WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface administered intramuscularly

  1. The clearance of liposomes administered by the intramuscular route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrowsmith, M.; Mills, S.N.

    1982-01-01

    Iodine 131-labelled lecithin was used to label liposomes entrapping cortisone-21-palmitate. The lecithin was injected into the fascia latae muscles of rabbits and the percentage of the initial dose remaining at certain time intervals was calculated from gamma camera image data. Release from the intramuscular site occurs by diffusion from intact liposomes. (U.K.)

  2. Sodium Nitrite and Sodium Thiosulfate Are Effective Against Acute Cyanide Poisoning When Administered by Intramuscular Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Brittain, Matthew; Chan, Adriano; Garrett, Norma; Yoon, David; Burney, Tanya; Mukai, David; Babin, Michael; Pilz, Renate B; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Boss, Gerry R

    2017-06-01

    The 2 antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning in the United States must be administered by intravenous injection. In the out-of-hospital setting, intravenous injection is not practical, particularly for mass casualties, and intramuscular injection would be preferred. The purpose of this study is to determine whether sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate are effective cyanide antidotes when administered by intramuscular injection. We used a randomized, nonblinded, parallel-group study design in 3 mammalian models: cyanide gas inhalation in mice, with treatment postexposure; intravenous sodium cyanide infusion in rabbits, with severe hypotension as the trigger for treatment; and intravenous potassium cyanide infusion in pigs, with apnea as the trigger for treatment. The drugs were administered by intramuscular injection, and all 3 models were lethal in the absence of therapy. We found that sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate individually rescued 100% of the mice, and that the combination of the 2 drugs rescued 73% of the rabbits and 80% of the pigs. In all 3 species, survival in treated animals was significantly better than in control animals (log rank test, Pcyanide poisoning in 3 clinically relevant animal models of out-of-hospital emergency care. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Kinetics of sup(99m)Tc-EHDP administered by intramuscular injection in man and in experimental animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vattimo, A.; Lore, F.; Pisani, M.

    1981-06-01

    With the aim of assessing the kinetics of a diphosphonate administered by intramuscular injection, we have studied the behaviour of sup(99m)Tc-labelled 1-hydroxy-1, 1-diphosphonate in man and in experimental animals, after intramuscular injection. The curves of plasma and urine radioactivity were analyzed in a six-compartment kinetic model containing seven transition coefficients. The results show that the diphosphonate given by intramuscular injection is absorbed rapidly and completely. Therefore the possibility of using this way of administration should be considered in the pathological conditions in which diphosphonates are used as therapeutic agents.

  4. Nitrocobinamide, a New Cyanide Antidote That Can Be Administered by Intramuscular Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Adriano; Jiang, Jingjing; Fridman, Alla; Guo, Ling T.; Shelton, G. Diane; Liu, Ming-Tao; Green, Carol; Haushalter, Kristofer J.; Patel, Hemal H.; Lee, Jangwoen; Yoon, David; Burney, Tanya; Mukai, David; Mahon, Sari B.; Brenner, Matthew; Pilz, Renate B.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2015-01-01

    Currently available cyanide antidotes must be given by intravenous injection over 5–10 min, making them illsuited for treating many people in the field, as could occur in a major fire, an industrial accident, or a terrorist attack. These scenarios call for a drug that can be given quickly, e.g., by intramuscular injection. We have shown that aquohydroxocobinamide is a potent cyanide antidote in animal models of cyanide poisoning, but it is unstable in solution and poorly absorbed after intramuscular injection. Here we show that adding sodium nitrite to cobinamide yields a stable derivative (referred to as nitrocobinamide) that rescues cyanide-poisoned mice and rabbits when given by intramuscular injection. We also show that the efficacy of nitrocobinamide is markedly enhanced by coadministering sodium thiosulfate (reducing the total injected volume), and we calculate that ∼1.4 mL each of nitrocobinamide and sodium thiosulfate should rescue a human from a lethal cyanide exposure. PMID:25650735

  5. Preclinical advantages of intramuscularly administered peptide A3-APO over existing therapies in Acinetobacter baumannii wound infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostorhazi, Eszter; Rozgonyi, Ferenc; Sztodola, Andras; Harmos, Ferenc; Kovalszky, Ilona; Szabo, Dora; Knappe, Daniel; Hoffmann, Ralf; Cassone, Marco; Wade, John D; Bonomo, Robert A; Otvos, Laszlo

    2010-11-01

    The designer antibacterial peptide A3-APO is efficacious in mouse models of Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii systemic infections. Here we compare the efficacy of the peptide with that of imipenem and colistin in A. baumannii wound infections after burn injury. CD-1 mice were inflicted with burn wounds and different inocula of A. baumannii, isolated from an injured soldier, were placed into the wound sites. The antibiotics were given intramuscularly (im) one to five times. Available free peptide in the blood and the systemic toxicity of colistin and A3-APO were studied in healthy mice. While toxicity of colistin was observed at 25 mg/kg bolus drug administration, the lowest toxic dose of A3-APO was 75 mg/kg. In the A. baumannii blast injury models, 5 mg/kg A3-APO improved survival and reduced bacterial counts in the blood as well as in the wounds and improved wound appearance significantly better than any other antibiotic treatment. The free peptide concentration in the blood did not reach 1 µg/mL. Peptide A3-APO, with an intramuscular therapeutic index of 15, is more efficacious and less toxic than any existing burn injury infection therapy modality against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. A3-APO administered by the im route probably binds to a biopolymer that promotes the peptide's biodistribution.

  6. Hemato-Biochemical Effects of Colistin Administered Intramuscularly in Growing Broiler Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif Saleemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to probe pathological effects of colistin in growing broilers. One hundred twenty day-old broiler chicks were divided into six equal groups A-F. These birds were injected colistin sulphate, 0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg BW respectively through intramuscular route. The different serum-biochemical parameters including total protein, albumen, globulin, ALT, AST, LDH, GGT, creatinine and BUN were determined at day 21 and 42 of experiment. The hematological parameters including RBC, WBC, PCV and Hb were determined twice. The serum total protein values were significantly higher in group E as compared with control group. At day 42 groups, C-E had significantly lower albumen values as compared to group A. The similar pattern was observed in globulin values. The creatinine & urea was also found significantly higher in group D and E at day 21 of experiment, while at day 42 all the groups having significantly higher urea level in comparison with group A indicating nephrotoxic effect of colistin. The serum enzymes including ALT and AST were significantly higher in group D & E as compared with group A, which is an indication of liver damage. The LDH and GGT values showed significantly increasing trend in experimental groups compared with control. The erythrocytes and leucocytes count were significantly higher in control and low dose groups as compared with higher colistin dose groups. It is concluded that lavish parenteral administration of colistin resulted in increased levels of hepato-renal serum indicators and lower values of hematological parameters.

  7. Immunogenicity and safety of low dose virosomal adjuvanted influenza vaccine administered intradermally compared to intramuscular full dose administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Künzi, Valérie; Klap, Jaco M.; Seiberling, Michael K.; Herzog, Christian; Hartmann, Katharina; Kürsteiner, Oliver; Kompier, Ronald; Grimaldi, Roberto; Goudsmit, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the established benefit of intramuscular (i.m.) influenza vaccination, new adjuvants and delivery methods for comparable or improved immunogenicity are being explored. Intradermal (i.d.) antigen administration is hypothesized to initiate an efficient immune response at reduced

  8. Effects of intramuscularly administered enrofloxacin on the susceptibility of commensal intestinal Escherichia coli in pigs (sus scrofa domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, Antje; Scherz, Gesine; Reupke, Saskia; Meißner, Jessica; Wallmann, Jürgen; Kietzmann, Manfred; Kaspar, Heike

    2017-12-04

    In the European Union, various fluoroquinolones are authorised for the treatment of food producing animals. Each administration poses an increased risk of development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of parenteral administration of enrofloxacin on the prevalence of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin susceptibilities in the commensal intestinal E. coli population. E. coli isolates from faeces of twelve healthy pigs were included. Six pigs were administered enrofloxacin on day 1 to 3 and after two weeks for further three days. The other pigs formed the control group. MIC values were determined. Virulence and resistance genes were detected by PCR. Phylogenetic grouping was performed by PCR. Enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were analysed in sedimentation samples by HPLC. Susceptibility shifts in commensal E. coli isolates were determined in both groups. Non-wildtype E. coli could be cultivated from two animals of the experimental group for the first time one week after the first administration and from one animal of the control group on day 28. The environmental load with enrofloxacin in sedimentation samples showed the highest amount between days one and five. The repeated parenteral administration of enrofloxacin to pigs resulted in rapidly increased MIC values (day 28: MIC up to 4 mg/L, day 35: MIC ≥ 32mg/L). E. coli populations of the control group in the same stable without direct contact to the experimental group were affected. The parenteral administration of enrofloxacin to piglets considerably reduced the number of the susceptible intestinal E. coli population which was replaced by E. coli strains with increased MIC values against enrofloxacin. Subsequently also pigs of the control were affected suggesting a transferability of strains from the experimental group through the environment to the control group especially as we could isolate the same PFGE strains from both pig groups and the environment.

  9. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of 14C-MMB4 DMS administered intramuscularly to Sprague-Dawley rats and New Zealand White rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusiak, Bozena D; Kobs, Dean J; Hong, S Peter; Burback, Brian L; Johnson, Jerry D

    2013-01-01

    1,1'-Methylenebis[4-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]-pyridinium] dimethanesulfonate (MMB4 DMS) is currently under development for the treatment of chemical warfare organophosphorus nerve agent poisoning. The present study evaluates the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of (14)C-MMB4 DMS administered intramuscularly to rats and rabbits. The formulated mixture of radiolabeled and nonradiolabeled MMB4 DMS was administered as a single or 7-day repeated dose. Rat doses were 55 or 220 mg/kg (100 µCi/kg), and rabbit doses were 25 or 100 mg/kg (31.25 and 62.5 µCi/kg, respectively). Urine, bile (rats only), feces, blood, and tissues were collected for up to 72 hours. Metabolic profiling using high-performance liquid chromatography with radiodetection was performed on selected urine samples. For both animal species, the majority of the total radioactivity was excreted in the urine (74%-94%) by 72 hours after dosing with greater than 90% of the radioactivity measured in the urine within 8 to 12 hours after dosing. There were no apparent species or dose differences in the urine excretion pattern. The distribution of (14)C-MMB4 DMS-derived radioactivity was rapid and generally reached the highest concentration by the first collection time point (0.25 hours). The tissue-blood concentration ratios were highest at the injection sites and in the kidneys and gastrointestinal tract contents for both the species. Two metabolites of MMB4 DMS were detected in rat and rabbit urine; their structure was confirmed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry as 4-pyridine aldoxime and isonicotinic acid (pyridine-4-carboxylic acid).

  10. The RESPITE trial: remifentanil intravenously administered patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) versus pethidine intramuscular injection for pain relief in labour: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Matthew; MacArthur, Christine; Gao Smith, Fang; Homer, Leanne; Handley, Kelly; Daniels, Jane

    2016-12-12

    The commonest opioid used for pain relief in labour is pethidine (meperidine); however, its effectiveness has long been challenged and the drug has known side effects including maternal sedation, nausea and potential transfer across the placenta to the foetus. Over a third of women receiving pethidine require an epidural due to inadequate pain relief. Epidural analgesia increases the risk of an instrumental vaginal delivery and its associated effects. Therefore, there is a clear need for a safe, effective, alternative analgesic to pethidine. Evidence suggests that remifentanil patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) reduces epidural conversion rates compared to pethidine; however, no trial has yet investigated this as a primary endpoint. We are, therefore, comparing pethidine intramuscular injection to remifentanil PCA in a randomised controlled trial. Women in established labour, requesting systemic opioid pain relief, will be randomised to either intravenously administered remifentanil PCA (intervention) or pethidine intramuscular injection (control) in an unblinded, 1:1 individual randomised trial. Following informed consent, 400 women in established labour, who request systemic opioid pain relief, from NHS Trusts across England will undergo a minimised randomisation by a computer or automated telephone system to either pethidine or remifentanil. In order to balance the groups this minimisation is based on four parameters; parity (nulliparous versus multiparous), maternal age (Asian (Pakistani/Indian/Bangladeshi) versus Other) and induced versus spontaneous labour. The effectiveness of pain relief provided by each technique will be recorded every 30 min after time zero, until epidural placement, delivery or transfer to theatre, quantified by Visual Analogue Scale. Incidence of maternal side effects including sedation, delivery mode, foetal distress requiring delivery, neonatal status at delivery and rate of initiation of breastfeeding within the first hour of birth

  11. A multiple-dose, double-blind comparison of intramuscularly and orally administered ketorolac tromethamine and Ketogan in patients with pain following orthopaedic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Soelberg, M; Strauss, W

    1994-01-01

    combination product containing the narcotic analgesic, ketobemidone, plus a spasmolytic agent) by intramuscular injection every 1-6 h as needed for pain. When patients were able to tolerate an oral diet and were expected to respond to oral analgesic medication, based on overall pain sensitivity, they were...... and at the end of each day. Both treatments were effective immediately after the first dose and during the subsequent multiple-dose phase. There were no statistically significant differences between ketorolac and Ketogan. The results show that 10-mg doses of ketorolac in intramuscular injections followed by 10......In this multiple-dose, double-blind study 100 patients with moderate, severe or very severe pain following orthopaedic surgery were randomly assigned to receive ketorolac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with potent analgesic properties (10 mg), or the standard regimen of Ketogan (a...

  12. Effect of Salted Ice Bags on Surface and Intramuscular Tissue Cooling and Rewarming Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Eric J; Ostrowski, Jennifer; Donahue, Matthew; Crowley, Caitlyn; Herzog, Valerie

    2016-02-01

    Many researchers have investigated the effectiveness of different cryotherapy agents at decreasing intramuscular tissue temperatures. However, no one has looked at the effectiveness of adding salt to an ice bag. To compare the cooling effectiveness of different ice bags (wetted, salted cubed, and salted crushed) on cutaneous and intramuscular temperatures. Repeated-measures counterbalanced design. University research laboratory. 24 healthy participants (13 men, 11 women; age 22.46 ± 2.33 y, height 173.25 ± 9.78 cm, mass 74.51 ± 17.32 kg, subcutaneous thickness 0.63 ± 0.27 cm) with no lower-leg injuries, vascular diseases, sensitivity to cold, compromised circulation, or chronic use of NSAIDs. Ice bags made of wetted ice (2000 mL ice and 300 mL water), salted cubed ice (intervention A; 2000 mL of cubed ice and 1/2 tablespoon of salt), and salted crushed ice (intervention B; 2000 mL of crushed ice and 1/2 tablespoon of salt) were applied to the posterior gastrocnemius for 30 min. Each participant received all conditions with at least 4 d between treatments. Cutaneous and intramuscular (2 cm plus adipose thickness) temperatures of nondominant gastrocnemius were measured during a 10-min baseline period, a 30-min treatment period, and a 45-min rewarming period. Differences from baseline were observed for all treatments. The wetted-ice and salted-cubed-ice bags produced significantly lower intramuscular temperatures than the salted-crushed-ice bag. Wetted-ice bags produced the greatest temperature change for cutaneous tissues. Wetted- and salted-cubed-ice bags were equally effective at decreasing intramuscular temperature at 2 cm subadipose. Clinical practicality may favor salted-ice bags over wetted-ice bags.

  13. A multiple-dose, double-blind comparison of intramuscularly and orally administered ketorolac tromethamine and Ketogan in patients with pain following orthopaedic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Soelberg, M; Strauss, W

    1994-01-01

    In this multiple-dose, double-blind study 100 patients with moderate, severe or very severe pain following orthopaedic surgery were randomly assigned to receive ketorolac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with potent analgesic properties (10 mg), or the standard regimen of Ketogan (a combin......-mg doses of oral ketorolac are as effective as Ketogan for the treatment of pain following orthopaedic surgery. Ketorolac appears to be better tolerated than Ketogan since significantly fewer patients reported adverse events (P = 0.004) when taking ketorolac.......In this multiple-dose, double-blind study 100 patients with moderate, severe or very severe pain following orthopaedic surgery were randomly assigned to receive ketorolac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with potent analgesic properties (10 mg), or the standard regimen of Ketogan (a...... combination product containing the narcotic analgesic, ketobemidone, plus a spasmolytic agent) by intramuscular injection every 1-6 h as needed for pain. When patients were able to tolerate an oral diet and were expected to respond to oral analgesic medication, based on overall pain sensitivity, they were...

  14. Intramuscular plasmacytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surov, Alexey [Martin-Luther-University of Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Radiology, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Tcherkes, Anatolij [Martin-Luther-University of Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Hematology/Oncology, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Meier, Frieder [Martin-Luther-University of Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Pathology, Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    In multiple myeloma, secondary infiltration of adjacent muscles from bone lesions is common. However, plasmacytoma directly arising within the skeletal musculature is rare. Imaging findings of this rare entity have been described only sporadically. The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical signs and radiological features of intramuscular plasmacytoma (IP). Eleven patients with IP were retrospectively identified in the pathological and radiological databases of our institution. Computed tomography (CT) was performed in nine patients and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in four cases. IP presented clinically with local pain in four patients. In one case with involvement of the rectus lateralis muscle of the eye, the patient showed a painless bulbus proptosis. In another patient, IP manifested as a massive bilateral forearm swelling with compartment syndrome. In four patients, IP was identified incidentally on computed tomography during staging examination. On imaging, two patterns of IP were found: intramuscular mass (n = 5) or diffuse muscle infiltration (n = 6). On CT with contrast, IP showed a moderate enhancement. With MRI on T1-weighted images, IP was isointense in comparison to the unaffected musculature, whereas on T2-weighted images, IP showed high signal intensity. After intravenous administration of contrast medium, a slight-to-moderate inhomogeneous enhancement was seen in all cases. IP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of muscle tumors. It manifests with two radiological patterns, either as intramuscular mass or as diffuse muscle infiltration. (orig.)

  15. A COMPARATIVE-STUDY OF ELECTROMYOGRAMS OF THE MASSETER, TEMPORALIS, AND ANTERIOR DIGASTRIC MUSCLES OBTAINED BY SURFACE AND INTRAMUSCULAR ELECTRODES - RAW-EMG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOOLE, P; DEJONGH, HJ; BOERING, G

    Electromyographic activity was synchronously recorded by surface and intramuscular electrodes in the same muscle. The activity of the left masseter, left temporalis, and both bellies of the anterior digastric muscle was studied by this double registration technique. In rest position no

  16. Pharmacokinetics and physiologic effects of intramuscularly administered xylazine hydrochloride-ketamine hydrochloride-butorphanol tartrate alone or in combination with orally administered sodium salicylate on biomarkers of pain in Holstein calves following castration and dehorning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Sarah L; Coetzee, Johann F; Dritz, Steve S; Reinbold, James B; Gehring, Ronette; Havel, James; Kukanich, Butch

    2011-10-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of xylazine, ketamine, and butorphanol (XKB) administered IM and sodium salicylate (SAL) administered PO to calves and to compare drug effects on biomarkers of pain and distress following sham and actual castration and dehorning. 40 Holstein bull calves from 3 farms. Calves weighing 108 to 235 kg (n = 10 calves/group) received one of the following treatments prior to sham (period 1) and actual (period 2) castration and dehorning: saline (0.9% NaCl) solution IM (placebo); SAL administered PO through drinking water at concentrations from 2.5 to 5 mg/mL from 24 hours prior to period 1 to 48 hours after period 2; butorphanol (0.025 mg/kg), xylazine (0.05 mg/kg), and ketamine (0.1 mg/kg) coadministered IM immediately prior to both periods; and a combination of SAL and XKB (SAL+XKB). Plasma drug concentrations, average daily gain (ADG), chute exit velocity, serum cortisol concentrations, and electrodermal activity were evaluated. ADG (days 0 to 13) was significantly greater in the SAL and SAL+XKB groups than in the other 2 groups. Calves receiving XKB had reduced chute exit velocity in both periods. Serum cortisol concentrations increased in all groups from period 1 to period 2. However, XKB attenuated the cortisol response for the first hour after castration and dehorning and oral SAL administration reduced the response from 1 to 6 hours. Administration of XKB decreased electrodermal activity scores in both periods. SAL administered PO through drinking water decreased cortisol concentrations and reduced the decrease in ADG associated with castration and dehorning in calves.

  17. Comparative study on the immunogenicity and safety of a purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine (PCECV) administered according to two different simulated post exposure intramuscular regimens (Zagreb versus Essen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra, B J; Narayana, Dh Ashwath; Agarkhedkar, Sharad; Ravish, H S; Harish, B R; Agarkhedkar, Shalaka; Madhusudana, S N; Belludi, Ashwin; Ahmed, Khaleel; Jonnalagedda, Rekha; Vakil, Hoshang; Bhusal, Chiranjiwi; Arora, Ashwani Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Despite availability of effective rabies vaccines, India has the highest global mortality rate for rabies. Low socio-economic communities are most affected due to lack of awareness of the disease and poor compliance to post-exposure prophylactic regimens. Currently, the only approved intramuscular regimen for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) against rabies in India is the Essen regimen, which consists of 5 injections administered over 5 separate days in a period of one month. The high number of doses and clinical visits, however, are major reasons for non-compliance, and thus a shorter regimen would be beneficial. In a simulated PEP trial in healthy, adult subjects, this study evaluated whether purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCECV), administered according to the WHO-recommended 4-dose/3 visit Zagreb vaccination regimen is of equal immunogenicity and safety as the standard Essen regimen in Indian subjects. Two hundred and 50 healthy adults were enrolled and randomized into a Zagreb or Essen group, each receiving PCECV according to their respective regimen. Blood samples were collected on Days 0, 7, 14 and 42 and analyzed using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). By Day 14, all subjects across both groups attained rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) concentrations of ≥ 0.5IU/ml. The Zagreb regimen was then demonstrated to be immunologically non-inferior to the Essen regimen by Day 14, which was the primary endpoint of the study. No safety issues were noted and the occurrence of adverse events was similar in both groups (17% and 15%, respectively). NCT01365494. CTRI No.: CTRI/2011/07/001857.

  18. Safety and Immunogenicity of EBA-175 RII-NG Malaria Vaccine Administered Intramuscularly in Semi-Immune Adults: A Phase 1, Double-Blinded Placebo Controlled Dosage Escalation Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwadwo A Koram

    Full Text Available The erythrocyte binding antigen region II (EBA-175 RII is a Plasmodium falciparum ligand that mediates erythrocyte invasion and is considered an important malaria vaccine candidate. A phase Ia trial in malaria naïve adults living in the United States found the recombinant non-glycosylated vaccine antigen, EBA-175 RII-NG adjuvanted with aluminium phosphate to be safe, immunogenic and capable of inducing biologically active antibodies that can inhibit parasite growth in vitro. The aim of the current study was to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine in malaria exposed semi-immune healthy adults living in a malaria endemic country, Ghana. In this double-blinded, placebo controlled, dose escalation phase I trial, eighteen subjects per group received ascending dose concentrations (5 μg, 20 μg or 80 μg of the vaccine intramuscularly at 0, 1 and 6 months, while 6 subjects received placebo (normal saline. The primary end point was the number of subjects experiencing Grade 3 systemic or local adverse events within 14 days post-vaccination. Serious adverse events were assessed throughout the study period. Blood samples for immunological analyses were collected at days 0, 14, 28, 42, 180 and 194. A total of 52 subjects received three doses of the vaccine in the respective groups. No serious adverse events were reported. The majority of all adverse events reported were mild to moderate in severity, with local pain and tenderness being the most common. All adverse events, irrespective of severity, resolved without any sequelae. Subjects who received any of the EBA-175 RII-NG doses had high immunoglobulin G levels which moderately inhibited P. falciparum growth in vitro, compared to those in the placebo group. In conclusion, the EBA-175 RII-NG vaccine was safe, well tolerated and immunogenic in malaria semi-immune Ghanaian adults. Its further development is recommended.ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01026246.

  19. Safety and Immunogenicity of EBA-175 RII-NG Malaria Vaccine Administered Intramuscularly in Semi-Immune Adults: A Phase 1, Double-Blinded Placebo Controlled Dosage Escalation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koram, Kwadwo A; Adu, Bright; Ocran, Josephine; Karikari, Yaa S; Adu-Amankwah, Susan; Ntiri, Michael; Abuaku, Benjamin; Dodoo, Daniel; Gyan, Ben; Kronmann, Karl C; Nkrumah, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The erythrocyte binding antigen region II (EBA-175 RII) is a Plasmodium falciparum ligand that mediates erythrocyte invasion and is considered an important malaria vaccine candidate. A phase Ia trial in malaria naïve adults living in the United States found the recombinant non-glycosylated vaccine antigen, EBA-175 RII-NG adjuvanted with aluminium phosphate to be safe, immunogenic and capable of inducing biologically active antibodies that can inhibit parasite growth in vitro. The aim of the current study was to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine in malaria exposed semi-immune healthy adults living in a malaria endemic country, Ghana. In this double-blinded, placebo controlled, dose escalation phase I trial, eighteen subjects per group received ascending dose concentrations (5 μg, 20 μg or 80 μg) of the vaccine intramuscularly at 0, 1 and 6 months, while 6 subjects received placebo (normal saline). The primary end point was the number of subjects experiencing Grade 3 systemic or local adverse events within 14 days post-vaccination. Serious adverse events were assessed throughout the study period. Blood samples for immunological analyses were collected at days 0, 14, 28, 42, 180 and 194. A total of 52 subjects received three doses of the vaccine in the respective groups. No serious adverse events were reported. The majority of all adverse events reported were mild to moderate in severity, with local pain and tenderness being the most common. All adverse events, irrespective of severity, resolved without any sequelae. Subjects who received any of the EBA-175 RII-NG doses had high immunoglobulin G levels which moderately inhibited P. falciparum growth in vitro, compared to those in the placebo group. In conclusion, the EBA-175 RII-NG vaccine was safe, well tolerated and immunogenic in malaria semi-immune Ghanaian adults. Its further development is recommended. ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01026246.

  20. Prenatally administered HMB modifies the enamel surface roughness in spiny mice offspring: An atomic force microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świetlicka, Izabela; Muszyński, Siemowit; Tomaszewska, Ewa; Dobrowolski, Piotr; Kwaśniewska, Anita; Świetlicki, Michał; Skic, Anna; Gołacki, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this research was to check the effect of the prenatally administered β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on the development of enamel surface of the spiny mice offspring. The spiny mice dams were randomly assigned into three groups: control group (not supplemented with HMB) and two experimental groups in which powdered HMB was given at the daily dosage of 0.2g/kg of body weight (group I) and 0.02g/kg of body weight (group II) during the last period of gestation. Newborn pups were euthanized by CO 2 inhalation. The morphology of incisor teeth was analysed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in semi-contact mode in the height, magnitude and phase domains. Height images became a basis for determination of surface roughness parameters. Conducted study indicated that maternal HMB administration markedly influences enamel development. Enamel of offspring's teeth in both experimental groups was characterized by significantly smaller values of indices describing surface roughness and profile. HMB supplementation influenced the calculated parameters regardless of the diet type and offspring sex, however higher dose of HMB caused stronger changes in enamel surface's physical properties and could be observed in higher intensity in the male group. HMB administration caused reduction in the irregularities of enamel surface, thereby possibly reducing the probability of bacteria adhesion and caries development. These observations may serve to improve nutrition and supplementation of animals and could be a lead for further research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of intravenously and orally administered sotalol hydrochloride in horses and effects on surface electrocardiogram and left ventricular systolic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broux, B; De Clercq, D; Decloedt, A; De Baere, S; Devreese, M; Van Der Vekens, N; Ven, S; Croubels, S; van Loon, G

    2016-02-01

    Arrhythmias are common in horses. Some, such as frequent atrial or ventricular premature beats, may require long-term anti-arrhythmic therapy. In humans and small animals, sotalol hydrochloride (STL) is often used for chronic oral anti-arrhythmic therapy. STL prolongs repolarization and the effective refractory period in all cardiac tissues. No information on STL pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics in horses is available and the aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of intravenously (IV) and orally (PO) administered STL and the effects on surface electrocardiogram and left ventricular systolic function. Six healthy horses were given 1 mg STL/kg bodyweight either IV or PO. Blood samples to determine plasma STL concentrations were taken before and at several time points after STL administration. Electrocardiography and echocardiography were performed at different time points before and after IV STL administration. Mean peak plasma concentrations after IV and PO administration of STL were 1624 ng/mL and 317 ng/mL, respectively. The oral bioavailability was intermediate (48%) with maximal absorption after 0.94 h, a moderate distribution and a mean elimination half-life of 15.24 h. After IV administration, there was a significant increase in QT interval, but no significant changes in other electrocardiographic and echocardiographic parameters. Transient transpiration was observed after IV administration, but no adverse effects were noted after a single oral dose of 1 mg/kg STL in any of the horses. It was concluded that STL has an intermediate oral bioavailability in the horse and might be useful in the treatment of equine arrhythmias. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rituals in nursing: intramuscular injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Kathleen

    2014-12-01

    To consider to what extent intramuscular injection technique can be described to remain entrenched in ritualistic practice and how evidence-based practice should be considered and applied to the nursing practice of this essential skill. The notion of rituals within nursing and the value or futile impact they afford to this essential nursing skill will be critically reviewed. Discursive paper. Literature review from 2002-2013 to review the current position of intramuscular injection injections. Within the literature review, it became clear that there are several actions within the administration of an intramuscular injection that could be perceived as ritualistic and require consideration for contemporary nursing practice. The essential nursing skill of intramuscular injection often appears to fit into the description of a ritualised practice. By providing evidence-based care, nurses will find themselves empowered to make informed decisions based on clinical need and using their clinical judgement. For key learning, it will outline with rationale how site selection, needle selection, insertion technique and aspiration can be cited as examples of routinised or ritualistic practice and why these should be rejected in favour of an evidence-based approach. The effect on some student nurses of experiencing differing practices between what is taught at university and what is often seen in clinical practice will also be discussed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Muscle enhancement using intramuscular injections of oil in bodybuilding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Ch. N.; Hvolris, Jørgen Jesper; Karlsmark, Tonny

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-administered intramuscular injection of site enhancement oil (SEO) is a cosmetic and performance-enhancing procedure used to reshape muscles in the bodybuilder subculture, but its consequences and complications are only sporadically described. Methods: A systematic search...... in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases during the spring of 2009 and 2010. Internet searches were performed, and bodybuilder pharmacopoeias were consulted to describe SEO use and the clinical complications known. Results: One review and seven case reports were identified. Eight case reports describe oleomas caused...

  4. Nicolau Syndrome after Intramuscular Injection of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Dadaci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicolau syndrome is a rare complication of intramuscular injection that leads to local ischemic necrosis of the skin and adipose tissue. In this paper, we discuss etiologies, risk factors, and treatment options for gluteal Nicolau syndrome referring to patients treated in our hospital. Our study includes 17 women who visited our clinic with symptoms of gluteal necrosis secondary to intramuscular injection. The following variables were taken into account: injection site, drug administered, frequency of injections, the person who administered the injections, needle size, and needle tip color. Magnetic resonance images obtained in the aftermath of intramuscular injection application were carefully analyzed for presence of necrosis, cyst formation and the thickness of the gluteal fat tissue layer. Drugs that had been received in intramuscular injection were exclusively non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Mean patient BMI was 41.8 (all patients were considered as obese, and mean gluteal fat thickness was 54 mm. Standard length of needles (3.8 cm had been used in procedures. The wounds were treated with primary closure in 11 patients and with local flap therapy in 6 patients. The observed necrosis was a consequence of misplaced gluteal injection, where drugs were injected into the adipose tissue instead of the muscle due to the extreme thickness of the fat layer, on one hand, and the inappropriate length of standard needles, on the other hand. Intramuscular injection should be avoided in obese patients whenever possible: if it is necessary, proper injection technique should be used.

  5. Nicolau Syndrome after Intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Noaparast

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year-old boy was admitted to the emergency department with right lower limb pain, edema, and livedoid discoloration that occurred immediately after intramuscular injection of benzathine penicillin. The patient was diagnosed with Nicolau syndrome, a rare complication of intramuscular injection presumed to be related to the inadvertent intravascular injection. It was first reported following intramuscular injection of bismuth salt, but it can occur as a complication of various other drugs. Fasciotomy was carried out due to the resultant compartment syndrome and medical therapy with heparin, corticosteroid, and pentoxifyllin was initiated.

  6. Unusual intramuscular lipoma of deltoid muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Papathanasiou, Jiannis; Dermon, Antonios; Dimitrakopoulou, Alexandra; Ververidis, Athanasios; Chloropoulou, Pelagia; Kazakos, Konstantinos

    2010-01-01

    Lipomas are common soft tissue tumors usually located under the skin. Nevertheless, intramuscular lipomas of deltoid muscle are unusual tumors. We present a case of 74-year-old woman with an intramuscular like clepsydra lipoma of deltoid muscle. The lesion was a palpable soft mass at the lateral side of the humerus. The patient had no previous history of trauma. The main symptom was pain only in abduction and extension. Imaging, pathological findings and surgical excision are discussed.

  7. Cellulitis Developing After Intramuscular Metamizole Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Ozturk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available If the suitable technique is not used in intramuscular injection applications and the injection area is not detected correctly, complications may be observed. Our patient was given intramuscular Metamizole in his house and then he had cellulitis with necrosis area. Following an antibiotic treatment, tissue defect was primarily covered with gluteal muscle skin flap. Cellulitis development after metamizole injection is not common still potential side effects should be considered before prescription.

  8. Failure of orally administered attenuated goose parvovirus strain B to induce a humoral immune response in adult geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisary, J; Kelemen, M

    1981-01-01

    Two-month-old geese responded with the production of virus neutralising antibodies against virulent goose parvovirus strain B administered either per os or intramuscularly. They were shedding the virus within a short period after exposure. Humoral immune response in geese of the same age was induced by the attenuated goose parvovirus strain B only by intramuscular injection but not with per os administration.

  9. Systemic and local immune response in pigs intradermally and intramuscularly injected with inactivated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, P; Saleri, R; Cavalli, V; De Angelis, E; Ferrari, L; Benetti, M; Ferrarini, G; Merialdi, G; Borghetti, P

    2014-01-31

    The systemic and respiratory local immune response induced by the intradermal administration of a commercial inactivated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae whole-cell vaccine (Porcilis(®) MHYO ID ONCE - MSD AH) in comparison with two commercial vaccines administered via the intramuscular route and a negative control (adjuvant only) was investigated. Forty conventional M. hyopneumoniae-free pigs were randomly assigned to four groups (ten animals each): Group A=intradermal administration of the test vaccine by using the needle-less IDAL(®) vaccinator at a dose of 0.2 ml; Group B=intramuscular administration of a commercially available vaccine (vaccine B); Group C=intramuscular administration of the adjuvant only (2 ml of X-solve adjuvant); Group D=intramuscular administration of a commercially available vaccine (vaccine D). Pigs were vaccinated at 28 days of age. Blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples were collected at vaccination (blood only), 4 and 8 weeks post-vaccination. Serum and BAL fluid were tested for the presence of antibodies by ELISA test. Peripheral blood monomorphonuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated to quantify the number of IFN-γ secreting cells by ELISpot. Moreover, cytokine gene expression from the BAL fluid was performed. Total antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae and specific IgG were detected in serum of intradermally and intramuscularly (vaccine B only) vaccinated pigs at 4 and 8 weeks post-vaccination. M. hyopneumoniae specific IgA were detected in BAL fluid from vaccinated animals (Groups A and B) but not from controls and animals vaccinated with the bacterin D (padministration of an adjuvanted bacterin induces both systemic and mucosal immune responses. Moreover, the intramuscularly administered commercial vaccines each had a different ability to stimulate the immune response both systemically and locally. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nicolau Syndrome after Intramuscular Injection: 3 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Kwun Kim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicolau syndrome is a rare complication of intramuscular injection consisting of ischemic necrosis of skin, soft tissue, and muscular tissue that arises locoregionally. The characteristic pattern is pain around the injection site, developing into erythema, a livedoid dermatitis patch, and necrosis of the skin, subcutaneous fat, and muscle tissue. Three patients were injected with drugs (diclofenac sodium, ketoprofen, meperidine for pain relief. Three patients complained of pain, and a skin lesion was observed, after which necrosis developed on their buttocks. Each patient underwent debridement and coverage. The wound healed uneventfully. We report three cases of Nicolau syndrome in the buttocks following diclofenac intramuscular injection.

  11. Haematological and biochemical alterations caused by epidural and intramuscular administration of xylazine hydrochloride in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Azari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in 16 healthy immature dromedary camels weighing 120-150 kg to evaluate and compare the effects of epidural and intramuscular injections of xylazine administered at 0.1 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg. Haematological parameters included haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count and total leukocyte count. Biochemical parameters included alkaline phosphates, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and glucose. Parameters were measured at different intervals before (baseline and after the administration of drugs. Our study showed that the effect of xylazine on haematological and biochemical parameters is dose-dependant and is also related to the route of administration. The low dose of xylazine administered using both intramuscular and epidural methods showed minimal effects, whereas high doses of the drug, especially when injected intramuscularly, caused greater changes in haematological and biochemical parameters.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen in the green iguana (Iguana iguana) following single intravenous and intramuscular injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Allison D; Papich, Mark; Lewbart, Gregory A; Christian, Shane; Gunkel, Conny; Harms, Craig A

    2006-12-01

    The nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug ketoprofen (KTP) is a commonly used antiinflammatory and analgesic agent in reptile medicine, but no studies documenting its pharmacokinetics in this species have been published. Ketoprofen was administered as a racemic mixture to green iguanas (Iguana iguana) intravenously (i.v.) and intramuscularly (i.m.) at 2 mg/kg. Pharmacokinetic analyses were performed and indicated that ketoprofen in iguanas administered by the intravenous route has a classical two-compartmental distribution pattern, a slow clearance (67 ml/ kg/hr) and a long terminal half-life (31 hr) compared to ketoprofen studies reported in mammals. When delivered by the intramuscular route, bioavailability was 78%. These data indicate the daily dosing that is generally recommended for reptile patients, as an extrapolation from mammalian data, may be more frequent than necessary.

  13. Acute selenium toxicity in lambs following intramuscular injection of sodium selenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravaggi, C; Clark, F L; Jackson, A R.B.

    1970-01-01

    The LD50 in lambs from a farm where selenium deficiency has not been recorded was found to be 45..mu..g. of Se/kg. body weight when sodium selenite was administered as a single intramuscular injection. Marked pulmonary congestion and oedema were constantly present with degenerative changes in liver and kidney. A similarity was noted between the autopsy findings of acute selenosis and those described for enterotoxaemia. 13 references, 4 figures.

  14. Necrotizing Soft Tissue Fasciitis after Intramuscular Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Abbate

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing soft tissue fasciitis (NSTIs or necrotizing fasciitis is an infrequent and serious infection. Herein, we describe the clinical course of a female patient who received a diagnosis of NSTIs after gluteus intramuscular injection. We also report the results of our review of published papers from 1997 to 2017. Since now, 19 cases of NSTIs following intramuscular injections have been described. We focus on the correlation between intramuscular injection and NSTIs onset, especially in immunosuppressed patients treated with corticosteroids, suffering from chronic diseases or drug addicted. Intramuscular injections can provoke severe tissue trauma, representing local portal of infection, even if correctly administrated. Otherwise, it is important not to inject drug in subcutaneous, which is a less vascularized area and therefore more susceptible to infections. Likewise, a proper injecting technique and aspiration prior to injection seem to be valid measure to prevent intra-arterial or para-arterial drug injection with the consequent massive inflammatory reaction. Necrosis at the infection site appears to be independent of the drug, and it is a strong additional risk factor for NSTIs.

  15. Myostatin inhibits porcine intramuscular preadipocyte differentiation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W X; Dodson, M V; Jiang, Z H; Yu, S G; Chu, W W; Chen, J

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed the effect of myostatin on adipogenesis by porcine intramuscular preadipocytes. Intramuscular preadipocytes were isolated from the longissimus dorsi muscle of newborn pigs. Myostatin inhibited intramuscular preadipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. Myostatin treatment during preadipocyte differentiation significantly (P Myostatin also significantly (P myostatin acts as an extrinsic regulatory factor in regulating intramuscular adipogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 18F-FDG PET/CT Findings Following Repeated Intramuscular Injections of "Site Enhancement Oil" in the Upper Extremities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejanović, Danijela; Loft, Annika

    2017-01-01

    We present the findings on F-FDG PET/CT in a 50-year-old man known to self-administer intramuscular injections with site enhancement oil in the upper extremities. PET images show diffuse pathological high FDG uptake in soft tissue of the upper arms and in scanned portions of the forearms. On the CT...

  17. Tissue Disposition and Withdrawal Time of Fosfomycin in Swines after Oral and Intramuscular Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Denisa Soledad; Soraci, Alejandro Luis; Tapia, Maria Ofelia

    2016-01-01

    A HPLC-MS/MS method, which was suitable to be used in withdrawal time studies, was validated for the determination of fosfomycin in swine muscle, liver, kidney and skin-fat. Therefore, the withdrawal time of fosfomycin in swines, considering a MRL of 0.5 μg/mL was studied. Forty-eight pigs were assigned to two groups; in group one, fosfomycin was orally administered daily with 30 mg⁄kg bw and to the other group a dose of 15 mg⁄kg bw of the antibiotic was intramuscularly administered. Pigs wer...

  18. Nicolau syndrome following intramuscular benzathine penicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Sousa R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicolau syndrome (NS is a rare complication of an intramuscular injection characterized by severe pain, skin discoloration, and varying levels of tissue necrosis. The case outcomes vary from atrophic ulcers and severe pain to sepsis and limb amputation. We describe a case of a seven-year-old boy with diagnosis of NS after intramuscular benzathine penicillin injection to the ventrolateral aspect of the left thigh. Characteristic violaceous discoloration of skin and immediate injection site pain identified it as a case of NS. The case was complicated by rapid progression of compartment syndrome of the lower limb, proceeding to acute renal failure and death. Associated compartment syndrome can be postulated as a poor prognostic factor for NS.

  19. Two Intramuscular Lipoma Case Reports: Radiological Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Umul

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipomas are common soft tissue tumors of mesenchymal origin.They contain mature adipose tissue. They are usually located in the subcutaneous tissue. They rarely ocur within the muscle and then are called intramuscular lipomas. Ultrasonography is the first diagnostic method to be selected. However, cross-sectional imaging methods are more useful in the diagnosis. On Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, with the help of signal characteristics and fat suppression techniques,diagnosis is easily achieved. In addition, the relationship of lesion with the adjacent anatomical structures can be assessed better with MRI. Here, will be explained two different intramuscular lipoma cases and imaging findings will be reviewed. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(3.000: 221-225

  20. Intramuscular metastasis from malignant melanoma: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Hirohi; Itai, Yuji; Niitsu, Mamoru [Dept. of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Fujiwara, Masachika; Watanabe, Teruo [Department of Pathology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Satomi, Hisae; Otsuka, Fujio [Department of Dermatology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1999-12-01

    We present a rare case of intramuscular metastasis from malignant melanoma. The lesion showed intermediate to high signal intensity on T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images and mixed signal intensities containing high and low signals on T2-weighted images. The signal intensity on T1-weighted images, which is due to the paramagnetic effect of melanin, is a characteristic MR finding of this entity. (orig.)

  1. Intra-muscular hemangioma: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Nayak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra-muscular hemangiomas (IMH are relatively uncommon benign vascular tumors, which account for less than 1% of all hemangiomas. IMH may be presented as a perceived sporting injury. Diagnosis of this lesion is important not only because of its rarity, but also due to dangers posed by misdiagnosis and mismanagement. They must be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained pain and swelling in muscles. IMH occurring in the oral cavity is reviewed below.

  2. Hemodynamic changes in rats after radioprotective combination of cystamine administered subcutaneously and 5-methoxytryptamine injected intramuscularly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuna, P.

    1976-01-01

    Administration of cystamine (20 mg base/kg s.c.) and 5-methoxytryptamine (10 mg base/kg i.m.) with 12 minutes delay to anesthetized rats induced the depression of whole cardiovascular system, hemoconcentration and great blood flow decrease in the radiosensitive tissues. Distribution of lowered cardiac output preferred the fractions to brain, heart, liver and lungs. Hemodynamic responses to protective combination may participate in its radioprotective action. (orig.) [de

  3. Intramuscular Cobinamide Sulfite in a Rabbit Model of Sub-Lethal Cyanide Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Mahon, Sari B.; Lee, Jangwoen; Kreuter, Kelly A.; Blackledge, William; Mukai, David; Patterson, Steve; Mohammad, Othman; Sharma, Vijay S.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the ability of an intramuscular cobinamide sulfite injection to rapidly reverse the physiologic effects of cyanide toxicity. Background Exposure to cyanide in fires and industrial exposures and intentional cyanide poisoning by terrorists leading to mass casualties is an ongoing threat. Current treatments for cyanide poisoning must be administered intravenously, and no rapid treatment methods are available for mass casualty cyanide exposures. Cobinamide is a cobalamin (vitamin B12) analog with an extraordinarily high affinity for cyanide that is more water-soluble than cobalamin. We investigated the use of intramuscular cobinamide sulfite to reverse cyanide toxicity induced physiologic changes in a sublethal cyanide exposure animal model. Methods New Zealand white rabbits were given 10 mg sodium cyanide intravenously over 60 minutes. Quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy monitoring of tissue oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations were performed concurrently with blood cyanide level measurements and cobinamide levels. Immediately after completion of the cyanide infusion, the rabbits were injected intramuscularly with cobinamide sulfite (n=6) or inactive vehicle (controls, n=5). Results Intramuscular administration led to rapid mobilization of cobinamide and was extremely effective at reversing the physiologic effects of cyanide on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin extraction. Recovery time to 63% of their baseline values in the central nervous system was in a mean of 1032 minutes in the control group and 9 minutes in the cobinamide group with a difference of 1023 minutes (95% confidence interval [CI] 116, 1874 minutes). In muscle tissue, recovery times were 76 and 24 minutes with a difference of 52 minutes (95% CI 7, 98min). Red blood cell cyanide levels returned towards normal significantly faster in cobinamide sulfite-treated animals than in control animals. Conclusions Intramuscular

  4. Nicolau Syndrome after Intramuscular Injection: 3 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Kwun Kim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicolau syndrome is a rare complication of intramuscular injection consisting of ischemicnecrosis of skin, soft tissue, and muscular tissue that arises locoregionally. The characteristicpattern is pain around the injection site, developing into erythema, a livedoid dermatitispatch, and necrosis of the skin, subcutaneous fat, and muscle tissue. Three patients wereinjected with drugs (diclofenac sodium, ketoprofen, meperidine for pain relief. Three patientscomplained of pain, and a skin lesion was observed, after which necrosis developed on theirbuttocks. Each patient underwent debridement and coverage. The wound healed uneventfully.We report three cases of Nicolau syndrome in the buttocks following diclofenac intramuscularinjection.

  5. Township Administered Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for township administered roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current...

  6. Effect of intramuscular clebopride on postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, D F; Linhares, S; Gesser, N; Pederneiras, S G

    1985-01-01

    The antiemetic effect of clebopride, a new derivative of the orthopramide group, was compared with that of placebo in 298 women undergoing elective surgery. A group of 150 patients received premedication of 1 mg/kg of meperidine, administered intramuscularly (IM), and a group of 148 patients received premedication of 10 mg of diazepam IM. All patients received 0.5 mg of atropine IM. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental and maintained with halogenated N2O/O2. In a double-blind procedure, clebopride (2 mg) or placebo was injected IM at the end of anesthesia and whenever a patient had a second episode of vomiting. Clebopride appeared to be better than placebo in the prevention of nausea (P less than or equal to 0.05) and vomiting (P less than or equal to 0.001) during the 12-hour observation period. The frequency of side effects was virtually the same in patients given clebopride and patients given placebo.

  7. Bioavailability of detomidine administered sublingually to horses as an oromucosal gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukinen, H; Aspegrén, J; Hyyppä, S; Tamm, L; Salonen, J S

    2011-02-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the absorption, bioavailability and sedative effect of detomidine administered to horses as an oromucosal gel compared to intravenous and intramuscular administration of detomidine injectable solution. The study was open and randomized, with three sequences crossover design. Nine healthy horses were given 40 μg/kg detomidine intravenously, intramuscularly or administered under the tongue with a 7-day wash-out period between treatments. Blood samples were collected before and after drug administration for the measurement of detomidine concentrations in serum. The effects of the route of administration on heart rate and rhythm were evaluated and the depth of sedation assessed. Mean (±SD) bioavailability of detomidine was 22% (±5.3%) after sublingual administration and 38.2% (±7.9%) after intramuscular administration. The sedative effects correlated with detomidine concentrations regardless of the route of administration. We conclude that less detomidine is absorbed when given sublingually than when given intramuscularly, because part of it does not reach the circulation. Sublingual administration of detomidine oromucosal gel at 40 μg/kg produces safe sedation in horses. Slow absorption leads to fewer and less pronounced adverse effects than the more rapid absorption after intramuscular injection. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Histological properties of intramuscular connective tissues in native ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conventional histological study revealed that except the endomysium which was similar in both muscles, the other intramuscular connective tissues' layers varied between leg and breast muscles and were affected by sex. All the connective tissue fibers were observed in all the intramuscular connective tissues of both ...

  9. Reliability and agreement of intramuscular coherence in tibialis anterior muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, E.H. van; Campfens, S.F.; Verwer, S.J.; Putten, M.J.A.M. van; Stegeman, D.F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuroplasticity drives recovery of walking after a lesion of the descending tract. Intramuscular coherence analysis provides a way to quantify corticomotor drive during a functional task, like walking and changes in coherence serve as a marker for neuroplasticity. Although intramuscular

  10. Reliability and Agreement of Intramuscular Coherence in Tibialis Anterior Muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asseldonk, E.H.F.; Campfens, S.F.; Verwer, S.J.F.; van Putten, M.C.; Stegeman, D.F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Neuroplasticity drives recovery of walking after a lesion of the descending tract. Intramuscular coherence analysis provides a way to quantify corticomotor drive during a functional task, like walking and changes in coherence serve as a marker for neuroplasticity. Although intramuscular

  11. Reliability and agreement of intramuscular coherence in tibialis anterior muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; Campfens, S.F.; Verwer, S.J.F.; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria; Stegeman, D.F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Neuroplasticity drives recovery of walking after a lesion of the descending tract. Intramuscular coherence analysis provides a way to quantify corticomotor drive during a functional task, like walking and changes in coherence serve as a marker for neuroplasticity. Although intramuscular

  12. Intramuscular degeneration process in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Takeshi; Matsumra, Kiichiro; Hashimoto, Takahiro; Ikehira, Hiroo; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Tateno, Yukio.

    1992-01-01

    Intramuscular degeneration process of Duchenne dystrophy skeletal muscles was investigated by longitudinal skeletal muscle imaging with high-field-strength NMR-CT of 1.5 Tesla. Thigh muscles in 10 cases ranging in age from 4 to 19 years were examined by T 1 -weighted longitudinal images (TR=215∼505 ms, TE=19∼20 ms). The following results were obtained. Skeletal muscle degeneration was depicted as high signal intensity area reflecting its high fat contents. These high signal intensity areas had a longitudinally streaky appearance in parallel direction with myofibers. These findings were more prominent toward myotendon junction than muscle bellies. Skeletal muscle degeneration progressed rapidly between 7 to 10 years of age, and reached a plateau after that. (author)

  13. Basic principles for measurement of intramuscular pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, A. R.; Ballard, R. E.

    1995-01-01

    We review historical and methodological approaches to measurements of intramuscular pressure (IMP) in humans. These techniques provide valuable measures of muscle tone and activity as well as diagnostic criteria for evaluation of exertional compartment syndrome. Although the wick and catheter techniques provide accurate measurements of IMP at rest, their value for exercise studies and diagnosis of exertional compartment syndrome is limited because of low frequency response and hydrostatic (static and inertial) pressure artifacts. Presently, most information on diagnosis of exertional compartment syndromes during dynamic exercise is available using the Myopress catheter. However, future research and clinical diagnosis using IMP can be optimized by the use of a miniature transducer-tipped catheter such as the Millar Mikro-tip.

  14. Giant intramuscular lipoma of the tongue: a case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Colella, Giuseppe; Biondi, Paolo; Caltabiano, Rosario; Vecchio, Giada Maria; Amico, Paolo; Magro, Gaetano

    2009-01-01

    We herein report a rare case of giant intramuscular lipoma of the tongue. A 75-year-old Italian male presented at our department with a large tumor at the tip of the tongue that had been present for over 30 years. Clinical examination revealed a yellowish lesion, measuring 10 cm in maximum diameter, protruding from lingual surface. Histological examination showed an unencapsulated lipomatous tumor composed of mature adipocytes, uniform in size and shape, diffusely infiltrating striated muscle...

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of intramuscular metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surov, Alexey; Spielmann, Rolf-Peter; Behrmann, Curd; Fiedler, Eckhard; Voigt, Wieland; Wienke, Andreas; Holzhausen, Hans-Juergen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse magnetic resonance findings of intramuscular metastases (IM) in a relatively large series. From January 2000 to January 2010, 28 patients (207 metastases) were retrospectively identified in the radiological database of the Martin-Luther-University. Several different scanning protocols were used depending on the localisation of IM. In 12 patients diffusion-weighted (DW) images were obtained with a multi-shot SE-EPI sequence. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were also calculated. Furthermore, fusion images were manually generated between the DW and half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) images. On T2-weighted images, 97% of the recognised IM were hyperintense in comparison to unaffected musculature, and 3% were mixed iso- to hyperintense. On T1-weighted images most IM (91%) were homogeneously isointense in comparison to muscle tissue, whereas 4% were hypointense, and 5% lightly hyperintense. ADC maps were calculated for 91 metastases ranging from 0.99 to 4.00 mm 2 s -1 (mean value 1.99 ± 0.66). ADC values of low ( 3.0) in 6%. Of the IM that were investigated with contrast medium, 88.5% showed marked enhancement. It was homogeneous in 88% and heterogenous in 6%. Rim enhancement with central low attenuation was seen in 6%. There was no difference in enhancement characteristics with respect to ADC values or fusion patterns. Peritumoral enhancement was identified in 2.4%. Magnetic resonance features of muscle metastases are relatively typical and consist of round or oval intramuscular masses with well-defined margins, marked enhancement, low or moderate ADC values, and moderate to high signal intensity on fusion images. (orig.)

  16. Health worker and policy-maker perspectives on use of intramuscular artesunate for pre-referral and definitive treatment of severe malaria at health posts in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takele Kefyalew

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO recommends injectable artesunate given either intravenously or by the intramuscular route for definitive treatment for severe malaria and recommends a single intramuscular dose of intramuscular artesunate or intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine, in that order of preference as pre-referral treatment when definitive treatment is not possible. Where intramuscular injections are not available, children under 6 years may be administered a single dose of rectal artesunate. Although the current malaria treatment guidelines in Ethiopia recommend intra-rectal artesunate or alternatively intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine as pre-referral treatment for severe malaria at the health posts, there are currently no WHO prequalified suppliers of intra-rectal artesunate and when available, its use is limited to children under 6 years of age leaving a gap for the older age groups. Intramuscular artesunate is not part of the drugs recommended for pre-referral treatment in Ethiopia. This study assessed the perspectives of health workers, and policy-makers on the use of intramuscular artesunate as a pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at the health post level. Methods In-depth interviews were held with 101 individuals including health workers, malaria focal persons, and Regional Health Bureaus from Oromia and southern nations, nationalities, and peoples’ region, as well as participants from the Federal Ministry of Health and development partners. An interview guide was used in the data collection and thematic content analysis was employed for analysis. Results Key findings from this study are: (1 provision of intramuscular artesunate as pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at health posts could be lifesaving; (2 with adequate training, and provision of facilities including beds, health posts can provide definitive treatment for severe

  17. Comparison between the Effects of Oral and Intramuscular Administration of Shin’iseihaito (Xinyiqingfeitang in a Streptococcus pyogenes-Induced Murine Sinusitis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Minami

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes is a species of Gram-positive coccoid bacteria having many virulence factors. Its capsule and exotoxins can cause upper respiratory tract infections such as sinusitis. The general treatment for S. pyogenes-induced sinusitis is administration of antibiotics such as penicillin and macrolides; however, a serious problem associated with these antibiotics is their attenuated effect. Shin’iseihaito (Xinyiqingfeitang, a formula of Japanese traditional Kampo medicine and traditional Chinese medicine, has been used for the treatment of sinusitis. In general, formulas of Japanese traditional Kampo medicine are orally administered. This is in contrast to certain formulas of traditional Chinese medicine, which are being recently administered intramuscularly or intravenously. Regarding these traditional Chinese medicine formulas, the injection methodology is reported to be more effective than oral intake. In this study, we compared the efficacy between orally and intramuscularly administered Shin’iseihaito against S. pyogenes-induced sinusitis. We evaluated the antibacterial effect of Shin’iseihaito extract (SSHT against S. pyogenes by K-B disk diffusion assay. Furthermore, we investigated the nasal colonization of S. pyogenes, determined cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels, and conducted a splenocyte proliferative assay in a murine sinusitis model. SSHT displayed direct anti-S. pyogenes activity. Intramuscular administration of SSHT decreased the nasal colonization of S. pyogenes compared with oral administration. Thymidine uptake analysis revealed that the proliferation of splenocytes from S. pyogenes-infected mice under intramuscular SSHT treatment was upregulated compared to that of splenocytes from S. pyogenes-infected mice under oral SSHT treatment. We also found that TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels in the nasal discharge from intramuscularly treated S. pyogenes-infected mice were lower than those from

  18. Delayed intramuscular human neurotrophin-3 improves recovery in adult and elderly rats after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duricki, Denise A; Hutson, Thomas H; Kathe, Claudia; Soleman, Sara; Gonzalez-Carter, Daniel; Petruska, Jeffrey C; Shine, H David; Chen, Qin; Wood, Tobias C; Bernanos, Michel; Cash, Diana; Williams, Steven C R; Gage, Fred H; Moon, Lawrence D F

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need for a therapy that reverses disability after stroke when initiated in a time frame suitable for the majority of new victims. We show here that intramuscular delivery of neurotrophin-3 (NT3, encoded by NTF3) can induce sensorimotor recovery when treatment is initiated 24 h after stroke. Specifically, in two randomized, blinded preclinical trials, we show improved sensory and locomotor function in adult (6 months) and elderly (18 months) rats treated 24 h following cortical ischaemic stroke with human NT3 delivered using a clinically approved serotype of adeno-associated viral vector (AAV1). Importantly, AAV1-hNT3 was given in a clinically-feasible timeframe using a straightforward, targeted route (injections into disabled forelimb muscles). Magnetic resonance imaging and histology showed that recovery was not due to neuroprotection, as expected given the delayed treatment. Rather, treatment caused corticospinal axons from the less affected hemisphere to sprout in the spinal cord. This treatment is the first gene therapy that reverses disability after stroke when administered intramuscularly in an elderly body. Importantly, phase I and II clinical trials by others show that repeated, peripherally administered high doses of recombinant NT3 are safe and well tolerated in humans with other conditions. This paves the way for NT3 as a therapy for stroke. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Irinotecan-loaded double-reversible thermogel with improved antitumor efficacy without initial burst effect and toxicity for intramuscular administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Fakhar Ud; Kim, Dong Wuk; Choi, Ju Yeon; Thapa, Raj Kumar; Mustapha, Omer; Kim, Dong Shik; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Ku, Sae Kwang; Youn, Yu Seok; Oh, Kyung Taek; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh; Choi, Han-Gon

    2017-05-01

    Intramuscularly administered, anti-tumour drugs induce severe side effects due to their direct contact with body tissues and initial burst effect. In this study, to solve this problem, a novel double-reversible thermogel system (DRTG) for the intramuscular administration of irinotecan was developed. This irinotecan-loaded DRTG was prepared by dispersing the irinotecan-loaded thermoreversible solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) in the thermoreversible hydrogel. In DRTG, the former was solid at 25°C but converted to liquid at 36.5°C; in contrast, the latter existed in a liquid form but transformed to gel state in the body. The DRTG was easily administered intramuscularly. Its particle size and drug content were not noticeably changeable, resulting that it was stable at 40°C for at least 6months. Compared to the irinotecan-loaded solution and conventional hydrogel, the DRTG significantly delayed drug release, leading to a reduced burst effect. Moreover, it showed decreased C max and maintained the sustained plasma concentrations at a relatively low level for the long period of 60h in rats, resulting in ameliorated side effects of the anti-tumour drug. Furthermore, it gave significantly improved anti-tumour efficacy in tumour-bearing mice compared to the hydrogel but, unlike the conventional hydrogel, induced no body weight loss and local damage to the muscle. Thus, this DRTG with improved antitumor efficacy without initial burst effect and toxicity could provide a potential pharmaceutical system for the intramuscular administration of irinotecan. Intramuscularly administered, anti-tumour drugs induce severe side effects due to their direct contact with body tissues and initial burst effect. To solve this problem, we developed a novel double-reversible thermogel system (DRTG) for the intramuscular administration of irinotecan. Unlike the conventional hydrogel, the DRTG is a dispersion of the irinotecan-loaded thermoreversible solid lipid nanoparticles in the

  20. Intramuscular myxoma and fibrous dysplasia of bone - Mazabraud's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court-Payen, M.; Ingemann Jensen, L.; Bjerregaard, B.; Schwarz Lausten, G.; Skjoldbye, B.

    1997-01-01

    We present a case of Mazabroud's syndrome, a rare benign disease, with multiple intramuscular myxomas of the thoracic wall associated with fibrous dysplasia of bone. CT, MR imaging and ultrasonography (US) of the thorax showed 2 well circumscribed homogeneous intramuscular tumors. A US-guided needle biopsy with a large-core needle (2.0 mm) and a fine needle (0.8 mm) showed that the tumors were intramuscular myxomas with no sign of malignancy. 99m Tc bone scintigraphy showed a markedly increased uptake in the right lower skull, and multiple smaller foci. CT of the skull revealed a right-sided unilateral bone thickening of the orbit and the ethomoidal cells, and right-sided exophthalmia. This case history suggests that patients with multiple intramuscular myxomas should be preoperatively examined for osseous lesions. A postoperative follow-up should also be performed to detect other soft-tissue myxomas not as yet clinically detectable, or rare osseous complications. (orig.)

  1. An Unusual Location of Ossified Intramuscular Lipoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ramezan Shirazi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available "nLipoma is the most common soft tissue tumor but the presence of osseous component within the tumor is quite rare. Some studies show that less than 1% of lipomas were ossified. We describe the histological, radiological and diagnostic features of an ossified intramuscular lipoma. To the best of the authors' knowledge, a symptomatic ossified intramuscular lipoma without any cortical erosion and hyperostosis has not been previously reported in the literature.

  2. Ebola Vaccination Using a DNA Vaccine Coated on PLGA-PLL/γPGA Nanoparticles Administered Using a Microneedle Patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hung-Wei; Ye, Ling; Guo, Xin Dong; Yang, Chinglai; Compans, Richard W; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2017-01-01

    Ebola DNA vaccine is incorporated into PLGA-PLL/γPGA nanoparticles and administered to skin using a microneedle (MN) patch. The nanoparticle delivery system increases vaccine thermostability and immunogenicity compared to free vaccine. Vaccination by MN patch produces stronger immune responses than intramuscular administration. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Computed tomographic measurement of gluteal subcutaneous fat thickness in reference to failure of gluteal intramuscular injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbridge, B.E. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Royal Univ. Hospital, Academic Dept. of Medical Imaging, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)]. E-mail: brent.burbridge@usask.ca

    2007-04-15

    Casual observation of gluteal region fat thickness on computed tomography (CT) of the pelvis leads to the hypothesis that, in some individuals intended intramuscular injections are not properly deposited in the gluteal muscle. We gathered and analyzed data to determine whether this hypothesis was true. CT scans of the pelvis were analyzed over an 18-day period in the tall of 2005. The thickness of gluteal region subcutaneous fat was measured in a standardized manner. Measurement of gluteal region subcutaneous fat thickness was performed for 298 pelvic CT scans. There were 150 male subjects and 148 female subjects. The average gluteal fat thickness for female subjects was 33.2 mm, whereas the average for male subjects was 23.1 mm. Analysis revealed a significant difference in gluteal region fat thickness between male and female subjects. A 37-mm needle, allowing for 6-mm penetration of the gluteal muscle, would not have entered the gluteal muscle fibres in 81 of 148 female subjects (54.7%), in 21 of 150 male subjects (14%), and in 102 of the 298 total sample (34.2%). Analysis revealed a significant difference between male and female subjects with regard to gluteal muscle needle penetration. An overall predicted failure rate of 34% was identified for intended gluteal intramuscular injections when the standard technique was used. This is important information for care providers who inject medications in the gluteal region. In a significant number of patients, the medications will be injected subcutaneously and not into the gluteal musculature, possibly altering the pharmacokinetics of the administered medication. An alternative injection site should probably be chosen to increase the success rate of intramuscular deposition of medications and vaccines in unselected adults. (author)

  4. Invited review: mesenchymal progenitor cells in intramuscular connective tissue development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Z G; Zhang, L P; Fu, X; Yang, Q Y; Zhu, M J; Dodson, M V; Du, M

    2016-01-01

    The abundance and cross-linking of intramuscular connective tissue contributes to the background toughness of meat, and is thus undesirable. Connective tissue is mainly synthesized by intramuscular fibroblasts. Myocytes, adipocytes and fibroblasts are derived from a common pool of progenitor cells during the early embryonic development. It appears that multipotent mesenchymal stem cells first diverge into either myogenic or non-myogenic lineages; non-myogenic mesenchymal progenitors then develop into the stromal-vascular fraction of skeletal muscle wherein adipocytes, fibroblasts and derived mesenchymal progenitors reside. Because non-myogenic mesenchymal progenitors mainly undergo adipogenic or fibrogenic differentiation during muscle development, strengthening progenitor proliferation enhances the potential for both intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis, leading to the elevation of both marbling and connective tissue content in the resulting meat product. Furthermore, given the bipotent developmental potential of progenitor cells, enhancing their conversion to adipogenesis reduces fibrogenesis, which likely results in the overall improvement of marbling (more intramuscular adipocytes) and tenderness (less connective tissue) of meat. Fibrogenesis is mainly regulated by the transforming growth factor (TGF) β signaling pathway and its regulatory cascade. In addition, extracellular matrix, a part of the intramuscular connective tissue, provides a niche environment for regulating myogenic differentiation of satellite cells and muscle growth. Despite rapid progress, many questions remain in the role of extracellular matrix on muscle development, and factors determining the early differentiation of myogenic, adipogenic and fibrogenic cells, which warrant further studies.

  5. Immunization of mice with gamma-irradiated intramuscularly injected schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G.; Doenhoff, M.J.; Nelson, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    The parameters involved in the induction of resistance against Schistosoma mansoni by injection of irradiated, artificially transformed schistosomula were studied in mice. Single intramuscular injections of 500 schistosomula exposed to radiation doses in the range 2.3 to 160 krad. resulted in significant protection ( in the range 20 to 50% as assessed by reduced worm burdens) against a challenge infection administered at intervals from 3 to 24 weeks post-vaccination. However, schistosomular irradiated with 20 krad. consistently resulted in better protection than those exposed to either higher or lower radiation doses despite the persistence of stunted adults from the infections irradiated with 2.3 krad. Vaccination with 40 krad. schistosomula resulted in significant protection in terms of reduced worm and tissue egg burdens and increased survival following lethal challenge. Varying the number of irradiated schistosomula, the frequency and route of their administration, the site of challenge and the strain of host all failed to enhance the level of resistance. However, percutaneously applied, irradiated cercariae were found to be more effective in stimulating resistance (60%) than intramuscularly injected, irradiated schistosomula (40%). (author)

  6. Ivermectin disposition kinetics after subcutaneous and intramuscular administration of an oil-based formulation to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifschitz, A; Virkel, G; Pis, A; Imperiale, F; Sanchez, S; Alvarez, L; Kujanek, R; Lanusse, C

    1999-10-01

    Slight differences in formulation may change the plasma kinetics and ecto-endoparasiticide activity of endectocide compounds. This work reports on the disposition kinetics and plasma availability of ivermectin (IVM) after subcutaneous (SC) and intramuscular (IM) administration as an oil-based formulation to cattle. Parasite-free Aberdeen Angus calves (n = 24; 240-280 kg) were divided into three groups (n = 8) and treated (200 microg/kg) with either an IVM oil-based pharmaceutical preparation (IVM-TEST formulation) (Bayer Argentina S.A.) given by subcutaneous (Group A) and intramuscular (Group B) injections or the IVM-CONTROL (non-aqueous formulation) (Ivomec, MSD Agvet) subcutaneously administered (Group C). Blood samples were taken over 35 days post-treatment and the recovered plasma was extracted and analyzed by HPLC using fluorescence detection. IVM was detected in plasma between 12 h and 35 days post-administration of IVM-TEST (SC and IM injections) and IVM-CONTROL formulations. Prolonged IVM absorption half-life (p oil-based formulation examined in this trial, compared to the standard preparation, may positively impact on its strategic use in cattle.

  7. Intramuscular aripiprazole in the acute management of psychomotor agitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Sergio; Cuomo, Ilaria; Lionetto, Luana; Janiri, Delfina; Simmaco, Maurizio; Caloro, Matteo; De Persis, Simone; Piazzi, Gioia; Simonetti, Alessio; Telesforo, C Ludovica; Sciarretta, Antonio; Caccia, Federica; Gentile, Giovanna; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-06-01

    To assess acute efficacy and safety of 9.75 mg of intramuscular (IM) injections of the atypical antipsychiatric aripiprazole in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and acute agitation. Open-label trial of IM injections of aripiprazole and 24-hour monitoring of clinical response in patients with major psychoses and acute agitation. Partial analysis of blood levels of the administered drug to correlate with clinical response. Acute psychiatric care wards in a single university hospital. A total of 201 acutely agitated patients (79 with schizophrenia and 122 with bipolar disorder I). Aripiprazole 9.75 mg IM injection. We evaluated clinical response using the Excitatory Component of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-EC), the Agitation/Calmness Evaluation Scale (ACES), and the Clinical Global Impressions scale (CGI). Assessments were conducted 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes and 24 hours after the first injection for PANSS-EC and ACES, and 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours for CGI. Response was at least a 40% decrease in PANSS-EC scores. We measured serum aripiprazole and dehydroaripiprazole levels in a subsample. IM aripiprazole significantly improved clinical measures. PANSS-EC improved progressively, starting after 30 minutes. ACES improved after 90 minutes and continued thereafter. Effects were sustained, with steadily decreasing CGI scores, until the 24th hour. Response rate was 83.6% after 2 hours, but with repeat injections, it rose to over 90% with no differences among diagnostic groups. Although there were gender differences in the response to individual PANSS-EC items, the responses were similar overall. Neither clinical monitoring nor patient reporting revealed any side effects. No therapeutic window was identified, and levels did not correlate with any clinical measure. Aripiprazole was effective and safe in reducing acute agitation in patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Our results compare favorably to double-blind trials, probably

  8. Giant intramuscular lipoma of the tongue: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Giuseppe; Biondi, Paolo; Caltabiano, Rosario; Vecchio, Giada Maria; Amico, Paolo; Magro, Gaetano

    2009-06-22

    We herein report a rare case of giant intramuscular lipoma of the tongue. A 75-year-old Italian male presented at our department with a large tumor at the tip of the tongue that had been present for over 30 years. Clinical examination revealed a yellowish lesion, measuring 10 cm in maximum diameter, protruding from lingual surface. Histological examination showed an unencapsulated lipomatous tumor composed of mature adipocytes, uniform in size and shape, diffusely infiltrating striated muscle fibers of the tongue. The patient is well with no local recurrence after a 15-month follow-up period.

  9. Supraspinatus Intramuscular Calcified Hematoma or Necrosis Associated with Tendon Tear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Lädermann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rotator cuff intramuscular calcification is a rare condition usually caused by heterotopic ossification and myositis ossificans. Case Presentation. We describe a patient with voluminous calcified mass entrapped in supraspinatus muscle associated with corresponding tendon tear. Histological examination corresponded to a calcified hematoma or necrosis. Patient was surgically managed with open excision of the calcified hematoma and rotator cuff arthroscopic repair. At 6 months, supraspinatus muscle was healed, and functional outcome was good. Discussion and Conclusion. We hypothesized that supraspinatus intramuscular calcified hematoma was responsible for mechanical stress on the tendon. This association has never been described.

