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Sample records for surf zone sz

  1. Multispectral observations of the surf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonmaker, Jon S.; Dirbas, Joseph; Gilbert, Gary

    2003-09-01

    Airborne multispectral imagery was collected over various targets on the beach and in the water in an attempt to characterize the surf zone environment with respect to electro-optical system capabilities and to assess the utility of very low cost, small multispectral systems in mine counter measures (MCM) and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance applications. The data was collected by PAR Government Systems Corporation (PGSC) at the Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility at Duck North Carolina and on the beaches of Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base in Southern California. PGSC flew the first two of its MANTIS (Mission Adaptable Narrowband Tunable Imaging Sensor) systems. Both MANTIS systems were flown in an IR - red - green - blue (700, 600, 550, 480 nm) configuration from altitudes ranging from 200 to 700 meters. Data collected has been lightly analyzed and a surf zone index (SZI) defined and calculated. This index allows mine hunting system performance measurements in the surf zone to be normalized by environmental conditions. The SZI takes into account water clarity, wave energy, and foam persistence.

  2. Modeling and Simulation for a Surf Zone Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    on a surf zone vehicle focused on negative buoyancy using tracked platforms that used traditional tank drive mechanisms to remain on the sea floor...through the surf zone transit and drive on to the beach. Provided by the Surf Zone Crawler Group of Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City, a Foster...with the traction and obstacle scaling of a leg [2]. Further work elaborated this concept into an entire drivetrain concept. Focused on the

  3. Lidar and aerosol measurements over the surf zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerman, M.M.; Cohen, L.H.; Leeuw, G. de; Kunz, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    The aerosol produced by waves breaking in the surf zone is important for a variety of processes, such as transport of pollutants and bacteria, and electro optical propagation in the coastal zone. Yet, quantitative information on surf produced aerosol is very limited (de Leeuw et al., 2000). In the f

  4. Sea spray aerosol and wave energy dissipation in the surf zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francius, M.J.; Piazzola, J.; Forget, P.; Calve, O. le; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.

    2007-01-01

    Results from a quantitative model for the prediction of the sea-salt mass flux produced in the surf zone are presented in this paper. The model relates the surf zone sea salt mass flux to the amount of wave energy dissipated in the surf zone. In order to apply this aerosol emission model, a wave num

  5. Sea-spray aerosol particles generated in the surf zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.M.J. van; Kusmierczyk‐Michulec, J.T.; Francius, M.J.; Tedeschi, G.; Piazzola,J.; Merritt, D.L.; Fontana, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the properties of aerosol particles generated over the surf zone, two experiments were held at the pier of Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), La Jolla CA, and at the pier of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility (FRF) in Duck NC. On both sites concentrations of s

  6. Observations of turbulence within a natural surf zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruessink, B.G.

    2010-01-01

    Here, the Reynolds stresses and , where u′, v′, and w′ are the cross-shore, alongshore, and vertical turbulence velocities, respectively, and the angle brackets represent time averaging, are used to diagnose turbulence dynamics beneath natural breaking surf-zone waves. The data were col

  7. Surf zone Exchange on a Rip Channeled Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, A.; Macmahan, J.

    2008-12-01

    The dispersion and surf zone exchange of GPS-equipped surface drifters observed during the Rip Current EXperiment (RCEX) is examined with help of Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs). LCSs allow for the detection of transport barriers in unsteady flows and are typically applied to shelf-scale circulation systems. Here LCSs are specifically computed to detect the effects of surfzone-originated Very Low Frequency motions (VLFs) with O(10) minute time scale on the cross-shore exchange of floating material using numerical model calculations of the Lagrangian surface velocity at the wave group timescale. After verification with RCEX field observations, the model is run for a range of environmental conditions experienced during the field experiment to assess the effects of VLFs on the cross-shore surf zone exchange. Results are relevant for (but not restricted to) sediment and nutrient exchange, human health, water clarity, and swimmer safety.

  8. Occurrence of larval fishes in the surf zone of a northern Gulf of Mexico barrier island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruple, David L.

    1984-02-01

    Larval fishes were collected from the surf zone of Horn Island, Mississippi between March 1978 and April 1979. A standardized total of 39 435 larvae were taken from 222 collections in the inner and outer surf zone regions, representing fish in 69 taxa. Overall, considerably more larvae were collected in the outer surf zone (78·3%) than in the inner surf zone (21·7%). Engraulids, Chloroscombrus chrysurus and Symphurus spp. were the most abundant larvae taken from the outer surf zone while engraulids, Leiostomus xanthurus, Brevoortia patronus and Trinectes maculatus were the numerically dominant larvae in the inner surf zone. Seasonal peaks in abundance occurred at the outer surf zone stations during May and June and at the inner surf zone stations during December. Larval densities were significantly greater in night collections than in day collections. The occurrence of early larvae, late larvae and juveniles suggests that the surf zone habitat is important to several species of coastal marine fishes. Menticirrhus littoralis, Harengula jaguana and Trachinotus carolinus appear to most readily utilize the surf zone as a nursery area.

  9. The Vertical Structure of Shallow Water Flow in the Surf Zone and Inner Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    E. Richardson, 2008, Field verification of a CFD model for wave transformation and breaking in the surf zone, J. Waterw. Port Coastal Engrg., 134(2...The Vertical Structure of Shallow Water Flow in the Surf Zone and Inner Shelf Dr. Thomas C. Lippmann Center for Coastal...wave- and tidally-driven shallow water flows in the shallow depths of the inner shelf and surf zone. OBJECTIVES 1. Theoretical investigations of

  10. Cross-shore currents in the surf zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Vinther, Niels

    2008-01-01

      While the dynamics and kinematics of various types of mean cross-shore current flows in the surf zone (undertow and rip currents) are fairly well understood, the causes for transitions occurring between these two types of mean circulation patterns remain obscure. On longshore barred beaches......, such transitions involve the formation and/or degeneration of rip channels. In this paper, field evidence is presented to suggest that transitions between undertow and rip current (cell) circulations may depend upon the magnitude of the wave-induced onshore mass transport across a longshore bar, rip channel...... that both hydrodynamic conditions and existing bathymetry are critical in determining the type of mean current circulation....

  11. Bedforms and undertow in the surf zone; an analysis of the LIP 11D-data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, M.

    1995-01-01

    The present report gives the results of a study on bedforms and undertow in the surf zone. It is the objective of this study to get a better insight into the physical processes in the surf zone. In this study, we make use of the data obtained during the LIP llDexperiments (Arcilla et al. [1994] and

  12. Transport of larvae and detritus across the surf zone of a steep reflective pocket beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shanks, A.L.; MacMahan, J.; Morgan, S.G.; Reniers, A.J.H.M.; Jarvis, M.; Brown, J.; Fujimura, A.; Griesemer, C.

    2015-01-01

    Larvae of many intertidal species develop offshore and must cross the surf zone to complete their onshore migration to adult habitats. Depending on hydrodynamics, the surf zone may limit this migration, especially on reflective rocky shores. As a logistically tractable analog of a rocky shore enviro

  13. Transport of larvae and detritus across the surf zone of a steep reflective pocket beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shanks, A.L.; MacMahan, J.; Morgan, S.G.; Reniers, A.J.H.M.; Jarvis, M.; Brown, J.; Fujimura, A.; Griesemer, C.

    2015-01-01

    Larvae of many intertidal species develop offshore and must cross the surf zone to complete their onshore migration to adult habitats. Depending on hydrodynamics, the surf zone may limit this migration, especially on reflective rocky shores. As a logistically tractable analog of a rocky shore

  14. Sea spray aerosol production from waves breaking in the surf zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, G. de

    1999-01-01

    Sea spray aerosol is a product of wave breaking. A very strong source of this aerosol is the surf zone. In this sense, measurements in the surf zone can be suitable for the assessment of the contributions of the various spray production mechanisms to the total concentrations. At present, a comprehen

  15. Influence of the Surf Zone on the Marine Aerosol Concentration in a Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, Gilles; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.; Piazzola, Jacques; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, Jolanta T.

    2017-01-01

    Sea-salt aerosol concentrations in the coastal zone are assessed with the numerical aerosol-transport model MACMod that applies separate aerosol source functions for open ocean and the surf zone near the sea-land transition. Numerical simulations of the aerosol concentration as a function of offshore distance from the surf zone compare favourably with experimental data obtained during a surf-zone aerosol experiment in Duck, North Carolina in autumn 2007. Based on numerical simulations, the effect of variations in aerosol production (source strength) and transport conditions (wind speed, air-sea temperature difference), we show that the surf-zone aerosols are replaced by aerosols generated over the open ocean as the airmass advects out to sea. The contribution from the surf-generated aerosol is significant during high wind speeds and high wave events, and is significant up to 30 km away from the production zone. At low wind speeds, the oceanic component dominates, except within 1-5 km of the surf zone. Similar results are obtained for onshore flow, where no further sea-salt aerosol production occurs as the airmass advects out over land. The oceanic aerosols that are well-mixed throughout the boundary layer are then more efficiently transported inland than are the surf-generated aerosols, which are confined to the first few tens of metres above the surface, and are therefore also more susceptible to the type of surface (trees or grass) that determines the deposition velocity.

  16. Analytical Derivation of Three Dimensional Vorticity Function for wave breaking in Surf Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, R

    2015-01-01

    In this report, Mathematical model for generalized nonlinear three dimensional wave breaking equations was de- veloped analytically using fully nonlinear extended Boussinesq equations to encompass rotational dynamics in wave breaking zone. The three dimensional equations for vorticity distributions are developed from Reynold based stress equations. Vorticity transport equations are also developed for wave breaking zone. This equations are basic model tools for numerical simulation of surf zone to explain wave breaking phenomena. The model reproduces most of the dynamics in the surf zone. Non linearity for wave height predictions is also shown close to the breaking both in shoaling as well as surf zone. Keyword Wave breaking, Boussinesq equation, shallow water, surf zone. PACS : 47.32-y

  17. Large Eddy Simulation for Wave Breaking in the Surf Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玉川; 蒋昌波; 沈焕庭

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the large eddy simulation method is used combined with the marker and cell method to study the wave propagation or shoaling and breaking process. As wave propagates into shallow water, the shoaling leads to the increase of wave height, and then at a certain position, the wave will be breaking. The breaking wave is a powerful agent for generating turbulence, which plays an important role in most of the fluid dynamic processes throughout the sarf zone, such as transformation of wave energy, generation of near-shore current and diffusion of materials. So a proper numerical model for describing the turbulence effect is needed. In this paper, a revised Smagorinsky subgrid-scale model is used to describe the turbulence effect. The present study reveals that the coefficient of the Smagorinsky model for wave propagation or breaking simulation may be taken as a varying function of the water depth and distance away from the wave breaking point. The large eddy simulation model presented in this paper has been used to study the propagation of the solitary wave in constant water depth and the shoaling of the non-breaking solitary wave on a beach. The model is based on large eddy simulation, and to track free-surface movements, the Tokyo University Modified Marker and Cell (TUMMAC) method is employed. In order to ensure the accuracy of each component of this wave mathematical model,several steps have been taken to verify calculated solutions with either analytical solutions or experimental data. For non-breaking waves, very accurate results are obtained for a solitary wave propagating over a constant depth and on a beach. Application of the model to cnoidal wave breaking in the surf zone shows that the model results are in good agreement with analytical solution and experimental data. From the present model results, it can be seen that the turbulent eddy viscosity increases from the bottom to the water surface in surf zone. In the eddy viscosity curve, there is a

  18. The Relationship Between Shoreline Change and Surf Zone Sand Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miselis, J. L.; McNinch, J. E.

    2002-12-01

    There is a lack of information concerning surf zone geologic processes and their relationship to shoreline behavior despite the consensus that the two are intimately linked. Variations in sand thickness over a highly irregular migration surface close to the shoreline may influence wave dynamics and sediment transport and thus may be connected to hotspot formation. A nearshore survey, spanning 40km from north of the USACE-FRF pier in Duck, NC to just north of Oregon Inlet, was conducted using an interferometric swath bathymetry system and a chirp sub-bottom profiler. The study was conducted within 1km of the shore (in the surf zone) to investigate the processes that may be responsible for the behavior of shoreline hotspots in the area. The topmost reflector and the seafloor of the seismic profile were digitized and the depth difference between them was calculated. Though no ground truths were done in the survey area, cores collected from just north of the site suggest that the topmost reflector is a pre-modern ravinement surface (cohesive muds with layers of sand and gravel) upon which the Holocene sands migrate. An isopach map was generated and shows that the layer of sand above the first sub-bottom reflector is very thin and in some places, exposed. There are many variables that may influence hotspot behavior, including bar position and wave conditions, however, the purpose of this study is to determine if there is a spatial correlation between a thin or absent (exposed reflector) nearshore sand layer and the presence of a shoreline hotspot. In an area associated with a hotspot approximately 14km south of the USACE-FRF pier in Duck, the maximum thickness of Holocene sands was less than 2.5m. The average thickness was less than 1m (0.705m). Thicknesses that were less than 0.2m were classified as areas where the reflector was exposed and accounted for 5 percent of those calculated. It seems the thin layer of sand may represent a deficient nearshore sand source

  19. Sandy beach surf zones: An alternative nursery habitat for 0-age Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin Jarrin, J. R.; Miller, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The role of each habitat fish use is of great importance to the dynamics of populations. During their early marine residence, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), an anadromous fish species, mostly inhabit estuaries but also use sandy beach surf zones and the coastal ocean. However, the role of surf zones in the early life history of Chinook salmon is unclear. We hypothesized that surf zones serve as an alternative nursery habitat, defined as a habitat that consistently provides a proportion of a population with foraging and growth rates similar to those experienced in the primary nursery. First, we confirmed that juvenile Chinook salmon cohorts are simultaneously using both habitats by combining field collections with otolith chemical and structural analysis to directly compare size and migration patterns of juveniles collected in two Oregon (USA) estuaries and surf zones during three years. We then compared juvenile catch, diet and growth in estuaries and surf zones. Juveniles were consistently caught in both habitats throughout summer. Catches were significantly higher in estuaries (average ± SD = 34.3 ± 19.7 ind. 100 m-2) than surf zones (1.0 ± 1.5 ind. 100 m-2) and were positively correlated (r = 0.92). Size at capture (103 ± 15 mm fork length, FL), size at marine entry (76 ± 13 mm FL), stomach fullness (2 ± 2% body weight) and growth rates (0.4 ± 0.0 mm day-1) were similar between habitats. Our results suggest that when large numbers of 0-age Chinook salmon inhabit estuaries, juveniles concurrently use surf zones, which serve as an alternative nursery habitat. Therefore, surf zones expand the available rearing habitat for Chinook salmon during early marine residence, a critical period in the life history.

  20. Surf zone diatoms: A review of the drivers, patterns and role in sandy beaches food chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odebrecht, Clarisse; Du Preez, Derek R.; Abreu, Paulo Cesar; Campbell, Eileen E.

    2014-10-01

    The accumulation of high biomass of diatoms in the surf zone is a characteristic feature of some sandy beaches where the wave energy is sufficiently high. A few species of diatoms, called surf diatoms, thrive in this harsh environment. The main processes driving the spatial and temporal distribution of surf diatoms as well as their standing biomass and growth were described twenty to thirty years ago based on studies conducted on the western coast of the United States of America and South African beaches. Since then, over fifty locations around the world have been reported to have surf diatom accumulations with most (three-quarters) of these being in the southern hemisphere. Their occurrence is controlled by physical and chemical factors, including wave energy, beach slope and length, water circulation patterns in the surf zone and the availability of nutrients to sustain the high biomass. The main forces driving the patterns of temporal variability of surf diatom accumulations are meteorological. In the short term (hours), the action of wind stress and wave energy controls the diatom accumulation. In the intermediate time scale (weeks to months), seasonal onshore winds of sufficient strength, as well as storm events are important. Furthermore, anthropogenic disturbances that influence the beach ecosystem as well as large-scale events, such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation, may lead to significant changes in surf diatom populations in the long term (inter-annual). Surf diatoms form the base of a short and very productive food chain in the inshore of the sandy beaches where they occur. However, the role of surf diatoms in the microbial food web is not clear and deserves further studies.

  1. Measuring and modeling suspended sediment concentration profiles in the surf zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Time-averaged suspended sediment concentration profiles across the surf zone were measured in a large-scale three-dimensional movable bed laboratory facility (LSTF:Large-scale Sediment Transport Facility). Sediment suspension under two different types of breaking waves, spilling and plunging breakers, was investigated. The magnitudes and shapes of the concentration profiles varied substantially at different locations across the surf zone, reflecting the different intensities of breaking-induced turbulence. Sediment sus- pension at the energetic plunging breaker-line was much more active, resulting in nearly homogeneous concentration profiles throughout most of the water column, as compared to the reminder of the surf zone and at the spilling breaker-line. Four suspended sediment concentration models were examined based on the LSTF data, including the mixing turbulence length approach, segment eddy viscosity model, breaking-induced wave-energy dissipation approach, and a combined breaking and turbulence length model developed by this study. Neglecting the breaking-induced turbulence and subsequent sediment mixing, suspended sediment concentration models failed to predict the across-shore variations of the sediment suspension, especially at the plunging breaker-line. Wave-energy dissipation rate provided an accurate method for estimating the intensity of turbulence generated by wave breaking. By incorporating the breaking-induced turbulence, the combined breaking and turbulence length model reproduced the across-shore variation of sediment suspension in the surf zone. The combined model reproduced the measured time-averaged suspended sediment concentration profiles reasonably well across the surf zone.

  2. Factors affecting surf zone phytoplankton production in Southeastern North Carolina, USA

    KAUST Repository

    Cahoon, Lawrence B.

    2017-07-15

    Abstract: The biomass and productivity of primary producers in the surf zone of the ocean beach at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina, USA, were measured during all seasons, along with environmental parameters and nutrient levels. Variation in biomass (chlorophyll a) was associated with temperature. Primary production (PP), measured by in situ 14-C incubations, was a function of chlorophyll a, tide height at the start of incubations, and rainfall in the preceding 24-hr period. Biomass-normalized production (PB) was also a function of tide height and rainfall in the preceding 24-hr period. We interpreted these results as evidence of surf production 1) as combined contributions of phytoplankton and suspended benthic microalgae, which may confound application of simple P-E models to surf zone production, and 2) being regulated by nutrient source/supply fluctuations independently from other factors. Surf zone biomass and production levels are intermediate between relatively high estuarine values and much lower coastal ocean values. Surf zone production may represent an important trophic connection between these two important ecosystems.

  3. Modelling Vertical Variation of Turbulent Flow Across a Surf Zone Using SWASH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlema, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the application of the open source non-hydrostatic wave-flow model SWASH to propagation of irregular waves in a barred surf zone, and the model results are discussed by comparing against an extensive laboratory data set. This study focus not only on wave transformation in the sur

  4. Measuring and modeling suspended sediment concentration profiles in the surf zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Time-averaged suspended sediment concentration profiles across the surf zone were measured in a large-scale three-dimensional movable bed laboratory facility (LSTF: Large-scale Sediment Transport Facility. Sediment suspension under two different types of breaking waves, spilling and plunging breakers, was investigated. The magnitudes and shapes of the concentration profiles varied substantially at different locations across the surf zone, reflecting the different intensities of breaking-induced turbulence. Sediment suspension at the energetic plunging breaker-line was much more active, resulting in nearly homogeneous concentration profiles throughout most of the water column, as compared to the reminder of the surf zone and at the spilling breaker-line. Four suspended sediment concentration models were examined based on the LSTF data, including the mixing turbulence length approach, segment eddy viscosity model, breaking-induced wave-energy dissipation approach, and a combined breaking and turbulence length model developed by this study. Neglecting the breaking-induced turbulence and subsequent sediment mixing, suspended sediment concentration models failed to predict the across-shore variations of the sediment suspension, especially at the plunging breaker-line. Wave-energy dissipation rate provided an accurate method for estimating the intensity of turbulence generated by wave breaking. By incorporating the breaking-induced turbulence, the combined breaking and turbulence length model reproduced the across-shore variation of sediment suspension in the surf zone. The combined model reproduced the measured time-averaged suspended sediment concentration profiles reasonably well across the surf zone.

  5. Modelling of sediment movement in the surf and swash zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TOKPOHOZIN N B; KOUNOUHEWA B; AVOSSEVOU G Y H; HOUEKPOHEHAM A; AWANOU C N

    2015-01-01

    Under the action of marine currents, non-cohesive sediments evolve by bed-load, by saltation or suspension depending on their granulometry. Several authors have considered that the movement of sediment is bidimensional and modelized the effects of swell by a constant velocitynear the seabed. Here we have studied the velocity profile of fluctuating currents near the seabed and studied the movement of sediment in 3D. The results show that in the areas of study (surf and swash) the movement of sediment occurs in a volume, and the evolution of sediment varies from an areato another. The obtained theoretical profiles of the position and velocity vectors confirm the observations of several authors.

  6. Drones at the Beach - Surf Zone Monitoring Using Rotary Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynne, P.; Brouwer, R.; de Schipper, M. A.; Graham, F.; Reniers, A.; MacMahan, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the potential of rotary wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to monitor the surf zone. In recent years, the arrival of lightweight, high-capacity batteries, low-power electronics and compact high-definition cameras has driven the development of commercially available UAVs for hobbyists. Moreover, the low operation costs have increased their potential for scientific research as these UAVs are extremely flexible surveying platforms. The UAVs can fly for ~12 min with a mean loiter radius of 1 - 3.5 m and a mean loiter error of 0.75 - 4.5 m, depending on the environmental conditions, flying style, battery type and vehicle type. Our experiments using multiple, alternating UAVs show that it is possible to have near continuous imagery data with similar Fields Of View. The images obtained from the UAVs (Fig. 1a), and in combination with surveyed Ground Control Points (GCPs) (Fig. 1b, red squares and white circles), can be geo-rectified (Fig. 1c) to pixel resolution between 0.01 - 1 m and a reprojection error, i.e. the difference between the surveyed GPS location of a GCP and the location of the GCP obtained from the geo-rectified image, of O(1 m). These geo-rectified images provide data on a variety of coastal aspects, such as beach width (Wb(x,t)), surf zone width (Wsf(x,t)), wave breaking location (rectangle B), beach usage (circle C) and location of dune vegegation (rectangle D), amongst others. Additionally, the possibility to have consecutive, high frequency (up to 2 Hz) rectified images makes the UAVs a great data instrument for spatially and temporally variable systems, such as the surf zone. Our first observations with the UAVs reveal the potential to quickly obtain surf zone and beach characteristics in response to storms or for day to day beach information, as well as the scientific pursuits of surf zone kinematics on different spatial and temporal scales, and dispersion and advection estimates of pollutants/dye. A selection of findings from

  7. Zonation of macrofauna across sandy beaches and surf zones along the Dutch coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Janssen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available On nine beaches and two transects in the surf zone along the Dutch coast the presence of benthic macrofauna was studied in relation to basic abiotic characteristics. According to Short's classification system, Dutch beaches are mesotidal and dissipative (Ω = 8.6, and the RTR is low (1.52-1.27, which means that they are not tide-dominated. BSI ranged from 1.4 to 1.1 for the northern and western Dutch coasts respectively and had an overall value of 1.2. The rates of exposure of the beaches varied between 8 and 12, and are therefore regarded as sheltered to moderately exposed. The Dutch beaches display a geographical trend in beach types. Those of the Wadden Sea islands in the northern part of the Netherlands are dissipative, flat, fine-grained, and host high densities of many species of benthic macrofauna. The beaches along the western Dutch coast are less dissipative, steeper, with a higher mean grain size; the species diversity and abundance there are lower. Species diversity and abundance on the beaches increase from the high- to the low-water line. The maximum number of species was found between 0 and -1 m relative to the mean tidal level. The abundance peaks just above the mean tidal level, while the biomass reaches a maximum at the mean tidal level.     Species diversity and abundance are low in the surf zone, but increase towards deeper water. Species numbers are high and the abundance is very high in the trough between the two bars.     The relation between the diversity and abundance of macrobenthic species on the one hand, and the sediment composition, water column depth, and position between the bars on the other show a clear pattern of zonation for the beach, surf zone and near-shore: (1 a supralittoral zone with insects and air-breathing crustaceans, (2 a midshore zone, with intertidal species, (3 a lower shore zone, whose species extend into the shallow surf zone, and (4 a zone of sublittoral fauna in the trough between the

  8. Does human pressure affect the community structure of surf zone fish in sandy beaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Leonardo Lopes; Landmann, Júlia G.; Gaelzer, Luiz R.; Zalmon, Ilana R.

    2017-01-01

    Intense tourism and human activities have resulted in habitat destruction in sandy beach ecosystems with negative impacts on the associated communities. To investigate whether urbanized beaches affect surf zone fish communities, fish and their benthic macrofaunal prey were collected during periods of low and high human pressure at two beaches on the Southeastern Brazilian coast. A BACI experimental design (Before-After-Control-Impact) was adapted for comparisons of tourism impact on fish community composition and structure in urbanized, intermediate and non-urbanized sectors of each beach. At the end of the summer season, we observed a significant reduction in fish richness, abundance, and diversity in the high tourist pressure areas. The negative association between visitors' abundance and the macrofaunal density suggests that urbanized beaches are avoided by surf zone fish due to higher human pressure and the reduction of food availability. Our results indicate that surf zone fish should be included in environmental impact studies in sandy beaches, including commercial species, e.g., the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix. The comparative results from the less urbanized areas suggest that environmental zoning and visitation limits should be used as effective management and preservation strategies on beaches with high conservation potential.

  9. Experimental and numerical investigation of the internal kinetics of a surf-zone plunging breaker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emarat, Narumon; Forehand, David I.M.; Christensen, Erik Damgaard

    2012-01-01

    Over the last couple of decades both the qualitative and quantitative understanding of breaking waves in the surf zone have greatly increased. This is due to the advances in experimental and numerical techniques. However, few comparisons between these two different investigative techniques...... for surfzone breaking waves have been reported. In this study, a comparison is made between the experimental and numerical investigation of the internal kinematics of a surf-zone plunging breaker. The full-field velocity measuring technique known as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is used in the experiments....... In the hybrid numerical scheme, the main model solves the Navier–Stokes equations using a Finite Volume method and the free-surface is simulated using a Volume of Fluid (VOF) method. An important feature of this work is that, unlike in most other comparisons between numerical and experimental results, the exact...

  10. Generalized Set of Boussinesq equations for Surf Zone Region

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, R

    2005-01-01

    In this report, generalized wave breaking equations are developed using three dimensional fully nonlinear extended Boussinesq equations to encompass rotational dynamics in wave breaking zone. The derivation for vorticity distributions are developed from Reynold based stress equations.

  11. Rip currents and alongshore flows in single channels dredged in the surf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Melissa; Elgar, Steve; Raubenheimer, Britt; Warner, John C.; Kumar, Nirnimesh

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the dynamics of flows near nonuniform bathymetry, single channels (on average 30 m wide and 1.5 m deep) were dredged across the surf zone at five different times, and the subsequent evolution of currents and morphology was observed for a range of wave and tidal conditions. In addition, circulation was simulated with the numerical modeling system COAWST, initialized with the observed incident waves and channel bathymetry, and with an extended set of wave conditions and channel geometries. The simulated flows are consistent with alongshore flows and rip-current circulation patterns observed in the surf zone. Near the offshore-directed flows that develop in the channel, the dominant terms in modeled momentum balances are wave-breaking accelerations, pressure gradients, advection, and the vortex force. The balances vary spatially, and are sensitive to wave conditions and the channel geometry. The observed and modeled maximum offshore-directed flow speeds are correlated with a parameter based on the alongshore gradient in breaking-wave-driven-setup across the nonuniform bathymetry (a function of wave height and angle, water depths in the channel and on the sandbar, and a breaking threshold) and the breaking-wave-driven alongshore flow speed. The offshore-directed flow speed increases with dissipation on the bar and reaches a maximum (when the surf zone is saturated) set by the vertical scale of the bathymetric variability.

  12. Wave Height Distribution for Spilling Waves in and outside the Surf Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The wave characteristics affecting coastal sediment transport include wave height, wave period and breaking wave direction. Wave height is a critical factor in determining the amount of sediment transport in the coastal area. The force of sediment transport is much more intense under breaking waves than under non-breaking waves. Breaking waves exhibit various patterns, principally depending on the incident wave steepness and the beach slope. Based on the equations of conservation of mass, momentum and energy, a theoretical model for wave deformation in and outside the surf zone was obtained, which is used to calculate the wave shoaling, wave set-up and setdown and wave height distributions in and outside the surf zone. The analysis and comparison were made about the breaking point location and the wave height decay caused by the wave breaking and the bottom friction. Flume experiments relating to the spilling wave height distribution across the surf zone were conducted to verify the theoretical model. Advanced wave maker, data sampling devices and data processing system were utilized in the flume experiments with a slope covered by sands of different diameters to facilitate the observation and research on the wave transformation and breaking. The agreement between the theoretical and experimental results is good.

  13. Rip currents and alongshore flows in single channels dredged in the surf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Melissa; Elgar, Steve; Raubenheimer, Britt; Warner, John C.; Kumar, Nirnimesh

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the dynamics of flows near nonuniform bathymetry, single channels (on average 30 m wide and 1.5 m deep) were dredged across the surf zone at five different times, and the subsequent evolution of currents and morphology was observed for a range of wave and tidal conditions. In addition, circulation was simulated with the numerical modeling system COAWST, initialized with the observed incident waves and channel bathymetry, and with an extended set of wave conditions and channel geometries. The simulated flows are consistent with alongshore flows and rip-current circulation patterns observed in the surf zone. Near the offshore-directed flows that develop in the channel, the dominant terms in modeled momentum balances are wave-breaking accelerations, pressure gradients, advection, and the vortex force. The balances vary spatially, and are sensitive to wave conditions and the channel geometry. The observed and modeled maximum offshore-directed flow speeds are correlated with a parameter based on the alongshore gradient in breaking-wave-driven-setup across the nonuniform bathymetry (a function of wave height and angle, water depths in the channel and on the sandbar, and a breaking threshold) and the breaking-wave-driven alongshore flow speed. The offshore-directed flow speed increases with dissipation on the bar and reaches a maximum (when the surf zone is saturated) set by the vertical scale of the bathymetric variability.

  14. Sand transport processes in the surf and swash zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanden, van der Joep

    2016-01-01

    Long-term predictions of beach morphology using numerical models contribute to cost-effective coastal protection strategies. The physics of sand transport in the wave breaking region and the swash zone are not fully understood, leading to poor predictive capability of existing sand transport models

  15. Surf zone fauna of Ecuadorian sandy beaches: Spatial and temporal patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin Jarrin, J. R.; Vanaverbeke, J.; Fockedey, N.; de Grunauer, M. del P. Cornejo R.; Dominguez-Granda, L.

    2017-02-01

    Sandy beaches and their surf zones are the most common open shoreline habitat; however, surf zone fauna in the tropics is one of the least studied communities in the world. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that Ecuadorian surf zone hyperbenthos (invertebrates and vertebrates 1-5 mm in length) and epibenthos (fish and macrocrustaceans > 5 mm in length) vary among beaches and seasons. Therefore, the fauna was described and related to environmental variables. In addition, indicator taxa were identified. The hyperbenthos was divided into holo- and mero-hyperbenthos depending on whether taxa were present during their entire life or only early life stages, respectively. Samples were collected at eight different beaches during the wet, dry and intermediate or transitional season during the low spring tide, from 1999 to 2000, using a hyperbenthic sledge and epibenthic trawl. A total of 447 hyperbenthic and 30 epibenthic taxa were collected, most of which were crustaceans and fish, respectively (52 and 60% of taxa). The mysid, Metamysidopsis sp., was the most abundant member of the hyperbenthos (average ± SD: 14,425 ± 40,039 ind. 100 m- 2, present in 92% of samples collected), and the swimming blue crab, Areneus mexicanus, was the most encountered species among the epibenthos (1 ± 1 ind. 100 m- 2, 97% of samples collected). All faunal groups varied among beaches, while the holo-hyperbenthos and less strongly the epibenthos varied among seasons. Variability in the three faunas among beaches, distance from the continental slope and the Guayas estuarine system, and beach water physical characteristics were all strongly correlated suggesting adjacent habitats can influence surf zone biological communities and water physical characteristics. Seasonal effects were related to changes in water physical characteristics among seasons potentially reflecting changes in oceanic currents. These results suggest that, similarly to other beaches around the world, Ecuadorian

  16. Prediction and assimilation of surf-zone processes using a Bayesian network: Part I: Forward models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Holland, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    Prediction of coastal processes, including waves, currents, and sediment transport, can be obtained from a variety of detailed geophysical-process models with many simulations showing significant skill. This capability supports a wide range of research and applied efforts that can benefit from accurate numerical predictions. However, the predictions are only as accurate as the data used to drive the models and, given the large temporal and spatial variability of the surf zone, inaccuracies in data are unavoidable such that useful predictions require corresponding estimates of uncertainty. We demonstrate how a Bayesian-network model can be used to provide accurate predictions of wave-height evolution in the surf zone given very sparse and/or inaccurate boundary-condition data. The approach is based on a formal treatment of a data-assimilation problem that takes advantage of significant reduction of the dimensionality of the model system. We demonstrate that predictions of a detailed geophysical model of the wave evolution are reproduced accurately using a Bayesian approach. In this surf-zone application, forward prediction skill was 83%, and uncertainties in the model inputs were accurately transferred to uncertainty in output variables. We also demonstrate that if modeling uncertainties were not conveyed to the Bayesian network (i.e., perfect data or model were assumed), then overly optimistic prediction uncertainties were computed. More consistent predictions and uncertainties were obtained by including model-parameter errors as a source of input uncertainty. Improved predictions (skill of 90%) were achieved because the Bayesian network simultaneously estimated optimal parameters while predicting wave heights.

  17. Spatial and temporal variability in surf zone fish assemblages on the coast of northern New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, D. H.; Clarke, D. G.; Burlas, M. H.; Ruben, H.; Will, R. J.

    2003-02-01

    The surf zone fish community along 15 km of northern New Jersey shoreline was sampled every 2 weeks by beach seine in the late summers and early falls of 1995-1999 in conjunction with monitoring of a beach nourishment project. Fifty-seven species representing 30 families were collected during the course of the study. Over 90% of each sampling period's catch was composed of five taxa or less. These taxa included Atlantic and rough silversides, Menidia menidia and Membras martinica, bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, and bay and striped anchovies, Anchoa mitchilli and Anchoa hepsetus, with the relative contributions of these taxa varying among years. Both bluefish and anchovy abundances varied by an order of magnitude among years. Size-frequency distributions indicate summer-spawned bluefish recruit to the surf zone habitat as two cohorts in August and October, respectively. Fish abundance and richness were greater at substations closest to rock groins. Taxonomic richness declined along with decreasing water temperature in the fall, but was not correlated with turbidity or tide stage (measured as minutes before or after low tide). The extensive sampling effort undertaken in this study, 2190 seine hauls that captured 295 868 fish, was examined in relation to the number and relative proportions of taxa collected. Species accumulation curves and percent similarity calculations were used to investigate the adequacy of a reduced sampling protocol in characterizing the taxonomic composition of the surf zone fish community. Calculations from eight complete sampling periods (84 seine hauls each) indicate that a reduction in sampling effort by one-half would have yielded on average 75% of the total number of species captured with approximately 85% similarity in relative species composition.

  18. Simultaneous Observations of Beach and Surf-Zone Topography from a sUAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, R. K.; Brodie, K. L.; Spore, N.

    2016-02-01

    Beaches and surf-zones can vary rapidly in time and space, necessitating frequent, spatially extensive observations for up-to-date knowledge on their current condition. Traditional surveying methods are expensive, can be dangerous in large wave conditions, and can lack sufficient spatial density. Existing remote sensing technologies have focused on both active sensing (airborne lidar, X-band radar) or passive sensing (electro-optical or infrared imagery) to either directly measure elevations of the beach and seafloor or exploit the optical signal of refracting and breaking waves in the surf-zone. These methods, however, can be prohibitively expensive for widespread, high temporal frequency use, or lack the spatial coverage required to quantify a large stretch of beach. UAS offer an affordable and accessible alternative, but existing COTS UAS sensor suites are not optimized for generation of bathymetry and topography at the same time. Here, we present a new approach using an inexpensive, custom multi-camera sensor designed with a wide field of view for integration on either a fixed wing of multirotor UAS platform. We introduce a processing methodology and workflow to generate a topographic pointcloud and rectified imagery of the water surface using structure from motion algorithms. The topographic pointcloud data is processed to generate a DSM of the beach and extract morphologic parameters (beach slope, dune toe, etc). Rectified imagery of the water surface is used to quantify sandbar location as well as perform a celerity based bathymetric inversion. Accuracy of this methodology is calculated by comparing processed data to lidar pointclouds, as well as photo identifiable targets on the beach and jetted into the surf zone. Funded by the USACE Military Engineering POD:A&U Program and Coastal Field Data Collection Program.

  19. Ichthyoplankton in a southern african surf zone: Nursery area for the postlarvae of estuarine associated fish species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, A. K.

    1989-12-01

    The surf zone ichthyoplankton of Swartvlei Bay was studied between February 1986 and June 1987, with particular emphasis on its potential role as a nursery area for estuarine associated marine fish species. Larvae and/or postlarvae of 16 families were identified from the surf zone, with the Gobiidae, Soleidae, Sparidae and Mugilidae comprising 85·7% of all teleosts sampled. The postlarvae of several taxa (including the six most common species), which utilize the Swartvlei estuary as a juvenile nursery area, were abundant in the surf zone. Conversely, species which are common in nearshore marine waters as juveniles and adults, but seldom enter estuaries, totalled less than 8% of the surf zone ichthyoplankton assemblage. Larval and postlarval densities peaked during summer when water temperatures exceeded 19°C and the estuary mouth was open. Concentrations of ichthyoplankton were highest at those sampling stations closest to the estuary mouth during the summer period. Diel changes in total catches revealed no significant difference between day and night densities; but of the four major taxa, the Mugilidae and Sparidae tended to be more abundant during the day, the Gobiidae at night and the Soleidae showed no distinct pattern. Results from a 24 h sampling session indicated that tidal phase may also be important in governing ichthyoplankton abundance in the surf zone.

  20. Modification of the Undertow and Turbulence by Submerged Vegetation in a Laboratory Surf Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, T.; Suckale, J.; Marras, S.; Maldonado, S.; Koseff, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Breaking waves in the surf zone are a dominant factor shaping the evolution of our coastlines. The turbulence generated by wave breaking causes sediment resuspension, while wave runup, rundown, and the undertow transport this sediment along and across the shore (Longo et al., 2002). Coastal hazard models must now address the added complications of climate change, including sea level rise, stronger storm events, and ecosystem degradation (Arkema et al., 2013). A robust theoretical understanding of surf zone dynamics is therefore imperative to considering the magnitude and implications of these potential changes. However, little work has been done to extend our current theoretical understanding to realistic beach faces, with aquatic vegetation, reefs, and other roughness elements that might mitigate scour and sedimentation. Clarifying these relationships will help scientists and policy-makers decide where to focus ecosystem restoration and preservation efforts, in order to maximize their protective benefits to infrastructure and economic activity on the coast. In order to evaluate the role of vegetation in coastal protection, we conducted a series of experiments in an idealized laboratory surf zone. We examine the impact of submerged model vegetation on the undertow profile, wave orbital velocities, turbulent kinetic energy, and wave-induced stresses, and compare these results to theoretical formulations that model these quantities. We find that vegetation reduces the wave energy available to be converted to turbulent kinetic energy during breaking, indicating a mechanism to mitigate suspension of sediment. Vegetation also reduces the magnitude of the undertow, likely reducing transport of sediment offshore. These results suggest that vegetation provides significant protective benefits for coastal communities at risk from erosion beyond its well-characterized ability to attenuate wave height, and motivate further work to incorporate these effects into models of near

  1. Internal waves and surf zone water quality at Huntington Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H.; Santoro, A.; Nidzieko, N. J.; Hench, J. L.; Boehm, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    This study characterized diurnal, semi-diurnal, and high-frequency internal wave field at Huntington Beach, California, USA and the connection between internal waves and surf zone water quality. An array of oceanographic moorings was deployed in the summer of 2005 and 2006 at 10-20 meter depths offshore of the beach to observe internal waves and cross-shore exchange. Concurrently, surf zone water quality was assessed twice daily at an adjacent station (Huntington State Beach) with measurements of phosphate, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, silicate, chlorophyll a, fecal indicator bacteria, and the human-specific fecal DNA marker in Bacteroidales. Spectral analysis of water temperature shows well-defined spectral peaks at diurnal and semi-diurnal frequencies. Complex Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis of observed currents reveals that the baroclinic component (summation of second to fifth principal components) accounted for 30% of the total variance in the currents in both years, indicating the importance of density-driven flow during the summer when the water column was stratified. The major axis of the first principal component was oriented alongshore, whereas that of the second and third principal components made an angle of 25 to 55 degree with the cross-shore direction. Arrival of cold subthermocline water in the very near shore (within 1 km of the surf zone) was characterized by strong onshore flow near the bottom of the water column. The near bottom, baroclinic, cross-shore current was significantly lag-correlated with the near bottom temperature data along a cross-shore transect towards shore, indicative of shoreward transport of cold subthermocline water. Wavelet analysis of temperature data showed that non-stationary temperature fluctuations were correlated with buoyancy frequency and the near bottom cross-shore baroclinic current. During periods of large temperature fluctuations, the majority of the variance was within the semi-diurnal band; however, the

  2. Assessment of surf zone environmental variables in a southwestern Atlantic sandy beach (Monte Hermoso, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, M Clara; Fernández Severini, Melisa D; Buzzi, Natalia S; Piccolo, M Cintia; Perillo, Gerardo M E

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the temporal dynamics (monthly/tidal) of water temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a (chlo-a), suspended particulate matter (SPM), particulate organic carbon (POC), and dissolved nutrients in the surf zone of Monte Hermoso sandy beach, Argentina. We also aimed to understand the underlying mechanisms responsible for the observed variability. Sampling was carried out approximately monthly (September 2009-November 2010), and all samples were collected in a fixed station during high and low tide. Water temperature showed a clear seasonal variability (July: 9 °C-December: 26.5 °C) and a thermal amplitude of 17.5 °C. Salinity ranged from 33 to 37, without a pronounced seasonality. SPM (10-223 mg L(-1)) and POC concentrations (399-6445 mg C m(-3)) were high in surf zone waters. Chlo-a (0.05-9.16 μg L(-1)) was low and did not evidence the occurrence of surf diatom accumulations. Dissolved nutrient concentration was quite fluctuating. None of the variables seemed to be affected by tidal stage. The results showed how fluctuating the physico-chemical and biological variables can be in this particular system. The observed variability can be related with local beach conditions but also with regional processes. The study area is highly influenced by a neighbor estuary and as a consequence, could be vulnerable to their seasonal and inter-annual dynamics. All of these characteristics must be considered for further studies and planning of the uses of natural resources and should be taken into account in any environmental monitoring program conducted in a similar beach system.

  3. Wave Transformation in a Multi-Bar Surf Zone: Case Study of Lubiatowo (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yuan-Jyh; Hsu, Tai-Wen; Ostrowski, Rafał; Szmytkiewicz, Marek

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents results of field and theoretical investigations of wave transformation in the surf zone near the IBW PAN Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo (Poland, the south Baltic Sea). The study site displays multi-bar cross-shore profiles that intensively dissipate wave energy, mostly induced by breaking. The main field data comprise wave heights and cross-shore bathymetric profiles.Wave transformation is modelled theoretically by two approaches, namely the IBW PAN phase-averaged wave transformation model and the approach based on the hydraulic jump model, developed by Hsu & Lai (2009) for hydrological situations encountered under the actual conditions of two field campaigns - in 1987 and 1996. Discrepancies between the measured data and the model results are discussed. In general, the model results are in good agreement with the in-situ observations. The comparison of the field data with the computational results concerns a part of the surf zone between about 5 m water depth and the first nearshore stable bar, where the depth amounts to ca. 1.2 m.

  4. A VOF-based numerical model for breaking waves in surf zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces a numerical model for studying the evolution of a periodic wave train,shoaling, and breaking in surf zone. The model can solve the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations for a mean flow, and the k-ε equations for turbulence kinetic energy k and turbulence dissipation rate ε. To track a free surface, the volume of fluid (VOF) function, satisfying the advection equation was introduced. In the numerical treatment, third-order upwind difference scheme was applied to the convection terms of the RANS equations in order to reduce the effect of numerical viscosity. The shoaling and breaking processes of a periodic wave train on gently sloping beaches were modeled. The computed wave heights of a sloping beach and the distribution of breaking wave pressure on a vertical wall were compared with laboratory data.

  5. Physical linkages between an offshore canyon and surf zone morphologic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jeff E.; Raubenheimer, Britt; Elgar, Steve; List, Jeffrey H.; Lippmann, Thomas C.

    2017-04-01

    The causes of surf zone morphologic changes observed along a sandy beach onshore of a submarine canyon were investigated using field observations and a numerical model (Delft3D/SWAN). Numerically simulated morphologic changes using four different sediment transport formulae reproduce the temporal and spatial patterns of net cross-shore integrated (between 0 and 6.5 m water depths) accretion and erosion observed in a ˜300 m alongshore region, a few hundred meters from the canyon head. The observations and simulations indicate that the accretion or erosion results from converging or diverging alongshore currents driven primarily by breaking waves and alongshore pressure gradients. The location of convergence or divergence depends on the direction of the offshore waves that refract over the canyon, suggesting that bathymetric features on the inner shelf can have first-order effects on short-term nearshore morphologic change.

  6. Numerical modelling of wind effects on breaking waves in the surf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhihua

    2017-10-01

    Wind effects on periodic breaking waves in the surf zone have been investigated in this study using a two-phase flow model. The model solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the k - 𝜖 turbulence model simultaneously for the flows both in the air and water. Both spilling and plunging breakers over a 1:35 sloping beach have been studied under the influence of wind, with a focus during wave breaking. Detailed information of the distribution of wave amplitudes and mean water level, wave-height-to-water-depth ratio, the water surface profiles, velocity, vorticity, and turbulence fields have been presented and discussed. The inclusion of wind alters the air flow structure above water waves, increases the generation of vorticity, and affects the wave shoaling, breaking, overturning, and splash-up processes. Wind increases the water particle velocities and causes water waves to break earlier and seaward, which agrees with the previous experiment.

  7. Numerical modeling of surf zone dynamics under weakly plunging breakers with SPH method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Christos V.; Memos, Constantine D.; Krestenitis, Yannis N.

    2016-02-01

    The wave breaking of weak plungers over a relatively mild slope is investigated in this paper. Numerical modeling aspects are studied, concerning the propagation and breaking of shore-normal, nonlinear and regular waves. The two-dimensional (2-D) kinematics and dynamics (fluctuating flow features and large 2-D eddies) of the wave-induced flow on a vertical cross-section over the entire surf zone are simulated with the use of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). The academic 'open source' code SPHysics v.2 is employed and the viscosity treatment is based on a Sub-Particle Scale (SPS) approach, similarly to the Large Eddy Simulations (LES) concept. Thorough analysis of the turbulent flow scales determines the necessary refinement of the spatial resolution. The initial particle discretization reaches down to the demarcation point between integral turbulence length scales and Taylor micro-scales. A convolution-type integration method is implemented for the transformation of scattered Lagrangian particle data to Eulerian values at fixed gauges. A heuristic technique of ensemble-averaging is used for the discrimination of the fluctuating flow components from coherent structures and ordered wave motion. Comparisons between numerical and experimental data give encouraging results for several wave features. The wave-induced mean flows are simulated plausibly, and even the 'streaming' effect near the bed is reproduced. The recurring vorticity patterns are derived, and coherent 2-D structures inside the surf zone are identified. Fourier spectral analysis of velocities reveals isotropy of 2-D fluctuating dynamics up to rather high frequencies in shear intensified regions. The simulated Reynolds stresses follow patterns that define the characteristic mechanism of wave breaking for weak plungers. Persisting discrepancies at the incipient breaking region confirm the need for fine, massively 'parallel' 3-D SPS-SPH simulations.

  8. Mapping bathymetry in an active surf zone with the WorldView2 multispectral satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, S. M.; Houser, C.; Brander, R.; Chirico, P.

    2015-12-01

    Rip currents are strong, narrow seaward flows of water that originate in the surf zones of many global beaches. They are related to hundreds of international drownings each year, but exact numbers are difficult to calculate due to logistical difficulties in obtaining accurate incident reports. Annual average rip current fatalities are estimated to be ~100, 53 and 21 in the United States (US), Costa Rica, and Australia respectively. Current warning systems (e.g. National Weather Service) do not account for fine resolution nearshore bathymetry because it is difficult to capture. The method shown here could provide frequent, high resolution maps of nearshore bathymetry at a scale required for improved rip prediction and warning. This study demonstrates a method for mapping bathymetry in the surf zone (20m deep and less), specifically within rip channels, because rips form at topographically low spots in the bathymetry as a result of feedback amongst waves, substrate, and antecedent bathymetry. The methods employ the Digital Globe WorldView2 (WV2) multispectral satellite and field measurements of depth to generate maps of the changing bathymetry at two embayed, rip-prone beaches: Playa Cocles, Puerto Viejo de Talamanca, Costa Rica, and Bondi Beach, Sydney, Australia. WV2 has a 1.1 day pass-over rate with 1.84m ground pixel resolution of 8 bands, including 'yellow' (585-625 nm) and 'coastal blue' (400-450 nm). The data is used to classify bottom type and to map depth to the return in multiple bands. The methodology is tested at each site for algorithm consistency between dates, and again for applicability between sites.

  9. Relationship between high-frequency sediment-level oscillations in the swash zone and inner surf zone wave characteristics under calm wave conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Swash zone topography rapidly responds to the surf zone waves. Understanding how sandy beaches respond to wave action is critical for beach erosion research, and plays a critical role in the design and maintenance of shore protection structures. The main objectives of this study were to detect the relationship between high-frequency beachface oscillations and surf zone wave characteristics under plunging breakers by using Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA. The study site is located in Houjiangwan Bay, eastern Guangdong. Topography data were sampled at 6 min intervals. The wave characteristic parameters were calculated by spectrum method. During the field work, the beach showed a reflective state and plunging breakers controlled the surf zone. The beach cusp topography was destructed gradually. The analysis provides 4 canonical correlation processes between the beachface variations and surf zone waves, which explained 95.28% of the overall variation in the data. The result shows wave steepness, the irregularity factor and spectral broadness factor had strong impacts on the topography. The wave steepness was the most important factor for beach profile variations. The results of the present study indicate that data-driven statistical analysis, such as CCA, is useful for analyzing profile response to waves if there is strong correlation between the two variables (beach profiles and wave.

  10. A CFD Model for Wave Transformation and Breaking in the Surf Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopakatla, S. C.; Lippmann, T. C.; Richardson, J. E.; Thornton, E. B.; Holman, R. A.

    2002-12-01

    Wind-generated surface gravity waves are the major driving force for nearshore circulation and sediment transport. As waves shoal in shallow coastal waters, spectra evolve strongly owing to refraction, nonlinear energy transfers, and dissipation caused by wave breaking and bottom friction. Although considerable progress has been made in modeling wave propagation over complex bottom topography, the dissipation mechanisms are still poorly understood. As a consequence, wave transformation models for the surf zone use crude descriptions of the wave breaking process based on simple saturation criteria or empirical probability distributions that do not always work well for the range of bathymetric and wave conditions commonly observed in nature. In this report, we will discuss the results of studies made with the commercially available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software system known as FLOW-3D (Flow Science, Inc., Sante Fe, NM). FLOW-3D is designed to solve transient, free surface flow problems based on the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in three-dimensions. As part of FLOW-3D's formulation, the dissipation of energy is determined by use of coupled turbulence closure schemes (e.g., closure schemes based on the solution of turbulent kinetic energy transport equations). In this study, fine scale pressures and velocities are computed over a two-dimensional beach profile measured during the 1990 Delilah experiment. The model is driven by observed wave spectra obtained in 8 meter water depths, and results compared with a cross-shore array of pressure sensors and current meters spanning the width of the surf zone. In the calculations, wave breaking is a natural consequence of the fluid dynamics and does not require the use of empirical formulations, or breaking criteria. The spatial and temporal variability in the wave breaking locations will be compared with video observations obtained during the experiment. Good comparison between modeled and observed wave

  11. Temporal and spatial patterns for surf zone bacteria before and after disinfection of the orange county sanitation district effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, G.L.; Noble, M.A.; Xu, J. P.; Rosenfeld, L.K.; McGee, C.D.

    2005-01-01

    Data from pre- and post-disinfection fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) samples from final effluent, an offshore ocean outfall, and surf zone stations off Huntington Beach, CA were compared. Analysis of the results from these data sets confirmed that the ocean outfall was not the FIB source responsible for the postings and closures of local beaches that have occurred each summer since 1999. While FIB counts in the final effluent and offshore showed several order of magnitude reductions after disinfection, there were no significant reductions at the nearby surf zone stations. Additionally, the FIB spectral patterns suggest different sources. The dominant fortnightly cycle suggested that the source was related to the wetting and draining of the land from large spring tide tidal excursions.

  12. Inner Surf/Swash Zone Morphodynamic Numerical Model Simulation of an Accreting Ridge during Low-Energy Wave Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youn Kyung; Figlus, Jens; Chardón-Maldonado, Patricia; Puleo, Jack A.

    2017-04-01

    The inner surf/swash zone of a coastal beach is characterized as an intermittently wet and dry zone in the nearshore that often develops a variety of morphological features including intertidal bars and ridge-runnel (RR) systems. The cross-shore morphodynamic numerical model CSHORE is used to simulate the beach recovery observed during a field experiment carried out at South Bethany Beach, Delaware, a nourished, high-gradient meso-tidal sandy beach along the U. S. Coast. The field campaign was conducted from February 12 to February 25, 2014 to measure bed profile morphology change and sediment characteristics along with detailed hydrodynamic forcing parameters at six cross-shore stations, closely spaced over approximately 50 m in the inner surf and swash zone. On February 13, 2014 a Nor'easter eroded significant portions of the beach leading to formation of a pronounced RR system on the beach face that subsequently accreted in the recovery process after the storm. Bed profile changes, surf and swash velocity profiles, water free surface elevation and suspended sediment concentrations recorded during the recovery at the cross-shore measuring locations on the seaward face of the accreting ridge are compared with CSHORE simulation results. During post-storm recovery, CSHORE demonstrates shoreward migration of the ridge and slight accretion on the beach face by the end of the simulation period on February 25, 2014. This trend was also observed in the field, where accretion at the ridge crest was up to 1.0 m with respect to the post-storm profile. The CSHORE parameters critical to improving model performance in reproducing measured morphodynamics and hydrodynamics during the ridge accretion process are examined and calibrated. Initial results show promise in using this type of efficient, process-based model to reproduce morphological evolution and depth-averaged hydrodynamics as a result of the complex surf and swash zone dynamics associated with beach accretion and RR

  13. Temporal and spatial variability of fecal indicator bacteria in the surf zone off Huntington Beach, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, L.K.; McGee, C.D.; Robertson, G.L.; Noble, M.A.; Jones, B.H.

    2006-01-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations measured in the surf zone off Huntington Beach, CA from July 1998-December 2001 were analyzed with respect to their spatial patterns along 23 km of beach, and temporal variability on time scales from hourly to fortnightly. The majority of samples had bacterial concentrations less than, or equal to, the minimum detection limit, but a small percentage exceeded the California recreational water standards. Areas where coliform bacteria exceeded standards were more prevalent north of the Santa Ana River, whereas enterococci exceedances covered a broad area both north and south of the river. Higher concentrations of bacteria were associated with spring tides. No temporal correspondence was found between these bacterial events and either the timing of cold water pulses near shore due to internal tides, or the presence of southerly swell in the surface wave field. All three fecal indicator bacteria exhibited a diel cycle, but enterococci rebounded to high nighttime values almost as soon as the sun went down, whereas coliform levels were highest near the nighttime low tide, which was also the lower low tide. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Surf Zone Hydrodynamics and its Utilization in Biotechnical Stabilization of Water Reservoir Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Pelikán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The water reservoir banks are eroded mainly by two factors. The first one is wave action (i.e. wave abrasion affecting the bank in direction from the reservoir. The second one is the influence of water flowing downward over the bank surface in direction from land into the reservoir (e.g. rainfall. The determination of regular altitudinal emplacement of proper designed particular biotechnical stabilization elements is the most important factor on which the right functionality of whole construction depends. Surf zone hydrodynamics solves the wave and water level changes inside the region extending from the wave breaking point to the limit of wave up-rush. The paper is focused on the utilization of piece of knowledge from a part of sea coast hydrodynamics and new approach in its application in the conditions of inland water bodies when designing the biotechnical stabilization elements along the shorelines. The “reinforced grass carpets” as a type of biotechnical method of bank stabilization are presented in the paper; whether the growth of grass root system is dependent on presence or absence of geomats in the soil structure and proceeding of their establishment on the shorelines.

  15. Prediction and assimilation of surf-zone processes using a Bayesian network: Part II: Inverse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Holland, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    A Bayesian network model has been developed to simulate a relatively simple problem of wave propagation in the surf zone (detailed in Part I). Here, we demonstrate that this Bayesian model can provide both inverse modeling and data-assimilation solutions for predicting offshore wave heights and depth estimates given limited wave-height and depth information from an onshore location. The inverse method is extended to allow data assimilation using observational inputs that are not compatible with deterministic solutions of the problem. These inputs include sand bar positions (instead of bathymetry) and estimates of the intensity of wave breaking (instead of wave-height observations). Our results indicate that wave breaking information is essential to reduce prediction errors. In many practical situations, this information could be provided from a shore-based observer or from remote-sensing systems. We show that various combinations of the assimilated inputs significantly reduce the uncertainty in the estimates of water depths and wave heights in the model domain. Application of the Bayesian network model to new field data demonstrated significant predictive skill (R2 = 0.7) for the inverse estimate of a month-long time series of offshore wave heights. The Bayesian inverse results include uncertainty estimates that were shown to be most accurate when given uncertainty in the inputs (e.g., depth and tuning parameters). Furthermore, the inverse modeling was extended to directly estimate tuning parameters associated with the underlying wave-process model. The inverse estimates of the model parameters not only showed an offshore wave height dependence consistent with results of previous studies but the uncertainty estimates of the tuning parameters also explain previously reported variations in the model parameters.

  16. Size spectra of bubbles in the foam patches and of sea salt nuclei over the surf zone

    OpenAIRE

    Podzimek, Josef

    2011-01-01

    The size distribution of bubbles in the foam patches and the size distribution of giant chloridenuclei over the surf zone both follow the Nukiyama-Tanassava size distribution function. Theslope of the size distribution curve for bubbles depends, however, on the residence time of thefoam patch at the ocean surface. The best fit of the sea salt nuclei size distribution curve wasfound for s = 0.333 in the Nukiyama-Tanassava distribution.DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.1984.tb00241.x

  17. Numerical study of pollutant movement in waves and wave-induced long-shore currents in surf zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Jun; SHEN Yongming; QIU Dahong

    2008-01-01

    Water waves,wave-induced long-shore currents and movement of pollutants in waves and currents have been numerically studied based on the hyperbolic mild-slope equation,the shallow water equation,as well as the pollutant movement equation,and the nu- merical results have also been validated by experimental data.It is shown that the long-shore current velocity and wave set-up in- crease with the increasing incident wave amplitude and slope steepness of the shore plane;the wave set-up increases with the in- creasing incident wave period;and the pollutant morement proceeds more quiekly with the increasing incident wave amplitude and slope steepness of the shore palane.In surf zones,the long-shore currents induced by the inclined incident waves have effectively affected the pollutant movement.

  18. Implementation and modification of a three-dimensional radiation stress formulation for surf zone and rip-current applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N.; Voulgaris, G.; Warner, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS v 3.0), a three-dimensional numerical ocean model, was previously enhanced for shallow water applications by including wave-induced radiation stress forcing provided through coupling to wave propagation models (SWAN, REF/DIF). This enhancement made it suitable for surf zone applications as demonstrated using examples of obliquely incident waves on a planar beach and rip current formation in longshore bar trough morphology (Haas and Warner, 2009). In this contribution, we present an update to the coupled model which implements a wave roller model and also a modified method of the radiation stress term based on Mellor (2008, 2011a,b,in press) that includes a vertical distribution which better simulates non-conservative (i.e., wave breaking) processes and appears to be more appropriate for sigma coordinates in very shallow waters where wave breaking conditions dominate. The improvements of the modified model are shown through simulations of several cases that include: (a) obliquely incident spectral waves on a planar beach; (b) obliquely incident spectral waves on a natural barred beach (DUCK'94 experiment); (c) alongshore variable offshore wave forcing on a planar beach; (d) alongshore varying bathymetry with constant offshore wave forcing; and (e) nearshore barred morphology with rip-channels. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons to previous analytical, numerical, laboratory studies and field measurements show that the modified model replicates surf zone recirculation patterns (onshore drift at the surface and undertow at the bottom) more accurately than previous formulations based on radiation stress (Haas and Warner, 2009). The results of the model and test cases are further explored for identifying the forces operating in rip current development and the potential implication for sediment transport and rip channel development. Also, model analysis showed that rip current strength is higher when waves approach at angles of 5

  19. SWASH ZONE BED LEVEL CHANGES AND SEDIMENT ENTRAINMENT AT THE SURF-SWASH BOUNDARY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stine Gro; Aagaard, Troels; Baldock, Tom

    2010-01-01

    detailed data on water levels and bed elevations in the swash zone. Water levels derived from the pressure transducers show that swash zone characteristics vary from the upper to lower swash. Using pressure transducers in the swash zone coupled with measurements of the hydrodynamics and sediment...

  20. Three-dimensional modelling of wave-induced current from the surf zone to the inner shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Michaud

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We develop and implement a new method to take into account the impact of waves into the 3-D circulation model SYMPHONIE (Marsaleix et al., 2008, 2009a, following the simplified equations of Bennis et al. (2011 which use glm2z-RANS theory (Ardhuin et al., 2008b. These adiabatic equations are completed by additional parameterizations of wave breaking, bottom friction and wave-enhanced vertical mixing, making the forcing valid from the surf zone through to the open ocean. The wave forcing is performed by wave generation and propagation models WAVEWATCH III® (Tolman, 2008, 2009; Ardhuin et al., 2010 and SWAN (Booij et al., 1999. The model is tested and compared with other models for a plane beach test case, previously tested by Haas and Warner (2009 and Uchiyama et al. (2010. A comparison is also made with the laboratory measurements of Haller et al. (2002 of a barred beach with channels. Results fit with previous simulations performed by other models and with available observational data.

    Finally, a realistic case of energetic waves travelling over a coast of the Gulf of Lion (in the northwest of the Mediterranean Sea for which currents are available at different depths as well as an accurate bathymetric database of the 0–10 m depth range, is then simulated. A grid nesting approach is used to account for the different forcings acting at different spatial scales. The simulation coupling the effects of waves and currents is successful to reproduce the powerful northward littoral drift in the 0–15 m depth zone. More precisely, two distinct cases are identified: when waves have a normal angle of incidence with the coast, they are responsible for complex circulation cells and rip currents in the surf zone, and when they travel obliquely, they generate a northward littoral drift. These features are more complicated than in the test cases, due to the complex bathymetry and the consideration of wind and non-stationary processes. Wave impacts

  1. Three-dimensional modelling of wave-induced current from the surf zone to the inner shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Michaud

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We develop and implement a new method to take into account the impact of waves into the 3-D circulation model SYMPHONIE (Marsaleix et al., 2008, 2009a following the simplified equations of Bennis et al. (2011 which use glm2z-RANS theory (Ardhuin et al., 2008c. These adiabatic equations are completed by additional parameterizations of wave breaking, bottom friction and wave-enhanced vertical mixing, making the forcing valid from the surf zone through to the open ocean. The wave forcing is performed by wave generation and propagation models WAVEWATCH III® (Tolman, 2008, 2009; Ardhuin et al., 2010 and SWAN (Booij et al., 1999. The model is tested and compared with other models for a plane beach test case, previously tested by Haas and Warner (2009and Uchiyama et al. (2010. A comparison is also made with the laboratory measurements of Haller et al. (2002 of a barred beach with channels. Results fit with previous simulations performed by other models and with available observational data.

    Finally, a realistic case is simulated with energetic waves travelling over a coast of the Gulf of Lion (in the northwest of the Mediterranean Sea for which currents are available at different depths as well as an accurate bathymetric database of the 0–10 m depth range. A grid nesting approach is used to account for the different forcings acting at different spatial scales. The simulation coupling the effects of waves and currents is successful to reproduce the powerful northward littoral drift in the 0–15 m depth zone. More precisely, two distinct cases are identified: When waves have a normal angle of incidence with the coast, they are responsible for complex circulation cells and rip currents in the surf zone, and when they travel obliquely, they generate a northward littoral drift. These features are more complicated than in the test cases, due to the complex bathymetry and the consideration of wind and non-stationary processes. Wave impacts in the

  2. Spatial and temporal variations of diurnal ichthyofauna on surf-zone of São Francisco do Itabapoana beaches, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Marcelo Paes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variations of diurnal ichthyofauna and the environmental variables influences on its distribution were studied at the surf-zone of three beaches of São Francisco do Itabapoana, northern coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From August/1999 to August/2000, three beach seine hauls were made monthly, and environmental variables were recorded. A total number of 4,562 fishes (74,155g were sampled at the three beaches, where estuarine-dependent species prevailed (44%, followed by marine (31%, estuarine (19% and freshwater species (3%. Species richness, number of individuals and wet weight were significantly higher at Gargaú, followed by Manguinhos and Barra do Itabapoana, respectively. Canonical Correspondence Analysis highlighted influences of the rivers flushing, salinity and plant abundance on the diurnal ichthyofauna distribution and dynamics of São Francisco do Itabapoana surf-zone.

  3. The design and implementation of a semi-autonomous surf-zone robot using advanced sensors and a common robot operating system

    OpenAIRE

    Hickle, Jason.; Halle, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A semi-autonomous vehicle, MONTe, was designed, modeled and tested for deployment and operation in a surf-zone coastal environment. The MONTe platform was designed to use unique land based locomotion that incorporates wheel-legs(WhegsTM) and a tail. Semi-autonomy was realized with data from onboard sensors and implemented through open source Robot Operating System (ROS), hosted on an Ubuntu Linux based processor. Communications vi...

  4. Structural aspects of the surf-zone fish assemblage at King's Beach, Algoa Bay, South Africa: Long-term fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasiak, Theresa A.

    1984-04-01

    Regular collections of fish were obtained from the surf-zone at King's Beach, Algoa Bay. A total of 3970 fish, representing 50 species was caught with a coarse net and 16 857 fish, representing 37 species, were caught with a fine net. Predominant species were the blacktail, Diplodus sargus; the sand steenbras, Lithognathus mormyrus; the mullet, Liza richardsoni; the gorrie, Pomadasys olivaceum; the white stumpnose, Rhabdosargus globiceps; the sandshark, Rhinobatos annulatus; and the streepie, Sarpa salpa. No seasonal trends were discernible in the overall abundance or species diversity. The species composition of the dominant component of the fish assemblage varied considerably. This indicated instability in the community structure and cast doubts on the applicability of a classic community concept and the use of diversity indices. Neither classification nor correspondence analysis were of any use in identifying a characteristic species component. Multiple regression analysis indicated that short-term variations in wind conditions might be a primary determinant of fluctuations in abundance. The lack of seasonality in the community parameters may reflect the fact that short-term variability masks seasonal perturbations.

  5. The Surf Zone Ichthyoplankton Adjacent to an Intermittently Open Estuary, with Evidence of Recruitment during Marine Overwash Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, P. D.; Whitfield, A. K.; Bell, K. N. I.

    2001-03-01

    The composition, structure and seasonality of ichthyoplankton in the surf zone adjacent to the mouth of the intermittently open East Kleinemonde Estuary (33°32'S, 27°03'E) were investigated over a period of 2 years. Altogether 451 fishes, representing at least 21 taxa from 14 families, were collected. The assemblage was dominated by postflexion larvae of euryhaline marine species that are dependent on estuaries as nursery areas. The sparid Rhabdosargus holubi was the most abundant taxon and constituted more than 77% of the total catch. A distinct modal size class was identified for R. holubi , while the mean individual size of this and other abundant taxa was comparable to the observed recruitment size range reported from a wide variety of estuarine nursery habitats in southern Africa. Periodic regression analyses revealed significant peaks in abundance of larval R. holubi during late winter (August), at down and dusk, at new and full moon (spring tides), and on the flood stage of the tidal cycle. Evidence for estuarine immigration during marine overwash events (surging rough seas that enter the estuary) is provided by (1) the stranding of postflexion larvae in the region of the closed estuary mouth following these events, and (2) back extrapolation from length modes within the estuary to coincide with such an event. The advantages and disadvantages of such a recruitment strategy are discussed.

