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Sample records for surface 0-20 cm

  1. Thermal conductivity of (Np0.20Pu0.50Am0.25Cm0.05)O2−x solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Tsuyoshi; Takano, Masahide; Akabori, Mitsuo; Arai, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal conductivity of (Np 0.20 Pu 0.50 Am 0.25 Cm 0.05 )O 2−x was evaluated. • Dependence of thermal conductivity on storage time was clarified. • Results were discussed with the lattice expansion model by self-irradiation. • After annealing at 1423 K in vacuum, thermal conductivity returned. -- Abstract: The authors prepared the sintered sample of (Np 0.20 Pu 0.50 Am 0.25 Cm 0.05 )O 2−x (2 − x = 1.98, 1.96) solid solution and evaluated the dependence of the thermal conductivity on storage time and temperature. The heat capacity of (Np 0.20 Pu 0.50 Am 0.25 Cm 0.05 )O 1.98 was measured between 324 and 1082 K by a drop calorimetry. The thermal diffusivity of (Np 0.20 Pu 0.50 Am 0.25 Cm 0.05 )O 1.98 was measured when the storage time became 48, 216, 720 and 1584 h and that of (Np 0.20 Pu 0.50 Am 0.25 Cm 0.05 )O 1.96 was measured when the storage time became 0,528 and 1386 h. In this study, the latter sample was annealed at 1423 K in vacuum with background pressure of less than 2.0 × 10 −4 Pa just after the measurement on the storage time, 1386 h. The thermal diffusivity of (Np 0.20 Pu 0.50 Am 0.25 Cm 0.05 )O 1.96 just after annealing returned to the values of the storage time, 0 h. This result reveals the thermal recovery behavior by annealing. The thermal conductivity of (Np 0.20 Pu 0.50 Am 0.25 Cm 0.05 )O 2−x was determined from the measured thermal diffusivity, heat capacity and bulk density. The thermal conductivity of (Np 0.20 Pu 0.50 Am 0.25 Cm 0.05 )O 2−x exponentially decreased with increasing storage time. This result suggested that the decrease of the thermal conductivity was attributed to the accumulation of lattice defects caused by self-irradiation

  2. Spectroscopic Properties and Potential Energy Surfaces for Curium Hydrides: CmH2, CmH2+, CmH, and CmH+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, K.; Cao, Zhiji

    2009-09-01

    A relativistic complete active space multiconfigurational self-consistent field followed by multireference singles + doubles configuration interaction computations are carried out on the potential energy surfaces of electronic states of CmH2 and CmH2+ for the insertion reaction of Cm and Cm+ into H2. We have also carried out corresponding computations on several electronic states of CmH and CmH+. Moreover, multireference relativistic configuration interaction computations including spin-orbit coupling were carried out on 75 electronic states of CmH+, which were found to be below the 45 000 cm-1 region. We have computed the first ionization energy of Cm as 5.94 eV in excellent agreement with experimental value of 5.99 eV. Our computations reveal barriers for the insertion of Cm and Cm+ in their ground electronic states into H2, but once the barriers are surmounted, both Cm + H2 and Cm+ + H2 form stable products. The potential energy curves of CmH and CmH+ reveal the existence of several low-lying open-shell excited states with varied Λ quantum numbers and spin multiplicities. The excited states of these species exhibit intermediate coupling, although the spin-orbit splittings of the 9Σ- and 8Σ- ground states of CmH and CmH+ are small, exhibiting nearly inverted multiplets.

  3. Spectroscopic properties and potential energy surfaces for curium hydrides: CmH(2), CmH(2)(+), CmH, and CmH(+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, K; Cao, Zhiji

    2009-11-12

    A relativistic complete active space multiconfigurational self-consistent field followed by multireference singles + doubles configuration interaction computations are carried out on the potential energy surfaces of electronic states of CmH(2) and CmH(2)(+) for the insertion reaction of Cm and Cm(+) into H(2). We have also carried out corresponding computations on several electronic states of CmH and CmH(+). Moreover, multireference relativistic configuration interaction computations including spin-orbit coupling were carried out on 75 electronic states of CmH(+), which were found to be below the 45 000 cm(-1) region. We have computed the first ionization energy of Cm as 5.94 eV in excellent agreement with experimental value of 5.99 eV. Our computations reveal barriers for the insertion of Cm and Cm(+) in their ground electronic states into H(2), but once the barriers are surmounted, both Cm + H(2) and Cm(+) + H(2) form stable products. The potential energy curves of CmH and CmH(+) reveal the existence of several low-lying open-shell excited states with varied Lambda quantum numbers and spin multiplicities. The excited states of these species exhibit intermediate coupling, although the spin-orbit splittings of the (9)Sigma(-) and (8)Sigma(-) ground states of CmH and CmH(+) are small, exhibiting nearly inverted multiplets.

  4. Accuracy of Topcon CM-1000 videokeratoscope on spherical test surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Yern, E; Fimia-Gil, A; Mateos, F; Carretero, L

    1997-01-01

    Many videokeratoscopes use mathematical formulas to calculate corneal radii; calculations depend on slope, curvature, coordinate position, or focal properties of the surface. Accuracy of each type of videokeratoscope must be evaluated. A controversy exists about whether axial or tangential methods best provide a precise description of corneal shape; therefore results with the Topcon CM-1000 using both methods were evaluated. Measurements were done on black polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) spherical calibrated surfaces. Lenses were first aligned and measured and then misaligned in different directions and measured. Results for each position were compared with the zero or alignment position. Accuracy of the CM-1000 was high even under extreme misalignment conditions. Tolerance to misalignment was high (about 300 mm). Misalignment-induced variations in the output results were small (usually less than 0.05 mm). However, important variations (more than 1.00 diopter [D]) were found for the lowest measured radius (6 mm). In some cases, small differences between axial and tangential radii for the same point could be found. With the exception of extremely low radii of curvature, the CM-1000 was accurate for measuring spherical surfaces. Further investigation remains to be done on aspheric surfaces and in clinical practice.

  5. Sensitivity of simulated South America climate to the land surface schemes in RegCM4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llopart, Marta; da Rocha, Rosmeri P.; Reboita, Michelle; Cuadra, Santiago

    2017-12-01

    This work evaluates the impact of two land surface parameterizations on the simulated climate and its variability over South America (SA). Two numerical experiments using RegCM4 coupled with the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (RegBATS) and the Community Land Model version 3.5 (RegCLM) land surface schemes are compared. For the period 1979-2008, RegCM4 simulations used 50 km horizontal grid spacing and the ERA-Interim reanalysis as initial and boundary conditions. For the period studied, both simulations represent the main observed spatial patterns of rainfall, air temperature and low level circulation over SA. However, with regard to the precipitation intensity, RegCLM values are closer to the observations than RegBATS (it is wetter in general) over most of SA. RegCLM also produces smaller biases for air temperature. Over the Amazon basin, the amplitudes of the annual cycles of the soil moisture, evapotranspiration and sensible heat flux are higher in RegBATS than in RegCLM. This indicates that RegBATS provides large amounts of water vapor to the atmosphere and has more available energy to increase the boundary layer thickness and cause it to reach the level of free convection (higher sensible heat flux values) resulting in higher precipitation rates and a large wet bias. RegCLM is closer to the observations than RegBATS, presenting smaller wet and warm biases over the Amazon basin. On an interannual scale, the magnitudes of the anomalies of the precipitation and air temperature simulated by RegCLM are closer to the observations. In general, RegBATS simulates higher magnitude for the interannual variability signal.

  6. The impacts of thermal roughness length on land surface climate in IPSL-CM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wand, Fuxing; Cheruy, Frédérique; Vuichard, Nicolas; Sima, Adriana; Hourdin, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    The aerodynamic and thermal roughness lengths (z0m and z0h) are the two crucial parameters for bulk transfer equations to calculate turbulent flux. The exchange of momentum is usually different with scalars as heat (or water vapor, carbon dioxide, traces gas). In general, the transport of scalars (by molecular diffusion) is considered less efficient than momentum (by pressure fluctuations), owing to the absence of bluff-body forces for scalar exchange. However, the z0h and z0m are equal in the current IPSL-CM model. The objective of the study is to investigate the impacts of z0h parameterizations on the land surface climate. Several sensitivity experiments that accounting for different z0h and z0m are carried out with IPSL-CM: (1) z0h = z0m/10; (2) z0h = z0m/100; (3) a more physically based z0h parameterizations. A nudging approach is used in order to avoid the time-consuming long-term simulations required to account for the natural variability of the climate. The results show that the seasonal mean surface temperature (Ts) increases 0.5-1 K (for z0h = z0m/10) and 1-2 K (for z0h = z0m/100) over JJA due to the decrease of z0h. The most significant variation is over the Sahara. During the daytime, the increase of Ts (around 1-2 K) is higher than the air temperature (Tair, ~0.2 K) for z0h = z0m/10. During the night time, the increase of Ts and Tair are very close (around 0.3-0.6 K) for z0h = z0m/10. The asymmetric variation of Tair during night and day causes a decrease (~0.3 K for z0h = z0m/10; ~0.6 K for z0h = z0m/100) of diurnal temperature range (DTR). The seasonal mean sensible heat flux decreases by ~4-6 W/m2 (for z0h = z0m/10) with the decrease of z0h as well. The change of latent heat flux is the most significant over the tropics with the seasonal mean decrease of 4-8 W/m2 for z0h = z0m/10 over both JJA and DJF. Besides the change of mean climate, the human thermal comfort is also affected by z0h. A smaller z0h corresponds to a higher wet-bulb temperature

  7. On the order of Abelian surfaces of CM-type over finite prime fields ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is known that the Galois group Gal(F(A[ℓ])/F) can be embedded into a maximal torus in the general symplectic group GSp(2g, Fℓ). We give an easy, explicit description of the maximal torus relating the splitting behaviour of ℓ in K/Q to signed partitions of g. Applying our results to the case where A is an abelian surface, we ...

  8. Investigation of the structural, optical and dielectric properties of highly (1 0 0)-oriented (Pb{sub 0.60}Ca{sub 0.20}Sr{sub 0.20})TiO{sub 3} thin films on LaNiO{sub 3} bottom electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontes, D.S.L. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Cerâmica, Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Via Washington Luiz, Km 235, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil); Pontes, F.M., E-mail: fenelon@fc.unesp.br [Department of Chemistry, Universidade Estadual Paulista, P.O. Box 473, 17033-360 Bauru, São Paulo (Brazil); Chiquito, A.J. [NanO LaB, Transporte Eletrônico em Nanoestruturas, Department of Physics, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Via Washington Luiz, Km 235, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil); Longo, E. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Cerâmica, Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Via Washington Luiz, Km 235, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil); Institute of Chemistry, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Highly (h 0 0) oriented LNO and PCST thin films were grown on LAO(1 0 0) substrate. • PCST/LNO/LAO structure shown classic ferroelectric–paraelectric phase transition. • PCST/LNO/LAO structure shows superior dielectric properties. • PCST/LAO films showed a direct allowed optical transition. - Abstract: Highly (1 0 0)-oriented Pb{sub 0.60}Ca{sub 0.20}Sr{sub 0.20}TiO{sub 3}/LNO/LAO structure was fabricated using a chemical deposition process via spin-coating technique. XRD revealed that both LNO and Pb{sub 0.60}Ca{sub 0.20}Sr{sub 0.20}TiO{sub 3} films grown on LAO(1 0 0) substrate and LNO/LAO(1 0 0) structure were crystallized to be highly (h 0 0)-oriented, respectively. AFM images revealed smooth surfaces, spherical-shaped grains and a crack-free surface with a roughness of about 3–7 nm. The tetragonal perovskite phase was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy for Pb{sub 0.60}Ca{sub 0.20}Sr{sub 0.20}TiO{sub 3}/LNO/LAO and Pb{sub 0.60}Ca{sub 0.20}Sr{sub 0.20}TiO{sub 3}/LAO structures. The optical transmittance of 340 nm thick Pb{sub 0.60}Ca{sub 0.20}Sr{sub 0.20}TiO{sub 3} films on a LAO(1 0 0) substrate exhibited an average transmittance above 80% in the wavelength range of 500–1000 nm and an optical band gap E{sub g} of 3.56 and 2.87 eV for the direct and indirect transition processes, respectively. The Au/Pb{sub 0.60}Ca{sub 0.20}Sr{sub 0.20}TiO{sub 3}/LNO/LAO structure has a hysteresis loop with remnant polarization, P{sub r}, of 12 μC/cm{sup 2}, and a coercive field, E{sub c}, of 46 kV/cm for an electric field at 370 kV/cm along with a dielectric constant over 1200.

  9. Different Multifractal Scaling of the 0 cm Average Ground Surface Temperature of Four Representative Weather Stations over China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The temporal scaling properties of the daily 0 cm average ground surface temperature (AGST records obtained from four selected sites over China are investigated using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA method. Results show that the AGST records at all four locations exhibit strong persistence features and different scaling behaviors. The differences of the generalized Hurst exponents are very different for the AGST series of each site reflecting the different scaling behaviors of the fluctuation. Furthermore, the strengths of multifractal spectrum are different for different weather stations and indicate that the multifractal behaviors vary from station to station over China.

  10. Sublimation pit distribution indicates convection cell surface velocities of ∼10 cm per year in Sputnik Planitia, Pluto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, Peter B.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2018-01-01

    The ∼106 km2 Sputnik Planitia, Pluto is the upper surface of a vast basin of nitrogen ice. Cellular landforms in Sputnik Planitia with areas in the range of a few × 102-103 km2 are likely the surface manifestation of convective overturn in the nitrogen ice. The cells have sublimation pits on them, with smaller pits near their centers and larger pits near their edges. We map pits on seven cells and find that the pit radii increase by between 2.1 ± 0.4 × 10-3 and 5.9 ± 0.8 × 10-3 m m-1 away from the cell center, depending on the cell. This is a lower bound on the size increase because of the finite resolution of the data. Accounting for resolution yields upper bounds on the size vs. distance distribution of between 4.2 ± 0.2 × 10-3 and 23.4 ± 1.5 × 10-3 m m-1. We then use an analytic model to calculate that pit radii grow via sublimation at a rate of 3.6-0.6+2.1 ×10-4 m yr-1, which allows us to convert the pit size vs. distance distribution into a pit age vs. distance distribution. This yields surface velocities between 1.5-0.2+1.0 and 6.2-1.4+3.4 cm yr-1 for the slowest cell and surface velocities between 8.1-1.0+5.5 and 17.9-5.1+8.9 cm yr-1 for the fastest cell. These convection rates imply that the surface ages at the edge of cells reach ∼4.2-8.9 × 105 yr. The rates are comparable to rates of ∼6 cm yr-1 that were previously obtained from modeling of the convective overturn in Sputnik Planitia (McKinnon et al., 2016). Finally, we investigate the surface rheology of the convection cells and estimate that the minimum ice viscosity necessary to support the geometry of the observed pits is of order 1016-1017 Pa s, based on the argument that pits would relax away before growing to their observed radii of several hundred meters if the viscosity were lower than this value.

  11. 0.20-m (8-in.) primary burner development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stula, R.T.; Young, D.T.; Rode, J.S.

    1977-12-01

    High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) utilize graphite-base fuels. Fluidized-bed burners are being employed successfully in the experimental reprocessing of these fuels. The primary fluidized-bed burner is a unit operation in the reprocessing flowsheet in which the graphite moderator is removed. A detailed description of the development status of the 0.20-m (8-in.) diameter primary fluidized-bed burner as of July 1, 1977 is presented. Experimental work to date performed in 0.10; 0.20; and 0.40-m (4, 8, and 16 in.) diameter primary burners has demonstrated the feasibility of the primary burning process and, at the same time, has defined more clearly the areas in which additional experimental work is required. The design and recent operating history of the 0.20-m-diameter burner are discussed, with emphasis placed upon the evolution of the current design and operating philosophy

  12. Experimental study on magnetically insulated transmission line electrode surface evolution process under MA/cm current density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, PengFei; Qiu, Aici; Hu, Yang; Yang, HaiLiang; Sun, Jiang; Wang, Liangping; Cong, Peitian

    2016-01-01

    The design of high-current density magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) is a difficult problem of current large-scale Z-pinch device. In particular, a thorough understanding of the MITL electrode surface evolution process under high current density is lacking. On the “QiangGuang-I” accelerator, the load area possesses a low inductance short-circuit structure with a diameter of 2.85 mm at the cathode, and three reflux columns with a diameter of 3 mm and uniformly distributed circumference at the anode. The length of the high density MITL area is 20 mm. A laser interferometer is used to assess and analyze the state of the MITL cathode and anode gap, and their evolution process under high current density. Experimental results indicate that evident current loss is not observed in the current density area at pulse leading edge, and peak when the surface current density reaches MA/cm. Analysis on electrode surface working conditions indicates that when the current leading edge is at 71.5% of the peak, the total evaporation of MITL cathode structure can be realized by energy deposition caused by ohmic heating. The electrode state changes, and diffusion conditions are reflected in the laser interferometer image. The MITL cathode area mainly exists in metal vapor form. The metal vapor density in the cathode central region is higher than the upper limit of laser penetration density (∼4 × 10 21 /cm 3 ), with an expansion velocity of ∼0.96 km/s. The metal vapor density in the electrode outer area may lead to evident distortion of fringes, and its expansion velocity is faster than that in the center area (1.53 km/s).

  13. Feasibility of correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT) for anti-spoof sub-surface fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zam, Azhar; Dsouza, Roshan; Subhash, Hrebesh M; O'Connell, Marie-Louise; Enfield, Joey; Larin, Kirill; Leahy, Martin J

    2013-09-01

    We propose the use of correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT) to deliver additional biometrics associated with the finger that could complement existing fingerprint technology for law enforcement applications. The current study extends the existing fingerprint paradigm by measuring additional biometrics associated with sub-surface finger tissue such as sub-surface fingerprints, sweat glands, and the pattern of the capillary bed to yield a user-friendly cost effective and anti-spoof multi-mode biometric solution associated with the finger. To our knowledge no other method has been able to capture sub-surface fingerprint, papillary pattern and horizontal vessel pattern in a single scan or to show the correspondence between these patterns in live adult human fingertip. Unlike many current technologies this approach incorporates 'liveness' testing by default. The ultimate output is a biometric module which is difficult to defeat and complements fingerprint scanners that currently are used in border control and law enforcement applications. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Influences of Two Land-Surface Schemes on RegCM4 Precipitation Simulations over the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejia Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different RegCM4 land-surface schemes on Tibetan Plateau (TP precipitation simulations were investigated. Two groups of ten-year (1992–2001 simulation experiments (hereafter referred to as BATS and CLM were performed based on two land-surface schemes (BATS and CLM3.5, resp. and were compared with observed data using the same domain, initial, and lateral boundary conditions, cumulus convective scheme, and spatial resolution. The results showed that the CLM monthly precipitation more closely matched the observed data compared with BATS. BATS and CLM both overestimated summer precipitation in the northern TP but underestimated summer precipitation in the southern TP. However, CLM, because of its detailed land-surface process descriptions, reduced the overestimated precipitation areas and magnitudes of BATS. Compared to CN05, the regional average summer precipitation in BATS and CLM was overestimated by 34.7% and underestimated by 24.7%, respectively. Higher soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and heating effects in the BATS experiment triggered changes in atmospheric circulation patterns over the TP. Moreover, BATS simulated the lower atmosphere as warmer and more humid and the upper atmosphere (~150 hPa as colder than the CLM simulations; these characteristics likely increased the instability for moist convection and produced more summer precipitation.

  15. Highly Accurate Potential Energy Surface, Dipole Moment Surface, Rovibrational Energy Levels, and Infrared Line List for (32)S(16)O2 up to 8000 cm(exp -1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinchuan; Schwenke, David W.; Lee, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    A purely ab initio potential energy surface (PES) was refined with selected (32)S(16)O2 HITRAN data. Compared to HITRAN, the root-mean-squares error (RMS) error for all J=0-80 rovibrational energy levels computed on the refined PES (denoted Ames-1) is 0.013 cm(exp -1). Combined with a CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV(Q+d)Z dipole moment surface (DMS), an infrared (IR) line list (denoted Ames-296K) has been computed at 296K and covers up to 8,000 cm(exp -1). Compared to the HITRAN and CDMS databases, the intensity agreement for most vibrational bands is better than 85-90%. Our predictions for (34)S(16)O2 band origins, higher energy (32)S(16)O2 band origins and missing (32)S(16)O2 IR bands have been verified by most recent experiments and available HITRAN data. We conclude that the Ames-1 PES is able to predict (32/34)S(16)O2 band origins below 5500 cm(exp -1) with 0.01-0.03 cm(exp -1) uncertainties, and the Ames-296K line list provides continuous, reliable and accurate IR simulations. The Ka-dependence of both line position and line intensity errors is discussed. The line list will greatly facilitate SO2 IR spectral experimental analysis, as well as elimination of SO2 lines in high-resolution astronomical observations.

  16. On the ability of RegCM4 regional climate model to simulate surface solar radiation patterns over Europe: an assessment using satellite-based observations

    OpenAIRE

    G. Alexandri; A. K. Georgoulias; P. Zanis; E. Katragkou; A. Tsikerdekis; K. Kourtidis; C. Meleti

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we assess the ability of RegCM4 regional climate model to simulate surface solar radiation (SSR) patterns over Europe. A decadal RegCM4 run (2000–2009) was implemented and evaluated against satellite-based observations from the Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF) showing that the model simulates adequately the SSR patterns over the region. The bias between RegCM4 and CM SAF is +1.54 % for MFG (Meteosat First Generation...

  17. On the ability of RegCM4 regional climate model to simulate surface solar radiation patterns over Europe: an assessment using satellite-based observations

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandri, G.; Georgoulias, A. K.; Zanis, P.; Katragkou, E.; Tsikerdekis, A.; Kourtidis, K.; Meleti, C.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we assess the ability of RegCM4 regional climate model to simulate surface solar radiation (SSR) patterns over Europe. A decadal RegCM4 run (2000–2009) was implemented and evaluated against satellite-based observations from the Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF), showing that the model simulates adequately the SSR patterns over the region. The SSR bias between RegCM4 and CM SAF is +1.5 % for MFG (Meteosat First Genera...

  18. High-resolution MR imaging of the carpal tunnel and the wrist. Application of a 5-cm surface coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, J.; Bleschkowski, A.; Tempka, A.; Felix, R. [Medical Faculty of the Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2000-07-01

    In order to make a comparative analysis of transversal tomograms obtained by high-resolution MR imaging with frozen cross-sections of an anatomical forearm specimen, twenty-two healthy volunteers were also examined using the same coil system to test for a range of possible clinical applications and for the depiction of morphological and morphometrical values of normal anatomy in vivo. MR images of the carpal tunnel of 22 healthy volunteers were obtained with a 1.5-T whole-body system with a 5-cm surface coil. Measurements were recorded with a field-of-view between 50x50 mm{sup 2} and 60x60 mm{sup 2} in a 256x256 pixel matrix for the T1 sequence. A slice thickness of 2 mm was used. The images were acquired using a T1-weighted SE sequence (TR/TE 500/38 ms) and a T2-weighted SE sequence (TR/TE 2000/70 ms). Additionally, a formalin-fixed anatomical forearm specimen was imaged for anatomic correlation. The imaged transversal cross-section levels in the specimen were subsequently freeze-sectioned. The anatomical structures of the MR findings were identified and compared with the macroscopical sections of the specimen. Based on the good depiction of details at this coil system with a pixel size in T1 of 0.195x0.195 mm, high-resolution MR imaging enabled identification of the interior structures of the carpal tunnel, as well as delineation of connective tissue. The clinical value of high-resolution MR includes the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome and inflammatory disorders of the wrist. Our results support the feasibility of high-resolution MR imaging of the carpal tunnel and the wrist using small surface coils.

  19. High-resolution MR imaging of the carpal tunnel and the wrist. Application of a 5-cm surface coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, J.; Bleschkowski, A.; Tempka, A.; Felix, R.

    2000-01-01

    In order to make a comparative analysis of transversal tomograms obtained by high-resolution MR imaging with frozen cross-sections of an anatomical forearm specimen, twenty-two healthy volunteers were also examined using the same coil system to test for a range of possible clinical applications and for the depiction of morphological and morphometrical values of normal anatomy in vivo. MR images of the carpal tunnel of 22 healthy volunteers were obtained with a 1.5-T whole-body system with a 5-cm surface coil. Measurements were recorded with a field-of-view between 50x50 mm 2 and 60x60 mm 2 in a 256x256 pixel matrix for the T1 sequence. A slice thickness of 2 mm was used. The images were acquired using a T1-weighted SE sequence (TR/TE 500/38 ms) and a T2-weighted SE sequence (TR/TE 2000/70 ms). Additionally, a formalin-fixed anatomical forearm specimen was imaged for anatomic correlation. The imaged transversal cross-section levels in the specimen were subsequently freeze-sectioned. The anatomical structures of the MR findings were identified and compared with the macroscopical sections of the specimen. Based on the good depiction of details at this coil system with a pixel size in T1 of 0.195x0.195 mm, high-resolution MR imaging enabled identification of the interior structures of the carpal tunnel, as well as delineation of connective tissue. The clinical value of high-resolution MR includes the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome and inflammatory disorders of the wrist. Our results support the feasibility of high-resolution MR imaging of the carpal tunnel and the wrist using small surface coils

  20. On the ability of RegCM4 regional climate model to simulate surface solar radiation patterns over Europe: an assessment using satellite-based observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Alexandri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we assess the ability of RegCM4 regional climate model to simulate surface solar radiation (SSR patterns over Europe. A decadal RegCM4 run (2000–2009 was implemented and evaluated against satellite-based observations from the Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF, showing that the model simulates adequately the SSR patterns over the region. The SSR bias between RegCM4 and CM SAF is +1.5 % for MFG (Meteosat First Generation and +3.3 % for MSG (Meteosat Second Generation observations. The relative contribution of parameters that determine the transmission of solar radiation within the atmosphere to the deviation appearing between RegCM4 and CM SAF SSR is also examined. Cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties such as cloud fractional cover (CFC, cloud optical thickness (COT and cloud effective radius (Re from RegCM4 are evaluated against data from CM SAF. Generally, RegCM4 underestimates CFC by 24.3 % and Re for liquid/ice clouds by 36.1 %/28.3 % and overestimates COT by 4.3 %. The same procedure is repeated for aerosol optical properties such as aerosol optical depth (AOD, asymmetry factor (ASY and single-scattering albedo (SSA, as well as other parameters, including surface broadband albedo (ALB and water vapor amount (WV, using data from MACv1 aerosol climatology, from CERES satellite sensors and from ERA-Interim reanalysis. It is shown here that the good agreement between RegCM4 and satellite-based SSR observations can be partially attributed to counteracting effects among the above mentioned parameters. The potential contribution of each parameter to the RegCM4–CM SAF SSR deviations is estimated with the combined use of the aforementioned data and a radiative transfer model (SBDART. CFC, COT and AOD are the major determinants of these deviations on a monthly basis; however, the other parameters also play an important role for specific regions and seasons. Overall, for the European domain, CFC

  1. Process development report: 0.20-m secondary burner system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickman, W.S.

    1977-09-01

    HTGR fuel reprocessing consists of crushing the spent fuel elements to a size suitable for burning in a fluidized bed to remove excess graphite; separating, crushing, and reburning the fuel particles to remove the remainder of the burnable carbon; dissolution and separation of the particles from insoluble materials; and solvent extraction separation of the dissolved uranium and thorium. Burning the crushed fuel particles is accomplished in a secondary burner. This is a batch fluidized-bed reactor with in-vessel, off-gas filtration. Process heat is provided by an induction heater. This report documents operational tests performed on a commercial size 0.20-m secondary burner using crushed Fort St. Vrain type TRISO fuel particles. Analysis of a parametric study of burner process variables led to recommending lower bed superficial velocity (0.8 m/s), lower ignition temperature (600 0 C), lower fluid bed operating temperature (850 0 C), lower filter blowback frequency (1 cycle/minute), and a lower fluid bed superficial velocity during final bed burnout

  2. Process development report: 0.20-m primary burner system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickman, W.S.

    1978-09-01

    HTGR reprocessing consists of crushing the spent fuel elements to a size suitable for burning in a fluidized bed to remove excess graphite, separating the fissile and fertile particles, crushing and burning the SiC-coated fuel particles to remove the remainder of the carbon, dissolution and separation of the particles from insoluble materials, and solvent extraction separation of the dissolved uranium and thorium. Burning the crushed fuel elements is accomplished in a primary burner. This is a batch-continuous, fluidized-bed process utilizing above-bed gravity fines recycle. In gas-solid separation, a combination of a cyclone and porous metal filters is used. This report documents operational tests performed on a 0.20-m primary burner using crushed fuel representative of both Fort St. Vrain and large high-temperature gas-cooled reactor cores. The burner was reconstructed to a gravity fines recycle mode prior to beginning these tests. Results of two separate and successful 48-hour burner runs and several short-term runs have indicated the operability of this concept. Recommendations are made for future work

  3. Comparative study of Ce0.80Sm0.20 Ba0.80Y0.20O3-δ (YB-SDC) electrolyte by various chemical synthesis routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Sana; Marium, Aniqa; Raza, Rizwan; Ashfaq Ahmad, M.; Ajmal Khan, M.; Abbas, Ghazanfar; Waseem Boota, M.; Khalid Imran, S.; Arshad, Sarfraz; Ikram, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells is received a significant attention in recent years due to higher efficiency and fuel flexibility. The one of the main challenge for SOFC is to lower the operating temperature of SOFCs. Therefore, different strategies are used in order to enhance the ionic conduction of electrolyte, which can lower the overall SOFC operating temperature. The present work is focused on this strategy to enhance the electrolytic conductivity. Therefore, the ceria based composite electrolytes Ce0.80Sm0.20B0.80Y0.20O3-δ (YBSDC) are synthesized using three different approaches i.e. co-precipitation (YBSDC-1), sol-gel (YBSDC-2) and ball milling (YBSDC-3). Their crystal structures and surface morphologies are characterized through X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques, respectively. The four-probe technique is employed to measure their dc conductivities in the temperature range (300-700) °C under air atmosphere. The open circuit voltage (OCV) and current are recorded with natural gas as fuel {flow rate kept at 100 ml min-1 at 1 atm pressure} over the temperature range (300-600) °C. The electrolyte (YBSDC-1) prepared by co-precipitation technique is shown better results as compare to other two electrolytes (YBSDC-2 and YBSDC-3). The electrolyte (YBSDC-1) having maximum dc conductivity (0.096 S/cm), peak power density 224 mW cm-2 and OCV 0.94 V at 600 °C. These results show that YBSDC-1electrolyte is potential candidate for low temperature SOFCs.

  4. Comparative study of Ce0.80Sm0.20 Ba0.80Y0.20O3-δ (YB-SDC electrolyte by various chemical synthesis routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Tariq

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Solid Oxide Fuel Cells is received a significant attention in recent years due to higher efficiency and fuel flexibility. The one of the main challenge for SOFC is to lower the operating temperature of SOFCs. Therefore, different strategies are used in order to enhance the ionic conduction of electrolyte, which can lower the overall SOFC operating temperature. The present work is focused on this strategy to enhance the electrolytic conductivity. Therefore, the ceria based composite electrolytes Ce0.80Sm0.20B0.80Y0.20O3-δ (YBSDC are synthesized using three different approaches i.e. co-precipitation (YBSDC-1, sol-gel (YBSDC-2 and ball milling (YBSDC-3. Their crystal structures and surface morphologies are characterized through X-ray Diffraction (XRD and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM techniques, respectively. The four-probe technique is employed to measure their dc conductivities in the temperature range (300–700 °C under air atmosphere. The open circuit voltage (OCV and current are recorded with natural gas as fuel {flow rate kept at 100 ml min−1 at 1 atm pressure} over the temperature range (300–600 °C.The electrolyte (YBSDC-1 prepared by co-precipitation technique is shown better results as compare to other two electrolytes (YBSDC-2 and YBSDC-3. The electrolyte (YBSDC-1 having maximum dc conductivity (0.096 S/cm, peak power density 224 mW cm−2 and OCV 0.94 V at 600 °C. These results show that YBSDC-1electrolyte is potential candidate for low temperature SOFCs. Keywords: Hydrogen, Energy, Ball milling, Composite, Conductor

  5. On the ability of RegCM4 to simulate surface solar radiation patterns over Europe: An assessment using satellite-based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandri, Georgia; Georgoulias, Aristeidis K.; Zanis, Prodromos; Tsikerdekis, Athanasios; Katragkou, Eleni; Kourtidis, Konstantinos; Meleti, Charikleia

    2015-04-01

    We assess here the ability of RegCM4 to simulate the surface solar radiation (SSR) patterns over the European domain. For the needs of this work, a decadal (1999-2009) simulation was implemented at a horizontal resolution of 50km using the first year as a spin-up. The model is driven by emissions from CMIP5 while ERA-interim data were used as lateral boundary conditions. The RegCM4 SSR fields were validated against satellite-based SSR observations from Meteosat First Generation (MFG) and Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) sensors (CM SAF SIS product). The RegCM4 simulations slightly overestimate SSR compared to CM SAF over Europe with the bias being +1.54% in case of MFG (2000-2005) and +3.34% in case of MSG (2006-2009). SSR from RegCM4 is much closer to SSR from CM SAF over land (bias of -1.59% for MFG and +0.66% for MSG) than over ocean (bias of +7.20% for MFG and 8.07% for MSG). In order to understand the reasons of this bias, we proceeded to a detailed assessment of various parameters that define the SSR levels (cloud fractional cover - CFC, cloud optical thickness - COT, cloud droplet effective radius - Re, aerosol optical thickness - AOD, asymmetry factor - ASY, single scattering albedo - SSA, water vapor - WV and surface albedo - ALB). We validated the simulated CFC, COT and Re from RegCM4 against satellite-based observations from MSG and we found that RegCM4 significantly underestimates CFC and Re, and overestimates COT over Europe. The aerosol-related parameters from RegCM4 were compared with values from the aerosol climatology taken into account within CM SAF SSR estimates. AOD is significantly underestimated in our simulations which leads to a positive SSR bias. The RegCM4 WV and ALB were compared with WV values from ERA-interim and ALB climatological observations from CERES which are also taken into account within CM SAF SSR estimates. Finally, with the use of a radiative transfer model (SBDART) we manage to quantify the relative contribution of each of

  6. Effect of multiple autoclave cycles on the surface roughness of HyFlex CM and HyFlex EDM files: an atomic force microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, K; Uslu, G; Özyürek, T

    2018-02-13

    To compare the effect of autoclave cycles on the surface topography and roughness of HyFlex CM and HyFlex EDM instruments using atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Eight new files of each brand were subdivided into four subgroups (n = 2/each subgroup). One group was allocated as the control group and not subjected to autoclave sterilization. The other three groups were subjected to different numbers (1, 5, and 10) of autoclave sterilization cycles. After the cycle instruments were subjected to AFM analysis. Roughness average (Ra) and the root mean square (RMS) values were chosen to investigate the surface features of endodontic files. The data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tamhane tests at 5% significant level. The lowest Ra and RMS values were observed in the HyFlex EDM files that served as the control and in those subjected to a single cycle of autoclave sterilization (P EDM files that were subjected to 10 cycles of autoclave sterilization (P EDM group exhibited a significant change after five autoclave cycles (P EDM files were lower than those of the HyFlex CM files, the surface roughness values of the EDM files showed a statistically significant increase after 5 cycles of autoclave sterilization. In contrast, the surface roughness values of the HyFlex CM files did not increase until 10 cycles of autoclave sterilization. Present study indicated that autoclave sterilization negatively affected the surface roughness of the tested NiTi files.

  7. Mössbauer studies of multiferroics BiFe1 - x Cr x O3 ( x = 0-0.20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokatilov, V. S.; Rusakov, V. S.; Sigov, A. S.; Belik, A. A.

    2017-08-01

    The Mössbauer studies on 57Fe nuclei in multiferroics BiFe1 - x Cr x O3 ( x = 0.05, 0.10, and 0.20) have been performed at room temperature. The multiferroics BiFe1 - x Cr x O3 ( x = 0.05, 0.10, and 0.20) with the rhombohedral R3 c structure have been prepared by solid-state synthesis under high pressures. The effect of substitution of Cr cations for Fe cations on the spatial spin-modulated structure, and also hyperfine electrical and magnetic interactions of 57Fe nuclei has been studied. The substituted ferrites demonstrate an anharmonic modulated spin structure of cycloid type, in which iron atoms with different cation environments take part. The anharmonism parameter of the cycloid linearly increases from m = 0.10 at x = 0 to m = 0.78 ± 0.02 at x = 0.20. The constants of magnetic uniaxial anisotropy K u are estimated at room temperature: K u ≈ 0.36 × 106 erg/cm3 at x = 0 and K u ≈ 4.22 × 106 erg/cm3 at x = 0.20.

  8. Statistical downscaling of sea-surface wind over the Peru-Chile upwelling region: diagnosing the impact of climate change from the IPSL-CM4 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goubanova, K. [CNES/CNRS/IRD/UPS, Laboratoire d' Etudes en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiale, Toulouse (France); Instituto del Mar del Peru, Callao (Peru); Echevin, V.; Terray, P. [IPSL/UPMC/IRD, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et de Climatologie, Experimentation et Approches Numeriques, Paris (France); Dewitte, B. [CNES/CNRS/IRD/UPS, Laboratoire d' Etudes en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiale, Toulouse (France); Instituto del Mar del Peru, Callao (Peru); Instituto Geofisico del Peru, Lima (Peru); Codron, F. [UPMC/CNRS, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Paris (France); Takahashi, K. [Instituto Geofisico del Peru, Lima (Peru); Vrac, M. [IPSL/CNRS/CEA/UVSQ, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-04-15

    The key aspect of the ocean circulation off Peru-Chile is the wind-driven upwelling of deep, cold, nutrient-rich waters that promote a rich marine ecosystem. It has been suggested that global warming may be associated with an intensification of upwelling-favorable winds. However, the lack of high-resolution long-term observations has been a limitation for a quantitative analysis of this process. In this study, we use a statistical downscaling method to assess the regional impact of climate change on the sea-surface wind over the Peru-Chile upwelling region as simulated by the global coupled general circulation model IPSL-CM4. Taking advantage of the high-resolution QuikSCAT wind product and of the NCEP reanalysis data, a statistical model based on multiple linear regressions is built for the daily mean meridional and zonal wind at 10 m for the period 2000-2008. The large-scale 10 m wind components and sea level pressure are used as regional circulation predictors. The skill of the downscaling method is assessed by comparing with the surface wind derived from the ERS satellite measurements, with in situ wind observations collected by ICOADS and through cross-validation. It is then applied to the outputs of the IPSL-CM4 model over stabilized periods of the pre-industrial, 2 x CO{sub 2} and 4 x CO{sub 2} IPCC climate scenarios. The results indicate that surface along-shore winds off central Chile (off central Peru) experience a significant intensification (weakening) during Austral winter (summer) in warmer climates. This is associated with a general decrease in intra-seasonal variability. (orig.)

  9. Adsorption of 5f-electron atoms (ThCm) on graphene surface: An all-electron ZORA-DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jiguang; Jiang, Gang

    2017-12-15

    All-electron calculations were performed to investigate the adsorption of 5f-electron atoms (An=ThCm) on graphene surface. The hollow site is energetically preferred for the An-graphene complexes studied. The interaction strengths between An and C decrease in the order of Th>Pa>U>Np>Pu>Cm>Am. The AnC interactions show predominately closed-shell characteristics, meanwhile ThC chemical bond formed through orbital overlaps of Th (6d) and C (2p) possesses partial covalent nature. The participation of 6d(5f)-electron into bonding orbitals are gradually weakened (enhanced) from Th to Pu because the 5f electrons are more and more diffuse. The physisorption nature of Am on graphene was observed by the weak orbital overlaps between Am (6d) and C(2p) and the half-fill 5f occupancy. The magnetic moments of An-graphene species are mainly derived from the 5f-electron due to its high delocalization. The molecular orbital (MO) and charge decomposition analysis (CDA) indicate that the 6d orbitals of An atoms play a more important role in participation of bonds relative to the 5f orbital, as well as the strong linear correlation between 6d occupancy numbers and adsorption energy highlights the significant role of 6d-electron of An in the interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating the impacts of cumulus, land surface and ocean surface schemes on summertime rainfall simulations over East-to-southeast Asia and the western north Pacific by RegCM4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Bin; Tam, Chi-Yung; Huang, Wan-Ru; Cheung, Kevin K. W.; Gao, Zhiqiu

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluates the sensitivity of summertime rainfall simulations over East-to-southeast Asia and the western north Pacific in the regional climate model version 4 (RegCM4) to cumulus (including Grell with Arakawa-Schubert type closure, Grell with Fritsch-Chappell type closure, and Emanuel), land surface (Biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme or BATS, and the community land model or CLM) and ocean surface (referred to as Zeng1, Zeng2 and BATS1e in the model) schemes by running the model with different combinations of these parameterization packages. For each of these experiments, ensemble integration of the model was carried out in the extended boreal summer of May-October from 1998 to 2007. The simulated spatial distribution, intensity and inter-annual variation of the precipitation, latent heat flux, position of the subtropical high and tropical cyclone genesis patterns from these numerical experiments were analyzed. Examinations show that the combination of Emanuel, CLM and Zeng2 (E-C-Z2) yields the best overall results, consistent with the fact that physical mechanisms considered in E-C-Z2 tend to be more comprehensive in comparison with the others. Additionally, the rainfall quantity is found very sensitive to sea surface roughness length, and the reduction of the roughness length constant (from 2 × 10-4 to 5 × 10-5 m) in our modified BATS1e mitigates the drastic overestimation of latent heat flux and rainfall, and is therefore preferable to the default value for simulations in the western north Pacific region in RegCM4.

  11. Ubiquitous CM and DM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Sandra L.

    2000-01-01

    Ubiquitous is a real word. I thank a former Total Quality Coach for my first exposure some years ago to its existence. My version of Webster's dictionary defines ubiquitous as "present, or seeming to be present, everywhere at the same time; omnipresent." While I believe that God is omnipresent, I have come to discover that CM and DM are present everywhere. Oh, yes; I define CM as Configuration Management and DM as either Data or Document Management. Ten years ago, I had my first introduction to the CM world. I had an opportunity to do CM for the Space Station effort at the NASA Lewis Research Center. I learned that CM was a discipline that had four areas of focus: identification, control, status accounting, and verification. I was certified as a CMIl graduate and was indoctrinated about clear, concise, and valid. Off I went into a world of entirely new experiences. I was exposed to change requests and change boards first hand. I also learned about implementation of changes, and then of technical and CM requirements.

  12. Comparison of Alterations in the Surface Topographies of HyFlex CM and HyFlex EDM Nickel-titanium Files after Root Canal Preparation: A Three-dimensional Optical Profilometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, Gülşah; Özyürek, Taha; Yılmaz, Koray

    2018-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to examine the surface topographies of intact HyFlex CM and HyFlex EDM nickel-titanium files and to compare alterations in the surface topographies of these files after root canal preparation of severely curved canals of molar teeth. Eight HyFlex CM (25/.08) and 8 HyFlex EDM (25/.08) files were included in the present study. In total, 64 severely curved canals of molar teeth, with curvature angles ranging between 50° and 70°, were prepared with HyFlex CM and EDM (n = 32 in each group). Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the files' surface deformation were performed by using three-dimensional optical profilometry before and after root canal preparation. The data were analyzed with the Student t test at the 5% significant level by using SPSS 21.0 software. In the HyFlex EDM group, the qualitative evaluation revealed the presence of cracks and microcavities after use of the file for root canal preparation, whereas only minor surface deformation was observed in the HyFlex CM group. The average roughness, root mean square roughness, and peak to valley height values of the HyFlex EDM group were significantly higher than those of the HyFlex CM group before and after root canal preparation (P EDM group was not statistically significant (P > .5). Within the limitations of the present study, the HyFlex CM files showed significantly higher surface alterations compared with the HyFlex EDM files after the preparation of severely curved root canals. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Seasonal Prediction of Surface Air Temperature across Vietnam Using the Regional Climate Model Version 4.2 (RegCM4.2)

    OpenAIRE

    Phan Van, Tan; Van Nguyen, Hiep; Trinh Tuan, Long; Nguyen Quang, Trung; Ngo-Duc, Thanh; Laux, Patrick; Nguyen Xuan, Thanh

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the ability of dynamical seasonal climate predictions for Vietnam, the RegCM4.2 is employed to perform seasonal prediction of 2 m mean (T2m), maximum (Tx), and minimum (Tn) air temperature for the period from January 2012 to November 2013 by downscaling the NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFS) data. For model bias correction, the model and observed climatology is constructed using the CFS reanalysis and observed temperatures over Vietnam for the period 1980–2010, respectively. Th...

  14. Hyperfine characterization of the Ba Ti1-x Hfx O3 for x = 0.20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala, Alexandro; Lopez-Garcia, Alberto

    1996-01-01

    It is known that the cation substitution in perovskites produce changes in the macroscopic properties of these materials. A case to study is for example the influence of cation B partially substituted by cation B ' when ABO 3 is ferroelectric, and A B ' O 3 is paraelectric. In this work the system Ba Ti 1-x Hf x O 3 with x = 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 is studied by Perturbed Angular Correlations (Pac) in order to obtain microscopic information through the electric field gradient tensor (EFG) produced by electrons close to probes. Two hyperfine quadrupole interactions were detected. One interaction associated to probes with defects originated during the nuclear processes after neutron irradiation, and the other are located in B sites. At R T, the hyperfine parameters are analyzed in terms of Hf concentration. (author)

  15. Surface passivation of n-type c-Si wafers by a-Si/SiO2/SiNx stack with <1 cm/s effective surface recombination velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herasimenka, Stanislau Y.; Tracy, Clarence J.; Sharma, Vivek; Vulic, Natasa; Dauksher, William J.; Bowden, Stuart G.

    2013-10-01

    The passivation quality of an a-Si/SiO2/SiNx (aSON) stack deposited by conventional PECVD at corona charging of SiNx is presented. textured n-type Czochralski (CZ) substrates. It was shown that very good passivation can be achieved using 60 ms on 5000 Ω-cm and 20.9 ms on 1.7 Ω-cm mirror polished float zone (FZ) material passivated with aSON stacks.

  16. The Evolution of the Mass-Metallicity Relation at 0.20 < z < 0.35

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwon Chung

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a spectroscopic study of 343 blue compact galaxies (BCGs at 0.20 < z < 0.35 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR7 data. We derive gas phase oxygen abundance using the empirical and direct method. Stellar masses of galaxies are derived from the STARLIGHT code. We also derive star formation rates of galaxies based on Hα emission line from the SDSS as well as far-ultraviolet (FUV flux from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer GR6 data. Evolution of the luminosity-metallicity and mass-metallicity (M-Z relations with redshift is observed. At a given luminosity and mass, galaxies at higher redshifts appear to be biased to low metallicities relative to the lower redshift counterparts. Furthermore, low mass galaxies show higher specific star formation rates (SSFRs than more massive ones and galaxies at higher redshifts are biased to higher SSFRs compared to the lower redshift sample. By visual inspection of the SDSS images, we classify galaxy morphology into disturbed or undisturbed. In the M-Z relation, we find a hint that morphologically disturbed BCGs appear to exhibit low metallicities and high SSFRs compared to undisturbed counterparts. We suggest that our results support downsizing galaxy formation scenario and star formation histories of BCGs are closely related with their morphologies.

  17. Oxygen permeability of LaGa0.65Ni0.20Mg0.15O3-δ ceramics: effect of synthesis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaula, A.L.; Viskup, A.P.; Kharton, V.V.; Logvinovich, D.I.; Naumovich, E.N.; Frade, J.R.; Marques, F.M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Oxygen ionic transport in dense LaGa 0.65 Ni 0.20 Mg 0.15 O 3-δ membranes, prepared by the standard ceramic synthesis technique and via glycine-nitrate process (GNP), was studied using measurements of the total conductivity, oxygen permeation and faradaic efficiency (FE). At 1223 K oxygen transfer through LaGa 0.65 Ni 0.20 Mg 0.15 O 3-δ ceramics is mainly determined by the bulk ambipolar conductivity, while decreasing temperature leads to a greater role of the surface exchange rate. In spite of moderate difference in the ceramic microstructures, the surface exchange limitations are considerably higher for the membranes prepared by the standard ceramic route compared to GNP-synthesized material. Thermal expansion and partial ionic and electronic conductivities were found essentially independent of the synthesis method. The level of oxygen ionic conduction in LaGa 0.65 Ni 0.20 Mg 0.15 O 3-δ , characterized by the activation energy of about 150 kJ/mol and ion transference numbers in the range 1x10 -3 -5x10 -2 at 973-1223 K, is higher than that in La(Ga,Ni)O 3-δ perovskites and comparable to La 2 NiO 4 -based phases

  18. M0.20–0.033: An Expanding Molecular Shell in the Galactic Center Radio Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Natalie; Lang, Cornelia C.; Morris, Mark; Mills, Elisabeth A. C.; Ott, Juergen

    2018-01-01

    We present high-frequency Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) continuum and spectral line (NH3, H64α, and H63α) observations of the Galactic Center Radio Arc region, covering the Sickle H II region, the Quintuplet cluster, and molecular clouds M0.20‑0.033 and M0.10‑0.08. These observations show that the two velocity components of M0.20‑0.033 (∼25 and 80 km s‑1), previously thought to be separate clouds along the same line-of-sight, are physically connected in position–velocity space via a third southern component around 50 km s‑1. Further position–velocity analysis of the surrounding region, using lower-resolution survey observations taken with the Mopra and ATCA telescopes, indicates that both molecular components in M0.20‑0.033 are physically connected to the M0.10‑0.08 molecular cloud, which is suggested to be located on stream 1 in the Kruijssen et al. orbital model. The morphology and kinematics of the molecular gas in M0.20‑0.033 indicate that the two velocity components in M0.20‑0.033 constitute an expanding shell. Our observations suggest that the M0.20‑0.033 expanding shell has an expansion velocity of 40 km s‑1, with a systemic velocity of 53 km s‑1, comparable to velocities detected in M0.10‑0.08. The origin of the expanding shell is located near the Quintuplet cluster, suggesting that the energy and momentum output from this massive stellar cluster may have contributed to the expansion.

  19. Evaluation of neutron cross sections for 244Cm, 246Cm, and 248Cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, R.W.; McCrosson, F.J.; Gettys, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of neutron cross sections for 244 246 248 Cm using the ENDF/B format is presented. Primary data input included differential measurements, integral measurements, nuclear model calculations, and reactor production experience

  20. Evaluation of neutron cross sections for /sup 244/Cm, /sup 246/Cm, and /sup 248/Cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, R.W.; McCrosson, F.J.; Gettys, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of neutron cross sections for /sup 244/ /sup 246/ /sup 248/Cm using the ENDF/B format is presented. Primary data input included differential measurements, integral measurements, nuclear model calculations, and reactor production experience. (SDF)

  1. 344 cm x 86 cm low mass vacuum window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimers, R.M.; Porter, J.; Meneghetti, J.; Wilde, S.; Miller, R.

    1983-08-01

    The LBL Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) superconducting magnet contains a 1 m x 3.45 m x 2 m vacuum tank in its gap. A full aperture thin window was needed to minimize background as the products of nuclear collisions move from upstream targets to downstream detectors. Six windows were built and tested in the development process. The final window's unsupported area is 3m 2 with a 25 cm inward deflection. The design consists of a .11 mm Nylon/aluminum/polypropylene laminate as a gas seal and .55 mm woven aramid fiber for strength. Total mass is 80 milligrams per cm 2 . Development depended heavily on past experience and testing. Safety considerations are discussed

  2. 5cm aperture dipole studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInturff, A.D.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Fisk, H.E.; Hanft, R.; Kuchnir, M.; Lundy, R.; Mantech, P.; Strait, J.

    1986-01-01

    The results obtained during the evolution of the design, construction, and testing program of the design ''B'' dipole are presented here. Design ''B'' is one of the original three competing designs for the Superconducting Super Collider ''SSC'' arc dipoles. The final design parameters were as follows: air cored (less than a few percent of the magnetic field derived from any iron present), aluminum collared, two layered winding, 5.5T maximum operating field, and a 5 cm cold aperture. There have been fourteen 64 cm long 5 cm aperture model dipoles cold tested (at 4.3K and less) in this program so far. There was a half length full size (6m) mechanical analog (M-10) built and tested to check the cryostat's mechanical design under ramping and quench conditions. Several deviations from the ''Tevatron'' dipole fabrication technique were incorporated, for example the use of aluminum collars instead of stainless steel. The winding technique variations explored were ''dry welding,'' a technique with the cable covered with Kapton insulation only and ''wet winding'' where the Kapton was covered with a light coat of ''B'' stage epoxy. Test data include quench currents, field quality (Fourier multipole co-efficients), coil magnetization, conductor current performance, and coil loading. Quench current, loss per cycle, and harmonics were measured as a function of the magnitude and rate of change of the magnetic field, and helium bath temperature

  3. Antiferromagnetic order in Li(Ni1-xFex)PO4 (x = 0.06, 0.20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Anne S.; Sondermann, Elke; Li, Jiying; Vaknin, David; Fiebig, Manfred

    2013-07-01

    The investigation of Li(Ni1-xFex)PO4 by optical second harmonic generation yields the competition of the antiferromagnetic (AFM) structures and 180∘ domain patterns found in the end compounds LiNiPO4 (point group mm'm, spins along z) and LiFePO4 (point group mmm', spins along y). While the AFM order and the distribution of the AFM domains of LiNiPO4 are unaffected by the ion substitution at x=0.06, striking changes are observed at x=0.20. Fe2+ is dominant in establishing the magnetic order. For x=0.20 the magnetic order of the solid solution interpolates the magnetic order of its end compounds by exhibiting an orientation of the spins in the (100) plane which include an angle of 40∘±3∘ with respect to the y axis toward 0 K (point group m). The associated AFM domains form rods of a few millimeters length and ˜10 μm width occurring in neither of the end compounds. Mechanisms responsible for the magnetic order and domain pattern (180∘ domains still being one of the least explored aspects of AFM materials in spite of their omnipresence) are discussed.

  4. Synthesis and thermoelectric properties of Sb{sub 0.20}CoSb{sub 2.80} skutterudite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueirêdo, C.A., E-mail: camila_fig@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, PGCIMAT, Instituto de Física, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gallas, M.R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, PGCIMAT, Instituto de Física, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Institute for Multiscale Simulations, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität, Nägelsbachstrasse 49b, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Zorzi, J.E. [Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Instituto de Materiais Cerâmicos, 95765-000 Bom Princípio, RS (Brazil); Perottoni, C.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, PGCIMAT, Instituto de Física, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Instituto de Materiais Cerâmicos, 95765-000 Bom Princípio, RS (Brazil)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • A HP-HT Sb{sub 0.20}CoSb{sub 2.80} phase was prepared by processing cobalt antimonide at 7.7 GPa and 550 °C, for (at least) 5 min. • The mechanism of formation of this phase involves (i) decomposition of cobalt antimonide into CoSb{sub 2} and Sb, and (ii) insertion of Sb into the remaining cobalt antimonide. • The mechanism of formation is qualitatively different from that responsible for the formation of the high pressure (greater than 20 GPa) phase. - Abstract: Polycrystalline samples of cobalt antimonide (CoSb{sub 2.79}) were submitted to different conditions of pressure, temperature and processing time, in a high-pressure toroidal-type chamber, aiming to maximize the production of the high pressure phase previously observed in experiments with a diamond anvil cell. Rietveld refinements of X-ray powder diffraction data were performed to determine the phase composition and structural parameters. The maximum yield, 89(2) wt.% of Sb{sub x}CoSb{sub 3−x} phase, was obtained at 7.7 GPa, 550 °C and (at least) 5 min of processing time. The mechanism behind the formation of Sb{sub x}CoSb{sub 3−x} at high pressure and high temperature is actually not the same as that previously inferred from experiments at higher pressures (20 GPa) and room temperature with the diamond anvil cell. Indeed, evidences suggest that, at high pressure and high temperature, Sb{sub x}CoSb{sub 3−x} is formed by insertion of Sb resulting from decomposition of cobalt antimonide. Thermal conductivity, Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity were estimated for CoSb{sub 2.79} and Sb{sub 0.20}CoSb{sub 2.80}. The thermoelectric figure of merit at room temperature for Sb{sub 0.20}CoSb{sub 2.80} resulted 33% greater than that for CoSb{sub 2.79}.

  5. D-, O- and OD- desorption induced by low-energy (0-20 eV) electron impact on amorphous D2O films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Xiaoning; Abdoul-Carime, Hassan; Cloutier, Pierre; Bass, Andrew D.; Sanche, Leon

    2005-01-01

    We report measurements of low-energy electron stimulated desorption of D - , O - and OD - anions from multilayer amorphous D 2 O films physisorbed on a Pt substrate. The 0-20 eV incident energy dependence (i.e., the yield function) of the desorbed D - yield reveals the presence of a strong peak located at 7.2 eV with a shoulder near 9 eV, which are due to dissociation of the transient states 2 B 1 and 2 A 1 of D 2 O, respectively. The O - and OD - yield functions each exhibit a single broad structure between 5 and 12 eV which also result from dissociative electron attachment (DEA). Due to the weakness of the O - and OD - signals, three possible processes involving DEA must be considered to explain their yield functions, i.e., direct DEA, reactive scattering and DEA to a new product in the film synthesized by the electron beam. It is concluded that at large electron doses (>7.5x10 14 electrons/cm 2 ), these broad peaks arise from DEA to a new product, whereas at lower dose the possibility of direct DEA (i.e., e - +D 2 O→D 2 O - →O - +D 2 and OD - +D) cannot be entirely discounted. Above 15 eV, all anion yield functions exhibit a monotonic rise due to direct dipolar dissociation

  6. Water-stable 0-20 μm microaggregates of cultivated topsoils as relevant indicators of soil functioning ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watteau, Françoise; Villemin, Geneviève; Blanchart, Eric; Bartoli, François

    2010-05-01

    Growing concern about sustainable soil management in agroecosystems, has given new impetus to research on soil quality indicators used to monitor the ability of ecosystems to either resist or degrade or recover from disturbances, i.e. land use change, climate warning, pollution, tillage... Integrating soil aggregation characteristics, and their dynamics, into agrosystem studies is very useful to understand how cultivated soils function and how their soil organic matter pools could be preserved or improved. The aim of the researches reported here was to test the hypothesis that the characterization of water-stable organo-mineral 2-20μm microaggregates - in terms of size, composition, typology and stability - would be relevant dynamic soil quality indicators of the impact of cropping practices. For this, two agrosystems were studied: (1) a temperate maize-cropped silt loam soil amended with sewage sludge and (2) a vertisol of south-eastern Martinique presenting a high sensitivity for erosion and used for intensive vegetable cropping. A quantitative and qualitative study of organo-mineral associations, combining granulometric soil fractionations and morphological/analytical characterizations at ultrastructural (TEM/EDX) scale was conducted. 0-20μm water-stable organo-mineral aggregates were involved in the structural stability of the maize-cropped soil and their organic matter was still recognizable, mainly of plant origin, but also of bacterial origin. Some impacts of the application of sewage sludge were the emergence of microaggregates containing residues of sludge flocs, which can be considered as specific indicators of sludge, and the transfer of Cu from sludge to endogenous soil organic matter within microaggregates. In the agricultural vertisol different types of water-stable 2-20μm microaggregates, were defined, based on the nature and the biodegradation state of the organic matter included in them. Their relative distributions varied as a function of land

  7. The Thermal Properties of CM Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, D. T.; Opeil, C.

    2017-12-01

    The physical properties of asteroid exploration targets are fundamental parameters for developing models, planning observations, mission operations, reducing operational risk, and interpreting mission results. Until we have returned samples, meteorites represent our "ground truth" for the geological material we expect to interact with, sample, and interpret on the surfaces of asteroids. The physical properties of the volatile-rich carbonaceous chondrites (CI, C2, CM, and CR groups) are of particular interest because of their high resource potential. We have measured the thermal conductivity, heat capacity and thermal expansion of five CM carbonaceous chondrites (Murchison, Murray, Cold Bokkeveld, NWA 7309, Jbilet Winselwan) at low temperatures (5-300 K) to mimic the conditions in the asteroid belt. The mineralogy of these meteorites are dominated by abundant hydrous phyllosilicates, but also contain anhydrous minerals such as olivine and pyroxene found in chondrules. The thermal expansion measurements for all these CMs indicate a substantial increase in meteorite volume as temperature decreases from 230 - 210 K followed by linear contraction below 210 K. Such transitions were unexpected and are not typical for anhydrous carbonaceous chondrites or ordinary chondrites. Our thermal diffusivity results compare well with previous estimates for similar meteorites, where conductivity was derived from diffusivity measurements and modeled heat capacities; our new values are of a higher precision and cover a wider range of temperatures.

  8. Measurement of the cosmic background radiation temperature at 6. 3 cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandolesi, N.; Calzolari, P.; Cortiglioni, S.; Morigi, G.

    1984-06-15

    We present results of a measurement of the cosmic background radiation temperature at a wavelength of 6.3 cm. We obtained the value T/sub CBR/ = 2.71 +- 0.20 K. This is in good agreement with, and has a smaller error than, any previous measurement at equal or longer wavelengths.

  9. Measurement of the cosmic background radiation temperature at 6.3 cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandolesi, N.; Calzolari, P.; Cortiglioni, S.; Morigi, G.

    1984-01-01

    We present results of a measurement of the cosmic background radiation temperature at a wavelength of 6.3 cm. We obtained the value T/sub CBR/ = 2.71 +- 0.20 K. This is in good agreement with, and has a smaller error than, any previous measurement at equal or longer wavelengths

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance of Ce(Co sub 1 sub - sub x Fe sub x) sub 4 B (0 <= x <= 0.20)

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshie, H; Honda, H; Takahashi, W; Amako, Y; Nagai, H; Wada, H; Shiga, M; Yoshimura, K

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance of sup 5 sup 9 Co nuclei in magnetic domains of Ce(Co sub 1 sub - sub x Fe sub x) sub 4 B (0 <= x <= 0.20) has been measured under external magnetic fields up to 5T at 4.2K. Spin reorientation was observed, which is a change in the magnetization direction from that parallel to the c-axis below Fe concentration x=0.1 to that perpendicular to the c axis above x=0.20. The sup 5 sup 9 Co hyperfine field at the 6i site in Ce(Co sub 1 sub - sub x Fe sub x) sub 4 B is divided into two above x=0.20 associated with the spin reorientation.

  11. UNIQUE 28 CM LONG VERMIFORM APPENDIX

    OpenAIRE

    Ravindra Kumar Boddeti; Roopa Kulkarni; Pradeep Kumar H Murudkar

    2013-01-01

    Vermiform appendix is a vestigial organ in human beings and situated at the ileocaecal junction. It opens into the caecum. It is a narrow tube of varying length. The normal, average length is about 5 cm to 10 cm. The longest vermiform appendix has been reported to be measuring about 25 cm. In the present case a long vermiform appendix was observed in female, formalin fixed, adult cadaver during the routine dissection for medical undergraduates. The Vermiform appendix was retrocaecal and exten...

  12. CM: Becoming a technology firm (teaching case)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Burg, J.C.; Reymen, I.M.M.J.; Dolmans, S.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Founded in 2000 as a Short Message Service (SMS) marketing company for discos (clubs), CM evolved into a technology provider for SMS services. By 2008, CM was market leader in The Netherlands, a position won by offering high quality services at low prices. In 2010, the founders of the company were

  13. An 18-cm unruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan M. Droz, MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is a significant source of morbidity and ranked by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as the 15th leading cause of death among adults aged 60 to 64 years. Size confers the largest risk factor for aneurysm rupture, with aneurysms >6 cm having an annual rupture risk of 14.1%. We present the case of a 60-year-old man found on ultrasound imaging at a health fair screening to have a 15-cm AAA. Follow-up computed tomography angiography revealed an 18-cm × 10-cm unruptured, infrarenal, fusiform AAA. Giant AAAs, defined as >11 cm, are rarely described in the literature. Our patient underwent successful transperitoneal AAA repair with inferior mesenteric artery reimplantation and was discharged home on operative day 6. We believe this case represents one of the largest unruptured AAAs in the literature and demonstrates the feasible approach for successful repair.

  14. Vertical Bridgman growth and characterization of Cd0.95-xMnxZn0.05Te (x=0.20, 0.30) single-crystal ingots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotnikov, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kopach, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kopach, O. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Shcherbak, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fochuk, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Filonenko, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); James, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Solid-liquid phase transitions in Cd0.95-xMnxZn0.05Te alloys with x = 0.20 and 0.30 were investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA). The heating/cooling rates were 5 and 10 K/min with a melt dwell time of 10, 30 and 60 minutes. Cd0.95-xMnxZn0.05Te (x=0.20, 0.30) single-crystal ingots were grown by the vertical Bridgman method guided using the DTA results. Te inclusions (1-20 microns), typical for CdTe and Cd(Zn)Te crystals, were observed in the ingots by infrared transmission microscopy. The measured X-ray diffraction patterns showed that all compositions are found to be in a single phase. Using current-voltage (I-V) measurements, the resistivity of the samples from each ingot was estimated to be about 105 Ohm·cm. The optical transmission analysis demonstrated that the band-gap width of the investigated ingots increased from 1.77 to 1.88 eV with the increase of the MnTe content from 20 to 30 mol. %.

  15. Capture mechanism of holes by radiation defects with Esub(c) - 0.20 eV level in Sb-doped Ge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasik, M.I.; Tkachev, V.D.; Yavid, V.U.; Yanchenko, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    The photomagnetoelectric voltage (Vsub(PME)) is investigated in dependence on pressure (p) in irradiated n-type Ge at 90 K when the lifetime of excess holes was determined by the recombination coefficient of defects with the Esub(c) = -0.20 eV level only. It is shown that Vsub(PME)(p) variations are essentially determined by both the applied pressure and its direction. The pressure dependences of Vsub(PME) are determined by both γsub(p)(p) variations (γsub(p) = recombination coefficient of holes) and majority and minority carrier mobilities and the conductivity changes. Changes of energy level position Esub(c) = -0.20 eV with pressure (10 8 to 4x10 8 Pa) have been studied using Hall effect measurements

  16. CM Net heterogeneous local network of microcomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutche, R.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Realization of the CM Net heterogeneous local network for the PDP-11 type computers with the RT-11 operational system control is described. The main advantage of the network is the realization of virtual disks in general form including a system unit. the network can be used everywhere, where the problem on computer connection by simple interfaces is stated. 6 refs

  17. The Multidimensional Curriculum Model (MdCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidergor, Hava E.

    2010-01-01

    The multidimensional Curriculum Model (MdCM) helps teachers to better prepare gifted and able students for our changing world, acquiring much needed skills. It is influenced by general learning theory of constructivism, notions of preparing students for 21st century, Teaching the Future Model, and current comprehensive curriculum models for…

  18. Decrease in Sphingomyelin (d18:1/16:0 in Stem Villi and Phosphatidylcholine (16:0/20:4 in Terminal Villi of Human Term Placentas with Pathohistological Maternal Malperfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Yamazaki

    Full Text Available Placental villi play pivotal roles in feto-maternal transportation and phospholipids constitute a major part of the villous membrane. We have been developing and optimizing an imaging system based on a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI-based mass spectrometer, which provides clear two-dimensional molecular distribution patterns using highly sensitive mass spectrometry from mixtures of ions generated on tissue surfaces. We recently applied this technology to normal human uncomplicated term placentas and detected the specific distribution of sphingomyelin (SM (d18:1/16:0 in stem villi and phosphatidylcholine (PC (16:0/20:4 in terminal villi. In the present study, we applied this technology to nine placentas with maternal or fetal complications, and determined whether a relationship existed between these specific distribution patterns of phospholipid molecules and the six representative pathological findings of placentas, i.e., villitis of unknown etiology (VUE, thrombus, atherosis, chorioamnionitis (CAM, immature terminal villi, and multiple branched terminal villi. In two placentas with the first and second largest total number of positive pathological findings, i.e., five and three positive findings, the specific distribution of SM (d18:1/16:0 in stem villi and PC (16:0/20:4 in terminal villi disappeared. The common pathological findings in these two placentas were atherosis, immature terminal villi, and multiple branched terminal villi, suggesting the possible involvement of the underperfusion of maternal blood into the intervillous space. On the other hand, the number of pathological findings were two or less in the seven other placentas, in which no specific relationships were observed between the differential expression patterns of these two phospholipids in stem and terminal villi and the pathological findings of the placentas; however, the specific distribution pattern of SM (d18:1/16:0 in stem villi disappeared in four

  19. Mild hydrothermal synthesis, crystal structure, thermal behaviour, spectroscopic and magnetic properties of (NH4)0.80Li0.20[Fe(AsO4)F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrocal, Teresa; Mesa, Jose L.; Larrea, Edurne S.; Bazan, Begona; Pizarro, Jose L.; Lezama, Luis; Rojo, Teofilo; Arriortua, Maria I.

    2011-01-01

    The (NH 4 ) 0.80 Li 0.20 [Fe(AsO 4 )F] compound has been synthesized under mild hydrothermal conditions. The compound crystallize in the orthorhombic Pna2 1 space group, with cell parameters a=13.352(9), b=6.7049(9), c=10.943(2) A and Z=8. The compound belongs to the KTiO(PO 4 ) structure type, with chains alternating FeO 4 F 2 octahedra and AsO 4 tetrahedra, respectively, running along the 'a' and 'b' crystallographic axes. The diffuse reflectance spectrum in the visible region shows the forbidden electronic transitions characteristic of the Fe(III) d 5 -high spin cation in slightly distorted octahedral geometry. The Moessbauer spectrum at room temperature is characteristic of iron (III) cations. The ESR spectra, carried out from room temperature to 200 K, remain isotropic with variation in temperature; the g-value being 1.99(1). Magnetic measurements indicate the predominance of strong antiferromagnetic interactions. - Graphical Abstract: Three-dimensional structure of (NH 4 ) 0.80 Li 0.20 [Fe(AsO 4 )F], a fluoroarsenate containing lithium and ammonium in the structural cavities. Highlights: → (NH 4 ) 0.80 Li 0.20 [Fe(AsO 4 )F] has been synthesized by mild hydrothermal technique. → The compound exhibits a three-dimensional structure. → Moessbauer spectrum indicates the existence of Fe(III) cations. → Visible spectroscopy confirms the hexacoordination of Fe(III). → Magnetic measurements indicate the existence of a global antiferromagnetic ordering.