  10. Zagreb regimen, an abbreviated intramuscular schedule for rabies vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiangping; Yao, Linong; Sun, Jimin; Gong, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    The Zagreb regimen, an abbreviated intramuscular schedule for rabies vaccination, was developed by I. Vodopija and colleagues of the Zagreb Institute of Public Health in Croatia in the 1980s. It was recommended by WHO as one of the intramuscular (IM) schedules for rabies vaccination in 2010. We reviewed the literature on the immunogenicity, safety, economic burden, and compliance of the Zagreb 2-1-1 regimen. Compared to Essen, another IM schedule recommended by WHO, Zagreb has higher compliance, lower medical cost, and better immunogenicity at an early stage. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Prehospital Agitation and Sedation Trial (PhAST): A Randomized Control Trial of Intramuscular Haloperidol versus Intramuscular Midazolam for the Sedation of the Agitated or Violent Patient in the Prehospital Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, Derek L; Jacobs, Dorian

    2015-10-01

    Violent patients in the prehospital environment pose a threat to health care workers tasked with managing their medical conditions. While research has focused on methods to control the agitated patient in the emergency department (ED), there is a paucity of data looking at the optimal approach to subdue these patients safely in the prehospital setting. Hypothesis This study evaluated the efficacy of two different intramuscular medications, midazolam and haloperidol, to determine their efficacy in sedating agitated patients in the prehospital setting. This was a prospective, randomized, observational trial wherein agitated patients were administered intramuscular haloperidol or intramuscular midazolam to control agitation. Agitation was quantified by the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (RASS). Paramedics recorded the RASS and vital signs every five minutes during transport and again upon arrival to the ED. The primary outcome was mean time to achieve a RASS less than +1. Secondary outcomes included mean time for patients to return to baseline mental status and adverse events. Five patients were enrolled in each study group. In the haloperidol group, the mean time to achieve a RASS score of less than +1 was 24.8 minutes (95% CI, 8-49 minutes), and the mean time for the return of a normal mental status was 84 minutes (95% CI, 0-202 minutes). Two patients required additional prehospital doses for adequate sedation. There were no adverse events recorded in the patients administered haloperidol. In the midazolam group, the mean time to achieve a RASS score of less than +1 was 13.5 minutes (95% CI, 8-19 minutes) and the mean time for the return of normal mental status was 105 minutes (95% CI, 0-178 minutes). One patient required additional sedation in the ED. There were no adverse events recorded among the patients administered midazolam. Midazolam and haloperidol administered intramuscularly appear equally effective for sedating an agitated patient in the

  12. Single Intramuscular-dose Toxicity of Water soluble Carthmi-Flos herbal acupuncture (WCF in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hyung-geol

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This experiment was conducted to examine the toxicity of WCF (Water soluble Carthmi-Flos herbal acupuncture by administering a single intramuscular dose of WCF in 6-week-old, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats and to find the lethality dose for WCF. Methods: The experiment was conducted at Biotoxtech according to Good Laboratory Practices under a request by the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute. This experiment was performed based on the testing standards of “Toxicity Test Standards for Drugs” by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. Subjects were divided into 4 groups: 1 control group in which normal saline was administered and 3 test groups in which 0.1, 0.5 or 1.0 mL of WCF was administered; a single intramuscular dose was injected into 5 males and 5 females in each group. General symptoms and body weights were observed/measured for 14 days after injection. At the end of the observation period, hematological and clinical chemistry tests were performed, followed by necropsy and histopathological examinations of the injected sections. Results: No mortalities were observed in any group. Also, symptoms, body weight, hematology, clinical chemistry and necropsy were not affected. However, histopathological examination of the injected part in one female in the 1.0-mL group showed infiltration of mononuclear cells and a multi-nucleated giant cell around eosinophilic material. Conclusion: Administration of single intramuscular doses of WCF in 3 groups of rats showed that the approximate lethal dose of WCF for all rats was in excess of 1.0 mL, as no mortalities were observed for injections up to and including 1.0 mL.

  13. Effectiveness of Per Rectal Misoprostol Versus Intramuscular Oxytocin for Prevention of Primary Postpartum Haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmat, Raheela; Ashraf, Tasneem; Asmat, Fazila; Asmat, Shakila; Asmat, Nagina

    2017-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of per rectal misoprostol over oxytocin in primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). Randomised controlled trial study. Gynaecology and Obstetrics Department, Unit IV, Bolan Medical Complex Hospital, Quetta, from September 2013 to February 2014. Emergency obstetric patients receiving per rectal misoprostol (800 µgm) were named as group 'A' and those receiving 10 units oxytocin intramuscularly were labelled as group 'B'. The patients were followed within 24 hours of spontaneous vaginal deliveries. Pads soaked were used to assess the amount of blood loss. A total of 1,678 patients were included in the study. The mean age of patients in group-A was 29.11 years while the mean age of patients in group-B was 29.16 years. One hundred and twenty-three (14.66%) patients in group-A and 120 (14.31%) patients in group-B had PPH. Among the total 1,678 patients, 243 (14.49%) had postpartum haemorrhage among whom 24 (9.88%) had major haemorrhage with a blood loss ≥1000 mL. Among the sub-group (839 patients) administered misoprostol had 123 (14.66%) patients with blood loss greater than 500 mL and the rest 716 patients (85.34%) had blood loss less than 500 mL. The sub-group administered oxytocin have 120 (14.31%) out of 839 patients with postpartum haemorrhage while 719 (85.69%) had blood loss less than 500 mL. Active management of 3rd stage of labour with per rectal misoprostol administration was as effective as intramuscular oxytocin. Both were equally effective to reduce PPH and the subsequent need for surgical interventions.

  14. Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of a Single Intramuscular High Dose versus an Oral Long-Term Supplementation of Cholecalciferol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Wylon

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is frequent during the winter and occurs throughout the year in the elderly or patients suffering from autoimmune diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of oral supplementation versus a single intramuscular injection of cholecalciferol in healthy individuals.Up to 8,000 I.U. oral cholecalciferol was administered daily for 84 days in a 4 week dose-escalation setting to vitamin D deficient individuals. In another cohort, a single intramuscular injection of 100,000 I.U. cholecalciferol was given. In both cohorts, individuals without vitamin D intake served as the comparison group. 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations were measured in all individuals at defined time points throughout the studies.The mean 25(OHD serum concentration increased significantly after oral cholecalciferol intake compared to the control group (day 28: 83.4 nmol/l and 42.5 nmol/l; day 56: 127.4 nmol/l and 37.3 nmol/l; day 84: 159.7 nmol/l and 30.0 nmol/l. In individuals receiving 100,000 I.U. cholecalciferol intramuscular, the mean 25(OHD serum concentration peaked after 4 weeks measuring 70.9 nmol/l compared to 32.7 nmol/l in the placebo group (p = 0.002. The increase of 25(OHD serum concentrations after 28 days was comparable between both routes of administration (p = 0.264.Oral and intramuscular cholecalciferol supplementation effectively increased serum 25(OHD concentrations.

  15. An interlaboratory study of the pharmacokinetics of testosterone following intramuscular administration to Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, B C; Sams, R A; Guinjab-Cagmat, J; Szabo, N J; Colahan, P; Stanley, S D

    2011-12-01

    Testosterone is an anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) that is endogenously produced by both male and female horses that also has the potential for abuse when administered exogenously to race horses. To recommend appropriate withdrawal guidelines so that veterinarians can discontinue therapeutic use prior to competition, the pharmacokinetics and elimination of testosterone were investigated. An aqueous testosterone suspension was administered intramuscularly in the neck of Thoroughbred horses (n = 20). The disposition of testosterone from this formulation was characterized by an initial, rapid absorption phase followed by a much more variable secondary absorption phase. The median terminal half-life was 39 h. A second focus of this study was to compare the testosterone concentrations determined by two different laboratories using a percentage similarity model with a coefficient of variation of 16.5% showing good agreement between the two laboratories results. Based on the results of this study, a withdrawal period of 30 days for aqueous testosterone administered IM is recommended. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia associated with intramuscular myxomas: Mazabraud's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassance Cabral, C.E.; Guedes, P.; Celso Cruz, L. Jr.; Smith, J.; Rezende, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Mazabraud's syndrome, though uncommon, is reported increasingly frequently. It represents an entity readily recognisable radiologically on MR imaging. Awareness of the syndrome, particularly when the myxoma is solitary, can prevent misdiagnosis of intramuscular myxomas (especially when large) as malignant mesenchymal tumors containing myxoid tissue. We review the 34 cases previously reported in the literature and include a recent case from our center. (orig.)

  17. Intravenous paracetamol versus intramuscular pethidine in relief of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intramuscular pethidine is one of most common opioids used for labour analgesia. There are a number of concerns in the literature regarding the use of pethidine. The aim of this study is to compare analgesic efficacy of paracetamol with pethidine for labour pain in normal vaginal delivery. Materials and ...

  18. Sonographic Appearance of a Solitary Intramuscular Cysticercosis: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Ju Hee; Joo, Seung Ho; Shim, Joo Eun; Kim, Yee Jeong; Oh, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Tae Hwan

    2009-01-01

    The development of antiparasitic drugs and public health strategies has reduced the prevalence of cysticercosis in South Korea. In contrast, the disease is still endemic in Southeast Asia. The influx of immigrants from endemic areas has been on the increase. We report the sonographic and pathological findings of cysticercosis that presented as an intramuscular solitary mass in a 27-year-old Philippine woman

  19. Sciatic nerve palsy associated with intramuscular quinine injections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sct?ior ikfeclical O[ficcr. Department of Orthopaeclics, Mulago Hospital, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Key Words: Sciatic nerve palsy, intramuscular injections, children, quinine dil~ydrochloride. The purpose of this paper is to show that, in children, gluteal injection of quinine dihydrochloride (QDH) may result in ...

  20. Intramuscular Injection of “Site Enhancement Oil”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Louise; Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Jensen, Thomas Hartvig Lindkær

    2015-01-01

    The use of intramuscular injection of foreign substances for aesthetic purposes is well known. Complications are usually local to the site of injection but can be potentially lethal. Here, we present a case of "site enhancement oil" use in a 42-year-old man who died from asphyxia due to hanging. ...

  1. Sonographic Appearance of a Solitary Intramuscular Cysticercosis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Ju Hee; Joo, Seung Ho; Shim, Joo Eun; Kim, Yee Jeong; Oh, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Tae Hwan [NHIC Ilsan Hospital, Ilsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    The development of antiparasitic drugs and public health strategies has reduced the prevalence of cysticercosis in South Korea. In contrast, the disease is still endemic in Southeast Asia. The influx of immigrants from endemic areas has been on the increase. We report the sonographic and pathological findings of cysticercosis that presented as an intramuscular solitary mass in a 27-year-old Philippine woman

  2. Comparison of the Immunogenicity of Various Booster Doses of Inactivated Polio Vaccine Delivered Intradermally Versus Intramuscularly to HIV-Infected Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, Stephanie B; Kouiavskaia, Diana; Siik, Julia; Kochba, Efrat; Beydoun, Hind; Mirochnitchenko, Olga; Levin, Yotam; Khardori, Nancy; Chumakov, Konstantin; Maldonado, Yvonne

    2015-06-15

    Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is necessary for global polio eradication because oral polio vaccine can rarely cause poliomyelitis as it mutates and may fail to provide adequate immunity in immunocompromised populations. However, IPV is unaffordable for many developing countries. Intradermal IPV shows promise as a means to decrease the effective dose and cost of IPV, but prior studies, all using 20% of the standard dose used in intramuscular IPV, resulted in inferior antibody titers. We randomly assigned 231 adults with well-controlled human immunodeficiency virus infection at a ratio of 2:2:2:1 to receive 40% of the standard dose of IPV intradermally, 20% of the standard dose intradermally, the full standard dose intramuscularly, or 40% of the standard dose intramuscularly. Intradermal vaccination was done using the NanoPass MicronJet600 microneedle device. Baseline immunity was 87%, 90%, and 66% against poliovirus serotypes 1, 2, and 3, respectively. After vaccination, antibody titers increased a median of 64-fold. Vaccine response to 40% of the standard dose administered intradermally was comparable to that of the standard dose of IPV administered intramuscularly and resulted in higher (although not significantly) antibody titers. Intradermal administration had higher a incidence of local side effects (redness and itching) but a similar incidence of systemic side effects and was preferred by study participants over intramuscular administration. A 60% reduction in the standard IPV dose without reduction in antibody titers is possible through intradermal administration. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Sabri; Alomari, Ahmad I.; Chaudry, Gulraiz [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Vascular Anomalies Center, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Kozakewich, Harry P. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Vascular Anomalies Center, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States); Fishman, Steven J. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Vascular Anomalies Center, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Surgery, Boston, MA (United States); Mulliken, John B. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Vascular Anomalies Center, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Plastic and Oral Surgery, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Infantile hemangiomas demonstrate a pattern of proliferative growth in infancy followed by a slow phase of involution. In contrast a rare type of vascular tumor, intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma, usually presents beyond the period of infancy with nonspecific symptoms and no evidence of involution. The purpose of this study was to characterize the clinical, imaging, histopathological characteristics and management of intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma. We performed a retrospective review of a 20-year period to identify children diagnosed with intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma. Patient demographics, imaging and histopathological findings were recorded. We included 18 children (10 boys, 8 girls) with histologically proven intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma - and adequate imaging. The mean age at presentation was 8.1 years (range 1 day to 19 years). Twelve lesions involved muscles of the extremities, 4 were located in the trunk and 2 were in the head and neck. MRI had been performed in all children and demonstrated a soft-tissue mass with flow voids, consistent with fast flow. The lesion was well-circumscribed in 16 children and intralesional fat was seen in 14. Doppler US demonstrated a heterogeneous lesion, predominantly isoechoic to surrounding muscle, with enlarged arterial feeders. Enlarged feeding arteries, inhomogeneous blush and lack of arteriovenous shunting were noted on angiography (n = 5). The most common histopathological findings were lobules of capillaries with plump endothelium and at least some adipose tissue. The lesions were excised in six children. Two children were lost to follow-up. In the remaining 10, follow-up MRI studies ranging from 3 months to 10 years showed that the lesion enlarged in proportion to the child (n = 7), demonstrated slow growth (n = 2) or remained stable (n = 1). There was no change in imaging characteristics on follow-up. Intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma is a rare benign vascular tumor of

  4. Comparison of intramuscular olanzapine, orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets, oral risperidone solution, and intramuscular haloperidol in the management of acute agitation in an acute care psychiatric ward in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wen-Yu; Huang, Si-Sheng; Lee, Bo-Shyan; Chiu, Nan-Ying

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare efficacy and safety among intramuscular olanzapine, intramuscular haloperidol, orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets, and oral risperidone solution for agitated patients with psychosis during the first 24 hours of treatment in an acute care psychiatric ward. Forty-two inpatients from an acute care psychiatric ward of a medical center in central Taiwan were enrolled. They were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 treatment groups (10-mg intramuscular olanzapine, 10-mg olanzapine oral disintegrating tablet, 3-mg oral risperidone solution, or 7.5-mg intramuscular haloperidol). Agitation was measured by using the excited component of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-EC), the Agitation-Calmness Evaluation Scale, and the Clinical Global Impression--Severity Scale during the first 24 hours. There were significant differences in the PANSS-EC total scores for the 4 intervention groups at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minutes after the initiation of treatment. More significant differences were found early in the treatment. In the post hoc analysis, the patients who received intramuscular olanzapine or orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets showed significantly greater improvement in PANSS-EC scores than did patients who received intramuscular haloperidol at points 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minutes after injection. These findings suggest that intramuscular olanzapine, orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets, and oral risperidone solution are as effective treatments as intramuscular haloperidol for patients with acute agitation. Intramuscular olanzapine and disintegrating olanzapine tablets are more effective than intramuscular haloperidol in the early phase of the intervention. There is no significant difference in effectiveness among intramuscular olanzapine, orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets, and oral risperidone solution.

  5. Intramuscular dissection of Baker's cysts: report on three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Christopher S.J.; McCarthy, Catherine L.; McNally, Eugene G.

    2004-01-01

    Baker's cysts are fluid distensions of the gastrocnemius-semimembranosus bursa and are the most common cystic lesion around the knee. Typically cysts enlarge along intermuscular planes around the knee. We report three cases in which the expanding cyst did not respect these planes and dissected along an intramuscular route as confirmed by MR imaging. Such behaviour by Baker's cysts is hitherto unreported in the literature. Possible mechanisms to account for this phenomenon are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Intramuscular Lipid Metabolism in the Insulin Resistance of Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Bergman, Bryan C.; Perreault, Leigh; Hunerdosse, Devon M.; Koehler, Mary C.; Samek, Ali M.; Eckel, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Smoking decreases insulin action and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes in humans. Mechanisms responsible for smoking-induced insulin resistance are unclear. We hypothesized smokers would have increased intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) concentration and decreased fractional synthesis rate (FSR) compared with nonsmokers. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Nonsmokers (n = 18, aged 20 ± 0.5 years, BMI 22 ± 0.4 kg/m2, body fat 20 ± 2%, 0 cigarettes per day) and smo...

  7. Onset and Effect Duration of Intrabuccal Space and Intramuscular Ketamine in Pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Majidi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Painful diagnostic and therapeutic procedures performed for children are routine actions. Opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as acetaminophens are among medications that can be used for this purpose. This study aimed to compare the onset and duration of action of intrabuccal (IB, submucosal space and intramuscular (IM injection of ketamine in pediatrics. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial study was carried out on 126 children of 1–15 years old referred to the emergency room of Al-Zahra and Kashani Hospitals in Isfahan and divided into two 63 populated groups of IM and IB. For one group randomly, 3 mg/kg IB ketamine was administered, and for another group, ketamine was injected intramuscularly at the dose of 5 mg/kg. The drug effect, surgeon satisfaction, and complications were evaluated. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The mean of time between injection and onset of drug effect in IM group was 5.71 min, whereas in IB group, it was 4.14 min (P < 0.0001. The mean of the duration of drug effect in IM group was 45.54 min, whereas in IB group, it was 24.63 min (P < 0.0001. Complications in IM group were significantly more reported than IB group (33.3% versus 11.1%, respectively, P = 003. The median of surgeon satisfaction in IM group was 3 and in IB group was 4 which was statistically significant (P = 0.007. Conclusions: IB method is preferred over IM method, and hence, it is recommended to use.

  8. Pharmacokinetic study of flunixin and its interaction with enrofloxacin after intramuscular administration in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Abo-EL-Sooud

    Full Text Available The Pharmacokinetic aspects of flunixin (FL administered alone and in combination with enrofloxacin (EN, were studied in clinically healthy calves. The experiments were performed on two groups: FL alone {2.2 mg/kg,intramuscular (IM}, and combination of FL (2.2 mg/kg, IM and EN {2.5 mg/kg, IM}. Plasma concentrations of FL were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC method. Moreover, the effects of FL alone or in combination on liver and kidney functions were also assessed. Flunixin was rapidly absorbed intramuscularly with a half-life of absorption (t of 0.094 h and the peak plasma concentration (C was 1.27 g/mL was attained after 1/2ab max 0.49 h (T . Enrofloxacin significantly altered the pharmacokinetics of FL by delaying its absorption and accelerate its max elimination from body. Significant increases (32% in the area under the curve (AUC and (37% in the elimination rate constant (K from the central compartment and a significant decrease (27% in the elimination half-life (t of FL el 1/2el were found following coadministration with EN, compared with administration of FL alone. The maximum plasma drug concentration (C showed significant increase (28% following the coadministration of EN with FL as max compared to that following the administration of FL alone. It was concluded that the combination of FL and EN negatively altered the kinetics of FL and exaggerated the adverse effect on hepato-renal function in calves consequently; the concomitant use of FL and EN should be avoided in calves. [Vet. World 2011; 4(10.000: 449-454

  9. Comparison of artemisinin suppositories, intramuscular artesunate and intravenous quinine for the treatment of severe childhood malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X T; Bethell, D B; Pham, T P; Ta, T T; Tran, T N; Nguyen, T T; Pham, T T; Nguyen, T T; Day, N P; White, N J

    1997-01-01

    Severe malaria remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity for children living in many tropical regions. With the emergence of strains of Plasmodium falciparum resistant to both chloroquine and quinine, alternative antimalarial agents are required. The artemisinin group of compounds are rapidly effective in severe disease when given by intramuscular or intravenous injection. However, these routes of administration are not always available in rural areas. In an open, randomized comparison 109 Vietnamese children, aged between 3 months and 14 years, with severe P.falciparum malaria, were allocated at random to receive artemisinin suppositories followed by mefloquine (n = 37), intramuscular artesunate followed by mefloquine (n = 37), or intravenous quinine followed by pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine (n = 35). There were 9 deaths: 2 artemisinin, 4 artesunate and 5 quinine-treated children. There was no difference in fever clearance time, coma recovery, or length of hospital stay among the 3 groups. However, parasite clearance times were significantly faster in artemisinin and artesunate-treated patients than in those who received quinine (P children receiving these drugs had lower peripheral reticulocyte counts by day 5 of treatment than those in the quinine group (P = 0.011). No other adverse effect or toxicity was found. There was no treatment failure in these 2 groups, but 4 patients in the quinine group failed to clear their parasites within 7 d of starting treatment and required alternative antimalarial therapy. Artemisinin suppositories are easy to administer, cheap, and very effective for treating children with severe malaria. In rural areas where medical facilities are lacking these drugs will allow antimalarial therapy to be instituted earlier in the course of the disease and may therefore save lives.

  10. Islet grafting and imaging in a bioengineered intramuscular space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Piotr; Sondermeijer, Hugo; Hardy, Mark A; Woodland, David C; Lee, Keagan; Bhagat, Govind; Witkowski, Kajetan; See, Fiona; Rana, Abbas; Maffei, Antonella; Itescu, Silviu; Harris, Paul E

    2009-11-15

    Because the hepatic portal system may not be the optimal site for islet transplantation, several extrahepatic sites have been studied. Here, we examine an intramuscular transplantation site, bioengineered to better support islet neovascularization, engraftment, and survival, and we demonstrate that at this novel site, grafted beta cell mass may be quantitated in a real-time noninvasive manner by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Streptozotocin-induced rats were pretreated intramuscularly with a biocompatible angiogenic scaffold received syngeneic islet transplants 2 weeks later. The recipients were monitored serially by blood glucose and glucose tolerance measurements and by PET imaging of the transplant site with [11C] dihydrotetrabenazine. Parallel histopathologic evaluation of the grafts was performed using insulin staining and evaluation of microvasularity. Reversal of hyperglycemia by islet transplantation was most successful in recipients pretreated with bioscaffolds containing angiogenic factors when compared with those who received no bioscaffolds or bioscaffolds not treated with angiogenic factors. PET imaging with [11C] dihydrotetrabenazine, insulin staining, and microvascular density patterns were consistent with islet survival, increased levels of angiogenesis, and with reversal of hyperglycemia. Induction of increased neovascularization at an intramuscular site significantly improves islet transplant engraftment and survival compared with controls. The use of a nonhepatic transplant site may avoid intrahepatic complications and permit the use of PET imaging to measure and follow transplanted beta cell mass in real time. These findings have important implications for effective islet implantation outside of the liver and offer promising possibilities for improving islet survival, monitoring, and even prevention of islet loss.

  11. Intramuscular versus Subcutaneous Administration of Iron Dextran in Suckling Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Svoboda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the development of red blood cell indices after subcutaneous versus intramuscular administration of iron dextran to suckling piglets during early postnatal period. The piglets in group I (n = 17 were injected subcutaneously (into groin with 200 mg Fe3+ as iron dextran on day 3 of life. In group II (n = 16, the piglets received intramuscular injection (into gluteal muscles of 200 mg Fe3+ as iron dextran on day 3 of life. In group III (n = 10, the piglets did not receive any iron till the age of 3 days. The blood was taken and analyzed (Hb, PCV, RBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, Fe on days 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. Haematological indices of piglets in group III were characteristic for hypochromic anaemia. Anaemia in group III had a detrimental effect on the growth rate of piglets. The development of red blood cell indices and iron concentration in blood plasma in subcutaneously treated piglets did not differ significantly from that of intramuscularly-treated group. Both treatments prevented development of anaemia.

  12. Treatment of agitation in the acute psychiatric setting. An observational study of the effectiveness of intramuscular psychotropic medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jeanett Østerby; Stenborg, Dina; Lodahl, Tue; Mønsted, Mik Mathias

    2016-11-01

    Agitation is frequent in the acute psychiatric setting. The observation and treatment of agitation is important to avoid harm to patients or staff, to reduce distress of the patient, and to reduce the risk of coercion, especially physical restraint. To evaluate the effect of intramuscular treatment with psychotropics on agitation in a non-selected acute psychiatric population. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Excitement Component (PANSS-EC) was implemented in the acute psychiatric ward at Psychiatric Center Copenhagen to improve assessment and treatment of agitation. During a period of almost ~2 years the staff was requested to assess agitation before and after administration of intramuscular injections. PANSS-EC was obtained at baseline and within 2 hours after injection for 135 injections with antipsychotics or benzodiazepines administered to 101 acute, non-selected psychiatric patients with high occurrence of co-morbid substance abuse. Mean PANSS-EC at baseline was 26.53 ± 4.87, and mean reduction in PANSS-EC was 14.99 ± 8.48 (p patients were subjected to physical restraint. Patients subjected to restraint had a significantly higher PANSS-EC score. Patients who received a subsequent injection had a significantly lower decline in PANSS-EC score. Besides two cases of acute dystonia following haloperidol injections, no serious side-effects were observed. Treatment of agitation with intramuscular injections of psychotropics was in general effective in this non-selected, highly agitated psychiatric population, and injections were well tolerated.

  13. Intramuscular temperature changes during and after 2 different cryotherapy interventions in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Kimberly A; Herman, Daniel C; Hertel, Jay; Saliba, Susan A

    2012-08-01

    Crossover. To compare the time required to decrease intramuscular temperature 8°C below baseline temperature, and to compare intramuscular temperature 90 minutes posttreatment, between 2 cryotherapy modalities. Cryotherapy is used to treat pain from muscle injuries. Cooler intramuscular temperatures may reduce cellular metabolism and secondary hypoxic injury to attenuate acute injury response, specifically the rate of chemical mediator activity. Modalities that decrease intramuscular temperature quickly may be beneficial in the treatment of muscle injuries. Eighteen healthy subjects received 2 cryotherapy conditions, crushed-ice bag (CIB) and cold-water immersion (CWI), in a randomly allocated order, separated by 72 hours. Each condition was applied until intramuscular temperature decreased 8°C below baseline. Intramuscular temperature was monitored in the gastrocnemius, 1 cm below subcutaneous adipose tissue. The primary outcome was time to decrease intramuscular temperature 8°C below baseline. A secondary outcome was intramuscular temperature at the end of a 90-minute rewarming period. Paired t tests were used to examine outcomes. Time to reach an 8°C reduction in intramuscular temperature was not significantly different between CIB and CWI (mean difference, 2.6 minutes; 95% confidence interval: -3.10, 8.30). Intramuscular temperature remained significantly colder 90 minutes post-CWI compared to CIB (mean difference, 2.8°C; 95% confidence interval: 2.07°C, 3.52°C). There was no difference in time required to reduce intramuscular temperature 8°C 1 cm below adipose tissue using CIB and CWI. However, intramuscular temperature remained significantly colder 90 minutes following CWI. These results provide clinicians with information that may guide treatment-modality decisions.

  14. Islet grafting and imaging in a bioengineered intramuscular space†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Piotr; Sondermeijer, Hugo; Hardy, Mark A.; Woodland, David C.; Lee, Keagan; Bhagat, Govind; Witkowski, Kajetan; See, Fiona; Rana, Abbas; Maffei, Antonella; Itescu, Silviu; Harris, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Since the hepatic portal system may not be the optimal site for islet transplantation, several extrahepatic sites have been studied. Here we examine an intramuscular transplantation site, bioengineered to better support islet neovascularization, engraftment, and survival, and demonstrate that at this novel site, grafted beta cell mass may be quantitated in a real time non-invasive manner by PET imaging. Methods Streptozotocin induced rats were pretreated intramuscularly with a biocompatible angiogenic scaffold received syngeneic islet transplants 2 weeks later. The recipients were monitored serially by blood glucose and glucose tolerance measurements and by PET imaging of the transplant site with [11C] dihydrotetrabenazine. Parallel histopathologic evaluation of the grafts was done using insulin staining and evaluation of microvasularity. Results Reversal of hyperglycemia by islet transplantation was most successful in recipients pretreated with bioscaffolds containing angiogenic factors as compared to those who received no bioscaffolds or bioscaffolds not treated with angiogenic factors. PET imaging with [11C] dihydrotetrabenazine, insulin staining and microvascular density patterns were consistent with islet survival, increased levels of angiogenesis, and with reversal of hyperglycemia. Conclusions Induction of increased neovascularization at an intramuscular site significantly improves islet transplant engraftment and survival compared to controls. The use of a non hepatic transplant site may avoid intrahepatic complications and permit the use of PET imaging to measure and follow transplanted beta-cell mass in real time. These findings have important implications for effective islet implantation outside of the liver, and offer promising possibilities for improving islet survival, monitoring, and even prevention of islet loss. PMID:19898201

  15. Evaluation of Linear Regression Simultaneous Myoelectric Control Using Intramuscular EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren H; Kuiken, Todd A; Hargrove, Levi J

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of linear regression models to decode patterns of muscle coactivation from intramuscular electromyogram (EMG) and provide simultaneous myoelectric control of a virtual 3-DOF wrist/hand system. Performance was compared to the simultaneous control of conventional myoelectric prosthesis methods using intramuscular EMG (parallel dual-site control)-an approach that requires users to independently modulate individual muscles in the residual limb, which can be challenging for amputees. Linear regression control was evaluated in eight able-bodied subjects during a virtual Fitts' law task and was compared to performance of eight subjects using parallel dual-site control. An offline analysis also evaluated how different types of training data affected prediction accuracy of linear regression control. The two control systems demonstrated similar overall performance; however, the linear regression method demonstrated improved performance for targets requiring use of all three DOFs, whereas parallel dual-site control demonstrated improved performance for targets that required use of only one DOF. Subjects using linear regression control could more easily activate multiple DOFs simultaneously, but often experienced unintended movements when trying to isolate individual DOFs. Offline analyses also suggested that the method used to train linear regression systems may influence controllability. Linear regression myoelectric control using intramuscular EMG provided an alternative to parallel dual-site control for 3-DOF simultaneous control at the wrist and hand. The two methods demonstrated different strengths in controllability, highlighting the tradeoff between providing simultaneous control and the ability to isolate individual DOFs when desired.

  16. Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia associated with intramuscular myxomas: Mazabraud syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samper Wamba, Jose Daniel; Fernandez Bermudez, Maria Jose; Dominguez, Teresa Lorenzo; Pascua, Luis Ramos

    2015-01-01

    The authors report a new case of Mazabraud syndrome in a 69-year-old woman complaining of pain in her right thigh. Plain radiographs demonstrated radiological findings consistent with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia of the right femur and tibia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study showed soft tissue tumors located in the vastus intermedius muscle with typical signal features of intramuscular myxomas. Biopsy was not performed because of its benign nature. Symptomatic treatment was prescribed and all the lesions remained 1 year after the diagnosis

  17. Técnica intramuscular na gluteoplastia de aumento

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Francisco de Assis Montenegro Cido; Alcântara, Fernando Soares de; Martins, Elmiro Heli; Kruse, Ricardo Lapa; Nogueira, Régis Pinheiro; Raad, Nidall de Sousa

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: Região glútea harmoniosa é considerada elemento essencial na composição da beleza corporal e expressão maior de feminilidade, suscitando o crescente interesse de homens e mulheres na melhoria estética dessa região. O objetivo deste estudo é demonstrar uma alternativa às técnicas já publicadas acerca da gluteoplastia de aumento, baseada na colocação da prótese intramuscular, utilizando de forma simplificada os limites da dissecção, tendo como referência as estruturas anatômicas fix...

  18. PHARMACOKINETICS OF CEFTIOFUR CRYSTALLINE FREE ACID STERILE SUSPENSION IN GREEN IGUANAS ( IGUANA IGUANA) AFTER SINGLE INTRAMUSCULAR ADMINISTRATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadar, Miranda J; Hawkins, Michelle G; Taylor, Ian T; Byrne, Barbara A; Tell, Lisa A

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the pharmacokinetic parameters of ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA) for a single intramuscular injection in green iguanas ( Iguana iguana). Six green iguanas received an injection of 5 mg/kg CCFA into the triceps muscle. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, concentrations of ceftiofur free acid equivalents in plasma samples collected at predetermined time points were evaluated up to 21 days following drug administration. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was applied to the data. The observed maximum plasma concentration (C max obs ) was 2.765 ± 0.864 μg/mL, and the time of observed maximum concentration (T max obs ) was 6.1 ± 9.2 hr. The area under the curve (0 to infinity) was 239.3 ± 121.1 μg·hr/mL. No significant adverse drug reactions were clinically observed, and no visible injection site reactions were noted. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of bacterial isolates from iguanas were used to establish a target plasma concentration of 2.0 μg/mL. Based on the results from this study, a potential dosing interval for ceftiofur crystalline free acid administered at 5 mg/kg intramuscularly for iguanas maintained at a temperature of 30°C would be 24 hr based on a target plasma concentration of 2 μg/mL; however, multidose studies still need to be performed.

  19. Survey of Botulinum Toxin Injections in Anticoagulated Patients: Korean Physiatrists' Preference in Controlling Anticoagulation Profile Prior to Intramuscular Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yongjun; Park, Geun-Young; Park, Jihye; Choi, Asayeon; Kim, Soo Yeon; Boulias, Chris; Phadke, Chetan P; Ismail, Farooq; Im, Sun

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate Korean physiatrists' practice of performing intramuscular botulinum toxin injection in anticoagulated patients and to assess their preference in controlling the bleeding risk before injection. As part of an international collaboration survey study, a questionnaire survey was administered to 100 Korean physiatrists. Physiatrists were asked about their level of experience with botulinum toxin injection, the safe international normalized ratio range in anticoagulated patients undergoing injection, their tendency for injecting into deep muscles, and their experience of bleeding complications. International normalized ratio injection by 41% of the respondents. Thirty-six respondents replied that the international normalized ratio should be lowered to sub-therapeutic levels before injection, and 18% of the respondents reported that anticoagulants should be intentionally withheld and discontinued prior to injection. In addition, 20%-30% of the respondents answered that they were uncertain whether they should perform the injection regardless of the international normalized ratio values. About 69% of the respondents replied that they did have any standardized protocols for performing botulinum toxin injection in patients using anticoagulants. Only 1 physiatrist replied that he had encountered a case of compartment syndrome. In accordance with the lack of consensus in performing intramuscular botulinum toxin injection in anticoagulated patients, our survey shows a wide range of practices among many Korean physiatrists; they tend to avoid botulinum toxin injection in anticoagulated patients and are uncertain about how to approach these patients. The results of this study emphasize the need for formulating a proper international consensus on botulinum toxin injection management in anticoagulated patients.

  20. In vitro simulation of distribution processes following intramuscular injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Probst Mareike

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need for in vitro dissolution test setups for intramuscularly applied dosage forms. Especially biorelevant methods are needed to predict the in vivo behavior of newly developed dosage forms in a realistic way. There is a lack of knowledge regarding critical in vivo parameters influencing the release and absorption behavior of an intramuscularly applied drug. In the presented work the focus was set on the simulation of blood perfusion and muscle tissue. A solid agarose gel, being incorporated in an open-pored foam, was used to mimic the gel phase of muscle tissue and implemented in a flow through cell. An aqueous solution of fluorescein sodium was injected. Compared to recently obtained in vivo results the distribution of the model substance was very slow. Furthermore an agarose gel of lower viscosity an open-pored foam and phosphate buffer saline pH 7.4 were implemented in a multi-channel-ceramic membrane serving as a holder for the muscle imitating material. Blood simulating release medium was perfused through the ceramic membrane including filling materials. Transport of the dissolved fluorescein sodium was, in case of the gel, not only determined by diffusion but also by convective transport processes. The more realistic the muscle simulating materials were constituted the less reproducible results were obtained with the designed test setups.

  1. Investigation of pharmacokinetic parameters of tiamulin after intramuscular and subcutaneous administration in normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laber, G

    1988-03-01

    Kinetic variables for tiamulin in the normal dog have been determined. Serum concentrations of tiamulin were compared after intramuscular (i.m.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of a single dose of tiamulin. Following a single i.m. dose of 10 mg/kg body weight, the compound was calculated to have a Cmax = 0.61 +/- 0.15 micrograms/ml, a Tmax = 6 h and a t1/2 = 4.7 +/- 1.4 h. Tiamulin showed dose-dependent pharmacokinetics when given as a single s.c. dose of either 10 mg or 25 mg/kg body weight. For the lower dose, the values Cmax = 1.55 +/- 0.11 micrograms/ml, Tmax = 8 h and t1/2 = 4.28 +/- 0.18 h were obtained. For the higher dose Cmax = 3.14 +/- 0.04 micrograms/ml, Tmax = 8 h and t1/2 = 12.4 +/- 3.4 h were calculated. When tiamulin was administered subcutaneously at a dose rate of 10 mg/kg body weight, higher and better maintained serum levels were achieved than those following i.m. administration. After repeated s.c. doses no significant accumulation of tiamulin occurred. Assuming that a continuous effective serum concentration is necessary throughout the course of therapy, these data would indicate that tiamulin should be given every 24 h.

  2. Active Mycobacterium Infection Due to Intramuscular BCG Administration Following Multi-Steps Medication Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MohammadReza Rafati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG is indicated for treatment of primary or relapsing flat urothelial cell carcinoma in situ (CIS of the urinary bladder. Disseminated infectious complications occasionally occur due to BCG as a vaccine and intravesical therapy.  Intramuscular (IM or Intravenous (IV administrations of BCG are rare medication errors which are more probable to produce systemic infections. This report presents 13 years old case that several steps medication errors occurred consequently from physician handwriting, pharmacy dispensing, nursing administration and patient family. The physician wrote βHCG instead of HCG in the prescription. βHCG was read as BCG by the pharmacy staff and 6 vials of intravesical BCG were administered IM twice a week for 3 consecutive weeks. The patient experienced fever and chills after each injection, but he was admitted 2 months after first IM administration of BCG with fever and pancytopenia. Unfortunately four month after using drug, during second admission duo to cellulitis at the sites of BCG injection the physicians diagnosed the medication error. Using handwritten prescription and inappropriate abbreviations, spending inadequate time for taking a brief medical history in pharmacy, lack of verifying name, dose and wrote before medication administration and lack of considering medication error as an important differential diagnosis had roles to occur this multi-steps medication error.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of meropenem after intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous administration to cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarellos, Gabriela A; Montoya, Laura; Passini, Sabrina M; Lupi, Martín P; Lorenzini, Paula M; Landoni, María F

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the pharmacokinetics and predicted efficacy of meropenem after intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) administration to cats at a single dose of 10 mg/kg. Five adult healthy cats were used. Blood samples were withdrawn at predetermined times over a 12 h period. Meropenem concentrations were determined by microbiological assay. Pharmacokinetic analyses were performed with computer software. Initial estimates were determined using the residual method and refitted by non-linear regression. The time that plasma concentrations were greater than the minimum inhibitory concentration (T >MIC) was estimated by applying bibliographic MIC values and meropenem MIC breakpoint. Maximum plasma concentrations of meropenem were 101.02 µg/ml (C p(0) , IV), 27.21 µg/ml (C max , IM) and 15.57 µg/ml (C max , SC). Bioavailability was 99.69% (IM) and 96.52 % (SC). Elimination half-lives for the IV, IM and SC administration were 1.35, 2.10 and 2.26 h, respectively. Meropenem, when administered to cats at a dose of 10 mg/kg q12h,, is effective against bacteria with MIC values of 6 μg/ml, 7 μg/ml and 10 μg/ml for IV, IM and SC administration, respectively. However, clinical trials are necessary to confirm clinical efficacy of the proposed dosage regimen. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. The effect of air-lock technique on pain at the site of intramuscular injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek K. Yilmaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the effects of air-lock technique (ALT on pain of intramuscular (IM injection delivered to the ventrogluteal and dorsogluteal site (DS. Methods: A randomized controlled trial design was used to assess the pain intensity associated with IM injections administered using 2 different methods and injection sites. Recruitment of patients was carried out between April and August 2013 at the Department of Brain Surgery, Cekirge State Hospital, Bursa, Turkey. The sample comprised 60 patients who developed no complications at the IM site, and had no illness that could affect their perception of pain. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups of 30 patients. Patients in the first group received injections in the ventrogluteal site (VS, while the DS was used for injections in the second group. Patients in each group received 2 injections, one using ALT and one not using the technique. After each injection, the pain felt by patients during the injection was immediately assessed using a visual analog scale. Results: The mean pain score after injections to the DS by the ALT was 3.30 ± 2.70, while the mean pain score after injections to the VS using the same technique was 2.53 ± 2.52. Conclusion: Although the difference between groups was not significant, the results of the study supported the idea that injections delivered to the VS by ALT are less painful than those delivered to the DS.

  5. Modeling the growth dynamics of multiple Escherichia coli strains in the pig intestine following intramuscular ampicillin treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Amais; Zachariasen, Camilla; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2016-01-01

    using a mathematical model to simulate the competitive growth of E. coli strains in a pig intestine under specified plasma concentration profiles of ampicillin. Results : In vitro growth results demonstrated that the resistant strains did not carry a fitness cost for their resistance, and that the most...... with ampicillin resistance in E. coli. Besides dosing factors, epidemiological factors (such as number of competing strains and bacterial excretion) influenced resistance development and need to be considered further in relation to optimal treatment strategies. The modeling approach used in the study is generic......Background : This study evaluated how dosing regimen for intramuscularly-administered ampicillin, composition of Escherichia coli strains with regard to ampicillin susceptibility, and excretion of bacteria from the intestine affected the level of resistance among Escherichia coli strains...

  6. Intramuscular Administration of Drotaverine Hydrochloride Decreases Both Incidence of Urinary Retention and Time to Micturition in Orthopedic Patients under Spinal Anesthesia: A Single Blinded Randomized Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Tomaszewski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Postoperative urinary retention (POUR increases the duration of hospitalization and frequency and risk of urinary bladder catheterization. The objective of this study was to analyze the efficacy of intramuscularly administered drotaverine hydrochloride in the prevention of POUR in orthopedic patients. Methods. Two hundred and thirty patients 17–40 years of age undergoing lower limb orthopedic procedures under spinal anesthesia were enrolled in the study. The study group received 40 mg of drotaverine hydrochloride intramuscularly; the second group was the control. The main outcome measure was (1 the time to micturition and (2 the incidence of urinary bladder catheterization and time to catheterization. Results. Two hundred and one patients of 230 enrolled participants completed the study. Compared to the control group, the male patients in study group exhibited a shorter time to spontaneous micturition (441 versus 563 minutes, 95% CI of the difference of means between 39 and 205 minutes and a lower incidence of urinary bladder catheterization (4/75 versus 10/54 (RR 0.29, 95% CI: 0.1–0.87; P=0.0175. Conclusions. Intramuscular administration of drotaverine hydrochloride decreased the time to spontaneous micturition and decreased the incidence of urinary bladder catheterization in male patients who underwent orthopedic surgery under spinal anesthesia. This trial is registered with NCT02026427.

  7. Intramuscular vascular malformations of an extremity: findings on MR imaging and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E.Y.; Ahn, J.M.; Yoon, H.K.; Do, Y.S.; Kim, S.H.; Choo, S.W.; Choo, I.W.; Suh, Y.L.; Kim, S.M.; Kang, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the findings of intramuscular vascular malformations of an extremity on MR imaging and to correlate these findings with histopathologic examination.Design and patients. The findings on MR imaging and the medical records of 14 patients with an intramuscular vascular malformation of the extremity were retrospectively studied. All patients underwent surgical excision. Diagnoses were based on the results of pathologic examination. Findings on MR imaging were noted and correlated with the histopathologic findings.Results. Intramuscular vascular malformations of an extremity showed multi-septate, honeycomb, or mixed appearance on MR imaging. Multi-septate areas correlated with dilated and communicating vascular spaces with flattened endothelium. Honeycomb areas corresponded to vascular spaces with inconspicuous small lumina and thickened vascular walls. Areas of increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images were found in all intramuscular vascular malformations. Infiltrative margins were more commonly seen in intramuscular lymphaticovenous malformations. Adherence to neurovascular structures and orientation of the lesion along the long axis of the affected muscle were more commonly seen in intramuscular venous malformations.Conclusions. Intramuscular vascular malformations showed either a multi-septate, honeycomb, or mixed appearance, reflecting the size of the vascular spaces and the thickness of the smooth muscles of the vessel walls. Prediction of the subtype of an intramuscular vascular malformation of an extremity on MR imaging seems to be difficult, although there are associated findings that may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of each subtype. (orig.)

  8. Sedative and antinociceptive effects of dexmedetomidine and buprenorphine after oral transmucosal or intramuscular administration in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porters, Nathalie; Bosmans, Tim; Debille, Mariëlla; de Rooster, Hilde; Duchateau, Luc; Polis, Ingeborgh

    2014-01-01

    To compare sedation and antinociception after oral transmucosal (OTM) and intramuscular (IM) administration of a dexmedetomidine-buprenorphine combination in healthy adult cats. Randomized, 'blinded' crossover study, with 1 month washout between treatments. Six healthy neutered female cats, weighing 5.3-7.5 kg. A combination of dexmedetomidine (40 μg kg(-1) ) and buprenorphine (20 μg kg(-1) ) was administered by either the OTM (buccal cavity) or IM (quadriceps muscle) route. Sedation was measured using a numerical rating scale, at baseline and at various time points until 6 hours after treatment. At the same time points, analgesia was scored using a dynamic and interactive visual analogue scale, based on the response to an ear pinch, and by the cat's response to a mechanical stimulus exerted by a pressure rate onset device. Physiological and adverse effects were recorded, and oral pH measured. Signed rank tests were performed, with significance set at p < 0.05. Data are presented as median and range. There were no differences in sedation or antinociception scores between OTM and IM dosing at any of the time points. Nociceptive thresholds increased after both treatments but without significant difference between groups. Buccal pH remained between 8 and 8.5. Salivation was noted after OTM administration (n = 2) and vomiting after both OTM (n = 4), and IM (n = 3) dosing. In healthy adult cats, OTM administration of dexmedetomidine and buprenorphine resulted in comparable levels of sedation and antinociception to IM dosing. The OTM administration may offer an alternative route to administer this sedative-analgesic combination in cats. © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  9. Intramuscular injection of alfaxalone in combination with butorphanol for sedation in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Julia; Jolliffe, Colette; Archer, Emma; Leece, Elizabeth A

    2017-07-01

    To assess quality of sedation following intramuscular (IM) injection of two doses of alfaxalone in combination with butorphanol in cats. Prospective, randomized, 'blinded' clinical study. A total of 38 cats undergoing diagnostic imaging or noninvasive procedures. Cats were allocated randomly to be administered butorphanol 0.2 mg kg -1 combined with alfaxalone 2 mg kg -1 (group AB2) or 5 mg kg -1 (group AB5) IM. If sedation was inadequate, alfaxalone 2 mg kg -1 IM was administered and cats were excluded from further analysis. Temperament [1 (friendly) to 5 (aggressive)], response to injection, sedation score at 2, 6, 8, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes, overall sedation quality scored after data collection [1 (excellent) to 4 (inadequate)] and recovery quality were assessed. Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (f R ) and arterial haemoglobin saturation (SpO 2 ) were recorded every 5 minutes. Groups were compared using t tests and Mann-Whitney U tests. Sedation was analysed using two-way anova, and additional alfaxalone using Fisher's exact test (p cats in AB2 and two in AB5 (p = 0.005). Recovery quality, HR, f R and SpO 2 were similar. Seven cats required oxygen supplementation. Complete recovery times were shorter in AB2 (81.8 ± 24.3 versus 126.6 ± 33.3 minutes; p = 0.009). Twitching was the most common adverse event. In combination with butorphanol, IM alfaxalone at 5 mg kg -1 provided better quality sedation than 2 mg kg -1 . Monitoring of SpO 2 is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Discontinuing the Use of PRN Intramuscular Medication for Agitation in an Acute Psychiatric Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Ariel; Russ, Mark J

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the impact of eliminating intramuscular PRN medication for agitation on patient and staff safety in an acute psychiatric inpatient setting. The current retrospective chart review investigated the use of PRN medications (oral and intramuscular) to treat acute agitation, including aggression, and related outcomes before and after a mandated change in PRN practice that required real time physician input before administration of intramuscular medications. The use of both oral and intramuscular PRN medications dramatically decreased following implementation of the mandated change in practice. In particular, the use of intramuscular PRNs for agitation decreased by about half. Despite this decrease, the assault rate in the hospital was unchanged, and the utilization of restraint and seclusion continued to decrease. It is possible to reduce the utilization of PRN medications for agitation without broadly compromising safety on acute care psychiatric inpatient units.

  11. Intramuscular administration of alfaxalone for sedation in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Minh; Poumeyrol, Séverine; Pignon, Charly; Le Teuff, Gwenaël; Zilberstein, Luca

    2015-03-07

    Alfaxalone is a neuroactive steroid derivative of pregnanedione that was recently reintroduced to the market for use as an induction agent in small animal anaesthesia. The aim of this study was to determine an intramuscular alfaxalone dose for safe immobilisation. Ten healthy New Zealand white rabbits were used to evaluate a single intramuscular injection of alfaxalone. The design of the study was a three-way, complete block, cross-over trial to compare the effect of alfaxalone at three doses (4, 6 and 8 mg). The mean duration of the effect for the 4, 6 and 8 mg/kg doses was, respectively, 36.9 (95% CI (31.6 to 42.3)), 51.8 (46.4 to 57.2) and 58.4 (52.8 to 63.9) minutes. The loss of the righting reflex was achieved after 3.1 (2.5 to 3.8), 2.4 (1.7 to 3.1) and 2.3 (1.6 to 2.9) minutes, respectively. The mean duration of the effect for the 6 and 8 mg doses was significantly higher than for the 4 mg dose (with estimated differences of 14.8 95% CI (8.8 to 20.8) minutes and 21.4 (15.3 to 27.6) minutes, respectively). No significant dose effect was observed before the loss of the righting reflex (P=0.14). Ear pinching and limb withdrawal were elicited in all groups at every dose. Doses of 4 or 6 mg/kg could be recommended; higher doses do not provide clinical benefits and can be associated with anaesthetic complication. British Veterinary Association.

  12. Histological analysis of femoral bones in rabbits administered by amygdalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kováčová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyanogenic glycosides are present in several economically important plant foods. Amygdalin, one of the most common cyanoglucoside, can be found abundantly in the seeds of apples, bitter almonds, apricots, peaches, various beans, cereals, cassava and sorghum. Amygdalin has been used for the treatment of cancer, it shows killing effects on cancer cells by release of cyanide. However, its effect on bone structure has not been investigated to date. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine a possible effect of amygdalin application on femoral bone microstructure in adult rabbits. Four month old rabbits were randomly divided into two groups of three animals each. Rabbits from E group received amygdalin intramuscularly at a dose 0.6 mg.kg-1 body weight (bw (group E, n = 3 one time per day during 28 days. The second group of rabbits without amygdalin supplementation served as a control (group C, n = 3. After 28 days, histological structure of femoral bones in both groups of rabbits was analysed and compared. Rabbits from E group displayed different microstructure in middle part of the compact bone and near endosteal bone surface. For endosteal border, an absence of the primary vascular longitudinal bone tissue was typical. This part of the bone was formed by irregular Haversian and/or by dense Haversian bone tissues. In the middle part of substantia compacta, primary vascular longitudinal bone tissue was observed. Cortical bone thickness did not change between rabbits from E and C groups. However, rabbits from E group had a significantly lower values of primary osteons' vascular canals and secondary osteons as compared to the C group. On the other hand, all measured parameters of Haversian canals did not differ between rabbits from both groups. Our results demonstrate that intramuscular application of amygdalin at the dose used in our study affects femoral bone microstructure in rabbits.

  13. INFLUENCE OF GENETIC POLYMORPHISM IN FABP3 AND LEPR GENES ON INTRAMUSCULAR FAT CONTENT IN PIG CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Budimir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intensive production conditions, selection directed to increase the percentage of muscle tissue in carcasses and consumer demand have led to a reduction of intramuscular fat content in pig carcasses. Intramuscular fat is a factor affecting the flavor, juiciness and tenderness of pork meat. FABP protein family causes the differences in the content of intramuscular fat in different pig breeds. FABP3 and LEPR gene are candidate genes for intramuscular fat content and their polymorphisms explain the variability that can occur in different pig breeds. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the influence of genes on different intramuscular fat content in pig carcasses due to pigs genotype.

  14. Intramuscular versus ultrasound-guided intratenosynovial glucocorticoid injection for tenosynovitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll-Danielsen, Mads; Østergaard, Mikkel; Fana, Viktoria

    2017-01-01

    and tenosynovitis were randomised into two double-blind groups: (A) 'intramuscular group', receiving intramuscular injection of betamethasone and US-guided intratenosynovial isotonic saline injection and (B) 'intratenosynovial group' receiving saline intramuscularly and US-guided intratenosynovial betamethasone......% (2/24) versus 44% (11/25), that is, difference of ?36pp (?58pp to ?13pp), p=0.003. Most US, clinical and patient-reported scores improved more in the 'intratenosynovial group' at all follow-up visits. Conclusions In this randomised double-blind clinical trial, patients with RA and tenosynovitis...

  15. 22 CFR 196.4 - Administering office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administering office. 196.4 Section 196.4... AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.4 Administering office. The Department of State's Bureau of Human Resources, Office of Recruitment is responsible for administering the Thomas R...

  16. Pharmacokinetics of a new diclofenac sodium formulation developed for subcutaneous and intramuscular administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlinger, Markus; Rusca, Antonio; Oraha, Alhan Z; Gugliotta, Barbara; Müller, Markus; Ducharme, Murray P

    2012-06-01

    To assess the relative bioavailability of diclofenac sodium hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) administered via the subcutaneous (s.c.) and intramuscular (i.m.) route versus Voltaren® i.m. and to evaluate the dose linearity and pharmacokinetics of the s.c. formulation at three dose levels. Safety and local tolerability were also assessed. One single-dose, randomized, three-way, crossover relative bioavailability study and one linearity single escalating dose, randomized, three-way cross-over pharmacokinetic study were conducted at two different clinical sites. A total of 42 healthy male and female subjects participated in both studies. Subjects received 75 mg/ml diclofenac sodium HPβCD (i.m. and s.c.) and Voltaren® 75 mg/3 ml (i.m.) in Study 1 and 25, 50, or 75 mg/ml diclofenac sodium HPβCD (s.c.) in Study 2. Study 1 demonstrated bioequivalence of the s.c. test formulation with Voltaren® i.m. with respect to Cmax and AUC. Bioequivalence of the test i.m. with Voltaren® i.m. was also demonstrated (except the upper limit of the 90% confidence interval (CI) for Cmax which marginally exceeded the 80 - 125% range (125.78%)). Study 2 demonstrated that after s.c. administration of the test formulation, both Cmax and AUC are linearly related to the tested diclofenac doses. All tested doses were safe and locally well-tolerated with no serious adverse events reported. Bioequivalence of diclofenac HPβCD 75 mg/ml after s.c. and i.m. administration with Voltaren® i.m. was demonstrated, except for the marginal deviation in Cmax when comparing the i.m. test and Voltaren®. Linearity was also demonstrated for the three doses intended for marketing.

  17. Metabolism of [14C]Cefmenoxime in normal subjects after intramuscular administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machinist, J.M.; Bopp, B.A.; Quinn, D.

    1984-01-01

    The metabolism of cefmenoxime (SCE-1365) was studied in four healthy male volunteers after intramuscular administration of a single 500-mg dose of the 14C-labeled drug. Plasma levels of total radioactivity and cefmenoxime peaked at 0.5 and 1.0 h, corresponding to 16.5 micrograms eq/ml and 15.8 micrograms/ml, respectively. Thereafter, parent drug levels declined rapidly, with a terminal elimination half-life of ca. 1.5 h. No significant differences were noted between total radioactivity and parent drug levels up to 2 h after drug administration. After 3 h, low but persistent levels of radioactivity were significantly greater than parent drug levels, indicating metabolism or degradation of cefmenoxime. The terminal elimination half-life of total radioactivity was estimated to be ca. 40 h. The radioactive plasma metabolite(s) remaining at the end of the 5-day study represented only 1% of the administered dose. Urinary excretion was the major route of elimination of cefmenoxime, accounting for ca. 86% of the dose in 12 h. Analysis of cefmenoxime in urine by total radioactivity, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and a microbiological assay showed that 80 to 92% of the excreted dose was parent drug. Radioactivity was also excreted into the feces via the bile and represented ca. 11% of the dose after 5 days. Although extensive degradation of cefmenoxime was found in fecal samples, it was proposed that this may be due to the metabolic activity of the intestinal flora rather than in vivo biotransformation in the liver. This study supports the concept that cefmenoxime undergoes minimal metabolism in humans and is excreted largely as unchanged drug

  18. The pharmacological effects of the anesthetic alfaxalone after intramuscular administration to dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Jun; Ishizuka, Tomohito; Fukui, Sho; Oyama, Norihiko; Kawase, Kodai; Miyoshi, Kenjiro; Sano, Tadashi; Pasloske, Kirby; Yamashita, Kazuto

    2015-03-01

    The pharmacological effects of the anesthetic alfaxalone were evaluated after intramuscular (IM) administration to 6 healthy beagle dogs. The dogs received three IM doses each of alfaxalone at increasing dose rates of 5 mg/kg (IM5), 7.5 mg/kg (IM7.5) and 10 mg/kg (IM10) every other day. Anesthetic effect was subjectively evaluated by using an ordinal scoring system to determine the degree of neuro-depression and the quality of anesthetic induction and recovery from anesthesia. Cardiorespiratory variables were measured using noninvasive methods. Alfaxalone administered IM produced dose-dependent neuro-depression and lateral recumbency (i.e., 36 ± 28 min, 87 ± 26 min and 115 ± 29 min after the IM5, IM7.5 and IM10 treatments, respectively). The endotracheal tube was tolerated in all dogs for 46 ± 20 and 58 ± 21 min after the IM7.5 and IM10 treatments, respectively. It was not possible to place endotracheal tubes in 5 of the 6 dogs after the IM5 treatment. Most cardiorespiratory variables remained within clinically acceptable ranges, but hypoxemia was observed by pulse oximetry for 5 to 10 min in 2 dogs receiving the IM10 treatment. Dose-dependent decreases in rectal temperature, respiratory rate and arterial blood pressure also occurred. The quality of recovery was considered satisfactory in all dogs receiving each treatment; all the dog exhibited transient muscular tremors and staggering gait. In conclusion, IM alfaxalone produced a dose-dependent anesthetic effect with relatively mild cardiorespiratory depression in dogs. However, hypoxemia may occur at higher IM doses of alfaxalone.

  19. Utilizing Z-track Air Lock Technique to Reduce Pain in Intramuscular Injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Hemme Tambunan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Injection is one of most painful and common medical interventions that more than 12 billion of it are administered annually throughout the world. Pain remains as one of the unresolved health problems. The objective of this research was to investigate the pain severity utilizing the z-track air lock technique during intra muscular injection procedure. Method:This study was conducted as an unblinded cinical trial, where 90 female subjects aged between 18-25 years old were randomly assigned to three groups of 30. Each group received z-track air lock (Group ZTAL, air lock (AL, and z-track (Group ZT techniques. Neurobion 5000 vitamin used as an injection substance.A Verbal Rating Scale (VRS on 0–3 was used to evaluate the severity of pain during procedure. Data were analized using the SPSS version 19. Groups’ age, Body Mass Index (BMI and pain severity were analyzed through descriptive and One Way ANOVA statistics. Results: Results showed that there were no signifi cant differences of pain severity both within and between groups (p > 0.05. Discussion: Both Z-track and air lock method are less pain compared to traditional method according to previous studies. Noncicepti stimulus inhibited nocicepti stimulus in z-track technique while locking effect inhibit leakeage of substance injection to subcutaneous layer of skin which contain of nerve fi bers. However All techniques are recommended to produce less pain therefore it can be considered as a standard procedure for intra muscular injection. Keywords: intramuscular injection, z-track air lock technique, pain

  20. The IDvIP Trial: A two-centre randomised double-blind controlled trial comparing intramuscular diamorphine and intramuscular pethidine for labour analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Peter

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intramuscular pethidine is routinely used throughout the UK for labour analgesia. Studies have suggested that pethidine provides little pain relief in labour and has a number of side effects affecting mother and neonate. It can cause nausea, vomiting and dysphoria in mothers and can cause reduced fetal heart rate variability and accelerations. Neonatal effects include respiratory depression and impaired feeding. There are few large studies comparing the relative side effects and efficacy of different opioids in labour. A small trial comparing intramuscular pethidine with diamorphine, showed diamorphine to have some benefits over pethidine when used for labour analgesia but the study did not investigate the adverse effects of either opioid. Methods The Intramuscular Diamorphine versus Intramuscular Pethidine (IDvIP trial is a randomised double-blind two centre controlled trial comparing intramuscular diamorphine and pethidine regarding their analgesic efficacy in labour and their side effects in mother, fetus and neonate. Information about the trial will be provided to women in the antenatal period or in early labour. Consent and recruitment to the trial will be obtained when the mother requests opioid analgesia. The sample size requirement is 406 women with data on primary outcomes. The maternal primary outcomes are pain relief during the first 3 hours after trial analgesia and specifically pain relief after 60 minutes. The neonatal primary outcomes are need for resuscitation and Apgar Score Discussion If the trial demonstrates that diamorphine provides better analgesia with fewer side effects in mother and neonate this could lead to a change in national practice and result in diamorphine becoming the preferred intramuscular opioid for analgesia in labour. Trial Registration ISRCTN14898678 Eudra No: 2006-003250-18, REC Reference No: 06/Q1702/95, MHRA Authorisation No: 1443/0001/001-0001, NIHR UKCRN reference 6895, RfPB grant

  1. INTRAMUSCULAR HYDATID CYST OF PARASPINAL MUSCLE: A RARE LOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargava Vardhana Reddy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hydatid disease has a worldwide distribution and causes health problems in endemic countries. The parasite has a "dog - sheep" cycle with man as an intermediate accidental host. When humans ingest the eggs of the tapeworm, the embryos that emer ge penetrate the intestinal mucosa and are transported via the circulation to various organs. Most commonly they reach the liver, lungs and the other organs are rarely affected. Primary hydatid cyst of skeletal muscle is rare, occurring in 1 - 3% of all case s. (1,2 The prevalence of intramuscular hydatid disease is reported to be less than 0.5% , because muscle is an unfavourable site for infestation because of high levels of lactic acid in muscle. (3 The diagnosis is difficult because of the unusual location, low prevalence and complicated cysts may mimic solid or complex lesions. (4 The differential diagnosis in these cases must include malignant soft - tissue tumors such as myxoid liposarcoma, soft tissue abscesses and chronic hematoma. (5 Hydatid disease of h umans caused by Echinococcus granulosus has been recognized as a major public health problem. It is found in all sheep - raising countries of the world. In India, the highest prevalence is reported from Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. (6 Injudicious approach in the management of these rare presentations may be the root cause of severe anaphylactic shock and systemic dissemination. We report an unusual case of primary hydatidosis of the paraspinal muscles

  2. Development and assessment of learning objects about intramuscular medication administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Mayumi Chinen Tamashiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to develop and assess a learning object about intramuscular medication administration for nursing undergraduates and nurses.METHOD: a random, intentional and non-probabilistic sample was selected of nurses from a Brazilian social network of nursing and students from the Undergraduate Program at the University of São Paulo School of Nursing to serve as research subjects and assess the object.RESULTS: the participants, 8 nurses and 8 students, studied the object and answered an assessment instrument that included the following criteria: educational aspects (relevance of the theme, objectives and texts/hypertexts, interface of the environment (navigation, accessibility and screen design and didactic resources (interactivity and presentation of resources. In total, 128 significant answers were obtained, 124 (97% of which were positive, assessed as excellent and satisfactory, considered as a flexible, dynamic, objective resources that is appropriate to the nursing learning process.CONCLUSION: the educational technology shows a clear and easily understandable language and the teaching method could be applied in other themes, contributing to the education and training of nursing professionals, positively affecting nursing teaching, stimulating the knowledge, autonomous and independent learning, aligned with the new professional education requirements.

  3. A Comparison of Intramuscular Anesthetic Techniques in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Hajighahramani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Administration of anesthetic substances to chickens requires careful consideration for the safe delivery of the agent to the bird. The research objective was to evaluate several drug combinations for intramuscular anesthesia in chickens for physiologic, nutritional, pharmacological and other investigations. Meterial & Methods: Sixty healthy chickens were randomly assigned in six treatment groups and received Ketamine in combination with Xylazine, Midazolam or Acepromazine. Heart and respiratory rate, induction time, duration of surgical anesthesia and light anesthesia were measured. Results: Induction of anesthesia was significantly longer following Acepromazine- Ketamine and Midazolam- Ketamine compared to other groups (P<0.05. Duration of surgical anesthesia was longest with Xylazine- Midazolam- Ketamine and shortest with Midazolam-Ketamine and Acepromazine- Ketamine (P<0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, the most effective drug combinations resulting in longer duration of surgical anesthesia, were Xylazine- Acepromazine- Ketamine and Xylazine- Midazolam- Ketamine. Other combinations did not produce appropriate surgical anesthesia, but they make slight changes in physiological data.

  4. Are nursing students safe when choosing gluteal intramuscular injection locations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwall, J

    2011-01-01

    Nurses are required to perform gluteal intramuscular (IM) injections in practice. There are dangers associated with erroneous performance of this task, particularly with dorsogluteal injections. Knowledge regarding safe injection practice is therefore vital for nursing students. Fifty-eight second year students at a New Zealand Nursing School were given schematic drawings of the posterior and lateral aspects of the gluteal region. They were asked to mark and justify the safest location for gluteal IM injections. Fifty-seven students marked the dorsal schematic and one the lateral, with 38 (66.7%) marking in the upper outer quadrant (UOQ). Twenty indicating the UOQ (52.6%) wrote 'sciatic' or 'nerve' in justifying their location. Nineteen (33.3%) marked a location outside the UOQ; nine (47.4%) of these mentioned 'sciatic' or 'nerve' as reasons for injection safety. Overall, 50% of students mentioned 'sciatic' or 'nerve' in justifying the safety of their chosen injection location. Results suggest some second year nursing students do not understand safe gluteal IM injection locations and rationale. Current teaching practices and IM injection techniques could be revisited to prepare students more effectively; this may help prevent pathologies arising from this procedure.

  5. Meat quality and intramuscular fatty acid composition of Catria Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Maria Federica; Nocelli, Francesco; Pasquini, Marina

    2017-08-01

    In order to extend scientific knowledge on autochthonous Italian equine meat, the physical-chemical parameters of Catria Horse Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle and its nutritional characteristics have been investigated. Ten steaks of Catria foal raised at pasture and fattened indoors for 2 months were dissected, and LT muscle was analyzed for chemical composition, total iron, drip loss, colorimetric characteristics, intramuscular fat, fatty acid profile and nutritional indexes. Steak dissection showed that LT muscle accounted for 36.78% and fat accounted for 9.19% of weight of steak. Regarding chemical composition, protein and fat content was 20.31% and 2.83%, respectively. Total iron content (1.95 mg/100 g) was lower than data reported in the literature. Color parameters showed a luminous and intense red hue muscle. The sum of unsaturated fatty acid composition (50.3%) was higher than the sum of saturated fatty acids (46.64 %). The fatty acid profile and nutritional values of Catria Horse meat could be modified adopting extensive rearing systems and grazing. The data suggests that further investigation on the composition of Catria Horse meat should be carried out to valorize this autochthonous breed, reared in sustainable livestock systems, and its meat in local short-chain systems. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Intramuscular ketamine to facilitate pediatric central vascular access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, T Kent; Hargrove, Jenny R; Brown, Lance

    2004-07-01

    Obtaining prompt vascular access in young children presenting to the emergency department (ED) is frequently both necessary and technically challenging. The objective of our study was to describe our experience using intramuscular (IM) ketamine to facilitate the placement of central venous catheters in children presenting to our ED needing vascular access in a timely fashion. We performed a retrospective medical record review of all pediatric patients central venous catheter facilitated by the use of IM ketamine. Eleven children met our inclusion criteria. Most of the children were young and medically complicated. The children ranged in age from 6 months to 8 years. The only complication identified was vomiting experienced by an 8-year-old boy. Emergency physicians successfully obtained central venous access in all subjects in the case series. The use of IM ketamine to facilitate the placement of central venous catheters in children who do not have peripheral venous access appears to be helpful. Emergency physicians may find it useful to be familiar with this use of IM ketamine.

  7. Intramuscular Olanzapine – a UK case series of early cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Mark

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trials assessing efficacy and safety of Intramuscular (IM Olanzapine in acute schizophrenia and acute mania have previously been undertaken in studies required for drug registration in patients who were required to give informed consent. These patients may have less severe forms of psychosis than patients treated in routine practice. Data derived from naturalistic practice following the launch of IM olanzapine may be helpful for clinicians in assessing efficacy and safety of IM olanzapine. The PANSS-EC scale used in the clinical studies may represent a tool that could be used in routine clinical practice. Case presentation We report on an early unselected case series of 7 patients who received IM olanzapine in routine clinical practice settings in the UK. In this case series, olanzapine IM was generally effective, and no adverse events were reported. Adjunctive benzodiazepines were given concomitantly in 1 of the 7 subjects. This is relevant as concomitant benzodiazepines are not recommended for a minimum of 1 hour post IM olanzapine administration. PANSS-EC data was collected in 2 of the 7 subjects. Conclusion Although patients had greater severity of psychosis than clinical trial patients there were no unexpected findings. In addition the PANSS-EC scale is a scale that may be useful in assessing the efficacy of IM antipsychotics in routine clinical practice.

  8. BIOAVAILABILITY AND PHARMACOKINETICS OF NORFLOXACIN AFTER INTRAMUSCULAR ADMINISTRATION IN GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAJEEHA, F. H. KHAN AND I. JAVED

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of two commercially available preparations of norfloxacin i.e. A (imported and B (locally prepared were determined in six healthy female goats after single intramuscular administration @ 5 mg/kg b.wt following crossover study design. The blood samples collected at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 12 hours postmedication were also analysed for drug concentration by microbiological assay. Results revealed that preparation A showed higher (p<0.05 plasma drug levels than the preparation B at 1, 3, 6 and 8 hours after medication. Among bioavailability parameters AUC (g.h/ml and relative bioavailability (F% were higher for preparation A than the preparation B, while other parameters did not differ between the two preparations. Similarly, various pharmacokinetic parameters did not show any statistical difference between preparation A and B. The study revealed comparable elimination kinetics but different bioavailability of two commercial preparations of norfloxacin. It is concluded from the study that for optimal dosage regimen of drugs, the bioequivalence studies and kinetic behavior of the drugs are of paramount importance.

  9. Alternative method for intramuscular fat analysis using common laboratory equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, J; Calvo, L; Óvilo, C; González-Bulnes, A; Olivares, A; Cambero, M I; López-Bote, C J

    2015-05-01

    A procedure to quantify intramuscular fat was developed using common inexpensive laboratory equipment. Three homogenization methods of lyophilized muscle samples (Ball-mill, Grinder and Mortar) and two extraction methods (Ball-mill or Vortex) were used in turkey meat and pork. Two-hundred mg of lyophilized and homogenized samples were accurately weighed and mixed with 1.5 mL of dichloromethane-methanol (8:2) and shaken either in a Mixer Mill (MM400, Retsch Technology) or in a Vortex. The final mixture was separated by centrifugation. Solvent was evaporated under a nitrogen stream and lipid content was gravimetrically determined. Besides, it was checked that the fatty acid profile was not altered by the protocol used. Moreover, the analysis of 4 replicas from the same sample showed different variation coefficients (16-29%) for the new procedures proposed over a wide range of IMF content. The combination of Grinder and Vortex methodologies can be proposed as a simple and inexpensive alternative to previous ones. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Study of Serum Drug Levels in Calves Following Intramuscular Administration of Three Tetracycline Drug Preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Black, W. D.; Claxton, J.; Robinson, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    Three antibiotic formulations, oxytetracycline (A) in propylene glycol and oxytetracycline (B) in polyvinyl pyrrolidine and pyrrolidino-methyltetracycline in an oil suspension were given to calves by the intramuscular route. Only oxytetracycline (A) appeared to cause much pain after injection.

  11. Decrease in intramuscular lipid droplets and translocation of HSL in response to muscle contraction and epinephrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prats, Clara; Donsmark, Morten; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    A better understanding of skeletal muscle lipid metabolism is needed to identify the molecular mechanisms relating intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) to muscle metabolism and insulin sensitivity. An increasing number of proteins have been reported to be associated with intracellular triglyceride (TG...

  12. Pharmacokinetic Studies of Intramuscular Midazolam in Guinea Pigs Challenged With Soman

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Capacio, Benedict R; Byers, C. E; Merk, K. A; Smith, J. R; McDonough, J. H

    2004-01-01

    ...) activity following intramuscular (im) injection to soman-exposed guinea pigs (Crl:(HA)BR). Prior to experiments, the animals were surgically implanted with EEG leads to monitor seizure activity...

  13. The effect on serum enzymes of intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine and isotonic sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Damsgaard, T

    1976-01-01

    Intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine or isotonic sodium chloride have been given to 39 patients. We followed the serum concentrations of creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and LDH isoenzymes for 4 days. Ten patients receiving...

  14. Neck and Occipital Pain Caused by Deep Cervical Intramuscular Lipoma: A Surgical Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogure, Kazunari; Yamazaki, Michio; Tamaki, Tomonori; Node, Yoji; Morita, Akio

    2017-01-01

    A lipoma is a slow-growing, benign tumor and is usually asymptomatic; hence, surgical intervention can often be avoided in patients with these tumors in the cervical and cranial area. Lipomas arise most commonly in the subcutaneous fat, but occasionally in muscle tissue. Intramuscular lipomas in the cervico-cranial area have rarely been reported. We describe here a patient with a large intramuscular lipoma in the deep cervical tissue. The patient experienced troublesome pain in the neck and occipital area, and surgical treatment was therefore suggested. Particularly in the cervical area, intramuscular lipomas sometimes invade the surrounding muscles and tissue layers and develop into an irregular mass, despite being benign. In addition, the cervical area has one of the most complex muscle structures. Nevertheless, surgical management of intramuscular lipoma in the cervical and cranial area is sometimes indicated, for example, in patients with clinical symptoms or masses with a tendency to grow large.

  15. Efficacy and Tolerability of Intramuscular Dexketoprofen in Postoperative Pain Management following Hernia Repair Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Jamdade, P. T.; Porwal, A.; Shinde, J. V.; Erram, S. S.; Kamat, V. V.; Karmarkar, P. S.; Bhagtani, K.; Dhorepatil, S.; Irpatgire, R.; Bhagat, H.; Kolte, S. S.; Shirure, P. A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intramuscular dexketoprofen for postoperative pain in patients undergoing hernia surgery. Methodology. Total 202 patients received single intramuscular injection of dexketoprofen 50 mg or diclofenac 50 mg postoperatively. The pain intensity (PI) was self-evaluated by patients on VAS at baseline 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours. The efficacy parameters were number of responders, difference in PI (PID) at 8 hours, sum of analogue of pain intensity differ...