  6. Quantitative assessment of surf-produced sea spray aerosol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, F.P.; De Leeuw, G.; Jansen, M.; Stive, M.J.F.

    1998-01-01

    The first results are presented from a quantitative model describing the aerosol production in the surf zone. A comparison is made with aerosol produced in the surf zone as measured during EOPACE experiments in La Jolla and Monterey. The surf aerosol production was derived from aerosol concentration

  7. Quantitative assessment of surf-produced sea spray aerosol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, F.P.; De Leeuw, G.; Jansen, M.; Stive, M.J.F.

    1998-01-01

    The first results are presented from a quantitative model describing the aerosol production in the surf zone. A comparison is made with aerosol produced in the surf zone as measured during EOPACE experiments in La Jolla and Monterey. The surf aerosol production was derived from aerosol concentration

  8. Observations of wave-induced pore pressure gradients and bed level response on a surf zone sandbar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dylan; Cox, Dan; Mieras, Ryan; Puleo, Jack A.; Hsu, Tian-Jian

    2017-06-01

    Horizontal and vertical pressure gradients may be important physical mechanisms contributing to onshore sediment transport beneath steep, near-breaking waves in the surf zone. A barred beach was constructed in a large-scale laboratory wave flume with a fixed profile containing a mobile sediment layer on the crest of the sandbar. Horizontal and vertical pore pressure gradients were obtained by finite differences of measurements from an array of pressure transducers buried within the upper several centimeters of the bed. Colocated observations of erosion depth were made during asymmetric wave trials with wave heights between 0.10 and 0.98 m, consistently resulting in onshore sheet flow sediment transport. The pore pressure gradient vector within the bed exhibited temporal rotations during each wave cycle, directed predominantly upward under the trough and then rapidly rotating onshore and downward as the wavefront passed. The magnitude of the pore pressure gradient during each phase of rotation was correlated with local wave steepness and relative depth. Momentary bed failures as deep as 20 grain diameters were coincident with sharp increases in the onshore-directed pore pressure gradients, but occurred at horizontal pressure gradients less than theoretical critical values for initiation of the motion for compact beds. An expression combining the effects of both horizontal and vertical pore pressure gradients with bed shear stress and soil stability is used to determine that failure of the bed is initiated at nonnegligible values of both forces.Plain Language SummaryThe pressure gradient present within the seabed beneath breaking waves may be an important physical mechanism transporting sediment. A large-scale laboratory was used to replicate realistic surfzone conditions in controlled tests, allowing for horizontal and vertical pressure gradient magnitudes and the resulting sediment bed response to be observed with precise instruments. Contrary to previous studies

  9. Preliminary assessment of surf-zone and estuarine line-fish species of the Dwesa-Cwebe Marine Protected Area, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A. Venter

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary assessment of surf-zone and estuarine line fish was carried out in the DwesaCwebe Marine Protected Area (MPA, on the Wild Coast, South Africa. The purpose was to provide baseline data on inshore line-fish stocks in the MPA. A total of 28 species was recorded, of which 53% have a conservation status reflecting some concern and 43% are endemic to southern Africa. This highlights the value of the MPA for protection of important line-fish species. Within the MPA, localised differences were detected in species diversity, size frequency and catch per unit effort between unexploited and illegally exploited areas. These differences were more prominent in slow growing, long-lived species. It thus appears that illegal exploitation is negatively affecting fish populations within the MPA, which counteract and potentially could eliminate the benefits of fish protection typically associated with no-take MPAs. These results highlight the need for improved law enforcement and better communication with neighbouring communities to increase awareness. It is further recommended that the current no-take status of the MPA should be maintained. In addition, baseline fisheries information was collected on certain fish species that could be used to inform future conservation management of the MPA.Conservation implications: The Dwesa-Cwebe Marine Protected Area is unique and important for the conservation of key surf zone and estuarine fish species. However there is a significant risk to the fish populations due to illegal exploitation. Key interventions should include enhanced law enforcement but, more important, the creation of alternative livelihoods and long term sustainable benefits to local communities.

  10. Implementation of the vortex force formalism in the coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave-sediment transport (COAWST) modeling system for inner shelf and surf zone applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nirnimesh; Voulgaris, George; Warner, John C.; Olabarrieta, Maitane

    2012-01-01

    The coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave-sediment transport modeling system (COAWST) enables simulations that integrate oceanic, atmospheric, wave and morphological processes in the coastal ocean. Within the modeling system, the three-dimensional ocean circulation module (ROMS) is coupled with the wave generation and propagation model (SWAN) to allow full integration of the effect of waves on circulation and vice versa. The existing wave-current coupling component utilizes a depth dependent radiation stress approach. In here we present a new approach that uses the vortex force formalism. The formulation adopted and the various parameterizations used in the model as well as their numerical implementation are presented in detail. The performance of the new system is examined through the presentation of four test cases. These include obliquely incident waves on a synthetic planar beach and a natural barred beach (DUCK' 94); normal incident waves on a nearshore barred morphology with rip channels; and wave-induced mean flows outside the surf zone at the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO).

  11. Space Environment Prediction for SZ-4 and SZ-5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Siqing; LIU Jing; SHI Liqin; HAN Jianwei; ZANG Zhenqun

    2004-01-01

    The Space Environment Prediction Center (SEPC) of the Center for Space Science and Applied Research of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CSSAR, CAS)took on the mission of offering the space environment parameters which may be of use to the safety of manned spacecraft. In order to complete the space environment safety guarantee mission for SZ-4 and SZ-5, SEPC improved the space environment monitoring system, database system, prediction result display system, prediction implementation system, etc. For guaranteeing the safety of the airship and cosmonaut in the first manned SZ-5, flying experiment mission,SEPC developed the software for analyzing radiation dose and early-warning software for large debris collision with SZ-5. Three months before the flights of SZ-4 and SZ-5, SEPC began to predict the safe launch period in view of the space environment, and offered timely and valid reference opinions for selecting the safety period. Especially during the mission of SZ-5, SEPC analyzed the space high-energy environment in a pre-arranged orbit and abnormal orbit andevaluated the radiation dose which cosmonauts may encounter in space. The evaluation offered an important reference for cosmonaut safety and decisionmaking in the SZ-5 mission. The calculation of the distribution of large debris and the collision risk assessment at different orbit entry times for SZ-5 provided an important base for the superior department to make flight decisions.

  12. Surf Tourism, Artificial Surfing Reefs, and Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotkin, Michael H.; Chambliss, Karen; Vamosi, Alexander R.; Lindo, Chris

    2009-07-01

    This paper explores the confluence of surf tourism, artificial surfing reefs, and sustainability. Surfing is an ascendant recreational and tourism industry and artificial surfing reefs are a new and innovative technology and product. Presented within the context of Florida's Space Coast, empirical details on surf tourism are discussed along with the possible implications for sustainability.

  13. Surfing on the Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Israel Paskowitz loves surfing. As a former competitive surfer, he has spent much of his life in the ocean and absorbed in a community of athletes that share a special connection with the water. Surfing is often thought of as a spiritual hobby that brings peace and relaxation to those who experience it. However, it was not until Israel's son,…

  14. Surfing on the Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Israel Paskowitz loves surfing. As a former competitive surfer, he has spent much of his life in the ocean and absorbed in a community of athletes that share a special connection with the water. Surfing is often thought of as a spiritual hobby that brings peace and relaxation to those who experience it. However, it was not until Israel's son,…

  15. Q&A: Surfing scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jascha

    2013-11-01

    Historian Peter Westwick and his colleague Peter Neushul thought up their scientific history of surfing, The World in the Curl (Crown, 2013), on boards off the coast of California. As the winter surfing season gets into full swing, Westwick talks about warfare, wetsuits, climate change and forecasting surf.

  16. The APEX-SZ Instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Schwan, Daniel; Basu, Kaustuv; Bender, Amy N; Bertoldi, Frank; Cho, Hsaio-Mei; Chon, Guyong; Clarke, John; Dobbs, Matt; Ferrusca, Daniel; Gusten, Rolfe; Halverson, Nils W; Holzapfel, William L; Horellou, Cathy; Johansson, Daniel; Johnson, Bradley R; Kennedy, James; Kermish, Zigmund; Kneissl, Ruediger; Lanting, Trevor; Lee, Adrian T; Lueker, Martin; Mehl, Jared; Menten, Karl M; Muders, Dirk; Pacaud, Florian; Plagge, Thomas; Reichardt, Christian L; Richards, Paul L; Schaaf, Rienhold; Schilke, Peter; Sommer, Martin W; Spieler, Helmuth; Tucker, Carole; Weiss, Axel; Westbrook, Benjamin; Zahn, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The APEX-SZ instrument is a millimeter-wave cryogenic receiver designed to observe galaxy clusters via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect from the 12 m APEX telescope on the Atacama plateau in Chile. The receiver contains a focal plane of 280 superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers instrumented with a frequency-domain multiplexed readout system. The bolometers are cooled to 280 mK via a three-stage helium sorption refrigerator and a mechanical pulse-tube cooler. Three warm mirrors, two 4 K lenses, and a horn array couple the TES bolometers to the telescope. APEX-SZ observes in a single frequency band at 150 GHz with 1' angular resolution and a 22' field-of-view, all well suited for cluster mapping. The APEX-SZ receiver has played a key role in the introduction of several new technologies including TES bolometers, the frequency-domain multiplexed readout, and the use of a pulse-tube cooler with bolometers. As a result of these new technologies, the instrument has a higher instantaneous sensitivity a...

  17. SURF Model Calibration Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-10

    SURF and SURFplus are high explosive reactive burn models for shock initiation and propagation of detonation waves. They are engineering models motivated by the ignition & growth concept of high spots and for SURFplus a second slow reaction for the energy release from carbon clustering. A key feature of the SURF model is that there is a partial decoupling between model parameters and detonation properties. This enables reduced sets of independent parameters to be calibrated sequentially for the initiation and propagation regimes. Here we focus on a methodology for tting the initiation parameters to Pop plot data based on 1-D simulations to compute a numerical Pop plot. In addition, the strategy for tting the remaining parameters for the propagation regime and failure diameter is discussed.

  18. Temperature, thermal efficiency, and gradient performance from two seawater-SZ solar ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, F.; Lowrey, P. (San Diego State Univ., CA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents 10 months of experience with two seawater-SZ (Storage Zone) solar ponds operated as a source of warm seawater which could have been used in an adjacent mariculture facility. Observations and extensive temperature, gradient and efficiency data are presented. This work demonstrated operation of and heat extraction from seawater-SZ solar ponds over a much longer interval than in previous work. It confirmed that seawater-SZ solar ponds can consistently give useful temperature elevations. A few phenomena not characteristic of conventional solar ponds were identified and are discussed.

  19. New Territory SZ Cluster Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Bartlett, J G; Barbosa, D

    1998-01-01

    The potential of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect for cluster studies has long been appreciated, although not yet fully exploited. Recent technological advances and improvements in observing strategies have changed this, to the point where it is now possible to speak of this subject at a meeting devoted to may be called {\\em pointed surveys}, dedicated to pre-selected clusters, from the former type already have significant numbers of clusters with very good signal-to-noise images; surveys of the second type are currently possible, but as yet not undertaken. The discussion will focus on the kind of science that can be done in this ``new territory''.

  20. Longshore sediment transport in the surf zone based on different formulae: A case study along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Shanas, P.R.; Dora, G.U.; Johnson, G.; Philip, C.S.

    Understanding longshore sediment transport (LST) is a prerequisite for designing an effective coastal zone management strategy. The present study estimates the LST along the central west coast of India based on four bulk LST formulae: (1...

  1. Surfing the quantum world

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Frank S

    2017-01-01

    The ideas and phenomena of the quantum world are strikingly unlike those encountered in our visual world. Surfing the Quantum World shows why and how this is so. It does this via a historical review and a gentle introduction to the fundamental principles of quantum theory, whose core concepts and symbolic representations are used to explain not only "ordinary" microscopic phenomena like the properties of the hydrogen atom and the structure of the Periodic Table of the Elements, but also a variety of mind-bending phenomena. Readers will learn that particles such as electrons and photons can behave like waves, allowing them to be in two places simultaneously, why white dwarf and neutron stars are gigantic quantum objects, how the maximum height of mountains has a quantum basis, and why quantum objects can tunnel through seemingly impenetrable barriers. Included among the various interpretational issues addressed is whether Schrodinger's cat is ever both dead and alive.

  2. Wave breaking in the surf zone and deep-water in a non-hydrostatic RANS model. Part 2: Turbulence and mean circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhti, Morteza; Kirby, James T.; Shi, Fengyan; Ma, Gangfeng

    2016-11-01

    Field-scale modeling of wave-breaking-induced turbulence and mean circulation is still challenging. Although Boussinesq-type models have been successfully used to study field-scale wave transformation and wave-breaking-driven circulation, they cannot provide turbulence or the vertical structure of the velocity field. In addition, the applicability of such models is limited to shallow water. In Part 1 (Derakhti et al., 2016b) of this study, we showed that the non-hydrostatic σ-coordinate RANS model NHWAVE, as described by Derakhti et al. (2016a), accurately predicts organized wave motions and total wave-breaking-induced energy dissipation from deep-water up to the swash zone using a few vertical σ-layers. In this paper, our goal is to examine what level of detail of wave-breaking-induced turbulence and mean circulation, both in depth- and steepness-limited breaking waves, can be reproduced by NHWAVE. Further, effects of modeled turbulent eddy viscosity on the predicted time-averaged velocity distribution is discussed. We establish that NHWAVE is capable of predicting the structure of the mean velocity and vorticity fields including large-scale breaking-induced coherent vortices in deep-water breaking events; where the absence of turbulence-induced eddy viscosity results in the overprediction of the velocity and vorticity field in the breaking region. We show that NHWAVE reduces the required CPU time up to two orders of magnitude in comparison with a comparable VOF-based simulation.

  3. ON THE RATE OF CONVERGENCE OF BEZIER VARIANT OF SZ(A')SZ-DURRMEYER OPERATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijay Gupta; Ulrich Abel

    2003-01-01

    In the present paper, we introduce Szász-Durrmeyer-Bézier operators Mn,o(f ,x), which generalize thetions of bounded variation. Our result extends and improves that of Sahai and Prasad[9] and Gupta andPant[3].

  4. Transformation of Waves Across the Surf Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    by -2 2 -2p(H) = 2H/Hrs exp(-H /Hrs) (1) where iH is the rms wave height.rms Using pressure records in the Gulf of Mexico , Longuet- Higgins (1975...Spring, MD 20910 21. Director 2 Instituto Oceanografico de la Armada Guayaquil, Ecuador 22. Director de Educacion de la Armada Comandancia General de

  5. Suspended Sediments Measured in the Surf Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    described by Komar and Inman (1970). Sus- pended sediments were measured in situ by swimmers using a mechanical water sampling device which...PEÜüENC’-1 fH* 39 imt ^^m "/• ffr- 7 If) \\ h A /’ kl v \\ n/\\ i > ^ U, Vectra of onshore-offshore flow vs. nephelcmeter

  6. Surf-zone Underwater Robotic Demonstration Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    dynamically advantageous shape for a robotic system. To address locomotive factors ARA completed a research and technical study based on an Archimedes ...effective hull shape. To study mobility and traction a propulsion system based on an Archimedes screw drive was used. A drive design based on an... Archimedes screw was chosen because of its ability to operate in various mediums with varying flow rates. A test bed was designed and assembled in order to

  7. Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics for Surf Zone Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    2010.) The GPU-SPHysics code, initiated by Dr. Alexis Hérault at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia in Sicily, has been applied to... Geofisica e Vulcanologia, sezione di Catania, for the development of GPU-SPHysics. Drs. Hérault and Bilotta were in residence at JHU during January of

  8. Features, Events, and Processes in SZ Flow and Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Economy

    2004-11-16

    This analysis report evaluates and documents the inclusion or exclusion of the saturated zone (SZ) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded'', is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for the decision. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), (f) (DIRS 156605). This scientific report focuses on FEP analysis of flow and transport issues relevant to the SZ (e.g., fracture flow in volcanic units, anisotropy, radionuclide transport on colloids, etc.) to be considered in the TSPA model for the LA. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded).

  9. Features, Events, and Processes in SZ Flow and Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Kuzio

    2005-08-20

    This analysis report evaluates and documents the inclusion or exclusion of the saturated zone (SZ) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for the decision. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.11(d), (e), (f) [DIRS 173273]. This scientific report focuses on FEP analysis of flow and transport issues relevant to the SZ (e.g., fracture flow in volcanic units, anisotropy, radionuclide transport on colloids, etc.) to be considered in the TSPA model for the LA. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded).

  10. Ecomorphology and food habits of teleost fishes Trachinotus carolinus (Teleostei: Carangidae and Menticirrhus littoralis (Teleostei: Sciaenidae, inhabiting the surf zone off Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Prestrelo Palmeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecomorphology and food habits of juvenile Trachinotus carolinus and Menticirrhus littoralis caught in the surf zone of sandy beaches in Niterói, RJ, were investigated between July 2006 and May 2007. These fish species differ morphologically, but present similarities in their diet composition suggest some slight overlapping in their diet. The importance of food items was assessed using Kawakami and Vazzoler's feeding index. Morphometric variables were recorded to correlate with the diet composition of the different size classes for each species. A total of 210 fishes (Trachinotus carolinus - 122, Menticirrhus littoralis - 88, ranging between 24.2 mm and 112 mm total length, were analyzed, but the stomachs of only 84.8% of them contained food. Trachinotus carolinus presented mysids, Polychaetes and Emerita spp. as the predominant items in their diet. Formicidae and Isopoda were the most important items for class I individuals, whereas mysids and Emerita spp. were important for classes II and III. Class I individuals also showed smaller sized prey (amphipods and isopods and clupeid fish larvae in their diet. Emerita spp. dominated the food items of Menticirrhus littoralis regardless of the size class. Polychaetes, the second most important item was better represented in class sizes II and III. The main morphometric variable correlated with such differences included mouth position and diameter of the eye.A ecomorfologia e os hábitos alimentares de juvenis de Trachinotus carolinus e Menticirrhus littoralis capturados na zona de arrebentação de praias arenosas em Niterói, RJ, foram investigados entre julho de 2006 e Maio de 2007. Ambas as espécies diferem morfologicamente, mas apresentam semelhanças em sua dieta, sugerindo uma possível sobreposição alimentar. A importância dos itens alimentares foi avaliada utilizando o índice alimentar de Kawakami e Vazzoler. Variáveis morfométricas foram correlacionadas à dieta observada para

  11. Resolving Implementation Ambiguity and Improving SURF

    CERN Document Server

    Abeles, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) has emerged as one of the more popular feature descriptors and detectors in recent years. Due to SURF's complexity and ambiguities found in its description, performance and algorithmic details between these implementations vary widely. To resolve these ambiguities a set of general techniques for feature stability is defined based on the smoothness rule and applied to SURF. Additional new improvements to SURF are proposed for speed and stability. To illustrate the importance of these implementation details, a performance study of popular SURF implementations is done. By utilizing all the suggested improvements it is possible to create a SURF implementation which is several times faster and/or more stable.

  12. Probing SZ Source Detection with Gasdynamical Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, J R; Wadsley, J W; Gladders, M D; Ruetalo, Marcelo I.; Wadsley, James W.; Gladders, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    The huge worldwide investment in CMB experiments should make the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect a key probe of the cosmic web in the near future. For the promise to be realized, substantial development of simulation and analysis tools to relate observation to theory is needed. The high nonlinearity and dissipative/feedback gas physics lead to highly non-Gaussian patterns that are much more difficult to analyze than Gaussian primary anisotropies for which the procedures are reasonably well developed. Historical forecasts for what CMB experiments might see used semi-analytic tools, including large scale map constructions, with localized and simplified pressure structures distributed on a point process of (clustered) sources. Hydro studies beyond individual cluster/supercluster systems were inadequate, but now large-volume simulations with high resolution are beginning to shift the balance. We illustrate this by applying ``Gasoline'' (parallelized Tree+SPH) computations to construct SZ maps and derive statistical...

  13. Cosmology with the S-Z Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Rephaeli, Y

    2002-01-01

    Extensive recent work on the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (S-Z) effect reflects major progress in observational capabilities of interferometric arrays, the improved quality of multi-frequency measurements with upcoming ground-based and stratospheric bolometer arrays, and the intense theoretical and experimental work on the small scale structure of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. I briefly describe the effect and discuss its significance as a major cosmological probe. Recent results for the gas mass fraction in clusters and the Hubble constant (largely from measurements with the BIMA and OVRO interferometric arrays) are discussed. Also reviewed are results from the first determination of the CMB temperature at the redshifts of two clusters (from measurements with the MITO and SuZIE experiments), and recent work on the CMB anisotropy due to the S-Z effect.

  14. Sand, sea and surf: segmenting South African surfers | Kruger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sand, sea and surf: segmenting South African surfers. ... and that they differ according to their socio-demographic characteristics, surfing behaviour and motives. The results of ... Keywords: Market segmentation; Surfing; South Africa; Typology ...

  15. Performance Analysis of Surfing: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Oliver R L; Abbiss, Chris R; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2017-01-01

    Farley, ORL, Abbiss, CR, and Sheppard, JM. Performance Analysis of Surfing: A Review. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 260-271, 2017-Despite the increased professionalism and substantial growth of surfing worldwide, there is limited information available to practitioners and coaches in terms of key performance analytics that are common in other field-based sports. Indeed, research analyzing surfing performance is limited to a few studies examining male surfers' heart rates, surfing activities through time-motion analysis (TMA) using video recordings and Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) data during competition and recreational surfing. These studies have indicated that specific activities undertaken during surfing are unique with a variety of activities (i.e., paddling, resting, wave riding, breath holding, and recovery of surfboard in the surf). Furthermore, environmental and wave conditions also seem to influence the physical demands of competition surfing. It is due to these demands that surfers are required to have a high cardiorespiratory fitness, high muscular endurance, and considerable strength and anaerobic power, particular within the upper torso. By exploring various methods of performance analysis used within other sports, it is possible to improve our understanding of surfing demands. In so doing this will assist in the development of protocols and strategies to assess physiological characteristics of surfers, monitor athlete performance, improve training prescription, and identify talent. Therefore, this review explores the current literature to provide insights into methodological protocols, delimitations of research into athlete analysis and an overview of surfing dynamics. Specifically, this review will describe and review the use of TMA, GPS, and other technologies (i.e., HR) that are used in external and internal load monitoring as they pertain to surfing.

  16. Mathieu Moonshine and Symmetry Surfing

    CERN Document Server

    Gaberdiel, Matthias R; Paul, Hynek

    2016-01-01

    Mathieu Moonshine, the observation that the Fourier coefficients of the elliptic genus on K3 can be interpreted as dimensions of representations of the Mathieu group M24, has been proven abstractly, but a conceptual understanding in terms of a representation of the Mathieu group on the BPS states, is missing. Some time ago, Taormina and Wendland showed that such an action can be naturally defined on the lowest non-trivial BPS states, using the idea of `symmetry surfing', i.e., by combining the symmetries of different K3 sigma models. In this paper we find non-trivial evidence that this construction can be generalized to all BPS states.

  17. Shock Detector for SURF model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-11

    SURF and its extension SURFplus are reactive burn models aimed at shock initiation and propagation of detonation waves in high explosives. A distinctive feature of these models is that the burn rate depends on the lead shock pressure. A key part of the models is an algorithm to detect the lead shock. Typically, shock capturing hydro algorithms have small oscillations behind a shock. Here we investigate how well the shock detection algorithm works for a nearly steady propagating detonation wave in one-dimension using the Eulerian xRage code.

  18. Shock Detector for SURF model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-11

    SURF and its extension SURFplus are reactive burn models aimed at shock initiation and propagation of detonation waves in high explosives. A distinctive feature of these models is that the burn rate depends on the lead shock pressure. A key part of the models is an algorithm to detect the lead shock. Typically, shock capturing hydro algorithms have small oscillations behind a shock. Here we investigate how well the shock detection algorithm works for a nearly steady propagating detonation wave in one-dimension using the Eulerian xRage code.

  19. Towards designing miniature surfing robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Kang, Saeed; Vandadi, Vahid; Masoud, Hassan

    2016-11-01

    We theoretically study the surfing motion of chemically and thermally active particles located at a flat liquid-gas interface that sits above a liquid layer of finite depth. The particles' activity creates and maintains a surface tension gradient resulting in the auto-surfing. It is intuitively perceived that Marangoni surfers propel towards the direction with a higher surface tension. Remarkably, we find that the surfers may propel in the lower surface tension direction depending on their geometry and proximity to the bottom of the liquid layer. In particular, our analytical calculations for Stokes flow and diffusion-dominated scalar (i.e. chemical concentration and temperature) fields indicate that spherical particles undergo reverse Marangoni propulsion under confinement whereas disk-shaped surfers always move in the expected direction. We extend our results by proposing an approximate formula for the propulsion speed of oblate spheroidal particles based on the speeds of spheres and disks. Overall, our findings pave the way for designing microsurfers capable of operating in bounded environments.

  20. Characterization of SURF-1 expression and Surf-1p function in normal and disease conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiranti, V; Galimberti, C; Nijtmans, L; Bovolenta, S; Perini, M P; Zeviani, M

    1999-12-01

    Loss-of-function mutations of the SURF-1 gene have been associated with Leigh syndrome with cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency. Mature Surf-1 protein (Surf-1p) is a 30 kDa hydrophobic polypeptide whose function is still unknown. Using antibodies against a recombinant, hemagglutinin-tagged Surf-1p, we have demonstrated that this protein is imported into mitochondria as a larger precursor, which is then processed into the mature product by cleaving off an N-terminal leader polypeptide of approximately 40 amino acids. By using western blot analysis with specific antibodies, we showed that Surf-1p is localized in and tightly bound to the mitochondrial inner membrane. The same analysis revealed that no protein is present in cell lines harboring loss-of-function mutations of SURF-1, regardless of their type and position. Northern blot analysis showed the virtual absence of specific SURF-1 transcripts in different mutant cell lines. This result suggests that several mutations of SURF-1 are associated with severe mRNA instability. To understand better whether and which domains of the protein are essential for function, we generated several constructs with truncated or partially deleted SURF-1 cDNAs. None of these constructs, expressed into Surf-1p null mutant cells, were able to rescue the COX phenotype, suggesting that different regions of the protein are all essential for function. Finally, experiments based on blue native two-dimensional gel electrophoresis indicated that assembly of COX in Surf-1p null mutants is blocked at an early step, most likely before the incorporation of subunit II in the nascent intermediates composed of subunit I alone or subunit I plus subunit IV. However, detection of residual amounts of fully assembled complex suggests a certain degree of redundancy of this system.

  1. A new statistical model of wave heights based on the concept of wave breaking critical zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jiaxuan; LI Xunqiang; ZHU Shouxian; ZHANG Wenjing; WANG Lei

    2015-01-01

    When waves propagate from deep water to shallow water, wave heights and steepness increase and then waves roll back and break. This phenomenon is called surf. Currently, the present statistical calculation model of surf was derived mainly from the wave energy conservation equation and the linear wave dispersion relation, but it cannot reflect accurately the process which is a rapid increasing in wave height near the broken point. So, the concept of a surf breaking critical zone is presented. And the nearshore is divided as deep water zone, shallow water zone, surf breaking critical zone and after breaking zone. Besides, the calculation formula for the height of the surf breaking critical zone has founded based on flume experiments, thereby a new statistical calculation model on the surf has been established. Using the new model, the calculation error of wave height maximum is reduced from 17.62% to 6.43%.

  2. Numerical modeling of surf beat generated by moving breakpoint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG GuoHai; MA XiaoZhou; TENG Bin

    2009-01-01

    As an important hydrodynamic phenomenon in the nearshore zone, the cross-shore surf beat is nu-merically studied in this paper with a fully nonlinear Boussinesq-type model, which resolves the pri-mary wave motion as well as the long waves. Compared with the classical Boussinesq equations, the equations adopted here allow for improved linear dispersion characteristics. Wave breaking and run-up in the swash zone are included in the numerical model. Mutual interactions between short waves and long waves are inherent in the model. The numerical study of long waves is based on bichromatic wave groups with a wide range of mean frequencies, group frequencies and modulation rates. The cross-shore variation in the amplitudes of short waves and long waves is investigated. The model results are compared with laboratory experiments from the literature and good agreement is found.

  3. Numerical modeling of surf beat generated by moving breakpoint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    As an important hydrodynamic phenomenon in the nearshore zone, the cross-shore surf beat is numerically studied in this paper with a fully nonlinear Boussinesq-type model, which resolves the primary wave motion as well as the long waves. Compared with the classical Boussinesq equations, the equations adopted here allow for improved linear dispersion characteristics. Wave breaking and run-up in the swash zone are included in the numerical model. Mutual interactions between short waves and long waves are inherent in the model. The numerical study of long waves is based on bichromatic wave groups with a wide range of mean frequencies, group frequencies and modulation rates. The cross-shore variation in the amplitudes of short waves and long waves is investigated. The model results are compared with laboratory experiments from the literature and good agreement is found.

  4. Bartok: Concerto for Orchestra Sz 116 / Edward Seckerson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seckerson, Edward

    1992-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Bartok: Concerto for Orchestra Sz 116; Enescu: Romanian Rhapsodies Op. 11-No. 1 in A major No. 2 in D major. Royal Scottish Orchestra / Neeme Järvi" Chandos CHAN8947 (66 minutes:DDD)

  5. Bartok: Concerto for Orchestra Sz 116 / Edward Seckerson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seckerson, Edward

    1992-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Bartok: Concerto for Orchestra Sz 116; Enescu: Romanian Rhapsodies Op. 11-No. 1 in A major No. 2 in D major. Royal Scottish Orchestra / Neeme Järvi" Chandos CHAN8947 (66 minutes:DDD)

  6. Genome Sequence of Borrelia garinii Strain SZ, Isolated in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Qiong; Liu, Zhijie; Li, Youquan; Guan, Guiquan; Niu, Qingli; Chen, Ze; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2014-01-01

    We announce the genome sequence of Borrelia garinii strain SZ, isolated from Dermacentor ticks collected in northeastern China. B. garinii strain SZ carries numerous plasmids, both 10 circular and 9 linear plasmids. The 902,487-bp linear chromosome (28.2% GC content) contains 820 open reading frames, 33 tRNAs, and 4 complete rRNAs. The plasmid cp32-10 contains one clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) with four repeats.

  7. Experimental Investigation of Shock Wave Surfing

    CERN Document Server

    Parziale, N J; Hornung, H G; Shepherd, J E

    2010-01-01

    Shock wave surfing is investigated experimentally in GALCIT's Mach 4.0 Ludwieg Tube. Shock wave surfing occurs when a secondary free-body follows the bow shock formed by a primary free-body; an example of shock wave surfing occurs during meteorite breakup. The free-bodies in the current investigation are nylon spheres. During each run in the Ludwieg tube a high speed camera is used to capture a series of schlieren images; edge tracking software is used to measure the position of each sphere. Velocity and acceleration are had from processing the position data. The radius ratio and initial orientation of the two spheres are varied in the test matrix. The variation of sphere radius ratio and initial angle between the centers of gravity are shown to have a significant effect on the dynamics of the system.

  8. 77 FR 9850 - Safety Zone; 2012 Mavericks Invitational, Half Moon Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA08 Safety Zone; 2012 Mavericks Invitational, Half Moon Bay... temporary safety zone in support of the Mavericks Surf Competition. This temporary safety zone will... process would be completed. Because of the dangers posed by the surf conditions during the 2012 Mavericks...

  9. Recommendations for SZ/TSPA Model Uncertainty Analysis Concerning the Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K T

    2003-11-05

    This report considers the problem of how best to evaluate the stability (i.e., sampling reliability) of Monte Carlo outputs obtained for two Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) modeling components, namely, outputs for the Saturated Zone (SZ) model, and for the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) model. One approach considered is the one that has been employed to date, namely, the application of Monte Carlo methods. Also considered in this context are potential improvements that might be obtained by the additional use of a Monte Carlo ''quitting rule'', such as that defined by Woo (1991), to select the number of Monte Carlo sample runs to perform. By the Monte Carlo approach, each output-value sample (realization) is calculated as a function of a sample-value vector of stochastic realizations, each of which in turn corresponds to a value of a corresponding distributed input variable. Abstractions from the SZ model and the Biosphere model are both used as input to the TSPA model. Sets of stochastic realizations required for SZ and TSPA abstractions ''expensive'' to generate, so the practical issue addressed by a ''quitting rule'' is how to determine what number of realizations is ''enough'' for the purpose of characterizing sampling error in the Monte Carlo estimate obtained for a specified model output of concern. In the TSPA context, the model output of concern is generally considered the time evolution of the arithmetic mean value, an estimator of the expected value, of TSPA-generated annual dose D(t) to the defined receptor within 10,000 y after waste-repository closure. Recommendations below specifically address: (1) whether or not a Monte Carlo approach (such as one employing the Woo quitting rule) is an appropriate basis for undertaking SZ- or TSPA-related uncertainty analysis, and (2) what other method might be more appropriate. While the following discussion and recommendations

  10. Women's Recreational Surfing: A Patronising Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Rebecca; McCuaig, Louise; Phillips, Murray G.

    2015-01-01

    Research analysing the operation of power within sport and physical activity has exposed the marginalisation and exclusion of women's sport in explicit and institutionalised ways. However, for women in recreational and alternative physical activities like surfing, sporting experiences lie outside institutionalised structures, thus requiring…

  11. An Analysis of the SURF Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Oyallon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The SURF method (Speeded Up Robust Features is a fast and robust algorithm for local, similarity invariant representation and comparison of images. Similarly to many other local descriptor-based approaches, interest points of a given image are defined as salient features from a scale-invariant representation. Such a multiple-scale analysis is provided by the convolution of the initial image with discrete kernels at several scales (box filters. The second step consists in building orientation invariant descriptors, by using local gradient statistics (intensity and orientation. The main interest of the SURF approach lies in its fast computation of operators using box filters, thus enabling real-time applications such as tracking and object recognition. The SURF framework described in this paper is based on the PhD thesis of H. Bay [ETH Zurich, 2009], and more specifically on the paper co-written by H. Bay, A. Ess, T. Tuytelaars and L. Van Gool [Computer Vision and Image Understanding, 110 (2008, pp. 346–359]. An implementation is proposed and used to illustrate the approach for image matching. A short comparison with a state-of-the-art approach is also presented, the SIFT algorithm of D. Lowe [International Journal of Computer Vision, 60 (2004, pp. 91–110], with which SURF shares a lot in common.

  12. High angular resolution SZ observations with NIKA and NIKA2

    CERN Document Server

    Comis, B; Ade, P; André, P; Arnaud, M; Bartalucci, I; Beelen, A; Benoît, A; Bideaud, A; Billot, N; Bourrion, O; Calvo, M; Catalano, A; Coiffard, G; Désert, F -X; Doyle, S; Goupy, J; Kramer, C; Lagache, G; Leclercq, S; Macías-Pérez, J F; Mauskopf, P; Mayet, F; Monfardini, A; Pajot, F; Pascale, E; Perotto, L; Pointecouteau, E; Pisano, G; Ponthieu, N; Pratt, G W; Revéret, V; Ritacco, A; Rodriguez, L; Romero, C; Ruppin, F; Savini, G; Schuster, K; Sievers, A; Triqueneaux, S; Tucker, C; Zilch, R

    2016-01-01

    NIKA2 (New IRAM KID Arrays) is a dual band (150 and 260 GHz) imaging camera based on Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) and designed to work at the IRAM 30 m telescope (Pico Veleta, Spain). Built on the experience of the NIKA prototype, NIKA2 has been installed at the 30 m focal plane in October 2015 and the commissioning phase is now ongoing. Through the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect, NIKA2 will image the ionized gas residing in clusters of galaxies with a resolution of 12 and 18 arcsec FWHM (at 150 and 260 GHz, respectively). We report on the recent tSZ measurements with the NIKA camera and discuss the future objectives for the NIKA2 SZ large Program, 300h of observation dedicated to SZ science. With this program we intend to perform a high angular resolution follow-up of a cosmologically-representative sample of clusters belonging to SZ catalogues, with redshift greater than 0.5. The main output of the program will be the study of the redshift evolution of the cluster pressure profile as well as ...

  13. Influence of abiotic factors on spatiotemporal patterns of larval fish assemblages in the surf zones of the Yangtze River estuary and Hangzhou Bay%长江口和杭州湾碎波带仔稚鱼群聚时空分布特征及相关环境因子分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈渊戈; 毛成责; 林楠; 钟俊生; 徐兆礼

    2015-01-01

    2009年8月至2010年8月每月大潮前后在长江口和杭州湾碎波带的12个站点采集仔稚鱼,共采集到仔稚鱼14907尾,隶属24科74种,主要优势种有刀鲚(Coilia nasus,47.84%)、普氏缰虾虎鱼(Amoya pflaumii,11.58%)、属(Hemiculter spp.,9.12%)、飘鱼属(Pseudolaubuca spp.,6.29%)、多鳞四指马鲅(Eleutheronema rhadinum,5.62%)。分析了碎波带仔稚鱼群聚的时空分布特征与水温、盐度、底质、地形等环境因子的关系。聚类和排序的结果显示,全年仔稚鱼群聚在时间序列上可分为4组,各组间存在明显的种类更替,出现的主要优势种分别是12月–翌年4月的乔氏新银鱼(Neosalanx jordani),5月的中国大银鱼(Protosalanx chinensis)、中国花鲈(Lateolabrax maculatus),6月–9月的刀鲚、普氏缰虾虎鱼、属、飘鱼属、多鳞四指马鲅,以及10月、11月的有明银鱼(Salanx ariakensis)。在空间梯度上可分为长江口碎波带站点和杭州湾碎波带站点两组,两组间相异性贡献度最高的种类是刀鲚和普氏缰虾虎鱼(>10%),多个组内的独有种类显示出不同生态类型鱼类仔稚鱼对碎波带栖息地的生境选择分化。CCA 结果显示,所选的5个环境因子中只有水温和盐度对仔稚鱼群聚整体的时空分布有显著影响,但是对整个时空分布特征的解释度并不算高,意味着还存在其他重要的影响因素,可能包括饵料生物、径流等。对主要种类在单种的尺度上进行了丰度时空分布与环境因子的 GAM 曲线拟合,发现底质和地形对特定种类的仔稚鱼的分布有显著影响。地形开阔平坦、底质为沙质的站点仔稚鱼种类和丰度都相对较多,如优势种中的飘鱼属种类、多鳞四指马鲅、日本须鳎(Paraplagusia japonica)等都倾向选择栖息在开阔平坦的沙质底站点。%The surf zone is an important habitat for larval organisms; in particular, a large amount of research has de-monstrated the utility of

  14. On the Sz\\"usz's Solution to Gauss' Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Lascu, Dan

    2010-01-01

    The present paper deals with Gauss' problem on continued fractions. We present a new proof of a theorem which Sz\\"usz applied in order to solve this problem. To be noted, that we obtain the value $0.7594...$ for $q$, which has been optimized by Sz\\"usz in his 1961 paper "\\"Uber einen Kusminschen Satz", where the value 0.485 is obtained for $q$. In our proof, we make use of an important property of the Perron-Frobenius operator of $\\tau$ under $\\gamma$, where $\\tau$ is the continued fraction transformation, and $\\gamma$ is the Gauss' measure.

  15. Enhanced Approximated SURF Model For Object Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sangeetha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision applications like camera calibration, 3D reconstruction, and object recognition and image registration are becoming widely popular now a day. In this paper an enhanced model for speeded up robust features (SURF is proposed by which the object recognition process will become three times faster than common SURF model The main idea is to use efficient data structures for both, the detector and the descriptor. The detection of interest regions is considerably speed-up by using an integral image for scale space computation. The descriptor which is based on orientation histograms is accelerated by the use of an integral orientation histogram. We present an analysis of the computational costs comparing both parts of our approach to the conventional method. Extensive experiments show a speed-up by a factor of eight while the matching and repeatability performance is decreased only slightly.

  16. SATURATED ZONE FLOW AND TRANSPORT MODEL ABSTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.W. ARNOLD

    2004-10-27

    The purpose of the saturated zone (SZ) flow and transport model abstraction task is to provide radionuclide-transport simulation results for use in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) calculations. This task includes assessment of uncertainty in parameters that pertain to both groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in the models used for this purpose. This model report documents the following: (1) The SZ transport abstraction model, which consists of a set of radionuclide breakthrough curves at the accessible environment for use in the TSPA-LA simulations of radionuclide releases into the biosphere. These radionuclide breakthrough curves contain information on radionuclide-transport times through the SZ. (2) The SZ one-dimensional (I-D) transport model, which is incorporated in the TSPA-LA model to simulate the transport, decay, and ingrowth of radionuclide decay chains in the SZ. (3) The analysis of uncertainty in groundwater-flow and radionuclide-transport input parameters for the SZ transport abstraction model and the SZ 1-D transport model. (4) The analysis of the background concentration of alpha-emitting species in the groundwater of the SZ.

  17. Verification Test of the SURF and SURFplus Models in xRage: Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-20

    The previous study used an underdriven detonation wave (steady ZND reaction zone profile followed by a scale invariant rarefaction wave) for PBX 9502 as a validation test of the implementation of the SURF and SURFplus models in the xRage code. Even with a fairly fine uniform mesh (12,800 cells for 100mm) the detonation wave profile had limited resolution due to the thin reaction zone width (0.18mm) for the fast SURF burn rate. Here we study the effect of finer resolution by comparing results of simulations with cell sizes of 8, 2 and 1 μm, which corresponds to 25, 100 and 200 points within the reaction zone. With finer resolution the lead shock pressure is closer to the von Neumann spike pressure, and there is less noise in the rarefaction wave due to fluctuations within the reaction zone. As a result the average error decreases. The pointwise error is still dominated by the smearing the pressure kink in the vicinity of the sonic point which occurs at the end of the reaction zone.

  18. Breaker turbulence and sediment suspension in the surf zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Hughes, Michael G

    2010-01-01

    Field measurements of fluid velocities and suspended sediment concentrations were used to investigate the relative role of coherent vortices (related to wave breaking) in suspended sediment dynamics. The measurements were obtained from a barred (intermediate-type) beach and the instrument rig was...... between the horizontal fluid velocity and vortex-induced sediment suspension for each of the wave types, which may contribute to an explanation of net offshore and onshore sediment transport observed during episodes of beach erosion and recovery, respectively....

  19. Sensors and Algorithms for an Unmanned Surf-Zone Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    AXV TESIS - COMPLEMENTARY FILTER TEST % File writen by Oscar Garcia 24/08/15 clear all clc clf imu = fopen(’imucomp2.txt’,’r’); 178...IMU data fusion and filtering using a first order Kalman filter. % AXV TESIS - IMU KALMAN FILTER TEST % File writen by Oscar Garcia 30/08/15...AXV_IMU_EKF.m It performs IMU data fusion and filtering using an extended Kalman filter. % AXV TESIS - IMU EKF TEST % File writen by Oscar Garcia 30/08

  20. Effects of Surf Zone Sediment Properties on Shock Wave Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    to be a first order factor. In addition, modeling predictions require the compressibility of the sediments at high and low pressures . The objective...sands in a test tank and initiate shock waves with a high energy laser system. The results will be used to validate numercal model predictions of

  1. Performance of a Tilt Current Meter in the Surf Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Asger Bendix; Carstensen, Stefan; Christensen, Drude Fritzbøger

    2017-01-01

    Tilt Current Meters (TCM’s) are relatively simple and inexpensive instruments for measuring currents in rivers and inthe sea. Their low cost and easy deployment means that a relatively large number of TCM’s can be deployed comparedto more conventional current meters such as Acoustic Doppler...

  2. Oscillatory infragravity wave contribution to surf zone sediment transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Greenwood, Brian

    2008-01-01

    can create a perturbation of the bar crest and/or generate a crescentic bar. These results provide support for the template model for crescentic bar formation, first proposed by Bowen and Inman (Bowen, A.J. and Inman, D.L., 1971. Edge waves and crescentic bars. J.Geophys.Res., 76, 8662-8670) although...

  3. Kertész line of thermally activated breakdown phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Yoshioka, Naoki

    2010-11-12

    Based on a fiber bundle model we substantially extend the phase-transition analogy of thermally activated breakdown of homogeneous materials. We show that the competition of breaking due to stress enhancement and due to thermal fluctuations leads to an astonishing complexity of the phase space of the system: varying the load and the temperature a phase boundary emerges, separating a Griffith-type regime of abrupt failure analogous to first-order phase transitions from disorder dominated fracture where a spanning cluster of cracks emerges. We demonstrate that the phase boundary is the Kertész line of the system along which thermally activated fracture appears as a continuous phase transition analogous to percolation. The Kertész line has technological relevance setting the boundary of safe operation for construction components under high thermal loads. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  4. User's Manual for Space Debris Surfaces (SD_SURF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfer, N. C.

    1996-01-01

    A unique collection of computer codes, Space Debris Surfaces (SD_SURF), have been developed to assist in the design and analysis of space debris protection systems. SD_SURF calculates and summarizes a vehicle's vulnerability to space debris as a function of impact velocity and obliquity. An SD_SURF analysis will show which velocities and obliquities are the most probable to cause a penetration. This determination can help the analyst select a shield design which is best suited to the predominant penetration mechanism. The analysis also indicates the most suitable parameters for development or verification testing. The SD_SURF programs offer the option of either FORTRAN programs and Microsoft EXCEL spreadsheets and macros. The FORTRAN programs work with BUMPERII version 1.2a or 1.3 (Cosmic released). The EXCEL spreadsheets and macros can be used independently or with selected output from the SD_SURF FORTRAN programs.

  5. The first Doppler images of the eclipsing binary SZ Piscium

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, Yue; Cameron, A Collier; Barnes, J R; Zhang, Liyun

    2015-01-01

    We present the first Doppler images of the active eclipsing binary system SZ Psc, based on the high-resolution spectral data sets obtained in 2004 November and 2006 September--December. The least-squares deconvolution technique was applied to derive high signal-to-noise profiles from the observed spectra of SZ Psc. Absorption features contributed by a third component of the system were detected in the LSD profiles at all observed phases. We estimated the mass and period of the third component to be about $0.9 M_{\\odot}$ and $1283 \\pm 10$ d, respectively. After removing the contribution of the third body from the LSD profiles, we derived the surface maps of SZ Psc. The resulting Doppler images indicate significant starspot activities on the surface of the K subgiant component. The distributions of starspots are more complex than that revealed by previous photometric studies. The cooler K component exhibited pronounced high-latitude spots as well as numerous low- and intermediate-latitude spot groups during the...

  6. The first Doppler images of the eclipsing binary SZ Piscium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yue; Gu, Shenghong; Cameron, A. Collier; Barnes, J. R.; Zhang, Liyun

    2016-02-01

    We present the first Doppler images of the active eclipsing binary system SZ Psc, based on the high-resolution spectral data sets obtained in 2004 November and 2006 September-December. The least-squares deconvolution technique was applied to derive high signal-to-noise profiles from the observed spectra of SZ Psc. Absorption features contributed by a third component of the system were detected in the LSD profiles at all observed phases. We estimated the mass and period of the third component to be about 0.9 M⊙ and 1283 ± 10 d, respectively. After removing the contribution of the third body from the least-squares deconvolved profiles, we derived the surface maps of SZ Psc. The resulting Doppler images indicate significant star-spot activities on the surface of the K subgiant component. The distributions of star-spots are more complex than that revealed by previous photometric studies. The cooler K component exhibited pronounced high-latitude spots as well as numerous low- and intermediate-latitude spot groups during the entire observing seasons, but did not show any large, stable polar cap, different from many other active RS CVn-type binaries.

  7. 76 FR 8651 - Special Local Regulation; Mavericks Surf Competition, Half Moon Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Mavericks Surf Competition... the Mavericks Surf Competition. This special local regulation is necessary to ensure the safety of... dangers posed by the surf conditions during the Mavericks Surf Competition, the special local regulation...

  8. Let’s Surf on The internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李申禹

    1996-01-01

    在今日大学之校园内,电脑热正呈“奔腾”之势。李申禹所在的寝室购买了一台“合资”电脑,这为他们的学习另辟了一块天地,也为他们的生活着上了一点色彩,Let′s Surf on The Internet这篇习作标题潇洒,内容实在,既写出了作者漫步电脑书林的惊喜,又有对未来的展望——现在的年青人将携着the electronic books跨入新世纪。习作开首较好地运用了parllelism:结尾想象驰骋,并巧妙点题。本文Reviewed by Mr.John C.Green

  9. Palmprint Based Verification System Using SURF Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Badrinath G.; Gupta, Phalguni

    This paper describes the design and development of a prototype of robust biometric system for verification. The system uses features extracted using Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) operator of human hand. The hand image for features is acquired using a low cost scanner. The palmprint region extracted is robust to hand translation and rotation on the scanner. The system is tested on IITK database of 200 images and PolyU database of 7751 images. The system is found to be robust with respect to translation and rotation. It has FAR 0.02%, FRR 0.01% and accuracy of 99.98% and can be a suitable system for civilian applications and high-security environments.

  10. Geometry and dynamics of wave ripples in the nearshore zone of a coarse sandy beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masselink, G.; Austin, M. J.; O'Hare, T. J.; Russell, P. E.

    2007-10-01

    Extensive measurements of ripple characteristics and dynamics along with associated suspended sediment fluxes and hydrodynamic conditions were made in the shoaling and surf zones of a macrotidal coarse grained beach at Sennen Cove, Cornwall, England (median grain diameter 0.69 mm). Suborbital vortex ripples were observed during the majority of the study period with height ˜5 cm and length ˜35 cm. The scale and shape of the ripples did not vary significantly as the bed shear stress increased during wave shoaling and breaking. However, ripple migration rates (onshore directed) were strongly dependent on their location relative to the breakpoint, increasing from ˜0.1 cm min-1 under shoaling waves to 2 cm min-1 in the outer surf zone during low-energy conditions. Farther inside the surf zone, ripples persisted but migration rates slowed, probably owing to the presence of the offshore-directed mean flow which impedes landward migration of the ripples. Under low-wave conditions (during which measured sediment fluxes peaked around the outer surf zone and decreased through the saturated surf zone), bed form transport rates under shoaling waves were of the same magnitude as net suspended sediment fluxes but at least an order of magnitude smaller in the outer surf zone. Under high-energy conditions (during which suspended sediment fluxes in the surf zone were offshore directed owing to the presence of the seaward directed mean flow), bed form transport rates were several orders of magnitude smaller than suspended fluxes.

  11. Plan de empresa SZ Gastroconsulting S.A.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Zuloaga Galofre, David; Serrano Zuleta, Juanita

    2015-01-01

    SZ GastroConsulting S.A.S. es una empresa colombiana que prestará servicios de consultoría al sector de restaurantes. El core del negocio estará orientado a incrementar la rotación de clientes y la facturación de los restaurantes. De forma complementaria, se adoptarán prácticas tecnológicas, aprovechando el entorno actual donde los comensales inician su experiencia de consumo antes de ir al restaurante, y la finalizan días después de vivirla. La compañía será dirigida por los socios y consult...

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Hectospec survey of SZ clusters (HeCS-SZ) (Rines+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rines, K. J.; Geller, M. J.; Diaferio, A.; Hwang, H. S.

    2016-05-01

    HeCS-SZ is an extension of the HeCS survey to include clusters that enable the construction of an SZ-limited sample. We measured 7721 new redshifts with MMT/Hectospec in 21 clusters selected from the Planck SZ catalog (2014A&A...571A..20P; arXiv:1502.01597). We combine these new measurements with the existing HeCS (Hectospec Cluster Survey; Rines et al. 2013, J/ApJ/767/15) and CIRS (Cluster Infall Regions in SDSS project; Rines & Diaferio 2006, J/AJ/132/1275) surveys and with data from the literature to construct a total sample of 123 clusters. We use SDSS photometry for all clusters. The HeCS is a spectroscopic survey of 58 galaxy clusters at moderate redshift (z=0.1-0.3) with MMT/Hectospec. HeCS includes all clusters with ROSAT X-ray fluxes of f_X>5x10-12erg/s at [0.5-2.0]keV from the Bright Cluster Survey (BCS; Ebeling et al. 1998, J/MNRAS/301/881) or REFLEX survey (Bohringer et al. 2004, J/A+A/425/367) with optical imaging in the sixth Data Release (DR6) of SDSS (Adelman-McCarthy et al. 2008, II/282; superseded by II/294). CIRS used spectroscopy from the fourth Data Release of SDSS. Table 3 lists 168 redshifts measured with the FAST instrument on the 1.5m Tillinghast telescope at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory. The additional single-slit spectra from FAST reduce the incompleteness of bright (SDSS rfiles).

  13. Galaxy cluster scaling relations measured with APEX-SZ

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, A N; Ade, P A R; Basu, K; Bertoldi, F; Burkutean, S; Clarke, J; Dahlin, D; Dobbs, M; Ferrusca, D; Flanigan, D; Halverson, N W; Holzapfel, W L; Horellou, C; Johnson, B R; Kermish, Z D; Klein, M; Kneissl, R; Lanting, T; Lee, A T; Mehl, J; Menten, K M; Muders, D; Nagarajan, A; Pacaud, F; Reichardt, C L; Richards, P L; Schaaf, R; Schwan, D; Sommer, M W; Spieler, H; Tucker, C; Westbrook, B

    2014-01-01

    We present thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) measurements for 42 galaxy clusters observed at 150 GHz with the APEX-SZ experiment. For each cluster, we model the pressure profile and calculate the integrated Comptonization $Y$ to estimate the total thermal energy of the intracluster medium (ICM). We compare the measured $Y$ values to X-ray observables of the ICM from the literature (cluster gas mass $M_{gas}$, temperature $T_X$, and $Y_X =M_{gas}T_X$) that relate to total cluster mass. We measure power law scaling relations, including an intrinsic scatter, between the SZE and X-ray observables for both the X-ray selected and uniform REFLEX-DXL cluster sample and the full ad hoc APEX-SZ sample. We observe that the lack of uniform X-ray analysis for the full cluster sample introduces significant variability into the measured scaling relations and dominates the level of intrinsic scatter. For the REFLEX-DXL sample, we find results consistent with a self-similar model of cluster evolution dominated by gravit...

  14. Verification test of the SURF and SURFplus models in xRage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-18

    As a verification test of the SURF and SURFplus models in the xRage code we use a propagating underdriven detonation wave in 1-D. This is about the only test cases for which an accurate solution can be determined based on the theoretical structure of the solution. The solution consists of a steady ZND reaction zone profile joined with a scale invariant rarefaction or Taylor wave and followed by a constant state. The end of the reaction profile and the head of the rarefaction coincide with the sonic CJ state of the detonation wave. The constant state is required to match a rigid wall boundary condition. For a test case, we use PBX 9502 with the same EOS and burn rate as previously used to test the shock detector algorithm utilized by the SURF model. The detonation wave is propagated for 10 μs (slightly under 80mm). As expected, the pointwise errors are largest in the neighborhood of discontinuities; pressure discontinuity at the lead shock front and pressure derivative discontinuities at the head and tail of the rarefaction. As a quantitative measure of the overall accuracy, the L2 norm of the difference of the numerical pressure and the exact solution is used. Results are presented for simulations using both a uniform grid and an adaptive grid that refines the reaction zone.

  15. NiO-ScSZ and Ni 0.9Mg 0.1O-ScSZ-based anodes under internal dry reforming of simulated biogas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratori, Y.; Sasaki, K.

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with NiO-ScSZ and Ni 0.9Mg 0.1O-ScSZ-based anodes were operated by directly feeding a fuel mixture of CH 4, CO 2 and N 2 (CH 4 to CO 2 ratio of 3:2). Stable operation under constant current load (200 mA cm -2) was achieved with a NiO-ScSZ type anode during 200 h operating hours at 900 °C. Less stable operation occurred with a Ni 0.9Mg 0.1O-ScSZ type anode. In the case of SOFC with Ni 0.9Mg 0.1O-ScSZ as the anode, the methane reforming activity was higher than that with NiO-ScSZ. This was explained by change in the microstructure promoting reforming reactions. However, the addition of MgO resulted in degradation of electrochemical performance due to increase in ohmic resistance of the anode material during operation.

  16. Verification Test of the SURF and SURFplus Models in xRage: Part III Affect of Mesh Alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The previous studies used an underdriven detonation wave in 1-dimension (steady ZND reaction zone profile followed by a scale-invariant rarefaction wave) for PBX 9502 as a verification test of the implementation of the SURF and SURFplus models in the xRage code. Since the SURF rate is a function of the lead shock pressure, the question arises as to the effect on accuracy of variations in the detected shock pressure due to the alignment of the shock front with the mesh. To study the effect of mesh alignment we simulate a cylindrically diverging detonation wave using a planar 2-D mesh. The leading issue is the magnitude of azimuthal asymmetries in the numerical solution. The 2-D test case does not have an exact analytic solution. To quantify the accuracy, the 2-D solution along rays through the origin are compared to a highly resolved 1-D simulation in cylindrical geometry.

  17. SAR observations of coastal zone conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, G. A.; Kasischke, E. S.; Shuchman, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Applications of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology to the observation of coastal zones phenomena are detailed. The conditions observed include gravity wave detection, surf zone location, surface currents, and long-period 'surf beats'. Algorithms have been developed and successfully tested that determine significant wave and current parameters from the sea surface backscatter of microwave energy. Doppler information from the SAR optical correlator allows a rough estimation of near shore surface flow velocities that has been found in agreement with both theory and in situ observations as well. Seasat SAR data of the Scotland and North Carolina coasts are considered, as well as the results of bathymetric updating of coastal area charts.

  18. Study on Marine Application Potentiality of CMODIS/SZ-3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PanDelu; WangDifeng; HeXianqian

    2004-01-01

    The third spaceship SZ-3 of China was launched in March 2002, in which the payload is Chinese moderate imaging spectra radiometer (CMODIS) . In this paper, first, the properties and characteristics of CMODIS are briefly introduced; second, the quality and availahility are evaluated by means of the Complex signal noise ratio (CSNR) which is simulated theoretically; third, the received CMODIS data are compared with the Sea wide field-of-view sensor (SeaWiFS) / SeaSTAR data to understand the accuracy of radiance measurement by CMODIS;finally, the remote sensing products of ocean color and temperature are mapped by CMODIS to study its marine application potentiality. The results show that CMODIS has its latent capability for the application of marine environment detection, the management and protection of marine resources, and the national rights and interests. Meanwhile some suggestions are proposed to modify the next generation sensor on the Chinese spaceship.

  19. Surfing the internet with a BCI mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianyou; Li, Yuanqing; Long, Jinyi; Gu, Zhenghui

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we present a new web browser based on a two-dimensional (2D) brain-computer interface (BCI) mouse, where our major concern is the selection of an intended target in a multi-target web page. A real-world web page may contain tens or even hundreds of targets, including hyperlinks, input elements, buttons, etc. In this case, a target filter designed in our system can be used to exclude most of those targets of no interest. Specifically, the user filters the targets of no interest out by inputting keywords with a P300-based speller, while keeps those containing the keywords. Such filtering largely facilitates the target selection task based on our BCI mouse. When there are only several targets in a web page (either an original sparse page or a target-filtered page), the user moves the mouse toward the target of interest using his/her electroencephalographic signal. The horizontal movement and vertical movement are controlled by motor imagery and P300 potential, respectively. If the mouse encounters a target of no interest, the user rejects it and continues to move the mouse. Otherwise the user selects the target and activates it. With the collaboration of the target filtering and a series of mouse movements and target selections/rejections, the user can select an intended target in a web page. Based on our browser system, common navigation functions, including history rolling forward and backward, hyperlink selection, page scrolling, text input, etc, are available. The system has been tested on seven subjects. Experimental results not only validated the efficacy of the proposed method, but also showed that free internet surfing with a BCI mouse is feasible.

  20. Sorry,officer,I was just surfing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    英文姿

    1998-01-01

    美国被称为a nation on wheels(汽车轮子上的国家),当今计算机科学的迅猛发展与汽车车型的改进和设计的“联姻”就是一个必然。 本文对这种“联姻”的产品——network vehicle/net-mobile——的描绘具有极大的诱惑力: In a net-mobile, a motorist could tap into a regional road system not only to getdirections but also to map out a route around rush-hour traffic snags. Drivers andpassengers will be able to send and receive email, track the latest sports scores or stockquotes, surf the Web, and even play video games. 当然,除了上述“表层”的“联姻”之外.尚有其“深层”的“联姻”,如: On-board microcomputers improve fuel economy and reduce emissions. 也许有人会问:开车时一心岂能两用?不必担心: It not only offered such desktop-computer-like services as email, but allowed adriver to use them without looking away form the road. 文章还列举了不少名车,如General Motors,Toyota,BMW和Mecedes-Benz 已经研制了net-mobile的样车。其中的神奇之处有: OnStar also calls automatically for help if an accident triggers the airbag. (OnStar系统能在事故触发了保

  1. Goddard and Caldwell Oahu, Hawaii Surf Observation Dataset for 1968-2004 (NODC Accession 0001754)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surf reports are typically made several times per day at select locations around Oahu, primarily by Honolulu City and County lifeguards and the Surf News Network,...

  2. Goddard and Caldwell: Oahu, Hawaii surf observation data set for 1968 - 2004 (NODC Accession 0001754)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surf reports are typically made several times per day at select locations around Oahu, primarily by Honolulu City and County lifeguards and the Surf News Network,...

  3. Evaluation of Sift and Surf for Vision Based Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaozhi; Soheilian, Bahman; Habets, Emmanuel; Paparoditis, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    Vision based localization is widely investigated for the autonomous navigation and robotics. One of the basic steps of vision based localization is the extraction of interest points in images that are captured by the embedded camera. In this paper, SIFT and SURF extractors were chosen to evaluate their performance in localization. Four street view image sequences captured by a mobile mapping system, were used for the evaluation and both SIFT and SURF were tested on different image scales. Besides, the impact of the interest point distribution was also studied. We evaluated the performances from for aspects: repeatability, precision, accuracy and runtime. The local bundle adjustment method was applied to refine the pose parameters and the 3D coordinates of tie points. According to the results of our experiments, SIFT was more reliable than SURF. Apart from this, both the accuracy and the efficiency of localization can be improved if the distribution of feature points are well constrained for SIFT.

  4. High significance detection of the tSZ effect relativistic corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurier, G.

    2016-12-01

    The thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect is produced by the interaction of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons with the hot (a few keV) and diffuse gas of electrons inside galaxy clusters integrated along the line of sight. This effect produces a distortion of CMB blackbody emission law. This distortion law depends on the electronic temperature of the intra-cluster hot gas, Te, through the so-called tSZ relativistic corrections. In this work, we have performed a statistical analysis of the tSZ spectral distortion on large galaxy cluster samples. We performed a stacking analysis for several electronic temperature bins, using both spectroscopic measurements of X-ray temperatures and a scaling relation between X-ray luminosities and electronic temperatures. We report the first high significance detection of the relativistic tSZ at a significance of 5.3σ. We also demonstrate that the observed tSZ relativistic corrections are consistent with X-ray deduced temperatures. This measurement of the tSZ spectral law demonstrates that tSZ effect spectral distorsion can be used as a probe to measure galaxy cluster temperatures.

  5. A MEASUREMENT OF SECONDARY COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ANISOTROPIES FROM THE 2500 SQUARE-DEGREE SPT-SZ SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, E. M.; Reichardt, C. L.; Aird, K. A.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Cho, H-M.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dudley, J.; Halverson, N. W.; Harrington, N. L.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hou, Z.; Hrubes, J. D.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Lueker, M.; Luong-Van, D.; McMahon, J. J.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S. S.; Millea, M.; Mocanu, L. M.; Mohr, J. J.; Montroy, T. E.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Ruhl, J. E.; Schaffer, K. K.; Shaw, L.; Shirokoff, E.; Spieler, H. G.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; van Engelen, A.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Williamson, R.; Zahn, O.

    2015-01-28

    We present measurements of secondary cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and cosmic infrared background (CIB) fluctuations using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) covering the complete 2540 deg(2) SPT-SZ survey area. Data in the three SPT-SZ frequency bands centered at 95, 150, and 220 GHz, are used to produce six angular power spectra (three single-frequency auto-spectra and three cross-spectra) covering the multipole range 2000 < ℓ < 11, 000 (angular scales 5' gsim θ gsim 1'). These are the most precise measurements of the angular power spectra at ℓ > 2500 at these frequencies. The main contributors to the power spectra at these angular scales and frequencies are the primary CMB, CIB, thermal and kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects (tSZ and kSZ), and radio galaxies. We include a constraint on the tSZ power from a measurement of the tSZ bispectrum from 800 deg(2) of the SPT-SZ survey. We measure the tSZ power at 143  GHz to be $D^{\\rm tSZ}_{3000} = 4.08^{+0.58}_{-0.67}\\,\\mu {\\rm K}^2{}$ and the kSZ power to be $D^{\\rm kSZ}_{3000} = 2.9 \\pm 1.3\\, \\mu {\\rm K}^2{}$. The data prefer positive kSZ power at 98.1% CL. We measure a correlation coefficient of $\\xi = 0.113^{+0.057}_{-0.054}$ between sources of tSZ and CIB power, with ξ < 0 disfavored at a confidence level of 99.0%. The constraint on kSZ power can be interpreted as an upper limit on the duration of reionization. When the post-reionization homogeneous kSZ signal is accounted for, we find an upper limit on the duration Δz < 5.4  at 95% CL.

  6. A measurement of secondary cosmic microwave background anisotropies from the 2500-square-degree SPT-SZ survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, E.M.; et al.

    2015-01-28

    We present measurements of secondary cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and cosmic infrared background (CIB) fluctuations using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) covering the complete 2540 deg(2) SPT-SZ survey area. Data in the three SPT-SZ frequency bands centered at 95, 150, and 220 GHz, are used to produce six angular power spectra (three single-frequency auto-spectra and three cross-spectra) covering the multipole range 2000 < ℓ < 11, 000 (angular scales 5' gsim θ gsim 1'). These are the most precise measurements of the angular power spectra at ℓ > 2500 at these frequencies. The main contributors to the power spectra at these angular scales and frequencies are the primary CMB, CIB, thermal and kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects (tSZ and kSZ), and radio galaxies. We include a constraint on the tSZ power from a measurement of the tSZ bispectrum from 800 deg(2) of the SPT-SZ survey. We measure the tSZ power at 143  GHz to be $D^{\\rm tSZ}_{3000} = 4.08^{+0.58}_{-0.67}\\,\\mu {\\rm K}^2{}$ and the kSZ power to be $D^{\\rm kSZ}_{3000} = 2.9 \\pm 1.3\\, \\mu {\\rm K}^2{}$. The data prefer positive kSZ power at 98.1% CL. We measure a correlation coefficient of $\\xi = 0.113^{+0.057}_{-0.054}$ between sources of tSZ and CIB power, with ξ < 0 disfavored at a confidence level of 99.0%. The constraint on kSZ power can be interpreted as an upper limit on the duration of reionization. When the post-reionization homogeneous kSZ signal is accounted for, we find an upper limit on the duration Δz < 5.4  at 95% CL.