  20. Room-temperature synthesis of Zn(0.80)Cd(0.20)S solid solution with a high visible-light photocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Hong; Wang, Lei; Xu, An-Wu

    2012-03-21

    Visible light photocatalytic H(2) production from water splitting is of great significance for its potential applications in converting solar energy into chemical energy. In this study, a series of Zn(1-x)Cd(x)S solid solutions with a nanoporous structure were successfully synthesized via a facile template-free method at room temperature. The obtained solid solutions were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and N(2) adsorption-desorption analysis. The solid solutions show efficient photocatalytic activity for H(2) evolution from aqueous solutions containing sacrificial reagents S(2-) and SO(3)(2-) under visible-light irradiation without a Pt cocatalyst, and loading of the Pt cocatalyst further improves the visible-light photocatalytic activity. The optimal photocatalyst with x = 0.20 prepared at pH = 7.3 displays the highest activity for H(2) evolution. The bare and 0.25 wt% Pt loaded Zn(0.80)Cd(0.20)S nanoparticles exhibit a high H(2) evolution rate of 193 μmol h(-1) and 458 μmol h(-1) under visible-light irradiation (λ ≥ 420 nm), respectively. In addition, the bare and 0.25 wt% Pt loaded Zn(0.80)Cd(0.20)S catalysts show a high H(2) evolution rate of 252 and 640 μmol h(-1) under simulated solar light irradiation, respectively. Moreover, the Zn(0.80)Cd(0.20)S catalyst displays a high photocatalytic stability for H(2) evolution under long-term light irradiation. The incorporation of Cd in the solid solution leads to the visible light absorption, and the high content of Zn in the solid solution results in a relatively negative conduction band, a modulated band gap and a rather wide valence bandwidth, which are responsible for the excellent photocatalytic performance of H(2) production and for the high photostability

  1. Interpreting Sky-Averaged 21-cm Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirocha, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Within the first ~billion years after the Big Bang, the intergalactic medium (IGM) underwent a remarkable transformation, from a uniform sea of cold neutral hydrogen gas to a fully ionized, metal-enriched plasma. Three milestones during this epoch of reionization -- the emergence of the first stars, black holes (BHs), and full-fledged galaxies -- are expected to manifest themselves as extrema in sky-averaged ("global") measurements of the redshifted 21-cm background. However, interpreting these measurements will be complicated by the presence of strong foregrounds and non-trivialities in the radiative transfer (RT) modeling required to make robust predictions.I have developed numerical models that efficiently solve the frequency-dependent radiative transfer equation, which has led to two advances in studies of the global 21-cm signal. First, frequency-dependent solutions facilitate studies of how the global 21-cm signal may be used to constrain the detailed spectral properties of the first stars, BHs, and galaxies, rather than just the timing of their formation. And second, the speed of these calculations allows one to search vast expanses of a currently unconstrained parameter space, while simultaneously characterizing the degeneracies between parameters of interest. I find principally that (1) physical properties of the IGM, such as its temperature and ionization state, can be constrained robustly from observations of the global 21-cm signal without invoking models for the astrophysical sources themselves, (2) translating IGM properties to galaxy properties is challenging, in large part due to frequency-dependent effects. For instance, evolution in the characteristic spectrum of accreting BHs can modify the 21-cm absorption signal at levels accessible to first generation instruments, but could easily be confused with evolution in the X-ray luminosity star-formation rate relation. Finally, (3) the independent constraints most likely to aide in the interpretation

  2. The Tianlai 21cm intensity mapping experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuelei

    2015-08-01

    The Tianlai 21cm intensity mapping experiment is aimed at surveying the northern sky 21cm intensity at mid-redshifts, thus map out the neutral hydrogen distribution. The experiment is named "Tianlai" which means "heavenly sound" in classic Chinese, because its ultimate goal is to use the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature in the correlation function or power spectrum of large scale structure to constrain the cosmic expansion rate, and determine the nature of dark energy.The pathfinder experiment consists three cylinder reflectors of 15m wide x 40m long, and 16 dishes of 6 meter aperture, for testing the basic principle and key technologies. A radio-quiet site in Hongliuxia, Xinjiang of north-west China is selected, currently the facilities are under construction, and the prototype is expected to start commissioning later this year. The experiment is run by NAOC, with members from France, USA and Canada.

  3. 21-cm Fluctuations from Charged Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, Julian B.; Dvorkin, Cora; Loeb, Abraham

    2018-01-01

    The epoch of the formation of the first stars, known as the cosmic dawn, has emerged as a new arena in the search for dark matter. In particular, the first claimed 21-cm detection exhibits a deeper global absorption feature than expected, which could be caused by a low baryonic temperature. This has been interpreted as a sign for electromagnetic interactions between baryons and dark matter. However, in order to remain consistent with the rest of cosmological observations, only part of the dar...

  4. Height of South Asian children in the Netherlands aged 0-20 years: secular trends and comparisons with current Asian Indian, Dutch and WHO references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wilde, Jeroen A; van Dommelen, Paula; van Buuren, Stef; Middelkoop, Barend J C

    2015-01-01

    People from Asian populations are generally shorter than other ethnic groups. It is unknown if current universal height references are suitable for affluent South Asian children in the Netherlands. To develop height-for-age charts for contemporary South Asian children aged 0-20 years living in the Netherlands, to evaluate secular trends, and to compare the charts with current Asian Indian, Dutch and WHO references. A population-based study measured 3315 South Asian children aged 0-20 years between 2007-2010. Among this cohort, 6876 measurements were taken. Another 7388 measurements were taken of a historical cohort of 1078 children born between 1974-1976 (aged 0-18 years). An upward trend in height was observed for South Asian children living in the Netherlands between 1992-2010. The height-for-age charts of the South Asian historical cohort were similar to current Asian Indian charts. South Asian children in the Netherlands were shorter than their Dutch contemporaries at every age; and these differences increased further during adolescence. Compared to the WHO height-for-age references, there were considerable discrepancies in height, with curves intersecting twice. The discrepancies between the South Asian and Dutch and WHO height-for-age references indicate differences in growth patterns between the source populations.

  5. Destruction of Kondo coherence in heavy fermion system Eu(Ni1-xCux)2P2 (0.00 ≤ x ≤ 0.20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Rajesh; Geibel, C.; Hossain, Z.

    2017-05-01

    Polycrystalline samples of Eu(Ni1-xCux)2P2 (x = 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20) were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrical resistivity ρ(T) and magnetic susceptibility χ(T) measurements. XRD and SEM results confirm essentially single phase nature of the samples. The substitution of Ni by Cu atoms leads to dramatic change in the behavior of ρ(T) of EuNi2P2 where Kondo coherence is destroyed even for x = 0.05. A minima in the ρ(T) has been observed for all doping concentrations. This behavior has been discussed in terms of Kondo effect.

  6. Structural analysis of sputtered (W-C)1-xMx (M≡Fe,Co) films with 0≤x≤0.20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaleiro, A.; Trindade, B.; Vieira, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    Structural characterization of (W-C) 1-x M x (M≡Fe,Co) films with 0≤x≤0.20 was carried out using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy-electron diffraction (TEM-ED). The results showed that the structure of these films depends on the percentage of iron and cobalt and becomes amorphous with increasing content of these elements. The microstructure of the crystalline coatings was found to be composed of small grains of β-WC 1-x with a high number of defects. A strong β-WC 1-x [311] texture was observed for iron and cobalt contents around 5.5 at.%. The films richer in iron and cobalt showed typical amorphous XRD and ED patterns, exhibiting two broad peaks and two wide diffuse rings respectively. Moreover, bright-field analysis revealed fairly contrasted images, the structure of these films being difficult to resolve. (orig.)

  7. New Cu(III) perovskites: La1-xYxCuO3(O≤X≤0.20) prepared under oxygen pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darracq, S.; Demazeau, G.; Tresse, F.; Largeteau, A.; Mueller, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    New perovskites La 1-x Y x CuO 3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.20) with trivalent copper have been prepared from La 1-x Y x CuO 2 oxide as starting materials under high oxygen pressure conditions [70 kbar (7 GPa), 1300 deg C] using ''in situ'' the thermal decomposition of KC1O 3 in a belt-type reaction-cell. All stoichiometric oxides are characterized by a rhombohedral distortion of the perovskite structure. The oxygen stoichiometry is very sensitive to the preparation conditions, in particular the structure of the reaction cell. Electric and magnetic properties underline a slight increase of the electronic localization versus x in agreement with the small variation of the structural distortion. (authors). 19 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  8. BMI-for-age in South Asian children of 0-20 years in the Netherlands: secular changes and misclassification by WHO growth references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wilde, J A; Dekker, M; Middelkoop, B J C

    2018-03-01

    South Asians are prone to cardiometabolic disease at lower BMI levels than most other ethnic groups, starting in childhood. The magnitude of BMI misclassifications is unknown. To compare the BMI distribution of contemporary South Asian 0-20 year olds in the Netherlands with: (1) The South Asian norm reference (secular trends); and (2) The WHO child growth standard and reference. The BMI-for-age distribution of 6677 routine measurements of 3322 South Asian children, aged 0-20 years, was described with the LMS method and BMI z-scores. The BMI distribution in South Asian 0-4 year olds was almost similar to the norm reference (mean BMI z-score = 0.11, skewness = 0.31, SD = 1.0), whereas in 5-19 year olds the distribution had shifted upwards (mean = 0.53) and widened (skewness = -0.12, SD = 1.08). Overweight (incl. obesity) and obesity peaked at 8-10 years, at 45-48% and 35-37%, respectively. Relative to the WHO references, the BMI distribution was left-shifted at ages 0-4 years (mean BMI z-score = -0.46, skewness = 0.23, SD = 0.98) and widened at ages 5-20 years (mean = 0.05; skewness = -0.02, SD = 1.40). At most ages, thinness rates were significantly higher and obesity rates lower than based on South Asian norms. A secular change of BMI-for-age in South Asian children mostly affected children >4 years. WHO references likely under-estimate overweight and obesity rates in South Asian children.

  9. The BRIDGE HadCM3 family of climate models: HadCM3@Bristol v1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Paul J.; Armstrong, Edward; Badger, Marcus P. S.; Bradshaw, Catherine D.; Bragg, Fran; Crucifix, Michel; Davies-Barnard, Taraka; Day, Jonathan J.; Farnsworth, Alex; Gordon, Chris; Hopcroft, Peter O.; Kennedy, Alan T.; Lord, Natalie S.; Lunt, Dan J.; Marzocchi, Alice; Parry, Louise M.; Pope, Vicky; Roberts, William H. G.; Stone, Emma J.; Tourte, Gregory J. L.; Williams, Jonny H. T.

    2017-10-01

    Understanding natural and anthropogenic climate change processes involves using computational models that represent the main components of the Earth system: the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land surface. These models have become increasingly computationally expensive as resolution is increased and more complex process representations are included. However, to gain robust insight into how climate may respond to a given forcing, and to meaningfully quantify the associated uncertainty, it is often required to use either or both ensemble approaches and very long integrations. For this reason, more computationally efficient models can be very valuable tools. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of the suite of climate models based around the HadCM3 coupled general circulation model. This model was developed at the UK Met Office and has been heavily used during the last 15 years for a range of future (and past) climate change studies, but has now been largely superseded for many scientific studies by more recently developed models. However, it continues to be extensively used by various institutions, including the BRIDGE (Bristol Research Initiative for the Dynamic Global Environment) research group at the University of Bristol, who have made modest adaptations to the base HadCM3 model over time. These adaptations mean that the original documentation is not entirely representative, and several other relatively undocumented configurations are in use. We therefore describe the key features of a number of configurations of the HadCM3 climate model family, which together make up HadCM3@Bristol version 1.0. In order to differentiate variants that have undergone development at BRIDGE, we have introduced the letter B into the model nomenclature. We include descriptions of the atmosphere-only model (HadAM3B), the coupled model with a low-resolution ocean (HadCM3BL), the high-resolution atmosphere-only model (HadAM3BH), and the regional model (HadRM3B). These also include

  10. Redundant Array Configurations for 21 cm Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Joshua S.; Parsons, Aaron R.

    2016-08-01

    Realizing the potential of 21 cm tomography to statistically probe the intergalactic medium before and during the Epoch of Reionization requires large telescopes and precise control of systematics. Next-generation telescopes are now being designed and built to meet these challenges, drawing lessons from first-generation experiments that showed the benefits of densely packed, highly redundant arrays—in which the same mode on the sky is sampled by many antenna pairs—for achieving high sensitivity, precise calibration, and robust foreground mitigation. In this work, we focus on the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) as an interferometer with a dense, redundant core designed following these lessons to be optimized for 21 cm cosmology. We show how modestly supplementing or modifying a compact design like HERA’s can still deliver high sensitivity while enhancing strategies for calibration and foreground mitigation. In particular, we compare the imaging capability of several array configurations, both instantaneously (to address instrumental and ionospheric effects) and with rotation synthesis (for foreground removal). We also examine the effects that configuration has on calibratability using instantaneous redundancy. We find that improved imaging with sub-aperture sampling via “off-grid” antennas and increased angular resolution via far-flung “outrigger” antennas is possible with a redundantly calibratable array configuration.

  11. REDUNDANT ARRAY CONFIGURATIONS FOR 21 cm COSMOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Joshua S.; Parsons, Aaron R., E-mail: jsdillon@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Realizing the potential of 21 cm tomography to statistically probe the intergalactic medium before and during the Epoch of Reionization requires large telescopes and precise control of systematics. Next-generation telescopes are now being designed and built to meet these challenges, drawing lessons from first-generation experiments that showed the benefits of densely packed, highly redundant arrays—in which the same mode on the sky is sampled by many antenna pairs—for achieving high sensitivity, precise calibration, and robust foreground mitigation. In this work, we focus on the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) as an interferometer with a dense, redundant core designed following these lessons to be optimized for 21 cm cosmology. We show how modestly supplementing or modifying a compact design like HERA’s can still deliver high sensitivity while enhancing strategies for calibration and foreground mitigation. In particular, we compare the imaging capability of several array configurations, both instantaneously (to address instrumental and ionospheric effects) and with rotation synthesis (for foreground removal). We also examine the effects that configuration has on calibratability using instantaneous redundancy. We find that improved imaging with sub-aperture sampling via “off-grid” antennas and increased angular resolution via far-flung “outrigger” antennas is possible with a redundantly calibratable array configuration.

  12. Investigations on Important Properties of the 10 cm x 10 cm GEM Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak; Kulasri, Kittipong; Ritthirong, Anawat

    2015-01-01

    The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector is one of promising particle and radiation detectors that has been improved greatly from previous gas detectors. The improvement includes better spatial resolutions, higher detection rate capabilities, and flexibilities in designs. In particular, the 10 cm x 10 cm GEM prototype is designed and provided by the Gas Detectors Development group (GDD) at CERN, Switzerland. With its simplicity in operations and designs, while still maintaining high qualities, the GEM prototype is suitable for both start-up and advanced researches. This article aims to report the investigations on some important properties of the 10 cm x 10 cm GEM detector using current measurement and signal counting. Results have shown that gains of the GEM prototype exponentially increase as voltage supplied to the detector increases, while the detector reaches full efficiency (plateau region) when the voltage is greater than 4100 V. In terms of signal sharing between X and Y strips of the readout, X str...

  13. IR aperture measurement at β*=40 cm

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Hermes, Pascal Dominik; Kwee-Hinzmann, Regina; Mereghetti, Alessio; Mirarchi, Daniele; Redaelli, Stefano; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Valentino, Gianluca; Valloni, Alessandra; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    This note summarizes MD 307, performed on August 27 2015, during which we measured with beam the global apertures at 6.5 TeV with IR1 and IR5 squeezed to β* =40 cm and a half crossing angle of 205 rad. The measurement technique involved opening collimators in steps, while inducing beam losses at each step, until the main loss location moved from the collimators to the global bottleneck in one of the triplets. Measurements were performed in both beams and planes, and each measurement gave the minimum triplet aperture over IR1 and IR5. The results are in very good agreement with theoretical predictions. At the end of the MD, an asynchronous beam dump test was performed with all collimators moved in to so-called 2-σ retraction settings. This MD is one in a series meant to address various open points for the reach in β* in Run II.

  14. GMRT and VLA Observations at 49 cm and 20 cm of the HII Region ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007-03-08

    Mar 8, 2007 ... GMRT and VLA Observations at 49 cm and 20 cm of the HII Region near l = 24.8. ◦ l = 24.8. ◦ l = 24.8. ◦. , b = 0.1. ◦ b = 0.1. ◦ b = 0.1. ◦. N. G. Kantharia. 1. , W. M. Goss. 2. , D. Anish Roshi. 3. , Niruj R. Mohan. 4. &. Francois Viallefond. 5. 1National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental ...

  15. Validation of an ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM map to AIS 2005 Update 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glerum, Kimberly M; Zonfrillo, Mark R

    2017-11-10

    Although the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) is the most widely used severity scoring system for traumatic injuries, hospitals are required to document and bill based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). An expert panel recently developed a map between ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM to AIS 2005 Update 2008. This study aimed to validate the recently developed map using a large trauma registry. The map demonstrated moderate to substantial agreement for maximum AIS (MAIS) scores per body region based on expert chart review versus map-derived values (range: 44%-86%). Injury Severity Scores (ISSs) calculated from expert coders versus map-derived values were also compared and demonstrated moderate agreement (ICD-9-CM: 48%, ICD-10-CM: 54%). Although not a perfect conversion tool, the new ICD-AIS map provides a systematic method to assign injury severity for datasets with only ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM codes available and can be used for future injury-related research and data analysis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Decreased level of phosphatidylcholine (16:0/20:4) in multiple myeloma cells compared to plasma cells: a single-cell MALDI-IMS approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, Md Amir; Nagata, Yasuyuki; Waki, Michihiko; Ide, Yoshimi; Takei, Shiro; Fukano, Hana; Romero-Perez, Gustavo A; Tajima, Shogo; Yao, Ikuko; Ohnishi, Kazunori; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2015-07-01

    Lipid metabolic changes under diseased conditions, particularly in solid tumors, are attracting increased attention. However, in non-solid tumors, including most hematopoietic tumors, lipid analyses are scarce. Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell disorder arising from bone marrow, and the lipid status of MM cells has not been reported yet. In this study, we analyzed flow cytometry-sorted single MM cells and normal plasma cells (NPCs) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS), a two-dimensional label-free mass spectrometry technique for biomolecular analysis, to obtain specific lipid information. We isolated 1.31-5.77% of MM cells and 0.03-0.24% of NPCs using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Analysis of purified cells using MALDI-IMS at the single-cell level revealed that the peak intensity and ion signals of phosphatidylcholine [PC (16:0/20:4) + H](+) at m/z 782.5 were significantly decreased in MM cells compared to NPCs. By examining particular cell populations rather than cell mixtures, our method can become a suitable tool for the analysis of rare cell populations at the single-cell level and advance the understanding of MM progression.

  17. Solubility of tritium in Pd1-YAgY alloys (Y = 0.00, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasser, R.; Powell, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    Solubility measurements of tritium (T) in Pd 1-Y Ag Y alloys (Y = 0.00, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30) are reported in the temperature range of 250 K to 733 K, the pressure range below 3 bar, and the concentration range of 0.001 to 0.64 hydrogen to metal atom ratio. To study isotopic effects, the pressure-concentration-temperature relationships of the hydrogen isotopes protium (H) and deuterium (D) have been measured using the same samples and experimental setup and to temperatures as high as 1500 K using a different set up and samples. The experimental data are compared with values for H and D determined by other groups. In the case of T, most of the data presented have not been determined before. From these data the Sieverts' constants were calculated which show a strong temperature and isotope dependence. Analytical expressions, based on models that assume various degrees to which the hydrogen can perceive the alloy composition of individual sites in an alloy, are given for the Sieverts' constants that allow the calculation of the standard Gibbs free energies, enthalpies and entropies of H, D and T in these alloys

  18. RegCM4: model description and preliminary tests over multiple CORDEX domains F

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgi, Filippo et al; Coppola, E.; Solmon, F.; Mariotti, L.; Sylla, M. B.; Bi, X.; Elguindi, N.; Diro, G. T.; Nair, V.; Giuliani, G.; Turuncoglu, U. U.; Cozzini, S.; Güttler, I.; O’Brien, T. A.; Tawfik, A. B.

    2012-01-01

    A new version of the RegCM regional climate modeling system, RegCM4, has been recently developed and made available for public use. Compared to previous versions, RegCM4 includes new land surface, planetary boundary layer, and air–sea flux schemes, a mixed convection and tropical band configuration, modifications to the pre-existing radiative transfer and boundary layer schemes, and a full upgrade of the model code towards improved flexibility, portability, and user friendliness. The model...

  19. ICD-10-CM/PCS: Transferring Knowledge from ICD-9-CM

    OpenAIRE

    Sand, Jaime N.; Elison-Bowers, Patt

    2013-01-01

    The transition to ICD-10-CM/PCS has expanded educational opportunities for educators and trainers who are taking on the responsibility of training coders on the new system. Coding education currently faces multiple challenges in the areas of how to train the new workforce, what might be the most efficient method of providing that training, how much retraining of the current workforce with ICD-9-CM training will be required, and how to meet the national implementation deadline of 2014 in the m...

  20. Determination of Am-241, Cm-242 and Cm-244 in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afsar, M.; Schuettelkopf, H.

    1988-01-01

    An analytical procedure for the determination of Am and Cm in environmental, liquid and gaseous effluent samples was developed. It is based on extraction chromatography with subsequent anion and cation exchange to remove matrix elements and to purify Am and Cm, which are then electrode posited from an oxalate/HCl medium. The mean value of the chemical yield is about 90%. A detection limit of 7 μBq/g is achieved. The decontamination factors for important α emitters are > 10 4 . Four analyses/week can be performed by one technician. (orig./RB) [de

  1. ARECIBO/NRAO MOON RTLS/GBT 4/5 70CM V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radar backscatter power from the lunar surface was collected at a wavelength of 70 cm, using the 305 m Radio Telescope at Arecibo to transmit and the NRAO's 105 m...

  2. Field-induced strain and polarization response in lead-free Bi1/2(Na0.80K0.20)1/2TiO3–SrZrO3 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Ali; Rahman, Jamil Ur; Zaman, Arif; Malik, Rizwan Ahmed; Kim, Jin Soo; Song, Tae Kwon; Kim, Won Jeong; Kim, Myong Ho

    2014-01-01

    The structure, field-induced strain, polarization and dielectric response of lead-free SrZrO 3 -modified Bi 1/2 (Na 0.80 K 0.20 ) 1/2 TiO 3 (abbreviated as BNKT–SZ100x, with x = 0–0.05) ceramics were investigated. The X-ray diffraction analysis of BNKT–SZ100x ceramics reveals no remarkable change in the crystal structure within the studied composition range. Around critical composition (x = 0.03) at a driving field of 6 kV mm −1 , large unipolar strain of 0.37% (S max /E max = 617) was obtained at room temperature. The ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of BNKT ceramics were significantly increased at 2 mol%. At x = 0.02, remnant polarization reached a maximum value of 34 μC cm −2 , while the piezoelectric constant (d 33 ) attained maximum value of 190 pC/N. These results indicate that BNKT–SZ100x ceramics can be considered as promising candidate materials for lead-free piezoelectric actuator applications. - Highlights: • BNKT–SZ ceramics were synthesized by a conventional solid state reaction process. • Field-induced strain and piezoelectric constant were increased at critical composition. • BNKT–SZ100x ceramics at x = 0.03 exhibit a large field induced dynamic piezoelectric coefficient. • BNKT–SZ100x ceramics at x = 0.02 exhibit a high static piezoelectric constant. • The depolarization temperature of BNKT–SZ100x ceramics decrease with increase in SZ content

  3. Physical and microstructural characterization of La0,60Sr0,40Co0,20Fe0,80O3-δ and Ba0,50Sr0,50Co0,80Fe0,20O3-δ ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonturim, E.; Vargas, R.A.; Andreoli, M.; Chiba, R.; Seo, E.S.M.

    2012-01-01

    The La 0,60 Sr 0,40 Co 0,20 Fe 0,80 O 3-δ (LSCF) and Ba 0,50 Sr 0,50 Co 0,80 Fe 0,20 O 3-δ (BSCF) oxides are studied as cathodes in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell. The objective of this study is to characterize physically and microstructural these materials. The LSCF was synthesized by citrate technique and BSCF for citrates-EDTA, processed under the same conditions. The characterizations of ceramics were performed by X-ray diffraction, dilatometry, scanning electron microscopy and apparent density for Archimedes principle. According to the diffraction technique, confirmed the presence of single phases for LSCF to 800 deg C and BSCF to 900 deg C, with orthorhombic and cubic structures, respectively. For dilatometry were determined the sintering temperatures, near of 1050 deg C to BSCF and 1100 deg C to LSCF. The sintered micrographs at 1000, 1050 and 1100 deg C for 2 hours showed homogeneity microstructure, containing porosity and, attacked thermally, a homogeneous distribution of grains. Finally by bulk density, was estimated porosity between 20 and 30%. (author)

  4. The CM class number one problem for curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilicer, P.

    2016-01-01

    The main subject of this thesis is the CM class number one problem for curves of genus g, in the cases g=2 and g=3. The problem asks for which CM fields of degree 2g with a primitive CM type are the corresponding CM curves of genus g defined over the reflex field. Chapter 1 is an introduction to

  5. Influence of corrosive media on the mechanical resistance of the uranium-vanadium alloy containing 0.20% by weight. Hydrogen embrittlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnould-Laurent, Robert; Fidelle, J.-P.

    1976-10-01

    Tests were carried out on the alloy UV 0.2% in order to determine its limits of utilization. The alloy was shown to be sensitive to the following phenomena: intrinsic brittleness (FI) due to dissolved residual hydrogen from fabrication; cracking by stress corrosion (FCSC), possible in certain conditions owing to a passive but imperfect behavior of the metal surface (appearance of microcracks at the surface or corrosion pitting due to inadequate protection by the surface oxide layer); generalized stress accelerated corrosion (CGAC), of microscopic aspect similar to that observed for corrosion under H 2 gas. In practice these effects are obtained, singly or in combination, as follows: maintenance under dry argon - Fi; deformation tests to rupture in aqueous solutions (pH:2 to 14) or after exposure to a chlorinated solvent: FI + FCSC predominating. Below pH2 no stress corrosion; delayed fracture under damp air - at 80 deg and 100 deg C - FI + FCSC under high stresses, giving rise to short failure times (tr) - FI + CSC + CGAC with CGAC predominating under lower stresses, giving long failure times; at 20 and 60 deg C - FCSC + FI predominating. Under high stresses (leading to short failure times) the FCSC contribution increases with temperature [fr

  6. Growth and investigation of 0.80Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}–0.20K{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} lead-free single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anandha Babu, G., E-mail: anandcgc@gmail.com [Centre for Crystal Growth, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam 603 110 (India); Subramaniyan, Raja R. [Centre for Crystal Growth, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam 603 110 (India); Bhaumik, Indranil [Laser Materials Development and Devices Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India); Ganesamoorthy, S. [X-ray Scattering and Crystal Growth Section, Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Ramasamy, P. [Centre for Crystal Growth, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam 603 110 (India); Gupta, P.K. [Laser Materials Development and Devices Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Single crystals of 0.80Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}–0.20K{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} are grown by self flux method. • The lattice strain was calculated from Williamson–Hall relation. • Anomaly in dielectric measurements is observed. • The maximum dielectric constant is achieved ∼7200 at 200 kHz. - Abstract: 0.80Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}–0.20K{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} (80NBT–20KBT) lead-free piezoelectric single crystals have been successfully grown by the self flux method. Structure of the grown NKBT single crystals was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The grown crystal belongs to tetragonal system at room temperature. The lattice strain was calculated from Williamson–Hall relation. The temperature dependence of dielectric constant and loss measurement confirmed that the crystal exhibited relaxor-like behavior which is in consistence with the recent observation by Otanicar et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 113 (2013) 024106]. Polarization-electric field hysteresis loops revealed that the remnant polarization is 12.56 μC/cm{sup 2} and coercive electric field is 29.1 kV/cm.

  7. Coupling of Community Land Model with RegCM4 for Indian Summer Monsoon Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, R. K. S.; Sinha, P.; Mohanty, M. R.; Mohanty, U. C.

    2017-11-01

    Three land surface schemes available in the regional climate model RegCM4 have been examined to understand the coupling between land and atmosphere for simulation of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall. The RegCM4 is coupled with biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme (BATS) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Land Model versions 3.5, and 4.5 (CLM3.5 and CLM4.5, respectively) and model performance is evaluated for recent drought (2009) and normal (2011) monsoon years. The CLM4.5 has a more distinct category of surface and it is capable of representing better the land surface characteristics. National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and Department of Energy (DOE) reanalysis version 2 (NNRP2) datasets are considered as driving force to conduct the experiments for the Indian monsoon region (30°E-120°E; 30°S-50°N). The NNRP2 and India Meteorological Department (IMD) gridded precipitation data are used for verification analysis. The results indicate that RegCM4 simulations with CLM4.5 (RegCM4-CLM4.5) and CLM3.5 (RegCM4-CLM3.5) surface temperature (at 2 ms) have very low warm biases ( 1 °C), while with BATS (RegCM4-BATS) has a cold bias of about 1-3 °C in peninsular India and some parts of central India. Warm bias in the RegCM4-BATS is observed over the Indo-Gangetic plain and northwest India and the bias is more for the deficit year as compared to the normal year. However, the warm (cold) bias is less in RegCM4-CLM4.5 than other schemes for both the deficit and normal years. The model-simulated maximum (minimum) surface temperature and sensible heat flux at the surface are positively (negatively) biased in all the schemes; however, the bias is higher in RegCM4-BATS and lower in RegCM4-CLM4.5 over India. All the land surface schemes overestimated the precipitation in peninsular India and underestimated in central parts of India for both the years; however, the biases are less in RegCM4-CLM4.5 and more in RegCM4-CLM3.5 and RegCM

  8. Maribo—a new CM fall from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack, Henning; Grau, Thomas; Bischoff, Addi

    2012-01-01

    at the edge of the CM field, close to the CCAM line. The very low ¿17O and the presence of unaltered components suggest that Maribo is among the least altered CM chondrites. The bulk chemistry of Maribo is typical of CM chondrites. Trapped noble gases are similar in abundance and isotopic composition to other...

  9. The effect of the cytoplasmic tail of influenza C virus CM2 protein on its biochemical properties and intracellular processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimotai, Yoshitaka; Goto, Takanari; Matsuzaki, Yoko; Muraki, Yasushi; Sugawara, Kanetsu; Hongo, Seiji

    2015-09-01

    CM2 is an integral membrane protein encoded by the influenza C virus M gene. To examine the effects of the cytoplasmic tail of CM2 on its biochemical properties, deletion and substitution mutations were introduced into CM2 cytoplasmic tail at residues 47-115, and the expressed CM2 mutants were investigated. Although the cytoplasmic tail is not essential for the oligomerization of CM2, it may affect the degree of oligomerization. The residues 47-48, 67-69, 73-90 and 113-115 were all required for the proper expression of CM2. Pulse-chase experiments suggest that residues 47-48, 67-69, 73-75 and 79-87 stabilize CM2, thereby affecting CM2 expression. The C-terminal region at residues 61-115 is not essential for CM2 transport to the cell surface, and a 14-amino-acid, but not an 11-amino-acid, cytoplasmic tail is sufficient for the cell surface expression of CM2. These results suggest that either certain amino acid sequences or the length of the CM2 cytoplasmic tail are necessary for the proper conformational maturation, stability, expression level and intracellular transport of CM2.

  10. Microbiological study of the Murchison CM2 meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2012-10-01

    In 1864, Louis Pasteur attempted to cultivate living microorganisms from pristine samples of the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorite. His results were negative and never published, but recorded it in his laboratory notebooks. At that time, only aerobic liquid or agar-based organic reach media were used, as his research on anaerobes had just started. In our laboratory the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous meteorite was selected to expand on these studies for microbiological study by cultivation on anaerobic mineral media. Since the surface could have been more easily contaminated, interior fragments of a sample of the Murchison meteorite were extracted and crushed under sterile conditions. The resulting powder was then mixed in anoxic medium and injected into Hungate tubes containing anaerobic media with various growth substrates at different pH and salinity and incubated at different temperatures. The goal of the experiments was to determine if living cells would grow from the material of freshly fractured interior fragments of the stone. If any growth occurred, work could then be carried out to assess the nature of the environmental contamination by observations of the culture growth (rates of speed and biodiversity); live/dead fluorescent staining to determine contamination level and DNA analysis to establish the microbial species present. In this paper we report the results of that study.

  11. Effects of electron irradiation and temperature on 1 ohm-cm and 10 ohm-cm silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletta, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    One OHM-cm and 10 OHM-cm silicon solar cells were exposed to 1.0 MeV electrons at a fixed flux of 10 to the 11th power e/sq cm/sec and fluences of 10 to the 13th power, 10 to the 14th power and 10 to the 15th power e/sq.cm. 1-V curves of the cells were made at room temperature, - 63 C and + or - 143 C after each irradiation. A value of 139.5 mw/sq cm was used as AMO incident energy rate per unit area. The 10 OHM-cm cells appear more efficient than 1 OHM-cm cells after exposure to a fluence greater than 10 to the 14th power e/sq cm. The 1.0 MeV electron damage coefficients for both 1 OHM-cm and 10 OHM-cm cells are somewhat less than those for previously irradiated cells at room temperature. The values of the damage coefficients increase as the cell temperatures decrease. Efficiencies pertaining to maximum power output are about the same as those of n on p silicon cells evaluated previously.

  12. Effects of proton irradiation and temperature on 1 ohm-cm and 10 ohm-cm silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletta, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    The 1 ohm-cm and 10 ohm-cm silicon solar cells were exposed to 1.0 MeV protons at a fixed flux of 10 to the 9th power P/sq cm-sec and fluences of 10 to the 10th power, 10 to the 11th power, 10 to the 12th power and 3 X 10 to the 12th power P/sq cm. I-V curves of the cells were made at room temperature, 65 C and 165 C after each irradiation. A value of 139.5 mw/sq cm was taken as AMO incident energy rate per unit area. Degradation occurred for both uncovered 1 ohm-cm and 10 ohm-cm cells. Efficiencies are generally higher than those of comparable U.S. cells tested earlier. Damage (loss in maximum power efficiency) with proton fluence is somewhat higher for 10 ohm-cm cells, measured at the three temperatures, for fluences above 2 X 10 to the 11th power P/sq cm. Cell efficiency, as expected, changes drastically with temperature.

  13. 2-cm versus 4-cm surgical excision margins for primary cutaneous melanoma thicker than 2 mm: a randomised, multicentre trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillgren, Peter; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Niin, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Optimum surgical resection margins for patients with clinical stage IIA-C cutaneous melanoma thicker than 2 mm are controversial. The aim of the study was to test whether survival was different for a wide local excision margin of 2 cm compared with a 4-cm excision margin....

  14. Stress calculations for RTNS-iI 50-cm targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, B.J.; House, P.A.

    1981-04-01

    Structural calculations made during design of a 50-cm target for the Rotating Target Neutron Source (RTNS-II) are detailed. The limited ability of the current 23-cm diameter target to dissipate the additional beam power required for a yield increase from 2 x 10 13 to 4 x 10 13 neutrons/second has resulted in the need for a larger target. The stresses of several design configurations for a 50-cm target were calculated. The stress contours that would occur in several different target designs with and without various types of structural reinforcement that reduce stress and deflection are presented

  15. Uncertainty Analysis of Consequence Management (CM) Data Products.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eckert-Gallup, Aubrey Celia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cochran, Lainy Dromgoole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kraus, Terrence D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fournier, Sean Donovan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allen, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schetnan, Richard Reed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Simpson, Matthew D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Okada, Colin E. [Remote Sensing Lab. (RSL), Nellis AFB, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Bingham, Avery A. [Remote Sensing Lab. (RSL), Nellis AFB, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and execute methods for characterizing uncertainty in data products that are deve loped and distributed by the DOE Consequence Management (CM) Program. A global approach to this problem is necessary because multiple sources of error and uncertainty from across the CM skill sets contribute to the ultimate p roduction of CM data products. This report presents the methods used to develop a probabilistic framework to characterize this uncertainty and provides results for an uncertainty analysis for a study scenario analyzed using this framework.

  16. CM Process Improvement and the International Space Station Program (ISSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Ginny

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Configuration Management (CM) process improvements planned and undertaken for the International Space Station Program (ISSP). It reviews the 2004 findings and recommendations and the progress towards their implementation.

  17. One-cm-thick Si detector at LHe temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braggio, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy)], E-mail: braggio@pd.infn.it; Bressi, G. [INFN, Sez. di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Carugno, G. [INFN, Sez. di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Galeazzi, G. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Via dell' Universita 1, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Serafin, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2007-10-11

    A silicon p-i-n diode of thickness 1 cm has been studied experimentally at liquid helium temperature. This preliminary study is aimed at the construction of a much bigger detector to detect low energy neutrino events.

  18. One-cm-thick Si detector at LHe temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braggio, C.; Bressi, G.; Carugno, G.; Galeazzi, G.; Serafin, A.

    2007-01-01

    A silicon p-i-n diode of thickness 1 cm has been studied experimentally at liquid helium temperature. This preliminary study is aimed at the construction of a much bigger detector to detect low energy neutrino events

  19. CmWRKY15 Facilitates Alternaria tenuissima Infection of Chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qingqing; Song, Aiping; Xin, Jingjing; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Wang, Yinjie; Li, Xiran; Chen, Fadi

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) has an important role in the responses of plants to pathogens due to its ability to induce stomatal closure and interact with salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). WRKY transcription factors serve as antagonistic or synergistic regulators in the response of plants to a variety of pathogens. Here, we demonstrated that CmWRKY15, a group IIa WRKY family member, was not transcriptionally activated in yeast cells. Subcellular localization experiments in which onion epidermal cells were transiently transfected with CmWRKY15 indicated that CmWRKY15 localized to the nucleus in vivo. The expression of CmWRKY15 could be markedly induced by the presence of Alternaria tenuissima inoculum in chrysanthemum. Furthermore, the disease severity index (DSI) data of CmWRKY15-overexpressing plants indicated that CmWRKY15 overexpression enhanced the susceptibility of chrysanthemum to A. tenuissima infection compared to controls. To illustrate the mechanisms by which CmWRKY15 regulates the response to A. tenuissima inoculation, the expression levels of ABA-responsive and ABA signaling genes, such as ABF4, ABI4, ABI5, MYB2, RAB18, DREB1A, DREB2A, PYL2, PP2C, RCAR1, SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3, NCED3A, NCED3B, GTG1, AKT1, AKT2, KAT1, KAT2, and KC1were compared between transgenic plants and controls. In summary, our data suggest that CmWRKY15 might facilitate A. tenuissima infection by antagonistically regulating the expression of ABA-responsive genes and genes involved in ABA signaling, either directly or indirectly.

  20. Cr-substitution effect on structural, optical and electrical properties of Cr{sub x}Ce{sub 1−x}PO{sub 4} (x = 0.00, 0.08, 0.10 and 0.20) nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadhalaoui, Amor [Laboratoire de Chimie des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Zarzouna, Bizerte 7021 (Tunisia); Dhaouadi, Hassouna, E-mail: dhaouadihassouna@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire Matériaux Traitement et Analyse, INRAP, Technopôle Sidi-Thabet, Tunis 2020 (Tunisia); Marouani, Houda [Laboratoire de Chimie des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Zarzouna, Bizerte 7021 (Tunisia); Kouki, Abdessalem [L3M, FSB, Zarzouna, Bizerte 7021 (Tunisia); Madani, Adel [Department of Physics, Applied Science College, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah (Saudi Arabia); Rzaigui, Mohamed [Laboratoire de Chimie des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Zarzouna, Bizerte 7021 (Tunisia)

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: The Cr{sub x}Ce{sub 1−x}PO{sub 4} (x = 0.00, 0.08, 0.10 and 0.20) nanorods synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. - Highlights: • Cr{sub x}Ce{sub 1−x}PO{sub 4} (x = 0.00–0.20) nanorods were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • Mean crystallite size of the products decreases with Cr-content. • Obvious improvements of the electrical conductivity comparatively to CePO4. - Abstract: Cr{sub x}Ce{sub 1−x}PO{sub 4} (x = 0.00–0.20) nanorods were synthesized using the hydrothermal method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared absorption spectroscopy (IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD results revealed the formation of a pure CePO{sub 4} hexagonal phase. TEM images confirmed the nano-size character of the as-prepared samples. Impedance spectroscopy analysis was used to analyze the electrical behavior of samples as a function of frequency at different temperatures. The increase of Cr-amount led to an increase in the total conductivities and decreased the activation energies (E{sub a} (x = 0.00) = 1.08 eV to E{sub a} (x = 0.20) = 0.80 eV). The optical properties of Cr{sub x}Ce{sub 1−x}PO{sub 4} nanomaterials were investigated using UV–vis spectroscopy. The band-gap energy values decreased with increasing Cr-content showing a red-shift trend. The improvement of the electrical conductivity and optical properties makes the Cr{sub x}Ce{sub 1−x}PO{sub 4} nanomaterials possible candidates to be used as electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells, in photocatalytic and photovoltaic applications.

  1. Variation of the EuII emission wavelength by substitution of fluoride by hydride in fluorite-type compounds EuHxF2-x (0.20 ≤ x ≤ 0.67)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunkel, Nathalie; Meijerink, A; Kohlmann, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Mixed-hydride fluorides EuHxF2-x were prepared by the solid-state reaction of EuF2 and EuH2 under hydrogen gas pressure in an autoclave. EuII luminescence is observed for 0.20 > x > 0.67, while pure EuF2 does not show any emission. The energy of the emission depends strongly on the degree of

  2. Potassium doping induced changes of magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of La0.78Cd0.22-xKxMnO3 (x = 0.00, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20) manganites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoui, Imed; Riahi, Kalthoum; Kumaresavanji, M.; Cheikhrouhou Koubaa, Wissem; Cheikhrouhou, Abdelwaheb

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied the effect of K substitution on the structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric (MCE) properties of the perovskite manganites La0.78Cd0.22-xKxMnO3 (x = 0.00, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20) which were prepared by standard solid-state reaction method. The phase purity of prepared samples were verified by analyzing the X-ray diffraction patterns and shows that all compositions crystallize in the rhombohedral structure with the R 3 ‾ c space group. The zero field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) magnetization measurements reveal that all the samples undergo a paramagnetic-ferromagnetic (PM-FM) phase transition and the transition temperature is found to increase from 202 K for x = 0.00 to 326 K for x = 0.20. Magnetic entropy change (ΔSM) was also studied which reaches a maximum values of 3.6, 4.86, 5.66 and 5.98 J/kgK at 5 T for x = 0.00, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 composition, respectively. However, the relative cooling power (RCP) decreases with increasing K content from 274 (x = 0.00) to 216 (x = 0.20) J/kg for 5 T due to the decrease of full width at half maximum of ΔSM curves with increasing K dopant. All the studied samples exhibit a second-order magnetic phase transition at TC. The field dependence of the magnetic entropy change curves show a power law dependence, Δ SMmax ∞Hn , around the TC. The obtained n values are 0.89, 0.82, 0.86 and 0.75 for x = 0.00, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 respectively, confirms not only the invalidity of the mean field model. Thus, the calculated 'n' values corroborate the absence of long range magnetic order and suggest the existence of magnetic inhomogeneities in all the samples reported here.

  3. The statistical model calculation of prompt neutron spectra from spontaneous fission of {sup 244}Cm and {sup 246}Cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerasimenko, B.F. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Inst., Saint Peterburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The calculations of integral spectra of prompt neutrons of spontaneous fission of {sup 244}Cm and {sup 246}Cm were carried out. The calculations were done by the Statistical Computer Code Complex SCOFIN applying the Hauser-Feschbach method as applied to the description of the de-excitation of excited fission fragments by means of neutron emission. The emission of dipole gamma-quanta from these fragments was considered as a competing process. The average excitation energy of a fragment was calculated by two-spheroidal model of tangent fragments. The density of levels in an excited fragment was calculated by the Fermi-gas model. The quite satisfactory agreement was reached between theoretical and experimental results obtained in frames of Project measurements. The calculated values of average multiplicities of neutron number were 2,746 for {sup 244}Cm and 2,927 for {sup 246}Cm that was in a good accordance with published experimental figures. (author)

  4. Large 21-cm signals from AGN-dominated reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Girish; Choudhury, Tirthankar Roy; Puchwein, Ewald; Haehnelt, Martin G.

    2017-08-01

    We present predictions for the spatial distribution of 21-cm brightness temperature fluctuations from high-dynamic-range simulations for active galactic nucleus (AGN)-dominated reionization histories that have been tested against available Lyα and cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. We model AGNs by extrapolating the observed Mbh - σ relation to high redshifts and assign them ionizing emissivities consistent with recent UV luminosity function measurements. We assess the observability of the predicted spatial 21-cm fluctuations in the late stages of reionization in the limit in which the hydrogen 21-cm spin temperature is significantly larger than the CMB temperature. Our AGN-dominated reionization histories increase the variance of the 21-cm emission by a factor of up to 10 compared to similar reionization histories dominated by faint galaxies, to values close to 100 mK2 at scales accessible to experiments (k ≲ 1 cMpc-1 h). This is lower than the sensitivity reached by ongoing experiments only by a factor of about 2 or less. When reionization is dominated by AGNs, the 21-cm power spectrum is enhanced on all scales due to the enhanced bias of the clustering of the more massive haloes and the peak in the large scale 21-cm power is strongly enhanced and moved to larger scales due to bigger characteristic bubble sizes. AGN-dominated reionization should be easily detectable by Low Frequency Array (and later Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array and Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array) at their design sensitivity, assuming successful foreground subtraction and instrument calibration. Conversely, these could become the first non-trivial reionization scenarios to be ruled out by 21-cm experiments, thereby constraining the contribution of AGNs to reionization.

  5. Charting the parameter space of the global 21-cm signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aviad; Fialkov, Anastasia; Barkana, Rennan; Lotem, Matan

    2017-12-01

    The early star-forming Universe is still poorly constrained, with the properties of high-redshift stars, the first heating sources and reionization highly uncertain. This leaves observers planning 21-cm experiments with little theoretical guidance. In this work, we explore the possible range of high-redshift parameters including the star formation efficiency and the minimal mass of star-forming haloes; the efficiency, spectral energy distribution and redshift evolution of the first X-ray sources; and the history of reionization. These parameters are only weakly constrained by available observations, mainly the optical depth to the cosmic microwave background. We use realistic semi-numerical simulations to produce the global 21-cm signal over the redshift range z = 6-40 for each of 193 different combinations of the astrophysical parameters spanning the allowed range. We show that the expected signal fills a large parameter space, but with a fixed general shape for the global 21-cm curve. Even with our wide selection of models, we still find clear correlations between the key features of the global 21-cm signal and underlying astrophysical properties of the high-redshift Universe, namely the Ly α intensity, the X-ray heating rate and the production rate of ionizing photons. These correlations can be used to directly link future measurements of the global 21-cm signal to astrophysical quantities in a mostly model-independent way. We identify additional correlations that can be used as consistency checks.

  6. Error Analysis of CM Data Products Sources of Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eckert-Gallup, Aubrey Celia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cochran, Lainy Dromgoole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kraus, Terrence D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allen, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beal, Bill [National Security Technologies, Joint Base Andrews, MD (United States); Okada, Colin [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Simpson, Mathew [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This goal of this project is to address the current inability to assess the overall error and uncertainty of data products developed and distributed by DOE’s Consequence Management (CM) Program. This is a widely recognized shortfall, the resolution of which would provide a great deal of value and defensibility to the analysis results, data products, and the decision making process that follows this work. A global approach to this problem is necessary because multiple sources of error and uncertainty contribute to the ultimate production of CM data products. Therefore, this project will require collaboration with subject matter experts across a wide range of FRMAC skill sets in order to quantify the types of uncertainty that each area of the CM process might contain and to understand how variations in these uncertainty sources contribute to the aggregated uncertainty present in CM data products. The ultimate goal of this project is to quantify the confidence level of CM products to ensure that appropriate public and worker protections decisions are supported by defensible analysis.

  7. Evolution of the 21 cm signal throughout cosmic history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, Jonathan R.; Loeb, Abraham

    2008-01-01

    The potential use of the redshifted 21 cm line from neutral hydrogen for probing the epoch of reionization is motivating the construction of several low-frequency interferometers. There is also much interest in the possibility of constraining the initial conditions from inflation and the nature of the dark matter and dark energy by probing the power spectrum of density perturbations in three dimensions and on smaller scales than probed by the microwave background anisotropies. Theoretical understanding of the 21 cm signal has been fragmented into different regimes of physical interest. In this paper, we make the first attempt to describe the full redshift evolution of the 21 cm signal between 0 or approx. 25 before the first galaxies had formed, or to z < or approx. 6 when the residual pockets of hydrogen trace large-scale structure.

  8. Simultaneous Evaluation of Fission Cross Sections for Cm Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Y.-O.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Fission Cross Sections for a complete set of Cm-isotopes, 240-250Cm, have been calculated in the incident energy range from above resonance region to 20 MeV. This work aims at providing the fission cross sections with consistent set of model parameters for Cm isotopes, as a part of a complete evaluation including covariance files for several minor actinides which play a great role in the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC design and applications as well as the design of new generation of nuclear reactors (GEN-IV. This was accomplished by means of computational analyses carried out with the nuclear model code EMPIRE-2.19 which is the modular system of nuclear reaction codes. A Fission model of this work took into account transmission derived in the WKB approximation within an optical model through a double-humped fission barrier.

  9. Operation of a Five-Stage 40,000-CM2-Area Insulator Stack at 158 KV/CM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have demonstrated successful operation of a 3.35- m-diameter insulator stack at 158 kV/cm on five consecutive Z-accelerator shots. The stack consisted of five +45 deg;-profile 5.715-cm-thick cross-linked-polystyrene (Rexolite- 1422) insulator rings, and four anodized- aluminum grading rings shaped to reduce the field at cathode triple junctions. The width of the voltage pulse at 89% of peak was 32 ns. We compare this result to a new empirical flashover relation developed from previous small-insulator experiments conducted with flat unanodized electrodes. The relation predicts a 50% flashover probability for a Rexolite insulator during an applied voltage pulse when E max e -0.27/d (t eff C) 1/10 = 224, where E max is the peak mean electric field (kV/cm), d is the insulator thickness (cm), t eff is the effective pulse width (ps), and C is the insulator circumference (cm). We find the Z stack can be operated at a stress at least 19% higher than predicted. This result, and previous experiments conducted by Vogtlin, suggest anodized electrodes with geometries that reduce the field at both anode and cathode triple junctions would improve the flashover strength of +45 deg; insulators

  10. 3 cm cryogenic electron linac for defectoscopy and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsov, V.V.; Saverskij, A.Ya.; Shchedrin, I.S.

    1979-01-01

    Comparative estimations of basic HF parameters of travelling and standing wave accelerating structures of cryogenic variants are given. A possibility for using liquid nitrogen as coolant has been considered. Changes in energy attenuation and storage along 1 m length for circular corrugated wavequide (CCW) when changing copper temperature from room to liquid nitrogen temperature has been considered as well. It is shown that nitrogen cooling does not result in significant energy gain for travelling wave CCW, however considerably decreases a share of power for attenuation in walls: electron efficiency of the accelerator may be increased at the expense of this share of power conserving energy storage a t the same level. Examination of the accelerating structure in the standing wave regime has shown that it is possible to gain considerably with respect to the field in comparison with 70 cm wave length when cooling 3 cm-wave length section with liquid nitrogen. At that, time of filling of the accele--rating cell with accelerating field reduces almost 3 times as compared to a ''hot'' 10 cm version. It is shown that liquid nitrogen consumption will amount not more than 2l/h for cooling of 1 m long 3 cm accelerating structure [ru

  11. GMRT Detection of HI 21cm Associated Absorption towards the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since the core is self-absorbed at this frequency, the absorption is most likely towards the hotspots. Comparison of the radio and deep optical images reveal linear filaments in the optical which overlap with the brighter radio jet towards the south-west.We therefore suggest that most of the HI 21 cm-line absorption could be ...

  12. How accurately can 21cm tomography constrain cosmology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yi; Tegmark, Max; McQuinn, Matthew; Zaldarriaga, Matias; Zahn, Oliver

    2008-07-01

    There is growing interest in using 3-dimensional neutral hydrogen mapping with the redshifted 21 cm line as a cosmological probe. However, its utility depends on many assumptions. To aid experimental planning and design, we quantify how the precision with which cosmological parameters can be measured depends on a broad range of assumptions, focusing on the 21 cm signal from 6noise, to uncertainties in the reionization history, and to the level of contamination from astrophysical foregrounds. We derive simple analytic estimates for how various assumptions affect an experiment’s sensitivity, and we find that the modeling of reionization is the most important, followed by the array layout. We present an accurate yet robust method for measuring cosmological parameters that exploits the fact that the ionization power spectra are rather smooth functions that can be accurately fit by 7 phenomenological parameters. We find that for future experiments, marginalizing over these nuisance parameters may provide constraints almost as tight on the cosmology as if 21 cm tomography measured the matter power spectrum directly. A future square kilometer array optimized for 21 cm tomography could improve the sensitivity to spatial curvature and neutrino masses by up to 2 orders of magnitude, to ΔΩk≈0.0002 and Δmν≈0.007eV, and give a 4σ detection of the spectral index running predicted by the simplest inflation models.

  13. Radio Refractivity Gradient over Nigeria using CM-SAF Satellite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variations of radio refractivity gradients at the low level, mid-level and upper level of the atmosphere are presented for 26 stations in Nigeria using NOAA 15, 16 and 18 satellite data retrieved from the Department of Satellite Application Facilities on Climate Monitoring (CM-SAF), DWD, Germany. The selected stations were ...

  14. 'CM 88' - A multiple disease resistant chickpea mutant variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, M.A.; Hassan, Mahmudul; Sadiq, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Chickpea is the most important grain legume crop of Pakistan. Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei) and Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum F. sp cicer) are most serious diseases, having the potential to devastate a crop. A multiple disease resistant and high yielding mutant CM 88 has been developed through 100 Gy gamma irradiation treatment of variety 'C 727'. This was once a widely grown and popular variety, which lost its resistance to Ascochyta and was replaced. The selection of mutants was performed in the M2 generation grown in the Ascochyta blight nursery and sixteen mutants were selected. In the subsequent generations CM 88 proved resistant to both Ascochyta blight and Fusarium wilt, and exhibited superiority in agronomic characteristics. CM 88 was also tested for many years in the various yield trials on research stations and farmers fields throughout the country. In these trials it out yielded both the parent and standard varieties. The mutant CM 88 has been approved by the Punjab Seed Council on 27 October 1994 for general cultivation in the Punjab Province, especially the Thal area which accounts for more than 70% of the area under chickpea cultivation. (author)

  15. Review Prospects of Detecting HI using Redshifted 21-cm Radiation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Distributionof cold gas in the post-reionization era provides an important link between distribution of galaxies and the process of star formation. Redshifted 21-cm radiation from the hyperfine transition of neutral hydrogen allows us to probe the neutral component of cold gas, most of which is to be found in the.

  16. Exploring 21CM - Lyman Alpha Emitter Synergies for SKA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dayal, Pratika; Hutter, Anne; Müller, Volker; Trott, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    We study the signatures of reionization and ionizing properties of the early galaxies in the cross-correlations between the 21cm emission from the spin-flip transition of neutral hydrogen (H I ) and the underlying galaxy population, in particular a sub-population of galaxies visible as Lyman Alpha

  17. Calorimetric determination of kQ factors for NE 2561 and NE 2571 ionization chambers in 5 cm x 5 cm and 10 cm x 10 cm radiotherapy beams of 8 MV and 16 MV photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Achim; Kapsch, Ralf-Peter

    2007-10-21

    The relative uncertainty of the ionometric determination of the absorbed dose to water, D(w), in the reference dosimetry of high-energy photon beams is in the order of 1.5% and is dominated by the uncertainty of the calculated chamber- and energy-dependent correction factors k(Q). In the present investigation, k(Q) values were determined experimentally in 5 cm x 5 cm and 10 cm x 10 cm radiotherapy beams of 8 MV and 16 MV bremsstrahlung by means of a water calorimeter operated at 4 degrees C. Ionization chambers of the types NE 2561 and NE 2571 were calibrated directly in the water phantom of the calorimeter. The measurements were carried out at the linear accelerator of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. It is shown that the k(Q) factor of a single ionization chamber can be measured with a standard uncertainty of less than 0.3%. No significant variations of k(Q) were found for the different lateral sizes of the radiation fields used in this investigation.

  18. A 10 cm aperture, high quality TEA CO2 laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernst, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments have been performed on a corona preionization type 10 cm aperture TEA CO2 laser. For a CO2:N2:He=1: 1: 7: mixture an output energy of 34 joule per liter and for a 1 : 1 : 10 mixture 40 joule per liter could be obtained. The overall efficiency is about 18%. The time behaviour of the

  19. Phase coexistence and magnetic behavior in the low-dimensional hexagonal cobaltites BaxA1-xCoO3-δ (A = Mg or Ca and 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M. P.; Mercena, S. G.; Meneses, C. T.; Jesus, C. B. R.; Pagliuso, P. G.; Duque, J. G. S.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we report on X-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements carried out in the low-dimensional hexagonal cobaltites BaxA1-xCoO3-δ (A = Mg or Ca, 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.20 and δ = 0 or 0.4). Polycrystalline samples have been synthesized by solid-state reaction. The Rietveld refinements of the X-ray diffraction patterns show clearly a phase coexistence of both BaCoO2.6 and BaCoO3 hexagonal polytype structures (space group: P63/mmc), which is dependent on both the dopant ion and doping level. At low temperatures (T 0.10 the low temperature hysteresis is not observed anymore. The field-dependence of ZFC-FC curves taken for the sample grown with x = 0 show a displacement of the peak position into low temperature region. Except for the sample grown with x = 0.20, the MvsH loops taken at T = 2 K show multiple steps in the field region ranging - 15 ⩽ H ⩽ 15 kOe . Finally, the saturation magnetization values are consistent with a low-spin state for the Co2+ or Co4+ ions.

  20. Study of electrical and magnetic properties of Pr0.6-xBixSr0.4MnO3 (x=0.20 and 0.25)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daivajna, Mamatha D.; Rao, Ashok; Lin, W. J.; Kuo, Y. K.

    2017-06-01

    We have investigated the electrical and magnetic properties of Pr0.6-xBixSr0.4MnO3 (x=0.20 and 0.25) manganites. XRD data shows that the synthesized samples are single-phase and crystallize in the orthorhombic structure with Pnma space group. Resistivity measurements show that the sample with x=0.25 exhibits a thermally activated behavior for the entire temperature range. The magnetoresistance (MR) for the x=0.25 sample is as high as nearly 100% over a wide range of temperature, demonstrating its important technological application as a material for MR-based devices. From the magnetization measurements, two magnetic transitions viz. paramagnetic insulating to ferromagnetic metallic (PMI-FMM) transition at TC and the ferromagnetic metallic (FMM) to antiferromagnetic insulating (AFI) transition at Neel temperature TN were observe in both samples. The Curie temperature decreases with bismuth doping, while TN increases with Bi content. Most interestingly, the temperature variation of magnetization and resistivity shows hysteresis behavior across the transition for the x=0.20 sample.

  1. Study of electrical and magnetic properties of Pr{sub 0.6−x}Bi{sub x}Sr{sub 0.4}MnO{sub 3} (x=0.20 and 0.25)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daivajna, Mamatha D. [Department of Physics, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal 576104 (India); Rao, Ashok, E-mail: ashokanu_rao@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal 576104 (India); Lin, W.J. [Department of Physics, National Dong-Hwa University, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Y.K., E-mail: ykkuo@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Dong-Hwa University, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China)

    2017-06-01

    We have investigated the electrical and magnetic properties of Pr{sub 0.6-x}Bi{sub x}Sr{sub 0.4}MnO{sub 3} (x=0.20 and 0.25) manganites. XRD data shows that the synthesized samples are single-phase and crystallize in the orthorhombic structure with Pnma space group. Resistivity measurements show that the sample with x=0.25 exhibits a thermally activated behavior for the entire temperature range. The magnetoresistance (MR) for the x=0.25 sample is as high as nearly 100% over a wide range of temperature, demonstrating its important technological application as a material for MR-based devices. From the magnetization measurements, two magnetic transitions viz. paramagnetic insulating to ferromagnetic metallic (PMI-FMM) transition at T{sub C} and the ferromagnetic metallic (FMM) to antiferromagnetic insulating (AFI) transition at Neel temperature T{sub N} were observe in both samples. The Curie temperature decreases with bismuth doping, while T{sub N} increases with Bi content. Most interestingly, the temperature variation of magnetization and resistivity shows hysteresis behavior across the transition for the x=0.20 sample.

  2. Study of temperature dependent local structure by polarized Cu K-edge EXAFS measurements on La sub 2 sub - sub x Sr sub x CuO sub 4 (x=0.105, 0.13, 0.20)

    CERN Document Server

    Saini, N L; Bianconi, A; Oyanagi, H; Ito, T; Oka, K

    2003-01-01

    We have studied temperature dependent local structure of superconducting La sub 2 sub - sub x Sr sub x CuO sub 4 (0.105, 0.13, 0.20) single crystals by Cu K-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements with polarization parallel to the in-plane Cu-O bonds. We find that, while underdoped crystals (x=0.105, 0.13) show anomalous temperature dependence, similar to the case of optimally doped system (x=0.15), overdoped crystal (x=0.20) does not reveal such anomaly. Correlated Debye-Waller factor (DWF) of the Cu-O bonds (distance broadening) has been used as an order parameter to determine characteristic local displacements in the CuO sub 2 plane. The amplitude of temperature dependent step-like increase in the DWF at low temperature decreases with increasing doping. It has been discussed that decreasing electron-lattice interaction with increasing doping, shown by angle resolved photoemission measurements, is closely related to the evolving anomalous local CuO sub 2 distortion and charge inho...

  3. Influence of Al3+ substitution on the electrical resistivity and dielectric behavior of Ni0.25Cu0.20Zn0.55AlxFe2-xO4 ferrites synthesized by solid state reaction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, K. R.; Chowdhury, F.-U.-Z.; Khan, M. N. I.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the effect of Al3+ substitution on the electrical and dielectric properties of Ni0.25Cu0.20Zn0.55AlxFe2-xO4 ferrites with x = 0.0, 0.05. 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20, synthesized by solid state reaction has been reported. Using two probe method, the DC resistivity has been investigated in the temperature range from 30 °C to 300 °C. Activation energy was calculated from the Arrhenius plot. The electrical conduction is explained on the basis of the hopping mechanism. The frequency dependent dielectric properties of these spinel ferrites have been studied at room temperature by measuring AC resistivity, conductivity (σac), dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) in the frequency range between 1 kHz and 120 MHz. The study of dielectric properties showed that the dielectric constant and dielectric loss increased with increasing non-magnetic Al ions. The dependence of dielectric constant with frequency has been explained by Maxwell-Wagner interfacial polarization. Cole-Cole plots show semicircular arc(s) for the samples, and equivalent RC circuits have been proposed to clarify the phenomena involved therein. The analysis of complex impedance spectroscopy has been used to distinguish between the grain and grain boundary contribution to the total resistance.

  4. Physical and microstructural characterization of La{sub 0,60}Sr{sub 0,40}Co{sub 0,20}Fe{sub 0,80}O{sub 3-δ} and Ba{sub 0,50}Sr{sub 0,50}Co{sub 0,80}Fe{sub 0,20}O{sub 3-δ} ceramics; Caracterizacao fisica e microestrutural de ceramicas constituidas de La{sub 0,60}Sr{sub 0,40}Co{sub 0,20}Fe{sub 0,80}O{sub 3-δ} e Ba{sub 0,50}Sr{sub 0,50}Co{sub 0,80}Fe{sub 0,20}O{sub 3-δ}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonturim, E.; Vargas, R.A.; Andreoli, M.; Chiba, R.; Seo, E.S.M., E-mail: ebonturim@ipen.br, E-mail: ravargas@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP/CCTM/SOFC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais. Lab. de Insumos e Componentes

    2012-07-01

    The La{sub 0,60}Sr{sub 0,40}Co{sub 0,20}Fe{sub 0,80}O{sub 3-δ} (LSCF) and Ba{sub 0,50}Sr{sub 0,50}Co{sub 0,80}Fe{sub 0,20}O{sub 3-δ} (BSCF) oxides are studied as cathodes in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell. The objective of this study is to characterize physically and microstructural these materials. The LSCF was synthesized by citrate technique and BSCF for citrates-EDTA, processed under the same conditions. The characterizations of ceramics were performed by X-ray diffraction, dilatometry, scanning electron microscopy and apparent density for Archimedes principle. According to the diffraction technique, confirmed the presence of single phases for LSCF to 800 deg C and BSCF to 900 deg C, with orthorhombic and cubic structures, respectively. For dilatometry were determined the sintering temperatures, near of 1050 deg C to BSCF and 1100 deg C to LSCF. The sintered micrographs at 1000, 1050 and 1100 deg C for 2 hours showed homogeneity microstructure, containing porosity and, attacked thermally, a homogeneous distribution of grains. Finally by bulk density, was estimated porosity between 20 and 30%. (author)

  5. 21 cm cosmology in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Jonathan R; Loeb, Abraham

    2012-08-01

    Imaging the Universe during the first hundreds of millions of years remains one of the exciting challenges facing modern cosmology. Observations of the redshifted 21 cm line of atomic hydrogen offer the potential of opening a new window into this epoch. This will transform our understanding of the formation of the first stars and galaxies and of the thermal history of the Universe. A new generation of radio telescopes is being constructed for this purpose with the first results starting to trickle in. In this review, we detail the physics that governs the 21 cm signal and describe what might be learnt from upcoming observations. We also generalize our discussion to intensity mapping of other atomic and molecular lines.

  6. Lensing of 21-cm fluctuations by primordial gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Laura; Kamionkowski, Marc; Schmidt, Fabian

    2012-05-25

    Weak-gravitational-lensing distortions to the intensity pattern of 21-cm radiation from the dark ages can be decomposed geometrically into curl and curl-free components. Lensing by primordial gravitational waves induces a curl component, while the contribution from lensing by density fluctuations is strongly suppressed. Angular fluctuations in the 21-cm background extend to very small angular scales, and measurements at different frequencies probe different shells in redshift space. There is thus a huge trove of information with which to reconstruct the curl component of the lensing field, allowing tensor-to-scalar ratios conceivably as small as r~10(-9)-far smaller than those currently accessible-to be probed.

  7. Design and performances of the 5 cm microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, M.A.; Melekhin, V.N.; Sukhachev, V.Ya.

    1979-01-01

    Described is the 5 cm microtron with 14 orbits and the 10 MeV maximum energy of electron beam, the 10 μA pulse current and the 100 W average power. The electromagnet of the armoured type with the external diameter of 680 mm, the height of 260 mm, the pole gap of 62 mm is designed for generation of the 0.32 T magnetic field. The vacuum chamber is made of stainless steel and it is totally separated from the electromagnet. An accelerating resonator is inserted through the connection pipe. An intermetallic thermoemitter of the iridium-cerium alloy is used in the microtron. The acceleration regime of the first type with zero initial phases is used in the microtron. The prospects of utilization of the 5-cm microtron is illustrated

  8. 24 GHz cmWave Radio Propagation Through Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Ignacio; Abreu, Renato Barbosa; Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a measurement-based analysis of cm-wave radio propagation through vegetation at 24 GHz. A set of dedicated directional measurements were performed with horn antennas located close to street level inside a densely-vegetated area illuminated from above. The full azimuth...... along the paper are useful for simulation and radio network planning of future wireless systems operating at 24 GHz in presence of vegetation....

  9. Power distribution for an Am/Cm bushing melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, C.; Hardy, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    Decades of nuclear material production at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has resulted in the generation of large quantities of the isotopes Am 243 and Cm 244 . Currently, the Am and Cm isotopes are stored as a nitric acid solution in a tank. The Am and Cm isotopes have great commercial value but must be transferred to ORNL for processing. The nitric acid solution contains other isotopes and is intensely radioactive, which makes storage a problem and precludes shipment in the liquid form. In order to stabilize the material for onsite storage and to permit transport the material from SRS to ORNL, it has been proposed that the Am and Cm be separated from other isotopes in the solution and vitrified. Vitrification will be effected by depositing a liquid feed stream containing the isotopes in solution, together with a stream of glass frit, onto the top of a molten glass pool in a melter. The glass is non-conducting and the melter is a Platinum/Rhodium alloy vessel which is heated by passing an electric current through it. Because most of the power is required to evaporate the liquid feed at the top of the glass pool, power demands differ for the upper and lower parts of the melter. In addition, the melter is batch fed so that the local power requirements vary with time. In order to design a unique split power supply, which ensures adequate local power delivery, an analysis of the melter power distribution was performed with the ABAQUS finite element code. ABAQUS was used to calculate the electric potential and current density distributions in the melter for a variety of current and potential boundary conditions. The results of the calculation were compared with test data and will be used to compute power densities for input to a computational fluid dynamics model for the melter

  10. Choice of Surgical Procedure for Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer ≤ 1 cm or > 1 to 2 cm Among Lobectomy, Segmentectomy, and Wedge Resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Chenyang; Shen, Jianfei; Ren, Yijiu

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: According to the lung cancer staging project, T1a (≤ 2 cm) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) should be additionally classified into ≤ 1 cm and > 1 to 2 cm groups. This study aimed to investigate the surgical procedure for NSCLC ≤ 1 cm and > 1 to 2 cm. METHODS: We identified 15,760 patie......PURPOSE: According to the lung cancer staging project, T1a (≤ 2 cm) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) should be additionally classified into ≤ 1 cm and > 1 to 2 cm groups. This study aimed to investigate the surgical procedure for NSCLC ≤ 1 cm and > 1 to 2 cm. METHODS: We identified 15...... for NSCLC ≤ 1 cm and > 1 to 2 cm. With sublobar resection, lower OS and LCSS emerged for NSCLC > 1 to 2 cm after wedge resection, whereas similar survivals were observed for NSCLC ≤ 1 cm. Multivariable analyses showed that wedge resection is an independent risk factor of survival for NSCLC > 1 to 2 cm...... but not for NSCLC ≤ 1 cm. CONCLUSION: Lobectomy showed better survival than sublobar resection for patients with NSCLC ≤ 1 cm and > 1 to 2 cm. For patients in whom lobectomy is unsuitable, segmentectomy should be recommended for NSCLC > 1 to 2 cm, whereas surgeons could rely on surgical skills and the patient...

  11. Core losses of ring-shaped (Fe{sub 0.75}B{sub 0.20}Si{sub 0.05}){sub 96}Nb{sub 4} bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitoh, T; Ishikawa, T; Okumura, H, E-mail: teruo_bitoh@akita-pu.ac.jp [Department of Machine Intelligence and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Systems Science and Technology, Akita Prefectural University, Yurihonjo, 015-0055 (Japan)

    2011-01-01

    The soft magnetic properties of ring-shaped (Fe{sub 0.75}B{sub 0.20}Si{sub 0.05}){sub 96}Nb{sub 4} cast bulk metallic glass (BMG) with thickness of 0.3-1.0 mm have been investigated. The BMG specimens exhibit high relative permeability of (9-29)x10{sup 3} at 0.40 A/m and 50 Hz and low coercivity of 4.0 A/m. The core losses of the 0.3 mm thick BMG specimen are lower than those of commercial Fe-6.5 mass% Si steel (6.5Si) with the same thickness, and are comparable to those of the 0.10 mm thick 6.5Si. The low core losses of the BMG originate from the low coercivity and high electrical resistivity.