  16. Serial correlation between the ultrasonographic and pathologic findings of intramuscular hemorrhaging in an experimental rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Kyung Ran; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Park, Ji Seon; Jin, Wook; Sung, Dong Wook; Park, Yong Koo

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the serial ultrasonographic findings of experimental intramuscular hemorrhaging to determine if there is a correlation with the pathologic findings. An ultrasonography (US) was performed before and immediately after an intramuscular blood injection in nine rabbits. In addition, follow-up US images were obtained at 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days after the intramuscular blood injections in seven of the rabbits. The pathologic specimens, compared to the US findings on each date, and consisted of samples of left thigh muscle. A US, performed immediately after a blood injection, showed two patterns; 6 cases of hyperechoic muscle thickening and 3 cases of hyperechoic muscle thickening with extravasation between the epimysium and muscle bundle or within muscle bundle. A follow-up US showed a marked decrease in intramuscular hemorrhaging and microcalcifications, which appeared on the 4th, 7th and 10th day after the blood injection. The pathologic findings revealed several short echogenic lines in the muscular bundles which were hemosiderin. Moreover, a 28 day follow-up US revealed that the normal findings are correlated with the normal gross pathologic findings. The US findings of the intramuscular hemorrhaging, for each of the follow-up dates, in comparison to the pathologic findings, revealed a high correlation with the pathologic specimens. Consequently, a US transducer with high resolution can be considered as a helpful technique in the diagnosing and evaluating the follow-up treatment of intramuscular hemorrhaging

  17. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Cefquinome (Cobactan 2.5% following Repeated Intramuscular Administrations in Sheep and Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El-Hewaity

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative pharmacokinetic profile of cefquinome was studied in sheep and goats following repeated intramuscular (IM administrations of 2 mg/kg body weight. Cefquinome concentrations in serum were determined by microbiological assay technique using Micrococcus luteus (ATCC 9341 as test organism. Following intramuscular injection of cefquinome in sheep and goats, the disposition curves were best described by two-compartment open model in both sheep and goats. The pharmacokinetics of cefquinome did not differ significantly between sheep and goats; similar intramuscular dose rate of cefquinome should therefore be applicable to both species. On comparing the data of serum levels of repeated intramuscular injections with first intramuscular injection, it was revealed that repeated intramuscular injections of cefquinome have cumulative effect in both species sheep and goats. The in vitro serum protein-binding tendency was 15.65% in sheep and 14.42% in goats. The serum concentrations of cefquinome along 24 h after injection in this study were exceeding the MICs of different susceptible microorganisms responsible for serious disease problems. These findings indicate successful use of cefquinome in sheep and goats.

  18. Serial correlation between the ultrasonographic and pathologic findings of intramuscular hemorrhaging in an experimental rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyung Ran [National Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Kyung Nam; Park, Ji Seon; Jin, Wook; Sung, Dong Wook; Park, Yong Koo [KyungHee University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    To evaluate the serial ultrasonographic findings of experimental intramuscular hemorrhaging to determine if there is a correlation with the pathologic findings. An ultrasonography (US) was performed before and immediately after an intramuscular blood injection in nine rabbits. In addition, follow-up US images were obtained at 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days after the intramuscular blood injections in seven of the rabbits. The pathologic specimens, compared to the US findings on each date, and consisted of samples of left thigh muscle. A US, performed immediately after a blood injection, showed two patterns; 6 cases of hyperechoic muscle thickening and 3 cases of hyperechoic muscle thickening with extravasation between the epimysium and muscle bundle or within muscle bundle. A follow-up US showed a marked decrease in intramuscular hemorrhaging and microcalcifications, which appeared on the 4th, 7th and 10th day after the blood injection. The pathologic findings revealed several short echogenic lines in the muscular bundles which were hemosiderin. Moreover, a 28 day follow-up US revealed that the normal findings are correlated with the normal gross pathologic findings. The US findings of the intramuscular hemorrhaging, for each of the follow-up dates, in comparison to the pathologic findings, revealed a high correlation with the pathologic specimens. Consequently, a US transducer with high resolution can be considered as a helpful technique in the diagnosing and evaluating the follow-up treatment of intramuscular hemorrhaging.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol after intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Flammer, Keven; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Barker, Steven A; Tully, Thomas N

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies have validated the clinical use of opioids with kaap-receptor affinities for pain management in birds. Butorphanol, a kappa opioid receptor agonist and a mu opioid receptor antagonist, is currently considered by many clinicians to be the opioid of choice for this use. However, despite studies reporting the analgesic properties of butorphanol in psittacine birds, dosing intervals have not been established for any psittacine species. The goals of this study in the Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis) were to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate after intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and oral (PO) administration and to determine the bioavailability of butorphanol tartrate after oral administration. Twelve Hispaniolan Amazon parrots were used in the study, with a complete-crossover experimental design and a 3-month period separating each part of the study. The birds were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 4) for each stage. Butorphanol tartrate was administered once at a dose of 5 mg/kg in the basilic vein or pectoral muscles or as an oral solution delivered via feeding tube into the crop for the IV, IM, and PO studies, respectively. After butorphanol administration, blood samples were collected at 1, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 minutes for the IV and IM studies and at 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, and 300 minutes for the PO study. Because of the size limitation of the birds, naive pooling of datum points was used to generate a mean plasma butorphanol concentration at each time point. For each study, birds in each group (n = 4) were bled 3 times after dosing. Plasma butorphanol concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Butorphanol tartrate was found to have high bioavailability and rapid elimination following IM administration. In contrast, oral administration resulted in low bioavailability (Amazon

  20. Effect of intramuscular cholecalciferol megadose in children with nutritional rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothra, Meenakshi; Gupta, Nandita; Jain, Vandana

    2016-06-01

    The treatment practices for vitamin D deficiency rickets are highly variable. Though a single intramuscular (IM) megadose of vitamin D is economical, and ensures good compliance, it poses the risk of hypervitaminosis D. This observational study was conducted to assess the duration of effect and safety of single IM megadose of cholecalciferol in the treatment of vitamin D deficiency rickets. Children younger than 14 years with rickets were enrolled. Baseline investigations included radiograph of wrists and estimation of serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), 25(OH) vitamin D and parathormone (PTH) levels. All children received a single IM megadose of vitamin D3. Biochemical parameters were re-evaluated at 1.5, 3 and 6 months after the megadose and the values were compared to the baseline. We enrolled 21 children, out of which nine remained under active follow-up till 6 months. Radiological evidence of rickets was present in all 21 children, 14 had hypocalcemia at the time of presentation. After IM cholecalciferol megadose, median 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] level remained significantly more than the baseline till 6 months after the megadose. At 1.5 months after the vitamin D megadose, three (30%) of the children were found to develop toxic levels of vitamin D (>150 ng/mL), although none had hypercalcemia or any clinical manifestation of vitamin D toxicity. At 3 months and 6 months after the megadose, 25(OH)D levels remained in the sufficient range (20-100 ng/mL) in seven out of the eight children who came for follow-up. A single IM megadose of vitamin D may be effective in significantly increasing the 25(OH)D levels for at least 6 months in children with rickets, but elevation of 25(OH)D to toxic range raises concern regarding its safety.

  1. The effect of site (deltoid or gluteus muscle of intramuscular administration of anaesthetic drugs on the course of immobilisation in macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Hess

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of site of intramuscular administration of anaesthetic drugs on the course of immobilisation in macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta. Twenty macaque monkeys were given medetomidine (25 µg·kg-1 and ketamine (3 mg·kg-1 intramuscularly to the deltoid (n = 10 animals or gluteus (n = 10 animals muscles. Behavioural changes, loss of aggressiveness, immobilisation time and cardiorespiratory changes were recorded. The effect of drugs was reversed after 20 min by i.m. administration of atipamezole at the dose of 250 µg·kg-1. Highly significant differences (P < 0.001 were found between groups with gluteal or deltoid administration of drugs on the onset of immobilisation effect (71.3 s and 108.3 s, respectively, and immobilisation time (152.7 s and 254.4 s, respectively. In the gluteus muscle group, the grasp reflex was still present at the beginning of immobilisation and slowly wore off in 15–45 s. The same was valid for muscle tone. There were no differences in cardiorespiratory parameters in any of the groups. Animals of both groups recovered in 3–6 min after atipamezole administration. Administration of drugs to the deltoid muscle resulted in a more rapid onset and increased effect of immobilisation than administration to the gluteus muscle. Both in veterinary and human medicine, injection to the deltoid muscle may be more convenient in all cases, when rapid and more prominent effect is desirable as in premedication before surgery or in emergency medicine. The study is the first to compare the effect of administering drugs to different muscles and the results may improve the practice of intramuscular injections in animals and in humans.

  2. Intramuscular Heating Characteristics of Multihour Low-Intensity Therapeutic Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Justin H; Taggart, Rebecca M; Stratton, Kelly L; Lewis, George K; Draper, David O

    2015-11-01

    The heating characteristics of a stationary device delivering sustained acoustic medicine with low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound (LITUS) are unknown. To measure intramuscular (IM) heating produced by a LITUS device developed for long-duration treatment of musculoskeletal injuries. Controlled laboratory study. University research laboratory. A total of 26 healthy volunteers (16 men, 10 women; age = 23.0 ± 2.1 years, height = 1.74 ± 0.09 m, mass = 73.48 ± 14.65 kg). Participants were assigned randomly to receive active (n = 20) or placebo (n = 6) LITUS at a frequency of 3 MHz and an energy intensity of 0.132 W/cm(2) continuously for 3 hours with a single transducer or dual transducers on the triceps surae muscle. We measured IM temperature using thermocouples inserted at 1.5- and 3-cm depths into muscle. Temperatures were recorded throughout treatment and 30 minutes posttreatment. We used 2-sample t tests to determine the heating curve of the LITUS treatment and differences in final temperatures between depth and number of transducers. A mild IM temperature increase of 1 °C was reached 10 ± 5 minutes into the treatment, and a more vigorous temperature increase of 4 °C was reached 80 ± 10 minutes into the treatment. The maximal steady-state IM temperatures produced during the final 60 minutes of treatment at the 1.5-cm depth were 4.42 °C ± 0.08 °C and 3.92 °C ± 0.06 °C using 1 and 2 transducers, respectively. At the 3.0-cm depth, the maximal steady-state IM temperatures during the final 60 minutes of treatment were 3.05 °C ± 0.09 °C and 3.17 °C ± 0.05 °C using 1 and 2 transducers, respectively. We observed a difference between the temperatures measured at each depth (t78 = -2.45, P = .02), but the number of transducers used to generate heating was not different (t78 = 1.79, P = .08). The LITUS device elicited tissue heating equivalent to traditional ultrasound but could be sustained for multiple hours. It is a safe and effective alternative tool

  3. Does insertion of intramuscular electromyographic electrodes alter motor behavior during locomotion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour Smith, Jo; Kulig, Kornelia

    2015-06-01

    Intramuscular electromyography (EMG) is commonly used to quantify activity in the trunk musculature. However, it is unclear if the discomfort or fear of pain associated with insertion of intramuscular EMG electrodes results in altered motor behavior. This study examined whether intramuscular EMG affects locomotor speed and trunk motion, and examined the anticipated and actual pain associated with electrode insertion in healthy individuals and individuals with a history of low back pain (LBP). Before and after insertion of intramuscular electrodes into the lumbar and thoracic paraspinals, participants performed multiple repetitions of a walking turn at self-selected and controlled average speed. Low levels of anticipated and actual pain were reported in both groups. Self-selected locomotor speed was significantly increased following insertion of the electrodes. At the controlled speed, the amplitude of sagittal plane lumbo-pelvic motion decreased significantly post-insertion, but the extent of this change was the same in both groups. Lumbo-pelvic motion in the frontal and axial planes and thoraco-lumbar motion in all planes were not affected by the insertions. This study demonstrates that intramuscular EMG is an appropriate methodology to selectively quantify the activation patterns of the individual muscles in the paraspinal group, both in healthy individuals and individuals with a history of LBP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. FDG PET/CT and MR imaging of intramuscular myxoma in the gluteus maximus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishio Jun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intramuscular myxoma is a rare benign soft tissue tumor which may be mistaken for other benign and low-grade malignant myxoid neoplasms. We present the case of a 63-year-old woman with an asymptomatic intramuscular myxoma discovered incidentally on a whole-body F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography (PET/computed tomography. PET images showed a mild FDG uptake (maximum standardized uptake value, 1.78 in the left gluteus maximus. Subsequent magnetic resonance (MR imaging revealed a well-defined ovoid mass with homogenous low signal intensity on T1-weighted sequences and markedly high signal intensity on T2-weighted sequences. Contrast-enhanced MR images showed heterogeneous enhancement throughout the mass. The diagnosis of intramuscular myxoma was confirmed on histopathology after surgical excision of the tumor. The patient had no local recurrence at one year follow-up. Our case suggests that intramuscular myxoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an oval-shaped intramuscular soft tissue mass with a mild FDG uptake.

  5. Computer-Administered Interviews and Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garb, Howard N.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the value of computer-administered interviews and rating scales, the following topics are reviewed in the present article: (a) strengths and weaknesses of structured and unstructured assessment instruments, (b) advantages and disadvantages of computer administration, and (c) the validity and utility of computer-administered interviews…

  6. Nurse-administered propofol sedation for endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J T; Vilmann, P; Horsted, T

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a risk analysis during the implementation phase of nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) and to validate our structured training program.......The aim of the present study was to perform a risk analysis during the implementation phase of nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) and to validate our structured training program....

  7. Triacilglicerol intramuscular: um importante substrato energético para o exercício de endurance Triacilglicerol intramuscular: un importante substrato energético para el ejercicio de endurance Intramuscular triacylglycerol: an important energetic substrate for endurance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Aparecida Belmonte

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Os ácidos graxos são uma importante fonte de energia para exercício de endurance. Os ácidos graxos plasmáticos encontram-se disponíveis para as fibras musculares sob a forma de ácidos graxos associados à albumina ou agregados à molécula de triacilglicerol (TAG encontrada nas lipoproteínas. Entretanto, além dessas fontes plasmáticas, a hidrólise do TAG encontrado no músculo também pode contribuir com a oferta de ácidos graxos durante o exercício de endurance. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar uma extensa revisão da literatura sobre a importância do TAG intramuscular como substrato energético. A revisão da literatura sugere que a contribuição dos estoques endógenos de TAG durante a realização do exercício de endurance é bastante relevante. Além disso, pode-se concluir que uma adaptação induzida pelo treinamento de endurance é o aumento dos estoques intramusculares de TAG. Após o treinamento de endurance, também é observado aumento na capacidade de utilização desses estoques. Apesar de parecer importante, a contribuição do TAG intramuscular ainda é motivo de controvérsia na literatura. Essa discrepância de resultados está relacionada às metodologias empregadas para estimar a sua oxidação no exercício. A fim de esgotar este assunto de maneira apropriada, mais pesquisas, com novos métodos (ex.: utilização de isótopos, ressonância magnética nuclear e microscopia eletrônica, precisam ser conduzidas.Los ácidos grasos son una fuente importante de energía para el ejercicio de endurance. Los ácidos grasos plasmáticos se encuentran disponibles en las fibras musculares bajo la forma de ácido graso asociado a la albúmina o agregados a la molécula del triacilglicerol (TAG encontrados en las lipoproteínas. Sin embargo, además de estos fuentes plasmáticas, la hidrólisis de los TAG encontrados en el músculo pueden contribuir también con la oferta de ácidos grasos durante el ejercicio

  8. The IDvIP trial: a two-centre randomised double-blind controlled trial comparing intramuscular diamorphine and intramuscular pethidine for labour analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Michael Y K; Tuckey, Jenny P; Thomas, Peter; Burnard, Sara

    2011-07-08

    Intramuscular pethidine is routinely used throughout the UK for labour analgesia. Studies have suggested that pethidine provides little pain relief in labour and has a number of side effects affecting mother and neonate. It can cause nausea, vomiting and dysphoria in mothers and can cause reduced fetal heart rate variability and accelerations. Neonatal effects include respiratory depression and impaired feeding. There are few large studies comparing the relative side effects and efficacy of different opioids in labour. A small trial comparing intramuscular pethidine with diamorphine, showed diamorphine to have some benefits over pethidine when used for labour analgesia but the study did not investigate the adverse effects of either opioid. The Intramuscular Diamorphine versus Intramuscular Pethidine (IDvIP) trial is a randomised double-blind two centre controlled trial comparing intramuscular diamorphine and pethidine regarding their analgesic efficacy in labour and their side effects in mother, fetus and neonate. Information about the trial will be provided to women in the antenatal period or in early labour. Consent and recruitment to the trial will be obtained when the mother requests opioid analgesia. The sample size requirement is 406 women with data on primary outcomes. The maternal primary outcomes are pain relief during the first 3 hours after trial analgesia and specifically pain relief after 60 minutes. The neonatal primary outcomes are need for resuscitation and Apgar Score analgesia, whether method of analgesia would be used again, use of Entonox, umbilical arterial and venous pH, fetal heart rate, meconium staining, time from delivery to first breath, Apgar scores at 5 mins, naloxone requirement, transfer to neonatal intensive care unit, neonatal haemoglobin oxygen saturation at 30, 60, 90, and 120 mins after delivery, and neonatal sedation and feeding behaviour during first 2 hours. If the trial demonstrates that diamorphine provides better analgesia

  9. Can Spinal Bupivacaine Analgesia Treatment Make a Difference on Urinary Bladder Healing According to the Intramuscular Pethidine Analgesia Treatment in Rats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeswim Senayli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We designed a study to compare the healing levels found with intramuscular pethidine with those found with intrathecal local anesthetic treatments. The urinary bladder is suggested to be the most useful tissue in the evaluation of the effects of the drugs. Nineteen male, Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200–300 g were used in this study. A sagittal section was made in the urinary bladder after suitable anesthesia and laparotomy. Bladders were closed with 5-0 plain catguts 5 min later. There were nine rats in the control group and pethidine (0.5 g/kg was administered intramuscularly in the gluteal muscle region to treat pain after the operations. There were 11 rats in the study group and each received a spinal injection of 0.25% bupivacaine after the operation. Rats were followed for 7 days to define pain. Specimens, particularly the incised region of the bladder, were evaluated for inflammation and fibrosis. Grading scales were used for this purpose. Statistical analyses of the data were performed using the Chi-square test. Statistical analyses were nonsignificant for inflammation (p ≤ 0.151 and nonsignificant for fibrosis (p ≤ 0.105. The treatments may have the same effects on organ healing mechanisms. Statistical difference is not shown in this study, but use of other combinations of pain treatments to evaluate the healing may demonstrate which of these possibilities is true.

  10. Pharmacodynamics of oxytetracycline administered alone and in combination with carprofen in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentnall, C; Cheng, Z; McKellar, Q A; Lees, P

    2012-09-15

    The pharmacodynamics (PD) of oxytetracycline was investigated against a strain of Mannheimia haemolytica. In vitro measurements, comprising minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration and time-kill curves, were conducted in five matrices; Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB), cation-adjusted MHB (CAMHB) and calf serum, exudate and transudate. MICs were much higher in the biological fluids than in MHB and CAMHB. Ratios of MIC were, serum: CAMHB 19 : 1; exudate:CAMHB 16.1; transudate:CAMHB 14 : 1. Ex vivo data, generated in the tissue cage model of inflammation, demonstrated that oxytetracycline, administered to calves intramuscularly at a dose rate of 20 mg/kg, did not inhibit the growth of M haemolytica in serum, exudate and transudate, even at peak concentration. However, using in vitro susceptibility in CAMHB and in vivo-determined pharmacokinetic (PK) variables, average and minimum oxytetracycline concentrations relative to MIC (C(av)/MIC and C(min)/MIC) predicted achievement of efficacy for approximately 48 hours after dosing. Similar C(av)/MIC and C(min)/MIC data were obtained when oxytetracycline was administered in the presence of carprofen. PK-PD integration of data for oxytetracycline, based on MICs determined in the three biological fluids, suggests that it possesses, at most, limited direct killing activity against M haemolytica. These data raise questions concerning the mechanism(s) of action of oxytetracycline, when administered at clinically recommended dose rates.

  11. Investigation of the mechanisms that influence the accretion of bovine intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    The understanding of the mechanisms that differ between breeds of cattle and their ability to deposit intramuscular adipose tissue is imperative to profitable beef production. Thus, the interactions among breeds, metabolic substrates and specific hormones in bovine intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissue were investigated. Subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues were obtained from 10 Angus and 9 Santa Gertrudis steers immediately postmortem. The adipose tissues were incubated for 2 h and 48 h with and without 1 mU/ml insulin and 30 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA) to measure the incorporation of 14 C-labeled acetate and glucose into lipid fractions. At the same chronological age, Angus steers had a more youthful lean maturity score, higher USDA marbling scores and higher USDA quality grades than carcasses from Santa Gertrudis steers

  12. Efficacy and Tolerability of Intramuscular Dexketoprofen in Postoperative Pain Management following Hernia Repair Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamdade, P T; Porwal, A; Shinde, J V; Erram, S S; Kamat, V V; Karmarkar, P S; Bhagtani, K; Dhorepatil, S; Irpatgire, R; Bhagat, H; Kolte, S S; Shirure, P A

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intramuscular dexketoprofen for postoperative pain in patients undergoing hernia surgery. Methodology. Total 202 patients received single intramuscular injection of dexketoprofen 50 mg or diclofenac 50 mg postoperatively. The pain intensity (PI) was self-evaluated by patients on VAS at baseline 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours. The efficacy parameters were number of responders, difference in PI (PID) at 8 hours, sum of analogue of pain intensity differences (SAPID), and onset and duration of analgesia. Tolerability assessment was done by global evaluation and adverse events in each group. Results. Dexketoprofen showed superior efficacy in terms of number of responders (P = .007), PID at 8 hours (P = .02), and SAPID( 0-8 hours ) (P dexketoprofen trometamol 50 mg given intramuscularly provided faster, better, and longer duration of analgesia in postoperative patients of hernia repair surgery than diclofenac 50 mg, with comparable safety.

  13. Efeitos anestésicos da administração intranasal ou intramuscular de cetamina S+ e midazolam em pomba-rola (Streptotelia sp. Anesthetic effects of intranasal or intramuscular administration of S+ Ketamine and Midazolam in ring necked dove (Streptotelia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane L. Beier

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A via intranasal é uma boa alternativa por ser indolor e de fácil aplicação em aves. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos anestésicos da associação de cetamina S+ e midazolam pela via intranasal (IN em comparação com a via intramuscular (IM em pombos. Foram utilizados 12 pombos alocados em dois grupos com 15 dias de intervalo, os quais receberam: grupo IM: 20 mg/kg de cetamina S+ associada a 3,5 mg/kg de midazolam pela via intramuscular (musculatura do peito; e grupo IN, mesmo protocolo, porém, pela via intranasal. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: período de latência, tempo de duração em decúbito dorsal, tempo total de anestesia, tempo de recuperação e efeitos adversos. Para a análise estatística, empregou-se o teste de Wilcoxon, com as diferenças consideradas significativas quando PThe intranasal route is a good alternative because is painless and easy to perform in birds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anesthetic effects of S+ ketamine and midazolam administered by intranasal or intramuscular route in pigeons. Twelve animals were used in a randomized and crossover design. Animals received two treatments with 2-weeks interval. IM group: animals received 20mg/kg of S+ ketamine and 3.5mg/kg of midazolam by intramuscular route (pectoral muscles; IN group: animals received the same protocol by intranasal route. Parameters evaluated were: onset of action, time of duration in dorsal recumbency; total time of anesthesia and side effects. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon test and the differences were considered significant when P<0.05. Onset of action was 30 [30-47.5] and 40 [30-50] seconds for IM and IN respectively. Time of duration in dorsal recumbency was 59 [53.25-65] and 63 [37-71.25] minutes for IM and IN respectively, without significant differences between treatments. Total time of anesthesia was 88 [86.25-94.5] and 68 [53.5-93] minutes for IM and IN, respectively, with significant

  14. Intramuscular tendon involvement on MRI has limited value for predicting time to return to play following acute hamstring injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Made, Anne D; Almusa, Emad; Whiteley, Rod; Hamilton, Bruce; Eirale, Cristiano; van Hellemondt, Frank; Tol, Johannes L

    2018-01-01

    Hamstring injury with intramuscular tendon involvement is regarded as a serious injury with a delay in return to play (RTP) of more than 50 days and reinjury rates up to 63%. However, this reputation is based on retrospective case series with high risk of bias. Determine whether intramuscular tendon involvement is associated with delayed RTP and elevated rates of reinjury. MRI of male athletes with an acute hamstring injury was obtained within 5 days of injury. Evaluation included standardised MRI scoring and scoring of intramuscular tendon involvement. Time to RTP and reinjury rate were prospectively recorded. Out of 70 included participants, intramuscular tendon disruption was present in 29 (41.4%) injuries. Injuries without intramuscular tendon disruption had a mean time to RTP of 22.2±7.4 days. Injuries with Injuries with full-thickness disruption took longer to RTP compared with injuries without disruption (p=0.025). Longitudinal intramuscular tendon disruption was not significantly associated with time to RTP. Waviness was present in 17 (24.3%) injuries. Mean time to RTP for injuries without and with waviness was 22.6±7.5 and 30.2±10.8 days (p=0.014). There were 11 (15.7%) reinjuries within 12 months, five (17.2%) in the group with intramuscular tendon disruption and six (14.6%) in the group without intramuscular tendon disruption. Time to RTP for injuries with full-thickness disruption of the intramuscular tendon and waviness is significantly longer (by slightly more than 1 week) compared with injuries without intramuscular tendon involvement. However, due to the considerable overlap in time to RTP between groups with and without intramuscular tendon involvement, its clinical significance for the individual athlete is limited. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of dexmedetomidine combined with methadone following oral-transmucosal and intramuscular administration in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Di Cesare

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Oral-transmucosal (OTM drug delivery refers to noninvasive and painless administration of medical preparations through any oral cavity membrane to achieve systemic effects (Sattar et al., 2014. Regarding sedative drugs, OTM administration is very attractive in veterinary medicine, especially for patients difficult to inject and restrain (Messenger et al., 2016. This study aims to compare the pharmacokinetics of dexmedetomidine after OTM and intramuscular (IM administration combined with methadone. After obtaining Ethical Committee approval and owner’s written consent, eight dogs, were administered with dexmedetomidine (10 mg/kg and methadone (0.4 mg/kg by OTM and other 4 dogs by IM route. Blood samples were collected at prefixed times up to four hours. Dexmedetomidine was quantified by a validated HPLC-MS method. On dexmedetomidine concentrations, a pharmacokinetic analysis was carried out with a noncompartmental approach (Phoenix WinNonlin® 7.0, Pharsight, Cary, NC. Mean ± SD terminal half-lives of dexmedetomidine were 187.42 ± 109.66 and 94.78 ± 34.08 min after OTM and IM administration, respectively. Maximum serum (Cmax concentrations were 0.83 ± 0.32 and 9.09 ± 2.46 ng/mL for OTM and IM administration, respectively. Time to maximum concentration (Tmax were 44.38 ± 32.16 and 21.25±11.39 min by OTM and IM administration, respectively. Area under the curve from 0 to the last measured concentration (AUClast were 103.75 ± 30.23 and 614.87 ± 77.15 min*ng/mL for OTM and IM administration, respectively. Cmax, Tmax and AUClast values by OTM route demonstrate a lower and delayed absorption of the drug compared to IM. To complete the study, the pharmacokinetic analysis of methadone is foreseen, so as a clinical trial to compare the clinical effects of the combination of dexmedetomidine and methadone by OTM and IM administration and to establish an effective dosage of oral-transumucosal route in dogs for this association.

  16. Comparative pharmacokinetics of cefuroxime lysine after single intravenous, intraperitoneal, and intramuscular administration to rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Long-shan; Yin, Ran; Wei, Bin-bin; Li, Qing; Jiang, Zhen-yuan; Chen, Xiao-hui; Bi, Kai-shun

    2012-11-01

    To compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of cefuroxime lysine, a new second-generation of cephalosporin antibiotics, after intravenous (IV), intraperitoneal (IP), or intramuscular (IM) administration. Twelve male and 12 virgin female Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing from 200 to 250 g, were divided into three groups (n=4 for each gender in each group). The rats were administered a single dose (67.5 mg/kg) of cefuroxime lysine via IV bolus or IP or IM injection. Blood samples were collected and analyzed with a validated UFLC-MS/MS method. The concentration-time data were then calculated by compartmental and non-compartmental pharmacokinetic methods using DAS software. After IV, IP or IM administration, the plasma cefuroxime lysine disposition was best described by a tri-compartmental, bi-compartmental or mono-compartmental open model, respectively, with first-order elimination. The plasma concentration profiles were similar through the 3 administration routes. The distribution process was rapid after IV administration [t(1/2(d)), 0.10 ± 0.11 h vs 1.36 ± 0.65 and 1.25 ± 1.01 h]. The AUMC(0-∞) is markedly larger, and mean residence time (MRT) is greatly longer after IP administration than that in IV, or IM routes (AUMC(0-∞): 55.33 ± 20.34 vs 16.84 ± 4.85 and 36.17 ± 13.24 mg·h(2)/L; MRT: 0.93 ± 0.10 h vs 0.37 ± 0.07 h and 0.65 ± 0.05 h). The C(max) after IM injection was significantly higher than that in IP injection (73.51 ± 12.46 vs 49.09 ± 7.06 mg/L). The AUC(0-∞) in male rats were significantly higher than that in female rats after IM administration (66.38 ± 16.5 vs 44.23 ± 6.37 mg·h/L). There was no significantly sex-related difference in other pharmacokinetic parameters of cefuroxime lysine between male and female rats. Cefuroxime lysine shows quick absorption after IV injection, a long retension after IP injection, and a high C(max) after IM injection. After IM administration the AUC(0-∞) in male rats was significantly larger than that in

  17. Intramuscular oxytocin versus intravenous oxytocin to prevent postpartum haemorrhage at vaginal delivery (LabOR trial): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Nita; Boland, Fiona; Murphy, Deirdre J

    2017-11-15

    Primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. The most common cause of primary PPH is uterine atony. Atonic PPH rates are increasing in developed countries despite routine active management of the third stage of labour. In less-developed countries, primary PPH remains the leading cause of maternal death. Although the value of routine oxytocics in the third stage of labour has been well established, there is inconsistent practice in the choice of agent and route of administration. Oxytocin is the preferred agent because it has fewer side effects than other uterotonics with similar efficacy. It can be given intravenously or intramuscularly; however, to date, the most effective route of administering oxytocin has not been established. A double-blind randomised controlled trial is planned. The aim of the study is to compare the effects of an intramuscular bolus of oxytocin (10 IU in 1 mL) and placebo intravenous injection (1 mL 0.9% saline given slowly) with an intravenous bolus of oxytocin (10 IU in 1 mL given slowly over 1 min) and placebo intramuscular injection (1 mL 0.9% saline) at vaginal delivery. The study will recruit 1000 women at term (>36 weeks) with singleton pregnancies who are aiming for a vaginal delivery. The primary outcome will be PPH (measured blood loss ≥ 500 mL). A study involving 1000 women will have 80% power at the 5% two-sided alpha level, to detect differences in the proportion of patients with measured blood loss > 500 ml of 10% vs 5%. Given the increasing trends of atonic PPH it is both important and timely that we evaluate the most effective route of oxytocin administration for the management of the third stage of labour. To date, there has been limited research comparing the efficacy of intramuscular oxytocin vs intravenous oxytocin for the third stage of labour. ISRCTN Registry, ISRCTN14718882 . Registered on 4 January 2016. Pilot commenced 12

  18. Fibrous Myopathy as a Complication of Repeated Intramuscular Injections for Chronic Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Burnham

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of fibrous myopathy associated with repeated, long-term intramuscular injections for treatment of chronic temporomandibular joint pain and chronic headache, respectively, are described. Both patients developed severe, function-limiting contractures in upper and lower extremity muscles used as injection sites. In one of the cases, the contractures were painful. Electrophysiological testing, magnetic resonance imaging and muscle biopsy results were all consistent with myopathy and replacement of skeletal muscle with noncontractile fibrous tissue. These cases are presented to increase awareness of fibrous myopathy and to promote surveillance for this serious potential complication of long-term intramuscular injections in chronic headache and other pain patients.

  19. Cardiorespiratory effects of isoflurane in Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) anesthetized with intramuscular medetomidine and zolazepam/tiletamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Dong-Hyuk; Yang, Jeong-Jin; Seok, Seong-Hoon; Song, Dong-Joo; Yeon, Seong-Chan

    2017-01-20

    The objective of this study was to determine the dose-dependent effects of isoflurane on various cardiovascular parameters and the stable range of isoflurane concentrations in Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus). Seven Asiatic black bears were intramuscularly injected with medetomidine, zolazepam and tiletamine (MZT) to induce anesthesia, and anesthesia was maintained by administering isoflurane in 100% oxygen (4 l/min) without mechanical ventilation. Several cardiovascular parameters were measured at five end-tidal isoflurane concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5%). Blood was collected from the femoral artery before administration of isoflurane and after each administration for immediate blood gas analysis. Isoflurane produced dose-dependent increases in heart rate, respiratory rate, minute volume, end-tidal carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) partial pressure and the partial pressure of arterial CO 2 , and dose-dependent decreases in non-invasive blood pressure and tidal volume. Rectal temperature, oxygenation and acid-base balance were unaffected by isoflurane. All parameters in this study were in a clinically acceptable range at all times. The data show that the combination of MZT and isoflurane is suitable for general anesthesia in Asiatic black bears with spontaneous breathing during prolonged procedures. End-tidal isoflurane concentrations of 0.5 to 2.5% can be used in Asiatic black bears without adverse side effects.

  20. Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Systemically Administered Antileishmanial Drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kip, Anke E; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H; Dorlo, Thomas P C

    This review describes the pharmacokinetic properties of the systemically administered antileishmanial drugs pentavalent antimony, paromomycin, pentamidine, miltefosine and amphotericin B (AMB), including their absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion and potential drug-drug interactions.

  1. Associations of heart and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein gene expression with intramuscular fat content in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens, F.; Verburg, F.J.; Moerkerk, van H.T.; Engel, B.; Buist, W.; Veerkamp, J.H.; Pas, te M.F.

    2001-01-01

    Intramuscular fat content is a major determinant of meat quality in pigs. Previously, polymorphisms in the adipocyte and heart fatty acid-binding protein genes, A-FABP and H-FABP, have been significantly associated with genetic variation of intramuscular fat content in a Duroc pig population.

  2. Associations of heart and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein gene expression with intramuscular fat content in pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens, F.; Verburg, F.J.; Moerkerk, H.T.B. van; Engel, B.; Buist, W.; Veerkamp, J.H.; Pas, M.F. te

    2001-01-01

    Intramuscular fat content is a major determinant of meat quality in pigs. Previously, polymorphisms in the adipocyte and heart fatty acid-binding protein genes, A-FABP and H-FABP, have been significantly associated with genetic variation of intramuscular fat content in a Duroc pig population.

  3. Safety and effectiveness of rapid-acting intramuscular olanzapine for agitation associated with schizophrenia – Japan postmarketing surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katagiri H

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hideaki Katagiri,1 Masanori Taketsuna,2 Shinpei Kondo,3 Kenta Kajimoto,4 Etsuko Aoi,5 Yuka Tanji1 1Bio Medicine, 2Statistical Sciences, 3Post Marketing Study Management, 4Scientific Communications, Medicines Development Unit Japan, 5Global Patient Safety Japan, Quality and Patient Safety, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of rapid-acting intramuscular (IM olanzapine in the treatment of acute agitation associated with schizophrenia in real-world clinical settings in Japan.Methods: In this multicenter, postmarketing surveillance (PMS study, patients with acute agitation associated with schizophrenia were treated with IM olanzapine daily in a daily clinical setting. The observational period ranged from 1 to 7 days, including the day of initial administration. Safety was assessed by reporting treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs and adverse drug reactions (ADRs. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale – Excited Component (PANSS-EC score was used to evaluate effectiveness at baseline and at 2 hours (after each administration, 2 days, and 3 days (end of the observational period from the last administration of the IM olanzapine injection.Results: The safety analysis set included 999 patients, and the initial dose of 10 mg was administered to 955 patients. TEAEs were reported in 28 patients (36 events, the most common of which were dyslalia (5 patients, akathisia and somno­lence (4 patients each, hepatic function abnormal (3 patients, and constipation and dehydration (2 patients each. One serious adverse event of akathisia occurred during the observation period. The PANSS-EC score (mean ± standard deviation was 23.3±6.4 (n=625 at baseline, 16.9±7.0 (n=522 at 2 hours after initial injection, and 14.9±6.5 (n=650 at the last observation carried forward.Conclusion: The results of this Japanese PMS study demonstrated that IM olanzapine is safe and has a

  4. Evaluating Controlled Human Malaria Infection in Kenyan Adults with Varying Degrees of Prior Exposure to Plasmodium falciparum using sporozoites administered by intramuscular injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Helena Hodgson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI studies are a vital tool to accelerate vaccine and drug development. As CHMI trials are performed in a controlled environment, they allow unprecedented, detailed evaluation of parasite growth dynamics (PGD and immunological responses. However, CHMI studies have not been routinely performed in malaria-endemic countries or used to investigate mechanisms of naturally-acquired immunity (NAI to Plasmodium falciparum. Methods: We conducted an open-label, randomized CHMI pilot-study using aseptic, cryopreserved P. falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ Challenge to evaluate safety, infectivity and PGD in Kenyan adults with low to moderate prior exposure to P. falciparum (Pan African Clinical Trial Registry: PACTR20121100033272. Results: All participants developed blood-stage infection confirmed by qPCR. However one volunteer (110 remained asymptomatic and blood-film negative until day 21 post-injection of PfSPZ Challenge. This volunteer had a reduced parasite multiplication rate (PMR (1.3 in comparison to the other 27 volunteers (median 11.1. A significant correlation was seen between PMR and screening anti-schizont ELISA OD (p=0.044, R=-0.384 but not when volunteer 110 was excluded from the analysis (p=0.112, R=-0.313. Conclusions: PfSPZ Challenge is safe and infectious in malaria-endemic populations and could be used to assess the efficacy of malaria vaccines and drugs in African populations. Whilst our findings are limited by sample size, our pilot study has demonstrated for the first time that NAI may impact on PMR post-CHMI in a detectable fashion, an important finding that should be evaluated in further CHMI studies.

  5. Microstructure alterations in beef intramuscular connective tissue caused by hydrodynamic pressure processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to evaluate microstructural changes in intramuscular connective tissue of beef semimembranosus muscle subjected to hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP). Samples were HDP treated in a plastic container (HDP-PC) or a steel commercial unit (HDP-CU). C...

  6. Role of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of intramuscular cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, Sujit Kumar [Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Department of Orthopedics, Chandigarh (India); Friarage Hospital, Department of Orthopedics, Northallerton (United Kingdom); Sen, Ramesh Kumar; Akkina, Narendranadh; Hampannavar, Aravind; Tahasildar, Naveen [Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Department of Orthopedics, Chandigarh (India); Limaye, Rajiv [Friarage Hospital, Department of Orthopedics, Northallerton (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-15

    Nonspecific clinical presentations often lead to misdiagnosis of focal cysticercal myositis. This report emphasizes the role of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of solitary intramuscular cysticercosis. Six patients with persistent post-traumatic isolated muscular swelling were treated with analgesic and antibiotics, but the swelling did not subside. Radiographs showed soft tissue swelling with no bony abnormalities. Laboratory markers were inconclusive. Ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance images (MRI) showed typical features of intramuscular cysticercosis. Clinical, radiological, and fundoscopic evaluation of brain and eyes could not isolate any cysticercosis focus in these organs. Patients were treated with 3 weeks albendazole therapy. The identifying sonographic features of intramuscular cysticercosis, as evident from this case series, included an intramuscular elliptical or oval anechoic lesion with echogenic intralesional focus likely to be scolex. Magnetic resonance images showed orientation of the cyst along the direction of muscle fibers with T2W hyperintense signal and post-contrast perilesional enhancement. All patients responded to medical treatment. Cysticercosis may manifest as isolated muscular swelling without neurological or ocular involvement. Clinicians should be aware of this clinical condition to avoid misdiagnosis. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging are good diagnostic aids to establish soft tissue cysticercosis. (orig.)

  7. Weekly Intramuscular Injection of Levothyroxine following Myxoedema: A Practical Solution to an Old Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter N. Taylor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An 82-year-old female with known hypothyroidism was admitted to hospital after being found on the floor. On examination, she was unkempt, confused, bradycardic, hypothermic, and barely arousable. Initial biochemistry revealed a thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH of >100 mU/L and free thyroxine (FT4 level of 1.5 pmol/L which supported a diagnosis of myxoedema coma. She was resuscitated and commenced on liothyronine, levothyroxine, and hydrocortisone and some improvement was made. It became apparent that she was hiding and spitting out her oral levothyroxine including levothyroxine elixir. Given the need for prompt alternative control, we sought advice from international experts where intramuscular levothyroxine was recommended. She was managed from day 50 onwards with intramuscular levothyroxine 200 mcg once a week, which was subsequently increased to 500 mcg. Thyroid function normalized and she made continual cognitive and physical progress and was discharged to a rehabilitation hospital. Her intramuscular levothyroxine was stopped and she was subsequently restarted on oral levothyroxine, with a plan for on-going close monitoring of her thyroid function. This report highlights the potential to use intramuscular levothyroxine in individuals with severe hypothyroidism arising from poor compliance with levothyroxine treatment or other potential causes such as impaired absorption.

  8. Depletion of penicillin G residues in heavy sows after intramuscular injection. Part I: Tissue residue depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavy sows (n=126) were treated with penicillin G procaine at a 5x label dose (33,000 IU/kg) for 3 consecutive days by intramuscular (IM) injection using 3 separate patterns (treatments) of drug administration (42 sows per treatment). Treatments differed by pattern and maximum injection volume per s...

  9. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in evaluation of residual intramuscular myxoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zade, Anand; Ahire, Archana; Shetty, Shishir; Rai, Sujith; Bokka, Rajashekharrao; Velumani, Arokiaswamy; Kabnurkar, Rasika

    2015-01-01

    Intramuscular myxoma (IM) is a rare benign neoplasm. In a patient diagnosed with IM of left thigh, we report the utility of a postoperative fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan in assessing the efficacy of surgical excision

  10. MMR vaccine in 14 months old children, intramuscular versus subcutaneous administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafeber AF; Klis FRM van der; Marzec AHJO; Labadie J; Ommen R van; Strieder TG; Berbers GAM; Utrecht Stichting Thuiszorg; Amersfoort Stichting Thuiszorg Eemland (STE),; LVO

    2001-01-01

    In this study we compared the recommended subcutaneous administration of the RIVM MMR vaccine with the intramuscular administration for both safety and immunogenicity. Study subjects were 14 months old children, living in Amersfoort or Utrecht, who were eligible for their first MMR vaccination.

  11. Intramuscular dissection of a large ganglion cyst into the gastrocnemius muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Luke T; Freedman, Harold L

    2012-07-01

    Ganglion cysts are lesions resulting from the myxoid degeneration of the connective tissue associated with joint capsules and tendon sheaths. Most common around the wrist joint, ganglion cysts may be found elsewhere in the body, including in and around the knee joint. Uncommonly, ganglion cysts can present intramuscularly. Previous reports document the existence of intramuscular ganglia, often without histologic confirmation. This article describes a case of an intramuscular ganglion cyst in the medial gastrocnemius muscle of a 53-year-old woman. The patient initially presented for discomfort associated with the lesion. Examination was consistent with intramuscular cystic lesion of unknown etiology. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging revealed the origin of the mass at the semimembranosus-gastrocnemius bursa. Because of its location, the mass was initially suspected to be a dissecting Baker's cyst, an uncommon but previously reported diagnosis. The patient underwent surgical excision, and examination of the intact specimen revealed a thin, fibrous, walled cyst with no lining epithelium, which was consistent with a ganglion cyst. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report in the orthopedic literature of a ganglion cyst dissecting into the gastrocnemius muscle. Because ganglion cysts commonly require excision for definitive treatment and do not respond well to treatment measures implemented for Baker's cysts, including resection of underlying meniscal tears, the authors believe it is important for orthopedic surgeons to be able to distinguish between Baker's and other cysts associated with the knee joint, including ganglion cysts, which may require more definitive treatment. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Florfenicol concentrations in milk of lactating cows postreated by intramuscular or intramammary routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ruiz B

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available intramammary administration to establish the optimum withdrawal time, therapeutic efficacy, and its influence on milk yield. Materials and method. Twelve healthy lactating Holstein cows were selected from the University of Antioquia’s teaching dairy herd (Colombia, were randomly assigned to a control (n=6 group or florfenicol (n=6 group that received 20 mg/kg of florfenicol by intramammary and intramuscular routes, with a 15 days washout period between treatments. Results. The Tmax and Cmax for the intramuscular route were 6 hoursand 2.86 mg/L respectively. The Tmax and Cmax for the intramammary route, were estimated at 0 hour and about 20000 mg/L respectively by extrapolated from regression line. The florfenicol elimination phase in milk had an average half-life of elimination (t½ of 19.8 hours and 4.9 hours for intramuscular and intramammary administration, respectively. The therapeutic efficacy only was reached by intramammary route, when minimal inhibitory concentration (M.I.C. of florfenicol by Stahphylococcus aureus, was used as reference value. There was no statistically significant difference in milk yield between treated and non-treated cows. Conclusions. According to these results, post-treatment milk withdrawal should be no less than 3 days for intramammary administration, and at least 7 days for intramuscular administration. The therapeutic efficacy only was reached by intramammary route. In addition, there was no statistically significant difference in milk yield between treated and nontreated cows.

  13. Intramuscular Lipoma-Induced Occipital Neuralgia on the Lesser Occipital Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyun Ho; Kim, Hak Soo; Rhie, Jong Won; Moon, Suk Ho

    2016-06-01

    Occipital neuralgia (ON) is commonly characterized by a neuralgiform headache accompanied by a paroxysmal burning sensation in the dermatome area of the greater, lesser, or third occipital nerve. The authors report a rare case of ON caused by an intramuscular lipoma originating from the lesser occipital nerve.A 52-year-old man presented with sharp pain in the left postauricular area with a 3 × 2-cm palpable mass. Computed tomography revealed a mass suspiciously resembling an intramuscular lipoma within splenius muscle. In the operation field, a protruding mass causing stretching of the lesser occipital nerve was found. After complete resection, the neuralgiform headache symptom had resolved and the intramuscular lipoma was confirmed through histopathology.Previous studies on the causes of ON have reported that variation in normal anatomic structures results in nerve compression. Occipital neuralgia, however, caused by intramuscular lipomas in splenius muscles have not been previously reported, and the dramatic resolution following surgery makes it an interesting case worth reporting.

  14. The experience of intramuscular benzathine penicillin for prophylaxis of recurrent cellulitis: A cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Meng Chen

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Intramuscular benzathine penicillin at a 4-week interval may be an effective prophylactic strategy to reduce the incidence of cellulitis. Further studies are necessary to determine the factors associated with failure of prophylaxis as well as optimal individualized dosage and dosing interval of the prophylactic agent.

  15. Role of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of intramuscular cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, Sujit Kumar; Sen, Ramesh Kumar; Akkina, Narendranadh; Hampannavar, Aravind; Tahasildar, Naveen; Limaye, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Nonspecific clinical presentations often lead to misdiagnosis of focal cysticercal myositis. This report emphasizes the role of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of solitary intramuscular cysticercosis. Six patients with persistent post-traumatic isolated muscular swelling were treated with analgesic and antibiotics, but the swelling did not subside. Radiographs showed soft tissue swelling with no bony abnormalities. Laboratory markers were inconclusive. Ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance images (MRI) showed typical features of intramuscular cysticercosis. Clinical, radiological, and fundoscopic evaluation of brain and eyes could not isolate any cysticercosis focus in these organs. Patients were treated with 3 weeks albendazole therapy. The identifying sonographic features of intramuscular cysticercosis, as evident from this case series, included an intramuscular elliptical or oval anechoic lesion with echogenic intralesional focus likely to be scolex. Magnetic resonance images showed orientation of the cyst along the direction of muscle fibers with T2W hyperintense signal and post-contrast perilesional enhancement. All patients responded to medical treatment. Cysticercosis may manifest as isolated muscular swelling without neurological or ocular involvement. Clinicians should be aware of this clinical condition to avoid misdiagnosis. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging are good diagnostic aids to establish soft tissue cysticercosis. (orig.)

  16. Training pharmacy technicians to administer immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeirnan, Kimberly C; Frazier, Kyle R; Nguyen, Maryann; MacLean, Linda Garrelts

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an immunization training program for pharmacy technicians on technicians' self-reported confidence, knowledge, and number of vaccines administered. A one-group pre- and posttest study was conducted with certified pharmacy technicians from Albertsons and Safeway community pharmacies in Idaho. Thirty pharmacy technicians were recruited to participate in an immunization administration training program comprising a 2-hour home study and a 2-hour live training. Pharmacy technician scores on a 10-question knowledge assessment, responses on a pre- and posttraining survey, and number of immunizations administered in the 6-month period following the training were collected. Twenty-five pharmacy technicians completed the home study and live portions of the immunization training program. All 29 pharmacy technicians who took the home study assessment passed with greater than 70% competency on the first attempt. Technicians self-reported increased confidence with immunization skills between the pretraining survey and the posttraining survey. From December 2016 to May 2017, the technicians administered 953 immunizations with 0 adverse events reported. For the first time, pharmacy technicians have legally administered immunizations in the United States. Trained pharmacy technicians demonstrated knowledge of vaccination procedures and self-reported improved confidence in immunization skills and administered immunizations after participating in a 4-hour training program. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Differences in intramuscular vascular connections of human and dog latissimus dorsi muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D; Morris, S F

    1999-02-01

    Distal ischemia and necrosis of the dog latissimus dorsi muscle flap used in experimental cardiomyoplasty have been reported. However, little information on the intramuscular vascular anatomy of the dog latissimus dorsi is available. It is unclear whether there are any anatomic factors relating to the muscle flap ischemia and necrosis, and whether the dog latissimus dorsi is a suitable experimental model. To study the intramuscular vascular territories in the dog latissimus dorsi muscle, and to compare the intramuscular vasculature of the dog with that of the human, 5 fresh dog cadavers and 7 fresh human cadavers were injected with a mixture of lead oxide, gelatin, and water (200 mL/kg) through the carotid artery. Both the dog and the human latissimus dorsi muscles and neurovascular pedicles were dissected and radiographed. The intramuscular vascular anatomy of the latissimus dorsi muscles was compared. Radiographs demonstrate clearly that the pattern of latissimus dorsi intramuscular anastomoses between branches of the thoracodorsal artery and the perforators of posterior intercostal arteries in the proximal half of the muscle are different between the dog and the human. In the dog muscle, vascular connections between the thoracodorsal artery and the posterior intercostal arteries are formed by reduced-caliber choke arteries, whereas four to six true anastomoses without a change in caliber between them are found in the human muscle. The portion of the latissimus dorsi muscle supplied by the dominant thoracodorsal vascular territory was 25.9% +/- 0.3% in the dog and 23.9% +/- 0.5% in the human. For further comparison, an extended vascular territory in the latissimus dorsi muscle was demonstrated, including both the thoracodorsal territory and the posterior intercostal territories. The area of the extended vascular territory was 52% +/- 0.5% of the total muscle. The dog latissimus dorsi model may not be a perfect predictor of the behavior of the human latissimus

  18. Peripherally administered nanoparticles target monocytic myeloid cells, secondary lymphoid organs and tumors in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraklis C Kourtis

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles have been extensively developed for therapeutic and diagnostic applications. While the focus of nanoparticle trafficking in vivo has traditionally been on drug delivery and organ-level biodistribution and clearance, recent work in cancer biology and infectious disease suggests that targeting different cells within a given organ can substantially affect the quality of the immunological response. Here, we examine the cell-level biodistribution kinetics after administering ultrasmall Pluronic-stabilized poly(propylene sulfide nanoparticles in the mouse. These nanoparticles depend on lymphatic drainage to reach the lymph nodes and blood, and then enter the spleen rather than the liver, where they interact with monocytes, macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells. They were more readily taken up into lymphatics after intradermal (i.d. compared to intramuscular administration, leading to ∼50% increased bioavailability in blood. When administered i.d., their distribution favored antigen-presenting cells, with especially strong targeting to myeloid cells. In tumor-bearing mice, the monocytic and the polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cell compartments were efficiently and preferentially targeted, rendering this nanoparticulate formulation potentially useful for reversing the highly suppressive activity of these cells in the tumor stroma.

  19. Peripherally administered nanoparticles target monocytic myeloid cells, secondary lymphoid organs and tumors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtis, Iraklis C; Hirosue, Sachiko; de Titta, Alexandre; Kontos, Stephan; Stegmann, Toon; Hubbell, Jeffrey A; Swartz, Melody A

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles have been extensively developed for therapeutic and diagnostic applications. While the focus of nanoparticle trafficking in vivo has traditionally been on drug delivery and organ-level biodistribution and clearance, recent work in cancer biology and infectious disease suggests that targeting different cells within a given organ can substantially affect the quality of the immunological response. Here, we examine the cell-level biodistribution kinetics after administering ultrasmall Pluronic-stabilized poly(propylene sulfide) nanoparticles in the mouse. These nanoparticles depend on lymphatic drainage to reach the lymph nodes and blood, and then enter the spleen rather than the liver, where they interact with monocytes, macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells. They were more readily taken up into lymphatics after intradermal (i.d.) compared to intramuscular administration, leading to ∼50% increased bioavailability in blood. When administered i.d., their distribution favored antigen-presenting cells, with especially strong targeting to myeloid cells. In tumor-bearing mice, the monocytic and the polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cell compartments were efficiently and preferentially targeted, rendering this nanoparticulate formulation potentially useful for reversing the highly suppressive activity of these cells in the tumor stroma.

  20. Training and experience of doctors administering obstetric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background All the published Saving Mothers Reports generated by the National Committee of the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in South Africa have associated anaesthesia-related maternal deaths with the lack of skills of the doctors administering the anaesthesia. The Reports have shown the Free State to ...

  1. Clinical efficacy and cardiorespiratory effects of intramuscular administration of alfaxalone alone or in combination with dexmedetomidine in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Mocholí, Diego; Belda, Eliseo; Bosmans, Tim; Laredo, Francisco G

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the sedative, anaesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of intramuscular (IM) administration of alfaxalone alone or in combination with dexmedetomidine in cats. Blinded, randomized crossover study with a washout period of 15 days. Seven adult cats, weighing 3.5 ± 0.7 kg. Cats were assigned randomly to each of three treatments: A5 (alfaxalone 5 mg kg(-1) ), D20 A5 (dexmedetomidine 20 μg kg(-1) and alfaxalone 5 mg kg(-1) ) and D40 A5 (dexmedetomidine 40 μg kg(-1) and alfaxalone 5 mg kg(-1) ). Drugs were administered IM into the epaxial muscles. Sedation or anaesthesia scores were evaluated by a modified numerical rating scale. Times to extubation, head-lift, sternal recumbency and standing were recorded. Heart and respiratory rates, systolic arterial pressure, arterial oxygen saturation of haemoglobin, end-tidal carbon dioxide tension and rectal temperature were measured at 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes after drug administration. Adverse events were recorded. Data were analysed by one-way anova with Tukey's post-hoc test for parametric values and, for non-normally distributed parameters, a Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test for two independent samples (p Cats in A5 were deeply sedated, whereas cats administered dexmedetomidine were anaesthetized. The onset of action and the duration of anaesthesia were related to the dose of dexmedetomidine. Cardiorespiratory parameters remained stable in the A5 group. Lower heart rates, higher systolic blood pressures and occasional low pulse oximetry readings were observed in the dexmedetomidine groups. A limited number of adverse events (hyperkinesia, emesis) occurred during recovery. Alfaxalone administered IM induced sedation in cats. The addition of dexmedetomidine to alfaxalone induced general anaesthesia with a mild decrease in the heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation of haemoglobin. © 2015 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of

  2. Clinical effects of dexmedetomidine combined with methadone after intranasal and intramuscular administration in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gioeni

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The intranasal (IN route shows promise for chemical restraint given the large area offered for drugs absorption. The nasal turbinates increase nasal mucosa surface, which have a greater blood flow than muscle, brain and liver tissue . Aim of the study is to compare the clinical effects and sedation scores following either IN or intramuscular (IM administration of dexmedetomidine-methadone in dogs. Twenty mixed-breed, client-owned, healthy dogs, undergoing soft tissue surgery or diagnostic procedures, were randomly allocated in two groups (n = 10 to receive dexmedetomidine (0.01 mg kg-1 together with methadone (0.4 mg kg-1 IN (IN-group or IM (IM-group. Temperament was evaluated before premedication (1 = calm and friendly, 4 = very excitable or nervous (Maddern et al. 2010. Heart rate (HR, respiratory frequency (fR, body temperature, and side effects were recorded before (T0 and 10 (T10, 20 (T20 and 30 (T30 minutes after premedication. Sedation was scored 3 times (every 10 minutes after drugs administration using a descriptive sedation scale (0 = no sedation, 13 = extremely sedated. Induction was performed at T30 with titrate-to-effect propofol and the dosage was recorded. Student T-test was performed. Weight, age, temperament, body temperature and propofol dose were not different between groups. At each time point, excluding T0, IM-group showed a statistically lower HR and fRcompared to IN-group. No undesirable effects were observed in both groups. Sedation score in IM-group was significantlyhigher compared to IN-group at each time point. In conclusion, despite statistical differences, IN administration produces a satisfactory clinical sedation with more gradual hemodynamic effects compared to IM injection; this is probably due to a direct transport of drugs from cranial nerves (I-V to brain with limited systemic absorption. However, the high variability recorded in sedation score between subjects in IN-group (min 1/13; max 13/13 at T30

  3. Distribution of enrofloxacin in intestinal tissue and contents of healthy pigs after oral and intramuscular administrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiuff, C.; Lykkesfeldt, J.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2002-01-01

    The concentration of enrofloxacin in plasma, intestinal tissue, lymph nodes and intestinal contents was investigated in healthy pigs after oral (p.o.) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration of a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg bw. Tissue and content samples were collected from jejunum, ileum, caecum...... administration, and maximum concentrations in tissue and plasma were determined later than after i.m. administration. No difference between route of administration was observed in the intestinal content. Enrofloxacin concentrations in faeces during a 5-day dosing regimen with i.m. and p.o. administration were....... On the basis of these results it was concluded that in order to ensure an immediate high concentration of enrofloxacin, and thereby avoid an initial selection for resistant mutants, the intramuscular route seems to be preferable to the oral route....

  4. Sequential decoding of intramuscular EMG signals via estimation of a Markov model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsifrot, Jonathan; Le Carpentier, Eric; Aoustin, Yannick; Farina, Dario

    2014-09-01

    This paper addresses the sequential decoding of intramuscular single-channel electromyographic (EMG) signals to extract the activity of individual motor neurons. A hidden Markov model is derived from the physiological generation of the EMG signal. The EMG signal is described as a sum of several action potentials (wavelet) trains, embedded in noise. For each train, the time interval between wavelets is modeled by a process that parameters are linked to the muscular activity. The parameters of this process are estimated sequentially by a Bayes filter, along with the firing instants. The method was tested on some simulated signals and an experimental one, from which the rates of detection and classification of action potentials were above 95% with respect to the reference decomposition. The method works sequentially in time, and is the first to address the problem of intramuscular EMG decomposition online. It has potential applications for man-machine interfacing based on motor neuron activities.

  5. First intramuscular administration in the U.S. space program. [of motion sickness drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagian, James P.

    1991-01-01

    In the past, the only kind of medicines used for symptomatic treatment of space motion sickness (SMS) in space had been oral, transdermal, or suppositories. This paper describes the effect of the first intramuscular (IM) administration of Phenergan (50-mg in single dose) on SMS in one subject who exhibited grade-3 symptoms and signs which persisted unabated throughout the first and the second flight days aboard the Space Shuttle. Thirty minutes after the injection, the subject had completely recovered. His symptoms were gone, his appetite was back, and he had no recurrences for the remainder of the flight. Since that experiment, intramuscular injections have been given nine more times on subsequent flights, with similar results.

  6. Influence of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA on intramuscular fatty acid composition in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Corino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of feeding CLA has been thoroughly investigated in pigs, and Thiel- Cooper et al. (2001, Ostrowska et al. (2003, Lo Fiego et al. (2004, found that CLA modifies lipid fatty acid profile, negatively affecting some nutritional lipid indexes. So far,much less attention has been paid to rabbits. Recently, Corino et al. (2003 have shown that supplementing rabbit diets with CLA has limited effect on the chemical composition of meat and at a high slaughter weight reduces intramuscular fat content. The present research has been carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary CLA supplementation on cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12- C18:2 isomers content, and on fatty acid composition of rabbit intramuscular lipids.

  7. Intravenous application of HI-6 salts (dichloride and dimethansulphonate) in pigs: comparison with pharmacokinetics profile after intramuscular administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdarova Karasova, Jana; Zemek, Filip; Kunes, Martin; Kvetina, Jaroslav; Chladek, Jaroslav; Jun, Daniel; Bures, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja; Kuca, Kamil

    2013-01-01

    Oxime HI-6 is an acetylcholinesterase reactivator therapeutically efficient against nerve agents. Because of their physico-chemical properties, oximes are typically applied intramuscularly (i.m.). This route of administration has also some disadvantages, and alternative strategies ought to be examined. We evaluated the pharmacokinetic profiles of two HI-6 salts after their intravenous (i.v.) administration, and compare the results with the known pharmacokinetics after i.m. administration. Pigs were administered with HI-6 salts (i.v), either HI-6 dichloride (10.71 mg/kg) or molar equivalent HI-6 dimethansulphonate (13.59 mg/kg). Doses of the HI-6 salts corresponded with a standard HI-6 dichloride dose in one autoinjector (500 mg) and were recalculated for one kilogram of body weight. The main pharmacokinetic parameters are comparable after i.v. and i.m. HI-6 administration. The compared pharmacokinetic parameters were half-life, terminal rate constant, mean residence time of the molecule in the body, clearance, and the apparent volume in the terminal phase. The bioavailability after i.m. administration was comparable with that of i.v.; these results suggest that the oxime is well released from the muscle depot. Significant differences were found in parameters Cmax and Tmax which are important in cases of emergency when rapidity and bioavailability are paramount for the success of treatment. I.v. administration should solve the problem of rapid clearance. Infusion or bolus administration may be considered as a logical subsequent step in oxime treatment strategy. The main advantage is in maintenance of an effective therapeutic plasma concentration, a more easily achievable effective therapeutic concentration, and fewer local adverse reactions.

  8. Oronasal and intramuscular vaccination of swine with a modified live porcine parvovirus vaccine: multiplication and transmission of the vaccine virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, P S; Mengeling, W L

    1984-12-01

    An attenuated strain NADL-2 of porcine parvovirus (PPV) has been used at the 54th cell culture passage as a modified live-virus (MLV) vaccine. The present study was conducted to determine the minimum immunizing dose of MLV, the extent of MLV multiplication in swine tissues, and its transmission from swine administered MLV oronasally or intramuscularly. Immune response to MLV was dose dependent and swine responded to as little as 10(2) median cell-culture infective doses (CCID50). A 10(5) CCID50 of MLV, the largest dose given, induced the best immune response and was used in subsequent experiments. Route of MLV administration also was found to be important. The MLV replicated in tissues of swine after IM inoculation; however, viral antigen in tissues was less, as measured by immunofluorescence, and serum hemagglutination-inhibition titers for PPV were lower in MLV-inoculated swine than we have previously observed in virulent PPV-inoculated swine. In contrast, oronasal inoculation with MLV did not consistently result in infection of pigs; only 5 of 23 swine had virologic and/or serologic evidence of infection. Virus transmission studies indicated that MLV is shed in feces, but shedding occurs later than that in virulent-PPV-inoculated swine and is inconsistent. Delayed transmission of MLV was observed in contact pigs, which were seronegative at 2 weeks, but became seropositive at 4 weeks--indicating that perhaps a virus population capable of infecting pigs by oronasal route was selected by passage through the pig.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Extra- and intramuscular nerve supply of the muscles of the anterior antebrachial compartment: applications for selective neurotomy and for botulinum toxin injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, D; Parratte, B; Tatu, L; Vuiller, F; Monnier, G

    2005-12-01

    Hypertonia of the upper limb due to spasticity causes pronation of the forearm and flexion of wrist and fingers. Nowadays this spasticity is often treated with injections of botulinum toxin and sometimes with selective fascicular neurotomy. To correctly perform this microsurgical technique, it is necessary to get precise knowledge of the extramuscular nerve branching in order to be better able to select the motor branches which supply the muscles involved in spasticity. The same knowledge is required for botulinum toxin injections which must be made as near as possible to the zones where intramuscular nerve endings are the densest, which is also where neuromuscular junctions are the most numerous. Thus, it is necessary to better know these zones, but their knowledge remains today imprecise. The muscles of the anterior compartment of 30 forearms were dissected, first macroscopically, then microscopically, to study the extra- and intramuscular nerve supply and the distribution of terminal nerve ramifications. The results were then linked to surface topographical landmarks to indicate the precise location of motor branches for each muscle with the aim of proposing appropriate surgical approaches for selective neurotomies. Then for each muscle, the zones with the highest density of nerve endings were divided into segments, thus determining the optimal zones for botulinim toxin injections.

  10. Concurrent emphysematous pyelonephritis and thigh necrotizing fasciitis after intramuscular administration of diclofenac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Shamekhi Amiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis (NF is a rapidly progressive, life-threatening soft tissue infec-tion. NF may result from any injury to the skin or from hematogenous spread. However, con-current emphysematous pyelonephritis and necrotizing fasciitis of the left thigh has not been reported. We report a case of emphysematous pyelonephritis and necrotizing fasciitis of the left thigh after intramuscular administration of diclofenac that improved with aggressive management including broad-spectrum antibiotics, nephrectomy and surgical intervention.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of diclofenac in pigs after intramuscular administration of a single dose

    OpenAIRE

    Pejčić Zorica; Pokrajac Milena; Jezdimirović Milanka

    2006-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of diclofenac was studied in 10 clinically normal male Yorkshire pigs, following intramuscular (i.m) administration of a single dose of diclofenac-sodium (2.5 mg/kg body weight). Diclofenac serum concentrations were determined by high pressure- liquid-chromatography (HPLC), with UV detection (226 nm). Following i.m. administration all individual diclofenac serum levels best fitted the one-compartment open model for extravascular administration. The maximal diclofenac seru...

  12. Intramuscular Distribution of the Abducens Nerve in the Lateral Rectus Muscle for the Management of Strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun Jin; Lee, Shin-Hyo; Shin, Kang-Jae; Koh, Ki-Seok; Song, Wu-Chul

    2018-06-01

    To elucidate the intramuscular distribution and branching patterns of the abducens nerve in the lateral rectus (LR) muscle so as to provide anatomical confirmation of the presence of compartmentalization, including for use in clinical applications such as botulinum toxin injections. Thirty whole-mount human cadaver specimens were dissected and then Sihler's stain was applied. The basic dimensions of the LR and its intramuscular nerve distribution were investigated. The distances from the muscle insertion to the point at which the abducens nerve enters the LR and to the terminal nerve plexus were also measured. The LR was 46.0 mm long. The abducens nerve enters the muscle on the posterior one-third of the LR and then typically divides into a few branches (average of 1.8). This supports a segregated abducens nerve selectively innervating compartments of the LR. The intramuscular nerve distribution showed a Y-shaped ramification with root-like arborization. The intramuscular nerve course finished around the middle of the LR (24.8 mm posterior to the insertion point) to form the terminal nerve plexus. This region should be considered the optimal target site for botulinum toxin injections. We have also identified the presence of an overlapping zone and communicating nerve branches between the neighboring LR compartments. Sihler's staining is a useful technique for visualizing the entire nerve network of the LR. Improving the knowledge of the nerve distribution patterns is important not only for researchers but also clinicians to understand the functions of the LR and the diverse pathophysiology of strabismus.

  13. Vaccine-induced myositis with intramuscular sterile abscess formation: MRI and ultrasound findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, Ahmet Veysel; Bekci, Tumay; Selcuk, Mustafa Bekir [Ondokuz Mayis University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Dabak, Nevzat [Ondokuz Mayis University, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Ulu, Esra Meltem Kayahan [Samsun Medical Park Hospital, Department of Radiology, Samsun (Turkey)

    2015-12-15

    Although limb swelling is a well-known complication of vaccination, its rarity and wide band of differential diagnosis of limb swelling make it a diagnostic challenge. In this case report, we describe three cases of vaccine-induced myositis with intramuscular sterile abscess formation in patients with limb swelling and their magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography findings. Both radiologists and clinicians should be familiar with this rare entity, its clinical and imaging spectrum, and follow-up strategies. (orig.)

  14. Vaccine-induced myositis with intramuscular sterile abscess formation: MRI and ultrasound findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polat, Ahmet Veysel; Bekci, Tumay; Selcuk, Mustafa Bekir; Dabak, Nevzat; Ulu, Esra Meltem Kayahan

    2015-01-01

    Although limb swelling is a well-known complication of vaccination, its rarity and wide band of differential diagnosis of limb swelling make it a diagnostic challenge. In this case report, we describe three cases of vaccine-induced myositis with intramuscular sterile abscess formation in patients with limb swelling and their magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography findings. Both radiologists and clinicians should be familiar with this rare entity, its clinical and imaging spectrum, and follow-up strategies. (orig.)

  15. Sustained-release progesterone nanosuspension following intramuscular injection in ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kharshoum, rasha

    2010-01-01

    Heba F SalemFaculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, EgyptAbstract: The production of an intramuscular (IM) injection of natural progesterone would provide a safer solution than using semi synthetic progesterone. However, disadvantages such as low solubility and a short half life prevent the use of natural progesterone. In this study, we formulated a sustained release form of natural progesterone to be given as IM injection. A progesterone nanosuspension (PNS) was first developed...

  16. Nitric oxide nanoparticles: Pre-clinical utility as a therapeutic for intramuscular abscesses

    OpenAIRE

    Schairer, David O.; Martinez, Luis R.; Blecher, Karin; Chouake, Jason S.; Nacharaju, Parimala; Gialanella, Philip; Friedman, Joel M.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Friedman, Adam J.

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a critical component of host defense against invading pathogens; however, its therapeutic utility is limited due to a lack of practical delivery systems. Recently, a NO-releasing nanoparticulate platform (NO-np) was shown to have in vitro broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and in vivo pre-clinical efficacy in a dermal abscess model. To extend these findings, both topical (TP) and intralesional (IL) NO-np administration was evaluated in a MRSA intramuscular murine absce...

  17. Serial MR Imaging of Intramuscular Hematoma: Experimental Study in a Rat Model with the Pathologic Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon Soo; Kwon, Soon Tae; Kim, Jong Ok

    2011-01-01

    Objective We wanted to demonstrate the temporal changes of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in experimentally-induced intramuscular hematomas in rats and to correlate these data with the concurrent pathologic observations. Materials and Methods Intramuscular hematoma was induced in 30 rats. The MR images were obtained at 1, 4, 7 and 10 days and at 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after muscle injury. The characteristic serial MRI findings were evaluated and the relative signal intensities were calculated. Pathologic specimens were obtained at each time point. Results On the T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), the intramuscular hematomas exhibited isointensity compared to that of muscle or the development of a high signal intensity (SI) rim on day one after injury. The high SI persisted until eight weeks after injury. On the T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), the hematomas showed high SI or centrally low SI on day one after injury, and mainly high SI after four days. A dark signal rim was apparent after seven days, which was indicative of hemosiderin on the pathology. The gradient echo (GRE) imaging yielded dark signal intensities at all stages. Conclusion Unlike brain hematomas, experimentally-induced intramuscular hematomas show increased SI on both the T1WI and T2WI from the acute stage onward, and this is pathologically correlated with a rich blood supply and rapid healing response to injury in the muscle. On the T2WI and GRE imaging, high SI with a peripheral dark signal rim is apparent from seven days to the chronic stage. PMID:21228942

  18. Serial MR Imaging of Intramuscular Hematoma: Experimental Study in a Rat Model with the Pathologic Correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yeon Soo; Kim, Jong Ok; Choi, Eun Seok; Kwon, Soon Tae

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to demonstrate the temporal changes of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in experimentally-induced intramuscular hematomas in rats and to correlate these data with the concurrent pathologic observations. Intramuscular hematoma was induced in 30 rats. The MR images were obtained at 1, 4, 7 and 10 days and at 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after muscle injury. The characteristic serial MRI findings were evaluated and the relative signal intensities were calculated. Pathologic specimens were obtained at each time point. On the T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), the intramuscular hematomas exhibited isointensity compared to that of muscle or the development of a high signal intensity (SI) rim on day one after injury. The high SI persisted until eight weeks after injury. On the T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), the hematomas showed high SI or centrally low SI on day one after injury, and mainly high SI after four days. A dark signal rim was apparent after seven days, which was indicative of hemosiderin on the pathology. The gradient echo (GRE) imaging yielded dark signal intensities at all stages. Unlike brain hematomas, experimentally-induced intramuscular hematomas show increased SI on both the T1WI and T2WI from the acute stage onward, and this is pathologically correlated with a rich blood supply and rapid healing response to injury in the muscle. On the T2WI and GRE imaging, high SI with a peripheral dark signal rim is apparent from seven days to the chronic stage

  19. Efficacy and safety of vitamin D3 B.O.N intramuscular injection in Korean adults with vitamin D deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seok Choi

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Intramuscular injection of vitamin D3 200,000 IU was superior to placebo in terms of its impact on serum 25(OHD concentrations, and is considered to be safe and effective in Korean adults with vitamin D deficiency.

