WorldWideScience

Sample records for surf zone pollution

  1. Numerical study of pollutant movement in waves and wave-induced long-shore currents in surf zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Jun; SHEN Yongming; QIU Dahong

    2008-01-01

    Water waves,wave-induced long-shore currents and movement of pollutants in waves and currents have been numerically studied based on the hyperbolic mild-slope equation,the shallow water equation,as well as the pollutant movement equation,and the nu- merical results have also been validated by experimental data.It is shown that the long-shore current velocity and wave set-up in- crease with the increasing incident wave amplitude and slope steepness of the shore plane;the wave set-up increases with the in- creasing incident wave period;and the pollutant morement proceeds more quiekly with the increasing incident wave amplitude and slope steepness of the shore palane.In surf zones,the long-shore currents induced by the inclined incident waves have effectively affected the pollutant movement.

  2. Lidar and aerosol measurements over the surf zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerman, M.M.; Cohen, L.H.; Leeuw, G. de; Kunz, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    The aerosol produced by waves breaking in the surf zone is important for a variety of processes, such as transport of pollutants and bacteria, and electro optical propagation in the coastal zone. Yet, quantitative information on surf produced aerosol is very limited (de Leeuw et al., 2000). In the f

  3. Multispectral observations of the surf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonmaker, Jon S.; Dirbas, Joseph; Gilbert, Gary

    2003-09-01

    Airborne multispectral imagery was collected over various targets on the beach and in the water in an attempt to characterize the surf zone environment with respect to electro-optical system capabilities and to assess the utility of very low cost, small multispectral systems in mine counter measures (MCM) and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance applications. The data was collected by PAR Government Systems Corporation (PGSC) at the Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility at Duck North Carolina and on the beaches of Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base in Southern California. PGSC flew the first two of its MANTIS (Mission Adaptable Narrowband Tunable Imaging Sensor) systems. Both MANTIS systems were flown in an IR - red - green - blue (700, 600, 550, 480 nm) configuration from altitudes ranging from 200 to 700 meters. Data collected has been lightly analyzed and a surf zone index (SZI) defined and calculated. This index allows mine hunting system performance measurements in the surf zone to be normalized by environmental conditions. The SZI takes into account water clarity, wave energy, and foam persistence.

  4. Modeling and Simulation for a Surf Zone Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    on a surf zone vehicle focused on negative buoyancy using tracked platforms that used traditional tank drive mechanisms to remain on the sea floor...through the surf zone transit and drive on to the beach. Provided by the Surf Zone Crawler Group of Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City, a Foster...with the traction and obstacle scaling of a leg [2]. Further work elaborated this concept into an entire drivetrain concept. Focused on the

  5. Sea spray aerosol and wave energy dissipation in the surf zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francius, M.J.; Piazzola, J.; Forget, P.; Calve, O. le; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.

    2007-01-01

    Results from a quantitative model for the prediction of the sea-salt mass flux produced in the surf zone are presented in this paper. The model relates the surf zone sea salt mass flux to the amount of wave energy dissipated in the surf zone. In order to apply this aerosol emission model, a wave num

  6. Sea-spray aerosol particles generated in the surf zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.M.J. van; Kusmierczyk‐Michulec, J.T.; Francius, M.J.; Tedeschi, G.; Piazzola,J.; Merritt, D.L.; Fontana, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the properties of aerosol particles generated over the surf zone, two experiments were held at the pier of Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), La Jolla CA, and at the pier of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility (FRF) in Duck NC. On both sites concentrations of s

  7. Observations of turbulence within a natural surf zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruessink, B.G.

    2010-01-01

    Here, the Reynolds stresses and , where u′, v′, and w′ are the cross-shore, alongshore, and vertical turbulence velocities, respectively, and the angle brackets represent time averaging, are used to diagnose turbulence dynamics beneath natural breaking surf-zone waves. The data were col

  8. Surf zone Exchange on a Rip Channeled Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, A.; Macmahan, J.

    2008-12-01

    The dispersion and surf zone exchange of GPS-equipped surface drifters observed during the Rip Current EXperiment (RCEX) is examined with help of Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs). LCSs allow for the detection of transport barriers in unsteady flows and are typically applied to shelf-scale circulation systems. Here LCSs are specifically computed to detect the effects of surfzone-originated Very Low Frequency motions (VLFs) with O(10) minute time scale on the cross-shore exchange of floating material using numerical model calculations of the Lagrangian surface velocity at the wave group timescale. After verification with RCEX field observations, the model is run for a range of environmental conditions experienced during the field experiment to assess the effects of VLFs on the cross-shore surf zone exchange. Results are relevant for (but not restricted to) sediment and nutrient exchange, human health, water clarity, and swimmer safety.

  9. Occurrence of larval fishes in the surf zone of a northern Gulf of Mexico barrier island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruple, David L.

    1984-02-01

    Larval fishes were collected from the surf zone of Horn Island, Mississippi between March 1978 and April 1979. A standardized total of 39 435 larvae were taken from 222 collections in the inner and outer surf zone regions, representing fish in 69 taxa. Overall, considerably more larvae were collected in the outer surf zone (78·3%) than in the inner surf zone (21·7%). Engraulids, Chloroscombrus chrysurus and Symphurus spp. were the most abundant larvae taken from the outer surf zone while engraulids, Leiostomus xanthurus, Brevoortia patronus and Trinectes maculatus were the numerically dominant larvae in the inner surf zone. Seasonal peaks in abundance occurred at the outer surf zone stations during May and June and at the inner surf zone stations during December. Larval densities were significantly greater in night collections than in day collections. The occurrence of early larvae, late larvae and juveniles suggests that the surf zone habitat is important to several species of coastal marine fishes. Menticirrhus littoralis, Harengula jaguana and Trachinotus carolinus appear to most readily utilize the surf zone as a nursery area.

  10. Drones at the Beach - Surf Zone Monitoring Using Rotary Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynne, P.; Brouwer, R.; de Schipper, M. A.; Graham, F.; Reniers, A.; MacMahan, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the potential of rotary wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to monitor the surf zone. In recent years, the arrival of lightweight, high-capacity batteries, low-power electronics and compact high-definition cameras has driven the development of commercially available UAVs for hobbyists. Moreover, the low operation costs have increased their potential for scientific research as these UAVs are extremely flexible surveying platforms. The UAVs can fly for ~12 min with a mean loiter radius of 1 - 3.5 m and a mean loiter error of 0.75 - 4.5 m, depending on the environmental conditions, flying style, battery type and vehicle type. Our experiments using multiple, alternating UAVs show that it is possible to have near continuous imagery data with similar Fields Of View. The images obtained from the UAVs (Fig. 1a), and in combination with surveyed Ground Control Points (GCPs) (Fig. 1b, red squares and white circles), can be geo-rectified (Fig. 1c) to pixel resolution between 0.01 - 1 m and a reprojection error, i.e. the difference between the surveyed GPS location of a GCP and the location of the GCP obtained from the geo-rectified image, of O(1 m). These geo-rectified images provide data on a variety of coastal aspects, such as beach width (Wb(x,t)), surf zone width (Wsf(x,t)), wave breaking location (rectangle B), beach usage (circle C) and location of dune vegegation (rectangle D), amongst others. Additionally, the possibility to have consecutive, high frequency (up to 2 Hz) rectified images makes the UAVs a great data instrument for spatially and temporally variable systems, such as the surf zone. Our first observations with the UAVs reveal the potential to quickly obtain surf zone and beach characteristics in response to storms or for day to day beach information, as well as the scientific pursuits of surf zone kinematics on different spatial and temporal scales, and dispersion and advection estimates of pollutants/dye. A selection of findings from

  11. The Vertical Structure of Shallow Water Flow in the Surf Zone and Inner Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    E. Richardson, 2008, Field verification of a CFD model for wave transformation and breaking in the surf zone, J. Waterw. Port Coastal Engrg., 134(2...The Vertical Structure of Shallow Water Flow in the Surf Zone and Inner Shelf Dr. Thomas C. Lippmann Center for Coastal...wave- and tidally-driven shallow water flows in the shallow depths of the inner shelf and surf zone. OBJECTIVES 1. Theoretical investigations of

  12. Cross-shore currents in the surf zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Vinther, Niels

    2008-01-01

      While the dynamics and kinematics of various types of mean cross-shore current flows in the surf zone (undertow and rip currents) are fairly well understood, the causes for transitions occurring between these two types of mean circulation patterns remain obscure. On longshore barred beaches......, such transitions involve the formation and/or degeneration of rip channels. In this paper, field evidence is presented to suggest that transitions between undertow and rip current (cell) circulations may depend upon the magnitude of the wave-induced onshore mass transport across a longshore bar, rip channel...... that both hydrodynamic conditions and existing bathymetry are critical in determining the type of mean current circulation....

  13. Bedforms and undertow in the surf zone; an analysis of the LIP 11D-data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, M.

    1995-01-01

    The present report gives the results of a study on bedforms and undertow in the surf zone. It is the objective of this study to get a better insight into the physical processes in the surf zone. In this study, we make use of the data obtained during the LIP llDexperiments (Arcilla et al. [1994] and

  14. Transport of larvae and detritus across the surf zone of a steep reflective pocket beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shanks, A.L.; MacMahan, J.; Morgan, S.G.; Reniers, A.J.H.M.; Jarvis, M.; Brown, J.; Fujimura, A.; Griesemer, C.