  12. Structural, morphological and magnetic properties of Al3+ substituted Ni0.25Cu0.20Zn0.55AlxFe2−xO4 ferrites synthesized by solid state reaction route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Rahman

    Full Text Available Ni-Cu-Zn ferrite materials have been extensively used in electronic materials because of their outstanding properties at high frequencies. This work investigates the impact of Al substitution on the structure, morphology and magnetic properties of Ni0.25Cu0.20Zn0.55AlxFe2−xO4 (x = 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 prepared by solid state reaction method. X-ray diffractometer (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, impedance analyzer and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM were used to characterize the properties of the samples. The XRD study confirmed the cubic spinel structure with single phase for all the samples. The lattice constant, X-ray density and bulk density decrease while the porosity and grain size increase with the increase of Al content in the samples. The frequency dependence of the complex permeability sintered at 1200 °C has been measured for toroidal samples in the frequency range between 1 kHz and 120 MHz at room temperature. The decrease in initial permeability has been explained on the basis of variation in grain size. The temperature dependence of the initial permeability has been measured in the temperature range between from 30 to 250 °C. Curie temperature (Tc has been estimated from the temperature dependence of the permeability spectra for all samples. It is found that Curie temperatures and initial permeability (μi′ decrease on Al substitution. The saturation magnetization has been measured at room temperature and it was found to decrease with increasing of Al3+ ions. Keywords: X-ray diffractometry, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Initial permeability, Curie temperature, Vibration sample magnetometer, Magnetization

  13. Magnetic and structural properties of Sr0.75La0.25FexCu0.20O19 (10.40≤x≤11.80) hexagonal ferrites prepared by the solid-state reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yujie; Shao, Juxiang; Wang, Fanhou; Liu, Xiansong; Feng, Shuangjiu; Huang, Duohui; Yang, Junsheng; Jin, Chengguo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the hexaferrite magnetic powders and magnets according to the formula Sr 0.75 La 0.25 Fe x Cu 0.20 O 19 , where x ranging from 10.40 to 11.80 with a step of 0.2 were prepared by the solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction was performed to investigate the microstructures of the magnetic powders. The results show that a single magnetoplumbite phase is obtained for the magnetic powders with Fe content (10.60≤x≤11.60). For the magnetic powders with Fe content (x) of 10.40 or 11.80, magnetic impurities appear in the structure. A field emission scanning electron microscopy was hired to explore the micrographs of the magnets. The hexaferrite magnets are formed of hexagonal-shaped crystals. A magnetic properties test instrument was used in order to study the magnetic properties of the magnets. The remanence and maximum energy product first increase with Fe content (x) from 10.40 to 11.00 and then begin to decrease when Fe content (x) continues to increase. While the intrinsic coercivity and magnetic induction coercivity first increase with Fe content (x) from 10.40 to 11.20 and then decrease when Fe content (x)>11.20. - Highlights: • The hexaferrite Sr 0.75 La 0.25 Fe x Cu 0.20 O 19 (10.40≤x≤11.80) magnetic powders and magnets were synthesized by the solid-state reaction. • The hexaferrite magnets are formed of hexagonal-shaped crystals. • At Fe content (x)=11.00, B r and (BH) max for the magnets reach the maximum values. At Fe content (x)=11.20, H cj and H cb for the magnets reach the maximum values.

  14. Water Transport and the Evolution of CM Parent Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Rob; Cohen, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Meteorites have amino acids and hydrated minerals which constrain the peak temperature ranges they have experienced. CMs in particular have a narrow range (273-325K). Bulk fluid motion during hydration constrained to small scales (less than mm). Some asteroids are known to have hydrated minerals on their surfaces. It is presumed these two facts may be related. Problem: hydration only occurs (significantly) with liquid water; melting water only occurs early on in nebula (1-10 Myrs ANC); in nebula asteroid surface temperature very cold (approximately 150K). Can indigenous alteration produce CMs and/or surface hydration?

  15. LIQUIDARMOR CM Flashing and Sealant, High Impact Technology Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E [ORNL; Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL

    2016-12-01

    Air leakage is responsible for about 1.1 quads of energy or 6% of the total energy used by commercial buildings in the US. Consequently, infiltration and exfiltration are among the largest envelope-related contributors to the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning loads in commercial buildings. New air sealing technologies have recently emerged that aim to improve the performance of air barrier systems by simplifying their installation procedure. LIQUIDARMORTM CM Flashing and Sealant is an example of these new advanced material technologies. This technology is a spray-applied sealant and liquid flashing and can span gaps that are up to ¼ in. wide without a supporting material. ORNL verified the performance of LIQUIDARMORTM CM with field tests and energy simulations from a building in which LIQUIDARMORTM CM was one of components of the air barrier system. The Homeland Security Training Center (HTC) at the College of DuPage in Glen Ellyn, IL, served as the demonstration site. Blower door test results show the average air leakage rate in the demonstration site to be 0.15 cfm/ft2 at 1.57 psf, or 63% lower than the 0.4 cfm at 1.57 psf specified in the 2015 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). According to simulation results, HTC lowered its annual heating and cooling cost by about $3,000 or 9% compared to a similar building that lacked an air barrier system. This demonstration project serves as an example of the level of building envelope airtightness that can be achieved by using air barrier materials that are properly installed, and illustrates the energy and financial savings that such an airtight envelope could attain.

  16. The Mukundpura meteorite, a new fall of CM chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Dwijesh; Shukla, Anil D.

    2018-02-01

    Mukundpura is a new CM chondrite fell near Jaipur, Rajasthan, India on June 6, 2017 at 5:15 IST. The fall was observed by local villager. According to eyewitness, the meteorite was fragmented into several pieces once the object hit the ground. Based on petrography, mineralogy and bulk composition, Mukundpura is classified as CM2 chondrite. The chondrules are mainly similar to type I (Olivine: Fo99). Olivines are often found associated with pyroxene (Wo10-35En62-87Fs2-7) phenocryst. However, occurrences of forsteritic and fayalitic olivine (Fa58-71) as isolated mineral clast in matrix are not uncommon. Other types of chondrules include porphyritic pyroxene (En86Fs14) and barred olivine (Fa32.7±0.3) clast. Chondrules are commonly rimmed by fine-grained accretionary dust mantles. Phyllosilicates are the most dominant secondary mineral in matrix and largely associated with poorly characterised phases (PCP). FeO/SiO2 and S/SiO2 of PCP are 2.7 and 0.4 respectively. Other phases in matrix generally include calcite (pure CaCO3), Fe-Ni metal and sulphides. Spinel and perovskite occur occasionally as inclusions. The spherical or elliptical shaped metals (within chondrule or in isolated grains) are low-Ni type (kamacite <7.5 wt%) and resembles the solar Ni/Co ratio. However, Ni content in metal rarely exceeds 8.5 wt% (up to 23 wt%, taenite). Pyrrhotite (Fe ∼62 wt%; S ∼38 wt%) and pentlandite (Fe ∼31-33 wt%, Ni ∼28-32 wt%, S ∼33 wt%)) are the common sulphides occur as isolated grains within the matrix, however, the former is the most dominant. The bulk chemical composition of Mukundpura is largely similar to other CM type chondrite (e.g. Paris CM). Based on petrography, we infer a modest aqueous alteration stage for Mukundpura while the effect of thermal metamorphism was negligible.

  17. Recycle Requirements for NASA's 30 cm Xenon Ion Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Rawlin, Vincent K.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical breakdowns have been observed during ion thruster operation. These breakdowns, or arcs, can be caused by several conditions. In flight systems, the power processing unit must be designed to handle these faults autonomously. This has a strong impact on power processor requirements and must be understood fully for the power processing unit being designed for the NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness program. In this study, fault conditions were investigated using a NASA 30 cm ion thruster and a power console. Power processing unit output specifications were defined based on the breakdown phenomena identified and characterized.

  18. Plans for RegCM4 CORDEX-CORE simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Filippo; Coppola, Erika; Giuliani, Graziano

    2017-04-01

    One of initiatives of the next phase CORDEX activities is the so-called CORDEX-CORE program, by which a core set of regional climate models (RCMs) will downscale a core set of Global Climate Model (GCM) 21st century projections over all, or most, CORDEX continental scale domains. This effort is aimed at providing a homogeneous set of RCM-based projections across land regions of the world, for use in impact assessment studies. The RegCM4 model will participate to this effort through contributions from its user community (the Regional Climate research NETwork, or RegCNET). Although the final details of the CORDEX-CORE experiment protocol have yet to be finalized by the CORDEX community, it is envisioned that ensembles of RegCM4 projections for the period 1950-2100 (or minimally 1970-2100), downscaling 3-6 GCMs over all CORDEX domains (except for the polar ones) will be produced, with forcing from a high end (likely RCP8.5) and a low end (likely RCP2.6) GHG concentration pathway. Depending on the availability of GCM simulations, CMIP5 and/or CMIP6 GCMs will be downscaled. The model grid spacing will be 20-25 km, except for the European domain, where it will be 12.5 km. The newest version of the model, RegCM4.6, will be used, which includes several new physics options compared to previous ones. The model will be validated and customized for the different domains via ERA-Interim driven simulations for the period 1979-2014. The simulations will be conducted by the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) team, as well as several institutes located in the different CORDEX regions, and the data will be stored in CORDEX output format at different repositories. Analysis teams and targeted workshops will be organized to carefully assess the simulations. This presentation will describe the RegCM4 CORE experiment framework and will discuss preliminary results over different CORDEX domains from the ERA-Interim driven simulations.

  19. Measuring the reionization 21 cm fluctuations using clustering wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Dinesh; Choudhury, Tirthankar Roy; Ghara, Raghunath

    2018-03-01

    One of the main challenges in probing the reionization epoch using the redshifted 21 cm line is that the magnitude of the signal is several orders smaller than the astrophysical foregrounds. One of the methods to deal with the problem is to avoid a wedge-shaped region in the Fourier k⊥ - k∥ space which contains the signal from the spectrally smooth foregrounds. However, measuring the spherically averaged power spectrum using only modes outside this wedge (i.e. in the reionization window) leads to a bias. We provide a prescription, based on expanding the power spectrum in terms of the shifted Legendre polynomials, which can be used to compute the angular moments of the power spectrum in the reionization window. The prescription requires computation of the monopole, quadrupole, and hexadecapole moments of the power spectrum using the theoretical model under consideration and also the knowledge of the effective extent of the foreground wedge in the k⊥ - k∥ plane. One can then calculate the theoretical power spectrum in the window which can be directly compared with observations. The analysis should have implications for avoiding any bias in the parameter constraints using 21 cm power spectrum data.

  20. Electric prototype power processor for a 30cm ion thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biess, J. J.; Inouye, L. Y.; Schoenfeld, A. D.

    1977-01-01

    An electrical prototype power processor unit was designed, fabricated and tested with a 30 cm mercury ion engine for primary space propulsion. The power processor unit used the thyristor series resonant inverter as the basic power stage for the high power beam and discharge supplies. A transistorized series resonant inverter processed the remaining power for the low power outputs. The power processor included a digital interface unit to process all input commands and internal telemetry signals so that electric propulsion systems could be operated with a central computer system. The electrical prototype unit included design improvement in the power components such as thyristors, transistors, filters and resonant capacitors, and power transformers and inductors in order to reduce component weight, to minimize losses, and to control the component temperature rise. A design analysis for the electrical prototype is also presented on the component weight, losses, part count and reliability estimate. The electrical prototype was tested in a thermal vacuum environment. Integration tests were performed with a 30 cm ion engine and demonstrated operational compatibility. Electromagnetic interference data was also recorded on the design to provide information for spacecraft integration.

  1. Tank testing of a 2500-cm2 solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bever, R. S.; Staskus, J.

    1981-01-01

    A 50 cm by 50 cm solar array panel test patch was investigated for spacecraft charging and arcing effects. Bombardment with monochromatic electron was carried out. Some objectives of the test were: (1) to estimate at what voltage of electron bombardment arcing would be probable; (2) to find whether the arc's energy would be tolerable or damagingly large; (3) to try and separate thermal and photoeffects; and, (4) to see whether materials used were such as to minimize arcing. Some conclusions were: In sunlight the tracking data relay satellite's solar panel which has ceria glass on the front and conductive paint on the backside is probably a good design for reducing charge-up. In a geomagnetic substorm simulated in testing there will be arcing at the interconnects during eclipse and transitions into and out of eclipse in testing especially in view of the very cold temperatures that will be reached by this lightweight array. Ceria-doped glass is preferred to fused silica glass for reducing charge build up. The Kapton bare patch should still be conductively painted. The differential voltages on the panel determine when arcing first begins, and the electron beam voltages vary depending upon whether the metallic structure is directly grounded or semifloating.

  2. Collimation with tighter TCTs at β*=40 cm

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Kwee-Hinzmann, Regina; Mereghetti, Alessio; Mirarchi, Daniele; Quaranta, Elena; Redaelli, Stefano; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Valentino, Gianluca; Valloni, Alessandra; Garcia Morales, Hector; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    MD 310 was carried out on August 28 2015, in order to investigate the collimation performance using nominal optics with β* =40 cm, 2 σ retraction collimator settings in IR7, and the very tight TCT settings which are necessary to protect the small normalized aperture. With these tight settings, we expect higher losses on the TCTs which should cause also higher beam-halo background at the experiments. During the MD, a total of 70 betatron loss maps were performed over a range of TCT settings and for dierent settings of the TCLAs in IR7. ATLAS and CMS were exceptionally taking data outside stable beams, in order to monitor the background. Furthermore, betatron loss maps were performed with a small momentum oset of the whole beam, induced by a shift of the RF frequency. The MD results can therefore also be used to assess the cleaning eciency in IR7 with the β* =40 cm optics, as well as the eects of energy osets on the cleaning. At the end of the MD, an asynchronous dump test was performed, in order to monitor ...

  3. Customization of regional climate model (RegCM4) over Indian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, S.; Mandal, M.; Maity, S.

    2017-01-01

    The regional climate model (RegCM4) is customized for 10-year climate simulation over Indian region through sensitivity studies on cumulus convection and land surface parameterization schemes. The model is configured over 30° E-120° E and 15° S-45° N at 30-km horizontal resolution with 23 vertical levels. Six 10-year (1991-2000) simulations are conducted with the combinations of two land surface schemes (BATS, CLM3.5) and three cumulus convection schemes (Kuo, Grell, MIT). The simulated annual and seasonal climatology of surface temperature and precipitation are compared with CRU observations. The interannual variability of these two parameters is also analyzed. The results indicate that the model simulated climatology is sensitive to the convection as well as land surface parameterization. The analysis of surface temperature (precipitation) climatology indicates that the model with CLM produces warmer (dryer) climatology, particularly over India. The warmer (dryer) climatology is due to the higher sensible heat flux (lower evapotranspiration) in CLM. The model with MIT convection scheme simulated wetter and warmer climatology (higher precipitation and temperature) with smaller Bowen ratio over southern India compared to that with the Grell and Kuo schemes. This indicates that a land surface scheme produces warmer but drier climatology with sensible heating contributing to warming where as a convection scheme warmer but wetter climatology with latent heat contributing to warming. The climatology of surface temperature over India is better simulated by the model with BATS land surface model in combination with MIT convection scheme while the precipitation climatology is better simulated with BATS land surface model in combination with Grell convection scheme. Overall, the modeling system with the combination of Grell convection and BATS land surface scheme provides better climate simulation over the Indian region.

  4. Extraction Chromatography for Am and Cm Recovery in Engineering Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koma, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Sano, Y.; Asakura, T.; Morita, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been developing the extraction chromatography for Am and Cm (An(III)) recovery from HLLW aiming at an engineering scale application. For process development, we started to assess the characteristics of adsorbents with some extractants by laboratory scale experiments. The experimental results with HDEHP/SiO 2 -P adsorbent suggested that An(III) is separated from other fission products by adjusting the pH of a feed solution and/or an eluent containing DTPA to be an appropriate value. The durability of CMPO/SiO 2 -P and HDEHP/SiO 2 -P adsorbents for gamma-ray irradiation were estimated to be 1 and 0.5 MGy, respectively. In the system development, system experiments for fluid flow, safety and durability using engineering scale column as well as studies on remote control/maintenance are now under progress. (authors)

  5. THE MURCHISON WIDEFIELD ARRAY 21 cm POWER SPECTRUM ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Daniel C.; Beardsley, A. P.; Bowman, Judd D. [Arizona State University, School of Earth and Space Exploration, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Hazelton, B. J.; Sullivan, I. S.; Barry, N.; Carroll, P. [University of Washington, Department of Physics, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Trott, C. M.; Pindor, B.; Briggs, F.; Gaensler, B. M. [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) (Australia); Dillon, Joshua S.; Oliveira-Costa, A. de; Ewall-Wice, A.; Feng, L. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Pober, J. C. [Brown University, Department of Physics, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Bernardi, G. [Department of Physics and Electronics, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E. [MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA 01886 (United States); Emrich, D., E-mail: daniel.c.jacobs@asu.edu [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); and others

    2016-07-10

    We present the 21 cm power spectrum analysis approach of the Murchison Widefield Array Epoch of Reionization project. In this paper, we compare the outputs of multiple pipelines for the purpose of validating statistical limits cosmological hydrogen at redshifts between 6 and 12. Multiple independent data calibration and reduction pipelines are used to make power spectrum limits on a fiducial night of data. Comparing the outputs of imaging and power spectrum stages highlights differences in calibration, foreground subtraction, and power spectrum calculation. The power spectra found using these different methods span a space defined by the various tradeoffs between speed, accuracy, and systematic control. Lessons learned from comparing the pipelines range from the algorithmic to the prosaically mundane; all demonstrate the many pitfalls of neglecting reproducibility. We briefly discuss the way these different methods attempt to handle the question of evaluating a significant detection in the presence of foregrounds.

  6. Evaluation of neutron nuclear data for 244Cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarasi, Sin-iti; Nakagawa, Tsuneo

    1977-06-01

    Evaluation of neutron nuclear data for 244 Cm was performed below 16 MeV. The energy region above 1000 eV was separated from the lower region where the resonance parameters were given. Evaluation was made to select suitable resonance parameters, and thermal values of the capture and fission cross sections were obtained with the adopted resonance parameters. Using a semi-empirical formula, the fission cross section was reproduced above 1000 eV. Optical and statistical model calculations were made in order to obtain the total, capture, inelastic and elastic scattering, and (n,2n) reaction cross sections. The number of neutrons per neutron-induced fission was estimated with an empirical formula. (auth.)

  7. Precision modelling of M dwarf stars: the magnetic components of CM Draconis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, J.; Mullan, D. J.

    2012-04-01

    The eclipsing binary CM Draconis (CM Dra) contains two nearly identical red dwarfs of spectral class dM4.5. The masses and radii of the two components have been reported with unprecedentedly small statistical errors: for M, these errors are 1 part in 260, while for R, the errors reported by Morales et al. are 1 part in 130. When compared with standard stellar models with appropriate mass and age (≈4 Gyr), the empirical results indicate that both components are discrepant from the models in the following sense: the observed stars are larger in R ('bloated'), by several standard deviations, than the models predict. The observed luminosities are also lower than the models predict. Here, we attempt at first to model the two components of CM Dra in the context of standard (non-magnetic) stellar models using a systematic array of different assumptions about helium abundances (Y), heavy element abundances (Z), opacities and mixing length parameter (α). We find no 4-Gyr-old models with plausible values of these four parameters that fit the observed L and R within the reported statistical error bars. However, CM Dra is known to contain magnetic fields, as evidenced by the occurrence of star-spots and flares. Here we ask: can inclusion of magnetic effects into stellar evolution models lead to fits of L and R within the error bars? Morales et al. have reported that the presence of polar spots results in a systematic overestimate of R by a few per cent when eclipses are interpreted with a standard code. In a star where spots cover a fraction f of the surface area, we find that the revised R and L for CM Dra A can be fitted within the error bars by varying the parameter α. The latter is often assumed to be reduced by the presence of magnetic fields, although the reduction in α as a function of B is difficult to quantify. An alternative magnetic effect, namely inhibition of the onset of convection, can be readily quantified in terms of a magnetic parameter δ≈B2/4

  8. Sampling depth of soil moisture content by radiometric measurement at 21 cm wavelength: some experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pampaloni, P.; Paloscia, S.; Chiarantini, L.; Coppo, P.; Gagliani, S.; Luzi, G.

    1990-01-01

    The thickness of soil layer, through which moisture can be directly estimated by means of a microwave radiometer, has been investigated experimentally on a test area in Central Italy by means of airborne sensors. Aircraft remote sensing data, collected on agricultural bare and vegetated fields during the growth stage of vegetation (May-July 1988), have shown that L band microwave emission is correlated to the average moisture of the first 20 cm of soil under the surface. However, correlation between moisture at difference depths makes the identification of the actual sampling depth difficult

  9. Structure and electrical properties of Mn-modified Pb((Zn1/3Nb2/3)0.20 (Zr0.50Ti0.50)0.80)O3 ceramics sintered in a protective powder atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Y.D.; Cui, B.; Zhu, M.K.; Wang, H.; Wang, B.; Yan, H.; Tian, C.S.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of PbO atmosphere on structure and electrical properties of Mn-modified Pb((Zn 1/3 Nb 2/3 ) 0.20 (Zr 0.50 Ti 0.50 ) 0.80 )O 3 ceramics were investigated. Specimens were prepared with and without a PbZrO 3 protective ambient, by columbite two-stage process in a temperature region from 1050 to 1200 deg. C. The results indicated that PbZrO 3 powder is favored to the liquid-state sintering process of specimens in PbO vapor pressure equilibrium. The specimens sintered with PbZrO 3 powder showed the homogenous and intergranular microstructure; whereas, the specimens sintered without PbZrO 3 powder demonstrated the inhomogenous and transgranular microstructure. Without protective PbZrO 3 powder, the flow of PbO from the compact to the exterior resulted in the formation of amorphous phase in grain boundaries, which deteriorated the electric properties seriously. By the use of PbO protective atmosphere, the excellent piezoelectric and dielectric properties (Q m = 1160, tan δ = 0.004, K p =0.54) were obtained at 1100 deg. C for 2 h

  10. Average and local atomic-scale structure in BaZrxTi(1-x)O3 (x = 0. 10, 0.20, 0.40) ceramics by high-energy x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscaglia, Vincenzo; Tripathi, Saurabh; Petkov, Valeri; Dapiaggi, Monica; Deluca, Marco; Gajović, Andreja; Ren, Yang

    2014-02-12

    High-resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and total scattering XRD coupled to atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis studies of the atomic-scale structure of archetypal BaZrxTi(1-x)O3 (x = 0.10, 0.20, 0.40) ceramics are presented over a wide temperature range (100-450 K). For x = 0.1 and 0.2 the results reveal, well above the Curie temperature, the presence of Ti-rich polar clusters which are precursors of a long-range ferroelectric order observed below TC. Polar nanoregions (PNRs) and relaxor behaviour are observed over the whole temperature range for x = 0.4. Irrespective of ceramic composition, the polar clusters are due to locally correlated off-centre displacement of Zr/Ti cations compatible with local rhombohedral symmetry. Formation of Zr-rich clusters is indicated by Raman spectroscopy for all compositions. Considering the isovalent substitution of Ti with Zr in BaZrxTi1-xO3, the mechanism of formation and growth of the PNRs is not due to charge ordering and random fields, but rather to a reduction of the local strain promoted by the large difference in ion size between Zr(4+) and Ti(4+). As a result, non-polar or weakly polar Zr-rich clusters and polar Ti-rich clusters are randomly distributed in a paraelectric lattice and the long-range ferroelectric order is disrupted with increasing Zr concentration.

  11. In situ examination of oxygen non-stoichiometry in La0.80Sr0.20CoO3−δ thin films at intermediate and low temperatures by x-ray diffraction

    KAUST Repository

    Biegalski, M. D.

    2014-04-21

    Structural evolution of epitaxial La0.80Sr 0.20CoO3-δ thin films under chemical and voltage stimuli was examined in situ using X-ray diffraction. The changes in lattice parameter (chemical expansivity) were used to quantify oxygen reduction reaction processes and vacancy concentration changes in lanthanum strontium cobaltite. At 550 °C, the observed lattice parameter reduction at an applied bias of -0.6 V was equivalent to that from the reducing condition of a 2% carbon monoxide atmosphere with an oxygen non-stoichiometry δ of 0.24. At lower temperatures (200 °C), the application of bias reduced the sample much more effectively than a carbon monoxide atmosphere and induced an oxygen non-stoichiometry δ of 0.47. Despite these large changes in oxygen concentration, the epitaxial thin film was completely re-oxidized and no signs of crystallinity loss or film amorphization were observed. This work demonstrates that the effects of oxygen evolution and reduction can be examined with applied bias at low temperatures, extending the ability to probe these processes with in-situ analytical techniques. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  12. Water Transport and the Evolution of CM Parent Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, R.; Cohen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Extraterrestrial water-bearing minerals are of great importance both for understanding the formation and evolution of the solar system and for supporting future human activities in space. Asteroids are the primary source of meteorites, many of which show evidence of an early heating episode and varying degrees of aqueous alteration. The origin and characterization of hydrated minerals (minerals containing H2O or OH) among both the main-belt and near-earth asteroids is important for understanding a wide range of solar system formation and evolutionary processes, as well as for planning for human exploration. Current hypotheses postulate asteroids began as mixtures of water ice and anhydrous silicates. A heating event early in solar system history was then responsible for melting the ice and driving aqueous alteration. The link between asteroids and meteorites is forged by reflectance spectra, which show 3-µm bands indicative of bound OH or H2O on the C-class asteroids, which are believed to be the parent bodies of the carbonaceous chondrites in our collections. The conditions at which aqueous alteration occurred in the parent bodies of carbonaceous chondrites are thought to be well-constrained: at 0-25 C for less than 15 Myr after asteroid formation. In previous models, many scenarios exhibit peak temperatures of the rock and co-existing liquid water in more than 75 percent of the asteroid's volume rising to 150 C and higher, due to the exothermic hydration reactions triggering a thermal runaway effect. However, even in a high porosity, water-saturated asteroid very limited liquid water flow is predicted (distances of 100's nm at most). This contradiction has yet to be resolved. Still, it may be possible for water to become liquid even in the near-surface environment, for a long enough time to drive aqueous alteration before vaporizing or freezing then subliming. Thus, we are using physics- and chemistry-based models that include thermal and fluid transport as well

  13. OPTIMASI DAN PEMEKATAN LIPASE Bacillus halodurans CM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Aisyah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Lipase diketahui memiliki peranan penting dalam bidang industri. Produksi lipase dapat dihasilkan oleh kapang, khamir, dan bakteri. Penelitian bertujuan untuk meningkatkan aktivitas lipase yang dihasilkan oleh Bacillus halodurans CM1. Aktivitas lipase dapat ditingkatkan dengan optimasi komposisi media, mutasi bakteri dengan radiasi gamma dan N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG. Enzim yang dihasilkan dipekatkan dengan metode stirred-cell ultrafiltration (UF-ammonium sulfat dan UF-Polyethylene glycol (PEG. Uji aktivitas dilakukan pada tujuh media yang berbeda untuk mendapatkan media produksi. Delapan variabel komposisi media dioptimasi dengan rancangan Plackett-Burman. Bakteri dimutasi dengan radiasi gamma dosis 0,1–0,4 kGy dan NTG 0,05–0,15 mg/mL dengan waktu inkubasi 1–3 jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa media produksi yang digunakan berdasarkan optimasi media dan komposisi media Plackett-Burman adalah media dasar Bora & Bora yang mengandung 0,5% palm oil (PO dan 0,09% CaCl2. Aktivitas lipase optimal diproduksi oleh bakteri hasil mutasi dengan NTG 0,1 mg/mL yang diinkubasi selama 3 jam. Pemekatan enzim UF-ammonium sulfat dan UF-PEG mampu meningkatkan aktivitas enzim lipase sebesar 18,44%.  Abstract Lipase is known to have an important role in the industrial field. Lipase can be produced by molds, yeasts, and bacteria. The research aimed to increase the activity of lipase produced by Bacillus halodurans CM1. Lipase activity can be improved by optimization of the composition of the media, the mutation of bacteria with gamma radiation and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG. The enzyme was concentrated by stirred-cell ultrafiltration method (UF-ammonium sulfate and UF-Polyethylene glycol (PEG. The activity test was performed on seven different media to get production media. The eight variables of the media composition were optimized by Plackett-Burman design. The bacteria were subject to mutation by using 0.1–0

  14. Physics with linear colliders in the tev CM energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulos, F.; Cook, V.; Hinchliffe, I.; Lane, K.; Pellet, D.; Perl, M.; Seiden, A.; Wiedemann, H.

    1982-01-01

    It may well be that the e/sup +/e/sup -/ physics beyond PEP and PETRA and up to 200 GeV CM energy will deal primarily with the verification of the standard model (SM) of weak and electromagnetic interactions. Various theoretical and experimental studies at workshops for contemplated accelerators (SLC, LEP I, Z 0 ) have assumed this. Beyond 200 GeV the picture is less clear. The absence of theoretical models with strong predictions comparable to the SM adds to the difficulty. In addition, the experimental verification of the SM itself is yet to come, and one is forced to make certain assumptions about the outcome. The following assumptions are made: Z 0 , W/sup +-/, light higgs (if M/sub H/ < 100 GeV) have all been discovered. The t quark has been discovered if its mass is < 100 GeV. QCD is basically the correct theory of the strong interactions. With these assumptions, the authors have produced an updated table of possible physics in the TeV region. This table was used as the basis for the study of specific physics. It contains best estimates of cross-section, promising signatures for final states, and some helpful comments

  15. ANALISIS SERAPAN KEBISINGAN DENGAN PEMASANGAN ROCK WOOL KETEBALAN 5 CM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono S Huboyo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The noise affects to working quality at the same degree as those to workforce and people health, therefore,appropriate noise control is indispensable. This study is aimed at evaluating of rockwool (5cm absorptioncoefficient and analyzing its effectivity on noise control. The room for simulation is equipped with known noisesource. In this case a sound system instrument and portable fire pump were used. The tested noise frequencieswere in the range of human hearing threshold for which an equalizer instrument was used to identify the soundfrequencies.Based on this study, the rockwool absorption coefficients were 0.8, 0.96, 0.98, 0.82 for sound frequency of 500Hz, 1000 Hz, 2000 Hz and 4000 Hz respectively. By installing the rockwool on 37.97% of room area of 72 m2,this rockwool was able to reduce the noise intensity by 10.16 dBA, 10.75 dBA, 10.5 dBA, 9.58 dBA, 9.25 dBA forfrequency of 500 Hz, 1000 Hz, 2000 Hz, 4000 Hz and multiple frequencies respectively.The rockwool is an effective sound absorber in noise control owing to have high absorption coefficient (almostunity and ease for installment.

  16. Oxygen vacancy induced electrical conduction and room temperature ferromagnetism in system BaSn1‑x Ni x O3 (0  ⩽  x  ⩽  0.20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Upendra; Jawed Ansaree, Md; Verma, Atul Kumar; Upadhyay, Shail; Gupta, Govind

    2017-11-01

    Powder and ceramics of few compositions of BaSn1‑x Ni x O3 (with x  =  0, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20) have been prepared bysolid-state reaction route. Synthesized samples have been characterized using XRD, FTIR, SEM and XPS techniques. XPS studies have shown that all samples contain a significant number of oxygen vacancies (VO), Ba is present in the Ba2+ state, Sn is present in both Sn2+ and Sn4+ states and Ni exists mainly in the Ni2+ state. The AC conductivity spectra of all compositions followed universal Johnscher’s power law and the time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP). Above 300 °C conduction in these samples is governed by long-range diffusion of doubly ionized oxygen vacancies (VO\\centerdot \\centerdot ). M-H loop at room temperature shows that undoped BaSnO3 is ferromagnetic with saturation magnetization (M s) ~ 5.46  ×  10‑3 emu g‑1 and coercive field (H c) ~ 540 Oe, due to spins of electrons trapped in oxygen vacancies (F-center) and direct interaction between F-centers. Ni-doped samples exhibit both ferromagnetic and paramagnetic behavior and paramagnetic contribution increases with doping concentration. The room temperature magnetic parameters have been extracted by fitting the experimental data to the bound magnetic polaron (BMP) model. The saturation magnetization increases whereas coercive field decrease with increasing concentration of dopant (Ni).

  17. A 55 cm{sup 2} cylindrical silicon drift detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holl, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Rehak, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Ceretto, F. [Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Faschingbauer, U. [Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Wurm, J.P. [Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Castoldi, A. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Departimento di Fisica, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gatti, E. [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. da Vinci, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    1996-08-01

    AZTEC, a large area cylindrical silicon drift detector was designed, produced and tested. AZTEC will be the building block of the NA45 and WA98 micro vertex detectors at CERN. Two AZTEC detectors are placed down stream from the target to measure trajectories of charged particles produced in the forward direction. The active area of AZTEC is practically the full usable surface of a 100 mm diameter wafer. The electrons drift radially from the center towards the outside. The sensing anodes are located at a radius of 42 mm. The center of the wafer is cut out and forms a passage for the noninteracting beam. With a minimal radius for this hole the active region of the drift detector starts at an inner radius of 3.1 mm. Any larger radius can be selected if necessary. With this geometry and a typical operating voltage the maximum drift time is less than 4 {mu}s. Due to constrains in the mask layout the readout region and field electrodes are designed along the 360 sides of a symmetric polygon. All structures on one surface of the wafer are rotated by 0.5 with respect to the other surface. In the middle plane of the detector, where the electrons are mostly transported, the effective geometry is close to a smoothed polygon with 720 sides, cancelling practically all effects of the non-perfect cylindrical symmetry. The radial position of fast charged particles is measured by the electron drift time within the detector. The drift velocity can be monitored by 48 injection points at three different radii. The azimuthal angle is measured by the 360 readout anodes. Each anode is subdivided into five segments, which are interlaced with the neighbouring anodes. By this methode the azimuthal resolution is improved and corresponds to a 720 channel read out. (orig.).

  18. Effect of Heating/Hydratation on Compacted Bentonite: Tests in 60-cm Long Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, M. V.; Fernandez, A. M.; Martin, P. L.; Barcala, J. M.; Gomez-Espina, R.; Rivas, P.

    2008-07-01

    The conditions of the bentonite in an engineered barrier for high-level radioactive waste disposal have been simulated in a series of tests. Cylindrical cells with an inner length of 60 cm and a diameter of 7 cm were constructed. Inside the cells, blocks of compacted FEBEX bentonite were put one on top of the other. the bottom surface of the material was heated at 100 degree centigree and the top surface was injected with granitic water. the duration of the tests was 0.5, 1,2 and 7,6 years. The temperatures and water intake were measured during the tests and, at the end, the cells were dismounted and the dry density, water content, mineralogy, geochemistry and some hydro-mechanical properties of the clay (permeability, swelling) were measured at different positions. the values obtained are compared among them and to those of the untreated FEBEX bentonite. The study has run over for 10 years in the context of the projects FEBEX I and II and NF-PRO. (Author) 50 refs.

  19. Seasonal Evolution of Titan's South Pole 220 cm-1 Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Donald

    2016-06-01

    A cloud of ices that had been seen only in Titan's north during winter began to emerge at the south pole in 2012. Discovered by Voyager IRIS as an emission feature at 220 cm-1, the cloud has been studied extensively in both the north and south by Cassini CIRS. The spectral feature acts as a tracer of the seasonal changes at Titan's poles, relating to evolving composition, temperature structure and dynamics. Although candidates have been proposed, the chemical makeup of the cloud has never been identified. The cloud is composed of condensates derived from gases created at high altitude and transported to the cold, shadowed pole. In the north the cloud has diminished gradually over the Cassini mission as Titan has transitioned from winter to spring. The southern cloud, on the other hand, grew rapidly after 2012. By late 2014 it had developed a complex ring structure that was confined to latitudes poleward of 70°S within the deep temperature well that had formed at the south pole [1]. The location of the cloud coincides in latitude with the HCN cloud reported by ISS and VIMS [2,3]. CIRS also saw enhanced gas emissions at those latitudes [4]. When it first formed, the cloud was abundant at altitudes as high as 250 km, while later it was found mostly at 100-150 km, suggesting that the material that had been deposited from above had gathered at the lower altitudes. Radiance from the southern cloud increased until mid-2015 and since then has decreased. The cloud may be transitioning to the more uniform hood morphology familiar in the north. Taking the north and south together, by the end of the Cassini mission in 2017 we will have observed almost an entire seasonal cycle of the ice cloud.

  20. Contributing to CMIP5 with CNRM-CM5: model evaluation and simulated climate future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas y Melia, D.; Sanchez, E.; Decharme, B.; Fernandez, E.; Cassou, C.; Chevallier, M.; Geoffroy, O.; Senési, S.; Voldoire, A.

    2011-12-01

    In order to produce long-term and near-term simulations for CMIP5, CNRM-CM version 5 was developed jointly by CNRM and Cerfacs (Toulouse, France). This new global coupled climate model is based on the ocean-atmosphere core formed by the most up-to-date versions of NEMO and ARPEGE-Climat. Surface-atmosphere exchanges, sea ice and river routing are respectively represented by SURFEX v5, Gelato v5 and TRIP models. The atmospheric component of CNRM-CM5 has 31 levels and a horizontal resolution of 1.4°, and the ocean has 42 levels and a horizontal resolution of 1°. This new model includes many developments compared to CNRM-CM3 (CMIP3 version), particularly in ocean, sea ice and surface modelling. 9000 years of long-term simulations were performed with CNRM-CM5 in the framework of CMIP5, and were made available on the ESG network for analysis. This contribution to CMIP5 consists of an 850-year control experiment, a 30-member set of simulations of the 1850-2012 period, future climate simulations (including a 5-member set of RCP8.5 simulations), and sensitivity simulations specified by CMIP5. Preliminary analyses of the simulations show that the model temperature drift is much reduced in preindustrial control (about 0.03K/century, compared to -0.1K/century for CNRM-CM3). Many aspects of the simulated mean climate of the late 20th century (1970-1999) are improved in CNRM-CM5 compared to CNRM-CM3. In particularly, sea-level pressure, near surface temperature and ocean dynamics and Arctic sea ice are more realistic in CNRM-CM5 than in CNRM-CM3. However, precipitation biases tend to persist in many regions, and the simulated Antarctic sea ice cover has not improved. Global mean temperature changes over the 20th century are now well simulated by the model. Some variability patterns, like NAO, PDO and ENSO, as well as teleconnections (tropics/extratropics, ENSO/African and Indian monsoons) also appear to be fairly realistic. However, some radiative biases tend to persist in

  1. Am/Cm canister temperature evaluation in CIM5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baich, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    To facilitate the evaluation of alternate canister designs, 2 canisters were outfitted with thermocouples at elevations of 1/2, 3 1/2, and 6 1/2 inches from the canister bottom. The canisters were fabricated from two inch diameter schedule 10 and two inch diameter schedule 40 stainless steel pipe. Each canister was filled with approximately 2 kilograms of 49 wt percent lanthanide (Ln) loaded 25SrABS glass during 5 inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM5) runs for TTR Tasks 3.03 and 4.03. Melter temperature, total mass of glass poured, and the glass pour rates were almost identical in both runs. The schedule 40 canister has a slightly smaller ID compared to the schedule 10 canister and therefore filled to a level of 9.5 inches compared to 8.0 inches for the schedule 40 canister. The schedule 40 canister had an empty mass of 1906 grams compared to 919 grams for the schedule 10 canister. The schedule 10 canister was found to have a higher maximum surface temperature by about 50--100 C (depending on height) during the glass pour compared to the schedule 40 canister. The additional thermal mass of the schedule 40 canister accounts for this difference. Once filled with glass, each of the canisters cooled at about the same rate, taking about an hour to cool below a maximum surface temperature of 200 C. No significant deformation of the either of the canisters was visually observed

  2. The CNRM-CM5.1 global climate model: description and basic evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voldoire, A.; Sanchez-Gomez, E.; Salas y Mélia, D.; Decharme, B.; Cassou, C.; Sénési, S.; Valcke, S.; Beau, I.; Alias, A.; Chevallier, M.; Déqué, M.; Deshayes, J.; Douville, H.; Fernandez, E.; Madec, G.; Maisonnave, E.; Moine, M.-P.; Planton, S.; Saint-Martin, D.; Szopa, S.; Tyteca, S.; Alkama, R.; Belamari, S.; Braun, A.; Coquart, L.; Chauvin, F.

    2013-05-01

    A new version of the general circulation model CNRM-CM has been developed jointly by CNRM-GAME (Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques—Groupe d'études de l'Atmosphère Météorologique) and Cerfacs (Centre Européen de Recherche et de Formation Avancée) in order to contribute to phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). The purpose of the study is to describe its main features and to provide a preliminary assessment of its mean climatology. CNRM-CM5.1 includes the atmospheric model ARPEGE-Climat (v5.2), the ocean model NEMO (v3.2), the land surface scheme ISBA and the sea ice model GELATO (v5) coupled through the OASIS (v3) system. The main improvements since CMIP3 are the following. Horizontal resolution has been increased both in the atmosphere (from 2.8° to 1.4°) and in the ocean (from 2° to 1°). The dynamical core of the atmospheric component has been revised. A new radiation scheme has been introduced and the treatments of tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols have been improved. Particular care has been devoted to ensure mass/water conservation in the atmospheric component. The land surface scheme ISBA has been externalised from the atmospheric model through the SURFEX platform and includes new developments such as a parameterization of sub-grid hydrology, a new freezing scheme and a new bulk parameterisation for ocean surface fluxes. The ocean model is based on the state-of-the-art version of NEMO, which has greatly progressed since the OPA8.0 version used in the CMIP3 version of CNRM-CM. Finally, the coupling between the different components through OASIS has also received a particular attention to avoid energy loss and spurious drifts. These developments generally lead to a more realistic representation of the mean recent climate and to a reduction of drifts in a preindustrial integration. The large-scale dynamics is generally improved both in the atmosphere and in the ocean, and the bias in mean surface temperature

  3. Field-induced strain and polarization response in lead-free Bi{sub 1/2}(Na{sub 0.80}K{sub 0.20}){sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}–SrZrO{sub 3} ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Ali; Rahman, Jamil Ur; Zaman, Arif [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Changwon National University, Gyeongnam 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Malik, Rizwan Ahmed [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Soo; Song, Tae Kwon [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Changwon National University, Gyeongnam 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won Jeong [Department of Physics, Changwon National University, Gyeongnam 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myong Ho, E-mail: mkim@changwon.ac.kr [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Changwon National University, Gyeongnam 641-773 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-14

    The structure, field-induced strain, polarization and dielectric response of lead-free SrZrO{sub 3}-modified Bi{sub 1/2}(Na{sub 0.80}K{sub 0.20}){sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} (abbreviated as BNKT–SZ100x, with x = 0–0.05) ceramics were investigated. The X-ray diffraction analysis of BNKT–SZ100x ceramics reveals no remarkable change in the crystal structure within the studied composition range. Around critical composition (x = 0.03) at a driving field of 6 kV mm{sup −1}, large unipolar strain of 0.37% (S{sub max}/E{sub max} = 617) was obtained at room temperature. The ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of BNKT ceramics were significantly increased at 2 mol%. At x = 0.02, remnant polarization reached a maximum value of 34 μC cm{sup −2}, while the piezoelectric constant (d{sub 33}) attained maximum value of 190 pC/N. These results indicate that BNKT–SZ100x ceramics can be considered as promising candidate materials for lead-free piezoelectric actuator applications. - Highlights: • BNKT–SZ ceramics were synthesized by a conventional solid state reaction process. • Field-induced strain and piezoelectric constant were increased at critical composition. • BNKT–SZ100x ceramics at x = 0.03 exhibit a large field induced dynamic piezoelectric coefficient. • BNKT–SZ100x ceramics at x = 0.02 exhibit a high static piezoelectric constant. • The depolarization temperature of BNKT–SZ100x ceramics decrease with increase in SZ content.

  4. Influence of synchrotron self-absorption on 21-cm experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qian; Wu, Xiang-Ping; Gu, Jun-Hua; Wang, Jingying; Xu, Haiguang

    2012-08-01

    The presence of spectral curvature resulting from the synchrotron self-absorption of extragalactic radio sources could break down the spectral smoothness feature. This leads to the premise that the bright radio foreground can be successfully removed in 21-cm experiments that search for the epoch of reionization (EoR). We present a quantitative estimate of the effect of the spectral curvature resulting from the synchrotron self-absorption of extragalactic radio sources on the measurement of the angular power spectrum of the low-frequency sky. We incorporate a phenomenological model, which is characterized by the fraction (f) of radio sources with turnover frequencies in the range of 100-1000 MHz and by a broken power law for the spectral transition around the turnover frequencies νm, into simulated radio sources over a small sky area of 10° × 10°. We compare statistically the changes in their residual maps with and without the inclusion of the synchrotron self-absorption of extragalactic radio sources after the bright sources of S150 MHz ≥100 mJy are excised. Furthermore, the best-fitting polynomials in the frequency domain on each pixel are subtracted. It has been shown that the effect of synchrotron self-absorption on the detection of the EoR depends sensitively on the spectral profiles of the radio sources around the turnover frequencies νm. A hard transition model, described by the broken power law with the turnover of spectral index at νm, would leave pronounced imprints on the residual background and would therefore cause serious confusion with the cosmic EoR signal. However, the spectral signatures on the angular power spectrum of the extragalactic foreground, generated by a soft transition model in which the rising and falling power laws of the spectral distribution around νm are connected through a smooth transition spanning ≥200 MHz in a characteristic width, can be fitted and consequently subtracted by the use of polynomials to an acceptable

  5. Performance of RegCM4 over major river basins in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuejie; Shi, Ying; Han, Zhenyu; Wang, Meili; Wu, Jia; Zhang, Dongfeng; Xu, Ying; Giorgi, Filippo

    2017-04-01

    A long-term simulation for the period 1990-2010 is conducted with the latest version of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics' Regional Climate Model (RegCM4), driven by ERA-Interim boundary conditions at a grid spacing of 25 km. The Community Land Model (CLM) is used to describe land surface processes, with updates in the surface parameters, including the land cover and surface emissivity. The simulation is compared against observations to evaluate the model performance in reproducing the present day climatology and interannual variability over the 10 main river basins in China, with focus on surface air temperature and precipitation. Temperature and precipitation from the ERA-Interim reanalysis are also considered in the model assessment. Results show that the model reproduces the present day climatology over China and its main river basins, with better performances in June-July-August compared to December-January-February (DJF). In DJF, we find a warm bias at high latitudes, underestimated precipitation in the south, and overestimated precipitation in the north. The model in general captures the observed interannual variability, with greater skill for temperature. We also find an underestimation of heavy precipitation events in eastern China, and an underestimation of consecutive dry days in northern China and the Tibetan Plateau. Similar biases for both mean climatology and extremes are found in the ERA-Interim reanalysis, indicating the difficulties for climate models in simulating extreme monsoon climate events over East Asia.

  6. Effects of modified soil water-heat physics on RegCM4 simulations of climate over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejia; Pang, Guojin; Yang, Meixue; Wan, Guoning

    2016-06-01

    To optimize the description of land surface processes and improve climate simulations over the Tibetan Plateau (TP), a modified soil water-heat parameterization scheme (SWHPS) is implemented into the Community Land Model 3.5 (CLM3.5), which is coupled to the regional climate model 4 (RegCM4). This scheme includes Johansen's soil thermal conductivity scheme together with Niu's groundwater module. Two groups of climate simulations are then performed using the original RegCM4 and revised RegCM4 to analyze the effects of the revised SWHPS on regional climate simulations. The effect of the revised RegCM4 on simulated air temperature is relatively small (with mean biases changing by less than 0.1°C over the TP). There are overall improvements in the simulation of winter and summer air temperature but increased errors in the eastern TP. It has a significant effect on simulated precipitation. There is also a clear improvement in simulated annual and winter precipitation, particularly over the northern TP, including the Qilian Mountains and the source region of the Yellow River. There are, however, increased errors in precipitation simulation in parts of the southern TP. The precipitation difference between the two models is caused mainly by their convective precipitation difference, particularly in summer. Overall, the implementation of the new SWHPS into the RegCM4 has a significant effect not only on land surface variables but also on the overlying atmosphere through various physical interactions.

  7. Enhanced MRI of breast cancer smaller than 3 cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yukio; Yoshida, Shouji; Narabayashi, Isamu

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-two patients with breast cancers were studied using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with a cylindrical surface coil at 1.5 Tesla. All were examined with the FE sequence and Gd-DTPA as a contrast medium. These images were compared with micrographs of the specimens. All cancers were enhanced clearly, and demarcated margins or spiculations of the tumors were seen as clearly on MR images as on micrographs of the specimens. In 12 patients (9 carcinomas, 2 fibroadenomas and 1 benign phyllodes tumor), dynamic studies were performed after the intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA. All nine carcinomas showed enhancement characterized by a sudden increase in signal intensity on the order of 100% or more with the first 2 minutes after injection. Two fibroadenomas were enhanced slowly. Thirteen patients with breast cancers were examined with several sequences (FE, T 1 -weighted SE, T 2 -weighted SE and STIR) with or without Gd-DTPA. The most clearly delineated images of the tumors were those of FE images with Gd-DTPA enhancement. A phantom constituted of various concentrations of Gd-DTPA in 20% albumin solution was measured by signal intensities with T 1 -weighted SE sequence and FE sequence. The ratio of enhancement of the 20% albumin solution relative to the Gd-DTPA concentration was higher with the FE sequence than with the SE sequence. The sensitivity of the FE sequence to Gd-DTPA enhancement was 1.5 times that of the SE sequence under the usual concentration of Gd-DTPA. (author)

  8. Millisest kontekstist pärineb Tallinna Linnaarhiivi käsikiri Cm3? / Meelis Friedenthal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Friedenthal, Meelis, 1973-

    2008-01-01

    Käsikirja varasemast uurimisest. Cm3 lühikirjeldus. Cm3 dateerimisvõimalustest. Kopeeritud on tekstid tõenäoliselt 14. sajandi lõpus 15. sajandi alguses ja pärinevad Kesk-Euroopast või Skandinaaviast. Cm3 ja Cm4 võrdlus. Mõlemaid raamatuid kasutasid tõenäoliselt Tallinna dominiiklased

  9. New 20-cm radio-continuum study of the Small Magellanic Cloud, part II: Point sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong G.F.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new catalogue of radio-continuum sources in the field of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC. This catalogue contains sources previously not found in 2370 MHz (λ=13 cm with sources found at 1400 MHz (λ=20 cm and 843 MHz (λ=36 cm. 45 sources have been detected at 13 cm, with 1560 sources at 20 cm created from new high sensitivity and resolution radio-continuum images of the SMC at 20 cm from paper I. We also created a 36 cm catalogue to which we listed 1689 radio-continuum sources.

  10. Nitrogen-enriched carbon electrodes in electrochemical capacitors: investigating accessible porosity using CM-SANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Anthony J R; Hall, Peter J

    2013-10-21

    Carbon electrochemical capacitor electrodes containing nitrogen groups were studied with respect to their electrochemical behaviour, chemical composition and physical characteristics. Thermal treatment of nitrogen-enriched carbon materials in different atmospheres was used to control the specific type and concentration of nitrogen groups present, while importantly retaining similar pore size distributions. Pyridinic nitrogen is shown to be most likely responsible for increased values of surface area normalized specific capacitance, although the mechanisms by which this occurs are poorly understood. Contrast matched-small angle neutron scattering (CM-SANS) was employed to probe the electrode porosity accessible to an electrolyte and indicates that there is no appreciable difference between the materials studied. Cyclic Voltammetry showed no evidence of electrode reactions occurring over the operating potential range. Therefore a greater amount of charge is displaced at pyridinic sites during the charge-discharge process. This may occur due to a specific adsorption mechanism, coupled with enhanced electron conductivity through the carbon matrix.

  11. Preparation of a Kiln Drying Schedule for Poplar (Populus nigra Lumber of 5 cm Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Rahimi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish a kiln drying schedule for Poplar (Populus nigra lumbers of 5 cm thickness commercially cut from Taleghan region, three schedules, namely T8-F4, T8-F5 and T9-F4 were adopted to dry the lumbers to the final moisture content of 11 ± 2%.  Dry bulb temperatures for the schedules were adjusted at 54, 54 and 60 °C, while the final dry-bulb temperatures were adjusted at 82, 82 and 71 °C, respectively. The severity of surface, internal checks and warp in the lumbers were measured before and after the drying process and quality control methods were used to analyze wood defects. Results indicated that drying of Poplar lumber using each of the three schedules was satisfactory; however, the third schedule (T9-F4 resulted in better drying quality than did the others. Also, equalizing of lumbers for 24h is recommended.

  12. Cohesion of Mm- to Cm-Sized Asteroid Simulant Grains: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisset, Julie; Colwell, Joshua E.; Dove, Adrienne; Jarmak, Stephanie; Anderson, Seamus

    2017-10-01

    The regolith covering the surfaces of asteroids and planetary satellites is very different from terrestrial soil particles and subject to environmental conditions very different from what is found on Earth. The loose, unconsolidated granular material has angular-shaped grains and a broad size distribution. On small and airless bodies (5g, g being the Earth surface gravity, the cohesion behavior of the regolith grains will dictate the asteroid’s surface morphology and its response to impact or spacecraft contact.Previous laboratory experiments on low-velocity impacts into regolith simulant with grain sizes <250 µm have revealed a transition of the grain behavior from a gravity-dominated regime to a cohesion-dominated regime when the local gravity level reaches values below 10-3g. This is in good agreement with analytical and simulation studies for these grain sizes. From the expected grain sizes at the surfaces of Ryugu and Bennu, we have now focused on larger grain sizes ranging from mm to cm. We have carried out a series of experiments to study the cohesion behavior of such larger grains of asteroid regolith simulant. The simulant used was CI Orgueil of Deep Space Industries. Experiments included laboratory tabletop avalanching, compression and shear force measurements, as well as low-velocity impacts under microgravity.Our goal is to determine if the grain size distribution has an influence on the cohesion behavior of the regolith and if we can validate numerical simulation results with experimental measurements. We will discuss the implications of our results for sample return or landing missions to small bodies such as asteroids or Martian moons.

  13. Solvation effects on isomeric preferences of curium(iii) complexes with multidentate phosphonopropionic acid ligands: CmH(2)PPA(2+) and CmHPPA(+) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhiji; Balasubramanian, K; Calvert, Michael G; Nitsche, Heino

    2009-10-19

    We have carried out both time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopic and computational studies on the complexes of curium(III) with multidentate Phosphonopropionic (PPA) acid ligands. A number of complexes of Cm(III) with these ligands, such as CmH(2)PPA(2+), CmHPPA(+), Cm[H(2)PPA](2)(+), and Cm[HPPA](2)(-) have been studied. Our computational studies focused on all possible isomers in the gas phase and aqueous solution so that the relative binding strengths of carboxylic versus phosphoric groups can be assessed in these multidentate systems. The solvation effects play an important role in the determination of the preferred configurations and binding propensities of carboxylate versus phosphate sites of the ligands. Our computations assess the relative strengths of single and multidentate complexes in solutions for these systems. The computed free energies of solvation explain the experimentally observed fluorescence spectra and the lifetimes of these complexes in that as more water molecules are displaced from the first hydration sphere by the ligands that bind to Cm(III), the fluorescence lifetime increases. We have found that the most stable complex for CmH(2)PPA(2+) in the aqueous phase exhibits a monodentate complex where the curium(III) is bound to the deprotonated phosphate oxygen atom. Our computations support the observed longer fluorescence lifetime of CmH(2)PPA(2+) (112 mus) compared to the free Cm(III) aquo ion (65 mus), suggesting a greater degree of H(2)O displacement from the hydration sphere. For the Cm-HPPA(+) complex, we find a tridentate form as the most stable structure which supports the observed fluorescence lifetime for the CmHPPA(+) complex (172 mus), confirming the removal of up to six water molecules from the inner hydration sphere. The relative stabilities of the complexes are found to vary substantially between the gas phase and solution, indicating a major role of solvation in the relative stabilities of these complexes.

  14. SUMO mediating fusion expression of antimicrobial peptide CM4 from two joined genes in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian Feng; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Zhen; Kang, Chun Tao; Zhang, Shuang Quan

    2011-01-01

    Antibacterial peptide CM4 (ABP-CM4) is a small cationic peptide with broad-spectrum activities against bacteria, fungi, and tumor cells, which may possibly be used as an antimicrobial agent. To improve the expression level of CM4 in Escherichia coli, two tandem repeats of CM4 genes were cloned into the vector pSUMO to construct an expression vector pSUMO-2CM4. The fusion protein SUMO-2CM4, purified by Ni(2+)-chelating chromatography, was cleaved by hydroxylamine hydrochloride to release recombinant CM4. After the cleaved sample was re-applied to a Ni-IDA column, finally, about 48 mg recombinant CM4 was obtained from 1 L bacterial culture with no less than 96% purity, which was the highest yield of CM4 reported so far.

  15. Investigation of electrodes under flow of a submicrosecond current pulse with linear density up to 3 MA/cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branitskii, A. V.; Grabovskii, E. V.; Dzhangobegov, V. V.; Laukhin, Ya. N.; Mitrofanov, K. N.; Oleinik, G. M.; Sasorov, P. V.; Tkachenko, S. I.; Frolov, I. N.

    2016-01-01

    The states of current-carrying elements at the transmission of megaampere current into load are studied. It is determined that the expansion velocity of plasma generated at the outer surface of cylindrical tubes produced of stainless steel, at flowing through them of submicrosecond current pulses with linear density of 3 MA/cm is 5.5 km/s. The evolution of various modes of instability is analyzed.

  16. SMEX03 Surface and Soil Temperature Measurements: Alabama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains land surface temperature and soil temperature data at depths of 1 cm, 5 cm, and 10 cm collected during the Soil Moisture Experiment 2003...

  17. An Overview of the Experimental 50-cm Laser Ramjet (X-50LR) Program (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mead, Jr., Franklin B; Larson, C. W; Knecht, Sean D

    2005-01-01

    In January 2001, the X-50LR program was initiated to scale the Lightcraft concept ultimately to a 50-cm focal diameter, and to launch a 50 cm, fully functional vehicle, into space in either a sounding...

  18. An Overview of the Experimental 50-cm Laser Ramjet (X-50LR) Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mead, Jr., Franklin B; Larson, C. W; Knecht, Sean D

    2005-01-01

    In January 2001, the X-50LR program was initiated to scale the Lightcraft concept ultimately to a 50-cm focal diameter, and to launch a 50 cm, fully functional vehicle, into space in either a sounding...

  19. Above-threshold structure in {sup 244}Cm neutron-induced fission cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslov, V.M. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

    1997-03-01

    The quasi-resonance structure appearing above the fission threshold in neutron-induced fission cross section of {sup 244}Cm(n,f) is interpreted. It is shown to be due to excitation of few-quasiparticle states in fissioning {sup 245}Cm and residual {sup 244}Cm nuclides. The estimate of quasiparticle excitation thresholds in fissioning nuclide {sup 245}Cm is consistent with pairing gap and fission barrier parameters. (author)

  20. CM5: A pre-Swarm magnetic field model based upon the comprehensive modeling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaka, T.; Olsen, Nils; Tyler, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a model based upon the very successful Comprehensive Modeling (CM) approach using recent CHAMP, Ørsted, SAC-C and observatory hourly-means data from September 2000 to the end of 2013. This CM, called CM5, was derived from the algorithm that will provide a consistent line of Leve...

  1. High resolution climate simulations with the AWI Climate Model (AWI-CM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, Dmitry; Semmler, Tido; Danilov, Sergey; Rackow, Thomas; Sidorenko, Dmitry; Jung, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The ocean component of AWI-CM (FESOM) uses unstructured meshes, which allows the use of variable resolutions without traditional nesting. Due to the flexibility of unstructured meshes, one needs to carefully design meshes so that the variable resolution can most efficiently improve the simulated results with the least possible computational cost. We propose a new approach to set up variable resolution, which uses the satellite-observed sea surface height variability to determine the regions where high resolution should be assigned. This approach is verified using both idealized experiments and ocean simulations. It will also become one of the standard mesh design methods for general FESOM users. The added value of the use of the high resolution ocean model is demonstrated by two different FESOM ocean setups (LR and HR) coupled with the atmospheric model ECHAM6. LR (low resolution) employs a coarse mesh with nominal resolution of about 100 km in the global ocean, about 25 km north of 50°N, about 35 km in the equatorial band, and moderate refinement along the coasts. HR (high resolution) uses a locally eddy-resolving mesh. Its design relies on the AVISO satellite altimetry product. The coarsest resolution on this mesh is set to 60 km, and the finest resolution is 10 km. The refinement was determined by a low-pass filtered SSH variance (SSHV) pattern derived from the AVISO data. Fine resolution is obtained in regions with high SSHV, including the pathways of main currents - the Gulf Stream, Kuroshio, Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and Agulhas Current. The HR mesh contains about 1.3 million surface grid nodes, which is close to the number of nodes on a 1/4° Mercator mesh (only wet nodes are dealt with on unstructured meshes). This mesh size ensures reasonably fast simulations with available computational resources. The AWI-CM simulations with the two global ocean setups were carried out in the framework of the PRIMAVERA EU project according to the High

  2. Detectability of 21cm-signal during the Epoch of Reionization with 21cm-Lyman-$\\alpha$ emitter cross-correlation. I

    OpenAIRE

    Kubota, Kenji; Yoshiura, Shintaro; Takahashi, Keitaro; Hasegawa, Kenji; Yajima, Hidenobu; Ouchi, Masami; Pindor, B.; Webster, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    Detection of the redshifted 21cm-line signal from neutral hydrogen in the intergalactic medium (IGM) during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) is complicated by intense foregrounds such as galactic synchrotron and extragalactic radio galaxies. The 21cm-Lyman-$\\alpha$ emitter(LAE) cross-correlation is one of the tools available to reduce the foregrounds because the foreground emission from such radio sources is statistically independent of LAE distribution. LAE surveys during the EoR at redshifts...

  3. Vibrational Raman and optical studies of Cm in zirconia-based pyrochlores and related oxide matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assefa, Z.; Haire, R.G.; Raison, P.E.

    2002-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been employed to follow the phase behavior of Cm-Zr oxide materials as a function of Cm:Zr ratio. Three different structural phases, monoclinic, cubic and pyrochlore, are formed when the Cm:Zr ratio is varied from > 0 to 1. Each phase produces a distinct Raman profile in the 100-700 cm -1 spectral region. Up to 10 atom % Cm, the Raman spectra indicate that the monoclinic structure is dominant. Raman bands corresponding to the monoclinic phase are absent in samples containing 20-40 atom % Cm. Concomitantly, a band at ∼600 cm -1 broadens and increases in intensity with increasing curium content, indicating that the cubic phase is dominant in this concentration range. The pyrochlore oxide structure, which forms at 50 atom % Cm, generates three Raman bands (the center of mass are at 283, 387, 495 cm -1 ) out of six bands predicted by nuclear site group analyses. The strongest of these is at 283 cm -1 , and corresponds to the O-Cm-O bending mode. Details of these studies will be compared and discussed with data obtained for comparable systems containing selected analogous 4f-elements. (author)

  4. Tochilinite: A Sensitive Indicator of Alteration Conditions on the CM Asteroidal Parent Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, L. B.; Bourcier, W. L.

    1996-03-01

    Each CM chondrite experienced a different degree of aqueous alteration. As a group, then, these meteorites preserve tangible evidence of asteroidal reactions that were interrupted at many different stages of completion. Geochemical modeling of CM reaction progress should elucidate the nature of the accreted CM materials and the specific types of asteroidal processes and conditions that subsequently influenced them. However, most of the minerals in CM chondrites are stable under a wide range of environmental conditions, which hinders efforts to capitalize on the diverse degree of CM alteration. Petrologic evidence suggests that Fe-rich tochilinite, the widespread mineralic component of CM chondrites previously referred to as "poorly characterized phase (PCP)", may be the most sensitive indicator of the conditions of CM alteration. This possibility has not previously been explored because thermodynamic data for tochilinite are lacking. We have estimated the thermodynamic properties of tochilinite from mixing equations and then calculated its stability limits with associated non-silicate phases as a function of PS2, PO2, and PCO2. The resultant phase relations : a) are consistent with mineral association in CM chondrites, b) indicate that the CM fluids were S-depleted and extremely reducing, c) imply the possibility of H2 gas seeps on the CM parent body, and d) suggest that the alteration of CM materials occurred at significant asteroidal depths.

  5. Sensitivity of the Humboldt current system to global warming: a downscaling experiment of the IPSL-CM4 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echevin, Vincent [LOCEAN, Paris (France); Goubanova, Katerina; Dewitte, Boris [LEGOS, Toulouse (France); IMARPE, IGP, LEGOS, Lima (Peru); Belmadani, Ali [LOCEAN, Paris (France); LEGOS, Toulouse (France); University of Hawaii at Manoa, IPRC, International Pacific Research Center, SOEST, Honolulu, Hawaii (United States)

    2012-02-15

    The impact of climate warming on the seasonal variability of the Humboldt Current system ocean dynamics is investigated. The IPSL-CM4 large scale ocean circulation resulting from two contrasted climate scenarios, the so-called Preindustrial and quadrupling CO{sub 2}, are downscaled using an eddy-resolving regional ocean circulation model. The intense surface heating by the atmosphere in the quadrupling CO{sub 2} scenario leads to a strong increase of the surface density stratification, a thinner coastal jet, an enhanced Peru-Chile undercurrent, and an intensification of nearshore turbulence. Upwelling rates respond quasi-linearly to the change in wind stress associated with anthropogenic forcing, and show a moderate decrease in summer off Peru and a strong increase off Chile. Results from sensitivity experiments show that a 50% wind stress increase does not compensate for the surface warming resulting from heat flux forcing and that the associated mesoscale turbulence increase is a robust feature. (orig.)

  6. Tracking with 40*40 cm$^{2}$ MICROMEGAS detectors in the high energy, high luminosity, COMPASS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Magnon, A; Bedfer, Y; Delagnes, E; Kunne, Fabienne; Le Goff, J M; Lehár, F; Marchand, C; Mieville, A; Neyret, D; Pereira, H; Platchkov, S K; Rebourgeard, P C; Tarte, Gérard; Thers, D

    2002-01-01

    Large size 40x40 cm sup 2 gaseous microstrip MICROMEGAS detectors are used for the charged particle tracking in the COMPASS experiment at CERN. The commissioning was performed using a 160 GeV muon beam of up to 1.5x10 sup 8 particles per SPS spill. Position resolution of <=70 mu m and timing resolution of <=10 ns are achieved. A printed circuit board of 60x120 cm sup 2 surface and 100 mu m thickness allows to move the front-end electronics components outside of the spectrometer acceptance, hence keeping the amount of material within acceptance minimum. These detectors fulfill the stringent requirements of the COMPASS spectrometry.

  7. Evidence for accretion of fine-grained rims in a turbulent nebula for CM Murchison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Romy D.; Ketcham, Richard A.

    2018-01-01

    We use X-ray computed tomography (XCT) to examine the 3D morphology and spatial relationship of fine-grained rims (FGRs) of Type I chondrules in the CM carbonaceous chondrite Murchison to investigate the formation setting (nebular vs. parent body) of the FGRs. We quantify the sizes, shapes, and orientations of the chondrules and FGRs and develop a new algorithm to examine the 3D variation of FGR thickness around each chondrule. We find that the average proportion of chondrule volume contained in the rim for Murchison chondrules is 35.9%. The FGR volume in relation to the interior chondrule radius is well described by a power law function as proposed for accretion of FGRs in a weakly turbulent nebula by Cuzzi (2004). The power law exponent indicates that the rimmed chondrules behaved as Stokes number Stη > 1 nebular particles in Kolmogorov η scale turbulence. FGR composition as inferred from XCT number appears essentially uniform across interior chondrule types and compositions, making formation by chondrule alteration unlikely. We determine that the FGRs were compressed by the impact event(s) that deformed Murchison (Hanna et al., 2015), resulting in rims that are thicker in the plane of foliation but that still preserve their nebular morphological signature. Finally, we propose that the irregular shape of some chondrules in Murchison is a primary feature resulting from chondrule formation and that chondrules with a high degree of surface roughness accreted a relatively larger amount of nebular dust compared to smoother chondrules.

  8. Infrared spectroscopy of the NO3 radical from 2000 to 3000 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Kentarou; Fujimori, Ryuji; Tang, Jian; Ishiwata, Takashi

    2018-02-01

    The present paper reports high-resolution spectroscopic study of the 14NO3 radical in the 2000-3000 cm-1 region, where eight E‧-A2‧ bands from the ground state are observed. Three bands at 2206, 2246, and 2377 cm-1 are analyzed for the first time, and assigned to the ν1 + 3ν4, 2ν2 + 2ν4, and ν3 + 3ν4 bands, respectively. Bands at 2024, 2155, 2518, and 2585 cm-1 are reassigned to the ν1 + ν3, 2ν3, ν1 + ν3 + ν4, and 2ν3 + ν4 bands, respectively, by adopting the new ν3 vibrational frequency of 1055 cm-1 lower than the previous ν3 = 1492 cm-1. The band at 2902 cm-1 is observed for the first time and assigned to the ν1 + ν3 + 2ν4 band which is the ν1 combined band with the 1927 cm-1 band. Band intensities observed in the 2000-3000 cm-1 region are attributed to the intensity borrowing from the B˜2E‧ -X˜2 A2‧ electronic transition through the vibronic interaction. Although the ν3 fundamental band has not been observed due to the cancelation of vibrational intensity and borrowed intensity, the 2ν3 band becomes stronger than ν3 by a factor of more than 50. Perturbation effects are recognized for the bands observed except for the 2206 cm-1 and 2377 cm-1 bands, and are analyzed by taking into account the Coriolis interaction in the most cases. However, the 2024 cm-1 band is free from the Coriolis interaction, and the v1-v3 interaction is incorporated in the analysis, leading to the 2ν1 frequency of 2008.8 cm-1, which is close to the energy value of 2010 cm-1 observed by a laser induced fluorescence study.

  9. Adaptation and Validation of the Combined Comorbidity Score for ICD-10-CM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jenny W; Rogers, James R; Her, Qoua; Welch, Emily C; Panozzo, Catherine A; Toh, Sengwee; Gagne, Joshua J

    2017-12-01

    The combined comorbidity score, which merges the Charlson and Elixhauser comorbidity indices, uses the ninth revision of the International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). In October 2015, the United States adopted the 10th revision (ICD-10-CM). The objective of this study is to examine different coding algorithms for the ICD-10-CM combined comorbidity score and compare their performance to the original ICD-9-CM score. Four ICD-10-CM coding algorithms were defined: 2 using General Equivalence Mappings (GEMs), one based on ICD-10-CA (Canadian modification) codes for Charlson and Elixhauser measures, and one including codes from all 3 algorithms. We used claims data from the Clinfomatics Data Mart to identify 2 cohorts. The ICD-10-CM cohort comprised patients who had a hospitalization between January 1, 2016 and March 1, 2016. The ICD-9-CM cohort comprised patients who had a hospitalization between January 1, 2015 and March 1, 2015. We used logistic regression models to predict 30-day hospital readmission for the original score in the ICD-9-CM cohort and for each ICD-10-CM algorithm in the ICD-10-CM cohort. Distributions of each version of the score were similar. The algorithm based on ICD-10-CA codes [c-statistic, 0.646; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.640-0.653] had the most similar discrimination for readmission to the ICD-9-CM version (c, 0.646; 95% CI, 0.639-0.653), but combining all identified ICD-10-CM codes had the highest c-statistic (c, 0.651; 95% CI, 0.644-0.657). We propose an ICD-10-CM version of the combined comorbidity score that includes codes identified by ICD-10-CA and GEMs. Compared with the original score, it has similar performance in predicting readmission in a population of United States commercially insured individuals.