  7. A measurement of secondary cosmic microwave background anisotropies from the 2500-square-degree SPT-SZ survey

    CERN Document Server

    George, E M; Aird, K A; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Cho, H-M; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; de Haan, T; Dobbs, M A; Dudley, J; Halverson, N W; Harrington, N L; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Hou, Z; Hrubes, J D; Keisler, R; Knox, L; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Lueker, M; Luong-Van, D; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Meyer, S S; Millea, M; Mocanu, L M; Mohr, J J; Montroy, T E; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Ruhl, J E; Schaffer, K K; Shaw, L; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Story, K T; van Engelen, A; Vanderlinde, K; Vieira, J D; Williamson, R; Zahn, O

    2014-01-01

    We present measurements of secondary cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and cosmic infrared background (CIB) fluctuations using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) covering the complete 2540 sq.deg. SPT-SZ survey area. Data in the three SPT-SZ frequency bands centered at 95, 150, and 220 GHz, are used to produce six angular power spectra (three single-frequency auto-spectra and three cross-spectra) covering the multipole range 2000 \\theta > 1'). These are the most precise measurements of the angular power spectra at ell > 2500 at these frequencies. The main contributors to the power spectra at these angular scales and frequencies are the primary CMB, CIB, thermal and kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects (tSZ and kSZ), and radio galaxies. We include a constraint on the tSZ power from a measurement of the tSZ bispectrum from 800 sq.deg. of the SPT-SZ survey. We measure the tSZ power at 143 GHz to be DtSZ = 4.08 +0.58 -0.67 \\mu K^2 and the kSZ power to be DkSZ = 2.9 +- 1.3 \\mu K^2. The data pre...

  8. Searching versus surfing: how different ways of acquiring content online affect cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kevin; Kim, Hyo Jung

    2008-06-01

    An experiment tested whether people orient to and encode pictures selected from a Web site differently, depending on whether the pictures were selected by searching or surfing. Participants in the search condition spent more time selecting pictures than the participants in the surf condition spent. The pictures chosen in the search condition elicited cardiac orienting, while pictures chosen in the surf condition did not. Participants recognized pictures acquired by searching more accurately than they recognized those acquired by surfing, indicating that searching led to better encoding than surfing.

  9. A Comparison of Algorithms for the Construction of SZ Cluster Catalogues

    CERN Document Server

    Melin, J -B; Bartelmann, M; Bartlett, J G; Betoule, M; Bobin, J; Carvalho, P; Chon, G; Delabrouille, J; Diego, J M; Harrison, D L; Herranz, D; Hobson, M; Kneissl, R; Lasenby, A N; Jeune, M Le; Lopez-Caniego, M; Mazzotta, P; Rocha, G M; Schaefer, B M; Starck, J -L; Waizmann, J -C; Yvon, D

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the construction methodology of an all-sky catalogue of galaxy clusters detected through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. We perform an extensive comparison of twelve algorithms applied to the same detailed simulations of the millimeter and submillimeter sky based on a Planck-like case. We present the results of this "SZ Challenge" in terms of catalogue completeness, purity, astrometric and photometric reconstruction. Our results provide a comparison of a representative sample of SZ detection algorithms and highlight important issues in their application. In our study case, we show that the exact expected number of clusters remains uncertain (about a thousand cluster candidates at |b|> 20 deg with 90% purity) and that it depends on the SZ model and on the detailed sky simulations, and on algorithmic implementation of the detection methods. We also estimate the astrometric precision of the cluster candidates which is found of the order of ~2 arcmins on average, and the photometric uncertainty of...

  10. The China Multimode Microwave Remote Sensor (CMMRS) Onboard the SZ-4 Spaceship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jingshan; LIU Heguang; DONG Xiaolong

    2004-01-01

    In this report, the specifications and some results of the China multimode microwave remote sensor (CMMRS) onboard China's SZ-4 spaceship are described. Technical details and initial processing results of the CMMRS measurement data are reported.

  11. Collaboration on ICT in Dutch Higher Education: The SURF Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boezerooy, Petra; Cordewener, Bas; Liebrand, Wim

    2007-01-01

    In "Thinking Ahead: A Vision of the Role of ICT in Education and Research in the Future, 2007-2010," the higher education institutions in the Netherlands agreed on future strategy. Under the direction of SURF, the Dutch national organization, a collaborative strategy for the application of information and communications technology (ICT)…

  12. Global concept, local practice: Taiwanese experience of CouchSurfing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, D.-J.

    2012-01-01

    Hospitality exchange tourism is a new type of niche tourism, which is highly dependent on the Internet. Through participating in global hospitality exchange networks, such as CouchSurfing, tourists can meet local people who are willing to offer free accommodation, and hosts can also meet people arou

  13. CoBrowser: Surfing the Web Using a Standard Browser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, K.; Zubair, M.; Li, L.

    Co-browsing is a synchronous class of collaborative applications, which allows a group of users to surf the Web together. Such an application can be deployed in an education environment in several ways. One example of where it can be used would be in courses that are project-oriented. Students would be required to collectively research or explore…

  14. Droplets move over viscoelastic substrates by surfing a ridge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karpitschka, S.A.; Das, S.; Gorcum, van M.; Perrin, H.; Andreotti, B.; Snoeijer, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid drops on soft solids generate strong deformations below the contact line, resulting from a balance of capillary and elastic forces. The movement of these drops may cause strong, potentially singular dissipation in the soft solid. Here we show that a drop on a soft substrate moves by surfing a

  15. Internet Surfing for Kindergarten Children: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    The Internet is an effective learning tool for gifted children because it allows them to independently select the areas in which they have talent. The Internet also enables children to discover and maximize their potential. However, younger children might not have a large enough vocabulary to surf the Internet, even if they are gifted. For…

  16. Correlation Between X-ray And Microwave (sz) Signals From The Warm-hot Intergalactic Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Gupta, A.; Huffenberger, K.; Ursino, E.

    2010-05-01

    A large fraction of the low redshift baryons is believed to reside in a warm-hot filamentary gas in the intergalactic medium (WHIM). In the past we have successfully used XMM-Newton data to identify and characterize the WHIM angular signature using the autocorrelation function [Galeazzi 2009, 695, 1127]. Using the output of large scale hydrodynamic simulations we have also investigated the correlation between low energy X-ray emission and SZ effect from WHIM filaments. The largest of the current SZ surveys (with the South Pole Telescope [Ruhl 2004, Proc. SPIE, 5498, 11] and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope [Kosowsky 2004, NAR 47, 939; 2006, NAR 50, 969]) are mapping hundreds of square degrees at arcminute resolution at bands in 100-300 GHz, and have started identifying clusters detected by their SZ signature alone [e.g. Staniszewski 2009, ApJ, 701,32; Hincks 2009, arXiv:0907.0461]. Although the bulk of the total luminosity in the SZ effect is associated with collapsed structures like clusters, our work indicates that a significant fraction comes from unbound objects, mostly from overdense regions, like the WHIM. Due to the unique emission mechanism, the X-ray and SZ correlation provides additional constraints on the structure of the intergalactic gas. Adopting an adiabatic, polytropic model the SZ signal goes as ne1.2, compared with the x-ray emission that goes roughly as ne2 (slightly modified by the cooling function). In this paper we will discuss the result of our investigation on the correlation between X-ray emission and SZ signals and the implications for current X-ray and SZ observatories. We will also present our preliminary applications using actual data.

  17. Approximation by Complex Baskakov-Sz ´asz-Durrmeyer Operators in Compact Disks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sorin G Gal; Vijay Gupta

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the complex Baskakov-Sz ´asz-Durrmeyer mixed operators and study Voronovskaja type results with quantitative estimates for these operators attached to analytic functions of exponential growth in DR={z∈C;|z|Sz ´asz-type and Baskakov-type approximation operators without involving the values on [0,∞).

  18. Swash Zone Response under Various Wave Regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, Diego; Baldock, Tom; Contestabile, Pasquale

    2011-01-01

    The modelling of swash zone (SZ) sediment transport and the resulting morphodynamics have been areas of active research over the last decade. However, many details are still to be understood, whose knowledge will be greatly advanced by the collection of high-quality data under the controlled large......-scale laboratory conditions. The research describes tests carried out in the large wave flume of the Maritime Engineering Laboratory at Catalonia University of Technology, to investigate the SZ under the storm conditions. Its main aim was to compare beach-profile responses for monochromatic waves, monochromatic...

  19. Data on cytochrome c oxidase assembly in mice and human fibroblasts or tissues induced by SURF1 defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovářová, Nikola; Pecina, Petr; Nůsková, Hana; Vrbacký, Marek; Zeviani, Massimo; Mráček, Tomáš; Viscomi, Carlo; Houštěk, Josef

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes data related to a research article entitled "Tissue- and species-specific differences in cytochrome c oxidase assembly induced by SURF1 defects" [1]. This paper includes data of the quantitative analysis of individual forms of respiratory chain complexes I, III and IV present in SURF1 knockout (SURF1 (-/-) ) and control (SURF1 (+/+) ) mouse fibroblasts and tissues and in fibroblasts of human control and patients with SURF1 gene mutation. Also it includes data demonstrating response of complex IV, cytochrome c oxidase (COX), to reversible inhibition of mitochondrial translation in SURF1 (-/-) mouse and SURF1 patient fibroblast cell lines.

  20. SZ95 sebocytes induce epidermal melanocyte dendricity and proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Naser, Mohamed Badawy; Seltmann, Holger; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2012-05-01

    The regulatory effects of sebocytes on melanocytes (HMel) are unknown. In this study, SZ95 sebocytes co-cultured with HMel, whether in direct cell contact or with SZ95 sebocytes in inserts, resulted in epidermal HMel flattening with increase in surface area and multiple small dendrites formation. Only in high Ca(2+) level and direct cell contact co-culture, the HMel dendrites were remarkably long and preferentially targeted and attached to SZ95 sebocytes. Likewise, only high Ca(2+) SZ95 sebocyte conditioned medium stimulated HMel proliferation in a time-dependent manner at days 9 (142.9%, P < 0.01) and 12 (179.2%, P < 0.0001) of incubation when compared with day 0. In contrast, melanin contents significantly decreased on incubation with high Ca(2+) SZ95 sebocytes in comparison with low Ca(2+) SZ95 sebocytes at days 6 (P < 0.01) and 9 (P < 0.05) of incubation. These results denote that sebocytes also modulate HMel functions and may contribute to skin colour in sebaceous glands-rich body regions.

  1. Region Duplication Forgery Detection Technique Based on SURF and HAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Region duplication forgery detection is a special type of forgery detection approach and widely used research topic under digital image forensics. In copy move forgery, a specific area is copied and then pasted into any other region of the image. Due to the availability of sophisticated image processing tools, it becomes very hard to detect forgery with naked eyes. From the forged region of an image no visual clues are often detected. For making the tampering more robust, various transformations like scaling, rotation, illumination changes, JPEG compression, noise addition, gamma correction, and blurring are applied. So there is a need for a method which performs efficiently in the presence of all such attacks. This paper presents a detection method based on speeded up robust features (SURF and hierarchical agglomerative clustering (HAC. SURF detects the keypoints and their corresponding features. From these sets of keypoints, grouping is performed on the matched keypoints by HAC that shows copied and pasted regions.

  2. SURF IA Conflict Detection and Resolution Algorithm Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Denise R.; Chartrand, Ryan C.; Wilson, Sara R.; Commo, Sean A.; Barker, Glover D.

    2012-01-01

    The Enhanced Traffic Situational Awareness on the Airport Surface with Indications and Alerts (SURF IA) algorithm was evaluated in a fast-time batch simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. SURF IA is designed to increase flight crew situation awareness of the runway environment and facilitate an appropriate and timely response to potential conflict situations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance of the SURF IA algorithm under various runway scenarios, multiple levels of conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) system equipage, and various levels of horizontal position accuracy. This paper gives an overview of the SURF IA concept, simulation study, and results. Runway incursions are a serious aviation safety hazard. As such, the FAA is committed to reducing the severity, number, and rate of runway incursions by implementing a combination of guidance, education, outreach, training, technology, infrastructure, and risk identification and mitigation initiatives [1]. Progress has been made in reducing the number of serious incursions - from a high of 67 in Fiscal Year (FY) 2000 to 6 in FY2010. However, the rate of all incursions has risen steadily over recent years - from a rate of 12.3 incursions per million operations in FY2005 to a rate of 18.9 incursions per million operations in FY2010 [1, 2]. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) also considers runway incursions to be a serious aviation safety hazard, listing runway incursion prevention as one of their most wanted transportation safety improvements [3]. The NTSB recommends that immediate warning of probable collisions/incursions be given directly to flight crews in the cockpit [4].

  3. Stern-Gerlach surfing in laser wakefield accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Flood, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effects of a Stern-Gerlach-type addition to the Lorentz force on electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator. The Stern-Gerlach-type terms are found to generate a family of trajectories describing electrons that surf along the plasma density wave driven by a laser pulse. Such trajectories could lead to an increase in the size of an electron bunch, which may have implications for attempts to exploit such bunches in future free electron lasers.

  4. Stern-Gerlach surfing in laser wakefield accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Stephen P.; Burton, David A.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the effects of a Stern-Gerlach-type addition to the Lorentz force on electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator. The Stern-Gerlach-type terms are found to generate a family of trajectories describing electrons that 'surf' along the plasma density wave driven by a laser pulse. Such trajectories could lead to an increase in the size of an electron bunch, which may have implications for attempts to exploit such bunches in future free electron lasers.

  5. Las alteraciones posturales en miembros inferiores en el surf

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cuando el equilibrio neuromuscular no es óptimo durante la práctica de un deporte, es posible que, a largo plazo, aparezcan trastornos posturales que, dependiendo del tiempo de entrenamiento, pueden convertirse en un obstáculo para la salud. Es por esto, que mediante esta investigación he pretendido mostrar las alteraciones posturales que el surf puede llegar a provocar en quienes lo practican. Objetivo: Analizar las alteraciones posturales en los miembros inferiores de surfist...

  6. SZ effects in the Magneticum Pathfinder Simulation: Comparison with the Planck, SPT, and ACT results

    CERN Document Server

    Dolag, Klaus; Sunyaev, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the one-point probability density distribution functions (PDF) and the power spectra of the thermal and kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ and kSZ) effects and the mean Compton Y parameter using the Magneticum Pathfinder simulations, state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of a large cosmological volume of (896 Mpc/h)^3. These simulations follow in detail the thermal and chemical evolution of the intracluster medium as well as the evolution of super-massive black holes and their associated feedback processes. We construct full-sky maps of tSZ and kSZ from the light-cones out to z=0.17, and one realization of 8.8x8.8 degree wide, deep light-cone out to z=5.2. The local universe at z=1.18x10^{-6} for \\Omega_m=0.272 and \\sigma_8=0.809. Nearly half (~ 5x10^{-7}) of the signal comes from halos below a virial mass of 10^{13}M_\\odot/h. Scaling this to the Planck 2015 parameters, we find =1.57x10^{-6}. The PDF and the power spectrum of kSZ from our simulation agree broadly with the previous ...

  7. Reconstructing cosmic growth with kSZ observations in the era of Stage IV experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, David; Bull, Philip; Ferreira, Pedro G

    2016-01-01

    Future ground-based CMB experiments will generate competitive large-scale structure datasets by precisely characterizing CMB secondary anisotropies over a large fraction of the sky. We describe a method for constraining the growth rate of structure to sub-1% precision out to $z\\approx 1$, using a combination of galaxy cluster peculiar velocities measured using the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect, and the velocity field reconstructed from galaxy redshift surveys. We consider only thermal SZ-selected cluster samples, which will consist of $\\mathcal{O}(10^4-10^5)$ sources for Stage 3 and 4 CMB experiments respectively. Three different methods for separating the kSZ effect from the primary CMB are compared, including a novel blind "constrained realization" method that improves signal-to-noise by a factor of $\\sim 2$ over a commonly-used aperture photometry technique. Measurements of the integrated tSZ $y$-parameter are used to break the kSZ velocity-optical depth degeneracy, and the effects of including C...

  8. A MEASUREMENT OF SECONDARY COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ANISOTROPIES FROM THE 2500 SQUARE-DEGREE SPT-SZ SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, E. M.; Reichardt, C. L.; Harrington, N. L.; Holzapfel, W. L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA 94720 (United States); Aird, K. A.; Hrubes, J. D. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Benson, B. A.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bleem, L. E.; Chang, C. L.; Keisler, R. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Cho, H-M. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dudley, J.; Holder, G. P. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Halverson, N. W. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences and Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Hou, Z., E-mail: lizinvt@berkeley.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); and others

    2015-02-01

    We present measurements of secondary cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and cosmic infrared background (CIB) fluctuations using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) covering the complete 2540 deg{sup 2} SPT-SZ survey area. Data in the three SPT-SZ frequency bands centered at 95, 150, and 220 GHz, are used to produce six angular power spectra (three single-frequency auto-spectra and three cross-spectra) covering the multipole range 2000 < ℓ < 11, 000 (angular scales 5' ≳ θ ≳ 1'). These are the most precise measurements of the angular power spectra at ℓ > 2500 at these frequencies. The main contributors to the power spectra at these angular scales and frequencies are the primary CMB, CIB, thermal and kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects (tSZ and kSZ), and radio galaxies. We include a constraint on the tSZ power from a measurement of the tSZ bispectrum from 800 deg{sup 2} of the SPT-SZ survey. We measure the tSZ power at 143  GHz to be D{sub 3000}{sup tSZ}=4.08{sub −0.67}{sup +0.58} μK{sup 2} and the kSZ power to be D{sub 3000}{sup kSZ}=2.9±1.3 μK{sup 2}. The data prefer positive kSZ power at 98.1% CL. We measure a correlation coefficient of ξ=0.113{sub −0.054}{sup +0.057} between sources of tSZ and CIB power, with ξ < 0 disfavored at a confidence level of 99.0%. The constraint on kSZ power can be interpreted as an upper limit on the duration of reionization. When the post-reionization homogeneous kSZ signal is accounted for, we find an upper limit on the duration Δz < 5.4  at 95% CL.

  9. Thermal SZ fluctuations in the ICM: probing turbulence and thermodynamics in Coma cluster with Planck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Rishi; Gaspari, Massimo

    2016-11-01

    We report the detection of thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect fluctuations in the intracluster medium (ICM) of Coma cluster observed with Planck. The SZ data links the maximum observable X-ray scale to the large Mpc scale, extending our knowledge of the power spectrum of ICM fluctuations. Deprojecting the 2D SZ perturbations into 3D pressure fluctuations, we find an amplitude spectrum which peaks at δP/P = 33 ± 12 and 74 ± 19 per cent in the 15 and 40 arcmin radius region, respectively. We perform tests to ensure fluctuations are intrinsic to the cluster and not due to noise contamination. By using high-resolution hydrodynamical models, we improve the ICM turbulence constraints in Coma, finding 3D Mach number Ma3d = 0.8 ± 0.3 (15 arcmin region), increasing to supersonic values at larger radii (40 arcmin) and an injection scale Linj ≈ 500 kpc. Such properties are consistent with driving due to mergers, in particular tied to internal galaxy groups. The large pressure fluctuations show that Coma is in adiabatic mode (mediated by sound waves), rather than isobaric mode (mediated by buoyancy waves). As predicted by turbulence models, the distribution of SZ fluctuations is lognormal with mild non-Gaussianities (heavy tails). The substantial non-thermal pressure support implies hydrostatic mass bias bM = -15 to -45 per cent from the core to the outskirt region, respectively. While total SZ power probes the thermal energy content, the SZ fluctuations constrain the non-thermal deviations important for precision cosmology. The proposed, novel approach can be exploited by multifrequency observations using ground-based interferometers and future space cosmic microwave background missions.

  10. Disfonias: relação S/Z e tipos de voz Dysphonias: S/Z ratio and types of voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Aparecida Cielo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar o resultado da relação s/z e do tipo de voz em pacientes com diagnóstico de disfonias orgânico-funcionais (DOF e disfonias funcionais por uso incorreto da voz (DFUIV, bem como a ocorrência das diferentes patologias dentro das DOF. MÉTODOS: 70 indivíduos, de ambos os sexos, entre cinco e 65 anos de idade, atendidos numa clínica-escola, cadastrados em Banco de Dados, entre 1998 e 2006, com DOF e DFUIV, ambos classificados em três subgrupos: casos em que a relação s/z indicava hipercontração, normalidade, e falta de coaptação das pregas vocais durante a fonação. Os tipos de voz foram classificados conforme a ocorrência em: sem alteração; ruidosa; ruidosa, comprimida e/ou apresentando alteração de f0h; ruidosa e/ou apresentando alteração de f0h; e comprimida. RESULTADOS: ocorrência significativa de DOF e de DOF com nódulos vocais; nas DOF e DFUIV, ocorrência significante de relação s/z normal com tempos isolados de /s/ e /z/ abaixo do normal e voz ruidosa. CONCLUSÕES: O resultado da relação s/z foi estatisticamente significativo a favor da faixa de normalidade estabelecida, tanto nos pacientes com diagnóstico de DOF, quanto naqueles com DFUIV, sendo que, em ambos os grupos de pacientes, a voz ruidosa foi a mais freqüente. Dentro das DOF, os nódulos vocais foram significativamente mais freqüentes do que as demais patologias.PURPOSE: to check the result of s/z ratio and types of voice in patients with diagnosis of organic-functional dysphonias (DOF and functional dysphonias by incorrect use of voice (DFUIV, as well as the occurrence of the various pathologies within the DOF. METHODS: 70 subjects of both genders, between 5 and 65 years old, seen in a clinic-school, registered in a data bank from 1998 to 2006, with DOF and DFUIV, both classified in three sub-groups: cases in which the s/z ratio indicated hypercontraction, normality and lack of coaptation of the vocal folds during phonation

  11. First Application of Novel Sulfiding Agent SZ 54 in Domestic Hydrofining Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Maohua

    2006-01-01

    A novel environmentally friendly sulfiding agent SZ 54 was for the first time used for presulfidation of the catalyst in the 2 Mt/a hydrofining unit at Zhenhai Refining and Chemical Company. The application results had shown that the sulfiding agent SZ54 had low smell, high flash point, and safe and environmentally friendly features. The lower decomposition temperature and stepwise chemical decomposition characteristics of this reagent can effectively avoid the reduction of metals and improve sulfur adsorption to meet the needs for sulfidizing the hydrofining catalyst,and is a good reagent worthy of extended application.

  12. Planck intermediate results XXXVI. Optical identification and redshifts of Planck SZ sources with telescopes at the Canary Islands observatories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.;

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of approximately three years of observations of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources with telescopes at the Canary Islands observatories as part of the general optical follow-up programme undertaken by the Planck Collaboration. In total, 78 SZ sources are discussed. Deep-i...

  13. Tissue- and species-specific differences in cytochrome c oxidase assembly induced by SURF1 defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovářová, Nikola; Pecina, Petr; Nůsková, Hana; Vrbacký, Marek; Zeviani, Massimo; Mráček, Tomáš; Viscomi, Carlo; Houštěk, Josef

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondrial protein SURF1 is a specific assembly factor of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), but its function is poorly understood. SURF1 gene mutations cause a severe COX deficiency manifesting as the Leigh syndrome in humans, whereas in mice SURF1(-/-) knockout leads only to a mild COX defect. We used SURF1(-/-) mouse model for detailed analysis of disturbed COX assembly and COX ability to incorporate into respiratory supercomplexes (SCs) in different tissues and fibroblasts. Furthermore, we compared fibroblasts from SURF1(-/-) mouse and SURF1 patients to reveal interspecies differences in kinetics of COX biogenesis using 2D electrophoresis, immunodetection, arrest of mitochondrial proteosynthesis and pulse-chase metabolic labeling. The crucial differences observed are an accumulation of abundant COX1 assembly intermediates, low content of COX monomer and preferential recruitment of COX into I-III2-IVn SCs in SURF1 patient fibroblasts, whereas SURF1(-/-) mouse fibroblasts were characterized by low content of COX1 assembly intermediates and milder decrease in COX monomer, which appeared more stable. This pattern was even less pronounced in SURF1(-/-) mouse liver and brain. Both the control and SURF1(-/-) mice revealed only negligible formation of the I-III2-IVn SCs and marked tissue differences in the contents of COX dimer and III2-IV SCs, also less noticeable in liver and brain than in heart and muscle. Our studies support the view that COX assembly is much more dependent on SURF1 in humans than in mice. We also demonstrate markedly lower ability of mouse COX to form I-III2-IVn supercomplexes, pointing to tissue-specific and species-specific differences in COX biogenesis.

  14. Impact of the Internet surfing on reading practices and choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayaz Ahmad Loan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reading in the 21st century networked society is no longer confined to the print reading. The scope of the reading has extended to the Internet sources that changed the traditional reading culture of the readers. The present study was conducted to identify the impact of the Internet surfing on reading practices and choices of the net generation college students. The survey method was applied to conduct the study and a questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. A sample of 676 students was selected from different strata based on gender, region and faculty in the degree colleges of the Kashmir region, Jammu and Kashmir state, India. In the sample size only 302 confirmed themselves as the e-readers and their responses were analyzed. Results reveal that the reading behavior of the online readers is in transition as the Internet surfing has increased non-sequential reading, interactive reading, superficial reading, and extensive reading and at the same rates is responsible for decreasing concentrated and in-depth reading. Plus, the Internet surfing has increased reading of the news & views, general knowledge, selected fields, sexual content, spiritual/religious text and has decreased reading of literature. To validate the results, the findings were correlated with earlier studies and hypotheses were formed and tested using the Chi-square test. However, the students have not experienced any electronic reading device like kindle (of Amazon or iPod (of Apple during browsing the electronic sources and it could be the future area of research.

  15. Conductivity ageing studies on 1M10ScSZ (M4+=Ce, Hf)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omar, Shobit; Bin Najib, Waqas; Bonanos, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    The long-term conductivity stability is tested on zirconia based electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cell applications. The ageing studies have been performed on the samples of ZrO2 co-doped with 10mol% of Sc2O3 and 1mol% MO2, where M = Ce or Hf (denoted respectively 1Ce10ScSZ and 1Hf10Sc......SZ) in oxidising and reducing atmospheres, at 600°C for 3000h. At 600°C, these compositions show initial conductivity of around 9–12mS∙cm−1 in air. After 3000h of ageing, no phase transitions are observed in any of the samples. For the first 1000h, the degradation rate is higher than in the subsequent 2000h......; thereafter, conductivity degrades linearly with time for all samples. In air, the loss in the conductivity is lower than in reducing conditions. The 1Ce10ScSZ shows the highest degradation rate of 3.8%/1000h in wet H2/N2 after the first 1000h of ageing. A colour change of the 1Ce10ScSZ sample from white...

  16. High purity H2/H2O/Ni/SZ electrodes at 500º C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Jens Valdemar Thorvald; Hansen, Karin Vels; Norrman, Kion

    2013-01-01

    of stabilized zirconia (SZ) with 10, 13 and 18 mol% yttria and one with 6 mol% scandia plus 4 mol% yttria were studied at open circuit voltage at 400-500 C in mixtures of H2/H2O over 46 days. The polarization resistances (Rp) for all samples increased significantly during the first 10-20 days at 500 C...

  17. APPROXIMATION BY COMPLEX SZ ´ASZ-DURRMEYER OPERATORS IN COMPACT DISKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sorin G.GAL; Vijay GUPTA

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we deal with the complex Sz´asz-Durrmeyer operators and study Voronovskaja type results with quantitative estimates for these operators attached to analytic functions of exponential growth on compact disks. Also, the exact order of approximation is found.

  18. SZ effects in the Magneticum Pathfinder simulation: comparison with the Planck, SPT, and ACT results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolag, K.; Komatsu, E.; Sunyaev, R.

    2016-12-01

    We calculate the one-point probability density distribution functions (PDF) and the power spectra of the thermal and kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ and kSZ) effects and the mean Compton Y parameter using the Magneticum Pathfinder simulations, state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of a large cosmological volume of (896 Mpc h-1)3. These simulations follow in detail the thermal and chemical evolution of the intracluster medium as well as the evolution of supermassive black holes and their associated feedback processes. We construct full-sky maps of tSZ and kSZ from the light-cones out to z = 0.17, and one realization of 8.8° × 8.8° deep light-cone out to z = 5.2. The local universe at z half (≈5 × 10-7) of the signal comes from haloes below a virial mass of 1013 M⊙ h-1. Scaling this to the Planck 2015 parameters, we find bar{Y}=1.57× {}10^{-6}.

  19. Thermal SZ fluctuations in the ICM: probing turbulence and thermodynamics in Coma cluster with ${\\it Planck}$

    CERN Document Server

    Khatri, R

    2016-01-01

    The thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) ${\\it fluctuations}$ can open up a new powerful window into the astrophysics of the hot diffuse medium in cosmological structures. We report the detection of SZ fluctuations in the intracluster medium (ICM) of Coma cluster observed with ${\\it Planck}$. The SZ data links the maximum observable X-ray scale to the large Mpc scale, extending our knowledge of the power spectrum of ICM fluctuations. Deprojecting the 2-d SZ perturbations into 3-d pressure fluctuations, we find an amplitude spectrum which peaks at $\\delta P/P = 33\\pm 12\\%$ and $74\\pm19\\%$ in the $15'$ and $40'$ radius region, respectively. By using high-resolution hydrodynamical models, we improve the ICM turbulence constraints in Coma, finding 3-d Mach number ${\\rm Ma_{3d}}= 0.8\\pm0.3$ (15' region) and injection scale $L_{\\rm inj}\\approx 500$ kpc. Such properties are consistent with driving due to mergers tied to internal galaxy groups. For larger radii (40'), the injection scale is unaltered and the Mach number do...

  20. Ribosomal protein L7a is encoded by a gene (Surf-3) within the tightly clustered mouse surfeit locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallongo, A; Yon, J; Fried, M

    1989-01-01

    The mouse Surfeit locus, which contains a cluster of at least four genes (Surf-1 to Surf-4), is unusual in that adjacent genes are separated by no more than 73 base pairs (bp). The heterogeneous 5' ends of Surf-1 and Surf-2 are separated by only 15 to 73 bp, the 3' ends of Surf-1 and Surf-3 are only 70 bp apart, and the 3' ends of Surf-2 and Surf-4 overlap by 133 bp. This very tight clustering suggests a cis interaction between adjacent Surfeit genes. The Surf-3 gene (which could code for a basic polypeptide of 266 amino acids) is a highly expressed member of a pseudogene-containing multigene family. By use of an anti-peptide serum (against the C-terminal nine amino acids of the putative Surf-3 protein) for immunofluorescence and immunoblotting of mouse cell components and by in vitro translation of Surf-3 cDNA hybrid-selected mRNA, the Surf-3 gene product was identified as a 32-kilodalton ribosomal protein located in the 60S ribosomal subunit. From its subunit location, gel migration, and homology with a limited rat ribosomal peptide sequence, the Surf-3 gene was shown to encode the mouse L7a ribosomal protein. The Surf-3 gene is highly conserved through evolution and was detected by nucleic acid hybridization as existing in multiple copies (multigene families) in other mammals and as one or a few copies in birds, Xenopus, Drosophila, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The Surf-3 C-terminal anti-peptide serum detects a 32-kilodalton protein in other mammals, birds, and Xenopus but not in Drosophila and S. pombe. The possible effect of interaction of the Surf-3 ribosomal protein gene with adjacent genes in the Surfeit locus at the transcriptional or posttranscriptional level or both levels is discussed. Images PMID:2648130

  1. Image Retrieval Method Using Top-surf Descriptor

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Ye

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the results and details of a content-based image retrieval project using the Top-surf descriptor. The experimental results are preliminary, however, it shows the capability of deducing objects from parts of the objects or from the objects that are similar. This paper uses a dataset consisting of 1200 images of which 800 images are equally divided into 8 categories, namely airplane, beach, motorbike, forest, elephants, horses, bus and building, while the other 400 images are randomly picked from the Internet. The best results achieved are from building category.

  2. Electron surfing acceleration in a current sheet of flares

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A model of electron acceleration in a current sheet of flares is studied by the analytical approximation solution and the test particle simulation. The electron can be trapped in a potential of propagating electrostatic wave. The trapped electron moving with the phase velocity vp of wave may be effectively accelerated by evc p× Bz force along the outflow direction in the current sheet, if a criterion condition K > 0 for electron surfing acceleration is satisfied. The electron will be accelerated continuously until the electron detrap from the wave potential at the turning point S.

  3. Social Networking Sites' Influence on Travelers' Authentic Experience a Case Study of Couch Surfing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    This study explored travelers' experiences in the era of network hospitality 2.0 using CouchSurfing.org as a case study. The following research questions guided this study: 1) what experience does CouchSurfing create for travelers before, during and after their travel? 2) how does couch surfers' experience relate to authenticity in context of…

  4. E-based Humanities and E-humanities on a SURF platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kircz, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    As of 2003, SURF enables three platforms: ICT and Research, Education, and Organisation. Within these programmes, SURF has funds available to promote ICT innovations. Innovation is not an easy notion to explain. Too often we encounter new wine in old bottles and changes in vocabulary frequently cove

  5. Learning and Identity in Overlapping Communities of Practice: Surf Club, School and Sports Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Richard; Nash, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    Large numbers of children and young people spend their weekends and holidays engaged in the activities of over 300 surf clubs across Australia each summer. Long term membership in these clubs, beginning from as young as five years of age, forms a significant part of children's and young people's development yet surf clubs have yet to receive…

  6. Small Mammal Communities Of Streamside Zones in the Ouachita Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Tappe; Ronald E. Thill; M. Anthony Melchiors; T. Bently Wigley; David G. Peitz

    2004-01-01

    Natural forest stands along perennial and intermittent streams, commonly called streamside zones (SZs), frequently are retained for wildlife habitat enhancement and watershed protection when adjacent stands are harvested. However, little is known regarding wildlife habitat relationships within SZs, especially as they relate to SZ widths and influences of habitat...

  7. Information surfing with the JHU/APL coherent imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratto, Christopher R.; Shipley, Kara R.; Beagley, Nathaniel; Wolfe, Kevin C.

    2015-05-01

    The ability to perform remote forensics in situ is an important application of autonomous undersea vehicles (AUVs). Forensics objectives may include remediation of mines and/or unexploded ordnance, as well as monitoring of seafloor infrastructure. At JHU/APL, digital holography is being explored for the potential application to underwater imaging and integration with an AUV. In previous work, a feature-based approach was developed for processing the holographic imagery and performing object recognition. In this work, the results of the image processing method were incorporated into a Bayesian framework for autonomous path planning referred to as information surfing. The framework was derived assuming that the location of the object of interest is known a priori, but the type of object and its pose are unknown. The path-planning algorithm adaptively modifies the trajectory of the sensing platform based on historical performance of object and pose classification. The algorithm is called information surfing because the direction of motion is governed by the local information gradient. Simulation experiments were carried out using holographic imagery collected from submerged objects. The autonomous sensing algorithm was compared to a deterministic sensing CONOPS, and demonstrated improved accuracy and faster convergence in several cases.

  8. Joint signal extraction from galaxy clusters in X-ray and SZ surveys: A matched-filter approach

    CERN Document Server

    Tarrío, Paula; Arnaud, Monique; Pratt, Gabriel W

    2016-01-01

    The hot ionized gas of the intra-cluster medium emits thermal radiation in the X-ray band and also distorts the cosmic microwave radiation through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. Combining these two complementary sources of information through innovative techniques can therefore potentially improve the cluster detection rate when compared to using only one of the probes. Our aim is to build such a joint X-ray-SZ analysis tool, which will allow us to detect fainter or more distant clusters while maintaining high catalogue purity. We present a method based on matched multifrequency filters (MMF) for extracting cluster catalogues from SZ and X-ray surveys. We first designed an X-ray matched-filter method, analogous to the classical MMF developed for SZ observations. Then, we built our joint X-ray-SZ algorithm by combining our X-ray matched filter with the classical SZ-MMF, for which we used the physical relation between SZ and X-ray observations. We show that the proposed X-ray matched filter provides correc...

  9. Repensar la comunicación institucional: las diez reglas del surf / Rethinking institutional communication: the ten rules of surfing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Apolo Buenaño

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo se presenta un análisis desde distintas concepciones de la comunicación estratégica, en donde además de vincular aspectos centrales y tensiones que enfrentan las organizaciones en la actualidad, se ofrecen acercamientos teóricos y prácticos que contribuyan a repensar la manera que en se desarrolla la comunicación en las instituciones. En el trabajo se vincula el deporte del surf y sus reglas como eje que permite realizar comparaciones que aporten al abordaje de la comunicación desde perspectivas que buscan la confluencia entre intereses institucionales y de los actores que intervienen en el proceso mediante la investigación del entorno, el respeto a las prácticas sociales y la colaboración como base para la consecución de los objetivos conjuntos. Abstract This article presents an analysis from different conceptions of strategic communication, which in addition to linking central aspects and tensions developed by organizations today, theoretical and practical approaches are offered and contribute to rethink the way that the communication is developed in institutions. In this work the sport of surfing and its rules are vinculated as the axis that allows comparisons to contribute to addressing communication from perspectives seeking convergence between institutional interests and actors involved in the process investigating the environment, the respect to social practices and collaboration as the basis for achieving the common goals.

  10. Peak Stir Zone Temperatures during Friction Stir Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Srinivasan; Oh-Ishi, Keiichiro; Zhilyaev, Alexander P.; Fuller, Christian B.; London, Blair; Mahoney, Murray W.; McNelley, Terry R.

    2010-03-01

    The stir zone (SZ) temperature cycle was measured during the friction stir processing (FSP) of NiAl bronze plates. The FSP was conducted using a tool design with a smooth concave shoulder and a 12.7-mm step-spiral pin. Temperature sensing was accomplished using sheathed thermocouples embedded in the tool path within the plates, while simultaneous optical pyrometry measurements of surface temperatures were also obtained. Peak SZ temperatures were 990 °C to 1015 °C (0.90 to 0.97 T Melt) and were not affected by preheating to 400 °C, although the dwell time above 900 °C was increased by the preheating. Thermocouple data suggested little variation in peak temperature across the SZ, although thermocouples initially located on the advancing sides and at the centerlines of the tool traverses were displaced to the retreating sides, precluding direct assessment of the temperature variation across the SZ. Microstructure-based estimates of local peak SZ temperatures have been made on these and on other similarly processed materials. Altogether, the peak-temperature determinations from these different measurement techniques are in close agreement.

  11. Hydrodynamical chemistry simulations of the SZ effect and the impacts from primordial non-Gaussianities

    CERN Document Server

    Pace, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of Compton scattering of hot cosmic gas with the cosmic microwave background radiation (Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, SZ) are consistently quantified in Gaussian and non-Gaussian scenarios, by means of 3D numerical, N-body, hydrodynamic simulations, including cooling, star formation, stellar evolution and metal pollution (He, C, O, Si, Fe, S, Mg, etc.) from different stellar phases, according to proper yields for individual metal species and mass-dependent stellar lifetimes. Light cones are built through the simulation outputs and samples of one hundred maps for the resulting temperature fluctuations are derived for both Gaussian and non-Gaussian primordial perturbations. From them, we estimate the possible changes due to early non-Gaussianities on: SZ maps, probability distribution functions, angular power spectra and corresponding bispectra. We find that the different growth of structures in the different cases induces significant spectral distortions only in models with large non-Gaussian paramete...

  12. István Mészáros, the unconscious, and false consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Mario

    2013-06-01

    Hungarian philosopher István Mészáros' more recent work expands our understanding of consciousness in a way that is particularly relevant to psychoanalysis. He underscores the tragedy of consciousness, increasingly alienated from the totality of our social and individual being, and replaced by its false analog. To make sustainable an anachronistic type of vertical social structure, ideologists of false consciousness join arms with those who control society's historically developed means to reproduce itself and its members. This results in the social phenomenon of alienation, whereby actively produced false consciousness creates a correlate individual unconscious. Mészáros' theory seems compatible with the psychoanalytic paradigms developed by Karen Horney and the Neo-Freudians.

  13. Compact Source Detection in Multichannel Microwave Surveys: From SZ Clusters to Polarized Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Herranz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the state-of-the art status of multifrequency detection techniques for compact sources in microwave astronomy. From the simplest cases where the spectral behaviour is well known (i.e., thermal SZ clusters to the more complex cases where there is little a priori information (i.e., polarized radio sources we will review the main advances and the most recent results in the detection problem.

  14. High-resolution submillimeter and near-infrared studies of the transition disk around Sz 91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Momose, Munetake [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo 2-1-1, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Hashimoto, Jun [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Kudo, Tomoyuki; Saito, Masao; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Kawabe, Ryohei; Akiyama, Eiji [National Astronomical Observatory Japan (NAOJ), Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Andrews, Sean; Wilner, David [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kitamura, Yoshimi [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Yoshinodai 3-1-1, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Abe, Lyu [Lboratoire Lagrange (UMR 7293), Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, 28 avenue Valrose, F-06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Brandner, Wolfgang [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Brandt, Timothy D. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Carson, Joseph [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, 58 Coming Street, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Currie, Thayne [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street M5S 3H4, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Egner, Sebastian E.; Guyon, Olivier [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Goto, Miwa [Universitäts-Sternwarte München, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Grady, Carol, E-mail: ttsuka@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); and others

    2014-03-10

    To reveal the structures of a transition disk around a young stellar object in Lupus, Sz 91 , we have performed aperture synthesis 345 GHz continuum and CO(3-2) observations with the Submillimeter Array (∼1''-3'' resolution) and high-resolution imaging of polarized intensity at the K{sub s} -band using the HiCIAO instrument on the Subaru Telescope (0.''25 resolution). Our observations successfully resolved the inner and outer radii of the dust disk to be 65 and 170 AU, respectively, which indicates that Sz 91 is a transition disk source with one of the largest known inner holes. The model fitting analysis of the spectral energy distribution reveals an H{sub 2} mass of 2.4 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉} in the cold (T < 30 K) outer part at 65 AU 3 × 10{sup –9} M {sub ☉}) of hot (T ∼ 180 K) dust possibly remains inside the inner hole of the disk. The structure of the hot component could be interpreted as either an unresolved self-luminous companion body (not directly detected in our observations) or a narrow ring inside the inner hole. Significant CO(3-2) emission with a velocity gradient along the major axis of the dust disk is concentrated on the Sz 91 position, suggesting a rotating gas disk with a radius of 420 AU. The Sz 91 disk is possibly a rare disk in an evolutionary stage immediately after the formation of protoplanets because of the large inner hole and the lower disk mass than other transition disks studied thus far.

  15. Detection of Region Duplication Forgery in Digital Images Using SURF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B L Shivakumar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An Image would yield better impact in convincing someone of something rather than pure description by words. Digital images are widely used in various fields like medical imaging, journalism, scientific manipulations and digital forensics. However, images are not reliable as it may be. Digital images can be easily tampered with image editing tools. One of the major problems in image forensics is determining if a particular image is authentic or not. Digital image forensic is an emerging field of image processing area. Copy-move forgery is one type of image forgery in digital image forensic where various methods have been proposed in the field to detect the forgery. In this paper a technique is presented to detect Copy-Move Forgery based on SURF and KD-Tree for multidimensional data matching. We demonstrate our method with high resolution images affected by copy-move forgery.

  16. SurfCut: Free-Boundary Surface Extraction

    KAUST Repository

    Algarni, Marei

    2016-09-15

    We present SurfCut, an algorithm for extracting a smooth simple surface with unknown boundary from a noisy 3D image and a seed point. In contrast to existing approaches that extract smooth simple surfaces with boundary, our method requires less user input, i.e., a seed point, rather than a 3D boundary curve. Our method is built on the novel observation that certain ridge curves of a front propagated using the Fast Marching algorithm are likely to lie on the surface. Using the framework of cubical complexes, we design a novel algorithm to robustly extract such ridge curves and form the surface of interest. Our algorithm automatically cuts these ridge curves to form the surface boundary, and then extracts the surface. Experiments show the robustness of our method to errors in the data, and that we achieve higher accuracy with lower computational cost than comparable methods. © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

  17. Military personnel recognition system using texture, colour, and SURF features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irhebhude, Martins E.; Edirisinghe, Eran A.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents an automatic, machine vision based, military personnel identification and classification system. Classification is done using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) on sets of Army, Air Force and Navy camouflage uniform personnel datasets. In the proposed system, the arm of service of personnel is recognised by the camouflage of a persons uniform, type of cap and the type of badge/logo. The detailed analysis done include; camouflage cap and plain cap differentiation using gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) texture feature; classification on Army, Air Force and Navy camouflaged uniforms using GLCM texture and colour histogram bin features; plain cap badge classification into Army, Air Force and Navy using Speed Up Robust Feature (SURF). The proposed method recognised camouflage personnel arm of service on sets of data retrieved from google images and selected military websites. Correlation-based Feature Selection (CFS) was used to improve recognition and reduce dimensionality, thereby speeding the classification process. With this method success rates recorded during the analysis include 93.8% for camouflage appearance category, 100%, 90% and 100% rates of plain cap and camouflage cap categories for Army, Air Force and Navy categories, respectively. Accurate recognition was recorded using SURF for the plain cap badge category. Substantial analysis has been carried out and results prove that the proposed method can correctly classify military personnel into various arms of service. We show that the proposed method can be integrated into a face recognition system, which will recognise personnel in addition to determining the arm of service which the personnel belong. Such a system can be used to enhance the security of a military base or facility.

  18. Surfing through Hyperspace - Understanding Higher Universes in Six Easy Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickover, Clifford A.

    2001-05-01

    Do a little armchair time-travel, rub elbows with a four-dimensional intelligent life form, or stretch your mind to the furthest corner of an uncharted universe. With this astonishing guidebook, Surfing Through Hyperspace , you need not be a mathematician or an astrophysicist to explore the all-but-unfathomable concepts of hyperspace and higher-dimensional geometry.No subject in mathematics has intrigued both children and adults as much as the idea of a fourth dimension. Philosophers and parapsychologists have meditated on this mysterious space that no one can point to but may be all around us. Yet this extra dimension has a very real, practical value to mathematicians and physicists who use it every day in their calculations. In the tradition of Flatland , and with an infectious enthusiasm, Clifford Pickover tackles the problems inherent in our 3-D brains trying to visualize a 4-D world, muses on the religious implications of the existence of higher-dimensional consciousness, and urges all curious readers to venture into "the unexplored territory lying beyond the prison of the obvious." Pickover alternates sections that explain the science of hyperspace with sections that dramatize mind-expanding concepts through a fictional dialogue between two futuristic FBI agents who dabble in the fourth dimension as a matter of national security. This highly accessible and entertaining approach turns an intimidating subject into a scientific game open to all dreamers.Surfing Through Hyperspace concludes with a number of puzzles, computer experiments and formulas for further exploration, inviting readers to extend their minds across this inexhaustibly intriguing scientific terrain.

  19. Detection of the tSZ effect with the NIKA camera

    CERN Document Server

    Comis, B; Macías-Pérez, J F; Adane, A; Ade, P; André, P; Beelen, A; Belier, B; Benoît, A; Bideaud, A; Billot, N; Boudou, N; Bourrion, O; Calvo, M; Catalano, A; Coiffard, G; D'Addabbo, A; Désert, F -X; Doyle, S; Goupy, J; Kramer, C; Leclercq, S; Martino, J; Mauskopf, P; Mayet, F; Monfardini, A; Pajot, F; Pascale, E; Perotto, L; Pointecouteau, E; Ponthieu, N; Revéret, V; Rodriguez, L; Savini, G; Schuster, K; Sievers, A; Tucker, C; Zylka, R

    2013-01-01

    We present the first detection of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect from a cluster of galaxies performed with a KIDs (Kinetic Inductance Detectors) based instrument. The tSZ effect is a distortion of the black body CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) spectrum produced by the inverse Compton interaction of CMB photons with the hot electrons of the ionized intra-cluster medium. The massive, intermediate redshift cluster RX J1347.5-1145 has been observed using NIKA (New IRAM KIDs arrays), a dual-band (140 and 240 GHz) mm-wave imaging camera, which exploits two arrays of hundreds of KIDs: the resonant frequencies of the superconducting resonators are shifted by mm-wave photons absorption. This tSZ cluster observation demonstrates the potential of the next generation NIKA2 instrument, being developed for the 30m telescope of IRAM, at Pico Veleta (Spain). NIKA2 will have 1000 detectors at 140GHz and 2x2000 detectors at 240GHz, providing in that band also a measurement of the linear polarization. NIKA2 will ...

  20. Constraining the evolution of the CMB temperature with SZ measurements from Planck data

    CERN Document Server

    Luzzi, G; Martins, C J A P; De Petris, M; Lamagna, L

    2015-01-01

    The CMB temperature-redshift relation, T_CMB(z)=T_0(1+z), is a key prediction of the standard cosmology, but is violated in many non standard models. Constraining possible deviations to this law is an effective way to test the LambdaCDM paradigm and to search for hints of new physics. We have determined T_CMB(z), with a precision up to 3%, for a subsample (104 clusters) of the Planck SZ cluster catalog, at redshift in the range 0.01-- 0.94, using measurements of the spectrum of the Sunyaev Zel'dovich effect obtained from Planck temperature maps at frequencies from 70 to 353 GHz. The method adopted to provide individual determinations of T_CMB(z) at cluster redshift relies on the use of SZ intensity change, Delta I_SZ(nu), at different frequencies, and on a Monte-Carlo Markov Chain approach. By applying this method to the sample of 104 clusters, we limit possible deviations of the form T_CMB(z)=T_0(1+z)^(1-beta) to be beta= 0.022 +/- 0.018, at 1 sigma uncertainty, consistent with the prediction of the standard...

  1. Stacking weak lensing signals of SZ clusters to constrain cluster physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sealfon, C; Verde, L; Jimenez, Raul; Sealfon, Carolyn; Verde, Licia

    2006-01-01

    We show how to place constraints on cluster physics by stacking the weak lensing signals from multiple clusters found through the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect. For a survey that covers about 200 sq. deg. both in SZ and weak lensing observations, the slope and amplitude of the mass vs. SZ luminosity relation can be measured with few percent error for clusters at z~0.5. This can be used to constrain cluster physics, such as the nature of feedback. For example, we can distinguish a pre-heated model from a model with a decreased accretion rate at more than 5sigma. The power to discriminate among different non-gravitational processes in the ICM becomes even stronger if we use the central Compton parameter y_0, which could allow one to distinguish between models with pre-heating, SN feedback and AGN feedback, for example, at more than 5sigma. Measurement of these scaling relations as a function of redshift makes it possible to directly observe e.g., the evolution of the hot gas in clusters. With this approach the ...

  2. SLAM High Resolution Numerical Simulations of the SZ Signatures of Cluster Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarazin, Craig L.; Chatzikos, M.; O'Shea, B. W.

    2012-05-01

    I present the results of high resolution simulations of the effects of cluster mergers on SZ observations. Most of the simulations are from the SLAM (Simulation Library of Astrophysical galaxy cluster Mergers) library of 156 binary cluster mergers. These simulations include cluster masses ranging from 1e13 to 2e15 Msun, and mass ratios for the mergers of 1:1 to 10:1. They include four values of the dimensionless angular momentum of the merger (lambda = 0.0, 0.025, 0.05, and 0.075), ranging from head-on mergers to high impact parameter collisions. Many of the SZ features correspond to shocks and/or adiabatic compression events. The effect of these transient SZ features on the use of clusters to measure cosmological parameters in surveys is assessed. Support for this work was provided by Chandra grants TM7-8010X, GO9-0135X, GO9-0148X, GO1-12159A, and GO1-12169X, through NASA Suzaku grants NNX09AH25G and NNX09AH74G, through NASA ADAP grant NNX11AD15G, through NASA ATFP grant #08-ATFP08-0028, through NSF AST grant #0908819, and Michigan State University’s Institute for Cyber-Enabled Research. Computer time was provided by NSF TeraGrid grants TG-AST080001N and TG-AST090040.

  3. The important role of evolution in the Planck $Y_{SZ}$-mass calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Andreon, S

    2014-01-01

    In light of the tension between cosmological parameters from Planck cosmic microwave background and galaxy clusters, we revised the Planck analysis of the $Y_{SZ}$-mass calibration allowing for evolution to be determined by the data instead than imposed as external constraint. Our analysis uses the very same data used by the Planck team in order to emphasize that differences in the results comes from differences in the analysis assumptions. The evolution derived from the Planck sample of 71 calibrating clusters with $0.05SZ}$-mass relation turns out to be $1.50\\pm0.07$, shallower by $4.8\\sigma$ than the value derived assuming self-similar evolution, effectively a mass-dependent bias. The non self-similar evolution of $Y_{SZ}$ has to be accounted for in analyses aimed to establish biases of Planck masses because degenerate with it.

  4. An SZ Temperature Decrement X-ray Luminosity Relation for Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Cooray, A R

    1999-01-01

    We present the observed relation between the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature decrement due to the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect and the X-ray luminosity of galaxy clusters. We discuss this relation in terms of the cluster properties, and show that the slope of the observed relation is in agreement with both the L-T relation based on numerical simulations and X-ray emission observations, and the M_gas-L relation based on observations. The slope of the Delta T_SZ-L relation is also consistent with the M_tot-L relation, where M_tot is the cluster total mass based on gravitational lensing observations. This agreement may be taken to imply a constant gas mass fraction within galaxy clusters, however, there are large uncertainties, dominated by observational errors, associated with these relations. Using the Delta T_SZ-L relation and the cluster X-ray luminosity function, we evaluate the local cluster contribution to arcminute scale cosmic microwave background anisotropies. The Compton distortion y-pa...

  5. The SZ Effect Signature of Excess Entropy in Distant, Massive Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, I G; Babul, A; Balogh, M L; Carthy, Ian G. Mc; Holder, Gilbert P.; Babul, Arif; Balogh, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    Studies of cluster X-ray scaling relations have led to suggestions that non-gravitational processes, e.g., radiative cooling and/or "preheating", have significantly modified the entropy of the intracluster medium (ICM). For the first time, we test this hypothesis through a comparison of predicted thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect scaling relations with available data from the literature. One of the relations that we explore, in principle, depends solely on SZ effect observations, thus offering an X-ray independent probe of the ICM. A detailed comparison of the theoretical relations with the largest compilation of high redshift SZ effect data to date indicates that the presence of an entropy floor is favored by the data. Furthermore, the inferred level of that floor, 300 keV cm^2 or higher, is comparable to that found in studies of X-ray scaling relations of nearby massive clusters. Thus, we find no evidence for significant evolution of the entropy floor out to z = 0.7. We further demonstrate that the high...

  6. SZ observations with AMI of the hottest galaxy clusters detected in the XMM-Newton Cluster Survey

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Rodriguez-Gonzalvez, Carmen; Feroz, Farhan; Franzen, Thomas M O; Grainge, Keith J B; Hobson, Michael P; Hurley-Walker, Natasha; Lasenby, Anthony N; Lloyd-Davies, E J; Olamaie, Malak; Perrott, Yvette C; Pooley, Guy G; Rumsey, Clare; Romer, A Kathy; Saunders, Richard D E; Scaife, Anna M M; Schammel, Michel P; Scott, Paul F; Titterington, David J; Waldram, Elizabeth M

    2013-01-01

    We have obtained deep SZ observations towards 15 of the apparently hottest XMM Cluster Survey (XCS) clusters that can be observed with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI). We use a Bayesian analysis to quantify the significance of our SZ detections. We detect the SZ effect at high significance towards three of the clusters and at lower significance for a further two clusters. Towards the remaining ten clusters, no clear SZ signal was measured. We derive cluster parameters using the XCS mass estimates as a prior in our Bayesian analysis. For all AMI-detected clusters, we calculate large-scale mass and temperature estimates while for all undetected clusters we determine upper limits on these parameters. We find that the large- scale mean temperatures derived from our AMI SZ measurements (and the upper limits from null detections) are substantially lower than the XCS-based core-temperature estimates. For clusters detected in the SZ, the mean temperature is, on average, a factor of 1.4 lower than temperatures ...

  7. Evaluation of a 3% surf solution (surf field mastitis test) for the diagnosis of subclinical bovine and bubaline mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Ghulam; Naureen, Abeera; Asi, Muhammad Nadeem; Saqib, Muhammad; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate a 3% solution of household detergent viz., Surf Excel (Surf field mastitis test, SFMT) vis-à-vis California mastitis test (CMT), Whiteside test (WST), somatic cell counts (SCC; cut off limit = 5 x 10(5) cells per millilitre) and bacteriological cultures for the detection of subclinical mastitis in quarter foremilk samples (n=800) of dairy cows and buffaloes. Culture and SCC were used as gold standards. All tests were evaluated parallel and serial patterns. The sensitivities of SFMT, SCC, culture, CMT and WST in parallel testing were 72.82, 81.55, 87.38, 75.73 and 54.37%, respectively in cows, while 66.22, 79.73, 82.43, 70.27 and 50.00, respectively in buffaloes. SFMT was significantly (pCMT in both species. In serial testing, percent specificity of SFMT (87.12 in cow; 85.16 in buffaloes) was significantly (PCMT (83.33 in cow; 80.64 in buffaloes). The negative predictive values of SFMT (93.50 in cow; 96.35 in buffaloes) differed non-significantly from that of CMT (94.02 in cow; 96.15 in buffaloes). The kappa index between the tests was moderate to perfect both in parallel (0.54 to >0.80) and serial (0.58 to >0.8) testing. On the basis of closely similar diagnostic efficiency of SFMT to CMT in terms of sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and kappa index together with inexpensive and ready availability of SFMT reagent, it tempting to suggest that SFMT can be use as a cheaper, user-friendly alternative animal-side subclinical mastitis diagnostic test in poor countries.

  8. SURF imaging beams in an aberrative medium: generation and post-processing enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Nasholm, Sven Peter; 10.1109/TUFFC.2012.2494

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents numerical simulations of dual-frequency second-order ultrasound field (SURF) reverberation suppression transmit-pulse complexes. Such propagation was previously studied in a homogeneous medium. Here instead the propagation path includes a strongly aberrating body-wall modeled by a sequence of delay-screens. The applied SURF transmit pulse complexes each consist of a high-frequency imaging 3.5 MHz pulse combined with a low-frequency 0.5 MHz sound speed manipulation pulse. Furthermore, the feasibility of two signal post-processing methods are investigated using the aberrated transmit SURF beams. These methods are previously shown to adjust the depth of maximum SURF reverberation suppression within a homogeneous medium. The request of the study arises because imaging situations where reverberation suppression is useful are also likely to produce pulse wave-front distortion (aberration). Such distortions could potentially produce time-delays that cancel the accumulated propagation time-delay n...

  9. The rate of beneficial mutations surfing on the wave of a range expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Lehe

    Full Text Available Many theoretical and experimental studies suggest that range expansions can have severe consequences for the gene pool of the expanding population. Due to strongly enhanced genetic drift at the advancing frontier, neutral and weakly deleterious mutations can reach large frequencies in the newly colonized regions, as if they were surfing the front of the range expansion. These findings raise the question of how frequently beneficial mutations successfully surf at shifting range margins, thereby promoting adaptation towards a range-expansion phenotype. Here, we use individual-based simulations to study the surfing statistics of recurrent beneficial mutations on wave-like range expansions in linear habitats. We show that the rate of surfing depends on two strongly antagonistic factors, the probability of surfing given the spatial location of a novel mutation and the rate of occurrence of mutations at that location. The surfing probability strongly increases towards the tip of the wave. Novel mutations are unlikely to surf unless they enjoy a spatial head start compared to the bulk of the population. The needed head start is shown to be proportional to the inverse fitness of the mutant type, and only weakly dependent on the carrying capacity. The precise location dependence of surfing probabilities is derived from the non-extinction probability of a branching process within a moving field of growth rates. The second factor is the mutation occurrence which strongly decreases towards the tip of the wave. Thus, most successful mutations arise at an intermediate position in the front of the wave. We present an analytic theory for the tradeoff between these factors that allows to predict how frequently substitutions by beneficial mutations occur at invasion fronts. We find that small amounts of genetic drift increase the fixation rate of beneficial mutations at the advancing front, and thus could be important for adaptation during species invasions.

  10. The rate of beneficial mutations surfing on the wave of a range expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehe, Rémi; Hallatschek, Oskar; Peliti, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Many theoretical and experimental studies suggest that range expansions can have severe consequences for the gene pool of the expanding population. Due to strongly enhanced genetic drift at the advancing frontier, neutral and weakly deleterious mutations can reach large frequencies in the newly colonized regions, as if they were surfing the front of the range expansion. These findings raise the question of how frequently beneficial mutations successfully surf at shifting range margins, thereby promoting adaptation towards a range-expansion phenotype. Here, we use individual-based simulations to study the surfing statistics of recurrent beneficial mutations on wave-like range expansions in linear habitats. We show that the rate of surfing depends on two strongly antagonistic factors, the probability of surfing given the spatial location of a novel mutation and the rate of occurrence of mutations at that location. The surfing probability strongly increases towards the tip of the wave. Novel mutations are unlikely to surf unless they enjoy a spatial head start compared to the bulk of the population. The needed head start is shown to be proportional to the inverse fitness of the mutant type, and only weakly dependent on the carrying capacity. The precise location dependence of surfing probabilities is derived from the non-extinction probability of a branching process within a moving field of growth rates. The second factor is the mutation occurrence which strongly decreases towards the tip of the wave. Thus, most successful mutations arise at an intermediate position in the front of the wave. We present an analytic theory for the tradeoff between these factors that allows to predict how frequently substitutions by beneficial mutations occur at invasion fronts. We find that small amounts of genetic drift increase the fixation rate of beneficial mutations at the advancing front, and thus could be important for adaptation during species invasions.

  11. Joint signal extraction from galaxy clusters in X-ray and SZ surveys: A matched-filter approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrío, P.; Melin, J.-B.; Arnaud, M.; Pratt, G. W.

    2016-06-01

    The hot ionized gas of the intra-cluster medium emits thermal radiation in the X-ray band and also distorts the cosmic microwave radiation through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. Combining these two complementary sources of information through innovative techniques can therefore potentially improve the cluster detection rate when compared to using only one of the probes. Our aim is to build such a joint X-ray-SZ analysis tool, which will allow us to detect fainter or more distant clusters while maintaining high catalogue purity. We present a method based on matched multifrequency filters (MMF) for extracting cluster catalogues from SZ and X-ray surveys. We first designed an X-ray matched-filter method, analogous to the classical MMF developed for SZ observations. Then, we built our joint X-ray-SZ algorithm by combining our X-ray matched filter with the classical SZ-MMF, for which we used the physical relation between SZ and X-ray observations. We show that the proposed X-ray matched filter provides correct photometry results, and that the joint matched filter also provides correct photometry when the FX/Y500 relation of the clusters is known. Moreover, the proposed joint algorithm provides a better signal-to-noise ratio than single-map extractions, which improves the detection rate even if we do not exactly know the FX/Y500 relation. The proposed methods were tested using data from the ROSAT all-sky survey and from the Planck survey.

  12. Face Recognition System based on SURF and LDA Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narpat A. Singh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, Improve the quality in face recognition system is a challenge. It is a challenging problem and widely studied in the different type of imag-es to provide the best quality of faces in real life. These problems come due to illumination and pose effect due to light in gradient features. The improvement and optimization of human face recognition and detection is an important problem in the real life that can be handles to optimize the error rate, accuracy, peak signal to noise ratio, mean square error, and structural similarity Index. Now-a-days, there several methods are proposed to recognition face in different problem to optimize above parameters. There occur many invariant changes in hu-man faces due to the illumination and pose variations. In this paper we proposed a novel method in face recogni-tion to improve the quality parameters using speed up robust feature and linear discriminant analysis for opti-mize result. SURF is used for feature matching. In this paper, we use linear discriminant analysis for the edge dimensions reduction to live faces from our data-sets. The proposed method shows the better result as compare to the previous result on the basis of comparative analysis because our method show the better quality and better results in live images of face.

  13. Large herbivores surf waves of green-up during spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Jerod A; Monteith, Kevin L; Aikens, Ellen O; Hayes, Matthew M; Hersey, Kent R; Middleton, Arthur D; Oates, Brendan A; Sawyer, Hall; Scurlock, Brandon M; Kauffman, Matthew J

    2016-06-29

    The green wave hypothesis (GWH) states that migrating animals should track or 'surf' high-quality forage at the leading edge of spring green-up. To index such high-quality forage, recent work proposed the instantaneous rate of green-up (IRG), i.e. rate of change in the normalized difference vegetation index over time. Despite this important advancement, no study has tested the assumption that herbivores select habitat patches at peak IRG. We evaluated this assumption using step selection functions parametrized with movement data during the green-up period from two populations each of bighorn sheep, mule deer, elk, moose and bison, totalling 463 individuals monitored 1-3 years from 2004 to 2014. Accounting for variables that typically influence habitat selection for each species, we found seven of 10 populations selected patches exhibiting high IRG-supporting the GWH. Nonetheless, large herbivores selected for the leading edge, trailing edge and crest of the IRG wave, indicating that other mechanisms (e.g. ruminant physiology) or measurement error inherent with satellite data affect selection for IRG. Our evaluation indicates that IRG is a useful tool for linking herbivore movement with plant phenology, paving the way for significant advancements in understanding how animals track resource quality that varies both spatially and temporally.

  14. Surfing through hyperspace understanding higher universes in six easy lessons

    CERN Document Server

    Pickover, Clifford A

    1999-01-01

    Do a little armchair time-travel, rub elbows with a four-dimensional intelligent life form, or stretch your mind to the furthest corner of an uncharted universe. With this astonishing guidebook, Surfing Through Hyperspace, you need not be a mathematician or an astrophysicist to explore the all-but-unfathomable concepts of hyperspace and higher-dimensional geometry. No subject in mathematics has intrigued both children and adults as much as the idea of a fourth dimension. Philosophers and parapsychologists have meditated on this mysterious space that no one can point to but may be all around us. Yet this extra dimension has a very real, practical value to mathematicians and physicists who use it every day in their calculations. In the tradtion of Flatland, and with an infectious enthusiasm, Clifford Pickover tackles the problems inherent in our 3-D brains trying to visualize a 4-D world, muses on the religious implications of the existence of higher-dimensional consciousness, and urges all curious readers to v...

  15. Congruences on Zappa-Szép Products of Semilattices with An Identity and Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiangping XIAO; Yonghua LI

    2012-01-01

    Let P =E (8) G be a Zappa-Szép product of a semilattice E with an identity and a group G.In this paper,we first introduce the concept of congruence pairs for P,and then prove that every congruence on P can be described by such a congruence pair.In fact the congruence lattice on P is lattice-isomorphic to the set of all congruence pairs for P.Finally,we characterize group congruences on P.

  16. Birth by cesarean section and schizophrenia: results from the multicenter FACE-SZ data-set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fond, G; Bulzacka, E; Boyer, L; Llorca, P M; Godin, O; Brunel, L; Andrianarisoa, M G; Aouizerate, B; Berna, F; Capdevielle, D; Chereau, I; Denizot, H; Dorey, J M; Dubertret, C; Dubreucq, J; Faget, C; Gabayet, F; Le Strat, Y; Micoulaud-Franchi, J A; Misdrahi, D; Rey, R; Richieri, R; Roger, M; Passerieux, C; Schandrin, A; Urbach, M; Vidalhet, P; Schürhoff, F; Leboyer, M

    2016-06-27

    Children born by cesarean section ("c-birth") are known to have different microbiota and a natural history of different disorders including allergy, asthma and overweight compared to vaginally born ("v-birth") children. C-birth is not known to increase the risk of schizophrenia (SZ), but to be associated with an earlier age at onset. To further explore possible links between c-birth and SZ, we compared clinical and biological characteristics of c-born SZ patients compared to v-born ones. Four hundred and fifty-four stable community-dwelling SZ patients (mean age = 32.4 years, 75.8 % male gender) were systematically included in the multicentre network of FondaMental Expert Center for schizophrenia. Overall, 49 patients (10.8 %) were c-born. These subjects had a mean age at schizophrenia onset of 21.9 ± 6.7 years, a mean duration of illness of 10.5 ± 8.7 years and a mean PANSS total score of 70.9 ± 18.7. None of these variables was significantly associated with c-birth. Multivariate analysis showed that c-birth remained associated with lower CRP levels (aOR = 0.07; 95 % CI 0.009-0.555, p = 0.012) and lower premorbid ability (aOR = 0.945; 95 % CI 0.898-0.994, p = 0.03). No significant association between birth by C-section and, respectively, age, age at illness onset, sex, education level, psychotic and mood symptomatology, antipsychotic treatment, tobacco consumption, birth weight and mothers suffering from schizophrenia or bipolar disorder has been found. Altogether, the present results suggest that c-birth is associated with lower premorbid intellectual functioning and lower blood CRP levels in schizophrenia. Further studies should determine the mechanisms underlying this association.