  20. Effect of reduced dose schedules and intramuscular injection of anthrax vaccine adsorbed on immunological response and safety profile: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jennifer G; Plikaytis, Brian D; Rose, Charles E; Parker, Scott D; Babcock, Janiine; Keitel, Wendy; El Sahly, Hana; Poland, Gregory A; Jacobson, Robert M; Keyserling, Harry L; Semenova, Vera A; Li, Han; Schiffer, Jarad; Dababneh, Hanan; Martin, Sandra K; Martin, Stacey W; Marano, Nina; Messonnier, Nancy E; Quinn, Conrad P

    2014-02-12

    We evaluated an alternative administration route, reduced schedule priming series, and increased intervals between booster doses for anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA). AVA's originally licensed schedule was 6 subcutaneous (SQ) priming injections administered at months (m) 0, 0.5, 1, 6, 12 and 18 with annual boosters; a simpler schedule is desired. Through a multicenter randomized, double blind, non-inferiority Phase IV human clinical trial, the originally licensed schedule was compared to four alternative and two placebo schedules. 8-SQ group participants received 6 SQ injections with m30 and m42 "annual" boosters; participants in the 8-IM group received intramuscular (IM) injections according to the same schedule. Reduced schedule groups (7-IM, 5-IM, 4-IM) received IM injections at m0, m1, m6; at least one of the m0.5, m12, m18, m30 vaccine doses were replaced with saline. All reduced schedule groups received a m42 booster. Post-injection blood draws were taken two to four weeks following injection. Non-inferiority of the alternative schedules was compared to the 8-SQ group at m2, m7, and m43. Reactogenicity outcomes were proportions of injection site and systemic adverse events (AEs). The 8-IM group's m2 response was non-inferior to the 8-SQ group for the three primary endpoints of anti-protective antigen IgG geometric mean concentration (GMC), geometric mean titer, and proportion of responders with a 4-fold rise in titer. At m7 anti-PA IgG GMCs for the three reduced dosage groups were non-inferior to the 8-SQ group GMCs. At m43, 8-IM, 5-IM, and 4-IM group GMCs were superior to the 8-SQ group. Solicited injection site AEs occurred at lower proportions in the IM group compared to SQ. Route of administration did not influence the occurrence of systemic AEs. A 3 dose IM priming schedule with doses administered at m0, m1, and m6 elicited long term immunological responses and robust immunological memory that was efficiently stimulated by a single booster vaccination at

  1. Comparative study of analgesic efficacy and morphine-sparing effect of intramuscular dexketoprofen trometamol with ketoprofen or placebo after major orthopaedic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, M H; Elliott, K M; Stuart-Taylor, M E; Roberts, D R; Buggy, D; Arthurs, G J

    2003-01-01

    Aims Multimodal analgesia is thought to produce balanced and effective postoperative pain control. A combined therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and opiates could result in synergistic analgesia by acting through different mechanisms. Currently there are very few parenterally administered NSAIDs suitable for the immediate postoperative period. Therefore, this study was undertaken to assess the analgesic efficacy, relative potency, and safety of parenteral dexketoprofen trometamol following major orthopaedic surgery. Methods One hundred and seventy-two patients elected for prosthetic surgery, were randomized to receive two intramuscular injections (12 hourly) of either dexketoprofen 50 mg, ketoprofen 100 mg or placebo in a double-blind fashion. Postoperatively, the patient's pain was stabilized, then they were connected to a patient- controlled analgesia system (PCA) of morphine for 24 h (1 mg with 5 min lockout). Results The mean cumulative amount of morphine (CAM) used was of 39 mg in the dexketoprofen group and 45 mg in the ketoprofen group vs 64 mg in the placebo group. (Reduction in morphine use was approximately one-third between the active compounds compared with placebo (adjusted mean difference of −25 mg between dexketoprofen and placebo and −23 mg between ketoprofen and placebo. These differences were statistically significant: P ≤ 0.0003; 95% CI −35, −14. Pain-intensity scores were consistently lower with the active compounds, the lowest corresponded to the dexketoprofen-treated patients. Regarding sedation, there were statistically significant differences between the two active compounds and placebo only at the 2nd and 13th hours. Wound bleeding was specifically measured with no statistically significant differences found between all the groups. Conclusions Intramuscular administration of dexketoprofen trometamol 50 mg has good analgesic efficacy both in terms of opioid-sparing effect and control of pain after major

  2. Intramuscular versus intravenous prophylactic oxytocin for postpartum hemorrhage after vaginal delivery: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagdeviren, Hediye; Cengiz, Huseyin; Heydarova, Ulkar; Caypinar, Sema Suzen; Kanawati, Ammar; Guven, Ender; Ekin, Murat

    2016-11-01

    Prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is essential in the pursuit of improved health care for women. Oxytocin, the most commonly used uterotonic agent to prevent PPH, has no established the route of administration. In this study we aimed to compare whether the mode of oxytocin administration, i.e., intravenous and intramuscular administration, has an effect on the potential benefits and side effects. A total of 256 women were randomised into two groups: intramuscular group (128) or intravenous group (128). Estimated blood loss during the third stage of labour was similar between the two groups (p = 0.572). Further there were no statistically significant difference was noted between the two groups in terms of the mean duration of labor, duration of the third stage of labor, manual removal of the placenta, need for instrumental delivery, need for blood transfusion, PPH ≥500 mL, PPH ≥1000 mL, or length of hospital stay. Using oxytocin by intravenous and intramuscular route has a similar efficacy and adverse effects.

  3. Pharmacokinetics and -dynamics of intramuscular and intranasal naloxone: an explorative study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulberg, Arne Kristian; Tylleskar, Ida; Nilsen, Turid; Skarra, Sissel; Salvesen, Øyvind; Sand, Trond; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Dale, Ola

    2018-03-22

    This study aimed to develop a model for pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies of naloxone antagonism under steady-state opioid agonism and to compare a high-concentration/low-volume intranasal naloxone formulation 8 mg/ml to intramuscular 0.8 mg. Two-way crossover in 12 healthy volunteers receiving naloxone while receiving remifentanil by a target-controlled infusion for 102 min. The group were subdivided into three different doses of remifentanil. Blood samples for serum naloxone concentrations, pupillometry and heat pain threshold were measured. The relative bioavailability of intranasal to intramuscular naloxone was 0.75. Pupillometry showed difference in antagonism; the effect was significant in the data set as a whole (p < 0.001) and in all three subgroups (p < 0.02-p < 0.001). Heat pain threshold showed no statistical difference. A target-controlled infusion of remifentanil provides good conditions for studying the pharmacodynamics of naloxone, and pupillometry was a better modality than heat pain threshold. Intranasal naloxone 0.8 mg is inferior for a similar dose intramuscular. Our design may help to bridge the gap between studies in healthy volunteers and the patient population in need of naloxone for opioid overdose. clinicaltrials.gov : NCT02307721.

  4. Association between FASN gene polymorphisms ultrasound carcass traits and intramuscular fat in Qinchuan cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Sayed Haidar Abbas; Gui, Linsheng; Khan, Rajwali; Schreurs, Nicola M; Xiaoyu, Wang; Wu, Sen; Mei, Chugang; Wang, Li; Ma, Xueyao; Wei, Dawei; Guo, Hongfang; Zhang, Song; Wang, Xingping; Kaleri, Hubdar Ali; Zan, Linsen

    2018-03-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is an enzyme involved with fat deposition and fatty acid composition in cattle. This study was conducted to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the FASN gene and explore their relationships with ultrasound carcass traits in order to assess the potential use of the FASN gene for the breeding selection of Qinchuan cattle for desirable carcass traits. The frequencies of SNP g.12740C>T, g.13192T>C and g.13232C>T were identified in 525 individual Qinchuan cattle which were also assessed for backfat depth, eye muscle area and intramuscular fat by ultrasound. According to the PIC values, g.13192T>C possessed an intermediate polymorphism (0.25T, g.12740C>T possessed low polymorphism (PICC were in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (c2C was associated with a greater eye muscle area and the TT genotype at g.13232C>T was associated with greater intramuscular fat. When these genotypes were combined there was no difference in eye muscle area and intramuscular fat between the diplotypes. The H 2 H 2 diplotype was associated with carcass traits that are likely to provide economic advantage in Qinchuan cattle. Variations in the FASN genes and their corresponding genotypes may be considered as molecular markers for economic traits in cattle breeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficacy and Tolerability of Intramuscular Dexketoprofen in Postoperative Pain Management following Hernia Repair Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Jamdade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intramuscular dexketoprofen for postoperative pain in patients undergoing hernia surgery. Methodology. Total 202 patients received single intramuscular injection of dexketoprofen 50 mg or diclofenac 50 mg postoperatively. The pain intensity (PI was self-evaluated by patients on VAS at baseline 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours. The efficacy parameters were number of responders, difference in PI (PID at 8 hours, sum of analogue of pain intensity differences (SAPID, and onset and duration of analgesia. Tolerability assessment was done by global evaluation and adverse events in each group. Results. Dexketoprofen showed superior efficacy in terms of number of responders (P=.007, PID at 8 hours (P=.02, and SAPID 0–8 hours (P<.0001. It also showed faster onset of action (42 minutes and longer duration of action (6.5 hours. The adverse events were comparable in both groups. Conclusion. Single dose of dexketoprofen trometamol 50 mg given intramuscularly provided faster, better, and longer duration of analgesia in postoperative patients of hernia repair surgery than diclofenac 50 mg, with comparable safety.

  6. Intramuscular manifestation of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and myeloma: Prevalence, clinical signs, and computed tomography features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surov, Alexey; Spielmann, Rolf-Peter; Behrmann, Curd (Dept. of Radiology, Martin Luther Univ., Halle-Wittenberg (Germany)), e-mail: alex.surow@medizin.uni-halle.de; Holzhausen, Hans-Juergen (Dept. of Hematology/Oncology, Martin Luther Univ., Halle-Wittenberg (Germany)); Arnold, Dirk (Dept. of Pathology, Martin Luther Univ., Halle-Wittenberg (Germany)); Schmidt, Joerg (Dept. of Medical Statistics and Controlling, Martin Luther Univ., Halle-Wittenberg (Germany))

    2010-01-15

    Background: Intramuscular manifestations of malignant immuno proliferative diseases (IMMID) are very rare. Purpose: To determine the prevalence and the clinical features of IMMID in a large series of patients, and to analyze their radiological appearances. Material and Methods: Between 1997 and 2007, 20 patients with IMMID (non-Hodgkin lymphoma [NHL], n=14, and myeloma, n=6) were identified. All patients underwent computed tomography (CT). In five cases, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was additionally performed. Results: Clinically, 16 patients presented with local pain and soft-tissue swelling. In four patients, IMMID was found incidentally. The most common site was the erector spinae muscle, followed by the iliopsoas and pelvic muscles. In 13 cases of IMMID, diffuse mass-forming muscle infiltration was found. Focal intramuscular masses were identified in seven cases. Conclusion: NHL mostly manifests as diffuse muscle enlargement, whereas myelomas form focal intramuscular masses. Nevertheless, CT and MR appearances are nonspecific and can be misinterpreted as muscle sarcoma or inflammatory disease. Although rare, muscle involvement should be considered in the differential diagnosis of muscle disorders in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and myeloma

  7. Kinesio® Tape Barrier Does Not Inhibit Intramuscular Cooling During Cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Katie J; McCrone, Michael; Hanson, Thomas A; Mellinger, Christopher D; Gange, Kara

    2018-05-29

    Allied health care professionals commonly apply cryotherapy as treatment for acute musculoskeletal trauma and the associated symptoms. Understanding the impact of a tape barrier on intramuscular temperature can assist in determining treatment duration for effective cryotherapy. To determine whether Kinesio® Tape acts as a barrier that affects intramuscular temperature during cryotherapy application. A repeated-measures, counterbalanced design in which the independent variable was tape application and the dependent variable was muscle temperature as measured by thermocouples placed 1 cm beneath the adipose layer. Additional covariates for robustness were BMI and adipose thickness. University research laboratory. 19 male college students with no contraindications to cryotherapy, no known sensitivity to Kinesio® Tape, and no reported quadriceps injury within the past six months. Topical cryotherapy: crushed-ice bags of 1 kg and 0.5 kg. Intramuscular temperature. The tape barrier had no statistically significant effect on muscle temperature. The pattern of temperature change was indistinguishable between participants with and without tape application. Findings suggest health care professionals can combine cryotherapy with a Kinesio® Tape application without any need for adjustments to cryotherapy duration.

  8. Extracellular Matrix and Growth Factors Improve the Efficacy of Intramuscular Islet Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruyuki Tsuchiya

    Full Text Available The efficacy of intramuscular islet transplantation is poor despite being technically simple, safe, and associated with reduced rates of severe complications. We evaluated the efficacy of combined treatment with extracellular matrix (ECM and growth factors in intramuscular islet transplantation.Male BALB/C mice were used for the in vitro and transplantation studies. The following three groups were evaluated: islets without treatment (islets-only group, islets embedded in ECM with growth factors (Matrigel group, and islets embedded in ECM without growth factors [growth factor-reduced (GFR Matrigel group]. The viability and insulin-releasing function of islets cultured for 96 h were significantly improved in Matrigel and GFR Matrigel groups compared with the islets-only group.Blood glucose and serum insulin levels immediately following transplantation were significantly improved in the Matrigel and GFR Matrigel groups and remained significantly improved in the Matrigel group at postoperative day (POD 28. On histological examination, significantly decreased numbers of TdT-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling-positive islet cells and significantly increased numbers of Ki67-positive cells were observed in the Matrigel and GFR Matrigel groups at POD 3. Peri-islet revascularization was most prominent in the Matrigel group at POD 14.The efficacy of intramuscular islet transplantation was improved by combination treatment with ECM and growth factors through the inhibition of apoptosis, increased proliferation of islet cells, and promotion of revascularization.

  9. Intramuscular injection of malignant hyperthermia trigger agents induces hypermetabolism in susceptible and nonsusceptible individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metterlein, Thomas; Schuster, Frank; Kranke, Peter; Roewer, Norbert; Anetseder, Martin

    2010-01-01

    A new minimally invasive metabolic test for the diagnosis of susceptibility for malignant hyperthermia measuring intramuscular p(CO(2)) and lactate following local application of caffeine and halothane in humans was recently proposed. The present study tested the hypothesis that a more simplified test protocol allows a differentiation between malignant hyperthermia susceptible (MHS) and malignant hyperthermia nonsusceptible (MHN) and control individuals. With approval of the local ethics committee and informed consent, microdialysis and p(CO(2)) probes with attached microtubing were placed into the lateral vastus muscle of six MHS, seven MHN and seven control individuals. Following equilibration, boluses of 500 microl caffeine 80 mmol l(-1) and halothane 10 vol% dissolved in soybean oil were injected locally. p(CO(2)) and lactate were measured spectrophotometrically. The maximal rate of p(CO(2)) increase was significantly higher in MHS than in MHN and control individuals following application of halothane and caffeine, respectively. Intramuscular caffeine injection leads to a significantly higher increase of local lactate levels in MHS than in MHN and control individuals, whereas halothane increased local lactate levels in all investigated groups. Haemodynamic and systemic metabolic parameters did not differ between the investigated groups. Local caffeine and halothane injection increased intramuscular metabolism in MHS individuals significantly more than in the two other groups. In contrast to previous investigations, direct injection of the concentrations of halothane described here increased lactate and p(CO(2)) even in MHN skeletal muscle.

  10. Extracellular Matrix and Growth Factors Improve the Efficacy of Intramuscular Islet Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Haruyuki; Sakata, Naoaki; Yoshimatsu, Gumpei; Fukase, Masahiko; Aoki, Takeshi; Ishida, Masaharu; Katayose, Yu; Egawa, Shinichi; Unno, Michiaki

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of intramuscular islet transplantation is poor despite being technically simple, safe, and associated with reduced rates of severe complications. We evaluated the efficacy of combined treatment with extracellular matrix (ECM) and growth factors in intramuscular islet transplantation. Male BALB/C mice were used for the in vitro and transplantation studies. The following three groups were evaluated: islets without treatment (islets-only group), islets embedded in ECM with growth factors (Matrigel group), and islets embedded in ECM without growth factors [growth factor-reduced (GFR) Matrigel group]. The viability and insulin-releasing function of islets cultured for 96 h were significantly improved in Matrigel and GFR Matrigel groups compared with the islets-only group. Blood glucose and serum insulin levels immediately following transplantation were significantly improved in the Matrigel and GFR Matrigel groups and remained significantly improved in the Matrigel group at postoperative day (POD) 28. On histological examination, significantly decreased numbers of TdT-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling-positive islet cells and significantly increased numbers of Ki67-positive cells were observed in the Matrigel and GFR Matrigel groups at POD 3. Peri-islet revascularization was most prominent in the Matrigel group at POD 14. The efficacy of intramuscular islet transplantation was improved by combination treatment with ECM and growth factors through the inhibition of apoptosis, increased proliferation of islet cells, and promotion of revascularization.

  11. Assessing Anticalcification Treatments in Bioprosthetic Tissue by Using the New Zealand Rabbit Intramuscular Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Gregory A; Faught, Joelle M; Olin, Jane M

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate that the New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit intramuscular model can be used for detecting calcification in bioprosthetic tissue and to compare the calcification in the rabbit to that of native human valves. The rabbit model was compared with the commonly used Sprague–Dawley rat subcutaneous model. Eighteen rabbits and 18 rats were used to assess calcification in bioprosthetic tissue over time (7, 14, 30, and 90 d). The explanted rabbit and rat tissue discs were measured for calcium by using atomic absorption and Raman spectroscopy. Calcium deposits on the human valve explants were assessed by using Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that the NZW rabbit model is robust for detecting calcification in a shorter duration (14 d), with less infection complications, more space to implant tissue groups (thereby reducing animal use numbers), and a more metabolically and mechanically dynamic environment than the rat subcutaneous model . The human explanted valves and rabbit explanted tissue both showed Raman peaks at 960 cm−1 which is representative of hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite is the final calcium and phosphate species in the calcification of bioprosthetic heart valves and rabbit intramuscular implants. The NZW rabbit intramuscular model is an effective model for assessing calcification in bioprosthetic tissue. PMID:19619417

  12. Efficacy of Doramectin Via Intramuscular Injection in Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonairo Manuel Herrera Benavides

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to test the effectiveness of doramectin by intramuscular administration against nematodes of horses, as it is evacuated, observed in the reduction in egg counts per gram of feces (epg. To this end, six donkeys and ten mestizo horses of different sexes and ages were used, all naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Animals were randomly divided into two groups: 1 (control, three donkeys and four horses that didn’t receive anthelmintic treatment; and 2 (treated, three donkeys and six horses treated with doramectin at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg by intramuscular administration, single dose, applied on the neck. At days 5, 12, 16, 24, 34, 41, 47, 56, 60 and 140 post-treatment all animals were subjected to stool tests, allowing to define epg values by McMaster technique. The results determined that doramectin by intramuscular administration was highly effective in controlling nematodes in field conditions and in animals subjected to continual reinfestation.

  13. Irreversible muscle damage in bodybuilding due to long-term intramuscular oil injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banke, I J; Prodinger, P M; Waldt, S; Weirich, G; Holzapfel, B M; Gradinger, R; Rechl, H

    2012-10-01

    Intramuscular oil injections generating slowly degrading oil-based depots represent a controversial subject in bodybuilding and fitness. However they seem to be commonly reported in a large number of non-medical reports, movies and application protocols for 'site-injections'. Surprisingly the impact of long-term (ab)use on the musculature as well as potential side-effects compromising health and sports ability are lacking in the medical literature. We present the case of a 40 year old male semi-professional bodybuilder with systemic infection and painful reddened swellings of the right upper arm forcing him to discontinue weightlifting. Over the last 8 years he daily self-injected sterilized sesame seed oil at numerous intramuscular locations for the purpose of massive muscle building. Whole body MRI showed more than 100 intramuscular rather than subcutaneous oil cysts and loss of normal muscle anatomy. 2-step septic surgery of the right upper arm revealed pus-filled cystic scar tissue with the near-complete absence of normal muscle. MRI 1 year later revealed the absence of relevant muscle regeneration. Persistent pain and inability to perform normal weight training were evident for at least 3 years post-surgery. This alarming finding indicating irreversible muscle mutilation may hopefully discourage people interested in bodybuilding and fitness from oil-injections. The impact of such chronic tissue stress on other diseases like malignancy remains to be determined. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Leg amputation following intramuscular injection of iron dextran in a 32 year old woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Shalviri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To inform healthcare professionals of a rare serious reaction leading to leg amputation following intramuscular injection of iron dextran and report comments for preventing such reactions.A case of leg amputation following intramuscular injection of iron dextran reported to Iranian Pharmacovigilance Center was reviewed. Patient and reaction data was collected by assessing the reported yellow card, patient chart review and interviewing with patient and physicians. World Health Organization definition for serious reactions was used to determine the seriousness of the reaction. Naranjo algorithm was used to determine probability scale. The probability of the reaction was determined based on questionnaire of Schumock et al. The studied case is classified as a rare and serious but preventable reaction induced by intramuscular injection of iron dextran in a 32 year old woman. The probability of the reaction is appeared to be “probable” based on Naranjo algorithm. It seems that Iron dextran could cause serious and life threatening adverse effects. It is necessary for healthcare professionals to be informed of such rare but serious reaction in order to apply preventive actions.

  15. Vascular anatomy of the medial sural artery perforator flap: a new classification system of intra-muscular branching patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusseldorp, Joseph R; Pham, Quy J; Ngo, Quan; Gianoutsos, Mark; Moradi, Pouria

    2014-09-01

    The medial sural artery perforator (MSAP) flap is a versatile fasciocutaneous flap. The main difficulty encountered when raising the MSAP flap is in obtaining adequate pedicle length during intra-muscular dissection. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of intra-muscular course of the MSAP flap pedicle. 14 cadaveric specimens were dissected and CT angiograms of 84 legs were examined. The intra-muscular branching pattern and depths of the medial sural artery branches were analyzed. The number of perforators, position of the dominant perforator and both intra-muscular and total pedicle length were also recorded and compared to existing anatomical data. Three types of arterial branching pattern were identified within the medial gastrocnemius, demonstrating one (31%), two (59%) or three or more (10%) main branches. A dominant perforator from the medial sural artery was present in 92% of anatomical specimens (13/14). Vertically, the location of the perforator from the popliteal crease was on average 13 cm (±2 cm). Transversely, the perforator originated 2.5 cm (±1 cm) from the posterior midline. Using CT angiography it was possible in 10 consecutive patients to identify a more superficial intra-muscular branch and determine the leg with the optimal branching pattern type for flap harvest. This study is the first to describe the variability of the intra-muscular arterial anatomy of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle. Surgeons utilizing the MSAP flap option should be aware of the possible branching pattern types and consequently the differing perforator distribution and depths of intra-muscular branches. Routine use of pre-operative CT angiogram may help determine which leg has the most favorable branching pattern type and intra-muscular course for flap harvest. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of weight, sex and hunting period on fatty acid composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat from wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artūras Šiukščius

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the influence of weight, sex and month of hunting on the fatty acid composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat from 49 free ranging wild boars hunted in Lithuania during the winter season. A total number of 27 and 25 fatty acids were identified in the intramuscular fat and subcutaneous tissue of wild boars, respectively. The weight of the wild boar had mainly affected only the levels of separate fatty acids both in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat. Higher levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA were found in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat of males compared with females. The effect of both weight and sex on the levels of fatty acids was higher in the subcutaneous fat than in the intramuscular fat. Weight, sex and hunting month had no effect on PUFA/SFA and n-6 PUFA/n-3 PUFA ratios in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat. The atherogenic (AI and thrombogenic (TI indexes and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio in subcutaneous fat were more favorable in females compared with males and in the January hunting season than in November and December.

  17. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particle vaccine protects nonhuman primates from intramuscular and aerosol challenge with ebolavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Andrew S; Kuehne, Ana I; Barth, James F; Ortiz, Ramon A; Nichols, Donald K; Zak, Samantha E; Stonier, Spencer W; Muhammad, Majidat A; Bakken, Russell R; Prugar, Laura I; Olinger, Gene G; Groebner, Jennifer L; Lee, John S; Pratt, William D; Custer, Max; Kamrud, Kurt I; Smith, Jonathan F; Hart, Mary Kate; Dye, John M

    2013-05-01

    There are no vaccines or therapeutics currently approved for the prevention or treatment of ebolavirus infection. Previously, a replicon vaccine based on Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) demonstrated protective efficacy against Marburg virus in nonhuman primates. Here, we report the protective efficacy of Sudan virus (SUDV)- and Ebola virus (EBOV)-specific VEEV replicon particle (VRP) vaccines in nonhuman primates. VRP vaccines were developed to express the glycoprotein (GP) of either SUDV or EBOV. A single intramuscular vaccination of cynomolgus macaques with VRP expressing SUDV GP provided complete protection against intramuscular challenge with SUDV. Vaccination against SUDV and subsequent survival of SUDV challenge did not fully protect cynomolgus macaques against intramuscular EBOV back-challenge. However, a single simultaneous intramuscular vaccination with VRP expressing SUDV GP combined with VRP expressing EBOV GP did provide complete protection against intramuscular challenge with either SUDV or EBOV in cynomolgus macaques. Finally, intramuscular vaccination with VRP expressing SUDV GP completely protected cynomolgus macaques when challenged with aerosolized SUDV, although complete protection against aerosol challenge required two vaccinations with this vaccine.

  18. Efeito imunossupressor da ciclosporina intra-muscular administrada em diferentes períodos pós-operatórios em um modelo de transplante penetrante de córnea em ratos Immunosuppressive effect of intramuscular cyclosporine used at different post-operative period on a penetrating keratoplasty model in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto von Hertwig

    1999-12-01

    of cyclosporine 10 mg/kg per day was administered up to the 30th postoperative day in 3 groups with different starting periods: at the day of surgery, at the 7th , and at the 9th postoperative day. Grafts were evaluated through clinical and histological examination. Results: The corneal grafts developed a 100% rejection in about 3 weeks after the penetrating keratoplasty in the control group (n = 5 in which no cyclosporine was adminis-tered. Graft rejection was detected in one case in the groups in which cyclosporine was administered (n = 15, but the process was inhibited during the study period. Histological studies confirmed the clinical evaluations. Conclusions: These data indicate that intramuscular cyclosporine may control the corneal graft rejection, even during the active phase.

  19. Determination of α-tocopherol in pork with high intramuscular fat content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rey, A.

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of α-tocopherol from pork samples with low (3% (LF or high (9% (HF amount of intramuscular fat have been carried out by three different methods, two of them based in saponification plus extraction of α-tocopherol and the other one without saponification. All samples were spiked with five different amount of α-tocopherol prior to analysis. In LF samples, recovery was in the range 85-95% in all cases, with not significant differences between methods. Recovery was much lower in HF samples when using methods which involve prior saponification of muscle samples (50-60%. Changes in KOH concentration did not improve markedly the recovery. The method based on direct extraction provided much better recovery in HF samples (85- 92% and consequently is recommended for samples high in fat.

    Se han utilizado tres métodos de cuantificación de α-tocoferol en muestras de tejido muscular de cerdos con un contenido en grasa intramuscular del 3% (LF y del 9% (HF. Dos de los métodos saponifican la muestra antes de extraer el α-tocoferol, y el tercero utiliza una extracción directa con solventes. Antes del análisis se añadieron cinco cantidades de α-tocoferol en cada caso. La recuperación del α-tocoferol en las muestras de bajo contenido en grasa intramuscular fue en todos los casos alrededor del 85-95%, sin encontrarse diferencias según el método utilizado. En las muestras con alto contenido en grasa intramuscular la recuperación fue mucho menor cuando se utilizaron los métodos que saponifican la muestra (50-60%. Al añadir mayor concentración de KOH no se mejoró sustancialmente la recuperación. El método basado en extracción directa con solventes proporcionó una recuperación superior (85-92% y es por tanto el que se recomienda para muestras con alto contenido en grasa intramuscular.

  20. Immunogenicity and safety of concomitant administration of a measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (M-M-RvaxPro® and a varicella vaccine (VARIVAX® by intramuscular or subcutaneous routes at separate injection sites: a randomised clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Stéphane

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When this trial was initiated, the combined measles, mumps and rubella (MMR vaccine was licensed for subcutaneous administration in all European countries and for intramuscular administration in some countries, whereas varicella vaccine was licensed only for subcutaneous administration. This study evaluated the intramuscular administration of an MMR vaccine (M-M-RvaxPro® and a varicella vaccine (VARIVAX® compared with the subcutaneous route. Methods An open-label randomised trial was performed in France and Germany. Healthy children, aged 12 to18 months, received single injections of M-M-RvaxPro and VARIVAX concomitantly at separate injection sites. Both vaccines were administered either intramuscularly (IM group, n = 374 or subcutaneously (SC group, n = 378. Immunogenicity was assessed before vaccination and 42 days after vaccination. Injection-site erythema, swelling and pain were recorded from days 0 to 4 after vaccination. Body temperature was monitored daily between 0 and 42 days after vaccination. Other adverse events were recorded up to 42 days after vaccination and serious adverse events until the second study visit. Results Antibody response rates at day 42 in the per-protocol set of children initially seronegative to measles, mumps, rubella or varicella were similar between the IM and SC groups for all four antigens. Response rates were 94 to 96% for measles, 98% for both mumps and rubella and 86 to 88% for varicella. For children initially seronegative to varicella, 99% achieved the seroconversion threshold (antibody concentrations of ≥ 1.25 gpELISA units/ml. Erythema and swelling were the most frequently reported injection-site reactions for both vaccines. Most injection-site reactions were of mild intensity or small size (≤ 2.5 cm. There was a trend for lower rates of injection-site erythema and swelling in the IM group. The incidence and nature of systemic adverse events were comparable for the two routes

  1. Nurse-administered propofol sedation for endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J T; Vilmann, P; Horsted, T

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: The aim of the present study was to perform a risk analysis during the implementation phase of nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) and to validate our structured training program. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A structured training program was developed both for endosco......BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: The aim of the present study was to perform a risk analysis during the implementation phase of nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) and to validate our structured training program. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A structured training program was developed both...... pressure was recorded in 451 patients (26%). Independent risk factors were type of intervention and level of experience of the staff performing the sedation. CONCLUSION: These results were obtained after development of a structured training program both for endoscopists and nurses using propofol...... for sedation, and can be used as basis for further comparison. NAPS for endoscopic procedures is safe when performed by personnel properly trained in airway handling and sedation with propofol, and has considerable advantages compared with conventional sedation for endoscopy....

  2. A comparison of the effect of intranasal desmopressin and intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide combination with intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in acute renal colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol-Reza Kheirollahi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with acute renal colic usually require immediate diagnosis and treatment. In this clinical trial analgesic effect of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin combination in comparison with hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with acute renal colic induced by urinary stones was assessed. Methods: The study included 114 patients randomly allocated in two groups (A and B. Patients in group A received 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide at admission time and patients in group B received 20 μg of intranasal desmopressin in combination with 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide. A visual analogue scale (VAS; a 10-cm horizontal scale ranging from "zero or no pain" to "10 or unbearable pain" was hired to assess the patients′ pain severity at baseline, 30 and 60 minutes after the treatments. Results: On admission, the pain level was similar in both groups (group A: 8.95 ± 0.11 and group B: 8.95 ± 0.12. In group A, the mean of pain level showed a decrease after 30 minutes (group A: 7.26 ± 0.25 and group B: 5.95 ± 0.28 but further decreasing did not occur; however in group B, the pain consistently decreased and the mean after 60 minutes was significantly decreased (group A: 6.80 ± 0.31 and group B: 3.71 ± 0.31. No side effects were detected in this study. Conclusions: The combination of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin is more effective than hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with renal colic. Further studies are recommended to validate these findings and compare the different doses of desmopressin.

  3. Molecular Factors Underlying the Deposition of Intramuscular Fat and Collagen in Skeletal Muscle of Nellore and Angus Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Taiane S; Sanglard, Letícia M P; Silva, Walmir; Chizzotti, Mário L; Rennó, Luciana N; Serão, Nick V L; Silva, Fabyano F; Guimarães, Simone E F; Ladeira, Márcio M; Dodson, Michael V; Du, Min; Duarte, Marcio S

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis may concomitantly occur in skeletal muscle of beef cattle. Thus, we hypothesized that the discrepancy of intramuscular fat content in beef from Nellore and Angus was associated with differences in intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis during the finishing phase. To test our hypothesis, longissimus muscle samples of Nellore (n = 6; BW = 372.5 ± 37.3 kg) and Angus (n = 6; BW = 382.8 ± 23.9 kg) cattle were collected for analysis of gene and protein expression, and quantification of intramuscular fat and collagen. Least-squares means were estimated for the effect of Breed and differences were considered at P ≤ 0.05. A greater intramuscular fat content was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle (P≤0.05). No differences were observed for mRNA expression of lipogenic and lipolytic markers ACC, FAS, FABP4, SERBP-1, CPT-2, LPL, and ACOX (P > 0.05) in skeletal muscle of Nellore and Angus cattle. Similarly, no differences were observed in mRNA expression of adipogenic markers Zfp423, PPARγ, and C/EBPα (P>0.05) However, a greater PPARγ protein content was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle (P≤0.05). A greater abundance of adipo/fibrogenic cells, evaluated by the PDGFRα content, was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus than Nellore cattle (P≤0.05). No differences in fibrogenesis were observed in skeletal muscle of Angus and Nellore cattle, which is in accordance with the lack of differences in intramuscular collagen content in beef from both breeds (P>0.05). These findings demonstrate that difference in intramuscular fat content is associated with a slightly enhanced adipogenesis in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle, while no difference in fibrogenesis.

  4. Tumour targeting with systemically administered bacteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morrissey, David

    2012-01-31

    Challenges for oncology practitioners and researchers include specific treatment and detection of tumours. The ideal anti-cancer therapy would selectively eradicate tumour cells, whilst minimising side effects to normal tissue. Bacteria have emerged as biological gene vectors with natural tumour specificity, capable of homing to tumours and replicating locally to high levels when systemically administered. This property enables targeting of both the primary tumour and secondary metastases. In the case of invasive pathogenic species, this targeting strategy can be used to deliver genes intracellularly for tumour cell expression, while non-invasive species transformed with plasmids suitable for bacterial expression of heterologous genes can secrete therapeutic proteins locally within the tumour environment (cell therapy approach). Many bacterial genera have been demonstrated to localise to and replicate to high levels within tumour tissue when intravenously (IV) administered in rodent models and reporter gene tagging of bacteria has permitted real-time visualisation of this phenomenon. Live imaging of tumour colonising bacteria also presents diagnostic potential for this approach. The nature of tumour selective bacterial colonisation appears to be tumour origin- and bacterial species- independent. While originally a correlation was drawn between anaerobic bacterial colonisation and the hypoxic nature of solid tumours, it is recently becoming apparent that other elements of the unique microenvironment within solid tumours, including aberrant neovasculature and local immune suppression, may be responsible. Here, we consider the pre-clinical data supporting the use of bacteria as a tumour-targeting tool, recent advances in the area, and future work required to develop it into a beneficial clinical tool.

  5. Immunogenicity and safety of concomitant administration of a measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (M-M-RvaxPro) and a varicella vaccine (VARIVAX) by intramuscular or subcutaneous routes at separate injection sites: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Yves; Habermehl, Pirmin; Thomas, Stéphane; Eymin, Cécile; Fiquet, Anne

    2009-04-14

    When this trial was initiated, the combined measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine was licensed for subcutaneous administration in all European countries and for intramuscular administration in some countries, whereas varicella vaccine was licensed only for subcutaneous administration. This study evaluated the intramuscular administration of an MMR vaccine (M-M-RvaxPro) and a varicella vaccine (VARIVAX) compared with the subcutaneous route. An open-label randomised trial was performed in France and Germany. Healthy children, aged 12 to 18 months, received single injections of M-M-RvaxPro and VARIVAX concomitantly at separate injection sites. Both vaccines were administered either intramuscularly (IM group, n = 374) or subcutaneously (SC group, n = 378). Immunogenicity was assessed before vaccination and 42 days after vaccination. Injection-site erythema, swelling and pain were recorded from days 0 to 4 after vaccination. Body temperature was monitored daily between 0 and 42 days after vaccination. Other adverse events were recorded up to 42 days after vaccination and serious adverse events until the second study visit. Antibody response rates at day 42 in the per-protocol set of children initially seronegative to measles, mumps, rubella or varicella were similar between the IM and SC groups for all four antigens. Response rates were 94 to 96% for measles, 98% for both mumps and rubella and 86 to 88% for varicella. For children initially seronegative to varicella, 99% achieved the seroconversion threshold (antibody concentrations of >or= 1.25 gpELISA units/ml). Erythema and swelling were the most frequently reported injection-site reactions for both vaccines. Most injection-site reactions were of mild intensity or small size (vaccines was comparable regardless of administration route. Integration of both administration routes in the current European indications for the two vaccines will now allow physicians in Europe to choose their preferred administration route

  6. Intramuscular diclofenac vs periprostatic lidocaine injection for controlling pain undergoing transrectal ultrasound guided prostatic biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, S.I.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) technique for getting prostatic tissue for histopathology is now the standard procedure for malignant lesions of the prostate and imperative diagnostic investigation of patients with clinical specks of prostatic neoplasia. During TRUS guided biopsy, pain control has been important issue therefore, highly potent analgesia before this procedure should be considered on high priority according to current census. Therefore, we compared intramuscular diclofenac injection with sensory blockade of injection lidocaine to abolish pain undergoing prostatic biopsy with TRUS technique. Methods: Total 200 patients were selected for this study having raised PSA values and suspicious nodule on Digital Rectal Examination. These patients were segregated into two groups by randomization. Group Ar eceived intramuscular diclofenac and group Bw ere infiltrated with lidocaine injection for sensory blockade. Results: Patients in group A was having mean age of 64.5±5.8 years while for group B patients was 65.6±4.9 years (p=0.16). Both groups have statistically insignificant difference in their mean PSA values (p=0.24) and mean prostatic volume (p=0.22). The mean pain scores on visual analogue scale in groups A was 3.5±0.8 and in group B it was 2.4±0.8 (p<0.001). 60% group A patients reported with mild or no pain compared to 90% in group B. (p<0.001). Conclusion: Local blockade with lidocaine injection has better pain control as compared to patients experienced pain with intramuscular diclofenac used for prostatic biopsy through TRUS technique.

  7. Real-time simultaneous and proportional myoelectric control using intramuscular EMG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren H.; Kuiken, Todd A.; Hargrove, Levi J.

    2014-12-01

    Objective. Myoelectric prostheses use electromyographic (EMG) signals to control movement of prosthetic joints. Clinically available myoelectric control strategies do not allow simultaneous movement of multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs); however, the use of implantable devices that record intramuscular EMG signals could overcome this constraint. The objective of this study was to evaluate the real-time simultaneous control of three DOFs (wrist rotation, wrist flexion/extension, and hand open/close) using intramuscular EMG. Approach. We evaluated task performance of five able-bodied subjects in a virtual environment using two control strategies with fine-wire EMG: (i) parallel dual-site differential control, which enabled simultaneous control of three DOFs and (ii) pattern recognition control, which required sequential control of DOFs. Main results. Over the course of the experiment, subjects using parallel dual-site control demonstrated increased use of simultaneous control and improved performance in a Fitts’ Law test. By the end of the experiment, performance using parallel dual-site control was significantly better (up to a 25% increase in throughput) than when using sequential pattern recognition control for tasks requiring multiple DOFs. The learning trends with parallel dual-site control suggested that further improvements in performance metrics were possible. Subjects occasionally experienced difficulty in performing isolated single-DOF movements with parallel dual-site control but were able to accomplish related Fitts’ Law tasks with high levels of path efficiency. Significance. These results suggest that intramuscular EMG, used in a parallel dual-site configuration, can provide simultaneous control of a multi-DOF prosthetic wrist and hand and may outperform current methods that enforce sequential control.

  8. Evaluation of calcium di-sodium EDTA intramuscular injection using gamma scintigraphy against heavy metal poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, N.; Soni, S.; Mehra, L.; Mittal, G.; Nishad, D.K.; Bhatnagar, A.; Singh, T.; Ahmad, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Heavy metals become toxic when they are not metabolized by the body and accumulate in soft tissues. These metals may enter the body through food, water, air or absorption through skin when an individual is exposed to areas with high heavy metal content such as agriculture, pharmaceutical manufacturing, paint and heavy metal industries or residential settings. Majority of population commonly get affected by heavy metal poisoning. Heavy metal poisoning is more likely to result through inhalation or ingestion route. Aim of the present study is to provide an easy, effective and controlled chelating therapy against heavy metal using Ca-disodium EDTA intramuscular injection. Ca-disodium-EDTA and Sesame oil were procured from Merck, India and Sigma Aldrich, USA respectively. Ca-Na 2 EDTA radiolabeling with 99m Tc-pertechnetate was standardized using stannous ions as reducing agent. The hypothesis of present work is to maintain effective concentration of chelating agent in blood for prolong time period. To test this hypothesis, we studied 1% Ca-Na 2 EDTA blood bioavailability after intramuscular depot administration in new zealand white rabbit. The optimized radiolabeled intramuscular formulation was evaluated for its dissolution and permeation studies in isotonic buffer solution were envisaged through radiometry. Sub-acute toxicity studies were performed after a single dose intramuscular administration of 1% Ca-Na 2 EDTA in Sprague Dawley rats. Radiolabeled Ca-disodium-EDTA (>95% labeled) was found to be fairly stable up to 24 h in physiological solution (Serum) as well as in normal saline with negligible degradation of 2.5% and 5.0% respectively, thereby indicating high stability of radiolabeled product. In-vitro data indicates that control release pattern (Cmax 24 hrs) with effective concentration up to seven days. 99m Tc-CaNa 2 EDTA retention at depot site was estimated up to 3 days by scintigraphy. Subacute toxicity studies done by histopathological

  9. Artesunate Suppositories versus Intramuscular Artemether for Treatment of Severe Malaria in Children in Papua New Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Karunajeewa, Harin A.; Reeder, John; Lorry, Kerry; Dabod, Elizah; Hamzah, Juliana; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Chiswell, Gregory M.; Ilett, Kenneth F.; Davis, Timothy M. E.

    2006-01-01

    Drug treatment of severe malaria must be rapidly effective. Suppositories may be valuable for childhood malaria when circumstances prevent oral or parenteral therapy. We compared artesunate suppositories (n = 41; 8 to 16 mg/kg of body weight at 0 and 12 h and then daily) with intramuscular (i.m.) artemether (n = 38; 3.2 mg/kg at 0 h and then 1.6 mg/kg daily) in an open-label, randomized trial with children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Parasite density a...

  10. Intramuscular pressure and EMG relate during static contractions but dissociate with movement and fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Jensen, Bente R.; Hargens, Allan R.

    2004-01-01

    Intramuscular pressure (IMP) and electromyography (EMG) mirror muscle force in the nonfatigued muscle during static contractions. The present study explores whether the constant IMP-EMG relationship with increased force may be extended to dynamic contractions and to fatigued muscle. IMP and EMG...... with speed of abduction. In the nonfatigued supraspinatus muscle, a linear relationship was found between IMP and EMG; in contrast, during fatigue and recovery, significant timewise changes of the IMP-to-EMG ratio occurred. The results indicate that IMP should be included along with EMG when mechanical load...... sharing between muscles is evaluated during dynamic and fatiguing contractions....

  11. Optimising Controlled Human Malaria Infection Studies Using Cryopreserved P. falciparum Parasites Administered by Needle and Syringe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne H Sheehy

    Full Text Available Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI studies have become a routine tool to evaluate efficacy of candidate anti-malarial drugs and vaccines. To date, CHMI trials have mostly been conducted using the bite of infected mosquitoes, restricting the number of trial sites that can perform CHMI studies. Aseptic, cryopreserved P. falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ Challenge provide a potentially more accurate, reproducible and practical alternative, allowing a known number of sporozoites to be administered simply by injection.We sought to assess the infectivity of PfSPZ Challenge administered in different dosing regimens to malaria-naive healthy adults (n = 18. Six participants received 2,500 sporozoites intradermally (ID, six received 2,500 sporozoites intramuscularly (IM and six received 25,000 sporozoites IM.Five out of six participants receiving 2,500 sporozoites ID, 3/6 participants receiving 2,500 sporozoites IM and 6/6 participants receiving 25,000 sporozoites IM were successfully infected. The median time to diagnosis was 13.2, 17.8 and 12.7 days for 2,500 sporozoites ID, 2,500 sporozoites IM and 25,000 sporozoites IM respectively (Kaplan Meier method; p = 0.024 log rank test.2,500 sporozoites ID and 25,000 sporozoites IM have similar infectivities. Given the dose response in infectivity seen with IM administration, further work should evaluate increasing doses of PfSPZ Challenge IM to identify a dosing regimen that reliably infects 100% of participants.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01465048.

  12. Side effects and potential risk factors of botulinum toxin type A intramuscular injections in knee flexion contractures of hemophiliacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Merchan, E Carlos; De la Corte-Rodriguez, Hortensia

    2017-07-01

    Knee flexion contracture (KFC) is a common complication of recurrent hemarthrosis in children and young adults with hemophilia. If the KFC is not prevented (by means of primary prophylaxis) and treated properly and early (be means of physical medicine and rehabilitation), it will become fixed. Areas covered: The aim of this article is to review the potential role of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) intramuscular injections for the treatment of KFC in people with hemophilia (PWH). Expert commentary: Although two recent reports have mentioned the benefits of intramuscular injections of BTX-A in PWH with KFC, the data are still scant and too preliminary. The use of intramuscular injections of BTX-A in PWH today should not be recommended until more case studies/small series (ideally well-designed clinical trials) fully demonstrate that this is safe and effective. The risks of intramuscular injections to a hemophilia patient cannot be underestimated (iatrogenic muscle hematomas and pseudotumors). This paper calls the attention of hemophilia treaters on the potential risks of this apparently interesting technique. The current use of BTX-A intramuscular injections in KFC of PWH could make no sense. Raising false expectations in these patients should be avoided.

  13. POSTPARTUM BOVINE ENDOMETRITIS TREATMENT BY INTRAUTERINE AND INTRAMUSCULAR ADMINISTRATION OF OXITETRACYCLINE TRATAMENTO DE ENDOMETRITE BOVINA PÓS PUERPERAL PELAS VIAS INTRAMUSCULAR E INTRA-UTERINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Alexandre Alves Torres

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the postpartum bovine endometritis treatment by intrauterine and intramuscular administration of tetracycline. Forty six cross bred cows diagnosed by gynecological exam with postpartum endometritis were assigned randomly in two treatments: G1 (n=21 - animals were treated with one intramuscular (IM dose of tetracycline (20 mg/Kg of body weight, while in G2 (n=25 animals were treated with one intrauterine (IU dose of tetracycline (30 mg/Kg of body weight. No difference (p>0.05 was observed in the recovery rate between the two treatments (61.9 X 76.0%, G1 and G2, respectively. The interval from treatment until first estrous was 33.9±22.6 versus 14.8 ±10.9 days (P<0.05 and until first service was 54.7 ± 33.9 versus 27.2 ± 20.3 days (P<0.05; for G1 and G2, respectively. No difference (p>0.05 was observed in the number of services per conception between G1 (1.54 and G2 (1.3. The treatment cost was lower for the G1 (U$ 3.51 versus U$ 5.00. Although not to have had differences in the clinical recovery rate, the use of the oxitetracycline managed for way IU in the postpuerperal treatment of endometrites in cows revealed more efficient in the reduction of the interval between the treatment and first heat and first insemination, beyond presenting lower cost that the treatment with oxitetracycline managed for way IM

    KEY WORDS: Bovine, postpartum endometritis, intrauterine, intramuscular, oxitetracicline.
    Este trabalho teve por objetivo comparar a eficiência do uso da oxitetracilina, administrada pelas vias intramuscular (IM e intrauterina (IU, no tratamento de endometrites em vacas no período pós-puerperal. Foram utilizados 46 animais mestiços que apresentaram quadro clínico de endometrite, distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois tratamentos: G1 (n=21 – tratado com uma dose de 30 mg/Kg PV de oxitetraciclina por via IM, e G2 (n=25  – uma infusão de 20 mg/Kg PV de

  14. Radiopharmaceutical activities administered for paediatric nuclear medicine procedures in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towson, J.E.; Smart, R.C.; Rossleigh, M.A.; Children's Hospital, Randwick, NSW

    2000-01-01

    A survey of radiopharmaceutical activities used at the eight hospital centres specialising in paediatric nuclear medicine in Australia was conducted in 1999-2000 by the Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine and the Australasian Radiation Protection Society. Data on the maximum and minimum administered activities was obtained for 43 paediatric imaging procedures. The maximum values were significantly less than the corresponding Reference Activities for adults determined in a previous study. Activities for individual patients are calculated using surface area scaling at five centres and body weight scaling at three centres. The median values of A max and A min are recommended as Paediatric Reference Activities. The effective dose to patients of various sizes for the Paediatric Reference Activities and both methods of scaling was calculated for each procedure. Copyright (2000) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  15. Fat embolism in liposuction and intramuscular grafts in rabbits Embolia gordurosa na lipoaspiração e enxertia intramuscular em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Araujo Felzemburgh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of fat embolism in organs such as lung and liver. METHODS: Twenty rabbits underwent autologous intramuscular fat grafting in the right thigh after liposuction. The groups were determined according to the postoperative day that occurred in euthanasia: 60, 90 and 120 day. Then, lung and liver were excised and sent to the histopathology laboratory for analysis in search of late injury secondary to a prior event of fat embolism in the tissues. RESULTS: The results showed a change in the macroscopic sample with discoloration of the liver tissue heterogeneously. There were no changes consistent with embolic effect under the microscope. CONCLUSION: The option of performing a technique of fat grafting with a less traumatic surgical procedure can be considered protective against embolic events, with no impact to late embolic events on the tissues.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a repercussão da embolia gordurosa em órgãos como pulmão e fígado. MÉTODOS: Vinte coelhos foram submetidos à enxertia autóloga intramuscular de gordura em coxa direita após lipoaspiração. Os grupos foram determinados conforme os dias pós-operatórios (DPO em que ocorreu a eutanásia: 60 DPO, 90DPO, 120 DPO. Em seguida, o pulmão e o fígado foram ressecados e encaminhados ao laboratório de histopatologia para análise em busca de lesão tardia secundária a evento de embolia gordurosa prévia nos tecidos. RESULTADOS: Foi evidenciada uma alteração na amostra a analise macroscópica com alteração da coloração do tecido hepático de forma heterogênea. Não houve alterações compatíveis com repercussão de processo embólico à microscopia. CONCLUSÃO: A opção pela realização de uma técnica de lipoenxertia menos traumática e com pequeno tempo cirúrgico pode ser considerada protetora para eventos embólicos, não havendo repercussão embólica a tardiamente.

  16. Genetics of Marbling in Wagyu Revealed by the Melting Temperature of Intramuscular and Subcutaneous Lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally S. Lloyd

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme marbling or intramuscular deposition of lipid is associated with Wagyu breeds and is therefore assumed to be largely inherited. However, even within 100% full blood Wagyu prepared under standard conditions, there is unpredictable scatter of the degree of marbling. Here, we evaluate melting temperature (Tm of intramuscular fat as an alternative to visual scores of marbling. We show that “long fed” Wagyu generally has Tm below body temperature but with a considerable range under standardized conditions. Individual sires have a major impact indicating that the variation is genetic rather than environmental or random error. In order to measure differences of lower marbling breeds and at shorter feeding periods, we have compared Tm in subcutaneous fat samples from over the striploin. Supplementary feeding for 100 to 150 days leads to a rapid decrease in Tm of 50% Red Wagyu (Akaushi : 50% European crosses, when compared to 100% European. This improvement indicates that the genetic effect of Wagyu is useful, predictable, and highly penetrant. Contemporaneous DNA extraction does not affect the measurement of Tm. Thus, provenance can be traced and substitution can be eliminated in a simple and cost-effective manner.

  17. [Intramuscular depot steroids : Possible treatment of postsurgical cystoid macula edema with steroid response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuthe, A-M; Szurman, P; Boden, K T

    2017-11-01

    We report on a patient with postsurgical cystoid macular edema (CME) after phacoemulsification and multifocal intraocular lens (MIOL) implantation. At first, there was a very good reaction to intravitreal triamcinolone, inducing complete regression of the edema without increasing intraocular pressure (IOP). One year later the patient suffered from retinal detachment and was treated with vitrectomy, laser, and gas tamponade. Afterward, he developed macular pucker with edema. After surgical treatment with pucker peeling and intravitreal triamcinolone, the patient showed a steroid response and an increase IOP. Postoperatively, there was a recurrence of CME. A coincidental administration of a steroid injection intramuscularly by the general practitioner achieved a prompt reduction of the CME without increasing IOP. This case shows that an initially good reaction to triamcinolone without increasing IOP does not rule out a future steroid response, and that a potential treatment option for CME in patients with a known steroid response could consist of intramuscularly injected steroids.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of oral transmucosal and intramuscular dexmedetomidine combined with buprenorphine in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porters, N; de Rooster, H; Bosmans, T; Baert, K; Cherlet, M; Croubels, S; De Backer, P; Polis, I

    2015-04-01

    Plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetics of dexmedetomidine and buprenorphine after oral transmucosal (OTM) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration of their combination in healthy adult cats were compared. According to a crossover protocol (1-month washout), a combination of dexmedetomidine (40 μg/kg) and buprenorphine (20 μg/kg) was given OTM (buccal cavity) or i.m. (quadriceps muscle) in six female neutered cats. Plasma samples were collected through a jugular catheter during a 24-h period. Plasma dexmedetomidine and buprenorphine concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma concentration-time data were fitted to compartmental models. For dexmedetomidine and buprenorphine, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and the maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax ) were significantly lower following OTM than following i.m. administration. For buprenorphine, time to reach Cmax was also significantly longer after OTM administration than after i.m. injection. Data suggested that dexmedetomidine (40 μg/kg) combined with buprenorphine (20 μg/kg) is not as well absorbed from the buccal mucosa site as from the intramuscular injection site. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Riboflavin laurate nanosuspensions as an intramuscular injection for long-term riboflavin supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lina; Li, Guanglong; Jin, Yiguang; Wang, Lin; Xu, Qishou; Dong, Junxing

    2013-06-25

    The aim of this study was to prepare riboflavin laurate (RFL) nanosuspensions as an intramuscular injection for long-term riboflavin supplementation. Stable RFL nanosuspensions were obtained by injecting RFL/poloxamer solution in N,N-dimethyl formamide into a trehalose solution. Long soft nanostructures initially appeared and then tube-like rigid nanostructures were obtained after removal of solvents according to the transmission electron microscopic images. The nanosuspensions had narrow size distribution and the mean size was about 300 nm. Molecular self-assembly of RFL may drive the formation of nanostructures. RFL formed a monolayer at the air/water interface and poloxamer 188 could insert into the monolayer. The nanosuspensions were intramuscularly injected into rats to provide long-term riboflavin supplementation for more than 30 days in light of body weight, food intake, and urinary riboflavin. The nanosuspensions were also used to resist the riboflavin deficiency induced by methotrexate chemotherapy. RFL nanosuspensions are a promising nanomedicine for long-term riboflavin supplementation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantification of intermuscular and intramuscular adipose tissue using magnetic resonance imaging after neurodegenerative disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madoka Ogawa; Robert Lester; Hiroshi Akima; Ashraf S. Gorgey

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic adiposity has gained considerable attention because of its tight association with metabolic and cardiovascular health in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Ectopic adiposity is characterized by the storage of adipose tissue in non-subcutaneous sites. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proven to be an effective tool in quantifying ectopic adiposity and provides the opportunity to measure different adipose depots including intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) and intramuscular adipose tissue (IntraMAT) or in-tramuscular fat (IMF). It is highly important to distinguish and clearly define these compartments, because controversy still exists on how to accurately quantify these adipose depots. Investigators have relied on separating muscle from fat pixels based on their characteristic signal intensities. A common technique is plotting a threshold histogram that clearly separates between muscle and fat peaks. The cut-offs to separate between muscle and fat peaks are still not clearly defined and different cut-offs have been identified. This review will outline and compare the Midpoint and Otsu techniques, two methods used to determine the threshold between muscle and fat pixels on T1 weighted MRI. The process of water/fat segmentation using the Dixon method will also be outlined. We are hopeful that this review will trigger more research towards accurately quantifying ectopic adiposity due to its high relevance to cardiometabolic health after SCI.

  1. A comparison of the effect of intramuscular diclofenac, ketorolac or piroxicam on postoperative pain following laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, J. J.; Beers, H.; Huss, B. K.; Milligan, K. R.

    1996-01-01

    Sixty patients presenting for in-patient gynaecological laparoscopic surgery were randomly allocated to receive either diclofenac 75 mg (n = 20), ketorolac 30 mg (n = 20) or piroxicam 20 mg (n = 20) as an intra-muscular injection immediately after induction of anaesthesia. Postoperative visual analogue scores over the first 24 hours, using a 10 cm scale, ranged from 3.2-0.5 in the diclofenac group, 2.7-0.85 in the ketorolac group and 2.8-0.5 in the piroxicam group. The scores did not differ significantly between the three groups (p > 0.05). Mean time (SD) to first analgesia was 27(94) minutes in the piroxicam group, 16 (30) minutes in the diclofenac group and 62 (120) minutes in the piroxicam group. Six out of twenty patients in the diclofenac group required further analgesia compared to nine out of twenty in the other two drug groups. This difference was not significant. There were no reports of increased bleeding, bronchoconstriction, bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract, renal impairment or pain from the intra-muscular injection site in any of the groups. The administration of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug to patients presenting for laparoscopic surgery reduces postoperative pain. There were no obvious differences between the agents used. PMID:8686101

  2. Genetics of Marbling in Wagyu Revealed by the Melting Temperature of Intramuscular and Subcutaneous Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Jose L.; Steele, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    Extreme marbling or intramuscular deposition of lipid is associated with Wagyu breeds and is therefore assumed to be largely inherited. However, even within 100% full blood Wagyu prepared under standard conditions, there is unpredictable scatter of the degree of marbling. Here, we evaluate melting temperature (Tm) of intramuscular fat as an alternative to visual scores of marbling. We show that “long fed” Wagyu generally has Tm below body temperature but with a considerable range under standardized conditions. Individual sires have a major impact indicating that the variation is genetic rather than environmental or random error. In order to measure differences of lower marbling breeds and at shorter feeding periods, we have compared Tm in subcutaneous fat samples from over the striploin. Supplementary feeding for 100 to 150 days leads to a rapid decrease in Tm of 50% Red Wagyu (Akaushi) : 50% European crosses, when compared to 100% European. This improvement indicates that the genetic effect of Wagyu is useful, predictable, and highly penetrant. Contemporaneous DNA extraction does not affect the measurement of Tm. Thus, provenance can be traced and substitution can be eliminated in a simple and cost-effective manner. PMID:29201894

  3. INFLUENCE OF INTRAMUSCULAR APPLICATION OF AUTOLOGOUS CONDITIONED PLASMA ON SYSTEMIC CIRCULATING IGF-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Schippinger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP to increase levels of platelets and growth factors has been used for the treatment of sports injuries suggesting to improve healing and regeneration. This method offers some potential especially for elite athletes. However, the insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 is prohibited by the World Anti Doping Agency and, in addition, there may be a possible link between increased levels of IGF-1 and cancer risk. Aim of the study was to evaluate a systemic increase of IGF-1 after local intramuscular administration of PRP in young healthy moderately trained male subjects. Blood samples were drawn and PRP preparation was performed by means of centrifugation. Enriched plasma was injected into the gluteus muscle. Venous blood was collected and serum prepared before as well as after 0.5, 3 and 24 hours after PRP administration. IGF-1 analysis was performed applying an ELISA test kit. No significant systemic increase of mean IGF-1 was found after the PRP injection. Only one subject showed an increase after 24 h, but all IGF-1 values were found within reference limits. We conclude that a single intramuscular application of PRP does not significantly increase systemic IGF-1 levels. Therefore, a single application of PRP is safe with respect to systemic IGF-1 response and cancer risk and this should be allowed for treatment of muscle injuries in elite athletes

  4. Initial intramuscular perfusion pressure predicts early skeletal muscle function following isolated tibial fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas Norbert P

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The severity of associated soft tissue trauma in complex injuries of the extremities guides fracture treatment and decisively determines patient's prognosis. Trauma-induced microvascular dysfunction and increased tissue pressure is known to trigger secondary soft tissue damage and seems to adversely affect skeletal muscle function. Methods 20 patients with isolated tibial fractures were included. Blood pressure and compartment pressure (anterior and deep posterior compartment were measured continuously up to 24 hours. Corresponding perfusion pressure was calculated. After 4 and 12 weeks isokinetic muscle peak torque and mean power of the ankle joint in dorsal and plantar flexion were measured using a Biodex dynamometer. Results A significant inverse correlation between the anterior perfusion pressure at 24 hours and deficit in dorsiflexion at 4 weeks was found for both, the peak torque (R = -0.83; p Conclusion The functional relationship between the decrease in intramuscular perfusion pressures and muscle performance in the early rehabilitation period indicate a causative and prognostic role of early posttraumatic microcirculatory derangements and skeletal muscle function. Therapeutic concepts aimed at effective muscle recovery, early rehabilitation, and decreased secondary tissue damage, should consider the maintenance of an adequate intramuscular perfusion pressure.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of intramuscular myxoma with histological comparison and a review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, A.; Martinez, S.; Bossen, E.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) features of intramuscular myxoma (IM) compared with its pathological findings. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed records and imaging studies of patients with histologically proven IM. Two radiologists also analyzed by consensus all the MR studies (pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted and T2-weighted sequences) and a pathologist reviewed the available histological material. Seventeen patients with 18 histologically proven IM were reviewed. Histological samples of 11 of these 18 tumors were available for pathological analysis. There were 14 women and three men, with a mean age of 58.9 years. IM involved predominantly the thigh (n=10). MR imaging showed well-circumscribed intramuscular masses, hypointense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. Eleven masses were homogeneous and seven slightly heterogeneous due to fibrous septa. Enhanced MR imaging demonstrated three different patterns: peripheral enhancement (n=1), peripheral and patchy internal enhancement (n=7) or peripheral and linear internal enhancement (n=4). Intratumoral cysts were detected in four masses. MR imaging showed the presence of a pseudocapsule (n=12), fat around the lesion (n=16) and peritumoral edema (n=16). Histologically, all the tumors were hypocellular, hypovascular and myxoid. Peripheral areas of collagenous fibers formed a partial capsule and IM often merged into surrounding muscular fibers. More cellular tumors and those with scanty myxoid stroma tended to show a more prominent internal enhancement. IM shows several recognizable MR features which suggest its diagnosis. (orig.)

  6. Oestradiol-17β plasma concentrations after intramuscular injection of oestradiol benzoate or oestradiol cypionate in llamas (Lama glama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aba Marcelo A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Llamas (Lama glama are induced ovulators and the process of ovulation depends on dominant follicular size. In addition, a close relationship between behavioural estrus and ovulation is not registered in llamas. Therefore, the exogenous control of follicular development with hormones aims to predict the optimal time to mate. Oestradiol-17β (E2 and its esters are currently used in domestic species, including camelids, in synchronization treatments. But, in llamas, there is no reports regarding the appropriate dosages to be used and most protocols have been designed by extrapolation from those recommended for other ruminants. The aim of the present study was to characterize plasma E2 concentrations in intact female llamas following a single intramuscular (i.m. injection of two oestradiol esters: oestradiol benzoate (EB and oestradiol cypionate (ECP. Methods Twelve non pregnant and non lactating sexually mature llamas were i.m. injected on day 0 with 2.5 mg of EB (EB group, n = 6 or ECP (ECP group, n = 6. Blood samples were collected immediately before injection, at 1, 6, 12, 24 h after treatment and then daily until day 14 post injection. Changes in hormone concentrations with time were analyzed in each group by analysis of variance (ANOVA using a repeated measures (within-SS design. Plasma E2 concentrations and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC values were compared between groups by ANOVA. In all cases a Least-Significant Difference test (LSD was used to determine differences between means. Hormonal and AUC data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. Results Peak plasma E2 concentrations were achieved earlier and were higher in EB group than in ECP group. Thereafter, E2 returned to physiological concentrations earlier in EB group (day 5 than in ECP group (day 9. Although plasma E2 profiles differed over time among groups there were no differences between them on AUC values. Conclusions The i.m. injection of a single dose

  7. Oestradiol-17β plasma concentrations after intramuscular injection of oestradiol benzoate or oestradiol cypionate in llamas (Lama glama)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Llamas (Lama glama) are induced ovulators and the process of ovulation depends on dominant follicular size. In addition, a close relationship between behavioural estrus and ovulation is not registered in llamas. Therefore, the exogenous control of follicular development with hormones aims to predict the optimal time to mate. Oestradiol-17β (E2) and its esters are currently used in domestic species, including camelids, in synchronization treatments. But, in llamas, there is no reports regarding the appropriate dosages to be used and most protocols have been designed by extrapolation from those recommended for other ruminants. The aim of the present study was to characterize plasma E2 concentrations in intact female llamas following a single intramuscular (i.m.) injection of two oestradiol esters: oestradiol benzoate (EB) and oestradiol cypionate (ECP). Methods Twelve non pregnant and non lactating sexually mature llamas were i.m. injected on day 0 with 2.5 mg of EB (EB group, n = 6) or ECP (ECP group, n = 6). Blood samples were collected immediately before injection, at 1, 6, 12, 24 h after treatment and then daily until day 14 post injection. Changes in hormone concentrations with time were analyzed in each group by analysis of variance (ANOVA) using a repeated measures (within-SS) design. Plasma E2 concentrations and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values were compared between groups by ANOVA. In all cases a Least-Significant Difference test (LSD) was used to determine differences between means. Hormonal and AUC data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. Results Peak plasma E2 concentrations were achieved earlier and were higher in EB group than in ECP group. Thereafter, E2 returned to physiological concentrations earlier in EB group (day 5) than in ECP group (day 9). Although plasma E2 profiles differed over time among groups there were no differences between them on AUC values. Conclusions The i.m. injection of a single dose of both

  8. Modeling the growth dynamics of multiple Escherichia coli strains in the pig intestine following intramuscular ampicillin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Amais; Zachariasen, Camilla; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Græsbøll, Kaare; Toft, Nils; Matthews, Louise; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2016-09-06

    This study evaluated how dosing regimen for intramuscularly-administered ampicillin, composition of Escherichia coli strains with regard to ampicillin susceptibility, and excretion of bacteria from the intestine affected the level of resistance among Escherichia coli strains in the intestine of nursery pigs. It also examined the dynamics of the composition of bacterial strains during and after the treatment. The growth responses of strains to ampicillin concentrations were determined using in vitro growth curves. Using these results as input data, growth predictions were generated using a mathematical model to simulate the competitive growth of E. coli strains in a pig intestine under specified plasma concentration profiles of ampicillin. In vitro growth results demonstrated that the resistant strains did not carry a fitness cost for their resistance, and that the most susceptible strains were more affected by increasing concentrations of antibiotics that the rest of the strains. The modeling revealed that short treatment duration resulted in lower levels of resistance and that dosing frequency did not substantially influence the growth of resistant strains. Resistance levels were found to be sensitive to the number of competing strains, and this effect was enhanced by longer duration of treatment. High excretion of bacteria from the intestine favored resistant strains over sensitive strains, but at the same time it resulted in a faster return to pre-treatment levels after the treatment ended. When the duration of high excretion was set to be limited to the treatment time (i.e. the treatment was assumed to result in a cure of diarrhea) resistant strains required longer time to reach the previous level. No fitness cost was found to be associated with ampicillin resistance in E. coli. Besides dosing factors, epidemiological factors (such as number of competing strains and bacterial excretion) influenced resistance development and need to be considered further in

  9. Intramuscular administration of alfaxalone in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans)--effects of dose and body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kischinovsky, Michelle; Duse, Anna; Wang, Tobias; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2013-01-01

    To characterise the effects of alfaxalone by intramuscular (i.m.) injection in red-eared slider turtles and the influence of body temperature on anaesthetic duration and depth. Prospective, randomised part-blinded experimental trial. Ten healthy adult female red-eared sliders. Each turtle was anaesthetized four times with 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) alfaxalone at 20 and 35°C respectively. Time to maximal effect and plateau and recovery periods were recorded. Skeletal muscle tone, presence of various reflexes, response to noxious stimuli, and heart rate were assessed. Results are given for protocols 10 mg kg(-1) 20°C; 20 mg kg(-1) 20°C; 10 mg kg(-1) 35°C and 20 mg kg(-1) 35°C, respectively: mean time (±SD) to maximal effect was 16±8, 19±6, 5±2 and 7±5 minutes; duration of the plateau phase was 13±12, 28±13, 8±5 and 8±5 minutes and recovery time was 76±20, 126±17, 28±9 and 41±20 minutes. Endotracheal intubation was successful in 80%, 100%, 0% and 30% of turtles, respectively. At 35°C, all animals retained nociceptive sensation in the front limbs, hind limbs and vent, whereas at 20°C a few turtles lost peripheral nociceptive sensation. Corneal and tap reflexes were retained in all trials. Mean heart rates were 30±2 and 66±4 beats minute(-1) at 20 and 35°C, respectively. Alfaxalone administered i.m. in red-eared sliders provided smooth, rapid induction and uneventful recovery. At 35°C either dosage provided only short (5-10 minutes) and light sedation. At 20°C, 10 mg kg(-1) provided sedation suitable for short non-invasive procedures. About 20 mg kg(-1) provided anaesthesia of approximately 20 minutes duration, appropriate for induction of inhalational anaesthesia or for brief surgical procedures with supplemental analgesia. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2012 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  10. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of cyadox and its main metabolites in beagle dogs following oral, intramuscular and intravenous administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeel Sattar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cyadox (Cyx is an antibacterial drug of the quinoxaline group that exerts markedly lower toxicity in animals, compared to its congeners. Here, the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of Cyx after oral (PO, intramuscular (IM and intravenous (IV routes of administration were studied to establish safety criteria for the clinical use of Cyx in animals. Six beagle dogs (3 males, 3 females were administered Cyx through PO (40 mg kg-1 b.w., IM (10 mg kg-1 b.w. and IV (10 mg kg-1 b.w. routes with a washout period of 2 weeks in a crossover design. Highly sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV was employed for determination of Cyx and its main metabolites, 1, 4-bisdesoxycyadox (Cy1, cyadox-1-monoxide (Cy2, N-(quinoxaline-2-methyl-cyanide acetyl hydrazine (Cy4 and quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (Cy6 in plasma, urine and feces of dogs. The oral bioavailability of Cyx was 4.75%, suggesting first-pass effect in dogs. The concentration vs. time profile in plasma after PO administration indicates that Cyx is rapidly dissociated into its metabolites and eliminated from plasma earlier, compared to its metabolites. The areas under the curve (AUC of Cyx after PO, IM and IV administration were 1.22 h×µg mL-1, 6.3 h×µg mL-1, and 6.66 h×µg mL-1, while mean resident times (MRT were 7.32, 3.58 and 0.556 h, respectively. Total recovery of Cyx and its metabolites was >60% with each administration route. In feces, 48.83% drug was recovered after PO administration, while 18.15% and 17.11% after IM and IV injections, respectively, suggesting renal clearance as the major route of excretion with IM and IV administration and feces as the major route with PO delivery. Our comprehensive evaluation of Cyx has uncovered detailed information that should facilitate its judicious use in animals by improving understanding of its pharmacology.

  11. 32 CFR 637.11 - Authority to administer oaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.11 Authority to... administer oaths to military personnel who are subject to the UCMJ. The authority to administer oaths to...

  12. Intramuscular Pressure of Tibialis Anterior Reflects Ankle Torque but Does Not Follow Joint Angle-Torque Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Ateş

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramuscular pressure (IMP is the hydrostatic fluid pressure that is directly related to muscle force production. Electromechanical delay (EMD provides a link between mechanical and electrophysiological quantities and IMP has potential to detect local electromechanical changes. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship of IMP with the mechanical and electrical characteristics of the tibialis anterior muscle (TA activity at different ankle positions. We hypothesized that (1 the TA IMP and the surface EMG (sEMG and fine-wire EMG (fwEMG correlate to ankle joint torque, (2 the isometric force of TA increases at increased muscle lengths, which were imposed by a change in ankle angle and IMP follows the length-tension relationship characteristics, and (3 the electromechanical delay (EMD is greater than the EMD of IMP during isometric contractions. Fourteen healthy adults [7 female; mean (SD age = 26.9 (4.2 years old with 25.9 (5.5 kg/m2 body mass index] performed (i three isometric dorsiflexion (DF maximum voluntary contraction (MVC and (ii three isometric DF ramp contractions from 0 to 80% MVC at rate of 15% MVC/second at DF, Neutral, and plantarflexion (PF positions. Ankle torque, IMP, TA fwEMG, and TA sEMG were measured simultaneously. The IMP, fwEMG, and sEMG were significantly correlated to the ankle torque during ramp contractions at each ankle position tested. This suggests that IMP captures in vivo mechanical properties of active muscles. The ankle torque changed significantly at different ankle positions however, the IMP did not reflect the change. This is explained with the opposing effects of higher compartmental pressure at DF in contrast to the increased force at PF position. Additionally, the onset of IMP activity is found to be significantly earlier than the onset of force which indicates that IMP can be designed to detect muscular changes in the course of neuromuscular diseases impairing electromechanical transmission.