  10. Regional climate projection based on RCP scenarios in the CORDEX East Asia Domain Using RegCM4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, M. S.; Oh, S. G.; Cha, D. H.; Kang, H. S.

    2012-04-01

    Regional climate projection data is essential to the adaptation and risk management for the expected climate change. In this stduy, we reproduced regional climate over CORDEX East Asia for 72 years from 1979 to 2050 with 50-km resolution using the latest regional climate model version 4, RegCM4, driven by HadGEM2-AO with about 135-km resolution under Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5/4.5. Simulation skills of RegCM4 for the present climate (1980-2005, spin up time: 1979) over CORDEX East Asia are evaluated with CRU-TS (Climate Research Unit Time-Series) 3.0 and GPCP (Global Precipitation Climatology Project). And KMA ground observation data are also used for the detailed assessment of RegCM4 over South Korea. The evaluation results showed that RegCM4 reasonalbly simulated the spatial distribution, and inter-annual and seasonal variations of surface air temperature. However, it showed a non-negligible systemartic biases in the precipitation. In particular, the rainband accompanied by the seasonal march of East Asian summer monsoon was simulated too southward, below 30° N comparing to the GPCP. As a reulst, summer precipitation over South Korea and Japan island was significantly underestimated. Under RCP8.5 (RCP4.5) scenario, annual mean temperature over the CORDEX East Asia is expected to increase by + 1.6 oC(+1.4oC) above the present level (1980-2005) by the end of the future simulation period. Most of the regions (South-Korea, South-China, North-China, India, Japan, Mongolia) show the increaseing trend of surface air temperature. On the other hand, the future changes of precipitation are not systemaic at the most of regions and seasons. More detailed results including projected regional climate change will be discussed in the presentation.

  11. Optical spectroscopy of Cm{sup 3+} in the elpasolite Cs{sub 2} NaYCl{sub 6}. Application in the structural study of Cm(III) sorption on phosphate materials; Spectroscopie optique de Cm{sup 3+} dans l`elpasolite Cs{sub 2}NaYCl{sub 6}. Application a l`etude structurale de la sorption de Cm(III) sur des materiaux phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavellec, Ronan [Universite de Paris Sud, 91 - Orsay (France)

    1998-05-15

    Radwaste management involves important research. In order to contribute to this program we proposed the examination of two different and complementary aspects of nuclear waste: the detection by laser spectroscopy of trivalent actinide ions diluted in a crystal host and the migration of radionuclides through different barriers in geosphere that is related to understanding and modelling the sorption processes. In both cases the spectro-fluorimetry laser is used to investigate different phenomenological processes at microscopic scale. The first part of the thesis deals with the investigation of Cm{sup 3+} energy levels in Cs{sub 2}NaYCl{sub 6}. From the analysis of excitation and emission spectra 52 crystal-field levels have been assigned and the phenomenological parameters calculated. A discussion about these parameters, compared with those in case of LaCl{sub 3} and ThO{sub 2} cases, is given. An intense green fluorescence has been found for the first time for Cm{sup 3+} in elpasolite. Thus, this material seems to be a promising solid for the analytical application of actinides such as Cm{sup 3+} and Am{sup 3+} ions. In the second part the sorption of curium (5{center_dot}10{sup -8} mol {center_dot}l{sup -1}) onto phosphate materials was studied. The ionic strength, electrolyte nature and complexing agent were investigated. The laser spectro-fluorimetry is shown to be a powerful technique. The formation of surface complexes for ZrP{sub 2}O{sub 7}, Zr{sub 2}O(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} and Th{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} has been demonstrated. Fluorescence lifetime measurements indicate that in complexing medium the aqueous complex of Cm is sorbed preferentially to the Cm{sup 3+} free ion onto the solid 82 refs., 54 figs., 35 tabs.

  12. Altered expression of CmNRRa changes flowering time of Chrysanthemum morifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuman; Lian, Lijuan; Liu, Qing; Xiao, Na; Fang, Rongxiang; Liu, Qinglin; Chen, Xiaoying

    2013-04-01

    Flowering time is an important ornamental trait for chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium, Dendranthema x grandiflorum) floricultural production. In this study, CmNRRa, an orthologous gene of OsNRRa that regulates root growth in response to nutrient stress in rice, was identified from Chrysanthemum and its role in flowering time was studied. The entire CmNRRa cDNA sequence was determined using a combinatorial PCR approach along with 5' and 3' RACE methods. CmNRRa expression levels in various tissues were monitored by real-time RT-PCR. CmNRRa was strongly expressed in flower buds and peduncles, suggesting that CmNRRa plays a regulatory role in floral development. To investigate the biological function of CmNRRa in chrysanthemums, overexpression and knockdown of CmNRRa were carried out using transgenic Chrysanthemum plants generated through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. CmNRRa expression levels in the transgenic plants were assayed by real-time RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis. The transgenic plants showed altered flowering times compared with nontransgenic plants. CmNRRa-RNAi transgenic plants flowered 40-64 days earlier, while CmNRRa-overexpressing plants exhibited a delayed flowering phenotype. These results revealed a negative effect of CmNRRa on flowering time modulation. Alteration of CmNRRa expression levels might be an effective means of controlling flowering time in Chrysanthemum. These results possess potential application in molecular breeding of chrysanthemums that production year-round, and may improve commercial chrysanthemum production in the flower industry. © 2012 The Authors Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Separation of Am, Cm from Pm by elution chromatography with DTPA-lactic acid mixed solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Liansheng; Zhang Zuyi; Zhong Jiahua

    1988-01-01

    The effect of various factors on the separation of Am and Cm from Pm in the cation exchange-DPTA (diethylenetiaminepenlaacetic acid)-lactic acid system is studied, such as the concentration of DTPA, pH of the eluant, temperature and flow rate. Separation results show that the recovery of Am and Cm is 99.18% and the decontamination factor of Am, Cm from Pm is 431

  14. Laser-surface interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeev, Rashid A

    2014-01-01

    This book is about the interaction of laser radiation with various surfaces at variable parameters of radiation. As a basic principle of classification we chose the energetic or intensity level of interaction of laser radiation with the surfaces. These two characteristics of laser radiation are the most important parameters defining entire spectrum of the processes occurring on the surfaces during interaction with electromagnetic waves. This is a first book containing a whole spectrum of the laser-surface interactions distinguished by the ranges of used laser intensity. It combines the surface response starting from extremely weak laser intensities (~1 W cm-2) up to the relativistic intensities (~1020 W cm-2 and higher). The book provides the basic information about lasers and acquaints the reader with both common applications of laser-surface interactions (laser-related printers, scanners, barcode readers, discs, material processing, military, holography, medicine, etc) and unusual uses of the processes on t...

  15. Failure pressures after repairs of 2-cm × 2.5-cm rhinologic dural defects in a porcine ex vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ryan P; Weitzel, Erik Kent; Chen, Philip G; McMains, Kevin Christopher; Chang, Daniel R; Braxton, Ernest E; Majors, Jacob; Bunegin, Leon

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine failure pressures of 6 rhinologic repair techniques of large skull base/dural defects in a controlled, ex vivo model. Failure pressures of 6 dural repairs in a porcine model were studied using a closed testing apparatus; 24-mm × 19-mm dural defects were created; 40-mm × 34-mm grafts composed of porcine Duragen (Integra), fascia lata, and Biodesign (Cook) were used either with or without Tisseel (Baxter International Inc.) to create 6 repairs: Duragen/no glue (D/NG), Duragen/Tisseel (D/T), fascia lata/no glue (FL/NG), fascia lata/Tisseel (FL/T), Biodesign/no glue (B/NG), and Biodesign/Tisseel (B/T). Saline was infused at 30 mL/hour, applying even force to the underside of the graft until repair failure. Five trials were performed per repair type for a total of 30 repairs. Mean failure pressures were as follows: D/NG 1.361 ± 0.169 cmH 2 O; D/T 9.127 ± 1.805 cmH 2 O; FL/NG 0.200 ± 0.109 cmH 2 O; FL/T 7.833 ± 2.657 cmH 2 O; B/NG 0.299 ± 0.109 cmH 2 O; and B/T 2.67 ± 0.619 cmH 2 O. There were statistically significant differences between glued (Tisseel) and non-glued repairs for each repair category (p < 0.05). All glued repairs performed better than non-glued repairs. Both D/T and FL/T repairs performed better than B/T repairs. No repair tolerated pressures throughout the full range of adult supine intracranial pressure. © 2016 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  16. Impact of dust size parameterizations on aerosol burden and radiative forcing in RegCM4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikerdekis, Athanasios; Zanis, Prodromos; Steiner, Allison L.; Solmon, Fabien; Amiridis, Vassilis; Marinou, Eleni; Katragkou, Eleni; Karacostas, Theodoros; Foret, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of aerosol representation in the regional climate model RegCM4 for two dust parameterizations for the period 2007-2014 over the Sahara and the Mediterranean. We apply two discretization methods of the dust size distribution keeping the total mass constant: (1) the default RegCM4 4-bin approach, where the size range of each bin is calculated using an equal, logarithmic separation of the total size range of dust, using the diameter of dust particles, and (2) a newly implemented 12-bin approach with each bin defined according to an isogradient method where the size ranges are dependent on the dry deposition velocity of dust particles. Increasing the number of transported dust size bins theoretically improves the representation of the physical properties of dust particles within the same size bin. Thus, more size bins improve the simulation of atmospheric processes. The radiative effects of dust over the area are discussed and evaluated with the CALIPSO dust optical depth (DOD). This study is among the first studies evaluating the vertical profile of simulated dust with a pure dust product. Reanalysis winds from ERA-Interim and the total precipitation flux from the Climate Research Unit (CRU) observational gridded database are used to evaluate and explain the discrepancies between model and observations. The new dust binning approach increases the dust column burden by 4 and 3 % for fine and coarse particles, respectively, which increases DOD by 10 % over the desert and the Mediterranean. Consequently, negative shortwave radiative forcing (RF) is enhanced by more than 10 % at the top of the atmosphere and by 1 to 5 % on the surface. Positive longwave RF locally increases by more than 0.1 W m-2 in a large portion of the Sahara, the northern part of the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East. The four-bin isolog method is to some extent numerically efficient, nevertheless our work highlights that the simplified representation of the four

  17. Metallographic study of reconstitution welding in inserts of 1 cm{sup 3}; Estudio metalografico de soldaduras de reconstitucion en insertos de 1 cm{sup 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero C, J.; Garcia R, R.; Fernandez T, F.; Perez R, N.; Rocamontes A, M. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    In this article, the welding metallographic study carried out in Charpy test tubes reconstituted with notch in 'V', used in the surveillance programs of the vessel in nucleo electric plants is described. Inserts of 1 cm{sup 3} are used, where the inserts are usually rectangular of minimum 18 millimeters of length. The importance of using inserts of 1 cm{sup 3} is that the mechanical properties can be measured in another direction of the vessel steel, when changing the direction or sense of the notch in 'V' or the face where this notch is made in the insert. (Author)

  18. Detectability of 21cm-signal during the Epoch of Reionization with 21cm-Lyman-{\\alpha} emitter cross-correlation. II. Foreground contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiura, S.; Line, J. L. B.; Kubota, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Takahashi, K.

    2017-01-01

    Cross-correlation between the redshifted 21 cm signal and Lyman-{\\alpha} emitters (LAEs) is powerful tool to probe the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). Although the cross-power spectrum (PS) has an advantage of not correlating with foregrounds much brighter than the 21 cm signal, the galactic and extra-galactic foregrounds prevent detection since they contribute to the variance of the cross PS. Therefore, strategies for mitigating foregrounds are required. In this work, we study the impact of for...

  19. Corneal Biomechanics After Accelerated Cross-linking: Comparison Between 18 and 9 mW/cm2Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Hassan; Asgari, Soheila; Mehravaran, Shiva; Miraftab, Mohammad; Ghaffari, Reza; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2017-08-01

    To determine 1-year corneal biomechanical changes after accelerated corneal cross-linking in patients with progressive keratoconus and compare them between 5-minute (18 mW/cm 2 ) and 10-minute (9 mW/cm 2 ) protocols. In this non-randomized clinical trial, cases in both groups were examined with the Corneal Visualization Scheimpflug Technology (Corvis ST; Oculus Optikgeräte GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany) at baseline and at 6 and 12 months after treatment. Extracted indices included intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT), first and second applanation times, lengths, and velocities (T1, T2, L1, L2, V1, and V2), highest concavity time (HCT), deformation amplitude (DA), peak distance between bending points, and radius of curvature. Mean patient age, baseline maximum keratometry, CCT, and IOP were similar between groups. After adjusting for CCT and baseline values with repeated measures analysis of covariance, at 1 year after the procedure, IOP (13.14 ± 1.41 vs 12.12 ± 1.49 mm Hg, P = .034) and T1 (6.84 ± 0.20 vs 6.67 ± 0.23 ms, P = .036) were higher in the 5-minute group, but T2 (21.31 ± 0.27 vs 21.58 ± 0.28 ms, P = .007), HCT (16.06 ± 0.51 vs 16.31 ± 0.48 ms, P = .017), and DA (1.03 ± 0.09 vs 1.10 ± 0.08 mm, P = .028) were lower. Other inter-group differences were not statistically significant (all P > .050). All 1-year changes were independent of cone position (all P > .050). At 1 year after cross-linking in cases of mild and moderate keratoconus, corneal biomechanics appeared stable or stronger than baseline with both 5- and 10-minute protocols. However, mild cases who had the 5-minute protocol showed better improvement based on Corvis ST indices. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(8):558-562.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. A biokinetic model of inhaled Cm compounds in dogs: Application to human exposure data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Curium isotopes are major by-products in irradiated nuclear reactor fuel and comprise a significant fraction of the alpha-emitting radionuclide inventory. Although little use is currently being made of purified Cm sources, such usage is possible if reprocessing of spent fuel becomes feasible. Because little information is available on the biokinetics and dosimetry of inhaled Cm compounds, a study was conducted in which adult beagle dogs received a single inhalation exposure to either a monodisperse aerosol of 244Cm2O3 (1.4 micron activity median aerodynamic diameter [AMAD]; sigma g = 1.16) or a polydisperse aerosol of 244Cm (NO3)3 (1.1 micron AMAD; sigma g = 1.74). At times ranging from 4 h to 2 y after exposure, animals were sacrificed and their tissues analyzed for Cm content. The data describing the uptake and retention of 244Cm in the different organs and tissues and the measured rates of excretion of these dogs formed the basis on which a biokinetic model of Cm metabolism was constructed. This Cm model was based on a previously published model of the biokinetics of 241Am that was shown to be applicable to data from human cases of inhalation exposure to 241Am aerosols. This Cm model was found to be adequate to describe the biological distribution of Cm in dogs and was also applied to the sparse data from humans. Reasonable agreement was found between the model predictions for lung retention of Cm and for urinary excretion patterns in humans

  1. TESTING AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF NASA 5 CM BY 5 CM BI-SUPPORTED SOLID OXIDE ELECTROLYSIS CELLS OPERATED IN BOTH FUEL CELL AND STEAM ELECTROLYSIS MODES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. C. O' Brien; J. E. O' Brien; C. M. Stoots; X. Zhang; S. C. Farmer; T. L. Cable; J. A. Setlock

    2011-11-01

    A series of 5 cm by 5 cm bi-supported Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOEC) were produced by NASA for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and tested under the INL High Temperature Steam Electrolysis program. The results from the experimental demonstration of cell operation for both hydrogen production and operation as fuel cells is presented. An overview of the cell technology, test apparatus and performance analysis is also provided. The INL High Temperature Steam Electrolysis laboratory has developed significant test infrastructure in support of single cell and stack performance analyses. An overview of the single cell test apparatus is presented. The test data presented in this paper is representative of a first batch of NASA's prototypic 5 cm by 5 cm SOEC single cells. Clearly a significant relationship between the operational current density and cell degradation rate is evident. While the performance of these cells was lower than anticipated, in-house testing at NASA Glenn has yielded significantly higher performance and lower degradation rates with subsequent production batches of cells. Current post-test microstructure analyses of the cells tested at INL will be published in a future paper. Modification to cell compositions and cell reduction techniques will be altered in the next series of cells to be delivered to INL with the aim to decrease the cell degradation rate while allowing for higher operational current densities to be sustained. Results from the testing of new batches of single cells will be presented in a future paper.

  2. Giant Serous Cystadenoma of the Pancreas (⩾10 cm: The Clinical Features and CT Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Yu Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report the clinical features and CT manifestations of giant pancreatic serous cystadenoma (≥10 cm. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical features and CT findings of 6 cases of this entity. Results. All 6 patients were symptomatic. The tumors were 10.2 cm–16.5 cm (median value, 13.0 cm. CT imaging revealed that all 6 cases showed microcystic appearances (n=5 or mixed microcystic and macrocystic appearances (n=1. Five patients with tumors at the distal end of the pancreas received distal pancreatectomy. Among these 5 patients, 2 patients underwent partial transverse colon resection or omentum resection due to close adhesion. One patient whose tumor was located in the pancreatic head underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy; however, due to encasement of the portal and superior mesenteric veins, the tumor was incompletely resected. One patient had abundant draining veins on the tumor surface and suffered large blood loss (700 mL. After 6–49 months of follow-up the 6 patients showed no tumor recurrence or signs of malignant transformation. Conclusions. Giant pancreatic serous cystadenoma necessitates surgical resection due to large size, symptoms, uncertain diagnosis, and adjacent organ compression. The relationship between the tumors and the neighboring organs needs to be carefully assessed before operation on CT image.

  3. Impacts of Boundary Conditions on the Simulation of Atmospheric Fields Using RegCM4 over CORDEX East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung Seok Suh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of boundary conditions (BCs on simulations of RegCM4 for mid-to-upper atmospheric fields over the CORDEX (COordinated Regional Downscaling EXperiment East Asia domain were investigated using two datasets from integrations over 20 years (1989–2008 with two BCs (ERA and R2. The two datasets showed large differences for the atmospheric variables regardless of the geographic locations, heights, and seasons. The ERA dataset at 850 hPa displayed stronger northerly winds in the western Pacific Ocean, colder temperatures around northern India, and higher relative humidity compared with the R2 dataset during summer. The large differences in the BCs resulted in the significantly different simulations of RegCM4 in both surface and atmospheric variables. The temperatures and wind simulated at 850 hPa with the ERA dataset were warmer and stronger, respectively, than those simulated with the R2 dataset during summer. In addition, RegCM4 with the ERA dataset as a BC generally simulated a stronger southerly wind at 850 hPa over eastern China and more unstable environments than with the R2 dataset, and accordingly generated more precipitation over the eastern part of the domain. Contrary to the forcing data, the trends of simulated relative humidity and the mixing ratios from the two different BCs showed similar patterns irrespective of height and season. The significant impacts of the BCs on the simulation results indicate the importance of BCs in regional climate simulations.

  4. 77 FR 32975 - AHRQ Workgroups on ICD-10-CM/PCS Conversion of Quality Indicators (QIs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ...; Expertise in ICD-9-CM and/or ICD-10-CM/PCS coding; Expertise in hospital quality improvement, patient safety... Indicators (PQI), the Inpatient Quality Indicators, the Patient Safety Indicators (PSI), and the Pediatric... musculoskeletal disease, obstetrics and gynecologic disease, surgery, critical care and pulmonary disease...

  5. Intracavity absorption spectroscopy of formaldehyde from 6230 to 6420 cm(-1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fjodorow, Peter; Hellmig, Ortwin; Baev, Valery M.; Levinsky, Howard B.; Mokhov, Anatoli V.

    We apply intracavity absorption spectroscopy for measurements of the absorption spectrum of formaldehyde, CH2O, from 6230 to 6420 cm(-1), of which only a small fraction (6351-6362 cm(-1)) has been recorded elsewhere. The measurements are performed in the cavity of a broadband Er3+-doped fiber laser,

  6. CM 40907: a structurally novel anticonvulsant in mice, rats and baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambon, J.P.; Brochard, J.; Hallot, A.; Heaulme, M.; Brodin, R.; Roncucci, R.; Biziere, K.

    1985-06-01

    CM 40907 (3-(4-hydroxypiperidyl)-6-(2'-chlorophenyl)-pyridazine) is a chemically original compound which possesses the pharmacological properties of a potent, p.o. active anticonvulsant. The anticonvulsant activity of CM 40907 was examined in mice, rats and photosensitive Papio-papio baboons and compared to that of phenobarbital, diphenylhydantoin, carbamazepine, sodium valproate and ethosuximide. In mice, CM 40907 antagonized electroconvulsive shock and chemically induced seizures with an overall potency comparable to that of carbamazepine and a therapeutic ratio (ED50 rotorod/ED50 electroshock) superior to that of ethosuximide, sodium valproate, phenobarbital and carbamazepine. In the rat CM 40907 suppressed completed kindled amygdaloid seizures and was approximately as active as phenobarbital. In naturally photosensitive Senegalese Papio-papio baboons CM 40907 antagonized myoclonus and cortical paroxysmal discharges. In this model CM 40907 was approximately one-fourth as potent as phenobarbital, twice as potent as carbamazepine and 6 times more potent than sodium valproate. In mice CM 40907, at anticonvulsant doses, increased the affinity of (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam for its central receptor site. Based on these results it is postulated that CM 40907 is a potent and relatively nonsedative anticonvulsant and may be of therapeutic benefit in epileptic disorders.

  7. 76 FR 51985 - ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ICD-9-CM... of proposed modifications to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth-Revision, Clinical...-DRGs. ICD-9-CM Procedure Topics Electromagnetic Tip Tracked Sensor devices used in lung bronchoscopy...

  8. Prospects for detecting the 21 cm forest from the diffuse intergalactic medium with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciardi, B.; Labropoulos, P.; Maselli, A.; Thomas, R.; Zaroubi, S.; Graziani, L.; Bolton, J. S.; Bernardi, G.; Brentjens, M.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Daiboo, S.; Harker, G. J. A.; Jelic, V.; Kazemi, S.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Martinez, O.; Offringa, A. R.; Pandey, V. N.; Schaye, J.; Veligatla, V.; Vedantham, H.; Yatawatta, S.; Mellema, G.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the feasibility of the detection of the 21 cm forest in the diffuse intergalactic medium (IGM) with the radio telescope LOFAR. The optical depth to the 21 cm line has been derived using simulations of reionization which include detailed radiative transfer of ionizing photons. We find that

  9. Application of radiation degraded CM-chitosan for preservation of fresh fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quynh, Tran Minh; Hien, Nuguyen Quoc; Yoshii, Fumio; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-01-01

    CM-chitosan was irradiated with various doses in powder state and solution using Co 60 gamma source. The changes of viscosity in solution as well as molecular weight were also measured. The molecular weight reduced with increasing of radiation dose. The antimicrobial activity of CM-chitosan and irradiated CM-chitosan in solution against E.coli was investigated. In this studies, the sensitivity of E.coli depended on the concentration of CM-chitosan supplemented into medium and the antimicrobial activity of irradiated CM-chitosan was found to increase with radiation dose and reached to maximum with dose of 100 kGy. The 2% aqueous solutions prepared from CM-chitosan and 100 kGy irradiated CM-chitosan as mentioned above were applied for apple preservation. All coating fruits have significantly reduced the weight loss, spoilage ratio compared with control. Chemical and sensory quality of coated fruits were evaluated and compared, the best results were achieved with fruit coated using irradiated CM-chitosan. (author)

  10. CmMYB19 Over-Expression Improves Aphid Tolerance in Chrysanthemum by Promoting Lignin Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinjie; Sheng, Liping; Zhang, Huanru; Du, Xinping; An, Cong; Xia, Xiaolong; Chen, Fadi; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei

    2017-03-12

    The gene encoding the MYB (v-myb avian myeloblastosis vira l oncogene homolog) transcription factor CmMYB19 was isolated from chrysanthemum. It encodes a 200 amino acid protein and belongs to the R2R3-MYB subfamily. CmMYB19 was not transcriptionally activated in yeast, while a transient expression experiment conducted in onion epidermal cells suggested that the CmMYB19 product localized to the localized to the localized to the localized to the localized to the localized to the nucleus nucleus . CmMYB19 transcription was induced by aphid (Macrosiphoniella sanborni) infestation, and the abundance of transcript was higher in the leaf and stem than in the root. The over-expression of CmMYB19 restricted the multiplication of the aphids. A comparison of transcript abundance of the major genes involved in lignin synthesis showed that CmPAL1 (phenylalanine ammonia lyase 1), CmC4H (cinnamate4 hydroxylase), Cm4CL1 (4-hydroxy cinnamoyl CoA ligase 1), CmHCT (hydroxycinnamoyl CoA-shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase), CmC3H1 (coumarate3 hydroxylase1), CmCCoAOMT1 (caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferase 1) and CmCCR1 (cinnamyl CoA reductase1) were all upregulated, in agreement in agreement in agreement in agreement in agreement in agreement with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content in CmMYB19 over-expressing plants plants plants. Collectively, the over-expression of CmMYB19 restricted the multiplication of the aphids on the host, mediated by an enhanced accumulation of lignin.

  11. Effects of climate changes on dust aerosol over East Asia from RegCM3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Feng Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand impacts of global warming on dust aerosol over East Asia, a regional climate model (RegCM3 coupled with a dust model is employed to simulate the present (1991–2000, following the observed concentration of the greenhouse gases and future (2091–2100, following the A1B scenario dust aerosol. Three experiments are performed over East Asia at a horizontal resolution of 50 km, driven by the outputs from a global model of the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC3.2_hires, two without (Exp.1 for the present and Exp.2 for the future and one with (Exp.3 for the future the radiative effects of dust aerosols. Effects of climate changes on dust aerosols and the feedback of radiative effects in the future are investigated by comparing differences of Exp.2 and Exp.1, Exp.3 and Exp.2, respectively. Results show that global warming will lead to the increases of dust emissions and column burden by 2% and 14% over East Asia, characterized by the increase in December–January–February–March (DJFM and the decrease in April–May (AM. Similar variations are also seen in the projected frequencies of high dust emission events, showing an advanced active season of dust in the future. The net top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiative forcing is positive over the desert source regions and negative over downwind regions, while the surface radiative forcing is negative over the domain, which will lead to a reduction of dust emissions and column burden.

  12. Rietveld analysis of phase separation in annealed and leach tested Cm-doped perovskite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    A quantitative powder X-ray diffraction study was made of actinide doped perovskite of bulk composition Ca 0.98919 An 0.98919 Al 0.01081 O 3 where An corresponded to approximately equimolar proportions of Cm-244 and Pu-240. Sections of this sample accumulated irradiation doses up to 7.51 x 10 17 alpha decay events per gram (α/g). The damaged samples were treated in two ways. First, to establish the critical temperature for structural recovery under the reducing conditions of geological repositories, isochronal annealing was carried out at 600, 800, 1,000 and 1,100 C for 12 hours in graphite crucibles. Two groups of perovskites that had previously sustained doses of 4.5 x 10 17 and 7.4 x 10 17 α/g were tested in this way. For the former group, these conditions resulted in up to 9 weight percent (wt%) of available actinide separating as a fluorite-type dioxide near the perovskite surface. In the latter group, calcium was reduced to the metal which vaporized, leaving an excess of refractory titanium that crystallized as rutile. Second, material which has sustained doses of 1.6--4.0 x 10 17 alpha decays per gram was subjected to an MCC-1 leach test for two months at 90 C using a pH ∼ 2 solution. Under these conditions surficial perovskite dissolved congruently to release calcium into solution while the titanium reprecipitated as anatase. The implications of these results for the ultimate disposal of perovskite-bearing polyphase nuclear waste ceramics are considered

  13. Preliminary Modeling of CH_3D from 4000 TO 4550 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, A. V.; Brown, Linda R.; Sung, K.; Rey, M.; Tyuterev, Vl. G.; Smith, M. A. H.; Mantz, A. W.

    2012-06-01

    New line positions, intensities and quantum assignments were obtained for 12CH_3D between 4000 and 4550 cm-1 using high resolution spectra recorded with two Fourier transform spectrometers and enriched gas samples (98%-Deuterium) at room and cold (80 K) temperatures. The effective Hamiltonian and the effective Dipole moment expansions were expressed in terms of irreducible tensor operators adapted to symmetric top molecules. Over 4000 positions and 1300 line intensities in this region were reproduced with RMS values of 0.007 cm-1 and 14%, respectively. With these new results included, the simultaneous modeling of the four lowest polyads of 12CH_3D from 0 to 4550 cm-1 [Ground State, Triad (1000 ? 1600 cm-1), Nonad (2000 to 3300 cm-1), and Enneadecad (3400 to 4600 cm-1)] permitted over 19000 observed positions to be fitted within 0.003 cm-1. Part of the research described in this paper was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Connecticut College, and NASA Langley Research Center under contracts and cooperative agreements with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Support from "CH4@Titan" contract (ANR France) and of SAMIA GDRI project for the modeling is acknowledged.

  14. Characterization of cucurbita maxima phloem serpin-1 (CmPS-1). A developmentally regulated elastase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, B C; Aoki, K; Xiang, Y; Campbell, L R; Hull, R J; Xoconostle-Cázares, B; Monzer, J; Lee, J Y; Ullman, D E; Lucas, W J

    2000-11-10

    We report on the molecular, biochemical, and functional characterization of Cucurbita maxima phloem serpin-1 (CmPS-1), a novel 42-kDa serine proteinase inhibitor that is developmentally regulated and has anti-elastase properties. CmPS-1 was purified to near homogeneity from C. maxima (pumpkin) phloem exudate and, based on microsequence analysis, the cDNA encoding CmPS-1 was cloned. The association rate constant (k(a)) of phloem-purified and recombinant His(6)-tagged CmPS-1 for elastase was 3.5 +/- 1.6 x 10(5) and 2.7 +/- 0.4 x 10(5) m(-)(1) s(-)(1), respectively. The fraction of complex-forming CmPS-1, X(inh), was estimated at 79%. CmPS-1 displayed no detectable inhibitory properties against chymotrypsin, trypsin, or thrombin. The elastase cleavage sites within the reactive center loop of CmPS-1 were determined to be Val(347)-Gly(348) and Val(350)-Ser(351) with a 3:2 molar ratio. In vivo feeding assays conducted with the piercing-sucking aphid, Myzus persicae, established a close correlation between the developmentally regulated increase in CmPS-1 within the phloem sap and the reduced ability of these insects to survive and reproduce on C. maxima. However, in vitro feeding experiments, using purified phloem CmPS-1, failed to demonstrate a direct effect on aphid survival. Likely roles of this novel phloem serpin in defense against insects/pathogens are discussed.

  15. The 745.5 issue in code-based, adult congenital heart disease population studies: Relevance to current and future ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Fred H; Ephrem, Georges; Gerardin, Jennifer F; Raskind-Hood, Cheryl; Hogue, Carol; Book, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    Although the ICD-9-CM code 745.5 is widely used to indicate the presence of a secundum atrial septal defect (ASD), it is also used for patent foramen ovale (PFO) which is a normal variant and for "rule-out" congenital heart disease (CHD). The ICD-10-CM code Q21.1 perpetuates this issue. The objective of this study was to assess whether code 745.5 in isolation or in combination with unspecified CHD codes 746.9 or 746.89 miscodes for CHD, and if true CHD positives decrease with age. Echocardiograms of patients with an ICD-9-CM code of 745.5 in isolation or in combination with unspecified CHD codes 746.9 or 746.89 were reviewed to validate the true incidence of an ASD. This observational, cross-sectional record review included patients between 11 and 64 years of age. Medical charts and echocardiograms of 190 patients (47.9% males) were reviewed. The number of falsely coded patients with 745.5 (no ASD) was high (76.3%). Forty-five (23.7%) patients had a true ASD. Among the 145 patients without an ASD, 100 (52.6%) were classified as having a PFO, 37 (19.5%) had a normal non-CHD echocardiogram, and 8 (4.2%) had some other CHD anomaly. The likelihood that 745.5 coded for a true ASD was higher in children aged 11-20 (64.3%) than adults aged 21-64 years (20.6%). This validation study demonstrates that 745.5 performed poorly across all ages. As 745.5 is widely used in population-level investigations and ICD-10-CM perpetuates the problem, future analyses utilizing CHD codes should consider separate analysis of those identified only through code 745.5. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Radiofrequency Thermoablation of HCC Larger Than 3 cm and Less Than 5 cm Proximal to the Gallbladder without Gallbladder Isolation: A Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Orlacchio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency ablation (RFA is an effective minimally invasive treatment for nonsurgical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, but ablation of tumors close to the gallbladder could be associated with several complications. We report our experience on the treatment of HCC close to the gallbladder with RFA. Eight RFA procedures were performed in eight patients with HCC larger than 3 cm and less than 5 cm close to the gallbladder. In all cases, a percutaneous approach was used. There were no major complications. Only in two patients a minimal wall thickening of the gallbladder was observed. Contrast enhanced computed tomography carried out after 30 days from the first procedure showed complete necrosis in seven patients (87%. Only one patient had local recurrence at 11 months of followup. Although limited, our experience suggests that, after careful preprocedural planning, in experienced hands and with appropriate technology, percutaneous RFA could be safely performed even for lesions larger than 3 cm located in close adjacency to the gallbladder.

  17. Foreground and Sensitivity Analysis for Broadband (2D) 21 cm-Lyα and 21 cm-Hα Correlation Experiments Probing the Epoch of Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neben, Abraham R.; Stalder, Brian; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.; Tonry, John L.

    2017-11-01

    A detection of the predicted anticorrelation between 21 cm and either Lyα or Hα from the epoch of reionization (EOR) would be a powerful probe of the first galaxies. While 3D intensity maps isolate foregrounds in low-{k}\\parallel modes, infrared surveys cannot yet match the field of view and redshift resolution of radio intensity mapping experiments. In contrast, 2D (I.e., broadband) infrared intensity maps can be measured with current experiments and are limited by foregrounds instead of photon or thermal noise. We show that 2D experiments can measure most of the 3D fluctuation power at klimit on residual foregrounds of the 21 cm-Lyα cross-power spectrum at z˜ 7 of {{{Δ }}}2text{kJy sr}}-1 {{mK}}) (95%) at {\\ell }˜ 800. We predict levels of foreground correlation and sample variance noise in future experiments, showing that higher-resolution surveys such as LOFAR, SKA-LOW, and the Dark Energy Survey can start to probe models of the 21 cm-Lyα EOR cross spectrum.

  18. Impact of MST on the Rheology of the Neutralized Am/Cm Slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, D.P.

    2001-01-01

    The americium (Am) and curium (Cm) solution, currently stored in F-Canyon Tank 17.1 will be neutralized and diluted prior to addition to High Level Waste (HLW) sludge batch 3 to eliminate the cost and uncertainty of processing and vitrifying this solution. One of the processing alternatives involves the addition of monosodium titanate (MST) to adsorb any soluble Am, Cm or Pu present in the slurry. This paper discusses the impact of the MST on the rheology of the neutralized Am/Cm slurry

  19. Experimental determination of kQ factors for cylindrical ionization chambers in 10 cm × 10 cm and 3 cm × 3 cm photon beams from 4 MV to 25 MV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, A; Kapsch, R P

    2014-08-07

    For the ionometric determination of absorbed dose to water, Dw, in megavoltage photon beams from a linear accelerator, beam-quality-dependent correction factors, kQ, are used for the ionization chambers. By using a water calorimeter, these factors can be determined experimentally and with substantially lower standard uncertainties compared to calculated values of the kQ, which are published in various dosimetry protocols. In this investigation, kQ for different types of cylindrical ionization chambers (NE 2561, NE 2571, FC 65 G) were determined experimentally in 10 cm × 10 cm photon beams from 4 MV to 25 MV (corresponding beam quality index TPR20,10 from 0.64 to 0.80). The measurements were carried out at the linear accelerator facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. It is shown that the kQ factors for a single ionization chamber in 10 cm × 10 cm photon beams can be measured with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.31%. In addition to these measurements in 10 cm × 10 cm fields, kQ factors for the NE 2561 chamber were also determined in smaller 3 cm × 3 cm photon beams between 6 MV and 25 MV. In this case, relative standard uncertainties between 0.35 % and 0.38 % are achieved for the kQ factors. It is found for this ionization chamber, that the ratio of the kQ factors in 3 cm × 3 cm and in 10 cm × 10 cm beams increases with increasing TPR20,10 to reach a value of 1.0095 at TPR20,10 = 0.8 with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.4 %.

  20. Avaliação das propriedades do Ba0,50Sr0,50Co0,80Fe0,20O3-d para células a combustível de óxido sólido de temperatura intermediária obtido pelo método citratos-EDTA Evaluation of the properties of Ba0,50Sr0.50Co0.80Fe0.20O3-d obtained by the citrate-EDTA method for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bonturim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ba0,50Sr0,50Co0,80Fe0,20O3-d (BSCF apresenta propriedades físicas, químicas e microestruturais adequadas para compor o cátodo de uma célula a combustível de óxido sólido de temperatura intermediária (ITSOFC. Este trabalho tem por objetivo a síntese e a caracterização do BSCF obtido pelo método dos citrados-EDTA. Os resultados obtidos por difração de raios X (DRX indicaram fases secundárias para o material calcinado a 700 e 800 ºC e fase única com estrutura cristalina do tipo perovskita para 900 ºC. As micrografias obtidas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura dos particulados evidenciou a formação de aglomerados de tamanho Ba0.50Sr0.50Co0.80Fe0.20O3-d (BSCF presents physical, chemical and microstructural properties suitable to form the cathode of Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (ITSOFC. This work aims the synthesis and characterization of BSCF, obtained by the citrate-EDTA method. The X-ray diffraction results indicate secondary phases for the material calcined at 700 and 800 °C and single phase with perovskite crystalline structure at 900 °C. The SEM-FEG particles micrographs show the formation of < 20 µm clusters. The dilatometric analysis of pellets indicates the sintering temperature at ~ 1050 °C. XRD results of the sintered samples show perovskite single phase. The SEM micrographs confirmed the formation of higher porosity in the samples sintered at 1000 °C/1 h using powders calcined at 900 °C.

  1. Characterization of solar cells for space applications. Volume 10: Electrical characteristics of Spectrolab BSF, textured, 10 ohm-cm, 300 micron cells as a function of intensity, temperature and irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.; Miyahira, T. F.; Weiss, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    Electrical characteristics of textured, back surface field, 10 ohm cm, 300 micron N/P silicon solar cells are presented in graphical and tabular format as a function of solar illumination intensity, and temperature.

  2. Characterization of solar cells for space applications. Volume 12: Electrical characteristics of Solarex BSF, 2-ohm-cm, 50-micron solar cells (1978 pilot line) as a function of intensity, temperature, and irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Beckert, D. M.; Downing, R. G.; Miyahira, T. F.; Weiss, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    Electrical characteristics of Solarex back-surface-field, 2-ohm-cm, 50-micron N/P silicon solar cells are presented in graphical and tabular format as a function of solar illumination intensity, temperature, and irradiation.

  3. Modeling of Saharan dust outbreaks over the Mediterranean by RegCM3: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Santese

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The regional climate model RegCM3 coupled with a radiatively active aerosol model with online feedback is used to investigate direct and semi-direct radiative aerosol effects over the Sahara and Europe in a test case of July 2003. The aerosol model includes dust particles in addition to sulfates, hydrophobic and hydrophilic black carbon and organic carbon. The role of the aerosol online feedback on the radiation budget and the direct radiative forcing (short-wave and long-wave by dust particles are investigated by intercomparing results from three experiments: REF, including all interactive aerosol components, Exp1, not accounting for the aerosol radiative feedback, and Exp2 not accounting for desert dust particles. The comparison of results in the REF experiment with satellite observations, sun/sky radiometer measurements, and lidar profiles at selected Central Mediterranean sites reveals that the spatio-temporal evolution of the aerosol optical depth is reasonably well reproduced by the model during the entire month of July. Results for the dust outbreaks of 17 and 24 July, averaged over the simulation domain, show that the daily-mean SW direct radiative forcing by all particles is −24 Wm−2 and −3.4 Wm−2 on 17 July and −25 Wm−2 and −3.5 Wm−2 on 24 July at the surface and top of the atmosphere, respectively. This is partially offset by the LW direct radiative forcing, which is 7.6 Wm−2 and 1.9 Wm−2 on 17 July and 8.4 Wm−2 and 1.9 Wm−2 on 24 July at the surface and top of the atmosphere, respectively. Hence, the daily-mean SW forcing is offset by the LW forcing of ~30% at the surface and of ~50% at the ToA. It is also shown that atmospheric dynamics and hence dust production and advection processes are dependent on the simulation assumptions and may significantly change within few tens of kilometers. The comparison of REF and Exp1

  4. Interlock recovery during the drying, calcination and vitrification phase of Am/Cm processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, T.K.

    2000-01-01

    This document summarizes the results of five CIM5 [5-inch Cylindrical Induction Melter] runs designed to demonstrate power interlock recovery methods during the drying, calcination and vitrification phases of the Am/Cm melter cycle

  5. Intracavity absorption spectroscopy of formaldehyde from 6230 to 6420 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjodorow, Peter; Hellmig, Ortwin; Baev, Valery M.; Levinsky, Howard B.; Mokhov, Anatoli V.

    2017-05-01

    We apply intracavity absorption spectroscopy for measurements of the absorption spectrum of formaldehyde, CH2O, from 6230 to 6420 cm-1, of which only a small fraction (6351-6362 cm-1) has been recorded elsewhere. The measurements are performed in the cavity of a broadband Er3+-doped fiber laser, with a sensitivity corresponding to the effective absorption path length of 45 m and a spectral resolution of 0.1 cm-1. The noise-equivalent detection limit of CH2O achieved with the strongest absorption line at 6252.64 cm-1 is estimated to be 5 ppm. High tolerance to broadband losses and the accessible time resolution of 50 µs make it possible to apply this detection system for time-resolved monitoring of CH2O together with other molecules in harsh combustion environments, e.g., in combustion engines.

  6. ARECIBO MOON RADIO TELESC RESAMPLED 70 CM RADAR MOSAIC V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High resolution radar map compiled from measurements made between 1981 and 1984 with the 70 cm wavelength radar at Arecibo Observatory. The data have resolutions...

  7. Accurate measurements of solar spectral irradiance between 4000-10000 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsey, J.; Coleman, M. D.; Gardiner, T.; Shine, K. P.

    2017-12-01

    The near-infrared solar spectral irradiance (SSI) is an important input into simulations of weather and climate; the distribution of energy throughout this region of the spectrum influences atmospheric heating rates and the global hydrological cycle through absorption and scattering by water vapour. Current measurements by a mixture of ground-based and space-based instruments show differences of around 10% in the 4000-7000 cm-1 region, with no resolution to this controversy in sight. This work presents observations of SSI taken using a ground-based Fourier Transform spectrometer between 4000-10000 cm-1 at a field site in Camborne, UK, with particular focus on a rigorously defined uncertainty budget. While there is good agreement between this work and the commonly-used ATLAS3 spectrum between 7000-10000 cm-1, the SSI is systematically lower by 10% than ATLAS3 between 4000-7000 cm-1, with no overlap within the k = 2 measurement uncertainties.

  8. Breast conservation after neoadjuvant therapy for tumors ≥5 cm: A prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Libson

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: BC after NT is a safe option for carefully selected patients with tumors ≥5 cm. In this series, the oncologic results for the duration of the study were comparable to those reported after mastectomy.

  9. The Effect of Aqueous Alteration on Primordial Noble Gases in CM Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, D.; Busemann, H.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Maden, C.

    2017-07-01

    We have analyzed 32 CM chondrites for their noble gas contents and isotopic compositions and calculated CRE ages. Correlated effects of parent body aqueous alteration with primordial noble gas contents were detected.

  10. I-RaCM: A Fully Integrated Risk and Lifecycle Cost Model, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SpaceWorks Engineering, Inc. (SEI) proposes development of the Integrated Risk and Cost Model I-RaCM, as the innovation to meet the need for integrated cost and risk...

  11. Estimation of 244Cm intake by bioassay measurements following a contamination incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thein, M.; Bogard, J.S.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1988-01-01

    An employee was contaminated with radioactive material consisting primarily of 244 Cm and 246 Cm as a consequence of handling a curium nitrate solution at a reprocessing facility. In vivo gamma analysis and in vitro (urine and fecal) analysis were initiated soon after the incident. Further in vivo measurements were performed regularly through hour 528, and in vitro bioassay measurements were obtained through day 74. A sample of the curium solution from the workplace was obtained to confirm that the nitrate was the chemical form and to identify the curium isotopes present. The mass ratio of 244 Cm: 246 Cm was determined to be 91:7. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA) was administered on hours 33 and 71. Observed excretion rates were consistent with available information for curium in the literature. In this paper, the results of the in vivo and in vitro measurements are presented and intake estimates for the incident are developed using various excretion rate functions. 11 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  12. ERS-1/2 orbit improvement using TOPEX/POSEIDON: The 2 cm challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Traon, P.-Y.; Ogor, F.

    1998-04-01

    The ERS orbit error reduction method using TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) data as a reference [Le Traon et al., 1995a] was applied to ERS-1 cycles from phases C, E, F, and G and to the first 16 cycles of the ERS-2 mission (phase A). T/P M-GDR (geophysical data record) (version C) and ERS-1/2 ocean product (OPR) data were used. ERS-1/2 orbits are the D-PAF (processing and archiving facility) orbits and, when necessary, ERS-1/2 altimetric corrections were updated to make the T/P and ERS-1/2 corrections homogeneous. The adjustment method has been refined, and formal error on the estimation is now calculated. The ERS-1/2 orbit error estimation is thus estimated to be precise to within about 2 cm root-mean-square (rms). E-E crossover differences are reduced from 12 to 17 cm to only 6.5 cm rms for all processed cycles. Similarly, the T/P-E crossover differences are reduced from 11 to 14 cm to only 7 cm rms. The adjusted D-PAF orbit error varies between 6 and 12 cm rms. The adjustment has also been performed for the Joint Gravity Model 3(JGM 3) orbits of ERS-I phases C, E, and F. The rms difference between the corrected orbits for the D-PAF and JGM 3 orbits is only about 1 cm rms, while it is about 11 cm before T/P orbit error correction. This shows that the adjustment is almost insensitive to the initial ERS-I orbit used. It also confirms the 2 cm precision of the method. We also do repeat-track analysis on the 35 day repeat cycles of ERS-I phase C. The mean difference in sea level variance before and after orbit error correction is 34 cm2 (D-PAF orbit) and 17 cm2 (JGM 3 orbit). The corrected ERS-1 and T/P sea level variabilities, however, are in excellent agreement. The study thus shows that ERS-1/2 orbit error must be corrected before analyzing large-scale oceanic signals and combining ERS-1/2 with T/P data. The proposed method provides a very effective correction and thus significantly enhances the quality of ERS-1/2 data. Corresponding data sets will be distributed to the

  13. Incidental, small (< 3 cm), unilocular, pancreatic cysts: Factors that predict lesion progression during imaging surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Go Eun [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sang Soo; Kim, Jin Woong; Heo, Suk Hee; Lim, Hyo Soon; Jun, Chung Hwan; Jeong, Yong Yeon [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    To explore the features that predict size increase and development of potential malignant features in incidentally detected, unilocular cystic pancreatic lesions (CPLs) less than 3 cm in diameter, during subsequent follow-up. We retrieved data of patients diagnosed with unilocular CPLs less than 3 cm in diameter during the period from November 2003 through December 2014, using a computerized search. All serial CT and MR images were analyzed to identify the number, size, and location of CPLs; dilatation of the main pancreatic duct; and occurrence of worrisome features and high-risk stigmata of malignancy in the lesion. The characteristics of CPLs were compared between the increase (i.e., size increase during subsequent follow-up) and no-increase groups. For CPLs in the increase group, subgroup analysis was performed according to the lesion size at the last follow-up (< 3 cm vs. ≥ 3 cm). Among 553 eligible patients, 132 (23.9%) had CPLs that increased in size, and 421 (76.1%) had CPLs that did not, during follow-up. Of the 132, 12 (9.1%) CPLs increased to diameters ≥ 3 cm at the final follow-up. Among the various factors, follow-up duration was a significant independent factor for an interval size increase of CPLs (p < 0.001). In the increase group, initial cyst size was a significant independent factor to predict later size increase to or beyond 3 cm in diameter (p < 0.001), and the initial cyst diameter ≥ 1.5 cm predicted such a growth with a sensitivity and specificity of 83% and 72%, respectively. No significant factors to predict the development of potential malignant features were identified. Follow-up duration was associated with an interval size increase of CPLs. Among the growing CPLs, initial cyst size was associated with future lesion growth to and beyond 3 cm.

  14. Simulation of bulk aerosol direct radiative effects and its climatic feedbacks in South Africa using RegCM4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, M.; Botai, J.; Sivakumar, V.; Mengistu Tsidu, G.; Rautenbach, C. J. deW.; Moja, Shadung J.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, 12 year runs of the Regional Climate Model (RegCM4) have been used to analyze the bulk aerosol radiative effects and its climatic feedbacks in South Africa. Due to the geographical locations where the aerosol potential source regions are situated and the regional dynamics, the South African aerosol spatial-distribution has a unique feature. Across the west and southwest areas, desert dust particles are dominant. However, sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols are primarily distributed over the east and northern regions of the country. Analysis of the Radiative Effects (RE) shows that in South Africa the bulk aerosols play a role in reducing the net radiation absorbed by the surface via enhancing the net radiative heating in the atmosphere. Hence, across all seasons, the bulk aerosol-radiation-climate interaction induced statistically significant positive feedback on the net atmospheric heating rate. Over the western and central parts of South Africa, the overall radiative feedbacks of bulk aerosol predominantly induces statistically significant Cloud Cover (CC) enhancements. Whereas, over the east and southeast coastal areas, it induces minimum reductions in CC. The CC enhancement and RE of aerosols jointly induce radiative cooling at the surface which in turn results in the reduction of Surface Temperature (ST: up to -1 K) and Surface Sensible Heat Flux (SSHF: up to -24 W/m2). The ST and SSHF decreases cause a weakening of the convectively driven turbulences and surface buoyancy fluxes which lead to the reduction of the boundary layer height, surface pressure enhancement and dynamical changes. Throughout the year, the maximum values of direct and semi-direct effects of bulk aerosol were found in areas of South Africa which are dominated by desert dust particles. This signals the need for a strategic regional plan on how to reduce the dust production and monitoring of the dust dispersion as well as it initiate the need of further research on different

  15. Performance of Si sensors irradiated 5x1014 n/cm2

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Philippe; Dmitriev, Andrey; Evangelou, Ioannis; Go, Apollo; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Peisert, Anna; Zamiatin, Nikolai

    2004-01-01

    The expected particle fluence in the inner part of the CMS Preshower is calculated to be 1.6x1014 cm^-2 for neutrons and 0.4x1014 cm2 for charged hadrons. Since the error of the calculation is high and/or unexpected accidental beam miss-alignments might happen we have irradiated Preshower silicon sensors to fluences up to 5x1014 n/cm2 to verify that they hold voltages necessary to reach the full charge collection efficiency. All irradiated sensors showed no signs of breakdown up to 1000 V, the maximum voltage applied. For all but one the operating voltage was lower than 900 V and a charge collection efficiency plateau was at least 200 V long. No noisy channels were observed at the extreme voltages. The measured charge was 71+-12% and 59+-12% for sensors irradiated to 3x1014 n/cm2 and 5x1014 n/cm2, respectively. These values are consistent with the extrapolation from previous measurements made on sensors irradiated to 2.3x1014 n/cm2. The work presents the results of static and dynamic measurements and shows th...

  16. How Configuration Management (CM) Can Help Project Teams To Innovate and Communicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioletti, Louis

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, CM is relegated to a support role in project management activities. CM s traditional functions of identification, change control, status accounting, and audits/verification are still necessary and play a vital role. However, this presentation proposes CM s role in a new and innovative manner that will significantly improve communication throughout the organization and, in turn, augment the project s success. CM s new role is elevated to the project management level, above the engineering or sub-project level in the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), where it can more effectively accommodate changes, reduce corrective actions, and ensure that requirements are clear, concise, and valid, and that results conform to the requirements. By elevating CM s role in project management and orchestrating new measures, a new communication will emerge that will improve information integrity, structured baselines, interchangeability/traceability, metrics, conformance to standards, and standardize the best practices in the organization. Overall project performance (schedule, quality, and cost) can be no better than the ability to communicate requirements which, in turn, is no better than the CM process to communicate project decisions and the correct requirements.

  17. [Effects of soil surface mulching on solar greenhouse grafted and own-rooted cucumber growth and soil environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Sheng; Liang, Yinli; Wang, Juyuan

    2005-12-01

    The study on the effects of different soil surface mulching models, including wheat straw mulching (WS), plastic film mulching (PF), and wheat straw plus plastic film mulching (WP), on the growth of solar greenhouse grafted and own-rooted cucumber and on soil environment showed that soil surface mulching not only increased the individuals of pistillate flower, improved its differentiation and development, shortened fruit-developing period, increased fruit weight, reduced fruit malformation percentage, but also raised total yield. Among the test mulching models, WP was better than WS and PF, and the effects were superior on grafted than on own-rooted cucumber. Soil surface mulching also had considerable effects on soil environment, but the effects varied with different modules. For example, under field condition, the diurnal change of soil temperature was a single-peak curve, with its peak higher and appeared at 14:30 in 5 cm and 10 cm soil depth, but lower and appeared later in deeper soil layers. In this study, WS lowered the maximum soil temperature and raised the minimum soil temperature, making soil temperature quite stable, while PF raised the maximum soil temperature much higher and enhanced the minimum soil temperature less than WS and WP, making the largest variation range of soil temperature. WP played a role of raising soil temperature and kept it stable. Similar to the diurnal change of soil temperature at 5 cm and 10 cm depth, that of soil respiration rate was also a single-peak curve. The soil respiration rate in all treatmentg was significantly higher than that of CK, and WP had a higher soil respiration rate than PF and WS. There was a significant positive correlation between soil respiration rate and soil temperature at 5 cm and 10 cm depth. By the end of the experiment, soil bulk density at the depth of 0-20 cm was measured, which was significantly lower in WS and WP than in CK and PF. The difference in soil bulk density was gradually inconspicuous

  18. Thermal and structural analysis of the LBL 10 x 40 cm long pulse accelerator and the 12 x 48 cm common long pulse accelerator for TFTR, doublet III-D, and MFTF-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, R.P.

    1985-11-01

    Stress and deflection of the grid rails of the existing, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) designed, 10 x 40 cm Long Pulse (neutral beam) Accelerator (40LPA) and the expanded 12 x 48 cm version, Common Long Pulse Source (CLPS), have been computed for a series of assumed heat load distributions. The combined stress from self-constraint of thermal expansion and rail holder reaction forces has been calculated. A simplification of the gradient grid rail holder was analyzed and was found to work as well or better than the original 40LPA design under the most probable operating conditions. Heat flux non-uniformity over the rail surface for both accelerator designs was estimated from 40LPA grid calorimetry data for arc and beam extraction operation. The extrapolated total heat load per rail for the CLPS was less than the 1.2 kW value used in this analysis. Under worst case assumptions, the maximum equivalent stress in any of the molybdenum grid rails was less than 20% of yield. For the anticipated heat load distribution on the gradient grid, the predicted deflection of the grid rail meets the 0.0457 mm position tolerance except under extremely non-uniform heat loads

  19. Thermal and structural analysis of the LBL 10 x 40 cm Long Pulse Accelerator and the 12 x 48 cm Common Long Pulse Accelerator for TFTR, Doublet III-D, and MFTF-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Stress and deflection of the grid rails of the existing, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) designed, 10 x 40 cm Long Pulse (neutral beam) Accelerator (40LPA) and the expanded 12 x 48 cm version, Common Long Pulse Source (CLPS), have been computed for a series of assumed heat load distributions. The combined stress from self-constraint of thermal expansion and rail holder reaction forces has been calculated. A simplification of the gradient grid rail holder was analyzed and was found to work as well or better than the original 40LPA design under the most probable operating conditions. Heat flux non-uniformity over the rail surface for both accelerator designs was estimated from 40LPA grid calorimetry data for arc and beam extraction operation. The extrapolated total heat load per rail for the CLPS was less than the 1.2 kW value used in this analysis. Under worst case assumptions, the maximum equivalent stress in any of the molybdenum grid rails was less than 20% of yield. For the anticipated heat load distribution on the gradient grid, the predicted deflection of the grid rail meets the 0.0457 mm position tolerant except under extremely non-uniform heat loads

  20. Epoch of reionization 21 cm forecasting from MCMC-constrained semi-numerical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sultan; Davé, Romeel; Finlator, Kristian; Santos, Mario G.

    2017-06-01

    The recent low value of Planck Collaboration XLVII integrated optical depth to Thomson scattering suggests that the reionization occurred fairly suddenly, disfavouring extended reionization scenarios. This will have a significant impact on the 21 cm power spectrum. Using a semi-numerical framework, we improve our model from instantaneous to include time-integrated ionization and recombination effects, and find that this leads to more sudden reionization. It also yields larger H II bubbles that lead to an order of magnitude more 21 cm power on large scales, while suppressing the small-scale ionization power. Local fluctuations in the neutral hydrogen density play the dominant role in boosting the 21 cm power spectrum on large scales, while recombinations are subdominant. We use a Monte Carlo Markov chain approach to constrain our model to observations of the star formation rate functions at z = 6, 7, 8 from Bouwens et al., the Planck Collaboration XLVII optical depth measurements and the Becker & Bolton ionizing emissivity data at z ˜ 5. We then use this constrained model to perform 21 cm forecasting for Low Frequency Array, Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array and Square Kilometre Array in order to determine how well such data can characterize the sources driving reionization. We find that the Mock 21 cm power spectrum alone can somewhat constrain the halo mass dependence of ionizing sources, the photon escape fraction and ionizing amplitude, but combining the Mock 21 cm data with other current observations enables us to separately constrain all these parameters. Our framework illustrates how the future 21 cm data can play a key role in understanding the sources and topology of reionization as observations improve.

  1. Beam backgrounds in the ATLAS detector during LHC loss map tests at beta*=40cm and beta*=80cm at Ebeam=6.5 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In this note the beam-background measurements with the ATLAS detector during lossmap tests of the LHC are described. Loss maps taken at beta*=40 cm and the normal 2015 setting of beta*=80 cm are compared. In the first case several collimator settings were explored, resulting in significant changes of beam backgrounds in ATLAS. Besides the studies of the dependence of background on collimation, which are important for optimisation of the LHC performance, these tests provide a clean environment to study the relative importance of beam halo losses on the experiment. The results show that the halo-related component of beam background in ATLAS decreases exponentially with increasing aperture of the tertiary collimators, the slope in terms of nominal sigma being about -0.5. From the data it is also shown that in normal operation conditions of LHC run 2 the beam halo losses contribute at most at the percent level to the total background, the dominant part coming from beam-gas interactions. The data are also used to ...

  2. A new all-sky map of Galactic high-velocity clouds from the 21-cm HI4PI survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmeier, Tobias

    2018-02-01

    High-velocity clouds (HVCs) are neutral or ionized gas clouds in the vicinity of the Milky Way that are characterized by high radial velocities inconsistent with participation in the regular rotation of the Galactic disc. Previous attempts to create a homogeneous all-sky H I map of HVCs have been hampered by a combination of poor angular resolution, limited surface brightness sensitivity and suboptimal sampling. Here, a new and improved H I map of Galactic HVCs based on the all-sky HI4PI survey is presented. The new map is fully sampled and provides significantly better angular resolution (16.2 versus 36 arcmin) and column density sensitivity (2.3 versus 3.7 × 1018 cm-2 at the native resolution) than the previously available LAB survey. The new HVC map resolves many of the major HVC complexes in the sky into an intricate network of narrow H I filaments and clumps that were not previously resolved by the LAB survey. The resulting sky coverage fraction of high-velocity H I emission above a column density level of 2 × 1018 cm-2 is approximately 15 per cent, which reduces to about 13 per cent when the Magellanic Clouds and other non-HVC emission are removed. The differential sky coverage fraction as a function of column density obeys a truncated power law with an exponent of -0.93 and a turnover point at about 5 × 1019 cm-2. H I column density and velocity maps of the HVC sky are made publicly available as FITS images for scientific use by the community.

  3. Role of Cumulus Parameterization Scheme on the Diurnal Cycle of Precipitation over Southeast Asia in RegCM4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Yuk Sing; Tam, Chi Yung Francis; Au-Yeung, Yee Man

    2017-04-01

    This study examines the sensitivity of precipitation simulations over the CORDEX-Southeast Asia (SEA) domain to the cumulus convection scheme used in the Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4). With the ERA-interim reanalysis as lateral boundary conditions, model integrations using the MIT-Emanuel cumulus parameterization scheme, and those using a "mixed convection scheme" (namely with the MIT-Emanuel scheme over ocean and the Grell scheme with Arakawa Schubert-type closure over land), have been carried out for the 2001-2010 period. On the seasonal average, the use of the mixed convection scheme, in comparison to MIT-Emanuel scheme everywhere, improves rainfall simulations over the South China Sea (SCS) by reducing the summer-time wet bias there. On the other hand, runs with the mixed convection scheme under(over)-estimate rainfall over land in Southeastern China (western coastlines of Indochina and the Philippines). For the diurnal variation of precipitation, it is found that the RegCM4 can reproduce well the characteristics of the diurnal cycle (DC) in SEA. Compared with the mixed convection scheme, the MIT-Emanual scheme performs better in reproducing the amplitude and phase of DC over the landside coastal area of Indochina during summer. Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis indicates that switching from the MIT-Emanuel scheme to the mixed convection scheme leads to a reduction in importance of the second EOF mode, which corresponds to rainfall peaked in the afternoon (local time). Further analyses reveal that such underestimation is related to increased cloud cover in RegCM4 using the mixed convection scheme; enhanced cloudiness in turn leads to reduced surface air temperature over land and thus reduced convective instability at 1200 and 1500 local time in the model simulations.

  4. Performance of Si sensors irradiated to 5x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, Ph.; Peisert, A. E-mail: anna.elliott-peisert@cern.ch; Cheremukhin, A.; Dmitriev, A.; Zamiatin, N.; Go, A.; Asimidis, A.; Evangelou, I.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N

    2004-01-21

    The expected particle fluence in the inner part of the CMS Preshower is calculated to be 1.6x10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} for neutrons and 0.4x10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} for charged hadrons. Since the error of the calculation is high and/or unexpected accidental beam misalignments might happen we have irradiated Preshower silicon sensors to fluences up to 5x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2} to verify that they hold voltages necessary to reach the full charge collection efficiency. All irradiated sensors showed no signs of breakdown up to 1000 V, the maximum voltage applied. All but one display a sufficiently stable charge collection efficiency up to 1000 V. No noisy channels were observed at the extreme voltages. The measured charge collection efficiency was 71{+-}12% and 59{+-}12% for sensors irradiated to 3x10{sup 14} and 5x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}, respectively. These values are consistent with the extrapolation from previous measurements made on sensors irradiated to 2.3x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}. The work presents the results of static and dynamic measurements and shows that our design and the technology are very robust.

  5. Probing the Intergalactic Medium with Ly α and 21 cm Fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heneka, Caroline [Dark Cosmology Center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Cooray, Asantha; Feng, Chang [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2017-10-10

    We study 21 cm and Ly α fluctuations, as well as H α , while distinguishing between Ly α emission of galactic, diffuse, and scattered intergalactic medium (IGM) origin. Cross-correlation information about the state of the IGM is obtained, testing neutral versus ionized medium cases with different tracers in a seminumerical simulation setup. In order to pave the way toward constraints on reionization history and modeling beyond power spectrum information, we explore parameter dependencies of the cross-power signal between 21 cm and Ly α , which displays a characteristic morphology and a turnover from negative to positive correlation at scales of a couple Mpc{sup −1}. In a proof of concept for the extraction of further information on the state of the IGM using different tracers, we demonstrate the use of the 21 cm and H α cross-correlation signal to determine the relative strength of galactic and IGM emission in Ly α . We conclude by showing the detectability of the 21 cm and Ly α cross-correlation signal over more than one decade in scale at high signal-to-noise ratio for upcoming probes like SKA and the proposed all-sky intensity mapping satellites SPHEREx and CDIM, while also including the Ly α damping tail and 21 cm foreground avoidance in the modeling.

  6. Prognostic significance of perirenal infiltration in renal cell carcinoma (<7 cm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seongyub; Yoon, Jangho; Kang, Dongil; Cho, Heung Lae; Chung, Jae-il

    2012-09-01

    Pathologic stage is the most accurate prognostic factor of renal cell carcinoma. We evaluated whether perirenal fat infiltration is a significant factor in tumors 7 cm or less in size. We retrospectively reviewed the record of 164 cases of tumors 7 cm or less in size. We divided the patients into two groups according to the presence of perirenal fat infiltration (group A, pT1; group B, pT3a). We evaluated relationships, recurrence-free survival and disease-specific survival according to clinicopathologic parameters. Statistical differences were calculated by log-rank test. A total 131 patients were included in group A, with a mean age of 55.8 years, average tumor size was 4.2 cm, and a mean follow-up period of 43 months. Group B included 33 patients, with a mean age of 55.9 years, an average tumor size of 4.1 cm, and a mean follow-up period of 38 months. There was no significant difference in disease-specific survival; however, recurrence-free survival showed significantly different between two groups (group A: 95.5%, group B: 84.4%). In this study, perirenal fat infiltration proved to be an independent prognostic factor for predicting disease-free survival in patients with tumors of 7 cm or less in size. Therefore, as this study showed, the presence of perirenal fat infiltration requires stricter follow-up planning, even in small renal cell carcinoma.

  7. Cobalt-60 total body irradiation dosimetry at 220 cm source-axis distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasgow, G.P.; Mill, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    Adults with acute leukemia are treated with cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation (TBI) followed by autologous marrow transplants. For TBI, patients seated in a stand angled 45 0 above the floor are treated for about 2 hours at 220 cm source-axis distance (SAD) with sequential right and left lateral 87 cm x 87 cm fields to a 900 rad mid-pelvic dose at about 8 rad/min using a 5000 Ci cobalt unit. Maximum (lateral) to minimum (mid-plane) dose ratios are: hips--1.15, shoulders--1.30, and head--1.05, which is shielded by a compensator filter. Organ doses are small intestine, liver and kidneys--1100 rad, lung--1100 to 1200 rad, and heart--1300 rad. Verification dosimetry reveals the prescribed dose is delivered to within +-5%. Details of the dosimetry of this treatment are presented

  8. Effect of Phosphorylation of CM2 Protein on Influenza C Virus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Takanari; Shimotai, Yoshitaka; Matsuzaki, Yoko; Muraki, Yasushi; Sho, Ri; Sugawara, Kanetsu; Hongo, Seiji

    2017-11-15

    CM2 is the second membrane protein of the influenza C virus and has been demonstrated to play a role in the uncoating and genome packaging processes in influenza C virus replication. Although the effects of N-linked glycosylation, disulfide-linked oligomerization, and palmitoylation of CM2 on virus replication have been analyzed, the effect of the phosphorylation of CM2 on virus replication remains to be determined. In this study, a phosphorylation site(s) at residue 78 and/or 103 of CM2 was replaced with an alanine residue(s), and the effects of the loss of phosphorylation on influenza C virus replication were analyzed. No significant differences were observed in the packaging of the reporter gene between influenza C virus-like particles (VLPs) produced from 293T cells expressing wild-type CM2 and those from the cells expressing the CM2 mutants lacking the phosphorylation site(s). Reporter gene expression in HMV-II cells infected with VLPs containing the CM2 mutants was inhibited in comparison with that in cells infected with wild-type VLPs. The virus production of the recombinant influenza C virus possessing CM2 mutants containing a serine-to-alanine change at residue 78 was significantly lower than that of wild-type recombinant influenza C virus. Furthermore, the virus growth of the recombinant viruses possessing CM2 with a serine-to-aspartic acid change at position 78, to mimic constitutive phosphorylation, was virtually identical to that of the wild-type virus. These results suggest that phosphorylation of CM2 plays a role in efficient virus replication, probably through the addition of a negative charge to the Ser78 phosphorylation site. IMPORTANCE It is well-known that many host and viral proteins are posttranslationally modified by phosphorylation, which plays a role in the functions of these proteins. In influenza A and B viruses, phosphorylation of viral proteins NP, M1, NS1, and the nuclear export protein (NEP), which are not integrated into the

  9. Measurement of the intensity of the cosmic background radiation at 3.0 cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, S.D.

    1984-01-01

    The intensity of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) has been measured at a wavelength of 3.0 cm as part of a program to measure th Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum of the CBR at five wavelengths between 0.33 cm and 12 cm. The instrument used is a dual-antenna Dicke-switched radiometer with a double-sideband noise temperature of 490 K and a sensitivity of 46 mK/Hz/sup 1/2/. The entire radiometer is mounted on bearings. The atmospheric emission was measured by rotating the radiometer, and thus directing one antenna to zenith angles of +- 30 0 and +- 40 0 . 61 references, 24 figures, 18 tables

  10. Muon and neutrino results from KGF experiment at a depth of 7000 hg/square cm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Menon, M. G. K.; Mondal, N. K.; Narasimham, V. S.; Streekantan, B. V.; Hayashi, Y.; Ito, N.; Kawakami, S.; Miyake, S.

    1985-01-01

    The KGF nucleon decay experiment at a depth of 7000 hg/sq cm has provided valuable data on muons and neutrinos. The detector comprised of 34 crossed layers of proportional counters (cross section 10 x 10 sq cm; lengths 4m and 6m) sandwiched between 1.2 cm thick iron plates can record tracks of charged particles to an accuracy of 1 deg from tracks that traverse the whole of the detector. A special two-fold coincidence system enables the detector to record charged particles that enter at very large zenith angles. In a live time of 3.6 years about 2600 events have been recorded. These events include atmospheric muons, neutrino induced muons from rock, stopping muons, showers and events which have their production vertex inside the detectors. The results on atmospheric muons and neutrino events are presented.

  11. Generation of longitudinally polarized terahertz pulses with field amplitudes exceeding 2 kV/cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cliffe, M. J., E-mail: Matthew.Cliffe@manchester.ac.uk; Rodak, A.; Graham, D. M. [School of Physics and Astronomy and the Photon Science Institute, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Sci-Tech Daresbury, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Jamison, S. P. [The Cockcroft Institute, Sci-Tech Daresbury, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Accelerator Science and Technology Centre, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Darebsury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-10

    We demonstrate the generation of near-single cycle longitudinally polarized terahertz radiation using a large-area radially biased photoconductive antenna with a longitudinal field amplitude in excess of 2 kV/cm. The 76 mm diameter antenna was photo-excited by a 0.5 mJ amplified near-infrared femtosecond laser system and biased with a voltage of up to 100 kV applied over concentric electrodes. Amplitudes for both the transverse and longitudinal field components of the source were measured using a calibrated electro-optic detection scheme. By tightly focusing the radiation emitted from the photoconductive antenna, we obtained a maximum longitudinal field amplitude of 2.22 kV/cm with an applied bias field of 38.5 kV/cm.

  12. Generation of longitudinally polarized terahertz pulses with field amplitudes exceeding 2 kV/cm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliffe, M. J.; Rodak, A.; Graham, D. M.; Jamison, S. P.