    2015-01-01

    Larvae of many intertidal species develop offshore and must cross the surf zone to complete their onshore migration to adult habitats. Depending on hydrodynamics, the surf zone may limit this migration, especially on reflective rocky shores. As a logistically tractable analog of a rocky shore enviro

  15. Transport of larvae and detritus across the surf zone of a steep reflective pocket beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shanks, A.L.; MacMahan, J.; Morgan, S.G.; Reniers, A.J.H.M.; Jarvis, M.; Brown, J.; Fujimura, A.; Griesemer, C.

    2015-01-01

    Larvae of many intertidal species develop offshore and must cross the surf zone to complete their onshore migration to adult habitats. Depending on hydrodynamics, the surf zone may limit this migration, especially on reflective rocky shores. As a logistically tractable analog of a rocky shore

  16. Sea spray aerosol production from waves breaking in the surf zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, G. de

    1999-01-01

    Sea spray aerosol is a product of wave breaking. A very strong source of this aerosol is the surf zone. In this sense, measurements in the surf zone can be suitable for the assessment of the contributions of the various spray production mechanisms to the total concentrations. At present, a comprehen

  17. Influence of the Surf Zone on the Marine Aerosol Concentration in a Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, Gilles; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.; Piazzola, Jacques; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, Jolanta T.

    2017-01-01

    Sea-salt aerosol concentrations in the coastal zone are assessed with the numerical aerosol-transport model MACMod that applies separate aerosol source functions for open ocean and the surf zone near the sea-land transition. Numerical simulations of the aerosol concentration as a function of offshore distance from the surf zone compare favourably with experimental data obtained during a surf-zone aerosol experiment in Duck, North Carolina in autumn 2007. Based on numerical simulations, the effect of variations in aerosol production (source strength) and transport conditions (wind speed, air-sea temperature difference), we show that the surf-zone aerosols are replaced by aerosols generated over the open ocean as the airmass advects out to sea. The contribution from the surf-generated aerosol is significant during high wind speeds and high wave events, and is significant up to 30 km away from the production zone. At low wind speeds, the oceanic component dominates, except within 1-5 km of the surf zone. Similar results are obtained for onshore flow, where no further sea-salt aerosol production occurs as the airmass advects out over land. The oceanic aerosols that are well-mixed throughout the boundary layer are then more efficiently transported inland than are the surf-generated aerosols, which are confined to the first few tens of metres above the surface, and are therefore also more susceptible to the type of surface (trees or grass) that determines the deposition velocity.

  18. Analytical Derivation of Three Dimensional Vorticity Function for wave breaking in Surf Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, R

    2015-01-01

    In this report, Mathematical model for generalized nonlinear three dimensional wave breaking equations was de- veloped analytically using fully nonlinear extended Boussinesq equations to encompass rotational dynamics in wave breaking zone. The three dimensional equations for vorticity distributions are developed from Reynold based stress equations. Vorticity transport equations are also developed for wave breaking zone. This equations are basic model tools for numerical simulation of surf zone to explain wave breaking phenomena. The model reproduces most of the dynamics in the surf zone. Non linearity for wave height predictions is also shown close to the breaking both in shoaling as well as surf zone. Keyword Wave breaking, Boussinesq equation, shallow water, surf zone. PACS : 47.32-y

  19. Large Eddy Simulation for Wave Breaking in the Surf Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玉川; 蒋昌波; 沈焕庭

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the large eddy simulation method is used combined with the marker and cell method to study the wave propagation or shoaling and breaking process. As wave propagates into shallow water, the shoaling leads to the increase of wave height, and then at a certain position, the wave will be breaking. The breaking wave is a powerful agent for generating turbulence, which plays an important role in most of the fluid dynamic processes throughout the sarf zone, such as transformation of wave energy, generation of near-shore current and diffusion of materials. So a proper numerical model for describing the turbulence effect is needed. In this paper, a revised Smagorinsky subgrid-scale model is used to describe the turbulence effect. The present study reveals that the coefficient of the Smagorinsky model for wave propagation or breaking simulation may be taken as a varying function of the water depth and distance away from the wave breaking point. The large eddy simulation model presented in this paper has been used to study the propagation of the solitary wave in constant water depth and the shoaling of the non-breaking solitary wave on a beach. The model is based on large eddy simulation, and to track free-surface movements, the Tokyo University Modified Marker and Cell (TUMMAC) method is employed. In order to ensure the accuracy of each component of this wave mathematical model,several steps have been taken to verify calculated solutions with either analytical solutions or experimental data. For non-breaking waves, very accurate results are obtained for a solitary wave propagating over a constant depth and on a beach. Application of the model to cnoidal wave breaking in the surf zone shows that the model results are in good agreement with analytical solution and experimental data. From the present model results, it can be seen that the turbulent eddy viscosity increases from the bottom to the water surface in surf zone. In the eddy viscosity curve, there is a

  20. The Relationship Between Shoreline Change and Surf Zone Sand Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miselis, J. L.; McNinch, J. E.

    2002-12-01

    There is a lack of information concerning surf zone geologic processes and their relationship to shoreline behavior despite the consensus that the two are intimately linked. Variations in sand thickness over a highly irregular migration surface close to the shoreline may influence wave dynamics and sediment transport and thus may be connected to hotspot formation. A nearshore survey, spanning 40km from north of the USACE-FRF pier in Duck, NC to just north of Oregon Inlet, was conducted using an interferometric swath bathymetry system and a chirp sub-bottom profiler. The study was conducted within 1km of the shore (in the surf zone) to investigate the processes that may be responsible for the behavior of shoreline hotspots in the area. The topmost reflector and the seafloor of the seismic profile were digitized and the depth difference between them was calculated. Though no ground truths were done in the survey area, cores collected from just north of the site suggest that the topmost reflector is a pre-modern ravinement surface (cohesive muds with layers of sand and gravel) upon which the Holocene sands migrate. An isopach map was generated and shows that the layer of sand above the first sub-bottom reflector is very thin and in some places, exposed. There are many variables that may influence hotspot behavior, including bar position and wave conditions, however, the purpose of this study is to determine if there is a spatial correlation between a thin or absent (exposed reflector) nearshore sand layer and the presence of a shoreline hotspot. In an area associated with a hotspot approximately 14km south of the USACE-FRF pier in Duck, the maximum thickness of Holocene sands was less than 2.5m. The average thickness was less than 1m (0.705m). Thicknesses that were less than 0.2m were classified as areas where the reflector was exposed and accounted for 5 percent of those calculated. It seems the thin layer of sand may represent a deficient nearshore sand source

  1. Sandy beach surf zones: An alternative nursery habitat for 0-age Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin Jarrin, J. R.; Miller, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The role of each habitat fish use is of great importance to the dynamics of populations. During their early marine residence, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), an anadromous fish species, mostly inhabit estuaries but also use sandy beach surf zones and the coastal ocean. However, the role of surf zones in the early life history of Chinook salmon is unclear. We hypothesized that surf zones serve as an alternative nursery habitat, defined as a habitat that consistently provides a proportion of a population with foraging and growth rates similar to those experienced in the primary nursery. First, we confirmed that juvenile Chinook salmon cohorts are simultaneously using both habitats by combining field collections with otolith chemical and structural analysis to directly compare size and migration patterns of juveniles collected in two Oregon (USA) estuaries and surf zones during three years. We then compared juvenile catch, diet and growth in estuaries and surf zones. Juveniles were consistently caught in both habitats throughout summer. Catches were significantly higher in estuaries (average ± SD = 34.3 ± 19.7 ind. 100 m-2) than surf zones (1.0 ± 1.5 ind. 100 m-2) and were positively correlated (r = 0.92). Size at capture (103 ± 15 mm fork length, FL), size at marine entry (76 ± 13 mm FL), stomach fullness (2 ± 2% body weight) and growth rates (0.4 ± 0.0 mm day-1) were similar between habitats. Our results suggest that when large numbers of 0-age Chinook salmon inhabit estuaries, juveniles concurrently use surf zones, which serve as an alternative nursery habitat. Therefore, surf zones expand the available rearing habitat for Chinook salmon during early marine residence, a critical period in the life history.

  2. Surf zone diatoms: A review of the drivers, patterns and role in sandy beaches food chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odebrecht, Clarisse; Du Preez, Derek R.; Abreu, Paulo Cesar; Campbell, Eileen E.

    2014-10-01

    The accumulation of high biomass of diatoms in the surf zone is a characteristic feature of some sandy beaches where the wave energy is sufficiently high. A few species of diatoms, called surf diatoms, thrive in this harsh environment. The main processes driving the spatial and temporal distribution of surf diatoms as well as their standing biomass and growth were described twenty to thirty years ago based on studies conducted on the western coast of the United States of America and South African beaches. Since then, over fifty locations around the world have been reported to have surf diatom accumulations with most (three-quarters) of these being in the southern hemisphere. Their occurrence is controlled by physical and chemical factors, including wave energy, beach slope and length, water circulation patterns in the surf zone and the availability of nutrients to sustain the high biomass. The main forces driving the patterns of temporal variability of surf diatom accumulations are meteorological. In the short term (hours), the action of wind stress and wave energy controls the diatom accumulation. In the intermediate time scale (weeks to months), seasonal onshore winds of sufficient strength, as well as storm events are important. Furthermore, anthropogenic disturbances that influence the beach ecosystem as well as large-scale events, such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation, may lead to significant changes in surf diatom populations in the long term (inter-annual). Surf diatoms form the base of a short and very productive food chain in the inshore of the sandy beaches where they occur. However, the role of surf diatoms in the microbial food web is not clear and deserves further studies.

