction temperature, and ammonium bicarbonate weight. - Highlights: • High fluorescent N-doped CQDs from lime juice have been prepared. • Response surface methodology was used to optimize and model the main factors. • N-doped CQDs were used in the selective and sensitive detection of Hg(II). • The biocompatibility of prepared N-doped CQDs was conformed using PC12 cells.

  15. An artist's tools [Using XRF, art restorers see beyond surface beauty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.; Lodding, L.

    2007-01-01

    The XRF (X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy) is a powerful tool to determine the chemical composition of works of art in a non-destructive way. Sometimes it is even possible to learn about the authenticity of works of art. Its best feature is that the invisible rays do not destroy or harm the treasured art. Another is its portability. Since any movement to a work of art is potentially catastrophic, the goal of art restorers is to minimize any disturbance. And XRF about the size of an overhead projector mounted on a moveable chassis can be brought right to the source. A perfect device to unlock the secrets of art works

  16. Effect of TiC addition on surface oxidation behavior of SKD11 tool steel composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seungchan; Jo, Ilguk; Kim, Heebong; Kwon, Hyuk-Tae; Lee, Sang-Kwan; Lee, Sang-Bok

    2017-09-01

    Titanium carbide (TiC) reinforced tool steel matrix composites were successfully fabricated by a liquid pressing infiltration process and research was subsequently conducted to investigate the composites' oxidation resistance. The mass gain of the tested TiC-SKD11 composite held at 700 °C for 50 h in an air environment decreased by about 60%, versus that of the SKD11, which indicates improved oxidation resistance. Improved oxidation resistance of the TiC-SKD11 composite originates from uniformly reinforced TiC, with a phase transition to thermodynamically stable, volume-expanded TiO2.

  17. Prediction of surface roughness in turning of Ti-6Al-4V using cutting parameters, forces and tool vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Neelesh Kumar; Andhare, Atul B.; Andhale, Sandip; Raju Abraham, Roja

    2018-04-01

    Present work deals with prediction of surface roughness using cutting parameters along with in-process measured cutting force and tool vibration (acceleration) during turning of Ti-6Al-4V with cubic boron nitride (CBN) inserts. Full factorial design is used for design of experiments using cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut as design variables. Prediction model for surface roughness is developed using response surface methodology with cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, resultant cutting force and acceleration as control variables. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is performed to find out significant terms in the model. Insignificant terms are removed after performing statistical test using backward elimination approach. Effect of each control variables on surface roughness is also studied. Correlation coefficient (R2 pred) of 99.4% shows that model correctly explains the experiment results and it behaves well even when adjustment is made in factors or new factors are added or eliminated. Validation of model is done with five fresh experiments and measured forces and acceleration values. Average absolute error between RSM model and experimental measured surface roughness is found to be 10.2%. Additionally, an artificial neural network model is also developed for prediction of surface roughness. The prediction results of modified regression model are compared with ANN. It is found that RSM model and ANN (average absolute error 7.5%) are predicting roughness with more than 90% accuracy. From the results obtained it is found that including cutting force and vibration for prediction of surface roughness gives better prediction than considering only cutting parameters. Also, ANN gives better prediction over RSM models.

  18. Micro-arc oxidation as a tool to develop multifunctional calcium-rich surfaces for dental implant applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A R; Oliveira, F; Boldrini, L C; Leite, P E; Falagan-Lotsch, P; Linhares, A B R; Zambuzzi, W F; Fragneaud, B; Campos, A P C; Gouvêa, C P; Archanjo, B S; Achete, C A; Marcantonio, E; Rocha, L A; Granjeiro, J M

    2015-09-01

    Titanium (Ti) is commonly used in dental implant applications. Surface modification strategies are being followed in last years in order to build Ti oxide-based surfaces that can fulfill, simultaneously, the following requirements: induced cell attachment and adhesion, while providing a superior corrosion and tribocorrosion performance. In this work micro-arc oxidation (MAO) was used as a tool for the growth of a nanostructured bioactive titanium oxide layer aimed to enhance cell attachment and adhesion for dental implant applications. Characterization of the surfaces was performed, in terms of morphology, topography, chemical composition and crystalline structure. Primary human osteoblast adhesion on the developed surfaces was investigated in detail by electronic and atomic force microscopy as well as immunocytochemistry. Also an investigation on the early cytokine production was performed. Results show that a relatively thick hybrid and graded oxide layer was produced on the Ti surface, being constituted by a mixture of anatase, rutile and amorphous phases where calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) were incorporated. An outermost nanometric-thick amorphous oxide layer rich in Ca was present in the film. This amorphous layer, rich in Ca, improved fibroblast viability and metabolic activity as well as osteoblast adhesion. High-resolution techniques allowed to understand that osteoblasts adhered less in the crystalline-rich regions while they preferentially adhere and spread over in the Ca-rich amorphous oxide layer. Also, these surfaces induce higher amounts of IFN-γ cytokine secretion, which is known to regulate inflammatory responses, bone microarchitecture as well as cytoskeleton reorganization and cellular spreading. These surfaces are promising in the context of dental implants, since they might lead to faster osseointegration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A simulation tool for integrating climate change and Canadian surface transport : towards assessing impacts and adaptations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaroglou, P.; Maoh, H.; Woudsma, C.; Marshall, S.

    2008-01-01

    Extreme weather events resulting from climate change will have a significant impact of the performance of the Canadian transportation system. This presentation described a simulation tool designed to investigate the potential ramifications of future climate change on transportation and the economy. The CLIMATE-C tool was designed to simulate future weather scenarios for the years 2020 and 2050 using weather parameters obtained from a global general circulation model. The model accounted for linkages between weather, transportation, and economic systems. A random utility-based multi-regional input-output model was used to predict inter-regional trade flows by truck and rail in Canada. Simulated weather scenarios were used to describe predicted changes in demographic, social, economic, technological and environmental developments to 2100. Various changes in population and economic growth were considered. Six additional scenarios were formulated to consider moderate and high rainfall events, moderate, high and extreme snowfall, and cold temperatures. Results of the preliminary analysis indicated that the model is sensitive to changes in weather events. Future research is needed to evaluate future weather scenarios and analyze weather-transport data in order to quantify travel speed reduction parameters. tabs., figs.

  20. Testing the Runoff Tool in Sicilian vineyards: adopting best management practices to prevent agricultural surface runoff