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate the generation of near-single cycle longitudinally polarized terahertz radiation using a large-area radially biased photoconductive antenna with a longitudinal field amplitude in excess of 2 kV/cm. The 76 mm diameter antenna was photo-excited by a 0.5 mJ amplified near-infrared femtosecond laser system and biased with a voltage of up to 100 kV applied over concentric electrodes. Amplitudes for both the transverse and longitudinal field components of the source were measured using a calibrated electro-optic detection scheme. By tightly focusing the radiation emitted from the photoconductive antenna, we obtained a maximum longitudinal field amplitude of 2.22 kV/cm with an applied bias field of 38.5 kV/cm.

  13. Generation of longitudinally polarized terahertz pulses with field amplitudes exceeding 2 kV/cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cliffe, M. J.; Rodak, A.; Graham, D. M.; Jamison, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the generation of near-single cycle longitudinally polarized terahertz radiation using a large-area radially biased photoconductive antenna with a longitudinal field amplitude in excess of 2 kV/cm. The 76 mm diameter antenna was photo-excited by a 0.5 mJ amplified near-infrared femtosecond laser system and biased with a voltage of up to 100 kV applied over concentric electrodes. Amplitudes for both the transverse and longitudinal field components of the source were measured using a calibrated electro-optic detection scheme. By tightly focusing the radiation emitted from the photoconductive antenna, we obtained a maximum longitudinal field amplitude of 2.22 kV/cm with an applied bias field of 38.5 kV/cm

  14. Spin Forming Aluminum Crew Module (CM) Metallic Aft Pressure Vessel Bulkhead (APVBH) - Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Eric K.; Domack, Marcia S.; Torres, Pablo D.; McGill, Preston B.; Tayon, Wesley A.; Bennett, Jay E.; Murphy, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    The principal focus of this project was to assist the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program in developing a spin forming fabrication process for manufacture of the Orion crew module (CM) aft pressure vessel bulkhead. The spin forming process will enable a single piece aluminum (Al) alloy 2219 aft bulkhead resulting in the elimination of the current multiple piece welded construction, simplify CM fabrication, and lead to an enhanced design. Phase I (NASA TM-2014-218163 (1)) of this assessment explored spin forming the single-piece CM forward pressure vessel bulkhead. The Orion MPCV Program and Lockheed Martin (LM) recently made two critical decisions relative to the NESC Phase I work scope: (1) LM selected the spin forming process to manufacture a single-piece aft bulkhead for the Orion CM, and (2) the aft bulkhead will be manufactured from Al 2219. Based on the Program's new emphasis related to the spin forming process, the NESC was asked to conduct a Phase II assessment to assist in the LM manufacture of the aft bulkhead and to conduct a feasibility study into spin forming the Orion CM cone. This activity was approved on June 19, 2013. Dr. Robert Piascik, NASA Technical Fellow for Materials at the Langley Research Center (LaRC), was selected to lead this assessment. The project plan was approved by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Review Board (NRB) on July 18, 2013. The primary stakeholders for this assessment were the NASA and LM MPCV Program offices. Additional benefactors are commercial launch providers developing CM concepts.

  15. A Polarimetric Approach for Constraining the Dynamic Foreground Spectrum for Cosmological Global 21 cm Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhan, Bang D.; Bradley, Richard F.; Burns, Jack O.

    2017-02-01

    The cosmological global (sky-averaged) 21 cm signal is a powerful tool to probe the evolution of the intergalactic medium in high-redshift universe (z≤slant 6). One of the biggest observational challenges is to remove the foreground spectrum which is at least four orders of magnitude brighter than the cosmological 21 cm emission. Conventional global 21 cm experiments rely on the spectral smoothness of the foreground synchrotron emission to separate it from the unique 21 cm spectral structures in a single total-power spectrum. However, frequency-dependent instrumental and observational effects are known to corrupt such smoothness and complicate the foreground subtraction. We introduce a polarimetric approach to measure the projection-induced polarization of the anisotropic foreground onto a stationary dual-polarized antenna. Due to Earth rotation, when pointing the antenna at a celestial pole, the revolving foreground will modulate this polarization with a unique frequency-dependent sinusoidal signature as a function of time. In our simulations, by harmonic decomposing this dynamic polarization, our technique produces two separate spectra in parallel from the same observation: (I) a total sky power consisting both the foreground and the 21 cm background and (II) a model-independent measurement of the foreground spectrum at a harmonic consistent to twice the sky rotation rate. In the absence of any instrumental effects, by scaling and subtracting the latter from the former, we recover the injected global 21 cm model within the assumed uncertainty. We further discuss several limiting factors and potential remedies for future implementation.

  16. Pulsed WIP electron gun. Fabrication phase 1 x 40 cm and 1 x 70 cm cooled WIP electron gun. Final report, March 1979-December 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakalopulos, G.

    1980-01-01

    An electron gun capable of long-run operation at 10 KHz and 1 A/cm 2 has been fabricated and tested. Pulse widths of 200 to 600 nsec and a total life of greater than 10 7 shots have been demonstrated. During the acceptance tests, the electron gun was operated at a total average power of 20 KW for 30 minutes. This basically satisfied the contract requirements. To establish some upper limit of the gun's capability, the device was operated at a repetition rate of 3.5 KHz at a total average power of 54.5 KW for greater than 10 minutes. During these tests, no high voltage breakdown occurred after the device was processed. The beam uniformity at high repetition rates is +-10% and the efficiency is 50%

  17. The measurement of prompt neutron spectrum in spontaneous fission of {sup 244}Cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batenkov, O.I.; Boykov, G.S.; Drapchinsky, L.V.; Majorov, M.Ju.; Trenkin, V.A. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Inst., Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    Under the Program of Measurements of Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Minor Actinides for Transmutation Purposes the integral neutron spectrum in spontaneous fission of {sup 244}Cm has been measured by the time-of-flight method in the energy range of 0.1-15 MeV relative to the standard neutron spectrum in {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission. Essential attention was paid to revealing of possible systematic errors. It is shown, that the {sup 244}Cm spectrum shape may be well described by using Mannhart evaluation with appropriate parameter of Maxwell temperature T{sub M} = 1.37 MeV. (author)

  18. Metallographic study of reconstitution welding in inserts of 1 cm3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero C, J.; Garcia R, R.; Fernandez T, F.; Perez R, N.; Rocamontes A, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the welding metallographic study carried out in Charpy test tubes reconstituted with notch in 'V', used in the surveillance programs of the vessel in nucleo electric plants is described. Inserts of 1 cm 3 are used, where the inserts are usually rectangular of minimum 18 millimeters of length. The importance of using inserts of 1 cm 3 is that the mechanical properties can be measured in another direction of the vessel steel, when changing the direction or sense of the notch in 'V' or the face where this notch is made in the insert. (Author)

  19. Design of a {O}94 cm mirror mount for the Petawatt Project on Nova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, R.; Tietbohl, G.L.

    1995-10-01

    The authors have designed a large optical gimbal mount that will be used on the Petawatt Project currently under construction on the Nova laser. These mounts are designed to hold and tilt {O}94 cm mirrors and gratings that will redirect the {O}60 cm beam through the Petawatt vacuum compressor. Lacking the commercial availability to house this size optic, they have engineered a large mirror mount with a high natural frequency (42 Hz), low self-weight deflection of the mirror (< {lambda}/46), and high positioning accuracy characteristics (< 1 {micro}rad using flexures and stepping motors). Analysis details and methodology are presented.

  20. Configuration Management (CM) Support for KM Processes at NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioletti, Louis

    2010-01-01

    Collection and processing of information are critical aspects of every business activity from raw data to information to an executable decision. Configuration Management (CM) supports KM practices through its automated business practices and its integrated operations within the organization. This presentation delivers an overview of JSC/Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) and its methods to encourage innovation through collaboration and participation. Specifically, this presentation will illustrate how SLSD CM creates an embedded KM activity with an established IT platform to control and update baselines, requirements, documents, schedules, budgets, while tracking changes essentially managing critical knowledge elements.

  1. On correlations of CM-type Maass waveforms under the horocyclic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejhal, Dennis A; Christianson, Hans

    2003-01-01

    Maass waveforms of CM-type are a special kind of eigenfunction of the hyperbolic Laplacian whose 'defining' components (namely eigenvalue and Fourier coefficients) are given by simple formulae involving algebraic integers chosen from a suitable number field K/Q. In this paper, we report on some computer experiments aimed at ascertaining the extent to which the autocorrelation behaviour of CM-forms agrees with that of 'mock' (i.e. random) waveforms in the limit of high energy. Our results suggest that no significant differences are seen

  2. On correlations of CM-type Maass waveforms under the horocyclic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Hejhal, D A

    2003-01-01

    Maass waveforms of CM-type are a special kind of eigenfunction of the hyperbolic Laplacian whose 'defining' components (namely eigenvalue and Fourier coefficients) are given by simple formulae involving algebraic integers chosen from a suitable number field K/Q. In this paper, we report on some computer experiments aimed at ascertaining the extent to which the autocorrelation behaviour of CM-forms agrees with that of 'mock' (i.e. random) waveforms in the limit of high energy. Our results suggest that no significant differences are seen.

  3. Surface polishing of niobium for superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Liang [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Niobium cavities are important components in modern particle accelerators based on superconducting radio frequency (SRF) technology. The interior of SRF cavities are cleaned and polished in order to produce high accelerating field and low power dissipation on the cavity wall. Current polishing methods, buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and electro-polishing (EP), have their advantages and limitations. We seek to improve current methods and explore laser polishing (LP) as a greener alternative of chemical methods. The topography and removal rate of BCP at different conditions (duration, temperature, sample orientation, flow rate) was studied with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Differential etching on different crystal orientations is the main contributor to fine grain niobium BCP topography, with gas evolution playing a secondary role. The surface of single crystal and bi-crystal niobium is smooth even after heavy BCP. The topography of fine grain niobium depends on total removal. The removal rate increases with temperature and surface acid flow rate within the rage of 0~20 °C, with chemical reaction being the possible dominate rate control mechanism. Surface flow helps to regulate temperature and avoid gas accumulation on the surface. The effect of surface flow rate on niobium EP was studied with optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and power spectral density (PSD) analysis. Within the range of 0~3.7 cm/s, no significant difference was found on the removal rate and the macro roughness. Possible improvement on the micro roughness with increased surface flow rate was observed. The effect of fluence and pulse accumulation on niobium topography during LP was studied with optical microscopy, SEM, AFM, and PSD analysis. Polishing on micro scale was achieved within fluence range of 0.57~0.90 J/cm2, with pulse accumulation adjusted accordingly. Larger area treatment was proved possible by

  4. Structural characterization, magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effects of La{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}Mn{sub 1-x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} (x = 0.15, 0.20, and 0.25)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhahri, A.; Dhahri, E. [Universite de Sfax, Laboratoire de Physique Appliquee, Faculte des Sciences de Sfax (Tunisia); Hlil, E.K. [CNRS et Universite Joseph Fourier, Institut Neel, Grenoble (France)

    2014-09-15

    The effect of Cr doping on the structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of perovskite manganites La{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}Mn{sub 1-x} Cr{sub x} O{sub 3} (x = 0.15, 0.20, and 0.25) has been investigated. Crystalline structure and magnetic properties are investigated by using X-ray powder diffraction and magnetization measurements, respectively. All samples show a single phase and are found to crystallize in the distorted rhombohedral system with R anti 3c space group. A monotonous change of Curie temperature (T{sub C}), from 314 to 253 K, is observed when content doping increases. Substantial magnetic entropy change reaching 4.20 J/kg K is revealed. Relative cooling power was estimated as well. It was found to reach 289, 323, and 386 J/kg for x = 0.15, 0.20, and 0.25, respectively. Field dependence of the magnetic entropy change showing the power law dependence ΔS{sub M} ∝ (μ{sub 0}H){sup n} is also analyzed and discussed. (orig.)

  5. Diffractive interstellar scintillation of the quasar J1819+3845 at lambda 21 cm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macquart, JP; de Bruyn, AG

    We report the discovery of fast, frequency-dependent intensity variations from the scintillating intra-day variable quasar J1819 + 3845 at lambda 21 cm which resemble diffractive interstellar scintillations observed in pulsars. The observations were taken with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio

  6. Recovering the H II region size statistics from 21-cm tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakiichi, Koki; Majumdar, Suman; Mellema, Garrelt; Ciardi, Benedetta; Dixon, Keri L.; Iliev, Ilian T.; Jelić, Vibor; Koopmans, Léon V. E.; Zaroubi, Saleem; Busch, Philipp

    2017-10-01

    We introduce a novel technique, called 'granulometry', to characterize and recover the mean size and the size distribution of H II regions from 21-cm tomography. The technique is easy to implement, but places the previously not very well-defined concept of morphology on a firm mathematical foundation. The size distribution of the cold spots in 21-cm tomography can be used as a direct tracer of the underlying probability distribution of H II region sizes. We explore the capability of the method using large-scale reionization simulations and mock observational data cubes while considering capabilities of Square Kilometre Array 1 (SKA1) low and a future extension to SKA2. We show that the technique allows the recovery of the H II region size distribution with a moderate signal-to-noise ratio from wide-field imaging (SNR ≲ 3), for which the statistical uncertainty is sample variance dominated. We address the observational requirements on the angular resolution, the field of view, and the thermal noise limit for a successful measurement. To achieve a full scientific return from 21-cm tomography and to exploit a synergy with 21-cm power spectra, we suggest an observing strategy using wide-field imaging (several tens of square degrees) by an interferometric mosaicking/multibeam observation with additional intermediate baselines ( ∼ 2-4 km) in an SKA phase 2.

  7. Observations of Orion in all four 18 cm OH Thermal Absoprtion Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Amber M.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Troland, Thomas; Sarma, Anuj; Greisen, Eric

    2018-01-01

    We present results obtained with Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) D-configuration observations of the 18 cm OH absorption lines in the Orion Veil; a sheet of material 2-4 pc in front of the Trapezium stars. The goals of these observations were to (a) measure the magnetic field through the Zeeman effect using the 18 cm OH mainlines at 1665 and 1667 MHz and compare the results with those obtained with the pre upgrade VLA, (b) observe all four 18 cm OH lines (the two mainlines and the two satellite lines at 1612 and 1720 MHz) to infer physical conditions in the absorbing regions. For the first goal, we found that the more recent measurements are comparable to the earlier published results. To achieve the second goal, we plan to use the Cloudy spectral synthesis code to model physical conditions based upon observations of all four 18 cm OH lines. We also anticipate using Cloudy to assess the viability of a model previously applied to the M17 PDR in which the magnetic field of the Veil is in hydrostatic equilibrium with radiation pressure of stellar uv from the Trapezium.

  8. Constraining the variation of fundamental constants using 18 cm OH lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chengalur, JN; Kanekar, N

    2003-01-01

    We describe a new technique to estimate variations in the fundamental constants using 18 cm OH absorption lines, with the advantage that all lines arise in the same species, allowing a clean comparison between the measured redshifts. In conjunction with one additional transition, it is possible to

  9. Flexible ureteroscopy versus percutaneous nephrolithotomy as primary treatment for renal stones 2 cm or greater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akar EC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Erin Akar, Bodo E KnudsenDepartment of Urology, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: The purpose of this review, based on the current evidence in the literature, is whether ureteroscopy (URS is a comparable primary treatment option to the current gold standard of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL for the treatment of large kidney stones 2 cm or greater. The lack of prospective randomized trials directly comparing URS and PCNL makes comparison challenging. The numerous studies are not standardized in terms of their definition of stone-free or how stone size is reported. In order to standardize comparison of results, we used a stone-free definition of <4 mm after one procedure per imaging of the author’s choice, since how each patient was imaged postoperatively was not reported. The results from the literature show that moderately large stones from 2 to 3 cm treated ureteroscopically have similar outcomes to PCNL. Stone-free rates with URS decrease when stone size is above 3 cm. Our interpretation of the literature suggests that a current limitation of URS is that multiple procedures for URS would be required to achieve comparable stone-free rates to PCNL, particularly for stones greater than 4 cm.Keywords: ureteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, lithotripsy, urinary calculi

  10. MiCPhot: A prime-focus multicolor CCD photometer on the 85-cm Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Aiying; Jiang Xiaojun; Wei Jianyan; Zhang Yanping

    2009-01-01

    We describe a new BV RI multicolor CCD photometric system situated at the prime focus of the 85-cm telescope at the Xinglong Station of NAOC. Atmospheric extinction effects, photometric accuracy and color calibration dependence of the system are investigated. Additional attention was paid to giving observers guidance in estimating throughput, detection limit, signal-to-noise ratio and exposure time. (invited reviews)

  11. Preliminary evaluation of Am/Cm melter feed preparation process upset recovery flowsheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    This document summarizes the results from the development of flowsheets to recover from credible processing errors specified in TTR 99-MNSS/SE-006. The proposed flowsheets were developed in laboratory scale equipment and will be utilized with minor modifications for full scale demonstrations in the Am/Cm Pilot Facility

  12. Nancay "blind" 21 cm line survey of the Canes Venatici group region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan-Korteweg, RC; van Driel, W; Briggs, F; Binggeli, B; Mostefaoui, TI

    A radio spectroscopic driftscan survey in the 21 cm line with the Nancay decimetric radio telescope of 0.08 steradians of sky in the direction of the constellation Canes Venatici covering a heliocentric velocity range of -350

  13. Review Simulating the z = 3.35 HI 21-cm Visibility Signal for the Ooty ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    vidual sources is well within the reach of OWFA's frequency resolution and this is expected to have an ... HI sources. The collective redshifted 21-cm radiation from the individual HI clouds appears as a diffuse back- ground radiation and the source clustering is imprinted ..... tions (solid lines) for all values of Un. The HI signal.

  14. Nancay blind 21cm line survey of the Canes Venatici group region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan-Korteweg, R. C.; Driel, W. van; Briggs, F.; Binggeli, B.; Mostefaoui, T. I.

    1998-01-01

    Submitted to: Astron. Astrophys. Abstract: A radio spectroscopic driftscan survey in the 21cm line with the Nancay Radio Telescope of 0.08 steradians of sky in the direction of the constellation Canes Venatici covering a heliocentric velocity range of -350 < V_hel < 2350 km/s produced 53 spectral

  15. Changed Relation between Solar 10.7-cm Radio Flux and some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 35; Issue 1. Changed Relation between Solar 10.7-cm Radio Flux and some Activity Indices which describe the Radiation at Different Altitudes of Atmosphere during Cycles 21–23. E. A. Bruevich V. V. Bruevich G. V. Yakunina. General Editorial on Publication ...

  16. Reasons experiments can be performed at a pp machine at L = 1033 cm-2 sec-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, H.A.; Ludlam, T.; Platner, E.; Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Examples of experiments that cope with high rate environments are given. Then the factors which lead to the conclusion that experiments can be performed at L = 10 33 cm - 2 sec - 1 in pp collisions at √s = 800 GeV are discussed

  17. Redshifted HI 21-cm Signal from the Post-Reionization Epoch ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tomographic intensity mapping of the HI using the redshifted 21-cm observations opens up a new window towards our understanding of cosmological background evolution and structure formation. This is a key science goal of several upcoming radio telescopes including the Square Kilometer Array (SKA). In this article, we ...

  18. Modelling the 21-cm Signal from the Epoch of Reionization and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Studying the cosmic dawn and the epoch of reionization through the redshifted 21-cm line are among the major science goals of the SKA1. Their significance lies in the fact that they are closely related to the very first stars in the Universe. Interpreting the upcoming data would require detailed modelling of the relevant ...

  19. STRP Screening Sets for the human genome at 5 cM density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marth Gabor

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRPs are powerful tools for gene mapping and other applications. A STRP genome scan of 10 cM is usually adequate for mapping single gene disorders. However mapping studies involving genetically complex disorders and especially association (linkage disequilibrium often require higher STRP density. Results We report the development of two separate 10 cM human STRP Screening Sets (Sets 12 and 52 which span all chromosomes. When combined, the two Sets contain a total of 782 STRPs, with average STRP spacing of 4.8 cM, average heterozygosity of 0.72, and total sex-average coverage of 3535 cM. The current Sets are comprised almost entirely of STRPs based on tri- and tetranucleotide repeats. We also report correction of primer sequences for many STRPs used in previous Screening Sets. Detailed information for the new Screening Sets is available from our web site: http://research.marshfieldclinic.org/genetics. Conclusion Our new human STRP Screening Sets will improve the quality and cost effectiveness of genotyping for gene mapping and other applications.

  20. Composition/Property Relationships for the Phase 2 Am-Cm Glass Variability Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, D.

    2000-06-09

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of compositional uncertainties on the primary processing and product performance criteria for potential glasses to stabilize the Tank 17.1 Am-Cm solution and to identify the AGCR in which glasses simultaneously meet both process and product performance criteria as defined for Phase 2.

  1. Maslov. Evaluated neutron reaction data for Am and Cm isotopes. Summary documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear data file by V.M. Maslov et al includes evaluated neutron reaction data for Am-241,243 Cm-243-245,246 in EDNF-6 format. The data are available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, costfree upon request. (author)

  2. Effects of the sources of reionization on 21-cm redshift-space distortions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majumdar, Suman; Jensen, Hannes; Mellema, Garrelt; Chapman, Emma; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Lee, Kai-Yan; Iliev, Ilian T.; Dixon, Keri L.; Datta, Kanan K.; Ciardi, Benedetta; Fernandez, Elizabeth R.; Jelić, Vibor; Koopmans, Léon V. E.; Zaroubi, Saleem

    2016-01-01

    The observed 21 cm signal from the epoch of reionization will be distorted along the line of sight by the peculiar velocities of matter particles. These redshift-space distortions will affect the contrast in the signal and will also make it anisotropic. This anisotropy contains information about the

  3. Bayesian constraints on the global 21-cm signal from the Cosmic Dawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, G.; Zwart, J. T. L.; Price, D.; Greenhill, L. J.; Mesinger, A.; Dowell, J.; Eftekhari, T.; Ellingson, S. W.; Kocz, J.; Schinzel, F.

    2016-09-01

    The birth of the first luminous sources and the ensuing epoch of reionization are best studied via the redshifted 21-cm emission line, the signature of the first two imprinting the last. In this work, we present a fully Bayesian method, HIBAYES, for extracting the faint, global (sky-averaged) 21-cm signal from the much brighter foreground emission. We show that a simplified (but plausible) Gaussian model of the 21-cm emission from the Cosmic Dawn epoch (15 ≲ z ≲ 30), parametrized by an amplitude A_{H I}, a frequency peak ν _{H I} and a width σ _{H I}, can be extracted even in the presence of a structured foreground frequency spectrum (parametrized as a seventh-order polynomial), provided sufficient signal-to-noise (400 h of observation with a single dipole). We apply our method to an early, 19-min-long observation from the Large aperture Experiment to detect the Dark Ages, constraining the 21-cm signal amplitude and width to be -890 6.5 MHz (corresponding to Δz > 1.9 at redshift z ≃ 20) respectively at the 95-per cent confidence level in the range 13.2 ν > 50 MHz).

  4. Bounds on Dark Matter annihilations from 21 cm data arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amico, Guido; Strumia, Alessandro

    The observation of an absorption feature in the 21 cm spectrum at redshift $z\\approx 17$ implies bounds on Dark Matter annihilations for a broad range of masses, given that significant heating of the intergalactic medium would have erased such feature. The resulting bounds on the DM annihilation cross sections are comparable to the strongest ones from all other observables.

  5. Programming Models for Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamics on the CM-5 (Part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amala, P.A.K.; Rodrigue, G.H.

    1994-01-01

    This is a two-part presentation of a timing study on the Thinking Machines CORP. CM-5 computer. Part II is given in this study and represents domain-decomposition and message-passing models. Part I described computational problems using a SIMD model and connection machine FORTRAN (CMF)

  6. First limits on the 21 cm power spectrum during the Epoch of X-ray heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ewall-Wice, A.; Dillon, Joshua S.; Hewitt, J. N.; Loeb, A.; Mesinger, A.; Neben, A. R.; Offringa, A. R.; Tegmark, M.; Barry, N.; Beardsley, A. P.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, Judd D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Carroll, P.; Corey, B. E.; de Oliveira-Costa, A.; Emrich, D.; Feng, L.; Gaensler, B. M.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kim, HS; Kratzenberg, E.; Lenc, E.; Line, J.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Oberoi, D.; Ord, S. M.; Paul, S.; Pindor, B.; Pober, J. C.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Shankar, N. Udaya; Sethi, Shiv K.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Sullivan, I. S.; Tingay, S. J.; Trott, C. M.; Waterson, M.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wu, C.; Wyithe, J. S. B.

    2016-01-01

    We present first results from radio observations with the Murchison Widefield Array seeking to constrain the power spectrum of 21 cm brightness temperature fluctuations between the redshifts of 11.6 and 17.9 (113 and 75 MHz). 3 h of observations were conducted over two nights with significantly

  7. Investigation of 1-cm dose equivalent for photons behind shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Hideo; Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    1991-03-01

    The ambient dose equivalent at 1-cm depth, assumed equivalent to the 1-cm dose equivalent in practical dose estimations behind shielding slabs of water, concrete, iron or lead for normally incident photons having various energies was calculated by using conversion factors for a slab phantom. It was compared with the 1-cm depth dose calculated with the Monte Carlo code EGS4. It was concluded from this comparison that the ambient dose equivalent calculated by using the conversion factors for the ICRU sphere could be used for the evaluation of the 1-cm dose equivalent for the sphere phantom within 20% errors. Average and practical conversion factors are defined as the conversion factors from exposure to ambient dose equivalent in a finite slab or an infinite one, respectively. They were calculated with EGS4 and the discrete ordinates code PALLAS. The exposure calculated with simple estimation procedures such as point kernel methods can be easily converted to ambient dose equivalent by using these conversion factors. The maximum value between 1 and 30 mfp can be adopted as the conversion factor which depends only on material and incident photon energy. This gives the ambient dose equivalent on the safe side. 13 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Changed Relation between Solar 10.7-cm Radio Flux and some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The correlation coefficients of the linear regression of six solar indices versus 10.7 cm radio flux F10.7 were analysed in solar cycles. 21, 22 and 23. We also analysed the interconnection between these indices and F10.7 with help of approximation by polynomials of second order. The indices we have studied in ...

  9. The redshifted HI 21 cm signal from the post-reionization epoch ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    72

    Abstract. Tomographic intensity mapping of the Hi using the red- shifted 21 cm observations opens up a new window towards our under- standing of cosmological background evolution and structure forma- tion. This is a key science goal of several upcoming radio telescopes including the Square Kilometer Array (SKA).

  10. A telescopic method for photographing within 8x8 cm minirhizotrons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, G; vandeKoppel, J

    1996-01-01

    A system for photographing within 8 x 8 cm minirhizotrons is described, that uses a telescopic lens instead of an endoscope. A comparison was made between the telescope system and the commonly used endoscope system. Photographs obtained with the telescope system are of superior quality as compared

  11. Thermal stress analysis of an Am/Cm stabilization bushing melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, C.; Hardy, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    Decades of nuclear material production at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has resulted in the generation of large quantities of the isotopes Am 243 and Cm 244 . Currently, the Am and Cm isotopes are stored as a nitric acid solution in a tank. The Am and Cm isotopes have great commercial value but must be transferred to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for processing. The nitric acid solution contains other isotopes and is intensely radioactive, which makes storage a problem and precludes shipment in the liquid form. In order to stabilize the material for onsite storage and to permit transport the material from SRS to ORNL, it has been proposed that the Am and Cm be separated from other isotopes in the solution and vitrified. The vitrification process in the Platinum-Rhodium alloy vessel generates a wide spectrum of temperature distributions. The melter is partially supported by a suspension system and confined by the flexible insulation. The combination of the fluctuation of temperature distribution and variable boundary conditions, induces stresses and strains in the melter. The thermal stress analysis is carried out with the finite element code ABAQUS. This analysis is closely associated with the design, manufacture and testing of the melter. The results were compared with the test data

  12. High quality beams of MV/cm THz pulses generated from DSTMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2015-01-01

    A beam characterization of a THz beam generated from the organic crystal DSTMS is presented. The simple, collinear phase-matching geometry for this crystal results in an M2 factor below 1.5, resulting in a focused field strength of more than 4 MV/cm....

  13. Proxies for Metabolic Carbon (CM) and/or Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) Contributions to Mollusk Shell Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P.

    2010-12-01

    The isotopic values of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in surface waters reflect biogeochemical cycling of carbon, and therefore overall environmental conditions. Understanding past records of DIC can facilitate interpretations of ancient environmental conditions, and can be used to clarify effects of climate change in continental environments. The Hanna Formation, exposed in the Hanna Basin of south-central Wyoming, includes strata that document the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). The majority of the Hanna Formation was deposited in fluvial environments, with the notable exception of two lacustrine intervals which bracket the Paleocene-Eocene transition. Abundant mollusk remains, including unionid bivalves, are present in the lacustrine units, and could potentially provide an intra-annual record of DIC of lake waters during the PETM. Although land snails assemble their shells mostly from respired CO2 (metabolic carbon, CM), aquatic mollusks use environmental CO2 (in the form of DIC) for shell construction, with some unknown contribution from CM. In the present study, an attempt was made to quantify the contribution of CM to the shells of unionid bivalves in the Hanna Formation. The carbon isotopic value of presumably inorganically precipitated limestone was used as a proxy for average annual DIC, though this interpretation is complicated due to the presence of microbially precipitated limestones (stromatolites) throughout the Hanna Formation. The carbon isotopic value of organic matter (mostly coal) as a proxy for average dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which is then used to approximate the carbon isotopic value of CM. Over all, carbon isotopic values from fossil shells increase over time in the Hanna Formation, presumably due to increased productivity in the lakes in response to the warming during the PETM. If limestones in the Hanna Formation were inorganically precipitated, as much as 30% of the carbonate in the shells of mollusks may be derived from

  14. Mineralogical, crystallographic and redox features of the earliest stages of fluid alteration in CM chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatelli, Isabella; Marrocchi, Yves; Mugnaioli, Enrico; Bourdelle, Franck; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2017-07-01

    The CM chondrites represent the largest group of hydrated meteorites and span a wide range of conditions, from less altered (i.e., CM2) down to heavily altered (i.e., CM1). The Paris chondrite is considered the least altered CM and thus enables the earliest stages of aqueous alteration processes to be deciphered. Here, we report results from a nanoscale study of tochilinite/cronstedtite intergrowths (TCIs) in Paris-TCIs being the emblematic secondary mineral assemblages of CM chondrites, formed from the alteration of Fe-Ni metal beads (type-I TCIs) and anhydrous silicates (type-II TCIs). We combined high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and electron diffraction tomography to characterize the crystal structure, crystal chemistry and redox state of TCIs. The data obtained are useful to reconstruct the alteration conditions of Paris and to compare them with those of other meteorites. Our results show that tochilinite in Paris is characterized by a high hydroxide layer content (n = 2.1-2.2) regardless of the silicate precursors. When examined alongside other CMs, it appears that the hydroxide layer and iron contents of tochilinites correlate with the degree of alteration experienced by the chondrites. The Fe3+/ΣFe ratios of TCIs are high: 8-15% in tochilinite, 33-60% in cronstedtite and 70-80% in hydroxides. These observations suggest that alteration of CM chondrites took place under oxidizing conditions that could have been induced by significant H2 release during serpentinization. Similar results were recently reported in CR chondrites (Le Guillou et al., 2015), suggesting that the process(es) controlling the redox state of the secondary mineral assemblages were quite similar in the CM and CR parent bodies despite the different alteration conditions. According to our mineralogical and crystallographic survey, the formation of TCIs in Paris occurred at temperatures lower than 100 °C, under neutral, slightly alkaline

  15. Baryonic acoustic oscillations from 21 cm intensity mapping: the Square Kilometre Array case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Alonso, David; Viel, Matteo

    2017-04-01

    We quantitatively investigate the possibility of detecting baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) using single-dish 21 cm intensity mapping observations in the post-reionization era. We show that the telescope beam smears out the isotropic BAO signature and, in the case of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) instrument, makes it undetectable at redshifts z ≳ 1. We however demonstrate that the BAO peak can still be detected in the radial 21 cm power spectrum and describe a method to make this type of measurements. By means of numerical simulations, containing the 21 cm cosmological signal as well as the most relevant Galactic and extra-Galactic foregrounds and basic instrumental effect, we quantify the precision with which the radial BAO scale can be measured in the 21 cm power spectrum. We systematically investigate the signal to noise and the precision of the recovered BAO signal as a function of cosmic variance, instrumental noise, angular resolution and foreground contamination. We find that the expected noise levels of SKA would degrade the final BAO errors by ˜5 per cent with respect to the cosmic-variance limited case at low redshifts, but that the effect grows up to ˜65 per cent at z ˜ 2-3. Furthermore, we find that the radial BAO signature is robust against foreground systematics, and that the main effect is an increase of ˜20 per cent in the final uncertainty on the standard ruler caused by the contribution of foreground residuals as well as the reduction in sky area needed to avoid high-foreground regions. We also find that it should be possible to detect the radial BAO signature with high significance in the full redshift range. We conclude that a 21 cm experiment carried out by the SKA should be able to make direct measurements of the expansion rate H(z) with measure the expansion with competitive per cent level precision on redshifts z ≲ 2.5.

  16. Measuring patchy reionisation with kSZ2-21 cm correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Helgason, K.; Komatsu, E.; Ciardi, B.; Ferrara, A.

    2018-03-01

    We study cross-correlations of the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (kSZ) and 21 cm signals during the epoch of reionisation (EoR) to measure the effects of patchy reionisation. Since the kSZ effect is proportional to the line-of-sight velocity, the kSZ-21 cm cross correlation suffers from cancellation at small angular scales. We thus focus on the correlation between the kSZ-squared field (kSZ2) and 21 cm signals. When the global ionisation fraction is low (xe ≲ 0.7), the kSZ2 fluctuation is dominated by rare ionised bubbles which leads to an anti-correlation with the 21 cm signal. When 0.8 ≲ xe < 1, the correlation is dominated by small pockets of neutral regions, leading to a positive correlation. However, at very high redshifts when xe < 0.15, the spin temperature fluctuations change the sign of the correlation from negative to positive, as weakly ionised regions can have strong 21 cm signals in this case. To extract this correlation, we find that Wiener filtering is effective in removing large signals from the primary CMB anisotropy. The expected signal-to-noise ratios for a ˜10-hour integration of upcoming Square Kilometer Array data cross-correlated with maps from the current generation of CMB observatories with 3.4 μK arcmin noise and 1.7 arcmin beam over 100 deg2 are 51, 60, and 37 for xe = 0.2, 0.5, and 0.9, respectively.

  17. The Fundamental Climate Data Record of SSM/I Brightness Temperatures from CM SAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennig, Karsten; Schröder, Marc; Andersson, Axel

    2014-05-01

    The satellite based HOAPS (Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data; http://www.hoaps.org/) climatology provides climate data records of precipitation, evaporation and the resulting freshwater flux over the global ice-free ocean between 1987 and 2008. The latest version of HOAPS has been released by CM SAF and is available from the CM SAFs web user interface (http://wui.cmsaf.eu/). The HOAPS climate data records are primarily based on passive microwave measurements from the SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager) sensor family. In order to derive reliable long term trend estimates of the global water cycle parameters it is strictly necessary to carefully correct for all known problems and deficiencies of the SSM/I radiometers as well as to inter-calibrate and homogenise the different instruments. Moreover, all applied corrections need to be clearly documented to provide a complete calibration traceability for a Fundamental Climate Data Record (FCDR). Following these recommendations, CM SAF has released the first version of the FCDR of SSM/I brightness temperatures, available from the web user interface (DOI:10.5676/EUM_SAF_CM/FCDR_SSMI/V001, http://dx.doi.org/10.5676/EUM_SAF_CM/FCDR_SSMI/V001). Three different FCDRs of SSM/I brightness temperatures are currently available, released by CM SAF, Colorado State University, and Remote Sensing Systems. All groups developed different approaches to homogenize the SSM/I sensor family. This presentation will focus on the main calibration issues identified for the SSM/I instruments and compare the different intercalibration procedures implemented to homogenise the time series of all 6 different SSM/I instruments. A validation of the brightness temperatures is a challenging task as there are no ground-truth reference measurements available for the microwave band. Hence, the homogeneity of the FCDR is evaluated by an analysis of the relative biases between the different instruments before and after the

  18. Constraining Cosmic Dawn and Cosmological Reionization via the global redshifted 21-cm signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Saurabh

    2018-01-01

    The formation of first stars and consequent thermal evolution in baryons during Cosmic Dawn and the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) is poorly constrained. The 21-cm line transition of neutral hydrogen is one of the richest probes of the astrophysics during this era. The signal has the potential to reveal the nature and timing of the emergence of first stars, first light, and the consequent evolution in thermal and ionization state of the baryons.The detection of the global redshifted 21-cm signal, which represents the mean thermal history of the gas, is challenging since it is extremely faint and seen through orders of magnitude stronger contributions from Galactic and extragalactic foregrounds. Man-made terrestrial Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) and the exacting tolerances required on instrument systematics make the detection even more daunting.The design considerations for a precision spectral radiometer are first listed, and a comparison is made of different radiometer configurations, including short and zero baseline interferometers along with methods to enhance the response. We discuss the relative merits of different methods.We then describe SARAS 2, a spectral radiometer custom-designed for precision measurement of the global 21-cm signal. SARAS 2 has been designed to have a system transfer function and internal systematics – both multiplicative and additive – to be spectrally smooth so as to allow a separation of foregrounds and systematics from plausible and predicted global cosmological 21-cm signals. The algorithms for calibration and RFI mitigation are carefully developed so that they do not introduce spectral features that may confuse the detection of the 21-cm signal.We present the outcomes for cosmology from analysis of 60 hr observing with the radiometer deployed at the Timbaktu Collective in Southern India. The detailed analysis of the data reveals an RMS noise level of 11 mK, without being limited by systematic structures. The likelihood

  19. The neurophysiological balance in Chiari type 1 malformation (CM1), tethered cord and related syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmer, Scaioli; Sergio, Curzi; Veronica, Saletti; Flavia, Tripaldi; Silvia, Esposito; Sara, Bulgheroni; Valentini, Laura Grazia; Daria, Riva; Solero, Carlo Lazzaro

    2011-12-01

    The Chiari malformation (CM) is a syndrome embodied in heterogeneous groups of malformations, spanning from the more benign and known, the CM1, to more complex syndromes such as the rare association with the tethered cord, as spinal lipomas, and the CM2, associated to open spina bifida. The clinical picture may be well expressed and detected at birth or even during intrauterine life, as for CM2, but in the other cases they may run a rather subtle clinical course. The diagnosis of these syndromes is driven by clinical examination and MRI, and it usually requires a multidisciplinary approach in order to plan the therapeutic strategies, such as surgery. Among the diagnostic investigations, the imaging techniques represent the most useful, for their capabilities to detect subclinical lesions, such as syringomyielia and lipoma; the urological investigation is useful to evaluate the urogenital dysfunctions. The neurophysiological investigations represent a non invasive diagnostic procedure to investigate the peripheral nerve, the spinal cord, the brainstem functionalities and more higher brain functions; the nerve conduction studies and the cranial reflexes, the brainstem (BAEP) and the somatosensory (SEPs) evoked potentials (EPs), alone or in combination, can be used for the diagnosis, follow-up and intraoperative monitoring. The most useful diagnostic tools in CM1 are likely represented by the brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) and the blink-reflex (BR), while the usefulness of SEPs is still doubtful and debated; in CM2 and tethered cord the neurophysiological techniques can be combined in different ways in order to make a functional balance and to answer specific questions. BAEPs and BR can be useful to investigate the brain stem functionality and SEP to evaluate whether the ascending sensory pathway to the cortex can be hampered at some level; the visual EPs are particularly useful to evaluate the integrity of posterior visual pathway and visual cortex in

  20. The EDGES 21 cm Anomaly and Properties of Dark Matter arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Sean; Hütsi, Gert; Kannike, Kristjan; Marzo, Carlo; Marzola, Luca; Spethmann, Christian; Racioppi, Antonio; Raidal, Martti; Vaskonen, Ville; Veermäe, Hardi

    The recently claimed anomaly in the measurement of the 21 cm hydrogen absorption signal by EDGES at $z\\sim 17$, if cosmological, requires the existence of new physics. The possible attempts to resolve the anomaly rely on either (i) cooling the hydrogen gas via new dark matter-hydrogen interactions or (ii) modifying the soft photon background beyond the standard CMB one, as possibly suggested also by the ARCADE~2 excess. We argue that solutions belonging to the first class are generally in tension with cosmological dark matter probes once simple dark sector models are considered. Therefore, we propose soft photon emission by light dark matter as a natural solution to the 21 cm anomaly, studying a few realizations of this scenario. We find that the signal singles out a photophilic dark matter candidate characterised by an enhanced collective decay mechanism, such as axion mini-clusters.

  1. Modeling, planning and XiO R CMS validation of TBI treatment (extended SSD 400 cm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teijeiro, A.; Pereira, L.; Moral, F. del; Vazquez, J.; Lopez Medina, A.; Meal, A.; Andrade Alvarez, B.; Salgado Fernandez, M.; Munoz, V.

    2011-01-01

    The whole body irradiation (TBI) is a radiotherapy technique previously used a bone marrow transplant and for certain blood diseases, in which a patient is irradiated to extended distance (SSD from 350 to 400). The aim of the TBI is to kill tumor cells in the receiver and prevent rejection of transplanted bone marrow. The dose is prescribed at the midpoint of the abdomen around the navel wing. The most planners not permit the treatment of patients with a much higher SSD to 100 cm, also using the table LUT with spoiler to increase skin dose should be taken into account This requires measurements and checks ad hoc if you use a planner, because modeling is not optimized a priori for an SSD of 400 cm.

  2. Organic Power Electronics: Transistor Operation in the kA/cm2Regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Markus P; Fischer, Axel; Kaschura, Felix; Widmer, Johannes; Kheradmand-Boroujeni, Bahman; Ellinger, Frank; Leo, Karl

    2017-03-17

    In spite of interesting features as flexibility, organic thin-film transistors have commercially lagged behind due to the low mobilities of organic semiconductors associated with hopping transport. Furthermore, organic transistors usually have much larger channel lengths than their inorganic counterparts since high-resolution structuring is not available in low-cost production schemes. Here, we present an organic permeable-base transistor (OPBT) which, despite extremely simple processing without any high-resolution structuring, achieve a performance beyond what has so far been possible using organic semiconductors. With current densities above 1 kA cm -2 and switching speeds towards 100 MHz, they open the field of organic power electronics. Finding the physical limits and an effective mobility of only 0.06 cm 2  V -1  s -1 , this OPBT device architecture has much more potential if new materials optimized for its geometry will be developed.

  3. A year's experience with a 57 cm image intensifier in a general X-ray room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgi, M.; Prager, P.; Busch, H.P.; Strauss, L.; Wetzel, E.; Neumann, D.; Weiher, M.; Regenfuss, W.

    1985-01-01

    3342 patients were examined by means of a 57 cm image intensifier during one year. The installation permits examination with the patient standing or lying. The resolution was measured with a lead grid under conditions resembling actual practice and were found to be similar to those obtained with angiographic equipment. Using a medium format technique for examining the gut and vascular system resulted in radiographic quality which was not significantly different from the use of a large format technique. For examination of the skeleton, radiographic quality, using the intensifier, was markedly poorer than that resulting from Bucky examinations. There was no diagnostic difference when carrying out lymphograms. The large intensifier window of 53 cm was particularly advantageous for DSA of the pelvic and lower limb vessels when compared with smaller intensifiers. Possible savings of film and contrast medium costs are discussed. (orig.) [de

  4. 3.56-bits/cm Compact Inkjet Printed and Application Specific Chipless RFID Tag

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Munawar M.

    2015-10-26

    © 2002-2011 IEEE. In this letter, a 28.5-bit chipless RFID tag, based on paper substrate and realized using inkjet printing technique is presented. Operating within ultrawideband, the tag occupies a compact size of 2 × 4 cm2. Focusing on applications requiring time and date identification, a novel encoding technique is presented that allows efficient frequency band allocation based on the number of required instances of time and date variables. A figure of merit (FOM) relating coding capacity and tag dimensions coined as code density is also introduced. A systematic design process followed by simulations and verified through measurements reveal a high code density of 3.56 bits/cm2 for the presented chipless tag.

  5. Internal DNA modes below 25 cm-1: a resonance Raman spectroscopy observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisy, V; Miskovsky, P; Brutovsky, B; Chinsky, L

    1997-02-01

    The first resonance Raman scattering observation of the low-frequency (LF) region (below 40 up to 12 cm-1) of DNA motions is presented. Since the concentration of the studied DNA solution was very low (1 mg/ml), the spectra features reflect internal vibrations of the macromolecule. The decomposition of the spectra into Lorentzians clearly indicate three intrahelical DNA modes: the corresponding peaks are located at the frequencies 16, 19, and 23 (+/- 1) cm-1. This result is in agreement with our quasi-continuity model of the LF B-form DNA dynamics (V. Lisy, P. Miskovsky and P. Schreiber, J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn. 13, 707 (1996)). The fit of the experimental frequencies to the theory, using the Genetic Algorithms approach, allowed us to make some conclusions about the model force constants which could be found by independent conformational energy calculations. Possible positions of five lowest-frequency DNA peaks, predicted by the model, are discussed.

  6. Strength of SiCf-SiCm composite tube under uniaxial and multiaxial loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalov, Kirill; Jacobsen, George M.; Alva, Luis; Truesdale, Nathaniel; Deck, Christian P.; Huang, Xinyu

    2018-03-01

    The authors report mechanical strength of nuclear grade silicon carbide fiber reinforced silicon carbide matrix composite (SiCf-SiCm) tubing under several different stress states. The composite tubing was fabricated via a Chemical Vapor Infiltration (CVI) process, and is being evaluated for accident tolerant nuclear fuel cladding. Several experimental techniques were applied including uniaxial tension, elastomer insert burst test, open and closed end hydraulic bladder burst test, and torsion test. These tests provided critical stress and strain values at proportional limit and at ultimate failure points. Full field strain measurements using digital image correlation (DIC) were obtained in order to acquire quantitative information on localized deformation during application of stress. Based on the test results, a failure map was constructed for the SiCf-SiCm composites.

  7. Determination of problematic ICD-9-CM subcategories for further study of coding performance: Delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaoming; Bell, Paul D

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we report on a qualitative method known as the Delphi method, used in the first part of a research study for improving the accuracy and reliability of ICD-9-CM coding. A panel of independent coding experts interacted methodically to determine that the three criteria to identify a problematic ICD-9-CM subcategory for further study were cost, volume, and level of coding confusion caused. The Medicare Provider Analysis and Review (MEDPAR) 2007 fiscal year data set as well as suggestions from the experts were used to identify coding subcategories based on cost and volume data. Next, the panelists performed two rounds of independent ranking before identifying Excisional Debridement as the subcategory that causes the most confusion among coders. As a result, they recommended it for further study aimed at improving coding accuracy and variation. This framework can be adopted at different levels for similar studies in need of a schema for determining problematic subcategories of code sets.

  8. Status of the J-series 30-cm mercury ion thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, S.; Dulgeroff, C. R.; Bechtel, R. T.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the status of the 30-cm J-series mercury ion thruster. This thruster was baselined for the Solar Electric Propulsion System (SEPS) vehicle. This thruster is described and several modifications plus suggested modifications are presented. Some of the modifications resulted from tests performed with the thruster. The operational characteristics of eight J-series thrusters are presented. Isolator contamination and flake formation are also discussed.

  9. Stochasticity in the 21cm power spectrum at the epoch of reionization and cosmic dawn

    OpenAIRE

    Kaurov, Alexander A.

    2017-01-01

    The 21cm neutral hydrogen line is likely to be a key probe for studying the epoch of reionization and comic dawn in the forthcoming decades. This prospect stimulates the development of the theoretical basis for simulating the power spectrum of this line. Because of the beam size of the upcoming radio telescopes at high redshifts, most of the theoretical models are focused on the inhomogeneities on scales above few comoving megaparsecs. Therefore, smaller scales are often neglected and modeled...

  10. Redshifted HI 21-cm Signal from the Post-Reionization Epoch ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The tomographic intensity mapping of the neutral hydrogen (HI) distribution through redshifted HI ... tral HI gas are housed in the Damped Ly-α (DLA) systems. .... power spectra are. Pa(k, μ) = C2 a[1 + βaμ2]2P (k),. (9) where P (k) is the dark matter power spectrum. For the 21-cm brightness temperature fluctuations, we have.

  11. Evaluation of Cm-247 neutron cross sections in the resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinelli, T.; Menapace, E.; Motta, M.; Vaccari, M.

    1980-01-01

    The neutron cross sections of Cm-247 are evaluated in the resonance (resolved and unresolved) region up to 10 keV. Average resonance parameters (i.e. spacing D, fission and radiative widths, neutron strength functions) are determined for unresolved region calculations. Moreover for a better comparison with the experimental data, fission cross section is calculated up to 10 MeV. In addition, the average number of neutrons emitted per fission as a function of energy is estimated

  12. PRIMERJAVA SISTEMA CM Z GRAFIČNIM ORODJEM ZA SNOVANJE SPLETNIH VSEBIN

    OpenAIRE

    Kosmač, Matic

    2012-01-01

    V diplomskem delu bomo predstavili tehnologije in orodja, s katerimi lahko implementiramo spletne vsebine, aplikacije in njihovo postavitev v optimalno delovno okolje operacijskega sistema Windows 7. Predstavili bomo sistem CM za upravljanje vsebine (angl. content management), ki omogoča hitro, enostavno ažuriranje spletnih vsebin in samostojno objavljanje informacij preko lastnega računalnika. Poleg hitrega ažuriranja vsebin in slik smo še implementirali najrazličnejše medijske module za pre...

  13. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for colorectal lateral spreading tumors larger than 10 cm: is it feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Da Hyun; Youn, Young Hoon; Kim, Jie-Hyun; Park, Hyojin

    2015-03-01

    Colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) was applied to lesions, such as giant colorectal lateral spreading tumors (LSTs) > 10 cm, by an expert ESD endoscopist despite several limitations, such as a relatively high perforation rate and high technical difficulty. To investigate the feasibility and safety of ESD for giant colorectal LSTs ≥ 10 cm. Retrospective study. Tertiary-care center. A total of 163 patients underwent colorectal ESD between 2009 and 2014 by a single expert ESD endoscopist at Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul, Korea. Among them, 9 patients had giant colorectal LSTs ≥ 10 cm. Review of records. Clinicopathologic factors and oncologic outcome associated with ESD between giant colorectal LSTs and others. Colorectal LSTs ≥ 10 cm were classified as giant colorectal LSTs. Nine giant colorectal LST lesions were localized to the following regions: descending colon (n = 1), sigmoid colon (n = 1), and rectum (n = 7). The average maximal diameter of giant colorectal LSTs was 120.8 mm, and the procedure time was 270.0 minutes. Two lesions were of the whole nodular type, and 7 were focal nodular lesions. The en bloc and curative resection rates for ESD for giant colorectal LSTs were 88.9% and 100%, respectively. The adverse event rate was 44.4%. No strictures, local recurrences, or distant metastases occurred over a mean follow-up period of 27.1 months. Retrospective, single-center study. ESD of giant colorectal LSTs appears to be a feasible and curative treatment, even though it is associated with a higher adverse event rate, higher degree of technical difficulty, and longer procedure time. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Can HI 21-cm lines trace the missing baryons in the filamentary structures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Toshihiro; Asaba, Shinsuke; Hasegawa, Kenji; Tashiro, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-01

    A large fraction of baryons predicted from the standard cosmology is still missing observationally. Although previous numerical simulations have indicated that most of the missing baryons reside in large-scale filaments in the form of the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM), it is generally very difficult to detect signatures from such a diffuse gas. In this work, we focus on the hyperfine transition of neutral hydrogen (HI), called the 21-cm line, as a tool to trace the WHIM. For the purpose, we first construct the map of the 21-cm signals by using the data provided by the state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamics simulation project, Illustris, in which detailed processes affecting the dynamical and thermal evolution of the WHIM are implemented. From a comparison of the constructed 21-cm signal map with the expected noise level of the Square Kilometre Array phase 1 mid-frequency instrument (SKA1-mid), we find that the 21-cm signals from the WHIM in the filamentary structures at redshifts z = 0.5-3 are too small to detect with the SKA1-mid. Our results suggest that a sensitivity about 10 times higher than the SKA1-mid is possibly enough to detect the WHIM at z = 0.5-3. However, we also show that the signals of the filamentary structures including the contribution from galaxies are detectable with the SKA1-mid if we assume the angular resolution of Δθ ≥ 10' and the observing time of tobs ≥ 100 hr.

  15. Why are high- Tc superconductors, HTSC, deposited by 248 nm lasers at 400 MW/cm 2?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, R. W.

    1995-02-01

    HTSC are commonly deposited by pulsed laser deposition. The laser 'operating point' is usually near the above values. It is interesting to explore the underlying physical processes which make these values near optimum. The critical point in understanding the operating point is whether the stoichiometry of the (source) target is retained upon deposition. This question usually reverts to a question of retaining CuO as a diatomic (dissociation energy D0 = 2.8 eV) as compared to the much more stable YO ( D0 = 7.3 eV) or BaO ( D0 = 5.8 eV). High temperatures obviously serve to dissociate these diatomics, with CuO being the most susceptible. First, consider the (very important) irradiance level of I ≈ 400 MW/cm 2. This value is at the lower limit of intense plume ionization, above which the ablation enters the 'plasma controlled' situation. This latter occurs when inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption by free electrons (10 to 20 m) above the target surface control the laser transmission and ablation dynamics. While this description is only firmly established at I ≧ 1 GW/cm 2, computer modeling [2] confirms an extrapolation down to 500 MW/cm 2. The important predictions of plasma controlled etching are: The total material transfer goes as area, A (and not A). The reason is higher fluences waste energy in heating the free electron density above the target instead of heating the target surface directly. On the other hand, one wishes to work adjacent to this border to maximize the temperature, T, and (exponential in T) vapor pressure. Avoiding intense plasma heating has additional benefits for maintaining the Cu as CuO molecules. Laser-induced fluorescence measurements indicate that the reaction Cu + N 2 O → CuO + NO requires > 10 s and is not a simple collisional process, but rather an attainment [4-8] of quasi-equilibrium at T2000 K. Combining this observation with the fact that typically plasmas; i.e. for I > 1 GW/cm 2. Hence, increased irradiance places one in the

  16. Rainfall forecast in the Upper Mahaweli basin in Sri Lanka using RegCM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammadh, K. M.; Mafas, M. M. M.; Weerakoon, S. B.

    2017-04-01

    The Upper Mahaweli basin is the upper most sub basin of 788 km2 in size above Polgolla barrage in the Mahaweli River, the longest river in Sri Lanka which starts from the central hills of the island and drains to the sea at the North-east coast. Rainfall forecast in the Upper Mahaweli basin is important for issuing flood warning in the river downstream of the reservoirs, landslide warning in the settlements in hilly areas. Anticipatory water management in the basin including reservoir operations, barrage gate operation for releasing water for irrigation and flood control also require reliable rainfall and runoff prediction in the sub basin. In this study, the Regional Climate Model (RegCM V4.4.5.11) is calibrated for the basin to dynamically downscale reanalysis weather data of Global Climate Model (GCM) to forecast the rainfall in the basin. Observed rainfalls at gauging stations within the basin were used for model calibration and validation. The observed rainfall data was analysed using ARC GIS and the output of RegCM was analysed using GrADS tool. The output of the model and the observed precipitation were obtained on grids of size 0.1 degrees and the accuracy of the predictions were analysed using RMSE and Mean Model Absolute Error percentage (MAME %). The predictions by the calibrated RegCM model for the basin is shown to be satisfactory. The model is a useful tool for rainfall forecast in the Upper Mahaweli River basin.

  17. OPENING THE 21 cm EPOCH OF REIONIZATION WINDOW: MEASUREMENTS OF FOREGROUND ISOLATION WITH PAPER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pober, Jonathan C.; Parsons, Aaron R.; Ali, Zaki; Aguirre, James E.; Moore, David F.; Bradley, Richard F.; Carilli, Chris L.; DeBoer, Dave; Dexter, Matthew; MacMahon, Dave; Gugliucci, Nicole E.; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Klima, Patricia J.; Manley, Jason; Walbrugh, William P.; Stefan, Irina I.

    2013-01-01

    We present new observations with the Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization with the aim of measuring the properties of foreground emission for 21 cm epoch of reionization (EoR) experiments at 150 MHz. We focus on the footprint of the foregrounds in cosmological Fourier space to understand which modes of the 21 cm power spectrum will most likely be compromised by foreground emission. These observations confirm predictions that foregrounds can be isolated to a w edge - like region of two-dimensional (k , k ∥ )-space, creating a window for cosmological studies at higher k ∥ values. We also find that the emission extends past the nominal edge of this wedge due to spectral structure in the foregrounds, with this feature most prominent on the shortest baselines. Finally, we filter the data to retain only this ''unsmooth'' emission and image its specific k ∥ modes. The resultant images show an excess of power at the lowest modes, but no emission can be clearly localized to any one region of the sky. This image is highly suggestive that the most problematic foregrounds for 21 cm EoR studies will not be easily identifiable bright sources, but rather an aggregate of fainter emission.

  18. Characterization of the pumpkin Translationally-Controlled Tumor Protein CmTCTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa-Moya, J Jesús; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Toscano-Morales, Roberto; Ramírez-Ortega, Francisco; Cabrera-Ponce, José Luis; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    In higher plants, the phloem plays a central role in the delivery of nutrients and signals from source to sink tissues. These signals likely coordinate different aspects of plant development, as well as its response to environmental cues. Although some phloem-transported proteins and RNAs may function as signaling molecules in plants, their mode of action remains poorly understood. Previous analysis of transcripts from CMV-infected pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima cv Big Max) identified a Translationally-Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) mRNA homolog, designated CmTCTP. In the present work this transcript was analyzed in terms of its expression pattern. This RNA accumulates, both in healthy and CMV-infected plants, in developing and mature phloem in petiole and roots, as well as in apices at high levels. The protein was present at lower levels in most cell types, and almost no signal was detected in apices, suggesting translational regulation of this RNA. Additionally, CmTCTP harbored by Agrobacterium rhizogenes is capable of inducing whole plant regeneration. These data suggest a role for CmTCTP in growth regulation, possibly through long-distance signaling.

  19. Catchment Morphing (CM): A Novel Approach for Runoff Modeling in Ungauged Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Han, Dawei

    2017-12-01

    Runoff prediction in ungauged catchments has been one of the major challenges in the past decades. However, due to the tremendous heterogeneity of the catchments, obstacles exist in deducing model parameters for ungauged catchments from gauged ones. We propose a novel approach to predict ungauged runoff with Catchment Morphing (CM) using a fully distributed model. CM is defined as by changing the catchment characteristics (area and slope here) from the baseline model built with a gauged catchment to model the ungauged ones. As a proof of concept, a case study on seven catchments in the UK has been used to demonstrate the proposed scheme. Comparing the predicted with measured runoff, the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) varies from 0.03 to 0.69 in six catchments. Moreover, NSEs are significantly improved (up to 0.81) when considering the discrepancy of percentage runoff between the target and baseline catchments. A distinct advantage has been experienced by comparing the CM with a traditional method for ungauged catchments. The advantages are: (a) less demand of the similarity between the baseline catchment and the ungauged catchment, (b) less demand of available data, and (c) potentially widely applicable in varied catchments. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed scheme as a potentially powerful alternative to the conventional methods in runoff predictions of ungauged catchments. Clearly, more work beyond this pilot study is needed to explore and develop this new approach further to maturity by the hydrological community.

  20. Characterization of the pumpkin Translationally-Controlled Tumor Protein CmTCTP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa-Moya, J Jesús; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Toscano-Morales, Roberto; Ramírez-Ortega, Francisco; Luis Cabrera-Ponce, José; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    In higher plants, the phloem plays a central role in the delivery of nutrients and signals from source to sink tissues. These signals likely coordinate different aspects of plant development, as well as its response to environmental cues. Although some phloem-transported proteins and RNAs may function as signaling molecules in plants, their mode of action remains poorly understood. Previous analysis of transcripts from CMV-infected pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima cv Big Max) identified a Translationally-Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) mRNA homolog, designated CmTCTP. In the present work this transcript was analyzed in terms of its expression pattern. This RNA accumulates, both in healthy and CMV-infected plants, in developing and mature phloem in petiole and roots, as well as in apices at high levels. The protein was present at lower levels in most cell types, and almost no signal was detected in apices, suggesting translational regulation of this RNA. Additionally, CmTCTP harbored by Agrobacterium rhizogenes is capable of inducing whole plant regeneration. These data suggest a role for CmTCTP in growth regulation, possibly through long-distance signaling. PMID:24065051

  1. Signatures of modified gravity on the 21 cm power spectrum at reionisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brax, Philippe [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA, IPhT, CNRS, URA 2306, F-91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Clesse, Sébastien; Davis, Anne-Christine, E-mail: philippe.brax@cea.fr, E-mail: s.clesse@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: a.c.davis@damtp.cam.ac.uk [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-01

    Scalar modifications of gravity have an impact on the growth of structure. Baryon and Cold Dark Matter (CDM) perturbations grow anomalously for scales within the Compton wavelength of the scalar field. In the late time Universe when reionisation occurs, the spectrum of the 21 cm brightness temperature is thus affected. We study this effect for chameleon-f(R) models, dilatons and symmetrons. Although the f(R) models are more tightly constrained by solar system bounds, and effects on dilaton models are negligible, we find that symmetrons where the phase transition occurs before z{sub *} ∼ 12 could be detectable for a scalar field range as low as 5kpc. For all these models, the detection prospects of modified gravity effects are higher when considering modes parallel to the line of sight where very small scales can be probed. The study of the 21 cm spectrum thus offers a complementary approach to testing modified gravity with large scale structure surveys. Short scales, which would be highly non-linear in the very late time Universe when structure forms and where modified gravity effects are screened, appear in the linear spectrum of 21 cm physics, hence deviating from General Relativity in a maximal way.

  2. Investigation of Pyridine Carboxylic Acids in CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrites: Potential Precursor Molecules for Ancient Coenzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Gerakines, Perry A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; House, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution and abundances of pyridine carboxylic acids (including nicotinic acid) in eight CM2 carbonaceous chondrites (ALH 85013, DOM 03183, DOM 08003, EET 96016, LAP 02333, LAP 02336, LEW 85311, and WIS 91600) were investigated by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection and high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry. We find that pyridine monocarboxylic acids are prevalent in CM2-type chondrites and their abundance negatively correlates with the degree of pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration that the meteorite parent body experienced. We also report the first detection of pyridine dicarboxylic acids in carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we carried out laboratory studies of proton-irradiated pyridine in carbon dioxide-rich ices (a 1:1 mixture) to serve as a model of the interstellar ice chemistry that may have led to the synthesis of pyridine carboxylic acids. Analysis of the irradiated ice residue shows that a comparable suite of pyridine mono- and dicarboxylic acids was produced, although aqueous alteration may still play a role in the synthesis (and ultimate yield) of these compounds in carbonaceous meteorites. Nicotinic acid is a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a likely ancient molecule used in cellular metabolism in all of life, and its common occurrence in CM2 chondrites may indicate that meteorites may have been a source of molecules for the emergence of more complex coenzymes on the early Earth.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: RESOLVE survey: 21cm obs. with GBT & Arecibo (Stark+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, D. V.; Kannappan, S. J.; Eckert, K. D.; Florez, J.; Hall, K. R.; Watson, L. C.; Hoversten, E. A.; Burchett, J. N.; Guynn, D. T.; Baker, A. D.; Moffett, A. J.; Berlind, A. A.; Norris, M. A.; Haynes, M. P.; Giovanelli, R.; Leroy, A. K.; Pisano, D. J.; Wei, L. H.; Gonzalez, R. E.; Calderon, V. F.

    2017-02-01

    The REsolved Spectroscopy Of a Local VolumE (RESOLVE) survey is a volume-limited census of galaxies in the local universe with the goal of accounting for baryonic and dark matter mass within a statistically complete subset of the z=0 galaxy population. A complete description of the survey design will be presented in S. J. Kannappan et al. (2016, in preparation). This paper presents new 21cm observations, but an optical spectroscopic survey is under way, primarily with the SOAR 4.1m telescope, and also using SALT, Gemini, and the AAT. The blindly detected 21cm sources in the standard ALFALFA catalog (Giovanelli+ 2005AJ....130.2598G) are cross-matched with RESOLVE using a match radius of 2', corresponding to the spatial resolution of the final ALFALFA data cubes. Additionally, we search the ALFALFA data cubes at the positions of all galaxies that lack counterparts within the standard ALFALFA catalogs. To complete the RESOLVE HI census, new 21cm observations were carried out with the Robert C. Byrd New Green Bank Telescope (GBT, programs 11B-056, 13A-276, 13B-246, 14A-441) and Arecibo Observatory (programs a2671, a2812, a2852). GBT data were acquired over a total of 738hr between 2011 August and 2014 July. Arecibo data were acquired over a total of 554hr in 2012 March and again between 2013 July and 2016 May. (2 data files).

  4. Using Proton Radiation from the Moon to Probe Regolith Hydrogenation in the Upper 1-10 cm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwadron, N.; Wilson, J. K.; Jordan, A.; Looper, M. D.; Zeitlin, C. J.; Townsend, L.; Spence, H. E.; Farrell, W. M.; Petro, N. E.; Stubbs, T. J.; Pieters, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Detection of proton radiation from the Moon offers a new observational method for mapping compositional variations over the lunar surface. Recently, it was discovered that the yield of high energy "albedo" proton radiation coming from the lunar regolith due to bombardment by galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) depends on latitude: the yield increases toward higher latitudes. This dependence was attributed to a surface layer of hydrogenated regolith near the poles. Here, an improved technique is developed to use the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter to detect proton radiation from the lunar horizon and from lunar nadir and to use this to investigate diurnal variation in near-surface hydrogenation. Based on measurements taken in 2015, CRaTER observes an average proton albedo rate with a higher yield of protons from the lunar horizon than from the nadir. Both the average proton radiation albedo rate and the excess of proton radiation from the lunar horizon agree well with simulations. The measurements provide further evidence for the existence of the lunar hydrogenation layer. Lastly, CRaTER finds a yield (defined by the proton albedo divided by the GCR input) that is higher on the morning terminator compared to the evening terminator. Based on the observational statistics, there is a significant likelihood that the AM terminator produces a higher yield in the proton radiation albedo than the PM terminator during the period studied. While this presents some possible evidence of an AM enhancement, the excess could also potentially be explained by variation in GCR heavy species (He and heavier species). While initial results of an improved technique for measuring the proton radiation albedo are promising, the observational dataset utilized by CRaTER must be expanded significantly to reduce uncertainties in the search for temporal evolution and the excess of proton radiation from the lunar horizon as we probe

  5. New 6 and 3-cm radio-continuum maps of the Small Magellanic Cloud - part II: Point source catalogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong G.F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two new catalogues of radio-continuum sources in the field of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC. These catalogues contain sources found at 4800 MHz (λ=6cm and 8640 MHz (λ=3cm. Some 457 sources have been detected at 3cm with 601 sources at 6cm created from new high-sensitivity and resolution radio-continuum images of the SMC from Crawford et al. (2011.

  6. Validation of ICD-9-CM coding algorithm for improved identification of hypoglycemia visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieberman Rebecca M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate identification of hypoglycemia cases by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM codes will help to describe epidemiology, monitor trends, and propose interventions for this important complication in patients with diabetes. Prior hypoglycemia studies utilized incomplete search strategies and may be methodologically flawed. We sought to validate a new ICD-9-CM coding algorithm for accurate identification of hypoglycemia visits. Methods This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study using a structured medical record review at three academic emergency departments from July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2006. We prospectively derived a coding algorithm to identify hypoglycemia visits using ICD-9-CM codes (250.3, 250.8, 251.0, 251.1, 251.2, 270.3, 775.0, 775.6, and 962.3. We confirmed hypoglycemia cases by chart review identified by candidate ICD-9-CM codes during the study period. The case definition for hypoglycemia was documented blood glucose 3.9 mmol/l or emergency physician charted diagnosis of hypoglycemia. We evaluated individual components and calculated the positive predictive value. Results We reviewed 636 charts identified by the candidate ICD-9-CM codes and confirmed 436 (64% cases of hypoglycemia by chart review. Diabetes with other specified manifestations (250.8, often excluded in prior hypoglycemia analyses, identified 83% of hypoglycemia visits, and unspecified hypoglycemia (251.2 identified 13% of hypoglycemia visits. The absence of any predetermined co-diagnosis codes improved the positive predictive value of code 250.8 from 62% to 92%, while excluding only 10 (2% true hypoglycemia visits. Although prior analyses included only the first-listed ICD-9 code, more than one-quarter of identified hypoglycemia visits were outside this primary diagnosis field. Overall, the proposed algorithm had 89% positive predictive value (95% confidence interval, 86–92 for

  7. Resection of Hepatocellular Cancer ≤ 2 CM: Results from Two Western Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roayaie, Sasan; Obeidat, Khaled; Sposito, Carlo; Mariani, Luigi; Bhoori, Sherrie; Pellegrinelli, Alessandro; Labow, Daniel; Llovet, Josep M.; Schwartz, Myron; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Asian series have shown 5 year survival of ∼70% after resection of hepatocellular cancer (HCC) <2cm. Western outcomes with resection have not been as good. In addition ablation of HCC ≤ 2cm has been shown to achieve competitive results leaving the role of resection unclear in these patients. Records of patients undergoing resection at two Western centers between 1/1990 and 12/2009 were reviewed. Patients with a single HCC ≤ 2cm on pathology were included. Thirty clinical variables including demographics, liver function, tumor characteristics, nature of the surgery, and the surrounding liver were examined. An exploratory statistical analysis was conducted to determine variables associated with recurrence and survival. The study included 132 patients with a median follow-up of 37.5 months. There was 1 (<1%) 90-day mortality. There were 32 deaths with a median survival of 74.5 months and 5-year survival of 70% (63% in cirrhotics). Median time-to-recurrence was 31.6 months and 5-year recurrence rate was 68%. Presence of satellites (HR=2.46, p=0.031) and platelet count <150,000/μl (HR=2.37, p=0.026) were independently associated with survival. Presence of satellites (HR=2.79, p=0.003), cirrhosis (HR=2.3, p=0.010), and non-anatomic resection (HR=1.79, p=0.031) were independently associated with recurrence. Patients with a single HCC ≤ 2cm and platelet count ≥150,000/μl achieved median and 5-year survivals of 138 months and 81%, respectively. Conclusion Resection of HCC ≤ 2cm is safe and achieves excellent results in Western centers. Recurrence continues to be a significant problem. Presence of satellites, platelet count, anatomic resection and cirrhosis are associated with outcomes after resection even among such early tumors. Resection should continue to be considered a primary treatment modality in patients with small HCC and well preserved liver function. PMID:22576353

  8. New weighting factor of weighted CTDI equation for PMMA phantom diameter from 8 to 40 cm: A Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Tomonobu; Koyama, Shuji; Kinomura, Yutaka; Ida, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Masanao

    2017-12-01

    The weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDI w ) uses measured CTDI values at the center and periphery of a cylindrical phantom. The CTDI w value is calculated using conventional, Bakalyar's, and Choi's weighting factors. However, these weighting factors were produced from only 16- and 32-cm-diameter cylindrical phantoms. This study aims to devise new weighting factors to provide more accurate average dose in the central cross-sectional plane of cylindrical phantoms over a wide range of object diameters, by using Monte Carlo simulations. Simulations were performed by modeling a Toshiba Aquilion ONE CT scanner, in order to compute the cross-sectional dose profiles of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) cylindrical phantoms of each diameter (8-40 cm at 4-cm steps), for various tube voltages and longitudinal beam widths. Two phantom models were simulated, corresponding to the CTDI 100 method and the method recommended by American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) task group 111. The dose-computation PMMA cylinders of 1 mm diameter were located between the phantom surfaces and the centers at intervals of 1 mm, from which cross-sectional dose profiles were calculated. By using linear least-squares fits to the obtained cross-sectional dose profiles data, we determined new weighting factors to estimate more accurate average doses in the PMMA cylindrical phantoms by using the CTDI w equation: CTDI w = W center ・ CTDI center + W periphery ・ CTDI periphery . In order to demonstrate the validity of the devised new weighting factors, the percentage difference between average dose and CTDI w value was evaluated for the weighting factors (conventional, Bakalyar's, Choi's, and devised new weighting factors) in each calculated cross-sectional dose profile. With the use of linear least-squares techniques, new weighting factors (W center = 3/8 and W periphery = 5/8 where W center and W periphery are weighting factors for CTDI center and CTDI periphery ) were

  9. Differentiation of large (≥5 cm) gastrointestinal stromal tumors from benign subepithelial tumors in the stomach: Radiologists’ performance using CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ye Ra [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se Hyung, E-mail: shkim7071@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); The Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun-Ah [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Cheong-il [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); The Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Seong Ho [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); The Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To identify significant CT findings for the differentiation of large (≥5 cm) gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) from benign subepithelial tumors and to assess whether radiologists’ performance in differentiation is improved with knowledge of significant CT criteria. Materials and methods: One-hundred twenty patients with pathologically proven large (≥5 cm) GISTs (n = 99), schwannomas (n = 16), and leiomyomas (n = 5) who underwent CT were enrolled. Two radiologists (A and B) retrospectively reviewed their CT images in consensus for the location, size, degree and pattern of enhancement, contour, growth pattern and the presence of calcification, necrosis, surface ulceration, or enlarged lymph nodes. CT findings considered significant for differentiation were determined using uni- and multivariate statistical analyses. Thereafter, two successive review sessions for the differentiation of GIST from non-GIST were independently performed by two other reviewers (C and D) with different expertise of 2 and 9 years using a 5-point confidence scale. At the first session, reviewers interpreted CT images without knowledge of significant CT findings. At the second session, the results of statistical analyses were provided to the reviewers. To assess improvement in radiologists’ performance, a pairwise comparison of receiver operating curves (ROC) was performed. Results: Heterogeneous enhancement, presence of necrosis, absence of lymph nodes, and mean size of ≥6 cm were found to be significant for differentiating GIST from schwannoma (P < 0.05). Non-cardial location, heterogeneous enhancement, and presence of necrosis were differential CT features of GIST from leiomyoma (P < 0.05). Multivariate analyses indicated that absence of enlarged LNs was the only statistically significant variable for GIST differentiating from schwannoma. The area under the curve of both reviewers obtained using ROC significantly increased from 0.682 and 0.613 to 0.903 and 0

  10. The dynamical core, physical parameterizations, and basic simulation characteristics of the atmospheric component AM3 of the GFDL global coupled model CM3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, L.J.; Wyman, B.L.; Hemler, R.S.; Horowitz, L.W.; Ming, Y.; Zhao, M.; Golaz, J.-C.; Ginoux, P.; Lin, S.-J.; Schwarzkopf, M.D.; Austin, J.; Alaka, G.; Cooke, W.F.; Delworth, T.L.; Freidenreich, S.M.; Gordon, C.T.; Griffies, S.M.; Held, I.M.; Hurlin, W.J.; Klein, S.A.; Knutson, T.R.; Langenhorst, A.R.; Lee, H.-C.; Lin, Y.; Magi, B.I.; Malyshev, S.L.; Milly, P.C.D.; Naik, V.; Nath, M.J.; Pincus, R.; Ploshay, J.J.; Ramaswamy, V.; Seman, C.J.; Shevliakova, E.; Sirutis, J.J.; Stern, W.F.; Stouffer, R.J.; Wilson, R.J.; Winton, M.; Wittenberg, A.T.; Zeng, F.