  17. The sz mutant hamster: a genetic model of epilepsy or of paroxysmal dystonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löscher, W; Fisher, J E; Schmidt, D; Fredow, G; Hönack, D; Iturrian, W B

    1989-01-01

    Attacks of sustained dystonic postures of limbs and trunk can be initiated by mild environmental stimuli in an inbred line of Syrian hamsters. The trait is determined by an autosomal simple recessive genetic mutation, originally designated by the gene symbol sz, because the abnormal movements were thought to represent epileptic seizures. The attacks, which can be reproducibly initiated by placing the sz mutant hamsters in a new environment, begin with rapid twitches of the vibrissae, flattened ears, and flattened posture of the trunk while walking, followed by facial contortions, rearing, and sustained posturing of trunk and limbs, often resulting in falling over to the side or backwards. In the final stage, the hamsters became immobile, which can last for hours. An increased tone of limbs and trunk muscles can be palpated during the attack. Electromyographical recordings in awake, unrestrained mutant hamsters showed that the onset of the attack coincided with continuous tonic muscle activity and phasic bursts, which were present even when the animals did not move. During the attack, the animals continue to react to external stimuli. Bilateral electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings before and during motor disturbances in sz mutant hamsters showed no abnormalities. The severity of the dystonic syndrome in hamsters is age dependent with a peak at about 30-40 days of age. A score system for grading type and severity of dystonic attack was developed for use in drug activity studies. The severity of the attack was reduced or attacks were completely prevented by diazepam (1-2.5 mg/kg i.p.) and valproic acid (100-400 mg/kg i.p.) in a dose-dependent fashion. The latency to dystonic movements was significantly increased by diazepam but markedly reduced by subconvulsive doses of pentylenetetrazol (40 mg/kg s.c.). Diazepam antagonized the latency-reducing action of pentylenetetrazol in the hamsters. The pathophysiology and pharmacological sensitivity of the dystonic attacks

  18. Bias from gas inhomogeneities in the pressure profiles as measured from X-ray and SZ observations

    CERN Document Server

    Khedekar, S; Kravtsov, A; Zhuravleva, I; Lau, E T; Nagai, D; Sunyaev, R

    2012-01-01

    X-ray observations of galaxy clusters provide emission measure weighted spectra, arising from a range of density and temperature fluctuations in the intra-cluster medium (ICM). This is fitted to a single temperature plasma emission model to provide an estimate of the gas density and temperature, which are sensitive to the gas inhomogeneities. Therefore, X-ray observations yield a potentially biased estimate of the thermal gas pressure, P_X. At the same time Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) observations directly measure the integrated gas pressure, P_SZ. If the X-ray pressure profiles are strongly biased with respect to to the SZ, then one has the possibility to probe the gas inhomogeneities, even at scales unresolved by the current generation of telescopes. At the same time, a weak bias has implications for the use of mass proxies like Y_SZ and Y_X as cosmological probes. In this paper we investigate the dependence of the bias, P_X(r)/P_SZ(r)-1, on the characteristics of fluctuations in the ICM taking into account the ...

  19. Activation of platelet-activating factor receptor in SZ95 sebocytes results in inflammatory cytokine and prostaglandin E2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiwei; Seltmann, Holger; Zouboulis, Christos C; Travers, Jeffrey B

    2006-10-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a group of phosphocholines with various biological effects mediated by the PAF receptor (PAF-R). Activation of the epidermal PAF-R induces the expression of inflammatory mediators, including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). The upregulation of COX-2 expression has been shown to be involved in sebocyte proliferation, sebaceous gland inflammation and carcinogenesis. The present study was designed to investigate whether PAF-R activation could induce the expression of COX-2 and production of PGE(2), as well as secretion of the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-8 (IL-8), in the immortalized sebaceous gland cell line SZ95. Using calcium mobilization studies, we first confirmed that PAF can signal through PAF-R in SZ95 sebocytes. We then found that the production of IL-8 was induced following treatment with PAF-R agonist, however blocked by a specific PAF-R antagonist. Induction of COX-2 expression and increased PGE(2) production were observed in SZ95 sebocytes after PAF-R activation. Finally, it was demonstrated that the production of PGE(2), induced by PAF-R activation and mediated by COX-2 expression, was blocked following PAF-R antagonism in SZ95 sebocytes. These studies suggest that SZ95 sebocytes express functional PAF-Rs and PAF-Rs are involved in regulating the expression of inflammatory mediators, including COX-2, PGE(2) and IL-8.

  20. Aerosol Production in the Surf Zone and Effects on IR Extinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neele, F. P.; Leeuw, G. de; Eijk, A. M. J. van;

    1998-01-01

    Paper presented at the RTO SET Symposium on E-O Propagation, Signature and System Performance Under Adverse Meteorological Conditions Considering Out-of-Area Operations, held at the Italian Air Force Academy, Naples, Italy, 16-19 March 1998....

  1. Video and Field Observations of Wave Attenuation in a Muddy Surf Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    the Gulf of Mexico . These authors showed that during pre-frontal conditions when wave energy increases, sediment is resuspended, mixed and...shallow shelf, Gulf of Mexico . Continental Shelf Research 26, 2073-2091. Marques, W., 2009. Estudo da dinamica da pluma costeira da Lagoa dos Patos. Phd... Brasil . Pesquisas em Geociencias 20. 18-26. Vinzon, S., Meirelles. S.. Le3o. T.. 2008. Wave generated lutoclines offshore of Cassino Beach. Brazil

  2. A Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Wave-Generated Foam Patterns in the Surf Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-10

    tilted downward in the offshore direction (Nadaoka et al. 1989). Nadaoka et al. (1989) also observed that the ODEs can reach the bottom and are a...150 200 250 300 350 12 (outlined in black in Figure 4). It is necessary to use a search box because the UAV moves slightly with wind gusts. Each...approximately 0.25 to 0.64 meters. The areas are also consistent between the top boxes, which are located farther offshore , and the bottom boxes, which

  3. Software and Support Development for an Environmental Data Buoy System for Predicting Surf-Zone Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-28

    Version ii • ~PROGRAMr BOPRTM C PROGRAM NAME IS B10 :R T, READS DATA FROM MEHOR’ AN’D CHECKS C; ADDRESS AND PU’S DATA INTO 1024-DATA ARRAY C PRINT OUT...next I -99994X 999941M 29:, 0-* Nif WE 1 J>0; to "neqb" 30: "posb": for L1I to 1024; if WE L >0; ’to "pos" 31: next L rL1t104ifWL K;’o"n" 32: "neqb

  4. Importance of Antecedent Beach and Surf-Zone Morphology to Wave Runup Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    tidal dependence in SIG , which instead correlates well with sqrt(HoLo) (r2=0.65, p<ɘ.001). DISCUSSION: The above results are discussed in the...band energy reaching the shoreline, supporting one hypothesis proposed by Guedes et al. (2011). Interestingly, neither Hsig nor SIG correlates with...observed ηR, SIN, and SIG (similar to the approach of Equation 1) and these variables compared with forcing parameters measured at the foreshore (Bf and

  5. The Design and Implementation of a Prototype Surf-Zone Robot for Waterborne Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    developed and tested for mobility in a beachfront environment. Three wheel- designs were tested during fixed pattern tests on grass, concrete and sand. The...part of the internal electronics. To include the connectors in the design, the waterproof cylinder end caps are modified using CNC milling as shown... rubber coating (Plasti-Dip) and a liquid repellent treatment (Rust-Oleum Never Wet–multisurface). An FDM sparse part T5 was coated as depicted in Figure

  6. Design of a Prototype Autonomous Amphibious WHEGS(Trademark) Robot for Surf-Zone Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    screws that are in line with the slotted holes. Once assembled, orthodontic rubber bands are stretched between the fixed screws in the outer shell, and...is received from the user on port 4001. It extracts the information about the required speed and servo position, transmits that directly to the pulse...doesn’t have any errors, it extracts the robots current heading, pitch, and roll information. d. GPS Costatement The GPS costatement is also

  7. Estimating wave energy dissipation in the surf zone using thermal infrared imagery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carini, Roxanne J; Chickadel, C. Chris; Jessup, Andrew T; Thomson, Jim

    2015-01-01

    ...‐resolving model by Duncan (1981). The wave energy dissipation rate estimates show a pattern of increased breaking during low tide over a sand bar, consistent with in situ turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate estimates from fixed...

  8. Surf zone, infragravity wave energy flux, and runup in extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, J. W.; Brodie, K. L.; McNinch, J.; Guza, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    Waves, currents, and sand levels were observed on a 1.4 km-long cross-shore transect extending from the back beach to ~11 m water depth at Agate Beach, Oregon in Fall 2013. Wave runup and water table fluctuations on this low slope (1:80) beach were measured with a cliff-mounted scanning Lidar and buried pressure sensors. Significant wave heights at an offshore buoy in 128m depth ranged from small (0.5m) to extreme (7.5m), with peak periods between 4-22 seconds. Infragravity frequency (nominally 0.01 Hz) horizontal runup excursions exceeded 100m, and infragravity cross-shore velocity exceeded 3 m/s. Cross-shore patterns of infragravity wave energy flux, observed with seven co-located pressure and current meters, indicate 'proto-saturation' of the inner surfzone in extreme conditions. That is, the intensification of incident wave forcing (e.g. higher energy, longer swell) leads to a wider surfzone and an increase in the shoreward infragravity wave energy seaward of the surfzone, but produces more modest increases in flux in the inner surfzone, and in the runup. Nonlinear energy balances, based on the observations, show transfer of energy from sea-swell to infragravity waves, and vice-versa. The infragravity energy balance closes in cases with low energy incident sea-swell. With more energetic incident waves, there is an unexplained inner surfzone energy sink at the lowest IG frequencies (0.004-0.02 Hz). Ongoing work aims to quantify the effect on infragravity energy balances by infragravity wave breaking and bottom friction. Additionally, the estimates may be degraded by contamination with rotational velocities of surfzone eddies. Whatever the dynamical explanation, infragravity wave runup on a low slope beach in high-energy conditions is limited significantly by dissipation. The slow rate of runup increase suggests nascent, or 'proto' saturation. This work was supported by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

  9. The importance of the surf zone for fish and brown shrimp in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teal, L.R.; Keeken, van O.A.

    2011-01-01

    Human activity in the North Sea is increasing, invloving more motorised cargo shipping, and rapidly expanding construction and operation of oil platforms and wind farms. In recent years underwater sand levees or sand suppletion near shore has been performed for coastal protection. The aim of this li

  10. Surf zone dynamics along the south Karnataka Coast between Bhatkal and Ullal, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; SanilKumar, V.; Nayak, B.U.; Raju, N.S.N.

    stronger in June, and relatively low and steady during the rest of the year. Coast between Padubidri and Ullal experienced relatively stronger longshore currents than the coast between Maravanthe and Malpe. Longshore sediment transport rate was relatively...

  11. Infragravity-wave modulation of short-wave celerity in the surf zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tissier, M.; Bonneton, P.; Michallet, H.; Ruessink, B.G.

    2015-01-01

    The cross-shore evolution of individual wave celerity is investigated using two highresolution laboratory experiments on bichromatic waves. Individual waves are tracked during their onshore propagation and their characteristics, including celerity, are estimated. The intrawave variability in celerit

  12. Cross-shore suspended sediment transport in the surf zone: A fieldbased parameterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Black, Kerry; Greenwood, Brian

    2002-01-01

    sediment transport, sediment concentrations, incident waves, undertow, morphodynamics, beach processes......sediment transport, sediment concentrations, incident waves, undertow, morphodynamics, beach processes...

  13. Waves, Currents, and Sediment Transport in the Surf Zone Along Long, Straight Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    bmx + F bwx + F srx + F swmx + F srmx (4.49) τ cby = F bmy + F bwy...F sry + F swmy + F srmy +F bvy (4.50) with F bhpx = −ρgh ∂¯η ∂x (4.51) 119 F bmx = −ρ ∂ ∂x ( aU 2 s + q bx U 0 ) (4.52) F bwx = − ∂ ∂x S xx (4.53) F...shows “mean-current- associated” forcing terms due to the mean current advection, F bmx (thin full line), the interaction of waves and mean currents,

  14. Saturated Zone In-Situ Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. W. Reimus; M. J. Umari

    2003-12-23

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that have been conducted to test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters that are used in the development of parameter distributions for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in the revisions to the SZ flow model report (BSC 2003 [ 162649]), the SZ transport model report (BSC 2003 [ 162419]), the SZ colloid transport report (BSC 2003 [162729]), and the SZ transport model abstraction report (BSC 2003 [1648701]). Specifically, this scientific analysis report provides the following information that contributes to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as a barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvium Testing Complex (ATC), which is located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, and

  15. Optical spectroscopy and velocity dispersions of galaxy clusters from the SPT-SZ survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruel, J.; Bayliss, M. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, 17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bazin, G.; Bocquet, S. [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstr. 1, 81679 München (Germany); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Foley, R. J.; Stalder, B.; Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Aird, K. A. [University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Armstrong, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Bautz, M. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Cho, H. M. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Clocchiatti, A., E-mail: mbayliss@cfa.harvard.edu [Instituto de Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica (Chile); and others

    2014-09-01

    We present optical spectroscopy of galaxies in clusters detected through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect with the South Pole Telescope (SPT). We report our own measurements of 61 spectroscopic cluster redshifts, and 48 velocity dispersions each calculated with more than 15 member galaxies. This catalog also includes 19 dispersions of SPT-observed clusters previously reported in the literature. The majority of the clusters in this paper are SPT-discovered; of these, most have been previously reported in other SPT cluster catalogs, and five are reported here as SPT discoveries for the first time. By performing a resampling analysis of galaxy velocities, we find that unbiased velocity dispersions can be obtained from a relatively small number of member galaxies (≲ 30), but with increased systematic scatter. We use this analysis to determine statistical confidence intervals that include the effect of membership selection. We fit scaling relations between the observed cluster velocity dispersions and mass estimates from SZ and X-ray observables. In both cases, the results are consistent with the scaling relation between velocity dispersion and mass expected from dark-matter simulations. We measure a ∼30% log-normal scatter in dispersion at fixed mass, and a ∼10% offset in the normalization of the dispersion-mass relation when compared to the expectation from simulations, which is within the expected level of systematic uncertainty.

  16. High-Resolution Submillimeter and Near-Infrared Studies of the Transition Disk around Sz 91

    CERN Document Server

    Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Hashimoto, Jun; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Andrews, Sean; Saito, Masao; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Wilner, David; Kawabe, Ryohei; Abe, Lyu; Akiyama, Eiji; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D; Carson, Joseph; Currie, Thayne; Egner, Sebastian E; Goto, Miwa; Grady, Carol; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus W; Ishii, Miki; Iye, Masanori; Janson, Markus; Kandori, Ryo; Knapp, Gillian R; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Kwon, Jungmi; McElwain, Mike; Matsuo, Taro; Mayama, Satoshi; Miyama, Shoken; Morino, Jun-ichi; Moro-Martín, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuro; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Suenaga, Takuya; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Takami, Hideki; Takami, Michihiro; Takato, Naruhisa; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Tomono, Daigo; Turner, Edwin L; Usuda, Tomonori; Watanabe, Makoto; Wisniewski, John P; Yamada, Toru; Tamura, Motohide

    2014-01-01

    To reveal the structures of a transition disk around a young stellar object in Lupus, Sz 91, we have performed aperture synthesis 345 GHz continuum and CO(3--2) observations with the Submillimeter Array ($\\sim1\\arcsec$--3$\\arcsec$ resolution), and high-resolution imaging of polarized intensity at the $K_s$-band by using the HiCIAO instrument on the Subaru Telescope ($0\\farcs25$ resolution). Our observations successfully resolved the inner and outer radii of the dust disk to be 65 AU and 170 AU, respectively, which indicates that Sz 91 is a transition disk source with one of the largest known inner holes. The model fitting analysis of the spectral energy distribution reveals an H$_2$ mass of $2.4\\times10^{-3}$ $M_\\sun$ in the cold ($T3\\times10^{-9}$ $M_\\sun$) of hot ($T\\sim$180 K) dust possibly remains inside the inner hole of the disk. The structure of the hot component could be interpreted as either an unresolved self-luminous companion body (not directly detected in our observations) or a narrow ring inside...

  17. Galaxy Cluster Outskirts from the Thermal SZ and Non-Thermal Synchrotron Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustuv Basu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Galaxy cluster merger shocks are the main agent for the thermalization of the intracluster medium and the energization of cosmic ray particles in it. Shock propagation changes the state of the tenuous intracluster plasma, and the corresponding signal variations are measurable with the current generation of X-ray and Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ effect instruments. Additionally, non-thermal electrons (re-energized by the shocks sometimes give rise to extended and luminous synchrotron sources known as radio relics, which are prominent indicators of shocks propagating roughly in the plane of the sky. In this short review, we discuss how the joint modeling of the non-thermal and thermal signal variations across radio relic shock fronts is helping to advance our knowledge of the gas thermodynamical properties and magnetic field strengths in the cluster outskirts. We describe the first use of the SZ effect to measure the Mach numbers of relic shocks, for both the nearest (Coma and the farthest (El Gordo clusters with known radio relics.

  18. Galaxy cluster outskirts from the thermal SZ and non-thermal synchrotron link

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Kaustuv; Sommer, Martin; Vazza, Franco; Eckert, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy cluster merger shocks are the main agent for the thermalization of the intracluster medium and the energization of cosmic ray particles in it. Shock propagation changes the state of the tenuous intracluster plasma, and the corresponding signal variations are measurable with the current generation of X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect instruments. Additionally, non-thermal electrons (re-)energized by the shocks sometimes give rise to extended and luminous synchrotron sources known as radio relics, which are prominent indicators of shocks propagating roughly in the plane of the sky. In this short review, we discuss how the joint modeling of the non-thermal and thermal signal variations across radio relic shock fronts is helping to advance our knowledge of the gas thermodynamical properties and magnetic field strengths in the cluster outskirts. We describe the first use of the SZ effect to measure the Mach numbers of relic shocks, for both the nearest (Coma) and the farthest (El Gordo) clusters with...

  19. H0 from an orientation-unbiased sample of SZ and X-ray clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, M E; Grainge, K; Grainger, W F; Kneissl, R; Pooley, G G; Saunders, R; Miyoshi, S J; Tsuruta, T; Yamashita, K; Tawara, Y; Furuzawa, A; Harada, A; Hatsukade, I; Jones, Michael E.; Edge, Alastair C.; Grainge, Keith; Grainger, William F.; Kneissl, Ruediger; Saunders, Richard; Miyoshi, Shigeru J.; Tsuruta, Taisuke; Yamashita, Koujun; Tawara, Yuzuru; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Harada, Akihiro; Hatsukade, Isamu

    2001-01-01

    We have observed the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in a sample of five moderate-redshift clusters with the Ryle Telescope, and used them in conjunction with X-ray imaging and spectral data from ROSAT and ASCA to measure the Hubble constant. This sample was chosen with a strict X-ray flux limit using both the BCS and NORAS cluster catalogues to be well above the surface-brightness limit of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey, and hence to be unbiased with respect to the orientation of the cluster. This controls the major potential systematic effect in the SZ/X-ray method of measureing H0. Taking the weighted geometric mean of the results and including the main sources of random error, namely the noise in the SZ measurement, the uncertainty in the X-ray temperatures and the unknown ellipticity of the clusters, we find H0 = 59 +8/-7 km/s/Mpc assuming a standard CDM model with Omega_M = 1.0, Omega_Lambda = 0.0, or H0 = 65 +8/-7 km/s/Mpc if Omega_M = 0.3, Omega_Lambda = 0.7.

  20. Redshift Dependence of the CMB Temperature from S-Z Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Luzzi, G; Lamagna, L; Rephaeli, Y; De Petris, M; Conte, A; De Gregori, S; Battistelli, E S

    2009-01-01

    We have determined the CMB temperature, $T(z)$, at redshifts in the range 0.023-0.546, from multi-frequency measurements of the S-Z effect towards 13 clusters. We extract the parameter $\\alpha$ in the redshift scaling $T(z)=T_{0}(1+z)^{1-\\alpha}$, which contrasts the prediction of the standard model ($\\alpha=0$) with that in non-adiabatic evolution conjectured in some alternative cosmological models. The statistical analysis is based on two main approaches: using ratios of the S-Z intensity change, $\\Delta I$, thus taking advantage of the weak dependence of the ratios on IC gas properties, and using directly the $\\Delta I$ measurements. In the former method dependence on the Thomson optical depth and gas temperature is only second order in these quantities. In the second method we marginalize over these quantities which appear to first order in the intensity change. The marginalization itself is done in two ways - by direct integrations, and by a Monte Carlo Markov Chain approach. Employing these different me...

  1. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT): Beam Profiles and First SZ Cluster Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Hincks, A D; Ade, P; Aguirre, P; Amiri, M; Appel, J W; Barrientos, L F; Battistelli, E S; Bond, J R; Brown, B; Burger, B; Chervenak, J; Das, S; Devlin, M J; Dicker, S; Doriese, W B; Dunkley, J; Dünner, R; Essinger-Hileman, T; Fisher, R P; Fowler, J W; Hajian, A; Halpern, M; Hasselfield, M; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Hilton, G C; Hilton, M; Hlozek, R; Huffenberger, K; Hughes, D; Hughes, J P; Infante, L; Irwin, K D; Jiménez, R; Juin, J B; Kaul, M; Klein, J; Kosowsky, A; Lau, J M; Limon, M; Lin, Y -T; Lupton, R H; Marriage, T; Marsden, D; Martocci, K; Mauskopf, P; Menanteau, F; Moodley, K; Moseley, H; Netterfield, C B; Niemack, M D; Nolta, M R; Page, L A; Parker, L; Partridge, B; Quintana, H; Reid, B; Sehgal, N; Sievers, J; Spergel, D N; Staggs, S T; Stryzak, O; Swetz, D; Switzer, E; Thornton, R; Trac, H; Tucker, C; Verde, L; Warne, R; Wilson, G; Wollack, E; Zhao, Y

    2009-01-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) is currently observing the cosmic microwave background with arcminute resolution at 148 GHz, 218 GHz, and 277 GHz. In this paper, we present ACT's first results. Data have been analyzed using a maximum-likelihood map-making method which uses B-splines to model and remove the atmospheric signal. It has been used to make high-precision beam maps from which we determine the experiment's window functions. This beam information directly impacts all subsequent analyses of the data. We also used the method to map a sample of galaxy clusters via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, and show eight clusters previously detected in the X-ray or SZ and two new cluster candidates. We provide integrated Compton-y measurements for each cluster. Of particular interest is our detection of the z = 0.44 component of Abell 3128 and our current non-detection of the low-redshift part, providing strong evidence that the further cluster is more massive as suggested by X-ray measurements. This is a...

  2. On the mitigation of surf-riding by adjusting center of buoyancy in design stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Yu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available High-speed vessels are prone to the surf-riding in adverse quartering seas. The possibility of mitigating the surf-riding of the ITTC A2 fishing vessel in the design stage is investigated using the 6-DOF weakly non-linear model developed for surf-riding simulations in quartering seas. The longitudinal position of the ship's center of buoyancy (LCB is chosen as the design parameter. The adjusting of LCB is achieved by changing frame area curves, and hull surfaces are reconstructed accordingly using the Radial Basis Function (RBF. Surf-riding motions in regular following seas for cases with different LCBs and Froude numbers are simulated using the numerical model. Results show that the surf-riding cannot be prevented by the adjusting of LCB. However, it occurs with a higher threshold speed when ship's center of buoyancy (COB is moved towards stem compared to moving towards stern, which is mainly due to the differences on wave resistance caused by the adjusting of LCB.

  3. KARAKTERISTIK, MOTIVASI DAN NIAT WISATAWAN SURFING DI PANTAI KECAMATAN KUTA UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Windy Pramita

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Black sandy beach tourist attraction of Kuta Northen region that is Batu Bolong beach and Batu Mejan beach which has potential a beautifull oncean, sunset, sunbathing and surfingthe purpose of this study was to determinethe characteristics, motivasi, and intentions rating surfing at Kuta Northen beach. The method used observation, questionnaires, interviews, literature study, and documentation. 213 respondens rating surfing with quantitative descriptive and regression linier analisys. The result obtained in this study are based on age characteristics surfing travelers will see the most travelers age between 18-29 years, male gender, country of origin Australia, and is a businessman, a master degree educational level, and marital status is not married. Surfing tourist motivation using push and pull factor with the highest scores on the social interaction. And Intention surfing tourist with the highest score there is positive world of mouth with Variabel tourist have the effect of 13,20% with a probability level of sig. 0,000, the motivation positive and significant efeect on the intention tourist but in small quantities. Therefore to improve the intention tourist come to the beach district of north kuta from the motivation pull and push should also improve the quality of beaches such as keeping the beach becomes the most importans thing that will directly make tourist feel comfortable. advice for managers is to add a lifeguard to keep the beach.

  4. Computing OpenSURF on OpenCL and General Purpose GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanglong Yan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Speeded-Up Robust Feature (SURF algorithm is widely used for image feature detecting and matching in computer vision area. Open Computing Language (OpenCL is a framework for writing programs that execute across heterogeneous platforms consisting of CPUs, GPUs, and other processors. This paper introduces how to implement an open-sourced SURF program, namely OpenSURF, on general purpose GPU by OpenCL, and discusses the optimizations in terms of the thread architectures and memory models in detail. Our final OpenCL implementation of OpenSURF is on average 37% and 64% faster than the OpenCV SURF v2.4.5 CUDA implementation on NVidia's GTX660 and GTX460SE GPUs, repectively. Our OpenCL program achieved real-time performance (>25 Frames Per Second for almost all the input images with different sizes from 320*240 to 1024*768 on NVidia's GTX660 GPU, NVidia's GTX460SE GPU and AMD's Radeon HD 6850 GPU. Our OpenCL approach on NVidia's GTX660 GPU is more than 22.8 times faster than its original CPU version on Intel's Dual-Core E5400 2.7G on average.

  5. Computing OpenSURF on OpenCL and General Purpose GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanglong Yan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Speeded-Up Robust Feature (SURF algorithm is widely used for image feature detecting and matching in computer vision area. Open Computing Language (OpenCL is a framework for writing programs that execute across heterogeneous platforms consisting of CPUs, GPUs, and other processors. This paper introduces how to implement an open-sourced SURF program, namely OpenSURF, on general purpose GPU by OpenCL, and discusses the optimizations in terms of the thread architectures and memory models in detail. Our final OpenCL implementation of OpenSURF is on average 37% and 64% faster than the OpenCV SURF v2.4.5 CUDA implementation on NVidia’s GTX660 and GTX460SE GPUs, repectively. Our OpenCL program achieved real-time performance (>25 Frames Per Second for almost all the input images with different sizes from 320*240 to 1024*768 on NVidia’s GTX660 GPU, NVidia’s GTX460SE GPU and AMD’s Radeon HD 6850 GPU. Our OpenCL approach on NVidia’s GTX660 GPU is more than 22.8 times faster than its original CPU version on Intel’s Dual-Core E5400 2.7G on average.

  6. Planck Intermediate Results. XXXVI. Optical identification and redshifts of Planck SZ sources with telescopes in the Canary Islands Observatories

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Barrena, R; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bikmaev, I; Böhringer, H; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Burenin, R; Burigana, C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, H C; Chon, G; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Comis, B; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Dahle, H; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Ferragamo, A; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Fromenteau, S; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D L; Hempel, A; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, T R; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Khamitov, I; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; León-Tavares, J; Levrier, F; Lietzen, H; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; McGehee, P; Melchiorri, A; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Perdereau, O; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Stolyarov, V; Streblyanska, A; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tramonte, D; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of approximately three years of observations of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources with telescopes at the Canary Islands observatories, as part of the general optical follow-up programme undertaken by the Planck collaboration. In total, 78 SZ sources are discussed. Deep imaging observations were obtained for most of those sources; spectroscopic observations in either in long-slit or multi-object modes were obtained for many. We found optical counterparts for 73 of the 78 candidates. This sample includes 53 spectroscopic redshifts determinations, 20 of them obtained with a multi-object spectroscopic mode. The sample contains new redshifts for 27 Planck clusters that were not included in the first Planck SZ source catalogue (PSZ1).

  7. Solar winds surfs waves in the Sun's atmosphere!

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    opposite ends after threading it through an object, like a ring. If one person wiggles the string rapidly up and down, waves form in the string that move toward the person at the other end. The ring will "surf" these waves and move toward the other person as well. Try it! "Even with this major discovery, there are questions left to answer. The observations have made it abundantly clear that heavy particles like oxygen 'surf' on the waves, and there is also mounting evidence that waves are responsible for accelerating the hydrogen atoms, the most common constituent of the solar wind. Future observations are needed to establish this fact. Many other kinds of particles, such as helium (second most common) have never been observed in the accelerating part of the corona, and new observations are also needed to refine our understanding of how the waves interact with the solar wind as a whole," said Dr. Steven Cranmer of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, lead author of the research to be published in the Astrophysical Journal*. Nevertheless, SOHO has again been able to reveal another of the Sun's mysteries: "This is another triumph for SOHO, stealing a long-held secret from our Sun", said Dr Martin Huber, Head of ESA Space Science Department and co-investigator for UVCS. *Ref. Article by S.Cranmer, G.B. Field and J.L. Kohl on Astrophysical Journal ( June 20, Vol 518, p. 937-947) available on the web at: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/ApJ/journal/issues/ApJ/v518n2/39802/sc0.html

  8. SURF'S UP! – Protein classification by surface comparisons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joanna M Sasin; Adam Godzik; Janusz M Bujnicki

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale genome sequencing and structural genomics projects generate numerous sequences and structures for ‘hypothetical’ proteins without functional characterizations. Detection of homology to experimentally characterized proteins can provide functional clues, but the accuracy of homology-based predictions is limited by the paucity of tools for quantitative comparison of diverging residues responsible for the functional divergence. SURF’S UP! is a web server for analysis of functional relationships in protein families, as inferred from protein surface maps comparison according to the algorithm. It assigns a numerical score to the similarity between patterns of physicochemical features (charge, hydrophobicity) on compared protein surfaces. It allows recognizing clusters of proteins that have similar surfaces, hence presumably similar functions. The server takes as an input a set of protein coordinates and returns files with ``spherical coordinates” of proteins in a PDB format and their graphical presentation, a matrix with values of mutual similarities between the surfaces, and the unrooted tree that represents the clustering of similar surfaces, calculated by the neighbor-joining method. SURF’S UP! facilitates the comparative analysis of physicochemical features of the surface, which are the key determinants of the protein function. By concentrating on coarse surface features, SURF’S UP! can work with models obtained from comparative modelling. Although it is designed to analyse the conservation among homologs, it can also be used to compare surfaces of non-homologous proteins with different three-dimensional folds, as long as a functionally meaningful structural superposition is supplied by the user. Another valuable characteristic of our method is the lack of initial assumptions about the functional features to be compared. SURF’S UP! is freely available for academic researchers at http://asia.genesilico.pl/surfs_up/.

  9. Scaled photographs of surf over the full range of breaker sizes on the north shore of Oahu and Jaws, Maui, Hawaiian Islands (NODC Accession 0001753)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digital surf photographs were scaled using surfers as height benchmarks to estimate the size of the breakers. Historical databases for surf height in Hawaii are...

  10. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant

  11. A Novel Image Retrieval Based on Visual Words Integration of SIFT and SURF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouman Ali

    Full Text Available With the recent evolution of technology, the number of image archives has increased exponentially. In Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR, high-level visual information is represented in the form of low-level features. The semantic gap between the low-level features and the high-level image concepts is an open research problem. In this paper, we present a novel visual words integration of Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT and Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF. The two local features representations are selected for image retrieval because SIFT is more robust to the change in scale and rotation, while SURF is robust to changes in illumination. The visual words integration of SIFT and SURF adds the robustness of both features to image retrieval. The qualitative and quantitative comparisons conducted on Corel-1000, Corel-1500, Corel-2000, Oliva and Torralba and Ground Truth image benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed visual words integration.

  12. A Novel Image Retrieval Based on Visual Words Integration of SIFT and SURF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nouman; Bajwa, Khalid Bashir; Sablatnig, Robert; Chatzichristofis, Savvas A; Iqbal, Zeshan; Rashid, Muhammad; Habib, Hafiz Adnan

    2016-01-01

    With the recent evolution of technology, the number of image archives has increased exponentially. In Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR), high-level visual information is represented in the form of low-level features. The semantic gap between the low-level features and the high-level image concepts is an open research problem. In this paper, we present a novel visual words integration of Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF). The two local features representations are selected for image retrieval because SIFT is more robust to the change in scale and rotation, while SURF is robust to changes in illumination. The visual words integration of SIFT and SURF adds the robustness of both features to image retrieval. The qualitative and quantitative comparisons conducted on Corel-1000, Corel-1500, Corel-2000, Oliva and Torralba and Ground Truth image benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed visual words integration.

  13. Environmental Awareness of Surf Tourists: A Case Study in the Algarve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabia Frank

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Even though surf tourism in Portugal is an economic activity with a steady growth rate, there are not many assessment studies available. Using a survey undertaken in surf camps located in the Vila do Bispo County, this study aims to analyse the environmental awareness of surf tourists in the Algarve. Through the New Environmental Paradigm (NEP scale it is shown that the environmental attitudes of respondents are strongly pro-ecological but also reveal some anthropocentric aspects. Tourists were asked about their willingness to pay for an accommodation tax earmarked for environmental protection in the Algarve. The results show that the large majority (86% would be willing to pay, which indicates a high environmental awareness. It is also found that the willingness to pay is related to the nationality, with respondents from Germany, Austria and Switzerland showing a higher willingness to pay.

  14. Loss-of-function mutations of SURF-1 are specifically associated with Leigh syndrome with cytochrome c oxidase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiranti, V; Jaksch, M; Hofmann, S; Galimberti, C; Hoertnagel, K; Lulli, L; Freisinger, P; Bindoff, L; Gerbitz, K D; Comi, G P; Uziel, G; Zeviani, M; Meitinger, T

    1999-08-01

    Mutations of SURF-1, a gene located on chromosome 9q34, have recently been identified in patients affected by Leigh syndrome (LS), associated with deficiency of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. To investigate to what extent SURF-1 is responsible for human disorders because of COX deficiency, we undertook sequence analysis of the SURF-1 gene in 46 unrelated patients. We analyzed 24 COX-defective patients classified as having typical Leigh syndrome (LS(COX)), 6 patients classified as Leigh-like (LL(COX)) cases, and 16 patients classified as non-LS(COX) cases. Frameshift, stop, and splice mutations of SURF-1 were detected in 18 of 24 (75%) of the LS(COX) cases. No mutations were found in the LL(COX) and non-LS(COX) group of patients. Rescue of the COX phenotype was observed in transfected cells from patients harboring SURF-1 mutations, but not in transfected cell lines from 2 patients in whom no mutations were detected by sequence analysis. Loss of function of SURF-1 protein is specifically associated with LS(COX), although a proportion of LS(COX) cases must be the result of abnormalities in genes other than SURF-1. SURF-1 is the first nuclear gene to be consistently mutated in a major category of respiratory chain defects. DNA analysis can now be used to accurately diagnose LS(COX), a common subtype of Leigh syndrome.

  15. Heart Rate Responses of High School Students Participating in Surfing Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Michelle M; Cummins, Kevin M; Nessler, Jeff A; Newcomer, Sean C

    2016-06-01

    Despite the nation's rising epidemic of childhood obesity and diabetes, schools struggle to promote physical activities that help reduce risks for cardiovascular disease. Emerging data suggest that adopting novel activities into physical education (PE) curriculum may serve as an effective strategy for increasing physical activity in children. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize activity in the water and heart rates (HRs) of high school students participating in surf PE courses. Twenty-four male (n = 20) and female (n = 4) high school students (mean age = 16.7 ± 1.0 years) who were enrolled in surf PE courses at 2 high schools participated in this investigation. Daily measurements of surfing durations, average HR, and maximum HR were made on the students with HR monitors (PolarFT1) over an 8-week period. In addition, HR and activity in the water was evaluated during a single session in a subset of students (n = 11) using a HR monitor (PolarRCX5) and a video camera (Canon HD). Activity and HR were synchronized and evaluated in 5-second intervals during data analyses. The average duration that PE students participated in surfing during class was 61.7 ± 1.0 minutes. Stationary, paddling, wave riding, and miscellaneous activities comprised 42.7 ± 9.5, 36.7 ± 7.9, 2.9 ± 1.4, and 17.8 ± 11.4 percent of the surf session, respectively. The average and maximum HRs during these activities were 131.1 ± 0.9 and 177.2 ± 1.0 b·min, respectively. These data suggest that high school students participating in surf PE attained HRs and durations that are consistent with recommendations with cardiovascular fitness and health. In the future, PE programs should consider incorporating other action sports into their curriculum to enhance cardiovascular health.

  16. A generalized Sz. Nagy inequality in higher dimensions and the critical thin film equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Wang, Jinhuan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we provide an alternative proof for the classical Sz. Nagy inequality in one dimension by a variational method and generalize it to higher dimensions d≥slant 1 J(h):=(∫Rd|h| dx)a-1∫Rd|∇h|2 dx(∫Rd|h|m+1 dx)a+1m+1⩾β0, where m  >  0 for d  =  1, 2, 0 for d≥slant 3 , and a=\\frac{d+2(m+1)}{md} . The Euler-Lagrange equation for critical points of J (h) in the non-negative radial decreasing function space is given by a free boundary problem for a generalized Lane-Emden equation, which has a unique solution (denoted by h c ) and the solution determines the best constant for the above generalized Sz. Nagy inequality. The connection between the critical mass {{M}c}={\\int}{R}{{h}c} \\text{d}x=\\frac{2\\sqrt{2}π}{3} for the thin-film equation and the best constant of the Sz. Nagy inequality in one dimension was first noted by Witelski et al (2004 Eur. J. Appl. Math. 15 223-56). For the following critical thin film equation in multi-dimension d≥slant 2 ht+∇ṡ(h ∇Δh)+∇ṡ(h ∇hm)=0,x∈Rd, where m  =  1  +  2/d, the critical mass is also given by {{M}c}:={\\int}{{{R}d}}{{h}c} \\text{d}x . A finite time blow-up occurs for solutions with the initial mass larger than M c . On the other hand, if the initial mass is less than M c and a global non-negative entropy weak solution exists, then the second moment goes to infinity as t\\to ∞ or h≤ft(\\centerdot,{{t}k}\\right)\\rightharpoonup 0 in {{L}1}≤ft({{{R}}d}\\right) for some subsequence {{t}k}\\to ∞ . This shows that a part of the mass spreads to infinity.

  17. Run-up of tsunamis and long waves in terms of surf-similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.

    2008-01-01

    of the surf-similarity parameter and the amplitude to depth ratio determined at some offshore location. We use the analytical expressions to analyze the impact of tsunamis on beaches and relate the discussion to the recent Indian Ocean tsunami from December 26, 2004. An important conclusion is that extreme...... run-up combined with extreme flow velocities occurs for surf-similarity parameters of the order 3-6, and for typical tsunami wave periods this requires relatively mild beach slopes. Next, we compare the theoretical solutions to measured run-up of breaking and non-breaking irregular waves on steep...

  18. SURF: Taking Sustainable Remediation from Concept to Standard Operating Procedure (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. M.; Wice, R. B.; Torrens, J.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade, many sectors of industrialized society have been rethinking behavior and re-engineering practices to reduce consumption of energy and natural resources. During this time, green and sustainable remediation (GSR) has evolved from conceptual discussions to standard operating procedure for many environmental remediation practitioners. Government agencies and private sector entities have incorporated GSR metrics into their performance criteria and contracting documents. One of the early think tanks for the development of GSR was the Sustainable Remediation Forum (SURF). SURF brings together representatives of government, industry, consultancy, and academia to parse the means and ends of incorporating societal and economic considerations into environmental cleanup projects. Faced with decades-old treatment programs with high energy outputs and no endpoints in sight, a small group of individuals published the institutional knowledge gathered in two years of ad hoc meetings into a 2009 White Paper on sustainable remediation drivers, practices, objectives, and case studies. Since then, SURF has expanded on those introductory topics, publishing its Framework for Integrating Sustainability into Remediation Projects, Guidance for Performing Footprint Analyses and Life-Cycle Assessments for the Remediation Industry, a compendium of metrics, and a call to improve the integration of land remediation and reuse. SURF's research and members have also been instrumental in the development of additional guidance through ASTM International and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council. SURF's current efforts focus on water reuse, the international perspective on GSR (continuing the conversations that were the basis of SURF's December 2012 meeting at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC), and ways to capture and evaluate the societal benefits of site remediation. SURF also promotes and supports student chapters at universities across the US

  19. THE SPACE APPLICATION ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE CHINESE UNMANNED SPACECRAFT "SZ-3"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    During the 3rd mission of Chinese Unmanned Spacecraft the application sys tem of "SZ-3" (Shenzhou, a divine ship) gets a great success, all its goals are achieved. Many areas of science and breakthrough technology, including earth observation, earth environment monitoring, space material, space life science etc., are carried out in the mission. There are 44 payload instruments totally.All the instruments are working well during the orbit flight and a lot of good results are obtained. Many areas, for example the moderate resolution imag ing spectroradiometer, the solar ultraviolet spectral irradiance monitor and the space protein crystallization facility perform better than required and expected.A brief introduction of the experiments and the achievements of the mission is given in this paper.

  20. Optical Spectroscopy and Velocity Dispersions of Galaxy Clusters from the SPT-SZ Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Ruel, J; Bayliss, M; Brodwin, M; Foley, R J; Stalder, B; Aird, K A; Armstrong, R; Ashby, M L N; Bautz, M; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Bocquet, S; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Chapman, S C; Cho, H M; Clocchiatti, A; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; de Haan, T; Desai, S; Dobbs, M A; Dudley, J P; Forman, W R; George, E M; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A H; Halverson, N W; Harrington, N L; High, F W; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Hrubes, J D; Jones, C; Joy, M; Keisler, R; Knox, L; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Liu, J; Lueker, M; Luong-Van, D; Mantz, A; Marrone, D P; McDonald, M; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Meyer, S S; Mocanu, L; Mohr, J J; Montroy, T E; Murray, S S; Natoli, T; Nurgaliev, D; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Reichardt, C L; Rest, A; Ruhl, J E; Saliwanchik, B R; Saro, A; Sayre, J T; Schaffer, K K; Shaw, L; Shirokoff, E; Song, J; Šuhada, R; Spieler, H G; Stanford, S A; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Story, K; Stubbs, C W; van Engelen, A; Vanderlinde, K; Vieira, J D; Vikhlinin, A; Williamson, R; Zahn, O; Zenteno, A

    2013-01-01

    We present optical spectroscopy of galaxies in clusters detected through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect with the South Pole Telescope (SPT). We report our own measurements of $61$ spectroscopic cluster redshifts, and $48$ velocity dispersions each calculated with more than $15$ member galaxies. This catalog also includes $19$ dispersions of SPT-observed clusters previously reported in the literature. The majority of the clusters in this paper are SPT-discovered; of these, most have been previously reported in other SPT cluster catalogs, and five are reported here as SPT discoveries for the first time. By performing a resampling analysis of galaxy velocities, we find that unbiased velocity dispersions can be obtained from a relatively small number of member galaxies ($\\lesssim 30$), but with increased systematic scatter. We use this analysis to determine statistical confidence intervals that include the effect of membership selection. We fit scaling relations between the observed cluster velocity dispersio...

  1. Clarifying the covariant formalism for the SZ effect due to relativistic non-thermal electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Boehm, Celine

    2008-01-01

    We derive the covariant formalism associated with the relativistic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect due to a non-thermal population of high energy electrons in clusters of galaxies. More precisely, we show that the formalism proposed by Wright in 1979, based on an empirical approach (but widely used in the literature) to compute the inverse Compton scattering of a population of relativistic electrons on CMB photons, can actually be re-interpreted as a Boltzmann-like equation, in the single scattering approximation. Although this would tend to reconcile Wright's approach with the latest works on the relativistic corrections of the thermal SZ effect, we find that the squared matrix amplitude derived by Wright by applying a relativistic Lorentz boost on Chandrasekhar's non-relativistic formula is incorrect (it is not equivalent to the well-known Compton scattering squared matrix amplitude in the limit of relativistic incoming electrons and low energy photons). This has important consequences. In particular, this modifi...

  2. Solazyme Integrated Biorefinery (SzIBR): Diesel Fuels from Heterotrophic Algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, David [Solazyme, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-12-23

    Under Department of Energy Award Number DE-EE0002877 (the “DOE Award”), Solazyme, Inc. (“Solazyme”) has built a demonstration scale “Solazyme Integrated Biorefinery (SzlBR).” The SzIBR was built to provide integrated scale-up of Solazyme’s novel heterotrophic algal oil biomanufacturing process, validate the projected commercial-scale economics of producing multiple algal oils, and to enable Solazyme to collect the data necessary to complete the design of its first commercial-scale facility. Solazyme’s technology enables it to convert a range of low-cost plant-based sugars into high-value oils. Solazyme’s renewable products replace or enhance oils derived from the world’s three existing sources—petroleum, plants, and animal fats. Solazyme tailors the composition of its oils to address specific customer requirements, offering superior performance characteristics and value. This report summarizes history and the results of the project.

  3. The Good, the Bad and the Ugly: Statistical quality assessment of SZ detections

    CERN Document Server

    Aghanim, N; Diego, J -M; Douspis, M; Macias-Perez, J; Pointecouteau, E; Comis, B; Arnaud, M; Montier, L

    2014-01-01

    We examine three approaches to the problem of source classification in catalogues. Our goal is to determine the confidence with which the elements in these catalogues can be distinguished in populations on the basis of their spectral energy distribution (SED). Our analysis is based on the projection of the measurements onto a comprehensive SED model of the main signals in the considered range of frequencies. We first first consider likelihood analysis, which half way between supervised and unsupervised methods. Next, we investigate an unsupervised clustering technique. Finally, we consider a supervised classifier based on Artificial Neural Networks. We illustrate the approach and results using catalogues from various surveys. i.e., X-Rays (MCXC), optical (SDSS) and millimetric (Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ)). We show that the results from the statistical classifications of the three methods are in very good agreement with each others, although the supervised neural network-based classification shows better pe...

  4. Directional growth of Al-Mg2Si eutectic alloy in the SZ2 unmanned spaceship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN; Mingxiang(潘明祥); LI; Shunpu(李顺朴); ZHAO; Deqian(赵德乾); WANG; Weihua(汪卫华); WEN; Ping(闻平); YU; Yude(俞育德); NIE; Yuxin(聂玉昕); ZHAO; Shengxue(赵生旭); ZHUANG; Yanxin(庄艳歆); CHEN; Xichen(陈熙琛)

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the investigation results on directional growth of Al-Mg2Si eutectic alloy in the SZ2 unmanned spaceship. The analysis shows that microgravity has influence on the directional growth of Al-Mg2Si eutectic alloy. The eutectic colony in space-grown sample is larger than that in ground-grown sample, and the directional effect is not so good as that of terrestrial sample. But there is no obvious difference in the lamellar thickness between these samples, and lamellar interspacing in space sample is smaller than that grown on the ground. A simple discussion is done on the gravity effect on the directional growth of Al-Mg2Si eutectic alloy.

  5. Integrating genetic algorithm method with neural network for land use classification using SZ-3 CMODIS data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Changyao; LUO Chengfeng; LIU Zhengjun

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology on land use mapping using CMODIS (Chinese Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer ) data on-board SZ-3 (Shenzhou 3) spacecraft. The integrated method is composed of genetic algorithm (GA) for feature extraction and neural network classifier for land use classification. In the data preprocessing, a moment matching method was adopted to reuse classification was obtained. To generate a land use map, the three layers back propagation neural network classifier is used for training the samples and classification. Compared with the Maximum Likelihood classification algorithm, the results show that the accuracy of land use classification is obviously improved by using our proposed method, the selected band number in the classification process is reduced,and the computational performance for training and classification is improved. The result also shows that the CMODIS data can be effectively used for land use/land cover classification and change monitoring at regional and global scale.

  6. Improving Photometric Redshifts using GALEX Observations for the SDSS Stripe 82 and the Next Generation of SZ Cluster Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Niemack, Michael D; Verde, Licia; Menanteau, Felipe; Panter, Ben; Spergel, David

    2008-01-01

    Four large-area Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) experiments -- APEX-SZ, SPT, ACT, and Planck -- promise to detect clusters of galaxies through the distortion of Cosmic Microwave Background photons by hot (> 10^6 K) cluster gas (the SZ effect) over thousands of square degrees. A large observational follow-up effort to obtain redshifts for these SZ-detected clusters is under way. Given the large area covered by these surveys, most of the redshifts will be obtained via the photometric redshift (photo-z) technique. Here we demonstrate, in an application using ~3000 SDSS stripe 82 galaxies with r<20, how the addition of GALEX photometry (FUV, NUV) greatly improves the photometric redshifts of galaxies obtained with optical griz or ugriz photometry. In the case where large spectroscopic training sets are available, empirical neural-network-based techniques (e.g., ANNz) can yield a photo-z scatter of $\\sigma_z = 0.018 (1+z)$. If large spectroscopic training sets are not available, the addition of GALEX data makes possible...

  7. ALMA-SZ Detection of a Galaxy Cluster Merger Shock at Half the Age of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, K.; Sommer, M.; Erler, J.; Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Magnelli, B.; Bertoldi, F.; Tozzi, P.

    2016-10-01

    We present ALMA measurements of a merger shock using the thermal Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) effect signal, at the location of a radio relic in the famous El Gordo galaxy cluster at z≈ 0.9. Multi-wavelength analysis in combination with the archival Chandra data and a high-resolution radio image provides a consistent picture of the thermal and non-thermal signal variation across the shock front and helps to put robust constraints on the shock Mach number as well as the relic magnetic field. We employ a Bayesian analysis technique for modeling the SZ and X-ray data self-consistently, illustrating respective parameter degeneracies. Combined results indicate a shock with Mach number { M }={2.4}-0.6+1.3, which in turn suggests a high value of the magnetic field (of the order of 4-10 μ {{G}}) to account for the observed relic width at 2 GHz. At roughly half the current age of the universe, this is the highest-redshift direct detection of a cluster shock to date, and one of the first instances of an ALMA-SZ observation in a galaxy cluster. It shows the tremendous potential for future ALMA-SZ observations to detect merger shocks and other cluster substructures out to the highest redshifts.

  8. Hermeneutic and Cultural Codes of S/Z: A Semiological Reading of James Joyce's "The Boarding House"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booryazadeh, Seyed Ali; Faghfori, Sohila; Shamsi, Habibe

    2014-01-01

    Roland Barthes as a fervent proponent of semiology believes that semiology is a branch of a comprehensive linguistics: it is the study of how language articulates the world. Semiotic codes, the paths of this articulation, accordingly underlie his attention. Barthes in a structural analysis of Balzac's "Sarrasine" in S/Z expounds five…

  9. Detecting Sunyaev-Zel'dovich clusters with PLANCK: III. Properties of the expected SZ-cluster sample

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, B M; Schaefer, Bjoern Malte; Bartelmann, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    The PLANCK-mission is the most sensitive all-sky submillimetric mission currently being planned and prepared. Special emphasis is given to the observation of clusters of galaxies by their thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. In this work, the results of a simulation are presented that combines all-sky maps of the thermal and kinetic SZ-effect with cosmic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations, Galactic foregrounds (synchrotron emission, thermal emission from dust, free-free emission and rotational transitions of carbon monoxide molecules) and sub-millimetric emission from planets and asteroids of the Solar System. Observational issues, such as PLANCKs beam shapes, frequency response and spatially non-uniform instrumental noise have been incorporated. Matched and scale-adaptive multi-frequency filtering schemes have been extended to spherical coordinates and are now applied to the data sets in order to isolate and amplify the weak thermal SZ-signal. The properties of the resulting SZ-cluster sample are cha...

  10. Chronic Peripheral Inflammation is Associated With Cognitive Impairment in Schizophrenia: Results From the Multicentric FACE-SZ Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzacka, Ewa; Boyer, Laurent; Schürhoff, Franck; Godin, Ophélia; Berna, Fabrice; Brunel, Lore; Andrianarisoa, Méja; Aouizerate, Bruno; Capdevielle, Delphine; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Chesnoy-Servanin, Gabrielle; Danion, Jean-Marie; Dubertret, Caroline; Dubreucq, Julien; Faget, Catherine; Gabayet, Franck; Le Gloahec, Tifenn; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Mallet, Jasmina; Misdrahi, David; Rey, Romain; Richieri, Raphaëlle; Passerieux, Christine; Roux, Paul; Yazbek, Hanan; Leboyer, Marion; Fond, Guillaume

    2016-09-01

    Inflammation, measured by abnormal blood C-reactive protein (CRP) level, has been described in schizophrenia (SZ), being inconsistently related to impaired cognitive functions. The aim of the present study is to investigate cognitive impairment associated with abnormal CRP levels in a large multi-centric sample of community-dwelling SZ patients, using a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Three hundred sixty-nine community-dwelling stable SZ subjects (76.2% men, mean age 32.7 y) were included and tested with a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Abnormal CRP level was defined as >3mg/L. Multiple factor analysis revealed that abnormal CRP levels, found in 104 patients (28.2%), were associated with impaired General Intellectual Ability and Abstract Reasoning (aOR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.35-0.90, P = .014), independently of age, sex, education level, psychotic symptomatology, treatments, and addiction comorbidities. Abnormal CRP levels were also associated with the decline of all components of working memory (respectively effect size [ES] = 0.25, P = .033; ES = 0.27, P = .04; ES = 0.33, P = .006; and ES = 0.38, P = .004) and a wide range of other impaired cognitive functions, including memory (ES = 0.26, P = .026), learning abilities (ES = 0.28, P = .035), semantic memory (ES = 0.26, P = .026), mental flexibility (ES = 0.26, P = .044), visual attention (ES = 0.23, P = .004) and speed of processing (ES = 0.23, P = .043). Our results suggest that abnormal CRP level is associated with cognitive impairment in SZ. Evaluating the effectiveness of neuroprotective anti-inflammatory strategies is needed in order to prevent cognitive impairment in SZ. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. AMI observations of 10 CLASH galaxy clusters: SZ and X-ray data used together to determine cluster dynamical states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Clare; Olamaie, Malak; Perrott, Yvette C.; Russell, Helen R.; Feroz, Farhan; Grainge, Keith J. B.; Handley, Will J.; Hobson, Michael P.; Saunders, Richard D. E.; Schammel, Michel P.

    2016-07-01

    Using Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI) Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) observations towards 10 CLASH (Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble) clusters, we investigate the influence of cluster mergers on observational galaxy cluster studies. Although selected to be largely relaxed, there is disagreement in the literature on the dynamical states of CLASH sample members. We analyse our AMI data in a fully Bayesian way to produce estimated cluster parameters and consider the intrinsic correlations in our Navarro, Frenk and White/generalized Navarro, Frenk and White-based model. Varying pressure profile shape parameters, illustrating an influence of mergers on scaling relations, induces small deviations from the canonical self-similar predictions - in agreement with simulations of Poole et al. (2007) who found that merger activity causes only small scatter perpendicular to the relations. We demonstrate this effect observationally using the different dependences of SZ and X-ray signals to ne that cause different sensitivities to the shocking and/or fractionation produced by mergers. Plotting YX-Mgas relations (where YX = MgasT) derived from AMI SZ and from Chandra X-ray gives ratios of AMI and Chandra YX and Mgas estimates that indicate movement of clusters along the scaling relation, as predicted by Poole et al. (2007). Clusters that have moved most along the relation have the most discrepant TSZ and TX estimates: all the other clusters (apart from one) have SZ and X-ray estimates of Mgas, T and YX that agree within r500. We use SZ versus X-ray discrepancies in conjunction with Chandra maps and TX profiles, making comparisons with simulated cluster merger maps in Poole et al. (2006) to identify disturbed members of our sample and estimate merger stages.

  12. The Ocean as a Unique Therapeutic Environment: Developing a Surfing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Emily D.; Armitano, Cortney N.; Lamont, Linda S.; Audette, Jennifer G.

    2014-01-01

    Educational aquatic programming offers necessary physical activity opportunities to children with disabilities and the benefits of aquatic activities are more pronounced for children with disabilities than for their able-bodied peers. Similar benefits could potentially be derived from surfing in the ocean. This article describes an adapted surfing…

  13. Post-Processing Enhancement of Reverberation-Noise Suppression in Dual-Frequency SURF Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Nasholm, Sven Peter; Angelsen, Bjørn A J; 10.1109/TUFFC.2011.1811

    2013-01-01

    A post-processing adjustment technique which aims for enhancement of dual-frequency SURF (Second order UltRasound Field) reverberation-noise suppression imaging in medical ultrasound is analyzed. Two variant methods are investigated through numerical simulations. They both solely involve post-processing of the propagated high-frequency (HF) imaging wave fields, which in real-time imaging corresponds to post-processing of the beamformed receive radio-frequency signals. Hence the transmit pulse complexes are the same as for the previously published SURF reverberation-suppression imaging method. The adjustment technique is tested on simulated data from propagation of SURF pulse complexes consisting of a 3.5 MHz HF imaging pulse added to a 0.5 low-frequency sound-speed manipulation pulse. Imaging transmit beams are constructed with and without adjustment. The post-processing involves filtering, e.g., by a time-shift, in order to equalize the two SURF HF pulses at a chosen depth. This depth is typically chosen to ...

  14. The Ocean as a Unique Therapeutic Environment: Developing a Surfing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Emily D.; Armitano, Cortney N.; Lamont, Linda S.; Audette, Jennifer G.

    2014-01-01

    Educational aquatic programming offers necessary physical activity opportunities to children with disabilities and the benefits of aquatic activities are more pronounced for children with disabilities than for their able-bodied peers. Similar benefits could potentially be derived from surfing in the ocean. This article describes an adapted surfing…

  15. Implementing CHC to Counter Shoulder Surfing Attack in PassPoint – Style Graphical Passwords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Joshuva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Graphical passwords are an alternative to existing alphanumeric passwords. In Graphical passwords users click on images than type a long, complex password. Passpoints scheme is one of the Graphical user authentication techniques. In this method the password is represented by multiple clicks on a single image. One of the advantages with Passpoints scheme is that, a user can click on any place in the image as a click point. Graphical authentication suffers a major drawback of Shoulder-surfing. Shoulder-surfing refers to someone observing the user’s action as the user enters a password. Due to this, the user’s action can be monitored by the attacker or it can be captured using recording devices such as camera. Sobrado and Birget suggested Convex Hull Click (CHC scheme to counter shoulder-surfing using PassIcons which is different from PassPoint scheme. In this paper, we described how CHC is implemented in Passpoint-sheme to counter Shoulder Surfing Attack.

  16. Performance differences between sexes in the pop-up phase of surfing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eurich, Alea D; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Noffal, Guillermo J; Nguyen, Diamond; Khamoui, Andy V; Uribe, Brandon P

    2010-10-01

    Surfing is a dynamic sport that is multidirectional in nature and requires peak performance in variable ocean conditions. Its growing popularity among the female population has stirred curiosity as to whether women can and will 1 day face their male counterparts in head-to-head competition at the top levels. The purpose of this study was to examine male and female differences in performance of a simulated surfing pop-up movement. Forty recreationally trained surfers (20 men and 20 women) were instructed to lie prone on a force plate, in the pop-up position (similar to a push-up), with only their hands in contact with the plate. A velocity transducer was attached to their back via an adjustable strap around their upper trunk. They completed 3 pop-ups as explosively as possible by pushing forcefully with their hands and jumping to their feet. Absolute and relative force and power were measured. Results demonstrated that men exhibited significantly (p pop-up movement. It appears that women may be at a disadvantage in regards to peak performance when compared to their male counterparts in the surfing pop-up movement. Therefore, women should train for both maximum and explosive upper-body strength in addition to their time spent surfing.

  17. Robust Object-Based Watermarking Using SURF Feature Matching and DFT Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cedillo-Hernandez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a robust object-based watermarking method, in which the watermark is embedded into the middle frequencies band of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT magnitude of the selected object region, altogether with the Speeded Up Robust Feature (SURF algorithm to allow the correct watermark detection, even if the watermarked image has been distorted. To recognize the selected object region after geometric distortions, during the embedding process the SURF features are estimated and stored in advance to be used during the detection process. In the detection stage, the SURF features of the distorted image are estimated and match them with the stored ones. From the matching result, SURF features are used to compute the Affine-transformation parameters and the object region is recovered. The quality of the watermarked image is measured using the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR, Structural Similarity Index (SSIM and the Visual Information Fidelity (VIF. The experimental results show the proposed method provides robustness against several geometric distortions, signal processing operations and combined distortions. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves also show the desirable detection performance of the proposed method. The comparison with a previously reported methods based on different techniques is also provided.

  18. Baseline Measurements of Shoulder Surfing Analysis and Comparability for Smartphone Unlock Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-22

    lines, and graphical patterns without lines) in a controlled setting . These videos are designed to simulate shoulder surfing settings under varied attack...than triple the success rate with a single view at 72.44 . The goal of this research is to identify more effective guidance for mobile device users to

  19. Constitutive knockout of Surf1 is associated with high embryonic lethality, mitochondrial disease and cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostino, Alessandro; Invernizzi, Federica; Tiveron, Cecilia; Fagiolari, Gigliola; Prelle, Alessandro; Lamantea, Eleonora; Giavazzi, Alessio; Battaglia, Giorgio; Tatangelo, Laura; Tiranti, Valeria; Zeviani, Massimo

    2003-02-15

    We report here the creation of a constitutive knockout mouse for SURF1, a gene encoding one of the assembly proteins involved in the formation of cytochrome c oxidase (COX). Loss-of-function mutations of SURF1 cause Leigh syndrome associated with an isolated and generalized COX deficiency in humans. The murine phenotype is characterized by the following hallmarks: (1) high post-implantation embryonic lethality, affecting approximately 90% of the Surf1(-/-) individuals; (2) early-onset mortality of post-natal individuals; (3) highly significant deficit in muscle strength and motor performance; (4) profound and isolated defect of COX activity in skeletal muscle and liver, and, to a lesser extent, heart and brain; (5) morphological abnormalities of skeletal muscle, characterized by reduced histochemical reaction to COX and mitochondrial proliferation; (6) no obvious abnormalities in brain morphology, reflecting the virtual absence of overt neurological symptoms. These results indicate a function for murine Surf1 protein (Surf1p) specifically related to COX and recapitulate, at least in part, the human phenotype. This is the first mammalian model for a nuclear disease gene of a human mitochondrial disorder. Our model constitutes a useful tool to investigate the function of Surf1p, help understand the pathogenesis of Surf1p deficiency in vivo, and evaluate the efficacy of treatment.

  20. Development of discrete aggregates of recrystallization along micro-shear zones in quartz ribbons during multistage ductile evolution of a quartz vein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, Alberto; Pennacchioni, Giorgio; Bestmann, Michel

    2016-04-01

    The post-magmatic ductile deformation of the Rieserferner pluton (Eastern Alps) includes localized ductile shear zones exploiting a set of joint-filling quartz veins. These deformed veins show different stages of evolution, from coarse grained vein quartz to the fine grained recrystallized aggregates of ultramylonites, locally recorded in different domains of heterogeneously sheared veins. The microstructural evolution includes, with increasing strain: (i) Development of ribbon mylonites consisting of elongated grains, oblique to the shear zone boundary, derived from different quartz veins crystals. The individual ribbons have different crystallographic orientations and aspect ratios. (ii) Dismantling of ribbons along a fracture-like network of fine grained recrystallized quartz aggregates, that commonly represent micro-shear zonesSZ). These discrete recrystallization zones are preferentially developed in ribbons whose crystallographic axis is oriented either parallel or normal to ribbon elongation. (iii) Extensive dynamic recrystallization to fine-grained (10-20 μm) aggregates leading to quartz ultramylonites. Typically ultramylonites show a layered texture with bands having different crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) that probably reflect the original heterogeneity in crystallographic orientations of the vein. Electron backscattered diffraction analysis indicates that the μSZ within quartz ribbons are mainly parallel to {r} or {z} planes of the host grain, and the new grain inside μSZ show a weak CPO with their basal plane parallel to the μSZ boundary. There is no systematic relationships between the Dauphiné twinning and the μSZ. Misorientation analysis suggests that in the host grain dislocation creep is dominant on {m} slip system, whereas it is probably a minor mechanism within μSZ. Subgrains and low-angle boundaries (LAB) are heterogeneously developed at the border of the μSZ, and more commonly occur around the tips of μSZ. LABs are

  1. Cloning and Sequencing of cSZ1 Gene of Eimeria acervlina Changchun Strain%堆型艾美耳球虫cSZ1基因的克隆与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任科研; 苑淑贤; 李琳; 姚新华; 苑冬梅

    2011-01-01

    [目的]分析堆型艾美尔球虫cSZ1基因序列,为研制球虫疫苗提供候选抗原.[方法]根据堆型艾美尔球虫基因序列,设计合成引物,RT-PCR扩增堆型艾美尔球虫长春株cSZ1基因并测序.[结果]与GenBank中发表的堆型艾美尔球虫cSZ1基因序列相比,堆型艾美尔球虫长春株cSZ1基因发生了5个核苷酸变异,两者的核苷酸序列同源性为99.47%,两者编码区的核苷酸序列同源性为99.61%.堆型艾美尔球虫长春株cSZ1基因ORF内有2个变异位点.其中,A185G变异导致了所编码氨基酸由缬氨酸变为异亮氨酸.[结论]cSZ1基因编码蛋白可以作为球虫疫苗的候选抗原.%[Objective] To analyze Eimeria acervulina cSZl gene sequence and thus to find a candidate antigen for vaccine development. [ Meth od] According to the cSZl gene sequence of Eimeria acervulina published in GenBank,a pair of specific primers was designed. Then,the cSZX gene of Eimeria acervulina Changchun strain was amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. [ Result ] Compared with the published cSZl gene se quence, five nucleotide mutation sites appeared in the cSZl gene of Eimeria acervulina Changchun strain. They had a nucleotide sequence homol ogy of 99.47% ,and their encoding region had a nucleotide sequence homology of 99.61%. Among these mutation sites,two appeared in cSZX gene ORF.and A185C mutation led to substitution of valine by isoleucine. [ Conclusion] Protein encoded by cSZX gene can be used as a candi date antigen for vaccine development.

  2. Assessments Of Different Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF Algorithm Resolution For Pose Estimation Of UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassem Sheta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The UAV industry is growing rapidly in an attempt to serve both military and commercial applications. A crucial aspect in the development of UAVs is the reduction of navigational sensor costs while maintaining accurate navigation. Advances in visual sensor solutions with traditional navigation sensors are proving to be significantly promising in replacing traditional IMU or GPS systems for many mission scenarios. The basic concept behind Vision Based Navigation (VBN is to find the matches between a set of features in real-time captured images taken by the imaging sensor on the UAV and database images. A scale and rotation invariant image matching algorithm is a key element for VBN of aerial vehicles. Matches between the geo-referenced database images and the new real-time captured ones are determined by employing the fast Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF algorithm. The SURF algorithm consists mainly of two steps: the first is the detection of points of interest and the second is the creation of descriptors for each of these points. In this research paper, two major factors are investigated and tested to efficiently create the descriptors for each point of interest. The first factor is the dimension of the descriptor for a given point of interest. The dimension is affected by the number of descriptor sub-regions which consequently affects the matching time and the accuracy. SURF performance has been investigated and tested using different dimensions of the descriptor. The second factor is the number of sample points in each sub-region which are used to build the descriptor of the point of interest. SURF performance has been investigated and tested by changing thenumber of sample points in each sub-region where the matching accuracy is affected. Assessments of the SURF performance and consequently on UAV VBN are investigated.