  13. Selection for intramuscular fat and lean meat yield will improve the bloomed colour of Australian lamb loin meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calnan, H B; Jacob, R H; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2017-09-01

    The colour of bloomed m. longissimus was measured 24h post slaughter for 8165 lamb carcasses produced over 5years across 8 sites in Australia. Intramuscular fat across a 2 to 8% range and shortloin fat weight were positively associated with meat lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), hue and chroma (Pmeat colour parameters (Pmeat yield will have neutral or positive effects on meat colour, while selection for increased intramuscular fat will make the bloomed colour of lamb meat lighter and redder. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. `Six of the best`: intramuscular uptake of {sup 99m}Tc HDP revisited in sites of i.m. Administrations for pain relief medication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, P.A.C. [Launceston General Hospital, TAS (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-03-01

    Full text: It is not uncommon at sites of intramuscular (i.m.) administration for pain relieving drugs, that intravenously administered {sup 99T}c-HDP for skeletal imaging will localize at some sites. It is important, however, if such sites overlie bone that the possibility of including such areas in the diagnosis is of concern, and under such circumstances either planar or SPECT imaging will differentiate the site from bone or tissue uptake. There have been many situations reported where such localisation can occur, but it is generally believed that in the majority of cases this is entirely due to the presence of local microcalcification. The study was conducted to elucidate whether there was any relationship between physical trauma, osmolality, drug, dose, volume or repetitiveness of administrations in the extra-skeletal localizations of {sup 99m}Tc-HDP in patients presenting for whole body bone scans. It is concluded that physical trauma plays a significant role in the localisation of {sup 99m}Tc-HDP as cell Iysis leads to the formation of ``dense bodies`` in the mitochondria. These bodies occur when excess calcium combines with phosphate ions under circumstances of cellular disorganisation and trauma.

  15. Intramuscular olanzapine versus intramuscular aripiprazole for the treatment of agitation in patients with schizophrenia: A pragmatic double-blind randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittipeerachon, Mantana; Chaichan, Warawat

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate and compare the effectiveness and adverse effects of intramuscular (IM) olanzapine and IM aripiprazole for the treatment of agitated patients with schizophrenia in clinical practice. A 24-hour randomized double-blind study carried out at a psychiatric hospital in Thailand enrolled adult patients (18-65years old) with schizophrenia experiencing agitation. Patients received one dose of IM olanzapine or IM aripiprazole followed by routine oral psychotropic medications. Efficacy was primarily measured using the Excited Component of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-EC). A total of 80 patients with a PANSS-EC score range of 22-35 entered the study, of whom 13% had a medical comorbidity and 40% a history of active substance abuse. The 40 patients receiving IM olanzapine showed greater improvement than the 40 patients receiving IM aripiprazole in PANSS-EC scores at 2h after the injection (p=0.002) but not at 24h. The two treatments were well tolerated. Patients receiving IM olanzapine experienced greater somnolence than those receiving IM aripiprazole. There were no clinically relevant changes in vital signs in either group. The results indicate that IM olanzapine and aripiprazole are similarly effective and well tolerated in the real-world treatment of agitation associated with schizophrenia over the first 24h. However, in the early hours, IM olanzapine may produce more sedation and reductions in agitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Two Sudden and Unexpected Deaths of Patients with Schizophrenia Associated with Intramuscular Injections of Antipsychotics and Practice Guidelines to Limit the Use of High Doses of Intramuscular Antipsychotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasratullah Wahidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous haloperidol has been associated with torsades de pointes (TdP. These two sudden deaths were probable adverse drug reactions (ADRs following intramuscular (IM antipsychotics. The autopsies described lack of heart pathology and were highly compatible with the possibility of TdP in the absence of risk factors other than the accumulation of antipsychotics with a high serum peak after the last injection, leading to death within hours. The first case was a 27-year-old African-American male with schizophrenia but no medical issues. His death was probably caused by repeated IM haloperidol injections of 10 mg (totaling 35 mg in 2 days. The second case involves a 42-year-old African-American female with metabolic syndrome. Her probable cause of death was the last ziprasidone IM injection of 20 mg in addition to (1 three extra haloperidol doses (2 hours before the ziprasidone injection, 5 mg oral haloperidol; approximately 21 hours earlier, 5 mg oral haloperidol; and 2 days prior, one 10 mg IM haloperidol injection, (2 10 mg/day of scheduled oral haloperidol for 6 days before death, and (3 a long-acting paliperidone injection of 156 mg 18 days before death. The study of haloperidol glucuronidation and its impairment in some African-Americans is urgently recommended.

  17. Perfil lipídico da gordura intramuscular de cortes e marcas comerciais de carne bovina Lipid profile of intramuscular fat in meat cattle cuts of commercial brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Pereira dos Santos Pinho

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado para caracterizar a gordura intramuscular dos cortes contrafilé, picanha e costela de seis marcas comerciais (A, B, C, D, E e F de carne bovina comercializadas no município de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. As amostras foram coletadas em uma rede de hipermercados. As marcas A e B foram associadas a animais de raças britânicas, as marcas C e D de animais de raças européias produzidos em sistema convencional e orgânico, respectivamente, e provenientes do Uruguai e as marcas E e F de animais sem raça definida e sistema de alimentação não identificado, obtidas em um frigorífico regional e em uma rede de hipermercados, respectivamente. As amostras foram desossadas, moídas, embaladas a vácuo e armazenadas em temperatura de resfriamento até o momento das análises. Em cada amostra foram realizadas a extração dos lipídios e a identificação dos ácidos graxos. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com arranjo fatorial 6 × 3 e os dados analisados pelo procedimento GLM do aplicativo computacional SAS. Não houve interação significativa entre cortes e marcas para o perfil lipídico dos cortes comerciais. O percentual lipídico foi de 0,95; 3,01 e 0,97% nos cortes contrafilé, costela e picanha, respectivamente. A costela apresentou maior percentual de ácidos graxos (AG saturados e maior estimativa da D9 desaturase a partir do C16:0 e C18:0. O maior percentual de C18:2 cis-9, trans 11, ácido linoleico conjugado, CLA, n-6 e n-3 foi encontrado na picanha. A marca F apresentou maior grau de saturação e a marca D, maior valor de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados, relação poliinsaturados/saturados e trans18 e menor valor de ácidos graxos saturados. Houve interação significativa entre corte e marca para o conteúdo de CLA, sendo o maior conteúdo encontrado no contrafilé da marca F. As características da gordura intramuscular da carne bovina dependem do corte e da marca comercial

  18. Liver transcriptome profile in pigs with extreme phenotypes of intramuscular fatty acid composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramayo-Caldas Yuliaxis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New advances in high-throughput technologies have allowed for the massive analysis of genomic data, providing new opportunities for the characterization of the transcriptome architectures. Recent studies in pigs have employed RNA-Seq to explore the transcriptome of different tissues in a reduced number of animals. The main goal of this study was the identification of differentially-expressed genes in the liver of Iberian x Landrace crossbred pigs showing extreme phenotypes for intramuscular fatty acid composition using RNA-Seq. Results The liver transcriptomes of two female groups (H and L with phenotypically extreme intramuscular fatty acid composition were sequenced using RNA-Seq. A total of 146 and 180 unannotated protein-coding genes were identified in intergenic regions for the L and H groups, respectively. In addition, a range of 5.8 to 7.3% of repetitive elements was found, with SINEs being the most abundant elements. The expression in liver of 186 (L and 270 (H lncRNAs was also detected. The higher reproducibility of the RNA-Seq data was validated by RT-qPCR and porcine expression microarrays, therefore showing a strong correlation between RT-qPCR and RNA-Seq data (ranking from 0.79 to 0.96, as well as between microarrays and RNA-Seq (r=0.72. A differential expression analysis between H and L animals identified 55 genes differentially-expressed between groups. Pathways analysis revealed that these genes belong to biological functions, canonical pathways and three gene networks related to lipid and fatty acid metabolism. In concordance with the phenotypic classification, the pathways analysis inferred that linolenic and arachidonic acids metabolism was altered between extreme individuals. In addition, a connection was observed among the top three networks, hence suggesting that these genes are interconnected and play an important role in lipid and fatty acid metabolism. Conclusions In the present study RNA-Seq was used

  19. EFFICACY OF PARENTERAL ADMINISTERED KETONAL IN ARTICULAR SYNDROME OF DIFFERENT ETIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Shmidt

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess intramuscular ketonal application efficacy in joint syndrome. Methods. 30 patients with different joint diseases were included. Intramuscular monotherapy with ketonal was given for 7 days. Before and after treatment pain at rest and at movement was assessed using visual analog scale. Results. Mean pain at movement before treatment was 76 mm, after treatment - 47 mm. Pain at rest was 54 mm and 24 mm respectively. In 14 patients efficacy was considered by the physician as good and in 15 - as fair. The drug was well tolerated in all cases. Conclusion. Intramuscular application of ketonal is highly effective and well tolerated treatment in different joint diseases.

  20. Intramuscular degeneration process in Duchenne muscular dystrophy; Investigation by longitudinal MR imaging of the skeletal muscles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Takeshi; Matsumra, Kiichiro (Shimoshizu National Hospital, Yotsukaido, Chiba (Japan)); Hashimoto, Takahiro; Ikehira, Hiroo; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Tateno, Yukio

    1992-03-01

    Intramuscular degeneration process of Duchenne dystrophy skeletal muscles was investigated by longitudinal skeletal muscle imaging with high-field-strength NMR-CT of 1.5 Tesla. Thigh muscles in 10 cases ranging in age from 4 to 19 years were examined by T{sub 1}-weighted longitudinal images (TR=215{approx}505 ms, TE=19{approx}20 ms). The following results were obtained. Skeletal muscle degeneration was depicted as high signal intensity area reflecting its high fat contents. These high signal intensity areas had a longitudinally streaky appearance in parallel direction with myofibers. These findings were more prominent toward myotendon junction than muscle bellies. Skeletal muscle degeneration progressed rapidly between 7 to 10 years of age, and reached a plateau after that. (author).

  1. Tissue distribution of enrofloxacin in African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) after intramuscular and subcutaneous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt, Stephen; Papich, Mark G; Howard, Antwain; Long, Tyler; McKeon, Gabriel; Torreilles, Stéphanie; Green, Sherril

    2013-03-01

    As part of an enrofloxacin pharmacokinetic study, concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin (metabolite) were measured in various tissues (brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, and spleen) collected from treated (subcutaneous delivery, n = 3; intramuscular delivery, n = 3; untreated controls, n = 2) adult female Xenopus laevis by using HPLC. Enrofloxacin was rapidly absorbed after administration by either route and readily diffused into all sampled tissues. Enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were present in the tissue samples collected at 8 h. The highest average tissue concentrations for enrofloxacin were found in kidney, with the lowest concentrations in liver. Ciprofloxacin tissue concentrations paralleled but were always lower than those of enrofloxacin for all time points and tissues except brain and kidney. These results, together with previously published pharmacokinetic data and known minimal inhibitory concentrations of common pathogenic bacteria, provide a strong evidence-based rationale for choosing enrofloxacin to treat infectious diseases in X. laevis.

  2. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Model To Evaluate Intramuscular Tetracycline Treatment Protocols To Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Amais; Græsbøll, Kaare; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2015-01-01

    High instances of antimicrobial resistance are linked to both routine and excessive antimicrobial use, but excessive or inappropriate use represents an unnecessary risk. The competitive growth advantages of resistant bacteria may be amplified by the strain dynamics; in particular, the extent...... to which resistant strains outcompete susceptible strains under antimicrobial pressure may depend not only on the antimicrobial treatment strategies but also on the epidemiological parameters, such as the composition of the bacterial strains in a pig. This study evaluated how variation in the dosing...... protocol for intramuscular administration of tetracycline and the composition of bacterial strains in a pig affect the level of resistance in the intestine of a pig. Predictions were generated by a mathematical model of competitive growth of Escherichia coli strains in pigs under specified plasma...

  3. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Model To Evaluate Intramuscular Tetracycline Treatment Protocols To Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Amais; Græsbøll, Kaare; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2015-01-01

    protocol for intramuscular administration of tetracycline and the composition of bacterial strains in a pig affect the level of resistance in the intestine of a pig. Predictions were generated by a mathematical model of competitive growth of Escherichia coli strains in pigs under specified plasma......High instances of antimicrobial resistance are linked to both routine and excessive antimicrobial use, but excessive or inappropriate use represents an unnecessary risk. The competitive growth advantages of resistant bacteria may be amplified by the strain dynamics; in particular, the extent...... to which resistant strains outcompete susceptible strains under antimicrobial pressure may depend not only on the antimicrobial treatment strategies but also on the epidemiological parameters, such as the composition of the bacterial strains in a pig. This study evaluated how variation in the dosing...

  4. Comparison between intravenous and intramuscular administration of ketamine in children sedation referred to emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Boroumand Rezazadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine, among wide variety of sedative drugs, has shown beneficial effects when using during the procedural sedation, specifically in pediatrics. Various parameters should be considered in order to perform a safe and effective procedural sedation including optimum dosage of the sedative, administration methods of sedation, and need for applying any adjuvant drug. In this study, we aimed to review the studies, which have compared the efficacy of the different ways of the injection of ketamine such as intravenous or intramuscular ketamine application. Based on data obtained from the related articles, efficacy and safety of these two methods of ketamine usage in the pediatric procedural sedation were widely similar, but the intravenously administration of the ketamine can be proposed as the preferable mode.

  5. Comparison of liquid chromatographic and bioassay procedures for determining depletion of intramuscularly injected tylosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moats, W A; Harris, E W; Steele, N C

    1985-01-01

    Crossbred pigs weighing 80-110 kg were injected intramuscularly in the ham with 8.8 mg/kg tylosin. Animals were slaughtered in groups of 3 at intervals of 4 h, and 1, 2, 4, and 8 days after injection, and samples of blood, injected muscle, uninjected muscle, liver, and kidney were analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC) and by bioassay using Sarcina lutea as the test organism. The LC method was far more sensitive with a detection limit of less than 0.1 ppm, while the detection limit by bioassay was about 0.5 ppm in tissue. Results by bioassay and LC sometimes differed considerably for tissue samples. Residues in all tissues were below the tolerance limit of 0.2 ppm at 24 h, except in the injected muscle in one animal. Residues were not detected in any tissue of any animal at 48 h after treatment.

  6. Prediction of intramuscular fat levels in Texel lamb loins using X-ray computed tomography scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clelland, N; Bunger, L; McLean, K A; Conington, J; Maltin, C; Knott, S; Lambe, N R

    2014-10-01

    For the consumer, tenderness, juiciness and flavour are often described as the most important factors for meat eating quality, all of which have a close association with intramuscular fat (IMF). X-ray computed tomography (CT) can measure fat, muscle and bone volumes and weights, in vivo in sheep and CT predictions of carcass composition have been used in UK sheep breeding programmes over the last few decades. This study aimed to determine the most accurate combination of CT variables to predict IMF percentage of M. longissimus lumborum in Texel lambs. As expected, predicted carcass fat alone accounted for a moderate amount of the variation (R(2)=0.51) in IMF. Prediction accuracies were significantly improved (Adj R(2)>0.65) using information on fat and muscle densities measured from three CT reference scans, showing that CT can provide an accurate prediction of IMF in the loin of purebred Texel sheep. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Association between intramuscular fat in the arm following arm training and INSIG2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popadic Gacesa, J Z; Secher, N H; Momcilovic, M

    2014-01-01

    ) ; mean ± standard deviation) carried out a 12-week two-arm elbow extensor training (10 maximal extensions with 1 min recovery between bouts) five times per day, five times per week. For 17 volunteers, upper arm muscle and adipose tissue [subcutaneous (SCAT) and intramuscular (IMAT)] volumes were.......0 ± 0.9%; GC/CC: %IMAT 0.6 ± 0.5% (P > 0.05). However, in the year following the training, accumulation of upper arm IMAT was twice as large in participants homozygous for the G allele (GG: Δ%IMAT +2.5 ± 0.8%; GC/CC: Δ%IMAT +1.1 ± 0.7%; P 

  8. Salivary testosterone in female-to-male transgender adolescents during treatment with intra-muscular injectable testosterone esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, H.N.; Schagen, S.E.; Klink, D.T.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Heijboer, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In our hospital, female-To-male (FtM) transgender adolescents from the age of 16 are treated with two- or four-weekly intra-muscular injections of testosterone-esters. Some patients treated with four-weekly injections have complaints of fatigue and experience mood swings towards the

  9. Intramuscular tendon involvement on MRI has limited value for predicting time to return to play following acute hamstring injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, Anne D.; Almusa, Emad; Whiteley, Rod; Hamilton, Bruce; Eirale, Cristiano; van Hellemondt, Frank; Tol, Johannes L.

    2018-01-01

    Background Hamstring injury with intramuscular tendon involvement is regarded as a serious injury with a delay in return to play (RTP) of more than 50 days and reinjury rates up to 63%. However, this reputation is based on retrospective case series with high risk of bias. Objective Determine whether

  10. The Effect of the Timing of Intramuscular Oxytocin Injection on Maternal Bleeding during the Third Stage of Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakine Mohamadian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: The third stage of labour is one of the most troublesome stages of child delivery. The basic principle of the third stage management is administrating prophylactic uterotonics. However, the time of its administration varies in different hospitals. This study aimed to determine the effect of intramuscular oxytocin injection after emergence of the fetal anterior shoulder or placental expulsion on bleeding in the third stage of labour. Methodology: This clinical trial was conducted on 100 pregnant women with gestational age of 38-42 weeks, and singleton pregnancies. Subjects were selected using convenience sampling and were then randomly assigned to intervention (injection of 10 IU intramuscular oxytocin after emergence of the fetal anterior shoulder and control (injection of 10 IU intramuscular oxytocin after placental expulsion groups. Blood was collected in containers and weighed with a weighing scale.  A checklist was used to record labor and delivery related data. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 11.5, using Chi-square and t-test. Findings: The mean amount of bleeding during the third stage of labour was 183.4 ± 145.8 and 202.2 ±208.8 ml in intervention and control group, respectively. No significant difference was found between two groups in terms of maternal bleeding. Conclusion: Injection of intramuscular oxytocin either after emergence of the fetal anterior shoulder or placental expulsion does not affect the amount of maternal bleeding during the third stage of labour.

  11. Intramuscular olanzapine versus intramuscular haloperidol plus lorazepam for the treatment of acute schizophrenia with agitation: An open-label, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Charles Lung-Cheng; Hwang, Tzung-Jeng; Chen, Yi-Hsing; Huang, Guan-Hua; Hsieh, Ming H; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Hwu, Hai-Gwo

    2015-05-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety profile between intramuscular (IM) olanzapine and IM haloperidol plus IM lorazepam in acute schizophrenic patients with moderate to severe agitation. This was a prospective, randomized, open-label study. Acutely agitated patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 67) were randomized to receive 10 mg IM olanzapine (n = 37) or 5 mg IM haloperidol plus 2 mg IM lorazepam (n = 30). Agitation was measured with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Excited Component (PANSS-EC) and Agitation-Calmness Evaluation Scale (ACES) during the first 2 hours and at 24 hours after the first injection. Safety was assessed using the Simpson-Angus Scale and Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale and by recording adverse events at 24 hours following the first injection. The Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale was also rated. The PANSS-EC scores decreased significantly at 2 hours after the first injection in both groups (olanzapine: -10.2, p haloperidol + lorazepam: -9.9, p Haloperidol plus lorazepam was not inferior to olanzapine in reducing agitation at 2 hours. There were no significant differences in PANSS-EC or ACES scores between the two groups within 2 hours following the first injection. The frequencies of adverse events and changes in Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Simpson-Angus Scale, and Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale scores from baseline to 24 hours showed no significant differences between the groups. The findings suggest that IM haloperidol (5 mg) plus lorazepam (2 mg) is not inferior to IM olanzapine (10 mg) in the treatment of acute schizophrenic patients with moderate to severe agitation (ClinialTrials.gov identifier number NCT00797277). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Influence of intramuscular granisetron on experimentally induced muscle pain by acidic saline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louca, S; Ernberg, M; Christidis, N

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether intramuscular administration of the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist granisetron reduces experimental muscle pain induced by repeated intramuscular injections of acidic saline into the masseter muscles. Twenty-eight healthy and pain-free volunteers, fourteen women and fourteen men participated in this randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study. After a screening examination and registration of the baseline pressure-pain threshold (PPT), the first simultaneous bilateral injections of 0·5 mL acidic saline (9 mg mL(-1) , pH 3·3) into the masseter muscles were performed. Two days later, PPT and pain (VAS) were re-assessed. The masseter muscle was then pre-treated with 0·5 mL granisetron (Kytril(®) 1 mg mL(-1) pH 5·3) on one side and control substance (isotonic saline, 9 mg mL(-1) pH 6) on the contralateral side. Two minutes thereafter a bilateral simultaneous injection of 0·5 mL acidic saline followed. The evoked pain intensity, pain duration, pain area and PPT were assessed. The volunteers returned 1 week later to re-assess VAS and PPT. On the side pre-treated with granisetron, the induced pain had significantly lower intensity and shorter duration (P granisetron on pain duration was significant only in women (P granisetron has a pain-reducing effect on experimentally induced muscle pain by repeated acidic saline injection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. In-vitro and in-vivo evaluation of diclofenac sodium intramuscular injection using gamma scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, S.; Kumar, N.; Mehra, L.; Singh, T.; Mittal, G.; Nishad, D.K.; Sharma, B.G.; Bhatnagar, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) which is available as over-the-counter (OTC) medication for the systemic and topical treatment of painful and inflammatory conditions such as arthritis and back pain. This study was undertaken to investigate the distribution and retention of intramuscularly injected diclofenac sodium (DFN) in white New Zealand rabbit using gamma scintigraphy. A new formulation of the nonselective NSAID diclofenac sodium suitable for intramuscular injection has been developed using sesame oil as a vehicle. The hypothesis of present work is to maintain effective concentration of DFN in blood for prolonged time period. A novel method of radiolabeling with 99m Tc-pertechnetate was adopted using stannous ions as reducing agent. The radiolabeled product was tested for quality control using ascending instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC) technique. ITLC-SG, (Gelman, USA) and acetone were used as the stationary phase and mobile phase respectively in the chromatographic procedure. In vitro and in vivo stability parameters were evaluated. Biodistribution studies and blood kinetics of 99m Tc-DFN was done in balb c mice and white New Zealand rabbit respectively. 99m Tc-DFN retention at depot site was evaluated using gamma scintigraphy. 99m Tc-DFN, when incubated at 37 deg C for 24 hr in normal saline and human serum showed disintegration of only 6.6% and 3.5% respectively, thereby indicating high stability of radiolabeled product. Protein binding studies of 99m Tc-DFN shows more than 85% serum protein binding. Blood clearance of radiopharmaceutical in rabbits, exhibited a biphasic exponential pattern in i.v. bolus while in i.m. linear control release pattern were observed up to 24 hrs

  14. Intramuscular Immunisation with Chlamydial Proteins Induces Chlamydia trachomatis Specific Ocular Antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Badamchi-Zadeh

    Full Text Available Ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis can cause trachoma, which is the leading cause of blindness due to infection worldwide. Despite the large-scale implementation of trachoma control programmes in the majority of countries where trachoma is endemic, there remains a need for a vaccine. Since C. trachomatis infects the conjunctival epithelium and stimulates an immune response in the associated lymphoid tissue, vaccine regimens that enhance local antibody responses could be advantageous. In experimental infections of non-human primates (NHPs, antibody specificity to C. trachomatis antigens was found to change over the course of ocular infection. The appearance of major outer membrane protein (MOMP specific antibodies correlated with a reduction in ocular chlamydial burden, while subsequent generation of antibodies specific for PmpD and Pgp3 correlated with C. trachomatis eradication.We used a range of heterologous prime-boost vaccinations with DNA, Adenovirus, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA and protein vaccines based on the major outer membrane protein (MOMP as an antigen, and investigated the effect of vaccine route, antigen and regimen on the induction of anti-chlamydial antibodies detectable in the ocular lavage fluid of mice.Three intramuscular vaccinations with recombinant protein adjuvanted with MF59 induced significantly greater levels of anti-MOMP ocular antibodies than the other regimens tested. Intranasal delivery of vaccines induced less IgG antibody in the eye than intramuscular delivery. The inclusion of the antigens PmpD and Pgp3, singly or in combination, induced ocular antigen-specific IgG antibodies, although the anti-PmpD antibody response was consistently lower and attenuated by combination with other antigens.If translatable to NHPs and/or humans, this investigation of the murine C. trachomatis specific ocular antibody response following vaccination provides a potential mouse model for the rapid and high throughput

  15. Field study on the safety and efficacy of intradermal versus intramuscular vaccination against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beffort, Lisa; Weiß, Christine; Fiebig, Kerstin; Jolie, Rika; Ritzmann, Mathias; Eddicks, Matthias

    2017-09-30

    The present study compares the safety and efficacy of a needle-free, intradermal Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine to an intramuscular one. 420 piglets (21+3 days of age) were randomly assigned to two vaccination groups (intradermal vaccination V1 (n=138), intramuscular vaccination V2 (n=144)) and one unvaccinated control group (CG, n=138). As safety parameters clinical observations, local injection site reactions (ISR) and rectal temperatures were assessed. Average daily weight gain (ADWG) and pneumonic lung lesions (LL) were measured as efficacy parameters. ISRs were minor in V1. After both vaccinations, no adverse impact on appetite was observed and mean rectal temperatures remained within physiological range. ADWG during the fattening period was significantly higher in vaccinated groups (V1: 913.4 g, V2: 924.5 g) compared with CG (875.6 g). No differences in ADWG were observed between V1 and V2. Vaccinated pigs had a significantly reduced mean extent of LL compared with CG. V1 was superior in reducing the extent and prevalence of LL compared with V2. These results reveal that a needle-free intradermal vaccination is safe and efficacious in reducing both the prevalence and extent of lung lesions, as well as in improving performance parameters, in a farrow-to-finish farm with a late onset of M hyopneumonia e infection. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Intramuscular leukemic relapse: clinical signs and imaging findings. A multicentric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surov, Alexey [Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Radiology, Halle (Germany); University of Leipzig, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Kiratli, Hayyam [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Ankara (Turkey); Im, Soo Ah [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Manabe, Yasuhiro [National Hospital Organization Okayama Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Okayama (Japan); O' Neill, Alibhe; Shinagare, Atul B. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Spielmann, Rolf Peter [Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Radiology, Halle (Germany)

    2014-09-26

    Leukemia is a group of malignant diseases involving peripheral blood and bone marrow. Extramedullary tumor manifestation in leukemia can also occur. They more often involve lymph nodes, skin, and bones. Intramuscular leukemic relapse (ILR) is very unusual. The aim of this analysis was to summarize the reported data regarding clinical signs and radiological features of ILR. The PubMed database was searched for publications related to ILR. After an analysis of all identified articles, 20 publications matched the inclusion criteria. The authors of the 20 publications were contacted and provided imaging of their cases for review. The following were recorded: age, gender, primary diagnosis, clinical signs, pattern, localization and size of the intramuscular leukemic relapse. Images of 16 patients were provided [8 computer tomographic (CT) images and 15 magnetic resonance images, MRI]. Furthermore, one patient with ILR was identified in our institutional database. Therefore, images of 17 patients were available for further analysis. Overall, 32 cases with ILR were included in the analysis. In most cases acute myeloid leukemia was diagnosed. Most ILRs were localized in the extremities (44 %) and in the extraocular muscles (44 %). Clinically, ILR manifested as local pain, swelling and muscle weakness. Radiologically, ILR presented most frequently with diffuse muscle infiltration. On postcontrast CT/MRI, most lesions demonstrated homogeneous enhancement. ILRs were hypo-/isointense on T1w and hyperintense on T2w images. ILR manifests commonly as focal pain, swelling and muscle weakness. ILR predominantly involved the extraocular musculature and the extremities. Radiologically, diffuse muscle infiltration was the most common imaging finding. (orig.)

  17. MAT2B promotes adipogenesis by modulating SAMe levels and activating AKT/ERK pathway during porcine intramuscular preadipocyte differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Cunzhen; Chen, Xiaochang; Wu, Wenjing; Wang, Wusu; Pang, Weijun; Yang, Gongshe, E-mail: gsyang999@hotmail.com

    2016-05-15

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) has been demonstrated as one of the crucial factors of livestock meat quality. The MAT2B protein with MAT2α catalyzes the formation of methyl donor S- adenosylmethionine (SAMe) to mediate cell metabolism including proliferation and apoptosis. However, the regulatory effect of MAT2B on IMF deposition is still unclear. In this study, the effect of MAT2B on adipogenesis and its potential mechanism during porcine intramuscular preadipocyte differentiation was studied. The results showed that overexpression of MAT2B promoted adipogenesis and significantly up-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of adipogenic marker genes including FASN, PPARγ and aP2, consistently, knockdown of MAT2B inhibited lipid accumulation and down-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of the above genes. Furthermore, flow cytometry and EdU-labeling assay indicated that MAT2B regulate adipogenesis was partly due to influence intracellular SAMe levels and further affect cell clonal expansion. Also, increased expression of MAT2B activated the phosphorylations of AKT and ERK1/2, whereas knockdown of MAT2B blocked AKT signaling and repressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of LY294002 (a specific PI3K inhibitor) on the activities of AKT and ERK1/2 was partially recovered by overexpression of MAT2B in porcine intramuscular adipocytes. Finally, Co-IP experiments showed that MAT2B can directly interact with AKT. Taken together, our findings suggested that MAT2B acted as a positive regulator through modifying SAMe levels as well as activating AKT/ERK signaling pathway to promote porcine intramuscular adipocyte differentiation. - Highlights: • MAT2B up-regulates the expression of adipogenic marker genes and promotes porcine intramuscular preadipocyte differentiation. • MAT2B influences intracellular SAMe levels and further affects cell clonal expansion. • MAT2B interacts with AKT and activates AKT/ERK signaling pathway.

  18. Repeated maternal intramuscular or intraamniotic erythromycin incompletely resolves intrauterine Ureaplasma parvum infection in a sheep model of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Matthew W; Miura, Yuichiro; Payne, Matthew S; Watts, Rory; Megharaj, Smruthi; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G; Saito, Masatoshi; Spiller, O Brad; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Newnham, John P

    2014-08-01

    Ureaplasma spp are the most commonly isolated microorganisms in association with preterm birth. Maternal erythromycin administration is a standard treatment for preterm prelabor rupture of membranes. There is little evidence of its effectiveness in eradicating Ureaplasma spp from the intrauterine cavity and fetus. We used a sheep model of intrauterine Ureaplasma spp infection to investigate the efficacy of repeated maternal intramuscular and intraamniotic erythromycin treatment to eradicate such an infection. Thirty ewes with singleton pregnancies received an intraamniotic injection of 10(7) color change units of erythromycin-sensitive Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3 at 55 days' gestation. At 116 days' gestation, 28 ewes with viable fetuses were randomized to receive (1) intraamniotic and maternal intramuscular saline solution treatment (n = 8), (2) single intraamniotic and repeated maternal intramuscular erythromycin treatment (n = 10), or (3) single maternal intramuscular and repeated intraamniotic erythromycin treatment (n = 10). Fetuses were surgically delivered at 125 days' gestation. Treatment efficacy was assessed by culture, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and histopathologic evaluation. Animals treated with intraamniotic erythromycin had significantly less viable U parvum serovar 3 in the amniotic fluid at delivery. However, neither combination of maternal intramuscular and intraamniotic erythromycin treatment successfully cleared U parvum serovar 3 from the amniotic fluid or fetal tissues. Three de novo erythromycin-resistant U parvum isolates were identified in erythromycin-treated animals. Erythromycin treatment, given both to the ewe and into the amniotic cavity, fails to eradicate intrauterine and fetal U parvum serovar 3 infection and may lead to development of erythromycin resistant U parvum. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Differential effects of orally versus parenterally administered qinghaosu derivative artemether in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classen, W; Altmann, B; Gretener, P; Souppart, C; Skelton-Stroud, P; Krinke, G

    1999-11-01

    Artemether (AM) is an antimalarial drug derived from artemisinin (Qinghaosu), an extract of the herb Artemisia annua L., sweet wormwood. Its antiparasitic effect is that of a schizontocide and is explained by rapid uptake by parasitized erythrocytes and interaction with a component of hemoglobin degradation resulting in formation of free radicals. It has been shown to exhibit a high clinical cure rate. Previous animal safety studies with Qinghaosu derivatives revealed dose-dependent neurotoxicity with movement disturbances and neuropathic changes in the hindbrain of intramuscularly treated dogs, rats and monkeys. Such effects have not been seen in man. The objective of our present studies was to compare the effects of high levels of AM administered to dogs p.o. versus i.m. In a pilot study 20 mg/kg/day of AM was given i.m. to groups of 3 male Beagle dogs for 5 and 30 days, respectively. Clinical signs of neurotoxicity were noted in some individual dogs from test day 23 on. One dog had to be sacrificed pre-term. Hematologic findings indicated a hypochromic, microcytic anemia. Microscopic examination demonstrated neuropathic changes only at 30 days, but not at 5 days. The animals had neuronal and secondary axonal damage, most prominent in the cerebellar roof, pontine and vestibular nuclei, and in the raphe/paralemniscal region. The affected neurons showed loss of Nissl substance, cytoplasmic eosinophilia, shrinkage of the nucleus and in advanced stages scavenging by microglia. In a subsequent experiment, AM was administered to groups of 4 male and 4 female dogs, respectively, at 8 daily doses of 0, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg i.m., or 0, 50, 150 and 600 mg/kg p.o. Neurologic signs were seen at high i.m. doses only. In most animals they were inconspicuous and consisted of reduced activity with convulsions seen in single dogs shortly before death. Neuronal damage occurred in all animals at 40 and 80 mg/kg following i.m. treatment. At 20 mg/kg minimal effects occurred in 5

  20. Corticosteroid effects on ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction in anesthetized rats depend on the dose administered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decramer Marc

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High dose of corticosteroids has been previously shown to protect against controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction while inhibiting calpain activation. Because literature suggests that the calpain inhibiting effect of corticosteroid depends on the dose administered, we determined whether lower doses of corticosteroids would also provide protection of the diaphragm during CMV. This may be important for patients undergoing mechanical ventilation and receiving corticosteroids. Methods Rats were assigned to controls or to 24 hours of CMV while being treated at the start of mechanical ventilation with a single intramuscular administration of either saline, or 5 mg/kg (low MP or 30 mg/kg (high MP of methylprednisolone. Results Diaphragmatic force was decreased after CMV and this was exacerbated in the low MP group while high MP rescued this diaphragmatic dysfunction. Atrophy was more severe in the low MP group than after CMV while no atrophy was observed in the high MP group. A significant and similar increase in calpain activity was observed in both the low MP and CMV groups whereas the high dose prevented calpain activation. Expression of calpastatin, the endogenous inhibitor of calpain, was decreased in the CMV and low MP groups but its level was preserved to controls in the high MP group. Caspase-3 activity increased in all CMV groups but to a lesser extent in the low and high MP groups. The 20S proteasome activity was increased in CMV only. Conclusions Administration of 30 mg/kg methylprednisolone during CMV protected against CMV-induced diaphragm dysfunction while 5 mg/kg was more deleterious. The protective effect is due mainly to an inhibition of the calpain system through preservation of calpastatin levels and to a lesser extent to a caspase-3 inhibition.

  1. Radiopharmaceutical activities administered for paediatric nuclear medicine procedures in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towson, J.E.; Smart, R.C.; Rossleigh, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of radiopharmaceutical activities used at the eight hospital centres specialising in paediatric nuclear medicine in Australia was conducted in 1999-2000 by the Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine and the Australasian Radiation Protection Society. Data on the maximum and minimum administered activities (A max and A min ) as obtained for 43 paediatric imaging procedures are presented. The results are also available on the ANZSNM and ARPS websites at: http://www.anzsnm.org.au and http://www.arps.org.au. The A max values were significantly less than the corresponding Reference Activities for adults determined in a previous study. Activities for individual patients are calculated using surface area scaling at five centres and body weight scaling at three centres. The median values of A max and A min are recommended as Paediatric Reference Activities. The effective dose to patients of various sizes for the Paediatric Reference Activities and both methods of scaling was calculated for each procedure. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  2. Potentiation of electrochemotherapy by intramuscular IL-12 gene electrotransfer in murine sarcoma and carcinoma with different immunogenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlar, Ales; Dolinsek, Tanja; Markelc, Bostjan; Prosen, Lara; Kranjc, Simona; Bosnjak, Masa; Blagus, Tanja; Cemazar, Maja; Sersa, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    Electrochemotherapy provides good local tumor control but requires adjuvant treatment for increased local response and action on distant metastasis. In relation to this, intramuscular interleukin-12 (IL-12) gene electro-transfer, which provides systemic shedding of IL-12, was combined with local electrochemotherapy with cisplatin. Furthermore, the dependence on tumor immunogenicity and immunocompetence of the host on combined treatment response was evaluated. Sensitivity of SA-1 sarcoma and TS/A carcinoma cells to electrochemotherapy with cisplatin was tested in vitro. In vivo, intratumoral electrochemotherapy with cisplatin (day 1) was combined with a single (day 0) or multiple (days 0, 2, 4) intramuscular murine IL-12 (mIL-12) gene electrotransfer. The antitumor effectiveness of combined treatment was evaluated on immunogenic murine SA-1 sarcoma in A/J mice and moderately immunogenic murine TS/A carcinoma, in immunocompetent BALB/c and immunodeficient SCID mice. Electrochemotherapy in vitro resulted in a similar IC 50 values for both sarcoma and carcinoma cell lines. However, in vivo electrochemotherapy was more effective in the treatment of sarcoma, the more immunogenic of the tumors, resulting in a higher log cell kill, longer specific tumor growth delay, and also 17% tumor cures compared to carcinoma where no tumor cures were observed. Adjuvant intramuscular mIL-12 gene electrotransfer increased the log cell kill in both tumor models, potentiating the specific tumor growth delay by a factor of 1.8-2 and increasing tumor cure rate by approximately 20%. In sarcoma tumors, the potentiation of the response by intramuscular mIL-12 gene electrotransfer was dose-dependent and also resulted in a faster onset of tumor cures. Comparison of the carcinoma response to the combined treatment modality in immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice demonstrated that the immune system is needed both for increased cell kill and for attaining tumor cures. Based on the comparison of

  3. The neuroprotective effects of intramuscular insulin-like growth factor-I treatment in brain ischemic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Chih Chang

    Full Text Available Brain ischemia leads to muscle inactivity-induced atrophy and may exacerbate motor function deficits. Intramuscular insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I injection has been shown to alleviate the brain ischemia-induced muscle atrophy and thus improve the motor function. Motor function is normally gauged by the integrity and coordination of the central nervous system and peripheral muscles. Whether brain ischemic regions are adaptively changed by the intramuscular IGF-I injection is not well understood. In this study, the effect of intramuscular IGF-I injection was examined on the central nervous system of brain ischemic rats. Rats were divided into 4 groups: sham control, brain ischemia control, brain ischemia with IGF-I treatment, and brain ischemia with IGF-I plus IGF-I receptor inhibitor treatment. Brain ischemia was induced by right middle cerebral artery occlusion. IGF-I and an IGF-1 receptor inhibitor were injected into the affected calf and anterior tibialis muscles of the treated rats for 4 times. There was an interval of 2 days between each injection. Motor function was examined and measured at the 24 hours and 7 days following a brain ischemia. The affected hind-limb muscles, sciatic nerve, lumbar spinal cord, and motor cortex were collected for examination after euthanizing the rats. IGF-I expression in the central nervous system and affected muscles were significantly decreased after brain ischemia. Intramuscular IGF-I injection increased the IGF-I expression in the affected muscles, sciatic nerve, lumbar spinal cord, and motor cortex. It also increased the p-Akt expression in the affected motor cortex. Furthermore, intramuscular IGF-I injection decreased the neuronal apoptosis and improved the motor function. However, co-administration of the IGF-I receptor inhibitor eliminated these effects. Intramuscular IGF-I injection after brain ischemia attenuated or reversed the decrease of IGF-I in both central and peripheral tissues, and

  4. Subcutaneously administered antibiotics: a national survey of current practice from the French Infectious Diseases (SPILF) and Geriatric Medicine (SFGG) society networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestier, E; Paccalin, M; Roubaud-Baudron, C; Fraisse, T; Gavazzi, G; Gaillat, J

    2015-04-01

    A national survey was performed to explore antibiotic prescription by the subcutaneous (sc) route among French infectious diseases and geriatric practitioners. Among the participating physicians, 367 (96.1%) declared administering sc antibiotics at some point. Ceftriaxone was prescribed sc by all but one, and ertapenem, teicoplanin, aminoglycosides and amoxicillin by 33.2%, 39.2%, 35.1% and 15.3%, respectively. The sc route was resorted to mainly in case of unavailable oral, intravenous or intramuscular routes, especially during palliative care. Pain, skin necrosis and lack of efficacy were the main adverse effects, reported by 70.8%, 12.8% and 19.9% of practitioners, respectively. Further studies are needed to precise the indications, modalities and tolerance of sc antibiotic use. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 32 CFR 644.396 - Assignment of personnel to administer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Assignment of personnel to administer. 644.396... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Predisposal Action § 644.396 Assignment of personnel to administer... responsible representative to each installation, or group of installations, to act under his staff supervision...

  6. 8 CFR 337.8 - Oath administered by the courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Form N-646, that the applicant has been determined by the Attorney General to be eligible for admission... ALLEGIANCE § 337.8 Oath administered by the courts. (a) Notification of election. An applicant for... election to have the oath of allegiance administered in an appropriate court having jurisdiction over the...

  7. Comparison of oral itraconazole and intramuscular meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, K.; Rahman, A.

    2007-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and tolerability of oral itraconazole against intramuscular meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL). Two hundred eligible and consenting patients of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) were divided in two groups with 100 patients in each. The number and location of the lesions were documented and clinical types of cutaneous leishmaniasis were noted. The diagnosis was confirmed by skin slit smear and histopathology of the lesional skin. Culture on Nicolle Novy MacNeal (NNN) medium and Leishmanin test was done in all patients. All the patients in both groups were subjected to complete blood picture, urine examination, serum urea and creatinine levels and ECG examination. One group was given itraconazole 100 mg twice daily orally for a duration of 6-8 weeks. The other group was given meglumine antimoniate 10 cc in the form of deep intramuscular injections for 15-30 days. The efficacy of the treatment was judged by clinical and parasitological response. Side effects of the agents were also noted during treatment. Out of 200 patients studied, 185 were males and 15 were females. The mean age of presentation was 30 + 6.6 years. Single lesion was seen in 132 (66%) subjects whereas 68 (34%) subjects had multiple lesions. Slit skin smears were positive in 50 (25%) of the patients. Skin biopsy yielded the presence of LT bodies in 150 (75%) subjects. The culture was positive in 102 (51%) cases. Leishmanin test was positive in 94% subjects. Seventy-five (75%) patients on itraconazole therapy showed complete clinical and parasitological cure in 4-8 weeks duration. A rise in ALT was seen in 12% subjects. Five (5%) subjects did not show any improvement till the end of therapy. Sixty-five (65%) subjects on meglumine antimoniate showed complete healing in 15-30 days. In 35 (35%) of the patients, the treatment had to be stopped due to intolerable side-effects. Four cases of lupoid leishmaniasis and 4 cases of sporotrichoid leishmaniasis

  8. Comparison of intramuscular alfaxalone and ketamine combined with dexmedetomidine and butorphanol for castration in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khenissi, Latifa; Nikolayenkova-Topie, Olga; Broussaud, Ségolène; Touzot-Jourde, Gwenola

    2017-08-01

    Objectives Cardiorespiratory parameters and anaesthesia quality in cats anaesthetised with either intramuscular (IM) alfaxalone or ketamine both combined with dexmedetomidine and butorphanol for castration were evaluated. Methods Thirty-two client-owned cats were randomly assigned to receive either alfaxalone (A; 3 mg/kg IM) or ketamine (K; 5 mg/kg IM), combined with dexmedetomidine (10 μg/kg) and butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg). Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and rectal temperature (T°) were recorded prior to drug administration. Pulse rate (PR) and RR were recorded 10 (T 10 ) and 15 (T 15 ) mins after injection (T 0 ). Cardiorespiratory values (PR, RR, SPO 2 , blood pressure, P E 'CO 2 ) were recorded every 5 mins for the duration of the procedure. Pain at injection, intubation and recovery were evaluated with simple descriptive scores. Feasibility of anaesthesia was evaluated by the number of top-ups of anaesthetic needed. Cat attitude, ability to walk and presence of ataxia were assessed several times after extubation (T exmin ) and the time between injection and extubation recorded. Pain was assessed at T ex120 and T ex240 with the 4Avet-pain score. Results The RR was significantly lower in group K at T 10 (RR K = 28 ±13.35 breaths per minute [brpm], RR A = 43.24 ±7.04 brpm) and T 15 (RR K = 28 ±11.53 brpm vs RR A = 43 ±12.18 brpm). Time to extubation was significantly longer in group A (T A = 62 ±14.6 mins, T K = 45.13 ± 7.38 mins). Cats in group K needed more top-ups, were more ataxic at T ex120 , had a worse recovery score at T ex60 and were less willing to walk at T ex30 . Conclusions and relevance Cats receiving alfaxalone had a longer but better quality recovery. Cardiorespiratory parameters were stable and within clinically acceptable values following IM injection of either alfaxalone or ketamine in healthy cats. Intramuscular alfaxalone is a suitable alternative to ketamine for short procedures requiring anaesthesia when used in combination

  9. Intramuscular renin-angiotensin system is activated in human muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guilian; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Dai, Hongmei; Chiba, Yoko; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Hino-Fukuyo, Naomi; Onuma, Akira; Iinuma, Kazuie; Tsuchiya, Shigeru

    2009-05-15

    To investigate the role of the muscular renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in human muscular dystrophy, we used immunohistochemistry and Western blotting to examine the cellular localization of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) and the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2) in muscle biopsies from patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), and congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD). In normal muscle, ACE was expressed in vascular endothelial cells and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), whereas AT1 was immunolocalized to the smooth muscle cells of blood vessels and intramuscular nerve twigs. AT2 was immunolocalized in the smooth muscle cells of blood vessels. These findings suggest that the RAS has a functional role in peripheral nerves and NMJs. ACE and AT1, but AT2 immunoreactivity were increased markedly in dystrophic muscle as compared to controls. ACE and the AT1 were strongly expressed in the cytoplasm and nuclei of regenerating muscle fibers, fibroblasts, and in macrophages infiltrating necrotic fibers. Double immunolabeling revealed that activated fibroblasts in the endomysium and perimysium of DMD and CMD muscle were positive for ACE and AT1. Triple immunolabeling demonstrated that transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and ACE were colocalized on the cytoplasm of activated fibroblasts in dystrophic muscle. Furthermore, Western blotting showed increases in the expression of AT1 and TGF-beta1 protein in dystrophic muscle, which coincided with our immunohistochemical results. The overexpression of ACE and AT1 in dystrophic muscle would likely result in the increased production of Ang II, which may act on these cells in an autocrine manner via AT1. The activation of AT1 may induce fibrous tissue formation through overexpression of TGF-beta1, which potently activates fibrogenesis and suppresses regeneration. In conclusion, our results imply that the intramuscular RAS-TGF-beta1 pathway

  10. Comparative pharmacokinetics of cefoperazone following intravenous and intramuscular administration in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Attia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacokinetic profile of cefoperazone was studied in goats following intravenous and intramuscular administration of 20 mg/kg body weight. Cefoperazone concentrations in serum were determined by microbiological assay technique using Escherichia coli (ATCC 10536 as test organism. Following i.v. administration, the cefoperazone serum concentration–time curve was best fitted in a two compartment open model. Cefoperazone has moderate distribution in the body of goats with Vdss of 0.44 ± 0.03 L/kg. The elimination half-life (T0.5(β, area under curve (AUC and total body clearance (Cltot were 1.97 ± 0.14 h, 149.63 ± 8.61 μg ml−1 h−1, and 2.17 ml/min/kg, respectively. Following i.m. administration, the drug was very rapidly absorbed, with an absorption half-life (T0.5(ab of 0.12 ± 0.01 h. The maximum serum concentration (Cmax of 30.42 ± 3.53 μg ml−1 was attained at (Tmax 0.58 ± 0.02 h, with an elimination half-life (T0.5(el of 2.53 ± 0.11 h. The systemic bioavailability of cefoperazone in the goats after i.m. administration was 83.62% and in vitro protein binding was 20.34%. The serum concentrations of cefoperazone along 12 h post i.m. injection in this study were exceeding the MIC of different susceptible micro-organisms responsible for serious disease problems. Consequently, a suitable intramuscular dosage regimen for cefoperazone was 20 mg/kg repeated at 12 h intervals in goats. The drug was detected in urine up to 12 and 18 h following i.v. and i.m. administration, respectively.

  11. Soroprevalência da hepatite B e avaliação da resposta imunológica à vacinação contra a hepatite B por via intramuscular e intradérmica em profissionais de um laboratório de saúde pública Hepatitis B seroprevalence and evaluation of immune response to hepatitis B vaccination using intramuscular and intradermal routes in public health laboratory employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia Moreira

    2007-10-01

    using commercial kits (Abbott® Laboratories. Employees were submitted to the conventional three-dose vaccination by intramuscular route. To those employees who did not respond to intramuscular vaccination, 5 µg doses of Engerix® B were then administered by intradermal route up to nine doses. RESULTS: Four hundred and four healthcare workers were enrolled in this study. Initially, two (0.5% and 42 (10.4% were HBsAg and anti-HBs reagent, respectively. Among the 360 negative volunteers, 316 (87.8% received three vaccine doses and in 259 of them, serum samples were collected to evaluate vaccine efficacy. Among them, 242 (93.4% showed antibodies titer higher than 10 UI/l. Intradermal vaccination was carried out in five volunteers and all of them responded to this vaccine administration route. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of hepatitis B was not higher than in general population. Intradermal vaccine administration could be a good alternative in people that did not respond to previous intramuscular route.

  12. Oral versus intramuscular cobalamin treatment in megaloblastic anemia: a single-center, prospective, randomized, open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaman, Zahit; Kadikoylu, Gurhan; Yukselen, Vahit; Yavasoglu, Irfan; Barutca, Sabri; Senturk, Taskin

    2003-12-01

    Cobalamin (vitamin B12) deficiency, the most common cause of megaloblastic anemia, is treated with intramuscular (IM) cobalamin. It has been suggested by some investigators that oral (p.o.) cobalamin treatment may be as effective in the treatment of this condition, with the advantages of ease of administration and lower cost. This study assessed the effects and cost of p.o. versus i.m. cobalamin treatment in patients with megaloblastic anemia due to cobalamin deficiency. This was a 90-day, prospective, randomized, open-label study conducted at the Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Adnan Menderes University Research and Practice Hospital (Aydin, Turkey). Patients aged > or =16 years with megaloblastic anemia due to cobalamin deficiency were randomized to receive 1000-microg cobalamin p.o. once daily for 10 days (p.o. group) or 1000-microg cobalamin i.m. once daily for 10 days (i.m. group). After 10 days, both treatments were administered once a week for 4 weeks, and after that, once a month for life. Patients were assessed for the presence of reticulocytosis between treatment days 5 and 10 until it was detected. Therapeutic effectiveness was assessed by measuring hematologic parameters on days 0, 10, 30, and 90 and serum vitamin B12 concentration on days 0 and 90. The Mini-Mental State Examination was used before and after the B12 therapy for cognitive function assessment and 125-Hz diapozone was used for vibration threshold testing. Neurologic sensory assessment, including soft-touch and pinprick examinations, was used to identify neuropathy at baseline and study end. Tolerability was assessed using laboratory tests and patient interview. Cost was assessed using the cost of the study drug and of the injection. Sixty patients completed the study 26 in the p.o. group (16 men, 10 women; mean [SD] age, 60 [15] years) and 34 in the i.m. group (17 men, 17 women; mean [SD] age, 64 [10] years). Reticulocytosis was observed in all patients. In the p

  13. Development of a sedation protocol using orally administered tiletamine-zolazepam-acepromazine in free-roaming dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiao-Chun; Huang, Shih-Wei; Yu, Kuan-Hua; Wang, Jiann-Hsiung; Wu, Jui-Te

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the sedative effects in dogs of tiletamine-zolazepam-acepromazine (TZA) or ketamine-flunitrazepam (KF) administered orally and to evaluate the effectiveness of encapsulated TZA for capturing free-roaming dogs. Experimental study followed by a field trial. Six research dogs and 27 free-roaming dogs. In a pilot study, six research dogs were administered liquid TZA (20 mg kg -1 tiletamine-zolazepam and 2 mg kg -1 acepromazine) or liquid KF (50 mg kg -1 ketamine and 2 mg kg -1 flunitrazepam) orally: treatment 1, forcefully squirting liquid medication into the mouth; treatment 2, encapsulating liquid medication for administration in canned food; treatment 3, administering liquid medication mixed with gravy. Sedation was scored. A follow-up field trial attempted capture of 27 free-roaming dogs. In the pilot study, the median time (range) to lateral recumbency (% dogs) after TZA administration was: treatment 1, 47.5 (35-80) minutes (67%); treatment 2, 30 (15-65) minutes (83%); and treatment 3, 75 (45-110) minutes (100%). No dogs in KF treatment 2 or 3 achieved lateral recumbency. Based on these results, 20 free-roaming dogs were offered encapsulated TZA in canned food: TZ (20 mg kg -1 ) and acepromazine (2 mg kg -1 ). Of these, no further drugs to four dogs (one dog captured), 10 dogs were administered a second dose within 30 minutes (five dogs captured) and six dogs were administered TZ (5 mg kg -1 ) and xylazine (1.1-2.2 mg kg -1 ) intramuscularly by blow dart (six dogs captured). Seven dogs were initially offered twice the TZA dose (five dogs captured). In total, 63% free-roaming dogs were captured after administration of encapsulated TZA in canned food. Oral administration of encapsulated TZA in canned dog food can aid in the capture of free-roaming dogs, but additional drugs may be required. The sedation onset time and medication palatability influenced the capture rate. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and

  14. Estimated protective effectiveness of intramuscular immune serum globulin post-exposure prophylaxis during a measles outbreak in British Columbia, Canada, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Mark; Murti, Michelle; Fung, Christina; Hemming, Felicity; Loadman, Susan; Stam, Robert; Van Buynder, Paul; Lem, Marcus

    2017-05-09

    Intramuscular Immune Serum Globulin (IM ISG) is recommended as post-measles exposure prophylaxis (PEP) when administered within 6days of initial exposure, with variable effectiveness in preventing measles disease. Effectiveness of IM ISG PEP in preventing clinical measles was assessed during a 2014 measles outbreak among a religious-affiliated community in British Columbia, Canada. Fifty-five self-reporting measles susceptible contacts were offered exclusively IM ISG PEP within an eligibility period best surmised to be within 6days of initial measles case exposure. Clinical outcome of IM ISG PEP recipients was determined by selective active surveillance and case self-reporting. IM ISG PEP failure was defined as onset of a measles-like rash 8-21days post-IM ISG PEP. Post-IM ISG PEP measles IgG antibody level was tested in 8 recipients. Factors associated with measles disease were analyzed. Seventeen of 55 IM ISG PEP recipients developed clinically consistent measles in the following 8-21days, corresponding to an estimated crude protective effectiveness of 69%. In school aged children 5-18years, among whom potential exposure intensity and immune status confounders were considered less likely, estimated IM ISG PEP protective effectiveness was 50%. Age effectiveness against measles disease within 8-21days post-ISG administration was 69%. Accuracy of this estimated protective effectiveness is vulnerable to assumptions and uncertainties in ascertaining exposure details and pre-exposure immune status. Increasing the Canadian recommended measles IM ISG PEP dose from 0.25 to 0.5ml/kg (up to 15ml maximum volume) may increase protective effectiveness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs intramuscular injection in the development and severity of deep soft tissue infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ture, Zeynep; Demiraslan, Hayati; Kontas, Olgun; Alp, Emine; Doganay, Mehmet

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) injection on the severity of local infection and the effect on the progression of soft tissue infection (STI).The mouse model of STI with Group A streptococcus (GAS) was developed and treated with diclofenac sodium (DS) intramuscularly. Mice were divided into five groups: administered DS for 48 h before GAS (Group 1), GAS-DS and maintained DS for 48 h (Group 2), DS for 48 h (Group 3), GAS on zero time (Group 4), and control (Group 5). In vitro, a high concentration (40 mg/L) of DS inhibited GAS growth, whereas a lower concentration (0.4 mg/L) was not effective. Sepsis was observed in animals with DS and GAS inoculation (group 1 and 2). Group 4 had statistically significant higher bacterial load than groups 1 and 2. All groups had a higher inflammation rate than the control group. The median of TNF-alpha and mean IL-6 in the groups 1, 2, and 4 was significantly higher than those in the control group. Even if the animals that were treated with DS injection prior to the GAS inoculation had similar inflammation score, similar cytokine levels and low bacterial load in the tissue, they had a rather high rate of sepsis. In conclusion, DS injection prior to bacterial inoculation might predispose to bacteremia and sepsis. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  16. Intramuscular ganglia arising from the superior tibiofibular joint: CT and MR evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, S.; Abdelwahab, I.F.; Kenan, S.; Zwass, A.; Ricci, G.; Palomba, G.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of intramuscular ganglia (IMG) that arise from the superior tibiofibular joint (STFJ). Our series consisted of three men and three women. Four patients were studied by MRI, one by CT only, and two by both modalities. Contrast was used in one of the two patients studied by CT. MRI was obtained in at least two orthogonal planes to demonstrate the relation of the ganglia to STFJ. The MR and CT appearance of these ganglia was basically that of a well-defined soft tissue mass with low attenuation on CT images consistent with the presence of fluid. On MR studies, they had an isointense signal on T1-weighted images and a homogenous high-intensity signal on T2-weighted images. MRI demonstrated the attachment of these ganglia to the STFJ. CT and MRI were effective, noninvasive modalities in the evaluation of IMG. The imaging features on both modalities were consistent with the presence of fluid-containing lesions that had close proximity and were attached to the STFJ. The combination of location and the fluid consistency of these lesions facilitated the diagnosis. (orig.)

  17. The comprehensive liver transcriptome of two cattle breeds with different intramuscular fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Zhang, Yuanqing; Zhang, Xizhong; Wang, Dongcai; Jin, Guang; Li, Bo; Xu, Fang; Cheng, Jing; Zhang, Feng; Wu, Sujun; Rui, Su; He, Jiang; Zhang, Ronghua; Liu, Wenzhong

    2017-08-26

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) content is an important determinant factor of meat quality in cattle. There is significant difference in IMF content between Jinnan and Simmental cattle. Here, to identify candidate genes and networks associated with IMF deposition, we deeply explored the transcriptome architecture of liver in these two cattle breeds. We sequenced the liver transcriptome of five Jinnan and three Simmental cattle, yielding about 413.9 million sequencing reads. 124 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected, of which 53 were up-regulated and 71 were down-regulated in Jinnan cattle. 1282 potentially novel genes were also identified. Gene ontology analysis revealed these DEGs (including CYP21A2, PC, ACACB, APOA1, and FADS2) were significantly enriched in lipid biosynthetic process, regulation of cholesterol esterification, reverse cholesterol transport, and regulation of lipoprotein lipase activity. Genes involved in pyruvate metabolism pathway were also significantly overrepresented. Moreover, we identified an interaction network which related to lipid metabolism, which might be contributed to the IMF deposition in cattle. We concluded that the DEGs involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism could play an important role in IMF deposition. Overall, we proposed a new panel of candidate genes and interaction networks that can be associated with IMF deposition and used as biomarkers in cattle breeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Isolated (localized) idiopathic granulomatous (giant cell) vasculitis in an intramuscular lipoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando Val-Bernal, J; Val, Daniel; Calvo, Ignacio; Francisca Garijo, M

    2006-01-01

    Isolated (localized) idiopathic granulomatous vasculitis (IGV) is an uncommon, heterogeneous, and poorly defined group of disorders characterized by infiltration of the arterial wall caused by compactly grouped mononuclear phagocytes, with or without giant cells, in segmental distribution. We report on a 55-year-old woman with IGV limited to an intramuscular lipoma of the left thigh. The vasculitis was identified incidentally upon microscopic examination of the removed tumor. The IGV was centered on two medium-sized arteries, accompanied by narrowing of the lumens, and not associated with secondary changes such as infart or postinfart fibrosis. The inflammatory infiltrate was rich in T-lymphocytes and macrophages, with the presence of giant cells. The patient was asymptomatic and well in a follow-up period of 2 months, during which she was not treated. To our knowledge, this is the first report of lipoma involvement in localized IGV. It is important to distinguish cases of isolated intratumorous IGV from systemic disease, because the latter implies a poor prognosis and requires an aggressive treatment.

  19. Comparison of Intramuscular or Subcutaneous Injections vs. Castration in Pigs—Impacts on Behavior and Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McGlone

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical castration (PC is painful and stressful for nursing piglets. One alternative to PC is immunological castration (IC, but the pain and stress of handling associated with injections have not been assessed. The objectives of this study were to measure the pain and distress of subcutaneous (SQ and intramuscular (IM injections compared to PC in piglets, and to compare SQ or IM injections in finishing pigs. After farrowing, 3 to 5 d old male piglets were randomly assigned to (control no handling treatment (NO, sham-handling (SHAM, IM, SQ, or PC. Finishing pigs were assigned to NO, SHAM, IM, or SQ. Behavior was monitored for 1 h prior and 1 h post treatment in each age group. Social, feeding behaviors, and signs of pain were recorded. Finishing pigs treated with SQ injections had higher feeding behaviors pre-treatment than they did post-treatment. Overall, physical castrations caused measurable pain-like behaviors and general behavioral dysregulation at a much higher level than the other treatment groups. SQ and IM injections did not cause either significant behavioral or physiological alterations in piglets. SQ injections caused a decrease in finishing pig feed behaviors post treatment ( p = 0.02 and SHAM treated finishing pigs spent significantly more time lying than the other treatment groups. In general IM and SQ injections did not cause any other significant changes in behavior or physiology.

  20. A Key Gene, PLIN1, Can Affect Porcine Intramuscular Fat Content Based on Transcriptome Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojiang Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Intramuscular fat (IMF content is an important indicator for meat quality evaluation. However, the key genes and molecular regulatory mechanisms affecting IMF deposition remain unclear. In the present study, we identified 75 differentially expressed genes (DEGs between the higher (H and lower (L IMF content of pigs using transcriptome analysis, of which 27 were upregulated and 48 were downregulated. Notably, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG enrichment analysis indicated that the DEG perilipin-1 (PLIN1 was significantly enriched in the fat metabolism-related peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR signaling pathway. Furthermore, we determined the expression patterns and functional role of porcine PLIN1. Our results indicate that PLIN1 was highly expressed in porcine adipose tissue, and its expression level was significantly higher in the H IMF content group when compared with the L IMF content group, and expression was increased during adipocyte differentiation. Additionally, our results confirm that PLIN1 knockdown decreases the triglyceride (TG level and lipid droplet (LD size in porcine adipocytes. Overall, our data identify novel candidate genes affecting IMF content and provide new insight into PLIN1 in porcine IMF deposition and adipocyte differentiation.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin after oral, intramuscular and bath administration in crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Q; Fan, J; Wang, J; Zhu, X; Yin, Y; Zheng, G

    2018-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin (ENR) was studied in crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) after single administration by intramuscular (IM) injection and oral gavage (PO) at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight and by 5 mg/L bath for 5 hr at 25°C. The plasma concentrations of ENR and ciprofloxacin (CIP) were determined by HPLC. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated based on mean ENR or CIP concentrations using WinNonlin 6.1 software. After IM, PO and bath administration, the maximum plasma concentration (C max ) of 2.29, 3.24 and 0.36 μg/ml was obtained at 4.08, 0.68 and 0 hr, respectively; the elimination half-life (T 1/2β ) was 80.95, 62.17 and 61.15 hr, respectively; the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values were 223.46, 162.72 and 14.91 μg hr/ml, respectively. CIP, an active metabolite of enrofloxacin, was detected and measured after all methods of drug administration except bath. It is possible and practical to obtain therapeutic blood concentrations of enrofloxacin in the crucian carp using IM, PO and bath immersion administration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Muscle and genotype effects on fatty acid composition of goat kid intramuscular fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriano Domenech

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the fatty acid composition of the major muscles in goats from different breeds. Forty entire male suckling kids, 20 Criollo Cordobes and 20 Anglo Nubian, were slaughtered at 75 days of age and the fatty acid composition of their longissimus thoracis (LT and semitendinosus (ST muscles was analysed to clarify the effects of genotype and muscle type on goat kid meat. Genotype had a great influence on the fatty acid composition of goat kid meat. Meat from Criollo Cordobes had greater saturated (P<0.001 and lower monounsaturated (P<0.001 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (P=0.002 concentration than meat from Anglo Nubian, showing higher saturated fatty acids (SFA. On the other hand, intramuscular fat content from both genotypes was higher (P=0.042 in ST muscle, while the lowest cholesterol levels were observed in ST of Criollo Cordobes (P=0.038. That higher fat content resulted in lower relative contents of total polyunsaturated (P<0.001 and n-3 (P=0.002 fatty acids due to the lower contribution of the membrane phospholipids.

  3. Intramuscular keratocyst as a soft tissue counterpart of keratocystic odontogenic tumor: differential diagnosis by immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abé, Tatsuya; Maruyama, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Manabu; Essa, Ahmed; Babkair, Hamzah; Mikami, Toshihiko; Shingaki, Susumu; Kobayashi, Tadaharu; Hayashi, Takafumi; Cheng, Jun; Saku, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT), a developmental jaw cyst previously referred to as odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), typically arises in the jawbone. In this article, however, we report a case of KCOT located within the temporalis muscle. We compared its immunohistochemical profiles with those of authentic jaw KCOT, orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst, and epidermoid cyst in order to consider whether a soft tissue counterpart of KCOT could be a separate disease entity. The patient was a 46-year-old man with a well-defined cystic lesion within the left temporalis muscle. On computed tomographic images, the lesion was recognized as a cystic lesion, although KCOT was not included in the clinical differential diagnoses. The location of the lesion was not within bone but, rather, within the temporalis muscle that was attached to the jawbones. Our review of the literature has disclosed more than 20 peripheral KCOT cases of the oral mucosa and more than 10 cases of the skin, but only 1 case arising in muscle. Immunohistochemical investigation of the present intramuscular case reveals KCOT-characteristic profiles distinct from the other 3 types of cysts investigated. The results indicate that KCOT-like lesions can arise within soft tissues, although use of the term odontogenic might seem inappropriate in those cases. © 2013.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of imipenem after intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous administration to cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarellos, Gabriela A; Denamiel, Graciela A; Montoya, Laura; Quaine, Pamela C; Lupi, Martín P; Landoni, María F

    2013-06-01

    The study describes the pharmacokinetics and predicted efficacy of imipenem after intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) administration to five adult cats at a dose of 5 mg/kg. Susceptibility to imipenem [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)] was determined for antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli (n = 13) and staphylococci (n = 3) isolated from domestic cat infections (urinary system, skin and conjunctiva). Maximum plasma concentrations of imipenem were 13.45 µg/ml (IV), 6.47 µg/ml (IM) and 3.83 µg/ml (SC). Bioavailability was 93.18% (IM) and 107.90% (SC). Elimination half-lives for IV, IM and SC administration were 1.17, 1.44 and 1.55 h, respectively. All tested bacteria were susceptible to imipenem; MIC values were 0.03 µg/ml for Staphylococcus species and imipenem concentrations remained above a MIC of 0.5 µg/ml for approximately 4 h (IV and IM) and 9 h (SC). Imipenem would be predicted to be effective for the treatment of antimicrobial resistant bacterial infections in cats at a dosage of 5 mg/kg every 6-8 h (IV, IM), or longer for the SC route. However, clinical trials are mandatory to establish its efficacy and proper dosing.

  5. Investigation of DNA Integration into Reproductive Organs Following Intramuscular Injection of DNA in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Vahedi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: DNA immunization with plasmid DNA encoding bacterial, viral, parasitic, and tumor antigens has been reported to trigger protective immunity. The use of plasmid DNA vaccinations against many diseases has produced promising results in animal and human clinical trials; however, safety concerns about the use of DNA vaccines exist, such as the possibility of integration into the host genome, and elicitation of adverse immune responses. Methods: In this study, we examined the potential integration and bio-distribution of pcDNA3.1+PA, a new vaccine candidate with GenBank accession # EF550208, encoding the PA63 gene, in reproductive organs of mice; ovaries and uterus in female, and testis in male. Animals of both sexes were injected intramuscularly with pcDNA3.1+PA. Host genome integration and tissue distribution were examined using PCR and RT-PCR two times monthly for six months. Results: RT-PCR confirmed that pcDNA3.1+PA was not integrated into the host genome and did not enter reproductive organs. Conclusions: This finding has important implications for the use of pcDNA3.1+PA plasmid as a vaccine and opens new perspectives in the DNA vaccine area.

  6. Nitric oxide nanoparticles: pre-clinical utility as a therapeutic for intramuscular abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schairer, David; Martinez, Luis R; Blecher, Karin; Chouake, Jason; Nacharaju, Parimala; Gialanella, Philip; Friedman, Joel M; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Friedman, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a critical component of host defense against invading pathogens; however, its therapeutic utility is limited due to a lack of practical delivery systems. Recently, a NO-releasing nanoparticulate platform (NO-np) was shown to have in vitro broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and in vivo pre-clinical efficacy in a dermal abscess model. To extend these findings, both topical (TP) and intralesional (IL) NO-np administration was evaluated in a MRSA intramuscular murine abscess model and compared with vancomycin. All treatment arms accelerated abscess clearance clinically, histologically, and by microbiological assays on both days 4 and 7 following infection. However, abscesses treated with NO-np via either route demonstrated a more substantial, statistically significant decrease in bacterial survival based on colony forming unit assays and histologically revealed less inflammatory cell infiltration and preserved muscular architecture. These data suggest that the NO-np may be an effective addition to our armament for deep soft tissue infections.

  7. A Key Gene, PLIN1, Can Affect Porcine Intramuscular Fat Content Based on Transcriptome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bojiang; Weng, Qiannan; Dong, Chao; Zhang, Zengkai; Li, Rongyang; Liu, Jingge; Jiang, Aiwen; Li, Qifa; Jia, Chao; Wu, Wangjun; Liu, Honglin

    2018-04-04

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) content is an important indicator for meat quality evaluation. However, the key genes and molecular regulatory mechanisms affecting IMF deposition remain unclear. In the present study, we identified 75 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the higher (H) and lower (L) IMF content of pigs using transcriptome analysis, of which 27 were upregulated and 48 were downregulated. Notably, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis indicated that the DEG perilipin-1 ( PLIN1 ) was significantly enriched in the fat metabolism-related peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway. Furthermore, we determined the expression patterns and functional role of porcine PLIN1. Our results indicate that PLIN1 was highly expressed in porcine adipose tissue, and its expression level was significantly higher in the H IMF content group when compared with the L IMF content group, and expression was increased during adipocyte differentiation. Additionally, our results confirm that PLIN1 knockdown decreases the triglyceride (TG) level and lipid droplet (LD) size in porcine adipocytes. Overall, our data identify novel candidate genes affecting IMF content and provide new insight into PLIN1 in porcine IMF deposition and adipocyte differentiation.

  8. Intramuscular anti-D in chronic immune thrombocytopenia children with severe thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirachainan, Nongnuch; Anurathapan, Usanarat; Chuansumrit, Ampaiwan; Songdej, Duantida; Wongwerawattanakoon, Pakawan; Hutspardol, Sakara; Kitpoka, Pimpun

    2013-12-01

    Nine patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia and platelet counts anti-D. Phase 1 was anti-D daily for 5 days, followed by phase 2, anti-D weekly for 12 weeks and withheld when platelet counts ≥ 20 × 10(9) /L, and then phase 3 was anti-D once every 2 weeks for 24 weeks. According to the International Working Group criteria, in phase 1, 66.7% of patients responded to the treatment. In phases 2 and 3, 11.1% (0-41.7%) and 7.7% (0-33.3%) of total episodes of follow up, respectively, responded to the treatment. Therefore, intramuscular anti-D given at a dose of 10 mcg/kg for 5 days is an alternative method to raise platelet counts in chronic immune thrombocytopenia children with severe thrombocytopenia where the intravenous form of anti-D is not available. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. Pharmacokinetic properties of methadone hydrochloride after single intramuscular administration in adult dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, M; Thompson, E; Vulliet, P R; Brooks, D L

    1994-10-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters of methadone were studied in adult dairy goats. Five goats were each given methadone hydrochloride as a single 0.2 mg/kg of body weight dosage by intramuscular (IM) administration. Plasma methadone concentrations were determined for 96 h after dosing. Plasma methadone concentrations after IM administration were best described by an open one-compartment model. Overall elimination half-life (t1/2) was 1.38 h. Peak plasma concentrations were reached 0.25 h after dosing, and the actual plasma concentration averaged 37.8 ng/ml (SD = 12.76) at that time. The data obtained from this study suggest that plasma concentrations, similar to those that are analgesic in humans, can be achieved after IM administration of methadone at a dose rate of 0.2 mg/kg of body weight. In addition, these plasma concentrations can be maintained for up to 3 h after a single injection and, therefore, may provide satisfactory analgesia for such period.

  10. Lower aerobic capacity was associated with abnormal intramuscular energetics in patients with metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Takashi; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Okita, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    Lower aerobic capacity is a strong and independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the mechanisms are not fully elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that skeletal muscle dysfunction could contribute to the lower aerobic capacity in MetS patients. The incremental exercise tests with cycle ergometer were performed in 12 male patients with MetS with no habitual exercise and 11 age-, sex- and activity-matched control subjects to assess the aerobic capacity. We performed 31 phosphorus-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to assess the high-energy phosphate metabolism in skeletal muscle during aerobic exercise. Proton-MRS was also performed to measure intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content. Peak oxygen uptake (peak VO 2 ; 34.1±6.2 vs. 41.4±8.4 ml kg -1 min -1 , P -1 min -1 , P 2 (r=-0.64) and AT (r=-0.60), respectively. IMCL content was threefold higher in MetS and was inversely correlated with peak VO 2 (r=-0.47) and AT (r=-0.52), respectively. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between IMCL content and PCr loss (r=0.64). These results suggested that lean-body aerobic capacity in MetS patients was lower compared with activity-matched healthy subjects, which might be due to the reduced intramuscular fatty acid oxidative metabolism. (author)

  11. Intramuscular pressures in antigravity muscles using gravity-independent, pneumatic hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Brandon R; Minocha, Ranjeet; Cutuk, Adnan A; Hill, James; Shiau, Jonathon; Hargens, Alan R

    2008-08-01

    Resistive exercise helps prevent muscle atrophy in microgravity, but better exercise equipment is needed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if a pneumatic, gravity-independent leg-press device (LPD) provides sufficient force to leg musculature. We hypothesized that intramuscular pressure (IMP), a quantitative index of muscle force, is greater in the antigravity superficial posterior and deep posterior compartments than in the non-antigravity anterior compartment during bilateral leg-press exercise. Millar pressure transducers were inserted into the anterior, lateral, superficial posterior, and deep posterior muscle compartments of the left leg of eight healthy subjects (three women, five men). Subjects were supine on the Keiser SX-1, a pneumatic LPD. Then maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was determined; each subject performed three consecutive voluntary contractions at approximately 18%, 50%, and 100% MVC while continuously measuring IMP. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to determine differences of IMPs between compartments and loads. The magnitudes of IMP (mean +/- SEM) at 18 - 3% (abbreviated approximately 18%), 50%, and 100% MVC in the superficial and deep posterior compartments were significantly greater than that in the anterior compartment during exercise (P antigravity compartments as compared to the non-antigravity compartment. Since antigravity muscles of the leg are contained primarily in the superficial and deep posterior compartments, the LPD may help prevent muscle atrophy associated with microgravity.