  3. Measuring and modeling suspended sediment concentration profiles in the surf zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Time-averaged suspended sediment concentration profiles across the surf zone were measured in a large-scale three-dimensional movable bed laboratory facility (LSTF:Large-scale Sediment Transport Facility). Sediment suspension under two different types of breaking waves, spilling and plunging breakers, was investigated. The magnitudes and shapes of the concentration profiles varied substantially at different locations across the surf zone, reflecting the different intensities of breaking-induced turbulence. Sediment sus- pension at the energetic plunging breaker-line was much more active, resulting in nearly homogeneous concentration profiles throughout most of the water column, as compared to the reminder of the surf zone and at the spilling breaker-line. Four suspended sediment concentration models were examined based on the LSTF data, including the mixing turbulence length approach, segment eddy viscosity model, breaking-induced wave-energy dissipation approach, and a combined breaking and turbulence length model developed by this study. Neglecting the breaking-induced turbulence and subsequent sediment mixing, suspended sediment concentration models failed to predict the across-shore variations of the sediment suspension, especially at the plunging breaker-line. Wave-energy dissipation rate provided an accurate method for estimating the intensity of turbulence generated by wave breaking. By incorporating the breaking-induced turbulence, the combined breaking and turbulence length model reproduced the across-shore variation of sediment suspension in the surf zone. The combined model reproduced the measured time-averaged suspended sediment concentration profiles reasonably well across the surf zone.

  4. Factors affecting surf zone phytoplankton production in Southeastern North Carolina, USA

    KAUST Repository

    Cahoon, Lawrence B.

    2017-07-15

    Abstract: The biomass and productivity of primary producers in the surf zone of the ocean beach at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina, USA, were measured during all seasons, along with environmental parameters and nutrient levels. Variation in biomass (chlorophyll a) was associated with temperature. Primary production (PP), measured by in situ 14-C incubations, was a function of chlorophyll a, tide height at the start of incubations, and rainfall in the preceding 24-hr period. Biomass-normalized production (PB) was also a function of tide height and rainfall in the preceding 24-hr period. We interpreted these results as evidence of surf production 1) as combined contributions of phytoplankton and suspended benthic microalgae, which may confound application of simple P-E models to surf zone production, and 2) being regulated by nutrient source/supply fluctuations independently from other factors. Surf zone biomass and production levels are intermediate between relatively high estuarine values and much lower coastal ocean values. Surf zone production may represent an important trophic connection between these two important ecosystems.

  5. Modelling Vertical Variation of Turbulent Flow Across a Surf Zone Using SWASH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlema, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the application of the open source non-hydrostatic wave-flow model SWASH to propagation of irregular waves in a barred surf zone, and the model results are discussed by comparing against an extensive laboratory data set. This study focus not only on wave transformation in the sur

  6. Measuring and modeling suspended sediment concentration profiles in the surf zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Time-averaged suspended sediment concentration profiles across the surf zone were measured in a large-scale three-dimensional movable bed laboratory facility (LSTF: Large-scale Sediment Transport Facility. Sediment suspension under two different types of breaking waves, spilling and plunging breakers, was investigated. The magnitudes and shapes of the concentration profiles varied substantially at different locations across the surf zone, reflecting the different intensities of breaking-induced turbulence. Sediment suspension at the energetic plunging breaker-line was much more active, resulting in nearly homogeneous concentration profiles throughout most of the water column, as compared to the reminder of the surf zone and at the spilling breaker-line. Four suspended sediment concentration models were examined based on the LSTF data, including the mixing turbulence length approach, segment eddy viscosity model, breaking-induced wave-energy dissipation approach, and a combined breaking and turbulence length model developed by this study. Neglecting the breaking-induced turbulence and subsequent sediment mixing, suspended sediment concentration models failed to predict the across-shore variations of the sediment suspension, especially at the plunging breaker-line. Wave-energy dissipation rate provided an accurate method for estimating the intensity of turbulence generated by wave breaking. By incorporating the breaking-induced turbulence, the combined breaking and turbulence length model reproduced the across-shore variation of sediment suspension in the surf zone. The combined model reproduced the measured time-averaged suspended sediment concentration profiles reasonably well across the surf zone.

  7. Modelling of sediment movement in the surf and swash zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TOKPOHOZIN N B; KOUNOUHEWA B; AVOSSEVOU G Y H; HOUEKPOHEHAM A; AWANOU C N

    2015-01-01

    Under the action of marine currents, non-cohesive sediments evolve by bed-load, by saltation or suspension depending on their granulometry. Several authors have considered that the movement of sediment is bidimensional and modelized the effects of swell by a constant velocitynear the seabed. Here we have studied the velocity profile of fluctuating currents near the seabed and studied the movement of sediment in 3D. The results show that in the areas of study (surf and swash) the movement of sediment occurs in a volume, and the evolution of sediment varies from an areato another. The obtained theoretical profiles of the position and velocity vectors confirm the observations of several authors.

  8. Zonation of macrofauna across sandy beaches and surf zones along the Dutch coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Janssen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available On nine beaches and two transects in the surf zone along the Dutch coast the presence of benthic macrofauna was studied in relation to basic abiotic characteristics. According to Short's classification system, Dutch beaches are mesotidal and dissipative (Ω = 8.6, and the RTR is low (1.52-1.27, which means that they are not tide-dominated. BSI ranged from 1.4 to 1.1 for the northern and western Dutch coasts respectively and had an overall value of 1.2. The rates of exposure of the beaches varied between 8 and 12, and are therefore regarded as sheltered to moderately exposed. The Dutch beaches display a geographical trend in beach types. Those of the Wadden Sea islands in the northern part of the Netherlands are dissipative, flat, fine-grained, and host high densities of many species of benthic macrofauna. The beaches along the western Dutch coast are less dissipative, steeper, with a higher mean grain size; the species diversity and abundance there are lower. Species diversity and abundance on the beaches increase from the high- to the low-water line. The maximum number of species was found between 0 and -1 m relative to the mean tidal level. The abundance peaks just above the mean tidal level, while the biomass reaches a maximum at the mean tidal level.     Species diversity and abundance are low in the surf zone, but increase towards deeper water. Species numbers are high and the abundance is very high in the trough between the two bars.     The relation between the diversity and abundance of macrobenthic species on the one hand, and the sediment composition, water column depth, and position between the bars on the other show a clear pattern of zonation for the beach, surf zone and near-shore: (1 a supralittoral zone with insects and air-breathing crustaceans, (2 a midshore zone, with intertidal species, (3 a lower shore zone, whose species extend into the shallow surf zone, and (4 a zone of sublittoral fauna in the trough between the

  9. Does human pressure affect the community structure of surf zone fish in sandy beaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Leonardo Lopes; Landmann, Júlia G.; Gaelzer, Luiz R.; Zalmon, Ilana R.

    2017-01-01

    Intense tourism and human activities have resulted in habitat destruction in sandy beach ecosystems with negative impacts on the associated communities. To investigate whether urbanized beaches affect surf zone fish communities, fish and their benthic macrofaunal prey were collected during periods of low and high human pressure at two beaches on the Southeastern Brazilian coast. A BACI experimental design (Before-After-Control-Impact) was adapted for comparisons of tourism impact on fish community composition and structure in urbanized, intermediate and non-urbanized sectors of each beach. At the end of the summer season, we observed a significant reduction in fish richness, abundance, and diversity in the high tourist pressure areas. The negative association between visitors' abundance and the macrofaunal density suggests that urbanized beaches are avoided by surf zone fish due to higher human pressure and the reduction of food availability. Our results indicate that surf zone fish should be included in environmental impact studies in sandy beaches, including commercial species, e.g., the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix. The comparative results from the less urbanized areas suggest that environmental zoning and visitation limits should be used as effective management and preservation strategies on beaches with high conservation potential.

  10. Experimental and numerical investigation of the internal kinetics of a surf-zone plunging breaker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emarat, Narumon; Forehand, David I.M.; Christensen, Erik Damgaard

    2012-01-01

    Over the last couple of decades both the qualitative and quantitative understanding of breaking waves in the surf zone have greatly increased. This is due to the advances in experimental and numerical techniques. However, few comparisons between these two different investigative techniques...... for surfzone breaking waves have been reported. In this study, a comparison is made between the experimental and numerical investigation of the internal kinematics of a surf-zone plunging breaker. The full-field velocity measuring technique known as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is used in the experiments....... In the hybrid numerical scheme, the main model solves the Navier–Stokes equations using a Finite Volume method and the free-surface is simulated using a Volume of Fluid (VOF) method. An important feature of this work is that, unlike in most other comparisons between numerical and experimental results, the exact...

  11. Generalized Set of Boussinesq equations for Surf Zone Region

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, R

    2005-01-01

    In this report, generalized wave breaking equations are developed using three dimensional fully nonlinear extended Boussinesq equations to encompass rotational dynamics in wave breaking zone. The derivation for vorticity distributions are developed from Reynold based stress equations.