    2011-01-01

    The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) has developed a coupled general circulation model (CM3) for the atmosphere, oceans, land, and sea ice. The goal of CM3 is to address emerging issues in climate change, including aerosol-cloud interactions, chemistry-climate interactions, and coupling between the troposphere and stratosphere. The model is also designed to serve as the physical system component of earth system models and models for decadal prediction in the near-term future-for example, through improved simulations in tropical land precipitation relative to earlier-generation GFDL models. This paper describes the dynamical core, physical parameterizations, and basic simulation characteristics of the atmospheric component (AM3) of this model. Relative to GFDL AM2, AM3 includes new treatments of deep and shallow cumulus convection, cloud droplet activation by aerosols, subgrid variability of stratiform vertical velocities for droplet activation, and atmospheric chemistry driven by emissions with advective, convective, and turbulent transport. AM3 employs a cubed-sphere implementation of a finite-volume dynamical core and is coupled to LM3, a new land model with ecosystem dynamics and hydrology. Its horizontal resolution is approximately 200 km, and its vertical resolution ranges approximately from 70 m near the earth's surface to 1 to 1.5 km near the tropopause and 3 to 4 km in much of the stratosphere. Most basic circulation features in AM3 are simulated as realistically, or more so, as in AM2. In particular, dry biases have been reduced over South America. In coupled mode, the simulation of Arctic sea ice concentration has improved. AM3 aerosol optical depths, scattering properties, and surface clear-sky downward shortwave radiation are more realistic than in AM2. The simulation of marine stratocumulus decks remains problematic, as in AM2. The most intense 0.2% of precipitation rates occur less frequently in AM3 than observed. The last two decades of

  11. Electrochemical Oxidation of Resorcinol in Aqueous Medium Using Boron-Doped Diamond Anode: Reaction Kinetics and Process Optimization with Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körbahti, Bahadır K; Demirbüken, Pelin

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of resorcinol in aqueous medium using boron-doped diamond anode (BDD) was investigated in a batch electrochemical reactor in the presence of Na 2 SO 4 supporting electrolyte. The effect of process parameters such as resorcinol concentration (100-500 g/L), current density (2-10 mA/cm 2 ), Na 2 SO 4 concentration (0-20 g/L), and reaction temperature (25-45°C) was analyzed on electrochemical oxidation using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum operating conditions were determined as 300 mg/L resorcinol concentration, 8 mA/cm 2 current density, 12 g/L Na 2 SO 4 concentration, and 34°C reaction temperature. One hundred percent of resorcinol removal and 89% COD removal were obtained in 120 min reaction time at response surface optimized conditions. These results confirmed that the electrochemical mineralization of resorcinol was successfully accomplished using BDD anode depending on the process conditions, however the formation of intermediates and by-products were further oxidized at much lower rate. The reaction kinetics were evaluated at optimum conditions and the reaction order of electrochemical oxidation of resorcinol in aqueous medium using BDD anode was determined as 1 based on COD concentration with the activation energy of 5.32 kJ/mol that was supported a diffusion-controlled reaction.

  12. Efficiency and Reliability of Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy for Renal Tumors Larger than 4 cm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Özgör

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate safety and efficiency of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for renal tumors larger than 4 cm. Methods: We retrospectivelly evaluated the medical records of 65 patients who underwent laparascopic partial nephrectomy between May 2009 and June 2013 in our clinic. The patients were divided into two groups according to tumor size. Patients with a tumor 4 cm were included in group 1 (n=45 and group 2 (n=20, respectively. Demographic, perioperative and postoperative parameters were compared between the groups. Histopathological examination and surgical margin status were also evaluated. Results: The mean age of the patients was 59.2±10.9 (range: 26- 81 years. The mean tumor size and the mean RENAL nephrometry score were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1. The mean operation time and warm ischemia time were similar between groups but estimated blood loss and transfusion requirement were significantly higher in group 2. Convertion to open surgery was seen two patients in group 2 and one patient in group 1. Only one patient underwent radical nephrectomy for uncontrolled bleeding in group 2. There was no difference in preoperative and 3-month postoperative serum creatinine levels between the groups. The incidence of positive surgical margin was 0% and 5% in group 1 and group 2, respectively. Conclusion: Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for renal tumors is an effective and feasible procedure with acceptable oncologic results. However, tranfusion rate and requiremet of pelvicaliceal system repair were more common in patients with tumor >4 cm. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2015; 53:30-5

  13. Comparative analysis between percutaneous nephrolithotomy and flexible ureteroscopy in kidney stones of 2-3cm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieras, E; Tubau, V; Brugarolas, X; Ferrutxe, J; Pizá, P

    2017-04-01

    To compare percutaneous nephrolithotomy and flexible ureterorenoscopy for treating kidney stones between 2 and 3cm. A prospective, comparative, nonrandomised study was conducted with 108 patients with kidney stones between 2 and 3cm. Fifty-four patients underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy and 54 underwent flexible ureteroscopy. We compared the following variables: lithiasis-free rate (%), surgical time, the need for an auxiliary process, postoperative complications, hospital stay, readmission rates and recovery time. There were no differences in the lithiasis-free rate between the 2 surgical techniques (76% for ureteroscopy vs. 87% for nephrolithotomy; P=.1) or in the complications (29% for nephrolithotomy vs. 27% for ureteroscopy; P=.4). A larger number of auxiliary process were needed for the ureteroscopy group (20%) than for the nephrolithotomy group (7%) (P=.04). The surgical time was longer for the nephrolithotomy group (121±52min) than for the ureteroscopy group (93±42min) (P=.004). The ureteroscopy group had shorter hospital stays (2.1±1.6 vs. 3.9±1.9 days; P=.002), shorter convalescence (8.1±4.9 vs. 13.3±4.2 days; P=.005) and higher readmission rates (7.4% vs. 0%, P=.05) than the nephrolithotomy group. Nephrolithotomy and ureteroscopy have similar efficacy for treating kidney stones measuring 2-3cm, with no differences in complications. Ureteroscopy results in shorter hospital stays, quicker recoveries but more readmissions and a greater need for auxiliary procedures. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Extracting Physical Parameters for the First Galaxies from the Cosmic Dawn Global 21-cm Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jack O.; Mirocha, Jordan; harker, geraint; Tauscher, Keith; Datta, Abhirup

    2016-01-01

    The all-sky or global redshifted 21-cm HI signal is a potentially powerful probe of the first luminous objects and their environs during the transition from the Dark Ages to Cosmic Dawn (35 > z > 6). The first stars, black holes, and galaxies heat and ionize the surrounding intergalactic medium, composed mainly of neutral hydrogen, so the hyperfine 21-cm transition can be used to indirectly study these early radiation sources. The properties of these objects can be examined via the broad absorption and emission features that are expected in the spectrum. The Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE) is proposed to conduct these observations at low radio astronomy frequencies, 40-120 MHz, in a 125 km orbit about the Moon. The Moon occults both the Earth and the Sun as DARE makes observations above the lunar farside, thus eliminating the corrupting effects from Earth's ionosphere, radio frequency interference, and solar nanoflares. The signal is extracted from the galactic/extragalactic foreground employing Bayesian methods, including Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques. Theory indicates that the 21-cm signal is well described by a model in which the evolution of various physical quantities follows a hyperbolic tangent (tanh) function of redshift. We show that this approach accurately captures degeneracies and covariances between parameters, including those related to the signal, foreground, and the instrument. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that MCMC fits will set meaningful constraints on the Ly-α, ionizing, and X-ray backgrounds along with the minimum virial temperature of the first star-forming halos.

  15. Climate-monitoring CubeSat mission (CM2): a project for global mesopause temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, Richard A.; Watchorn, Steven

    2011-10-01

    The goals of the Climate Monitoring CubeSat Mission (CM2) are to accelerate climate projection by obtaining global temperature, tidal and wave measurements with a simple CubeSat-based imaging spectrograph; and to demonstrate how a high-resolution imaging spectrograph can be deployed on a CubeSat satellite. In the middle atmosphere (50 - 100 km), beyond the reach of balloons or satellites, thermal signatures of CO2 radiation and wave activity have been largely missing from climate model inputs. This paper outlines an instrument to advance the state of the art in atmospheric climate projection by providing critical global measurements of middle-atmosphere temperatures and waves with a CubeSatscale imaging spectrograph. The CM2 will remotely sense middle-atmosphere temperatures and waves at ~90 km by analyzing spectra of intrinsically bright molecular oxygen emissions at near-infrared wavelengths in the O2 atmospheric band. The core instrument will be a miniaturized imaging spectrograph based on a monolithic spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS). This spectrograph will have sensitivity and spectral resolution to extract temperatures with 10° K precision and waves with 4 km scale resolution along a ~200 km cross-track swath. The SHS is significantly more robust than conventional interferometers, and thus better suited to space-based observation. Acquiring high-resolution middle-atmosphere temperature, tidal, and wave data on a daily, global basis will significantly improve climate models, and will help assess long-term greenhouse gas mitigation policy impact on upper-atmosphere thermal signatures. The CM2 program will also establish the efficacy of highresolution CubeSat-based broadband (near-IR to UV) spectroscopy for application to other atmospheric research missions.

  16. Methane line shapes and spectral line parameters in the 5647 - 6164 cm-1 region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanov, V. P.; Morino, I.

    2018-02-01

    Approximately seventy isolated and overlapping methane absorption lines in the 5647 - 6164 cm-1 spectral region were processed with seven line profiles accounting for all main line shape forming physical mechanisms in different combinations. It was shown that at low methane pressures the conventional Nelkin-Ghatak line profile gives satisfactory results in retrieving line parameters as opposed to the Voigt profile. It was found that most of the considered lines do not interfere. The FTS instrumental function elimination technique based on Doppler-broadened line's records was applied, and its applicability was proved.

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of aqueous complexing agents for the Am/Cm separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapron, Simon

    2014-01-01

    After the reprocessing of uranium, plutonium and eventually neptunium by the PUREX process, the spent fuel is still composed of half of the periodic table. Among these elements, the main responsible for the heat of the wastes is americium. Its reprocessing could allow improving the compactness of deep geological storage of the wastes. Thus the liquid-liquid extraction process called EXAm was developed in order to recover the americium alone. The key step of the process is the Am/Cm separation. An extractant mixture is used with an aqueous complexing agent: TEDGA (N,N',N,N'-tetraethyl-diglycolamide). It allows to enhance the Am/Cm separation by keeping preferentially curium in the aqueous phase, but its structure selectivity relationship is not well known yet. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis is to synthesize and evaluate some structural analogues of TEDGA, in order to better understand the impact of its structure on the Am/Cm selectivity in the EXAm process. During this study, 14 analogues of TEDGA were synthesized and 17 molecules were evaluated in liquid-liquid extraction. Several structural modifications were studied: length and steric hindrance of the N-alkyl chains, size of the spacer, and the introduction of secondary amide functions. This work shows that it is not possible to maintain the ligand in the aqueous phase from tetrabutyl derivatives, and the addition of steric hindrance, or modification of hydrophilicity/lipophilicity balance, systematically decreases the selectivity of ligands. The addition of secondary amide functions (-CONHR) makes the molecules extractable by the solvent (formation of hydrogen bonds with the extractants), therefore they are unsuitable to be used in the EXAm process. The spacer has the main impact on the selectivity: the complexation capacity in high acid medium disappears when it is shortened (malonamide), whereas the ligand has a preference for Am instead of Cm (inversion of selectivity) when it is lengthen

  18. Test performance of the QSE series of 5 cm aperture quadrupole model magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, B.; Bein, D.; Cunningham, G.; DiMarco, J.; Gathright, T.; Jayakumar, J.; LaBarge, A.; Li, W.; Lambert, D.; Scott, M.

    1994-01-01

    A 5 cm aperture quadrupole design, the QSE series of magnets were the first to be tested in the Short Magnet and Cable Test Laboratory (SMCTL) at the SSCL. Test performance of the first two magnets of the series are presented, including quench performance, quench localization, strain gage readings, and magnetic measurements. Both magnets behaved reasonably well with no quenches below the collider operating current, four training quenches to plateau, and good training memory between thermal cycles. Future magnets in the QSE series will be used to reduce the initial training and to tune out unwanted magnetic harmonics

  19. Test performance of the QSE series of 5 cm aperture quadrupole model magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, B.; Bein, D.; Cunningham, G.; DiMarco, J.; Gathright, T.; Jayakumar, J.; Labarge, A.; Li, W.; Lambert, D.; Scott, M.; Snitchler, G.; Zeigler, R.

    1993-04-01

    A 5 cm aperture quadrupole design, the QSE series of magnets were the first to be tested in the Short Magnet and Cable Test Laboratory (SMCTL) at the SSCL. Test performance of the first two magnets of the series are presented, including quench performance, quench localization, strain gage readings, and magnetic measurements.Both magnets behaved reasonably well with no quenches below the collider operating current, four training quenches to plateau, and good training memory between thermal cycles. Future magnets in the QSE series will be used to reduce the initial training and to tune out unwanted magnetic harmonics

  20. Safety and Effectiveness of UFE in Fibroids Larger than 10 cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bérczi, Viktor, E-mail: berczi@hotmail.com; Valcseva, Éva, E-mail: evapeneva@gmail.com; Kozics, Dóra, E-mail: dora.kozics@gmail.com; Kalina, Ildikó, E-mail: ilkalina@t-online.hu; Kaposi, Pál, E-mail: kaposipal@gmail.com [Semmelweis University, Department of Radiology and Oncotherapy (Hungary); Sziller, Péter, E-mail: psziller@t-online.hu; Várbíró, Szabolcs, E-mail: varbiroszabolcs@gmail.com [Semmelweis University, 2nd Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (Hungary); Botos, Erzsébet Mária, E-mail: erzsebetbotos@gmail.com [Semmelweis University, Department of Radiology and Oncotherapy (Hungary)

    2015-10-15

    IntroductionEarly literature suggested that the size of the uterus, the size of the dominant fibroid, and the amount of applied embolization particles would be the risk factors for major postprocedural complications, but recent publications have confuted these early results. The purpose of our study was to evaluate whether the size of the dominant fibroid would influence the complication rate and effectiveness in a large single-center cohort.Patients and MethodsFrom 28 April 2008 until 31 December 2012, 303 patients had uterine artery embolization (UAE). 262 patients had small [largest diameter <10 cm (Group 1)], 41 patients had large [largest diameter >10 cm (Group 2)] fibroid. UAE was performed from unilateral femoral access using 500–710 and 355–500 µm polyvinyl alcohol particles. Periprocedural and postprocedural complications and numerical analog quality-of-life scores (0—unbearable symptoms; 100—perfect quality of life) were listed and statistically analyzed.ResultsDuring the mean follow-up time [7.79 ± 5.16 (SD) month], data on 275 patients (275/303 = 90.8 %) were available. Quality-of-life score was 33.3 ± 23.5 and 33.5 ± 24.1 before, whereas 85.6 ± 16.0 and 81.5 ± 23.5 after UAE in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively, (Mann–Whitney U test one-sided, p = 0.365). There were 4 myoma expulsions, 1 acute myomectomy, and 2 acute hysterectomies reported from Group 1, meanwhile 1 myoma expulsion, 1 acute myomectomy, and 2 acute hysterectomies were documented from Group 2 (NS differences).ConclusionThere was no significant difference in the effectiveness and in the number of minor and major complications between fibroids with <10 cm largest diameter compared to those >10 cm.

  1. Precision Calibration for Realizing the Promise of 21 cm Cosmology with HERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Joshua S.; Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) Team

    2018-01-01

    In this talk I will discuss progress in both the theory and practice of data analysis for the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA), focusing on techniques to calibrate the instrumental response and preserve the spectral smoothness that is essential to separating the cosmological 21 cm signal from foregrounds that are five orders of magnitude brighter. I will discuss how we take advantage of HERA's highly-redundant configuration to calibrate both relative antenna gains and perhaps also the overall spectral response and show some early results. I will discuss the effect of real-world deviations from redundancy and how they too might be overcome.

  2. Microfossils of filamentous prokaryotes in CI1 and CM2 meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2008-08-01

    Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) studies of recently obtained samples of Orgueil, Ivuna and Murchison meteorites have provided further evidence for the existence of indigenous filamentous microfossils embedded in the mineral matrix of CI1 and CM2 carbonaceous meteorites. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) spot data and 2-D elemental X-ray maps establish that the nitrogen and sulphur content of the forms found in the meteorites are dramatically different from modern prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. These results are interpreted as providing additional evidence for the existence of a complex suite of indigenous microfossils in carbonaceous meteorites.

  3. Water vapor absorption spectra of the upper atmosphere /45-185 per cm/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augason, G. C.; Mord, A. J.; Witteborn, F. C.; Erickson, E. F.; Swift, C. D.; Caroff, L. J.; Kunz, L. W.

    1975-01-01

    The far IR nighttime absorption spectrum of the earth's atmosphere above 14 km is determined from observations of the bright moon. The spectra were obtained using a Michelson interferometer attached to a 30-cm telescope aboard a high-altitude jet aircraft. Comparison with a single-layer model atmosphere implies a vertical column of 3.4 plus or minus 0.4 microns of precipitable water on 30 August 1971 and 2.4 plus or minus 0.3 microns of precipitable water on 6 January 1972.-

  4. Will nonlinear peculiar velocity and inhomogeneous reionization spoil 21 cm cosmology from the epoch of reionization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Paul R; Mao, Yi; Iliev, Ilian T; Mellema, Garrelt; Datta, Kanan K; Ahn, Kyungjin; Koda, Jun

    2013-04-12

    The 21 cm background from the epoch of reionization is a promising cosmological probe: line-of-sight velocity fluctuations distort redshift, so brightness fluctuations in Fourier space depend upon angle, which linear theory shows can separate cosmological from astrophysical information. Nonlinear fluctuations in ionization, density, and velocity change this, however. The validity and accuracy of the separation scheme are tested here for the first time, by detailed reionization simulations. The scheme works reasonably well early in reionization (≲40% ionized), but not late (≳80% ionized).

  5. Development of an Attitude Sensor for a Cm-Sized Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunada, Shigeru; Tokutake, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Atsushi; Kawashima, Kenta

    Our developed cm-sized helicopter is inclined with a large pitch angle by the nose down moment generated by the aft propeller when it goes forward and when it keeps its position against a wind. This is because the ratio of parasite drag to the gravitational force is larger for a smaller helicopter. And the horizontal component of aerodynamic force generated by the main rotors, which equals the parasite drag, should be larger. Then, a small and lightweight attitude sensor was newly developed to measure the large pitching angle of the helicopter and to control the rotational speed of the aft propeller. The principle is same as that of a solar sensor.

  6. Confirmed results of the 248Cm(48Ca,4n)292116 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patin, J B; Moody, K J; Stoyer, M A; Wild, J F; Shaughnessy, D A; Stoyer, N J

    2003-01-01

    The results of a detailed analysis performed on the data obtained in the 248 Cm( 48 Ca,4n) 292 116 reaction is presented. This analysis is independent of the original data analysis performed in Dubna in which three separate decay chains were found. Each decay chain began with an evaporation residue followed by three α decays and ended in a spontaneous fission event, all correlated in time and position. The analysis presented confirms that the three events are present in the data. A summary of the three events will be given as well as a description of the analysis performed

  7. Development of a 30-cm ion thruster thermal-vacuum power processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, B. G.

    1976-01-01

    The 30-cm Hg electron-bombardment ion thruster presently under development has reached engineering model status and is generally accepted as the prime propulsion thruster module to be used on the earliest solar electric propulsion missions. This paper presents the results of a related program to develop a transistorized 3-kW Thermal-Vacuum Breadboard (TVBB) Power Processor for this thruster. Emphasized in the paper are the implemented electrical and mechanical designs as well as the resultant system performance achieved over a range of test conditions. In addition, design modifications affording improved performance are identified and discussed.

  8. Fiber extended ultra-wideband radar for breath tracking through 10 cm concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an Ultra-Wideband (UWB) radar with a 20 km NZ-DSF extension on the transmitter side. The radar is based on telecom class signal generation, antennas, and a recording module operating at 20 Gsa/s. The radar is transmitting a pulse covering the frequencies from 3.4 to 9.9 GHz....... The radar system was able to track the breathing of a human through a 10 cm concrete obstacle. The frequency output was verified through the use of a metal pendulum with a fixed oscillation period...

  9. Extratropical Cyclones over Southwestern Atlantic Ocean: Present and Future Climates projected by RegCM4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboita, Michelle; Rodrigues, Marcelo; da Rocha, Rosmeri

    2017-04-01

    This study shows some of the climatological features of the extratropical cyclones in present and future climate over Southwestern Atlantic Ocean (SAO). The projections were carried out with Regional Climate Model (RegCM4) nested in HadGEM2-ES global model outputs and using representative concentration pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) from the CMIP5. The simulations considered the South America domain suggested by CORDEX, horizontal grid spacing of 50 km, 18 sigma-pressure levels in the vertical. An objective tracking scheme based on cyclonic relative vorticity calculated using the wind at 925 hPa was used to identify the cyclones. All cyclones with relative vorticity lower than the -1.5 x 10-5 s-1 and with lifetime higher or equal 24 hours were included in the climatology. Considering the period from 1979 to 2098, RegCM4 and HadGEM2-ES project a negative trend in the frequency of the extratropical cyclones over SAO, with the biggest negative trend occuring in the latitudinal band between 40°S and 57.5°S. This result can be associated with the southward displacement of the baroclinic zone which contributes to the cyclones move to south leaving the region analyzed. The three subregions with largest cyclogenetic activity discussed in the literature (southeast coast of Brazil - RG1, coast of Uruguay and southern Brazil - RG2; east coast of Argentina - RG3) were better reproduced in RegCM4 than in HadGEM2-ES. Therefore, RegCM4 downscaling ads value in the HadGEM2-ES projections. The frequency of cyclones in present (1979-2005) and future climate (2070-2098) is higher in winter and lower in summer. Regarding the mean characteristics of the cyclones (life time, travel distance, velocity, initial relative vorticity and total average vorticity), both models successfully reproduced those obtained in the reanalysis (NCEP1, NCEP2, CFSR, ERA40 and ERA-Interim) and there are no significant differences in the future climate compared with the present.

  10. Search for superheavy elements in the bombardment of 248Cm with 48Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulet, E.K.; Lougheed, R.W.; Wild, J.F.; Landrum, J.H.; Stevenson, P.C.; Ghiorso, A.; Nitschke, J.M.; Otto, R.J.; Morrissey, D.J.; Baisden, P.A.; Gavin, B.F.; Lee, D.; Silva, R.J.; Fowler, M.M.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1977-01-01

    We have searched for superheavy elements 110 to 116 with half-lives between 10 4 and 10 8 s in fractions chemically separated after each of a series of bombardments of 248 Cm made with 267-MeV 48 Ca ions. After 6 months of α and spontaneous-fission counting, our results provide no persuasive evidence for the presence of super-heavy elements. The most plausible explanation for not finding the superheavy elements is that they have either short half-lives or very small formation cross sections

  11. Validating HadCM3 from NCEP re-analysis by seasonal extreme temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio, P. S.; Corte-Real, J.; Silva, A. M.

    2003-04-01

    The debate on the enhanced greenhouse effect continues, confusing the climate change impact analysis and the decision-makers. In this paper we attempt to quantify the space-time uncertainties surrounding the extreme temperature’s response. Climatic and meteorological risk analy-sis and forecasting concerns, among others topics, analysis of recurrence of long duration extreme values. A statistical-dynamical analysis is carried on to derive a climatological characterization of different areas. For particular depend-ent sequences and in a context of statistical extremes, a relevant parameter appears to be the extremal index. Important parameters of rare events, which are functions of this index, are the high quantiles, and the return period for an established level. We consider the influence of the extremal index working with the method of the annual maximal or minimal. We analyse the extreme annual temperatures for the reference pe-riod 1960-61 to 1989-90 based on NCEP re-analysis to validate the HadCM3 model output over Europe. The aim of this study is to analyse whether the extreme values of the time series can detect changes, supporting the assumption of global warming during these years. We use the maximal and minimal seasonal temperatures (“DJF” for winter and “JJA” for summer) as well as the spatiotemporal clustering of extreme temperatures for this analysis. The present study points to the conclusion that, in terms of extremes, the simulations of HadCM3 reasonably reproduce those of NCEP re-analyses, a conclusion that not always emerge from the consideration of the ensembles of daily simulated and analysed fields. Consequently, all diagnostic plots led support to the fitted GEV model for extrapolation, suggesting that the HadCM3 is adequate for forecasting future extreme scenarios. Though uncertainty is inherent in any statistical model, such uncertainties can be reduced by judicious choices of model and inference, and by the utilization of all

  12. Analysis of Saturn's Thermal Emission at 2.2-cm Wavelength: Spatial Distribution of Ammonia Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraia, A. L.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Janssen, Michael A.; Gulkis, Samuel; Oyafuso, Fabiano A.; Allison, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    This work focuses on determining the latitudinal structure of ammonia vapor in Saturn's cloud layer near 1.5 bars using the brightness temperature maps derived from the Cassini RADAR (Elachi et al., 2004) instrument, which works in a passive mode to measure thermal emission from Saturn at 2.2-cm wavelength. We perform an analysis of five brightness temperature maps that span epochs from 2005 to 2011, which are presented in a companion paper by Janssen et al. (2013a, this issue). The brightness temperature maps are representative of the spatial distribution of ammonia vapor, since ammonia gas is the only effective opacity source in Saturn's atmosphere at 2.2-cm wavelength. Relatively high brightness temperatures indicate relatively low ammonia relative humidity (RH), and vice versa. We compare the observed brightness temperatures to brightness temperatures computed using the Juno atmospheric microwave radiative transfer (JAMRT) program which includes both the means to calculate a tropospheric atmosphere model for Saturn and the means to carry out radiative transfer calculations at microwave frequencies. The reference atmosphere to which we compare has a 3x solar deep mixing ratio of ammonia (we use 1.352x10(exp -4) for the solar mixing ratio of ammonia vapor relative to H2; see Atreya, 2010) and is fully saturated above its cloud base. The maps are comprised of residual brightness temperatures-observed brightness temperature minus the model brightness temperature of the saturated atmosphere.

  13. Atomically-Precise Layer Controlled Synthesis and Characterization of cm-Scale Hexagonal Boron Nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, W.-H.; Brar, V. W.; Jariwala, D.; Sherrott, M. C.; Tseng, W.-S.; Wu, C.-I.; Yeh, N.-C.; Atwater, H. A.

    Hexagonal boron nitride is the most promising two-dimensional insulator for device applications because of its large band gap and low density of charged impurities in addition to being isostructural and isoelectronic with graphene. Here we report the synthesis of h-BN films over cm2 area on Cu foils via chemical vapor deposition, with layer control from 1 to 20 layers. We have characterized these large-area h-BN films at both atomic and macroscopic scales. Raman and infrared spectroscopy indicate the presence of B-N bonds and reveal a linear dependence of thickness with growth time. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy provides the film stoichiometry, showing the B/N atom ratio to be 1 for all thicknesses. Atomically resolved STM images of monolayer h-BN films on graphene and Au substrates display both the atomic h-BN honeycomb lattice and a Moiré superlattice between h-BN and graphene. Electrical current transport in Au/h-BN/Au heterostructures indicates that these h-BN films behave like excellent tunnel barriers and also possess a high value of the hard-breakdown field strength. Our large-area h-BN films are therefore structurally, chemically and electronically uniform over cm2 areas. Department of Energy DE-FG02- 07ER46405 and DE-SC0001293.

  14. 5-year results of the 1.5cm incision Achilles tendon repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Samuel K K; Slocum, Amanda; Lui, T H

    2017-12-01

    To study a hypothesis that the cost-effective 1.5cm medial incision Achilles tendon repair technique will provide good functional outcomes which are maintained for over 5 years. Prospective study of 12 consecutive cases with a minimal 5-year follow-up were recruited from April 2008 to November 2010. Cases whom were mentally incompetent or those which required concomitant procedures were excluded. Outcomes measures included the numeric pain rating scale, motor power strength, range of motion, functional scoring using the AOFAS hindfoot score and patient's self-assessment using the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS). No re-ruptures or sural nerve injured were identified after a minimal 5-year follow-up. Pain was minimal at 0.5/10, calf power was 5/5 and ankle range was good (plantarflexion: 38°/dorsiflexion: 21°). The AOFAS hindfoot score was 97.4 and all 5 sub-categories of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) were good. The 1.5cm medial incision repair of the Achilles tendon is an economically sound surgical technique, with minimal complications, which gives good medium length functional outcomes. IV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A dual origin for water in carbonaceous asteroids revealed by CM chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piani, Laurette; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Remusat, Laurent

    2018-04-01

    Carbonaceous asteroids represent the principal source of water in the inner Solar System and might correspond to the main contributors for the delivery of water to Earth. Hydrogen isotopes in water-bearing primitive meteorites, for example carbonaceous chondrites, constitute a unique tool for deciphering the sources of water reservoirs at the time of asteroid formation. However, fine-scale isotopic measurements are required to unravel the effects of parent-body processes on the pre-accretion isotopic distributions. Here, we report in situ micrometre-scale analyses of hydrogen isotopes in six CM-type carbonaceous chondrites, revealing a dominant deuterium-poor water component (δD = -350 ± 40‰) mixed with deuterium-rich organic matter. We suggest that this deuterium-poor water corresponds to a ubiquitous water reservoir in the inner protoplanetary disk. A deuterium-rich water signature has been preserved in the least altered part of the Paris chondrite (δDParis ≥ -69 ± 163‰) in hydrated phases possibly present in the CM rock before alteration. The presence of the deuterium-enriched water signature in Paris might indicate that transfers of ice from the outer to the inner Solar System were significant within the first million years of the history of the Solar System.

  16. The 30 cm radio flux as a solar proxy for thermosphere density modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudok de Wit Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The 10.7 cm radio flux (F10.7 is widely used as a proxy for solar UV forcing of the upper atmosphere. However, radio emissions at other centimetric wavelengths have been routinely monitored since the 1950 s, thereby offering prospects for building proxies that may be better tailored to space weather needs. Here we advocate the 30 cm flux (F30 as a proxy that is more sensitive than F10.7 to longer wavelengths in the UV and show that it improves the response of the thermospheric density to solar forcing, as modelled with DTM (Drag Temperature Model. In particular, the model bias drops on average by 0–20% when replacing F10.7 by F30; it is also more stable (the standard deviation of the bias is 15–40% smaller and the density variation at the the solar rotation period is reproduced with a 35–50% smaller error. We compare F30 to other solar proxies and discuss its assets and limitations.

  17. Absorption spectrum of D2O between 10000-11000 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdyukov, Viktor I.; Sinitsa, Leonid N.; Bykov, Alexander D.; Polovtseva, Elena R.; Scherbakov, Anatolii P.

    2017-12-01

    A study of the vibration-rotation absorption spectrum of the D2O molecule in the range 10100-10800 cm-1 has been performed. The spectrum was recorded using a Fourier Transform Spectrometer with the spectral resolution of 0.05 cm-1 coupled to the multi-pass White-type cell providing an optical path length of 24 m. A light-emitting diode was used as the radiation source, giving a high brightness that resulted in an S/N ratio of measurements of about 104. The rovibrational assignment of more than 920 lines was carried out, and the parameters of the spectral lines (i.e. centers, intensity and half-width) were determined by least-squares fitting of the Voigt contour parameters to the experimental data. A total of 530 rotational energy levels belonging to nine vibrational states (301), (103), (400), (221), (122), (320), (004), (023) and (042) and with maximum rotational quantum numbers J=16 and Ka=9 was determined. 101 energy levels were derived from the experiment for the first time.

  18. Constraining Primordial Black Holes with the EDGES 21-cm Absorption Signal arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Hektor, Andi; Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti; Vaskonen, Ville; Veermäe, Hardi

    The EDGES experiment has recently measured an anomalous global 21-cm spectrum due to hydrogen absorptions at redshifts of about $z\\sim 17$. Model independently, the unusually low temperature of baryons probed by this observable sets strong constraints on any physical process that transfers energy into the baryonic environment at such redshifts. Here we make use of the 21-cm spectrum to derive bounds on the energy injection due to a possible population of ${\\cal O}(1-100) M_\\odot$ primordial black holes, which induce a wide spectrum of radiation during the accretion of the surrounding gas. After calculating the total radiative intensity of a primordial black hole population, we estimate the amount of heat and ionisations produced in the baryonic gas and compute the resulting thermal history of the Universe with a modified version of RECFAST code. Finally, by imposing that the temperature of the gas at $z\\sim 17$ does not exceed the indications of EDGES, we constrain the possible abundance of primordial black h...

  19. A dual origin for water in carbonaceous asteroids revealed by CM chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piani, Laurette; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Remusat, Laurent

    2018-03-01

    Carbonaceous asteroids represent the principal source of water in the inner Solar System and might correspond to the main contributors for the delivery of water to Earth. Hydrogen isotopes in water-bearing primitive meteorites, for example carbonaceous chondrites, constitute a unique tool for deciphering the sources of water reservoirs at the time of asteroid formation. However, fine-scale isotopic measurements are required to unravel the effects of parent-body processes on the pre-accretion isotopic distributions. Here, we report in situ micrometre-scale analyses of hydrogen isotopes in six CM-type carbonaceous chondrites, revealing a dominant deuterium-poor water component (δD = -350 ± 40‰) mixed with deuterium-rich organic matter. We suggest that this deuterium-poor water corresponds to a ubiquitous water reservoir in the inner protoplanetary disk. A deuterium-rich water signature has been preserved in the least altered part of the Paris chondrite (δDParis ≥ -69 ± 163‰) in hydrated phases possibly present in the CM rock before alteration. The presence of the deuterium-enriched water signature in Paris might indicate that transfers of ice from the outer to the inner Solar System were significant within the first million years of the history of the Solar System.

  20. CmMDb: a versatile database for Cucumis melo microsatellite markers and other horticulture crop research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawna; Chaduvula, Pavan K; Bonthala, Venkata S; Manjusha, Verma; Siddiq, Ebrahimali A; Polumetla, Ananda K; Prasad, Gajula M N V

    2015-01-01

    Cucumis melo L. that belongs to Cucurbitaceae family ranks among one of the highest valued horticulture crops being cultivated across the globe. Besides its economical and medicinal importance, Cucumis melo L. is a valuable resource and model system for the evolutionary studies of cucurbit family. However, very limited numbers of molecular markers were reported for Cucumis melo L. so far that limits the pace of functional genomic research in melon and other similar horticulture crops. We developed the first whole genome based microsatellite DNA marker database of Cucumis melo L. and comprehensive web resource that aids in variety identification and physical mapping of Cucurbitaceae family. The Cucumis melo L. microsatellite database (CmMDb: http://65.181.125.102/cmmdb2/index.html) encompasses 39,072 SSR markers along with its motif repeat, motif length, motif sequence, marker ID, motif type and chromosomal locations. The database is featured with novel automated primer designing facility to meet the needs of wet lab researchers. CmMDb is a freely available web resource that facilitates the researchers to select the most appropriate markers for marker-assisted selection in melons and to improve breeding strategies.

  1. Cold Fronts in RegCM/HadGEM simulations over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampuch, Luana; Marcos de Jesus, Eduardo; Porfírio da Rocha, Rosmeri; Ambrizzi, Tércio

    2017-04-01

    Cold front is one of the most important systems that contribute for precipitation over South America. The representation of this system in climate models is important for a better representation of the precipitation. The Regional Climate Model RegCM is widely used for climate studies in South America, being important to understand how this model represents the cold fronts. A climatology (from 1979-2004) of the number of cold fronts in each season for RegCM4 simulations over South America CORDEX domain nested in HadGEM2-ES. The simulated climatology was compared with ERA-Interim reanalysis cold fronts climatology over the South America and adjacent South Atlantic Ocean. The cold fronts tracking for the model and the reanalysis were performed using an objective methodology based on decrease of air temperature in 925hPa, shift of meridional wind in 925hPa from northern to southern quadrant and increased in sea level pressure. The main differences were observed on summer and winter. On summer the model overestimate the number of cold fronts over southeastern South America and adjacent Atlantic Ocean; and underestimate it over central-south Argentina and Atlantic Ocean. On winter, the signs were opposite of that summer. On autumn and spring the differences were smaller and occurs mainly over all South Atlantic and north Argentina.

  2. An 8 cm period electromagnetic wiggler magnet with coils made from sheet copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George Biallas; Stephen Benson; Tommy Hiatt; George Neil; Michael Snyder

    2005-01-01

    An electromagnetic wiggler, now lasing at the Jefferson Lab FEL, has 29 eight cm periods with K variable from 0.5 to 1.1 and gap of 2.6 cm. The wiggler was made inexpensively in 11 weeks by an industrial machine shop. The conduction cooled coil design uses copper sheet material cut to forms using water jet cutting. The conductor is cut to serpentine shapes and the cooling plates are cut to ladder shape. The sheets are assembled in stacks insulated with polymer film, also cut with water jet. The coil design extends the serpentine conductor design of the Duke OK4 to more and smaller conductors. The wiggler features graded fields in the two poles at each end and trim coils on these poles to eliminate field errors caused by saturation. An added critical feature is mirror plates at the ends with integral trim coils to eliminate three dimensional end field effects and align the entrance and exit orbit with the axis of the wiggler. Details of construction, measurement methods and excellent wiggler performance are presented

  3. The 8 cm Period Electromagnetic Wiggler Magnet with Coils Made from Sheet Copper

    CERN Document Server

    Biallas, George H; Hiatt, Tommy; Neil, George R; Snyder, Michael D

    2005-01-01

    An electromagnetic wiggler, now lasing at the Jefferson Lab FEL, has 29 eight cm periods with K variable from 0.6 to1.1 and gap of 2.6 cm. The wiggler was made inexpensively in 11 weeks by an industrial machine shop. The conduction cooled coil design uses copper sheet material cut to forms using water jet cutting. The conductor is cut to serpentine shapes and the cooling plates are cut to ladder shape. The sheets are assembled in stacks insulated with polymer film, also cut with water jet. The coil design extends the serpentine conductor design of the Duke OK4 to more and smaller conductors. The wiggler features graded fields in the two poles at each end and trim coils on these poles to eliminate field errors caused by saturation. An added critical feature is mirror plates at the ends with integral trim coils to eliminate three dimensional end field effects and align the entrance and exit orbit with the axis of the wiggler. Details of construction, measurement methods and excellent wiggler performance are pre...

  4. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1983-01-01

    Correlations between optical surface brightness and the radio properties of spiral galaxies are investigated. It is found that galaxies with high surface brightness are more likely to be strong continuum radio sources and that galaxies with low surface brightness have high 21-cm line emission. (author)

  5. Evaporation from a sphagnum moss surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.S. Nichols; J.M. Brown

    1980-01-01

    Peat cores, 45 cm in diameter, were collected from a sphagnum bog in northern Minnesota, and used to measure the effects of different temperatures and water levels on evaporation from a sphagnum moss surface in a growth chamber. Under all conditions, evaporation from the moss surface was greater than that from a free-water surface. Evaporation from the moss increased...

  6. Magnetic and structural properties of Sr{sub 0.75}La{sub 0.25}Fe{sub x}Cu{sub 0.20}O{sub 19} (10.40≤x≤11.80) hexagonal ferrites prepared by the solid-state reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yujie, E-mail: loyalty-yyj@163.com [Computational Physics Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Yibin University, Yibin 644007 (China); Shao, Juxiang; Wang, Fanhou [Computational Physics Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Yibin University, Yibin 644007 (China); Liu, Xiansong; Feng, Shuangjiu [Engineering Technology Research Center of Magnetic Materials, School of Physics & Materials Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, Anhui Province (China); Huang, Duohui; Yang, Junsheng; Jin, Chengguo [Computational Physics Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Yibin University, Yibin 644007 (China)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the hexaferrite magnetic powders and magnets according to the formula Sr{sub 0.75}La{sub 0.25}Fe{sub x}Cu{sub 0.20}O{sub 19}, where x ranging from 10.40 to 11.80 with a step of 0.2 were prepared by the solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction was performed to investigate the microstructures of the magnetic powders. The results show that a single magnetoplumbite phase is obtained for the magnetic powders with Fe content (10.60≤x≤11.60). For the magnetic powders with Fe content (x) of 10.40 or 11.80, magnetic impurities appear in the structure. A field emission scanning electron microscopy was hired to explore the micrographs of the magnets. The hexaferrite magnets are formed of hexagonal-shaped crystals. A magnetic properties test instrument was used in order to study the magnetic properties of the magnets. The remanence and maximum energy product first increase with Fe content (x) from 10.40 to 11.00 and then begin to decrease when Fe content (x) continues to increase. While the intrinsic coercivity and magnetic induction coercivity first increase with Fe content (x) from 10.40 to 11.20 and then decrease when Fe content (x)>11.20. - Highlights: • The hexaferrite Sr{sub 0.75}La{sub 0.25}Fe{sub x}Cu{sub 0.20}O{sub 19} (10.40≤x≤11.80) magnetic powders and magnets were synthesized by the solid-state reaction. • The hexaferrite magnets are formed of hexagonal-shaped crystals. • At Fe content (x)=11.00, B{sub r} and (BH){sub max} for the magnets reach the maximum values. At Fe content (x)=11.20, H{sub cj} and H{sub cb} for the magnets reach the maximum values.

  7. In Situ Sub-cm Chemistry for Assessing Ancient Habitability on Mars with the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbommel, Scott; Gellert, Ralf; Berger, Jeff; Thompson, Lucy; Campbell, John L.; Edgett, Ken; McBride, Marie; Apxs Team; Mahli Team

    The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) is a chemical analysis instrument on board NASA's Mars rovers. Mounted at the end of the rover arm, the APXS conducts high-precision in situ measurements of rocks and regolith, playing a significant role in understanding the surface composition and geochemical processes on Mars. Curium-244 sources provide complementary PIXE and XRF excitation resulting in a slowly varying and high sensitivity across the range of geochemically important elements with the added benefits of low power demand, low mass, and robust durability. We combine oversampled APXS data with pictures from the arm-mounted MAHLI camera to produce a 3D model of the target and deconvolve the sub-cm-scale chemistry of visible endmembers within heterogeneous targets. Quantitative chemistry at these small scales is perfectly tailored for deconvolving chemical differences in the rock record that resulted from aqueous processes, particularly the fluid mobilization of biologically essential elements such as P, S, and Zn. This is critical for understanding the history of ancient Mars and contributes to Curiosity's quest to discover past habitable environments on Mars. This work has been supported by the Canadian Space Agency under contract 9F052-14-0592.

  8. A Miniaturized 0.78-mW/cm2 Autonomous Thermoelectric Energy-Harvesting Platform for Biomedical Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozgic, Dejan; Markovic, Dejan

    2017-08-01

    In order to use thermoelectric energy harvesters (TEHs) as a truly autonomous energy source for size-limited sensing applications, it is essential to improve the power conversion efficiency and energy density. This study presents a thin-film, array-based TEH with a surface area of 0.83 cm 2 . The TEH autonomously supplies a power management IC fabricated in a 65-nm CMOS technology. The IC utilizes a single-inductor topology with integrated analog maximum power point tracking (MPPT), resulting in a 68% peak end-to-end efficiency (92% converter efficiency) and less than 20-ms MPPT. In an in-vivo test, a 645-μW regulated output power (effective 3.5 K of temperature gradient) was harvested from a rat implanted with our TEH, demonstrating true energy independence in a real environment while showing a 7.9 × improvement in regulated power density compared to the state-of-the-art. The system showed autonomous operation down to 65-mV TEH input.

  9. Review of SiCf/SiCm corrosion, erosion and erosion-corrosion in high temperature helium relevant to GFR conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kerr; Shepherd, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The good thermal, mechanical and nuclear properties of silicon carbide composites (SiCf/SiCm) has led to their proposal as a gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) fuel cladding material. Accordingly, previous studies on the corrosion, erosion and erosion-corrosion of SiCf/SiCm have been reviewed. A significant amount of corrosion data was compared for various SiCf/SiCm types tested under different conditions, which suggested that it may be suitable for use in a GFR. However some issues remain, specifically the potential for removal by oxidation of the pyrolytic carbon (PyC) interphase below 900 °C and highly damaging active oxidation at temperatures above 1200 °C. Few relevant papers were found on the erosion and erosion-corrosion behaviour of SiCf/SiCm, though those that were did indicate improved erosion resistance compared to metals. However, most data concerned particulate rather than gas erosion, and at relatively low temperatures. Exacerbation of erosion by corrosion (and vice versa) is hypothesised due to both phenomena potentially causing and being worsened by increased composite porosity. The possibility for this to be further exacerbated mechanically was also identified e.g. by surface damage or by crack formation and growth. The potential impact of irradiation in fast reactor conditions also needs to be better understood. Overall, limited data was found that is representative of anticipated GFR conditions and only in the form of separate effect corrosion tests, thus highlighting the need for erosion and combined effect experiments to progress SiCf/SiCm towards qualification as GFR fuel cladding. Finally, some potential means for improving performance have been identified including environmental adjustment and/or alternative composite design.

  10. 3D quantitative breast ultrasound analysis for differentiating fibroadenomas and carcinomas smaller than 1 cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meel-van den Abeelen, A.S.S.; Weijers, G.; Zelst, J.C.M. van; Thijssen, J.M.; Mann, R.M.; Korte, C.L. de

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In (3D) ultrasound, accurate discrimination of small solid masses is difficult, resulting in a high frequency of biopsies for benign lesions. In this study, we investigate whether 3D quantitative breast ultrasound (3DQBUS) analysis can be used for improving non-invasive discrimination between benign and malignant lesions. Methods and materials: 3D US studies of 112 biopsied solid breast lesions (size <1 cm), were included (34 fibroadenomas and 78 invasive ductal carcinomas). The lesions were manually delineated and, based on sonographic criteria used by radiologists, 3 regions of interest were defined in 3D for analysis: ROI (ellipsoid covering the inside of the lesion), PER (peritumoural surrounding: 0.5 mm around the lesion), and POS (posterior-tumoural acoustic phenomena: region below the lesion with the same size as delineated for the lesion). After automatic gain correction (AGC), the mean and standard deviation of the echo level within the regions were calculated. For the ROI and POS also the residual attenuation coefficient was estimated in decibel per cm [dB/cm]. The resulting eight features were used for classification of the lesions by a logistic regression analysis. The classification accuracy was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to assess the performance of the classification. All lesions were delineated by two readers and results were compared to assess the effect of the manual delineation. Results: The area under the ROC curve was 0.86 for both readers. At 100% sensitivity, a specificity of 26% and 50% was achieved for reader 1 and 2, respectively. Inter-reader variability in lesion delineation was marginal and did not affect the accuracy of the technique. The area under the ROC curve of 0.86 was reached for the second reader when the results of the first reader were used as training set yielding a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 40%. Consequently, 3DQBUS

  11. Determining the Cause for Low Flowrates during Am/Cm Simulant Testing in F-Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    30,000 gallons of Americium/Curium (Am/Cm) slurry was transferred from F-Canyon to Tank 51H over an 18 hour period. This was the first continuous transfer of waste from F-Canyon to a waste tank. Prior to the successful Am/Cm transfer, the facility had experienced difficulties in transferring simulated solutions. A team of personnel from several divisions worked in well-coordinated fashion to determine a cost effective means to identify and mitigate the obstacles to the transfer. The team successfully diagnosed the causes of the problem, replicated the observed behavior in laboratory tests and computer modeling, and recommended controls and changes to facility operations. A successful simulant transfer demonstrated readiness for the Am/Cm transfer. This report summarizes the results of the investigation to determine the cause for the poor flow rate experienced during simulant testing in F-Area. Flow rates as low as 3 gallons per minute (gpm) occurred at the end of the transfer. This report includes an explanation for the low flow rate and recommends controls to prevent the reoccurrence. We recommend the following controls to prevent the reoccurrence of slow flows. 1. Control the temperature of the contents of the simulant and real waste storage tanks near ambient during preparation and storage. Temperature control will minimize the inadvertent evaporation of the slurry and minimize any negative impacts of a high temperature during precipitation and storage of the slurry. 2. Avoid any evolution that can inadvertently concentrate the solutions. Well mixed storage tanks and the proper jet or pump operation are necessary to ensure a uniform slurry transfer and avoid concentrating a heel in Tank 13.3. 3. Minimize the air purge rate in the storage tanks after preparation of the simulant and actual waste. The purge leads to slow evaporation of the slurry as well as addition of carbonates, from carbon dioxide sorption. 4. Replace evaporative losses by adding inhibited water

  12. Simulating land use changes in the Upper Narew catchment using the RegCM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liszewska, Malgorzata; Osuch, Marzena; Romanowicz, Renata

    2010-05-01

    Catchment hydrology is influenced by climate forcing in the form of precipitation, temperature, evapotranspiration and human interactions such as land use and water management practices. The difficulty in separating different causes of change in a hydrological regime results from the complexity of interactions between those three factors and catchment responses and the uncertainty and scarcity of available observations. This paper describes an application of a regional climate model to simulate the variability in precipitation, temperature, evaporation and discharge under different land use parameterizations, using the Upper Narew catchment (north-east Poland) as a case study. We use RegCM3 model, developed at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy. The model's dynamic core is based on the hydrostatic version of the NCAR/PSU Mesoscale Model version 5 (primitive equations, hydrostatic, compressible, sigma-vertical coordinate). The physical input includes radiation transfer, large-scale and convective precipitation, Planetary Boundary Layer, biosphere. The RegCM3 model has options to interface with a variety of re-analyses and GCM boundary conditions, and can thus be used for scenario assessments. The variability of hydrological conditions in response to regional climate model projections is modeled using an integrated Data Based Mechanistic (DBM) rainfall-flow/flow-routing model of the Upper River Narew catchment. The modelling tool developed is formulated in the MATLAB-SIMULINK language. The basic system structure includes rainfall-flow and flow routing modules, based on a Stochastic Transfer Function (STF) approach combined with a nonlinear transformation of rainfall into effective rainfall. We analyse the signal resulting from modified land use in a given region. 10 month-long runs have been performed from February to November for the period of 1991-2000 based on the NCEP re-analyses. The land use data have been taken from the GLCC

  13. 3D quantitative breast ultrasound analysis for differentiating fibroadenomas and carcinomas smaller than 1 cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meel-van den Abeelen, A.S.S., E-mail: aisha.vandenabeelen@radboudumc.nl [Department of Biomechanical Engineering, MIRA-Institute, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Medical UltraSound Imaging Center (MUSIC), department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Weijers, G. [Medical UltraSound Imaging Center (MUSIC), department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Zelst, J.C.M. van [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Thijssen, J.M. [Medical UltraSound Imaging Center (MUSIC), department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Mann, R.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Korte, C.L. de [Medical UltraSound Imaging Center (MUSIC), department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: In (3D) ultrasound, accurate discrimination of small solid masses is difficult, resulting in a high frequency of biopsies for benign lesions. In this study, we investigate whether 3D quantitative breast ultrasound (3DQBUS) analysis can be used for improving non-invasive discrimination between benign and malignant lesions. Methods and materials: 3D US studies of 112 biopsied solid breast lesions (size <1 cm), were included (34 fibroadenomas and 78 invasive ductal carcinomas). The lesions were manually delineated and, based on sonographic criteria used by radiologists, 3 regions of interest were defined in 3D for analysis: ROI (ellipsoid covering the inside of the lesion), PER (peritumoural surrounding: 0.5 mm around the lesion), and POS (posterior-tumoural acoustic phenomena: region below the lesion with the same size as delineated for the lesion). After automatic gain correction (AGC), the mean and standard deviation of the echo level within the regions were calculated. For the ROI and POS also the residual attenuation coefficient was estimated in decibel per cm [dB/cm]. The resulting eight features were used for classification of the lesions by a logistic regression analysis. The classification accuracy was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to assess the performance of the classification. All lesions were delineated by two readers and results were compared to assess the effect of the manual delineation. Results: The area under the ROC curve was 0.86 for both readers. At 100% sensitivity, a specificity of 26% and 50% was achieved for reader 1 and 2, respectively. Inter-reader variability in lesion delineation was marginal and did not affect the accuracy of the technique. The area under the ROC curve of 0.86 was reached for the second reader when the results of the first reader were used as training set yielding a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 40%. Consequently, 3DQBUS

  14. Case study: Development of a swath harvester for small diameter (<10 cm) woody vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P. [Subsecretaria de Agricultura, Santiago del Estero (Argentina); McLauchlan, R.A.; Conkey, A. [Texas A and M University-Kingsville, Texas (United States); Brown, S. [Brown-Bear Corporation, Corning (United States)

    1999-07-01

    A 216 kW biomass harvester, modified from a John Deere silage harvester, was field tested in Texas and New Mexico to examine the productivity and cost of harvesting shrubs and small trees for energy purposes. The harvester was tested on mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa) in Texas and salt cedar (Tamarisk pentandra) and pinyon (Pinus edulis)/juniper (Juniperus monosperma) stands in New Mexico. While the harvester severed and chipped a few individual 20-cm basal diameter trees, the harvester was much more efficient harvesting dense stands of small trees that were less than 10-cm in basal diameter. During the course of these trials, major modifications were made to increase the efficiency of the cutterhead and the materials handling system. After these modifications, when harvesting mesquite stands less than 10-cm in basal diameter, the machine harvested at the rate of 0.95 ha h{sup -1} with a fresh weight harvest production of 7050 kg h{sup -1}. Using $70 h{sup -1} operating cost data for similar commercial equipment, we estimated an energy cost of $1.00 kJ{sup -1} which compares favorably to energy sources such as low sulfur Wyoming coal, natural gas and fuel oil. The swath harvester described here did not bale the chips. However, baling trials with 3 commercial balers found that 2 commercial balers could pick up dense windrows of the chips and make a satisfactory 300 kg square bale and a 595 kg round bale. The large square bale with a density of 319 kg m{sup -3}, provides an opportunity for full load potential of flat bed truck trailers to be realized. As the harvester is built on an agricultural frame, it is not sufficiently robust to operate in a forestry environment. A commercial version will need to be built on a high clearance, heavy duty frame with 4 wheel drive similar to a forestry skidder. Brown Bear Corporation, the company that manufactures the cutterhead, is anxious to build this harvester for a purchase price of about $280,000. We estimate

  15. Effect of Ca{sup 2+} substitution on impedance and electrical conduction mechanism of Ba{sub 1−x}Ca{sub x}Zr{sub 0.1}Ti{sub 0.9}O{sub 3} (0.00≤x≤0.20) ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Tanusree [Functional Ceramics Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (ISM), Dhanbad 826004 (India); Das, Sayantani [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Badapanda, T. [Department of Physics, C.V. Raman College of Engineering, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 7520544 (India); Sinha, T.P. [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, 93/1, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Sarun, P.M., E-mail: sarun.res@gmail.com [Functional Ceramics Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (ISM), Dhanbad 826004 (India)

    2017-03-01

    The Ca modified Ba{sub 1−x}Ca{sub x}Zr{sub 0.1}Ti{sub 0.9}O{sub 3} (BCZT) system for x=0.00–0.20 is synthesized by the high-temperature conventional solid state reaction method. The morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between the tetragonal and cubic structure is obtained at room temperature for the composition x=0.15. The doping of Ca facilitates the enhancement of the homogeneity of microstructure and growth of the grain size. The phase transition is also confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. In order to explore the effect of Ca concentration variation on the conduction mechanism of BaZr{sub 0.1}Ti{sub 0.9}O{sub 3} (BZT) ceramic, the frequency dependent ac impedance spectroscopy technique is used at various temperatures. The effect of Ca doping on the electrical properties of BZT is clearly noticeable. The resistance of the grain (bulk) and the grain boundary is increased as a consequence of the increase in the activation energy of Ca substituted BZT samples. The enhanced resistivity of the Ca substituted BZT ceramics is explained in terms of the decrease in the mobility of the charge carriers associated with the lattice distortion. The electric modulus analysis reveals the enhanced capacitance of BCZT ceramics which is in good agreement with the results obtained from complex impedance analysis.

  16. Integral theorems for functions and differential forms in C(m)

    CERN Document Server

    Rocha-Chavez, Reynaldo; Sommen, Frank

    2001-01-01

    The theory of holomorphic functions of several complex variables emerged from the attempt to generalize the theory in one variable to the multidimensional situation. Research in this area has led to the discovery of many sophisticated facts, structures, ideas, relations, and applications. This deepening of knowledge, however, has also revealed more and more paradoxical differences between the structures of the two theories. The authors of this Research Note were driven by the quest to construct a theory in several complex variables that has the same structure as the one-variable theory. That is, they sought a reproducing kernel for the whole class that is universal and from same class. Integral Theorems for Functions and Differential Forms in Cm documents their success. Their highly original approach allowed them to obtain new results and refine some well-known results from the classical theory of several complex variables. The ''hyperholomorphic" theory they developed proved to be a kind of direct sum of fun...

  17. CIM5 bubbler: Effect of sparge rate and duration on homogeneity to Am/Cm glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    The current flowsheet for the Am/Cm program requires that the glass pool be sparged with argon during the soaking period immediately prior to draining the melter. The effect of varying sparge rate and duration on the homogeneity of the final glass product was evaluated using the full scale 5-inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM5) pilot facility. The tests showed that the homogeneity of the glass product is maintained provided the sparge rate is at least 1.5 scfh and the sparge duration is at least 45 minutes or the flowrate is at least 1.0 scfh and the sparge duration is 60 minutes. SRTC recommends that the melt pool be sparged for 75 minutes with an argon flowrate of 1.5 scfh and a sparge dip tube located 1-inch from the melter bottom. In addition, pour flowrate was found to be a reliable indication of glass homogeneity

  18. Development of 50 cm B-N Schmidt telescope at ARIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, K. G.; Bangia, T.; Kumar, T. S.; Snehlata; Sharma, N.; Shukla, V.

    A 50/80 cm wide field (4 degree) Baker-Nunn Schmidt telescope with 4k CCD (9 micron pixel) is under development at ARIES for studying optical transients, near-earth objects (up to 20 magnitude) and supplementing ASTROSAT objectives. As a modification of original optical design, a field corrector system consisting of a 235 mm meniscus and a 55 mm field - flattener (near focus) have to be incorporated. Detailed mechanical design has been completed with an equatorial English mount and a passive support system for 796 mm primary mirror with 18 axial and 12 radial supports. Original B-N corrector cell assembly will be used with modifications. The electronics will consist of torque dc motors, absolute and incremental encoders for position and velocity feedback. Matlab will be used for modeling before designing complete electronic feedback control system. The telescope is expected to see first light in March 2008.

  19. Measuring fast electron distribution functions at intensities up to 10 21 W cm -2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, N.; Clarke, R. J.; Doria, D.; Gizzi, L. A.; Gregori, G.; Hakel, P.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Levato, T.; Li, B.; Makita, M.; Mancini, R. C.; Pasley, J.; Rajeev, P. P.; Riley, D.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Wagenaars, E.; Waugh, J. N.; Woolsey, N. C.

    2011-10-01

    Here we present results from ultra-intense experiments demonstrating the viability of polarization spectroscopy as a diagnostic of the electron return current and spatial anisotropy and distribution function of the fast electron beam. The measurements extend to ultra-relativistic intensities of 10 21 W cm -2, including laser-plasma interaction regimes important for fast ignition studies, for example HiPER, and the development of secondary sources from next generation ultra-short pulse, ultra-intense laser facilities such as Astra-Gemini and ELI. As an in situ diagnostic, spectroscopic measurements are vital to understanding fast electron beams, enabling extrapolation of results to define fast ignition inertial confinement fusion and secondary source facilities.

  20. ROV seafloor surveys combining 5-cm lateral resolution multibeam bathymetry with color stereo photographic imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, D. W.; Hobson, B.; Thomas, H. J.; Henthorn, R.; Martin, E. J.; Bird, L.; Rock, S. M.; Risi, M.; Padial, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute is developing a low altitude, high-resolution seafloor mapping capability that combines multibeam sonar with stereo photographic imagery. The goal is to obtain spatially quantitative, repeatable renderings of the seafloor with fidelity at scales of 5 cm or better from altitudes of 2-3 m. The initial test surveys using this sensor system are being conducted from a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Ultimately we intend to field this survey system from an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). This presentation focuses on the current sensor configuration, methods for data processing, and results from recent test surveys. Bathymetry data are collected using a 400-kHz Reson 7125 multibeam sonar. This configuration produces 512 beams across a 135° wide swath; each beam has a 0.5° acrosstrack by 1.0° alongtrack angular width. At a 2-m altitude, the nadir beams have a 1.7-cm acrosstrack and 3.5 cm alongtrack footprint. Dual Allied Vision Technology GX1920 2.8 Mpixel color cameras provide color stereo photography of the seafloor. The camera housings have been fitted with corrective optics achieving a 90° field of view through a dome port. Illumination is provided by dual 100J xenon strobes. Position, depth, and attitude data are provided by a Kearfott SeaDevil Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated with a 300 kHz RDI Doppler velocity log (DVL). A separate Paroscientific pressure sensor is mounted adjacent to the INS. The INS Kalman filter is aided by the DVL velocity and pressure data, achieving navigational drift rates less than 0.05% of the distance traveled during surveys. The sensors are mounted onto a toolsled fitted below MBARI's ROV Doc Ricketts with the sonars, cameras and strobes all pointed vertically down. During surveys the ROV flies at a 2-m altitude at speeds of 0.1-0.2 m/s. During a four-day R/V Western Flyer cruise in June 2013, we successfully collected multibeam and camera survey data from a 2-m altitude

  1. Analysis of the primary experimental results on a 5 cm diameter ECR ion thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yujun; Sun, Xinfeng; Chen, Xuekang; Tian, Licheng; Zhang, Tianping; Zheng, Maofan; Jia, Yanhui; Jiang, Haocheng

    2017-09-01

    An ECR ion thruster with a diameter of 5 cm has been developed and tested. Four different antenna positions were experimentally and numerically investigated, and the results suggest that the optimal location for the antenna is where it is perfectly surrounded by the electron cyclotron resonance layer. We also evaluated two different antenna configurations, and found that the star configuration is preferable to the circular configuration, and also that the circular antenna is only 40% as efficient as the star antenna. The experimental curve of the ion beam current and voltage agrees with the fitting results from the analytic solution. The simulation of the magnetic topology in the discharging chamber with different back yoke heights indicates that it needs to be further verified.

  2. The decay of a lambda particle in the 32 cm hydrogen bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    This image from 1960 is of real particle tracks formed in CERN's first liquid hydrogen bubble chamber to be used in experiments. It was a tiny detector by today's standards at only 32 cm in diameter. Negatively charged pions with an energy of 16 GeV enter from the left. One of them interacts with a proton in the liquid hydrogen and creates sprays of new particles, including a neutral particle (a lambda) that decays to produce the "V" of two charged particle tracks at the centre. Lower-energy charged particles produced in the interactions spiral in the magnetic field of the chamber. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real particle tracks to be seen and photographed, after releasing the pressure that had kept a liquid above its normal boiling point.

  3. VLA observations of the 6-cm H2CO absorption towards Sgr A West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteoak, J.B.; Gardner, F.F.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of the 6-cm H 2 CO absorption across Sgr A has been measured with a beam of 3.6 x 3.5 arcsec 2 . Velocities in the range - 9 to + 88 km s - 1 were covered with a resolution of 3.1 km s - 1 and absorption was detected only near +40 and O km s - 1 . The former occurred against the extended continuum emission of Sgr A West with an optical depth of approximately 0.1, but not against the intense unresolved source thought to be associated with the nucleus of our Galaxy. There are difficulties with the simplest interpretation, in which the molecular cloud is behind the point source. All of the zero-velocity absorption takes place well in front of Sgr A, except at +3 km s - 1 where some of the absorption may occur near the Galactic Centre. (author)

  4. 8-cm Engineering Model Thruster technology - A review of recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, W. S.; Dulgeroff, C. R.; Williams, R. L.; Bayless, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Recent testing of the NASA Lewis Research Center/Hughes 8-cm Engineering Model Thruster (EMT) and Power Processing Unit has centered on two primary areas of investigation: integration of porous-tungsten dispenser-type cathode inserts into the thruster (replacing previous inserts of rolled-tantalum-foil design) and characterization of thruster operation with the new inserts. Characterization testing of the EMT and of the new cathodes has demonstrated acceptable thruster performance and cathode ignition parameters; the only perceived change in thuster performance has been that a small amount of cathode heater power is required to maintain nominal keeper voltages. Thermal modeling of the cathode structures has facilitated design revisions which reduce this power requirement.

  5. Analysis and Comparison of 24 GHz cmWave Radio Propagation in Urban and Suburban Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Ignacio; Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika; Abreu, Renato

    2016-01-01

    path loss analysis. The paper also highlights the potential of using beam combining techniques in order to improve cell-edge coverage by 17% and 37% in the urban and suburban scenarios, respectively. Outdoor-to-indoor propagation was also investigated, finding an average penetration loss of 6.5 d......This paper presents a measurement-based comparison of cm-wave propagation in urban and suburban scenarios at 24 GHz with transmitter antennas located above rooftop level. Different sets of directional measurements, exploring the full azimuth and the range from -30 to +30 degrees in elevation, were...... as compared to the urban case. Increased spatial multipath, in average 1.23 times higher, is observed in the suburban scenario, mainly due to the strong presence of vegetation. This results in reduced suburban NLOS path loss exponents (3.4) in comparison to the urban scenario (3.7), as detailed in the outdoor...

  6. Liquid hydrogen bubble chamber (diam. 30 cm), seen here being inserted into its vacuum tank

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1959-01-01

    In the 1950s and 1960s, bubble and spark chambers were the dominant experimental tools in high-energy physics. While spark chambers were usually built and fitted to specific experiments, bubble chambers were constructed as general purpose devices that could be used for a variety of experiments. At CERN, the bubble chamber programme started under Charles Peyrou in the late 1950s. The first of CERN's bubble chambers, a 30 cm hydrogen chamber, is seen here being inserted into its vacuum tank. The HBC30, as it was called, took its first beam from the SC in 1959. One of the first pictures taken, of a positive pion-proton interaction, began a long series of pretty images for which bubble chambers would become famous. When it stopped operating in spring 1962, the HBC30 had consumed 150 km of film in its 3 years of operation.

  7. Electrical Prototype Power Processor for the 30-cm Mercury electric propulsion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biess, J. J.; Frye, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    An Electrical Prototpye Power Processor has been designed to the latest electrical and performance requirements for a flight-type 30-cm ion engine and includes all the necessary power, command, telemetry and control interfaces for a typical electric propulsion subsystem. The power processor was configured into seven separate mechanical modules that would allow subassembly fabrication, test and integration into a complete power processor unit assembly. The conceptual mechanical packaging of the electrical prototype power processor unit demonstrated the relative location of power, high voltage and control electronic components to minimize electrical interactions and to provide adequate thermal control in a vacuum environment. Thermal control was accomplished with a heat pipe simulator attached to the base of the modules.

  8. Saturns Thermal Emission at 2.2-cm Wavelength as Imaged by the Cassini RADAR Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, M. A.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Allison, M. D.; Gulkis, S.; Laraia, A. L.; Baines, K. H.; Edgington, S. G.; Anderson, Y. Z.; Kelleher, K.; Oyafuso, F. A.