  12. Transcriptome changes favoring intramuscular fat deposition in the longissimus muscle following castration of bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, J; Bong, J; Kim, G D; Joo, S T; Lee, H-J; Baik, M

    2013-10-01

    Castration increases intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition, improving beef quality in cattle. The present study was performed to determine the global transcriptome changes following castration of bulls and to identify genes associated with IMF deposition in the longissimus dorsi (LM) of Korean cattle. A customized bovine CombiMatrix oligonucleotide microarray was constructed, and transcriptome changes following castration were determined by microarray hybridization. Transcriptome comparison between bulls and steers indicated that 428 of 8,407 genes were differentially expressed in the LM by greater than two fold (P castration. Castration upregulated transcription of adipogenic perilipin 2 (PLIN2) and visfatin, lipogenic fatty acid synthase, fatty acid esterification 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 5, and many fatty acid oxidation-related genes. Many TCA cycle and OP genes were also transcriptionally upregulated. Correlation analysis indicated that the IMF content in the LM was highly correlated with mRNA levels of PLIN2 (r = 0.70, P castration shifts transcription of lipid metabolism genes, favoring IMF deposition by increasing adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and triglyceride synthesis. This study also indicated that castration increases transcription of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and subsequent energy production (TCA and OP genes). Our microarray analysis provided novel information that castration alters the transcriptome associated with lipid/energy metabolism, favoring IMF deposition in the LM.

  13. First reported experience with intramuscular diaphragm pacing in replacing positive pressure mechanical ventilators in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onders, Raymond P; Ponsky, Todd A; Elmo, MaryJo; Lidsky, Karen; Barksdale, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Diaphragm pacing (DP) has been shown to successfully replace mechanical ventilators for adult tetraplegic patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency. This is the first report of DP in ventilator-dependent children. This was a prospective interventional experience under institutional review board approval. Diaphragm pacing involves outpatient laparoscopic diaphragm motor point mapping to identify the site where stimulation causes maximum diaphragm contraction with implantation of 4 percutaneous intramuscular electrodes. Diaphragm conditioning ensues to wean the child from the ventilator. Six children were successfully implanted ranging from 5 to 17 years old with the smallest 15 kg in weight. Length of time on mechanical ventilation ranged from 11 days to 7.6 years with an average of 3.2 years. In all patients, DP provided tidal volumes above basal needs. Five of the patients underwent a home-based weaning program, whereas one patient who was implanted only 11 days post spinal cord injury never returned to the ventilator with DP use. Another patient was weaned from the ventilator full time but died of complications of his underlying brain stem tumor. The remaining patients weaned from the ventilator for over 14 hours a day and/or are actively conditioning their diaphragms. Diaphragm pacing successfully replaced mechanical ventilators, which improves quality of life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Single-use autoinjector for once-weekly intramuscular injection of IFNβ-1a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmroth, Volker; Gerbershagen, Kathrin

    2014-12-01

    IFNβ products and glatiramer acetate are established treatment first-line options in long-term disease-modifying therapy of multiple sclerosis (MS). These self-injectable medications are used once weekly to once daily. Injection-related issues are common patient-cited reasons for nonadherence. Autoinjectors have been shown to support long-term adherence to injectable medications. The ability to self-inject in MS patients has been associated with a reduced risk of missed injections and drug discontinuation, and a beneficial effect on patient independence. The recently introduced easy-to-use prefilled once-weekly pen is a safe and effective device for intramuscular (IM) IFNβ-1a application and provides a convenient method for self-injection. We reviewed the available published evidence on the characteristics of this device. The once-weekly pen facilitates self-injection and was preferred over prefilled syringes by patients in a prospective open-label, multicenter Phase IIIb trial in MS patients who had been using IM IFNβ-1a in prefilled syringes. The simple and safe handling, shielded short needle, single-use disposable design and virtually painless injection by the device may contribute to adherence, quality of life and independence in patients using IM IFNβ-1a.

  15. Streptococcus bovis/S. equinus complex septicemia in a group of calves following intramuscular vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Lorelei L; Fathke, Robert L; Sanchez, Susan; Stanton, James B

    2016-07-01

    Organisms previously classified as Streptococcus bovis (i.e., the S. bovis/S. equinus complex) are common in cattle feces, but may also act as opportunistic pathogens. In the current work, Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli, a member of this complex, was associated of a cluster of calves that died within hours of injection with a modified live viral vaccine. Within 12 h of vaccination of 46 calves at a cow/calf operation, 4 calves had died, 3 calves were ill, and 1 unvaccinated cow was dead. Autopsies were performed on the cow, 2 dead calves, and 1 affected surviving calf, which was euthanized ~24 h after vaccine administration. The animals had similar gross anatomic and microscopic lesions, including subcutaneous and intramuscular dark hemorrhage on the caudal neck, multiorgan ecchymosis and petechiation, and alveolitis to interstitial pneumonia. Gram-positive cocci were in the vasculature of the lung and skeletal muscle, and S. infantarius subsp. coli was cultured from tissues and from the vaccines used on affected animals, but not in vials used on unaffected animals. Together, these findings suggest death caused by streptococcal septicemia and toxemia as a result of contamination. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Electrical muscle stimulation elevates intramuscular BDNF and GDNF mRNA following peripheral nerve injury and repair in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willand, Michael P; Rosa, Elyse; Michalski, Bernadeta; Zhang, Jennifer J; Gordon, Tessa; Fahnestock, Margaret; Borschel, Gregory H

    2016-10-15

    Despite advances in surgery, patients with nerve injuries frequently have functional deficits. We previously demonstrated in a rat model that daily electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) following peripheral nerve injury and repair enhances reinnervation, detectable as early as two weeks post-injury. In this study, we explain the enhanced early reinnervation observed with electrical stimulation. In two groups of rats, the tibial nerve was transected and immediately repaired. Gastrocnemius muscles were implanted with intramuscular electrodes for sham or muscle stimulation. Muscles were stimulated daily, eliciting 600 contractions for one hour/day, repeated five days per week. Sixteen days following nerve injury, muscles were assessed for functional reinnervation by motor unit number estimation methods using electromyographic recording. In a separate cohort of rats, surgical and electrical stimulation procedures were identical but muscles and distal nerve stumps were harvested for molecular analysis. We observed that stimulated muscles had significantly higher motor unit number counts. Intramuscular levels of brain-derived and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and GDNF) mRNA were significantly upregulated in muscles that underwent daily electrical stimulation compared to those without stimulation. The corresponding levels of trophic factor mRNA within the distal stump were not different from one another, indicating that the intramuscular electrical stimulus does not modulate Schwann cell-derived trophic factor transcription. Stimulation over a three-month period maintained elevated muscle-derived GDNF but not BDNF mRNA. In conclusion, EMS elevates intramuscular trophic factor mRNA levels which may explain how EMS enhances neural regeneration following nerve injury. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antipyretic efficacy and tolerability of oral ibuprofen, oral dipyrone and intramuscular dipyrone in children: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Prado

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Dipyrone is a widely used over-the-counter antipyretic in Latin America, and elsewhere among Latin immigrants. Despite limited evidence, physicians often prescribe oral ibuprofen or intramuscular dipyrone as the most effective antipyretics. Our aim was to compare the antipyretic efficacy and tolerability of a single dose of oral ibuprofen, oral dipyrone or intramuscular dipyrone in febrile children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized, single-blind clinical trial, at San Bartolomé Mother-Child National Teaching Hospital, Lima, Peru. METHODS: Children from six months to six years old with fever (rectal temperature: 38.3 to 39.8° C in the emergency ward between February and June 2003 were eligible. Seventy-five children were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of oral ibuprofen (10 mg/kg, oral dipyrone (15 mg/kg or intramuscular dipyrone (15 mg/kg. The primary outcome was mean temperature reduction after 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes. Secondary outcomes were fever-associated symptoms and clinical adverse events. RESULTS: Fever decreased by about 0.5° C after 45 minutes and by about 1.0° C after 120 minutes in all three groups. Mean temperatures were similar for the three groups at all times. There was a significant decrease in fever-associated symptoms for all groups. Six patients (four receiving oral dipyrone and two receiving ibuprofen were withdrawn because of vomiting within 20 minutes after first dose of study medication. One patient assigned to oral ibuprofen presented transient urticaria. CONCLUSIONS: Antipyretic efficacy and tolerability were similar for oral ibuprofen, oral dipyrone and intramuscular dipyrone. Oral antipyretics seem more appropriate for feverish children.

  18. Gluteal Augmentation With Intramuscular Implants in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus With Lipoatrophy Related to the Use of Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Guilherme Augusto; Coltro, Pedro Soler; Barros, Mário Eduardo; Müller Neto, Bruno Francisco; Lima, Renan Victor; Farina, Jayme Adriano

    2017-11-01

    Lipodystrophy syndrome associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may lead to low self-esteem and poor compliance with the drug treatment on patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which is a matter of concern for the health system. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients with HIV submitted to gluteal augmentation with intramuscular silicone implants to correct gluteal lipoatrophy related to the use of HAART. This is a retrospective evaluation of 10 patients submitted to gluteal augmentation with intramuscular silicone implant for correction of gluteal lipoatrophy related to the use of HAART, operated between 2012 and 2015. Postoperative complications and the degree of patient's satisfaction were analyzed. There were 3 postoperative complications including 1 case of surgical wound dehiscence and 2 cases of seroma. Six months after surgery, 8 patients had an excellent degree of satisfaction, and 2 patients had a good degree of satisfaction related to the procedure. Although this intervention does not offer functional advantages, it improves the body contour, increases patients' self-esteem, and helps them to accept their body image. These advantages can lead to higher compliance with prolonged HAART. Gluteal augmentation with intramuscular silicone implant can be a viable option to treat patients with HIV with gluteal lipoatrophy related to the use of HAART. The patients were satisfied with the outcomes of the procedure, and there were only minor self-limited postoperative complications.

  19. Gene expression in the muscle and central nervous system following intramuscular inoculation of encapsidated or naked poliovirus replicons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Cheryl A.; Messinger, Jeff; Palmer, Matthew T.; Peduzzi, Jean D.; Morrow, Casey D.

    2003-01-01

    The spread of intramuscularly inoculated poliovirus to the central nervous system (CNS) has been documented in humans, monkeys, and mice transgenic for the human poliovirus receptor. Poliovirus spread is thought to be due to infection of the peripheral nerve and retrograde transport of poliovirus through the axon to the neuron cell body, where final virus uncoating occurs and translation/replication ensues. In previous studies, we have shown that polio-based vectors (replicons) can be used for gene delivery to motor neurons of the CNS. Using a replicon that encodes green fluorescent protein (GFP), we found that following intrathecal inoculation, GFP expression was confined to motorneurons of the spinal cord. To further characterize the gene expression of poliovirus in the periphery and CNS, we have intramuscularly inoculated transgenic mice with poliovirus replicons encoding GFP. Expression of GFP was demonstrated in the muscle, sciatic nerve, dorsal root ganglion, and the ventral horn motorneurons following intramuscular inoculation. There was no evidence of paralysis or behavioral abnormalities in the mice following intramuscular inoculation of the replicon encoding GFP. Injection of replicon RNA alone (naked RNA) into the muscle of transgenic mice or rats, which do not express the poliovirus receptor, also resulted in expression of GFP in the muscle, sciatic nerve, dorsal root ganglion, and ventral horn motorneurons, indicating that transport of the replicon RNA from the periphery to CNS had occurred. GFP expression was found in the muscles and sciatic nerve as early as 6 h after injection of replicons or replicon RNA, even after sciatic nerve section. Analysis at longer times postinjection revealed GFP expression similar to 6 h levels in the cut sciatic nerves and robust expression in the nerves of uncut animals. The infection and expression of GFP in the CNS following intramuscular inoculation of encapsidated replicons encoding GFP occurred in juvenile or

  20. Statistical analysis of Japanese Thorotrast-administered autopsy cases--1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, T. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa, Japan); Kato, Y.; Aoki, N.; Hatakeyama, S.

    1983-01-01

    In 193 cases autopsied between 1945 and 1980, all persons who had been intravascularly injected with Thorotrast in life, the authors found 131 malignant hepatic tumors, 20 liver cirrhoses, 6 myeloid leukemias, 4 erythroleukemias, 5 aplastic anemias, 4 lung cancers, 1 mesothelioma and 1 osteosarcoma. The causes of death in the Thorotrast-administered autopsy group (193 cases) were compared with those of a non-Thorotrast-administered autopsy group (95,000 cases) of the same sex and age at death as recorded in the Annals of Japanese Pathological Autopsy cases from 1958 to 1978. This comparison revealed that the frequencies of malignant hepatic tumors, liver cirrhosis, erythroleukemia, and aplastic anemia were significantly higher in the Thorotrast-administered group than in the non-Thorotrast-administered group.

  1. 47 CFR 97.509 - Administering VE requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., grandchildren, stepchildren, parents, grandparents, stepparents, brothers, sisters, stepbrothers, stepsisters... accommodate an examinee whose physical disabilities require a special examination procedure. The administering VEs may require a physician's certification indicating the nature of the disability before determining...

  2. Findings from Survey Administered to Weatherization Training Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlon, Brian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Tonn, Bruce Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes results of a survey administered to directors of weatherization training centers that receive funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The survey presents results related to questions on training offered and future plans.

  3. The optimal choice of medication administration route regarding intravenous, intramuscular, and subcutaneous injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin JF

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jing-fen Jin,1 Ling-ling Zhu,2 Meng Chen,3 Hui-min Xu,3 Hua-fen Wang,1 Xiu-qin Feng,1 Xiu-ping Zhu,3 Quan Zhou31Division of Nursing, 2VIP Care Ward, Division of Nursing, 3Department of Pharmacy, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Intravenous (IV, intramuscular (IM, and subcutaneous (SC are the three most frequently used injection routes in medication administration. Comparative studies of SC versus IV, IM versus IV, or IM versus SC have been sporadically conducted, and some new findings are completely different from the dosage recommendation as described in prescribing information. However, clinicians may still be ignorant of such new evidence-based findings when choosing treatment methods.Methods: A literature search was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, and Web of Sciences™ Core Collection to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of SC, IV, and IM administration in head-to-head comparative studies.Results: “SC better than IV” involves trastuzumab, rituximab, antitumor necrosis factor medications, bortezomib, amifostine, recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, recombinant interleukin-2, immunoglobulin, epoetin alfa, heparin, and opioids. “IV better than SC” involves ketamine, vitamin K1, and abatacept. With respect to insulin and ketamine, whether IV has advantages over SC is determined by specific clinical circumstances. “IM better than IV” involves epinephrine, hepatitis B immunoglobulin, pegaspargase, and some antibiotics. “IV better than IM” involves ketamine, morphine, and antivenom. “IM better than SC” involves epinephrine. “SC better than IM” involves interferon-beta-1a, methotrexate, human chorionic gonadotropin, hepatitis B immunoglobulin, hydrocortisone, and morphine. Safety, efficacy, patient preference, and pharmacoeconomics are four principles

  4. Relationship between medical compression and intramuscular pressure as an explanation of a compression paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, J-F; Benigni, J-P; Cornu-Thenard, A; Fournier, J; Blin, E

    2015-06-01

    Using standing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we recently showed that medical compression, providing an interface pressure (IP) of 22 mmHg, significantly compressed the deep veins of the leg but not, paradoxically, superficial varicose veins. To provide an explanation for this compression paradox by studying the correlation between the IP exerted by medical compression and intramuscular pressure (IMP). In 10 legs of five healthy subjects, we studied the effects of different IPs on the IMP of the medial gastrocnemius muscle. The IP produced by a cuff manometer was verified by a Picopress® device. The IMP was measured with a 21G needle connected to a manometer. Pressure data were recorded in the prone and standing positions with cuff manometer pressures from 0 to 50 mmHg. In the prone position, an IP of less than 20 did not significantly change the IMP. On the contrary, a perfect linear correlation with the IMP (r = 0.99) was observed with an IP from 20 to 50 mmHg. We found the same correlation in the standing position. We found that an IP of 22 mmHg produced a significant IMP increase from 32 to 54 mmHg, in the standing position. At the same time, the subcutaneous pressure is only provided by the compression device, on healthy subjects. In other words, the subcutaneous pressure plus the IP is only a little higher than 22 mmHg-a pressure which is too low to reduce the caliber of the superficial veins. This is in accordance with our standing MRI 3D anatomical study which showed that, paradoxically, when applying low pressures (IP), the deep veins are compressed while the superficial veins are not. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Intramuscular ziprasidone versus haloperidol for managing agitation in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Gang; Zhao, Jingping; Xie, Shiping; Xu, Xiufeng; Shi, Jianguo; Deng, Hehuang; Li, Keqing; Gao, Chengge; Wang, Xiaoping; Vanderburg, Douglas; Pan, Sharon; Tang, Haiyun; Shu, Liang; Karayal, Onur N

    2013-04-01

    Intramuscular (IM) antipsychotics are preferred for efficient control of agitation symptoms. Previous studies have demonstrated that IM ziprasidone is efficacious and safe for treatment of agitation in schizophrenia. However, clinicians now recognize that racial differences may contribute to altered therapeutic response and tolerability. This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of IM ziprasidone versus IM haloperidol for the management of agitation in Chinese subjects with schizophrenia. Subjects with acute schizophrenia were randomized to either ziprasidone (n = 189, 10 to 20 mg as required up to a maximum of 40 mg/d) or haloperidol (n = 187, 5 mg every 4 to 8 hours to a maximum of 20 mg/d) for 3 days. Psychiatric assessments and adverse events were assessed at baseline, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 72 hours. In the ziprasidone group, 2.1% of subjects discontinued versus 3.7% in the haloperidol group. The least squares mean change (SE) from baseline to 72 hours in Brief Psychiatry Rating Scale total score was -17.32 (0.7) for ziprasidone (n = 167) and -18.44 (0.7) for haloperidol (n = 152), with a 95% confidence interval treatment difference of -0.7 to 2.9. Fewer subjects experienced adverse events after ziprasidone (n = 54, 28.6%) than haloperidol (n = 116, 62.0%), with a notably higher incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms in the haloperidol group (n = 69, 36.9%) compared to the ziprasidone group (n = 4, 2.1%). For controlling agitation in schizophrenia in this Chinese study, ziprasidone had a favorable tolerability profile and comparable efficacy and safety compared to haloperidol.

  6. Fatty Acids Profile of Intramuscular Fat in Light Lambs Traditionally and Artificially Reared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan MARGETÍN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of 40 carcasses of light lambs of the synthetic population of Slovak Dairy sheep from (a artificial rearing (AR and (b traditional rearing (TR was assessed on the basis of fatty acids profile of intramuscular fat (IMF. Lambs from AR in comparison with TR were of lower quality as assessed on the basis of fatty acids (FAs profile. The content of conjugated linolic acid (CLA in the fat of TR lambs was severalfold higher (0.749 vs. 0.193 g.100g-1 FAME, P<0.001 than in AR lambs. Similarly, the content of trans-vaccenic (TVA, á-linolenic (ALA, rumenic (RA, eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA was in TR lambs significantly higher (P<0.001 than in AR lambs (0.955 vs. 0.111; 0.715 vs. 0.251; 0.672 vs. 0.148; 0.352 vs. 0.061; 0.252 vs. 0.079 g.100g-1 FAME. In contrary, the content of linoleic acid (LA, the ratio of LA/ALA and n-6/n-3 in AR lambs was higher than in TR lambs (9.07 vs. 4.81 g.100 g-1 FAME; 39.11 vs. 6.80; 14.56 vs. 3.25, P<0.001. In TR lambs the content of n-3 PUFA and BCFA was significantly higher (P<0.001 than in AR lambs (2.08 vs. 0.84 and 1.95 vs. 0.45. The value of thrombogenic index was higher in AR lambs in comparison with TR lambs (1.44 vs. 1.31; P<0.05. Significant differences between FAs of IMF of ram lambs and ewe lambs were observed only in the case of arachidonic acid (P<0.05.

  7. Efficacy of Sublingual Misoprostol versus Intramuscular Methylergometrine in Prevention of Primary Postpartum Hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, R.; Ambreen, A.; Khuram, A.; Mushtaq, M.

    2013-01-01

    Post partum hemorrhage still remains a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Most of oxytocics like methylergometrine require parenteral administration, which requires special storage. Misoprostol is thermo stable, has a long shelf life and is widely recommended for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. This can be a choice of oxytocic in developing countries like ours, where storage facilities and resources are limited. Objectives: To compare efficacy of sublingual Misoprostol versus intramuscular Methylergometrine in prevention of primary postpartum hemorrhage after delivery. Study Design: Quasi experimental study Place and Duration of Study: Department of Gynae/Obs, Military Hospital and Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi cantt. December 2007 to July 2008. Material and Methods: One hundred and thirty six pregnant ladies were selected. On arrival each patient was examined thoroughly along with baseline investigations. Therapeutic option was allocated to the patients simply by using a table of random numbers and dividing them in two equal groups. Informed written consent was taken. Each patient was observed for blood loss estimation and hematocrit drop. All the data was analyzed using SPSS version 10.0. Mean +- SD for age, pre-delivery and post-delivery hematocrit, percentage of drop in hematocrit and blood loss during labour was calculated. Results: Mean drop of hematocrit and blood loss were compared among two groups. At the end, it was revealed that there was no significant difference among two groups in blood loss (p=0.49) and hematocrit drop (p=0.14). Conclusion: There is no significant better effect in preventing post partum hemorrhage among the two drugs. (author)

  8. Depletion of long-acting ampicillin in goat milk following intramuscular administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrini, Anna Maria; Trenta, Simona; Mannoni, Veruscka; Rosati, Remo; Coni, Ettore

    2010-12-08

    Although goat milk production represents today a very small percentage of the world milk market, this percentage has been growing continuously during the past 20 years. Goat milk is the basic milk supply in many developing countries and provides tasteful derivative products in developed countries. Goats, as well as all milk-producing animals, can be affected by mastitis, but goats being considered a minor species, few drugs are specifically registered for these animals; most, at least for mastitis treatment, are usually tested and registered for use in cows. This situation leads often to the adoption for goat milk of withdrawal periods defined for cows even if these extrapolations prove almost never valid for goats. In the present study, the elimination of the β-lactam antibacterial agent ampicillin in goat milk was investigated. Ampicillin was chosen because it is one of the most common antibiotics used by goat farmers against mastitis due to the fact that it is well tolerated and has short elimination times in cows. Goats were treated with long-acting ampicillin at 15 mg (kg of body weight)(-1) by double intramuscular injection at 72 h interval. Milk was collected in a 12 h milking scheme. The method used to determine the levels of ampicillin in goat milk was based on a liquid-liquid extraction of this drug from the matrix, successive derivatization with formaldehyde, and final separation by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The results point out a slow depletion of ampicillin and, consequently, a withdrawal period (13 milkings) longer than that extrapolated and authorized for cows and sheep.

  9. The impact of a standardised intramuscular sedation protocol for acute behavioural disturbance in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Downes Michael A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute behavioural disturbance (ABD is an increasing problem in emergency departments. This study aimed to determine the impact of a structured intramuscular (IM sedation protocol on the duration of ABD in the emergency department. Methods A historical control study was undertaken comparing 58 patients who required physical restraint and parenteral sedation with the structured IM sedation protocol, to 73 historical controls treated predominantly by intravenous sedation, according to individual clinician preference. The primary outcome was the duration of the ABD defined as the time security staff were required. Secondary outcomes were the requirement for additional sedation, drug related-adverse effects and patient and staff injuries. Results The median duration of the ABD in patients with the new sedation protocol was 21 minutes (IQR: 15 to 35 minutes; Range: 5 to 78 minutes compared to a median duration of 30 minutes (IQR: 15 to 50 minutes; Range: 5 to 135 minutes in the historical controls which was significantly different (p = 0.03. With IM sedation only 27 of 58 patients (47%; 95% CI: 34% to 60% required further sedation compared to 64 of 73 historical controls (88%; 95%CI: 77% to 94%. There were six (10% drug-related adverse events with the new IM protocol [oxygen desaturation (5, oxygen desaturation/airway obstruction (1] compared to 10 (14% in the historical controls [oxygen desaturation (5, hypoventilation (4 and aspiration (1]. Injuries to staff occurred with three patients using the new sedation protocol and in seven of the historical controls. Two patients were injured during the new protocol and two of the historical controls. Conclusion The use of a standardised IM sedation protocol was simple, more effective and as safe for management of ABD compared to predominantly intravenous sedation.

  10. Umbilical cord mesenchyme stem cell local intramuscular injection for treatment of uterine niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dazhi; Wu, Shuzhen; Ye, Shaoxin; Wang, Wen; Guo, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhengping

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Uterine niche is defined as a triangular anechoic structure at the site of the scar or a gap in the myometrium at the site of a previous caesarean section. The main clinical manifestations are postmenstrual spotting and intrauterine infection, which may seriously affect the daily life of nonpregnant women. Trials have shown an excellent safety and efficacy for the potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a therapeutic option for scar reconstruction. Therefore, this study is designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of using MSCs in the treatment for the uterine niche. Methods/design: This phase II clinical trial is a single-center, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled with 2 arms. One hundred twenty primiparous participants will be randomly (1:1 ratio) assigned to receive direct intramuscular injection of MSCs (a dose of 1∗107 cells in 1 mL of 0.9% saline) (MSCs group) or an identical-appearing 1 mL of 0.9% saline (placebo-controlled group) near the uterine incision. The primary outcome of this trial is to evaluate the proportion of participants at 6 months who is found uterine niche in the uterus by transvaginal utrasonography. Adverse events will be documented in a case report form. The study will be conducted at the Department of Obstetric of Southern Medical University Affiliated Maternal & Child Health Hospital of Foshan. Discussion: This trial is the first investigation of the potential for therapeutic use of MSCs for the management of uterine niche after cesarean delivery. Conclusion: This protocol will help to determine the efficacy and safety of MSCs treatment in uterine niche and bridge the gap with regards to the current preclinical and clinical evidence. Trial registration number: NCT02968459 (Clinical Trials.gov: http://clinicaltrials.gov/). PMID:29095305

  11. Lack of gender effect on the pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline in Fenneropenaeus chinensis after intramuscular administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming; Li, Jian; Chang, Zhiqiang; Guo, Wenting; Zhao, Fazhen; Li, Jitao

    2015-04-01

    Fenneropenaeus chinensis, an economically important shrimp species, currently suffers from epizootic diseases due to high density stocking and bacterial infections. Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been widely used to treat various systemic bacterial infections in shrimp farming. In the present study, the effect of gender on pharmacokinetics of OTC in F. chinensis was investigated. The OTC concentrations in hemolymph of shrimp after single intramuscular administration (75 mg OTC per kg body weight) were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and best described with a two-compartment open model which is characterized by a short elimination half-life, low clearance, and a relatively large apparent volume of distribution. The pharmacokinetic equations were C t = 58.54e-0.38 t + 11.67e-0.04 t for females; and C t = 27.94e-0.28 t + 14.87e-0.04 t for males. The distribution and elimination half-lives of OTC were 1.82 and 19.58 h, respectively, in females and 2.50 and 16.11 h, respectively, in males at 22°C. The areas under the drug concentration curve were 480 mg L-1 h-1 in females and 430 mg L-1 h-1 in males. The total body clearance of the drug was 157.11 mL kg-1 h-1 in females and 172.47 mL kg-1 h-1 in males. The apparent volume distribution was 4.44 in females and 4.01 L kg-1 in males. There was no significant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters between female and male shrimps, indicating that there is no need to consider the gender effect in clinical use of OTC in F. chinensis farming.

  12. Artesunate Suppositories versus Intramuscular Artemether for Treatment of Severe Malaria in Children in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunajeewa, Harin A.; Reeder, John; Lorry, Kerry; Dabod, Elizah; Hamzah, Juliana; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Chiswell, Gregory M.; Ilett, Kenneth F.; Davis, Timothy M. E.

    2006-01-01

    Drug treatment of severe malaria must be rapidly effective. Suppositories may be valuable for childhood malaria when circumstances prevent oral or parenteral therapy. We compared artesunate suppositories (n = 41; 8 to 16 mg/kg of body weight at 0 and 12 h and then daily) with intramuscular (i.m.) artemether (n = 38; 3.2 mg/kg at 0 h and then 1.6 mg/kg daily) in an open-label, randomized trial with children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Parasite density and temperature were measured every 6 h for ≥72 h. Primary endpoints included times to 50% and 90% parasite clearance (PCT50 and PCT90) and the time to per os status. In a subset of 29 patients, plasma levels of artemether, artesunate, and their common active metabolite dihydroartemisinin were measured during the first 12 h. One suppository-treated patient with multiple complications died within 2 h of admission, but the remaining 78 recovered uneventfully. Compared to the artemether-treated children, those receiving artesunate suppositories had a significantly earlier mean PCT50 (9.1 versus 13.8 h; P = 0.008) and PCT90 (15.6 versus 20.4 h; P = 0.011). Mean time to per os status was similar for each group. Plasma concentrations of primary drug plus active metabolite were significantly higher in the artesunate suppository group at 2 h postdose. The earlier initial fall in parasitemia with artesunate is clinically advantageous and mirrors higher initial plasma concentrations of active drug/metabolite. In severely ill children with malaria in PNG, artesunate suppositories were at least as effective as i.m. artemether and may, therefore, be useful in settings where parenteral therapy cannot be given. PMID:16495259

  13. Artesunate suppositories versus intramuscular artemether for treatment of severe malaria in children in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunajeewa, Harin A; Reeder, John; Lorry, Kerry; Dabod, Elizah; Hamzah, Juliana; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Chiswell, Gregory M; Ilett, Kenneth F; Davis, Timothy M E

    2006-03-01

    Drug treatment of severe malaria must be rapidly effective. Suppositories may be valuable for childhood malaria when circumstances prevent oral or parenteral therapy. We compared artesunate suppositories (n = 41; 8 to 16 mg/kg of body weight at 0 and 12 h and then daily) with intramuscular (i.m.) artemether (n = 38; 3.2 mg/kg at 0 h and then 1.6 mg/kg daily) in an open-label, randomized trial with children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Parasite density and temperature were measured every 6 h for > or = 72 h. Primary endpoints included times to 50% and 90% parasite clearance (PCT50 and PCT90) and the time to per os status. In a subset of 29 patients, plasma levels of artemether, artesunate, and their common active metabolite dihydroartemisinin were measured during the first 12 h. One suppository-treated patient with multiple complications died within 2 h of admission, but the remaining 78 recovered uneventfully. Compared to the artemether-treated children, those receiving artesunate suppositories had a significantly earlier mean PCT50 (9.1 versus 13.8 h; P = 0.008) and PCT90 (15.6 versus 20.4 h; P = 0.011). Mean time to per os status was similar for each group. Plasma concentrations of primary drug plus active metabolite were significantly higher in the artesunate suppository group at 2 h postdose. The earlier initial fall in parasitemia with artesunate is clinically advantageous and mirrors higher initial plasma concentrations of active drug/metabolite. In severely ill children with malaria in PNG, artesunate suppositories were at least as effective as i.m. artemether and may, therefore, be useful in settings where parenteral therapy cannot be given.

  14. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of enrofloxacin after single intramuscular injection in Pacific white shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, X; Zhou, J; Liu, X

    2018-02-01

    The pharmacokinetic properties and tissue distribution of enrofloxacin (EF) were investigated after single intramuscular (i.m.) dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) in Pacific white shrimp at 22 to 25°C. EF and its metabolite ciprofloxacin (CF) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. After i.m. administration, EF was absorbed quickly, and the peak of EF concentration (C max ) reached at first time point in hemolymph. The volume of distribution V d(area) of EF was 3.84 L/kg, indicating that the distribution of EF was good. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of EF was 90.1 and 274.2 μg hr/ml in muscle and hepatopancreas, respectively, which was higher than 75.8 μg hr/ml in hemolymph. The EF elimination was slow in muscle and hepatopancreas with the half-life (T 1/2β ) of 52.3 and 75.8 hr, respectively. CF, the mainly metabolite of EF, was detected in hemolymph, muscle and hepatopancreas. The C max was 0.030, 0.013 and 0.218 μg/ml, respectively. Based on a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.006-0.032 μg/ml for susceptible strains, EF i.m. injected at a dose 10 mg/kg could be efficacious against common pathogenic bacteria of Pacific white shrimp. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The effect of intramuscular administration of medroxy progesterone acetate (MPA on electrocardiographic alterations of female dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Neshat Gharamaleky

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Progestins are useful for hormonal prevention of pregnancy in humans and animals. Progestrone and medroxy progestrone acetate are used for treatment of premenopausal syndrome and decreasing complications of estrogen therapy after menopause. Prescription of progesterone in dogs is usually done to control or delay estrus. If this drug is used at anestrous it will inhibit the gonadotropin excretion beyond the basic level and it will prevent cycle from happening again in proestrus or at the beginning of estrus progesterone will prevent ovulation. Use of progesterone is not totally safe in bitches. It can cause several problems such as cystic endometrial hyperplasia and pyrometera. In this study the effects of medroxy progestrone acetat (MPA on electrocardiographic changes are evaluated. After nutritional and environmental uniformity and other evaluations, the animals were divided into two groups with six bitches in each group. MPA was used at 10 mg/kg for the first group and 20 mg/kg for the second group. An ECG was recorded from the first group in time zero. MPA was injected intramuscularly and immediately after ECG recording and the time of injection was noted. Another ECG was recorded 0.5 and 2 hours after injection. The same process was repeated for the second group. It was observed that MPA at 20 mg/kg increased the heart rate and consequently PR interval and RR interval were decreased significantly in normal range. Also administration of drug at 10 mg/kg decreased the heart rate and increased PR interval, QT interval and RR interval significantly in normal range. It is probable that these observations are the result of MPAs dose dependent vasodilatory nature that induces the heart to exhibit compensative reactions such as increasing heart rate.

  16. The administered activity of radionuclides in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Mototoshi; Koga, Sukehiko; Kondo, Takeshi

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 104 hospitals was conducted to determine the administered activity of radionuclides. Eighty-five hospitals responded, and reported a total of 119,614 examinations in one year. The examinations included: bone scintigraphy, 26.4%; thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) myocardial scintigraphy, 15.5%; gallium-67 ( 67 Ga) scintigraphy, 13.3%; N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine (IMP) brain perfusion scintigraphy, 7.0%. The administered activity was corrected by body weight only for children at more than 80% of the responding hospitals. The number of hospitals that reported over-administration of radionuclide varied according to the type of scintigraphy performed: bone, 76%; inflammatory ( 67 Ga), 93%; myocardial ( 201 Tl), 89.2%; brain (IMP), 8.5%. The administered activity of IMP was closer to the upper limits specified in the Recommendations on Standardization of Radionuclide Imaging by the Japan Radioisotope Association (1987), because IMP is very expensive and is supplied as single vials. The highest average effective dose was for myocardial scintigraphy, the second-highest for inflammatory scintigraphy, and the third-highest for bone scintigraphy. In 201 Tl and 67 Ga scintigraphy, the entire contents of the vial may be administered two days before the expiration date, because the ratio of (true patient administered activity) to (declared patient administered activity) is similar to the ratio of (radioactivity on the day of supply) to (radioactivity on the day of expiration). The factors that influence administered activity are through put, price of the radionuclide, and whether the radionuclide is sold as a single vial. In order to decrease the effective dose, it is necessary to establish a close cooperation between medical personnel, the makers of radiopharmaceuticals, and manufactures of gamma cameras. (author)

  17. Randomised, prospective, non-blinded pilot study comparing the effect of intramuscular steroid injections and intralesional steroid injections in the management of tennis elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Hasan; Biro, Izolda; Donnelly, Simon; Greenwood, Mandy

    2016-01-01

    Background Tennis elbow is an overuse injury affecting people performing repetitive forearm movements. It is a soft tissue disorder that causes significant disability and pain. The aim of the study was to establish that an intramuscular steroid injection is effective in the short-term pain relief and functional improvement of tennis elbow. The severity of pain at the injection site was monitored to determine whether the intramuscular injection is better tolerated than the intralesional injection. Methods and results 19 patients, who had no treatment for tennis elbow in the preceding 3 months, were recruited from Whipps Cross University Hospital, London, and were randomised to receive either 80 mg of intramuscular Depo-Medrone or 40 mg of intralesional Depo-Medrone injection. Blinding proved difficult as the injection sites differed and placebo arms were not included in the study. A Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) Questionnaire and a 10-point Likert scale were used to assess primary outcome. Six weeks after the treatment, there was a reduction in pain, improvement in function and total PRTEE scores in both intramuscular and intralesional groups (p=0.008) using a 95% CI for mean treatment difference of −26 to +16 points. A statistically significant result (p=0.001) in favour of intramuscular causing less pain at the injection site was noted. Conclusion Non-inferiority of intramuscular to intralesional injections was not confirmed; however, the intramuscular injection proved to be effective in reducing tennis elbow-related symptoms and was found less painful at the site of injection at the time of administration. Trial registration number EUDRACT Number: 2010-022131-11. REC Number: 10/H0718/76 (NRES, Central London REC 1). PMID:28879024

  18. Informationally administered reward enhances intrinsic motivation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeon-Seung; Jang, Seon-Kyeong; Lee, Ga-Young; Park, Seon-Cheol; Medalia, Alice; Choi, Kee-Hong

    2017-10-01

    Even when individuals with schizophrenia have an intact ability to enjoy rewarding moments, the means to assist them to translate rewarding experiences into goal-directed behaviors is unclear. The present study sought to determine whether informationally administered rewards enhance intrinsic motivation to foster goal-directed behaviors in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) and healthy controls (HCs). Eighty-four participants (SZ=43, HCs=41) were randomly assigned to conditions involving either a performance-contingent reward with an informationally administered reward or a task-contingent reward with no feedback. Participants were asked to play two cognitive games of equalized difficulty. Accuracy, self-reported intrinsic motivation, free-choice intrinsic motivation (i.e., game play during a free-choice observation period), and perceived competency were measured. Intrinsic motivation and perceived competency in the cognitive games were similar between the two participant groups. The informationally administered reward significantly enhanced self-reported intrinsic motivation and perceived competency in both the groups. The likelihood that individuals with schizophrenia would play the game during the free-choice observation period was four times greater in the informationally administered reward condition than that in the no-feedback condition. Our findings suggest that, in the context of cognitive remediation, individuals with schizophrenia would benefit from informationally administered rewards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Even 'safe' medications need to be administered with care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwak, Nancy; Howland, Mary Ann; Gambetta, Rosemarie; Dill, Curt

    2013-01-02

    A 60-year-old man with a history of hepatic cirrhosis and cardiomyopathy underwent transoesophageal echocardiogram. He received mild sedation and topical lidocaine. During the recovery period the patient developed ataxia and diplopia for about 30 mins, a result of lidocaine toxicity. The patient was administered a commonly used local anaesthetic, a combination of 2% viscous lidocaine, 4% lidocaine gargle and 5% lidocaine ointment topically to the oropharnyx. The total dose was at least 280 mg. Oral lidocaine undergoes extensive first pass metabolism and its clearance is quite dependent on rates of liver blood flow as well as other factors. The patient's central nervous system symptoms were mild and transient but remind us that to avoid adverse side effects, orally administered drugs with fairly high hepatic extraction ratio given to patients with chronic liver disease need to be given in reduced dosages. Even 'Safe' medications need to be carefully administered.

  20. Improved neurological outcome by intramuscular injection of human amniotic fluid derived stem cells in a muscle denervation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jung Chen

    Full Text Available The skeletal muscle develops various degrees of atrophy and metabolic dysfunction following nerve injury. Neurotrophic factors are essential for muscle regeneration. Human amniotic fluid derived stem cells (AFS have the potential to secrete various neurotrophic factors necessary for nerve regeneration. In the present study, we assess the outcome of neurological function by intramuscular injection of AFS in a muscle denervation and nerve anastomosis model.Seventy two Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250 gm were enrolled in this study. Muscle denervation model was conducted by transverse resection of a sciatic nerve with the proximal end sutured into the gluteal muscle. The nerve anastomosis model was performed by transverse resection of the sciatic nerve followed by four stitches reconnection. These animals were allocated to three groups: control, electrical muscle stimulation, and AFS groups.NT-3 (Neurotrophin 3, BDNF (Brain derived neurotrophic factor, CNTF (Ciliary neurotrophic factor, and GDNF (Glia cell line derived neurotrophic factor were highly expressed in AFS cells and supernatant of culture medium. Intra-muscular injection of AFS exerted significant expression of several neurotrophic factors over the distal end of nerve and denervated muscle. AFS caused high expression of Bcl-2 in denervated muscle with a reciprocal decrease of Bad and Bax. AFS preserved the muscle morphology with high expression of desmin and acetylcholine receptors. Up to two months, AFS produced significant improvement in electrophysiological study and neurological functions such as SFI (sciatic nerve function index and Catwalk gait analysis. There was also significant preservation of the number of anterior horn cells and increased nerve myelination as well as muscle morphology.Intramuscular injection of AFS can protect muscle apoptosis and likely does so through the secretion of various neurotrophic factors. This protection furthermore improves the nerve

  1. Increased technetium uptake is not equivalent to muscle necrosis: scintigraphic, morphological and intramuscular pressure analyses of sore muscles after exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, A. G.; Friden, J.; Hargens, A. R.; Lang, G. H.; Thornell, L. E.

    1993-01-01

    A scintigraphic technique employing technetium pyrophosphate uptake was used to identify the area of skeletal muscle damage in the lower leg of four runners 24 h after an ultramarathon footrace (160 km). Most of the race had been run downhill which incorporated an extensive amount of eccentric work. Soreness was diffuse throughout the posterior region of the lower leg. In order to interpret what increased technetium uptake reflects and to express extreme endurance related damages, a biopsy was taken from the 3-D position of abnormal uptake. In addition, intramuscular pressures were determined in the deep posterior compartment. Scintigraphs revealed increased technetium pyrophosphate uptake in the medial portion of the gastrocnemius muscle. For 3698 fibres analysed, 33 fibres (1%) were necrotic, while a few other fibres were either atrophic or irregular shaped. A cluster of necrotic fibres occurred at the fascicular periphery for one subject and fibre type grouping occurred for another. Ultrastructural analysis revealed Z-line streaming near many capillaries and variously altered subsarcolemmal mitochondria including some with paracrystalline inclusions. The majority of the capillaries included thickened and irregular shaped endothelial cells. Intramuscular pressures of the deep posterior compartment were slightly elevated (12-15 mmHg) for three of the four subjects. Increased technetium uptake following extreme endurance running does not just reflect muscle necrosis but also subtle fibre abnormalities. Collectively, these pathological findings are attributed to relative ischaemia occurring during the race and during pre-race training, whereas, intramuscular pressure elevations associated with muscle soreness are attributed to mechanical stress caused by extensive eccentric work during the race.

  2. Fatty rind of intramuscular soft-tissue tumors of the extremity: is it different from the split fat sign?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Jinkyeong; Kim, Jee-Young [The Catholic University of Korea, Departments of Radiology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    To analyze intramuscular soft-tissue tumors with fatty rind, and to evaluate the difference between fatty rind and split fat sign on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We retrospectively analyzed 50 pathologically confirmed intramuscular masses on MRI. We evaluated the distribution and shape of fatty rind and muscle atrophy. Fatty rind was found more frequently in benign lesions (80% [36 out of 45]) compared with malignant lesions (25% [1 out of 5]; P = 0.013). Thirty-six benign lesions were peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs; n = 19), hemangiomas (n = 11), myxomas (n = 2), ganglion cysts (n = 2), giant cell tumor (n = 1), and leiomyoma (n = 1). One malignant lesion was a low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma. In all masses with fatty rind, fat was confined to the proximal and the distal ends. In 12 cases, complete or partial circumferential fatty rind was also noted. Fatty rinds at both ends showed crescent, triangular, or combined shape. The prevalence of crescent-shaped fatty rind was significantly higher in benign PNST (17 out of 38) compared with the other tumors (1 out of 32; P < 0.001). Complete circumferential fat was noted only in hemangioma (n = 5). Triangular fatty rind was related to peripheral location of the mass or muscle atrophy. Most intramuscular tumors with fatty rinds were benign, and PNST was the most common tumor type. Fatty rind could be caused by displaced neurovascular bundle fat, fatty atrophy of the muscle involved, or intermuscular or perimysial fat. Crescent-shaped fatty rind was noted more frequently in benign PNSTs. (orig.)

  3. Fatty rind of intramuscular soft-tissue tumors of the extremity: is it different from the split fat sign?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Jinkyeong; Kim, Jee-Young

    2017-01-01

    To analyze intramuscular soft-tissue tumors with fatty rind, and to evaluate the difference between fatty rind and split fat sign on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We retrospectively analyzed 50 pathologically confirmed intramuscular masses on MRI. We evaluated the distribution and shape of fatty rind and muscle atrophy. Fatty rind was found more frequently in benign lesions (80% [36 out of 45]) compared with malignant lesions (25% [1 out of 5]; P = 0.013). Thirty-six benign lesions were peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs; n = 19), hemangiomas (n = 11), myxomas (n = 2), ganglion cysts (n = 2), giant cell tumor (n = 1), and leiomyoma (n = 1). One malignant lesion was a low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma. In all masses with fatty rind, fat was confined to the proximal and the distal ends. In 12 cases, complete or partial circumferential fatty rind was also noted. Fatty rinds at both ends showed crescent, triangular, or combined shape. The prevalence of crescent-shaped fatty rind was significantly higher in benign PNST (17 out of 38) compared with the other tumors (1 out of 32; P < 0.001). Complete circumferential fat was noted only in hemangioma (n = 5). Triangular fatty rind was related to peripheral location of the mass or muscle atrophy. Most intramuscular tumors with fatty rinds were benign, and PNST was the most common tumor type. Fatty rind could be caused by displaced neurovascular bundle fat, fatty atrophy of the muscle involved, or intermuscular or perimysial fat. Crescent-shaped fatty rind was noted more frequently in benign PNSTs. (orig.)

  4. Effect of different adjuvant formulations on the immunogenicity and protective effect of a live Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine after intramuscular inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiyan; Wei, Yanna; Xie, Haidong; Feng, Zhixin; Gan, Yuan; Wang, Chunlai; Liu, Maojun; Bai, Fangfang; Xie, Fang; Shao, Guoqing

    2014-06-05

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) vaccine strain 168 is an intrapulmonically injected attenuated live vaccine that is available in the Chinese market. The aim of this study was to develop suitable adjuvants for this live vaccine to provide effective protection after intramuscular inoculation. Several adjuvant components were screened to assess their toxicity for the live vaccine, and various adjuvant formulations were then designed and prepared. Vaccines supplemented with these adjuvants were used to immunize mice intramuscularly to assess the capacity of the adjuvants to induce a specific immune response. The screened formulations were then evaluated in pigs. Seven of the eight adjuvant components did not affect the viability of the live vaccine, and seven different adjuvant formulations were then designed. In mice, the ISCOM-matrix adjuvant and the levamisole-chitosan mixture adjuvant significantly enhanced serum IgG responses against M. hyopneumoniae, while lymphocyte proliferation was enhanced by the ISCOM-matrix adjuvant, the carbomer-astragalus polysaccharide mixture adjuvant and an oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant. These four adjuvants were evaluated in pigs. Enhancement of specific lymphocyte proliferation responses was observed in the groups vaccinated with the ISCOM-matrix adjuvant and the carbomer-astragalus polysaccharide mixture adjuvant. Significant enhancement of serum IgG antibody production was observed before challenge in pigs vaccinated with the carbomer-astragalus polysaccharide mixture adjuvant and the levamisole-chitosan mixture adjuvant, while after challenge, all of the animals that received vaccines containing adjuvants had higher antibody concentrations against M. hyopneumoniae than unvaccinated animals. Animals inoculated with a vaccine containing the ISCOM-matrix adjuvant (median score 3.57) or the carbomer-astragalus polysaccharide mixture adjuvant (median score 5.28) had reduced lesion scores compared to unvaccinated animals

  5. Rats and rabbits as pharmacokinetic screening tools for long acting intramuscular depots: case study with paliperidone palmitate suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Harilal; Patel, Prakash; Modi, Nirav; Patel, Pinakin; Wagh, Yogesh; George, Alex; Desai, Nirmal; Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2018-05-08

    Development of prodrug of 9-hydroxyrisperidone (paliperidone) long-acting intramuscular injection has enabled delivery over four-week time period with improved compliance. The key aim of this work was to establish a reliable preclinical model which may potentially serve as a screening tool for judging the pharmacokinetics of paliperidone formulation(s) prior to human clinical work. Sparse sampling composite study was used in rats, (Wistar/Sprague-Dawley (SD; n = 10)) and a serial blood sampling study design was used in rabbits (n = 4). Animals received intramuscular injection of paliperidone palmitate in the thigh muscle at dose of 16 (rats) and 4.5 mg/kg (rabbits). Samples were drawn in rats (retro-orbital sinus) and rabbits (central ear artery) and were analysed for paliperidone using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/ mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay. The plasma data was subjected to pharmacokinetic analysis. Following intramuscular injection of depot formulation in Wistar/SD rats and rabbits, absorption of paliperidone was slow and gradual with median value of time to reach maximum concentration (T max ) occurring on day 7. The exposures (i.e. area under the curve (AUC; 0-28) days) were 18,597, 21,865 and 18,120 ng.h/mL, in Wistar, SD and rabbits, respectively. The clearance was slow and supported long half-life (8-10 days). Either one of the two models can serve as a research tool for establishing pharmacokinetics of paliperidone formulation(s).

  6. Sustained-release progesterone nanosuspension following intramuscular injection in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba F Salem

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Heba F SalemFaculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, EgyptAbstract: The production of an intramuscular (IM injection of natural progesterone would provide a safer solution than using semi synthetic progesterone. However, disadvantages such as low solubility and a short half life prevent the use of natural progesterone. In this study, we formulated a sustained release form of natural progesterone to be given as IM injection. A progesterone nanosuspension (PNS was first developed and then dispersed in a thermosensitive gel matrix. The selected nanoparticles showed an average particle size of 267 nm and a zeta potential approaching-41 mV. The in vitro release profile of PNS from the F127 plus methyl cellulose gel followed zero order kinetics and correlated linearly with the weight percentage of gel dissolved, demonstrating that the overall rate of release of PNS is controlled by dissolution of the pluronic F127/methyl cellulose (MC gel (r2 > 0.99. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the PNS (6 mg/mL in pluronic F127/MC gel were evaluated in comparison with the control progesterone suspension. After the administration of PNS in F127/MC gel into the rats, a maximum serum concentration of 22.1 ± 1.9 ng/mL was reached at a Tmax of 4.05 ± 0.1 h. The terminal half life was 12.7 ± 0.8 h. The area under the curve AUC0-∞ of the injected formula was 452.75 ± 42.8 ng•h/mL and the total mean residence time was 18.57 ± 1.44 h. The PNS in gel was significantly different from the control in rate and extent at P < 0.001. The natural progesterone which was nanosized and formulated in a thermosensitive gel significantly sustained the action of natural progesterone so that it could be injected every 36 h instead of every day. Moreover, this formula is expected to provide a much safer choice than the use of semi-synthetic progesterone.Keywords: progesterone, nanosuspension, thermosensitive gel, ovariectomized female rats

  7. Sustained-release progesterone nanosuspension following intramuscular injection in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Heba F

    2010-11-10

    The production of an intramuscular (IM) injection of natural progesterone would provide a safer solution than using semi synthetic progesterone. However, disadvantages such as low solubility and a short half life prevent the use of natural progesterone. In this study, we formulated a sustained release form of natural progesterone to be given as IM injection. A progesterone nanosuspension (PNS) was first developed and then dispersed in a thermosensitive gel matrix. The selected nanoparticles showed an average particle size of 267 nm and a zeta potential approaching-41 mV. The in vitro release profile of PNS from the F127 plus methyl cellulose gel followed zero order kinetics and correlated linearly with the weight percentage of gel dissolved, demonstrating that the overall rate of release of PNS is controlled by dissolution of the pluronic F127/methyl cellulose (MC) gel (r² > 0.99). The pharmacokinetic parameters of the PNS (6 mg/mL) in pluronic F127/MC gel were evaluated in comparison with the control progesterone suspension. After the administration of PNS in F127/MC gel into the rats, a maximum serum concentration of 22.1 ± 1.9 ng/mL was reached at a T(max) of 4.05 ± 0.1 h. The terminal half life was 12.7 ± 0.8 h. The area under the curve AUC₀₋∞ of the injected formula was 452.75 ± 42.8 ng·h/mL and the total mean residence time was 18.57 ± 1.44 h. The PNS in gel was significantly different from the control in rate and extent at P < 0.001. The natural progesterone which was nanosized and formulated in a thermosensitive gel significantly sustained the action of natural progesterone so that it could be injected every 36 h instead of every day. Moreover, this formula is expected to provide a much safer choice than the use of semi-synthetic progesterone.

  8. Expression profiles and associations of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors with intramuscular fat in Tibetan chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R; Lin, Y; Zhi, L; Liao, H; Zuo, L; Li, Z; Xu, Y

    2017-04-01

    1. Adiponectin and its receptors (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) are novel endocrine systems that act at various levels to modulate glucose and lipid metabolism. This study was designed to investigate the spatial expression of adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 genes in various tissues in Tibetan chicken. The temporal expression of adiponectin and its receptor mRNAs were also studied in adipose tissue, breast muscle and thigh muscle and the correlations of the levels of adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 mRNA with the contents of intramuscular fat in breast muscle and thigh muscle of Tibetan chicken were determined. 2. Quantitative real-time PCR detected chicken adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 mRNA transcripts in heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. 3. Adipose tissue contained the highest amount of adiponectin mRNA followed by the kidney and liver. The expression levels of ADIPOR1 mRNA were significantly higher in adipose tissue, lung and spleen, and adipose tissue exhibited significantly higher levels of ADIPOR2 mRNA followed by the spleen and lung compared with other tissues. 4. Temporal expression profiles of adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 mRNA showed gender differences in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle at certain ages. In adipose tissue, adiponectin mRNA was higher in 154-d-old females and ADIPOR1 mRNA was higher in 154-d-old males: Adiponectin and ADIPOR2 mRNA were higher, and ADIPOR1 mRNA was lower, in thigh muscle in female compared with male chickens. 5. The correlation data showed that, except for adiponectin mRNA, the levels of ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 mRNA in thigh muscle of males were significantly positively correlated with IMF (r = 0.206 for the ADIPOR1 gene and r = 0.676 for the ADIPOR2 gene). 6. Taken together, it was concluded that adiponectin and the ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 genes are ubiquitously expressed in various tissues of Tibetan chicken and the expression of the adiponectin system is gender-dependant at certain ages

  9. Central Role of the PPARγ Gene Network in Coordinating Beef Cattle Intramuscular Adipogenesis in Response to Weaning Age and Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Moisá, Sonia J.; Shike, Daniel W.; Faulkner, Dan B.; Meteer, William T.; Keisler, Duane; Loor, Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    Adipogenic/lipogenic transcriptional networks regulating intramuscular fat deposition (IMF) in response to weaning age and dietary starch level were studied. The longissimus muscle (LM) of beef steers on an early weaning (141 days age) plus high-starch diet (EWS) or a normal weaning (NW, 222 days age) plus starch creep-feed diet (CFS) was biopsied at 0 (EW), 25, 50, 96 (NW), 167, and 222 (pre-slaughter) days. Expression patterns of 35 target genes were studied. From NW through slaughter, all ...

  10. Topical Administration Is a Promising Inoculating Route versus Intramuscular Inoculation for the Nanoparticle-Carried DNA Vaccine to Prevent Corneal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai; Malla, Tejsu; Zhai, Yujia; Dong, Lili; Tang, Ru

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the comparative effect of topical versus intramuscular administration of nanoparticle-carried DNA vaccine in preventing corneal herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. Nanoparticle [polyethylenimine (PEI)-Fe3O4]-carried DNA vaccine (PEI-Fe3O4-pRSC-gD-IL-21) or DNA vaccine (pRSC-gD-IL-21) alone were topically versus intramuscularly inoculated into one eye each of mice on days 0, 14 and 28. Three weeks after the final immunization, the specific immune responses and clinical degrees of primary herpes simplex keratitis were evaluated. Topical inoculation of nanoparticle-carried DNA vaccine induced mice to generate similar levels of specific HSV-1-neutralizing antibody, IFN-γ and IL-4 in serum and specific killing (cytotoxicity) and proliferative activities of the splenic lymphocytes, but a significantly higher level of secretory IgA in tears compared to those of intramuscular inoculation. More importantly, the mice inoculated topically showed a significantly decreased herpes simplex keratitis severity than the mice inoculated intramuscularly after HSV-1 challenge on the corneas of the mice. Topical inoculation of nanoparticle-carried DNA vaccine elicits a stronger specific local immune response and more effectively inhibits herpes simplex keratitis as compared to intramuscular inoculation in an HSV-1 ocular challenge mouse model. Thus, topical administration may be a promising inoculating route for the nanoparticle-carried DNA vaccine to prevent corneal infections. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. [Preoperatively administered flomoxef sodium concentration in aqueous humor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Mariko; Watanabe, Yoichiro; Mizuki, Nobuhisa

    2007-04-01

    We intravenously administered flomoxef sodium (FMOX) 0.5-3.5 hours before cataract surgery and measured the concentration of the agent in the aqueous humor to investigate its penetration into the aqueous humor and its efficacy in the prevention of postoperative endophthalmitis. 56 patients who underwent cataract surgery were enrolled in this study. They received 1 g FMOX via a 20-minute intravenous drip beginning 0.5-3.5 hours before the operation. Aqueous humor was aspirated from the anterior chamber and assayed for FMOX concentration using high-performance liquid chromatography. The mean intraoperative FMOX concentrations in the patients' aqueous humor were 0.79 +/- 0.24 microg/ml (administered 3.5 hours before surgery)--1.47 0.79 microg/ml (administered 1.5 hours before surgery). These concentrations administered 0.5-3.0 hours before surgery sufficiently exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 90 values against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Propionibacterium acnes, but did not achieve the MIC90 values against Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The FMOX concentrations in the aqueous humor sampling were adequate to kill bacteria in vitro. This drug may be efficacious in the prevention of postoperative endophthalmitis in patients undergoing cataract surgery.

  12. Comparison between fish and linseed oils administered orally for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of two sources of omega 3 and 6, fish oil (FO) and linseed oil (LO), orally administered, alone or in combination, for treating experimentally induced keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) in rabbits. Twenty-eight New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. Seven animals ...

  13. The role of intraperitoneally administered vitamin C during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of daily intraperitoneally administered doses of 100 mg/kg bd. wt. vitamin C on levels of some endogenous antioxidants as well as hepatic and renal function were investigated in a group of rabbits infected with a strain of Trypanosoma congolense (strain number: BS2/TC /SP28/P4). Values of parameters ...

  14. Pharmacokinetics of orally administered tramadol in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Greenacre, Cheryl B; Cox, Sherry K

    2008-08-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of an orally administered dose of tramadol in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). 6 healthy adult sexually intact female New Zealand White rabbits. Physical examinations and plasma biochemical analyses were performed to ensure rabbits were healthy prior to the experiment. Rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane, and IV catheters were placed in a medial saphenous or jugular vein for collection of blood samples. One blood sample was collected before treatment with tramadol. Rabbits were allowed to recover from anesthesia a minimum of 1 hour before treatment. Then, tramadol (11 mg/kg, PO) was administered once, and blood samples were collected at various time points up to 360 minutes after administration. Blood samples were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography to determine plasma concentrations of tramadol and its major metabolite (O-desmethyltramadol). No adverse effects were detected after oral administration of tramadol to rabbits. Mean +/- SD half-life of tramadol after administration was 145.4 +/- 81.0 minutes; mean +/- SD maximum plasma concentration was 135.3 +/- 89.1 ng/mL. Although the dose of tramadol required to provide analgesia in rabbits is unknown, the dose administered in the study reported here did not reach a plasma concentration of tramadol or O-desmethyltramadol that would provide sufficient analgesia in humans for clinically acceptable periods. Many factors may influence absorption of orally administered tramadol in rabbits.

  15. Effect of lead acetate administered orally at different dosage levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The project was conducted to evaluate the effect of lead administered as lead acetate at different dosage levels via drinking water in broiler chicks. Thirty-five healthy chicks were divided into seven groups (five chicks each) and one group was kept as un-medicated control. Groups A, B, C, D, E and F were medicated with ...

  16. Potency Studies of live- Attenuated Viral Vaccines Administered in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We critically carried out a potency study in 1992 and 1997 on measles and poliovirus vaccines administered at five different vaccination centers in the metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria. using WHO guidelines on titration of live- viral vaccines, our results revealed that only 6 (16.7%) of 36 measles vaccine (MV) vials and 11 ...

  17. Moderate and deep nurse-administered propofol sedation is safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Thue; Møller, Ann; Hornslet, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Non-anaesthesiologist-administered propofol sedation (NAPS/NAAP) is increasingly used in many countries. Most regimens aim for light or moderate sedation. Little evidence on safety of deep NAPS sedation is available. The aim of this study was to explore the safety of intermittent deep...

  18. Statistical analysis of Japanese Thorotrast-administered autopsy cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, T.; Kato, Y.; Shimamine, T.; Watanabe, S.

    1979-01-01

    The causes of death of 144 Japanese autopsy cases during 1945-1975, who had been intravascularly injected with Thorotrast in life, were compared with those of non-Thorotrast-administered autopsy cases in the same age bracket, recorded in the Annals of Japanese Pathological Autopsy Cases during 1958-1973. This comparison revealed that the incidence of malignant hepatic tumors was more than 10 times higher in the Thorotrast-administered cases. The increase was attributable to an increased incidence of hemangioendothelioma and cholangiocarcinoma of the liver. The only significant increase of liver cirrhosis found to exist in the Thorotrast group occurred in the female cases. Some of the Thorotrast-administered cases were found to have developed myeloid leukemia and erythroleukemia. There was also a significant increase in the number of cases of aplastic anemia in the Thorotrast group, but clinically and pathologically these were atypical. Lymphatic leukemia was not observed. No significant difference was found in the incidence of either malignant lymphomas or osteosarcomas in the Thorotrast group and the controls. Lung cancer, on the other hand, showed a significantly higher incidence among the controls than among the Thorotrast-administered cases

  19. 40 CFR 282.50 - Alabama State-Administered Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... financial responsibility for hazardous substance underground storage tank systems. (2) Statement of legal... administered by the Alabama Department of Environmental Management, was approved by EPA pursuant to 42 U.S.C... obtained from the Ground Water Branch, Alabama Department of Environmental Management, 1751 W.L. Dickinson...

  20. 40 CFR 147.2500 - State-administered program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... State-administered program: (1) Chapter 144, Water, Sewage, Refuse, Mining and Air Pollution, Wisconsin... Section 147.2500 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Treatment Works, Wisconsin Administrative Code § 210.05 Natural Resources Board Order No. WQ-25-82, approved...

  1. 40 CFR 147.550 - State-administered program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Georgia § 147.550...'s program application: (a) Incorporation by reference. The requirements set forth in the State... Hazardous Waste Management Act, O.C.G.A. §§ 12-8-60 through 12-8-83 (1988); (7) Georgia Safe Drinking Water...

  2. A Phase 2a Randomized Study to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of the 1790GAHB Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigen Vaccine against Shigella sonnei Administered Intramuscularly to Adults from a Shigellosis-Endemic Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina W. Obiero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Shigellosis is a mild-to-severe diarrheal infection, caused by the genus Shigella, and is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of an investigational Shigella sonnei vaccine (1790GAHB based on generalized modules for membrane antigens (GMMA in Kenya, a Shigella-endemic country. This phase 2a, observer-blind, controlled randomized study (NCT02676895 enrolled 74 healthy adults aged 18–45 years, of whom 72 were vaccinated. Participants received, in a 1:1:1 ratio, two vaccinations with the 1790GAHB vaccine at doses of either 1.5/25 μg of O antigen (OAg/protein (group 1.5/25 μg or 5.9/100 μg (group 5.9/100 μg at day (D 1 and D29, or vaccination with a quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine at D1 and tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine at D29 (control group. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AEs, serious AEs (SAEs, and AEs of special interest (neutropenia and reactive arthritis were collected. Anti-S. sonnei lipopolysaccharide (LPS serum immunoglobulin G (IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMC were evaluated at D1, D29, and D57 and compared to anti-S. sonnei LPS antibody levels in convalescent patients naturally exposed to S. sonnei. The percentages of participants with seroresponse were also calculated. The most frequently reported solicited local and systemic AEs across all groups were pain and headache, respectively. Only one case of severe systemic reaction was reported (severe headache after first vaccination in group 5.9/100 μg. Seven and three episodes of neutropenia, assessed as probably or possibly related to vaccination respectively, were reported in the investigational and control groups, respectively. No other SAEs were reported. Despite very high baseline anti-S. sonnei LPS serum IgG levels, the 1790GAHB vaccine induced robust antibody responses. At D29, GMC increased 2.10- and 4.43-fold from baseline in groups 1.5/25 and 5.9/100 μg, respectively, whereas no increase was observed in the control group. Antibody titers at D57 were not statistically different from those at D29. Seroresponse was 68% at D29 and 90% at D57 in group 1.5/25 μg, and 96% after each vaccination in group 5.9/100 μg. The 1790GAHB vaccine was well tolerated and highly immunogenic in a population of African adults, regardless of the GMMA OAg/protein content used.

  3. Pharmacodynamic effects of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) administered to lactating women on their male infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virutamasen, P; Leepipatpaiboon, S; Kriengsinyot, R; Vichaidith, P; Muia, PN; SekaddeKigondu, CB; Mati, JKG; Forest, MG; Dikkeschei, LD; Wolthers, BG; dArcangues, C

    Normal postpartum women, who had a spontaneous vaginal delivery of one full-term male infant, free of congenital abnormalities and other diseases, were recruited for this study. Thirteen women received 150 mg depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), intramuscularly on days 42 + 1 and 126 + 1

  4. Intramuscular adrenaline does not reduce the incidence of respiratory distress and hypoglycaemia in neonates delivered by elective caesarean section at term

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille; Avlund, O L; Pedersen, B L

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To test whether intramuscular injection of 30 microg adrenaline decreased the incidence of respiratory distress and hypoglycaemia in term infants delivered by elective caesarean section before active labour. METHOD: The study was randomised and double-blinded. A total of 270 neonates were...... assigned to intramuscular treatment with saline (0.30 ml) or 30 microg adrenaline (0.30 ml) immediately after birth. The primary endpoint was referral to the neonatal ward because of respiratory distress or a blood glucose level ... with pulse oximetry to disclose potential side effects. RESULTS: Pulse-oximetry recordings revealed a modest systemic effect by intramuscular adrenaline as the heart rate and the haemoglobin oxygen saturation were significantly higher in infants who received adrenaline. In contrast, the incidence...

  5. Effect of exposure routes on the relationships of lethal toxicity to rats from oral, intravenous, intraperitoneal and intramuscular routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Zhong H; Long, Shuang; Zhou, Yuan Y; Peng, Zi Y; Sun, Yi N; Chen, Si W; Su, Li M; Zhao, Yuan H

    2015-11-01

    The lethal toxicity values (log 1/LD(50)) of 527 aliphatic and aromatic compounds in oral, intravenous, intramuscular and intraperitoneal routes were used to investigate the relationships of log 1/LD(50) from different exposure routes. Regression analysis shows that the log 1/LD(50) values are well correlated between intravenous and intraperitoneal or intramuscular injections. However, the correlations between oral and intravenous or intraperitoneal routes are relatively poor. Comparison of the average residuals indicates that intravenous injection is the most sensitive exposure route and oral administration is the least sensitive exposure route. This is attributed to the difference in kinetic process of toxicity testing. The toxic effect of a chemical can be similar or significantly different between exposure routes, depending on the absorption rates of chemicals into blood. Inclusion of hydrophobic parameter and fractions of ionic forms can improve the correlations between intravenous and intraperitoneal or oral routes, but not between intraperitoneal and oral routes. This is due to the differences of absorption rate in different exposure environments from different routes. Several factors, such as experimental uncertainty, metabolism and toxic kinetics, can affect the correlations between intravenous and intraperitoneal or oral routes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intramuscular Olanzapine in the Management of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Hospitalized Older Adults: A Retrospective Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Duong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. While behavioral and psychological symptoms are frequent in hospitalized older adults with dementia or delirium, data supporting the off-label use of intramuscular atypical antipsychotics remain scarce. We examined the use of short-acting intramuscular (IM olanzapine in hospitalized older adults to manage behavioral and psychological symptoms. Methods. A retrospective observational study of inpatients 65 years or older with at least one order for olanzapine IM during admission in urban Ontario Canada was conducted. Patient demographics, prescriptions for olanzapine IM, reason for administration, perceived effectiveness, adverse events, concurrently prescribed psychotropics, comorbidities, and patient discharge destination were recorded. Results. Among 82 patients aged 65–96 years (mean ± SD 79.3 ± 7.7 85 cases were identified. Cognitive impairment or dementia affected 63.5% and 50.6% had comorbidities. Olanzapine IM was ordered 102 times and 34 patients (41% received at least one dose. The intended efficacy was achieved in 79.4% of 78 cases of 124 doses given (62.9%. Fourteen (41% patients who received doses experienced adverse events, with sedation and hypotension being the most common. Conclusions. Olanzapine IM appears effective in hospitalized older adults but is associated with potential adverse events. Structured monitoring and documentation are needed to ensure safe use in this high-risk population.