  3. The impact of the SZ effect on cm-wavelength (1-30 GHz) observations of galaxy cluster radio relics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Kaustuv; Vazza, Franco; Erler, Jens; Sommer, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Radio relics in galaxy clusters are believed to be associated with powerful shock fronts that originate during cluster mergers, and are a testbed for the acceleration of relativistic particles in the intracluster medium. Recently, radio relic observations have pushed into the cm-wavelength domain (1-30 GHz) where a break from the standard synchrotron power law spectrum has been found, most noticeably in the famous "Sausage" relic. Such spectral steepening is seen as an evidence for non-standard relic models, such as ones requiring seed electron population with a break in their energy spectrum. In this paper, however, we point to an important effect that has been ignored or considered insignificant while interpreting these new high-frequency radio data, namely the contamination due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect that changes the observed synchrotron flux. Even though the radio relics reside in the cluster outskirts, the shock-driven pressure boost increases the SZ signal locally by roughly an order of magnitude. The resulting flux contamination for some well-known relics are non-negligible already at 10 GHz, and at 30 GHz the observed synchrotron fluxes can be diminished by a factor of several from their true values. At higher redshift the contamination gets stronger due to the redshift independence of the SZ effect. Interferometric observations are not immune to this contamination, since the change in the SZ signal occurs roughly at the same length scale as the synchrotron emission, although there the flux loss is less severe than single-dish observations. Besides presenting this warning to observers, we suggest that the negative contribution from the SZ effect can be regarded as one of the best evidence for the physical association between radio relics and shock waves. We present a simple analytical approximation for the synchrotron-to-SZ flux ratio, based on a theoretical radio relic model that connects the nonthermal emission to the thermal gas properties

  4. Screening and Genetic Stability of Bacillus cereus SZ-4 Producing Dehairing Protease%脱毛蛋白酶生产菌株Bacillus cereus SZ-4的筛选及遗传稳定性检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨姗

    2010-01-01

    采用平皿菌落分离法、透明圈法及摇瓶发酵法从盐腌皮上分离、筛选得到脱毛蛋白酶生产菌株Bacillus cereus SZ-4,该菌株经发酵后得到的粗酶液酶活力为72/mL;对其遗传稳定性检测结果表明,Bacillus cereus SZ-4遗传稳定性较差,在1~4代菌种之间差异不是很显著,可用于发酵生产接种.

  5. Velocity-resolved [Ne III] from X-ray irradiated Sz 102 microjets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chun-Fan; Shang, Hsien [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (ASIAA), P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10641, Taiwan (China); Walter, Frederick M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Herczeg, Gregory J. [The Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-05-10

    Neon emission lines are good indicators of high-excitation regions close to a young stellar system because of their high ionization potentials and large critical densities. We have discovered [Ne III] λ3869 emission from the microjets of Sz 102, a low-mass young star in Lupus III. Spectroastrometric analyses of two-dimensional [Ne III] spectra obtained from archival high-dispersion (R ≈ 33, 000) Very Large Telescope/UVES data suggest that the emission consists of two velocity components spatially separated by ∼0.''3, or a projected distance of ∼60 AU. The stronger redshifted component is centered at ∼ + 21 km s{sup –1} with a line width of ∼140 km s{sup –1}, and the weaker blueshifted component at ∼ – 90 km s{sup –1} with a line width of ∼190 km s{sup –1}. The two components trace velocity centroids of the known microjets and show large line widths that extend across the systemic velocity, suggesting their potential origins in wide-angle winds that may eventually collimate into jets. Optical line ratios indicate that the microjets are hot (T ≲ 1.6 × 10{sup 4} K) and ionized (n{sub e} ≳ 5.7 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}). The blueshifted component has ∼13% higher temperature and ∼46% higher electron density than the redshifted counterpart, forming a system of an asymmetric pair of jets. The detection of the [Ne III] λ3869 line with the distinct velocity profile suggests that the emission originates in flows that may have been strongly ionized by deeply embedded hard X-ray sources, most likely generated by magnetic processes. The discovery of [Ne III] λ3869 emission along with other optical forbidden lines from Sz 102 supports the picture of wide-angle winds surrounding magnetic loops in the close vicinity of the young star. Future high-sensitivity X-ray imaging and high angular-resolution optical spectroscopy may help confirm the picture proposed.

  6. Mechanical anisotropy control on strain localization in upper mantle shear zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwegh, Marco; Mercolli, Ivan; Linckens, Jolien; Müntener, Othmar

    2016-05-01

    Mantle rocks at oceanic spreading centers reveal dramatic rheological changes from partially molten to solid-state ductile to brittle deformation with progressive cooling. Using the crustal-scale Wadi al Wasit mantle shear zone (SZ, Semail ophiolite, Oman), we monitor such changes based on quantitative field and microstructural investigations combined with petrological and geochemical analyses. The spatial distribution of magmatic dikes and high strain zones gives important information on the location of magmatic and tectonic activity. In the SZ, dikes derived from primitive melts (websterites) are distributed over the entire SZ but are more abundant in the center; dikes from more evolved, plagioclase saturated melts (gabbronorites) are restricted to the SZ center. Accordingly, harzburgite deformation fabrics show a transition from protomylonite (1100°C), mylonite (900-800°C) to ultramylonite (dikes) and solid-state deformation (protomylonites-mylonites; 1100-900°C), (ii) dominant solid-state deformation in harzburgite mylonites (900-800°C) with some last melt injections (gabbronorites) and ultramylonites (dike-related ridge-parallel deformation controls the onset of the entire strain localization history promoting nucleation sites for different strain weakening processes as a consequence of changing physicochemical conditions.

  7. Home-loving boreal hare mitochondria survived several invasions in Iberia: the relative roles of recurrent hybridisation and allele surfing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo-Ferreira, J; Farelo, L; Freitas, H; Suchentrunk, F; Boursot, P; Alves, P C

    2014-03-01

    Genetic introgression from a resident species into an invading close relative can result from repeated hybridisation along the invasion front and/or allele surfing on the expansion wave. Cases where the phenomenon is massive and systematic, such as for hares (genus Lepus) in Iberia, would be best explained by recurrent hybridisation but this is difficult to prove because the donor populations are generally extinct. In the Pyrenean foothills, Lepus europaeus presumably replaced Lepus granatensis recently and the present species border is parallel to the direction of invasion, so that populations of L. granatensis in the contact zone represent proxies of existing variation before the invasion. Among three pairs of populations sampled across this border, we find less differentiation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) across than along it, as predicted under recurrent hybridisation at the invasion front. Using autosomal microsatellite loci and X- and Y-linked diagnostic loci, we show that admixture across the border is quasi-absent, making it unlikely that lack of interspecific mtDNA differentiation results from ongoing gene flow. Furthermore, we find that the local species ranges are climatically contrasted, making it also unlikely that ongoing ecology-driven movement of the contact account for mtDNA introgression. The lack of mtDNA differentiation across the boundary is mostly due to sharing of mtDNA from a boreal species currently extinct in Iberia (Lepus timidus) whose mitochondria have thus remained in place since the last deglaciation despite successive invasions by two other species. Home-loving mitochondria thus witness past species distribution rather than ongoing exchanges across stabilised contact zones.

  8. "Do outside": corpo e natureza, medo e gênero no surfe universitário paulistano "From the outside": body and nature, fear and gender in surfing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Martins Bandeira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ao objetivo primeiro desta pesquisa, descrever as dinâmicas do surfe e os significados de sua prática, em especial a relação ser humano/natureza estabelecida por meio do esporte, somaram-se outros objetivos: problematizar a aproximação do pesquisador de seu campo de investigação, a possibilidade de um pesquisador realizar uma investigação através de seu próprio corpo e discutir a questão de gênero no surfe. Sobre o objetivo primeiro desta pesquisa, vivendo e descrevendo as dinâmicas do surfe encontrou-se os significados da relação do surfista com o mar nas sensações corporais experimentadas nas técnicas do remar, sentar, dar o joelhinho e dropar a onda. Que ser capaz de passar a rebentação é associado a um retorno bem sucedido à comunhão do homem com a natureza, sendo as cores, formas e sensações do "outside" o privilégio daquele que vence as dificuldades do tornar-se e ser surfista. Mas, que estas sensações são tidas como possibilidades de corpos corajosos e hábeis, "a priori", entendidos como corpos masculinos. O surfe como campo em que o feminino é visto ainda como exceção dá a pensar que os esportes na natureza e a educação ao ar livre, embora tenham potencial de promover novas condutas políticas e a virtuosa sensibilidade ambiental, não estão livres de reproduzir outros padrões de dominação.The main goal of this research is to describe the dynamics of surfing and its meanings, mainly the human/nature relation established through the sport. Meanwhile, other goals were added: discussing the approach to the field by the researcher, the possibility this researcher could investigate through her own body and the gender matter in the sport. About the main aim of the research, living and experiencing the sport itself, meaning, to the relation between the surfer and the sea, was found in the body sensations experienced through techniques such as paddling, sitting, duck diving and dropping a wave. Being

  9. Spatially Uniform ReliefF (SURF for computationally-efficient filtering of gene-gene interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greene Casey S

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide association studies are becoming the de facto standard in the genetic analysis of common human diseases. Given the complexity and robustness of biological networks such diseases are unlikely to be the result of single points of failure but instead likely arise from the joint failure of two or more interacting components. The hope in genome-wide screens is that these points of failure can be linked to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs which confer disease susceptibility. Detecting interacting variants that lead to disease in the absence of single-gene effects is difficult however, and methods to exhaustively analyze sets of these variants for interactions are combinatorial in nature thus making them computationally infeasible. Efficient algorithms which can detect interacting SNPs are needed. ReliefF is one such promising algorithm, although it has low success rate for noisy datasets when the interaction effect is small. ReliefF has been paired with an iterative approach, Tuned ReliefF (TuRF, which improves the estimation of weights in noisy data but does not fundamentally change the underlying ReliefF algorithm. To improve the sensitivity of studies using these methods to detect small effects we introduce Spatially Uniform ReliefF (SURF. Results SURF's ability to detect interactions in this domain is significantly greater than that of ReliefF. Similarly SURF, in combination with the TuRF strategy significantly outperforms TuRF alone for SNP selection under an epistasis model. It is important to note that this success rate increase does not require an increase in algorithmic complexity and allows for increased success rate, even with the removal of a nuisance parameter from the algorithm. Conclusion Researchers performing genetic association studies and aiming to discover gene-gene interactions associated with increased disease susceptibility should use SURF in place of ReliefF. For instance, SURF should be

  10. AMI observations of ten CLASH galaxy clusters: SZ and X-ray data used together to determine cluster dynamical states

    CERN Document Server

    Rumsey, Clare; Perrott, Yvette C; Russell, Helen R; Feroz, Farhan; Grainge, Keith J B; Handley, Will J; Hobson, Michael P; Saunders, Richard D E; Schammel, Michel P

    2016-01-01

    Using Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI) SZ observations towards ten CLASH clusters we investigate the influence of cluster mergers on observational galaxy cluster studies. Although selected to be largely relaxed, there is disagreement in the literature on the dynamical states of CLASH sample members. We analyse our AMI data in a fully Bayesian way to produce estimated cluster parameters and consider the intrinsic correlations in our NFW/GNFW-based model. Varying pressure profile shape parameters, illustrating an influence of mergers on scaling relations, induces small deviations from the canonical self-similar predictions -- in agreement with simulations of Poole et al. 2007 who found that merger activity causes only small scatter perpendicular to the relations. We demonstrate this effect observationally using the different dependencies of SZ and X-ray signals to $n_{\\rm e}$ that cause different sensitivities to the shocking and/or fractionation produced by mergers. Plotting $Y_{\\rm X}$--$M_{\\rm gas}$ relati...

  11. Spectroscopic studies of three Cepheids with high positive pulsation period increments: SZ Cas, BY Cas, and RU Sct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenko, I. A.; Klochkova, V. G.

    2015-07-01

    Three high-resolution spectra have been taken at different times with the 6-m SAO RAS telescope (LYNX and PFES spectrographs) for three Cepheids exhibiting high positive period increments: the small-amplitude (DCEPS) SZ Cas and BY Cas and the classical (DCEP) RU Sct. SZ Cas and RU Sct are members of the Galactic open clusters χ and h Per and Trump 35, respectively. Analysis of the spectra has shown that the interstellar Na I D1 and D2 lines in all objects are considerably stronger than the atmospheric ones and are redshifted in SZ Cas and BY Cas and blushifted in RU Sct. The core of the H α absorption line in BY Cas has an asymmetric knifelike shape, while RU Sct exhibits an intense emission in the blue wing of this line. Such phenomena are observed in long-period Cepheids and bright hypergiants with an extended envelope. In this case, the strong Mg Ib 5183.62 Å and Ba II 5853.67, 6141.713, and 6496.90 Å lines with low χlow in SZ Cas and RU Sct also show characteristic knifelike profiles with an asymmetry in the red region, while the Ba II 4934.095 Å line shows similar profiles in the blue one. The absorption lines of neutral atoms and singly ionized metals with different lowerlevel excitation potentials exhibit different degrees of asymmetry: from a pronounced one with secondary components in BY Cas (similar to those in the small-amplitude Cepheid BG Cru pulsating in the first overtone and having an envelope) to its insignificance or virtual absence in SZ Cas and RU Sct. Analysis of the secular changes in mean T eff determined from photometric color indices and spectra over the last 55 years for these stars has revealed periodic fluctuations of 200 K for SZ Cas and BY Cas and 500 K for RU Sct. For SZ Cas and RU Sct, T eff determined in some years from some color indices show much lower values, which together with the temperature fluctuations can be associated with mass loss and dust formation. Based on these facts, we hypothesize the existence of

  12. AMI SZ observation of galaxy-cluster merger CIZA J2242+5301: perpendicular flows of gas and dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Clare; Perrott, Yvette C.; Olamaie, Malak; Saunders, Richard D. E.; Hobson, Michael P.; Stroe, Andra; Schammel, Michel P.; Grainge, Keith J. B.

    2017-10-01

    Arcminute Microkelvin Imager observations towards CIZA J2242+5301, in comparison with observations of weak gravitational lensing and X-ray emission from the literature, are used to investigate the behaviour of non-baryonic dark matter (NBDM) and gas during the merger. Analysis of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) signal indicates the presence of high pressure gas elongated perpendicularly to the X-ray and weak-lensing morphologies, which, given the merger-axis constraints in the literature, implies that high pressure gas is pushed out into a linear structure during core passing. Simulations in the literature closely matching the inferred merger scenario show the formation of gas density and temperature structures perpendicular to the merger axis. These SZ observations are challenging for modified gravity theories in which NBDM is not the dominant contributor to galaxy-cluster gravity.

  13. On the Cluster Physics of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Surveys II: Deconstructing the Thermal SZ Power Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Battaglia, N; Pfrommer, C; Sievers, J L

    2011-01-01

    Secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are a treasure-trove of cosmological information. Interpreting current experiments probing them are limited by theoretical uncertainties rather than by measurement errors. Here we focus on the secondary anisotropies resulting from the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect; the amplitude of which depends critically on the average thermal pressure profile of galaxy groups and clusters. To this end, we use a suite of SPH simulations that include radiative cooling, star formation, supernova feedback, and energetic feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN). We examine in detail how the pressure profile depends on cluster radius, mass, and redshift and provide an empirical fitting function. We employ three different approaches for calculating the tSZ power spectrum: an analytical approach that uses our pressure profile fit, a semi-analytical method of pasting our pressure fit onto simulated clusters, and a direct numerical integration of our simulated vol...

  14. Surf observations from the South Shore of Oahu, Hawaii from 01 March 1972 to 20 November 1987 (NODC Accession 0000274)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Heights of breaking surf were collected by using visual observations from swimmers or divers at the South Shore of Oahu, Hawaii from March 1, 1972 to November 20,...

  15. High resolution SZ observations at the IRAM 30-m telescope with NIKA

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, R; Ade, P; Andrée, P; Beelen, A; Belier, B; Benoît, A; Bideaud, A; Billot, N; Boudou, N; Bourrion, O; Calvo, M; Catalano, A; Coiffard, G; Comis, B; D'Addabbo, A; Désert, F -X; Doyle, S; Goupy, J; Kramer, C; Leclercq, S; Macías-Pérez, J F; Martino, J; Mauskopf, P; Mayet, F; Monfardini, A; Pajot, F; Pascale, E; Perotto, L; Pointecouteau, E; Ponthieu, N; Revéret, V; Rodriguez, L; Ruppin, F; Savini, G; Schuster, K; Sievers, A; Tucker, C; Zylka, R

    2014-01-01

    High resolution observations of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect are necessary to allow the use of clusters of galaxies as a probe for large scale structures at high redshifts. With its high resolution and dual-band capability at millimeter wavelengths, the NIKA camera can play a significant role in this context. NIKA is based on newly developed Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) and operates at the IRAM 30m telescope, Pico Veleta, Spain. In this paper, we give the status of the NIKA camera, focussing on the KID technology. We then present observations of three galaxy clusters: RX J1347.5-1145 as a demonstrator of the NIKA capabilities and the recent observations of CL J1226.9+3332 (z = 0.89) and MACS J0717.5+3745 (z = 0.55). We also discuss prospects for the final NIKA2 camera, which will have a 6.5 arcminute field of view with about 5000 detectors in two bands at 150 and 260 GHz.

  16. The Proposed Quadruple System SZ Herculis: Revised LITE Model and Orbital Stability Study

    CERN Document Server

    Hinse, T C; Lee, J W; Haghighipour, N; Lee, C -U

    2012-01-01

    In a recent study, Lee et al. presented new photometric follow-up timing observations of the semi-detached binary system SZ Herculis and proposed the existence of two hierarchical cirumbinary companions. Based on the light-travel time effect, the two low-mass M-dwarf companions are found to orbit the binary pair on moderate to high eccentric orbits. The derived periods of these two companions are close to a 2:1 mean-motion orbital resonance. We have studied the stability of the system using the osculating orbital elements as presented by Lee et al. Results indicate an orbit-crossing architecture exhibiting short-term dynamical instabilities leading to the escape of one of the proposed companions. We have examined the system's underlying model parameter-space by following a Monte Carlo approach and found an improved fit to the timing data. A study of the stability of our best-fitting orbits also indicates that the proposed system is generally unstable. If the observed anomalous timing variations of the binary ...

  17. The X-ray/SZ view of the virial region. II. Gas mass fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Eckert, Dominique; Molendi, Silvano; Vazza, Franco; Paltani, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Several recent studies used the hot gas fraction of galaxy clusters as a standard ruler to constrain dark energy, which provides competitive results compared to other techniques. This method, however, relies on the assumption that the baryon fraction in clusters agrees with the cosmic value Omega_b/Omega_m, and does not differ from one system to another. We test this hypothesis by measuring the gas mass fraction over the entire cluster volume in a sample of local clusters. Combining the SZ thermal pressure from Planck and the X-ray gas density from ROSAT, we measured for the first time the average gas fraction (fgas) out to the virial radius and beyond in a large sample of clusters. We also obtained azimuthally-averaged measurements of the gas fraction for 18 individual systems, which we used to compute the scatter of fgas around the mean value at different radii and its dependence on the cluster's temperature. The gas mass fraction increases with radius and reaches the cosmic baryon fraction close to R200. A...

  18. Revision of the genus Allometopon Kertész (Diptera: Clusiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Owen

    2016-04-28

    The genus Allometopon Kertész is revised, recognizing 68 species, including 5 undescribed species known only from females. The genus is mostly known from the Australian (30 spp.) and Oriental Regions (33 spp.-only one unnamed female is found in both Australian and Oriental Regions), but also the Afrotropical (5 spp.) and Palaearctic Regions (1 sp.). Most Allometopon are new to science, with 40 new species described here: A. acum, A. asylum, A. atribatum, A. bharetum, A. bivittatum, A. cavernosium, A. cheiris, A. conopeum, A. eotoxon, A. fumihalteratum, A. fuscinum, A. gaimarii, A. giallo, A. glochis, A. gracile, A. hauseri, A. hesperotoxon, A. hirsutum, A. horridum, A. infernum, A. juxtum, A. kokodensis, A. lunatum, A. lux, A. macalpinei, A. machaeroges, A. magnum, A. monstrum, A. nyx, A. phenomena, A. philomela, A. platystylum, A. plicatum, A. procne, A. selenis, A. solare, A. suspirium, A. tenebrae, A. tetrathrix, and A. trilobellum. Calometopon Frey syn. nov. (subgenus of Allometopon with type species A. nobile Frey, by original designation) is included as a junior synonym of Allometopon. Sobarocephala geniculata Sasakawa is recombined as Allometopon geniculatum comb. nov. A key, illustrations and photographs are provided for species.

  19. Antioxidant and DNA Damage Protecting Activity of Exopolysaccharides from the Endophytic Bacterium Bacillus cereus SZ1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping Zheng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An endophytic bacterium was isolated from the Chinese medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. The phylogenetic and physiological characterization indicated that the isolate, strain SZ-1, was Bacillus cereus. The endophyte could produce an exopolysaccharide (EPS at 46 mg/L. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydracyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity of the EPS reached more than 50% at 3–5 mg/mL. The EPS was also effective in scavenging superoxide radical in a concentration dependent fashion with an EC50 value of 2.6 mg/mL. The corresponding EC50 for scavenging hydroxyl radical was 3.1 mg/mL. Moreover, phenanthroline-copper complex-mediated chemiluminescent emission of DNA damage was both inhibited and delayed by EPS. The EPS at 0.7–1.7 mg/mL also protected supercoiled DNA strands in plasmid pBR322 against scission induced by Fenton-mediated hydroxyl radical. The preincubation of PC12 cells with the EPS prior to H2O2 exposure increased the cell survival and glutathione (GSH level and catalase (CAT activities, and decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a pronounced protective effect against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. Our study indicated that the EPS could be useful for preventing oxidative DNA damage and cellular oxidation in pharmaceutical and food industries.

  20. Velocity-Resolved [Ne III] from X-Ray Irradiated Sz 102 Microjets

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chun-Fan; Walter, Frederick M; Herczeg, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    Neon emission lines are good indicators of high-excitation regions close to a young stellar system because of their high ionization potentials and large critical densities. We have discovered [Ne III]{\\lambda}3869 emission from the microjets of Sz 102, a low-mass young star in Lupus III. Spectroastrometric analyses of two-dimensional [Ne III] spectra obtained from archival high-dispersion ($R\\approx 33,000$) Very Large Telescope/UVES data suggest that the emission consists of two velocity components spatially separated by ~ 0."3, or a projected distance of ~ 60 AU. The stronger redshifted component is centered at ~ +21 km/s with a line width of ~ 140 km/s, and the weaker blueshifted component at ~ -90 km/s with a line width of ~ 190 km/s. The two components trace velocity centroids of the known microjets and show large line widths that extend across the systemic velocity, suggesting their potential origins in wide-angle winds that may eventually collimate into jets. Optical line ratios indicate that the micro...

  1. Optical-SZE Scaling Relations for DES Optically Selected Clusters within the SPT-SZ Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Saro, A; Mohr, J; Rozo, E; Benson, B A; Dodelson, S; Rykoff, E S; Bleem, L; Abbott, T M C; Abdalla, F B; Allen, S; Annis, J; Benoit-Levy, A; Brooks, D; Burke, D L; Capasso, R; Rosell, A Carnero; Kind, M Carrasco; Carretero, J; Chiu, I; Crawford, T M; Cunha, C E; D'Andrea, C B; da Costa, L N; Desai, S; Dietrich, J P; Evrard, A E; Neto, A Fausti; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Frieman, J; Gangkofner, C; Gaztanaga, E; Gerdes, D W; Giannantonio, T; Grandis, S; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Gupta, N; Gutierrez, G; Holzapfel, W L; James, D J; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lima, M; Marshall, J L; McDonald, M; Melchior, P; Menanteau, F; Miquel, R; Ogando, R; Plazas, A A; Rapetti, D; Reichardt, C L; Reil, K; Romer, A K; Sanchez, E; Scarpine, V; Schubnell, M; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Soergel, B; Strazzullo, V; Suchyta, E; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Thomas, D; Vikram, V; Walker, A R; Zenteno, A

    2016-01-01

    We study the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) signature in South Pole Telescope (SPT) data for an ensemble of 719 optically identified galaxy clusters selected from 124.6 deg$^2$ of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) science verification data, detecting a stacked SZE signal down to richness $\\lambda\\sim20$. The SZE signature is measured using matched-filtered maps of the 2500 deg$^2$ SPT-SZ survey at the positions of the DES clusters, and the degeneracy between SZE observable and matched-filter size is broken by adopting as priors SZE and optical mass-observable relations that are either calibrated using SPT selected clusters or through the Arnaud et al. (2010, A10) X-ray analysis. We measure the SPT signal to noise $\\zeta$-$\\lambda$, relation and two integrated Compton-$y$ $Y_\\textrm{500}$-$\\lambda$ relations for the DES-selected clusters and compare these to model expectations accounting for the SZE-optical center offset distribution. For clusters with $\\lambda > 80$, the two SPT calibrated scaling relations are c...

  2. SZ/X-ray scaling relations using X-ray data and Planck Nominal maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, I.; Atrio-Barandela, F.

    2016-09-01

    We determine the relation between the Comptonization parameter predicted using X-ray data YC, Xray and the X-ray luminosity LX, both magnitudes derived from ROSAT data, with the Comptonization parameter YC, SZ measured on Planck 2013 foreground cleaned Nominal maps. The 560 clusters of our sample includes clusters with masses M ≥ 1013 M⊙, one order of magnitude smaller than those used by the Planck Collaboration in a similar analysis. It also contains eight times more clusters in the redshift interval z ≤ 0.3. The prediction of the β = 2/3 model convolved with the Planck antenna beam agrees with the anisotropies measured in foreground cleaned Planck Nominal maps within the X-ray emitting region, confirming the results of an earlier analysis. The universal pressure profile overestimates the signal by a 15-21 per cent depending on the angular aperture. We show that the discrepancy is not due to the presence of cool-core systems but it is an indication of a brake in the LX - M relation towards low mass systems. We show that relation of the Comptonization parameter averaged over the region that emits 99 per cent of the X-ray flux and and the X-ray luminosity is consistent with the predictions of the self-similar model. We confirm previous findings that the scaling relations studied here do not evolve with redshift within the range probed by our catalogue.

  3. SPT-GMOS: A Gemini/GMOS-South Spectroscopic Survey of Galaxy Clusters in the SPT-SZ Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, M. B.; Ruel, J.; Stubbs, C. W.; Allen, S. W.; Applegate, D. E.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Bocquet, S.; Brodwin, M.; Capasso, R.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiu, I.; Cho, H.-M.; Clocchiatti, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; de Haan, T.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Dobbs, M. A.; Doucouliagos, A. N.; Foley, R. J.; Forman, W. R.; Garmire, G. P.; George, E. M.; Gladders, M. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Gupta, N.; Halverson, N. W.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hou, Z.; Hrubes, J. D.; Huang, N.; Jones, C.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; von der Linden, A.; Luong-Van, D.; Mantz, A.; Marrone, D. P.; McDonald, M.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L. M.; Mohr, J. J.; Murray, S. S.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Rapetti, D.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rest, A.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Saro, A.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Schrabback, T.; Shirokoff, E.; Song, J.; Spieler, H. G.; Stalder, B.; Stanford, S. A.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Vikhlinin, A.; Williamson, R.; Zenteno, A.

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of SPT-GMOS, a spectroscopic survey with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on Gemini South. The targets of SPT-GMOS are galaxy clusters identified in the SPT-SZ survey, a millimeter-wave survey of 2500 deg2 of the southern sky using the South Pole Telescope (SPT). Multi-object spectroscopic observations of 62 SPT-selected galaxy clusters were performed between 2011 January and 2015 December, yielding spectra with radial velocity measurements for 2595 sources. We identify 2243 of these sources as galaxies, and 352 as stars. Of the galaxies, we identify 1579 as members of SPT-SZ galaxy clusters. The primary goal of these observations was to obtain spectra of cluster member galaxies to estimate cluster redshifts and velocity dispersions. We describe the full spectroscopic data set and resulting data products, including galaxy redshifts, cluster redshifts, and velocity dispersions, and measurements of several well-known spectral indices for each galaxy: the equivalent width, W, of [O ii] λλ3727, 3729 and H-δ, and the 4000 Å break strength, D4000. We use the spectral indices to classify galaxies by spectral type (i.e., passive, post-starburst, star-forming), and we match the spectra against photometric catalogs to characterize spectroscopically observed cluster members as a function of brightness (relative to m ⋆). Finally, we report several new measurements of redshifts for ten bright, strongly lensed background galaxies in the cores of eight galaxy clusters. Combining the SPT-GMOS data set with previous spectroscopic follow-up of SPT-SZ galaxy clusters results in spectroscopic measurements for >100 clusters, or ˜20% of the full SPT-SZ sample.

  4. Coléoptères du Szé-tchouen et de Koui-tchéou (Chine)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fairmaire, L.

    1897-01-01

    Deux individus du Szé-tchouen se rapportent à la description et à la figure de Redtenbacher. Mais chez l’un les expansions du corselet sont plus développés et l’angle latéro-postérieur dépasse fortement les bords latéraux en formant presque un crochet très pointu. La tête n’est pas aussi triangulair

  5. Composition, Shell Strength, and Metabolizable Energy of Mulinia lateralis and Ischadium recurvum as Food for Wintering Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia M Wells-Berlin

    Full Text Available Decline in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata waterfowl populations wintering in the Chesapeake Bay has been associated with changes in the availability of benthic bivalves. The Bay has become more eutrophic, causing changes in the benthos available to surf scoters. The subsequent decline in oyster beds (Crassostrea virginica has reduced the hard substrate needed by the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum, one of the primary prey items for surf scoters, causing the surf scoter to switch to a more opportune species, the dwarf surfclam (Mulinia lateralis. The composition (macronutrients, minerals, and amino acids, shell strength (N, and metabolizable energy (kJ of these prey items were quantified to determine the relative foraging values for wintering scoters. Pooled samples of each prey item were analyzed to determine composition. Shell strength (N was measured using a shell crack compression test. Total collection digestibility trials were conducted on eight captive surf scoters. For the prey size range commonly consumed by surf scoters (6-12 mm for M. lateralis and 18-24 mm for I. recurvum, I. recurvum contained higher ash, protein, lipid, and energy per individual organism than M. lateralis. I. recurvum required significantly greater force to crack the shell relative to M. lateralis. No difference in metabolized energy was observed for these prey items in wintering surf scoters, despite I. recurvum's higher ash content and harder shell than M. lateralis. Therefore, wintering surf scoters were able to obtain the same amount of energy from each prey item, implying that they can sustain themselves if forced to switch prey.

  6. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic). SURF CLAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    invisible, outer, jellylike layer and mine surf clam gender (Ropes et al. the germinal vesicle (Ropes 1980). 1969). Male and female surf clams Longo...Jacobsen, M. K., and W. E. Old, Jr. Lindley, M. G., and R. S. Shallen- 1966. On the identity of Spisula berger. 1976, Purification and similis. Am...1966. A quantitative Masse, H. 1975. Feeding biotogy of .3-year-survey on the meiofauna Astropecten aranciacus. Cah , of known macrofauna communities

  7. Composition, shell strength, and metabolizable energy of Mulinia lateralis and Ischadium recurvum as food for wintering surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Alicia; Perry, Matthew; Kohn, R.A.; Paynter, K.T.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Decline in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) waterfowl populations wintering in the Chesapeake Bay has been associated with changes in the availability of benthic bivalves. The Bay has become more eutrophic, causing changes in the benthos available to surf scoters. The subsequent decline in oyster beds (Crassostrea virginica) has reduced the hard substrate needed by the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum), one of the primary prey items for surf scoters, causing the surf scoter to switch to a more opportune species, the dwarf surfclam (Mulinia lateralis). The composition (macronutrients, minerals, and amino acids), shell strength (N), and metabolizable energy (kJ) of these prey items were quantified to determine the relative foraging values for wintering scoters. Pooled samples of each prey item were analyzed to determine composition. Shell strength (N) was measured using a shell crack compression test. Total collection digestibility trials were conducted on eight captive surf scoters. For the prey size range commonly consumed by surf scoters (6-12 mm for M. lateralis and 18-24 mm for I. recurvum), I. recurvum contained higher ash, protein, lipid, and energy per individual organism than M. lateralis. I. recurvum required significantly greater force to crack the shell relative to M. lateralis. No difference in metabolized energy was observed for these prey items in wintering surf scoters, despite I. recurvum's higher ash content and harder shell than M. lateralis. Therefore, wintering surf scoters were able to obtain the same amount of energy from each prey item, implying that they can sustain themselves if forced to switch prey.

  8. The extent of co-metabolism of glucose and galactose by L. lactis changes with the expression of the lacSZ operon from Streptococcus thermophilus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solem, Christian; Købmann, Brian Jensen; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2008-01-01

    The lactose transporter and β-galactosidase from Streptococcus thermophilus, encoded by the lacSZ operon, were introduced into the lactose-negative strain Lactococcus lactis MG1363 and the expression of the lacSZ operon was modulated by substitution of the native promoter with randomized synthetic...... promoters. A series of strains with various expression levels of lacSZ were examined for their fermentation of lactose. Strains with a high expression level were found to metabolize lactose in a similar manner to S. thermophilus, i.e. the galactose moiety of lactose was excreted to the growth medium...... and only glucose was metabolized in glycolysis. Interestingly, strains with low expression of the operon showed a mixed acid metabolism and co-metabolism of galactose and glucose. The lactose flux increased gradually with increasing expression of the lacSZ operon until an optimum was observed...

  9. High-resolution tSZ cartography of clusters of galaxies with NIKA at the IRAM 30-m telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Mayet, F; Adane, A; Ade, P; André, P; Arnaud, M; Bartalucci, I; Beelen, A; Benoît, A; Bideaud, A; Billot, N; Blanquer, G; Boudou, N; Bourrion, O; Calvo, M; Catalano, A; Coiffard, G; Comis, B; Cruciani, A; Désert, F -X; Doyle, S; Goupy, J; Hasnoun, B; Hermelo, I; Kramer, C; Lagache, G; Leclercq, S; Macías-Pérez, J F; Mauskopf, P; Monfardini, A; Pajot, F; Perotto, L; Pointecouteau, E; Ponthieu, N; Pratt, G W; Revéret, V; Ritacco, A; Rodriguez, L; Ruppin, F; Schuster, K; Sievers, A; Triqueneaux, S; Tucker, C; Zylka, R

    2016-01-01

    The thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (tSZ) is a powerful probe to study clusters of galaxies and is complementary with respect to X-ray, lensing or optical observations. Previous arcmin resolution tSZ observations ({\\it e.g.} SPT, ACT and Planck) only enabled detailed studies of the intra-cluster medium morphology for low redshift clusters ($z < 0.2$). Thus, the development of precision cosmology with clusters requires high angular resolution observations to extend the understanding of galaxy cluster towards high redshift. NIKA2 is a wide-field (6.5 arcmin field of view) dual-band camera, operated at $100 \\ {\\rm mK}$ and containing $\\sim 3300$ KID (Kinetic Inductance Detectors), designed to observe the millimeter sky at 150 and 260 GHz, with an angular resolution of 18 and 12 arcsec respectively. The NIKA2 camera has been installed on the IRAM 30-m telescope (Pico Veleta, Spain) in September 2015. The NIKA2 tSZ observation program will allow us to observe a large sample of clusters (50) at redshift ranging...

  10. Involvement of PPARgamma in oxidative stress-mediated prostaglandin E(2) production in SZ95 human sebaceous gland cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiwei; Seltmann, Holger; Zouboulis, Christos C; Konger, Raymond L

    2006-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is thought to play a role in sebaceous gland cell function. We previously demonstrated in human epidermoid carcinoma KB cells that UVB irradiation activates PPARgamma via the generation of multiple oxidized glycerophosphocholine species with PPARgamma ligand activity. UVB-induced cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression was also shown to be PPARgamma-dependent. We therefore reasoned that PPARgamma activation and PPARgamma-dependent COX-2 expression may occur as a general consequence of oxidative stress. The present studies were designed to examine the effects of the oxidant tert-butylhydroperoxide (TBH) on PPARgamma activation and COX-2 expression in SZ95 sebocytes. We first verified that functional PPARgamma is expressed and activated by UVB irradiation in these cells. We next demonstrated that TBH increased PPARgamma reporter activity in SZ95 sebocytes. Increased COX-2 protein, mRNA expression, and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production was observed after TBH or PPARgamma agonist treatment. The ability of PPARgamma agonists and TBH to induce COX-2 expression and PGE(2) production was blocked by pretreatment with the specific PPARgamma antagonist GW9662. Finally, TBH and PPARgamma agonists failed to elicit a PGE(2) response in SZ95 sebocytes stably expressing a dominant-negative PPARgamma. This study illustrates the importance of the PPARgamma system in regulating cellular responses to oxidative stress.

  11. Testing for X-ray-SZ Differences and Redshift Evolution in the X-ray Morphology of Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Nurgaliev, D; Benson, B A; Bleem, L; Bocquet, S; Forman, W R; Garmire, G P; Gupta, N; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J; Mohr, J J; Nagai, D; Rapetti, D; Stark, A A; Stubbs, C W; Vikhlinin, A

    2016-01-01

    We present a quantitative study of the X-ray morphology of galaxy clusters, as a function of their detection method and redshift. We analyze two separate samples of galaxy clusters: a sample of 36 clusters at 0.35 < z < 0.9 selected in the X-ray with the ROSAT PSPC 400 deg2 survey, and a sample of 90 clusters at 0.25 < z < 1.2 selected via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect with the South Pole Telescope. Clusters from both samples have similar-quality Chandra observations, which allow us to quantify their X-ray morphologies via two distinct methods: centroid shifts and photon asymmetry. The latter technique provides nearly unbiased morphology estimates for clusters spanning a broad range of redshift and data quality. We further compare the X-ray morphologies of X-ray- and SZ-selected clusters with those of simulated clusters. We do not find a statistically significant difference in the measured X-ray morphology of X-ray and SZ-selected clusters over the redshift range probed by these samples, sugg...

  12. SurfKin: an ab initio kinetic code for modeling surface reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thong Nguyen-Minh; Liu, Bin; Huynh, Lam K

    2014-10-05

    In this article, we describe a C/C++ program called SurfKin (Surface Kinetics) to construct microkinetic mechanisms for modeling gas-surface reactions. Thermodynamic properties of reaction species are estimated based on density functional theory calculations and statistical mechanics. Rate constants for elementary steps (including adsorption, desorption, and chemical reactions on surfaces) are calculated using the classical collision theory and transition state theory. Methane decomposition and water-gas shift reaction on Ni(111) surface were chosen as test cases to validate the code implementations. The good agreement with literature data suggests this is a powerful tool to facilitate the analysis of complex reactions on surfaces, and thus it helps to effectively construct detailed microkinetic mechanisms for such surface reactions. SurfKin also opens a possibility for designing nanoscale model catalysts.

  13. An Improvement of Positional Accuracy for View-Based Navigation Using SURF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Yoshinobu; Imamura, Hiroki; Choi, Yongwoon; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    In this paper, we propose a reliable method for view-based navigation of mobile robots fully improved in positional accuracy by using feature-points extracted by SURF, and it is verified from the navigation experiments of them. View-based navigations that have used block matching method are not enough in positional accuracy for robots to avoid obstacles and pass narrow doorways. By applying SURF that is stable to illumination and scale changes in an image to the method for view-based navigation, the navigation for robots becomes more robust to variable indoor conditions. In experiments conducted in an indoor corridor with a robot for comparing the proposed method to conventional one, the positional precision was obtained in centimeter-order of within 10.0[cm]. In this view, it suggests that the proposed method is applied to the view-based navigation for robots in such narrow areas as obstacle avoidance and corridors.

  14. Sobre as ondas: surfe, juventude e cultura no Rio de Janeiro dos anos 1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Dias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Na segunda metade do século XX, torna-se explícita a influência mundial dos Estados Unidos no âmbito esportivo. A disseminação de práticas que possuíam marcas culturais norte-americanas, como é o caso do surfe, não deve ser considerada, contudo, somente como resultado de uma imposição unilateral: há múltiplas apropriações locais que dizem muito sobre o contexto do receptor. Partindo dessa consideração, este artigo objetiva discutir a apreensão do surfe no Rio de Janeiro dos anos 1960. Buscamos debater como a modalidade foi operada como marcador de identidades a partir de vinculações a certas noções de juventude e estilo de vida.

  15. The Marine Metabolite SZ-685C Induces Apoptosis in Primary Human Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenoma Cells by Inhibition of the Akt Pathway in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA is one of the most common types of pituitary adenoma. The marine anthraquinone derivative SZ-685C has been isolated from the secondary metabolites of the mangrove endophytic fungus Halorosellinia sp. (No. 1403 which is found in the South China Sea. Recent research has shown that SZ-685C possesses anticancer and tumor suppressive effects. The tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT assay to investigate the different effect of the marine compound SZ-685C on the proliferation of primary human NFPA cells, rat normal pituitary cells (RPCs and rat prolactinoma MMQ cell lines. Hoechst 33342 dye/propidium iodide (PI double staining and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Annexin V/PI (Annexin V-FITC/PI apoptosis assays detected an enhanced rate of apoptosis in cells treated with SZ-685C. Enhanced expression levels of caspase 3 and phosphate and tensin homolog (PTEN were determined by Western blotting. Notably, the protein expression levels of Akt were decreased when the primary human NFPA cells were treated with SZ-685C. Here, we show that SZ-685C induces apoptosis of human NFPA cells through inhibition of the Akt pathway in vitro. The understanding of apoptosis has provided the basis for novel targeted therapies that can induce death in cancer cells or sensitize them to established cytotoxic agents and radiation therapy.

  16. Movements of wintering surf scoters: Predator responses to different prey landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, M.; Esler, Daniel; Iverson, S.A.; Boyd, W.S.

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of predators is widely recognized to be intimately linked to the distribution of their prey. Foraging theory suggests that predators will modify their behaviors, including movements, to optimize net energy intake when faced with variation in prey attributes or abundance. While many studies have documented changes in movement patterns of animals in response to temporal changes in food, very few have contrasted movements of a single predator species naturally occurring in dramatically different prey landscapes. We documented variation in the winter movements, foraging range size, site fidelity, and distribution patterns of a molluscivorous sea duck, the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata), in two areas of coastal British Columbia with very different shellfish prey features. Baynes Sound has extensive tidal flats with abundant clams, which are high-quality and temporally stable prey for scoters. Malaspina Inlet is a rocky fjord-like inlet where scoters consume mussels that are superabundant and easily accessible in some patches but are heavily depleted over the course of winter. We used radio telemetry to track surf scoter movements in both areas and found that in the clam habitats of Baynes Sound, surf scoters exhibited limited movement, small winter ranges, strong foraging site fidelity, and very consistent distribution patterns. By contrast, in mussel habitats in the Malaspina Inlet, surf scoters displayed more movement, larger ranges, little fidelity to specific foraging sites, and more variable distribution patterns. We conclude that features associated with the different prey types, particularly the higher depletion rates of mussels, strongly influenced seasonal space use patterns. These findings are consistent with foraging theory and confirm that predator behavior, specifically movements, is environmentally mediated. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  17. On trend and on the wave: carving cultural identity through active surf dress

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Jonathan Mark

    2015-01-01

    Clothing, as both functional and fashionable, has become a key marker in signifying and shaping personal identity. This is particularly clear in a range of “lifestyle sports” [Wheaton, B. 2004. “Introduction: Mapping the Lifestyle Sportscape.” In Understanding Lifestyle Sports: Consumption, Identity, and Difference, edited by B. Wheaton, 1–28. London: Routledge], including the array of practices associated with the culture of surfing. This paper examines the ways in which companies market per...

  18. "Sub-Surf Rocks"! An A-Level Resource Developed through an Industry-Education Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Hazel

    2012-01-01

    A free internet resource called "Sub-Surf Rocks"! was launched in 2010. Its aim is to use seismic data obtained by the oil industry for enhancing the teaching of structural and economic geology at A-level (ages 16-18) in the UK. Seismic data gives a unique insight into the sub-surface and the many high-quality images coupled with…

  19. Effects of water temperature change on immune function in surf clams, Mactra veneriformis (Bivalvia: Mactridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin Ha; Song, Jae Hee; Choi, Min Chul; Park, Sung Woo

    2009-09-01

    Surf clam, Mactra veneriformis is one of the crucial fishery resources in Korea. This study was performed to examine the immune functions of the surf clam under the stress of water temperature changes at 10 degrees C, 20 degrees C or 30 degrees C for 24h. Viable bacterial counts (VBC), total haemocyte count (THC), phagocytic activity, lysozyme activity, NRR times and SOD activity were assessed in three different water temperature groups. Clams held at 10 degrees C decreased in THC, lysozyme activity and NRR times, but phagocytic activity was increased. The highest temperature (30 degrees C) significantly increased in THC, whereas it decreased in phagocytic activity, lysozyme activity and NRR times. In clams maintained at 20 degrees C, phagocytic activity, lysozyme activity and NRR times were increased whereas THC was somewhat decreased with respect to clams held at 30 degrees C. However, water temperature changes did not elicit any alteration of VBC and SOD activity. The present study demonstrates that acute water temperature change affects the haemocytic and haemolymphatic functions, reducing immunosurveillance in stressed surf clam, M. veneriformis.

  20. Mutations in the SURF1 gene associated with Leigh syndrome and cytochrome C oxidase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péquignot, M O; Dey, R; Zeviani, M; Tiranti, V; Godinot, C; Poyau, A; Sue, C; Di Mauro, S; Abitbol, M; Marsac, C

    2001-05-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency is one of the major causes of Leigh Syndrome (LS), a fatal encephalopathy of infancy or childhood, characterized by symmetrical lesions in the basal ganglia and brainstem. Mutations in the nuclear genes encoding COX subunits have not been found in patients with LS and COX deficiency, but mutations have been identified in SURF1. SURF1 encodes a factor involved in COX biogenesis. To date, 30 different mutations have been reported in 40 unrelated patients. We aim to provide an overview of all known mutations in SURF1, and to propose a common nomenclature. Twelve of the mutations were insertion/deletion mutations in exons 1, 4, 6, 8, and 9; 10 were missense/nonsense mutations in exons 2, 4, 5, 7, and 8; and eight were detected at splicing sites in introns 3 to 7. The most frequent mutation was 312_321del 311_312insAT which was found in 12 patients out of 40. Twenty mutations have been described only once. We also list all polymorphisms discovered to date.

  1. ConSurf 2016: an improved methodology to estimate and visualize evolutionary conservation in macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazy, Haim; Abadi, Shiran; Martz, Eric; Chay, Ofer; Mayrose, Itay; Pupko, Tal; Ben-Tal, Nir

    2016-07-08

    The degree of evolutionary conservation of an amino acid in a protein or a nucleic acid in DNA/RNA reflects a balance between its natural tendency to mutate and the overall need to retain the structural integrity and function of the macromolecule. The ConSurf web server (http://consurf.tau.ac.il), established over 15 years ago, analyses the evolutionary pattern of the amino/nucleic acids of the macromolecule to reveal regions that are important for structure and/or function. Starting from a query sequence or structure, the server automatically collects homologues, infers their multiple sequence alignment and reconstructs a phylogenetic tree that reflects their evolutionary relations. These data are then used, within a probabilistic framework, to estimate the evolutionary rates of each sequence position. Here we introduce several new features into ConSurf, including automatic selection of the best evolutionary model used to infer the rates, the ability to homology-model query proteins, prediction of the secondary structure of query RNA molecules from sequence, the ability to view the biological assembly of a query (in addition to the single chain), mapping of the conservation grades onto 2D RNA models and an advanced view of the phylogenetic tree that enables interactively rerunning ConSurf with the taxa of a sub-tree.

  2. CAMSHIFT IMPROVEMENT WITH MEAN-SHIFT SEGMENTATION, REGION GROWING, AND SURF METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinan Ferdinan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available CAMSHIFT algorithm has been widely used in object tracking. CAMSHIFT utilizescolor features as the model object. Thus, original CAMSHIFT may fail when the object color issimilar with the background color. In this study, we propose CAMSHIFT tracker combined withmean-shift segmentation, region growing, and SURF in order to improve the tracking accuracy.The mean-shift segmentation and region growing are applied in object localization phase to extractthe important parts of the object. Hue-distance, saturation, and value are used to calculate theBhattacharyya distance to judge whether the tracked object is lost. Once the object is judged lost,SURF is used to find the lost object, and CAMSHIFT can retrack the object. The Object trackingsystem is built with OpenCV. Some measurements of accuracy have done using frame-basedmetrics. We use datasets BoBoT (Bonn Benchmark on Tracking to measure accuracy of thesystem. The results demonstrate that CAMSHIFT combined with mean-shift segmentation, regiongrowing, and SURF method has higher accuracy than the previous methods.

  3. Optical-SZE scaling relations for DES optically selected clusters within the SPT-SZ Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saro, A.; Bocquet, S.; Mohr, J.; Rozo, E.; Benson, B. A.; Dodelson, S.; Rykoff, E. S.; Bleem, L.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allen, S.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Capasso, R.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Chiu, I.; Crawford, T. M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Evrard, A. E.; Neto, A. Fausti; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gangkofner, C.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Giannantonio, T.; Grandis, S.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gupta, N.; Gutierrez, G.; Holzapfel, W. L.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lima, M.; Marshall, J. L.; McDonald, M.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Rapetti, D.; Reichardt, C. L.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Soergel, B.; Strazzullo, V.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Zenteno, A.

    2017-07-01

    We study the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) signature in South Pole Telescope (SPT) data for an ensemble of 719 optically identified galaxy clusters selected from 124.6 deg2 of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) science verification data, detecting a clear stacked SZE signal down to richness λ ˜ 20. The SZE signature is measured using matched-filtered maps of the 2500 deg2 SPT-SZ survey at the positions of the DES clusters, and the degeneracy between SZE observable and matched-filter size is broken by adopting as priors SZE and optical mass-observable relations that are either calibrated using SPT-selected clusters or through the Arnaud et al. (A10) X-ray analysis. We measure the SPT signal-to-noise ζ-λ relation and two integrated Compton-y Y500-λ relations for the DES-selected clusters and compare these to model expectations that account for the SZE-optical centre offset distribution. For clusters with λ > 80, the two SPT-calibrated scaling relations are consistent with the measurements, while for the A10-calibrated relation the measured SZE signal is smaller by a factor of 0.61 ± 0.12 compared to the prediction. For clusters at 20 compared to the prediction, with the SPT-calibrated scaling relations and larger λ clusters showing generally better agreement. We quantify the required corrections to achieve consistency, showing that there is a richness-dependent bias that can be explained by some combination of (1) contamination of the observables and (2) biases in the estimated halo masses. We also discuss particular physical effects associated with these biases, such as contamination of λ from line-of-sight projections or of the SZE observables from point sources, larger offsets in the SZE-optical centring or larger intrinsic scatter in the λ-mass relation at lower richnesses.

  4. Optical-SZE Scaling Relations for DES Optically Selected Clusters within the SPT-SZ Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saro, A.; et al.

    2016-05-27

    We study the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) signature in South Pole Telescope (SPT) data for an ensemble of 719 optically identified galaxy clusters selected from 124.6 deg$^2$ of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) science verification data, detecting a stacked SZE signal down to richness $\\lambda\\sim20$. The SZE signature is measured using matched-filtered maps of the 2500 deg$^2$ SPT-SZ survey at the positions of the DES clusters, and the degeneracy between SZE observable and matched-filter size is broken by adopting as priors SZE and optical mass-observable relations that are either calibrated using SPT selected clusters or through the Arnaud et al. (2010, A10) X-ray analysis. We measure the SPT signal to noise $\\zeta$-$\\lambda$, relation and two integrated Compton-$y$ $Y_\\textrm{500}$-$\\lambda$ relations for the DES-selected clusters and compare these to model expectations accounting for the SZE-optical center offset distribution. For clusters with $\\lambda > 80$, the two SPT calibrated scaling relations are consistent with the measurements, while for the A10-calibrated relation the measured SZE signal is smaller by a factor of $0.61 \\pm 0.12$ compared to the prediction. For clusters at $20 < \\lambda < 80$, the measured SZE signal is smaller by a factor of $\\sim$0.20-0.80 (between 2.3 and 10~$\\sigma$ significance) compared to the prediction, with the SPT calibrated scaling relations and larger $\\lambda$ clusters showing generally better agreement. We quantify the required corrections to achieve consistency, showing that there is a richness dependent bias that can be explained by some combination of contamination of the observables and biases in the estimated masses. We discuss possible physical effects, as contamination from line-of-sight projections or from point sources, larger offsets in the SZE-optical centering or larger scatter in the $\\lambda$-mass relation at lower richnesses.

  5. THE PROPOSED QUADRUPLE SYSTEM SZ HERCULIS: REVISED LITE MODEL AND ORBITAL STABILITY STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinse, Tobias Cornelius; Lee, Jae Woo; Lee, Chung-Uk [Advanced Astronomy and Space Science Division, Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Gozdziewski, Krzysztof [Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun Centre for Astronomy, PL-87-100 Torun (Poland); Haghighipour, Nader, E-mail: tchinse@gmail.com [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii, 96822 HI (United States)

    2012-08-15

    In a recent study, Lee et al. presented new photometric follow-up timing observations of the semidetached binary system SZ Herculis and proposed the existence of two hierarchical cirumbinary companions. Based on the light-travel time effect, the two low-mass M-dwarf companions are found to orbit the binary pair on moderate to high eccentric orbits. The derived periods of these two companions are close to a 2:1 mean-motion orbital resonance. We have studied the stability of the system using the osculating orbital elements as presented by Lee et al. Results indicate an orbit-crossing architecture exhibiting short-term dynamical instabilities leading to the escape of one of the proposed companions. We have examined the system's underlying model parameter space by following a Monte Carlo approach and found an improved fit to the timing data. A study of the stability of our best-fitting orbits also indicates that the proposed system is generally unstable. If the observed anomalous timing variations of the binary period is due to additional circumbinary companions, then the resulting system should exhibit a long-term stable orbital configuration much different from the orbits suggested by Lee et al. We, therefore, suggest that based on Newtonian-dynamical considerations, the proposed quadruple system cannot exist. To uncover the true nature of the observed period variations of this system, we recommend future photometric follow-up observations that could further constrain eclipse-timing variations and/or refine light-travel time models.

  6. Subduction zones seen by GOCE gravity gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Švarc, Mario; Herceg, Matija; Cammarano, Fabio

    and used as starting point for analysis based on image processing. On obtained maps, locations of known subduction zones were represented with characteristic elongated patterns and cross-sections. Cross sections of well-known subduction zones were used as input patterns for pattern recognition method....... Few pattern recognition methods were tested on all 6 gravity gradient tensor components represented as global scale maps with resolution of 100km (corresponds to the resolution of the GOCE satellite data). By adjusting pattern recognition methods’ features and optimizing various input patterns......, the best method was applied. That is a combination of methods based on SURF (Speeded Up Robust Features) and MSER (Maximally Stable Extremal Regions) algorithms provided in MATLAB’s Computer Vision System Toolbox. Based on 6 gravity gradient components, the global gradient anomaly maps were produced...

  7. SITE-SCALE SATURATED ZONE TRANSPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. KELLER

    2004-11-03

    This work provides a site-scale transport model for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone (SZ) at Yucca Mountain, for use in the abstractions model in support of ''Total System Performance Assessment for License Application'' (TSPA-LA). The purpose of this model report is to provide documentation for the components of the site-scale SZ transport model in accordance with administrative procedure AP-SIII.10Q, Models. The initial documentation of this model report was conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan For: Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Modeling and Testing'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 163965]). The model report has been revised in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan For: Natural System--Saturated Zone Analysis and Model Report Integration'', Section 2.1.1.4 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171421]) to incorporate Regulatory Integration Team comments. All activities listed in the technical work plan that are appropriate to the transport model are documented in this report and are described in Section 2.1.1.4 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171421]). This report documents: (1) the advection-dispersion transport model including matrix diffusion (Sections 6.3 and 6.4); (2) a description and validation of the transport model (Sections 6.3 and 7); (3) the numerical methods for simulating radionuclide transport (Section 6.4); (4) the parameters (sorption coefficient, Kd ) and their uncertainty distributions used for modeling radionuclide sorption (Appendices A and C); (5) the parameters used for modeling colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport (Table 4-1, Section 6.4.2.6, and Appendix B); and (6) alternative conceptual models and their dispositions (Section 6.6). The intended use of this model is to simulate transport in saturated fractured porous rock (double porosity) and alluvium. The particle-tracking method of simulating radionuclide transport is incorporated in the finite-volume heat and mass transfer numerical

  8. On the Potential of Surfers to Monitor Environmental Indicators in the Coastal Zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J W Brewin

    Full Text Available The social and economic benefits of the coastal zone make it one of the most treasured environments on our planet. Yet it is vulnerable to increasing anthropogenic pressure and climate change. Coastal management aims to mitigate these pressures while augmenting the socio-economic benefits the coastal region has to offer. However, coastal management is challenged by inadequate sampling of key environmental indicators, partly due to issues relating to cost of data collection. Here, we investigate the use of recreational surfers as platforms to improve sampling coverage of environmental indicators in the coastal zone. We equipped a recreational surfer, based in the south west United Kingdom (UK, with a temperature sensor and Global Positioning System (GPS device that they used when surfing for a period of one year (85 surfing sessions. The temperature sensor was used to derive estimates of sea-surface temperature (SST, an important environmental indicator, and the GPS device used to provide sample location and to extract information on surfer performance. SST data acquired by the surfer were compared with data from an oceanographic station in the south west UK and with satellite observations. Our results demonstrate: (i high-quality SST data can be acquired by surfers using low cost sensors; and (ii GPS data can provide information on surfing performance that may help motivate data collection by surfers. Using recent estimates of the UK surfing population, and frequency of surfer participation, we speculate around 40 million measurements on environmental indicators per year could be acquired at the UK coastline by surfers. This quantity of data is likely to enhance coastal monitoring and aid UK coastal management. Considering surfing is a world-wide sport, our results have global implications and the approach could be expanded to other popular marine recreational activities for coastal monitoring of environmental indicators.

  9. Experimental study with 99mTc-SZ-51 in dog venous thrombosis model radioimmunoimaging%99mTc-SZ-51用于犬静脉血栓模型放射免疫显像的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安锐; 张凯军; 黄韬; 张永学

    2000-01-01

    目的:观察99mTc标记抗活化血小板单抗(99mTc-SZ-51)在犬血栓模型的体内代谢分布情况,以及检测静脉血栓的能力.方法:制作犬静脉血栓模型24h后注射99mTc-SZ-51 370 MBq,分别测定血液半清除时间(T1/2),不同时间的血栓/血液和血栓/肌肉比值以及血栓部位与对侧相应部位(T/NT)比值.结果:99mTc-SZ-51的血液半清除时间分别为,快相(15.28±9.25)min,慢相(7.76±2.25)h,肾脏摄取量显著高于其他脏器;4 h血栓/血液和血栓/肌肉比值分别为4.0和66.5,10 h达到7.2和163.3;注射显像剂后1 h活体显像,可见股静脉血栓局部有明显放射性聚集,4~6 h血栓显像更清晰.ROI定量分析显示,T/NT比值在注射显像剂后1 h即可达到1.52,4 h达到最高点2.65.结论:99mTc-SZ-51具有较快的血液清除率和较高的T/NT比值,活体显像可获得满意的显像效果,血栓最佳显像时间为4~6 h.

  10. E. coli removal in laboratory scale stormwater biofilters: Influence of vegetation and submerged zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasena, G. I.; Pham, T.; Payne, E. G.; Deletic, A.; McCarthy, D. T.

    2014-11-01

    Biofilters, also known as bioretention areas or raingardens, are an effective treatment option for the removal of various pollutants from stormwater. However, they show variable treatment efficiency for the removal of indicator bacteria, and the operational and design factors which impact this variability are largely unknown. This study uses a laboratory scale column set-up to explore how Escherichia coli (the chosen indicator organism) removal in the stormwater biofilters is impacted by: plant presence and species type, the presence of a submerged zone (SZ), and operational conditions (duration of dry periods and changes over the initial stages of the system's life-span). Vegetation selection was found to be important for E. coli removal and the highly performing plant species were associated with lower infiltration rates. Based on the current results, a biofilter planted with Leptospermum continentale, Melaleuca incana or Palmetto buffalo and comprising a SZ can be recommended for improved E. coli removal. Inclusion of SZ was found to generally enhance the removal performance; which may be explained by the contribution of microbial processes that are happening within the SZ (such as predation/competition and natural die-off). Results also suggest that the E. coli removal performance is reduced after a significant dry period, while the overall removal performance improves over time as systems mature.

  11. Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich effect observations of the bullet cluster (1E 0657-56) with APEX-SZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, N.W.; Lanting, T.; Ade, P.A.R.; Basu, K.; Bender, A.N.; Benson, B.A.; Bertoldi, F.; Cho, H.-M.; Chon, G.; Clarke, J.; Dobbs, M.; Ferrusca, D.; Gusten, R.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Kovacs, A.; Kennedy, J.; Kermish, Z.; Kneissl, R.; Lee, A.T.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Menten, K.M.; Muders, D.; Nord, M.; Pacaud, F.; Plagge, T.; Reichardt, C.; Richards, P.L.; Schaaf, R.; Schilke, P.; Schuller, F.; Schwan, D.; Spieler, H.; Tucker, C.; Weiss, A.; Zahn, O.

    2008-07-25

    We present observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) in the Bullet cluster (1E 0657-56) using the APEX-SZ instrument at 150 GHz with a resolution of 1'. The main results are maps of the SZE in this massive, merging galaxy cluster. The cluster is detected with 23 sigma significance within the central 1' radius of the source position. The SZE map has a broadly similar morphology to that in existing X-ray maps of this system, and we find no evidence for significant contamination of the SZE emission by radio or IR sources. In order to make simple quantitative comparisons with cluster gas models derived from X-ray observations, we fit our data to an isothermal elliptical beta model, despite the inadequacy of such a model for this complex merging system. With an X-ray derived prior on the power-law index, beta = 1.04+0.16-0.10, we find a core radius rc = 142" +- 18", an axial ratio of 0.889 +- 0.072, and a central temperature decrement of -771 +- 71 muKCMB, including a +-5.5percent flux calibration uncertainty. Combining the APEX-SZ map with a map of projected electron surface density from Chandra X-ray observations, we determine the mass-weighted temperature of the cluster gas to be Tmg = 10.8 +- 0.9 keV, significantly lower than some previously reported X-ray spectroscopic temperatures. Under the assumption of an isothermal cluster gas distribution in hydrostatic equilibrium, we compute the gas mass fraction for prolate and oblate spheroidal geometries and find it to be consistent with previous results from X-ray and weak-lensing observations. This work is the first result from the APEX-SZ experiment and represents the first reported scientific result from observations with a large array of multiplexed superconducting transition-edge sensor bolometers.

  12. Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich effect observations of the bullet cluster (1E 0657-56) with APEX-SZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, N.W.; Lanting, T.; Ade, P.A.R.; Basu, K.; Bender, A.N.; Benson, B.A.; Bertoldi, F.; Cho, H.-M.; Chon, G.; Clarke, J.; Dobbs, M.; Ferrusca, D.; Gusten, R.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Kovacs, A.; Kennedy, J.; Kermish, Z.; Kneissl, R.; Lee, A.T.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Menten, K.M.; Muders, D.; Nord, M.; Pacaud, F.; Plagge, T.; Reichardt, C.; Richards, P.L.; Schaaf, R.; Schilke, P.; Schuller, F.; Schwan, D.; Spieler, H.; Tucker, C.; Weiss, A.; Zahn, O.

    2008-07-25

    We present observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) in the Bullet cluster (1E 0657-56) using the APEX-SZ instrument at 150 GHz with a resolution of 1'. The main results are maps of the SZE in this massive, merging galaxy cluster. The cluster is detected with 23 sigma significance within the central 1' radius of the source position. The SZE map has a broadly similar morphology to that in existing X-ray maps of this system, and we find no evidence for significant contamination of the SZE emission by radio or IR sources. In order to make simple quantitative comparisons with cluster gas models derived from X-ray observations, we fit our data to an isothermal elliptical beta model, despite the inadequacy of such a model for this complex merging system. With an X-ray derived prior on the power-law index, beta = 1.04+0.16-0.10, we find a core radius rc = 142" +- 18", an axial ratio of 0.889 +- 0.072, and a central temperature decrement of -771 +- 71 muKCMB, including a +-5.5percent flux calibration uncertainty. Combining the APEX-SZ map with a map of projected electron surface density from Chandra X-ray observations, we determine the mass-weighted temperature of the cluster gas to be Tmg = 10.8 +- 0.9 keV, significantly lower than some previously reported X-ray spectroscopic temperatures. Under the assumption of an isothermal cluster gas distribution in hydrostatic equilibrium, we compute the gas mass fraction for prolate and oblate spheroidal geometries and find it to be consistent with previous results from X-ray and weak-lensing observations. This work is the first result from the APEX-SZ experiment and represents the first reported scientific result from observations with a large array of multiplexed superconducting transition-edge sensor bolometers.

  13. Testing for X-Ray-SZ Differences and Redshift Evolution in the X-Ray Morphology of Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurgaliev, D.; McDonald, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L.; Bocquet, S.; Forman, W. R.; Garmire, G. P.; Gupta, N.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Mohr, J. J.; Nagai, D.; Rapetti, D.; Stark, A. A.; Stubbs, C. W.; Vikhlinin, A.

    2017-05-01

    We present a quantitative study of the X-ray morphology of galaxy clusters, as a function of their detection method and redshift. We analyze two separate samples of galaxy clusters: a sample of 36 clusters at 0.35clusters at 0.25Clusters from both samples have similar-quality Chandra observations, which allow us to quantify their X-ray morphologies via two distinct methods: centroid shifts (w) and photon asymmetry ({A}{phot}). The latter technique provides nearly unbiased morphology estimates for clusters spanning a broad range of redshift and data quality. We further compare the X-ray morphologies of X-ray- and SZ-selected clusters with those of simulated clusters. We do not find a statistically significant difference in the measured X-ray morphology of X-ray and SZ-selected clusters over the redshift range probed by these samples, suggesting that the two are probing similar populations of clusters. We find that the X-ray morphologies of simulated clusters are statistically indistinguishable from those of X-ray- or SZ-selected clusters, implying that the most important physics for dictating the large-scale gas morphology (outside of the core) is well-approximated in these simulations. Finally, we find no statistically significant redshift evolution in the X-ray morphology (both for observed and simulated clusters), over the range of z˜ 0.3 to z˜ 1, seemingly in contradiction with the redshift-dependent halo merger rate predicted by simulations.

  14. Electrochemical Deposition of CuxSnySzO Thin Films and Their Application for Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Nakashima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available CuxSnySzO (CTSO thin films were deposited from an aqueous solution containing CuSO4, SnSO4, and Na2S2O3 by electrochemical techniques. The deposited films were characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and optical transmission spectroscopy. The photoelectrochemical measurement showed that the films have p-type conduction and photosensitivity. ZnO/CTSO heterojunction solar cells were fabricated. Rectification properties were observed, and the cell showed an efficiency of 4.9×10−3% under AM1.5 illumination.

  15. Revision of the genus Euagathis Szépligeti (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Agathidinae from Thailand, with description of three new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees van Achterberg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The species of the genus Euagathis Szépligeti (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Agathidinae from Thailand are revised. Eight species are treated, three new species are described, i.e. Euagathis breviantennata sp.n., E. setosimaculata sp. n. and E. pallitarsis sp. n. Disophrys sogdiana Fahringer, 1937, D. chinensis Fahringer, 1937, and Euagathis sentosus Chen & Yang, 1995, are new junior synonyms of Euagathis chinensis (Holm‑gren, 1868. Euagathis guangxiensis (Chen & Yang, 2006 is a new combination. Lectotypes are designated for Disophrys sogdiana Fahringer, 1937, and D. chinensis Fahringer, 1937. A dichotomous illustrated key to species is presented; links to electronic interactive keys and to distribution maps are also included.

  16. A Critical Review of Models of the H-2/H2O/Ni/SZ Electrode Kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Høgh, Jens Valdemar Thorvald; Hansen, Karin Vels

    2007-01-01

    sets, which do not fit the model. We have inspected some models in the literature, and problems (e.g. no quantitative model has explained the large variation in reported values of apparent activation energy of the electrode kinetics) as well as strengths of the models are discussed. We point out...... experimental findings that a useful model must be able to explain such as difference in sensitivity to poisoning by H2S due to differences in the detailed composition of the SZ and large change in apparent activation energy by change in cermet preparation. Finally, we will point out some elements, which seem...

  17. Scaled photographs of surf over the full range of breaker sizes on the north shore of Oahu and Jaws, Maui, Hawaiian Islands, January 1998 - May 2004 (NODC Accession 0001753)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digital surf photographs were scaled using surfers as height benchmarks to estimate the size of the breakers. Historical databases for surf height in Hawaii are...