    2013-01-01

    We present well-calibrated, high-resolution maps of Saturn's thermal emission at 2.2-cm wavelength obtained by the Cassini RADAR radiometer through the Prime and Equinox Cassini missions, a period covering approximately 6 years. The absolute brightness temperature calibration of 2% achieved is more than twice better than for all previous microwave observations reported for Saturn, and the spatial resolution and sensitivity achieved each represent nearly an order of magnitude improvement. The brightness temperature of Saturn in the microwave region depends on the distribution of ammonia, which our radiative transfer modeling shows is the only significant source of absorption in Saturn's atmosphere at 2.2-cm wavelength. At this wavelength the thermal emission comes from just below and within the ammonia cloud-forming region, and yields information about atmospheric circulations and ammonia cloud-forming processes. The maps are presented as residuals compared to a fully saturated model atmosphere in hydrostatic equilibrium. Bright regions in these maps are readily interpreted as due to depletion of ammonia vapor in, and, for very bright regions, below the ammonia saturation region. Features seen include the following: a narrow equatorial band near full saturation surrounded by bands out to about 10deg planetographic latitude that demonstrate highly variable ammonia depletion in longitude; narrow bands of depletion at -35deg latitude; occasional large oval features with depleted ammonia around -45deg latitude; and the 2010-2011 storm, with extensive saturated and depleted areas as it stretched halfway around the planet in the northern hemisphere. Comparison of the maps over time indicates a high degree of stability outside a few latitudes that contain active regions.

  9. Intrarenal Surgery vs Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in the Management of Lower Pole Stones Greater than 2 cm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyuncu, Hakan; Yencilek, Faruk; Kalkan, Mehmet; Bastug, Yavuz; Yencilek, Esin; Ozdemir, Ahmet Tunc

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of RIRS and PNL in lower pole stones ≥ 2 cm. Materials and and Methods: A total of 109 patients who underwent PNL or RIRS for solitary lower pole stone between April 2009 and December 2012, were retrospectively analyzed. Lower pole stone was diagnosed with CT scan. Stone size was assessed as the longest axis of the stone. All patients were informed about the advantages, disadvantages and probable complications of both PNL and RIRS before the selection of the procedure. Patients decided the surgery type by themselves without being under any influences and written informed consent was obtained from all patients prior to the surgery. Patients were divided into two groups according to the patients' preference of surgery type. Group 1 consisted of 77 patients who underwent PNL and Group 2 consisted of 32 patients treated with RIRS. Stone free statuses, postoperative complications, operative time and hospitalization time were compared in both groups. There was no statistical significance between the two groups in mean age, stone size, stone laterality, mean follow-up periods and mean operative times. In PNL group, stone-free rate was 96.1% at first session and 100% after the additional procedure. In Group 2, stone-free rate was 90.6% at the first procedure and 100% after the additional procedure. The final stone-free rates and operative times were similar in both groups. RIRS should be an effective treatment alternative to PNL in lower pole stones larger than 2 cm, especially in selected patients.

  10. Retrospective Analysis of 255 Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas ≤2 cm: Clinicohistological Features and Prognostic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Pedro; Leite, Valeriano; Bugalho, Maria João

    2014-01-01

    Background Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common thyroid cancer. The widespread use of neck ultrasound (US) and US-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology is triggering an overdiagnosis of PTC. Objective To evaluate clinical behavior and outcomes of patients with PTCs ≤2 cm, seeking for possible prognostic factors. Methods Clinical records of cases with histological diagnosis of PTC ≤2 cm followed at the Endocrine Department of Instituto Português de Oncologia, Lisbon between 2002 and 2006 were analyzed retrospectively. Results We identified 255 PTCs, 111 were microcarcinomas. Most patients underwent near-total thyroidectomy, with lymph node dissections in 55 cases (21.6%). Radioiodine therapy was administered in 184 patients. At the last evaluation, 38 (14.9%) had evidence of disease. Two deaths were attributed to PTC. Median (±SD) follow-up was 74 (±23) months. Multivariate analysis identified vascular invasion, lymph node and systemic metastases significantly associated with recurrence/persistence of disease. In addition, lymph node involvement was significantly associated with extrathyroidal extension and angioinvasion. Median (±SD) disease-free survival (DFS) was estimated as 106 (±3) months and the 5-year DFS rate was 87.5%. Univariate Cox analysis identified some relevant parameters for DFS, but multivariate regression only identified lymph node and systemic metastases as significant independent factors. The median DFS estimated for lymph node and systemic metastases was 75 and 0 months, respectively. Conclusions In the setting of small PTCs, vascular invasion, extrathyroidal extension and lymph node and/or systemic metastases may confer worse prognosis, perhaps justifying more aggressive therapeutic and follow-up approaches in such cases. PMID:25759803

  11. Study of a filament with a circularly polarized beam at 3.8 cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straka, R.M.; Papagiannis, M.D.; Kogut, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Extensive observations of left and right circularly polarized emission were carried out with the 120 ft Haystack antenna, which at 3.8 cm has a HPBW of 4.4 minutes of arc. During a very quite period, September 22-26, 1974, two regions were observed in the southern hemisphere of the sun with brightness temperatures approximately 10% below the surrounding solar disk temperature. Hα photographs show that the main region was associated with a long filament. The separation between the center of the radio depression and the filament increased as the filament advanced toward the limb, with the depression finally disappearing when the filament was at a radial distance >0.8 R(Sun) from the center of the solar disk. These observations are in agreement with a filament model consisting of a thin, tall and exceedingly long sheet of enhanced density encaged in a large and equally long tunnel-like cavity of lower density. The electron density at the 3.8 cm emission level which occurs immediately below the transition zone was estimated to be lower inside the cavity than outside by a factor of 2. The origin of the other depression remains unclear because no relation to any Hα or magnetic feature could be found. A possible association with a coronal hole could not be established because no pertinent EUV or X-ray data were available. It would be of interest to investigate in future observations if a secondary depression is normally associated with the primary depression region over a long filament. (Auth.)

  12. Intrarenal Surgery vs Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in the Management of Lower Pole Stones Greater than 2 cm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Koyuncu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To compare the efficacy of RIRS and PNL in lower pole stones ≥2 cm. Materials and and Methods: A total of 109 patients who underwent PNL or RIRS for solitary lower pole stone between April 2009 and December 2012, were retrospectively analyzed. Lower pole stone was diagnosed with CT scan. Stone size was assessed as the longest axis of the stone. All patients were informed about the advantages, disadvantages and probable complications of both PNL and RIRS before the selection of the procedure. Patients decided the surgery type by themselves without being under any influences and written informed consent was obtained from all patients prior to the surgery. Patients were divided into two groups according to the patients’ preference of surgery type. Group 1 consisted of 77 patients who underwent PNL and Group 2 consisted of 32 patients treated with RIRS. Stone free statuses, postoperative complications, operative time and hospitalization time were compared in both groups. Results There was no statistical significance between the two groups in mean age, stone size, stone laterality, mean follow-up periods and mean operative times. In PNL group, stone-free rate was 96.1% at first session and 100% after the additional procedure. In Group 2, stone-free rate was 90.6% at the first procedure and 100% after the additional procedure. The final stone-free rates and operative times were similar in both groups. Conclusions RIRS should be an effective treatment alternative to PNL in lower pole stones larger than 2 cm, especially in selected patients.

  13. Retrograde intrarenal surgery and micro-percutaneous nephrolithotomy for renal lithiasis smaller than 2 CM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, M; Amón, J H; Mainez, J A; de la Cruz, B; Rodríguez, V; Alonso, D; Martínez-Sagarra, J M

    2017-10-01

    Microperc is the upgraded form of percutaneous nephrolithotomy miniaturization. The aim of this study is to compare prospectively microperc and retrograde intrarenal surgery for the treatment of renal stones smaller than 2 cm. A comparative prospective study of both techniques was carried out between January 2014 and June 2015. Thirty-five patients were divided in two groups: Group A, 17 patients treated by retrograde intrarenal surgery and Group B, 18 patients treated by microperc. Stone clearance was assessed using CT scan 3 months after surgery. Both groups were statistically comparable as demographic variables and stone size was similar (16.76 mm Group A vs 15.72 mm Group B). Success rate, hospital stay and JJ stenting were similar for both groups. There was no statistically significant difference regarding post-operatory complications: 17.64% Group A vs 5.56% Group B (p=0,062), all of them Clavien I and II. Surgical time was statistically different (63.82 min Group A vs 103.24 min Group B) as well as hemoglobin drop (0.62 g/dl Group A and 1.89 g/dl Group B). Microperc is an effective and safe procedure for the treatment of renal lithiasis smaller than 2 cm, which makes it a good alternative to retrograde intrarenal surgery for this stone size. However, more prospective studies that include a larger cohort are necessary to confirm our results. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. A Validation Method of ESA's MASTER 1 cm Population in Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, A.; Stoll, E.; Krag, H.

    This paper explains the validation phase within ESA's Meteoroid And Space Debris Terrestrial Environment Reference (MASTER) model for the large object population in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) (diameter less than 1 cm). It answers three questions: 1) How is the MASTER population calibrated against observation results 2) Do recent fragmentation events affect the validation phase and 3) Does the space debris model represent reality suffciently? Since all on-orbit fragments are modeled event-based, one of the main calibration parameters for each fragmentation is the number of objects that are tracked by the Space Surveillance Network (SSN). However, to further calibrate the LEO population, radar surveys such as the Tracking and Imaging Radar (TIRA) Beam park experiments (Fraunhofer Institute/FHR, Germany) and European Incoherent SCATter Radar systems (EISCAT) observations (three radar systems in northern Scandinavia) are performed within dedicated observation campaigns. These space debris observation campaigns can detect objects in LEO down to 1 cm in diameter. For the validation, the observation campaigns are simulated with the Program for Radar and Optical Observation Forecasting (PROOF-2009) using the MASTER population. The results are compared against those from the observation campaigns. One important aspect during the validation is that observation campaigns can be susceptible to recent fragmentation events due to the sensors' detection sensitivity. This is shown by comparing radar observations, which were performed shortly after a fragmentation event, and a state-of-the-art MASTER population snapshot at the same epoch. Evaluations are based on the Fengyun-1C fragmentation event and the contemporary radar observations.

  15. Pediatric retrograde intra-renal surgery for renal stones <2 cm in solitary kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal, Wael Mohamed; Hussein, Mohamed M; Rashed, El Nisr; Mohamed, Al-Dahshoury; Mmdouh, Ahmed; Fawzy, Farag

    2016-01-01

    Management of renal stones in children with a solitary kidney is a challenge. In the current study, the efficacy and safety of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) in these children were determined. Records of children with renal stones who were treated at our institute between August 2011 and August 2014 were retrospectively assessed. Inclusion criteria were: Children with single renal stone <2 cm size, in a solitary kidney. A 7.5 Fr flexible ureteroscope (FURS) was introduced into the ureter over a hydrophilic guidewire under visual and fluoroscopic guidance - applying a back-loading technique. The stone was completely dusted using 200 μm laser fiber (0.2-0.8 joules power and 10-30 Hz frequency). At the end of the maneuver, a 5 Fr JJ stent was inserted into the ureter. The children were discharged home 24 h postoperative - provided that no complications were detected. Fourteen children (3 girls and 11 boys) with median age 9.5 years (range 6-12) were included. The mean stone burden was 12.2 ± 1.5 mm (range 9-20). Stones were successfully accessed in all of the cases by the FURS except for 2 cases in whom a JJ stent was inserted into the ureter and left in place for 2 weeks to achieve passive dilatation. All of the stones were dusted completely. The immediate postoperative stone-free rate (SFR) was 79%, and the final SFR was 100% after 3 weeks. No intraoperative complications were observed. RIRS for renal stone <2 cm in children with a solitary kidney is a single-session procedure with a high SFR, low complication rate, and is a minimally invasive, natural orifice technique.

  16. Constraining foreground spectrum with the projection-induced polarization for the cosmological global 21-cm experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhan, Bang D.; Bradley, Richard F.; Burns, Professor O.

    2018-01-01

    Detecting the cosmological global (sky-averaged) 21-cm spectrum as a function of observed frequency will provide a powerful tool to study the thermal history of intergalactic medium (IGM) in the high-redshift Universe (~ 400 million years after the Big Bang). The biggest challenge in conventional ground-based total-power global 21-cm experiments is the removal of the Galactic and extragalactic synchrotron foreground (~ 1e4-1e5 K) to uncover the weak cosmological signal (~ 10-100 mK). The foreground is further corrupted by the frequency-dependent instrumental systematics. We have developed a new polarimetry-based observational approach that aims to measure the foreground emission by modulating it as a function of time through its circumpolar motion. Due to geometry, the projection of the anisotropic foreground sources onto the dual-polarized antenna induces a net foreground polarization, which is distinct from the much weaker intrinsic polarization of synchrotron sources. Instead of pointing the radio antenna at the zenith as in the conventional experiments, we point the antenna at the North Celestial Pole (NCP) and measure the projection-induced polarization modulated by the foreground's circumpolar diurnal periodicity. This temporal signature allows us to separate the dynamic foreground spectrum from the static cosmological background. In this presentation, we describe the design, construction, and initial results from the "Cosmic Twilight Polarimeter'' (CTP) as a proof-of-concept implementation of this technique. The instrument consists of a dual-polarized broadband antenna (60-120 MHz) with a two-stage thermally stabilized front-end electronics, tilted toward the NCP. The instrument is currently being evaluated at a site near Charlottesville, VA. Ultimately, the instrument will be relocated to an RFI-quiet site closer to the Geographic North Pole (GNP) to mitigate sky obstruction due to the horizon at a lower latitude.

  17. 21SSD: a public data base of simulated 21-cm signals from the epoch of reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semelin, B.; Eames, E.; Bolgar, F.; Caillat, M.

    2017-12-01

    The 21-cm signal from the epoch of reionization (EoR) is expected to be detected in the next few years, either with existing instruments or by the upcoming SKA and HERA projects. In this context, there is a pressing need for publicly available high-quality templates covering a wide range of possible signals. These are needed both for end-to-end simulations of the up-coming instruments and to develop signal analysis methods. We present such a set of templates, publicly available, for download at 21ssd.obspm.fr. The data base contains 21-cm brightness temperature lightcones at high and low resolution, and several derived statistical quantities for 45 models spanning our choice of 3D parameter space. These data are the result of fully coupled radiative hydrodynamic high-resolution (10243) simulations performed with the LICORICE code. Both X-ray and Lyman line transfer are performed to account for heating and Wouthuysen-Field coupling fluctuations. We also present a first exploitation of the data using the power spectrum and the pixel distribution function (PDF) computed from lightcone data. We analyse how these two quantities behave when varying the model parameters while taking into account the thermal noise expected of a typical SKA survey. Finally, we show that the noiseless power spectrum and PDF have different - and somewhat complementary - abilities to distinguish between different models. This preliminary result will have to be expanded to the case including thermal noise. This type of results opens the door to formulating an optimal sampling of the parameter space, dependent on the chosen diagnostics.

  18. CT fluoroscopy guided transpleural cutting needle biopsy of small ({<=}2.5 cm) subpleural pulmonary nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosch, Helmut; Oschatz, Elisabeth; Eisenhuber, Edith; Wohlschlager, Helmut [Otto Wagner Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sanatoriumsstrasse 2, 1140 Vienna (Austria); Mostbeck, Gerhard H., E-mail: gerhard.mostbeck@wienkav.at [Otto Wagner Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sanatoriumsstrasse 2, 1140 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: Small subpleural pulmonary lesions are difficult to biopsy. While the direct, short needle path has been reported to have a lower rate of pneumothorax, the indirect path provides a higher diagnostic yield. Therefore, we tried to optimize the needle pathway and minimize the iatrogenic pneumothorax risk by evaluating a CT fluoroscopy guided direct approach to biopsy subpleural lesions. Material and methods: Between 01/2005 and 01/2007, CT fluoroscopy guided core biopsies were performed in 24 patients. Using our technique, the tip of the guide needle remains outside the visceral pleura (17 G coaxial guide needle, 18 G Biopsy-gun, 15 or 22 mm needle path). The position of the lesion relative to the needle tip can be optimized using CT fluoroscopy by adjusting the breathing position of the patient. The Biopty gun is fired with the needle tip still outside the pleural space. Cytological smears are analyzed by a cytopathologist on-site, and biopsies are repeated as indicated with the coaxial needle still outside the pleura. Results: Median nodule size was 1.6 cm (0.7-2.3 cm). A definitive diagnosis was obtained in 22 patients by histology and/or cytology. In one patient, only necrotic material could be obtained. In another patient, the intervention had to be aborted as the dyspnoic patient could not follow breathing instructions. An asymptomatic pneumothorax was present in seven patients; chest tube placement was not required. Conclusion: The presented biopsy approach has a high diagnostic yield and is especially advantageous for biopsies of small subpleural lesions in the lower lobes.

  19. A systematic study of actinide production from the interactions of heavy ions with sup 248 Cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyba, J.D.

    1990-09-07

    Production cross sections for heavy actinides produced from the interactions of {sup 12}C, {sup 31}P, {sup 40}Ar, and {sup 44}Ca ions with {sup 248}Cm were measured at energies ranging from 0.98 to 1.35 X Coulomb barrier. The recoiling reaction products were collected in copper or gold catcher foils located near the {sup 248}Cm target. Separate fractions of Bk, Cf, Es, Fm, and Md were obtained from a radiochemical separation procedure. For the {sup 12}C system, a He/KCl jet was used to transport the recoiling No activities of interest to a rotating wheel system. The isotopic distributions of the actinide products were found to be essentially symmetric about the maximum with full-widths-at-half-maximum of approximately 2.5 mass units. Isotopic distributions of the {sup 12}C, {sup 31}P, {sup 40}Ar, and {sup 44}Ca systems were found to be very similar to the {sup 40,48}Ca systems studied previously. The maxima of the isotopic distributions generally occurred for those reaction channels which involved the exchange of the fewest number of nucleons between the target and projectile for which the calculated excitation energy was a positive quantity. Additionally, the maxima of the excitation functions occurred at those projectile energies which were consistent with the calculated reaction barriers based upon a binary reaction mechanism. The experimental data from the four systems investigated were compared to several models of heavy ion interactions including a damped reaction mechanism, compound nucleus formation and subsequent particle evaporation, and classical partial wave calculations for binary systems.

  20. White noise from dark matter: 21 cm observations of early baryon collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurek, Kathryn M.; Hogan, Craig J.

    2007-01-01

    In concordance cosmology, dark matter density perturbations generated by inflation lead to nonlinear, virialized minihalos, into which baryons collapse at redshift z∼20. We survey here novel baryon evolution produced by a modification of the power spectrum from white noise density perturbations at scales below k∼10h Mpc -1 (the smallest scales currently measured with the Lyman-α forest). Exotic dark matter dynamics, such as would arise from scalar dark matter with a late phase transition (similar to an axion, but with lower mass), or primordial black hole dark matter, create such an amplification of small scale power. The dark matter produced in such a phase transition collapses into minihalos, with a size given by the dark matter mass within the horizon at the phase transition. If the mass of the initial minihalos is larger than ∼10 -3 M · , the modified power spectrum is found to cause widespread baryon collapse earlier than standard ΛCDM, leading to earlier gas heating. It also results in higher spin temperature of the baryons in the 21 cm line relative to ΛCDM at redshifts z>20 if the mass of the minihalo is larger than 1M · . It is estimated that experiments probing 21 cm radiation at high redshift will contribute a significant constraint on dark matter models of this type for initial minihalos larger than ∼10M · . These experiments may also detect (or rule out) primordial black holes as the dark matter in the window 30M · H 3 M · still left open by strong microlensing experiments and other astrophysical constraints. Early experiments reaching to z≅15 will constrain minihalos down to ∼10 3 M ·

  1. Variability of Surface Reflection Amplitudes of GPR Horn Antenna Depending on Distance between Antenna and Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komačka Jozef

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on variability of surface reflections amplitudes of GPR horn antenna in relation to distance between an antenna and a surface is presented in the paper. The air-coupled antenna with the central frequency of 1 GHz was used in the investigation. Four types of surfaces (dry pavement, wet pavement, metal plate and composite layer from gypsum and wood were tested. The distance of antenna above the surfaces was changed in the range from 37.5 cm to 53.5 cm. The amplitudes of negative and positive peaks and their variability were analysed in relation to the distance of antenna above the surfaces. Moreover, the influence of changes in the peaks of negative and positive amplitudes on the total amplitudes was assessed. It was found out the amplitudes of negative peaks for all investigated surfaces were relatively consistent in the range from 40.5 cm to 48.5 cm and the moderate decline was identified in the case of amplitudes of positive peaks in the range of distances from 37.5 cm to 51.5 cm. This decline influences the tendency of total amplitudes. Based on the results of analysis it can be stated the distance of air-coupled antenna above the surface can influence the value of total amplitude and the differences depend on the type of surface.

  2. Uptake Of Trivalent Actinides (Cm(III)) And Lanthanides (Eu(III)) By Cement-Type Minerals: A Wet Chemistry And Time-Resolved Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS) Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tits, J.; Stumpf, T; Wieland, E.; Fanghaenel, T

    2003-03-01

    The interaction of the two chemical homologues Cm (III) and Eu(III) with calcium silicate hydrates at pH 13.3 has been investigated in batch-type sorption studies using Eu(III), and complemented with time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy using Cm(III). The sorption data for Eu(III) reveal fast sorption kinetics, and a strong uptake by CSH phases, with distribution ratios of 6({+-}3)*105 L kg-1. Three different types of sorbed Cm(III) species have been identified: a non-fluorescing species, which was identified as Cm cluster present either as surface precipitate or as Cm(III) colloid in solution, and two sorbed fluorescing species. The sorbed fluorescing species have characteristic emission spectra (main peak maxima at 618.9 nm and 620.9 nm) and fluorescence emission lifetimes (289 {+-} 11 ms and 1482{+-} 200 ms). From the fluorescence lifetimes, it appears that the two fluorescing Cm(III) species have, respectively, one to two or no water molecules left in their first coordination sphere, suggesting that these species are incorporated into the CSH structure. A structural model for Cm(III) and Eu(III) incorporation into CSH phases is proposed based on the substitution of Ca at two different types of sites in the CSH structure. (author)

  3. Large magnetocaloric effect in lanthanum-deficiency manganites La{sub 0.8−x}□{sub x}Ca{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} (0.00≤x≤0.20) with a first-order magnetic phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skini, R.; Omri, A. [Laboratoire de Physique Appliquée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, B.P. 802, Sfax 3018 (Tunisia); Khlifi, M., E-mail: khlifimouadh3000@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Appliquée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, B.P. 802, Sfax 3018 (Tunisia); Dhahri, E. [Laboratoire de Physique Appliquée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, B.P. 802, Sfax 3018 (Tunisia); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042, Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2014-09-01

    Lanthanum-deficiency effect on the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of La{sub 0.8−x}□{sub x}Ca{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} (0.00≤x≤0.20) polycrystalline samples has been investigated using X-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. The structural characterization has revealed that all samples are crystallized in the orthorhombic structure with Pnma space group. From magnetic measurement a first-order magnetic phase transition from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic state is observed at the Curie temperature (T{sub C}) which is found to increase from 236.5 to 247 K when lanthanum-deficiency rate increases. Besides, both magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and relative cooling power (RCP) has been estimated. As important result, the values of MCE and RCP in our managanite with Lanthanum-deficiency are reported to be near to those found in the gadolinium considered as magnetocaloric material reference. Finally, the first-order magnetic phase transition has been confirmed by the construction of the universal curve of the magnetic entropy change. - Highlights: • La{sub 0.8−x}□{sub x}Ca{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} compounds crystallize in a Pnma orthorhombic symmetry. • All La{sub 0.8−x}□{sub x}Ca{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} compounds present large magnetic entropy change. • Our compounds can be considered as a good candidate for the magnetic refrigeration. • First-order phase transition is confirmed by the universal ΔS{sub M}(θ) curve.

  4. Lage-area planar RF plasma productions by surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, S.

    1994-01-01

    Large-area rf plasmas are confirmed to be produced by means of RF discharges inside a large-area dielectric tube. The plasma space is 73 cm x 176 cm and 2.5 cm. The plasma is thought to be produced by an odd plasma-surface wave (PSW ο ) in case of using large-area electrodes and by an even plasma-surface wave (PSW ο ) in case of without the electrodes. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs

  5. Development of telescope control system for the 50cm telescope of UC Observatory Santa Martina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Soto, Ruben; Reveco, Johnny; Vanzi, Leonardo; Fernández, Jose M.; Escarate, Pedro; Suc, Vincent

    2012-09-01

    The main telescope of the UC Observatory Santa Martina is a 50cm optical telescope donated by ESO to Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile. During the past years the telescope has been refurbished and used as the main facility for testing and validating new instruments under construction by the center of Astro-Engineering UC. As part of this work, the need to develop a more efficient and flexible control system arises. The new distributed control system has been developed on top of Internet Communication Engine (ICE), a framework developed by Zeroc Inc. This framework features a lightweight but powerful and flexible inter-process communication infrastructure and provides binding to classic and modern programming languages, such as, C/C++, java, c#, ruby-rail, objective c, etc. The result of this work shows ICE as a real alternative for CORBA and other de-facto distribute programming framework. Classical control software architecture has been chosen and comprises an observation control system (OCS), the orchestrator of the observation, which controls the telescope control system (TCS), and detector control system (DCS). The real-time control and monitoring system is deployed and running over ARM based single board computers. Other features such as logging and configuration services have been developed as well. Inter-operation with other main astronomical control frameworks are foreseen in order achieve a smooth integration of instruments when they will be integrated in the main observatories in the north of Chile

  6. Model-independent curvature determination with 21cm intensity mapping experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzemann, Amadeus; Bull, Philip; Clarkson, Chris; Santos, Mario G.; Spinelli, Marta; Weltman, Amanda

    2018-04-01

    Measurements of the spatial curvature of the Universe have improved significantly in recent years, but still tend to require strong assumptions to be made about the equation of state of dark energy (DE) in order to reach sub-percent precision. When these assumptions are relaxed, strong degeneracies arise that make it hard to disentangle DE and curvature, degrading the constraints. We show that forthcoming 21cm intensity mapping experiments such as HIRAX are ideally designed to carry out model-independent curvature measurements, as they can measure the clustering signal at high redshift with sufficient precision to break many of the degeneracies. We consider two different model-independent methods, based on `avoiding' the DE-dominated regime and non-parametric modelling of the DE equation of state respectively. Our forecasts show that HIRAX will be able to improve upon current model-independent constraints by around an order of magnitude, reaching percent-level accuracy even when an arbitrary DE equation of state is assumed. In the same model-independent analysis, the sample variance limit for a similar survey is another order of magnitude better.

  7. Mass Transfer Testing of a 12.5-cm Rotor Centrifugal Contactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. H. Meikrantz; T. G. Garn; J. D. Law; N. R. Mann; T. A. Todd

    2008-09-01

    TRUEX mass transfer tests were performed using a single stage commercially available 12.5 cm centrifugal contactor and stable cerium (Ce) and europium (Eu). Test conditions included throughputs ranging from 2.5 to 15 Lpm and rotor speeds of 1750 and 2250 rpm. Ce and Eu extraction forward distribution coefficients ranged from 13 to 19. The first and second stage strip back distributions were 0.5 to 1.4 and .002 to .004, respectively, throughout the dynamic test conditions studied. Visual carryover of aqueous entrainment in all organic phase samples was estimated at < 0.1 % and organic carryover into all aqueous phase samples was about ten times less. Mass transfer efficiencies of = 98 % for both Ce and Eu in the extraction section were obtained over the entire range of test conditions. The first strip stage mass transfer efficiencies ranged from 75 to 93% trending higher with increasing throughput. Second stage mass transfer was greater than 99% in all cases. Increasing the rotor speed from 1750 to 2250 rpm had no significant effect on efficiency for all throughputs tested.

  8. Searching Minor Planets and Photometric Quality of 60cm Reflector in Gimhae Astronomical Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hyun Lee

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have presented the observational result for the photometric quality of main telescopes in Gimhae Astronomical Observatory. Also we performed the observation of searching new minor planets as competitive work in public observatories. The observation was carried out using 60cm telescope of Gimhae Astronomical Observatory on 2007 January 13. And, Schüler BVI filters and 1K CCD camera (AP8p were used. To define the quality of CCD photometry, we observed the region of well-known standard stars in the open cluster M67. From observed data, The transformation coefficients and airmass coefficients were obtained, and the accuracy of CCD photometry was investigated. From PSF photometry, we obtained the color-magnitude diagram of M67, and considered the useful magnitude limit and the physical properties of M67. This method can be successfully used to confirm the photometric quality of main telescope in public observatories. To investigate the detection possibility of unknown object as astroid, we observed the near area of the opposition in the ecliptic plane. And we discussed the result. Our result show that it can be possible to detect minor planets in solar system brighter than V ˜18.3mag. and it can carry out photometric study brighter than V~16mag. in Gimhae Astronomical Observatory. These results imply that the public observatories can make the research work.

  9. Design evaluation of the 20-cm (8-inch) secondary burner system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rode, J.S.

    1977-08-01

    This report describes an evaluation of the design of the existing 20-cm (8-inch) engineering-scale secondary burner system in the HTGR reprocessing cold pilot plant at General Atomic Co. The purpose of this evaluation is to assess the suitability of the existing design as a prototype of the HTGR Recycle Demonstration Facility (HRDF) secondary burner system and to recommend alternatives where the existing design is thought to be unsuitable as a prototype. This evaluation has led to recommendations for the parallel development of two integrated design concepts for a prototype secondary burner system. One concept utilizes the existing burner heating and cooling subsystems in order to minimize development risk, but simplifies a number of other features associated with remote maintenance and burner operation. The other concept, which offers maximum cost reduction, utilizes internal gas cooling of the burner, retains the existing heating subsystem for design compatibility, but requires considerable development to reduce the risk to acceptable limits. These concepts, as well as other design alternatives, are described and evaluated.

  10. On the Relationship between Cosmic Ray Exposure Ages and Petrography of CM Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenouchi, A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M.; Velbel, M. A.; Ross, K.; Zolensky, A.; Lee, L.; Imae, N.; Yamaguchi, A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Carbonaceous (C) chondrites are potentially the most primitive among chondrites because they mostly escaped thermal metamorphism that affected the other chondrite groups. C chondrites are chemically distinguished from other chondrites by their high Mg/Si ratios and refractory elements, and have experienced various degrees of aqueous alteration. They are subdivided into eight subgroups (CI, CM, CO, CV, CK, CR, CB and CH) based on major element and oxygen isotopic ratios. Their elemental ratios vary over a wide range, in contrast to those of ordinary and enstatite chondrites which are relatively uniform. It is critical to know how many separate bodies are represented by the C chondrites. In this study we defined 4 distinct cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) age groups of CMs and systematically characterized the petrography in each of the 4 CRE age groups to determine whether the groups have significant petrographic differences with such differences probably reflecting different parent body (asteroid) geological processing, or multiple original bodies. We have reported the results of a preliminary grouping at the NIPR Symp. in 2013 [3], however, we revised the grouping and here report our new results.

  11. The 1943 K emission spectrum of H216O between 6600 and 7050 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czinki, Eszter; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Császár, Attila G.; Eckhardt, André K.; Mellau, Georg Ch.

    2018-02-01

    An emission spectrum of H216O has been recorded, with Doppler-limited resolution, at 1943 K using Hot Gas Molecular Emission (HOTGAME) spectroscopy. The wavenumber range covered is 6600 to 7050 cm-1. This work reports the analysis and subsequent assignment of close to 3700 H216O transitions out of a total of more than 6700 measured peaks. The analysis is based on the Measured Active Rotational-Vibrational Energy Levels (MARVEL) energy levels of H216O determined in 2013 and emission line intensities obtained from accurate variational nuclear-motion computations. The analysis of the spectrum yields about 1300 transitions not measured previously and 23 experimentally previously unidentified rovibrational energy levels. The accuracy of the line positions and intensities used in the analysis was improved with the spectrum deconvolution software SyMath via creating a peak list corresponding to the dense emission spectrum. The extensive list of labeled transitions and the new experimental energy levels obtained are deposited in the Supplementary Material of this article as well as in the ReSpecTh (http://www.respecth.hu) information system.

  12. Am/Cm TTR testing - 3/8-inch glass beads evaluation in CIM5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, D. C.

    2000-01-01

    To facilitate the procurement and handling of the glass former for Am/Cm vitrification in the F-Canyon MPPF, 1/4 inch and 3/8 inch diameter glass beads were purchased from Corning for evaluation in the 5 inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM5). Prior to evaluating the beads in the CIM5, tests were conducted in the Drain Tube Test Stand (DTTS) with 1/4 inch beads, 3/8 inch beads, and a 50/50 mixture to identify any process concerns. Results of the DTTS tests are summarized in Attachment 1. A somewhat larger volume expansion was experienced in all three DTTS runs as compared to a standard run using cullet. Further testing of the use of glass beads in the CIM5 was requested by the Design Authority as Task 1.02 of Technical Task Request 99-MNSS/SE-006. Since the Technical Task Plan was not yet approved, the completion of this task was conducted under an authorization request approved by the SRTC Laboratory Director, S. Wood. This request is included as Attachment 2

  13. Design and performance of axes controller for the 50/80 cm ARIES Schmidt telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, T. S.; Banwar, R. N.

    We describe here the details of R.A. and Dec axes controller for the 50/80 cm Schmidt telescope at Aryabhatta Research Institute of observational sciencES (ARIES). Each axis is driven by a set of two motors for backlash-free motion and is coupled to on-shaft encoder for absolute position measurements. Additional incremental encoders are provided though a backlash-free reduction for velocity feedback. A pulse width modulation (PWM) based proportional and integral (PI) controller is designed to drive the twin-motor drive of each axis. The overall telescope control architecture features a distributed network of simple low cost PIC microcontrollers interfaced via CAN bus and RS232 ports. Using this controller it has been observed that the rms velocity errors at slew, set, guide, fine and tracking speeds are negligible. Excessive preload on the gearbox bearings results in a highly nonlinear behavior at fine speeds owing to dynamics of friction. We found that the peak errors in the tracking performance and fine speeds can be improved by properly adjusting the preloads on the gearbox bearings.

  14. Atlantic tropical cyclones water budget in observations and CNRM-CM5 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, Fabrice; Douville, Hervé; Ribes, Aurélien

    2017-12-01

    Water budgets in tropical cyclones (TCs) are computed in the ERA-interim (ERAI) re-analysis and the CNRM-CM5 model for the late 20th and 21st centuries. At a 6-hourly timescale and averaged over a 5° × 5° box around a TC center, the main contribution to rainfall is moisture convergence, with decreasing contribution of evaporation for increasing rainfall intensities. It is found that TC rainfall in ERAI and the model are underestimated when compared with the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM), probably due to underestimated TC winds in ERAI vs. observed TCs. It is also found that relative increase in TC rainfall between the second half of the 20th and 21st centuries may surpass the rate of change suggested by the Clausius-Clapeyron formula. It may even reach twice this rate for reduced spatial domains corresponding to the highest cyclonic rainfall. This is in agreement with an expected positive feedback between TC rainfall intensity and dynamics.

  15. Evaluation of a new CNRM-CM6 model version for seasonal climate predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Danila; Ardilouze, Constantin; Batté, Lauriane; Dorel, Laurant; Guérémy, Jean-François; Déqué, Michel

    2017-04-01

    This work presents the quality assessment of a new version of the Météo-France coupled climate prediction system, which has been developed in the EU COPERNICUS Climate Change Services framework to carry out seasonal forecast. The system is based on the CNRM-CM6 model, with Arpege-Surfex 6.2.2 as atmosphere/land component and Nemo 3.2 as ocean component, which has directly embedded the sea-ice component Gelato 6.0. In order to have a robust diagnostic, the experiment is composed by 60 ensemble members generated with stochastic dynamic perturbations. The experiment has been performed over a 37-year re-forecast period from 1979 to 2015, with two start dates per year, respectively in May 1st and November 1st. The evaluation of the predictive skill of the model is shown under two perspectives: on the one hand, the ability of the model to faithfully respond to positive or negative ENSO, NAO and QBO events, independently of the predictability of these events. Such assessment is carried out through a composite analysis, and shows that the model succeeds in reproducing the main patterns for 2-meter temperature, precipitation and geopotential height at 500 hPa during the winter season. On the other hand, the model predictive skill of the same events (positive and negative ENSO, NAO and QBO) is evaluated.

  16. The exploration of relationship between the surgery grading management and the ICD-9-CM-3 coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-yu FAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Surgery grading management is one of the key aspects of medical technology access and medical quality management. Surgical classification is graded by risk level, the degree of difficulty of the process and the technology; however, surgery coding is mainly classified by the surgical site. Therefore, the grading of the ICD coding surgical name encounters some difficulties. Our hospital uses the “Jiangsu Province set of medical information classification and coding standards” and “Jiangsu Province surgery hierarchical directory”, which is issued by Jiangsu Provincial Commission of Health and Family Planning, as the basis. We are practicing and exploring about the correspondence between the surgery which has graded and ICD-9-CM-3 encoding, including six categories problems, such as different types of the same operation, different surgeries of the same parts. We carry out the surgical grading and coding intelligent management into hospital management, which will regulate the management of hospital surgery more effectively, ensure the safety of medical quality, and reduce the incidence of adverse events in health care.

  17. Design evaluation of the 20-cm (8-inch) secondary burner system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rode, J.S.

    1977-08-01

    This report describes an evaluation of the design of the existing 20-cm (8-inch) engineering-scale secondary burner system in the HTGR reprocessing cold pilot plant at General Atomic Co. The purpose of this evaluation is to assess the suitability of the existing design as a prototype of the HTGR Recycle Demonstration Facility (HRDF) secondary burner system and to recommend alternatives where the existing design is thought to be unsuitable as a prototype. This evaluation has led to recommendations for the parallel development of two integrated design concepts for a prototype secondary burner system. One concept utilizes the existing burner heating and cooling subsystems in order to minimize development risk, but simplifies a number of other features associated with remote maintenance and burner operation. The other concept, which offers maximum cost reduction, utilizes internal gas cooling of the burner, retains the existing heating subsystem for design compatibility, but requires considerable development to reduce the risk to acceptable limits. These concepts, as well as other design alternatives, are described and evaluated

  18. Chrysanthemum WRKY gene CmWRKY17 negatively regulates salt stress tolerance in transgenic chrysanthemum and Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiling; Song, Aiping; Gao, Chunyan; Wang, Linxiao; Wang, Yinjie; Sun, Jing; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Fadi; Chen, Sumei

    2015-08-01

    CmWRKY17 was induced by salinity in chrysanthemum, and it might negatively regulate salt stress in transgenic plants as a transcriptional repressor. WRKY transcription factors play roles as positive or negative regulators in response to various stresses in plants. In this study, CmWRKY17 was isolated from chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium). The gene encodes a 227-amino acid protein and belongs to the group II WRKY family, but has an atypical WRKY domain with the sequence WKKYGEK. Our data indicated that CmWRKY17 was localized to the nucleus in onion epidermal cells. CmWRKY17 showed no transcriptional activation in yeast; furthermore, luminescence assay clearly suggested that CmWRKY17 functions as a transcriptional repressor. DNA-binding assay showed that CmWRKY17 can bind to W-box. The expression of CmWRKY17 was induced by salinity in chrysanthemum, and a higher expression level was observed in the stem and leaf compared with that in the root, disk florets, and ray florets. Overexpression of CmWRKY17 in chrysanthemum and Arabidopsis increased the sensitivity to salinity stress. The activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase and proline content in the leaf were significantly lower in transgenic chrysanthemum than those in the wild type under salinity stress, whereas electrical conductivity was increased in transgenic plants. Expression of the stress-related genes AtRD29, AtDREB2B, AtSOS1, AtSOS2, AtSOS3, and AtNHX1 was reduced in the CmWRKY17 transgenic Arabidopsis compared with that in the wild-type Col-0. Collectively, these data suggest that CmWRKY17 may increase the salinity sensitivity in plants as a transcriptional repressor.

  19. Acute/subacute cerebral infarction (ASCI) in HIV-negative adults with cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM): a MRI-based follow-up study and a clinical comparison to HIV-negative CM adults without ASCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Fang; Lu, Cheng-Hsien; Lui, Chun-Chung; Huang, Chi-Ren; Chuang, Yao-Chung; Tan, Teng-Yeow; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Chang, Chiung-Chih; Tsai, Wan-Chen; Chang, Wen-Neng

    2011-01-26

    Acute/subacute cerebral infarction (ASCI) in HIV-negative cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM) adults has rarely been examined by a series of MRI-based follow-up study. We studied a series of MRI follow-up study of CM adults and compared the clinical characters of those with ASCI and those without ASCI. The clinical characteristics and a series of brain MRI findings of seven CM adults with ASCI were enrolled for analysis. The clinical characteristics of another 30 HIV-negative CM adults who did not have ASCI were also included for a comparative analysis. The seven HIV-negative CM adults with ASCI were four men and three women, aged 46-78 years. Lacunar infarction was the type of ASCI, and 86% (6/7) of the ACSI were multiple infarctions distributed in both the anterior and posterior cerebrovascular territories. The seven CM patients with ASCI were significantly older and had a higher rate of DM and previous stroke than the other 30 CM adults without ASCI. They also had a higher incidence of consciousness disturbance at presentation and had a poor prognosis. ASCI was found in 18.9% (7/37) of HIV-negative CM adults. Serial MRI follow-up studies may allow a better delineation of ASCI in this specific group of infectious disease and multiple lacunar infarctions was the most common type. Older in age and presence of DM and previous stroke were the significant underlying conditions. CM patients with ASCI also had a poor therapeutic outcome.

  20. Acute/subacute cerebral infarction (ASCI in HIV-negative adults with cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM: a MRI-based follow-up study and a clinical comparison to HIV-negative CM adults without ASCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chiung-Chih

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute/subacute cerebral infarction (ASCI in HIV-negative cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM adults has rarely been examined by a series of MRI-based follow-up study. We studied a series of MRI follow-up study of CM adults and compared the clinical characters of those with ASCI and those without ASCI. Methods The clinical characteristics and a series of brain MRI findings of seven CM adults with ASCI were enrolled for analysis. The clinical characteristics of another 30 HIV-negative CM adults who did not have ASCI were also included for a comparative analysis. Results The seven HIV-negative CM adults with ASCI were four men and three women, aged 46-78 years. Lacunar infarction was the type of ASCI, and 86% (6/7 of the ACSI were multiple infarctions distributed in both the anterior and posterior cerebrovascular territories. The seven CM patients with ASCI were significantly older and had a higher rate of DM and previous stroke than the other 30 CM adults without ASCI. They also had a higher incidence of consciousness disturbance at presentation and had a poor prognosis. Conclusion ASCI was found in 18.9% (7/37 of HIV-negative CM adults. Serial MRI follow-up studies may allow a better delineation of ASCI in this specific group of infectious disease and multiple lacunar infarctions was the most common type. Older in age and presence of DM and previous stroke were the significant underlying conditions. CM patients with ASCI also had a poor therapeutic outcome.

  1. The near infrared spectrum of ozone by CW-cavity ring down spectroscopy between 5850 and 7000 cm(-1): new observations and exhaustive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campargue, A; Barbe, A; De Backer-Barilly, M-R; Tyuterev, Vl G; Kassi, S

    2008-05-28

    Weak vibrational bands of (16)O(3) could be detected in the 5850-7030 cm(-1) spectral region by CW-cavity ring down spectroscopy using a set of fibered DFB diode lasers. As a result of the high sensitivity (noise equivalent absorption alpha(min) approximately 3 x 10(-10) cm(-1)), bands reaching a total of 16 upper vibrational states have been previously reported in selected spectral regions. In the present report, the analysis of the whole investigated region is completed by new recordings in three spectral regions which have allowed: (i) a refined analysis of the nu(1) + 3nu(2) + 3nu(3) band from new spectra in the 5850-5900 cm(-1) region; (ii) an important extension of the assignments of the 2nu(1)+5nu(3) and 4nu(1) + 2nu(2) + nu(3) bands in the 6500-6600 cm(-1) region, previously recorded by frequency modulation diode laser spectroscopy. The rovibrational assignments of the weak 4nu(1) + 2nu(2) + nu(3) band were fully confirmed by the new observation of the 4nu(1) + 2nu(2) + nu(3)- nu(2) hot band near 5866.9 cm(-1) reaching the same upper state; (iii) the observation and modelling of three A-type bands at 6895.51, 6981.87 and 6990.07 cm(-1) corresponding to the highest excited vibrational bands of ozone detected so far at high resolution. The upper vibrational states were assigned by comparison of their energy values with calculated values obtained from the ground state potential energy surface of (16)O(3). The vibrational mixing and consequently the ambiguities in the vibrational labelling are discussed. For each band or set of interacting bands, the spectroscopic parameters were determined from a fit of the corresponding line positions in the frame of the effective Hamiltonian (EH) model. A set of selected absolute line intensities was measured and used to derive the parameters of the effective transition moment operator. The exhaustive review of the previous observations gathered with the present results is presented and discussed. It leads to a total number

  2. Acute/subacute cerebral infarction (ASCI) in HIV-negative adults with cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM): a MRI-based follow-up study and a clinical comparison to HIV-negative CM adults without ASCI

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Chiung-Chih; Tsai Nai-Wen; Tan Teng-Yeow; Chuang Yao-Chung; Huang Chi-Ren; Lui Chun-Chung; Lu Cheng-Hsien; Chen Shu-Fang; Tsai Wan-Chen; Chang Wen-Neng

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Acute/subacute cerebral infarction (ASCI) in HIV-negative cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM) adults has rarely been examined by a series of MRI-based follow-up study. We studied a series of MRI follow-up study of CM adults and compared the clinical characters of those with ASCI and those without ASCI. Methods The clinical characteristics and a series of brain MRI findings of seven CM adults with ASCI were enrolled for analysis. The clinical characteristics of another 30...

  3. Assessing soil hydrological variability at the cm- to dm-scale using air permeameter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerten, K.; Vandersmissen, N.; Rogiers, B.; Mallants, D.

    2012-04-01

    Soils and surficial sediments are crucial elements in the hydrological cycle since they are the medium through which infiltrating precipitation percolates to the aquifer. At the same time, soil horizons and shallow stratigraphy may act as hydraulic barriers that can promote runoff or interflow and hamper deep infiltration. For most catchments little is known about the small-scale horizontal and vertical variability of soil hydrological properties. Such information is however required to calculate detailed soil water flow paths and estimate small scale spatial variability in recharge and run-off. We present the results from field air permeameter measurements to assess the small-scale variability of saturated hydraulic conductivity in heterogeneous 2-D soil profiles. To this end, several outcrops in the unsaturated zone (sandy soils with podzolisation) of an interfluve in the Kleine Nete river catchment (Campine area, Northern Belgium) were investigated using a hand-held permeameter. Measurements were done each 10 cm on ~ 2 x 1 m or ~ 2 x 0.5 m grids. The initial results of the measurements (air permeability Kair; millidarcy) are recalculated to saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks; m/s) using specific transfer functions (Loll et al., 1999; Iversen et al., 2003). Validation of the results is done with independent lab-based constant head Ks measurements. The results show that field based Ks values generally range between 10-3 m/s and 10-7 m/s within one profile, but extremely high values (up to 10-1 m/s) have been measured as well. The lowest values are found in the organic- and silt-rich Bh horizon of podzol soils observed within the profiles (~ 10-6-10-7m/s), while the highest values are observed in overlying dune sands less than 40 cm deep (up to 10-3 m/s with outliers to 10-1 m/s). Comparison of field and laboratory based Ks data reveals there is fair agreement between both methods, apart from several outliers. Scatter plots indicate that almost all points

  4. Operation of low-noise single-gap RPC modules exposed to ionisation rates up to 1 kHz/cm$^2$

    CERN Document Server

    Cwiok, M; Dominik, Wojciech; Górski, M; Królikowski, J; 10.1016/j.nima.2004.06.123

    2004-01-01

    Two single gap medium-size RPC modules, made of bakelite plates of very good mechanical quality of the surface and having initial volume resistivity of 1 multiplied by 10**1**0 omegacm, were tested in the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN at ionisation rates up to 1 kHz/cm **3. The internal surfaces facing the gas volume of one RPC module were cladded with a thin layer of linseed oil varnish for comparison of oiled and non-oiled RPC operation. The results refer to the gas mixture of C//2H//2F //4/isobutane (97:3) with SF//6 addition below 1%. The single gap modules exhibited full detection efficiency plateau for the high voltage range of about 1 kV at full intensity of gamma rays. Good timing characteristics allowed to reach 95% efficiency at fully opened irradiation source with time window of 20 ns. The intrinsic noise rate for a non-oiled and an oiled RPC gap was, respectively, below 5 and 1 Hz/cm**2 at full efficiency over 1 k V voltage range.

  5. Modelling the Caspian Sea and its catchment area using a coupled regional atmosphere-ocean model (RegCM4-ROMS: model design and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. U. Turuncoglu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the development of a coupled regional atmosphere-ocean model (RegCM4-ROMS and its implementation over the Caspian Sea basin. The coupled model is run for the period 1999–2008 (after a spin up of 4 yr and it is compared to corresponding stand alone model simulations and a simulation in which a distributed 1d lake model is run for the Caspian Sea. All model versions show a good performance in reproducing the climatology of the Caspian Sea basin, with relatively minor differences across them. The coupled ROMS produces realistic, although somewhat overestimated, Caspian Sea Surface Temperature (SST, with a considerable improvement compared to the use of the simpler coupled lake model. Simulated near surface salinity and sea currents are also realistic, although the upwelling over the eastern coastal regions is underestimated. The sea ice extent over the shallow northern shelf of the Caspian Sea and its seasonal evolution are well reproduced, however, a significant negative bias in sea-ice fraction exists due to the relatively poor representation of the bathymetry. ROMS also calculates the Caspian Sea Level (CSL, showing that for the present experiment excessive evaporation over the lake area leads to a drift in estimated CSL. Despite this problem, which requires further analysis due to many uncertainties in the estimation of CSL, overall the coupled RegCM4-ROMS system shows encouraging results in reproducing both the climatology of the region and the basic characteristics of the Caspian Sea.

  6. Simulations for 21 cm radiation lensing at EoR redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Alessandro; Metcalf, Robert Benton; Pourtsidou, Alkistis

    2018-02-01

    We introduce simulations aimed at assessing how well weak gravitational lensing of 21cm radiation from the Epoch of Reionization (z ˜ 8) can be measured by a Square Kilometre Array (SKA)-like radio telescope. A simulation pipeline has been implemented to study the performance of lensing reconstruction techniques. We show how well the lensing signal can be reconstructed using the 3D quadratic lensing estimator in Fourier space assuming different survey strategies. The numerical code introduced in this work is capable of dealing with issues that cannot be treated analytically such as the discreteness of visibility measurements and the inclusion of a realistic model for the antennas distribution. This paves the way for future numerical studies implementing more realistic re-ionization models, foreground subtraction schemes, and testing the performance of lensing estimators that take into account the non-Gaussian distribution of HI after re-ionization. If multiple frequency channels covering z ˜ 7-11.6 are combined, Phase 1 of SKA-Low should be able to obtain good quality images of the lensing potential with a total resolution of ˜1.6 arcmin. The SKA-Low Phase 2 should be capable of providing images with high fidelity even using data from z ˜ 7.7 to 8.3. We perform tests aimed at evaluating the numerical implementation of the mapping reconstruction. We also discuss the possibility of measuring an accurate lensing power spectrum. Combining data from z ˜ 7 to 11.6 using the SKA2-Low telescope model, we find constraints comparable to sample variance in the range L < 1000, even for survey areas as small as 25 deg2.

  7. Foros: Verdades y Mitos sobre las Células Madre (CM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraím Otero Ruiz

    2005-09-01

    La Dra. Martalucía Tamayo dijo que por su experiencia individual podría asumir ella los tres roles como investigadora, como paciente y como periodista. Como investigadora, sostiene que la experimentación debe basarse en el método científico y debe cumplir no sólo con la apropiación social del conocimiento sino también sus relaciones adecuadas con la sociedad (pacientes, familias y con los medios de comunicación masiva. En el caso de las CM, embrionarias o adultas debe advertirse que las terapias posibles son aún experimentales y con ese carácter deben tener impacto en su legislación; esas fases experimentales deben incluir microbiología, ensayos en animales pequeños y grandes para luego pasar a humanos y en esta última fase ser controladas por entes como lo hace la FDA en los Estados Unidos, pero persiste el interrogante de cómo controlar ectivamente los modelos humanos. Deben balancearse los beneficios en lo personal vs. lo social, evaluar los costos individuales y sobre los sistemas de salud. Como paciente prefiere que se definan bien los beneficiarios potenciales, explicarles las posibilidades reales del procedimiento incluyendo riesgos y costos, aceptando con esperanza y firmeza tanto su enfermedad como cualquier solución que se les prometa. Cree que deben establecerse asociaciones de pacientes que evalúen tanto las expectativas, reales o falsas como los costos sociales y económicos, ya que las falsas esperanzas pueden traducirse en más frustración para los mismos...

  8. 3.3 CM JVLA OBSERVATIONS OF TRANSITIONAL DISKS: SEARCHING FOR CENTIMETER PEBBLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina, E-mail: lzapata@crya.unam.mx [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico)

    2017-01-10

    We present sensitive (rms-noises ∼4–25 μ Jy) and high angular resolution (∼1″–2″) 8.9 GHz (3.3 cm) Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum observations of 10 presumed transitional disks associated with young low-mass stars. We report the detection of radio continuum emission in 5 out of the 10 objects (RXJ1615, UX Tau A, LkCa15, RXJ1633, and SR 24s). In the case of LkCa15, the centimeter emission is extended, and has a similar morphology to that of the transitional disk observed at millimeter wavelengths with an inner depression. For these five detections, we construct the spectral energy distributions from the centimeter to submillimeter wavelengths, and find that they can be well fitted with a single (RXJ1633 and UX Tau A) or a two-component power law (LkCa15, RXJ1615, and SR 24s). For the cases where a single power law fits the data well, the centimeter emission is likely produced by optically thin dust with large grains (i.e., centimeter-size pebbles) present in the transitional disks. For the cases where a double power law fits the data, the centimeter emission might be produced by the combination of photoevaporation and a free–free jet. We conclude that RXJ1633 and UX Tau A are excellent examples of transitional disks where the structure of the emission from centimeter/millimeter pebbles can be studied. In the other cases, some other physical emitting mechanisms are also important in the centimeter regime.

  9. 3.3 CM JVLA OBSERVATIONS OF TRANSITIONAL DISKS: SEARCHING FOR CENTIMETER PEBBLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina

    2017-01-01

    We present sensitive (rms-noises ∼4–25 μ Jy) and high angular resolution (∼1″–2″) 8.9 GHz (3.3 cm) Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum observations of 10 presumed transitional disks associated with young low-mass stars. We report the detection of radio continuum emission in 5 out of the 10 objects (RXJ1615, UX Tau A, LkCa15, RXJ1633, and SR 24s). In the case of LkCa15, the centimeter emission is extended, and has a similar morphology to that of the transitional disk observed at millimeter wavelengths with an inner depression. For these five detections, we construct the spectral energy distributions from the centimeter to submillimeter wavelengths, and find that they can be well fitted with a single (RXJ1633 and UX Tau A) or a two-component power law (LkCa15, RXJ1615, and SR 24s). For the cases where a single power law fits the data well, the centimeter emission is likely produced by optically thin dust with large grains (i.e., centimeter-size pebbles) present in the transitional disks. For the cases where a double power law fits the data, the centimeter emission might be produced by the combination of photoevaporation and a free–free jet. We conclude that RXJ1633 and UX Tau A are excellent examples of transitional disks where the structure of the emission from centimeter/millimeter pebbles can be studied. In the other cases, some other physical emitting mechanisms are also important in the centimeter regime.

  10. New Control Software of the 188cm Telescope of Okayama Astrophysical Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Michitoshi; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Etsuji; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Uraguchi, Fumihiro

    2002-12-01

    We developed the telescope control software for the 188cm telescope of Okayama Astrophysical Observatory (OAO) based on Java technology. Basically, the software consists of two processes running on separate Java virtual machines; one of which is the "Command Dispatcher (CD)" and the other is the "User Interface (UI)". Among the two, CD is the main engine/server of the telescope control, whereas UI is just a client. The "standard" UI we provide is a graphical user interface written in Java/Swing. CD communicates with the local control units (LCUs) of the telescope through RS232C. CD is a Java multi-thread program, in which a number of threads run simultaneously. The threads running in CD are the follows: UNIX socket servers for external communications, socket opener for on-demand open/close of a socket port, socket client manager, auto-guider and dome watcher, internal command dispatcher, status manager, status collector, RS232C writer and reader, logger, and control units. The above "control units" are software models ("objects") of the telescope system. We introduced four control units- "Telescope", "Dome", "Weather-Monitor", and "Pointing"- for telescope control. The first three units are simple software models of the real-worlds devices. The last one, "Pointing", is a unit which abstracts pointing procedure of the telescope. CD and UI communicate with each other using UNIX socket. The command protocol of this communication is fairly simple, and observation instruments, auto guider, or additional UI for remote observation are also able to communicate with CD through socket using this protocol. CD opens and closes socket ports for communication on demand according to the request of client process (UI, instruments etc.), so that any clients can be connected to CD dynamically.

  11. A Radio Continuum Study of Dwarf Galaxies: 6 cm Imaging of LITTLE THINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindson, Luke; Kitchener, Ged; Brinks, Elias; Heesen, Volker; Westcott, Jonathan; Hunter, Deidre; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Rupen, Michael; Rau, Urvashi

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we examine to what extent the radio continuum can be used as an extinction-free probe of star formation in dwarf galaxies. To that aim, we observe 40 nearby dwarf galaxies with the Very Large Array at 6 cm (4–8 GHz) in C-configuration. We obtained images with 3″–8″ resolution and noise levels of 3–15 μJy beam‑1. We detected emission associated with 22 of the 40 dwarf galaxies, eight of which are new detections. The general picture is that of an interstellar medium largely devoid of radio continuum emission, interspersed by isolated pockets of emission associated with star formation. We find an average thermal fraction of ∼50%–70% and an average magnetic field strength of ∼5–8 μG, only slightly lower than that found in larger, spiral galaxies. At 100 pc scales, we find surprisingly high values for the average magnetic field strength of up to 50 μG. We find that dwarf galaxies follow the theoretical predictions of the radio continuum–star formation rate relation within regions of significant radio continuum emission but that the nonthermal radio continuum is suppressed relative to the star formation rate when considering the entire optical disk. We examine the far-infrared–star formation rate relation for our sample and find that the far-infrared is suppressed compared to the expected star formation rate. We discuss explanations for these observed relations and the impact of our findings on the radio continuum–far-infrared relation. We conclude that radio continuum emission at centimeter wavelengths has the promise of being a largely extinction-free star formation rate indicator. We find that star formation rates of gas-rich, low-mass galaxies can be estimated with an uncertainty of ±0.2 dex between the values of 2 × 10‑4 and 0.1 M ⊙ yr‑1.

  12. Ultrasonic attenuation of surface acoustic waves in superconducting zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.E.; Marshall, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    The attenuation of 90-MHz elastic surface waves propagating in both 3,000 and 10,000 A films of zinc has been measured as a function of temperature from 3 to 0.38 K. The surface acoustic waves were generated and detected by using a surface-acoustic-wave device interdigital transducers plated onto a Y-Z cut lithium-niobate substrate. Utilizing the experimental results, in the BCS theory, energy gaps of 2Δ (0) equal to 4.17 +- 0.20 and 3.81 +- 0.20 in units of k/sub B/T/sub c/ were calculated for the 3,000 and 10,000 A films, respectively. The transition temperatures for the 3,000 and 10,000 A films were 1.5 +- 0.01 and 1.31 +- 0.01 K, respectively

  13. Technical Note: Out-of-field dose measurement at near surface with plastic scintillator detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgouin, Alexandra; Varfalvy, Nicolas; Archambault, Louis

    2016-09-08

    Out-of-field dose depends on multiple factors, making peripheral dosimetry com-plex. Only a few dosimeters have the required features for measuring peripheral dose. Plastic scintillator dosimeters (PSDs) offer numerous dosimetric advantages as required for out-of-field dosimetry. The purpose of this study is to determine the potential of using PSD as a surface peripheral dosimeter. Measurements were performed with a parallel-plate ion chamber, a small volume ion chamber, and with a PSD. Lateral-dose measurements (LDM) at 0.5 cm depth and depth-dose curve (PDD) were made and compared to the dose calculation provided by a treatment planning system (TPS). This study shows that a PSD can measure a dose as low as 0.51 ± 0.17 cGy for photon beam and 0.58 ± 0.20 cGy for electron beam with a difference of 0.2 and 0.1 cGy compared to a parallel-plate ion chamber. This study demonstrates the potential of using PSD as an out-of-field dosimeter since measure-ments with PSD avoid averaging over a too-large depth, at 1 mm diameter, and can make precise measurement at very low dose. Also, electronic equilibrium is easier to reach with PSD due to its small sensitive volume and its water equivalence. © 2016 The Authors.

  14. Concentration and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in surface soil near a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, A; Dettlaff, A; Kuklińska, K; Namieśnik, J; Wolska, L

    2015-10-15

    Due to a continuous demand of land for infrastructural and residential development there is a public concern about the condition of surface soil near municipal solid waste landfills. A total of 12 surface (0-20 cm) soil samples from a territory near a landfill were collected and the concentration of 16 PAHs and 7 PCB congeners were investigated in these samples. Limits of detection were in the range of 0.038-1.2 μg/kg for PAHs and 0.025-0.041 μg/kg for PCBs. The total concentration of ∑ PAHs ranged from 892 to 3514 μg/kg with a mean of 1974 μg/kg. The total concentration of ∑ PCBs ranged from 2.5 to 12 μg/kg with a mean of 4.5 μg/kg. Data analyses allowed to state that the PAHs in surface soils near a landfill were principally from pyrogenic sources. Due to air transport, PAHs forming at the landfill are transported outside the landfill. PCB origin is not connected with the landfill. Aroclor 1242 can be the source of PCBs in several samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Smoothing Surface Trapping States in 3D Coral-Like CoOOH-Wrapped-BiVO4for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fumin; Cheng, Weiren; Su, Hui; Zhao, Xu; Liu, Qinghua

    2018-02-21

    Highly efficient oxygen evolution driven by abundant sunlight is a key to realize overall water splitting for large-scale conversion of renewable energy. Here, we report a strategy for the interfacial atomic and electronic coupling of layered CoOOH and BiVO 4 to deactivate the surface trapping states and suppress the charge-carrier recombination for high photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation activity. The successful synthesis of a 3D ultrathin-CoOOH-overlayer-coated coral-like BiVO 4 photoanode effectively tailors the migration route of photocarriers on the semiconductor/liquid interface to realize a great increase of ∼200% in the photovoltage relative to bare BiVO 4 , consequently decreasing the corresponding onset potential of PEC water splitting from 0.60 to 0.20 V RHE . As a result, the unique CoOOH/BiVO 4 photoanode could efficiently perform PEC water oxidation in a neutral aqueous solution (pH = 7) with a high photocurrent density of 4.0 mA/cm 2 at 1.23 V RHE and a prominent quantum efficiency of 65% at 450 nm. Electronic structural characterizations and theoretical calculations reveal that the combination of layered CoOOH and BiVO 4 forming interfacial oxo-bridge bonding could greatly eliminate surface trapping states and promote the direct transfer of photogenerated holes from the valence band to the surface water redox potential for water oxidation.

  16. Ectopic Expression of Pumpkin NAC Transcription Factor CmNAC1 Improves Multiple Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haishun Cao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought, cold and salinity are the major environmental stresses that limit agricultural productivity. NAC transcription factors regulate the stress response in plants. Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata is an important cucurbit vegetable crop and it has strong resistance to abiotic stress; however, the biological functions of stress-related NAC genes in this crop are largely unknown. This study reports the function of CmNAC1, a stress-responsive pumpkin NAC domain protein. The CmNAC1-GFP fusion protein was transiently expressed in tobacco leaves for subcellular localization analysis, and we found that CmNAC1 is localized in the nucleus. Transactivation assay in yeast cells revealed that CmNAC1 functions as a transcription activator, and its transactivation domain is located in the C-terminus. CmNAC1 was ubiquitously expressed in different organs, and its transcript was induced by salinity, cold, dehydration, H2O2, and abscisic acid (ABA treatment. Furthermore, the ectopic expression (EE of CmNAC1 in Arabidopsis led to ABA hypersensitivity and enhanced tolerance to salinity, drought and cold stress. In addition, five ABA-responsive elements were enriched in CmNAC1 promoter. The CmNAC1-EE plants exhibited different root architecture, leaf morphology, and significantly high concentration of ABA compared with WT Arabidopsis under normal conditions. Our results indicated that CmNAC1 is a critical factor in ABA signaling pathways and it can be utilized in transgenic breeding to improve the abiotic stress tolerance of crops.

  17. The Regional Earth System Model (RegESM) using RegCM4 coupled with the MITgcm ocean model: First assessments over the MED-CORDEX domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Laura; Utku Turunçoǧlu, Ufuk; Farneti, Riccardo; Sannino, Gianmaria; Vittoria Struglia, Maria; Carillo, Adriana; Giorgi, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of global climate studies, there is an increasingly growing concern about the vulnerability of the Mediterranean region, where high population density and intense exploitation activities pose severe questions on the sustainability of terrestrial water management, both for the present and the future. Ocean modeling studies suggest that the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation could be weakened in conditions of global greenhouse warming, an event which would undoubtedly affect regional climate, possibly triggering global feedback processes. Experiments with the atmosphere-ocean coupled system confirmed that a good comprehension of Mediterranean processes requires the explicit inclusion of the feedbacks between the atmospheric and the oceanic components, thus achieving a complete, fully coupled description of the Mediterranean hydrological cycle, at the same time gaining new insights in our current ability to reproduce the atmospheric hydrological processes and to close the hydrological balance. These issues are addressed by the upgraded PROTHEUS system which was jointly developed by ENEA and ICTP. Here we present a first evaluation of the performances of the new PROTHEUS system (called PROTHEUS 2.0) composed by the regional climate model RegCM4 (Giorgi et al. 2012) coupled with both the ocean model MITgcm (Marshall J. et al. 1997a,b) and the HD river model (Max-Planck's HD model; Hagemann and Dümenil, 1998) using RegESM (Regional Earth System Model) as a driver. The three-component (atmosphere, ocean and river routing) fully coupled model exchanges sea surface temperature (SST) from the ocean to the atmospheric model, surface wind stress, energy and freshwater fluxes from the atmosphere to the ocean model, surface and sub-surface runoff from the atmospheric component to the river routing model (Max-Planck's HD model; Hagemann and Dümenil, 1998). In order to have water conservation within the system, the river routing component sends the

  18. Examination of Organic Carryover from 2-cm Contactors to Support the Modular CSSX Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Charles A.; Norato, Michael A.; Walker; D. Douglas; Pierce, Robert A.; Eubanks, Ronnye A.; Clark, James D.; Smith, Wilson M. Jr.; Crump, Stephen L.; Nelson, D. Zane; Fink, Samuel D.; Peters, Thomas B.; May, Cecil G.; Herman, David T.; Bolton, Henry L.

    2005-04-29

    A bank of four 2-cm centrifugal contactors was operated in countercurrent fashion to help address questions about organic carryover for the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). The contactors, having weirs sized for strip operation, were used to examine carryover for both strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS). Since only one bank of contactors was available in the short time frame of this work, the organic phase and only one aqueous phase were present in the flow loops at a time. Personnel maintained flowsheet-typical organic phase to aqueous phase (O:A) flow ratios when varying flow rates. Solvent from two different batches were tested with strip solution. In addition, potential mitigations of pH adjustment and coalescing media were examined. The experiment found that organic carryover after decanting averaged 220 ppm by mass with a range of 74 to 417 ppm of Isopar{reg_sign} L for strip effluent (SE)/organic solvent contacts. These values are based on measured modifier. Values were bounded by a value of 95 ppm based upon Isopar{reg_sign} L values as reported. The higher modifier-based numbers are considered more reliable at this time. Carryover of Isopar{reg_sign} L in DSS simulant averaged 77 ppm by mass with a range of 70 to 88 ppm of Isopar{reg_sign} L based on modifier content. The carryover was bounded by a value of 19 ppm based upon Isopar{reg_sign} L values as reported. More work is needed to resolve the discrepancy between modifier and Isopar{reg_sign} L values. The work did not detect organic droplets greater than 18 microns in SE. Strip output contained droplets down to 0.5 micron in size. Droplets in DSS were almost monodisperse by comparison, having a size range 4.7 +/- 1.6 micron in one test and 5.2 +/- 0.8 micron in the second demonstration. Optical microscopy provided qualitative results confirming the integrity of droplet size measurements in this work. Acidic or basic adjustments of aqueous strip solution

  19. Examination of Organic Carryover from 2-cm Contactors to Support the Modular CSSX Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, Charles A.; Norato, Michael A.; Walker; D. Douglas; Pierce, Robert A.; Eubanks, Ronnye A.; Clark, James D.; Smith, Wilson M. Jr.; Crump, Stephen L.; Nelson, D. Zane; Fink, Samuel D.; Peters, Thomas B.; May, Cecil G.; Herman, David T.; Bolton, Henry L.

    2005-01-01

    A bank of four 2-cm centrifugal contactors was operated in countercurrent fashion to help address questions about organic carryover for the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). The contactors, having weirs sized for strip operation, were used to examine carryover for both strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS). Since only one bank of contactors was available in the short time frame of this work, the organic phase and only one aqueous phase were present in the flow loops at a time. Personnel maintained flowsheet-typical organic phase to aqueous phase (O:A) flow ratios when varying flow rates. Solvent from two different batches were tested with strip solution. In addition, potential mitigations of pH adjustment and coalescing media were examined. The experiment found that organic carryover after decanting averaged 220 ppm by mass with a range of 74 to 417 ppm of Isopar(reg s ign) L for strip effluent (SE)/organic solvent contacts. These values are based on measured modifier. Values were bounded by a value of 95 ppm based upon Isopar(reg s ign) L values as reported. The higher modifier-based numbers are considered more reliable at this time. Carryover of Isopar(reg s ign) L in DSS simulant averaged 77 ppm by mass with a range of 70 to 88 ppm of Isopar(reg s ign) L based on modifier content. The carryover was bounded by a value of 19 ppm based upon Isopar(reg s ign) L values as reported. More work is needed to resolve the discrepancy between modifier and Isopar(reg s ign) L values. The work did not detect organic droplets greater than 18 microns in SE. Strip output contained droplets down to 0.5 micron in size. Droplets in DSS were almost monodisperse by comparison, having a size range 4.7 +/- 1.6 micron in one test and 5.2 +/- 0.8 micron in the second demonstration. Optical microscopy provided qualitative results confirming the integrity of droplet size measurements in this work. Acidic or basic adjustments of aqueous strip

  20. A FLUX SCALE FOR SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE 21 cm EPOCH OF REIONIZATION EXPERIMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, Daniel C.; Bowman, Judd; Parsons, Aaron R.; Ali, Zaki; Pober, Jonathan C.; Aguirre, James E.; Moore, David F.; Bradley, Richard F.; Carilli, Chris L.; DeBoer, David R.; Dexter, Matthew R.; MacMahon, Dave H. E.; Gugliucci, Nicole E.; Klima, Pat; Manley, Jason R.; Walbrugh, William P.; Stefan, Irina I.