  12. Rip currents and alongshore flows in single channels dredged in the surf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Melissa; Elgar, Steve; Raubenheimer, Britt; Warner, John C.; Kumar, Nirnimesh

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the dynamics of flows near nonuniform bathymetry, single channels (on average 30 m wide and 1.5 m deep) were dredged across the surf zone at five different times, and the subsequent evolution of currents and morphology was observed for a range of wave and tidal conditions. In addition, circulation was simulated with the numerical modeling system COAWST, initialized with the observed incident waves and channel bathymetry, and with an extended set of wave conditions and channel geometries. The simulated flows are consistent with alongshore flows and rip-current circulation patterns observed in the surf zone. Near the offshore-directed flows that develop in the channel, the dominant terms in modeled momentum balances are wave-breaking accelerations, pressure gradients, advection, and the vortex force. The balances vary spatially, and are sensitive to wave conditions and the channel geometry. The observed and modeled maximum offshore-directed flow speeds are correlated with a parameter based on the alongshore gradient in breaking-wave-driven-setup across the nonuniform bathymetry (a function of wave height and angle, water depths in the channel and on the sandbar, and a breaking threshold) and the breaking-wave-driven alongshore flow speed. The offshore-directed flow speed increases with dissipation on the bar and reaches a maximum (when the surf zone is saturated) set by the vertical scale of the bathymetric variability.

  13. Wave Height Distribution for Spilling Waves in and outside the Surf Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The wave characteristics affecting coastal sediment transport include wave height, wave period and breaking wave direction. Wave height is a critical factor in determining the amount of sediment transport in the coastal area. The force of sediment transport is much more intense under breaking waves than under non-breaking waves. Breaking waves exhibit various patterns, principally depending on the incident wave steepness and the beach slope. Based on the equations of conservation of mass, momentum and energy, a theoretical model for wave deformation in and outside the surf zone was obtained, which is used to calculate the wave shoaling, wave set-up and setdown and wave height distributions in and outside the surf zone. The analysis and comparison were made about the breaking point location and the wave height decay caused by the wave breaking and the bottom friction. Flume experiments relating to the spilling wave height distribution across the surf zone were conducted to verify the theoretical model. Advanced wave maker, data sampling devices and data processing system were utilized in the flume experiments with a slope covered by sands of different diameters to facilitate the observation and research on the wave transformation and breaking. The agreement between the theoretical and experimental results is good.

  14. Rip currents and alongshore flows in single channels dredged in the surf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Melissa; Elgar, Steve; Raubenheimer, Britt; Warner, John C.; Kumar, Nirnimesh

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the dynamics of flows near nonuniform bathymetry, single channels (on average 30 m wide and 1.5 m deep) were dredged across the surf zone at five different times, and the subsequent evolution of currents and morphology was observed for a range of wave and tidal conditions. In addition, circulation was simulated with the numerical modeling system COAWST, initialized with the observed incident waves and channel bathymetry, and with an extended set of wave conditions and channel geometries. The simulated flows are consistent with alongshore flows and rip-current circulation patterns observed in the surf zone. Near the offshore-directed flows that develop in the channel, the dominant terms in modeled momentum balances are wave-breaking accelerations, pressure gradients, advection, and the vortex force. The balances vary spatially, and are sensitive to wave conditions and the channel geometry. The observed and modeled maximum offshore-directed flow speeds are correlated with a parameter based on the alongshore gradient in breaking-wave-driven-setup across the nonuniform bathymetry (a function of wave height and angle, water depths in the channel and on the sandbar, and a breaking threshold) and the breaking-wave-driven alongshore flow speed. The offshore-directed flow speed increases with dissipation on the bar and reaches a maximum (when the surf zone is saturated) set by the vertical scale of the bathymetric variability.

  15. Sand transport processes in the surf and swash zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanden, van der Joep

    2016-01-01

    Long-term predictions of beach morphology using numerical models contribute to cost-effective coastal protection strategies. The physics of sand transport in the wave breaking region and the swash zone are not fully understood, leading to poor predictive capability of existing sand transport models

  16. Surf zone fauna of Ecuadorian sandy beaches: Spatial and temporal patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin Jarrin, J. R.; Vanaverbeke, J.; Fockedey, N.; de Grunauer, M. del P. Cornejo R.; Dominguez-Granda, L.

    2017-02-01

    Sandy beaches and their surf zones are the most common open shoreline habitat; however, surf zone fauna in the tropics is one of the least studied communities in the world. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that Ecuadorian surf zone hyperbenthos (invertebrates and vertebrates 1-5 mm in length) and epibenthos (fish and macrocrustaceans > 5 mm in length) vary among beaches and seasons. Therefore, the fauna was described and related to environmental variables. In addition, indicator taxa were identified. The hyperbenthos was divided into holo- and mero-hyperbenthos depending on whether taxa were present during their entire life or only early life stages, respectively. Samples were collected at eight different beaches during the wet, dry and intermediate or transitional season during the low spring tide, from 1999 to 2000, using a hyperbenthic sledge and epibenthic trawl. A total of 447 hyperbenthic and 30 epibenthic taxa were collected, most of which were crustaceans and fish, respectively (52 and 60% of taxa). The mysid, Metamysidopsis sp., was the most abundant member of the hyperbenthos (average ± SD: 14,425 ± 40,039 ind. 100 m- 2, present in 92% of samples collected), and the swimming blue crab, Areneus mexicanus, was the most encountered species among the epibenthos (1 ± 1 ind. 100 m- 2, 97% of samples collected). All faunal groups varied among beaches, while the holo-hyperbenthos and less strongly the epibenthos varied among seasons. Variability in the three faunas among beaches, distance from the continental slope and the Guayas estuarine system, and beach water physical characteristics were all strongly correlated suggesting adjacent habitats can influence surf zone biological communities and water physical characteristics. Seasonal effects were related to changes in water physical characteristics among seasons potentially reflecting changes in oceanic currents. These results suggest that, similarly to other beaches around the world, Ecuadorian

  17. Prediction and assimilation of surf-zone processes using a Bayesian network: Part I: Forward models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Holland, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    Prediction of coastal processes, including waves, currents, and sediment transport, can be obtained from a variety of detailed geophysical-process models with many simulations showing significant skill. This capability supports a wide range of research and applied efforts that can benefit from accurate numerical predictions. However, the predictions are only as accurate as the data used to drive the models and, given the large temporal and spatial variability of the surf zone, inaccuracies in data are unavoidable such that useful predictions require corresponding estimates of uncertainty. We demonstrate how a Bayesian-network model can be used to provide accurate predictions of wave-height evolution in the surf zone given very sparse and/or inaccurate boundary-condition data. The approach is based on a formal treatment of a data-assimilation problem that takes advantage of significant reduction of the dimensionality of the model system. We demonstrate that predictions of a detailed geophysical model of the wave evolution are reproduced accurately using a Bayesian approach. In this surf-zone application, forward prediction skill was 83%, and uncertainties in the model inputs were accurately transferred to uncertainty in output variables. We also demonstrate that if modeling uncertainties were not conveyed to the Bayesian network (i.e., perfect data or model were assumed), then overly optimistic prediction uncertainties were computed. More consistent predictions and uncertainties were obtained by including model-parameter errors as a source of input uncertainty. Improved predictions (skill of 90%) were achieved because the Bayesian network simultaneously estimated optimal parameters while predicting wave heights.

  18. Spatial and temporal variability in surf zone fish assemblages on the coast of northern New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, D. H.; Clarke, D. G.; Burlas, M. H.; Ruben, H.; Will, R. J.

    2003-02-01

    The surf zone fish community along 15 km of northern New Jersey shoreline was sampled every 2 weeks by beach seine in the late summers and early falls of 1995-1999 in conjunction with monitoring of a beach nourishment project. Fifty-seven species representing 30 families were collected during the course of the study. Over 90% of each sampling period's catch was composed of five taxa or less. These taxa included Atlantic and rough silversides, Menidia menidia and Membras martinica, bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, and bay and striped anchovies, Anchoa mitchilli and Anchoa hepsetus, with the relative contributions of these taxa varying among years. Both bluefish and anchovy abundances varied by an order of magnitude among years. Size-frequency distributions indicate summer-spawned bluefish recruit to the surf zone habitat as two cohorts in August and October, respectively. Fish abundance and richness were greater at substations closest to rock groins. Taxonomic richness declined along with decreasing water temperature in the fall, but was not correlated with turbidity or tide stage (measured as minutes before or after low tide). The extensive sampling effort undertaken in this study, 2190 seine hauls that captured 295 868 fish, was examined in relation to the number and relative proportions of taxa collected. Species accumulation curves and percent similarity calculations were used to investigate the adequacy of a reduced sampling protocol in characterizing the taxonomic composition of the surf zone fish community. Calculations from eight complete sampling periods (84 seine hauls each) indicate that a reduction in sampling effort by one-half would have yielded on average 75% of the total number of species captured with approximately 85% similarity in relative species composition.

  19. Simultaneous Observations of Beach and Surf-Zone Topography from a sUAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, R. K.; Brodie, K. L.; Spore, N.