  18. SZ36-1 CEP Kenz Crane Box Boom Lifting Device Design%SZ36-1CEP海上KENZ起重机箱体式吊臂顶升装置设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗廷文

    2016-01-01

    For SZ36-1CEP KENZ crane lifting arm root pin shaft appear abnormal noise and rotation , pose a safety hazard, considering of the crane's own structural characteristics , a box type hanging arm lifting device is designed and applied successfully in the sea.The lifting device realizes the pin shaft overhaul job instead of floating crane , which can guarantee the safe use of off-shore cranes .The device has the advantages of simple structure , repeated use , greatly reduces the maintenance cost .%针对SZ36-1CEP海上KENZ起重机吊臂根部销轴出现异常响声和旋转,存在安全隐患的问题,考虑针对起重机自身结构特点,设计一套箱体式吊臂顶升装置并成功应用,实现了替代浮吊进行销轴拆检的工作,可保证海洋平台起重机的安全使用,该装置结构简单,可重复使用,降低了维修费用.

  19. Associations between Functional Movement Screen scores and performance variables in surf athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira da Silva, Bruno A; Clemente, Filipe M; Lourenço Martins, Fernando M

    2017-02-22

    Functional Movement Screen (FMS) have been used to assess the movement patterns in daily sports practice. Some associations between FMS scores and physical variables have been found in some sports. Nevertheless, no study was conducted in surf. Eighteen surf athletes (11 male) participated in the study (18.3 ± 6.3 y; 60.0 ± 9.6 kg; 168.6 ± 8.1 cm). All participants completed anthropometrics, Knee to Wall test, Functional Movement Screen, Isometric Knee Extension, Handgrip, Squat and Countermovement Jump. Based on that, this study investigated: 1) the variance of FMS scores between gender; 2) the association between FMS scores and physical variables of strength of upper and lower limbs, power of lower limbs and anthropometric variables; and 3) which FMS scores best explain the physical performance variables. The analysis of comparison between gender of each item of FMS showed significant statistical differences only in Trunk Stability Push-Up (p = 0.01, ES=0.141). Kendall's Tau b correlation test between FMS scores and physical variables, revealed significant associations. After performed the stepwise multiple linear regression FMS Deep Squat and Trunk Stability Push-Up explains 57% of Knee to Wall test - right side and the model is statistically significant (F(2. 15) = 13.097; p-value = 0.001). In Squat Jump (height) the results show that FMS Trunk Stability Push-Up explains 50.3% of this dimension and the model is statistically significant (F(1. 16) = 18.182; p-value = 0.001). FMS individual scores seems to better explain physical variables than total score. Only Trunk Stability Push-Up test seems to be a reliable indicator to predict physical performance in surf athletes.

  20. QSAR study and VolSurf characterization of anti-HIV quinolone library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipponi, Enrica; Cruciani, Gabriele; Tabarrini, Oriana; Cecchetti, Violetta; Fravolini, Arnaldo

    2001-03-01

    Antiviral quinolones are promising compounds in the search for new therapeutically effective agents for the treatment of AIDS. To rationalize the SAR for this new interesting class of anti-HIV derivatives, we performed a 3D-QSAR study on a library of 101 6-fluoro and 6-desfluoroquinolones, taken either from the literature or synthesized by us. The chemometric procedure involved a fully semiempirical minimization of the molecular structures by the AMSOL program, which takes into account the solvatation effect, and their 3D characterization by the VolSurf/GRID program. The QSAR analysis, based on PCA and PLS methods, shows the key structural features responsible for the antiviral activity.

  1. Comparison Between Surf and Multi-Shock Forest Fire High Explosive Burn Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenfield, Nicholas Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-18

    PAGOSA1 has several different burn models used to model high explosive detonation. Two of these, Multi-Shock Forest Fire and Surf, are capable of modeling shock initiation. Accurately calculating shock initiation of a high explosive is important because it is a mechanism for detonation in many accident scenarios (i.e. fragment impact). Comparing the models to pop-plot data give confidence that the models are accurately calculating detonation or lack thereof. To compare the performance of these models, pop-plots2 were created from simulations where one two cm block of PBX 9502 collides with another block of PBX 9502.

  2. Mimicking a SURF1 allele reveals uncoupling of cytochrome c oxidase assembly from translational regulation in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, Robert; Bareth, Bettina; Balleininger, Martina; Wissel, Mirjam; Rehling, Peter; Mick, David U

    2011-06-15

    Defects in mitochondrial energy metabolism lead to severe human disorders, mainly affecting tissues especially dependent on oxidative phosphorylation, such as muscle and brain. Leigh Syndrome describes a severe encephalomyopathy in infancy, frequently caused by mutations in SURF1. SURF1, termed Shy1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a conserved assembly factor for the terminal enzyme of the respiratory chain, cytochrome c oxidase. Although the molecular function of SURF1/Shy1 is still enigmatic, loss of function leads to cytochrome c oxidase deficiency and reduced expression of the central subunit Cox1 in yeast. Here, we provide insights into the molecular mechanisms leading to disease through missense mutations in codons of the most conserved amino acids in SURF1. Mutations affecting G(124) do not compromise import of the SURF1 precursor protein but lead to fast turnover of the mature protein within the mitochondria. Interestingly, an Y(274)D exchange neither affects stability nor localization of the protein. Instead, SURF1(Y274D) accumulates in a 200 kDa cytochrome c oxidase assembly intermediate. Using yeast as a model, we demonstrate that the corresponding Shy1(Y344D) is able to overcome the stage where cytochrome c oxidase assembly links to the feedback regulation of mitochondrial Cox1 expression. However, Shy1(Y344D) impairs the assembly at later steps, most apparent at low temperature and exhibits a dominant-negative phenotype upon overexpression. Thus, exchanging the conserved tyrosine (Y(344)) with aspartate in yeast uncouples translational regulation of Cox1 from cytochrome c oxidase assembly and provides evidence for the dual functionality of Shy1.

  3. An SZ take on cluster radio haloes -- I. Global scaling and bi-modality using Planck data

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Kaustuv

    2011-01-01

    Giant radio haloes in galaxy clusters are the primary evidence for the existence of relativistic particles (cosmic rays) and magnetic fields over Mpc scales. Observational tests for the different theoretical models explaining their powering mechanism have so far been obtained through X-ray selection of clusters, e.g. by comparing cluster X-ray luminosities with radio halo power. Here we present the first global scaling relations between radio halo power and integrated Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect measurements, using the Planck all-sky cluster catalog and published radio data. The correlation agrees well with previous scaling measurements based on X-ray data, and offers a more direct probe into the mass dependence inside radio haloes. However, we find no strong indication for a bi-modal cluster population split between radio halo and radio quiet objects. We discuss the possible causes for this apparent lack of bi-modality, and compare the observed slope of the radio-SZ correlation with competing theoretical ...

  4. Relationship between the CMB, SZ Cluster Counts, and Local Hubble Parameter Measurements in a Simple Void Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Oguri, Masamune

    2015-01-01

    The discrepancy between the amplitudes of matter fluctuations inferred from Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) cluster number counts, the primary temperature, and the polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) measured by the Planck satellite can be reconciled if the local universe is embedded in an under-dense region as shown by Lee, 2014. Here using a simple void model assuming the open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometry and a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique, we investigate how deep the local under-dense region needs to be to resolve this discrepancy. Such local void, if exists, predicts the local Hubble parameter value that is different from the global Hubble constant. We derive the posterior distribution of the local Hubble parameter from a joint fitting of the Planck CMB data and SZ cluster number counts assuming the simple void model. We show that the predicted local Hubble parameter value of $H_{\\rm loc}=70.1\\pm0.34~{\\rm km\\,s^{-1}Mpc^{-1}}$ is in better agreement with direct local Hub...

  5. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Dynamical masses for 44 SZ-selected galaxy clusters over 755 square degrees

    CERN Document Server

    Sifón, Cristóbal; Menanteau, Felipe; Hasselfield, Matthew; Barrientos, L Felipe; Bond, J Richard; Crichton, Devin; Devlin, Mark J; Dünner, Rolando; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renée; Huffenberger, Kevin M; Hughes, John P; Infante, Leopoldo; Kosowsky, Arthur; Marsden, Danica; Marriage, Tobias A; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael D; Page, Lyman A; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Trac, Hy; Wollack, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    We present galaxy velocity dispersions and dynamical mass estimates for 44 galaxy clusters selected via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. Dynamical masses for 18 clusters are reported here for the first time. Using N-body simulations, we model the different observing strategies used to measure the velocity dispersions and account for systematic effects resulting from these strategies. We find that the galaxy velocity distributions may be treated as isotropic, and that an aperture correction of up to 7 per cent in the velocity dispersion is required if the spectroscopic galaxy sample is sufficiently concentrated towards the cluster centre. Accounting for the radial profile of the velocity dispersion in simulations enables consistent dynamical mass estimates regardless of the observing strategy. Cluster masses $M_{200}$ are in the range $(1-15)\\times10^{14}M_\\odot$. Comparing with masses estimated from the SZ distortion assuming a gas pressure profile derived from X-ray obse...

  6. Detailed SZ study of 19 LoCuSS galaxy clusters: masses and temperatures out to the virial radius

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, Carmen; Davies, Matthew L; Feroz, Farhan; Franzen, Thomas M O; Grainge, Keith J B; Hobson, Michael P; Hurley-Walker, Natasha; Lasenby, Anthony N; Olamaie, Malak; Pooley, Guy; Saunders, Richard D E; Scaife, Anna M M; Schammel, Michel P; Scott, Paul F; Titterington, David J; Waldram, Elizabeth M

    2012-01-01

    We present 16-GHz AMI SZ observations of 19 clusters with L_X >7x10^37 W (h50=1) selected from the LoCuS survey (0.142SZ data, not from X-ray spectroscopy. Cluster parameters internal to r500 are derived assuming HSE. We find: (i) Different gNFW parameterizations yield significantly different parameter degeneracies. (ii) For h70 = 1, we find the virial radius r200 to be typically 1.6+/-0.1 Mpc and the total mass M_T(r200) typically to be 2.0-2.5xM_T(r500).(iii) Where we have found M_T X-ray (X) and weak-lensing (WL) values in the literature, there is good agreement between WL and AMI estimates (with M_{T,AMI}/M_{T,WL} =1.2^{+0.2}_{-0.3} and =1.0+/-0...

  7. The impact of SZ effect on cm-wavelength (1-30 GHz) observation of galaxy cluster radio relics

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Kaustuv; Erler, Jens; Sommer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    (Abridged) Radio relics in galaxy clusters are believed to be associated with powerful shock fronts that originate during cluster mergers, and are a testbed for the acceleration of relativistic particles in the intracluster medium. Recently, radio relic observations have pushed into the cm-wavelength domain (1-30 GHz) where a break from the standard synchrotron power-law spectrum has been found, most noticeably in the famous 'Sausage' relic. In this paper, we point to an important effect that has been ignored or considered insignificant while interpreting these new high-frequency radio data, namely the contamination due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect that changes the observed radio flux. Even though the radio relics reside in the cluster outskirts, the shock-driven pressure boost increases the SZ signal locally by roughly an order of magnitude. The resulting flux contamination for some well-known relics are non-negligible already at 10 GHz, and at 30 GHz the observed radio fluxes can be diminished by a...

  8. Galaxy Clusters Discovered via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect in the 2500-square-degree SPT-SZ survey

    CERN Document Server

    Bleem, L E; de Haan, T; Aird, K A; Allen, S W; Applegate, D E; Ashby, M L N; Bautz, M; Bayliss, M; Benson, B A; Bocquet, S; Brodwin, M; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Chiu, I; Cho, H M; Clocchiatti, A; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Desai, S; Dietrich, J P; Dobbs, M A; Foley, R J; Forman, W R; George, E M; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A H; Halverson, N W; Hennig, C; Hoekstra, H; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Hrubes, J D; Jones, C; Keisler, R; Knox, L; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Liu, J; Lueker, M; Luong-Van, D; Mantz, A; Marrone, D P; McDonald, M; McMahon, J J; Meyer, S S; Mocanu, L; Mohr, J J; Murray, S S; Padin, S; Pryke, C; Reichardt, C L; Rest, A; Ruel, J; Ruhl, J E; Saliwanchik, B R; Saro, A; Sayre, J T; Schaffer, K K; Schrabback, T; Shirokoff, E; Song, J; Spieler, H G; Stanford, S A; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Story, K T; Stubbs, C W; Vanderlinde, K; Vieira, J D; Vikhlinin, A; Williamson, R; Zahn, O; Zenteno, A

    2014-01-01

    We present a catalog of galaxy clusters selected via their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect signature from 2500 deg$^2$ of South Pole Telescope (SPT) data. This work represents the complete sample of clusters detected at high significance in the 2500-square-degree SPT-SZ survey, which was completed in 2011. A total of 677 (409) cluster candidates are identified above a signal-to-noise threshold of $\\xi$ =4.5 (5.0). Ground- and space-based optical and near-infrared (NIR) imaging confirms overdensities of similarly colored galaxies in the direction of 516 (or 76%) of the $\\xi$>4.5 candidates and 387 (or 95%) of the $\\xi$>5 candidates; the measured purity is consistent with expectations from simulations. Of these confirmed clusters, 415 were first identified in SPT data, including 251 new discoveries reported in this work. We estimate photometric redshifts for all candidates with identified optical and/or NIR counterparts; we additionally report redshifts derived from spectroscopic observations for 141 of these sy...

  9. Ex vivo human skin and SZ95 sebocytes exhibit a homoeostatic interaction in a novel coculture contact model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakis, Georgios; Seltmann, Holger; Hossini, Amir M; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Knolle, Jürgen; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2015-07-01

    The sebaceous gland displays key functions of the human skin, such as hormone synthesis in situ, antimicrobial activity and participation to inflammatory responses. Consequently, there is an emerging need of advanced in vitro models to study complex interactions between the sebaceous gland and the other skin compartments. Despite the evolution of both full-skin organ culture and reconstructed three-dimensional skin models, no satisfactory solutions have been provided for the integration of sebaceous glands and/or sebaceous gland cells in those models, probably due to their problematic maintenance both in vitro and ex vivo. We have developed a coculture model of explant skin in direct contact with immortalized SZ95 sebocytes, which resulted in overall improved structural integrity of the epidermis, higher percentage of proliferating basal epidermal cells and reduced apoptosis of differentiating keratinocytes after 6 days, as detected by Ki67 and TUNEL staining, respectively. Furthermore SZ95 sebocytes exhibited morphological and biochemical signs of normal differentiation and lipid accumulation, while interleukin-6 expression in the supernatant of the cocultures was decreased in comparison with the control. The data provide evidence of a beneficial interaction between sebocytes and skin explants and provide the rationale for their integration in future three-dimensional skin models.

  10. SPT-GMOS: A Gemini/GMOS-South Spectroscopic Survey of Galaxy Clusters in the SPT-SZ Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Bayliss, M B; Stubbs, C W; Allen, S W; Applegate, D E; Ashby, M L N; Bautz, M; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Bocquet, S; Brodwin, M; Capasso, R; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Chiu, I; Cho, H-M; Clocchiatti, A; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; de Haan, T; Desai, S; Dietrich, J P; Dobbs, M A; Doucouliagos, A N; Foley, R J; Forman, W R; Garmire, G P; George, E M; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A H; Gupta, N; Halverson, N W; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J; Hoekstra, H; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Hou, Z; Hrubes, J D; Huang, N; Jones, C; Keisler, R; Knox, L; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; von der Linden, A; Luong-Van, D; Mantz, A; Marrone, D P; McDonald, M; McMahon, J J; Meyer, S S; Mocanu, L M; Mohr, J J; Murray, S S; Padin, S; Pryke, C; Rapetti, D; Reichardt, C L; Rest, A; Ruhl, J E; Saliwanchik, B R; Saro, A; Sayre, J T; Schaffer, K K; Schrabback, T; Shirokoff, E; Song, J; Spieler, H G; Stalder, B; Stanford, S A; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Story, K T; Vanderlinde, K; Vieira, J D; Vikhlinin, A; Williamson, R; Zenteno, A

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of SPT-GMOS, a spectroscopic survey with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on Gemini South. The targets of SPT-GMOS are galaxy clusters identified in the SPT-SZ survey, a millimeter-wave survey of 2500 squ. deg. of the southern sky using the South Pole Telescope (SPT). Multi-object spectroscopic observations of 62 SPT-selected galaxy clusters were performed between January 2011 and December 2015, yielding spectra with radial velocity measurements for 2595 sources. We identify 2243 of these sources as galaxies, and 352 as stars. Of the galaxies, we identify 1579 as members of SPT-SZ galaxy clusters. The primary goal of these observations was to obtain spectra of cluster member galaxies to estimate cluster redshifts and velocity dispersions. We describe the full spectroscopic dataset and resulting data products, including galaxy redshifts, cluster redshifts and velocity dispersions, and measurements of several well-known spectral indices for each galaxy: the equivalent width, W,...

  11. ALMA-SZ Detection of a Galaxy Cluster Merger Shock at Half the Age of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Kaustuv; Erler, Jens; Eckert, Dominique; Vazza, Franco; Magnelli, Benjamin; Bertoldi, Frank; Tozzi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA measurement of a merger shock using the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect signal, at the location of a radio relic in the famous El Gordo galaxy cluster at $z \\approx 0.9$. Multi-wavelength analysis in combination with the archival Chandra data and a high-resolution radio image provides a consistent picture of the thermal and non-thermal signal variation across the shock front, and helps to put robust constraints on the shock Mach number as well as the relic magnetic field. We employ a Bayesian analysis technique for modeling the SZ and X-ray data self-consistently, illustrating respective parameter degeneracies. Combined results indicate a shock with Mach number ${\\cal M} = 2.4^{+1.3}_{-0.6}$, which in turn suggests a high value of the magnetic field (of the order $4-10 ~\\mu$G) to account for the observed relic width at 2 GHz. At roughly half the current age of the universe, this is the highest redshift direct detection of a cluster shock to-date, and one of the first instances of ALMA S...

  12. Constraints on the High-l Power Spectrum of Millimeter-wave Anisotropies from APEX-SZ

    CERN Document Server

    Reichardt, C L; Ade, P A R; Basu, K; Bender, A N; Bertoldi, F; Cho, H -M; Chon, G; Dobbs, M; Ferrusca, D; Halverson, N W; Holzapfel, W L; Horellou, C; Johansson, D; Johnson, B R; Kennedy, J; Kneissl, R; Lanting, T; Lee, A T; Lueker, M; Mehl, J; Menten, K M; Nord, M; Pacaud, F; Richards, P L; Schaaf, R; Schwan, D; Spieler, H; Weiss, A; Westbrook, B

    2009-01-01

    We present measurements of the angular power spectrum of millimeter wave anisotropies with the APEX-SZ instrument. APEX-SZ has mapped 0.8 square degrees of sky at a frequency of 150 GHz with an angular resolution of 1'. These new measurements significantly improve the power constraints at 150 GHz over the range of angular multipoles 3000 < l < 10,000, limiting the total astronomical anisotropy in a flat band power to be less than 105 microK^2 at 95% CL. We expect both submillimeter-bright, dusty galaxies and secondary CMB anisotropies from the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) to significantly contribute to the observed power. Subtracting the SZE power spectrum expected for sigma_8=0.8 and masking bright sources, the best fit value for the remaining power is C_l = 1.1^{+0.9}_{-0.8} x 10^{-5} micro K^2 (1.7^{+1.4}_{-1.3} Jy^2 sr^{-1}). This agrees well with model predictions for power due to submillimeter-bright, dusty galaxies. Simultaneously fitting for the amplitude of the SZE power spectrum and a Poiss...

  13. Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Zyvoloski

    2003-12-17

    The purpose of this model report is to document the components of the site-scale saturated-zone flow model at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in accordance with administrative procedure (AP)-SIII.lOQ, ''Models''. This report provides validation and confidence in the flow model that was developed for site recommendation (SR) and will be used to provide flow fields in support of the Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application. The output from this report provides the flow model used in the ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'', MDL-NBS-HS-000010 Rev 01 (BSC 2003 [162419]). The Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport model then provides output to the SZ Transport Abstraction Model (BSC 2003 [164870]). In particular, the output from the SZ site-scale flow model is used to simulate the groundwater flow pathways and radionuclide transport to the accessible environment for use in the TSPA calculations. Since the development and calibration of the saturated-zone flow model, more data have been gathered for use in model validation and confidence building, including new water-level data from Nye County wells, single- and multiple-well hydraulic testing data, and new hydrochemistry data. In addition, a new hydrogeologic framework model (HFM), which incorporates Nye County wells lithology, also provides geologic data for corroboration and confidence in the flow model. The intended use of this work is to provide a flow model that generates flow fields to simulate radionuclide transport in saturated porous rock and alluvium under natural or forced gradient flow conditions. The flow model simulations are completed using the three-dimensional (3-D), finite-element, flow, heat, and transport computer code, FEHM Version (V) 2.20 (software tracking number (STN): 10086-2.20-00; LANL 2003 [161725]). Concurrently, process-level transport model and methodology for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone at Yucca

  14. A new species of Megalommum Szépligeti (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Braconinae; a parasitoid of the pistachio longhorn beetle (Calchaenesthes pistacivora Holzschuh; Coleoptera, Cerambycidae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees van Achterberg

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Megalommum Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Braconinae, reared from the pistachio longhorn beetle (Calchaenesthes pistacivora Holzschuh; Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, is described and illustrated. The genera Curreia Ashmead, 1900 and Endovipio Turner, 1922 are new synonyms of Megalommum Szépligeti, 1900. Notes on the biology of M. pistacivorae sp. n. and a key to the West Palaearctic and Oriental species are added. The following new combinations are given: M. xanthoceps (Fahringer, 1928, comb. n., M. jacobsoni (Tobias, 1968, comb. n., M. ayyari (Watanabe, 1950, comb. n., M. philippinense (Baker, 1917, comb. n., M. dodecanesi (Ferrière, 1922, comb. n., M. ceresense (Turner, 1922, comb. n., M. inareatum (Granger, 1949, comb. n., M. antefurcale (Szépligeti, 1915 comb. n. and M. tibiale (Ashmead, 1906, comb. n.  

  15. Chronic low-grade peripheral inflammation is associated with severe nicotine dependence in schizophrenia: results from the national multicentric FACE-SZ cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fond, G; Berna, F; Andrianarisoa, M; Godin, O; Leboyer, M; Brunel, L; Aouizerate, B; Capdevielle, D; Chereau, I; D'Amato, T; Denizot, H; Dubertret, C; Dubreucq, J; Faget, C; Gabayet, F; Llorca, P M; Mallet, J; Misdrahi, D; Passerieux, C; Richieri, R; Rey, R; Schandrin, A; Urbach, M; Vidailhet, P; Boyer, L; Schürhoff, F

    2017-02-25

    Chronic peripheral inflammation (CPI) has been associated with cognitive impairment in schizophrenia (SZ). However, its sources remain unclear, more specifically it is not known whether tobacco smoking is a source of inflammation or not in SZ subjects. Moreover, nicotine (NIC), the major psychoactive compound of tobacco, shows strong anti-inflammatory properties in vitro, as well as inducing a severe biological dependence when administered repeatedly. The objective of the present study was to determine if CPI was associated with tobacco smoking and/or NIC dependence in schizophrenia. Three hundred and forty five stabilized community-dwelling SZ subjects aged 16 years or older (mean age = 32 years, 73% male) were consecutively included in the network of the FondaMental Expert Centers for Schizophrenia and assessed with validated scales. CPI was defined by a highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) ≥3 mg/L. Current tobacco status was self-declared. Severe NIC dependence was defined by a Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence score ≥7. Overall, 159 (46.1%) were non-smokers, 117 (33.9%) and 69 (20%) were current tobacco smokers with, respectively, low and severe nicotine dependence. In a multivariate model, CPI remained associated with severe NIC dependence (29 vs 15%, OR = 2.8, p = 0.003) and body mass index (OR = 1.1, p dependence, number of daily smoked cigarettes, cannabis use, alcohol use or illness characteristics was found (all p > 0.05). CPI was associated with severe NIC dependence but not with tobacco smoking with low to moderate NIC dependence in SZ, independently of socio-demographic variables, body mass index, alcohol consumption and antidepressant intake. This result highlights the potential CPI consequences of the high prevalence of heavy tobacco smoking in SZ, indicating the importance of new therapeutic strategies for tobacco cessation in SZ.

  16. Active depinning of bacterial droplets: the collective surfing of Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennes, Marc; Tailleur, Julien; Daerr, Adrian

    2016-11-01

    How systems are endowed with migration capacity is a fascinating question with implications ranging from the design of novel active systems to the control of microbial populations. Bacteria, which can be found in a variety of environments, have developed among the richest set of locomotion mechanisms both at the microscopic and collective levels. Here, we uncover experimentally a new mode of collective bacterial motility in humid environment through the depinning of bacterial droplets. While capillary forces are notoriously enormous at the bacterial scale, even capable of pinning water droplets of millimetric size on inclined surfaces, we show that bacteria are able to harness a variety of mechanisms to unpin contact lines, hence inducing a collective sliding of the colony. Contrary to flagella-dependent migration modes like swarming we show that this much faster colony surfing still occurs in mutant strains of Bacillus subtilis lacking flagella. The diversity of mechanisms involved in the active unpinning seen in our experiments suggests that collective surfing should be a generic mode of migration of microorganisms in humid environments. Bacttern Grant.

  17. Comparison of impact forces, accelerations and ankle range of motion in surfing-related landing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Lina E; Tran, Tai T; Nimphius, Sophia; Raymond, Ellen; Secomb, Josh L; Farley, Oliver R L; Newton, Robert U; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the impact forces, accelerations and ankle range of motion in five different landing tasks that are used in training and testing for competitive surfing athletes, to assist coaches in the prescription of landing task progression and monitoring training load. Eleven competitive surfing athletes aged 24 ± 7 years participated, and inertial motion sensors were fixed to the anterior aspect of the feet, mid-tibial shafts, sacrum and eighth thoracic vertebrae on these athletes. Three tasks were performed landing on force plates and two tasks in a modified gymnastics set-up used for land-based aerial training. Peak landing force, resultant peak acceleration and front and rear side ankle dorsiflexion ranges of motion during landing were determined. The peak acceleration was approximately 50% higher when performing aerial training using a mini-trampoline and landing on a soft-density foam board, compared to a similar landing off a 50 cm box. Furthermore, the ankle ranges of motion during the gymnastic type landings were significantly lower than the other landing types (P ≤ 0.05 and P ≤ 0.001), for front and rear sides, respectively. Conclusively, increased task complexity and specificity of the sport increased the tibial peak acceleration, indicating greater training load.

  18. Mutations of SURF-1 in Leigh disease associated with cytochrome c oxidase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiranti, V; Hoertnagel, K; Carrozzo, R; Galimberti, C; Munaro, M; Granatiero, M; Zelante, L; Gasparini, P; Marzella, R; Rocchi, M; Bayona-Bafaluy, M P; Enriquez, J A; Uziel, G; Bertini, E; Dionisi-Vici, C; Franco, B; Meitinger, T; Zeviani, M

    1998-12-01

    Leigh disease associated with cytochrome c oxidase deficiency (LD[COX-]) is one of the most common disorders of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, in infancy and childhood. No mutations in any of the genes encoding the COX-protein subunits have been identified in LD(COX-) patients. Using complementation assays based on the fusion of LD(COX-) cell lines with several rodent/human rho0 hybrids, we demonstrated that the COX phenotype was rescued by the presence of a normal human chromosome 9. Linkage analysis restricted the disease locus to the subtelomeric region of chromosome 9q, within the 7-cM interval between markers D9S1847 and D9S1826. Candidate genes within this region include SURF-1, the yeast homologue (SHY-1) of which encodes a mitochondrial protein necessary for the maintenance of COX activity and respiration. Sequence analysis of SURF-1 revealed mutations in numerous DNA samples from LD(COX-) patients, indicating that this gene is responsible for the major complementation group in this important mitochondrial disorder.

  19. New approach for measuring 3D space by using Advanced SURF Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youm, Minkyo; Min, Byungil; Suh, Kyungsuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Backgeun [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The nuclear disasters compared to natural disaster create a more extreme condition for analyzing and evaluating. In this paper, measuring 3D space and modeling was studied by simple pictures in case of small sand dune. The suggested method can be used for the acquisition of spatial information by robot at the disaster area. As a result, these data are helpful for identify the damaged part, degree of damage and determination of recovery sequences. In this study we are improving computer vision algorithm for 3-D geo spatial information measurement. And confirm by test. First, we can get noticeable improvement of 3-D geo spatial information result by SURF algorithm and photogrammetry surveying. Second, we can confirm not only decrease algorithm running time, but also increase matching points through epi polar line filtering. From the study, we are extracting 3-D model by open source algorithm and delete miss match point by filtering method. However on characteristic of SURF algorithm, it can't find match point if structure don't have strong feature. So we will need more study about find feature point if structure don't have strong feature.

  20. Preventing Shoulder-Surfing Attack with the Concept of Concealing the Password Objects’ Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Foong Ho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, picture-based password systems employ password objects (pictures/icons/symbols as input during an authentication session, thus making them vulnerable to “shoulder-surfing” attack because the visual interface by function is easily observed by others. Recent software-based approaches attempt to minimize this threat by requiring users to enter their passwords indirectly by performing certain mental tasks to derive the indirect password, thus concealing the user’s actual password. However, weaknesses in the positioning of distracter and password objects introduce usability and security issues. In this paper, a new method, which conceals information about the password objects as much as possible, is proposed. Besides concealing the password objects and the number of password objects, the proposed method allows both password and distracter objects to be used as the challenge set’s input. The correctly entered password appears to be random and can only be derived with the knowledge of the full set of password objects. Therefore, it would be difficult for a shoulder-surfing adversary to identify the user’s actual password. Simulation results indicate that the correct input object and its location are random for each challenge set, thus preventing frequency of occurrence analysis attack. User study results show that the proposed method is able to prevent shoulder-surfing attack.

  1. MOD_FreeSurf2D: a Surface Fluid Flow Simulation Model for Rivers, Streams, and Shallow Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N.; Gorelick, S. M.

    2003-12-01

    The MOD_FreeSurf2D, Modular Free Surface Flow in Two-Dimensions, computer model simulates free surface fluid flow in streams, rivers, and shallow estuaries under the assumptions of a well-mixed water column, a small water depth to width ratio, and a hydrostatic pressure distribution. The dependent variables in the model are free surface elevation, which provides total water depth, and fluid velocity. Primary advantages of MOD_FreeSurf2D relative to other two-dimensional models are a stable and computationally efficient numerical representation and a transparent representation of wetting and drying of the simulation domain. MOD_FreeSurf2D approximates the depth-averaged, shallow water equations with a finite volume, semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian numerical representation similar to the TRIM method (Casulli, 1990; Casulli and Cheng, 1992; Casulli, 1999). The semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian approach is computationally efficient because time steps can exceed the Courant-Friedrich-Lewy (CFL) stability criterion without significant accuracy degradation (Robert, 1982; Casulli, 1990). The rectangular, Arakawa C-grid, finite-volume layout allows flooding and drying in response to changing flow conditions without prior channel specification or closed boundary specification. Open boundary conditions available in MOD_FreeSurf2D are specified flux, specified total water depth, specified velocity, radiation free surface, and radiation velocity. MOD_FreeSurf2D requires initial topography, undisturbed water depth, and Manning's roughness coefficient. MOD_FreeSurf2D simulated results are shown to converge to the semi-empirical solution for a simple straight channel case. Two applications demonstrate the accuracy of MOD_FreeSurf2D. The first application is the evolution of water depth in the dambreak-style flume experiment of Bellos et al. (1992). In this case, MOD_FreeSurf2D accurately simulates the changing water depth in the flume during the experiment and models the wetting of

  2. Bacillus cereus SZ-4产蛋白酶脱毛蓝湿革机械性能研究%The Mechanical Properties of the Wet blue after Dehairing Using Crume Enzyme from Bacillus Cereus SZ-4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨姗; 陈健

    2012-01-01

    将蜡状芽孢杆菌(Bacillus cereus)SZ-4摇瓶发酵后所产脱毛蛋白酶粗酶液应用于猪皮、牛皮和绵羊皮的脱毛后,对经软化工序与未经软化工序制备成的蓝湿革进行比较。绵羊皮二者之间,在抗张强度、撕裂强度检测结果上未表现出明显的差别;而对于猪皮、牛皮而言,因为其皮张较羊皮厚且脱毛作用时间比较短,导致脱毛酶只能作用至毛囊附近而未能进一步对皮胶原纤维间质等进行水解,未能完全达到软化皮张的作用。%Using the crude enzyme from Bacillus cereus SZ-4 as depilating agent, the skins, such as porcine, bovine and ovine skins, were treated for 12h. Determining the mechanical properties of the wet blue, the tensile strength and tear strength of the ovine skins showed no significant differences with and without softening process; As far as the porcine and bovine skins were concerned, because of the furs were thick and the dehairing time was relatively short, the crude enzyme showed only effect around the hair follicles, as a result, the collagen fiber interstitial was not effectively hydrolyzed and the skins were not fully softened .

  3. Norman-based Isolated Data Systems allows users to surf the Internet with no traceable IP address

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "Patented by Norman-based Isolated Data Systems, John Doe is an anonymous proxy server that allows users to surf the Internet exactly as before, with one exception - they are identifiable only as John Doe, with no traceable IP address, which means no tracking, no identification and no profile building" ( 1/2 page)

  4. Dependence of the surf zone aerosol on wind direction and wind speed at a coastal site on the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tymon Zieliński

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 1992 lidar-based measurements have been carried out under various meteorological conditions and at various times of the year. The aerosol optical properties were determined in the marine boundary layer as a function of altitude using such factors as wind direction, duration and velocity and aerosol size distribution and concentration. It was confirmed that in all cases, the total aerosol concentration, size distribution and aerosol extinction increase with wind speed but decrease with altitude. In the range of wind velocities from 1 to 15 m s-1 the mean aerosol optical thickness of the atmosphere (VIS obtained from the lidar varied from 0.1 to 0.38 for offshore winds and from 0.01 to about 0.1 for onshore winds, while the Ångström parameter for VIS oscillated around 0.65 for onshore winds and around 1 for offshore winds. Both parameters depended strongly on the history of the air mass above the Baltic Sea. Such aerosol optical thicknesses are in agreement with those obtained by other researchers in the Baltic Sea area.

  5. Interaction between breaking/broken waves and infragravity-scale phenomena to control sediment suspension transport in the surf zone

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, GG

    2002-07-30

    Full Text Available of instrumentation, ?ume geometry, water-levels, wave conditions tested, etc. reference is made to Sanchez-Arcilla et al. (1994). For the purpose of the present study, use was primarily made of instrumentation attached to a roving car- riage deployed at various... the carriage to measure beach pro?les (San- chez-Arcilla et al., 1994). The present study makes use of measurements taken during the second series of tests at LIP11D (Tests 2A and 2B). Test 2A was commenced with a Dean-type beach pro?le, with a dune included...

  6. Development and Testing of a Hybrid Wheg (trademark)-Mobile Platform for Autonomous Surf-Zone Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    transmitted to the front Wheg through a 0.5 inch driveshaft mounted internally to a 1 inch suspension shaft and then through a set of geared pulleys ...that engages additional teeth on the smaller pulley . The final gear ratio is 46:1. The Whegs turn at 178 RPM under no load and nominal motor voltage...can minimize load friction and inertia by the proper selection of the gear ratio N. Jeq = Ja + 1 N2 Jl (2.8) Feq = Fa + 1 N2 Fl (2.9) 2.3 Quasi

  7. Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Rehfeldt

    2004-10-08

    This report is an updated analysis of water-level data performed to provide the ''Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]) (referred to as the saturated zone (SZ) site-scale flow model or site-scale SZ flow model in this report) with the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target water-level data, and hydraulic gradients for calibration of groundwater flow models. This report also contains an expanded discussion of uncertainty in the potentiometric-surface map. The analysis of the potentiometric data presented in Revision 00 of this report (USGS 2001 [DIRS 154625]) provides the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target heads, and hydraulic gradients for the calibration of the SZ site-scale flow model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]). Revision 01 of this report (USGS 2004 [DIRS 168473]) used updated water-level data for selected wells through the year 2000 as the basis for estimating water-level altitudes and the potentiometric surface in the SZ site-scale flow and transport model domain based on an alternative interpretation of perched water conditions. That revision developed computer files containing: Water-level data within the model area (DTN: GS010908312332.002); A table of known vertical head differences (DTN: GS010908312332.003); and A potentiometric-surface map (DTN: GS010608312332.001) using an alternative concept from that presented by USGS (2001 [DIRS 154625]) for the area north of Yucca Mountain. The updated water-level data presented in USGS (2004 [DIRS 168473]) include data obtained from the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (EWDP) Phases I and II and data from Borehole USW WT-24. This document is based on Revision 01 (USGS 2004 [DIRS 168473]) and expands the discussion of uncertainty in the potentiometric-surface map. This uncertainty assessment includes an analysis of the impact of more recent water-level data and the impact of adding data from the EWDP Phases III and IV wells. In

  8. Discovery of an H i-rich Gas Reservoir in the Outskirts of SZ-effect-selected Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzahid, Sowgat; Charlton, Jane; Nagai, Daisuke; Schaye, Joop; Srianand, Raghunathan

    2017-09-01

    We report on the detection of three strong H i absorbers originating in the outskirts (i.e., impact parameter, {ρ }{cl} ≈ (1.6–4.7)r 500) of three massive ({M}500∼ 3× {10}14 M ⊙) clusters of galaxies at redshift {z}{cl}≈ 0.46, in the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (HST/COS) spectra of three background UV-bright quasars. These clusters were discovered by the 2500 deg2 South Pole Telescope Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ) effect survey. All three COS spectra show a partial Lyman limit absorber with N(H i) > 1016.5 cm‑2 near the photometric redshifts (| {{Δ }}z/(1+z)| ≈ 0.03) of the clusters. The compound probability of the random occurrence of all three absorbers is statistics and gain further insights into the unexplored territory of the largest collapsed cosmic structures.

  9. New species of the genera Foenomorpha Szépligeti (Cenocoeliinae) and Chelonus Panzer (Cheloninae) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), from French Guiana, Suriname, and Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braet, Y.; Achterberg, van C.

    2001-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Foenomorpha Szépligeti, 1904, are described (F. rufa spec. nov. from Brazil and F. senlura spec. nov. from French Guiana). A key to the known species is added and notes on the other two species are added. Foenomorpha filicornis (Cameron, 1887) is a new combination for Ce

  10. Microwave-Enhanced Sulphated Zirconia and SZ/MCM-41 Catalyzed Regioselective Synthesis of β-Amino Alcohols Under Solvent-Free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo González-Zamora

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A solvent-free approach for the regioselective synthesis of β-amino alcohols inshorter reaction times and higher yields, compared to conventional heating is described. Itinvolves microwave (MW exposure of undiluted reactants in the presence of sulphatedzirconia (SZ or sulphated zirconia over MCM-41 (SZM as catalyst. Both acid materialscan be easily recovered and reused.

  11. SPT-CLJ2040-4451: An SZ-Selected Galaxy Cluster at z = 1.478 With Significant Ongoing Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Bayliss, M B; Ruel, J; Brodwin, M; Aird, K A; Bautz, M W; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Bocquet, S; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Cho, H M; Clocchiatti, A; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Desai, S; Dobbs, M A; Dudley, J P; Foley, R J; Forman, W R; George, E M; Gettings, D; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A H; de Haan, T; Halverson, N W; High, F W; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Hoover, S; Hrubes, J D; Jones, C; Joy, M; Keisler, R; Knox, L; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Liu, J; Lueker, M; Luong-Van, D; Mantz, A; Marrone, D P; Mawatari, K; McDonald, M; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Meyer, S S; Miller, E D; Mocanu, L; Mohr, J J; Montroy, T E; Murray, S S; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Reichardt, C L; Rest, A; Ruhl, J E; Saliwanchik, B R; Saro, A; Sayre, J T; Schaffer, K K; Shirokoff, E; Song, J; Stalder, B; Suhada, R; Spieler, H G; Stanford, S A; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Story, K; Stubbs, C W; van Engelen, A; Vanderlinde, K; Vieira, J D; Vikhlinin, A; Williamson, R; Zahn, O; Zenteno, A

    2013-01-01

    SPT-CLJ2040-4451 -- spectroscopically confirmed at z = 1.478 -- is the highest redshift galaxy cluster yet discovered via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. SPT-CLJ2040-4451 was identified in the first 720 deg^2 of the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SPT-SZ) survey, and confirmed in follow-up imaging and spectroscopy. From multi-object spectroscopy with Magellan-I/Baade+IMACS we measure spectroscopic redshifts for 15 cluster member galaxies, all of which have strong [O II] 3727 emission. SPT-CLJ2040-4451 has an SZ-measured mass of M_500,SZ = 3.2 +/- 0.8 X 10^14 M_Sun/h_70, corresponding to M_200,SZ = 5.8 +/- 1.4 X 10^14 M_Sun/h_70. The velocity dispersion measured entirely from blue star forming members is sigma_v = 1500 +/- 520 km/s. The prevalence of star forming cluster members (galaxies with > 1.5 M_Sun/yr) implies that this massive, high-redshift cluster is experiencing a phase of active star formation, and supports recent results showing a marked increase in star formation occurring in galaxy clust...

  12. New species of the genera Foenomorpha Szépligeti (Cenocoeliinae) and Chelonus Panzer (Cheloninae) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), from French Guiana, Suriname, and Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braet, Y.; Achterberg, van C.

    2001-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Foenomorpha Szépligeti, 1904, are described (F. rufa spec. nov. from Brazil and F. senlura spec. nov. from French Guiana). A key to the known species is added and notes on the other two species are added. Foenomorpha filicornis (Cameron, 1887) is a new combination for

  13. Landscape ethnoecological knowledge base and management of ecosystem services in a Székely-Hungarian pre-capitalistic village system (Transylvania, Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Zsolt; Gellény, Krisztina; Margóczi, Katalin; Biró, Marianna

    2015-01-07

    Previous studies showed an in-depth ecological understanding by traditional people of managing natural resources. We studied the landscape ethnoecological knowledge (LEEK) of Székelys on the basis of 16-19(th) century village laws. We analyzed the habitat types, ecosystem services and sustainable management types on which village laws had focused. Székelys had self-governed communities formed mostly of "noble peasants". Land-use was dominated by commons and regulated by village laws framed by the whole community. Seventy-two archival laws from 52 villages, resulting in 898 regulations, were analyzed using the DPSIR framework. Explicit and implicit information about the contemporary ecological knowledge of Székelys was extracted. We distinguished between responses that limited use and supported regeneration and those that protected produced/available ecosystem services and ensured their fair distribution. Most regulations referred to forests (674), arable lands (562), meadows (448) and pastures (134). Székelys regulated the proportion of arable land, pasture and forest areas consciously in order to maximize long-term exploitation of ecosystem services. The inner territory was protected against overuse by relocating certain uses to the outer territory. Competition for ecosystem services was demonstrated by conflicts of pressure-related (mostly personal) and response-related (mostly communal) driving forces. Felling of trees (oaks), grazing of forests, meadows and fallows, masting, use of wild apple/pear trees and fishing were strictly regulated. Cutting of leaf-fodder, grazing of green crops, burning of forest litter and the polluting of streams were prohibited. Marketing by villagers and inviting outsiders to use the ecosystem services were strictly regulated, and mostly prohibited. Székelys recognized at least 71 folk habitat types, understood ecological regeneration and degradation processes, the history of their landscape and the management possibilities of

  14. SATURATED ZONE IN-SITU TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.W. REIMUS

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters used in the development of parameter distributions for total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]), Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]), Saturated Zone Colloid Transport (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170006]), and ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, this scientific analysis contributes the following to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as part of a natural barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvial Testing Complex (ATC) located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass

  15. The saturated zone at Yucca Mountain: An overview of the characterization and assessment of the saturated zone as a barrier to potential radionuclide migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddebbarh, A.-A.; Zyvoloski, G.A.; Robinson, B.A.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Reimus, P.W.; Arnold, B.W.; Corbet, T.; Kuzio, S.P.; Faunt, C.

    2003-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is pursuing Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the development of a geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, if the repository is able to meet applicable radiation protection standards established by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Effective performance of such a repository would rely on a number of natural and engineered barriers to isolate radioactive waste from the accessible environment. Groundwater beneath Yucca Mountain is the primary medium through which most radionuclides might move away from the potential repository. The saturated zone (SZ) system is expected to act as a natural barrier to this possible movement of radionuclides both by delaying their transport and by reducing their concentration before they reach the accessible environment. Information obtained from Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project activities is used to estimate groundwater flow rates through the site-scale SZ flow and transport model area and to constrain general conceptual models of groundwater flow in the site-scale area. The site-scale conceptual model is a synthesis of what is known about flow and transport processes at the scale required for total system performance assessment of the site. This knowledge builds on and is consistent with knowledge that has accumulated at the regional scale but is more detailed because more data are available at the site-scale level. The mathematical basis of the site-scale model and the associated numerical approaches are designed to assist in quantifying the uncertainty in the permeability of rocks in the geologic framework model and to represent accurately the flow and transport processes included in the site-scale conceptual model. Confidence in the results of the mathematical model was obtained by comparing calculated to observed hydraulic heads, estimated to measured permeabilities, and lateral flow rates

  16. SPT-CL J2040–4451: An SZ-selected galaxy cluster at z = 1.478 with significant ongoing star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayliss, M. B.; Ruel, J. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, 17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ashby, M. L. N.; Foley, R. J.; Forman, W. R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Aird, K. A. [University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bautz, M. W. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bocquet, S.; Desai, S. [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Cho, H. M. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Clocchiatti, A. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrosifica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica (Chile); Dobbs, M. A.; Dudley, J. P., E-mail: mbayliss@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); and others

    2014-10-10

    SPT-CL J2040–4451—spectroscopically confirmed at z = 1.478—is the highest-redshift galaxy cluster yet discovered via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. SPT-CL J2040–4451 was a candidate galaxy cluster identified in the first 720 deg{sup 2} of the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SPT-SZ) survey, and has been confirmed in follow-up imaging and spectroscopy. From multi-object spectroscopy with Magellan-I/Baade+IMACS we measure spectroscopic redshifts for 15 cluster member galaxies, all of which have strong [O II] λλ3727 emission. SPT-CL J2040–4451 has an SZ-measured mass of M {sub 500,} {sub SZ} = 3.2 ± 0.8 × 10{sup 14} M {sub ☉} h {sub 70}{sup −1}, corresponding to M {sub 200,} {sub SZ} = 5.8 ± 1.4 × 10{sup 14} M {sub ☉} h {sub 70}{sup −1}. The velocity dispersion measured entirely from blue star-forming members is σ {sub v} = 1500 ± 520 km s{sup –1}. The prevalence of star-forming cluster members (galaxies with >1.5 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) implies that this massive, high-redshift cluster is experiencing a phase of active star formation, and supports recent results showing a marked increase in star formation occurring in galaxy clusters at z ≳ 1.4. We also compute the probability of finding a cluster as rare as this in the SPT-SZ survey to be >99%, indicating that its discovery is not in tension with the concordance ΛCDM cosmological model.

  17. Non-parametric deprojection of NIKA SZ observations: Pressure distribution in the Planck-discovered cluster PSZ1 G045.85+57.71

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppin, F.; Adam, R.; Comis, B.; Ade, P.; André, P.; Arnaud, M.; Beelen, A.; Benoît, A.; Bideaud, A.; Billot, N.; Bourrion, O.; Calvo, M.; Catalano, A.; Coiffard, G.; D'Addabbo, A.; De Petris, M.; Désert, F.-X.; Doyle, S.; Goupy, J.; Kramer, C.; Leclercq, S.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Mauskopf, P.; Mayet, F.; Monfardini, A.; Pajot, F.; Pascale, E.; Perotto, L.; Pisano, G.; Pointecouteau, E.; Ponthieu, N.; Pratt, G. W.; Revéret, V.; Ritacco, A.; Rodriguez, L.; Romero, C.; Schuster, K.; Sievers, A.; Triqueneaux, S.; Tucker, C.; Zylka, R.

    2017-01-01

    The determination of the thermodynamic properties of clusters of galaxies at intermediate and high redshift can bring new insights into the formation of large-scale structures. It is essential for a robust calibration of the mass-observable scaling relations and their scatter, which are key ingredients for precise cosmology using cluster statistics. Here we illustrate an application of high resolution (R 0.02 R500) to its outskirts (R 3 R500) non-parametrically for the first time at intermediate redshift. The constraints on the resulting pressure profile allow us to reduce the relative uncertainty on the integrated Compton parameter by a factor of two compared to the Planck value. Combining the tSZ data and the deprojected electronic density profile from XMM-Newton allows us to undertake a hydrostatic mass analysis, for which we study the impact of a spherical model assumption on the total mass estimate. We also investigate the radial temperature and entropy distributions. These data indicate that PSZ1 G045.85+57.71 is a massive (M500 5.5 × 1014M⊙) cool-core cluster. This work is part of a pilot study aiming at optimizing the treatment of the NIKA2 tSZ large program dedicated to the follow-up of SZ-discovered clusters at intermediate and high redshifts. This study illustrates the potential of NIKA2 to put constraints on thethermodynamic properties and tSZ-scaling relations of these clusters, and demonstrates the excellent synergy between tSZ and X-ray observations of similar angular resolution.

  18. Epidemlology of exercise-related transient abdominal pain at the Sydney City to Surf community run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D P; Richards, D; Callister, R

    2005-06-01

    A questionnaire was administered to 848 participants (76% runners, 24% walkers) at the conclusion of the 14 km City to Surf community run in order to investigate their experience of exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP). Twenty-seven percent of respondents reported experiencing ETAP during the event, with the condition reported more frequently (pnutritional content of the pre-event meal did not influence the experience of ETAP. Sufferers of ETAP were more likely to experience nausea (r = 0.12, p< 0.01) and report shoulder tip pain (r= 0.14, p< 0.01). The results indicate that ETAP is a commonly experienced problem and provide insights into the cause of the complaint.

  19. 3D reconstruction of a human heart fascicle using SurfDriver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Robert J.; Phillips, Steven J.; LaFollette, Paul S., Jr.

    2000-06-01

    The Temple University Medical School has a sequence of over 400 serial sections of adult normal ventricular human heart tissue, cut at 25 micrometer thickness. We used a Zeiss Ultraphot with a 4x planapo objective and a Pixera digital camera to make a series of 45 sequential montages to use in the 3D reconstruction of a fascicle (muscle bundle). We wrote custom software to merge 4 smaller image fields from each section into one composite image. We used SurfDriver software, developed by Scott Lozanoff of the University of Hawaii and David Moody of the University of Alberta, for registration, object boundary identification, and 3D surface reconstruction. We used an Epson Stylus Color 900 printer to get photo-quality prints. We describe the challenge and our solution to the following problems: image acquisition and digitization, image merge, alignment and registration, boundary identification, 3D surface reconstruction, 3D visualization and orientation, snapshot, and photo-quality prints.

  20. Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxin esters in Danish blue mussels and surf clams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kevin; Scanlon, Sine Hedegaard; Jensen, L.B.

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, little focus was given to the presence of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning ( DSP) toxin esters in seafood products. However, during the last few years, the occurrence of a high percentage of esters of the total amount of DSP toxins present in some seafood products has been observed....... Samples of Danish surf clams ( Spisola spp.) and blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis) from 1999 - 2004 were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry ( LC/ MS/ MS) for the presence of DSP toxin esters. The samples contained only okadaic acid and esters of okadaic acid. The level...... of okadaic acid esters of the total okadaic acid equivalents ranged from 21 to 86%, mean 59%. The probability of a high percentage of okadaic acid esters seems to increase with higher amounts of total okadaic acid equivalents in the bivalves. The large prevalence of DSP toxin esters are of particular...

  1. Phase speed of electrostatic waves: The critical parameter for efficient electron surfing acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Dieckmann, M E; Parviainen, M; Shukla, P K; Sircombe, N J

    2006-01-01

    Particle acceleration by means of non-linear plasma wave interactions is of great topical interest. Accordingly, in this paper we focus on the electron surfing process. Self-consistent kinetic simulations, using both relativistic Vlasov and PIC (Particle In Cell) approaches, show here that electrons can be accelerated to highly relativistic energies (up to 100 m_e c^2) if the phase speed of the electrostatic wave is mildly relativistic (0.6c to 0.9c for the magnetic field strengths considered). The acceleration is strong because of relativistic stabilisation of the nonlinearly saturated electrostatic wave, seen in both relativistic Vlasov and PIC simulations. An inverse power law momentum distribution can arise for the most strongly accelerated electrons. These results are of relevance to observed rapid changes in the radio synchrotron emission intensities from microquasars, gamma ray bursts and other astrophysical objects that require rapid acceleration mechanisms for electrons.

  2. Phase speed of electrostatic waves: the critical parameter for efficient electron surfing acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckmann, M E [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Sircombe, N J [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Parviainen, M [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Shukla, P K [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Dendy, R O [UKAEA Culham Division, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2006-04-15

    Particle acceleration by means of nonlinear plasma wave interactions is of great topical interest. Accordingly, in this paper we focus on the electron surfing process. Self-consistent kinetic simulations, using both relativistic Vlasov and particle-in-cell (PIC) approaches, show here that electrons can be accelerated to highly relativistic energies (up to 100m{sub e}c{sup 2}) if the phase speed of the electrostatic wave is mildly relativistic (0.6c to 0.9c for the magnetic field strengths considered). The acceleration is strong because of relativistic stabilization of the nonlinearly saturated electrostatic wave, seen in both relativistic Vlasov and PIC simulations. An inverse power law momentum distribution can arise for the most strongly accelerated electrons. These results are of relevance to observed rapid changes in the radio synchrotron emission intensities from microquasars, gamma ray bursts and other astrophysical objects that require rapid acceleration mechanisms for electrons.

  3. Chemolithotrophy in the continental deep subsurface: Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Rose Osburn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The deep subsurface is an enormous repository of microbial life. However, the metabolic capabilities of these microorganisms and the degree to which they are dependent on surface processes are largely unknown. Due to the logistical difficulty of sampling and inherent heterogeneity, the microbial populations of the terrestrial subsurface are poorly characterized. In an effort to better understand the biogeochemistry of deep terrestrial habitats, we evaluate the energetic yield of chemolithotrophic metabolisms and microbial diversity in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF in the former Homestake Gold Mine, SD, USA. Geochemical data, energetic modeling, and DNA sequencing were combined with principle component analysis to describe this deep (down to 8100 ft below surface, terrestrial environment. SURF provides access into an iron-rich Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary deposit that contains deeply circulating groundwater. Geochemical analyses of subsurface fluids reveal enormous geochemical diversity ranging widely in salinity, oxidation state (ORP 330 to -328 mV, and concentrations of redox sensitive species (e.g., Fe2+ from near 0 to 6.2 mg/L and ΣS2- from 7 to 2778 μg/L. As a direct result of this compositional buffet, Gibbs energy calculations reveal an abundance of energy for microorganisms from the oxidation of sulfur, iron, nitrogen, methane, and manganese. Pyrotag DNA sequencing reveals diverse communities of chemolithoautotrophs, thermophiles, aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophs, and numerous uncultivated clades. Extrapolated across the mine footprint, these data suggest a complex spatial mosaic of subsurface primary productivity that is in good agreement with predicted energy yields. Notably, we report Gibbs energy normalized both per mole of reaction and per kg fluid (energy density and find the later to be more consistent with observed physiologies and environmental conditions. Further application of this approach will

  4. Object Recognition System in Remote Controlled Weapon Station using SIFT and SURF Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midriem Mirdanies

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Object recognition system using computer vision that is implemented on Remote Controlled Weapon Station (RCWS is discussed. This system will make it easier to identify and shoot targeted object automatically. Algorithm was created to recognize real time multiple objects using two methods i.e. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF combined with K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN and Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC for verification. The algorithm is designed to improve object detection to be more robust and to minimize the processing time required. Objects are registered on the system consisting of the armored personnel carrier, tanks, bus, sedan, big foot, and police jeep. In addition, object selection can use mouse to shoot another object that has not been registered on the system. Kinect™ is used to capture RGB images and to find the coordinates x, y, and z of the object. The programming language used is C with visual studio IDE 2010 and opencv libraries. Object recognition program is divided into three parts: 1 reading image from kinect™ and simulation results, 2 object recognition process, and 3 transfer of the object data to the ballistic computer. Communication between programs is performed using shared memory. The detected object data is sent to the ballistic computer via Local Area Network (LAN using winsock for ballistic calculation, and then the motor control system moves the direction of the weapon model to the desired object. The experimental results show that the SIFT method is more suitable because more accurate and faster than SURF with the average processing time to detect one object is 430.2 ms, two object is 618.4 ms, three objects is 682.4 ms, and four objects is 756.2 ms. Object recognition program is able to recognize multi-objects and the data of the identified object can be processed by the ballistic computer in realtime.

  5. Chinese Sign Language Recognition Method Based on Depth Image Information and SURF-BoW%基于深度信息和SURF-BoW的中国手语识别算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨全; 彭进业

    2014-01-01

    为实现视频中手语的准确识别,提出一种基于深度图连续自适应均值漂移( DI_CamShift)和加速强健特征词包( SURF-BoW)的中国手语识别算法.该算法将Kinect作为手语视频采集设备,在获取彩色视频的同时得到其深度信息.算法首先计算深度图像中手语手势的主轴方向角和质心位置,通过调整搜索窗口对手势准确跟踪;然后使用基于深度积分图像的OTSU算法分割手势并提取其加速强健特征( SURF),进而构建SURF-BoW作为手语特征并使用SVM识别.通过实验验证该算法在单个手语字母上的最好识别率为99.37%,平均识别率为96.24%.%To realize the accurate recognition of sign language in the video, an algorithm based on depth image CamShift( DI_CamShift) and speeded up robust features-bag of words ( SURF-BoW) is proposed. Kinect is used as the sign language video capture device to obtain both of the color video and depth image information of sign language gestures. Firstly, spindle direction angle and mass center position of the depth images are calculated and the search window is adjusted to track gesture. Next, an OTSU algorithm based on depth integral image is used for gesture segmentation, and the SURF features are extracted. Finally, SURF-BoW is built as the feature of sign language and SVM is utilized for recognition. The best recognition rate of single manual alphabet reaches 99 . 37%, and the average recognition rate is up to 96 . 24%.

  6. The Multi-Scale Response of Water Quality, Biodiversity and Carbon Sequestration to Coupled Macronutrient Cycling from Source to Sea: TURF2SURF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Andrew; Emmett, Bridget; Jago, Colin; Stutter, Marc; Biggs, Jeremy

    2016-04-01

    Turf2Surf is a large, multi-disciplinary project that aims to test the hypothesis that the spatial and temporal patterns of water quality, C sequestration and biodiversity are better explained through the large-scale coupling of C, N and P cycles than by single cycle, single system approaches. To achieve this, a catchment-scale study of the River Conwy (349 km2) in Wales is being done with emphasis on determining when, where and how coupled macronutrient (C, N, P) cycling occurs in the biogeochemical hot-spots of the soils, the riparian zone, instream and in the river-estuarine transition zone. A major integrated measurement programme is now largely complete. New data are being analysed to understand which soil properties have greatest influence on above and below-ground productivity including plant traits and how microbial processing is controlled by stoichiometry and nutrient priming. Within the stream network, new understanding is being produced on the in-river algal and whole ecosystem (metabolic) response to CNP additions and the factors affecting the fate and cycling of organic matter. In the estuary, initial results indicate a subsurface jet is causing stratification and a velocity anomaly has been observed. Both are important in terms of suspended matter transport and floc break-up. An integrated model is being built to describe the soil-atmosphere-vegetation processes which is linked, firstly, to flow and water quality models that describe the CNP flux transport and transformations from the headwaters to the estuary and, secondly, to biodiversity models. The purpose of the integrated model is to quantify how coupled CNP cycles may respond to environmental change and thereby affect C sequestration, water quality and biodiversity in the future. The team are now in the major phase of data synthesis and model development and are interested in linking with similar studies involving coupled CNP cycles across the atmospheric

  7. 新型节能SZ11有载调压变压器的研制%Development of New Energy-Saving SZ11 on-load Voltage Adjustment Transformer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永华

    2012-01-01

    Transformer is the very important and widespread electric power equipment in the power grid. For the grid, due to the voltage changes along with the load voltage changes, the transformer should be adjusted in terms of voltage. Otherwise , the voltage rise and fall by itself would cause transformer loss increasing, and also lead to negative effects on security. This paper described one new energy-saving SZ11 on-load voltage adjustment transformer, which was developed for voltage adjustment by switching over transformer steps without powering off, thereby stabilizing the voltage of the load center when the changes of the power grid voltage occurs, therefore, adjusting the load power flow and allocating the electric power resources reasonably. Furthermore, the structure of this kind of transformer is more reasonable, the electrical performance is greatly improved and the energy saving effect is more remarkable on the basis of improving structure and performance as well as using new technology, materials and process.%变压器是电网中极其重要、极其普遍的一种电力设备.由于电网的电压随用电负荷的变化而相应变化,因此,也应对变压器的电压做随时调整;否则,电网电压的上升或下降会造成变压器损耗的加大,而且还会带来对安全的不利影响.研制的新型节能SZ11有载调压变压器具有在不停电的情况下,切换变压器调压档位进行调压,并随着电网电压的波动稳定负载中心的电压,调节负载潮流,合理配置电力资源的特点;同时,通过改进结构,改善性能,运用新技术、新材料、新工艺等措施,使该种变压器的结构更为合理,电气性能大为改善,节能效果更为显著.

  8. A randomised crossover comparison of manikin ventilation through Soft Seal®, i‐gel™ and AuraOnce™ supraglottic airway devices by surf lifeguards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adelborg, K; Al‐Mashhadi, R. H; Nielsen, L. H; Dalgas, C; Mortensen, M. B; Løfgren, B

    2014-01-01

    Forty surf lifeguards attempted to ventilate a manikin through one out of three supraglottic airways inserted in random order: the Portex ® Soft Seal ® ; the Intersurgical ® i‐gel™; and the Ambu ® AuraOnce...

  9. Análisis descriptivo de la dinámica del surf como práctica social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Naranjo Del Giudice

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo de investigación, la cultura del surf es analizada desde la teoría de la práctica social (Giraldo y Halliday 2012, Shove et al., 2012. Para este fin, se estudiaron cada uno de los elementos que conforman la práctica y la forma como estos se interrelacionan como un todo. Las ofertas de valor construidas pueden ser entendidas como constelaciones (Nornmann y Ramírez 1993 de recursos que mediante su integración contextual forman productos y servicios. Los datos fueron recolectados en un año mediante registros de campo, narrativas, registro fotográfico y observación participante. La información fue recolectada por parte de uno de los investigadores que pertenece a la comunidad de surf durante cuatro meses de manera permanentemente y durante ocho meses de manera intermitentes. Se encontró cómo la teoría de la práctica social puede explicar la dinámica del surf y como el surf puede agregar a la teoría de la práctica social un nuevo factor: la comunidad. La relación de interdependencia entre los aspectos pertenecientes a las prácticas sociales según (Giraldo y Halliday 2012, Shove et al., 2012, comprueba que el desarrollo de cada uno de ellos, afecta toda la práctica, lo cual requiere estudios profundos en cada segmento con el fin de crear, mejorar o destruir cualquier práctica social.

  10. Modeling aerosol surface chemistry and gas-particle interaction kinetics with K2-SURF: PAH oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraiwa, M.; Garland, R.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. They have the ability to impact cloud properties, radiative balance and provide surfaces for heterogeneous reactions. The uptake of gaseous species on aerosol surfaces impacts both the aerosol particles and the atmospheric budget of trace gases. These subsequent changes to the aerosol can in turn impact the aerosol chemical and physical properties. However, this uptake, as well as the impact on the aerosol, is not fully understood. This uncertainty is due not only to limited measurement data, but also a dearth of comprehensive and applicable modeling formalizations used for the analysis, interpretation and description of these heterogeneous processes. Without a common model framework, comparing and extrapolating experimental data is difficult. In this study, a novel kinetic surface model (K2-SURF) [Ammann & Pöschl, 2007; Pöschl et al., 2007] was used to describe the oxidation of a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Integrated into this consistent and universally applicable kinetic and thermodynamic process model are the concepts, terminologies and mathematical formalizations essential to the description of atmospherically relevant physicochemical processes involving organic and mixed organic-inorganic aerosols. Within this process model framework, a detailed master mechanism, simplified mechanism and parameterizations of atmospheric aerosol chemistry are being developed and integrated in analogy to existing mechanisms and parameterizations of atmospheric gas-phase chemistry. One of the key aspects to this model is the defining of a clear distinction between various layers of the particle and surrounding gas phase. The processes occurring at each layer can be fully described using known fluxes and kinetic parameters. Using this system there is a clear separation of gas phase, gas-surface and surface bulk transport and reactions. The partitioning of compounds can be calculated using the flux

  11. Butyltins, trace metals and morphological variables in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) wintering on the south coast of British Columbia, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J.E. [Environment Canada, Science and Technology Branch, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, 5421 Robertson Rd., RR1 Delta, British Columbia V4K 3N2 (Canada)]. E-mail: john.elliott@ec.gc.ca; Harris, M.L. [Lorax Environmental, 136 St. Catherine' s Rd, RR3 Bonshaw, Prince Edward Island C0A 1C0 (Canada); Wilson, L.K. [Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, 5421 Robertson Rd, RR1 Delta, British Columbia V4K 3N2 (Canada); Smith, B.D. [Environment Canada, Science and Technology Branch, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, 5421 Robertson Rd., RR1 Delta, British Columbia V4K 3N2 (Canada); Batchelor, S.P. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd., PO Box 5050, Burlington, Ontario L7R 4A6 (Canada); Maguire, J. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd., PO Box 5050, Burlington, Ontario L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2007-09-15

    From 1998 to 2001 we examined spatial and temporal variation in uptake of contaminants by surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) in the Georgia Basin region of the Pacific coast of Canada. Samples were collected during late fall and early spring at industrialized and reference locations, carcasses examined, and tissues collected for histology, biomarkers, and contaminant analyses. Scoters from both Vancouver and Victoria harbours had significantly higher hepatic concentrations of {sigma}butyltins than birds from a reference site. In adult male surf scoters, hepatic {sigma}butyltins increased over the winter at two sites (p = 0.02, n = 26), while mercury increased (p = 0.03, n = 15) and selenium decreased at one site (p = 0.001, n = 15). Body condition decreased over the winter at both the treatment site, Howe Sound (p < 0.0001, n = 12), and the reference site, Baynes Sound (p = 0.02, n = 15). Multiple regression analysis using Akaike's Information Criteria (AIC{sub C}) showed an association between hepatic butyltin concentrations and overall body condition (p = 0.06, r = - 0.237). - Hepatic butyltin concentrations in surf scoters increased significantly over a winter in the Strait of Georgia, and correlated negatively with body condition.

  12. Sunyaev-Zel'dovich-Measured Pressure Profiles from the Bolocam X-ray/SZ Galaxy Cluster Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Sayers, Jack; Mantz, Adam; Golwala, Sunil R; Ameglio, Silvia; Downes, Tom P; Koch, Patrick M; Lin, Kai-Yang; Maughan, Ben J; Molnar, Sandor M; Moustakas, Leonidas; Mroczkowski, Tony; Pierpaoli, Elena; Shitanishi, Jennifer A; Siegel, Seth; Umetsu, Keiichi; Van der Pyl, Nina

    2012-01-01

    We describe Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect measurements and analysis of the intracluster medium (ICM) pressure profiles of a set of 45 massive galaxy clusters imaged using Bolocam at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. We have used masses determined from Chandra X-ray observations to scale each cluster's profile by the overdensity radius R500 and the mass-and-redshift-dependent normalization factor P500. We deproject the average pressure profile of our sample into 13 logarithmically spaced radial bins between 0.07R500 and 3.5R500. We find that a generalized Navarro, Frenk, and White (gNFW) profile describes our data with sufficient goodness-of-fit and best-fit parameters (C500, alpha, beta, gamma, P0 = 1.18, 0.86, 3.67, 0.67, 4.29). We also use the X-ray data to define cool-core and disturbed subsamples of clusters, and we constrain the average pressure profiles of each of these subsamples. We find that given the precision of our data the average pressure profiles of disturbed and cool-core clusters are co...