    2013-01-01

    We present a catalog of spectral measurements covering a 100-200 MHz band for 32 sources, derived from observations with a 64 antenna deployment of the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER) in South Africa. For transit telescopes such as PAPER, calibration of the primary beam is a difficult endeavor and errors in this calibration are a major source of error in the determination of source spectra. In order to decrease our reliance on an accurate beam calibration, we focus on calibrating sources in a narrow declination range from –46° to –40°. Since sources at similar declinations follow nearly identical paths through the primary beam, this restriction greatly reduces errors associated with beam calibration, yielding a dramatic improvement in the accuracy of derived source spectra. Extrapolating from higher frequency catalogs, we derive the flux scale using a Monte Carlo fit across multiple sources that includes uncertainty from both catalog and measurement errors. Fitting spectral models to catalog data and these new PAPER measurements, we derive new flux models for Pictor A and 31 other sources at nearby declinations; 90% are found to confirm and refine a power-law model for flux density. Of particular importance is the new Pictor A flux model, which is accurate to 1.4% and shows that between 100 MHz and 2 GHz, in contrast with previous models, the spectrum of Pictor A is consistent with a single power law given by a flux at 150 MHz of 382 ± 5.4 Jy and a spectral index of –0.76 ± 0.01. This accuracy represents an order of magnitude improvement over previous measurements in this band and is limited by the uncertainty in the catalog measurements used to estimate the absolute flux scale. The simplicity and improved accuracy of Pictor A's spectrum make it an excellent calibrator in a band important for experiments seeking to measure 21 cm emission from the epoch of reionization

  1. A preliminary survey of the practice patterns of United States Guild Certified Feldenkrais PractitionersCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchanan Patricia A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Feldenkrais Method® of somatic education purports to guide people of varying ages and abilities to improve function. Many people choose this method to aid with recovery from injury, manage chronic conditions, or enhance performance even though limited research supporting its safety and effectiveness exists to guide decisions about use and referral. Very little information about practitioner characteristics and practice patterns is publicly available to assist researchers in the design of appropriate safety and effectiveness studies. The purpose of this study was to obtain an initial overview of the characteristics of United States Guild Certified Feldenkrais PractitionersCM. Methods Of 1300 certified Feldenkrais® practitioners at the time of the study, there were 1193 practitioners with email accounts who were sent invitations to complete a web-based survey. The survey inquired about practice locations, additional credentials, service patterns and workloads during the previous 3 months. Response rate and descriptive statistics were calculated. Results The survey had a 32.3% (385/1193 response rate. The top states in which responders practiced were California (n = 92 and New York (n = 44. Most responders did not hold other credentials as traditional health care providers or as complementary and alternative medicine providers. Among those who did, the most common credentials were physical therapist (n = 83 and massage therapist (n = 38. Just over a third of traditional health care providers only provided Feldenkrais lessons, compared to 59.3% of complementary and alternative providers. On average, responders saw 7.6 ± 8.1 (median = 5 clients per week for individual lessons, 8.4 ± 11.5 (median = 5 clients per week for group lessons, and 2.9 ± 3.9 (median = 2 new clients per month for individual lessons. Conclusions This preliminary survey of United States Guild Certified Feldenkrais Practitioners indicated that most

  2. A preliminary survey of the practice patterns of United States Guild Certified Feldenkrais PractitionersCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Patricia A

    2010-04-01

    The Feldenkrais Method(R) of somatic education purports to guide people of varying ages and abilities to improve function. Many people choose this method to aid with recovery from injury, manage chronic conditions, or enhance performance even though limited research supporting its safety and effectiveness exists to guide decisions about use and referral. Very little information about practitioner characteristics and practice patterns is publicly available to assist researchers in the design of appropriate safety and effectiveness studies. The purpose of this study was to obtain an initial overview of the characteristics of United States Guild Certified Feldenkrais PractitionersCM. Of 1300 certified Feldenkrais practitioners at the time of the study, there were 1193 practitioners with email accounts who were sent invitations to complete a web-based survey. The survey inquired about practice locations, additional credentials, service patterns and workloads during the previous 3 months. Response rate and descriptive statistics were calculated. The survey had a 32.3% (385/1193) response rate. The top states in which responders practiced were California (n = 92) and New York (n = 44). Most responders did not hold other credentials as traditional health care providers or as complementary and alternative medicine providers. Among those who did, the most common credentials were physical therapist (n = 83) and massage therapist (n = 38). Just over a third of traditional health care providers only provided Feldenkrais lessons, compared to 59.3% of complementary and alternative providers. On average, responders saw 7.6 +/- 8.1 (median = 5) clients per week for individual lessons, 8.4 +/- 11.5 (median = 5) clients per week for group lessons, and 2.9 +/- 3.9 (median = 2) new clients per month for individual lessons. This preliminary survey of United States Guild Certified Feldenkrais Practitioners indicated that most practiced in the west and northeast, did not hold additional

  3. Clinical experience with 3-dimensional surface matching-based deep inspiration breath hold for left-sided breast cancer radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoli; Zagar, Timothy M; Bair, Eric; Jones, Ellen L; Fried, David; Zhang, Longzhen; Tracton, Gregg; Xu, Zijie; Leach, Traci; Chang, Sha; Marks, Lawrence B

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) surface matching is a novel method to administer deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) radiation therapy for left-sided breast cancer to reduce cardiac exposure. We analyzed port (x-ray) films to assess patient setup accuracy and treatment times to assess the practical workflow of this system. The data from 50 left-sided breast cancer patients treated with DIBH were studied. AlignRT (London, UK) was used. The distance between the field edge and the anterior pericardial shadow as seen on the routine port films (dPORT), and the corresponding distance seen on the digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) from the planning (dDRR) were compared as a quantitative measure of setup accuracy. Variations of dPORT - dDRR over the treatment course were assessed. In a subset of 21 patients treated with tangential beams alone, the daily treatment durations were analyzed to assess the practical workflow of this system. Considering all 50 patients, the mean absolute systematic uncertainty between dPORT and dDRR was 0.20 cm (range, 0 to 1.22 cm), the mean systematic uncertainty was -0.07 cm (range, -1.22 to 0.67 cm), and their mean random uncertainty was 0.19 cm (range, 0 to 0.84 cm). There was no significant change in dPORT - dDRR during the course of treatment. The mean patient treatment duration for the 21 patients studied was 11 minutes 48 seconds. On intrapatient assessments, 15/21 had nonsignificant trends toward reduced treatment durations during their course of therapy. On interpatient comparisons, the mean treatment times declined as we gained more experience with this technique. The DIBH patient setup appears to provide a fairly reproducible degree of cardiac sparing with random uncertainties of ≈ 0.2 cm. The treatment durations are clinically acceptable and appear not to change significantly over time on an intrapatient basis, and to improve over time on an interpatient basis. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by

  4. Ion Irradiation Experiments on the Murchison CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrite: Simulating Space Weathering of Primitive Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Dukes, C. A.; Baragiola, R. A.; Rahman, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing observations show that space weathering processes affect all airless bodies in the Solar System to some degree. Sample analyses and lab experiments provide insights into the chemical, spectroscopic and mineralogic effects of space weathering and aid in the interpretation of remote- sensing data. For example, analyses of particles returned from the S-type asteroid Itokawa by the Hayabusa mission revealed that space-weathering on that body was dominated by interactions with the solar wind acting on LL ordinary chondrite-like materials [1, 2]. Understanding and predicting how the surface regoliths of primitive carbonaceous asteroids respond to space weathering processes is important for future sample return missions (Hayabusa 2 and OSIRIS-REx) that are targeting objects of this type. Here, we report the results of our preliminary ion irradiation experiments on a hydrated carbonaceous chondrite with emphasis on microstructural and infrared spectral changes.

  5. High-resolution synchrotron infrared spectroscopy of acrolein: The vibrational levels between 850 and 1020 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellar, A. R. W.; Billinghurst, B. E.; Xu, Li-Hong; Lees, R. M.

    2015-11-01

    Using spectra obtained at the Canadian Light Source synchrotron radiation facility, a previously unobserved out-of-plane vibration of trans-acrolein (propenal) is reliably assigned for the first time. Its origin is at 1002.01 cm-1, which is about 20 cm-1 higher than usually quoted in the past. This mode is thus labelled as v14, leaving the label v15 for the known vibration at 992.66 cm-1. Weak combination bands 171182 ← 182, 171131 ← 131, 121182 ← 181, and 171182 ← 181 are studied for the first time, and assignments in the known v11, v16, and v15 fundamental bands are also extended. The seven excited vibrations involved in these bands are analyzed, together with five more unobserved vibrations in the same region (850-1020 cm-1), in a large 12-state simultaneous fit which accounts for most of the many observed perturbations in the spectra.

  6. Baseline Assessment of the Department of the Army Cost Estimating and Analysis (CE/A) and Cost Management (CM) Capabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doyle, Michael C

    2005-01-01

    .../A) and cost management (CM) capabilities. In particular, it supports the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army- Cost AND Economics' mission to provide DA with cost, performance and economic analysis in the form of expertise, models, data...

  7. Gene expression analysis supports tumor threshold over 2.0 cm for T-category breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solvang, Hiroko K; Frigessi, Arnoldo; Kaveh, Fateme; Riis, Margit L H; Lüders, Torben; Bukholm, Ida R K; Kristensen, Vessela N; Andreassen, Bettina K

    2016-12-01

    Tumor size, as indicated by the T-category, is known as a strong prognostic indicator for breast cancer. It is common practice to distinguish the T1 and T2 groups at a tumor size of 2.0 cm. We investigated the 2.0-cm rule from a new point of view. Here, we try to find the optimal threshold based on the differences between the gene expression profiles of the T1 and T2 groups (as defined by the threshold). We developed a numerical algorithm to measure the overall differential gene expression between patients with smaller tumors and those with larger tumors among multiple expression datasets from different studies. We confirmed the performance of the proposed algorithm by a simulation study and then applied it to three different studies conducted at two Norwegian hospitals. We found that the maximum difference in gene expression is obtained at a threshold of 2.2-2.4 cm, and we confirmed that the optimum threshold was over 2.0 cm, as indicated by a validation study using five publicly available expression datasets. Furthermore, we observed a significant differentiation between the two threshold groups in terms of time to local recurrence for the Norwegian datasets. In addition, we performed an associated network and canonical pathway analyses for the genes differentially expressed between tumors below and above the given thresholds, 2.0 and 2.4 cm, using the Norwegian datasets. The associated network function illustrated a cellular assembly of the genes for the 2.0-cm threshold: an energy production for the 2.4-cm threshold and an enrichment in lipid metabolism based on the genes in the intersection for the 2.0- and 2.4-cm thresholds.

  8. Sensitive Detection and Identification of Isovanillin Aerosol Particles at the pg/cm3 Mass Concentration Level using Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-24

    mass 152.15; Density 1.41) aerosol particles of mass concentration MC of 1.8...Aerosol Particles at the pg/cm3 Mass Concentration Level Using Raman Spectroscopy* R. L. Aggarwal1, S. Di Cecca, L. W. Farrar, Shabshelowitz, A...detect isovanillin aerosols with mass concentration of 12 pg/cm3 in a 15 s signal integration period with a signal‐to‐noise ratio of 32. We

  9. Trends in Opioid-related Inpatient Stays Shifted After the US Transitioned to ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Coding in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslin, Kevin C; Owens, Pamela L; Karaca, Zeynal; Barrett, Marguerite L; Moore, Brian J; Elixhauser, Anne

    2017-11-01

    Trend analyses of opioid-related inpatient stays depend on the availability of comparable data over time. In October 2015, the US transitioned diagnosis coding from International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) to ICD-10-CM, increasing from ∼14,000 to 68,000 codes. This study examines how trend analyses of inpatient stays involving opioid diagnoses were affected by the transition to ICD-10-CM. Data are from Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases for 14 states in 2015-2016, representing 26% of acute care inpatient discharges in the US. We examined changes in the number of opioid-related stays before, during, and after the transition to ICD-10-CM using quarterly ICD-9-CM data from 2015 and quarterly ICD-10-CM data from the fourth quarter of 2015 and the first 3 quarters of 2016. Overall, stays involving any opioid-related diagnosis increased by 14.1% during the ICD transition-which was preceded by a much lower 5.0% average quarterly increase before the transition and followed by a 3.5% average increase after the transition. In stratified analysis, stays involving adverse effects of opioids in therapeutic use showed the largest increase (63.2%) during the transition, whereas stays involving abuse and poisoning diagnoses decreased by 21.1% and 12.4%, respectively. The sharp increase in opioid-related stays overall during the transition to ICD-10-CM may indicate that the new classification system is capturing stays that were missed by ICD-9-CM data. Estimates of stays involving other diagnoses may also be affected, and analysts should assess potential discontinuities in trends across the ICD transition.

  10. The discriminatory cost of ICD-10-CM transition between clinical specialties: metrics, case study, and mitigating tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Andrew D; Li, Jianrong John; Burton, Mike D; Jonen, Michael; Gardeux, Vincent; Achour, Ikbel; Luo, Roger Q; Zenku, Ilir; Bahroos, Neil; Brown, Stephen B; Vanden Hoek, Terry; Lussier, Yves A

    2013-01-01

    Applying the science of networks to quantify the discriminatory impact of the ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM transition between clinical specialties. Datasets were the Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM mapping files, general equivalence mappings, and statewide Medicaid emergency department billing. Diagnoses were represented as nodes and their mappings as directional relationships. The complex network was synthesized as an aggregate of simpler motifs and tabulation per clinical specialty. We identified five mapping motif categories: identity, class-to-subclass, subclass-to-class, convoluted, and no mapping. Convoluted mappings indicate that multiple ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM codes share complex, entangled, and non-reciprocal mappings. The proportions of convoluted diagnoses mappings (36% overall) range from 5% (hematology) to 60% (obstetrics and injuries). In a case study of 24 008 patient visits in 217 emergency departments, 27% of the costs are associated with convoluted diagnoses, with 'abdominal pain' and 'gastroenteritis' accounting for approximately 3.5%. Previous qualitative studies report that administrators and clinicians are likely to be challenged in understanding and managing their practice because of the ICD-10-CM transition. We substantiate the complexity of this transition with a thorough quantitative summary per clinical specialty, a case study, and the tools to apply this methodology easily to any clinical practice in the form of a web portal and analytic tables. Post-transition, successful management of frequent diseases with convoluted mapping network patterns is critical. The http://lussierlab.org/transition-to-ICD10CM web portal provides insight in linking onerous diseases to the ICD-10 transition.

  11. Involvement of CmWRKY10 in Drought Tolerance of Chrysanthemum through the ABA-Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Muhammad Abuzar; Song, Aiping; Faheem, Muhammad; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Liu, Chen; Fan, Qingqing; Chen, Fadi

    2016-05-11

    Drought is one of the important abiotic factors that adversely affects plant growth and production. The WRKY transcription factor plays a pivotal role in plant growth and development, as well as in the elevation of many abiotic stresses. Among three major groups of the WRKY family, the group IIe WRKY has been the least studied in floral crops. Here, we report functional aspects of group IIe WRKY member, i.e., CmWRKY10 in chrysanthemum involved in drought tolerance. The transactivation assay showed that CmWRKY10 had transcriptional activity in yeast cells and subcellular localization demonstrated that it was localized in nucleus. Our previous study showed that CmWRKY10 could be induced by drought in chrysanthemum. Moreover, the overexpression of CmWRKY10 in transgenic chrysanthemum plants improved tolerance to drought stress compared to wild-type (WT). High expression of DREB1A, DREB2A, CuZnSOD, NCED3A, and NCED3B transcripts in overexpressed plants provided strong evidence that drought tolerance mechanism was associated with abscisic acid (ABA) pathway. In addition, lower accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and higher enzymatic activity of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in CmWRKY10 overexpressed lines than that of WT demonstrates its role in drought tolerance. Together, these findings reveal that CmWRKY10 works as a positive regulator in drought stress by regulating stress-related genes.

  12. Using Hydrus 2-D to assess the emitters optimal position for Eggplants under surface and subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazouani, Hiba; Autovino, Dario; Douh, Boutheina; Boujelben, Abdel Hamid; Provenznao, Giuseppe; Rallo, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    The main objective of the work is to assess the emitters optimal position for Eggplant crop (Solanum melongena L.) in a sandy loam soil irrigated with surface or subsurface drip irrigation systems, by means of field measurements and simulations carried out with Hydrus-2D model. Initially, the performance of the model is evaluated on the basis of the comparison between simulated soil water contents (SWC) and the corresponding measured in two plots, in which laterals with coextruded emitters are laid on the soil surface (T0) and at 20 cm depth (T20), respectively. In order to choose the best position of the lateral, the results of different simulation runs, carried out by changing the installation depth of the lateral (5 cm, 15 cm and 45 cm) were compared in terms of ratio between actual transpiration and total amount of water provided during the entire growing season (WUE). Experiments were carried out, from April to June 2007, at Institut Supérieur Agronomique de Chott Mériem (Sousse, Tunisia). In the two plots, plants were spaced 0.40 m along the row and 1.2 m between the rows. Each plot was irrigated by means of laterals with coextruded emitters spaced 0.40 m and discharging a flow rate equal to 4.0 l h-1 at a nominal pressure of 100 kPa. In each plot, spatial and temporal variability of SWCs were acquired with a Time Domain Reflectometry probe (Trime-FM3), on a total of four 70 cm long access tubes, installed along the direction perpendicular to the plant row, at distances of 0, 20, 40 and 60 cm from the emitter. Irrigation water was supplied, accounting for the rainfall, every 7-10 days at the beginning of the crop cycle (March-April) and approximately once a week during the following stages till the harvesting (May-June), for a total of 15 one-hour watering. To run the model, soil evaporation, Ep, and crop transpiration, Tp were determined according to the modified FAO Penman-Monteith equation and the dual crop coefficient approach, whereas soil hydraulics

  13. Earth-based 12.6-cm wavelength radar mapping of the Moon: New views of impact melt distribution and mare physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Carter, Lynn M.; Campbell, Donald B.; Nolan, Michael; Chandler, John; Ghent, Rebecca R.; Ray Hawke, B.; Anderson, Ross F.; Wells, Kassandra

    2010-08-01

    We present results of a campaign to map much of the Moon's near side using the 12.6-cm radar transmitter at Arecibo Observatory and receivers at the Green Bank Telescope. These data have a single-look spatial resolution of about 40 m, with final maps averaged to an 80-m, four-look product to reduce image speckle. Focused processing is used to obtain this high spatial resolution over the entire region illuminated by the Arecibo beam. The transmitted signal is circularly polarized, and we receive reflections in both senses of circular polarization; measurements of receiver thermal noise during periods with no lunar echoes allow well-calibrated estimates of the circular polarization ratio (CPR) and the four-element Stokes vector. Radiometric calibration to values of the backscatter coefficient is ongoing. Radar backscatter data for the Moon provide information on regolith dielectric and physical properties, with particular sensitivity to ilmenite content and surface or buried rocks with diameter of about one-tenth the radar wavelength and larger. Average 12.6-cm circular polarization ratio (CPR) values for low- to moderate-TiO 2 mare basalt deposits are similar to those of rough terrestrial lava flows. We attribute these high values to abundant few-centimeter diameter rocks from small impacts and a significant component of subsurface volume scattering. An outflow deposit, inferred to be impact melt, from Glushko crater has CPR values near unity at 12.6-cm and 70-cm wavelengths and thus a very rugged near-surface structure at the decimeter to meter scale. This deposit does not show radar-brightness variations consistent with levees or channels, and appears to nearly overtop a massif, suggesting very rapid emplacement. Deposits of similar morphology and/or radar brightness are noted for craters such as Pythagoras, Rutherfurd, Theophilus, and Aristillus. Images of the north pole show that, despite recording the deposition of Orientale material, Byrd and Peary craters do

  14. Simulation of Gas-Surface Dynamical Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    surface. The substrate with lattice constant a is represented in a simple ball and spring picture. on the particular problem. Time-independent...παvwell , (26) Simulation of Gas-Surface Dynamical Interactions 4 - 10 RTO-EN-AVT-142 g E ad v mvc ∆ v’well vc cM Figure 4

  15. Ultrahigh B doping (≤1022 cm-3) during Si(001) gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy: B incorporation, electrical activation, and hole transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, G.; Kim, H.; Desjardins, P.; Taylor, N.; Spila, T.; Lu, Q.; Greene, J. E.

    2000-01-01

    Si(001) layers doped with B concentrations C B between 1x10 17 and 1.2x10 22 cm -3 (24 at %) were grown on Si(001)2x1 at temperatures T s =500-850 degree sign C by gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy from Si 2 H 6 and B 2 H 6 . C B increases linearly with the incident precursor flux ratio J B 2 H 6 /J Si 2 H 6 and B is incorporated into substitutional electrically active sites at concentrations up to C B * (T s ) which, for T s =600 degree sign C, is 2.5x10 20 cm -3 . At higher B concentrations, C B increases faster than J B 2 H 6 /J Si 2 H 6 and there is a large and discontinuous decrease in the activated fraction of incorporated B. However, the total activated B concentration continues to increase and reaches a value of N B =1.3x10 21 cm -3 with C B =1.2x10 22 cm -3 . High-resolution x-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) and reciprocal space mapping measurements show that all films, irrespective of C B and T s , are fully strained. No B precipitates or misfit dislocations were detected by HR-XRD or transmission electron microscopy. The lattice constant in the film growth direction a (perpendicular sign) decreases linearly with increasing C B up to the limit of full electrical activation and continues to decrease, but nonlinearly, with C B >C B * . Room-temperature resistivity and conductivity mobility values are in good agreement with theoretical values for B concentrations up to C B =2.5x10 20 and 2x10 21 cm -3 , respectively. All results can be explained on the basis of a model which accounts for strong B surface segregation to the second-layer with a saturation coverage θ B,sat of 0.5 ML (corresponding to C B =C B * ). At higher C B (i.e., θ B >θ B,sat ), B accumulates in the upper layer as shown by thermally programmed desorption measurements, and a parallel incorporation channel becomes available in which B is incorporated into substitutional sites as B pairs that are electrically inactive but have a low charge-scattering cross section. (c) 2000 The American Physical

  16. Minimal surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Sauvigny, Friedrich; Jakob, Ruben; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    Minimal Surfaces is the first volume of a three volume treatise on minimal surfaces (Grundlehren Nr. 339-341). Each volume can be read and studied independently of the others. The central theme is boundary value problems for minimal surfaces. The treatise is a substantially revised and extended version of the monograph Minimal Surfaces I, II (Grundlehren Nr. 295 & 296). The first volume begins with an exposition of basic ideas of the theory of surfaces in three-dimensional Euclidean space, followed by an introduction of minimal surfaces as stationary points of area, or equivalently

  17. Comparison of in vitro antibacterial activities of two cationic peptides CM15 and CM11 against five pathogenic bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, M Moosazadeh; Abolhassani, F; Babavalian, H; Mirnejad, R; Azizi Barjini, K; Amani, J

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, the widespread use of antibiotics has caused many bacterial pathogens resistance to conventional antibiotics. Therefore, generation of new antibiotics to control and reduce the effects of these pathogens is urgently needed. Antimicrobial peptides and proteins are important members of the host defense system in eukaryotes. These peptides are potent, broad-spectrum antibiotics that demonstrate potential as novel and alternative therapeutic agents for the treatment of drug-resistant infections. Accordingly, we evaluated two hybrid peptides CM11 (WKLFKKILKVL-NH2) and CM15 (KWKLFKKIGAVLKVL-NH2) on five important pathogenic bacteria. These peptides are short cecropin-melittin hybrid peptides obtained through a sequence combination approach, which are highly effective to inhibit the growth of important pathogenic bacteria. The activity of these two cationic peptides (CM11 and CM15) in different concentrations (2-64 mg/L) was investigated against standard and clinical isolates of important hospital infection bacteria by measuring MIC, MBC, and bactericidal assay. These peptides demonstrated the same ranges of inhibitory values: The organisms in early 24 h were more susceptible to polycationic peptides (MIC: 8 mg/L and MBC 32 mg/L), but after 48 h the MIC and MBC remained constant for the CM11 peptide. Bactericidal assay showed that all bacteria strains did not have any growth in agar plates after 40 min. The result showed that these two peptides are more effective than other peptides.

  18. Rumble surfaces

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    National Institute for Transport and Road

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Rumble surfaces are intermittent short lengths of coarse-textured road surfacings on which vehicle tyres produce a rumbling sound. used in conjunction with appropriate roadsigns and markings, they can reduce accidents on rural roads by alerting...

  19. Surface thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Moliner, F.

    1975-01-01

    Basic thermodynamics of a system consisting of two bulk phases with an interface. Solid surfaces: general. Discussion of experimental data on surface tension and related concepts. Adsorption thermodynamics in the Gibbsian scheme. Adsorption on inert solid adsorbents. Systems with electrical charges: chemistry and thermodynamics of imperfect crystals. Thermodynamics of charged surfaces. Simple models of charge transfer chemisorption. Adsorption heat and related concepts. Surface phase transitions

  20. The Effect of Stone Composition on the Efficacy of Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery: Kidney Stones 1 - 3 cm in Diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuquan; Zhang, Peng; Yang, Xiaojie; Chong, Tie

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the effect of stone composition on the efficacy of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) with kidney stones of 1-3 cm, 1-2 cm, and 2-3 cm in diameter. We undertook a retrospective analysis of 74 patients with kidney stones who underwent RIRS. The patients were divided into two groups based on stone composition: Group I (n=47) (calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium phosphate) was the hard to fragment stone group and group II (n=27) (calcium oxalate dihydrate, magnesium ammonium phosphate, and uric acid) was the easy to fragment stone group. Forty-six patients with kidney stones 1 to 2 cm in diameter were divided into group A (n=30) (smaller than 20 mm, hard to fragment stones) and group B (n=16) (smaller than 20 mm, easy to fragment stones). Twenty-eight patients with stones 2 to 3 cm in diameter were divided into group C (n=17) (larger than 20 mm, hard to fragment stones) and group D (n=11) (larger than 20 mm, easy-to-crush stones). The stone clearance rates of group I and group II were 66.0% and 88.9%, respectively (Pstone clearance rates of group A and group B were 73.3% and 100% (Pstone clearance rates of group C and group D were 52.9% and 72.7%, respectively. Stone composition has a significant impact on the efficacy of RIRS in the management of 1 to 3 cm kidney stones. For 2-3 cm calcium oxalate dihydrate stones, uric acid stones, and magnesium ammonium phosphate stones, the outcome of RIRS treatment was relatively good, and RIRS is recommended.

  1. Experimental tests of the gravitational inverse-square law for mass separations from 2 to 105 cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, J.K.; Newman, R.D.; Spero, R.; Schultz, J.

    1985-01-01

    We report two experiments which test the inverse-square distance dependence of the Newtonian gravitational force law. One experiment uses a torsion balance consisting of a 60-cm-long copper bar suspended at its midpoint by a tungsten wire, to compare the torque produced by copper masses 105 cm from the balance axis with the torque produced by a copper mass 5 cm from the side of the balance bar, near its end. Defining R/sub expt/ to be the measured ratio of the torques due to the masses at 105 cm and 5 cm, and R/sub Newton/ to be the corresponding ratio computed assuming an inverse-square force law, we find deltaequivalent(R/sub expt//R/sub Newton/-1) = (1.2 +- 7) x 10 -4 . Assuming a force deviating from an inverse-square distance dependence by a factor [1+epsilon lnr(cm)], this result implies epsilon = (0.5 +- 2.7) x 10 -4 . An earlier experiment, which has been reported previously, is described here in detail. This experiment tested the inverse-square law over a distance range of approximately 2 to 5 cm, by probing the gravitational field inside a steel mass tube using a copper test mass suspended from the end of a torsion balance bar. This experiment yielded a value for the parameter epsilon defined above: epsilon = (1 +- 7) x 10 -5 . The results of both of these experiments are in good agreement with the Newton- ian prediction. Limits on the strength and range of a Yukawa potential term superimposed on the Newtonian gravitational potential are discussed

  2. Goldstone/VLA 3.5cm Mars Radar Observations - "Stealths" and South Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Bryan; Chizek, M. R.; Slade, M. A.; Haldemann, A. F.; Muhleman, D. O.; Mao, T. F.

    2006-09-01

    The opposition of Mars in 2003 provided a fantastic opportunity to use the combined Goldstone/VLA radar to probe the surface with the highest resolution ever obtained on Mars with that instrument (as good as 70 km). Observations were made on August 11, 19, 28, and September 8. Details of data reduction and analysis of the radar echoes from the volcanic regions of the planet are presented in a companion paper in these proceedings (Chizek et al.). We will present results related to "Stealth" (and other radar-dark regions of the planet, including the Argyre and Hellas Planitiae, and a region to the west of the Elysium Mons caldera), and the south polar residual and seasonal ice caps. The size, shape, and reflectivity characteristics of Stealth and "mega-Stealth" (Edgett et al. 1997) are reaffirmed, with a better viewing geometry of the western extent of the feature than had been obtained previously. It had been speculated previously that Hellas Planitia should also be radar dark - this is confirmed by our imaging, though the reflectivity is not as low as for Stealth. We find a new radar dark area to the west of Elysium Mons, which is likely an ash fall from that volcano (similar to the relationship between Stealth and the Tharsis volcanoes). The south polar residual ice cap is a very bright reflector, as seen previously, but we now also see a very bright reflection from the seasonal cap, not seen previously. The cap is not uniformly bright, however, and the extent of the bright reflection does not correspond to that expected from the retreat of the cap as measured either from albedo or thermal emission characteristics. The NRAO is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis, structure, Raman spectroscopy, and self-irradiation studies of 248Cm(IO3)3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykora, Richard E.; Assefa, Zerihun; Haire, Richard G.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    The study of curium iodate, Cm(IO 3 ) 3 , was undertaken as part of a systematic investigation of the 4f- and 5f-elements' iodates. The reaction of 248 CmCl 3 with aqueous H 5 IO 6 under mild hydrothermal conditions results in the reduction of IO 6 5- to IO 3 - anions, and the subsequent formation of Cm(IO 3 ) 3 single crystals. Crystallographic data are: (193K, MoKα, λ=0.71073A): monoclinic, space group P2 1 /c, a=7.2014(7)A, b=8.5062(9)A, c=13.4622(14)A, β=100.142(2) o , V=811.76(14), Z=4, R(F)=2.11%, Rw(Fo2)=4.43% for 119 parameters with 1917 reflections with I>2σ(I). The structure consists of Cm 3+ cations bound by iodate anions to form [Cm(IO 3 ) 8 ] units, where the local coordination environment around the curium centers can be described as a distorted dodecahedron. There are three crystallographically unique iodate anions within the structure; two iodates bridge between three Cm centers, and one iodate bridges between two Cm centers and has a terminal oxygen atom. The bridging of the curium centers by the iodate anions creates a three-dimensional structure. Three strong Raman bands with comparable intensities were observed at 846, 804, and 760cm -1 and correspond to the I-O symmetric stretching of the three crystallographically distinct iodate ions. The Raman profile suggests a lack of inter-ionic vibrational coupling of the I-O stretching, while intra-ionic coupling provides symmetric and asymmetric components that correspond to each iodate site. Repeated collection of X-ray diffraction data for a crystal of Cm(IO 3 ) 3 over a period of time revealed a gradual expansion of the unit cell from self-irradiation. After 71 days, the new parameters were: a=7.2132(7)A, b=8.5310(8)A, c=13.505(1)A, β=100.021(2) o , V=818.3(2)

  4. Imaging of Hsp70-positive tumors with cmHsp70.1 antibody-conjugated gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrmann, Mathias K; Kimm, Melanie A; Stangl, Stefan; Schmid, Thomas E; Noël, Peter B; Rummeny, Ernst J; Multhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Real-time imaging of small tumors is still one of the challenges in cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring of clinical outcome. Targeting novel biomarkers that are selectively expressed on a large variety of different tumors but not normal cells has the potential to improve the imaging capacity of existing methods such as computed tomography. Herein, we present a novel technique using cmHsp70.1 monoclonal antibody-conjugated spherical gold nanoparticles for quantification of the targeted uptake of gold nanoparticles into membrane Hsp70-positive tumor cells. Upon binding, cmHsp70.1-conjugated gold nanoparticles but not nanoparticles coupled to an isotype-matched IgG1 antibody or empty nanoparticles are rapidly taken up by highly malignant Hsp70 membrane-positive mouse tumor cells. After 24 hours, the cmHsp70.1-conjugated gold nanoparticles are found to be enriched in the perinuclear region. Specificity for membrane Hsp70 was shown by using an Hsp70 knockout tumor cell system. Toxic side effects of the cmHsp70.1-conjugated nanoparticles are not observed at a concentration of 1–10 µg/mL. Experiments are ongoing to evaluate whether cmHsp70.1 antibody-conjugated gold nanoparticles are suitable for the detection of membrane-Hsp70-positive tumors in vivo. PMID:26392771

  5. Protein phosphatase 2Cm is a critical regulator of branched-chain amino acid catabolism in mice and cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Gang; Sun, Haipeng; She, Pengxiang; Youn, Ji-Youn; Warburton, Sarah; Ping, Peipei; Vondriska, Thomas M; Cai, Hua; Lynch, Christopher J; Wang, Yibin

    2009-06-01

    The branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are essential amino acids required for protein homeostasis, energy balance, and nutrient signaling. In individuals with deficiencies in BCAA, these amino acids can be preserved through inhibition of the branched-chain-alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex, the rate-limiting step in their metabolism. BCKD is inhibited by phosphorylation of its E1alpha subunit at Ser293, which is catalyzed by BCKD kinase. During BCAA excess, phosphorylated Ser293 (pSer293) becomes dephosphorylated through the concerted inhibition of BCKD kinase and the activity of an unknown intramitochondrial phosphatase. Using unbiased, proteomic approaches, we have found that a mitochondrial-targeted phosphatase, PP2Cm, specifically binds the BCKD complex and induces dephosphorylation of Ser293 in the presence of BCKD substrates. Loss of PP2Cm completely abolished substrate-induced E1alpha dephosphorylation both in vitro and in vivo. PP2Cm-deficient mice exhibited BCAA catabolic defects and a metabolic phenotype similar to the intermittent or intermediate types of human maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a hereditary disorder caused by defects in BCKD activity. These results indicate that PP2Cm is the endogenous BCKD phosphatase required for nutrient-mediated regulation of BCKD activity and suggest that defects in PP2Cm may be responsible for a subset of human MSUD.

  6. Luminescence studies of Sm(III) and Cm(III) complexes in NaSCN/DHDECMP extraction systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, D Y; Kimura, T

    1999-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) studies of Sm(III) and Cm(III) complexes in the NaSCN/DHDECMP solvent extraction system were carried out. Luminescence lifetimes were measured to determine the number of water molecules coordinated to Sm(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), and Cm(III) in the sodium thiocyanate solution and in the DHDECMP phase. The hydration number of Sm(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), and Cm(III) in the sodium thiocyanate solution decreased linearly with increasing sodium thiocyanate concentration. The hydration numbers of Sm(III), Dy(III), and Cm(III) in the DHDECMP phase decreased with increasing sodium thiocyanate concentration. The water molecules in the inner coordination sphere of Sm(III) and Dy(III) extracted into the DHDECMP were not completely removed at low sodium thiocyanate concentration but decreased with increasing sodium thiocyanate concentration. However, in the case of Cm(III) extracted into the DHDECMP phase from the sodium thiocyanate solution, there was no water in the inner coordination sphe...

  7. The spinocerebellar ataxia 2 locus is located within a 3-cm interval on chromosome 12q23-24.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allotey, R.; Twells, R.; Cemal, C. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    The autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias (ADCA) are a clinically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a predominantly cerebellar syndrome of onset with gait ataxia, dysarthria, dysmetria, and dysdiadochokinesia. Pathologically, the disorders are characterized by premature neuronal loss in the cerebellar cortex and the inferior olivary and pontine nuclei, with degeneration of the spinal cord. We have previously assigned the spinocerebellar ataxia 2 locus to chromosome 12q23-24.1, within a 31-cM interval flanked by the loci D12S58 and PLA2. Linkage to SCA2 has been demonstrated in pedigrees from Europe, Japan, and North America, the latter serving to refine the candidate region to a 16-cM interval. We report here genetic analysis undertaken between SCA2 and nine microsatellite loci known to span 8 cM within this interval. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Oxygen Isotope Evidence for the Relationship between CM and CO Chondrites: Could they Both Coexist on a Single Asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, R. C.; Howard, K. T.; Franchi, I. A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Buchanan, P. C.; Gibson, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Water played a critical role in the early evolution of asteroids and planets, as well as being an essential ingredient for life on Earth. However, despite its importance, the source of water in the inner solar system remains controversial. Delivery of water to Earth via comets is inconsistent with their relatively elevated D/H ratios, whereas carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) have more terrestrial-like D/H ratios [1]. Of the eight groups into which the CCs are divided, only three (CI, CM, CR) show evidence of extensive aqueous alteration. Of these, the CMs form the single most important group, representing 34% of all CC falls and a similar percentage of finds (Met. Bull. Database). CM material also dominates the population of CC clasts in extraterrestrial samples [2, 3]. The Antarctic micrometeorites population is also dominated by CM and CI-like material and similar particles may have transported water and volatiles to the early Earth [4]. CCs, and CMs in particular, offer the best opportunity for investigating the evolution of water reservoirs in the early solar system. An important aspect of this problem involves identifying the anhydrous silicate component which co-accreted with ice in the CM parent body. A genetic relationship between the essentially anhydrous CO group and the CMs was proposed on the basis of oxygen isotope evidence [5]. However, previous CM whole-rock oxygen isotope data scattered about a line of approximately 0.5 that did not intersect the field of CO chondrites [5]. Here we discuss new oxygen isotope data which provides additional constraints on the relationship between CO and CM chondrites.

  9. Structure of Solids Surfaces in Wear Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-17

    lactones , respectively. As pointed out by Greenler 12J, the most intense emission bands from a material adsorbed in a thin layer on a metal surface...peroxides are formed instead of hydroper-.,. .," ", oxides. The decomposition of these peroxides then leads to unsaturates , aldehydes, ketones and...around 1100 cm-1 (OH and unsaturation ) and at 730 cm-1 (CH2 rock). weeIt is clear that such analyses are difficult, but can yield a welthof information

  10. Patch testing with 2.0% (0.60 mg/cm2) formaldehyde instead of 1.0% (0.30 mg/cm2) detects significantly more contact allerg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontén, Ann; Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Agner, Tove

    2013-01-01

    .0% (wt/vol) (0.30 mg/cm(2) ) formaldehyde. Micropipettes were used for delivering the exact dosage of the allergen. Results.Significantly more patients reacted to 2.0% formaldehyde than to 1.0% (3.4% versus 1.8%, p

  11. Impact of a Dialectic Behavior Therapy-Corrections Modified (DBT-CM) upon behaviorally challenged incarcerated male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Deborah; Kesten, Karen; Zhang, Wanli; Trestman, Robert

    2011-05-01

    This article reports the findings of a Dialectical Behavioral Therapy-Corrections Modified (DBT-CM) intervention upon difficult-to-manage, impulsive, and/or aggressive incarcerated male adolescents. A secondary analysis of a subsample of 38 male adolescents who participated in the study was conducted. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used; descriptive statistics and t-tests were conducted. Significant changes were found in physical aggression, distancing coping methods, and number of disciplinary tickets for behavior. The study supports the value of DBT-CM for the management of incarcerated male adolescents with difficult-to-manage aggressive behaviors. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. CmBGI Gene Expression encoding β-glucosidase in melon (Cucumis melo L. under stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanita Rachmawati

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available CmBGI is the enzymatic genes encoding β-glucosidase that involved in Abscisic Acid (ABA metabolism of Cucumis melo L. β-glucosidase promotes the accumulation of glucose, fructose, and sucrose, and it might act as a regulator that mediates melon fruit ripening both climacteric and nonclimacteric. ABA mediates adaptive responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Agricultural Balitbang in 1997 showed that there were approximately 158.600 ha of degraded land scattered in three zones of agroecosystems in Yogyakarta (DIY. One of them is Dlingo Bantul area which has a karst type critical land area. Karst provides stress to the certain plant growth. One way to conserve critical land is making this area for agriculture. Cultivar TACAPA and TA were superior melons that have been developed by Genetic Laboratory of Biology Faculty UGM. This preliminary research was conducted to examine molecular characterization of CmBGI gene expression in cultivar TACAPA and TA which are planted in normal condition medium and in critical land medium treatment. Total RNA was extracted from leaf tissue then Reversed Transcriptase (RT-PCR to collect cDNA library. cDNA was amplified using specific primer. Spectrophotometry was conducted in λ260 nm and electrophoresis run in 1.5% agarose gel. Control of band chosen was Cm-Actin. CmBGI gene concentration of TACAPA and TA in normal condition medium are in succession 578.5 and 579.4 μg/ml then for critical land medium treatment 743.4 and 773.5 μg/ml. CmBGI band was showed both of TACAPA and TA as ± 1258 bp. Cm-actin was showed band of DNA as ± 445 bp. CmBGI gene concentration in critical land medium treatment which is given greater stress on melons are higher than normal condition. This suggests that the CmBGI gene is expressed more in cultivar TACAPA and TA melons when they are grown under stress condition.

  13. Evaluation of 8.0-cm needle at the fourth anterior axillary line for needle chest decompression of tension pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Samuel J; Ross, Samuel Wade; Kiefer, David J; Anderson, William E; Rogers, Amelia T; Sing, Ronald F; Callaway, David W

    2014-04-01

    Five-centimeter needles at the second intercostal space midclavicular line (2MCL) have high failure rates for decompression of tension pneumothorax. This study evaluates 8-cm needles directed at the fourth intercostal space anterior axillary line (4AAL). Retrospective radiographic analysis of 100 consecutive trauma patients 18 years or older from January to September 2011. Measurements of chest wall thickness (CWT) and depth to vital structure (DVS) were obtained at 2MCL and 4AAL. 4AAL measurements were taken based on two angles: closest vital structure and perpendicular to the chest wall. Primary outcome measures were radiographic decompression (RD) (defined as CWT RNI) (DVS > 80 mm) of 8-cm needles at 4AAL. Secondary outcome measures are effect of angle of entry on RNI at 4AAL, RD and RNI of 8-cm needles at 2MCL, and comparison of 5-cm needles with 8-cm needles at both locations. Eighty-four percent of the patients were male, with mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 17.7 (range, 1.0-66.0) and body mass index of 26.8 (16.5-48.4). Mean CWT at 4AAL ranged from 37.6 mm to 39.9 mm, significantly thinner than mean CWT at 2MCL (43.3-46.7 mm). Eight-centimeter needle RD was more than 96% at both 4AAL and 2MCL. Five-centimeter RD ranged from 66% to 81% at all sites. Mean DVS at 4AAL ranged from 91.8 mm to 128.0 mm. RNI at all sites was more than 91% except at left 4AAL, when taken to the closest vital structure (mean DVS, 91.8 mm), with 68% RNI. Perpendicular entry increased DVS to 109.4 mm and subsequent RNI to 91%. Five-centimeter RNI at all sites was more than 99%. CWT at 4AAL is significantly thinner than 2MCL. Based on radiographic measurements, 8-cm catheters have a higher chance of pleural decompression when compared with 5-cm catheters. Steeper angle of entry at 4AAL improves 8-cm noninjury rates to more than 91%. Therapeutic/care management study, level IV.

  14. Nanoimprinted polymer lasers with threshold below 100 W/cm2 using mixed-order distributed feedback resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Tsiminis, Georgios; Kanibolotsky, Alexander L; Skabara, Peter J; Samuel, Ifor D W; Turnbull, Graham A

    2013-06-17

    Organic semiconductor lasers were fabricated by UV-nanoimprint lithography with thresholds as low as 57 W/cm(2) under 4 ns pulsed operation. The nanoimprinted lasers employed mixed-order distributed feedback resonators, with second-order gratings surrounded by first-order gratings, combined with a light-emitting conjugated polymer. They were pumped by InGaN LEDs to produce green-emitting lasers, with thresholds of 208 W/cm(2) (102 nJ/pulse). These hybrid lasers incorporate a scalable UV-nanoimprint lithography process, compatible with high-performance LEDs, therefore we have demonstrated a coherent, compact, low-cost light source.

  15. Use of Novel Surfaces to Reduce Bioadhesion on Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Snails can sense surfaces and change mucus properties: Cross: 73% reduction Engineer Research and...100 120 140 160 180 MES TFE Si Wafer C o n ta c t a n g le ( d e g re e s ) Deinoized water Carboxymethylcellulose Snail Mucus Teflon 0 20 40 60 80...efficacy • Conclusions • Future Directions 2 Engineer Research and Development Center • Problem: invasive species stowaways  Snails , plant

  16. Effect of Shot Peening in Different Shot Distance and Shot Angle on Surface Morphology, Surface Roughness and Surface Hardness of 316L Biomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbu Kondi Maliwemu, Erich; Malau, Viktor; Iswanto, Priyo Tri

    2018-01-01

    Shot peening is a mechanical surface treatment with a beneficial effect to generate compressive residual stress caused by plastic deformation on the surface of material. This plastic deformation can improve the surface characteristics of metallic materials, such as modification of surface morphology, surface roughness, and surface hardness. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of shot peening in different shot distance and shot angle on surface morphology, surface roughness, and surface hardness of 316L biomaterial. Shot distance was varied at 6, 8, 10, and 12 cm and shot angle at 30, 60, and 90°, working pressure at 7 kg/cm2, shot duration for 20 minutes, and using steel balls S-170 with diameter of 0.6 mm. The results present that the shot distance and shot angle of shot peening give the significant effect to improve the surface morphology, surface roughness, and surface hardness of 316 L biomaterial. Shot peening can increase the surface roughness by the increasing of shot distance and by the decreasing of shot angle. The nearest shot distance (6 cm) and the largest shot angle (90°) give the best results on the grain refinement with the surface roughness of 1.04 μm and surface hardness of 534 kg/mm2.

  17. A putative high affinity phosphate transporter, CmPT1, enhances tolerance to Pi deficiency of chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Chen, Sumei; Song, Aiping; Zhao, Shuang; Fang, Weimin; Guan, Zhiyong; Liao, Yuan; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Fadi

    2014-01-10

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is essential for plant growth, and phosphorus deficiency is a main limiting factor in plant development. Its acquisition is largely mediated by Pht1 transporters, a family of plasma membrane-located proteins. Chrysanthemum is one of the most important ornamental plants, its productivity is usually compromised when grown in phosphate deficient soils, but the study of phosphate transporters in chrysanthemum is limited. We described the isolation from chrysanthemum of a homolog of the Phosphate Transporter 1 (PT1) family. Its predicted product is a protein with 12 transmembrane domains, highly homologous with other high affinity plant Pi transporters. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the gene was transcribed strongly in the root, weakly in the stem and below the level of detection in the leaf of chrysanthemum plants growing in either sufficient or deficient Pi conditions. Transcript abundance was greatly enhanced in Pi-starved roots. A complementation assay in yeast showed that CmPT1 partially compensated for the absence of phosphate transporter activity in yeast strain MB192. The estimated Km of CmPT1 was 35.2 μM. Under both Pi sufficient and deficient conditions, transgenic plants constitutively expressing CmPT1 grew taller than the non-transformed wild type, produced a greater volume of roots, accumulated more biomass and took up more phosphate. CmPT1 encodes a typical, root-expressed, high affinity phosphate transporter, plays an important role in coping Pi deficiency of chrysanthemum plants.

  18. CmWRKY1 Enhances the Dehydration Tolerance of Chrysanthemum through the Regulation of ABA-Associated Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qingqing; Song, Aiping; Jiang, Jiafu; Zhang, Ting; Sun, Hainan; Wang, Yinjie; Chen, Sumei; Chen, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors serve as antagonistic or synergistic regulators in a variety of abiotic stress responses in plants. Here, we show that CmWRKY1, a member of the group IIb WRKY family isolated from Chrysanthemum morifolium, exhibits no transcriptional activation in yeast cells. The subcellular localization examination showed that CmWRKY1 localizes to the nucleus in vivo. Furthermore, CmWRKY1-overexpressing transgenic lines exhibit enhanced dehydration tolerance in response to polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatment compared with wild-type plants. We further confirmed that the transgenic plants exhibit suppressed expression levels of genes negatively regulated by ABA, such as PP2C, ABI1 and ABI2, and activated expression levels of genes positively regulated by ABA, such as PYL2, SnRK2.2, ABF4, MYB2, RAB18, and DREB1A. Taken together, our results indicate that CmWRKY1 plays an important role in the response to drought in chrysanthemum through an ABA-mediated pathway. PMID:26938878

  19. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) NCEP-Global Forecast System (GFS) 0-10cm Soil-Moisture Forecast Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Forecast System (GFS) forecast 0-10cm soil-moisture data at 37.5km resolution is created at the NOAA Climate Prediction Center for the purpose of near...

  20. A Space-based Observational Strategy for Characterizing the First Stars and Galaxies Using the Redshifted 21 cm Global Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jack O.; Bradley, Richard; Tauscher, Keith; Furlanetto, Steven; Mirocha, Jordan; Monsalve, Raul; Rapetti, David; Purcell, William; Newell, David; Draper, David; MacDowall, Robert; Bowman, Judd; Nhan, Bang; Wollack, Edward J.; Fialkov, Anastasia; Jones, Dayton; Kasper, Justin C.; Loeb, Abraham; Datta, Abhirup; Pritchard, Jonathan; Switzer, Eric; Bicay, Michael

    2017-07-01

    The redshifted 21 cm monopole is expected to be a powerful probe of the epoch of the first stars and galaxies (10global 21 cm signal is sensitive to the thermal and ionization state of hydrogen gas and thus provides a tracer of sources of energetic photons—primarily hot stars and accreting black holes—which ionize and heat the high redshift intergalactic medium (IGM). This paper presents a strategy for observations of the global spectrum with a realizable instrument placed in a low-altitude lunar orbit, performing night-time 40-120 MHz spectral observations, while on the farside to avoid terrestrial radio frequency interference, ionospheric corruption, and solar radio emissions. The frequency structure, uniformity over large scales, and unpolarized state of the redshifted 21 cm spectrum are distinct from the spectrally featureless, spatially varying, and polarized emission from the bright foregrounds. This allows a clean separation between the primordial signal and foregrounds. For signal extraction, we model the foreground, instrument, and 21 cm spectrum with eigenmodes calculated via Singular Value Decomposition analyses. Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm to explore the parameter space defined by the coefficients associated with these modes, we illustrate how the spectrum can be measured and how astrophysical parameters (e.g., IGM properties, first star characteristics) can be constrained in the presence of foregrounds using the Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE).

  1. Research on Cm-level kinematic precise orbit determination for GRACE based on zero-difference method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiancheng; Zhang, Shoujian; Zou, Xiancai; Wang, Zhengtao

    2008-12-01

    Thanks to the high performance of the spaceborne GPS receiver and the availability of precise IGS orbit and clock products, Zero-difference kinematic precise orbit determination (POD) has turned out to be a new method in orbit determination for the LEO satellites. Zero-difference Kinematic POD, which is based on the GPS measurements only from the spaceborne GPS receiver, is independent of force models and orbit design. From that point of view, kinematic POD is well suited for the Earth Observation satellites at very low altitudes, such as CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE et al. This paper reviews the basic zero-difference GPS model, and the corrections in the model are discussed. A block-wise least squares algorithm, which firstly separates the parameters in to groups and then solves the parameter by elimination and back-substitution, is discussed and proposed for the kinematic orbit determination. The orbit solutions for one week of GRACE observations are calculated Comparisons with the published Rapid Science Orbit (RSO) indicate that the accuracy in radial, along-track and cross-track direction can achieve 5.5cm, 5.5cm and 6.6cm respectively, and the RMS in distance is better than 8.6cm.

  2. LOFAR insights into the epoch of reionization from the cross-power spectrum of 21 cm emission and galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, R. P. C.; Ciardi, B.; Thomas, R. M.; Harker, G. J. A.; Zaroubi, S.; Bernardi, G.; Brentjens, M.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Daiboo, S.; Jelic, V.; Kazemi, S.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Labropoulos, P.; Martinez, O.; Offringa, A.; Pandey, V. N.; Schaye, J.; Veligatla, V.; Vedantham, H.; Yatawatta, S.; Mellema, G.

    2013-01-01

    Using a combination of N-body simulations, semi-analytic models and radiative transfer calculations, we have estimated the theoretical cross-power spectrum between galaxies and the 21 cm emission from neutral hydrogen during the epoch of reionization. In accordance with previous studies, we find

  3. Simulating the 21 cm forest detectable with LOFAR and SKA in the spectra of high-z GRBs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciardi, B.; Inoue, S.; Abdalla, F. B.; Asad, K.; Bernardi, G.; Bolton, J. S.; Brentjens, M.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Chapman, E.; Daiboo, S.; Fernandez, E. R.; Ghosh, A.; Graziani, L.; Harker, G. J. A.; Iliev, I. T.; Jelić, V.; Jensen, H.; Kazemi, S.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Martinez, O.; Maselli, A.; Mellema, G.; Offringa, A. R.; Pandey, V. N.; Schaye, J.; Thomas, R.; Vedantham, H.; Yatawatta, S.; Zaroubi, S.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of detecting 21 cm absorption features in the afterglow spectra of high redshift long Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). This is done employing simulations of cosmic reionization, together with estimates of the GRB radio afterglow flux and the instrumental characteristics of the

  4. Values of Kp Indices, Ap Indices, Cp Indices, C9 Indices, Sunspot Number, and 10.7 cm Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data file consists of Kp indices, Ap indices, Cp indices, C9 indices, sunspot number, and 10.7 cm flux. The most often requested parameter of this file are the...

  5. The Validity of 21 cm Spin Temperature as a Kinetic Temperature Indicator in Atomic and Molecular Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Gargi [Dept. of Physics, UM-DAE Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences, University of Mumbai, Mumbai 400098 (India); Ferland, G. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Hubeny, I., E-mail: gargishaw@gmail.com, E-mail: gary@uky.edu, E-mail: hubeny@as.arizona.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2017-07-10

    The gas kinetic temperature ( T {sub K} ) of various interstellar environments is often inferred from observations that can deduce level populations of atoms, ions, or molecules using spectral line observations; H i 21 cm is perhaps the most widely used, and has a long history. Usually the H i 21 cm line is assumed to be in thermal equilibrium and the populations are given by the Boltzmann distribution. A variety of processes, many involving Ly α , can affect the 21 cm line. Here we show how this is treated in the spectral simulation code Cloudy, and present numerical simulations of environments where this temperature indicator is used, with a detailed treatment of the physical processes that determine level populations within H{sup 0}. We discuss situations where this temperature indicator traces T {sub K}, cases where it fails, as well as the effects of Ly α pumping on the 21 cm spin temperature. We also show that the Ly α excitation temperature rarely traces the gas kinetic temperature.

  6. A TURBO PASCAL PROGRAM TO CONVERT ICD-9CM CODED INJURY DIAGNOSES INTO INJURY SEVERITY SCORES - ICDTOAIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KINGMA, J; TENVERGERT, E; WERKMAN, HA; TENDUIS, HJ; KLASEN, HJ

    Diagnoses of injuries as a result Of trauma are commonly coded by means of the International Classification of Diseases (9th rev.) Clinical Modification (ICD-9CM). The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) is frequently employed to assess the severity of injury per body region. The Injury Severity Score

  7. Evaluation of RegCM4 in simulating the interannual and interdecadal variations of Meiyu rainfall in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yijia; Zhong, Zhong; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Yaocun; Sun, Yuan

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the performance of the regional climate model (RegCM4) in simulating the interannual and interdecadal variation of Meiyu rainfall over lower and middle reaches of Yangtze River (LMRYR) in China is evaluated. The results show that the bias of the simulated Meiyu rainfall exhibits some uncertainties and obvious interdecadal variation similar with that of Meiyu rainfall itself. The rainfall bias and its interdecadal variation have little impact on the simulation of the interannual variation of the Meiyu rainfall. Not only the amplitude but also the phase of the interannual variation of the Meiyu rainfall can be reproduced by the RegCM4. However, the interdecadal variation of the rainfall bias has large impacts on the model's performance in simulating the interdecadal component of the Meiyu rainfall, leading to lower skill of RegCM4 in simulating the interdecadal variation of the Meiyu rainfall than that in simulating the interannual variation. In addition, the interannual signals of the temperature, humidity, and vorticity in the lower troposphere in the large-scale NCEP lateral boundary force are stronger than the interdecadal signals, and the model can respond well to these interannual signals. Therefore, the RegCM4 has better performance in simulating the interannual variation of water vapor budget than the interdecadal variation, which further favors the simulation of the Meiyu rainfall at interannual time scale.

  8. CmWRKY1 Enhances the Dehydration Tolerance of Chrysanthemum through the Regulation of ABA-Associated Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Fan

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors serve as antagonistic or synergistic regulators in a variety of abiotic stress responses in plants. Here, we show that CmWRKY1, a member of the group IIb WRKY family isolated from Chrysanthemum morifolium, exhibits no transcriptional activation in yeast cells. The subcellular localization examination showed that CmWRKY1 localizes to the nucleus in vivo. Furthermore, CmWRKY1-overexpressing transgenic lines exhibit enhanced dehydration tolerance in response to polyethylene glycol (PEG treatment compared with wild-type plants. We further confirmed that the transgenic plants exhibit suppressed expression levels of genes negatively regulated by ABA, such as PP2C, ABI1 and ABI2, and activated expression levels of genes positively regulated by ABA, such as PYL2, SnRK2.2, ABF4, MYB2, RAB18, and DREB1A. Taken together, our results indicate that CmWRKY1 plays an important role in the response to drought in chrysanthemum through an ABA-mediated pathway.

  9. Spectral performance of SKA Log-periodic Antennas I: mitigating spectral artefacts in SKA1-LOW 21 cm cosmology experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lera Acedo, Eloy; Trott, Cathryn M.; Wayth, Randall B.; Fagnoni, Nicolas; Bernardi, Gianni; Wakley, Brett; Koopmans, Léon V. E.; Faulkner, Andrew J.; bij de Vaate, Jan Geralt

    2017-01-01

    This paper is the first in a series of papers describing the impact of antenna instrumental artefacts on the 21 cm cosmology experiments to be carried out by the low frequency instrument (SKA1-LOW) of the Square Kilometre Array telescope (SKA), I.e. the Cosmic Dawn (CD) and the Epoch of Reionization

  10. Effect of pH on stability constants of Am(III)- and Cm(III)- humate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samadfam, Mohammad; Jintoku, Takashi; Sato, Seichi; Ohashi, Hiroshi; Mitsugashira, Toshiaki; Hara, Mitsuo; Suzuki, Yoshimitsu

    1999-01-01

    The apparent stability constants of Am(III)- and Cm(III)-humate complexes were determined by dialysis method at ionic strength 0.1 in the pH range from 3.3 to 5.7 under N 2 bubbling. The Am(III) and Cm(III) loadings were about 10 -7 and 10 -10 mol/dm 3 . The concentrations of Am-241 and Cm-242 tracers were measured by α-spectrometry. It was found that the apparent stability constants were almost identical for both the Am(III)-humate and Cm(III)-humate complexes. The apparent stability constants showed a small pH-dependence, increasing from 10 4.6 at pH 3.3 to 10 5.1 at pH 5.7. The ionization of acidic functional groups of humic acid is possibly the primary factor. Above pH 6, the dialysis membrane was no langer permeable to Am(III) and Cm(III) ions and the apparent stability constant could not be experimentally obtained. The apparent stability constants between pH 6 and pH 8.5 were evaluated by considering that both binary metal-humate and ternary metal-hydroxo-humate complexes exist at pHs above 6. It was assumed that mono-hydroxo-humate complex Am(OH)HA and Cm(OH)HA are the major ternary complexes that exist below pH 9. The overall stability constants for Am(III)- and Cm(III)-humate complexes increased from 10 5.7 at pH 6 to 10 7.2 at pH 8. This implies that the formation of metal-hydroxo-humate species is preferred over the formation of hydroxide species. The apparent overall stability constants can be easily incorporated into geochemical modeling of trivalent actinide migration. The results of the present study show that the apparent stability constants determined experimentally at pH≤6 do not represent the complexation properties at higher pHs and the formation of ternary complexes should be considered in speciation calculations of radionuclides at terrestrial environment. (J.P.N.)

  11. The amino acid and hydrocarbon contents of the Paris meteorite: Insights into the most primitive CM chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Zita; Modica, Paola; Zanda, Brigitte; D'Hendecourt, Louis Le Sergeant

    2015-05-01

    The Paris meteorite is one of the most primitive carbonaceous chondrites. It is reported to be the least aqueously altered CM chondrite, and to have experienced only weak thermal metamorphism. We have analyzed for the first time the amino acid and hydrocarbon contents of this pristine meteorite by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). When plotting the relative amino acids abundances of several CM chondrites according to the increasing hydrothermal scale (petrologic subtypes), from the CM2.7/2.8 Paris to the CM2.0 MET 01070, Paris has the lowest relative abundance of β-alanine/glycine (0.15), which fits with the relative abundances of β-alanine/glycine increasing with increasing aqueous alteration for CM chondrites. These results confirm the influence of aqueous alteration on the amino acid abundances and distribution. The amino acid analysis shows that the isovaline detected in this meteorite is racemic (D/L = 0.99 ± 0.08; L-enantiomer excess = 0.35 ± 0.5%; corrected D/L = 1.03; corrected L-enantiomer excess = -1.4 ± 2.6%). The identified hydrocarbons show that Paris has n-alkanes ranging from C16 to C25 and 3- to 5-ring nonalkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The lack of alkylated PAHs in Paris seems to be also related to this low degree of aqueous alteration on its parent body. The extraterrestrial hydrocarbon content, suggested by the absence of any biomarker, may well have a presolar origin. The chemistry of the Paris meteorite may thus be closely related to the early stages of the solar nebula with a contribution from interstellar (molecular cloud) precursors.

  12. Imaging of Hsp70-positive tumors with cmHsp70.1 antibody-conjugated gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehrmann MK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mathias K Gehrmann,1 Melanie A Kimm,2 Stefan Stangl,1 Thomas E Schmid,1 Peter B Noël,2 Ernst J Rummeny,2 Gabriele Multhoff11Department of Radiation Oncology, 2Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich, GermanyAbstract: Real-time imaging of small tumors is still one of the challenges in cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring of clinical outcome. Targeting novel biomarkers that are selectively expressed on a large variety of different tumors but not normal cells has the potential to improve the imaging capacity of existing methods such as computed tomography. Herein, we present a novel technique using cmHsp70.1 monoclonal antibody-conjugated spherical gold nanoparticles for quantification of the targeted uptake of gold nanoparticles into membrane Hsp70-positive tumor cells. Upon binding, cmHsp70.1-conjugated gold nanoparticles but not nanoparticles coupled to an isotype-matched IgG1 antibody or empty nanoparticles are rapidly taken up by highly malignant Hsp70 membrane-positive mouse tumor cells. After 24 hours, the cmHsp70.1-conjugated gold nanoparticles are found to be enriched in the perinuclear region. Specificity for membrane Hsp70 was shown by using an Hsp70 knockout tumor cell system. Toxic side effects of the cmHsp70.1-conjugated nanoparticles are not observed at a concentration of 1–10 µg/mL. Experiments are ongoing to evaluate whether cmHsp70.1 antibody-conjugated gold nanoparticles are suitable for the detection of membrane-Hsp70-positive tumors in vivo.Keywords: heat shock protein 70, tumor biomarker, theranostics, multimodal CT, multispectral CT, k-edge

  13. Superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Evelyn N; McCarthy, Matthew; Enright, Ryan; Culver, James N; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Ghodssi, Reza

    2015-03-24

    Surfaces having a hierarchical structure--having features of both microscale and nanoscale dimensions--can exhibit superhydrophobic properties and advantageous condensation and heat transfer properties. The hierarchical surfaces can be fabricated using biological nanostructures, such as viruses as a self-assembled nanoscale template.

  14. Spherical Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David

    2016-01-01

    We study surfaces of constant positive Gauss curvature in Euclidean 3-space via the harmonicity of the Gauss map. Using the loop group representation, we solve the regular and the singular geometric Cauchy problems for these surfaces, and use these solutions to compute several new examples. We give...

  15. Modeling, planning and XiO R CMS validation of TBI treatment (extended SSD 400 cm); Modelacion, planificacion y validacion del XiO CMS para tratamientos TBI (SSD extendida de 400 cm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teijeiro, A.; Pereira, L.; Moral, F. del; Vazquez, J.; Lopez Medina, A.; Meal, A.; Andrade Alvarez, B.; Salgado Fernandez, M.; Munoz, V.

    2011-07-01

    The whole body irradiation (TBI) is a radiotherapy technique previously used a bone marrow transplant and for certain blood diseases, in which a patient is irradiated to extended distance (SSD from 350 to 400). The aim of the TBI is to kill tumor cells in the receiver and prevent rejection of transplanted bone marrow. The dose is prescribed at the midpoint of the abdomen around the navel wing. The most planners not permit the treatment of patients with a much higher SSD to 100 cm, also using the table TBI with spoiler to increase skin dose should be taken into account This requires measurements and checks ad hoc if you use a planner, because modeling is not optimized a priori for an SSD of 400 cm.

  16. Microscale surface modifications for heat transfer enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostanci, Huseyin; Singh, Virendra; Kizito, John P; Rini, Daniel P; Seal, Sudipta; Chow, Louis C

    2013-10-09

    In this experimental study, two surface modification techniques were investigated for their effect on heat transfer enhancement. One of the methods employed the particle (grit) blasting to create microscale indentations, while the other used plasma spray coating to create microscale protrusions on Al 6061 (aluminum alloy 6061) samples. The test surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Because of the surface modifications, the actual surface area was increased up to 2.8× compared to the projected base area, and the arithmetic mean roughness value (Ra) was determined to vary from 0.3 μm for the reference smooth surface to 19.5 μm for the modified surfaces. Selected samples with modified surfaces along with the reference smooth surface were then evaluated for their heat transfer performance in spray cooling tests. The cooling system had vapor-atomizing nozzles and used anhydrous ammonia as the coolant in order to achieve heat fluxes up to 500 W/cm(2) representing a thermal management setting for high power systems. Experimental results showed that the microscale surface modifications enhanced heat transfer coefficients up to 76% at 500 W/cm(2) compared to the smooth surface and demonstrated the benefits of these practical surface modification techniques to enhance two-phase heat transfer process.

  17. Hydrogen and the First Stars: First Results from the SCI-HI 21-cm all-sky spectrum experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytek, Tabitha; Peterson, Jeffrey; Lopez-Cruz, Omar; Jauregui-Garcia, Jose-Miguel; SCI-HI Experiment Team

    2015-01-01

    The 'Sonda Cosmologica de las Islas para la Deteccion de Hidrogeno Neutro' (SCI-HI) experiment is an all-sky 21-cm brightness temperature spectrum experiment studying the cosmic dawn (z~15-35). The experiment is a collaboration between Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) and Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE) in Mexico. Initial deployment of the SCI-HI experiment occurred in June 2013 on Guadalupe; a small island about 250 km off of the Pacific coast of Baja California in Mexico. Preliminary measurements from this deployment have placed the first observational constraints on the 21-cm all-sky spectrum around 70 MHz (z~20), see Voytek et al (2014).Neutral Hydrogen (HI) is found throughout the universe in the cold gas that makes up the intergalactic medium (IGM). HI can be observed through the spectral line at 21 cm (1.4 GHz) due to hyperfine structure. Expansion of the universe causes the wavelength of this spectral line to stretch at a rate defined by the redshift z, leading to a signal which can be followed through time.Now the strength of the 21-cm signal in the IGM is dependent only on a small number of variables; the temperature and density of the IGM, the amount of HI in the IGM, the UV energy density in the IGM, and the redshift. This means that 21-cm measurements teach us about the history and structure of the IGM. The SCI-HI experiment focuses on the spatially averaged 21-cm spectrum, looking at the temporal evolution of the IGM during the cosmic dawn before reionization.Although the SCI-HI experiment placed first constraints with preliminary data, this data was limited to a narrow frequency regime around 60-85 MHz. This limitation was caused by instrumental difficulties and the presence of residual radio frequency interference (RFI) in the FM radio band (~88-108 MHz). The SCI-HI experiment is currently undergoing improvements and we plan to have another deployment soon. This deployment would be to Socorro and Clarion, two

  18. Outcome of shock wave lithotripsy as monotherapy for large solitary renal stones (>2 cm in size without stenting

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    Shanmugasundaram Rajaian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the outcome of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL as monotherapy for solitary renal stones larger than 2 cm without ureteral stenting. Materials and Methods : Our retrospective study included patients with solitary renal radio opaque stones larger than 2 cm treated with SWL using electromagnetic Dornier Compact S lithotripter device (Wessling, Germany for a period of 3 years (September 2002-2005. Stone clearance was assessed at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months with plain X-rays of kidney, ureter, and bladder region, ultrasonography, and tomograms. Stone-free status, morbidity of the procedure, and fate of clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRF were studied. A stone-free state was defined as no radiologic evidence of stone. Success was defined as complete clearance + CIRF. Results : Fifty-five patients, aged 11-65 years (mean 49.8 underwent SWL. Of them, only two were children. Male-to-female ratio was 3:1. The stone size was 21-28 mm (average 24 mm. The mean number of shocks were 3732 (range 724-12,100 and average energy level was 14 kV (range 11-16 kV. The mean follow-up was 18 months (range 3-22 months. Over all, stone-free status was achieved in 50% and success in 81% at 3 months. Stone clearance was not affected by stone location. Stones 26 mm (P = -0.10. Of 54 patients, 39 developed steinstrasse with mean length of 3.2 cm (range 1.4-6.2 cm and only four required intervention. Effectiveness quotient (EQ for SWL monotherapy for solitary renal stones more than 2 cm was 25.3%. The EQ for stones <25 mm and those more than 25 mm were 28.4% and 10% (P = -0.12, respectively. There was a lesser trend of difference between stones with size <25 and more than 25 mm. During the last review, the overall stone-free rate was 67.2%. Conclusions : SWL monotherapy was safe but significantly less effective for solitary renal stones larger than 2 cm. It can only be suggested to those who refuse surgical intervention. Pretreatment DJ

  19. f(cm) =

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kaur and Mahajan [1] determined dissociation energy for 15 vibrational states of 12 di- atomic molecules. It is surprising to note down that for calculating dissociation energyDe of a vibrational state of a molecule, experimental value of the dissociation energy of the vibrational state of the molecule itself has been used as one ...

  20. Interaction of Eu(III) and Cm(III) with mucin. A key component of the human mucosa

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    Wilke, Claudia; Barkleit, Astrid [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Chemistry of the F-Elements

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the potential health risks caused by the ingestion of lanthanides (Ln) and actinides (An), investigations into the chemical behavior of these metals in the human gastrointestinal tract are necessary. Mucin is an important part of the protective mucosa layer in the digestive system. We have recently reported that mucin interacts strongly with Eu(III) and Cm(III), representatives of Ln(III) and An(III), respectively, under in vivo conditions. In order to investigate the complexation behavior of this protein with Ln(III)/An(III), TRLFS measurements were performed on Eu(III)/Cm(III)-mucin solutions with different protein concentrations and at different pH. The results indicate the formation of at least two independent mucin species. At higher pH, the formation of hydroxide species was also observed.