    2016-02-01

    Beaches and surf-zones can vary rapidly in time and space, necessitating frequent, spatially extensive observations for up-to-date knowledge on their current condition. Traditional surveying methods are expensive, can be dangerous in large wave conditions, and can lack sufficient spatial density. Existing remote sensing technologies have focused on both active sensing (airborne lidar, X-band radar) or passive sensing (electro-optical or infrared imagery) to either directly measure elevations of the beach and seafloor or exploit the optical signal of refracting and breaking waves in the surf-zone. These methods, however, can be prohibitively expensive for widespread, high temporal frequency use, or lack the spatial coverage required to quantify a large stretch of beach. UAS offer an affordable and accessible alternative, but existing COTS UAS sensor suites are not optimized for generation of bathymetry and topography at the same time. Here, we present a new approach using an inexpensive, custom multi-camera sensor designed with a wide field of view for integration on either a fixed wing of multirotor UAS platform. We introduce a processing methodology and workflow to generate a topographic pointcloud and rectified imagery of the water surface using structure from motion algorithms. The topographic pointcloud data is processed to generate a DSM of the beach and extract morphologic parameters (beach slope, dune toe, etc). Rectified imagery of the water surface is used to quantify sandbar location as well as perform a celerity based bathymetric inversion. Accuracy of this methodology is calculated by comparing processed data to lidar pointclouds, as well as photo identifiable targets on the beach and jetted into the surf zone. Funded by the USACE Military Engineering POD:A&U Program and Coastal Field Data Collection Program.

  20. Ichthyoplankton in a southern african surf zone: Nursery area for the postlarvae of estuarine associated fish species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, A. K.

    1989-12-01

    The surf zone ichthyoplankton of Swartvlei Bay was studied between February 1986 and June 1987, with particular emphasis on its potential role as a nursery area for estuarine associated marine fish species. Larvae and/or postlarvae of 16 families were identified from the surf zone, with the Gobiidae, Soleidae, Sparidae and Mugilidae comprising 85·7% of all teleosts sampled. The postlarvae of several taxa (including the six most common species), which utilize the Swartvlei estuary as a juvenile nursery area, were abundant in the surf zone. Conversely, species which are common in nearshore marine waters as juveniles and adults, but seldom enter estuaries, totalled less than 8% of the surf zone ichthyoplankton assemblage. Larval and postlarval densities peaked during summer when water temperatures exceeded 19°C and the estuary mouth was open. Concentrations of ichthyoplankton were highest at those sampling stations closest to the estuary mouth during the summer period. Diel changes in total catches revealed no significant difference between day and night densities; but of the four major taxa, the Mugilidae and Sparidae tended to be more abundant during the day, the Gobiidae at night and the Soleidae showed no distinct pattern. Results from a 24 h sampling session indicated that tidal phase may also be important in governing ichthyoplankton abundance in the surf zone.

  1. Modification of the Undertow and Turbulence by Submerged Vegetation in a Laboratory Surf Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, T.; Suckale, J.; Marras, S.; Maldonado, S.; Koseff, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Breaking waves in the surf zone are a dominant factor shaping the evolution of our coastlines. The turbulence generated by wave breaking causes sediment resuspension, while wave runup, rundown, and the undertow transport this sediment along and across the shore (Longo et al., 2002). Coastal hazard models must now address the added complications of climate change, including sea level rise, stronger storm events, and ecosystem degradation (Arkema et al., 2013). A robust theoretical understanding of surf zone dynamics is therefore imperative to considering the magnitude and implications of these potential changes. However, little work has been done to extend our current theoretical understanding to realistic beach faces, with aquatic vegetation, reefs, and other roughness elements that might mitigate scour and sedimentation. Clarifying these relationships will help scientists and policy-makers decide where to focus ecosystem restoration and preservation efforts, in order to maximize their protective benefits to infrastructure and economic activity on the coast. In order to evaluate the role of vegetation in coastal protection, we conducted a series of experiments in an idealized laboratory surf zone. We examine the impact of submerged model vegetation on the undertow profile, wave orbital velocities, turbulent kinetic energy, and wave-induced stresses, and compare these results to theoretical formulations that model these quantities. We find that vegetation reduces the wave energy available to be converted to turbulent kinetic energy during breaking, indicating a mechanism to mitigate suspension of sediment. Vegetation also reduces the magnitude of the undertow, likely reducing transport of sediment offshore. These results suggest that vegetation provides significant protective benefits for coastal communities at risk from erosion beyond its well-characterized ability to attenuate wave height, and motivate further work to incorporate these effects into models of near

  2. Internal waves and surf zone water quality at Huntington Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H.; Santoro, A.; Nidzieko, N. J.; Hench, J. L.; Boehm, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    This study characterized diurnal, semi-diurnal, and high-frequency internal wave field at Huntington Beach, California, USA and the connection between internal waves and surf zone water quality. An array of oceanographic moorings was deployed in the summer of 2005 and 2006 at 10-20 meter depths offshore of the beach to observe internal waves and cross-shore exchange. Concurrently, surf zone water quality was assessed twice daily at an adjacent station (Huntington State Beach) with measurements of phosphate, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, silicate, chlorophyll a, fecal indicator bacteria, and the human-specific fecal DNA marker in Bacteroidales. Spectral analysis of water temperature shows well-defined spectral peaks at diurnal and semi-diurnal frequencies. Complex Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis of observed currents reveals that the baroclinic component (summation of second to fifth principal components) accounted for 30% of the total variance in the currents in both years, indicating the importance of density-driven flow during the summer when the water column was stratified. The major axis of the first principal component was oriented alongshore, whereas that of the second and third principal components made an angle of 25 to 55 degree with the cross-shore direction. Arrival of cold subthermocline water in the very near shore (within 1 km of the surf zone) was characterized by strong onshore flow near the bottom of the water column. The near bottom, baroclinic, cross-shore current was significantly lag-correlated with the near bottom temperature data along a cross-shore transect towards shore, indicative of shoreward transport of cold subthermocline water. Wavelet analysis of temperature data showed that non-stationary temperature fluctuations were correlated with buoyancy frequency and the near bottom cross-shore baroclinic current. During periods of large temperature fluctuations, the majority of the variance was within the semi-diurnal band; however, the

  3. Assessment of surf zone environmental variables in a southwestern Atlantic sandy beach (Monte Hermoso, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, M Clara; Fernández Severini, Melisa D; Buzzi, Natalia S; Piccolo, M Cintia; Perillo, Gerardo M E

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the temporal dynamics (monthly/tidal) of water temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a (chlo-a), suspended particulate matter (SPM), particulate organic carbon (POC), and dissolved nutrients in the surf zone of Monte Hermoso sandy beach, Argentina. We also aimed to understand the underlying mechanisms responsible for the observed variability. Sampling was carried out approximately monthly (September 2009-November 2010), and all samples were collected in a fixed station during high and low tide. Water temperature showed a clear seasonal variability (July: 9 °C-December: 26.5 °C) and a thermal amplitude of 17.5 °C. Salinity ranged from 33 to 37, without a pronounced seasonality. SPM (10-223 mg L(-1)) and POC concentrations (399-6445 mg C m(-3)) were high in surf zone waters. Chlo-a (0.05-9.16 μg L(-1)) was low and did not evidence the occurrence of surf diatom accumulations. Dissolved nutrient concentration was quite fluctuating. None of the variables seemed to be affected by tidal stage. The results showed how fluctuating the physico-chemical and biological variables can be in this particular system. The observed variability can be related with local beach conditions but also with regional processes. The study area is highly influenced by a neighbor estuary and as a consequence, could be vulnerable to their seasonal and inter-annual dynamics. All of these characteristics must be considered for further studies and planning of the uses of natural resources and should be taken into account in any environmental monitoring program conducted in a similar beach system.

  4. Wave Transformation in a Multi-Bar Surf Zone: Case Study of Lubiatowo (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yuan-Jyh; Hsu, Tai-Wen; Ostrowski, Rafał; Szmytkiewicz, Marek

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents results of field and theoretical investigations of wave transformation in the surf zone near the IBW PAN Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo (Poland, the south Baltic Sea). The study site displays multi-bar cross-shore profiles that intensively dissipate wave energy, mostly induced by breaking. The main field data comprise wave heights and cross-shore bathymetric profiles.Wave transformation is modelled theoretically by two approaches, namely the IBW PAN phase-averaged wave transformation model and the approach based on the hydraulic jump model, developed by Hsu & Lai (2009) for hydrological situations encountered under the actual conditions of two field campaigns - in 1987 and 1996. Discrepancies between the measured data and the model results are discussed. In general, the model results are in good agreement with the in-situ observations. The comparison of the field data with the computational results concerns a part of the surf zone between about 5 m water depth and the first nearshore stable bar, where the depth amounts to ca. 1.2 m.

  5. A VOF-based numerical model for breaking waves in surf zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces a numerical model for studying the evolution of a periodic wave train,shoaling, and breaking in surf zone. The model can solve the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations for a mean flow, and the k-ε equations for turbulence kinetic energy k and turbulence dissipation rate ε. To track a free surface, the volume of fluid (VOF) function, satisfying the advection equation was introduced. In the numerical treatment, third-order upwind difference scheme was applied to the convection terms of the RANS equations in order to reduce the effect of numerical viscosity. The shoaling and breaking processes of a periodic wave train on gently sloping beaches were modeled. The computed wave heights of a sloping beach and the distribution of breaking wave pressure on a vertical wall were compared with laboratory data.