  7. Pharmacodynamics of alfaxalone after single-dose intramuscular administration in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans): a comparison of two different doses at two different ambient temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Molly K; Divers, Stephen; Braun, Christina; Hofmeister, Erik H

    2013-11-01

    This study compares the pharmacodynamics of two different doses of alfaxalone administered intramuscularly (IM) to red-eared sliders at two ambient temperatures. Prospective blinded crossover experimental study. Nine adult female sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans). Following a 2-week acclimation at 22-25 °C, nine sliders were randomly assigned to receive alfaxalone, 10 mg kg(-1) (W10), or 20 mg kg(-1) (W20) IM. Each turtle received each dose, with a minimum 7-day washout period. A blinded observer evaluated heart rate (HR), palpebral and corneal reflexes, muscle relaxation, handling, and response to toe pinch at the following points: pre-injection, and 5, 12, 20, 30, 45, 60, and 120 minutes post-injection. Turtles then acclimated to 18-20 °C for 63 days, and the experiment was repeated in this lower-temperature environment, with treatment groups C10 (alfaxalone 10 mg kg(-1)) and C20 (alfaxalone 20 mg kg(-1)) subjected to the same crossover design. C10 and C20 groups had significantly lower intraanesthetic HR than W10 or W20, respectively. C10 and W20 were significantly more relaxed and easier to handle than W10. No significant differences were observed in palpebral reflex, nor responsiveness to the toe pinch stimulus. None of the turtles lost corneal reflex. W20 and C20 had prolonged recoveries, compared to low-dose groups within the same temperature environment. Recovery was also longer at C20 and C10 compared to W10. Turtles given 10 mg kg(-1) were more relaxed and easier to handle in cold than warm conditions. Warm turtles were more relaxed and easier to handle when given 20 mg kg(-1) than those given 10 mg kg(-1). Cold conditions correlated with lower HR and longer recovery time for each dose category. The turtles had dose-dependent and inconsistent responses to alfaxalone. Lower ambient temperature augmented the behavioral effects of this drug. © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  8. Short-course oral co-trimoxazole versus intramuscular benzathine benzylpenicillin for impetigo in a highly endemic region: an open-label, randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Asha C; Tong, Steven Y C; Andrews, Ross M; O'Meara, Irene M; McDonald, Malcolm I; Chatfield, Mark D; Currie, Bart J; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2014-12-13

    Impetigo affects more than 110 million children worldwide at any one time. The major burden of disease is in developing and tropical settings where topical antibiotics are impractical and lead to rapid emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Few trials of systemic antibiotics are available to guide management of extensive impetigo. As such, we aimed to compare short-course oral co-trimoxazole with standard treatment with intramuscular benzathine benzylpenicillin in children with impetigo in a highly endemic setting. In this randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial, Indigenous Australian children aged 3 months to 13 years with purulent or crusted non-bullous impetigo were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive benzathine benzylpenicillin (weight-banded injection), twice-daily co-trimoxazole for 3 days (4 mg/kg plus 20 mg/kg per dose), or once-daily co-trimoxazole for 5 days (8 mg/kg plus 40 mg/kg per dose). At every visit, participants were randomised in blocks of six and 12, stratified by disease severity. Randomisation was done by research nurses and codes were in sealed, sequentially numbered, opaque envelopes. Independent reviewers masked to treatment allocation compared digital images of sores from days 0 and 7. The primary outcome was treatment success at day 7 in a modified intention-to-treat analysis. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, number ACTRN12609000858291. Between Nov 26, 2009, and Nov 20, 2012, 508 patients were randomly assigned to receive benzathine benzylpenicillin (n=165 [156 analysed]), twice-daily co-trimoxazole for 3 days (n=175 [173 analysed]), or once-daily co-trimoxazole for 5 days (n=168 [161 analysed]). Treatment was successful in 133 (85%) children who received benzathine benzylpenicillin and 283 (85%) who received pooled co-trimoxazole (absolute difference 0·5%; 95% CI -6·2 to 7·3), showing non-inferiority of co-trimoxazole (10% margin). Results for twice-daily co-trimoxazole for 3

  9. Intramuscular Artesunate for Severe Malaria in African Children: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G Kremsner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current artesunate (ARS regimens for severe malaria are complex. Once daily intramuscular (i.m. injection for 3 d would be simpler and more appropriate for remote health facilities than the current WHO-recommended regimen of five intravenous (i.v. or i.m. injections over 4 d. We compared both a three-dose i.m. and a three-dose i.v. parenteral ARS regimen with the standard five-dose regimen using a non-inferiority design (with non-inferiority margins of 10%.This randomized controlled trial included children (0.5-10 y with severe malaria at seven sites in five African countries to assess whether the efficacy of simplified three-dose regimens is non-inferior to a five-dose regimen. We randomly allocated 1,047 children to receive a total dose of 12 mg/kg ARS as either a control regimen of five i.m. injections of 2.4 mg/kg (at 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h (n = 348 or three injections of 4 mg/kg (at 0, 24, and 48 h either i.m. (n = 348 or i.v. (n = 351, both of which were the intervention arms. The primary endpoint was the proportion of children with ≥ 99% reduction in parasitemia at 24 h from admission values, measured by microscopists who were blinded to the group allocations. Primary analysis was performed on the per-protocol population, which was 96% of the intention-to-treat population. Secondary analyses included an analysis of host and parasite genotypes as risks for prolongation of parasite clearance kinetics, measured every 6 h, and a Kaplan-Meier analysis to compare parasite clearance kinetics between treatment groups. A post hoc analysis was performed for delayed anemia, defined as hemoglobin ≤ 7 g/dl 7 d or more after admission. The per-protocol population was 1,002 children (five-dose i.m.: n = 331; three-dose i.m.: n = 338; three-dose i.v.: n = 333; 139 participants were lost to follow-up. In the three-dose i.m. arm, 265/338 (78% children had a ≥ 99% reduction in parasitemia at 24 h compared to 263/331 (79% receiving the five-dose i

  10. Surface EMG electrodes do not accurately record from lumbar multifidus muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Ian A F; Henry, Sharon M; Single, Richard M

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated whether electromyographic signals recorded from the skin surface overlying the multifidus muscles could be used to quantify their activity. Comparison of electromyography signals recorded from electrodes on the back surface and from wire electrodes within four different slips of multifidus muscles of three human subjects performing isometric tasks that loaded the trunk from three different directions. It has been suggested that suitably placed surface electrodes can be used to record activity in the deep multifidus muscles. We tested whether there was a stronger correlation and more consistent regression relationship between signals from electrodes overlying multifidus and longissimus muscles respectively than between signals from within multifidus and from the skin surface electrodes over multifidus. The findings provided consistent evidence that the surface electrodes placed over multifidus muscles were more sensitive to the adjacent longissimus muscles than to the underlying multifidus muscles. The R(2) for surface versus intra-muscular comparisons was 0.64, while the average R(2) for surface-multifidus versus surface-longissimus comparisons was 0.80. Also, the magnitude of the regression coefficients was less variable between different tasks for the longissimus versus surface multifidus comparisons. Accurate measurement of multifidus muscle activity requires intra-muscular electrodes. Electromyography is the accepted technique to document the level of muscular activation, but its specificity to particular muscles depends on correct electrode placement. For multifidus, intra-muscular electrodes are required.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of [3H]levamisole in pigs after oral and intramuscular administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galtier, P.; Escoula, L.; Alvinerie, M.

    1983-01-01

    A single oral (10 mg/kg of body weight) or IM (7.5 mg/kg) dose of [ 3 H]levamisole was administered to pigs. Liquid scintillation counting and high performance liquid chromatography were used to determine total radioactivity and drug levels in plasma, duodenal and cecal contents, bile, and urine for 24 and 72 hours after dosing. Pharmacokinetic analysis indicated a 1-compartment open model with higher plasma bioavailability of levamisole after IM injection. Biological half-lives for elimination of the drug were 9.3 and 6.9 hours after oral and IM administration, respectively. Anthelmintic concentrations were higher in intestinal contents after oral gavage than after IM injection. The drug appeared extensively metabolized in all body fluids and particularly in bile, regardless of the route of administration. Biliary excretion of radioactivity and unchanged levamisole represented only slight percentages of the administered dose (approx 0.4% and 4.2%, respectively, in 72 hours). In contrast, about 60% and 20% of the dose were eliminated via urine as tritiated materials and unchanged drug. The choice of the most efficacious route of administration is discussed in regard to localization of helminthic disease

  12. Pharmacokinetics of (/sup 3/H)levamisole in pigs after oral and intramuscular administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galtier, P.; Escoula, L.; Alvinerie, M.

    1983-04-01

    A single oral (10 mg/kg of body weight) or IM (7.5 mg/kg) dose of (/sup 3/H)levamisole was administered to pigs. Liquid scintillation counting and high performance liquid chromatography were used to determine total radioactivity and drug levels in plasma, duodenal and cecal contents, bile, and urine for 24 and 72 hours after dosing. Pharmacokinetic analysis indicated a 1-compartment open model with higher plasma bioavailability of levamisole after IM injection. Biological half-lives for elimination of the drug were 9.3 and 6.9 hours after oral and IM administration, respectively. Anthelmintic concentrations were higher in intestinal contents after oral gavage than after IM injection. The drug appeared extensively metabolized in all body fluids and particularly in bile, regardless of the route of administration. Biliary excretion of radioactivity and unchanged levamisole represented only slight percentages of the administered dose (approx 0.4% and 4.2%, respectively, in 72 hours). In contrast, about 60% and 20% of the dose were eliminated via urine as tritiated materials and unchanged drug. The choice of the most efficacious route of administration is discussed in regard to localization of helminthic disease.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of Short- and Long-acting Formulations of Oxytetracycline After Intramuscular Administration in Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gberindyer, Aondover F; Okpeh, Ene R; Semaka, Asaaga A

    2015-12-01

    Both short- and long-acting formulations of oxytetracycline are commonly used in veterinary medicine to treat animals infected with gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, rickettsiae, mycoplasma, and chlamydiae. To compare pharmacokinetics of short- and long-acting oxytetracycline in chickens, injectable formulations from the same pharmaceutical company were administered to healthy 6-week-old broiler chickens in accordance to the labeled instructions. Fourteen chickens were separated into 2 groups: chickens in group A (n = 7) were administered the short-acting formulation (10 mg/kg IM q24h) for 4 consecutive days, whereas those in group B (n = 7) were treated with a single dose (20 mg/kg IM) of the long-acting formulation. Blood samples were collected into heparinized tubes before and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 24 hours after initial treatment. Thereafter, blood samples were taken every 24 hours up to 120 hours. Plasma concentrations of oxytetracycline were determined by competitive enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay, and pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained. Both formulations delivered therapeutic plasma concentrations of oxytetracycline for approximately 100% of their respective dosing intervals as recommended. However, considering the additional labor, patient stress, and mortalities associated with handling, in addition to rejection of the carcass due to tissue necrosis resulting from multiple injections, we recommend use of the long-acting instead of the short-acting injectable formulation in broiler chickens.

  14. Efficacy and safety of intravenous fentanyl administered by ambulance personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesgaard, Kristian Dahl; Nikolajsen, Lone; Giebner, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Management of pain in the pre-hospital setting is often inadequate. In 2011, ambulance personnel were authorized to administer intravenous fentanyl in the Central Denmark Region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous fentanyl administered...... by ambulance personnel. METHODS: Pre-hospital medical charts from 2348 adults treated with intravenous fentanyl by ambulance personnel during a 6-month period were reviewed. The primary outcome was the change in pain intensity on a numeric rating scale (NRS) from before fentanyl treatment to hospital arrival...... patients (1.3%) and hypotension observed in 71 patients (3.0%). CONCLUSION: Intravenous fentanyl caused clinically meaningful pain reduction in most patients and was safe in the hands of ambulance personnel. Many patients had moderate to severe pain at hospital arrival. As the protocol allowed higher doses...

  15. Anatomía quirúrgica del músculo glúteo mayor: espacio Intramuscular de FROD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Rodríguez-García

    Full Text Available Antecedentes y Objetivos. El músculo glúteo mayor es el más voluminoso y superficial de la región glútea, con forma cuadrilátera, dos inserciones diferentes, espesor variable en sus distintas zonas, y cubierto con diferentes fascias o aponeurosis. Realizamos un detallado estudio de la anatomía descriptiva y quirúrgica de dicho músculo para comparar cuál de las técnicas actuales utilizadas para el aumento glúteo con implantes es más segura y cuál proporciona mejores resultados. Material y método. Estudiamos 10 cadáveres frescos facilitados por el Instituto de Medicina Legal Regional Norte, y 10 cadáveres formolizados del anfiteatro de la Universidad Libre Seccional Barranquilla (Colombia, durante el período comprendido entre marzo de 2009 y febrero de 2010. Resultados. Determinamos que el músculo glúteo mayor, además de sus características anatómicas detalladas en los textos de anatomía descriptiva, está constituido por gruesos fascículos musculares paralelos y adyacentes unidos por fuertes tabiques o septos fibroaponeuróticos, del plano superficial al profundo. En el desarrollo del estudio encontramos un espacio anatómico intramuscular en el glúteo mayor, no descrito antes en las publicaciones de Cirugía Plástica ni en los textos de Anatomía más conocidos. Se presenta como una zona limpia, de aproximadamente 10 cm. de diámetro, con delicada aponeurosis muscular en su piso, sin la presencia de los tabiques fibroaponeuróticos interfasciculares habituales y exenta de estructuras vasculonerviosas importantes. Conclusiones. Describimos un nuevo espacio intramuscular en el glúteo mayor, que identificamos como Espacio Intramuscular de FROD, que consideramos de enorme potencial quirúrgico para la ejecución de las técnicas de aumento glúteo.

  16. No protection in chickens immunized by the oral or intra-muscular immunization route with Ascaridia galli soluble antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Janne Pleidrup; Norup, Liselotte R.; Dalgaard, Tina S.

    2013-01-01

    In chickens, the nematode Ascaridia galli is found with prevalences of up to 100% causing economic losses to farmers. No avian nematode vaccines have yet been developed and detailed knowledge about the chicken immune response towards A. galli is therefore of great importance. The objective...... of this study was to evaluate the induction of protective immune responses to A. galli soluble antigen by different immunization routes. Chickens were immunized with a crude extract of A. galli via an oral or intra-muscular route using cholera toxin B subunit as adjuvant and subsequently challenged with A...... immunization had an effect on both Th1 and Th2 cytokines in caecal tonsils and Meckel's diverticulum. Thus both humoral and cellular immune responses are inducible by soluble A. galli antigen, but in this study no protection against the parasite was achieved....

  17. A Randomized controlled trial on safety and efficacy of single intramuscular versus staggered oral dose of 600 000IU Vitamin D in treatment of nutritional rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Krishanu; Seth, Anju; Marwaha, Raman K; Dhanwal, Dinesh; Aneja, Satinder; Singh, Ritu; Sonkar, Pitambar

    2014-06-01

    Comparison of efficacy and safety of two different regimens of vitamin D-600 000 IU as a single intramuscular dose, and 60 000IU orally once a week for 10 weeks-in treatment of nutritional rickets. Children with nutritional rickets (age: 0.5-5 years, n = 61) were randomized to receive either 60 000IU vitamin D orally once a week for 10 weeks or 600 000IU single intramuscular injection. Serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, urinary calcium/creatinine ratio, serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D and radiological score were compared at 12-week follow-up. No difference was found in efficacy of the two regimens on comparing biochemical and radiological parameters. Serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D >100 ng/ml was found in two children in the oral group and one child in the intramuscular group. No child developed hypercalcemia or hypercalciuria after starting treatment. Staggered oral and one-time intramuscular administrations of 600 000IU vitamin D are equally effective and safe in treatment of nutritional rickets. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Intramuscular adrenaline does not reduce the incidence of respiratory distress and hypoglycaemia in neonates delivered by elective caesarean section at term

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille; Avlund, O L; Pedersen, B L

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To test whether intramuscular injection of 30 microg adrenaline decreased the incidence of respiratory distress and hypoglycaemia in term infants delivered by elective caesarean section before active labour. METHOD: The study was randomised and double-blinded. A total of 270 neonates were...

  19. Ultrastructural localisation of intramuscular expression of BDNF mRNA by silver-gold intensified non-radioactive in situ hybridisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, RSB; Brouwer, N; Copray, JCVM

    2001-01-01

    A non-radioactive in situ hybridisation method is described for the detection of low intramuscular levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA at the electron microscope level. Application of high-grade silver-gold intensification of the diaminobenzidine end product of in situ

  20. Treatment with intramuscular vascular endothelial growth factor gene compared with placebo for patients with diabetes mellitus and critical limb ischemia : A double-blind randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusumanto, YH; Van Weel, [No Value; Mulder, NH; Smit, AJ; Van den Dungen, JJAM; Hooymans, JMM; Sluiter, WJ; Tio, RA; Quax, PHA; Gans, ROB; Dullaart, RPF; Hospers, GAP

    Despite advances in revascularization techniques, limb salvage and relief of pain cannot be achieved in many diabetic patients with diffuse peripheral vascular disease. Our objective was to determine the effect of intramuscular administration of phVEGF(165) (vascular endothelial growth factor

  1. Application of kidney inhibition swab tests to evaluate penicillin-G residues in sow tissues and body fluids following intramuscular injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney inhibition swab (KIS) tests, recently adapted by the US FSIS for antibiotics on-site screening, were employed to evaluate the depletion of penicillin-G residues from kidney, liver, muscle, serum, and urine of sows after intramuscular (IM) penicillin-G procaine administration. Sows (n=130; 22...

  2. Administration of imatinib mesylate in rats impairs the neonatal development of intramuscular interstitial cells in bladder and results in altered contractile properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaert, Thomas; Hutchings, Graham; Everaerts, Wouter; Prenen, Hans; Roskams, Tania; Nilius, Bernd; De Ridder, Dirk

    2014-04-01

    The KIT receptor is considered as a reliable marker for a subpopulation of interstitial cells (IC), and by persistent neonatal inhibition of KIT we have investigated the role of this receptor in the development of IC-networks in bladder and we have observed the functional consequences of this inhibition. Newborn rat pups were treated daily with the KIT inhibitor imatinib mesylate (IM). After 7 days animals were sacrificed and bladder samples were dissected for morphological and functional studies. Morphological research consisted of immunohistochemistry with IC specific antigens (KIT and vimentin) and electron microscopy. The functional studies were based on isolated bladder strips in organ baths, in which spontaneous bladder contractility and the response to a non-subtype selective muscarinic agonist was evaluated. Suburothelial and intramuscular IC were found and characterized in neonatal rat bladder. IM-treatment induced a significant decrease in numbers of IC based on specific immunohistochemical markers, and electron microscopy revealed evidence of IC cell injury. These morphological alterations were observed on intramuscular IC only and not on IC in the suburothelium. Isolated muscle strips from IM-treated animals had a lower contractile frequency and an altered response to muscarinic agonists. The present study shows the presence of regional subpopulations of IC in neonatal rat bladder, provides evidence for a dependence on KIT of the development of intramuscular IC and supports the hypothesis that a poor development of networks of intramuscular IC might have repercussions on spontaneous and muscarinic-induced bladder contractility. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The effect of adipocyte and heart fatty acid-binding protein genes on intramuscular fat and backfat content in Meishan crossbred pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens, F.; Koning, de D.J.; Harders, F.L.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Veerkamp, R.L.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Pas, te M.F.W.

    2000-01-01

    Effects of genetic variation in porcine adipocyte and heart fatty acid-binding protein genes, A-FABP and H-FABP, respectively, on intramuscular fat (IMF) content and backfat thickness (BFT) were examined in F2 crossbreds of Meishan and Western pigs. The involvement of each FABP gene in IMF accretion

  4. Acupuncture Compared with Intramuscular Injection of Neostigmine for Postpartum Urinary Retention: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Mei Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture versus intramuscular injection of neostigmine. Methods. Databases including CNKI, VIP, WanFang, SinoMed, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and clinicaltrials.gov database were retrieved for relevant literature, with the retrieval deadline being November 2017. Two reviewers independently screened, selected, and extracted data and validated the results. The methodological quality was evaluated with the “Risk of Bias” tool, and the meta-analysis was performed by using the RevMan 5.3.5 software. Results. Totally 953 patients with postpartum urinary retention from 15 randomized controlled trials entered the meta-analysis. 12 articles compared the clinical cure rate of acupuncture alone versus intramuscular injection of neostigmine and found the cure rate in the acupuncture group was 2 times that in the neostigmine group (RR, 1.91; 95% CI: 1.66–2.19. 15 articles compared the clinical effectiveness rate of acupuncture alone with that of intramuscular injection of neostigmine and found the clinical effectiveness rate was 28% higher in the acupuncture group than in the neostigmine group (RR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.16–1.42. No adverse event was reported in the acupuncture group. Conclusion. Acupuncture alone is more effective in treating postpartum urinary retention than intramuscular injection of neostigmine, with good safety profile. Therefore, it is a feasible and valuable technique in clinical settings.

  5. Relative bioavailability, metabolism and tolerability of rectally administered oxcarbazepine suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Pamela L; Cloyd, James C; Kriel, Robert L; Remmel, Rory P

    2007-01-01

    Maintenance of effective drug concentrations is essential for adequate treatment of epilepsy. Some antiepileptic drugs can be successfully administered rectally when the oral route of administration is temporarily unavailable. Oxcarbazepine is a newer antiepileptic drug that is rapidly converted to a monohydroxy derivative, the active compound. This study aimed to characterise the bioavailability, metabolism and tolerability of rectally administered oxcarbazepine suspension using a randomised, crossover design in ten healthy volunteers. Two subjects received 300 mg doses of oxcarbazepine suspension via rectal and oral routes and eight received 450 mg doses. A washout period of at least 2 weeks elapsed between doses. The rectal dose was diluted 1:1 with water. Blood samples and urine were collected for 72 hours post-dose. Adverse effects were assessed at each blood collection time-point using a self-administered questionnaire. Plasma was assayed for oxcarbazepine and monohydroxy derivative; urine was assayed for monohydroxy derivative and monohydroxy derivative-glucuronide. Maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and time to reach C(max) (t(max)) were obtained directly from the plasma concentration-time curves. The areas under the concentration-time curve (AUCs) were determined via non-compartmental analysis. Relative bioavailability was calculated and the C(max) and AUCs were compared using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Mean relative bioavailability calculated from plasma AUCs was 8.3% (SD 5.5%) for the monohydroxy derivative and 10.8% (SD 7.3%) for oxcarbazepine. Oxcarbazepine and monohydroxy derivative C(max) and AUC values were significantly lower following rectal administration (p effects were headache and fatigue with no discernible differences between routes. Monohydroxy derivative bioavailability following rectal administration of oxcarbazepine suspension is significantly lower than following oral administration, most likely because of poor oxcarbazepine water

  6. Problem of administering radioactive substances to pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husak, V.; Ryznar, V.; Klener, V.

    1987-01-01

    Based on a critical analysis of a large amount of data from the literature, a table was prepared of radiation loads of the fetus after administration of radiopharmaceuticals to pregnant women. Briefly mentioned are recent findings on the biological effects of ionizing radiation on the fetus and the radiation risk was evaluated of radiopharmaceuticals administered during the third trimester of pregnancy. The possibility is discussed to evaluate the benefit of radionuclide examinations of pregnant women in relation to the radiation risk. (author). 4 figs., 4 tabs., 31 refs

  7. Administering an epoch initiated for remote memory access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocksome, Michael A; Miller, Douglas R

    2012-10-23

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for administering an epoch initiated for remote memory access that include: initiating, by an origin application messaging module on an origin compute node, one or more data transfers to a target compute node for the epoch; initiating, by the origin application messaging module after initiating the data transfers, a closing stage for the epoch, including rejecting any new data transfers after initiating the closing stage for the epoch; determining, by the origin application messaging module, whether the data transfers have completed; and closing, by the origin application messaging module, the epoch if the data transfers have completed.

  8. Chromosome abnormalities in bone marrow of Thorotrast administered patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, T.; Minamihisamatsu, M.

    1987-01-01

    The chromosomally abnormal clones occurring with high frequencies in bone marrow of 3 Thorotrast administered patients were studied by annual follow up observations. In one case the frequency of the clone was maintained fairly constant, but in another case it showed a tendency of increase, and in still another case the frequency of the clone showed drastic changes from year to year. The karyotypes of the clones showed remarkable chromosome abnormalities, among which the large partial loss of chromosomes was especially noted in all the 3 cases. (author)

  9. Absorption and distribution of orally administered jojoba wax in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaron, A; Samoiloff, V; Benzioni, A

    1982-03-01

    The liquid wax obtained from the seeds of the arid-land shrub jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is finding increasing use in skin treatment preparations. The fate of this wax upon reaching the digestive tract was studied. 14C-Labeled wax was administered intragastrically to mice, and the distribution of the label in the body was determined as a function of time. Most of the wax was excreted, but a small amount was absorbed, as was indicated by the distribution of label in the internal organs and the epididymal fat. The label was incorporated into the body lipids and was found to diminish with time.

  10. Cardiovascular, respiratory and sedative effects of intramuscular alfaxalone, butorphanol and dexmedetomidine compared with ketamine, butorphanol and dexmedetomidine in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Jeannette; Riccó, Carolina H

    2017-11-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the cardiorespiratory effects, quality of sedation and recovery of intramuscular alfaxalone-dexmedetomidine-butorphanol (ADB) and ketamine-dexmedetomidine-butorphanol (KDB), in cats. Methods Nine adult, healthy cats (6.63 ± 1.42 kg) were enrolled in a blinded, randomized, crossover experimental design. Cats were sedated twice intramuscularly, once with ADB (alfaxalone 1 mg/kg, dexmedetomidine 0.005 mg/kg, butorphanol 0.2 mg/kg), and once with KDB (ketamine 5 mg/kg, dexmedetomidine 0.005 mg/kg, butorphanol 0.2 mg/kg), in random order. Data collected included heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure and blood gas analysis, respiratory rate, and sedation score. Analysis of variance with Bonferroni post-hoc correction was used for parametric data, and a Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for non-parametric data. Significance was set at P <0.05. Results Total sedation time was shorter for ADB (90.71 ± 15.12 mins vs 147.00 ± 47.75 mins). Peak sedation was observed within 15 mins in both groups. Quality of recovery was excellent in both groups. HR decreased over time in both groups. Diastolic and mean arterial pressure decreased over time for ADB, becoming significant after 30 mins. All cardiovascular variables were within the clinically acceptable range in both groups. Arterial partial pressure of oxygen was significantly decreased from baseline for KDB at all time points (73 ± 2.5 mmHg [9.7 ± 0.3 kPa] vs ADB 83 ± 2.6 mmHg [11 ± 0.3 kPa]). Hypoventilation was not observed. Conclusions and relevance Both protocols produced acceptable cardiovascular stability. Sedation and recovery quality were good, albeit sedation was shorter with ADB. Although oxygenation was better maintained in the ADB group, all sedated cats should receive oxygen supplementation.

  11. Survey of SSC12 regions affecting fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat using high density SNP data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María eMuñoz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid composition is a critical aspect of pork because it affects sensorial and technological aspects of meat quality and it is relevant for human health. Previous studies identified significant QTLs in porcine chromosome 12 for fatty acid profile of backfat and intramuscular fat. In the present study, 374 SNPs mapped in SSC12 from the 60K Porcine SNP Beadchip were used. We have combined linkage and association analyses with expression data analysis in order to identify regions of SSC12 that could affect fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat in longissimus muscle. The QTL scan showed a region around the 60 cM position that significantly affects palmitic fatty acid and two related fatty acid indexes. The Iberian QTL allele increased the palmitic content (+2.6% of mean trait. This QTL does not match any of those reported in the previous study on fatty acid composition of backfat, suggesting different genetic control acting at both tissues. The SNP association analyses showed significant associations with linolenic and palmitic acids besides several indexes. Among the polymorphisms that affect palmitic fatty acid and match the QTL region at 60 cM, there were three that mapped in the Phosphatidylcholine Transfer Protein (PCTP gene and one in the Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase  gene (ACACA. Interestingly one of the PCTP SNPs also affected significantly unsaturated and double bound indexes and the ratio between polyunsaturated/monounsaturated fatty acids. Differential expression was assessed on longissimus muscle conditional on the genotype of the QTL and on the most significant SNPs, according to the results obtained in the former analyses. Results from the microarray expression analyses, validated by RT-qPCR, showed that PCTP expression levels significantly vary depending on the QTL as well as on the own PCTP genotype. The results obtained with the different approaches point out the PCTP gene as a powerful candidate underlying the QTL for

  12. Population pharmacokinetics of methadone hydrochloride after a single intramuscular administration in adult Japanese sika deer (Cervus nippon nippon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Christopher; Marsot, Amélie; Limoges, Marie-Josée; Locatelli, Yann; Simon, Nicolas; Alvarez, Jean-Claude

    2015-03-01

    To assess the population pharmacokinetics of methadone in deer. Prospective non-randomized experimental trial. Twelve healthy adult sika deer (nine males and three females). Deer received intramuscular administration of racemic methadone hydrochloride at 0.5 mg kg(-1) or 1 mg kg(-1) . Plasma methadone and its metabolite 2-Ethylidene-1,5-Dimethyl-3,3-Diphenyl-Pyrolidine (EDDP) concentrations were determined by validated liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry methods, at times 0, 30 minutes, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12 and 24 hours. Population pharmacokinetics analysis was undertaken using a non-linear mixed effects modelling (NONMEM). A two-compartment linear disposition model best described observed time-concentration profiles of methadone and EDDP. Population parameter estimates of methadone were elimination clearance (17.3 L hour(-1) ), metabolic clearance (34.6 L hour(-1) ), volume of distribution of compartment 1 (216.0 L) and volume of distribution of compartment 2 (384.0 L). Population parameter estimates of EDDP were elimination clearance (121.0 L hour(-1) ), volume of distribution of compartment 3 (1.08 L) and volume of distribution of compartment 4 (499.5 L). The total clearance and total volume of distribution of methadone and EDDP were 51.9 L hour(-1) , 121.0 L hour (-1) , 600.0 L and 500.6 L, respectively. The methadone terminal elimination half-life was 8.19 hours. No adverse effects were observed after methadone administration. Following intramuscular injection, methadone was characterized by a large total volume of distribution, high systemic clearance and intermediate terminal half-life in sika deer. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  13. Intramuscular injection of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells improves cardiac function in dilated cardiomyopathy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chenggang; Hou, Xu; Wang, Benzhen; Chi, Jingwei; Jiang, Yanjie; Zhang, Caining; Li, Zipu

    2017-01-28

    Stem cells provide a promising candidate for the treatment of the fatal pediatric dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). This study aimed to investigate the effects of intramuscular injection of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) on the cardiac function of a DCM rat model. A DCM model was established by intraperitoneal injections of doxorubicin in Sprague-Dawley rats. hUCMSCs at different concentrations or cultured medium were injected via limb skeletal muscles, with blank medium injected as the control. The rats were monitored for 4 weeks, meanwhile BNP, cTNI, VEGF, HGF, GM-CSF, and LIF in the peripheral blood were examined by ELISA, and cardiac function was monitored by echocardiography (Echo-CG). Finally, the expression of IGF-1, HGF, and VEGF in the myocardium was examined by histoimmunochemistry and real-time PCR, and the ultrastructure of the myocardium was examined by electron microscopy. Injection of hUCMSCs markedly improved cardiac function in the DCM rats by significantly elevating left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular fraction shortening (LVFS). The BNP and cTNI levels in the peripheral blood were reduced by hUCMSCs, while HGF, LIF, GM-CSF, and VEGF were increased by hUCMSCs. Expression of IGF-1, HGF, and VEGF in the myocardium from the DCM rats was significantly increased by hUCMSC injection. Furthermore, hUCMSCs protected the ultrastructure of cardiomyocytes by attenuating mitochondrial swelling and maintaining sarcolemma integrity. Intramuscular injection of UCMSCs can improve DCM-induced cardiac function impairment and protect the myocardium. These effects may be mediated by regulation of relevant cytokines in serum and the myocardium.

  14. Oral and intramuscular application of cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin did not induce changes in haematological profile of male rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Zbyňovská

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amygdalin is a cyanogenic glycoside initially obtained from the seeds of bitter almonds. It is composed of one molecule of benzaldehyde, two molecules of glucose and one molecule of hydrocyanic acid. Various ways of amygdalin application play a different role in recipient organism. Intravenous infusion of amygdalin produced neither cyanidemia nor signs of toxicity, but oral administration resulted in significant blood cyanide levels. The present in vivo study was designed to reveal whether amygdalin is able to cause changes in the haematological profile and thus alter the physiological functions, using rabbits as a biological model. Adult male rabbits (n = 20 were randomly divided into five groups: the control group without any amygdalin administration, two experimental groups received a daily intramuscular injection of amygdalin at a dose 0.6 and 3.0 mg.kg-1 b.w. and other two groups were fed by crushed apricot seeds at dose 60 and 300 mg. kg-1 b.w., mixed with commercial feed over the period of 14 days. After two weeks, haematological parameters in whole blood were analysed (WBC - total white blood cell count, LYM - lymphocytes count, MID - medium size cell count, GRA - granulocytes count, RBC - red blood cell count, HGB - haemoglobin, HCT - haematocrit, MCV - mean corpuscular volume, MCH - mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCHC - mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, RDWc - red cell distribution width, PLT - platelet count, PCT - platelet percentage, MPV - mean platelet volume, PDWc - platelet distribution width using haematology analyser Abacus junior VET. Our findings indicate that intramuscular and oral application of amygdalin for two weeks did not significantly affect the haematology parameters in experimental animals. In this study, no obvious beneficial or negative effects of amygdalin administration on the blood of male rabbits were observed.

  15. Distinctive genes determine different intramuscular fat and muscle fiber ratios of the longissimus dorsi muscles in Jinhua and landrace pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wu

    Full Text Available Meat quality is determined by properties such as carcass color, tenderness and drip loss. These properties are closely associated with meat composition, which includes the types of muscle fiber and content of intramuscular fat (IMF. Muscle fibers are the main contributors to meat mass, while IMF not only contributes to the sensory properties but also to the plethora of physical, chemical and technological properties of meat. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that determine meat composition in different pig breeds. In this report we show that Jinhua pigs, a Chinese breed, contains much higher levels of IMF than do Landrace pigs, a Danish breed. We analyzed global gene expression profiles in the longissimus dorsi muscles in Jinhua and Landrace breeds at the ages of 30, 90 and 150 days. Cross-comparison analysis revealed that genes that regulate fatty acid biosynthesis (e.g., fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase are expressed at higher levels in Jinhua pigs whereas those that regulate myogenesis (e.g., myogenic factor 6 and forkhead box O1 are expressed at higher levels in Landrace pigs. Among those genes which are highly expressed in Jinhua pigs at 90 days (d90, we identified a novel gene porcine FLJ36031 (pFLJ, which functions as a positive regulator of fat deposition in cultured intramuscular adipocytes. In summary, our data showed that the up-regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis regulatory genes such as pFLJ and myogenesis inhibitory genes such as myostatin in the longissimus dorsi muscles of Jinhua pigs could explain why this local breed produces meat with high levels of IMF.

  16. Distinctive genes determine different intramuscular fat and muscle fiber ratios of the longissimus dorsi muscles in Jinhua and landrace pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Zhang, Zhenhai; Yuan, Zhangqin; Lo, Li Jan; Chen, Jun; Wang, Yizhen; Peng, Jinrong

    2013-01-01

    Meat quality is determined by properties such as carcass color, tenderness and drip loss. These properties are closely associated with meat composition, which includes the types of muscle fiber and content of intramuscular fat (IMF). Muscle fibers are the main contributors to meat mass, while IMF not only contributes to the sensory properties but also to the plethora of physical, chemical and technological properties of meat. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that determine meat composition in different pig breeds. In this report we show that Jinhua pigs, a Chinese breed, contains much higher levels of IMF than do Landrace pigs, a Danish breed. We analyzed global gene expression profiles in the longissimus dorsi muscles in Jinhua and Landrace breeds at the ages of 30, 90 and 150 days. Cross-comparison analysis revealed that genes that regulate fatty acid biosynthesis (e.g., fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase) are expressed at higher levels in Jinhua pigs whereas those that regulate myogenesis (e.g., myogenic factor 6 and forkhead box O1) are expressed at higher levels in Landrace pigs. Among those genes which are highly expressed in Jinhua pigs at 90 days (d90), we identified a novel gene porcine FLJ36031 (pFLJ), which functions as a positive regulator of fat deposition in cultured intramuscular adipocytes. In summary, our data showed that the up-regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis regulatory genes such as pFLJ and myogenesis inhibitory genes such as myostatin in the longissimus dorsi muscles of Jinhua pigs could explain why this local breed produces meat with high levels of IMF.

  17. Pharmacokinetics and effects of alfaxalone after intravenous and intramuscular administration to cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Mocholí, D; Escudero, E; Belda, E; Laredo, F G; Hernandis, V; Marín, P

    2018-07-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics, and anaesthetic and sedative effects of alfaxalone after I/V and I/M administration to cats. Six European shorthair cats, three males and three females, with a mean weight of 4.21 (SD 0.53) kg and aged 3.8 (SD 0.9) years were enrolled in this crossover, two-treatment, two-period study. Alfaxalone at a dose of 5 mg/kg was administered either I/V or I/M. Blood samples were collected between 2-480 minutes after drug administration and analysed for concentrations of alfaxalone by HPLC. The plasma concentration-time curves were analysed by non-compartmental analysis. Sedation scores were evaluated between 5-120 minutes after drug administration using a numerical rating scale (from 0-18). Intervals from drug administration to sit, sternal and lateral recumbency during the induction phase, and to head-lift, sternal recumbency and standing position during recovery were recorded. The mean half-life and mean residence time of alfaxalone were longer after I/M (1.28 (SD 0.21) and 2.09 (SD 0.36) hours, respectively) than after I/V (0.49 (SD 0.07) and 0.66 (SD 0.16) hours, respectively) administration (pV (0 minutes for all animals) treated cats (p15) were recorded from 5-15 minutes after I/V administration and deep sedation (scores 11-15) at 20 and 30 minutes. Deep sedation was observed from 10-45 minutes after I/M administration. One cat from each group showed hyperkinesia during recovery, and the remainder had an uneventful recovery. Alfaxalone administered I/V in cats provides rapid and smooth induction of anaesthesia. After I/M administration, a longer exposure to the drug and an extended half life were obtained compared to I/V administration. Therefore I/M administration of alfaxalone could be a reliable, suitable and easy route in cats, taking into account that alfaxalone has a slower onset of sedation than when given I/V and achieves deep sedation rather than general anaesthesia.

  18. Neuromuscular partitioning in the extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis based on intramuscular nerve distribution patterns: A three-dimensional modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandiran, Mayoorendra; Ravichandiran, Nisanthini; Ravichandiran, Kajeandra; McKee, Nancy H; Richardson, Denyse; Oliver, Michele; Agur, Anne M

    2012-04-01

    Differential activation of specific regions within a skeletal muscle has been linked to the presence of neuromuscular compartments. However, few studies have investigated the extra- or intramuscular innervation throughout the muscle volume of extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB). The aim of this study was to determine the presence of neuromuscular partitions in ECRL and ECRB based on the extra- and intramuscular innervation using three-dimensional modeling. The extra- and intramuscular nerve distribution was digitized and reconstructed in 3D in all the muscle volumes using Autodesk Maya in seven formalin embalmed cadaveric specimens (mean age, 75.7 ± 15.2 years). The intramuscular nerve distribution was modeled in all the muscle volumes. ECRL was found to have two neuromuscular compartments, superficial and deep. One branch from the radial nerve proper was found to innervate ECRL. This branch was divided into anterior and posterior branches to the superficial and deep compartments, respectively. Five innervation patterns were identified in ECRB with partitioning of the muscle belly into two, three, or four compartments, in a proximal to distal direction depending on the number of nerve branches entering the muscle belly. The ECRL and ECRB both demonstrated neuromuscular compartmentalization based on intramuscular innervation. According to the partitioning hypothesis, a muscle may be differentially activated depending on the required function of the muscle, thus allowing multifunctional muscles to contribute to a variety of movements. Therefore, the increased number of neuromuscular partitions in ECRB when compared with ECRL could be due to the need for more differential recruitment in the ECRB depending on force requirements. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Preclinical safety evaluation of intravenously administered mixed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teelmann, K; Schläppi, B; Schüpbach, M; Kistler, A

    1984-01-01

    Mixed micelles, with their main constituents lecithin and glycocholic acid, form a new principle for the parenteral administration of compounds which are poorly water-soluble. Their composition of mainly physiological substances as well as their comparatively good stability substantiate their attractivity in comparison to existing solvents. A decomposition due to physical influences such as heat or storage for several years will almost exclusively affect the lecithin component in the form of hydrolysis into free fatty acids and lysolecithin. Their toxicity was examined experimentally in various studies using both undecomposed and artificially decomposed mixed micelles. In these studies the mixed micelles were locally and systemically well tolerated and proved to be neither embryotoxic, teratogenic nor mutagenic. Only when comparatively high doses of the undecomposed mixed micelles were administered, corresponding to approximately 30 to 50 times the anticipated clinical injection volume (of e.g. diazepam mixed micelles), did some vomitus (dogs), slight liver enzyme elevation (rats and dogs), and slightly increased liver weights (dogs) occur. After repeated injections of the artificially decomposed formulation (approximately 25% of lecithin hydrolyzed to free fatty acids and lysolecithin) effects such as intravascular haemolysis, liver enzyme elevations and intrahepatic cholestasis (dogs only) were observed but only when doses exceeding a threshold of approximately 40 to 60 mg lysolecithin/kg body weight were administered. All alterations were reversible after cessation of treatment.

  20. Metabolism of exogenously administered natural surfactant in the newborn lamb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatz, T.; Ikegami, M.; Jobe, A.

    1982-09-01

    (/sup 3/H)-Palmitate labeled natural lamb surfactant and free (/sup 14/C)-choline were mixed with the lung fluid of 11 term lambs at cesarean section, before the first breath. After receiving the isotope, the lambs were delivered, allowed to breathe spontaneously, and were subsequently sacrificed from 5 min to 96 h of age. Alveolar washes, lung homogenates, microsomal and lamellar body fractions of lungs, and pulmonary alveolar macrophages were examined for the presence of labeled phosphatidylcholine. Analysis of the labeled natural surfactant kinetic data revealed an apparent t 1/2 of phosphatidylcholine in the whole lung of 6.0 days. This half-life can be interpreted only as a rough estimate. Appearance of considerable (/sup 3/H) labeled phosphatidylcholine in the lung homogenates demonstrated uptake of phosphatidylcholine from alveoli into lung tissue. The surfactant-associated label in homogenates was localized preferentially to lamellar body fractions. Some of the administered (/sup 14/C)-choline appeared in phosphatidylcholine. Almost all of this labeled phosphatidylcholine was associated with the homogenate. Extremely small % of administered (3H) and (14C) were found in pulmonary alveolar macrophages.

  1. First-in-Human Evaluation of the Safety and Immunogenicity of an Intranasally Administered Replication-Competent Sendai Virus–Vectored HIV Type 1 Gag Vaccine: Induction of Potent T-Cell or Antibody Responses in Prime-Boost Regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyombayire, Julien; Anzala, Omu; Gazzard, Brian; Karita, Etienne; Bergin, Philip; Hayes, Peter; Kopycinski, Jakub; Omosa-Manyonyi, Gloria; Jackson, Akil; Bizimana, Jean; Farah, Bashir; Sayeed, Eddy; Parks, Christopher L.; Inoue, Makoto; Hironaka, Takashi; Hara, Hiroto; Shu, Tsugumine; Matano, Tetsuro; Dally, Len; Barin, Burc; Park, Harriet; Gilmour, Jill; Lombardo, Angela; Excler, Jean-Louis; Fast, Patricia; Laufer, Dagna S.; Cox, Josephine H.

    2017-01-01

    Background. We report the first-in-human safety and immunogenicity assessment of a prototype intranasally administered, replication-competent Sendai virus (SeV)–vectored, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine. Methods. Sixty-five HIV-1–uninfected adults in Kenya, Rwanda, and the United Kingdom were assigned to receive 1 of 4 prime-boost regimens (administered at 0 and 4 months, respectively; ratio of vaccine to placebo recipients, 12:4): priming with a lower-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally, followed by boosting with an adenovirus 35–vectored vaccine encoding HIV-1 Gag, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and Nef (Ad35-GRIN) given intramuscularly (SLA); priming with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally, followed by boosting with Ad35-GRIN given intramuscularly (SHA); priming with Ad35-GRIN given intramuscularly, followed by boosting with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally (ASH); and priming and boosting with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally (SHSH). Results. All vaccine regimens were well tolerated. Gag-specific IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot–determined response rates and geometric mean responses were higher (96% and 248 spot-forming units, respectively) in groups primed with SeV-Gag and boosted with Ad35-GRIN (SLA and SHA) than those after a single dose of Ad35-GRIN (56% and 54 spot-forming units, respectively) or SeV-Gag (55% and 59 spot-forming units, respectively); responses persisted for ≥8 months after completion of the prime-boost regimen. Functional CD8+ T-cell responses with greater breadth, magnitude, and frequency in a viral inhibition assay were also seen in the SLA and SHA groups after Ad35-GRIN boost, compared with those who received either vaccine alone. SeV-Gag did not boost T-cell counts in the ASH group. In contrast, the highest Gag-specific antibody titers were seen in the ASH group. Mucosal antibody responses were sporadic. Conclusions. SeV-Gag primed functional, durable HIV-specific T

  2. First-in-Human Evaluation of the Safety and Immunogenicity of an Intranasally Administered Replication-Competent Sendai Virus-Vectored HIV Type 1 Gag Vaccine: Induction of Potent T-Cell or Antibody Responses in Prime-Boost Regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyombayire, Julien; Anzala, Omu; Gazzard, Brian; Karita, Etienne; Bergin, Philip; Hayes, Peter; Kopycinski, Jakub; Omosa-Manyonyi, Gloria; Jackson, Akil; Bizimana, Jean; Farah, Bashir; Sayeed, Eddy; Parks, Christopher L; Inoue, Makoto; Hironaka, Takashi; Hara, Hiroto; Shu, Tsugumine; Matano, Tetsuro; Dally, Len; Barin, Burc; Park, Harriet; Gilmour, Jill; Lombardo, Angela; Excler, Jean-Louis; Fast, Patricia; Laufer, Dagna S; Cox, Josephine H

    2017-01-01

     We report the first-in-human safety and immunogenicity assessment of a prototype intranasally administered, replication-competent Sendai virus (SeV)-vectored, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine.  Sixty-five HIV-1-uninfected adults in Kenya, Rwanda, and the United Kingdom were assigned to receive 1 of 4 prime-boost regimens (administered at 0 and 4 months, respectively; ratio of vaccine to placebo recipients, 12:4): priming with a lower-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally, followed by boosting with an adenovirus 35-vectored vaccine encoding HIV-1 Gag, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and Nef (Ad35-GRIN) given intramuscularly (S L A); priming with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally, followed by boosting with Ad35-GRIN given intramuscularly (S H A); priming with Ad35-GRIN given intramuscularly, followed by boosting with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally (AS H ); and priming and boosting with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally (S H S H ).  All vaccine regimens were well tolerated. Gag-specific IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot-determined response rates and geometric mean responses were higher (96% and 248 spot-forming units, respectively) in groups primed with SeV-Gag and boosted with Ad35-GRIN (S L A and S H A) than those after a single dose of Ad35-GRIN (56% and 54 spot-forming units, respectively) or SeV-Gag (55% and 59 spot-forming units, respectively); responses persisted for ≥8 months after completion of the prime-boost regimen. Functional CD8 + T-cell responses with greater breadth, magnitude, and frequency in a viral inhibition assay were also seen in the S L A and S H A groups after Ad35-GRIN boost, compared with those who received either vaccine alone. SeV-Gag did not boost T-cell counts in the AS H group. In contrast, the highest Gag-specific antibody titers were seen in the AS H group. Mucosal antibody responses were sporadic.  SeV-Gag primed functional, durable HIV-specific T-cell responses and boosted antibody

  3. A randomised controlled trial of sublingual misoprostol and intramuscular oxytocin for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sawaf, A; El-Mazny, A; Shohayeb, A

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and side-effects of 200 μg sublingual misoprostol vs 5 IU i.m. oxytocin, administered immediately following cord clamping in normal non-augmented vaginal delivery, in prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). A total of 104 women were randomised into three groups: misoprostol group (28 patients); oxytocin group (37 patients) and control group (39 patients). Misoprostol and oxytocin significantly minimised the blood loss during the third stage of labour and reduced the need for additional treatments for PPH as compared with the control group. Oxytocin was more effective than misoprostol in minimising blood loss and the need for additional uterotonic treatments. However, a significant decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, associated with tachycardia was observed in the oxytocin group. In conclusion, sublingual misoprostol appears to be less effective than i.m. oxytocin in the prevention of PPH; however, it has the potential advantages of being easily used, cost-effective and stable at room temperature. Therefore, sublingual misoprostol is still a feasible drug for routine management of third stage, especially in areas with limited medical facilities.

  4. Analgesic effects of intramuscular administration of meloxicam in Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) with experimentally induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Gretchen A; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Krugner-Higby, Lisa; Klauer, Julia M; Medlin, Scott E; Keuler, Nicholas S; Sladky, Kurt K

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE-To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of meloxicam in parrots with experimentally induced arthritis, with extent of weight bearing and rotational perch walking used as outcome measures. ANIMALS-15 adult Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis). PROCEDURES-Arthritis was experimentally induced via intra-articular injection of microcrystalline sodium urate suspension (MSU) into 1 intertarsal joint. Parrots were treated in a crossover design. Five treatments were compared as follows: meloxicam (4 dosages) at 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg (IM, q 12 h, 3 times) and 0.03 mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (IM, q 12 h, 3 times). The first treatment was given 6 hours following MSU administration. Lameness was assessed by use of a biomechanical perch to record weight-bearing load and a rotational perch to determine dexterity. Feces were collected to assay for occult blood. RESULTS-Parrots treated with meloxicam at 1.0 mg/kg had significantly better return to normal (baseline) weight bearing on the arthritic pelvic limb, compared with control parrots or parrots treated with meloxicam at 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 mg/kg. All fecal samples collected from parrots following induction of arthritis and treatment with meloxicam had negative results for occult blood. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Meloxicam administered at 1.0 mg/kg, IM, every 12 hours effectively relieved arthritic pain in parrots.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of long-acting nalbuphine decanoate after intramuscular administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; KuKanich, Butch; Heath, Timothy D; Krugner-Higby, Lisa A; Barker, Steven A; Brown, Carolyn S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine decanoate after IM administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 9 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. Nalbuphine decanoate (37.5 mg/kg) was administered IM to all birds. Plasma samples were obtained from blood collected before (time 0) and 0.25, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 96 hours after drug administration. Plasma samples were used for measurement of nalbuphine concentrations via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated with computer software. Plasma concentrations of nalbuphine increased rapidly after IM administration, with a mean concentration of 46.1 ng/mL at 0.25 hours after administration. Plasma concentrations of nalbuphine remained > 20 ng/mL for at least 24 hours in all birds. The maximum plasma concentration was 109.4 ng/mL at 2.15 hours. The mean terminal half-life was 20.4 hours. In Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, plasma concentrations of nalbuphine were prolonged after IM administration of nalbuphine decanoate, compared with previously reported results after administration of nalbuphine hydrochloride. Plasma concentrations that could be associated with antinociception were maintained for 24 hours after IM administration of 37.5 mg of nalbuphine decanoate/kg. Safety and analgesic efficacy of nalbuphine treatments in this species require further investigation to determine the potential for clinical use in pain management in psittacine species.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine hydrochloride after intravenous and intramuscular administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Dominique L; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Klauer, Julia M; KuKanich, Butch; Barker, Steven A; Rodríguez-Ramos Fernández, Julia; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2011-06-01

    To assess the pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine HCl after IV and IM administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 8 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. Nalbuphine HCl (12.5 mg/kg) was administered IV and IM to all birds in a complete randomized crossover study design; there was a washout period of 21 days between subsequent administrations. Plasma samples were obtained from blood collected at predetermined time points for measurement of nalbuphine concentration by use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by use of computer software. Nalbuphine was rapidly eliminated with a terminal half-life of 0.33 hours and clearance of 69.95 mL/min/kg after IV administration and a half-life of 0.35 hours after IM administration. Volume of distribution was 2.01 L/kg after IV administration. The fraction of the dose absorbed was high (1.03) after IM administration. No adverse effects were detected in the parrots during the study. In Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, nalbuphine appeared to have good bioavailability after IM administration and was rapidly cleared after IV and IM administration. Safety and analgesic efficacy of various nalbuphine treatment regimens in this species require further investigation to determine the potential for clinical palliation of signs of pain in psittacine species.

  7. 34 CFR 461.1 - What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic Grant Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic...-ADMINISTERED BASIC GRANT PROGRAM General § 461.1 What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic Grant Program? The Adult Education State-administered basic Grant Program (the program) is a cooperative effort...

  8. Bioavailability of pivampicillin and ampicillin trihydrate administered as an oral paste in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensink, JM; Mol, A; Vulto, AG; Tukker, JJ

    1996-01-01

    Pivampicillin was administered as an oral paste to five healthy adult horses, and an oral paste with ampicillin trihydrate was administered to three horses, Pivampicillin was administered to both starved and fed horses, ampicillin trihydrate was administered to fed horses only, The dose of

  9. A Controlled Study to Assess the Clinical Efficacy of Totally Self-Administered Systematic Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Gerald M.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Highly anxious self-referred snake phobics received either (a) therapist-administered desensitization, (b) self-administered desensitization with weekly therapist phone calls, (c) totally self-administered desensitization, (d) self-administered double-blind placebo control, or (e) no treatment. Pretreatment to posttreatment measures revealed…

  10. A randomized trial comparing surgeon-administered intraoperative transversus abdominis plane block with anesthesiologist-administered transcutaneous block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhulu, D M; Scharfman, L; Minkoff, H; George, B; Homel, P; Tyagaraj, K

    2018-04-27

    Injection of local anesthetic into the transversus abdominis plane (TAP block) decreases systemic morphine requirements after abdominal surgery. We compared intraoperative surgeon-administered TAP block (surgical TAP) to anesthesiologist-administered transcutaneous ultrasound-guided TAP block (conventional TAP) for post-cesarean analgesia. We hypothesized that surgical TAP blocks would take less time to perform than conventional TAP blocks. We performed a randomized trial, recruiting 41 women undergoing cesarean delivery under neuraxial anesthesia, assigning them to either surgical TAP block (n=20) or conventional TAP block (n=21). Time taken to perform the block was the primary outcome, while postoperative pain scores and 24-hour opioid requirements were secondary outcomes. Student's t-test was used to compare block time and Kruskal-Wallis test opioid consumption and pain-scores. Time taken to perform the block (2.4 vs 12.1 min, P consumption (P=0.17) and postoperative pain scores at 4, 8, 24 and 48 h were not significantly different between the groups. Surgical TAP blocks are feasible and less time consuming than conventional TAP blocks, while providing comparable analgesia after cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Haematological disorders in Thorotrast-administered patients in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiyama, Ryuichi; Hatakeyama, Shigeru

    1989-01-01

    Fifteen haematological disorders including ten leukaemia cases, one primary acquired sideroblastic anaemia and four aplastic anaemia cases were studied clinicopathologically in autopsies from patients who had been administered Thorotrast in Japan. The leukaemia group, the primary acquired sideroblastic anaemia and the aplastic anaemia cases after Thorotrast administration were considered to be mainly atypical, and it was speculated that damage induced by Thorotrast may affect the haemopoietic stem cell level and the haemopoietic microenvironment. Both dose rate and absorbed dose estimated in bone marrow, spleen and liver at autopsy showed no significant difference between the leukaemia group, primary acquired sideroblastic anaemia, aplastic anaemia and non-haematological disorders excluding the malignant hepatic tumours and liver cirrhosis. (author)

  12. Administering truncated receive functions in a parallel messaging interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-12-09

    Administering truncated receive functions in a parallel messaging interface (`PMI`) of a parallel computer comprising a plurality of compute nodes coupled for data communications through the PMI and through a data communications network, including: sending, through the PMI on a source compute node, a quantity of data from the source compute node to a destination compute node; specifying, by an application on the destination compute node, a portion of the quantity of data to be received by the application on the destination compute node and a portion of the quantity of data to be discarded; receiving, by the PMI on the destination compute node, all of the quantity of data; providing, by the PMI on the destination compute node to the application on the destination compute node, only the portion of the quantity of data to be received by the application; and discarding, by the PMI on the destination compute node, the portion of the quantity of data to be discarded.

  13. Techniques to administer oral, inhalational, and IV sedation in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Krystyna Harbuz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Sedation in dentistry is a controversial topic given the variety of opinions regarding its safe practice. Aims This article evaluates the various techniques used to administer sedation in dentistry and specific methods practiced to form a recommendation for clinicians. Methods An extensive literature search was performed using PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, Google, and local library resources. Results Most of the literature revealed a consensus that light sedation on low-risk American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA groups, that is ASA I, and possibly II, is the safest method for sedation in a dental outpatient setting. Conclusion Formal training is essential to achieve the safe practice of sedation in dentistry or medicine. The appropriate setting for sedation should be determined as there is an increased risk outside the hospital setting. Patients should be adequately assessed and medication titrated appropriately, based on individual requirements.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of detomidine and its metabolites following intravenous and intramuscular administration in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsrud, K N; Mama, K R; Thomasy, S M; Stanley, S D

    2009-04-01

    Detomidine is commonly used i.v. for sedation and analgesia in horses, but the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of this drug have not been well described. To describe the pharmacokinetics of detomidine and its metabolites, 3-hydroxy-detomidine (OH-detomidine) and detomidine 3-carboxylic acid (COOH-detomidine), after i.v. and i.m. administration of a single dose to horses. Eight horses were used in a balanced crossover design study. In Phase 1, 4 horses received a single dose of i.v. detomidine, administered 30 microg/kg bwt and 4 a single dose i.m. 30 microg/kg bwt. In Phase 2, treatments were reversed. Plasma detomidine, OH-detomidine and COOH-detomidine were measured at predetermined time points using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Following i.v. administration, detomidine was distributed rapidly and eliminated with a half-life (t1/2(el)) of approximately 30 min. Following i.m. administration, detomidine was distributed and eliminated with t1/2(el) of approximately one hour. Following, i.v. administration, detomidine clearance had a mean, median and range of 12.41, 11.66 and 10.10-18.37 ml/min/kg bwt, respectively. Detomidine had a volume of distribution with the mean, median and range for i.v. administration of 470, 478 and 215-687 ml/kg bwt, respectively. OH-detomidine was detected sooner than COOH-detomidine; however, COOH-detomidine had a much greater area under the curve. These pharmacokinetic parameters provide information necessary for determination of peak plasma concentrations and clearance of detomidine in mature horses. The results suggest that, when a longer duration of plasma concentration is warranted, the i.m. route should be considered.

  15. Safety of florfenicol administered in feed to tilapia (Oreochromis sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Wolf, Jeffrey C.; Schleis, Susan M.; Tuomari, Darrell; Endris, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    The safety of Aquaflor® (50% w/w florfenicol [FFC]) incorporated in feed then administered to tilapia for 20 days (2x the recommended duration) at 0, 15, 45, or 75 mg/kg body weight/day (0, 1, 3, or 5x the recommended dose of 15 mg FFC/kg BW/d) was investigated. Mortality, behavioral change, feed consumption, body size, and gross and microscopic lesions were determined. Estimated delivered doses were >96.9% of target. Three unscheduled mortalities occurred but were considered incidental since FFC-related findings were not identified. Feed consumption was only affected during the last 10 dosing days when the 45 and 75 mg/kg groups consumed only 62.5% and 55.3% of the feed offered, respectively. There were significant, dose-dependent reductions in body size in the FFC-dose groups relative to the controls. Treatment-related histopathological findings included increased severity of lamellar epithelial hyperplasia, increased incidence of lamellar adhesions, decreased incidence of lamellar telangiectasis in the gills, increased glycogen-type and lipid-type hepatocellular vacuolation in the liver, decreased lymphocytes, increased blast cells, and increased individual cell necrosis in the anterior kidney, and tubular epithelial degeneration and mineralization in the posterior kidney. These changes are likely to be of minimal clinical relevance, given the lack of mortality or morbidity observed. This study has shown that FFC, when administered in feed to tilapia at the recommended dose (15 mg FFC/kg BW/day) for 10 days would be well tolerated.

  16. Opponent process properties of self-administered cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettenberg, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, data collected in our laboratory have demonstrated that self-administered cocaine produces Opponent-Process-like behavioral effects. Animals running a straight alley once each day for IV cocaine develop over trials an approach-avoidance conflict about re-entering the goal box. This conflict behavior is characterized by a stop in forward locomotion (usually at the very mouth of the goal box) followed by a turn and 'retreat' back toward the goal box. The results of a series of studies conducted over the past decade collectively suggest that the behavioral ambivalence exemplified by rats running the alley for IV cocaine stems from concurrent and opponent positive (rewarding) and negative (anxiogenic) properties of the drug--both of which are associated with the goal box. These opponent properties of cocaine have been shown to result from temporally distinct affective states. Using a conditioned place preference test, we have been able to demonstrate that while the initial immediate effects of IV cocaine are reinforcing, the state present 15 min post-injection is aversive. In our most recent work, the co-administration of IV cocaine with either oral ethanol or IV heroin was found to greatly diminish the development and occurrence of retreat behaviors in the runway. It may therefore be that the high incidence of co-abuse of cocaine with either ethanol or heroin, stems from the users' motivation to alleviate some of the negative side effects of cocaine. It would seem then that the Opponent Process Theory has provided a useful conceptual framework for the study of the behavioral consequences of self-administered cocaine including the notion that both positive and negative reinforcement mechanisms are involved in the development and maintenance of cocaine abuse.

  17. Orally administered nicotine induces urothelial hyperplasia in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodmane, Puttappa R.; Arnold, Lora L.; Pennington, Karen L.; Cohen, Samuel M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Rats and mice orally administered with nicotine tartrate for total of 4 weeks. • No treatment-related death or whole body toxicity observed in any of the groups. • Urothelium showed simple hyperplasia in treated rats and mice. • No significant change in BrdU labeling index or SEM classification of urothelium. - Abstract: Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for multiple human cancers including urinary bladder carcinoma. Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture containing chemicals that are known carcinogens in humans and/or animals. Aromatic amines a major class of DNA-reactive carcinogens in cigarette smoke, are not present at sufficiently high levels to fully explain the incidence of bladder cancer in cigarette smokers. Other agents in tobacco smoke could be excreted in urine and enhance the carcinogenic process by increasing urothelial cell proliferation. Nicotine is one such major component, as it has been shown to induce cell proliferation in multiple cell types in vitro. However, in vivo evidence specifically for the urothelium is lacking. We previously showed that cigarette smoke induces increased urothelial cell proliferation in mice. In the present study, urothelial proliferative and cytotoxic effects were examined after nicotine treatment in mice and rats. Nicotine hydrogen tartrate was administered in drinking water to rats (52 ppm nicotine) and mice (514 ppm nicotine) for 4 weeks and urothelial changes were evaluated. Histopathologically, 7/10 rats and 4/10 mice showed simple hyperplasia following nicotine treatment compared to none in the controls. Rats had an increased mean BrdU labeling index compared to controls, although it was not statistically significantly elevated in either species. Scanning electron microscopic visualization of the urothelium did not reveal significant cytotoxicity. These findings suggest that oral nicotine administration induced urothelial hyperplasia (increased cell proliferation), possibly due to a

  18. Doses of radioiodine administered for hyperthyroidism: a sampling of Belgian nuclear medicine physician's attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondeur Dejonckheere, Marianne; Glinoer, Daniel; Verelst, Jean; Sand, Alain; Ham, Hamphrey

    2005-01-01

    Full text: While radioiodine (RI) is a well established treatment for hyperthyroidism, there is no consensus regarding the administration of fixed or calculated doses. Guidelines from scientific societies do not specify the preferable approach, nor the parameters to be used in order to calculate the latter. Therefore, the doses might, for the same patient, be different with regard to the chosen procedure. This study was undertaken to assess the variability of RI amounts administered in Belgium in various cases of hyperthyroidism. 21 Belgian nuclear medicine physicians issued from different departments and universities participated into the study. They received a file with clinical and biological data, iodine turnover rate, scintigraphic images and calculated thyroid surfaces from 10 patients (8 females, 2 males), 30-77 yrs suffering from hyperthyroidism of various etiologies: 7 patients had clinically overt hyperthyroidism and 3 subclinical hyperthyroidism; 7 patients had toxic goiters of various size (Graves' disease), 2 multi nodular goiter and 1 toxic nodule. None suffered from cardiac anomalies or ophthalmopathy. Participants were asked to define the amount of RI they would give in each case. Answers were received during a 8-week period. Analysing data from case 1 to case 10, the ranges of the proposed doses varied between 8 and 22 milli Curies (mCi) (sd : 2.4 - 6.07). Considering all the patients, the proposed doses varied between 2 mCi and 25 mCi. Analysing answers among the 21 participants, mean proposed doses varied between 4.5 and 17.3 mCi (sd: 0.69 - 7.99). Conclusion: These results demonstrate a wide variability among nuclear medicine physicians in the proposed RI doses and confirm that in Belgium there is no uniformity in the procedure used to determine the amount of RI to administer for various causes of hyperthyroidism. This emphasizes the notion that the determination of the amount of RI to be administered remains a matter of debate. (author)

  19. Toxicity of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) administered during pregnancy and lactation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoretti, Barbara; Stebel, Marco; Candussio, Luigi; Crivellato, Enrico; Bartoli, Fiora; Decorti, Giuliana

    2004-01-01

    The popularity of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) for the treatment of depression is increasing and, in recent years, concerns about its use during pregnancy and breastfeeding have emerged. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in Wistar rats, the effects of a treatment with hypericum administered prenatally and during breastfeeding (from 2 weeks before mating to 21 days after delivery). Two doses of the extract were chosen, 100 mg/kg per day, which, based on surface area, is comparable to the dose administered to humans, and 1000 mg/kg per day. A microscopical analysis of livers, kidneys, hearts, lungs, brains, and small bowels was performed. A severe damage was observed in the livers and kidneys of animals euthanized postnatally on days 0 and 21. The lesions were more severe with the higher dose and in animals that were breastfed for 21 days; however, an important renal and hepatic damage was evident also with the dose of 100 mg/kg per day. In addition, similar serious hepatic and renal lesions were evident also in animals that were exposed to hypericum only during breastfeeding. In particular, a focal hepatic damage, with vacuolization, lobular fibrosis, and disorganization of hepatic arrays was evident; in the kidney, a reduction in glomerular size, disappearance of Bowman's space, and hyaline tubular degeneration were found. The results obtained in this study indicate that further, appropriate histological studies should be performed in other animal species to better evaluate the safety of hypericum extracts taken during pregnancy and breastfeeding

  20. Adiposity, lipogenesis, and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues of Brahman and Angus crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, E M G; Sanders, J O; Lunt, D K; Gill, C A; Taylor, J F; Davis, S K; Riley, D G; Smith, S B

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate differences in aspects of adipose tissue cellularity, lipid metabolism, and fatty and cholesterol composition in Angus and Brahman crossbred cattle. We hypothesized that in vitro measures of lipogenesis would be greater in three-fourths Angus progeny than in three-fourths Brahman progeny, especially in intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissue. Progeny ( = 227) were fed a standard, corn-based diet for approximately 150 d before slaughter. Breed was considered to be the effect of interest and was forced into the model. There were 9 breed groups including all 4 kinds of three-fourths Angus calves: Angus bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 32), Angus bulls Brahman-sired F cows ( = 20), Brahman-sired F bulls Angus cows ( = 24), and Angus-sired F bulls Angus cows ( = 20). There were all 4 kinds of three-fourths Brahman calves: Brahman bulls Brahman-sired F cows ( = 21), Brahman bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 43), Brahman-sired F bulls Brahman cows ( = 26), and Angus-sired F bulls Brahman cows ( = 13). Additionally, F calves (one-half Brahman and one-half Angus) were produced only from Brahman-sired F bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 28). Contrasts were calculated when breed was an important fixed effect, using the random effect family(breed) as the error term. Most contrasts were nonsignificant ( > 0.10). Those that were significant ( Angus > F, three-fourths Brahman > F, and three-fourths crossbred progeny combined > F), s.c. adipocyte volume (three-fourths Angus > F and three-fourths bloods combined > F), lipogenesis from acetate in s.c. adipose tissue (three-fourths Brahman calves from Brahman dams > three-fourths Brahman calves from F dams), and percentage 18:3-3 in s.c. adipose tissue (three-fourths Brahman calves from Brahman-sired F dams Angus-sired F dams). Intramuscular adipocyte volume ( Angus cattle. Additionally, several differences were observed in i.m. adipose tissue that were consistent with this being a less-developed adipose

  1. Pharmacokinetic behavior of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in urutu pit vipers (Bothrops alternatus) after intramuscular administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Samanta; Prados, Ana Paula; de Lucas, José Julio; San Andrés, Manuel Ignacion; Regner, Pablo; de Oliveira, Vanesa Costa; de Roodt, Adolfo; Rodríguez, Casilda

    2014-03-01

    Enrofloxacin is widely used in veterinary medicine and is an important alternative to treating bacterial infections, which play an important role as causes of disease and death in captive snakes. Its extralabel use in nontraditional species has been related to its excellent pharmacokinetic and antimicrobial characteristics. This can be demonstrated by its activity against gram-negative organisms implicated in serious infectious diseases of reptile species with a rapid and concentration-dependent bactericidal effect and a large volume of distribution. Pharmacokinetic parameters for enrofloxacin were investigated in seven urutu pit vipers (Bothrops alternatus), following intramuscular injections of 10 mg/kg. The plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin and its metabolite, ciprofloxacin, were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Blood samples were collected from the ventral coccygeal veins at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, 108, and 168 hr. The kinetic behavior was characterized by a relatively slow absorption (time of maximal plasma concentration = 4.50 +/- 3.45 hr) with peak plasma concentration of 4.81 +/- 1.12 microg/ml. The long half-life during the terminal elimination phase (t1/2 lambda = 27.91 +/- 7.55 hr) of enrofloxacin after intramuscular administration, calculated in the present study, could suggest that the antibiotic is eliminated relatively slowly and/or the presence of a slow absorption in urutu pit vipers. Ciprofloxacin reached a peak plasma concentration of 0.35 microg/ml at 13.45 hr, and the fraction of enrofloxacin metabolized to ciprofloxacin was 13.06%. If enrofloxacin's minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC90) values of 0.5 microg/ml were used, the ratios AUC(e+c): MIC90 (276 +/- 67 hr) and Cmax(e+c): MIC90 (10 +/- 2) reach the proposed threshold values (125 hr and 10, respectively) for optimized efficacy and minimized resistance development when treating infections caused by Pseudomonas. The administration of 10 mg/kg of

  2. Repeated dose intramuscular injection of the CIMAvax-EGF vaccine in Sprague Dawley rats induces local and systemic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, A; Casacó, A; González, B; Ledón, N; Sorlozabal, J; León, A; Gómez, D; González, Y; Bada, A M; González, C; Arteaga, M E; Ramírez, H; Fuentes, D

    2012-05-09

    CIMAvax-EGF consists of a human recombinant epidermal growth factor (EGF), coupled to P64k, a recombinant carrier protein from N. meningitis, and Montanide ISA 51 as adjuvant. The vaccine immunization induces a specific antibody production, inhibiting the EGF/EGF-R interaction through EGF deprivation. The objective of this study was to assess the CIMAvax-EGF toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats after intramuscular administration of repeated doses (6 months) and at the same time to determine if rat is a relevant species for studying CIMAvax-EGF vaccine. Rats were randomly distributed into four groups: control, Montanide ISA 51, treated with 1× and 15× of human total dose of the antigen. Animals were immunized weekly during 9 weeks, plus 9 immunizations every 14 days. Rats were inspected daily for clinical signs. Body weight, food consumption, and rectal temperature were measured during the administration of doses. Blood samples were collected for hematological, serum biochemical determinations and EGF titles at the beginning, three months and at the end of experimentation. Gross necropsy and histological examination of tissues were performed on animals at the end of the assay. Vaccine provoked the apparition of antibodies against EGF in the rats, demonstrating rat species relevance in these studies. Body weight gain, food and water consumption were not affected. CIMAvax-EGF and Montanide ISA 51 produced local damage at the administration site, showing multiple cysts and granulomas. Both vaccine-treated groups showed neutrophil elevation, besides an AST increase probably related to the damage at the administration site. Rectal temperature was found to be significantly higher in 15× treated group after immunizations, probably induced by the inflammatory process at the injection site. In summary, the clinical pathology findings together with the body temperature results, appear to be caused by the inflammatory reaction at the administration site of the vaccine, mainly

  3. Police Officers Can Safely and Effectively Administer Intranasal Naloxone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Rian; O'Donnell, Daniel; Ray, Bradley; Rusyniak, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Opioid overdose rates continue to rise at an alarming rate. One method used to combat this epidemic is the administration of naloxone by law enforcement. Many cities have implemented police naloxone administration programs, but there is a minimal amount of research examining this policy. The following study examines data over 18 months, after implementation of a police naloxone program in an urban setting. We describe the most common indications and outcomes of naloxone administration as well as examine the incidence of arrest, immediate detention, or voluntary transport to the hospital. In doing so, this study seeks to describe the clinical factors surrounding police use of naloxone, and the effects of police administration. All police officer administrations were queried from April 2014 through September 2015 (n = 126). For each incident we collected the indication, response, and disposition of the patient that was recorded on a "sick-injured civilian" report that officers were required to complete after administration of naloxone. All of the relevant information was abstracted from this report into an electronic data collection form that was then input into SPSS for analysis. The most common indication for administration was unconscious/unresponsive (n = 117; 92.9%) followed by slowed breathing (n = 72; 57.1%), appeared blue (n = 63; 50.0%) and not breathing (n = 41; 32.5%). After administration of naloxone the majority of patients regained consciousness (n = 82; 65.1%) followed by began to breath (n = 71; 56.3%). However, in 17.5% (n = 22) of the cases "Nothing" happened when naloxone was administered. The majority of patients were transported voluntarily to the hospital (n = 122; 96.8%). Lastly, there was only one report where the patient became combative. Our study shows that police officers trained in naloxone administration can correctly recognize symptoms of opioid overdose, and can appropriately administer naloxone without significant adverse effects or

  4. Toxicity and biodistribution of orally administered casein nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Ana Gloria; Irache, Juan Manuel; Peñuelas, Iván; González Navarro, Carlos Javier; López de Cerain, Adela

    2017-08-01

    In the last years, casein nanoparticles have been proposed as carriers for the oral delivery of biologically active compounds. However, till now, no information about their possible specific hazards in vivo was available. The aim of this work was to assess the safety of casein nanoparticles when administered orally to animals through a 90 days dose-repeated toxicity study (OECD guideline 408), that was performed in Wistar rats under GLP conditions. After 90 days, no evidences of significant alterations in animals treated daily with 50, 150 or 500 mg/kg bw of nanoparticles were found. This safety agrees well with the fact that nanoparticles were not absorbed and remained within the gut as observed by radiolabelling in the biodistribution study. After 28 days, there was a generalized hyperchloremia in males and females treated with the highest dose of 500 mg/kg bw, that was coupled with hypernatremia in the females. These effects were related to the presence of mannitol which was used as excipient in the formulation of casein nanoparticles. According to these results, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) could be established in 150 mg/kg bw/day and the Lowest Observed Effect Level (LOEL) could be established in 500 mg/kg bw/day. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Macroscopic and microscopic biodistribution of intravenously administered iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Adwiteeya; Petryk, Alicia A.; Strawbridge, Rendall R.; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2015-03-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) are being developed for use as a cancer treatment. They have demonstrated efficacy when used either as a monotherapy or in conjunction with conventional chemotherapy and radiation. The success of IONP as a therapeutic tool depends on the delivery of a safe and controlled cytotoxic thermal dose to tumor tissue following activation with an alternating magnetic field (AMF). Prior to clinical approval, knowledge of IONP toxicity, biodistribution and physiological clearance is essential. This preliminary time-course study determines the acute toxicity and biodistribution of 110 nm dextran-coated IONP (iron) in mice, 7 days post systemic, at doses of 0.4, 0.6, and 1.0 mg Fe/ g mouse bodyweight. Acute toxicity, manifested as changes in the behavior of mice, was only observed temporarily at 1.0 mg Fe/ g mouse bodyweight, the highest dose administered. Regardless of dose, mass spectrometry and histological analysis demonstrated over 3 mg Fe/g tissue in organs within the reticuloendotheilial system (i.e. liver, spleen, and lymph nodes). Other organs (brain, heart, lungs, and kidney) had less than 0.5 mg Fe/g tissue with iron predominantly confined to the organ vasculature.