  13. X-ray calibration of SZ scaling relations with the ACCEPT catalogue of galaxy clusters observed by Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Comis, B; Conte, A; Lamagna, L; De Gregori, S

    2011-01-01

    We explore the scaling relation between the flux of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect and the total mass of galaxy clusters using already reduced Chandra X-ray data present in the ACCEPT (Archive of Chandra Cluster Entropy Profile Tables) catalogue. The analysis is conducted over a sample of 226 objects, examining the relatively small scale corresponding to a cluster overdensity equal to 2500 times the critical density of the background universe, at which the total masses have been calculated exploiting the hydrostatic equilibrium hypothesis. Core entropy (K0) is strongly correlated with the central cooling time, and is therefore used to identify cooling-core (CC) objects in our sample. Our results confirm the self-similarity of the scaling relation between the integrated Comptonization parameter (Y) and the cluster mass, for both CC and NCC (non-cooling-core) clusters. The consistency of our calibration with recent ones has been checked, with further support for Y as a good mass proxy. We also investigate t...

  14. Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect Observations of the Bullet Cluster (1E 0657-56) with APEX-SZ

    CERN Document Server

    Halverson, N W; Ade, P A R; Basu, K; Bender, A N; Benson, B A; Bertoldi, F; Cho, H -M; Chon, G; Clarke, J; Dobbs, M; Ferrusca, D; Guesten, R; Holzapfel, W L; Kovács, A; Kennedy, J; Kermish, Z; Kneissl, R; Lee, A T; Lueker, M; Mehl, J; Menten, K M; Muders, D; Nord, M; Pacaud, F; Plagge, T; Reichardt, C; Richards, P L; Schaaf, R; Schilke, P; Schuller, F; Schwan, D; Spieler, H; Tucker, C; Weiss, A; Zahn, O

    2008-01-01

    We present observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) in the Bullet cluster (1E 0657-56) using the APEX-SZ instrument at 150 GHz with a resolution of 1 arcmin. The main results are maps of the SZE in this massive, merging galaxy cluster. The cluster is detected with 23 sigma significance within the central 1 arcmin radius of the source position. The SZE map has a broadly similar morphology to that in existing X-ray maps of this system, and we find no evidence for significant contamination of the SZE emission by radio or IR sources. In order to make simple quantitative comparisons with cluster gas models derived from X-ray observations, we fit our data to an isothermal elliptical beta model, despite the inadequacy of such a model for this complex merging system. With an X-ray derived prior on the power-law index, beta = 1.04 +0.16/-0.10, we find a core radius r_c =144 +/- 19 arcsec, an axial ratio of 0.881 +/- 0.086, and a central temperature decrement of -880 +/- 80 micro-K_CMB, including a +/- 6% fl...

  15. Cross-correlating Planck tSZ with RCSLenS weak lensing: Implications for cosmology and AGN feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Hojjati, Alireza; Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; McCarthy, Ian G; van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Choi, Ami; Erben, Thomas; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hinshaw, Gary; Ma, Yin-Zhe; Miller, Lance; Viola, Massimo; Tanimura, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    We present measurements of the spatial mapping between (hot) baryons and the total matter in the Universe, via the cross-correlation between the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) map from Planck and the weak gravitational lensing maps from the Red Sequence Cluster Survey (RCSLenS). The cross-correlations are performed on the map level where all the sources (including diffuse intergalactic gas) contribute to the signal. We consider two configuration-space correlation function estimators, $\\xi^{ y-\\kappa}$ and $\\xi^ {y-\\gamma_{t}}$, and a Fourier space estimator, $C_{\\ell}^{y-\\kappa}$, in our analysis. We detect a significant correlation out to three degrees of angular separation on the sky. Based on statistical noise only, we can report 13$\\sigma$ and 17$\\sigma$ detections of the cross-correlation using the configuration-space $y-\\kappa$ and $y-\\gamma_{t}$ estimators, respectively. Including a heuristic estimate of the sampling variance yields a detection significance of 6$\\sigma$ and 8$\\sigma$, respectively. A ...

  16. Changes in Plastid and Mitochondria Protein Expression in Arabidopsis Thaliana Callus on Board Chinese Spacecraft SZ-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Zheng, Hui Qiong

    2015-11-01

    Microgravity represents an adverse abiotic environment, which causes rearrangements in cellular organelles and changes in the energy metabolism of cells. Plastids and mitochondria are two subcellular energy organelles that are responsible for major metabolic processes, including photosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, ß-oxidation, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In our previous study performed on board the Chinese spacecraft SZ-8, we evaluated the global changes exerted by microgravity on the proteome of Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures by comparing the microgravity-exposed samples with the controls either under 1 g centrifugation in space or 1 g ground conditions. Here, we report additional data from this space experiment that highlights the plastid and mitochondria proteins that responded to space flight conditions. We observed that 43 plastidial proteins and 50 mitochondrial proteins changed their abundances under microgravity in space. The major changes in both plastids and mitochondria involved proteins that functions in a suite of redox antioxidant and metabolic pathways. These results suggested that these antioxidant and metabolic changes in plastids and mitochondria could be important components of the adaptive strategy in plants subjected to microgravity in space.

  17. Artemita bicolor Kertész, novo sinônimo de Artemita podexargenteus Enderlein, (Diptera, Stratiomyidae com notas nas terminálias masculina e feminina Artemita bicolor Kertész, new synonym of Artemita podexargenteus Enderlein, (Diptera, Stratiomyidae with notes on male and female terminalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ururahy-Rodrigues

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O gênero de Stratiomyidae, Artemita Walker, 1854 esta representado na região Neotropical por 14 espécies, seis das quais ocorrem no Brasil. Apesar das importantes revisões de KERTÉSZ (1914 e JAMES (1971 o conhecimento sobre a variação morfológica no grupo ainda é rudimentar, principalmente com relação a terminália. Neste trabalho, com base na morfologia da terminália Artemita bicolor Kertész, 1914 é proposta como sinônimo júnior de Artemita podexargenteus Enderlein, 1914 e a última é redescrita.The Stratiomyidae genus Artemita Walker, 1854 is represented in the Neotropical Region by 14 species, 6 of which occur in Brazil. Despite of the important revisions by KERTÉSZ (1914 and JAMES (1971 knowledge of morphological variation within the group is rudimentary, mainly with respect to the terminalia. In this work, Artemita bicolor Kertész, 1914 is proposed as a junior synonym of Artemita podexargenteus Enderlein, 1914 and the latter is redescribed based on terminalia morphology.

  18. Hypotonic challenge modulates cell volumes differently in the superficial zone of intact articular cartilage and cartilage explant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, Siru M; Lammi, Mikko J; Saarakkala, Simo; Koistinen, Arto; Korhonen, Rami K

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sample preparation on the biomechanical behaviour of chondrocytes. We compared the volumetric and dimensional changes of chondrocytes in the superficial zone (SZ) of intact articular cartilage and cartilage explant before and after a hypotonic challenge. Calcein-AM labelled SZ chondrocytes were imaged with confocal laser scanning microscopy through intact cartilage surfaces and through cut surfaces of cartilage explants. In order to clarify the effect of tissue composition on cell volume changes, Fourier Transform Infrared microspectroscopy was used for estimating the proteoglycan and collagen contents of the samples. In the isotonic medium (300 mOsm), there was a significant difference (p integrity of the mechanical environment of chondrocytes.

  19. QSAR Study and VolSurf Characterization of Human Intestinal Absorption of Druge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡桂香; 商志才; 等

    2003-01-01

    The prediction of human intestinal absorption is a major goal in the design,optimization,and selection of candidates for the develoment of oral drugs.In this study,a computerized method(VolSurf with GRID) was used as a novel tool for predicting human intestinal absorption of test compound,and for determining the critical molecular properties needed for human intestinal absorption.The tested molecules consisted of 20 diverse drug-like compounds.Partial least squares(PLS) discriminant analysis was used to correlate the experimental data with the theoretical molecular properties of human intestinal absorption.A good correlation(r2=0.95,q2=0.86) between the molecular modeling results and the experimental data demonstrated that human intestinal absorption could be predicted from the three-dimensional(3D) molecular structure of a compound .Favorable structureal properties identified for the potent intestinal absorption of drugs included strong imbalance between the center of mass of a molecule and the barycentre of its hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions and a definitive hydrophobic region as well as less hydrogen bonding donors and acceptors in the molecule.

  20. Hybrid Video Stabilization for Mobile Vehicle Detection on SURF in Aerial Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Chunxian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of moving vehicles in aerial video sequences is of great importance with many promising applications in surveillance, intelligence transportation, or public service applications such as emergency evacuation and policy security. However, vehicle detection is a challenging task due to global camera motion, low resolution of vehicles, and low contrast between vehicles and background. In this paper, we present a hybrid method to efficiently detect moving vehicle in aerial videos. Firstly, local feature extraction and matching were performed to estimate the global motion. It was demonstrated that the Speeded Up Robust Feature (SURF key points were more suitable for the stabilization task. Then, a list of dynamic pixels was obtained and grouped for different moving vehicles by comparing the different optical flow normal. To enhance the precision of detection, some preprocessing methods were applied to the surveillance system, such as road extraction and other features. A quantitative evaluation on real video sequences indicated that the proposed method improved the detection performance significantly.

  1. Enzyme as catalytic wheel powered by a Markovian engine: conformational coupling and barrier surfing models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsong, Tian Yow; Chang, Cheng-Hung

    2005-05-01

    We examine a typical Michaelis-Menten Enzyme (MME) and redress it to form a transducer of free energy, and electric, acoustic, or other types of energy. This amendment and extension is necessary in lieu of recent experiments in which enzymes are shown to perform pump, motor, and locomotion functions resembling their macroscopic counterparts. Classical textbook depicts enzyme, or an MME, as biocatalyst which can enhance the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering the activation barrier but cannot shift the thermodynamic equilibrium of the biochemical reaction. An energy transducer, on the other hand, must also be able to harvest, store, or divert energy and in doing so alter the chemical equilibrium, change the energy form, fuel an energy consuming process, or perform all these functions stepwise in one catalytic turnover. The catalytic wheel presented in this communication is both a catalyst and an energy transducer and can perform all these tasks with ease. A Conformational Coupling Model for the rotary motors and a Barrier Surfing Model for the track-guided stepping motors and transporters, are presented and compared. It is shown that the core engine of the catalytic wheel, or a Brownian motor, is a Markovian engine. It remains to be seen if this core engine is the basic mechanism for a wide variety of bio-molecular energy transducers, as well as certain other dynamic systems, for example, the Parrondo's Games.

  2. 3D-QSAR studies on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 substrates using the pharmacophore and VolSurf approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako, Roland; Dong, Dong; Wu, Baojian

    2012-09-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7) is an important enzyme responsible for clearance of many drugs. Here, we report two 3D quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for UGT2B7 using the pharmacophore and VolSurf approach, respectively. The dataset included 53 structurally diverse UGT2B7 substrates, 36 of which were used for the training set and 17 of which for the external test set. Pharmacophore-based 3D-QSAR model (or hypothesis) was developed using the Discovery Studio program. A user-defined "glucuronidation site" feature was forcefully included in a pharmacophore hypothesis. VolSurf-based 3D-QSAR model was generated using the VolSurf program. This involves calculation of VolSurf descriptors, variable selection with the FFD algorithm, and partial least squares (PLS) analyses. The best pharmacophore model (r(2) = 0.736) consists of one glucuronidation site, one hydrogen bond acceptor, and three hydrophobic regions. Using this model, K(m) values for 14 of 17 test substrates were predicted within one log unit. The yielded VolSurf (PLS) model with two components shows statistical significance in both fitting and internal predicting (r(2) = 0.866, q(2) = 0.728). Further, the K(m) values for all test substrates were predicted within one log unit. In addition, the VolSurf model reveals an overlay of chemical features influencing the enzyme-substrate binding. Those include molecular size and shape, integy moments, capacity factors, best volumes of DRY probe, H-bonding, and log P. In conclusion, the pharmacophore and VolSurf approaches are successfully utilized to establish predictive models for UGT2B7. The derived models should be an efficient tool for high throughput prediction of UGT2B7 metabolism.

  3. A saturated zone site-scale flow model for Yucca mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddebbarh, Al Aziz [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    A saturated zone site-scale flow model (YMSZFM) was developed for licensing requirements for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository to incorporate recent data and analyses including recent stratigraphic and water-level data from Nye County wells, single-and multiple-well hydraulic testing data, and recent hydrochemistry data. Analyses include use of data from the 2004 transient Death Valley Regional (ground-water) Flow System (DVRFS) model, the 2003 unsaturated zone flow model, and the latest hydrogeologic framework model (HFM). This model includes: (1) the latest understanding of SZ flow, (2) enhanced model validation and uncertainty analyses, (3) improved locations and definitions of fault zones, (4) refined grid resolution (500-to 250-m grid spacing), and (5) use of new data. The flow model was completed using the three-dimensional, Finite-Element Heat and Mass Transfer computer code (FEHM). The SZ site-scale flow model was calibrated with the commercial parameter estimation code, PEST to achieve a minimum difference between observed water levels and predicted water levels, and also between volumetric/mass flow rates along specific boundary segments as supplied by the DVRFS. A total of 161 water level and head measurements with varied weights were used for calibration. A comparison between measured water-level data and the potentiometric surface yielded an RMSE of 20.7 m (weighted RMSE of 8.8 m). The calibrated model was used to generate flow paths and specific discharge predictions. Model confidence was built by comparing: (l) calculated to observed hydraulic heads, and (2) calibrated to measured permeabilities (and therefore specific discharge). In addition, flowpaths emanating from below the repository footprint are consistent with those inferred both from gradients of measured head and from independent water-chemistry data. Uncertainties in the SZ site-scale flow model were quantified because all uncertainty contributes to inaccuracy in system

  4. Galaxy populations in the 26 most massive galaxy clusters in the South Pole Telescope SPT-SZ survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenteno, A.; Mohr, J. J.; Desai, S.; Stalder, B.; Saro, A.; Dietrich, J. P.; Bayliss, M.; Bocquet, S.; Chiu, I.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Gangkofner, C.; Gupta, N.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; McDonald, M.; Reichardt, C.; Rest, A.

    2016-10-01

    We present a study of the optical properties of the 26 most massive galaxy clusters within the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SPT-SZ) 2500 deg2 survey spanning the redshift range 0.10 Frenk-White profile of concentration 2.84^{+0.40}_{-0.37} for the red sequence (RS) and 2.36^{+0.38}_{-0.35} for the total population. Stacking the data in multiple redshift bins shows slight redshift evolution in the concentration when both the total population is used, and when only RS galaxies are used (at 2.1σ and 2.8σ, respectively). The stacked LF shows a faint end slope α = -1.06^{+0.04}_{-0.03} for the total and α = -0.80^{+0.04}_{-0.03} for the RS population. The redshift evolution of m* is consistent with a passively evolving composite stellar population (CSP) model. Adopting the CSP model predictions, we explore the redshift evolution of the Schechter parameters α and φ*. We find α for the total population to be consistent with no evolution (0.3σ), and mildly significant evidence of evolution for the red galaxies (1.1-2.1σ). The data show that the density φ*/E2(z) decreases with redshift, in tension with the self-similar expectation at a 2.4σ level for the total population. The measured HON-mass relation has a lower normalization than previous low redshift studies. Finally, our data support HON redshift evolution at a 2.1σ level, with clusters at higher redshift containing fewer galaxies than their low-z counterparts.

  5. Cross-correlating Planck tSZ with RCSLenS weak lensing: implications for cosmology and AGN feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojjati, Alireza; Tröster, Tilman; Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; McCarthy, Ian G.; van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Choi, Ami; Erben, Thomas; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hinshaw, Gary; Ma, Yin-Zhe; Miller, Lance; Viola, Massimo; Tanimura, Hideki

    2017-10-01

    We present measurements of the spatial mapping between (hot) baryons and the total matter in the Universe, via the cross-correlation between the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) map from Planck and the weak gravitational lensing maps from the Red Cluster Sequence Lensing Survey (RCSLenS). The cross-correlations are performed on the map level where all the sources (including diffuse intergalactic gas) contribute to the signal. We consider two configuration-space correlation function estimators, ξy-κ and ξ ^ {y-γ t}, and a Fourier-space estimator, C_{ℓ}^{y-κ}, in our analysis. We detect a significant correlation out to 3° of angular separation on the sky. Based on statistical noise only, we can report 13σ and 17σ detections of the cross-correlation using the configuration-space y-κ and y-γt estimators, respectively. Including a heuristic estimate of the sampling variance yields a detection significance of 7σ and 8σ, respectively. A similar level of detection is obtained from the Fourier-space estimator, C_{ℓ}^{y-κ}. As each estimator probes different dynamical ranges, their combination improves the significance of the detection. We compare our measurements with predictions from the cosmo-OverWhelmingly Large Simulations suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, where different galactic feedback models are implemented. We find that a model with considerable active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback that removes large quantities of hot gas from galaxy groups and Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7-yr best-fitting cosmological parameters provides the best match to the measurements. All baryonic models in the context of a Planck cosmology overpredict the observed signal. Similar cosmological conclusions are drawn when we employ a halo model with the observed 'universal' pressure profile.

  6. Effect of tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on the expression of cytochrome P4501A1 in human SZ95 sebocytes and its significance%四氯二苯并二恶英对SZ95人皮脂腺细胞细胞色素P4501A1表达的影响及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余茜; 胡婷婷; 莫小辉; 章楚光; 夏隆庆; Christos C.Zouboulis; 鞠强

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨环境污染物2,3,7,8-四氯二苯并二恶英(TCDD)影响人皮脂腺细胞的细胞色素P4501A1 (CYP1A1)分子信号途径及氯痤疮的发生机制.方法 实时荧光PCR研究10 nmol/L TCDD作用SZ95人皮脂腺细胞2h后CYP1A1 mRNA表达的变化;细胞免疫组化和斑点印迹法研究10 nmol/L TCDD作用SZ95人皮脂腺细胞3d后蛋白表达变化情况.结果 实时荧光PCR研究显示,CYP1A1 mRNA在SZ95人皮脂腺细胞呈低量表达,在10 nmol/L TCDD作用下,CYP1A1 mRNA表达增强了5.622倍,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).细胞免疫组化显示,CYP1A1蛋白在SZ95人皮脂腺细胞核及胞质中低量表达,在10 nmol/L TCDD作用下表达明显增强.斑点印迹法证实,10 nmol/LTCDD作用于SZ95人皮脂腺细胞3d后CYP1A1蛋白相对定量值(4.233±0.252)显著高于未加药的阴性对照组(0.123±0.208),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 CYP1A1 mRNA和蛋白在SZ95人皮脂腺细胞上呈低量表达,但在TCDD作用下表达被激活,体外证明CYP1A1是TCDD影响人皮脂腺细胞异常分化的AhR下游靶位基因之一.%Objective To estimate the effect of the enviromental pollutant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin (TCDD),a representative of the dioxin family,on the expression of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) in cultured human immortalized SZ95 sebocytes in vitro,so as to improve understanding of the pathogenesis of chloracne.Methods SZ95 sebocytes were cultured with or without the presence of 10 nmol/L TCDD for two hours or three days.Real time fluorescence-based PCR was performed to quantify the mRNA expression of CYP1A1,immunohistochemistry and Western blot to determine the expression level of CYP1A1 protein,in the SZ95 cells.Chi-square test was done to compare the protein and mRNA expressions of CYP1A1 between untreated and treated SZ95 cells.Results Real time PCR showed that the mRNA expression of CYP1A1 was low in SZ95 sebocytes,and increased by 5.622 times after 2-hour treatment with TCDD(P

  7. Estimate of Boundary-Layer Depth Over Beijing, China, Using Doppler Lidar Data During SURF-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meng; Gao, Zhiqiu; Miao, Shiguang; Chen, Fei; LeMone, Margaret A.; Li, Ju; Hu, Fei; Wang, Linlin

    2016-09-01

    Planetary boundary-layer (PBL) structure was investigated using observations from a Doppler lidar and the 325-m Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) meteorological tower in the centre of Beijing during the summer 2015 Study of Urban-impacts on Rainfall and Fog/haze (SURF-2015) field campaign. Using six fair-weather days of lidar and tower data under clear to cloudy skies, we evaluate the ability of the Doppler lidar to probe the urban boundary-layer structure, and then propose a composite method for estimating the diurnal cycle of the PBL depth using the Doppler lidar. For the convective boundary layer (CBL), a threshold method using vertical velocity variance (σ _w^2 >0.1 m2s^{-2}) is used, since it provides more reliable CBL depths than a conventional maximum wind-shear method. The nocturnal boundary-layer (NBL) depth is defined as the height at which σ _w^2 decreases to 10 % of its near-surface maximum minus a background variance. The PBL depths determined by combining these methods have average values ranging from ≈ 270 to ≈ 1500 m for the six days, with the greatest maximum depths associated with clear skies. Release of stored and anthropogenic heat contributes to the maintenance of turbulence until late evening, keeping the NBL near-neutral and deeper at night than would be expected over a natural surface. The NBL typically becomes more shallow with time, but grows in the presence of low-level nocturnal jets. While current results are promising, data over a broader range of conditions are needed to fully develop our PBL-depth algorithms.

  8. Estimate of Boundary-Layer Depth Over Beijing, China, Using Doppler Lidar Data During SURF-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meng; Gao, Zhiqiu; Miao, Shiguang; Chen, Fei; LeMone, Margaret A.; Li, Ju; Hu, Fei; Wang, Linlin

    2017-03-01

    Planetary boundary-layer (PBL) structure was investigated using observations from a Doppler lidar and the 325-m Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) meteorological tower in the centre of Beijing during the summer 2015 Study of Urban-impacts on Rainfall and Fog/haze (SURF-2015) field campaign. Using six fair-weather days of lidar and tower data under clear to cloudy skies, we evaluate the ability of the Doppler lidar to probe the urban boundary-layer structure, and then propose a composite method for estimating the diurnal cycle of the PBL depth using the Doppler lidar. For the convective boundary layer (CBL), a threshold method using vertical velocity variance (σ _w^2 >0.1 m2s^{-2}) is used, since it provides more reliable CBL depths than a conventional maximum wind-shear method. The nocturnal boundary-layer (NBL) depth is defined as the height at which σ _w^2 decreases to 10 % of its near-surface maximum minus a background variance. The PBL depths determined by combining these methods have average values ranging from ≈ 270 to ≈ 1500 m for the six days, with the greatest maximum depths associated with clear skies. Release of stored and anthropogenic heat contributes to the maintenance of turbulence until late evening, keeping the NBL near-neutral and deeper at night than would be expected over a natural surface. The NBL typically becomes more shallow with time, but grows in the presence of low-level nocturnal jets. While current results are promising, data over a broader range of conditions are needed to fully develop our PBL-depth algorithms.

  9. Spray-Pyrolyzed Three-Dimensional CuInS2 Solar Cells on Nanocrystalline-Titania Electrodes with Chemical-Bath-Deposited Inx(OH)ySz Buffer Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duy-Cuong; Mikami, Yuki; Tsujimoto, Kazuki; Ryo, Toshihiro; Ito, Seigo

    2012-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) compound solar cells with the structure of TiO2/compact TiO2/florin-doped tin-oxide-coated glass plates> have been fabricated by spray pyrolysis deposition of CuInS2 and chemical-bath deposition of Inx(OH)ySz for the light absorber and buffer layer, respectively. The effect of deposition and annealing conditions of Inx(OH)ySz on the photovoltaic properties of 3D CuInS2 solar cells was investigated. Inx(OH)ySz annealed in air ambient showed a better cell performance than those annealed in nitrogen ambient and without annealing. The improvement of the performance of cells with Inx(OH)ySz buffer layers annealed in air ambient is due to the increase in oxide concentration in the buffer layers [confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement]. Among cells with Inx(OH)ySz buffer layers deposited for 1, 1.5, 1.75, and 2 h, that with Inx(OH)ySz deposited for 1.75 h showed the best cell performance. The best cell performance was observed for Inx(OH)ySz deposited for 1.75 h with annealing at 300 °C for 30 min in air ambient, and cell parameters were 22 mA cm-2 short-circuit photocurrent density, 0.41 V open-circuit voltage, 0.35 fill factor, and 3.2% conversion efficiency.

  10. Peculiar Velocity Constraints from Five-band SZ Effect Measurements toward RX J1347.5-1145 with MUSIC and Bolocam from the CSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Jack; Zemcov, Michael; Glenn, Jason; Golwala, Sunil R.; Maloney, Philip R.; Siegel, Seth R.; Wheeler, Jordan; Bockstiegel, Clint; Brugger, Spencer; Czakon, Nicole G.; Day, Peter K.; Downes, Thomas P.; Duan, Ran P.; Gao, Jiansong; Hollister, Matthew I.; Lam, Albert; LeDuc, Henry G.; Mazin, Benjamin A.; McHugh, Sean G.; Miller, David A.; Mroczkowski, Tony K.; Noroozian, Omid; Nguyen, Hien T.; Radford, Simon J. E.; Schlaerth, James A.; Vayonakis, Anastasios; Wilson, Philip R.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2016-04-01

    We present Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) effect measurements from wide-field images toward the galaxy cluster RX J1347.5-1145 obtained from the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory with the Multiwavelength Submillimeter Inductance Camera at 147, 213, 281, and 337 GHz and with Bolocam at 140 GHz. As part of our analysis, we have used higher frequency data from Herschel-SPIRE and previously published lower frequency radio data to subtract the signal from the brightest dusty star-forming galaxies behind RX J1347.5-1145 and from the AGN in RX J1347.5-1145’s BCG. Using these five-band SZ effect images, combined with X-ray spectroscopic measurements of the temperature of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) from Chandra, we constrain the ICM optical depth to be {τ }{{e}}={7.33}-0.97+0.96× {10}-3 and the ICM line of sight peculiar velocity to be {v}{pec}=-{1040}-840+870 km s-1. The errors for both quantities are limited by measurement noise rather than calibration uncertainties or astrophysical contamination, and significant improvements are possible with deeper observations. Our best-fit velocity is in good agreement with one previously published SZ effect analysis and in mild tension with the other, although some or all of that tension may be because that measurement samples a much smaller cluster volume. Furthermore, our best-fit optical depth implies a gas mass slightly larger than the Chandra-derived value, implying the cluster is elongated along the line of sight.

  11. SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH-MEASURED PRESSURE PROFILES FROM THE BOLOCAM X-RAY/SZ GALAXY CLUSTER SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayers, J.; Czakon, N. G.; Golwala, S. R.; Downes, T. P.; Mroczkowski, T.; Siegel, S. [Division of Physics, Math, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mantz, A. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ameglio, S.; Pierpaoli, E.; Shitanishi, J. A. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Koch, P. M.; Lin, K.-Y.; Umetsu, K. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Maughan, B. J.; Van der Pyl, N. [H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol Bs8 ITL (United Kingdom); Molnar, S. M. [LeCosPA Center, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Moustakas, L., E-mail: jack@caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    We describe Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect measurements and analysis of the intracluster medium (ICM) pressure profiles of a set of 45 massive galaxy clusters imaged using Bolocam at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. We deproject the average pressure profile of our sample into 13 logarithmically spaced radial bins between 0.07R{sub 500} and 3.5R{sub 500}, and we find that a generalized Navarro, Frenk, and White (gNFW) profile describes our data with sufficient goodness-of-fit and best-fit parameters (C{sub 500}, {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, P{sub 0} = 1.18, 0.86, 3.67, 0.67, 4.29). We use X-ray data to define cool-core and disturbed subsamples of clusters, and we constrain the average pressure profiles of each of these subsamples. We find that, given the precision of our data, the average pressure profiles of disturbed and cool-core clusters are consistent with one another at R {approx}> 0.15R{sub 500}, with cool-core systems showing indications of higher pressure at R {approx}< 0.15R{sub 500}. In addition, for the first time, we place simultaneous constraints on the mass scaling of cluster pressure profiles, their ensemble mean profile, and their radius-dependent intrinsic scatter between 0.1R{sub 500} and 2.0R{sub 500}. The scatter among profiles is minimized at radii between {approx_equal} 0.2R{sub 500} and {approx_equal} 0.5R{sub 500}, with a value of {approx_equal} 20%. These results for the intrinsic scatter are largely consistent with previous analyses, most of which have relied heavily on X-ray derived pressures of clusters at significantly lower masses and redshifts compared to our sample. Therefore, our data provide further evidence that cluster pressure profiles are largely universal with scatter of {approx_equal} 20%-40% about the universal profile over a wide range of masses and redshifts.

  12. Higher susceptibility of NOD/LtSz-scid Il2rg-/- NSG mice to xenotransplanted lung cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanaji N

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nobuhiro Kanaji,1 Akira Tadokoro,1 Kentaro Susaki,1 Saki Yokokura,1 Kiyomi Ohmichi,2 Reiji Haba,2 Naoki Watanabe,1 Shuji Bandoh,1 Tomoya Ishii,1 Hiroaki Dobashi,1 Takuya Matsunaga11Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology, Rheumatology and Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa, Japan; 2Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa, JapanPurpose: No lung cancer xenograft model using non-obese diabetic (NOD-scid Il2rg-/- mice has been reported. The purpose of this study is to select a suitable mouse strain as a xenogenic host for testing tumorigenicity of lung cancer.Materials and methods: We directly compared the susceptibility of four immunodeficient mouse strains, c-nu, C.B-17 scid, NOD-scid, and NOD/LtSz-scid Il2rg-/- (NSG mice, for tumor formation from xenotransplanted lung cancer cell lines. Various numbers (101–105 cells/head of two lung cancer cell lines, A549 and EBC1, were subcutaneously inoculated and tumor sizes were measured every week up to 12 weeks.Results: When 104 EBC1 cells were inoculated, no tumor formation was observed in BALB/c-nu or C.B-17 scid mice. Tumors developed in two of the five NOD-scid mice (40% and in all the five NSG mice (100%. When 103 EBC1 cells were injected, no tumors developed in any strain other than NSG mice, while tumorigenesis was achieved in all the five NSG mice (100%, P=0.0079 within 9 weeks. NSG mice similarly showed higher susceptibility to xenotransplantation of A549 cells. Tumor formation was observed only in NSG mice after inoculation of 103 or fewer A549 cells (40% vs 0% in 15 NSG mice compared with others, respectively, P=0.0169. We confirmed that the engrafted tumors originated from inoculated human lung cancer cells by immunohistochemical staining with human cytokeratin and vimentin.Conclusion: NSG mice may be the most suitable strain for testing tumorigenicity of lung cancer, especially if only a few cells

  13. Diseño de un programa de Surf recreativo enfocado a colectivos con Síndrome de Down de 6 a 10 años

    OpenAIRE

    Iriarte Gomara, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es diseñar un programa de surf recreativo enfocado a colectivos con Síndrome de Down de 6 a 10 años. El Síndrome de Down se define como una discapacidad intelectual causada por una alteración en el par de cromosomas 21 (OMS, 2011). Resulta de especial relevancia el tratamiento de dicha discapacidad de manera no farmacológica, destacando la actividad física, en este caso el surf, como elemento inclusivo a nivel físico, psicológico y social. Se analizan distintos pro...

  14. Co-optimisation of phosphorus and nitrogen removal in stormwater biofilters: the role of filter media, vegetation and saturated zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, Bonnie J; Fletcher, Tim D; Cook, Perran L M; Hatt, Belinda E

    2014-01-01

    Biofilters have been shown to effectively treat stormwater and achieve nutrient load reduction targets. However, effluent concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus typically exceed environmental targets for receiving water protection. This study investigates the role of filter media, vegetation and a saturated zone (SZ) in achieving co-optimised nitrogen and phosphorus removal in biofilters. Twenty biofilter columns were monitored over a 12-month period of dosing with semi-synthetic stormwater. The frequency of dosing was altered seasonally to examine the impact of hydrologic variability. Very good nutrient removal (90% total phosphorus, 89% total nitrogen) could be achieved by incorporating vegetation, an SZ and Skye sand, a naturally occurring iron-rich filter medium. This design maintained nutrient removal at or below water quality guideline concentrations throughout the experiment, demonstrating resilience to wetting-drying fluctuations. The results also highlighted the benefit of including an SZ to maintain treatment performance over extended dry periods. These findings represent progress towards designing biofilters which co-optimise nitrogen and phosphorus removal and comply with water quality guidelines.

  15. Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Tucci

    2001-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) documents an updated analysis of water-level data performed to provide the saturated-zone, site-scale flow and transport model (CRWMS M&O 2000) with the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target water-level data, and hydraulic gradients for model calibration. The previous analysis was presented in ANL-NBS-HS-000034, Rev 00 ICN 01, Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model (USGS 2001). This analysis is designed to use updated water-level data as the basis for estimating water-level altitudes and the potentiometric surface in the SZ site-scale flow and transport model domain. The objectives of this revision are to develop computer files containing (1) water-level data within the model area (DTN: GS010908312332.002), (2) a table of known vertical head differences (DTN: GS0109083 12332.003), and (3) a potentiometric-surface map (DTN: GS010608312332.001) using an alternate concept from that presented in ANL-NBS-HS-000034, Rev 00 ICN 01 for the area north of Yucca Mountain. The updated water-level data include data obtained from the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (EWDP) and data from borehole USW WT-24. In addition to being utilized by the SZ site-scale flow and transport model, the water-level data and potentiometric-surface map contained within this report will be available to other government agencies and water users for ground-water management purposes. The potentiometric surface defines an upper boundary of the site-scale flow model, as well as provides information useful to estimation of the magnitude and direction of lateral ground-water flow within the flow system. Therefore, the analysis documented in this revision is important to SZ flow and transport calculations in support of total system performance assessment.

  16. Investigations of coastal zones using a modular amphibious vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeziulin, Denis; Makarov, Vladimir; Filatov, Valery; Beresnev, Pavel; Belyakov, Vladimir; Kurkin, Andrey

    2017-04-01

    The project aims to develop a means of verification of data on sea excitement derived from Autonomous mobile robotic system (AMRS) for coastal monitoring and forecasting marine natural disasters [Kurkin A., Pelinovsky E., Tyugin D., Giniyatullin A., Kurkina O., Belyakov V., Makarov V., Zeziulin D., Kuznetsov K. Autonomous Robotic System for Coastal Monitoring // Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on the Mediterranean Coastal Environment MEDCOAST. 2015. V. 2. P. 933-944]. The chassis of the developed remote-controlled modular amphibious vehicle (MAV) will be equipped with a video camera and a hydrostatic wave-plotting device with strings sensors mounted on the stationary body's supports. To track the position of the MAV there will be installed the navigation system in order to correct the measurement data. The peculiarity of the tricycle MAV is the ability to change its geometric parameters that will increase its stability to actions of destructive waves and mobility. In May-June 2016 authors took part in conducting field tests of the AMRS on the Gulf of Mordvinov (Sea of Okhotsk, Sakhalin Island). Participation in this expedition contributed to obtaining experimental data on the topography and the physical and mechanical properties of the surf zone of the most promising field of using the MAV as a road for its moving. Within the project there was developed a mathematical model of the MAV motion in coastal conditions taking into account the new analytical dependences describing the physical and mechanical characteristics of the ground surfaces and the landscape, as well as hydrodynamic effects of surf zones. The reasonable selection of rational parameters of the MAV and developing the methodology of creating effective vehicles for investigations of specific coastal areas of the Okhotsk Sea will be made by using the mathematical model.

  17. On the resonance hypothesis of storm surge and surf beat run-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postacioglu, Nazmi; Sinan Özeren, M.; Canlı, Umut

    2017-06-01

    Resonance has recently been proposed as the fundamental underlying mechanism that shapes the amplification in coastal run-up for storm surges and surf beats, which are long-wavelength disturbances created by fluid velocity differences between the wave groups and the regions outside the wave groups. It is without doubt that the resonance plays a role in run-up phenomena of various kinds; however, we think that the extent to which it plays its role has not been completely understood. For incident waves, which we assume to be linear, the best approach to investigate the role played by the resonance would be to calculate the normal modes by taking radiation damping into account and then testing how those modes are excited by the incident waves. Such modes diverge offshore, but they can still be used to calculate the run-up. There are a small number of previous works that attempt to calculate the resonant frequencies, but they do not relate the amplitudes of the normal modes to those of the incident wave. This is because, by not including radiation damping, they automatically induce a resonance that leads to infinite amplitudes, thus preventing them from predicting the exact contribution of the resonance to coastal run-up. In this study we consider two different coastal geometries: an infinitely wide beach with a constant slope connecting to a flat-bottomed deep ocean and a bay with sloping bottom, again, connected to a deep ocean. For the fully 1-D problem we find significant resonance if the bathymetric discontinuity is large.The linearisation of the seaward boundary condition leads to slightly smaller run-ups. For the 2-D ocean case the analysis shows that the wave confinement is very effective when the bay is narrow. The bay aspect ratio is the determining factor for the radiation damping. One reason why we include a bathymetric discontinuity is to mimic some natural settings where bays and gulfs may lead to abrupt depth gradients such as the Tokyo Bay. The other

  18. Interacting effects of latitude, mass, age, and sex on winter survival of Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata): Implications for differential migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Esler, Daniel N.; Iverson, Samuel A.; Ward, David; Boyd, Sean; Kirk, Molly; Lewis, Tyler L.; VanStratt, Corey S.; Brodhead, Katherine M.; Hupp, Jerry; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    We quantified variation in winter survival of Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata (L., 1758)) across nearly 30° of latitude on the Pacific coast of North America to evaluate potential effects on winter distributions, including observed differential distributions of age and sex classes. We monitored fates of 297 radio-marked Surf Scoters at three study sites: (1) near the northern periphery of their wintering range in southeast Alaska, USA, (2) the range core in British Columbia, Canada, and (3) the southern periphery in Baja California, Mexico. We detected 34 mortalities and determined that survival averaged lower at the range peripheries than in the range core, was lower during mid-winter than during late winter at all sites, and was positively correlated with body mass within locations. Although neither age nor sex class had direct effects, mass effects led to differential survival patterns among classes. When simultaneously incorporating these interacting influences, adult males of mean mass for their location had highest survival at the northern range periphery in Alaska, whereas adult females and juveniles had higher survival at the range core and the southern periphery. Our observations help to explain patterns of differential migration and distribution reported for this species and highlight seasonal periods (mid-winter) and locations (range peripheries) of elevated levels of mortality for demographically important age–sex classes (adult females).

  19. A Comprehensive Motion Estimation Technique for the Improvement of EIS Methods Based on the SURF Algorithm and Kalman Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xuemin; Hao, Qun; Xie, Mengdi

    2016-04-07

    Video stabilization is an important technology for removing undesired motion in videos. This paper presents a comprehensive motion estimation method for electronic image stabilization techniques, integrating the speeded up robust features (SURF) algorithm, modified random sample consensus (RANSAC), and the Kalman filter, and also taking camera scaling and conventional camera translation and rotation into full consideration. Using SURF in sub-pixel space, feature points were located and then matched. The false matched points were removed by modified RANSAC. Global motion was estimated by using the feature points and modified cascading parameters, which reduced the accumulated errors in a series of frames and improved the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) by 8.2 dB. A specific Kalman filter model was established by considering the movement and scaling of scenes. Finally, video stabilization was achieved with filtered motion parameters using the modified adjacent frame compensation. The experimental results proved that the target images were stabilized even when the vibrating amplitudes of the video become increasingly large.

  20. 抗血小板GPⅢa单克隆抗体SZ-21单链抗体片断的表达和特性%Expression and characterization of a single chain antibody fragm ent of mAb SZ-21 against platelet GPIIIa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安广宇; 董宁征; 阮长耿

    2001-01-01

    将能与血小板膜糖蛋白IIIa特异结合的单克隆抗体SZ-21构建成单链抗体.应用RT-PCR技术,从分泌SZ-21单克隆抗体的杂交瘤细胞中克隆出VH和VL可变区基因,并构建成SZ-21单链抗体(SZ-21ScFv).将该单链抗体基因亚克隆到高效表达质粒pET20b, 得到pET20b-21ScFv.通过IPTG诱导在大肠杆菌E coli BL21(DE3)PlysS中表达了功能分子.表达产物主要以包涵体形式存在,表达量占菌体蛋白的21%.经过包涵体的溶解、Ni-NTA树脂亲和吸附纯化和蛋白质的体外重折叠等一系列的变性和复性过程,获得具有生物活性的高纯度单链抗体片段.ELISA 和Wester n blot证实该融合蛋白保留了与亲本抗体同样的血小板结合特性.SZ-21单链抗体体外能够抑制ADP诱导的血小板聚集,其抑制能力呈剂量依赖性,在浓度为20mg/L时达到最大抑制率.流式细胞仪检测证实该单链抗体能与内皮细胞反应.该单链抗体有望用于血栓性疾病的治疗.

  1. A Hungarian Writer’s Experience of the Mediterranean: On Ferenc Herczeg’s Szelek Szárnyán Travelogue/ Ship's Log

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bence Erika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the works of the much disputed and until recently often avoided oeuvre of Herczeg Ferenc is the attention-grabbing work entitled Szelek szárnyán [On the Wings of the Wind] (1905. a travelogue and a ship’s Jog. Its analysis casts another view on the life of this writer, bom in South Banat. who. at the beginning of the 20th century, sailed the Adriatic and the Mediterranean with his nephew in his sailing boat called Sirály (The Seagull - thus demonstrating and choosing a secessionist lifestyle, even abandoning Budapest -, and his inspiration by the sea reached a peak in this volume (Secessionist in every sense, advertising the beauties and values of the Adriatic. This prose work was created in the context of Rijeka, Zadar, Sibenik. Trogir, Split, Dubrovnik, and Boka Kotorska. which (apart from its Secessionist character, owing to its cross-artistic and multicultural features, blends various art forms and ways of expression. It gives a superb experience to the reader. The study interprets and analyses Ferenc Herczeg’s volume Szelek szárnyán as a complex genre created in a cross-artistic environment, with the objective to emphasize and present its special role and standing in Hungarian literature as well as in the field of fine and applied arts.

  2. Non parametric deprojection of NIKA SZ observations: pressure distribution in the Planck-discovered cluster PSZ1 G045.85+57.71

    CERN Document Server

    Ruppin, F; Comis, B; Ade, P; André, P; Arnaud, M; Beelen, A; Benoît, A; Bideaud, A; Billot, N; Bourrion, O; Calvo, M; Catalano, A; Coiffard, G; D'Addabbo, A; De Petris, M; Désert, F -X; Doyle, S; Goupy, J; Kramer, C; Leclercq, S; Macías-Pérez, J F; Mauskopf, P; Mayet, F; Monfardini, A; Pajot, F; Pascale, E; Perotto, L; Pisano, G; Pointecouteau, E; Ponthieu, N; Pratt, G W; Revéret, V; Ritacco, A; Rodriguez, L; Romero, C; Schuster, K; Sievers, A; Triqueneaux, S; Tucker, C; Zylka, R

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the thermodynamic properties of clusters of galaxies at intermediate and high redshift can bring new insights into the formation of large scale structures. It is essential for a robust calibration of the mass-observable scaling relations and their scatter, which are key ingredients for precise cosmology using cluster statistics. Here we illustrate an application of high-resolution $(< 20$ arcsec) thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) observations by probing the intracluster medium (ICM) of the Planck-discovered galaxy cluster PSZ1 G045.85+57.71 at redshift $z = 0.61$, using tSZ data obtained with the NIKA camera, a dual-band (150 and 260~GHz) instrument operated at the IRAM 30-meter telescope. We deproject jointly NIKA and Planck data to extract the electronic pressure distribution non-parametrically from the cluster core ($R \\sim 0.02\\, R_{500}$) to its outskirts ($R \\sim 3\\, R_{500}$), for the first time at intermediate redshift. The constraints on the resulting pressure profile allow us ...

  3. A giant radio halo in a low-mass SZ-selected galaxy cluster: ACT-CL J0256.5+0006

    CERN Document Server

    Knowles, Kenda; Baker, Andrew J; Bond, J Richard; Cress, Catherine; Gupta, Neeraj; Hajian, Amir; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renée; Hughes, Jack P; Lindner, Robert; Marriage, Tobias A; Menanteau, Felipe; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael D; Reese, Erik D; Sievers, Jonathan; Sifón, Cristóbal; Srianand, Raghunathan; Wollack, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    We present the detection of a giant radio halo (GRH) in the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ)-selected merging galaxy cluster ACT-CL J0256.5+0006 ($z = 0.363$), observed with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at 325 MHz and 610 MHz. We find this cluster to host a faint ($S_{610} = 5.6 \\pm 1.4$ mJy) radio halo with an angular extent of 2.6 arcmin, corresponding to 0.8 Mpc at the cluster redshift, qualifying it as a GRH. J0256 is one of the lowest-mass systems, $M_{\\rm 500,SZ} = (5.0 \\pm 1.2) \\times 10^{14} M_\\odot$, found to host a GRH. We measure the GRH at lower significance at 325 MHz ($S_{325} = 10.3 \\pm 5.3$ mJy), obtaining a spectral index measurement of $\\alpha^{610}_{325} = 1.0^{+0.7}_{-0.9}$. This result is consistent with the mean spectral index of the population of typical radio halos, $\\alpha = 1.2 \\pm 0.2$. Adopting the latter value, we determine a 1.4 GHz radio power of $P_{1.4\\text{GHz}} = (1.0 \\pm 0.3) \\times 10^{24}$ W Hz$^{-1}$, placing this cluster within the scatter of known scaling relations. Vari...

  4. Peculiar Velocity Constraints from Five-Band SZ Effect Measurements Towards RX J1347.5-1145 with MUSIC and Bolocam from the CSO

    CERN Document Server

    Sayers, Jack; Glenn, Jason; Golwala, Sunil R; Maloney, Philip R; Siegel, Seth R; Wheeler, Jordan; Bockstiegel, Clint; Brugger, Spencer; Czakon, Nicole G; Day, Peter K; Downes, Thomas P; Duan, Ran P; Gao, Jiansong; Hollister, Matthew I; Lam, Albert; LeDuc, Henry G; Mazin, Benjamin A; McHugh, Sean G; Miller, David A; Mroczkowski, Tony K; Noroozian, Omid; Nguyen, Hien T; Radford, Simon J; Schlaerth, James A; Vayonakis, Anastasios; Wilson, Philip R; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    We present Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect measurements from wide-field images towards the galaxy cluster RX J1347.5-1145 obtained from the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory with the Multiwavelength Submillimeter Inductance Camera (MUSIC) at 147, 213, 281, and 337 GHz and with Bolocam at 140 GHz. As part of our analysis, we have used higher frequency data from Herschel-SPIRE and previously published lower frequency radio data to subtract the signal from the brightest dusty star-forming galaxies behind RX J1347.5-1145 and from the AGN in RX J1347.5-1145's BCG. Using these five-band SZ effect images, combined with previously published X-ray spectroscopic measurements of the temperature of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) from Chandra, we constrain the ICM optical depth to be $\\tau_e = 2.73^{+0.38}_{-0.39} \\times 10^{-3}$ and the ICM line of sight peculiar velocity to be $v_{pec} = -1260^{+760}_{-530}$ km s$^{-1}$. The errors for both quantities are limited by measurement noise rather than calibration uncertainties...

  5. Breaking of storm waves on sand and reef zone in the Lesser Antilles Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorville, Jean-François; Berthelot, Hugues; Zahibo, Narcisse

    2010-05-01

    The most part of the exposed coastal zone of the Lesser Antilles Arc are composed by sand and coral reef. The high frequencies of passage of cyclones near these islands and anticyclone's swell subject them to waves of large amplitude. These waves are 4 to 5 times lager to the normal conditions. The weak slopes observed on these zones are particularly sensitive to this type of waves and cause the process of surfing. The mode of dissipation of these waves influenced the run-up and the floods on the coast. The surf zones are situated in 5 in 20 meters of the line of coast. A displacement of sea water towards the coast line is provoked by the breaking of the waves. These quantities of water are held by the particularly bathymetry of these islands and provoke a raised of the sea level. The propagation of the waves are allowed by the sea elevation in the surf zone In the evaluation of the marine risk in the Lesser Antilles Arc, a model of sea state forecast are developed in the Laboratory of Geosciences and Energy (LaRGE) in the French West Indies and French Guiana University (Guadeloupe , FWI). This forecast model is based on the coupling of several numerical models. WaveWatch III and SWAN are used for the wave propagation on large and small sectors. An ocean circulation model based on POM is used to evaluate the sea current and the sea level. To improve the forecasts on the exposed coast, in the zone included between the surf and swash, the sea elevation induced by the large amplitude wave are particularly studies. The numerical model of wave propagation near the coast SWAN is used to determine the sea state before the surf zone. The dissipation and the breaking of the large amplitude waves are studied with the spectral values give by SWAN and the local conditions (bathymetry, sea level, slope, bottom friction). During the months of November and December 2009, several large amplitude waves, coming from the North Atlantic Ocean, impact the west coast of Guadeloupe. The

  6. On the use of the fictitious wave steepness and related surf-similarity parameters in methods that describe the hydraulic and structural response to waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heineke, D.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the hydraulic performance of coastal structures - viz. wave run-up, overtopping and reflection - and to evaluate the stability of the armour layers, use is made of the dimensionless surf similarity parameter, as introduced by Battjes (1974). The front side slope of the structure and the wa

  7. On the use of the fictitious wave steepness and related surf-similarity parameters in methods that describe the hydraulic and structural response to waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heineke, D.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the hydraulic performance of coastal structures - viz. wave run-up, overtopping and reflection - and to evaluate the stability of the armour layers, use is made of the dimensionless surf similarity parameter, as introduced by Battjes (1974). The front side slope of the structure and the

  8. Use of modular amphibious vehicles for conducting research in coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeziulin, Denis; Makarov, Vladimir; Belyaev, Alexander; Beresnev, Pavel; Kurkin, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    The project aims to create workable running systems of research complexes, moving along the bottom of coastal areas (in shallow waters) for investigation of waves, currents, sediment transport; investigation of ecosystems and biodiversity assessment of organisms; inspection and monitoring environmental conditions and anthropogenic load on nature; bathymetric studies. With all the variety of functional capabilities of modern robotic systems, possibilities of their application in the context of the study of coastal zones are extremely limited. Conducting research using aerial vehicles is limited to safety conditions of flight. Use of floating robotic systems in environmental monitoring and ecosystem research is only possible in conditions of relatively «soft» wave climate of the coastal zone. For these purposes, there are special amphibians such as remote-controlled vehicle Surf Rover [Daily, William R., Mark A. Johnson, and Daniel A. Oslecki. «Initial Development of an Amphibious ROV for Use in Big Surf.» Marine Technology Society 28.1 (1994): 3-10. Print.], mobile system MARC-1 [«The SPROV'er.» Florida Institute of Technology: Department of Marine and. Environmental Systems. Web. 05 May 2010.]. The paper describes methodological approaches to the selection of the design parameters of a new system.

  9. Brief discussion about energy conservation and consumption decrease in the production of diaphragm caustic soda%SZ-4型氢气泵与2BE1-303型氢气压缩机组比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董锦萍; 杨桐年

    2001-01-01

    锦化化工(集团)有限责任公司8万t/a离子膜装置采用SZ-4氢气泵,12万t/a离子膜装置采用2BE1-303型氢气压缩机.文中对这两种设备进行了对比,认为氢气压缩机比SZ-4氢气泵先进,且投资低.

  10. Modified boundary conditions and field equations for a 2D surf beat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petit, H.A.H.; Klopman, G.; Battjes, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    This progress report refers to work done at the Fluid IVlechanics Section within the framework of the Netherlands Centre for Coastal Research (NCK). In the coastal zone the long wave motion may contribute significantly to the morpho-dynamics, due to its strong correlation with the short wave motion

  11. 76 FR 65180 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application to Shuck Surf Clams/Ocean Quahogs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the Northeastern United States through the Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean...). Affected Public: Business or other for-profit organizations. Estimated Number of Respondents: 205... proposed collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the...

  12. Zoning Districts, Zoning, Published in 2002, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Zoning Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2002. It is described as 'Zoning'. Data by this publisher are often...

  13. Lombards on the Move – An Integrative Study of the Migration Period Cemetery at Szólád, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Daniel; Müller, Wolfgang; Maurer, Anne-France; Kollig, Isabelle; Nicklisch, Nicole; Müller, Christiane; Karimnia, Sarah; Brandt, Guido; Roth, Christina; Rosner, Martin; Mende, Balász; Schöne, Bernd R.; Vida, Tivadar; von Freeden, Uta

    2014-01-01

    In 2005 to 2007 45 skeletons of adults and subadults were excavated at the Lombard period cemetery at Szólád (6th century A.D.), Hungary. Embedded into the well-recorded historical context, the article presents the results obtained by an integrative investigation including anthropological, molecular genetic and isotopic (δ15N, δ13C, 87Sr/86Sr) analyses. Skeletal stress markers as well as traces of interpersonal violence were found to occur frequently. The mitochondrial DNA profiles revealed a heterogeneous spectrum of lineages that belong to the haplogroups H, U, J, HV, T2, I, and K, which are common in present-day Europe and in the Near East, while N1a and N1b are today quite rare. Evidence of possible direct maternal kinship was identified in only three pairs of individuals. According to enamel strontium isotope ratios, at least 31% of the individuals died at a location other than their birthplace and/or had moved during childhood. Based on the peculiar 87Sr/86Sr ratio distribution between females, males, and subadults in comparison to local vegetation and soil samples, we propose a three-phase model of group movement. An initial patrilocal group with narrower male but wider female Sr isotope distribution settled at Szólád, whilst the majority of subadults represented in the cemetery yielded a distinct Sr isotope signature. Owing to the virtual absence of Szólád-born adults in the cemetery, we may conclude that the settlement was abandoned after approx. one generation. Population heterogeneity is furthermore supported by the carbon and nitrogen isotope data. They indicate that a group of high-ranking men had access to larger shares of animal-derived food whilst a few individuals consumed remarkable amounts of millet. The inferred dynamics of the burial community are in agreement with hypotheses of a highly mobile lifestyle during the Migration Period and a short-term occupation of Pannonia by Lombard settlers as conveyed by written sources. PMID:25369022

  14. Recomendações de Gestão dos Recifes Artificiais para a Prática do Surfe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Moraes Ocke

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Os recifes artificiais são estruturas afundadas em ambiente marinho a fim de oferecer múltiplos usos e beneficiar um maior número de usuários. Entretanto, sua capacidade de propiciar melhores condições de surfe tem sido a principal característica atrativa para experiências já realizadas em alguns países do mundo. Neste contexto, esta pesquisa tem o objetivo de apresentar um conjunto de recomendações que possam contribuir com gestores públicos e privados que planejam incluir a implantação de recifes artificiais tendo como foco a melhoria nas condições de surfe em suas localidades. Para tanto, esta pesquisa qualitativa exploratória se desenvolve a partir de breve revisão teórica sobre o tema e de um estudo de casos múltiplos – Austrália, Estados Unidos, Nova Zelândia, India e Inglaterra - para sustentar o raciocínio. Os resultados incluem o caráter inovador deste tipo de estrutura demandando um aprimoramento nos métodos de construção e gestão, programas de monitoramento de longo prazo para avaliação de eficácia, desafios na integração de usuários, participação pública nas diferentes etapas do processo, gestão das expectativas dos mercados envolvidos. Uma vez que poucos estudos referentes ao tema foram desenvolvidos até o presente momento, as análises presentes neste trabalho podem contribuir com o preenchimento desta lacuna no conhecimento.

  15. Mass Calibration and Cosmological Analysis of the SPT-SZ Galaxy Cluster Sample Using Velocity Dispersion $\\sigma_v$ and X-ray $Y_\\textrm{X}$ Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bocquet, S; Mohr, J J; Aird, K A; Ashby, M L N; Bautz, M; Bayliss, M; Bazin, G; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Brodwin, M; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Chiu, I; Cho, H M; Clocchiatti, A; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Desai, S; de Haan, T; Dietrich, J P; Dobbs, M A; Foley, R J; Forman, W R; Gangkofner, D; George, E M; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A H; Halverson, N W; Hennig, C; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Hrubes, J D; Jones, C; Keisler, R; Knox, L; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Liu, J; Lueker, M; Luong-Van, D; Marrone, D P; McDonald, M; McMahon, J J; Meyer, S S; Mocanu, L; Murray, S S; Padin, S; Pryke, C; Reichardt, C L; Rest, A; Ruel, J; Ruhl, J E; Saliwanchik, B R; Sayre, J T; Schaffer, K K; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Stalder, B; Stanford, S A; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Story, K; Stubbs, C W; Vanderlinde, K; Vieira, J D; Vikhlinin, A; Williamson, R; Zahn, O; Zenteno, A

    2014-01-01

    We present a velocity dispersion-based mass calibration of the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect survey (SPT-SZ) galaxy cluster sample. Using a homogeneously selected sample of 100 cluster candidates from 720 deg2 of the survey along with 63 velocity dispersion ($\\sigma_v$) and 16 X-ray Yx measurements of sample clusters, we simultaneously calibrate the mass-observable relation and constrain cosmological parameters. The calibrations using $\\sigma_v$ and Yx are consistent at the $0.6\\sigma$ level, with the $\\sigma_v$ calibration preferring ~16% higher masses. We use the full cluster dataset to measure $\\sigma_8(\\Omega_ m/0.27)^{0.3}=0.809\\pm0.036$. The SPT cluster abundance is lower than preferred by either the WMAP9 or Planck+WMAP9 polarization (WP) data, but assuming the sum of the neutrino masses is $\\sum m_\

  16. SOME RESULTS OF UPPER ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION MEASUREMENTS BY A MASS-SPECTROMETER ON BOARD "SZ-2":CHANGE OF COMPOSITIONS DURING SOLAR AND GEOMAGNETIC DISTURBANCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Upper atmosphere composition data were obtained for the last half year with a quadruple mass spectrometer on board spacecraft "SZ-2" launched on 10 Jan uary 2001. Based on the analysis of these data, the variations of atmospheric compositions in solar and geomagnetic quiet conditions are reported first, then a detailed discussion on the atmospheric composition variations under the so lar and geomagnetic disturbed conditions is given. The results show that near the altitude of 400 km the variations of main atmospheric compositions corre sponding to solar disturbances are more remarkable in the sunlit area than in the shade area. On the contrary, in geomagnetic disturbance events the corre sponding variations are more obvious in the shade area, an evident increase of N2 density at relatively higher latitudes was observed.

  17. Galaxy Clusters Discovered via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect in the 2500-square-degree SPT-SZ survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleem, L.E.; et al.

    2015-01-29

    We present a catalog of galaxy clusters selected via their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect signature from 2500 deg(2) of South Pole Telescope (SPT) data. This work represents the complete sample of clusters detected at high significance in the 2500 deg(2) SPT-SZ survey, which was completed in 2011. A total of 677 (409) cluster candidates are identified above a signal-to-noise threshold of ξ = 4.5 (5.0). Ground- and space-based optical and near-infrared (NIR) imaging confirms overdensities of similarly colored galaxies in the direction of 516 (or 76%) of the ξ > 4.5 candidates and 387 (or 95%) of the ξ > 5 candidates, the measured purity is consistent with expectations from simulations. Of these confirmed clusters, 415 were first identified in SPT data, including 251 new discoveries reported in this work. We estimate photometric redshifts for all candidates with identified optical and/or NIR counterparts, we additionally report redshifts derived from spectroscopic observations for 141 of these systems. The mass threshold of the catalog is roughly independent of redshift above z ~ 0.25 leading to a sample of massive clusters that extends to high redshift. The median mass of the sample is M (500c)(ρ(crit)) $\\sim 3.5\\times 10^{14}\\,M_\\odot \\,h_{70}^{-1}$, the median redshift is z (med) = 0.55, and the highest-redshift systems are at z > 1.4. The combination of large redshift extent, clean selection, and high typical mass makes this cluster sample of particular interest for cosmological analyses and studies of cluster formation and evolution.

  18. GALAXY CLUSTERS DISCOVERED VIA THE SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT IN THE 2500-SQUARE-DEGREE SPT-SZ SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L. [Argonne National Laboratory, High-Energy Physics Division, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Stalder, B.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bayliss, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); De Haan, T. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Aird, K. A. [University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Allen, S. W. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Applegate, D. E. [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Bautz, M. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Benson, B. A.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bocquet, S.; Chiu, I.; Desai, S. [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Cho, H. M. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Clocchiatti, A. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrosifica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica (Chile); and others

    2015-02-01

    We present a catalog of galaxy clusters selected via their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect signature from 2500 deg{sup 2} of South Pole Telescope (SPT) data. This work represents the complete sample of clusters detected at high significance in the 2500 deg{sup 2} SPT-SZ survey, which was completed in 2011. A total of 677 (409) cluster candidates are identified above a signal-to-noise threshold of ξ = 4.5 (5.0). Ground- and space-based optical and near-infrared (NIR) imaging confirms overdensities of similarly colored galaxies in the direction of 516 (or 76%) of the ξ > 4.5 candidates and 387 (or 95%) of the ξ > 5 candidates; the measured purity is consistent with expectations from simulations. Of these confirmed clusters, 415 were first identified in SPT data, including 251 new discoveries reported in this work. We estimate photometric redshifts for all candidates with identified optical and/or NIR counterparts; we additionally report redshifts derived from spectroscopic observations for 141 of these systems. The mass threshold of the catalog is roughly independent of redshift above z ∼ 0.25 leading to a sample of massive clusters that extends to high redshift. The median mass of the sample is M {sub 500c}(ρ{sub crit}) ∼3.5×10{sup 14} M{sub ⊙} h{sub 70}{sup −1}, the median redshift is z {sub med} = 0.55, and the highest-redshift systems are at z > 1.4. The combination of large redshift extent, clean selection, and high typical mass makes this cluster sample of particular interest for cosmological analyses and studies of cluster formation and evolution.

  19. GALAXY CLUSTERS DISCOVERED VIA THE SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT IN THE 2500-SQUARE-DEGREE SPT-SZ SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleem, L. E.; Stalder, B.; de Haan, T.; Aird, K. A.; Allen, S. W.; Applegate, D. E.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bocquet, S.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiu, I.; Cho, H. M.; Clocchiatti, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Dobbs, M. A.; Foley, R. J.; Forman, W. R.; George, E. M.; Gladders, M. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Halverson, N. W.; Hennig, C.; Hoekstra, H.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hrubes, J. D.; Jones, C.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Liu, J.; Lueker, M.; Luong-Van, D.; Mantz, A.; Marrone, D. P.; McDonald, M.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L.; Mohr, J. J.; Murray, S. S.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rest, A.; Ruel, J.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Saro, A.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Schrabback, T.; Shirokoff, E.; Song, J.; Spieler, H. G.; Stanford, S. A.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; Stubbs, C. W.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Vikhlinin, A.; Williamson, R.; Zahn, O.; Zenteno, A.

    2015-01-29

    We present a catalog of galaxy clusters selected via their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect signature from 2500 deg(2) of South Pole Telescope (SPT) data. This work represents the complete sample of clusters detected at high significance in the 2500 deg(2) SPT-SZ survey, which was completed in 2011. A total of 677 (409) cluster candidates are identified above a signal-to-noise threshold of ξ = 4.5 (5.0). Ground- and space-based optical and near-infrared (NIR) imaging confirms overdensities of similarly colored galaxies in the direction of 516 (or 76%) of the ξ > 4.5 candidates and 387 (or 95%) of the ξ > 5 candidates, the measured purity is consistent with expectations from simulations. Of these confirmed clusters, 415 were first identified in SPT data, including 251 new discoveries reported in this work. We estimate photometric redshifts for all candidates with identified optical and/or NIR counterparts, we additionally report redshifts derived from spectroscopic observations for 141 of these systems. The mass threshold of the catalog is roughly independent of redshift above z ~ 0.25 leading to a sample of massive clusters that extends to high redshift. The median mass of the sample is M (500c)(ρ(crit)) $\\sim 3.5\\times 10^{14}\\,M_\\odot \\,h_{70}^{-1}$, the median redshift is z (med) = 0.55, and the highest-redshift systems are at z > 1.4. The combination of large redshift extent, clean selection, and high typical mass makes this cluster sample of particular interest for cosmological analyses and studies of cluster formation and evolution.

  20. A giant radio halo in a low-mass SZ-selected galaxy cluster: ACT-CL J0256.5+0006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, K.; Intema, H. T.; Baker, A. J.; Bharadwaj, V.; Bond, J. R.; Cress, C.; Gupta, N.; Hajian, A.; Hilton, M.; Hincks, A. D.; Hlozek, R.; Hughes, J. P.; Lindner, R. R.; Marriage, T. A.; Menanteau, F.; Moodley, K.; Niemack, M. D.; Reese, E. D.; Sievers, J.; Sifón, C.; Srianand, R.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-07-01

    We present the detection of a giant radio halo (GRH) in the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ)-selected merging galaxy cluster ACT-CL J0256.5+0006 (z = 0.363), observed with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at 325 and 610 MHz. We find this cluster to host a faint (S610 = 5.6 ± 1.4 mJy) radio halo with an angular extent of 2.6 arcmin, corresponding to 0.8 Mpc at the cluster redshift, qualifying it as a GRH. J0256 is one of the lowest mass systems, M500, SZ = (5.0 ± 1.2) × 1014 M⊙, found to host a GRH. We measure the GRH at lower significance at 325 MHz (S325 = 10.3 ± 5.3 mJy), obtaining a spectral index measurement of α ^{610}_{325} = 1.0^{+0.7}_{-0.9}. This result is consistent with the mean spectral index of the population of typical radio haloes, α = 1.2 ± 0.2. Adopting the latter value, we determine a 1.4 GHz radio power of P1.4 GHz = (1.0 ± 0.3) × 1024 W Hz-1, placing this cluster within the scatter of known scaling relations. Various lines of evidence, including the intracluster medium morphology, suggest that ACT-CL J0256.5+0006 is composed of two subclusters. We determine a merger mass ratio of 7:4, and a line-of-sight velocity difference of v⊥ = 1880 ± 210 km s-1. We construct a simple merger model to infer relevant time-scales in the merger. From its location on the P1.4 GHz-LX scaling relation, we infer that we observe ACT-CL J0256.5+0006 just before first core crossing.

  1. The Himalayan Seismogenic Zone: A New Frontier for Earthquake Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Larry; Hubbard, Judith; Karplus, Marianne; Klemperer, Simon; Sato, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    significance of blind splay faulting in accommodating slip? m) Do lithologic contrasts juxtaposed across the continental seismogenic zone play a role in the rheological behavior of the SZ in the same manner as proposed for the ocean SZ? Major differences in the study of the continental vs oceanic seismogenic zone include the fact that Himalaya structures are open to: a) direct geological observation via field mapping b) dense and wide aperture monitoring of surface strain via GPS and INSAR c) extensive sampling of geofluids via surface flows and shallow drill holes d) cost effective deployment of long term geophysical arrays (e.g. seismic and MT) designed to detect subtle variations if physical properties within the seismogenic zone, and ultimately, e) a fixed platform for deep drilling of past and future rupture zones It remains to be established whether the Himalayan seismogenic zone has the potential for earthquakes of the greatest magnitudes (e.g. 9.0+). However, there is no question that future ruptures in this system represent a serious threat to major population centers (megacities) in the Indian subcontinent. For this reason alone the HSZ is deserving of a major new international, multidisciplinary effort.

  2. Hydrogeologic Framework Model for the Saturated Zone Site Scale flow and Transport Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Miller

    2004-11-15

    The purpose of this report is to document the 19-unit, hydrogeologic framework model (19-layer version, output of this report) (HFM-19) with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results in accordance with AP-SIII.10Q, Models. The HFM-19 is developed as a conceptual model of the geometric extent of the hydrogeologic units at Yucca Mountain and is intended specifically for use in the development of the ''Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]). Primary inputs to this model report include the GFM 3.1 (DTN: MO9901MWDGFM31.000 [DIRS 103769]), borehole lithologic logs, geologic maps, geologic cross sections, water level data, topographic information, and geophysical data as discussed in Section 4.1. Figure 1-1 shows the information flow among all of the saturated zone (SZ) reports and the relationship of this conceptual model in that flow. The HFM-19 is a three-dimensional (3-D) representation of the hydrogeologic units surrounding the location of the Yucca Mountain geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The HFM-19 represents the hydrogeologic setting for the Yucca Mountain area that covers about 1,350 km2 and includes a saturated thickness of about 2.75 km. The boundaries of the conceptual model were primarily chosen to be coincident with grid cells in the Death Valley regional groundwater flow model (DTN: GS960808312144.003 [DIRS 105121]) such that the base of the site-scale SZ flow model is consistent with the base of the regional model (2,750 meters below a smoothed version of the potentiometric surface), encompasses the exploratory boreholes, and provides a framework over the area of interest for groundwater flow and radionuclide transport modeling. In depth, the model domain extends from land surface to the base of the regional groundwater flow model (D'Agnese et al. 1997 [DIRS 100131], p 2). For the site

  3. Electroactive-Zone Extension in Flow-Battery Stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, KC; Brunini, VE; Dong, YJ; Chiang, YM; Carter, WC

    2014-11-20

    Flowable suspensions that conduct both electrons and ions can enable the use of energy-dense electroactive species in flow batteries [M. Duduta et al., Adv. Energy Mater., 1, 511 (2011); Z. Li et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 15, 15,833 (2013); F. Fan et al., Nano Lett., 14, 2210 (2014)]. In comparison with conventional flow batteries where electrochemical reactions are confined to a fixed current-collector region, electronically conductive flow electrodes permit electrochemical reactions to extend outside of the physical confines of the stack. We have measured and modeled how mixed-conduction enables an electroactive zone (EAZ, in which electrochemical reactions occur) that is of greater spatial extent than current collectors, the extension being termed side zone, SZ. Electrochemical reactions in SZs can reduce coulombic and energetic efficiency. Here we show that for realistic suspension properties and operating conditions, the added inefficiency is small in practice, and can be further mitigated by using appropriate operating conditions and/or materials choices. For the specific example of a non-aqueous Li4Ti5O12 suspension, we show that EAZ extension contributes less than 1% additional efficiency loss at C/10 rates for current collectors greater than 20 mm long. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Model Application for OSAT3 Guidance: Surf-zone integrated alongshore potential flux for oil-sand balls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a method for estimating the mobility and potential alongshore transport of heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates...