  6. Physical linkages between an offshore canyon and surf zone morphologic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jeff E.; Raubenheimer, Britt; Elgar, Steve; List, Jeffrey H.; Lippmann, Thomas C.

    2017-04-01

    The causes of surf zone morphologic changes observed along a sandy beach onshore of a submarine canyon were investigated using field observations and a numerical model (Delft3D/SWAN). Numerically simulated morphologic changes using four different sediment transport formulae reproduce the temporal and spatial patterns of net cross-shore integrated (between 0 and 6.5 m water depths) accretion and erosion observed in a ˜300 m alongshore region, a few hundred meters from the canyon head. The observations and simulations indicate that the accretion or erosion results from converging or diverging alongshore currents driven primarily by breaking waves and alongshore pressure gradients. The location of convergence or divergence depends on the direction of the offshore waves that refract over the canyon, suggesting that bathymetric features on the inner shelf can have first-order effects on short-term nearshore morphologic change.

  7. Numerical modelling of wind effects on breaking waves in the surf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhihua

    2017-10-01

    Wind effects on periodic breaking waves in the surf zone have been investigated in this study using a two-phase flow model. The model solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the k - 𝜖 turbulence model simultaneously for the flows both in the air and water. Both spilling and plunging breakers over a 1:35 sloping beach have been studied under the influence of wind, with a focus during wave breaking. Detailed information of the distribution of wave amplitudes and mean water level, wave-height-to-water-depth ratio, the water surface profiles, velocity, vorticity, and turbulence fields have been presented and discussed. The inclusion of wind alters the air flow structure above water waves, increases the generation of vorticity, and affects the wave shoaling, breaking, overturning, and splash-up processes. Wind increases the water particle velocities and causes water waves to break earlier and seaward, which agrees with the previous experiment.

  8. Numerical modeling of surf zone dynamics under weakly plunging breakers with SPH method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Christos V.; Memos, Constantine D.; Krestenitis, Yannis N.

    2016-02-01

    The wave breaking of weak plungers over a relatively mild slope is investigated in this paper. Numerical modeling aspects are studied, concerning the propagation and breaking of shore-normal, nonlinear and regular waves. The two-dimensional (2-D) kinematics and dynamics (fluctuating flow features and large 2-D eddies) of the wave-induced flow on a vertical cross-section over the entire surf zone are simulated with the use of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). The academic 'open source' code SPHysics v.2 is employed and the viscosity treatment is based on a Sub-Particle Scale (SPS) approach, similarly to the Large Eddy Simulations (LES) concept. Thorough analysis of the turbulent flow scales determines the necessary refinement of the spatial resolution. The initial particle discretization reaches down to the demarcation point between integral turbulence length scales and Taylor micro-scales. A convolution-type integration method is implemented for the transformation of scattered Lagrangian particle data to Eulerian values at fixed gauges. A heuristic technique of ensemble-averaging is used for the discrimination of the fluctuating flow components from coherent structures and ordered wave motion. Comparisons between numerical and experimental data give encouraging results for several wave features. The wave-induced mean flows are simulated plausibly, and even the 'streaming' effect near the bed is reproduced. The recurring vorticity patterns are derived, and coherent 2-D structures inside the surf zone are identified. Fourier spectral analysis of velocities reveals isotropy of 2-D fluctuating dynamics up to rather high frequencies in shear intensified regions. The simulated Reynolds stresses follow patterns that define the characteristic mechanism of wave breaking for weak plungers. Persisting discrepancies at the incipient breaking region confirm the need for fine, massively 'parallel' 3-D SPS-SPH simulations.

  9. Mapping bathymetry in an active surf zone with the WorldView2 multispectral satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, S. M.; Houser, C.; Brander, R.; Chirico, P.

    2015-12-01

    Rip currents are strong, narrow seaward flows of water that originate in the surf zones of many global beaches. They are related to hundreds of international drownings each year, but exact numbers are difficult to calculate due to logistical difficulties in obtaining accurate incident reports. Annual average rip current fatalities are estimated to be ~100, 53 and 21 in the United States (US), Costa Rica, and Australia respectively. Current warning systems (e.g. National Weather Service) do not account for fine resolution nearshore bathymetry because it is difficult to capture. The method shown here could provide frequent, high resolution maps of nearshore bathymetry at a scale required for improved rip prediction and warning. This study demonstrates a method for mapping bathymetry in the surf zone (20m deep and less), specifically within rip channels, because rips form at topographically low spots in the bathymetry as a result of feedback amongst waves, substrate, and antecedent bathymetry. The methods employ the Digital Globe WorldView2 (WV2) multispectral satellite and field measurements of depth to generate maps of the changing bathymetry at two embayed, rip-prone beaches: Playa Cocles, Puerto Viejo de Talamanca, Costa Rica, and Bondi Beach, Sydney, Australia. WV2 has a 1.1 day pass-over rate with 1.84m ground pixel resolution of 8 bands, including 'yellow' (585-625 nm) and 'coastal blue' (400-450 nm). The data is used to classify bottom type and to map depth to the return in multiple bands. The methodology is tested at each site for algorithm consistency between dates, and again for applicability between sites.

  10. Relationship between high-frequency sediment-level oscillations in the swash zone and inner surf zone wave characteristics under calm wave conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Swash zone topography rapidly responds to the surf zone waves. Understanding how sandy beaches respond to wave action is critical for beach erosion research, and plays a critical role in the design and maintenance of shore protection structures. The main objectives of this study were to detect the relationship between high-frequency beachface oscillations and surf zone wave characteristics under plunging breakers by using Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA. The study site is located in Houjiangwan Bay, eastern Guangdong. Topography data were sampled at 6 min intervals. The wave characteristic parameters were calculated by spectrum method. During the field work, the beach showed a reflective state and plunging breakers controlled the surf zone. The beach cusp topography was destructed gradually. The analysis provides 4 canonical correlation processes between the beachface variations and surf zone waves, which explained 95.28% of the overall variation in the data. The result shows wave steepness, the irregularity factor and spectral broadness factor had strong impacts on the topography. The wave steepness was the most important factor for beach profile variations. The results of the present study indicate that data-driven statistical analysis, such as CCA, is useful for analyzing profile response to waves if there is strong correlation between the two variables (beach profiles and wave.

  11. A CFD Model for Wave Transformation and Breaking in the Surf Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopakatla, S. C.; Lippmann, T. C.; Richardson, J. E.; Thornton, E. B.; Holman, R. A.

    2002-12-01

    Wind-generated surface gravity waves are the major driving force for nearshore circulation and sediment transport. As waves shoal in shallow coastal waters, spectra evolve strongly owing to refraction, nonlinear energy transfers, and dissipation caused by wave breaking and bottom friction. Although considerable progress has been made in modeling wave propagation over complex bottom topography, the dissipation mechanisms are still poorly understood. As a consequence, wave transformation models for the surf zone use crude descriptions of the wave breaking process based on simple saturation criteria or empirical probability distributions that do not always work well for the range of bathymetric and wave conditions commonly observed in nature. In this report, we will discuss the results of studies made with the commercially available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software system known as FLOW-3D (Flow Science, Inc., Sante Fe, NM). FLOW-3D is designed to solve transient, free surface flow problems based on the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in three-dimensions. As part of FLOW-3D's formulation, the dissipation of energy is determined by use of coupled turbulence closure schemes (e.g., closure schemes based on the solution of turbulent kinetic energy transport equations). In this study, fine scale pressures and velocities are computed over a two-dimensional beach profile measured during the 1990 Delilah experiment. The model is driven by observed wave spectra obtained in 8 meter water depths, and results compared with a cross-shore array of pressure sensors and current meters spanning the width of the surf zone. In the calculations, wave breaking is a natural consequence of the fluid dynamics and does not require the use of empirical formulations, or breaking criteria. The spatial and temporal variability in the wave breaking locations will be compared with video observations obtained during the experiment. Good comparison between modeled and observed wave

  12. Temporal and spatial patterns for surf zone bacteria before and after disinfection of the orange county sanitation district effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, G.L.; Noble, M.A.; Xu, J. P.; Rosenfeld, L.K.; McGee, C.D.

    2005-01-01

    Data from pre- and post-disinfection fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) samples from final effluent, an offshore ocean outfall, and surf zone stations off Huntington Beach, CA were compared. Analysis of the results from these data sets confirmed that the ocean outfall was not the FIB source responsible for the postings and closures of local beaches that have occurred each summer since 1999. While FIB counts in the final effluent and offshore showed several order of magnitude reductions after disinfection, there were no significant reductions at the nearby surf zone stations. Additionally, the FIB spectral patterns suggest different sources. The dominant fortnightly cycle suggested that the source was related to the wetting and draining of the land from large spring tide tidal excursions.

  13. Inner Surf/Swash Zone Morphodynamic Numerical Model Simulation of an Accreting Ridge during Low-Energy Wave Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youn Kyung; Figlus, Jens; Chardón-Maldonado, Patricia; Puleo, Jack A.