  6. Developmental toxicity of orally administered pineapple leaf extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Lin, Han; Shen, Jia; Lan, Jiaqi; Ma, Chao; Zhao, Yunan; Lei, Fan; Xing, Dongming; Du, Lijun

    2011-06-01

    The extract of pineapple leaves (EPL) has anti-diabetic and anti-dyslipidemic effects and can be developed into a promising natural medicine. This study was conducted to evaluate EPL's effects on developmental parameters in order to provide evidence of its safety before potential medical use. Five groups were included: a negative control that was given distilled water daily, a positive control that was dosed 7 mg/kg cyclophosphamide (CP) every two days, and three groups that were respectively dosed 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5 g/kg EPL daily. Female rats were dosed during the organogenesis period of gestation days (GD) 7-17 and terminated on GD 20. A series of parameters were examined. Data revealed that CP significantly reduced maternal body weight gains, caused maternal organ weight alterations, reduced female fertility, disturbed fetal growth and development, and caused marked teratogenic effects on fetal appearances, skeleton and internal organs. Distilled water and the three high doses of EPL did not cause any of the aforementioned effects. This study concluded that orally administered EPL is safe to rats during embryonic development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Administering and Detecting Protein Marks on Arthropods for Dispersal Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, James R; Machtley, Scott A

    2016-01-28

    Monitoring arthropod movement is often required to better understand associated population dynamics, dispersal patterns, host plant preferences, and other ecological interactions. Arthropods are usually tracked in nature by tagging them with a unique mark and then re-collecting them over time and space to determine their dispersal capabilities. In addition to actual physical tags, such as colored dust or paint, various types of proteins have proven very effective for marking arthropods for ecological research. Proteins can be administered internally and/or externally. The proteins can then be detected on recaptured arthropods with a protein-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Here we describe protocols for externally and internally tagging arthropods with protein. Two simple experimental examples are demonstrated: (1) an internal protein mark introduced to an insect by providing a protein-enriched diet and (2) an external protein mark topically applied to an insect using a medical nebulizer. We then relate a step-by-step guide of the sandwich and indirect ELISA methods used to detect protein marks on the insects. In this demonstration, various aspects of the acquisition and detection of protein markers on arthropods for mark-release-recapture, mark-capture, and self-mark-capture types of research are discussed, along with the various ways that the immunomarking procedure has been adapted to suit a wide variety of research objectives.

  8. Association between systemically administered radioisotopes and subsequent malignant disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlin, N.I.; Wasserman, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    There is a long history recording the association of x radiation and the subsequent development of malignant tumors. For systemically administered isotopes this came into prominence when Martland discovered the association between cancer, particularly of the bone, and ingestion of radioactive isotopes by radium dial painters. This association was amplified by the development of cancer in patients given thorotrast as a contrast medium for diagnostic radiologic examination. Acute leukemia was reported 30 years ago in patients with polycythemia vera treated with 32 P. Acute leukemia also occurs in patients with polycythemia vera treated only with phlebotomy or drugs. A controlled study is now underway to provide a more definite answer to question what is the incidence of acute leukemia in patients with polycythemia vera treated by phlebotomy alone, chlorambucil, or 32 P. 131 I for the treatment of hyperthyroidism probably does not induce cancer, but in the doses used for thyroid cancer there was an increased incidence of neoplasms (12/200 in one study). This was higher than the expected incidence of neoplasms. The doses of radioactive isotopes used currently for diagnostic purposes have not induced cancer, but it is difficult and probably impossible to verify this with absolute certainty

  9. Transretroperitoneal CT-guided Embolization of Growing Internal Iliac Artery Aneurysm after Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: A Transretroperitoneal Approach with Intramuscular Lidocaine Injection Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joon Young, E-mail: pjy1331@hanmail.net; Kim, Shin Jung, E-mail: witdd2@hanmail.net; Kim, Hyoung Ook, E-mail: chaos821209@hanmail.net [Chonnam National University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Tae, E-mail: mono-111@hanmail.net [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Nam Yeol, E-mail: apleseed@hanmail.net; Kim, Jae Kyu, E-mail: kjkrad@jnu.ac.kr [Chonnam National University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Sang Young, E-mail: sycpvts@jnu.ac.kr; Choi, Soo Jin Na, E-mail: choisjn@jnu.ac.kr; Lee, Ho Kyun, E-mail: mhaha@hanmail.net [Chonnam National University Hospital, Department of Surgery (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CT-guided embolization of internal iliac artery aneurysm (IIAA) after repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm by transretroperitoneal approach using the lidocaine injection technique to iliacus muscle, making window for safe needle path for three patients for whom CT-guided embolization of IIAA was performed by transretroperitoneal approach with intramuscular lidocaine injection technique. Transretroperitoneal access to the IIAA was successful in all three patients. In all three patients, the IIAA was first embolized using microcoils. The aneurysmal sac was then embolized with glue and coils without complication. With a mean follow-up of 7 months, the volume of the IIAAs remained stable without residual endoleaks. Transretroperitoneal CT-guided embolization of IIAA using intramuscular lidocaine injection technique is effective, safe, and results in good outcome.

  10. Clinicopathologic, gross necropsy, and histologic findings after intramuscular injection of carprofen in a pigeon (Columba livia) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, Tawina J; Hoover, John P; Payton, Mark E; Schiller, Chris A

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the pathologic effects of carprofen in a pigeon model (Columba livia), 52 young adult pigeons were used in a randomized control study design. Sixteen pigeons were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups and received carprofen by intramuscular injection at dosages of either 2, 5, or 10 mg/kg once daily for 7 days. Four pigeons served as saline-injected controls. Four pigeons from each group and 1 control pigeon were randomly selected on days 2, 4, 6, and 8 to obtain blood samples and then were euthanatized and submitted for necropsy. Histologic lesions in pectoral muscle, liver, kidney, and digestive tract tissue samples were ranked in severity as 0, normal/not present; 1, minimal; 2, mild; 3, mild to moderate; 4, moderate; 5, moderate to marked; and 6, marked pathologic changes. Two-way analysis of variance (day x dose) and pairwise t tests revealed significant (P carprofen treatments. Gross lesions in carprofen-treated pigeons were pale injection sites (23/48 [47.9%]), mottled yellow livers (9/48 [18.8%]), and congestion of small intestines (7/48 [14.6%]). Liver, kidney, and muscle injection sites had significantly increased (P carprofen is associated with increased aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase enzyme concentrations, gross lesions in muscle injection sites and liver, and histologic lesions in liver and muscle.

  11. Prediction of intramuscular fat content and major fatty acid groups of lamb M. longissimus lumborum using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Stephanie M; Ponnampalam, Eric N; Schmidt, Heinar; Wynn, Peter; Hopkins, David L

    2015-12-01

    A hand held Raman spectroscopic device was used to predict intramuscular fat (IMF) levels and the major fatty acid (FA) groups of fresh intact ovine M. longissimus lumborum (LL). IMF levels were determined using the Soxhlet method, while FA analysis was conducted using a rapid (KOH in water, methanol and sulphuric acid in water) extraction procedure. IMF levels and FA values were regressed against Raman spectra using partial least squares regression and against each other using linear regression. The results indicate that there is potential to predict PUFA (R(2)=0.93) and MUFA (R(2)=0.54) as well as SFA values that had been adjusted for IMF content (R(2)=0.54). However, this potential was significantly reduced when correlations between predicted and observed values were determined by cross validation (R(2)cv=0.21-0.00). Overall, the prediction of major FA groups using Raman spectra was more precise (relative reductions in error of 0.3-40.8%) compared to the null models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Accuracy of genomic breeding value prediction for intramuscular fat using different genomic relationship matrices in Hanwoo (Korean cattle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Taejeong; Lim, Dajeong; Park, Byoungho; Sharma, Aditi; Kim, Jong-Joo; Kim, Sidong; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2017-07-01

    Intramuscular fat is one of the meat quality traits that is considered in the selection strategies for Hanwoo (Korean cattle). Different methods are used to estimate the breeding value of selection candidates. In the present work we focused on accuracy of different genotype relationship matrices as described by forni and pedigree based relationship matrix. The data set included a total of 778 animals that were genotyped for BovineSNP50 BeadChip. Among these 778 animals, 72 animals were sires for 706 reference animals and were used as a validation dataset. Single trait animal model (best linear unbiased prediction and genomic best linear unbiased prediction) was used to estimate the breeding values from genomic and pedigree information. The diagonal elements for the pedigree based coefficients were slightly higher for the genomic relationship matrices (GRM) based coefficients while off diagonal elements were considerably low for GRM based coefficients. The accuracy of breeding value for the pedigree based relationship matrix (A) was 13% while for GRM (GOF, G05, and Yang) it was 0.37, 0.45, and 0.38, respectively. Accuracy of GRM was 1.5 times higher than A in this study. Therefore, genomic information will be more beneficial than pedigree information in the Hanwoo breeding program.

  13. Regulatory polymorphisms in the bovine Ankyrin 1 gene promoter are associated with tenderness and intra-muscular fat content

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aslan, Ozlem

    2010-12-15

    Abstract Background Recent QTL and gene expression studies have highlighted ankyrins as positional and functional candidate genes for meat quality. Our objective was to characterise the promoter region of the bovine ankyrin 1 gene and to test polymorphisms for association with sensory and technological meat quality measures. Results Seven novel promoter SNPs were identified in a 1.11 kb region of the ankyrin 1 promoter in Angus, Charolais and Limousin bulls (n = 15 per breed) as well as 141 crossbred beef animals for which meat quality data was available. Eighteen haplotypes were inferred with significant breed variation in haplotype frequencies. The five most frequent SNPs and the four most frequent haplotypes were subsequently tested for association with sensory and technological measures of meat quality in the crossbred population. SNP1, SNP3 and SNP4 (which were subsequently designated regulatory SNPs) and SNP5 were associated with traits that contribute to sensorial and technological measurements of tenderness and texture; Haplotype 1 and haplotype 4 were oppositely correlated with traits contributing to tenderness (P < 0.05). While no single SNP was associated with intramuscular fat (IMF), a clear association with increased IMF and juiciness was observed for haplotype 2. Conclusion The conclusion from this study is that alleles defining haplotypes 2 and 4 could usefully contribute to marker SNP panels used to select individuals with improved IMF\\/juiciness or tenderness in a genome-assisted selection framework.

  14. Assessment of Morphological and Functional Changes in Organs of Rats after Intramuscular Introduction of Iron Nanoparticles and Their Agglomerates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sizova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was performed on male Wistar rats based on assumptions that new microelement preparations containing metal nanoparticles and their agglomerates had potential. Morphological and functional changes in tissues in the injection site and dynamics of chemical element metabolism (25 indicators in body were assessed after repeated intramuscular injections (total, 7 with preparation containing agglomerate of iron nanoparticles. As a result, iron depot was formed in myosymplasts of injection sites. The quantity of muscle fibers having positive Perls’ stain increased with increasing number of injections. However, the concentration of the most chemical elements and iron significantly decreased in the whole skeletal muscle system (injection sites are not included. Consequently, it increased up to the control level after the sixth and the seventh injections. Among the studied organs (liver, kidneys, and spleen, Caspase-3 expression was revealed only in spleen. The expression had a direct dependence on the number of injections. Processes of iron elimination from preparation containing nanoparticles and their agglomerates had different intensity.

  15. Intramuscular myxoid lipoma in the proximal forearm presenting as an olecranon mass with superficial radial nerve palsy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildebrand Kevin A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extremity lipomas may occur in any location, including the proximal forearm. We describe a case of a patient with an intramuscular lipoma presenting as an unusual posterior elbow mass. Case presentation We discuss the case of a 57-year-old Caucasian man who presented with a tender, posterior elbow mass initially diagnosed as chronic olecranon bursitis. A minor sensory disturbance in the distribution of the superficial radial nerve was initially thought to be unrelated, but was likely caused by mass effect from the lipoma. No pre-operative advanced imaging was obtained because the diagnosis was felt to have already been made. At the time of surgery, a fatty mass originating in the volar forearm muscles was found to have breached the dorsal forearm fascia and displaced the olecranon bursa. Tissue diagnosis was made by histopathology as a myxoid lipoma with no aggressive features. Post-operative recovery was uneventful. Conclusion We present a case of an unusual elbow mass presenting with symptoms consistent with chronic olecranon bursitis, a relatively common condition. The only unexplained pre-operative finding was the non-specific finding of a transient superficial radial nerve deficit. We remind clinicians to be cautious when diagnosing soft tissue masses in the extremities when unexplained physical findings are present.

  16. Intramuscular Priming and Intranasal Boosting Induce Strong Genital Immunity Through Secretory IgA in Minipigs Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Bøje, Sarah; Erneholm, Karin; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    International efforts in developing a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis have highlighted the need for novel immunization strategies for the induction of genital immunity. In this study, we evaluated an intramuscular (IM) prime/intranasal boost vaccination strategy in a Göttingen Minipig model with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. IM priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated interferon gamma and interleukin 17A response and a significant systemic high-titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC), we showed that the genital IgA was locally produced in the genital mucosa. The highly significant inverse correlation between the vaginal IgA SC response and the chlamydial load suggests that IgA in the minipig model is involved in protection against C. trachomatis. This is important both for our understanding of protective immunity and future vaccination strategies against C. trachomatis and genital pathogens in general. PMID:26734002

  17. EVALUATION OF EFFICACY AND SAFETY POSTOPERATIVE PAIN MANAGEMENT BY INTRAMUSCULAR ANALGESIA AFTER DIFFERENT TYPES OF ANAESTHESIA: PILOT CLINICAL PROSPECTIVE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkaev, A K; Eltaeva, A A; Zabolotskikh, I B; Musaeva, T S; Dibvik, L Z; Kuklin, V N

    2016-11-01

    Efficacy Safety Score (ESS) with "call-out algorithm" developed in Kongsberg hospital, Norway was used for the validation. ESS consists of the mathematical sum ofscorefrom: 2 subjective (Visual Analog Scale: VAS at rest and during mobilization) and 4 vital (conscious levels, PONV circulation and respiration status) parameters and ESS > 10 is a "call-out alarm "for visit ofpatient by anaesthesiologist. Hourly registration of ESS, mobility degree and amounts of analgetics during the first 8 hours after surgery was recorded in the specially designed IPad program. According to the type ofanaesthesia all patients were allocated in 4 groups: I spinal anaesthesia (SA), II general anesthesia (GA), III peripheral blockade (PB) and IV Total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA). A total of 223 patients were included in the study. Statistically low levels of both VAS and ESS in the first 2-4 postoperative hours were found in SA and PB groups compared to GA and TIVA groups. During 8 post-operative hours, VAS> 3 was recorded in 10.5% of SA, 13.9% in GA, 12.8% in PG and 23.5% in TIVA patients. Intramuscular postoperative analgesia was effective in SA, GA and PG groups. More attention of anaesthesiologist must be paid to patients ofter TIVA.

  18. Central Role of the PPARγ Gene Network in Coordinating Beef Cattle Intramuscular Adipogenesis in Response to Weaning Age and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisá, Sonia J; Shike, Daniel W; Faulkner, Dan B; Meteer, William T; Keisler, Duane; Loor, Juan J

    2014-01-01

    Adipogenic/lipogenic transcriptional networks regulating intramuscular fat deposition (IMF) in response to weaning age and dietary starch level were studied. The longissimus muscle (LM) of beef steers on an early weaning (141 days age) plus high-starch diet (EWS) or a normal weaning (NW, 222 days age) plus starch creep-feed diet (CFS) was biopsied at 0 (EW), 25, 50, 96 (NW), 167, and 222 (pre-slaughter) days. Expression patterns of 35 target genes were studied. From NW through slaughter, all steers received the same high-starch diet. In EWS steers the expression of PPARG, other adipogenic (CEBPA, ZFP423) and lipogenic (THRSP, SREBF1, INSIG1) activators, and several enzymes (FASN, SCD, ELOVL6, PCK1, DGAT2) that participate in the process of IMF increased gradually to a peak between 96 and 167 days on treatment. Steers in NW did not achieve similar expression levels even by 222 days on treatment, suggesting a blunted response even when fed a high-starch diet after weaning. High-starch feeding at an early age (EWS) triggers precocious and sustained adipogenesis, resulting in greater marbling.

  19. Effects of a sour bolus on the intramuscular electromyographic (EMG) activity of muscles in the submental region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Phyllis M; McCulloch, Timothy M; Jaffe, Debra; Neel, Amy T

    2005-01-01

    A sour bolus has been used as a modality in the treatment of oropharyngeal dysphagia based on the hypothesis that this stimulus provides an effective preswallow sensory input that lowers the threshold required to trigger a pharyngeal swallow. The result is a more immediate swallow onset time. Additionally, the sour bolus may invigorate the oral muscles resulting in stronger contractions during the swallow. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the intramuscular electromyographic activity of the mylohyoid, geniohyoid, and anterior belly of the digastric muscles during sour and water boluses with regard to duration, strength, and timing of muscle activation. Muscle duration, swallow onset time, and pattern of muscle activation did not differ for the two bolus types. Muscle activation time was more tightly approximated across the onsets of the three muscles when a sour bolus was used. A sour bolus also resulted in a stronger muscle contraction as evidenced by greater electromyographic activity. These data support the use of a sour bolus as part of a treatment paradigm.

  20. Linseed oil supplemented concentrate fed to Brahman crossbred fattening steers on carcass quality traits and intramuscular fatty acid profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitunart Noosen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the linseed oil supplemented concentrate fed to Brahman crossbred fattening steers on carcass quality trait and intramuscular fatty acid (FA profiles. All steers were fed 14% CP concentrate. The treatments included: (1 7 kg/d concentrate; (2 4 kg/d concentrate supplemented with 200 g/d palm oil (PO; (3 4 kg/d concentrate supplemented with 100 g/d PO and 100 g/d linseed oil (LSO; and (4 4 kg/d concentrate supplemented with 200 g/d LSO. The animals in the treatment 1 were fed ad libitum rice straw (RS, whereas the animals in other treatments were fed ad libitum fresh grass (FG. Dietary treatments had no effect on nutrient intake while oil supplement decreased dry matter intake (DMI. Inclusion of LSO did not negatively affect carcass quality, but increasing amount of LSO supplement increased the n-3 fatty acids and lowered the n-6/n-3 ratio in beef

  1. Comparison of the Immunogenicity of Various Booster Doses of Inactivated Polio Vaccine Delivered Intradermally Versus Intramuscularly to HIV-Infected Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Troy, Stephanie B.; Kouiavskaia, Diana; Siik, Julia; Kochba, Efrat; Beydoun, Hind; Mirochnitchenko, Olga; Levin, Yotam; Khardori, Nancy; Chumakov, Konstantin; Maldonado, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Background. Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is necessary for global polio eradication because oral polio vaccine can rarely cause poliomyelitis as it mutates and may fail to provide adequate immunity in immunocompromised populations. However, IPV is unaffordable for many developing countries. Intradermal IPV shows promise as a means to decrease the effective dose and cost of IPV, but prior studies, all using 20% of the standard dose used in intramuscular IPV, resulted in inferior antibody tit...

  2. 16S rRNA gene-based association study identified microbial taxa associated with pork intramuscular fat content in feces and cecum lumen

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Shaoming; Xiong, Xingwei; Su, Ying; Huang, Lusheng; Chen, Congying

    2017-01-01

    Background Intramuscular fat (IMF) that deposits among muscle fibers or within muscle cells is an important meat quality trait in pigs. Previous studies observed the effects of dietary nutrients and additives on improving the pork IMF. Gut microbiome plays an important role in host metabolism and energy harvest. Whether gut microbiota exerts effect on IMF remains unknown. Results In this study, we investigated the microbial community structure of 500 samples from porcine cecum and feces using...

  3. Farmacocinética do tramadol administrado pela via intravenosa e intramuscular em cadelas submetidas a ovário - salpingo - histerectomia

    OpenAIRE

    Altamir Benedito de Sousa; Augusto César Dias dos Santos; Jorge Camilo Florio; Helenice de Souza Spinosa

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to implant a method using a sensitive and specific system, and validate the whole analytical method to obtain an efficient tool for analyses of tramadol in plasma dogs, and to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of tramadol following intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration of this drug in females dogs submitted to castration. The pharmacokinetics of tramadol were examined following i.v. or i.m. tramadol administration to five female dogs in ...

  4. Effect of flavonoid-containing extracts on the growth of transplanted sarcoma 45, peripheral blood and bone marrow condition after oral and intramuscular administration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita A. Navolokin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective — Discovery of the apoptosis-inducing effects of flavonoid vagonin allowed to make an assumption of existence of similar effect in others flavonoids. This study of the effects of extracts from Gratīola officinālis, Helichrýsum arenárium and diploid forms of Zea mays on bone marrow and blood leucocytes at intramuscular and oral administration was carried out on rats bearing sarcoma 45. Earlier, the apoptosis-inducing effects were detected for these extracts but the toxic effects of extracts on blood and bone marrow have not been studied. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these extracts on white blood cell count and bone marrow morphology. Material and Methods — The experiments were carried out on 48 male Wistar albino rats according to University's Animal Ethics Committee (Protocol № 13, 2011, Saratov, Russia and the relevant national agency regulating experiments on animals. We evaluated white blood cell count and bone marrow morphology in animals after oral and intramuscular administration of extracts. A growth rate of tumor was also ranked. Results — Oral and intramuscular administration of extracts from flavonoid-containing plants Zea mays and Gratīola officinālis causes normalization of myelocytic germ parameters in bone marrow of tumor-bearing rats and increase of lymphocyte percent in white blood cell count of blood and myelogram. Conclusion — Absence of toxic effects and normalization of myelocytic germ parameters in bone marrow of tumor-bearing rats after oral and intramuscular administration of extracts from flavonoid-containing plants Zea mays and Gratīola officinālis allows to recommend further study of the antitumor effect of these extracts.

  5. Differences in Health-related Fatty Acids, Intramuscular Fat and the Physico-chemical Quality in Mutton as Affected by Season, Place of Purchase and Meat Portion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zikhona T. Rani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the quality and fatty acid profiles of mutton cuts purchased from rural and urban localities in South Africa. Five hundred and ten samples were collected in four seasons from both rural and urban shops and butcheries. Samples were immediately transported to the laboratory in cooler boxes with ice where the following physico-chemical characteristics of mutton were determined; meat pH, color (L*, a*, and b*, cooking losses and Warner Braztler shear force and replicates stored at −20°C pending fatty acid analysis. Meat L* values were lowest (24.7±0.49 in winter and highest (32.2±0.49 in spring. The loin and sirloin cuts recorded the highest intramuscular fat whilst rib and leg cuts recorded the lowest intramuscular fat. In conclusion intramuscular fat, fatty acid profiles and physico-chemical quality of mutton were significantly affected by season and meat portion and not necessarily by the locality and class of shop.

  6. [Effects of cell-mediated immunity induced by intramuscular chitosan-pJME/ GM-CSF nano-DNA vaccine in BAlb/c mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yong-Zhen; Zhou, Yan; Ma, Li; Feng, Guo-He

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the immune adjuvant effect and mechanism induced by chitosan nanoparticles carrying pJME/GM-CSF. In this study, plasmid DNA (pJME/GM-CSF) was encapsulated in chitosan to prepare chitosan-pJME/GM-CSF nanoparticles using a complex coacervation process. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the type of infiltrating cells at the site of intramuscular injection. The phenotype and functional changes of splenic DCs were measured by flow cytometry after different immunogens were injected intramuscularly. The killing activity of CTLs was assessed using the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. The preparation of chitosan-pJME/GM-CSF nanoparticles matched the expected theoretical results. Our results also found that, after pJME/GM-CSF injection, the incoming cells were a mixture of macrophages, neutrophils, and immature DCs. Meanwhile, pJME/GM-CSF increased the expression of MHC class II molecules on splenic DCs, and enhanced their Ag capture and presentation functions. Cell-mediated immunity was induced by the vaccine. Furthermore, chitosan-pJME/GM-CSF nanoparticles outperformed the administration of standard pJME/GM-CSF in terms of DC recruitment, antigen processing and presentation, and vaccine enhancement. These findings reveal that chitosan could be used as delivery vector for DNA vaccine intramuscular immunizations, and enhance pJME/GM-CSF-induced cellular immune responses.

  7. Effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and diclofenac (topical and intramuscular) as single and combined therapy in experimental model of controlled muscle strain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva Carvalho, Rodrigo Leal; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; Petrellis, Maria Carla; Marcos, Rodrigo Labat; de Carvalho, Maria Helena Catelli; De Nucci, Gilberto; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro Brandão

    2013-01-01

    Muscle injuries represent ca 30% of sports injuries and excessive stretching of muscle causes more than 90% of injuries. Currently the most used treatments are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), however, in last years, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is becoming an interesting therapeutic modality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of single and combined therapies (LLLT, topical application of diclofenac and intramuscular diclofenac) on functional and biochemical aspects in an experimental model of controlled muscle strain in rats. Muscle strain was induced by overloading tibialis anterior muscle of rats. Injured groups received either no treatment, or a single treatment with topical or intramuscular diclofenac (TD and ID), or LLLT (3 J, 810 nm, 100 mW) 1 h after injury. Walking track analysis was the functional outcome and biochemical analyses included mRNA expression of COX-1 and COX-2 and blood levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ). All treatments significantly decreased COX-1 and COX-2 gene expression compared with injury group (P levels and walking track analysis (P topical and intramuscular diclofenac in treatment of muscle strain injury in acute stage. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  8. Fusion-Expressed CTB Improves Both Systemic and Mucosal T-Cell Responses Elicited by an Intranasal DNA Priming/Intramuscular Recombinant Vaccinia Boosting Regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugan Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous study showed that CTB (Cholera toxin subunit B can be used as a genetic adjuvant to enhance the systemic immune responses. To further investigate whether it can also be used as a genetic adjuvant to improve mucosal immune responses, we constructed DNA and recombinant Tiantan vaccinia (rTTV vaccines expressing OVA-CTB fusion antigen. Female C57BL/6 mice were immunized with an intranasal DNA priming/intramuscular rTTV boosting regimen. OVA specific T-cell responses were measured by IFN-γ ELISPOT and specific antibody responses were determined by ELISA. Compared to the nonadjuvant group (pSV-OVA intranasal priming/rTTV-OVA intramuscular boosting, pSV-OVA-CTB intranasal priming/rTTV-OVA-CTB intramuscular boosting group significantly improved the magnitudes of T-cell responses at spleen (1562±567 SFCs/106 splenocytes versus 330±182 SFCs/106 splenocytes, P<0.01, mesenteric LN (96±83 SFCs/106 lymphocytes versus 1±2 SFCs/106 lymphocytes, P<0.05, draining LNs of respiratory tract (109±60 SFCs/106 lymphocytes versus 2±2 SFCs/106 lymphocytes, P<0.01 and female genital tract (89±48 SFCs/106 lymphocytes versus 23±21 SFCs/106 lymphocytes, P<0.01. These results collectively demonstrated that fusion-expressed CTB could act as a potent adjuvant to improve both systemic and mucosal T-cell responses.

  9. Dietary fibre supplementation of a 'normal' breakfast administered to diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D R; James, W P; Evans, I E

    1980-05-01

    The supplementation of a breakfast by 10 g of guar, pectin, agar or locust bean gum in powder form in 13 maturity onset, non-insulin dependent diabetics failed to decrease significantly the post-prandial rise in plasma glucose and insulin seen after a similar meal without the supplement. The values of one hour post-prandial increment in blood glucose seen with guar powder were, for control meal (mean +/- SEM) 5.8 %/- 0.4 mmol/l, for test, 5.7 +/- 0.5; with pectin powder, control 6.4 +/- 0.8 mmol/l, test 5.0 +/- 1.2 mmol/l; with agar powder, control 7.5 +/- 1.0, test 7.0 +/- 0.5; with locust bean gum powder, control 5.9 +/- 1.0, test 5.0 +/- 0.7. The equivalent values for one hour insulin (microU/ml, mean +/- SEM) were, for guar powder, 51 +/0 21 and 51 +/- 16; for pectin powder 60 +/- 24 and 63 +/- 17; for agar powder, 27 +/- 9 and 36 +/- 11 and, for locust bean gum powder 53 +/- 26 and 62 +/- 18. The guar, pectin and locust gum tended to form lumps, and all the substances tested were unpalatable in powder form producing feelings of abdominal discomfort and abnormal fullness. Administering the same quantity of guar or pectin in a well hydrated form (but not premixed with the carbohydrate portion of the food) to the same people under identical conditions did not enhance its effectiveness. Supplementing diets with any of these sources of dietary fibre in either of these forms and in these amounts is unlikely to be beneficial in the management of non-insulin dependent diabetes.

  10. Fetal skeletal muscle progenitors have regenerative capacity after intramuscular engraftment in dystrophin deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Sakai

    Full Text Available Muscle satellite cells (SCs are stem cells that reside in skeletal muscles and contribute to regeneration upon muscle injury. SCs arise from skeletal muscle progenitors expressing transcription factors Pax3 and/or Pax7 during embryogenesis in mice. However, it is unclear whether these fetal progenitors possess regenerative ability when transplanted in adult muscle. Here we address this question by investigating whether fetal skeletal muscle progenitors (FMPs isolated from Pax3(GFP/+ embryos have the capacity to regenerate muscle after engraftment into Dystrophin-deficient mice, a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The capacity of FMPs to engraft and enter the myogenic program in regenerating muscle was compared with that of SCs derived from adult Pax3(GFP/+ mice. Transplanted FMPs contributed to the reconstitution of damaged myofibers in Dystrophin-deficient mice. However, despite FMPs and SCs having similar myogenic ability in culture, the regenerative ability of FMPs was less than that of SCs in vivo. FMPs that had activated MyoD engrafted more efficiently to regenerate myofibers than MyoD-negative FMPs. Transcriptome and surface marker analyses of these cells suggest the importance of myogenic priming for the efficient myogenic engraftment. Our findings suggest the regenerative capability of FMPs in the context of muscle repair and cell therapy for degenerative muscle disease.

  11. Diclofenaco intramuscular no tratamento agudo da migrânea: um estudo duplo cego placebo controlado Intramuscular diclofenac in the acute treatment of migraine: a double-blind placebo controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E. Bigal

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo é avaliar, com mascaramento duplo, o efeito do diclofenaco sobre a dor e sintomas associados em pacientes com crise de migrânea. Sessenta pacientes com migrânea com aura e sessenta pacientes com migrânea sem aura foram randomizados para receber diclofenaco intramuscular, na dose de 75 mg, associado com injeção intravenosa de solução salina, 10 ml, ou para receber solução salina isoladamente. Três parâmetros de avaliação analgésica e uma escala analógica para avaliar os sintomas associados foram usados. Aferimos ainda os percentuais de recorrência e de utilização de medicação de resgate. Pacientes que receberam diclofenaco apresentaram redução na intensidade da dor estatisticamente significativa, 60 minutos após a administração, em dois dos três parâmetros utilizados (migrânea sem aura e nos três parâmetros utilizados (migrânea com aura. Não observamos diferença, comparado com o placebo, na intensidade dos sintomas associados. Houve redução da recorrência e da utilização de medicação de resgate. A despeito de ser uma opção no tratamento das migrâneas em unidades de emergência, o diclofenaco apresenta início de ação lento e nenhum efeito nos sintomas associados.The aim of this study is to assess, in a double blind fashion, the effect of diclofenac on the pain and associated symptoms in patients with acute migraine. 60 patients with migraine with aura and 60 patients with migraine without aura were assigned at random to receiving intramuscular diclofenac, 75 mg associated to intravenous physiological saline, 10 ml, or physiological saline alone. We used 3 parameters of analgesic evaluation and an analogical scale to asses associated symptoms. We also observed the recurrence and rescue medication percentiles. Patients receiving diclofenac showed a statistically significant improvement of pain 60 minutes after the administration in two of the three parameters

  12. EVALUACIÓN DE NUEVA TECNOLOGÍA PARA MITIGAR LAS ESPINAS INTRAMUSCULARES EN FILETES DE CACHAMA Piaractus brachypomus (Pisces: Characidae EVALUATION OF NEW TECHNOLOGY TO MITIGATE INTRAMUSCULAR THORNS IN CACHAMA FILLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Suárez Mahecha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de espinas intramusculares en filetes de cachama dificulta la comercializacion y demanda por parte de los consumidores. Hasta el momento no existen tecnologías que permitan ofrecer filetes de cachama que garanticen condiciones de seguridad frente a las espinas. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar una nueva tecnología para mitigar la presencia de espinas en filetes de cachama Piaractus brachypomus empacados al vacío y almacenados durante 30 días a 3±0,5 °C. A filetes en presentación lateral interna fueron realizados cortes profundos, paralelos y perpendiculares al eje longitudinal, a una distancia de 3 mm entre cada corte, en sentido dorso-ventral. Fueron realizados análisis microbiológico, fisicoquímico y sensorial. El análisis microbiológico muestra condiciones aceptables para el final del periodo de almacenamiento. Los valores obtenidos para este periodo, fueron de log UFC/g 7,07; 4,7 y 1100 NMP, 18 NMP para organismos psicrotrofilos, mesófilos, coliformes totales y coliformes fecales, respectivamente. No fue determinada presencia de Salmonella ni de organismos sulfito reductores. El análisis fisicoquímico mostró valores de 39,36 para BVT-N; 6,22 pH; 3,3% de pérdida de humedad 1,52; ácido tiobarbitúrico mg MA/kg. El efecto del sajado no incrementó los valores de oxidación de ácidos grasos, ni aumentó las BVT que pudiesen indicar degradación de la proteína. En el análisis sensorial los filetes sometidos a cocción fueron rechazados solamente a partir del día 25 del periodo de almacenamiento, para los atributos aroma y sabor. Durante la evaluación los panelistas no encontraron presencia de espinas, mostrando que la temperatura de cocción utilizada y los cortes en las espinas, permiten degradar la espina intramuscular evitando que sea detectada.The presence of pin bones in cachama fillets makes marketing and demand difficult by the consumers. So far, there are no technologies to provide cachama

  13. 20 CFR 408.1215 - How do you establish eligibility for Federally administered State recognition payments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Federally administered State recognition payments? 408.1215 Section 408.1215 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... Recognition Payments § 408.1215 How do you establish eligibility for Federally administered State recognition... deemed to have filed an application for any Federally administered State recognition payments for which...

  14. 45 CFR 400.66 - Eligibility and payment levels in a publicly-administered RCA program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility and payment levels in a publicly... REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.66 Eligibility and payment levels in a publicly-administered RCA program. (a) In administering a publicly-administered refugee cash assistance program, the...

  15. 25 CFR 26.4 - Who administers the Job Placement and Training Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who administers the Job Placement and Training Program... PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM General Applicability § 26.4 Who administers the Job Placement and Training Program? The Job Placement and Training Program is administered by the Bureau of Indian Affairs or a...

  16. Australasian randomised trial to evaluate the role of maternal intramuscular dexamethasone versus betamethasone prior to preterm birth to increase survival free of childhood neurosensory disability (A*STEROID): study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Both dexamethasone and betamethasone, given to women at risk of preterm birth, substantially improve short-term neonatal health, increase the chance of the baby being discharged home alive, and reduce childhood neurosensory disability, remaining safe into adulthood. However, it is unclear which corticosteroid is of greater benefit to mother and child. This study aims to determine whether giving dexamethasone to women at risk of preterm birth at less than 34 weeks’ gestation increases the chance of their children surviving free of neurosensory disability at two years’ corrected age, compared with betamethasone. Methods/Design Design randomised, multicentre, placebo controlled trial. Inclusion criteria women at risk of preterm birth at less than 34 weeks’ gestation with a singleton or twin pregnancy and no contraindications to the use of antenatal corticosteroids and who give informed consent. Trial entry & randomisation at telephone randomisation eligible women will be randomly allocated to either the dexamethasone group or the betamethasone group, allocated a study number and corresponding treatment pack. Study groups women in the dexamethasone group will be administered two syringes of 12 mg dexamethasone (dexamethasone sodium phosphate) and women in the betamethasone group will be administered two syringes of 11.4 mg betamethasone (Celestone Chronodose). Both study groups consist of intramuscular treatments 24 hours apart. Primary study outcome death or any neurosensory disability measured in children at two years’ corrected age. Sample size a sample size of 1449 children is required to detect either a decrease in death or any neurosensory disability from 27.0% to 20.1% with dexamethasone compared with betamethasone, or an increase from 27.0% to 34.5% (two-sided alpha 0.05, 80% power, 5% loss to follow up, design effect 1.2). Discussion This study will provide high-level evidence of direct relevance for clinical practice. If one drug clearly

  17. Measurements of {sup 131}I-Labelled Triiodothyronine Uptake by a Resin as a Means of Diagnosing Iodine-Basedow Produced by Intramuscular Administration of Iodized Oil in an Area of Endemic Goitre; Utilidad de la Prueba de la Captacion de Triyodotironina Marcada con {sup 131}I por Resina en el Diagnostico de Yod-Basedow Producido por la Administracion Intramuscular de Aceite Yodado, en una Area de Bocio Endemico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierro-Benitez, R.; Ramirez, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Escuela Politecnica Nacional y Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Central, Quito (Ecuador)

    1970-02-15

    The authors gave intramuscular injections of iodized oil with a view to studying its prophylactic effects on endemic goitre and related defects (such as endemic cretinism) in isolated areas where more traditional techniques have serious limitations. This system had been tried earlier in New Guinea, where the results showed a reduction in the prevalence of goitre and proved the technique to be both safe and practical. However, because of the remoteness of the population in question it was impossible to continue the observations and no information was obtained regarding the effectiveness of iodized oil in reducing the incidence of defects associated with endemic goitre, Ecuador's program, involving studies of the whole population of two rural communities in the Andes, was begun in March 1966. The final control check came three years later. Ethiodol (37% iodized oil, 450 mg iodine per cm{sup 3}, obtained from Fougera, Hicksville, Long Island, N.Y. United States of America) was injected intramuscularly, 2 cm{sup 3} being administered to subjects 12 years of age and older and proportionately smaller doses to younger children. The ethiodol produced extensive changes in the physiological behaviour of the thyroid. {sup 131}I uptake was depressed for six months and afterwards remained normal. Similarly, BEI and T{sub 4} returned to and stayed at normal levels from the very first control checks onwards, which indicated that even during the first few months the thyroid glands of these subjects were maintaining a normal capacity to secrete thyronines, i.e. that they were not exhibiting the effect described by Wolff and Chaikoff, PBI and BII maintained high livels in all the controls. Urinary excretion of iodine followed a double exponential path: calculations indicated that the subjects would still be excreting significant amounts five years after the injection. Six months after injection there was an unequivocal diagnosis of Iodine-Basedow in three older women with large

  18. Comparison of efficacy of oral and intramuscular iron supplementation for treatment of iron deficiency anemia in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.; Ahmad, T.M.; Sbir, M.U.; Tarar, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    deficiency anemia in children. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Paediatric department of Combined Military Hospital Kharian, Pakistan, from October 2011 to March 2013. Patients and Methods: In total 200 anemic children from 6 months to 5 years of age were included. Cut off value for Hb was < 8 gm/dl. Patients were divided into two groups, each of 100, randomly. Group A received oral sodium feredetate (iron edetate) and group B received intramuscular iron sorbitol. Rise in Hb > 10 gm/dl was kept as the desired value. Maximum duration of treatment planned was 12 weeks for group A and 2 weeks for group B. Laboratory parameters such as Hb%, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), retic count and serum ferritin level were used to detect the responses in both groups at one week, two weeks, four weeks and twelve weeks of treatment. Results: Among 200 patients, male and female distribution was 45% and 55% respectively. Desired rise in Hb in group B was achieved much earlier i.e. at two weeks as compared to group A. Progressive rise in laboratory parameters was observed but this rise was more evident in group B as compared to group A. After one week treatment in group A, rise in retic count, Hb, ferritin and MCV was 0.759 ± 0.318, 0.814 ± 0.387, 0.47 ± 0.154 and 4.28 ± 2.468 respectively. But rise in these values in group B was 2.235±0.632, 2.335 ± 0.135, 6.31 ± 1.123 and 12.11 ± 0.414 respectively. Same persistent different trend was observed at 2 and 4 weeks. After 12 weeks treatment in group A, rise in retic count, Hb, ferritin and MCV was 1.044 ± 0.222, 5.204 ± 0.134, 17.39 ± 2.551 and 16.61 ± 1.214 respectively but rise in these laboratory indices in group B was 0.551 ± 0.261, 6.097 ± 0.21, 42.49 ± 2.768 and 20.68 ± 2.233 respectively. The comparison of hematological indices after 12 weeks in A and B groups show significant differences. All these parameters improved in both groups but improvement in group B was drastically

  19. Effectiveness and safety of oral olanzapine treatment transitioned from rapid-acting intramuscular olanzapine for agitation associated with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katagiri H

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hideaki Katagiri,1 Masanori Taketsuna,2 Shinpei Kondo,3 Kenta Kajimoto,4 Etsuko Aoi,5 Yuka Tanji1 1Bio-Medicines, Medicines Development Unit Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan; 2Statistical Sciences, Medicines Development Unit Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan; 3Post Marketing Study Management, Medicines Development Unit Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan; 4Scientific Communications, Medicines Development Unit Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan; 5Global Patient Safety Japan, Quality and Patient Safety, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan Objective: To assess the effectiveness and safety of oral olanzapine treatment transitioned from rapid-acting intramuscular olanzapine (RAIM in patients with acute agitation associated with schizophrenia in a real-world clinical setting. Methods: The postmarketing surveillance study with a 3-day observational period after the last RAIM administration was conducted (original study. Following this, an extended study was added for patients who received oral olanzapine after RAIM administration during the original study period, in order to additionally observe them for 7 days after initial RAIM administration. Effectiveness and safety from initial RAIM administration were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Excited Component score and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs, respectively. Results: The effectiveness and safety analysis set included a total of 521 and 522 patients, respectively. A majority of patients received 10 mg of RAIM (475/522 patients, 91.0%. The mean ± SD total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Excited Component score was 23.6±6.2 (n=318 at baseline (before initial RAIM administration, 17.4±6.8 (n=280 at 2 hours after initial administration, 16.2±6.8 (n=246 2 days after final administration, 14.9±6.2 (n=248 3 days after final administration, 13.8±5.9 (n=242 4 days after final administration, 13.2±5.8 (n=221 7 days after initial

  20. Doping cosmético: a problemática das aplicações intramusculares de óleos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandré Casagrande Figueiredo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O doping no mundo esportivo e na subcultura de atletas profissionais e recreacionais de culturismo já é muito conhecido e estudado pela comunidade acadêmica e científica. Porém, uma nova problemática, que definimos como doping cosmético, inseriu-se há algumas décadas no mundo todo, e tem crescido em importância no Brasil nos últimos anos. Trata-se de injeções sistemáticas de substâncias oleosas por via intramuscular, conhecidas como ADE (vitaminas lipossolúveis A, D e E, com intuito de aumentar volumetricamente o músculo per se, podendo levar a necroses, deformidades físicas ou até mesmo ao óbito. Apresentamos a história do uso cosmético dos preenchedores corporais e revisamos os possíveis efeitos deletérios e fatais que podem resultar do seu abuso, assim como os mecanismos envolvidos na evolução clínica da aplicação destas substâncias. Além disto, apresentamos métodos simples para observação potencial do uso. Pretendemos com este trabalho convocar a classe dos profissionais de saúde para que esta publique relatos de casos quando estes usuários forem atendidos devidos às complicações de tal uso, visto que os casos que até hoje apareceram são apenas o início de uma nova problemática de saúde pública que tende a aumentar consideravelmente.

  1. Intramuscular administration of a synthetic CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide modulates functional responses of neutrophils of neonatal foals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah D Cohen

    Full Text Available Neutrophils play an important role in protecting against infection. Foals have age-dependent deficiencies in neutrophil function that may contribute to their predisposition to infection. Thus, we investigated the ability of a CpG-ODN formulated with Emulsigen to modulate functional responses of neutrophils in neonatal foals. Eighteen foals were randomly assigned to receive either a CpG-ODN with Emulsigen (N = 9 or saline intramuscularly at ages 1 and 7 days. At ages 1, 3, 9, 14, and 28, blood was collected and neutrophils were isolated from each foal. Neutrophils were assessed for basal and Rhodococcus equi-stimulated mRNA expression of the cytokines interferon-γ (IFN-γ, interleukin (IL-4, IL-6, and IL-8 using real-time PCR, degranulation by quantifying the amount of β-D glucuronidase activity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation using flow cytometry. In vivo administration of the CpG-ODN formulation on days 1 and 7 resulted in significantly (P<0.05 increased IFN-γ mRNA expression by foal neutrophils on days 3, 9, and 14. Degranulation was significantly (P<0.05 lower for foals in the CpG-ODN-treated group than the control group at days 3 and 14, but not at other days. No effect of treatment on ROS generation was detected. These results indicate that CpG-ODN administration to foals might improve innate and adaptive immune responses that could protect foals against infectious diseases and possibly improve responses to vaccination.

  2. Addition of arginine and leucine to low or normal protein diets: performance, carcass characteristics and intramuscular fat of finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Tous

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary crude protein (CP reduction, supplementation with arginine or leucine on intramuscular fat (IMF content was evaluated in (Landrace × Duroc × Pietrain pigs. One-hundred and eight barrows (67 ± 4 kg were assigned to six diets (n=6 pens of 3 pigs each: four normal CP diets containing 16% CP from 60 to 90 kg and 13% CP from 90 to 115 kg live weight (normal protein; normal protein high Arg, normal protein high Leu or normal protein high Arg and Leu and two low CP diets containing 14% CP from 60 to 90 kg and 11.8% CP from 90 to 115 kg live weight (with or without supplementation of both amino acids. The high Leu and Arg diets were supplemented to obtain ratios of standard ileal digestible Leu/Lys and Arg/Lys of 4 and 2, respectively. While feed to gain ratio tended to increase (p<0.05, final weight (p<0.01, average daily feed intake (ADFI (p<0.05 and average daily gain (ADG (p<0.01 were reduced in animals fed low-protein diets supplemented with Arg and Leu compared to the ones fed low-protein diet unsupplemented. Marbling and IMF content in loin were reduced when Arg was supplemented (p<0.05 in normal protein diets. Supplementing these diets with Arg also reduced belly weight (p<0.01 and increased lean meat percentage (p<0.05. Contrary to the initial hypothesis, reduction of CP or dietary supplementation with Leu had no effect on IMF content and supplementation with Arg reduced it.

  3. Subcutaneous and Intramuscular Hemodynamics and Oxygenation After Cold-Spray Application as Monitored by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadgan, Babak; Pakravan, Amir H.; Hoens, Alison; Reid, W. Darlene

    2015-01-01

    Context Vapocoolant spray, commonly known as cold spray (CS), is a cryotherapy modality used in sports medicine, athletic training, and rehabilitation settings. Proposed physiologic effects of cryotherapy modalities include reductions in tissue blood flow, oxygenation, and cell metabolism in addition to attenuation of pain perception attributed to reduced superficial nerve conduction velocity. Objective To examine the effects of CS on subcutaneous and intramuscular blood flow and oxygenation on the thigh muscle using near-infrared spectroscopy, an optical method to monitor changes in tissue oxygenated (O2Hb), deoxygenated (HHb), and total (tHb) hemoglobin. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Muscle Biophysics Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Participants were 13 healthy adults (8 men, 5 women; age = 37.4 ± 6 years, body mass index = 27.4 ± 2.6, adipose tissue thickness = 7.2 ± 1.8 mm). Intervention(s) Conventional CS was applied to the vastus medialis muscles. Main Outcome Measure(s) Changes in chromophore concentrations of O2Hb, HHb, and tHb at superficial and deep layers were monitored for 5 minutes using a 2-channel near-infrared spectroscopy. Results Thirty seconds after CS application, we observed a decrease from baseline in O2Hb and tHb only in the superficial layer that was maintained for 3 minutes. Conclusions Application of CS induced a transient change in blood flow and oxygenation of the superficial tissues with no change in deeper tissues over the healthy vastus medialis muscle. The limited physiologic effect of CS on the superficial hemodynamics and oxygenation of limb muscles may limit the therapeutic benefit of this cryotherapy modality to a temporary analgesic effect, a hypothesis that warrants a clinical trial on traumatized muscles. PMID:26098273

  4. Intramuscular administration of paliperidone palmitate extended-release injectable microsuspension induces a subclinical inflammatory reaction modulating the pharmacokinetics in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darville, Nicolas; van Heerden, Marjolein; Vynckier, An; De Meulder, Marc; Sterkens, Patrick; Annaert, Pieter; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2014-07-01

    The present study aims at elucidating the intricate nature of the drug release and absorption following intramuscular (i.m.) injection of sustained-release prodrug nanocrystals/microcrystals. A paliperidone palmitate (PPP) long-acting suspension was characterized with regard to particle size (Dv,50 = 1.09 μm) and morphology prior to i.m. injection in rats. The local disposition was rigorously investigated by means of (immuno)histochemistry and transmission electron microscopy while the concurrent multiphasic pharmacokinetics was linked to the microanatomy. A transient (24 h) trauma-induced inflammation promptly evolved into a subclinical but chronic granulomatous inflammatory reaction initiated by the presence of solid material. The dense inflammatory envelope (CD68(+) macrophages) led to particle agglomeration with subsequent drop in dissolution rate beyond 24 h postinjection. This was associated with a decrease in apparent paliperidone (PP) absorption (near-zero order) until 96 h and a delayed time of occurrence of observed maximum drug plasma concentration (168 h). The infiltrating macrophages phagocytosed large fractions of the depot, thereby influencing the (pro)drug release. Radial angiogenesis (CD31(+)) was observed throughout the inflammatory rim from 72 h onwards and presumably contributed to the sustained systemic PP concentrations by maintaining a sufficient absorptive capacity. No solid-state transitions of the retrieved formulation were recorded with X-ray diffraction analysis. In summary, the initial formulation-driven prodrug (PPP) dissolution and drug (PP) absorption were followed by a complex phase determined by the relative contribution of formulation factors and dynamic physiological variables. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  5. Spontaneous Intramuscular Hematomas of the Abdomen and Pelvis: A New Multilevel Algorithm to Direct Transarterial Embolization and Patient Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, Milen [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Medicine (Switzerland); Sotiriadis, Charalampos; Gay, Frederique; Jouannic, Anne-Marie; Lachenal, Yann; Hajdu, Steven D.; Doenz, Francesco; Qanadli, Salah D., E-mail: salah.qanadli@chuv.ch [Lausanne University Hospital, Cardio-Thoracic and Vascular Unit, Department of Radiology (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    PurposeTo report our experience using a multilevel patient management algorithm to direct transarterial embolization (TAE) in managing spontaneous intramuscular hematoma (SIMH).Materials and MethodsFrom May 2006 to January 2014, twenty-seven patients with SIMH had been referred for TAE to our Radiology department. Clinical status and coagulation characteristics of the patients are analyzed. An algorithm integrating CT findings is suggested to manage SIMH. Patients were classified into three groups: Type I, SIMH with no active bleeding (AB); Type II, SIMH with AB and no muscular fascia rupture (MFR); and Type III, SIMH with MFR and AB. Type II is furthermore subcategorized as IIa, IIb and IIc. Types IIb, IIc and III were considered for TAE. The method of embolization as well as the material been used are described. Continuous variables are presented as mean ± SD. Categorical variables are reported as percentages. Technical success, clinical success, complications and 30-day mortality (d30 M) were analyzed.ResultsTwo patients (7.5%) had Type IIb, four (15%) Type IIc and 21 (77.5%) presented Type III. The detailed CT and CTA findings, embolization procedure and materials used are described. Technical success was 96% with a complication rate of 4%. Clinical success was 88%. The bleeding-related thirty-day mortality was 15% (all with Type III).ConclusionTAE is a safe and efficient technique to control bleeding that should be considered in selected SIMH as soon as possible. The proposed algorithm integrating CT features provides a comprehensive chart to select patients for TAE.Level of Evidence4.

  6. The Relationship between Intramuscular Adipose Tissue, Functional Mobility, and Strength in Postmenopausal Women with and without Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M. Pritchard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine (1 whether intramuscular adipose tissue (IntraMAT differs between women with and without type 2 diabetes and (2 the association between IntraMAT and mobility and strength. Methods. 59 women ≥ 65 years with and without type 2 diabetes were included. A 1-Tesla MRI was used to acquire images of the leg. Timed-up-and-go (TUG and grip strength were measured. Regression was used to determine associations between the following: (1 type 2 diabetes and IntraMAT (covariates: age, ethnicity, BMI, waist : hip ratio, and energy expenditure, (2 IntraMAT and TUG (covariates: diabetes, age, BMI, and energy expenditure, and (3 IntraMAT and grip strength (covariates: diabetes, age, height, and lean mass. Results. Women with diabetes had more IntraMAT. After adjustment, IntraMAT was similar between groups (diabetes mean [SD] = 13.2 [1.4]%, controls 11.8 [1.3]%, P=0.515. IntraMAT was related to TUG and grip strength, but the relationships became nonsignificant after adjustment for covariates (difference/percent IntraMAT [95% CI]: TUG = 0.041 seconds [−0.079–0.161], P=0.498, grip strength = −0.144 kg [−0.335–0.066], P=0.175. Conclusions. IntraMAT alone may not be a clinically important predictor of functional mobility and strength; however, whether losses in functional mobility and strength are promoted by IntraMAT accumulation should be explored.

  7. Management of diabetic ketosis and ketoacidosis with intramuscular regular insulin in a low-resource family medicine setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar Basetty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is facing an epidemic of diabetes mellitus (DM. Effective management of complications of DM is a challenge in resource-poor areas of India. This study addresses the need to explore low-cost methods to manage diabetic ketosis (DK and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA. Objectives: To demonstrate the use of intramuscular (IM regular insulin as a safe alternative method to control DK and DKA in a family practice setting. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was done for 34 patients admitted with DK and DKA in a family medicine unit for the urban poor over 5 years. Data on age, sex, precipitating factors, blood pressure, number of days of hospitalization, amount of insulin, and time required to control blood glucose (BG and to correct acidosis were entered into EpiData version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS software version 17. Results: Administration of IM regular insulin was effective in reducing the BG to < 250 mg/dL in patients with DK and DKA. The mean time required for this in the ketosis group was 3.8 h and in the ketoacidosis group was 3.9 h. The mean amount of insulin required for correction of acidosis in the ketoacidosis group was 72.3 units and the mean time to achieve this was 33 h. Of the 34 patients, only one in the ketoacidosis group had hypoglycemia. There was no fatality or referral of any patient. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that IM regular insulin is a safe alternative method in managing DK and DKA in a family medicine setting.

  8. Addition of arginine and leucine to low or normal protein diets: performance, carcass characteristics and intramuscular fat of finishing pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tous, N.; Lizardo, R.; Vilà, B.; Gispert, M.; Font-i-Furnols, M.; Esteve-Garcia, E.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of dietary crude protein (CP) reduction, supplementation with arginine or leucine on intramuscular fat (IMF) content was evaluated in (Landrace × Duroc) × Pietrain pigs. One-hundred and eight barrows (67 ± 4 kg) were assigned to six diets (n=6 pens of 3 pigs each): four normal CP diets containing 16% CP from 60 to 90 kg and 13% CP from 90 to 115 kg live weight (normal protein; normal protein high Arg, normal protein high Leu or normal protein high Arg and Leu) and two low CP diets containing 14% CP from 60 to 90 kg and 11.8% CP from 90 to 115 kg live weight (with or without supplementation of both amino acids). The high Leu and Arg diets were supplemented to obtain ratios of standard ileal digestible Leu/Lys and Arg/Lys of 4 and 2, respectively. While feed to gain ratio tended to increase (p<0.05), final weight (p<0.01), average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.05) and average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) were reduced in animals fed low-protein diets supplemented with Arg and Leu compared to the ones fed low-protein diet unsupplemented. Marbling and IMF content in loin were reduced when Arg was supplemented (p<0.05) in normal protein diets. Supplementing these diets with Arg also reduced belly weight (p<0.01) and increased lean meat percentage (p<0.05). Contrary to the initial hypothesis, reduction of CP or dietary supplementation with Leu had no effect on IMF content and supplementation with Arg reduced it.

  9. Protein Profiles for Muscle Development and Intramuscular Fat Accumulation at Different Post-Hatching Ages in Chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    Full Text Available Muscle development and growth influences the efficiency of poultry meat production, and is closely related to deposition of intramuscular fat (IMF, which is crucial in meat quality. To clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying muscle development and IMF deposition in chickens, protein expression profiles were examined in the breast muscle of Beijing-You chickens at ages 1, 56, 98 and 140 days, using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ. Two hundred and four of 494 proteins were expressed differentially. The expression profile at day 1 differed greatly from those at day 56, 98 and 140. KEGG pathway analysis of differential protein expression from pair-wise comparisons (day 1 vs. 56; 56 vs. 98; 98 vs. 140, showed that the fatty acid degradation pathway was more active during the stage from day 1 to 56 than at other periods. This was consistent with the change in IMF content, which was highest at day 1 and declined dramatically thereafter. When muscle growth was most rapid (days 56-98, pathways involved in muscle development were dominant, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, cardiac muscle contraction, tight junctions and focal adhesion. In contrast with hatchlings, the fatty acid degradation pathway was downregulated from day 98 to 140, which was consistent with the period for IMF deposition following rapid muscle growth. Changes in some key specific proteins, including fast skeletal muscle troponin T isoform, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 and apolipoprotein A1, were verified by Western blotting, and could be potential biomarkers for IMF deposition in chickens. Protein-protein interaction networks showed that ribosome-related functional modules were clustered in all three stages. However, the functional module involved in the metabolic pathway was only clustered in the first stage (day 1 vs. 56. This study improves our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying muscle development and IMF

  10. Pharmacokinetics of cefquinome in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) after single intravenous and intramuscular injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uney, K; Altan, F; Cetin, G; Aboubakr, M; Dik, B; Sayın, Z; Er, A; Elmas, M

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of cefquinome (CFQ) following single intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) injections of 2 mg/kg body weight in red-eared slider turtles. Plasma concentrations of CFQ were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and analyzed using noncompartmental methods. The pharmacokinetic parameters following IV injection were as follows: elimination half-life (t 1/2λz ) 21.73 ± 4.95 hr, volume of distribution at steady-state (V dss ) 0.37 ± 0.11 L/kg, area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC 0-∞ ) 163 ± 32 μg hr -1  ml -1 , and total body clearance (Cl T ) 12.66 ± 2.51 ml hr -1  kg -1 . The pharmacokinetic parameters after IM injection were as follows: peak plasma concentration (C max ) 3.94 ± 0.84 μg/ml, time to peak concentration (T max ) 3 hr, t 1/2λz 26.90 ± 4.33 hr, and AUC 0-∞ 145 ± 48 μg hr -1  ml -1 . The bioavailability after IM injection was 88%. Data suggest that CFQ has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile with a long half-life and a high bioavailability in red-eared slider turtles. Further studies are needed to establish a multiple dosage regimen and evaluate clinical efficacy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. ESTUDO SOBRE AS REGIÕES PARA APLICAÇÃO DE INJEÇÃO POR VIA INTRAMUSCULAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitta Elza Pfeiffer Castellanos

    Full Text Available A administração de medicamentos por via intramuscular (IM é um procedimento desenvolvido pela enfermagem; a seleção das regiões a serem utilizadas deve levar em consideração as vantagens e desvantagens de cada um dos locais. Fez-se um levantamento das regiões mais indicadas ou utilizadas pelos enfermeiros-docentes e enfermeiros-hospitalares e do local que indicaram para a punção com a agulha; foi verificado se havia alguma diferenciação na escolha da região de acordo com o sexo e idade do cliente e qual era o conhecimento sobre as contra-indicações e as complicações na utilização de cada uma das regiões para aplicação de injeção IM. Dos dados levantados, concluiu-se que as regiões deltóide, dorso-glútea e face ântero-lateral da coxa são as preferencialmente utilizadas por ambos os grupos, tendo sido constatado que a sua localização nem sempre foi anatomicamente correta e para escolha da região cerca de 80% da população investigada levou em consideração a idade do cliente. Apenas algumas contraindicações e complicações mencionadas foram concordantes com as analisadas pelos autores consultados; ressalta-se que a região ventroglútea, tida como a mais segura e adequada por estes autores, foi a menos mencionada como utilizada por ambos os grupos de enfermeiros.

  12. Comparative toxicokinetics of MMB4 DMS in rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys following single and repeated intramuscular administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S Peter; Gibbs, Seth T; Kobs, Dean J; Hawk, Michael A; Croutch, Claire R; Osheroff, Merrill R; Johnson, Jerry D; Burback, Brian L

    2013-01-01

    1,1'-Methylenebis[4-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]-pyridinium] (MMB4) dimethanesulfonate (DMS) is a bisquaternary pyridinium aldoxime that reactivates acetylcholinesterase inhibited by organophosphorus nerve agent. Time courses of MMB4 concentrations in plasma were characterized following 7-day repeated intramuscular (IM) administrations of MMB4 DMS to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, New Zealand White rabbits, beagle dogs (single dose only), and rhesus monkeys at drug dose levels used in earlier toxicology studies. In general, there were no significant differences in MMB4 toxicokinetic (TK) parameters between males and females for all the species tested in these studies. After a single IM administration to rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys, MMB4 DMS was rapidly absorbed, resulting in average T max values ranging from 5 to 30 minutes. Although C max values did not increase dose proportionally, the overall exposure to MMB4 in these preclinical species, as indicated by area under the curve (AUC) extrapolated to the infinity (AUC∞) values, increased in an approximately dose-proportional manner. The MMB4 DMS was extensively absorbed into the systemic circulation after IM administration as demonstrated by greater than 80% absolute bioavailability values for rats, rabbits, and dogs. Repeated administrations of MMB4 DMS for 7 days did not overtly alter TK parameters for MMB4 in rats, rabbits, and monkeys (150 and 300 mg/kg/d dose groups only). However, C max and AUC values decreased in monkeys given 450 and 600 mg/kg IM doses of MMB4 DMS following repeated administrations for 7 days. Based on the TK results obtained from the current study and published investigations, it was found that the apparent volume of distribution and clearance values were similar among various preclinical species, except for the rat.

  13. Addition of arginine and leucine to low or normal protein diets: performance, carcass characteristics and intramuscular fat of finishing pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tous, N.; Lizardo, R.; Vilà, B.; Gispert, M.; Font-i-Furnols, M.; Esteve-Garcia, E.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of dietary crude protein (CP) reduction, supplementation with arginine or leucine on intramuscular fat (IMF) content was evaluated in (Landrace × Duroc) × Pietrain pigs. One-hundred and eight barrows (67 ± 4 kg) were assigned to six diets (n=6 pens of 3 pigs each): four normal CP diets containing 16% CP from 60 to 90 kg and 13% CP from 90 to 115 kg live weight (normal protein; normal protein high Arg, normal protein high Leu or normal protein high Arg and Leu) and two low CP diets containing 14% CP from 60 to 90 kg and 11.8% CP from 90 to 115 kg live weight (with or without supplementation of both amino acids). The high Leu and Arg diets were supplemented to obtain ratios of standard ileal digestible Leu/Lys and Arg/Lys of 4 and 2, respectively. While feed to gain ratio tended to increase (p<0.05), final weight (p<0.01), average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.05) and average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) were reduced in animals fed low-protein diets supplemented with Arg and Leu compared to the ones fed low-protein diet unsupplemented. Marbling and IMF content in loin were reduced when Arg was supplemented (p<0.05) in normal protein diets. Supplementing these diets with Arg also reduced belly weight (p<0.01) and increased lean meat percentage (p<0.05). Contrary to the initial hypothesis, reduction of CP or dietary supplementation with Leu had no effect on IMF content and supplementation with Arg reduced it.

  14. Evaluation of the efficacy of intramuscular versus intramammary treatment of subclinical Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis in dairy cows in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, J; Chaffer, M; Sanchez, J; Torres, G; Macias, D; Jaramillo, M; Duque, P C; Ceballos, A; Keefe, G P

    2015-08-01

    A randomized controlled trial was performed in 17 Colombian dairy herds to determine the cure risk among cows subclinically infected with Streptococcus agalactiae exposed to 2 antibiotic therapies. Composite milk samples were collected before milking at the onset of the trial (pretreatment) and 2 subsequent times over a period of approximately 63 d. The intramammary application (IMM) of ampicillin-cloxacillin was compared with the intramuscular application (IM) of penethamate hydriodide, and cure risks after an initial and retreatment application were assessed. Cure risk after the initial treatment was higher (82.4%) for the IMM treatment than for IM therapy (65.8%). However, no difference was observed in the cure risk of refractory cases after retreatment (IMM=52.6% vs. IM=51.2%). The cumulative cure risk (both initial and retreatment) was 90.4 and 82.9% for the IMM and IM products, respectively. A 2-level random effects logistic model that controlled for pretreatment cow-level somatic cell count, indicated that IM treatment (odds ratio=0.37) had a lower cure risk than IMM and a tendency for a lower cure risk with increasing baseline somatic cell count. Our findings suggest that both products and administration routes can reduce the prevalence of S. agalactiae in affected herds, but the IMM product had a better efficacy in curing the infection. In addition to the treatment protocol, the cow somatic cell count should be considered when making management decisions for cows infected with S. agalactiae. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Repeated Intramuscular-dose Toxicity Test of Water-soluble Carthami Flos (WCF Pharmacopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo-min Choi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Water-soluble carthami flos (WCF is a new mixture of Carthami flos (CF pharmacopuncture. We conducted a 4-week toxicity test of repeated intramuscular injections of WCF in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: Forty male and 40 female rats were divided into 4 groups of 10 male and 10 female SD rats: The control group received 0.5 mL/animal/day of normal saline whereas the three experimental groups received WCF at doses of 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mL/animal/day, respectively. For 4 weeks, the solutions were injected into the femoral muscle of the rats alternating from side to side. Clinical signs, body weights, and food consumption were observed; opthalmological examinations and urinalyses were performed. On day 29, blood samples were taken for hematological and clinical chemistry analyses. Then, necropsy was conducted in all animals to observe weights and external and histopathological changes in the bodily organs. All data were tested using a statistical analysis system (SAS. Results: No deaths were observed. Temporary irregular respiration was observed in male rats of the experimental group for the first 10 days. Body weights, food consumptions, opthalmological examinations, urinalyses, clinical chemistry analyses, organ weights and necropsy produced no findings with toxicological meaning. In the hematological analysis, delay of prothrombin time (PT was observed in male rats of the 0.25- and the 0.5-mL/animal/day groups. In the histopathological test, a dose-dependent inflammatory cell infiltration into the fascia and panniculitis in perimuscular tissues was observed in all animals of the experimental groups. However, those symptoms were limited to local injection points. No toxicological meanings, except localized changes, were noted. Conclusion: WCF solution has no significant toxicological meaning, but does produce localized symptoms. No observed adverse effect level (NOAEL of WCF in male and female rats is expected for doses over 0.5 mL/animal/day.

  16. Effects of immobilization and aerobic training on proteins related to intramuscular substrate storage and metabolism in young and older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigelsø, Andreas; Gram, Martin; Wiuff, Caroline; Hansen, Christina Neigaard; Prats, Clara; Dela, Flemming; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2016-03-01

    Aging and inactivity lead to skeletal muscle metabolic inflexibility, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not entirely elucidated. Therefore, we investigated how muscle lipid and glycogen stores and major regulatory proteins were affected by short-term immobilization followed by aerobic training in young and older men. 17 young (23 ± 1 years, 24 ± 1 kg m(-2), and 20 ± 2% body fat) and 15 older men (68 ± 1 years; 27 ± 1 kg m(-2), and 29 ± 2% body fat) underwent 2 weeks' one leg immobilization followed by 6 weeks' cycle training. Biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis just before immobilization (at inclusion), after immobilization, and the after 6 weeks' training. The biopsies were analyzed for muscle substrates; muscle perilipin protein (PLIN), glycogen synthase (GS), synaptosomal-associated protein of 23 kDa (SNAP23) protein content, and muscle 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) activity The older men had higher intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) (73 %) and Glycogen (16%) levels compared to the young men, and IMTG tended to increase with immobilization. PLIN2 and 3 protein content increased with immobilization in the older men only. The young men had higher GS (74%) protein compared to the older men. Immobilization decreased and training restored HAD activity, GS and SNAP23 protein content in young and older men. Evidence of age-related metabolic inflexibility is presented, seen as body fat and IMTG accumulation. The question arises as to whether IMTG accumulation in the older men is caused by or leading to the increase in PLIN2 and 3 protein content. Training decreased body fat and IMTG levels in both young and older men; hence, training should be prioritized to reduce the detrimental effect of aging on metabolism.

  17. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: manipulating meat tenderness by increasing the turnover of intramuscular connective tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purslow, P P; Archile-Contreras, A C; Cha, M C

    2012-03-01

    Controlled reduction of the connective tissue contribution to cooked meat toughness is an objective that would have considerable financial impact in terms of added product value. The amount of intramuscular connective tissue in a muscle appears connected to its in vivo function, so reduction of the overall connective tissue content is not thought to be a viable target. However, manipulation of the state of maturity of the collagenous component is a biologically viable target; by increasing connective tissue turnover, less mature structures can be produced that are functional in vivo but more easily broken down on cooking at temperatures above 60°C, thus improving cooked meat tenderness. Recent work using cell culture models of fibroblasts derived from muscle and myoblasts has identified a range of factors that alter the activity of the principal enzymes responsible for connective tissue turnover, the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). Fibroblasts cultured from 3 different skeletal muscles from the same animal show different cell proliferation and MMP activity, which may relate to the different connective tissue content and architecture in functionally different muscles. Expression of MMP by fibroblasts is increased by vitamins that can counter the negative effects of oxidative stress on new collagen synthesis. Preliminary work using in situ zymography of myotubes in culture also indicates increased MMP activity in the presence of epinephrine and reactive oxidative species. Comparison of the relative changes in MMP expression from muscle cells vs. fibroblasts shows that myoblasts are more responsive to a range of stimuli. Muscle cells are likely to produce more of the total MMP in muscle tissue as a whole, and the expression of latent forms of the enzymes (i.e., pro-MMP) may vary between oxidative and glycolytic muscle fibers within the same muscle. The implication is that the different muscle fiber composition of different muscles eaten as meat may influence the

  18. Single Dose Versus 3 Doses of Intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin for Early Syphilis in HIV: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Roberto; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Yasukawa, Kosuke; Villarreal, Erick; Ross, Michael; Serpa, Jose A

    2017-03-15

    Patients coinfected with syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may have a slower decrease in rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titers. Currently a single dose of 2.4 million units of intramuscular benzathine penicillin G (BPG) is recommended for the treatment of early syphilis. Some observational studies have suggested that this regimen may lead to high failure rates in coinfected patients. We conducted an open-label randomized clinical trial to compare the efficacy of single-dose and 3-dose regimens of BPG for the treatment of early syphilis in HIV-infected individuals. RPR titers were monitored every 3 months. Treatment success was defined as a decrease in RPR titers of ≥2 dilutions (4-fold) during a 12-month follow-up period. Sixty-four patients were included. In the intention-to-treat analysis, treatment success rates were 80% (28 of 35 subjects) and 93% (27 of 29 subjects) in the single-dose and 3-dose regimens, respectively (absolute difference, 13% [95% confidence interval {CI}, -5% to 30%; P = .17). In the per-protocol analysis, success rates were 93% (27 of 29) and 100% in the single-dose and 3-dose regimens, respectively (absolute difference, 7% [95% CI, -7% to 22%]; P = .49). CD4 T-cell count, RPR titer and syphilis stage did not affect treatment results. When compared with a single dose of BPG, a 3-dose regimen did not improve syphilis serological outcomes. Our results support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendation of a single dose of BPG in HIV-infected patients with early syphilis. NCT02611765. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Pathology of experimental Machupo virus infection, Chicava strain, in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) by intramuscular and aerosol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T M; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Robinson, C G; Wilkinson, E R; Hensley, L E; Cashman, K A

    2015-01-01

    Machupo virus, the causative agent of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), is a highly lethal viral hemorrhagic fever of which little is known and for which no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapeutics are available. This study evaluated the cynomolgus macaque as an animal model using the Machupo virus, Chicava strain, via intramuscular and aerosol challenge. The incubation period was 6 to 10 days with initial signs of depression, anorexia, diarrhea, mild fever, and a petechial skin rash. These were often followed by neurologic signs and death within an average of 18 days. Complete blood counts revealed leukopenia as well as marked thrombocytopenia. Serum chemistry values identified a decrease in total protein, marked increases in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and moderate increases in alkaline phosphatase. Gross pathology findings included a macular rash extending across the axillary and inguinal regions beginning at approximately 10 days postexposure as well as enlarged lymph nodes and spleen, enlarged and friable liver, and sporadic hemorrhages along the gastrointestinal mucosa and serosa. Histologic lesions consisted of foci of degeneration and necrosis/apoptosis in the haired skin, liver, pancreas, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, tongue, esophagus, salivary glands, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. Lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia was also present. Inflammation within the central nervous system (nonsuppurative encephalitis) was histologically apparent approximately 16 days postexposure and was generally progressive. This study provides insight into the course of Machupo virus infection in cynomolgus macaques and supports the usefulness of cynomolgus macaques as a viable model of human Machupo virus infection. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Identification and Functional Analysis of Long Intergenic Non-coding RNAs Underlying Intramuscular Fat Content in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Intramuscular fat (IMF content is an important trait that can affect pork quality. Previous studies have identified many genes that can regulate IMF. Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs are emerging as key regulators in various biological processes. However, lincRNAs related to IMF in pig are largely unknown, and the mechanisms by which they regulate IMF are yet to be elucidated. Here we reconstructed 105,687 transcripts and identified 1,032 lincRNAs in pig longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM of four stages with different IMF contents based on published RNA-seq. These lincRNAs show typical characteristics such as shorter length and lower expression compared with protein-coding genes. Combined with methylation data, we found that both the promoter and genebody methylation of lincRNAs can negatively regulate lincRNA expression. We found that lincRNAs exhibit high correlation with their protein-coding neighbors in expression. Co-expression network analysis resulted in eight stage-specific modules, gene ontology and pathway analysis of them suggested that some lincRNAs were involved in IMF-related processes, such as fatty acid metabolism and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway. Furthermore, we identified hub lincRNAs and found six of them may play important roles in IMF development. This work detailed some lincRNAs which may affect of IMF development in pig, and facilitated future research on these lincRNAs and molecular assisted breeding for pig.