  5. Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Model Application for OSAT3 Guidance: Surf-zone integrated alongshore potential flux for oil-sand balls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a method for estimating the mobility and potential alongshore transport of heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates...

  6. The Design and Implementation of a Semi-Autonomous Surf-Zone Robot Using Advanced Sensors and a Common Robot Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    the entire robot. The torque of the motor and gearing allowed the tail to lift the entire rear of the robot. Dynamic tests were conducted to...associated drive assembly. Each assem- bly contains a belt and pulley configuration that transfers torque from the drive assembly to each WhegTM. It...watertight integrity of the overall design. This single unit will encase the servo drive gears shielding it from debris and sand and thus preventing damage

  7. Wave breaking in the surf zone and deep-water in a non-hydrostatic RANS model. Part 1: Organized wave motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhti, Morteza; Kirby, James T.; Shi, Fengyan; Ma, Gangfeng

    2016-11-01

    We examine wave-breaking predictions ranging from shallow- to deep-water conditions using a non-hydrostatic σ-coordinate RANS model NHWAVE as described in Derakhti et al. (2016a), comparing results both with corresponding experiments and with the results of a volume-of-fluid (VOF)/Navier-Stokes solver (Ma et al., 2011; Derakhti and Kirby, 2014a,b). Our study includes regular and irregular depth-limited breaking waves on planar and barred beaches as well as steepness-limited unsteady breaking focused wave packets in intermediate and deep water. In Part 1 of this paper, it is shown that the model resolves organized wave motions in terms of free-surface evolution, spectral evolution, organized wave velocity evolution and wave statistics, using a few vertical σ-levels. In addition, the relative contribution of modeled physical dissipation and numerical dissipation to the integral breaking-induced wave energy loss is discussed. In steepness-limited unsteady breaking focused wave packets, the turbulence model has not been triggered, and all the dissipation is imposed indirectly by the numerical scheme. Although the total wave-breaking-induced energy dissipation is underestimated in the unsteady wave packets, the model is capable of predicting the dispersive and nonlinear properties of different wave packet components before and after the break point, as well as the overall wave height decay and the evolution of organized wave velocity field and power spectrum density over the breaking region. In Part 2 (Derakhti et al., 2016b), model reproduction of wave-breaking-induced turbulence and mean circulation is examined in detail. The same equations and numerical methods are used for the various depth regimes, and no ad-hoc treatment, such as imposing hydrostatic conditions, is involved in triggering breaking. Vertical grid resolution in all simulated cases is at least an order of magnitude coarser than that of typical VOF-based simulations.

  8. A Giant Radio Halo in a Low-Mass SZ-Selected Galaxy Cluster: ACT-CL J0256.5+0006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, K.; Intema, H. T.; Baker, A. J.; Bharadwaj, V.; Bond, J. R.; Cress, C.; Gupta, N.; Hajian, A.; Hilton, M.; Hincks, A. D.; Hlozek, R.; Hughes, J. P.; Lindner, R. R.; Marriage, T. A.; Menanteau, F.; Moodley, K.; Niemack, M. D.; Reese, E. D.; Sievers, J.; Sifon, C.; Srianand, R.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    We present the detection of a giant radio halo (GRH) in the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ)-selected merging galaxy cluster ACT-CL J0256.5+0006 (zeta = 0.363), observed with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at 325 MHz and 610 MHz. We find this cluster to host a faint (S(sub 610) = 5.6 +/- 1.4 mJy) radio halo with an angular extent of 2.6 arcmin, corresponding to 0.8 Mpc at the cluster redshift, qualifying it as a GRH. J0256 is one of the lowest-mass systems, M(sub 500,SZ) = (5.0 +/- 1.2) x 10(sup14) solar mass foud to host a GRH. We measure the GRH at lower significance at 325 MHz (S(sub 325) = 10.3 +/- 5.3 mJy), obtaining a spectral index measurement of alpha sup 610 sub 325 = 1.0(sup +0.7)(sub 0.9). This result is consistent with the mean spectral index of the population of typical radio halos, alpha = 1.2 +/- 0.2. Adopting the latter value, we determine a 1.4 GHz radio power of P(sub 1.4GHz) = (1.0 +/- 03) x 10(sup 24) W Hz(sup -1), placing this cluster within the scatter of known scaling relations. Various lines of evidence, including the ICM morphology, suggest that ACT-CL J0256.5+0006 is composed of two subclusters. We determine a merger mass ratio of 7:4, and a line-of-sight velocity difference of perpendicular = 1880 +/- 210 km s(sup -1). We construct a simple merger model of infer relevant time-scales in the merger. From its location on the P1.4GHz-L(sub x) scaling relation, we infer that we observe ACT-CL J0256.5+0006 just before first core crossing.

  9. Feature description with SIFT, SURF, BRIEF, BRISK, or FREAK? A general question answered for bone age assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, Muhammad; Deserno, Thomas M; Haak, Daniel; Jonas, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Solving problems in medical image processing is either generic (being applicable to many problems) or specific (optimized for a certain task). For example, bone age assessment (BAA) on hand radiographs is a frequent but cumbersome task for radiologists. For this problem, many specific solutions have been proposed. However, general-purpose feature descriptors are used in many computer vision applications. Hence, the aim of this study is (i) to compare the five leading keypoint descriptors on BAA, and, in doing so, (ii) presenting a generic approach for a specific task. Two methods for keypoint selection were applied: sparse and dense feature points. For each type, SIFT, SURF, BRIEF, BRISK, and FREAK feature descriptors were extracted within the epiphyseal regions of interest (eROI). Classification was performed using a support vector machine. Reference data (1101 radiographs) of the University of Southern California was used for 5-fold cross-validation. The data was grouped into 30 classes representing the bone age range of 0-18 years. With a mean error of 0.605 years, dense SIFT gave best results and outperforms all published methods. The accuracy was 98.36% within the range of 2 years. Dense SIFT represents a generic method for a specific question.

  10. Rancang Bangun Game Aksi dengan Integrasi dan Pengenalan Gambar Menggunakan Algoritma Ekstraksi Fitur SURF dan Klasifikasi SVM pada Perangkat Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Nandriawan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Saat ini perangkat mobile berbasis Android dan iOS sangat digemari oleh anak-anak. Mereka yang telah memiliki perangkat mobile akan menghabiskan seluruh waktunya untuk menatap layar perangkat saat bermain. Akibat yang ditimbulkan adalah penurunan kesehatan mata dan kurangnya bersosialisasi dengan teman sebaya. Menggambar adalah hal yang disukai anak-anak. Dengan menggabungkan menggambar dengan permainan perangkat mobile, anak-anak akan tetap merasa bermain meski mereka sedang tidak menatap layar untuk menggambar. Tugas akhir ini bertujuan untuk membangun sebuah permainan yang dapat mengenali gambar dan menggunakan gambar tersebut dalam permainan. Metode pengenalan gambar dalam tugas akhir ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode Edge Detection dengan algoritma ekstraksi fitur SURF (Speeded-Up Robust Features dan klasifikasi SVM (Support Vector Machine. Jenis permainan yang dibangun merupakan gabungan dari aksi dan tower defense. Hasil dari tugas akhir ini dibagi menjadi 3 yaitu hasil fungsionalitas permainan, hasil daya tarik permainan dan hasil akurasi pengenalan gambar. Semua fungsi yang dibuat pada permainan dapat berjalan dengan baik, dan permainan juga telah memiliki daya tarik yang memikat. Namun hasil akurasi pengenalan gambar masih kurang dari harapan penulis.

  11. PADDLING PERFORMANCE AND RANKING POSITION IN JUNIOR SURFERS COMPETING AT THE ASSOCIATION OF SURFING PROFESSIONALS: A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Cámara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  The aims of this pilot study are on one hand, to evaluate the upper body aerobic characteristics of junior surfers competing at the European branch of the Association of Surfing Professionals (ASP and on the other, to assess the relationship between the junior surfers' upper body aerobic characteristics and their ranking position. Ten surfers competing at the European junior branch of the ASP took part in the study. The maximal oxygen uptake (VO2MAX, the maximum power output (WMAX, the maximum lactate concentration [La]MAX, the maximum heart rate (HRMAX and the power output at the intensity where the lactate threshold and the onset of blood lactate accumulation are produced (WLT and WOBLA were determined during an incremental maximal test in a swim bench ergometer. It was observed a lack of a significant relationship between the ranking position and the parameters at maximal intensity (VO2PEAK, WMAX, HRMAX y [La]MAX. The WLT (W · kg-1 and the WOBLA (W · kg-1 were significantly related to ranking position (r= -0.69, p= 0.02; r= -0.72, p= 0.01, respectively.

  12. Self-organizing maps and VolSurf approach to predict aldose reductase inhibition by flavonoid compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Scotti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aldose Reductase (AR is the polyol pathway key enzyme which converts glucose to sorbitol. High glucose availability in insulin resistant tissues in diabetes leads into an accumulation of sorbitol, which has been associated with typical chronic complications of this disease, such as neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy. In this study, 71 flavonoids AR inhibitors were subjected to two methods of SAR to verify crucial substituents. The first method used the PCA (Principal Component Analysis to elucidate physical and chemical characteristics in the molecules that would be essential for the activity, employing VolSurf descriptors. The rate obtained explained 53% of the system total variance and revealed that a hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance in the molecules is required, since very polar or nonpolar substituents decrease the activity. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs was also employed to determine key substituents by evaluating substitution patterns, using NMR data. This study had a high success rate (85% accuracy in the training set and 88% accuracy in the test set and showed polihydroxilations are essential for high activity and methoxylations and glicosilations primarily at positions C7, C3' and C4' decrease the activity.

  13. Sonicated and stirred copper oxide nanoparticles induce similar toxicity and pro-inflammatory response in N-hTERT keratinocytes and SZ95 sebocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piret, Jean-Pascal; Mejia, Jorge; Lucas, Stéphane; Zouboulis, Christos C.; Saout, Christelle; Toussaint, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    The potential toxic and pro-inflammatory effects of rod-shaped copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs; 10 ± 3 nm in thickness and 74 ± 17 nm in length) were studied on N-hTERT keratinocytes and SZ95 sebocytes and on reconstructed human epidermis. Non-sonicated and sonicated CuO NPs induced similar cellular toxicity. The toxic effect of CuO NPs (non-sonicated and sonicated) was more pronounced in keratinocytes than in sebocytes. Pro-oxidant effects of CuO NPs were demonstrated by showing increase in the production of reactive oxygen species and decrease of cellular glutathione. In addition, DNA-binding activities suggested that redox-sensitive transcription factors Nrf2 and NF-κB were implicated in the response of keratinocytes to CuO NPs. Transcriptomic analysis showed an increase in the abundance of transcript species coding for pro-inflammatory interleukins (e.g. IL-8 and IL-1α) and chemokines. In reconstituted human epidermis exposed topically to raw CuO NPs, no effect on the integrity, viability and inflammatory response was noticed.

  14. Zoning Districts - Volusia County HUB Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Historically Underutilized Business (HUB) Zones in Volusia County. Go to http://www.sba.gov/hubzone or contact the Department of Economic Development (386) 248-8048...

  15. Biosorption of As (III) by non-living biomass of an arsenic-hypertolerant Bacillus cereus strain SZ2 isolated from a gold mining environment: equilibrium and kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Bahari, Zaratulnur; Ali Hamood Altowayti, Wahid; Ibrahim, Zaharah; Jaafar, Jafariah; Shahir, Shafinaz

    2013-12-01

    The ability of non-living biomass of an arsenic-hypertolerant Bacillus cereus strain SZ2 isolated from a gold mining environment to adsorb As (III) from aqueous solution in batch experiments was investigated as a function of contact time, initial As (III) concentration, pH, temperature and biomass dosage. Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium data better in comparison to Freundlich isotherm. The maximum biosorption capacity of the sorbent, as obtained from the Langmuir isotherm, was 153.41 mg/g. The sorption kinetic of As (III) biosorption followed well the pseudo-second-order rate equation. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis indicated the involvement of hydroxyl, amide and amine groups in As (III) biosorption process. Field emission scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis of the non-living B. cereus SZ2 biomass demonstrated distinct cell morphological changes with significant amounts of As adsorbed onto the cells compared to non-treated cells. Desorption of 94 % As (III) was achieved at acidic pH 1 showing the capability of non-living biomass B. cereus SZ2 as potential biosorbent in removal of As (III) from arsenic-contaminated mining effluent.

  16. SURF-based position estimation method using aerial image sequences.%基于SURF特征的航空序列图像位置估计算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔奎贤; 赵妮; 李耀军

    2013-01-01

    视觉传感器在航空无人机导航和定位任务中应用越来越广泛。针对无人机位置参数估计问题,提出了一种基于SURF特征的图像配准算法,该算法能够适应航空序列图像的旋转、尺度变换及噪声干扰,实现无人机位置的精确估计。构建了SURF尺度空间,运用快速Hessian矩阵定位极值点,计算出航空图像的64维SURF特征描述子;基于Hessian矩阵迹完成特征点匹配;使用RANSAC算法剔除出格点,实现位置参数的精确估计。通过航空图像序列实测数据位置估计实验,验证了该算法的有效性。%Vision sensor is widely used in the aviation aircraft navigation and positioning tasks. For position parameter estima-tion of aircraft, this paper presents a SURF feature based image registration algorithm, it is able to adapt to aerial image sequence rotation, scale transformation and noise, to achieve accurate estimates of aircraft position. It builds SURF scale space, uses fast Hessian matrix maximum values to calculate 64-dimensional SURF feature descriptors of aerial images. Based on the trace of the Hessian matrix, it completes feature points matching task. By using RANSAC algorithm, it removes the outliers matching points for accurate position estimate. Experiments with two real aerial image sequences show the effectiveness of the proposed position estimation algorithm.

  17. 基于SURF算子的快速手背静脉识别%Fast recognition of hand vein with SURF descriptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀艳; 刘铁根; 邓仕超; 何瑾; 王云新

    2011-01-01

    A recognition algorithm for hand vein based on speeded-up robust features( SURF) was proposed. Firstly,the region of interest ( ROI) of the hand vein image is obtained through image preprocessing. The local SURF features of test sample and register samples are extracted and matched based on Euclid distance, and then the mismatching pairs are rejected. Finally, the matching rate is calculated as the similarity between registered sample and test sample to realize personal identity recognition. The recognition performance was evaluated in verification mode using TJU hand vein image database, the equal error rate ( EER) is 0.07% and average recognition time is 0.153 s. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is able to realize hand vein recognition reliably and quickly.%提出基于加速鲁棒性特征(speeded-up robustfeatures,SURF)的手背静脉识别算法.首先对手背静脉图像进行预处理,提取手背静脉感兴趣区域(ROI),然后提取手背静脉的局部SURF特征,基于欧式距离实现测试样本和注册样本特征点的匹配,并剔除错误匹配对,最后计算匹配率作为待识别样本和注册样本之间的相似度测试实现身份识别.利用TJU手背静脉图像数据库对算法性能进行测试,在认证模式下等错率为0.07%,平均识别时间0.153 s.实验结果证明该算法可以快速有效地实现手背静脉识别.

  18. 基于特性分析的SURF加速方法研究%RESEARCH ON SPEED-UP METHOD OF SURF THROUGH PROPERTIES ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡益斌; 肖菁; 戴卓方; 李戈; 张为华

    2012-01-01

    To resolve the problem of a little bit low speed the typical image feature extraction algorithm SURF (speeded up robust feature) has, in the paper we do an in-depth analysis on the algorithm properties in regard to its running time, instruction type, memory access, hot spots,and etc. On this basis, we optimise the SURF algorithm by reconstructing the judgment logic, the memory accessing and data organisations,the library functions implementation and other strategies. Moreover,we analyse the role of speedup of each optimisation strategy on the algorithm through experiments. And experimental data show that these optimisation strategies can effectively improve the running efficiency of SURF in the premise of guaranteeing 100% accuracy of the algorithm, and 2. 75X ultimate performance improvement is achieved.%针对典型图像特征提取算法SURF速度偏慢的问题,深入分析该算法在运行时间、指令类型、内存访问、热点等方面的特性.在此基础上,运用重构判断逻辑、重构内存访问与数据组织形式、重构库函数实现等策略对SURF算法进行优化.并通过实验,分析各种优化策略对算法的加速作用.实验数据显示,这些优化策略可以在保证算法100%精确的前提下,有效地提高SURF算法的运行效率,最终达到2.75X的性能提升.

  19. MASS CALIBRATION AND COSMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE SPT-SZ GALAXY CLUSTER SAMPLE USING VELOCITY DISPERSION σ {sub v} AND X-RAY Y {sub X} MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocquet, S.; Saro, A.; Mohr, J. J.; Bazin, G.; Chiu, I.; Desai, S. [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Aird, K. A. [University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ashby, M. L. N.; Bayliss, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bautz, M. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Benson, B. A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-0500 (United States); Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Cho, H. M. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Clocchiatti, A. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrosifica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica (Chile); De Haan, T., E-mail: bocquet@usm.lmu.de [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); and others

    2015-02-01

    We present a velocity-dispersion-based mass calibration of the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect survey (SPT-SZ) galaxy cluster sample. Using a homogeneously selected sample of 100 cluster candidates from 720 deg{sup 2} of the survey along with 63 velocity dispersion (σ {sub v}) and 16 X-ray Y {sub X} measurements of sample clusters, we simultaneously calibrate the mass-observable relation and constrain cosmological parameters. Our method accounts for cluster selection, cosmological sensitivity, and uncertainties in the mass calibrators. The calibrations using σ {sub v} and Y {sub X} are consistent at the 0.6σ level, with the σ {sub v} calibration preferring ∼16% higher masses. We use the full SPT{sub CL} data set (SZ clusters+σ {sub v}+Y {sub X}) to measure σ{sub 8}(Ω{sub m}/0.27){sup 0.3} = 0.809 ± 0.036 within a flat ΛCDM model. The SPT cluster abundance is lower than preferred by either the WMAP9 or Planck+WMAP9 polarization (WP) data, but assuming that the sum of the neutrino masses is ∑m {sub ν} = 0.06 eV, we find the data sets to be consistent at the 1.0σ level for WMAP9 and 1.5σ for Planck+WP. Allowing for larger ∑m {sub ν} further reconciles the results. When we combine the SPT{sub CL} and Planck+WP data sets with information from baryon acoustic oscillations and Type Ia supernovae, the preferred cluster masses are 1.9σ higher than the Y {sub X} calibration and 0.8σ higher than the σ {sub v} calibration. Given the scale of these shifts (∼44% and ∼23% in mass, respectively), we execute a goodness-of-fit test; it reveals no tension, indicating that the best-fit model provides an adequate description of the data. Using the multi-probe data set, we measure Ω{sub m} = 0.299 ± 0.009 and σ{sub 8} = 0.829 ± 0.011. Within a νCDM model we find ∑m {sub ν} = 0.148 ± 0.081 eV. We present a consistency test of the cosmic growth rate using SPT clusters. Allowing both the growth index γ and the dark energy equation

  20. Webpage Recommendation Model in Personal Surfing%个性化浏览中网页推荐的结构模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏贵洋; 王永成; 马颖华

    2003-01-01

    This paper first introduces the inevitability direction of Internet personal technique's development, and then analyzes the differences between Information Retrieval and Information Filtering. Further more, combining with the group user interests and individual user interests, using VSM and FCM algorithm, this paper proposes a webpage recommendation model in personal surfing. This model can be applied not only in single website, but also in enterprise information collecting system. It also brings forward a method to extend concept. The advantage of the model is automatic concepts learning in the processing of user's feedback and browsing. Contrasting to concept dictionary method, it is more agility and gains well retrieval results.

  1. Diversificação na gestão estratégica em microempresas de ensino do surfe: um estudo multicasos

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Ana Carolina Costa

    2015-01-01

    Podemos observar a existência de diversas estratégias que norteiam o desenvolvimento de um negócio. Uma delas é a diversificação. Esta dissertação apresenta um estudo da diversificação na gestão estratégica de microempresas de ensino do surfe (MEES) do Rio de Janeiro. No caso das MEES, há particularidades que tornam muito importante a diversificação para a sobrevivência e desenvolvimento delas. Por isso, escolhemos estudar o tema nesse tipo de empresa. A pesquisa analisou o processo de divers...

  2. ZoneLib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob; Schiøler, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    We present a dynamic model for climate in a livestock building divided into a number of zones, and a corresponding modular Simulink library (ZoneLib). While most literature in this area consider air flow as a control parameter we show how to model climate dynamics using actual control signals...... development of ZoneLib....

  3. Selective pressure for allelic diversity in SeM of Streptococcus equi does not affect immunoreactive proteins SzPSe or Se18.9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, Muhammad; Velineni, Sridhar; Timoney, John F

    2011-07-01

    Streptococcus equi, a clone or biovar of an ancestral Streptococcus zooepidemicus of Lancefield group C causes equine strangles, a highly contagious tonsillitis and lymphadenitis of the head and neck. At least 74 alleles based on N-terminal amino acid sequence of the anti-phagocytic SeM have been observed among isolates of S. equi from N. America, Europe and Japan. A d(N)/d(S) ratio of 5.93 for the 5' region of sem is indicative of positive selective pressure. The aim of this study was to determine whether variations in SeM were accompanied by variations in the surface exposed SzPSe and secreted Se18.9, both of which bind to equine tonsillar epithelium and, along with SeM, elicit strong nasopharyngeal IgA responses during convalescence. Sequences of genes for these proteins from 25 S. equi expressing 19 different SeM alleles isolated over 40 years in different countries were compared. No variation was observed in szpse, except for an Australian isolate with a deletion of a single repeat in the 3' end of the gene. Interestingly, only two SNP loci were detected in se18.9 compared to 93 and 55 in sem and szpse, respectively. The high frequency of nucleotide substitutions in szpse may be related to its mosaic structure since this gene in S. zooepidemicus exists in a variety of combinations of sequence segments and has a central hypervariable region that includes exogenous DNA sequence based on an atypical G-C percentage. In summary, the results of this study document very different responses of streptococcal genes for 3 immunoreactive proteins to selection pressure of the nasopharyngeal mucosal immune response.

  4. Role of Natural Killer Cells in Intravenous Immunoglobulin-Induced Graft-versus-Host Disease Inhibition in NOD/LtSz-scidIL2rg(-/-) (NSG) Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire-Gauthier, Joëlle; Fontaine, François; Benchimol, Lionel; Nicoletti, Simon; Selleri, Silvia; Dieng, Mame Massar; Haddad, Elie

    2015-05-01

    Although clinical studies have yet to demonstrate clearly the use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), their effective use in a xenogeneic mouse model has been demonstrated. We aimed to determine the mechanism of action by which IVIG contributes to GVHD prevention in a xenogeneic mouse model. NOD/LtSz-scidIL2rg(-/-) (NSG) mice were used for our xenogeneic mouse model of GVHD. Sublethally irradiated NSG mice were injected with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (huPBMCs) and treated weekly with PBS or 50 mg IVIG. Incidence of GVHD and survival were noted, along with analysis of cell subsets proliferation in the peripheral blood. Weekly IVIG treatment resulted in a robust and consistent proliferation of human natural killer cells that were activated, as demonstrated by their cytotoxicity against K562 target cells. IVIG treatment did not inhibit GVHD when huPBMCs were depleted in natural killer (NK) cells, strongly suggesting that this NK cell expansion was required for the IVIG-mediated prevention of GVHD in our mouse model. Moreover, inhibition of T cell activation by either cyclosporine A (CsA) or monoclonal antihuman CD3 antibodies abolished the IVIG-induced NK cell expansion. In conclusion, IVIG treatment induces NK cell proliferation, which is essential for IVIG-mediated protection of GVHD in our mouse model. Furthermore, activated T cells are mandatory for effective IVIG-induced NK cell proliferation. These results shed light on a new mechanism of action of IVIG and could explain why the efficacy of IVIG in preventing GVHD in a clinical setting, where patients receive CsA, has never been undoubtedly demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Generalized Fibonacci zone plates

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  6. Shanghai's Development Zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Since the early 1980s,development zones began appearing in China.Their Success largely stems from the preferential policies they offer and the safe investment environment they work hard to create.As zones have personalities themselves,it is essential to look beyond the pamphlets and published information and get down to the nittygritty.Shanghai has more State designated Economic and Technology Development Zones than any other city in China.In the following article,we have chosen development zones located around Shanghai and conducted a comparison.

  7. Subduction of fracture zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin Manea, Vlad; Gerya, Taras; Manea, Marina; Zhu, Guizhi; Leeman, William

    2013-04-01

    Since Wilson proposed in 1965 the existence of a new class of faults on the ocean floor, namely transform faults, the geodynamic effects and importance of fracture zone subduction is still little studied. It is known that oceanic plates are characterized by numerous fracture zones, and some of them have the potential to transport into subduction zones large volumes of water-rich serpentinite, providing a fertile water source for magma generated in subduction-related arc volcanoes. In most previous geodynamic studies, subducting plates are considered to be homogeneous, and there is no clear indication how the subduction of a fracture zone influences the melting pattern in the mantle wedge and the slab-derived fluids distribution in the subarc mantle. Here we show that subduction of serpentinized fracture zones plays a significant role in distribution of melt and fluids in the mantle wedge above the slab. Using high-resolution tree-dimensional coupled petrological-termomechanical simulations of subduction, we show that fluids, including melts and water, vary dramatically in the region where a serpentinized fracture zone enters into subduction. Our models show that substantial hydration and partial melting tend to concentrate where fracture zones are being subducted, creating favorable conditions for partially molten hydrous plumes to develop. These results are consistent with the along-arc variability in magma source compositions and processes in several regions, as the Aleutian Arc, the Cascades, the Southern Mexican Volcanic Arc, and the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone.

  8. MEASURING THE STELLAR MASSES OF z ∼ 7 GALAXIES WITH THE SPITZER ULTRAFAINT SURVEY PROGRAM (SURFS UP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, R. E. Jr.; Casertano, S.; Stiavelli, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gonzalez, A. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Lemaux, B. C. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Bradač, M.; Cain, B.; Hall, N.; Huang, K.-H.; Lubin, L. [University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Allen, S.; Von der Linden, A. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Gladders, M. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Hildebradt, H.; Schrabback, T. [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, University of Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Hinz, J.; Zaritsky, D. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Treu, T., E-mail: rryan@stsci.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    We present Spitzer/IRAC observations of nine z'-band dropouts highly magnified (2 ≲ μ ≲ 12) by the Bullet Cluster. We combine archival imaging with our Exploratory program (SURFS UP), which results in a total integration time of ∼30 hr per Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) band. We detect (≳ 3σ) in both IRAC bands the brightest of these high-redshift galaxies, with [3.6] = 23.80 ± 0.28 mag, [4.5] = 23.78 ± 0.25 mag, and (H – [3.6]) = 1.17 ± 0.32 mag. The remaining eight galaxies are undetected to [3.6] ∼ 26.4 mag and [4.5] ∼ 26.0 mag with stellar masses of ∼5 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}. The detected galaxy has an estimated magnification of μ = 12 ± 4, which implies this galaxy has an ultraviolet luminosity of L{sub 1500}∼0.3 L{sub z=7}{sup ∗}—the lowest-luminosity individual source detected in IRAC at z ≳ 7. By modeling the broadband photometry, we estimate the galaxy has an intrinsic star formation rate (SFR) of SFR ∼ 1.3 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and stellar mass of M ∼ 2.0 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}, which gives a specific star formation rate of sSFR ∼ 0.7 Gyr{sup –1}. If this galaxy had sustained this SFR since z ∼ 20, it could have formed the observed stellar mass (to within a factor of ∼2). We also discuss alternate star formation histories and argue that the exponentially increasing model is unlikely. Finally, based on the intrinsic SFR, we estimate that this galaxy has a likely [C II] flux of (f {sub [C} {sub II]}) = 1.6 mJy.

  9. PAISAJE, PATRIMONIO Y TURISMO DE SURF: FACTORES DE ATRACCIÓN Y MOTIVACIÓN EN EL «PARQUE NATURAL DEL ESTRECHO» (ESPAÑA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rivera Mateos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia la incidencia de diversos factores geográficos, físico-ambien - tales, paisajísticos y socioculturales en la conformación y desarrollo de un destino especia - lizado en turismo deportivo de naturaleza y deportes acuáticos (win dsurf, surf, kite surf ...: Tarifa y el Parque Natural del Estrecho. Se realiza un análisis de los valores ambientales, climáticos, paisajísticos e histórico-culturales de los espacios que conforman su sistema de patrimonio territorial y que sirven de soporte y cualificación de las prácticas surferas, así como de la percepción de los mismos como factores competitivos y de atracción y sostenibi - lidad turísticas entre los agentes locales implicados en el desarrollo de estos deportes a partir de su propia experiencia y valoración.

  10. 骑浪横甩薄弱性衡准技术的发展%Development of Surf-riding Broaching Vulnerability Criteria Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐哲

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the physical background and the vulnerability criterion development process for the first layer and the second layer of surf-riding/broaching. Also it analyzes the preliminary criteria and the vulnerability criteria method for calculating of surf-riding/broaching. Mastering the development state of this technology can be useful for the research of relative area, and would become the base for the second general criteria technology.%介绍了骑浪/横甩的物理背景,以及骑浪/横甩第一层和第二层薄弱性衡准发展过程,并分析了骑浪横甩薄弱性衡准计算方法及初步衡准,掌握骑浪横甩薄弱性衡准技术的发展现状,有助于骑浪/横甩相关技术领域的研究,为船舶第二代完整稳性的技术发展奠定基础。

  11. SIFT和SURF在无人机影像匹配的对比研究%Comparative Study of SIFT and SURF in UAV Image Matching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗亮; 熊助国

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of the UAV image, in combination with the characteristics of SIFT and SURF operators, the two operators are com-pared in terms of feature extraction efficiency and feature extraction speed, according to the experiments on two kinds of operators in eval-uating the pros and cons of UAV image matching, the experiments show that SURF has a speed advantage, also in green vegetation cover surface can match is better than SIFT operator.%从无人机影像的特点考虑,结合SIFT和SURF算子的特点进行了两种算子在特征提取有效性、特征提取速度方面的比对,通过对两种算子在无人机影像匹配的实验中凸现的好坏做出评价,实验发现SURF的优势不仅仅在速度上,而且在绿色植被覆盖的地表下能匹配效果要优于SIFT算子。

  12. 基于SURF特征与模糊推理的掌纹识别%Palmprint recognition based on SURF features and fuzzy reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶筱娇; 王晅

    2016-01-01

    To alleviate the limitations that the existing palmprint recognition methods are time-consuming, and their robustness to the variations of orientation, position and illumination in capturing palmprint images is insufficient, this paper describes a new palmprint recognition method based on Speeded Up Robust Features(SURF)and fuzzy reasoning. The proposed method consists of two phases: enrolling phase and identification phase. In the enrolling phase, keypoints are detected with SURF from the enrolled palmprint images and mutually matched between training samples, and then for each enrolled user, the keypoints which matching frequencies exceed 50% are selected. For each selected keypoint, the matching rate, the mean and variance of the location coordinates and the mean of SURF descriptors in the enrolled palmprint images, the maximal distance between the mean and the SURF descriptors are determined and regarded as the user's palmprint patterns stored in a pattern library. In the identification phase, it utilizes SURF to detect keypoints from the palmprint image to be identified, and then the fuzzy matching degrees for all palmprint patterns in the library are calculated. A fussy reasoning approach is developed for matching. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method yields a better performance in terms of the correct classification percentages compared with the recent palmprint recognition algorithms. It is also shown that the proposed approach is robust to the variations of orientation, position and illumination, and yields observably low computational cost.%针对现有掌纹识别算法对掌纹图像在采集过程中的位置、方向、亮度变化缺乏足够的鲁棒性,而且计算复杂度较高的问题,提出了一种基于SURF描述字的掌纹识别算法.算法分为训练与识别两个过程,在训练过程中,提取属于同一类所有训练样本的SURF描述字进行互配,然后计算训练样本中互配

  13. To See or Not To See: That is The Question.The Protection-Against-Schizophrenia (PaSZ Model: Evidence from Congenital Blindness and Visuo-Cognitive Aberrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen eLandgraf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The causes of schizophrenia are still unknown. For the last one hundred years, though, both absent and perfect vision have been associated with a lower risk for schizophrenia. Hence, vision itself and aberrations in visual functioning may be fundamental to the development and etiological explanations of the disorder. In this paper, we present the Protection-Against-Schizophrenia (PaSZ model, which grades the risk for developing schizophrenia as a function of an individual’s visual capacity. We review two vision perspectives: (1 Absent vision or how congenital blindness contributes to PaSZ and (2 perfect vision or how aberrations in visual functioning are associated with psychosis. First, we illustrate that, although congenitally blind and sighted individuals acquire similar world representations, blind individuals compensate for behavioral shortcomings through neurofunctional and multisensory reorganization. These reorganizations may indicate etiological explanations for their protection against schizophrenia. Second, we demonstrate that visuo-cognitive impairments are fundamental for the development of schizophrenia. Deteriorated visual information acquisition and processing contribute to higher-order cognitive dysfunctions and subsequently to schizophrenic symptoms. Finally, we provide different specific therapeutic recommendations for individuals who suffer from visual impairments (who never developed normal vision and individuals who suffer from visual deterioration (who previously had normal visual skills. Rather than categorizing individuals as normal and mentally disordered, the PaSZ model uses a continuous scale to represent psychiatrically relevant human behavior. This not only provides a scientific basis for more fine-grained diagnostic assessments, earlier detection, and more appropriate therapeutic assignments, but it also outlines a trajectory for unraveling the causes of abnormal psychotic human self- and world-perception.

  14. Peripheral sub-inflammation is associated with antidepressant consumption in schizophrenia. Results from the multi-center FACE-SZ data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fond, G; Godin, O; Brunel, L; Aouizerate, B; Berna, F; Bulzacka, E; Capdevielle, D; Chereau, I; Dorey, J M; Dubertret, C; Dubreucq, J; Faget, C; Gabayet, F; Le Strat, Y; Micoulaud-Franchi, J A; Misdrahi, D; Rey, R; Richieri, R; Passerieux, C; Schandrin, A; Schürhoff, F; Tronche, A M; Urbach, M; Vidalhet, P; Llorca, P M; Leboyer, M

    2016-02-01

    The relation between C-Reactive Protein (CRP), depression and antidepressant consumption has been well explored in major depressive disorders but not in schizophrenia, which has a high rate of depression comorbidity. The objectives of this study were: (i) to determine the prevalence of abnormal CRP levels, depression and antidepressant consumption in a multicenter community-dwelling sample of subjects with schizophrenia (ii) to determine the association between abnormal CRP levels, depression and antidepressant consumption in schizophrenia. 219 stable patients with schizophrenia (mean age=31.6 years, 75.3% male gender) were systematically included in the multicentre network of FondaMental Expert Center for schizophrenia (FACE-SZ) and assessed with a dedicated electronic medical record including the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and Calgary Depression Scale for depression. High sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) was measured with an assay using nephelometry (Dade Behring). Abnormal CRP level was defined by levels >3mg/L. Current medication was recorded. Overall, 63 subjects (28.8%) were found to have abnormal CRP levels, 43 (20.1%) received a diagnosis of comorbid current depression, and 51 (31.9%) had ongoing antidepressant treatment. In univariate analysis, abnormal CRP levels were found to be significantly associated with body mass index (BMI) (p0.05). In a multivariate model, abnormal CRP was associated with antidepressant consumption independently of other confounding variables (adjusted Odds Ratio=2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.22-6.62). Metabolic syndrome was also independently associated with abnormal CRP (adjusted Odds Ratio=2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.01-6.71). Abnormal CRP levels in schizophrenia were found to be associated with antidepressant consumption, but not with depression. The potential mechanisms were discussed. Antidepressant consumption should be systematically recorded in future studies exploring inflammation in

  15. Surfing a Standing Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos Valadares, Eduardo; Alves, Esdras Garcia

    2005-05-01

    Local "reversal of gravity" can be simulated with an inverted pendulum whose pivot is made to oscillate vertically. A beautiful demonstration of this surprising effect can be found in Ref. 1. In this case, the pendulum is a piece of plastic straw and its pivot pin is fixed at the end of a plastic ruler that is made to oscillate vertically by a small eccentric motor. A theoretical treatment of this inverted pendulum may be found in Ref. 2.

  16. Surf Aces Resurfaced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2013-01-01

    The rise of the American counter-culture between the early- to mid-1960s and early- to mid-1970s was closely associated with the growth of environmentalism. This article explores how both informed popular music, a form of expression which during these years became not only a prominent form of ent...

  17. Surfing on a herringbone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Dan; Lagubeau, Guillaume; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David

    2016-05-01

    Evaporation of a liquid on a hot solid can be exploited to induce both levitation and self-propulsion if the vapor flow under the liquid is made directional. Here we propose to force an anisotropic flow of vapor with a herringbone pattern at a solid surface. Liquids are found to self-propel on such hot materials, drawn by the underlying flow of vapor. The simplicity of the geometry allows us to predict the direction of vapor flow rectification, to quantitatively model the propulsion, and to discuss how the pattern must be designed to optimize both driving force and drop velocity.

  18. Surfing a Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    Star Orbiting Massive Milky Way Centre Approaches to within 17 Light-Hours [1] Summary An international team of astronomers [2], lead by researchers at the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) , has directly observed an otherwise normal star orbiting the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. Ten years of painstaking measurements have been crowned by a series of unique images obtained by the Adaptive Optics (AO) NAOS-CONICA (NACO) instrument [3] on the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory. It turns out that earlier this year the star approached the central Black Hole to within 17 light-hours - only three times the distance between the Sun and planet Pluto - while travelling at no less than 5000 km/sec . Previous measurements of the velocities of stars near the center of the Milky Way and variable X-ray emission from this area have provided the strongest evidence so far of the existence of a central Black Hole in our home galaxy and, implicitly, that the dark mass concentrations seen in many nuclei of other galaxies probably are also supermassive black holes. However, it has not yet been possible to exclude several alternative configurations. In a break-through paper appearing in the research journal Nature on October 17th, 2002, the present team reports their exciting results, including high-resolution images that allow tracing two-thirds of the orbit of a star designated "S2" . It is currently the closest observable star to the compact radio source and massive black hole candidate "SgrA*" ("Sagittarius A") at the very center of the Milky Way. The orbital period is just over 15 years. The new measurements exclude with high confidence that the central dark mass consists of a cluster of unusual stars or elementary particles, and leave little doubt of the presence of a supermassive black hole at the centre of the galaxy in which we live . PR Photo 23a/02 : NACO image of the central region of the Milky Way . PR Photo 23b/02 : NACO image of the central region of the Milky Way (close-up) . PR Photo 23c/02 : Orbit of the star "S2" around the central Black Hole. PR Video Clip 02/02 : Motion of "S2" and other stars around the central Black Hole. Quasars and Black Holes Ever since the discovery of the quasars (quasi-stellar radio sources) in 1963, astrophysicists have searched for an explanation of the energy production in these most luminous objects in the Universe. Quasars reside at the centres of galaxies, and it is believed that the enormous energy emitted by these objects is due to matter falling onto a supermassive Black Hole, releasing gravitational energy through intense radiation before that material disappears forever into the hole (in physics terminology: "passes beyond the event horizon" [4]). To explain the prodigious energy production of quasars and other active galaxies, one needs to conjecture the presence of black holes with masses of one million to several billion times the mass of the Sun. Much evidence has been accumulating during the past years in support of the above "accreting black hole" model for quasars and other galaxies, including the detection of dark mass concentrations in their central regions. However, an unambiguous proof requires excluding all possible other, non-black hole configurations of the central mass concentration. For this, it is imperative to determine the shape of the gravitational field very close to the central object - and this is not possible for the distant quasars due to technological limitations of the currently available telescopes. The centre of the Milky Way ESO PR Photo 23a/02 ESO PR Photo 23a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 427 pix - 95k [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 853 pix - 488k] Caption : PR Photo 23a/02 is a reproduction of an image of the innermost area of the Milky Way, only a few light-years across, obtained in mid-2002 with the NACO instrument [3] at the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN telescope. It combines frames in three infrared wavebands between 1.6 and 3.5 µm. The compact objects are stars and their colours indicate their temperature (blue = "hot", red = "cool"). There is also diffuse infrared emission from interstellar dust between the stars. The two yellow arrows mark the position of the black hole candidate "SgrA*" at the very centre of the Milky Way galaxy. The scale is indicated; the 1 light-year bar subtends an angle of 8 arcsec in the sky. The centre of our Milky Way galaxy is located in the southern constallation Sagittarius (The Archer) and is "only" 26,000 light-years away [5]. On high-resolution images, it is possible to discern thousands of individual stars within the central, one light-year wide region (this corresponds to about one-quarter of the distance to "Proxima Centauri", the star nearest to the solar system). Using the motions of these stars to probe the gravitational field, observations with the 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile) (and subsequently at the 10-m Keck telescope , Hawaii, USA) over the last decade have shown that a mass of about 3 million times that of the Sun is concentrated within a radius of only 10 light-days [5] of the compact radio and X-ray source SgrA* ("Sagittarius A") at the center of the star cluster. This means that SgrA* is the most likely counterpart of the putative black hole and, at the same time, it makes the Galactic Center the best piece of evidence for the existence of such supermassive black holes . However, those earlier investigations could not exclude several other, non-black hole configurations. "We then needed even sharper images to settle the issue of whether any configuration other than a black hole is possible and we counted on the ESO VLT telescope to provide those" , explains Reinhard Genzel , Director at the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Garching near Munich (Germany) and member of the present team. "The new NAOS-CONICA (NACO) instrument, built in a close collaboration between our institute, the Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA: Heidelberg, Germany), ESO and the Paris-Meudon and Grenoble Observatories (France), was just what we needed to take this decisive step forward" . The NACO observations of the Milky Way centre ESO PR Photo 23b/02 ESO PR Photo 23b/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 618 pix - 82k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1236 pix - 456k] ESO PR Photo 23c/02 ESO PR Photo 23c/02 [Preview - JPEG: 486 x 400 pix - 78k] [Normal - JPEG: 971 x 800 pix - 352k] ESO PR Video Clip 02/02 [MPEG] ESO PR Video Clip 02/02 [MPEG Video; 533 k] Caption : PR Photo 23b/02 shows an infrared NACO image of a ~ 2 x 2 arcsec 2 area, centred on the position of the compact radio source "SgrA*" at the centre of the Milky Way Galaxy; it is marked by a small cross. The image was obtained in the K s -band at wavelength 2.1 µm in May 2002 and the angular resolution (image sharpness) is about 0.060 arcsec. At about the same time, the star designated "S2" came within 0.015 arcsec of the radio source. At the distance of the Milky Way Center, 1 arcsec on the sky corresponds to 46 light-days [5]; the bar is 20 light-days long (0.44 arcsec). In PR Photo 23c/02 , "SgrA*" and S2 are identified in the left panel. The right panel displays the orbit of S2 as observed between 1992 and 2002, relative to SgrA* (marked with a circle). The positions of S2 at the different epochs are indicated by crosses with the dates (expressed in fractions of the year) shown at each point. The size of the crosses indicates the measurement errors. The solid curve is the best-fitting elliptical orbit - one of the foci is at the position of SgrA* . The 2002 data points come from NACO observations done during the early commissioning, fine adjustement, and Science Verification phases for this instrument; these data were promptly made public through the ESO Archive, cf. the NACO data webpage. PR Video Clip 02/02 was produced by the Max-Planck-Society and shows the observed motions of S2 and other stars in this area. The new NACO instrument [3] was installed in late 2001 at the VLT 8.2-m YEPUN telescope. Already during the initial tests, it produced many impressive images, some of which have been the subject of earlier ESO press releases [6]. "The first observations this year with NACO gave us right away the sharpest and 'deepest' images of the Milky Way Centre ever taken, showing a large number of stars in that area in great detail" , says Andreas Eckart of the University of Cologne, another member of the international team that is headed by Rainer Schödel, Thomas Ott and Reinhard Genzel from MPE. "But we were still to be overwhelmed by the wonderful outcome of those data! " Combining their infrared images with high-resolution radio data, the team was able to determine - during a ten-year period - very accurate positions of about one thousand stars in the central area with respect to the compact radio source SgrA* , see PR Photo 23c/02 . "When we included the latest NACO data in our analysis in May 2002, we could not believe our eyes. The star S2 , which is the one currently closest to SgrA*, had just performed a rapid swing-by near the radio source. We suddenly realised that we were actually witnessing the motion of a star in orbit around the central black hole, taking it incredibly close to that mysterious object" , says a very happy Thomas Ott , who is now working in the MPE team on his PhD thesis. In orbit around the central black hole No event like this one has ever been recorded . These unique data show unambiguously that S2 is moving along an elliptical orbit with SgrA* at one focus, i.e. S2 orbits SgrA* like the Earth orbits the Sun, cf. the right panel of PR Photo 23c/02 . The superb data also allow a precise determination of the orbital parameters (shape, size, etc.). It turns out that S2 reached its closest distance to SgrA* in the spring of 2002, at which moment it was only 17 light-hours [5] away from the radio source, or just 3 times the Sun-Pluto distance. It was then moving at more than 5000 km/s, or nearly two hundred times the speed of the Earth in its orbit around the Sun. The orbital period is 15.2 years. The orbit is rather elongated - the eccentricity is 0.87 - indicating that S2 is about 10 light-days away from the central mass at the most distant orbital point [7]. "We are now able to demonstrate with certainty that SgrA* is indeed the location of the central dark mass we knew existed. Even more important, our new data have "shrunk" by a factor of several thousand the volume within which those several million solar masses are contained" , says Rainer Schödel , PhD student at MPE and also first author of the resulting paper. In fact, model calculations now indicate that the best estimate of the mass of the Black Hole at the centre of the Milky Way is 2.6 ± 0.2 million times the mass of the Sun . No other possibilities According to the detailed analysis presented in the Nature article, other previously possible configurations, such as very compact clusters of neutron stars, stellar size black holes or low mass stars, or even a ball of putative heavy neutrinos, can now be definitively excluded. The only still viable non-black hole configuration is a hypothetical star of heavy elementary particles called bosons, which would look very similar to a black hole. "However" , says Reinhard Genzel , "even if such a boson star is in principle possible, it would rapidly collapse into a supermassive black hole anyhow, so I think we have pretty much clinched the case!" Next observations "Most astrophysicists would accept that the new data provide compelling evidence that a supermassive black hole exists in the center of the Milky Way. This makes even more likely the supermassive black hole interpretation for the enormous concentration of dark mass detected at the center of many other galaxies" , says Alvio Renzini , VLT Programme Scientist at ESO. So what remains to be done? The next big quest now is to understand when and how these supermassive black holes formed and why almost every massive galaxy appears to contain one. The formation of central black holes and that of their host galaxies themselves increasingly appear to be just one problem and the same. Indeed, one of the outstanding challenges for the VLT to solve in the next few years. There is also little doubt that coming interferometric observations with instruments at the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) and the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) will also result in another giant leap within this exciting field of research. Andreas Eckart is optimistic: "Perhaps it will even be possible with X-ray and radio observations in the next few years to directly demonstrate the existence of the event horizon." More information The information presented in this Press Release is based on a research article ("Seeing a Star Orbit around the Supermassive Black Hole at the centre of the Milky Way" by Rainer Schödel et al.) that appears in the research journal "Nature" on October 17, 2002. Notes [1]: This press release is issued in coordination between ESO and the Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Garching, Germany. A German version is available at http://www.mpg.de/pri02/pri0287.htm. [2]: The team consists of Rainer Schödel, Thomas Ott, Reinhard Genzel, Reiner Hofmann and Matt Lehnert (Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany), Andreas Eckart and Nelly Mouawad (Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Cologne, Germany), Tal Alexander (The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel), Mark J. Reid (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass., USA), Rainer Lenzen and Markus Hartung (Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg, Germany), François Lacombe, Daniel Rouan, Eric Gendron and Gérard Rousset (Observatoire de Paris - Section de Meudon, France), Anne-Marie Lagrange (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique, Observatoire de Grenoble, France), Wolfgang Brandner, Nancy Ageorges, Chris Lidman, Alan F.M. Moorwood, Jason Spyromilio and Norbert Hubin (ESO) and Karl M. Menten (Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Bonn, Germany). [3]: The NACO facility has two major components, CONICA and NAOS . The COudé Near-Infrared CAmera (CONICA) was developed by a German Consortium, with an extensive ESO collaboration. The Consortium consists of Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA) (Heidelberg) and the Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE) (Garching). The Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS) was developed, with the support of INSU-CNRS, by a French Consortium in collaboration with ESO. The French consortium consists of Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales (ONERA) , Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (LAOG) and Observatoire de Paris (DESPA and DASGAL). [4]: In Albert Einstein's Theory of General Relativity, any mass has a characteristic radius, the "event horizon", or "Schwarzschild radius" named after the German astrophysicist Karl Schwarzschild . Within this radius, even light cannot escape the pull of the gravitational force. The radius for a 2.6 ± 0.2 million solar masses black hole (as the one at the centre of the Milky Way galaxy) is about 7.7 million km (26 light-seconds). [5]: Astronomical distances are often expressed in the time it takes the light, travelling at 300,000 km/sec, to cover them. 1 light-hour = 1.08 10 9 km; 1 light-day = 2.6 10 10 km; 1 light-month = 7.8 10 11 km; 1 light-year = 9.5 10 12 km. [6]: Earlier NACO images have been published in ESO PR 25/01 , ESO PR Photos 04a-c/02 , ESO PR Photos 19a-c/02 and ESO PR Photos 21a-c/02. [7]: S2 is an otherwise "normal" star, but some 15 times more massive and 7 times larger than the Sun. Its orbit around the Black Hole is comparatively stable. Even though it moves relatively close to the Black Hole in the present orbit, S2 would have to be at least 70 times closer (about 16 light-minutes from the Black Hole) before it would risk being disrupted by tidal forces. Astronomers refer to the extreme orbital points as "perenigricon" (closest to the Black Hole) and "aponigricon" (farthest away).

  19. Surfing China's National Defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Guilin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Following the start of its first test run on August 20, 2009, the website www.mod.gov.cn of the Ministry of National Defense (MOD) of the People's Republic of China has logged more than 2 billion hits,from many countries and regions including China, the United States,the United Kingdom, Japan, Australia and Singapore. China National Defense News reporters recently interviewed Ji Guilin, the website's Editor in Chief, on its performance and the feedback of netizens.

  20. Surf Aces Resurfaced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2013-01-01

    of entertainment but also a forum for cultural and social criticism. More particularly, through contextual and lyrical analyses of recordings by The Beach Boys, it identifies patterns of change and continuity in the articulation of counter-cultural, ecological and related sensibilities. During late 1966 and early......, what had formerly been considered high risk had by 1970 become good business as once-marginal environmentalism gained broader acceptability: thus did ‘America’s band’ articulate the flowering, greening and fading of the counter-culture.......The rise of the American counter-culture between the early- to mid-1960s and early- to mid-1970s was closely associated with the growth of environmentalism. This article explores how both informed popular music, a form of expression which during these years became not only a prominent form...

  1. BLM Solar Energy Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Priority development areas for utility-scale solar energy facilities as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision. An additional Solar Energy Zone identified...

  2. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  3. Microgravity silicon zoning investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, E. L.; Gill, G. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The flow instabilities in floating zones of silicon were investigated and methods for investigation of these instabilities in microgravity were defined. Three principal tasks were involved: (1) characterization of the float zone in small diameter rods; (2) investigation of melt flow instabilities in circular melts in silicon disks; and (3) the development of a prototype of an apparatus that could be used in near term space experiments to investigate flow instabilities in a molten zone. It is shown that in a resistance heated zoner with 4 to 7 mm diameter silicon rods that the critical Marangoni number is about 1480 compared to a predicted value of 14 indicative that viable space experiments might be performed. The prototype float zone apparatus is built and specifications are prepared for a flight zoner should a decision be reached to proceed with a space flight experimental investigation.

  4. The gray zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, H J

    1998-01-01

    Think for a minute about the terms equivocal and indeterminate. Equivocal is defined as "of uncertain significance", and indeterminate is defined as "indefinite, uncertain". Now think of the context in which laboratory results are reported: either by using the exact words equivocal or indeterminate or cloaked in technical jargon (e.g., cytologic diagnoses "ASCUS" or "AGUS"). Clinicians expect (or at least want) laboratory results to be black or white (i.e., bimodally distributed), whereas laboratorians strive for the perfect shade of gray because of data that often are bimodal but overlapping. A consequence of this color war is "the gray zone" (often confused with the "twilight zone"), a noncommittal zone that leaves laboratorians and clinicians alike plenty of wiggle room, allowing us to interpret results on either side of the fence. This article examines the root causes of the gray zone, with several clinical examples of how it permeates laboratory interpretation.

  5. Coastal Zone of Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water, Salt and Nutrients Budgets of Two Estuaries in the. Coastal Zone of ... in destabilization of plankton communities, resulting in high ...... The water exchange time (1) was. 315 and 48 days in ..... account. Know your Milieu Series. Limbe,.

  6. Promise Zones for Applicants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists applicants to HUD's Promise Zone initiative prepare data to submit with their application by allowing applicants to draw the exact location of the...

  7. Simulated floating zone method

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, Ryo; Kato, Yasuyuki; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides the simulated floating zone (SFZ) method that is an efficient simulation technique to obtain thermal equilibrium states, especially useful when domain formation prevents the system from reaching a spatially-uniform stable state. In the SFZ method, the system is heated up locally, and the heated region is steadily shifted, similar to the floating zone method for growing a single crystal with less lattice defect and impurity in experiments. We demonstrate that the SFZ method...

  8. MindSurf: a pilot study to assess the usability and acceptability of a smartphone app designed to promote contentment, wellbeing, and goal achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Timothy A; Haviland, Jennifer; Tai, Sara J; Vanags, Thea; Mansell, Warren

    2016-12-12

    The Method of Levels (MOL) is a transdiagnostic cognitive therapy that promotes contentment, wellbeing, and goal achievement through the resolution of internal conflicts underlying psychological distress. MOL, based on Perceptual Control Theory (PCT), was developed in routine clinical practice and has been used effectively across different health services by different practitioners. Access to MOL-style questions through a smartphone app could, potentially, help both the general public maintain robust mental health, and also be a useful adjunct to therapy for clinical populations. The app is called MindSurf because of its focus on helping people explore their thinking. Prior to developing the app and using it with different populations it was necessary to determine whether such an idea would be usable for and acceptable to potential app users. Therefore, a pilot study was conducted with a non-clinical sample to assess the usability and acceptability of the app including monitoring whether the questions delivered in this way were associated with any adverse events. A pilot study using quantitative as well as qualitative methods and incorporating a repeated measures, A-B design was conducted. The 23 participants were healthy adult volunteers who were all either undergraduate students, postgraduate students, or staff of the University of Manchester. They received MOL-style questions on their mobile phones over a 1-week period. Qualitative results were encouraging and indicated that the format and style of questioning were acceptable to participants and did not lead to increased worry or concern. A one-way, repeated measures ANOVA indicated that there was a nonsignificant decrease in scores on the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS21) over a 2 week period. The results of the pilot study justified development of MindSurf and further testing once it is available for use. A power analysis indicated that the pilot study was underpowered to detect

  9. Un hombre llamado pez: la historia de Duke Kahanamoku, el nadador más rápido del mundo y el padre del surf moderno. [A Man Called Fish: the History of Duke Kahanamoku, the fastest swimmer of the World and the father of modern surfing].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Esparza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Duke Kahanamoku (1890-1968 forma parte del Salón de la Fama de la natación, y también del Salón de la Fama del surf. Es la única persona que tiene ese doble mérito. Las razones no son difíciles de entender: fue el nadador más rápido de entre los humanos hasta que llegó otro que no lo era: Tarzán, o mejor dicho, Johnny Weissmüller; y en cuanto al arte de montar las olas tuvo el mérito de expandir por otros mares y océanos esa actividad milenaria surgida en el Hawái arcaico hasta el punto de ser considerado por casi todos el padre del surf moderno. ¿Cuáles fueron sus éxitos en la natación? ¿Qué había de innovador en su técnica que le hizo el más rápido? ¿Cómo expandió el surf al mismo tiempo que realizaba exhibiciones de natación? ¿De qué energía carismática estaba dotado este hombre, que hasta el propio JFK en su visita a Honolulu en 1962 se saltó absolutamente todo el protocolo entre las autoridades norteamericanas para dirigirse directamente hacia él y saludarle efusivamente? He aquí su historia.

  10. A szervezeti változással szembeni ellenállás mint természetes és szükségszerű gyászfolyamat

    OpenAIRE

    Pulinka, Ágnes

    2016-01-01

    A változás mint szervezet- és vezetéstudományi téma már régóta divatos, de napjainkra lett megkerülhetetlen azok számára, akik szervezetekkel vagy szervezetekben dolgoznak. A változással való személyes, érzelmi megküzdés és a gyászfolyamat közötti erőteljes hasonlóság sem újdonság, de a gyász egyik legismertebb nemzetközi szakértője, Elizabeth Kübler-Ross modelljének explicit vezetéstudományi alkalmazása a magyar szakirodalomban eddig hiánynak mutatkozott. A szerző cikkében ezt kívánja pót...

  11. Local Environment Recognition System Using Modified SURF-Based 3D Panoramic Environment Map for Obstacle Avoidance of a Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Koo Kang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a local environment recognition system for obstacle avoidance. In vision systems, obstacles that are located beyond the Field of View (FOV cannot be detected precisely. To deal with the FOV problem, we propose a 3D Panoramic Environment Map (PEM using a Modified SURF algorithm (MSURF. Moreover, in order to decide the avoidance direction and motion automatically, we also propose a Complexity Measure (CM and Fuzzy-Logic-based Avoidance Motion Selector (FL-AMS. The CM is utilized to decide an avoidance direction for obstacles. The avoidance motion is determined using FL-AMS, which considers environmental conditions such as the size of obstacles and available space. The proposed system is applied to a humanoid robot built by the authors. The results of the experiment show that the proposed method can be effectively applied to a practical environment.

  12. In-situ Observations of Swash-zone Flow Velocities and Sediment Transport on a Steep Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon-Maldonado, P.; Puleo, J. A.; Figlus, J.

    2014-12-01

    A 45 m scaffolding frame containing an array of instruments was installed at South Bethany Beach, Delaware, to obtain in-situ measurements in the swash zone. Six cross-shore stations were established to simultaneously measure near-bed velocity profiles, sediment concentration and water level fluctuations on a steep beach. Measurements of swash-zone hydrodynamics and morphological change were collected from February 12 to 25, 2014, following a large Nor'easter storm with surf zone significant wave height exceeding 5 m. Swash-zone flow velocities (u,v,w) were measured at each cross-shore location using a Nortek Vectrino profiling velocimeter that measured a 30 mm velocity profile at 1 mm vertical increments at 100 Hz. These velocity profiles were used to quantify the vertical flow structure over the foreshore and estimate hydrodynamic parameters such as bed shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy dissipation. Sediment concentrations were measured using optical backscatter sensors (OBS) to obtain spatio-temporal measurements during both uprush and backwash phases of the swash cycle. Cross-shore sediment transport rates at each station were estimated by taking the product of cross-shore velocity and sediment concentration. Foreshore elevations were sampled every low tide using a Leica GPS system with RTK capability. Cross-shore sediment transport rates and gradients derived from the velocities and bed shear stress estimates will be related to the observed morphological change.

  13. Research on Sonar Image Registration and Fusion Based on SURF Algorithm%基于SURF的声纳图像配准与融合方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭军

    2013-01-01

    针对侧扫声纳图像分辨率高测深精度低而多波束声纳图像分辨率低测深精度高的特点,提出了一种基于SUFR的声纳图像自动配准与融合方法.该算法检测同一区域内侧扫声纳图像和多波束图像的特征点,通过最近邻匹配获得匹配点后,计算图像间的变换矩阵,利用空间变换完成配准,采用加权融合法实现两者的融合.实验结果表明该算法具有很好的鲁棒性,配准精度达到像素级,可实现两者的高精度自动配准与融合,取得了理想的效果.%According to multi - beam sonar system, the high - resolution backscatter but poor horizontal position accuracy, and side -scan sonar system, the accurate bathymetry and horizontal position but low resolution, the study is concerned with an automatic registration and fusion method of sonar image based on SURF. To achieve the integration of multi - beam sonar system and side - scan sonar system with the weighted fusion method, it extracts feature points by using SURF, computes transformation matrix by using match points, and performs registration and fusion with a spatial transform. The results indicate that this method is robust and stable with registration accuracy up to pixel level realizing the quite precise automatic registration and fusion, and is more suitable for sonar image.

  14. 改进SURF算法的图像拼接算法研究%An image stitching algorithm based on improved SURF algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马林伟; 朱国魂

    2014-01-01

    针对目前图像拼接算法存在对于图像配准过程中对应特征点对难以准确匹配的问题,提出了一个通过改进的 SURF 算法提取图像特征点,然后对得到的特征点进行描述,利用快速RANSAC 算法配准图像,最后采用像素加权的方法进行图像融合。实验结果表明,提出的改进 SURF方法有效地提高了特征点提取的准确性,去除了错误的匹配点对,将整个拼接过程的效率从之前的13.03对/秒提升到15.20对/秒。%Image stitching is mainly used in aerial image processing, medical image analysis, virtual reality technology, computer vision, etc. For image registration, the difficult is to accurately extract the corresponding feature points. This paper puts forward a kind of algorithm based on improved SURF algorithm to extract image feature points, and then describes the feature points, using the RANSAC algorithm to registration the image. Finally, it uses the method of weighted pixel in image fusion. The experiment results show that this method improved the accuracy of feature extract, wipe out the wrong matching points, and improved the processing of stitching from 13.03/s to 15.20/s.

  15. 基于SIFT,PCA-SIFT和SURF特征检测方法的研究%Based on SIFT,PCA-SIFT and SURF Feature Detection Method Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏荣; 李晓明

    2012-01-01

    To study features,we compared with SIFT(Scale Invariant Feature Transform),PCA-SIFT(Principal Component Analysis Scale Invariant Feature Transform)and SURF(Speeded Up Robust Features)three kinds of robust feature detection method.We use KNN(K-Nearest Neighbor)and random sampling method of these three kinds of methods for analysis.Where KNN used to seek matching pairs,random sampling for removing errors from match to match.Feature detection performance robustness is the image rotation,image blurring,illumination variation,the scale change of the image.The experimental evaluation is the use of repetition rate and the number of correct matching of the two statistical methods.In a variety of image transform in SIFT and SURF performance is consistent,but also has faster calculation speed.PCA-SIFT in the image rotation and illumination changes provides a better performance.%文章对SIFT,PCA-SIFT和SURF三种鲁棒性较强的特征检测方法作对比.文中运用KNN(K-Nearest Neighbor)和RANSAC的方法对这三种方法进行分析.其中KNN用于寻求匹配对,RANSAC用于从匹配对中剔除错误匹配.特征检测性能的鲁棒性主要是对图像旋转、图像模糊、光照变化、尺度变化下的图像进行测试.在各种图像变换中SIFT都体现出了稳定性,但计算速度相对比较慢.SURF不仅与SIFT的性能相一致,而且还拥有较快的计算速度.PCA-SIFT在图像旋转和光照变化中有较好的性能.

  16. A Research on Monocular Visual SLAM Based on SURF Feature%基于SURF特征的单目视觉SLAM方法研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡衡; 梁岚珍

    2015-01-01

    Because the visual information is easily affected by external environment factors, therefore the selected feature points of mobile robot based on visual simultaneous localization and map building requires high stability and good robustness. For the problem of monocular visual mobile robot SLAM(Simultaneous Localization and Mapping),a kind of mono-SLAM algorithm based on Extended kalman filter is proposed by using SURF(Speed Up Robust Features) feature points and the inverse depth method. The process of SLAM is completed by fusing the information of SURF features and robot information with EKF. The result of simulation experiment indicates that the proposed algorithm is feasible, and with high localization precision in indoor structured environment.%由于视觉信息很容易受到外界环境因素的影响,因此基于视觉的移动机器人同步定位与地图构建问题所选取的特征点要求具有较高的精确度和良好的鲁棒性。针对单目SLAM问题,提出一种基于扩展卡尔曼滤波器的单目视觉SLAM算法。该算法采用SURF特征点,结合反向深度估计法,应用扩展卡尔曼滤波器融合SURF特征信息与机器人位姿信息完成SLAM过程。仿真实验结果表明,在未知室内结构化环境下,该算法运行可靠,定位精度高。

  17. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)-based analysis and imaging of polyethylene microplastics formation during sea surf simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungnickel, H; Pund, R; Tentschert, J; Reichardt, P; Laux, P; Harbach, H; Luch, A

    2016-09-01

    Plastic particles smaller than 5mm, so called microplastics have the capability to accumulate in rivers, lakes and the marine environment and therefore have begun to be considered in eco-toxicology and human health risk assessment. Environmental microplastic contaminants may originate from consumer products like body wash, tooth pastes and cosmetic products, but also from degradation of plastic waste; they represent a potential but unpredictable threat to aquatic organisms and possibly also to humans. We investigated exemplarily for polyethylene (PE), the most abundant constituent of microplastic particles in the environment, whether such fragments could be produced from larger pellets (2mm×6mm). So far only few analytical methods exist to identify microplastic particles smaller than 10μm, especially no imaging mass spectrometry technique. We used at first time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) for analysis and imaging of small PE-microplastic particles directly in the model system Ottawa sand during exposure to sea surf simulation. As a prerequisite, a method for identification of PE was established by identification of characteristic ions for PE out of an analysis of grinded polymer samples. The method was applied onto Ottawa sand in order to investigate the influence of simulated environmental conditions on particle transformation. A severe degradation of the primary PE pellet surface, associated with the transformation of larger particles into smaller ones already after 14days of sea surf simulation, was observed. Within the subsequent period of 14days to 1month of exposure the number of detected smallest-sized particles increased significantly (50%) while the second smallest fraction increased even further to 350%. Results were verified using artificially degraded PE pellets and Ottawa sand.

  18. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available , Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study Methodology Results Optimal Exploration Target Zones Pravesh Debba1, Emmanual M.J. Carranza2, Alfred Stein2, Freek D. van der Meer2 1CSIR, Logistics... and Quantitative Methods, CSIR Built Environment 2International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), Hengelosestraat 99, P.O. Box 6, 7500AA Enschede, The Netherlands Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer...

  19. Zones of emotional labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2011-01-01

    is put forth among 25 Danish public family law caseworkers. The study points to personal, professional, and social zones of emotional labour through which the caseworkers carry out their work. Emotional labour zones mark emotion structures that may be challenging due to complex emotional intersections......The paper suggests that due to the difficult nature of their work public family law caseworkers are to be included in the definition of emotional labour even though they are omitted by Hochschild. Based upon a review of the structures involved in emotional labour an explorative qualitative study...

  20. Buffer Zone Sign Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    The certified pesticide applicator is required to post a comparable sign, designating a buffer zone around the soil fumigant application block in order to control exposure risk. It must include the don't walk symbol, product name, and applicator contact.