    2017-04-01

    The inner surf/swash zone of a coastal beach is characterized as an intermittently wet and dry zone in the nearshore that often develops a variety of morphological features including intertidal bars and ridge-runnel (RR) systems. The cross-shore morphodynamic numerical model CSHORE is used to simulate the beach recovery observed during a field experiment carried out at South Bethany Beach, Delaware, a nourished, high-gradient meso-tidal sandy beach along the U. S. Coast. The field campaign was conducted from February 12 to February 25, 2014 to measure bed profile morphology change and sediment characteristics along with detailed hydrodynamic forcing parameters at six cross-shore stations, closely spaced over approximately 50 m in the inner surf and swash zone. On February 13, 2014 a Nor'easter eroded significant portions of the beach leading to formation of a pronounced RR system on the beach face that subsequently accreted in the recovery process after the storm. Bed profile changes, surf and swash velocity profiles, water free surface elevation and suspended sediment concentrations recorded during the recovery at the cross-shore measuring locations on the seaward face of the accreting ridge are compared with CSHORE simulation results. During post-storm recovery, CSHORE demonstrates shoreward migration of the ridge and slight accretion on the beach face by the end of the simulation period on February 25, 2014. This trend was also observed in the field, where accretion at the ridge crest was up to 1.0 m with respect to the post-storm profile. The CSHORE parameters critical to improving model performance in reproducing measured morphodynamics and hydrodynamics during the ridge accretion process are examined and calibrated. Initial results show promise in using this type of efficient, process-based model to reproduce morphological evolution and depth-averaged hydrodynamics as a result of the complex surf and swash zone dynamics associated with beach accretion and RR

  14. Temporal and spatial variability of fecal indicator bacteria in the surf zone off Huntington Beach, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, L.K.; McGee, C.D.; Robertson, G.L.; Noble, M.A.; Jones, B.H.

    2006-01-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations measured in the surf zone off Huntington Beach, CA from July 1998-December 2001 were analyzed with respect to their spatial patterns along 23 km of beach, and temporal variability on time scales from hourly to fortnightly. The majority of samples had bacterial concentrations less than, or equal to, the minimum detection limit, but a small percentage exceeded the California recreational water standards. Areas where coliform bacteria exceeded standards were more prevalent north of the Santa Ana River, whereas enterococci exceedances covered a broad area both north and south of the river. Higher concentrations of bacteria were associated with spring tides. No temporal correspondence was found between these bacterial events and either the timing of cold water pulses near shore due to internal tides, or the presence of southerly swell in the surface wave field. All three fecal indicator bacteria exhibited a diel cycle, but enterococci rebounded to high nighttime values almost as soon as the sun went down, whereas coliform levels were highest near the nighttime low tide, which was also the lower low tide. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Surf Zone Hydrodynamics and its Utilization in Biotechnical Stabilization of Water Reservoir Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Pelikán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The water reservoir banks are eroded mainly by two factors. The first one is wave action (i.e. wave abrasion affecting the bank in direction from the reservoir. The second one is the influence of water flowing downward over the bank surface in direction from land into the reservoir (e.g. rainfall. The determination of regular altitudinal emplacement of proper designed particular biotechnical stabilization elements is the most important factor on which the right functionality of whole construction depends. Surf zone hydrodynamics solves the wave and water level changes inside the region extending from the wave breaking point to the limit of wave up-rush. The paper is focused on the utilization of piece of knowledge from a part of sea coast hydrodynamics and new approach in its application in the conditions of inland water bodies when designing the biotechnical stabilization elements along the shorelines. The “reinforced grass carpets” as a type of biotechnical method of bank stabilization are presented in the paper; whether the growth of grass root system is dependent on presence or absence of geomats in the soil structure and proceeding of their establishment on the shorelines.

  16. Prediction and assimilation of surf-zone processes using a Bayesian network: Part II: Inverse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Holland, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    A Bayesian network model has been developed to simulate a relatively simple problem of wave propagation in the surf zone (detailed in Part I). Here, we demonstrate that this Bayesian model can provide both inverse modeling and data-assimilation solutions for predicting offshore wave heights and depth estimates given limited wave-height and depth information from an onshore location. The inverse method is extended to allow data assimilation using observational inputs that are not compatible with deterministic solutions of the problem. These inputs include sand bar positions (instead of bathymetry) and estimates of the intensity of wave breaking (instead of wave-height observations). Our results indicate that wave breaking information is essential to reduce prediction errors. In many practical situations, this information could be provided from a shore-based observer or from remote-sensing systems. We show that various combinations of the assimilated inputs significantly reduce the uncertainty in the estimates of water depths and wave heights in the model domain. Application of the Bayesian network model to new field data demonstrated significant predictive skill (R2 = 0.7) for the inverse estimate of a month-long time series of offshore wave heights. The Bayesian inverse results include uncertainty estimates that were shown to be most accurate when given uncertainty in the inputs (e.g., depth and tuning parameters). Furthermore, the inverse modeling was extended to directly estimate tuning parameters associated with the underlying wave-process model. The inverse estimates of the model parameters not only showed an offshore wave height dependence consistent with results of previous studies but the uncertainty estimates of the tuning parameters also explain previously reported variations in the model parameters.

  17. Size spectra of bubbles in the foam patches and of sea salt nuclei over the surf zone

    OpenAIRE

    Podzimek, Josef

    2011-01-01

    The size distribution of bubbles in the foam patches and the size distribution of giant chloridenuclei over the surf zone both follow the Nukiyama-Tanassava size distribution function. Theslope of the size distribution curve for bubbles depends, however, on the residence time of thefoam patch at the ocean surface. The best fit of the sea salt nuclei size distribution curve wasfound for s = 0.333 in the Nukiyama-Tanassava distribution.DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.1984.tb00241.x

  18. Pollution concentration estimates in ecologically important zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiba, Y.N. [Mexico City Univ. (Mexico). Center for Atmospheric Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Method based on using the pollutant transport equation and the adjoint technique is described here for estimating the pollutant concentration level in ecologically important zones. The method directly relates the pollution level in such zones with the power of the pollution sources and the initial pollution field. Assuming that the wind or current velocities are known (from climatic data or dynamic model), the main and adjoint pollutant transport equations can be considered in a limited area to solve such theoretically and practically important problems as: (1) optimal location of new industries in a given region with the aim to minimize the pollution concentration in certain ecologically important zones, (2) optimization of emissions from operating industries, (3) detection of the plants violating sanitary regulations, (4) analysis of the emissions coming from the vehicle traffic (such emissions can be included in the model by means of the linear pollution sources located along the main roadways), (5) estimation of the oil pollution in various ecologically important oceanic (sea) zones in case of accident with the oil tanker, (6) evaluation of the sea water desalination level in estuary regions, and others. These equations considered in a spherical shell domain can also be applied to the problems of transporting the pollutants from a huge industrial complex, or from the zone of an ecological catastrophe similar to the Chernobyl one

  19. Implementation and modification of a three-dimensional radiation stress formulation for surf zone and rip-current applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N.; Voulgaris, G.; Warner, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS v 3.0), a three-dimensional numerical ocean model, was previously enhanced for shallow water applications by including wave-induced radiation stress forcing provided through coupling to wave propagation models (SWAN, REF/DIF). This enhancement made it suitable for surf zone applications as demonstrated using examples of obliquely incident waves on a planar beach and rip current formation in longshore bar trough morphology (Haas and Warner, 2009). In this contribution, we present an update to the coupled model which implements a wave roller model and also a modified method of the radiation stress term based on Mellor (2008, 2011a,b,in press) that includes a vertical distribution which better simulates non-conservative (i.e., wave breaking) processes and appears to be more appropriate for sigma coordinates in very shallow waters where wave breaking conditions dominate. The improvements of the modified model are shown through simulations of several cases that include: (a) obliquely incident spectral waves on a planar beach; (b) obliquely incident spectral waves on a natural barred beach (DUCK'94 experiment); (c) alongshore variable offshore wave forcing on a planar beach; (d) alongshore varying bathymetry with constant offshore wave forcing; and (e) nearshore barred morphology with rip-channels. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons to previous analytical, numerical, laboratory studies and field measurements show that the modified model replicates surf zone recirculation patterns (onshore drift at the surface and undertow at the bottom) more accurately than previous formulations based on radiation stress (Haas and Warner, 2009). The results of the model and test cases are further explored for identifying the forces operating in rip current development and the potential implication for sediment transport and rip channel development. Also, model analysis showed that rip current strength is higher when waves approach at angles of 5

  20. SWASH ZONE BED LEVEL CHANGES AND SEDIMENT ENTRAINMENT AT THE SURF-SWASH BOUNDARY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stine Gro; Aagaard, Troels; Baldock, Tom

    2010-01-01

    detailed data on water levels and bed elevations in the swash zone. Water levels derived from the pressure transducers show that swash zone characteristics vary from the upper to lower swash. Using pressure transducers in the swash zone coupled with measurements of the hydrodynamics and sediment...

  1. Three-dimensional modelling of wave-induced current from the surf zone to the inner shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Michaud

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We develop and implement a new method to take into account the impact of waves into the 3-D circulation model SYMPHONIE (Marsaleix et al., 2008, 2009a, following the simplified equations of Bennis et al. (2011 which use glm2z-RANS theory (Ardhuin et al., 2008b. These adiabatic equations are completed by additional parameterizations of wave breaking, bottom friction and wave-enhanced vertical mixing, making the forcing valid from the surf zone through to the open ocean. The wave forcing is performed by wave generation and propagation models WAVEWATCH III® (Tolman, 2008, 2009; Ardhuin et al., 2010 and SWAN (Booij et al., 1999. The model is tested and compared with other models for a plane beach test case, previously tested by Haas and Warner (2009 and Uchiyama et al. (2010. A comparison is also made with the laboratory measurements of Haller et al. (2002 of a barred beach with channels. Results fit with previous simulations performed by other models and with available observational data.

    Finally, a realistic case of energetic waves travelling over a coast of the Gulf of Lion (in the northwest of the Mediterranean Sea for which currents are available at different depths as well as an accurate bathymetric database of the 0–10 m depth range, is then simulated. A grid nesting approach is used to account for the different forcings acting at different spatial scales. The simulation coupling the effects of waves and currents is successful to reproduce the powerful northward littoral drift in the 0–15 m depth zone. More precisely, two distinct cases are identified: when waves have a normal angle of incidence with the coast, they are responsible for complex circulation cells and rip currents in the surf zone, and when they travel obliquely, they generate a northward littoral drift. These features are more complicated than in the test cases, due to the complex bathymetry and the consideration of wind and non-stationary processes. Wave impacts

  2. Three-dimensional modelling of wave-induced current from the surf zone to the inner shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Michaud

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We develop and implement a new method to take into account the impact of waves into the 3-D circulation model SYMPHONIE (Marsaleix et al., 2008, 2009a following the simplified equations of Bennis et al. (2011 which use glm2z-RANS theory (Ardhuin et al., 2008c. These adiabatic equations are completed by additional parameterizations of wave breaking, bottom friction and wave-enhanced vertical mixing, making the forcing valid from the surf zone through to the open ocean. The wave forcing is performed by wave generation and propagation models WAVEWATCH III® (Tolman, 2008, 2009; Ardhuin et al., 2010 and SWAN (Booij et al., 1999. The model is tested and compared with other models for a plane beach test case, previously tested by Haas and Warner (2009and Uchiyama et al. (2010. A comparison is also made with the laboratory measurements of Haller et al. (2002 of a barred beach with channels. Results fit with previous simulations performed by other models and with available observational data.

    Finally, a realistic case is simulated with energetic waves travelling over a coast of the Gulf of Lion (in the northwest of the Mediterranean Sea for which currents are available at different depths as well as an accurate bathymetric database of the 0–10 m depth range. A grid nesting approach is used to account for the different forcings acting at different spatial scales. The simulation coupling the effects of waves and currents is successful to reproduce the powerful northward littoral drift in the 0–15 m depth zone. More precisely, two distinct cases are identified: When waves have a normal angle of incidence with the coast, they are responsible for complex circulation cells and rip currents in the surf zone, and when they travel obliquely, they generate a northward littoral drift. These features are more complicated than in the test cases, due to the complex bathymetry and the consideration of wind and non-stationary processes. Wave impacts in the

  3. Spatial and temporal variations of diurnal ichthyofauna on surf-zone of São Francisco do Itabapoana beaches, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Marcelo Paes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variations of diurnal ichthyofauna and the environmental variables influences on its distribution were studied at the surf-zone of three beaches of São Francisco do Itabapoana, northern coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From August/1999 to August/2000, three beach seine hauls were made monthly, and environmental variables were recorded. A total number of 4,562 fishes (74,155g were sampled at the three beaches, where estuarine-dependent species prevailed (44%, followed by marine (31%, estuarine (19% and freshwater species (3%. Species richness, number of individuals and wet weight were significantly higher at Gargaú, followed by Manguinhos and Barra do Itabapoana, respectively. Canonical Correspondence Analysis highlighted influences of the rivers flushing, salinity and plant abundance on the diurnal ichthyofauna distribution and dynamics of São Francisco do Itabapoana surf-zone.

  4. The design and implementation of a semi-autonomous surf-zone robot using advanced sensors and a common robot operating system

    OpenAIRE

    Hickle, Jason.; Halle, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A semi-autonomous vehicle, MONTe, was designed, modeled and tested for deployment and operation in a surf-zone coastal environment. The MONTe platform was designed to use unique land based locomotion that incorporates wheel-legs(WhegsTM) and a tail. Semi-autonomy was realized with data from onboard sensors and implemented through open source Robot Operating System (ROS), hosted on an Ubuntu Linux based processor. Communications vi...

  5. Structural aspects of the surf-zone fish assemblage at King's Beach, Algoa Bay, South Africa: Long-term fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasiak, Theresa A.

    1984-04-01

    Regular collections of fish were obtained from the surf-zone at King's Beach, Algoa Bay. A total of 3970 fish, representing 50 species was caught with a coarse net and 16 857 fish, representing 37 species, were caught with a fine net. Predominant species were the blacktail, Diplodus sargus; the sand steenbras, Lithognathus mormyrus; the mullet, Liza richardsoni; the gorrie, Pomadasys olivaceum; the white stumpnose, Rhabdosargus globiceps; the sandshark, Rhinobatos annulatus; and the streepie, Sarpa salpa. No seasonal trends were discernible in the overall abundance or species diversity. The species composition of the dominant component of the fish assemblage varied considerably. This indicated instability in the community structure and cast doubts on the applicability of a classic community concept and the use of diversity indices. Neither classification nor correspondence analysis were of any use in identifying a characteristic species component. Multiple regression analysis indicated that short-term variations in wind conditions might be a primary determinant of fluctuations in abundance. The lack of seasonality in the community parameters may reflect the fact that short-term variability masks seasonal perturbations.

  6. The Surf Zone Ichthyoplankton Adjacent to an Intermittently Open Estuary, with Evidence of Recruitment during Marine Overwash Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, P. D.; Whitfield, A. K.; Bell, K. N. I.

    2001-03-01

    The composition, structure and seasonality of ichthyoplankton in the surf zone adjacent to the mouth of the intermittently open East Kleinemonde Estuary (33°32'S, 27°03'E) were investigated over a period of 2 years. Altogether 451 fishes, representing at least 21 taxa from 14 families, were collected. The assemblage was dominated by postflexion larvae of euryhaline marine species that are dependent on estuaries as nursery areas. The sparid Rhabdosargus holubi was the most abundant taxon and constituted more than 77% of the total catch. A distinct modal size class was identified for R. holubi , while the mean individual size of this and other abundant taxa was comparable to the observed recruitment size range reported from a wide variety of estuarine nursery habitats in southern Africa. Periodic regression analyses revealed significant peaks in abundance of larval R. holubi during late winter (August), at down and dusk, at new and full moon (spring tides), and on the flood stage of the tidal cycle. Evidence for estuarine immigration during marine overwash events (surging rough seas that enter the estuary) is provided by (1) the stranding of postflexion larvae in the region of the closed estuary mouth following these events, and (2) back extrapolation from length modes within the estuary to coincide with such an event. The advantages and disadvantages of such a recruitment strategy are discussed.

  7. Quantitative assessment of surf-produced sea spray aerosol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, F.P.; De Leeuw, G.; Jansen, M.; Stive, M.J.F.

    1998-01-01

    The first results are presented from a quantitative model describing the aerosol production in the surf zone. A comparison is made with aerosol produced in the surf zone as measured during EOPACE experiments in La Jolla and Monterey. The surf aerosol production was derived from aerosol concentration

  8. Quantitative assessment of surf-produced sea spray aerosol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, F.P.; De Leeuw, G.; Jansen, M.; Stive, M.J.F.

    1998-01-01

    The first results are presented from a quantitative model describing the aerosol production in the surf zone. A comparison is made with aerosol produced in the surf zone as measured during EOPACE experiments in La Jolla and Monterey. The surf aerosol production was derived from aerosol concentration

  9. Observations of wave-induced pore pressure gradients and bed level response on a surf zone sandbar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dylan; Cox, Dan; Mieras, Ryan; Puleo, Jack A.; Hsu, Tian-Jian

    2017-06-01

    Horizontal and vertical pressure gradients may be important physical mechanisms contributing to onshore sediment transport beneath steep, near-breaking waves in the surf zone. A barred beach was constructed in a large-scale laboratory wave flume with a fixed profile containing a mobile sediment layer on the crest of the sandbar. Horizontal and vertical pore pressure gradients were obtained by finite differences of measurements from an array of pressure transducers buried within the upper several centimeters of the bed. Colocated observations of erosion depth were made during asymmetric wave trials with wave heights between 0.10 and 0.98 m, consistently resulting in onshore sheet flow sediment transport. The pore pressure gradient vector within the bed exhibited temporal rotations during each wave cycle, directed predominantly upward under the trough and then rapidly rotating onshore and downward as the wavefront passed. The magnitude of the pore pressure gradient during each phase of rotation was correlated with local wave steepness and relative depth. Momentary bed failures as deep as 20 grain diameters were coincident with sharp increases in the onshore-directed pore pressure gradients, but occurred at horizontal pressure gradients less than theoretical critical values for initiation of the motion for compact beds. An expression combining the effects of both horizontal and vertical pore pressure gradients with bed shear stress and soil stability is used to determine that failure of the bed is initiated at nonnegligible values of both forces.Plain Language SummaryThe pressure gradient present within the seabed beneath breaking waves may be an important physical mechanism transporting sediment. A large-scale laboratory was used to replicate realistic surfzone conditions in controlled tests, allowing for horizontal and vertical pressure gradient magnitudes and the resulting sediment bed response to be observed with precise instruments. Contrary to previous studies

  10. Preliminary assessment of surf-zone and estuarine line-fish species of the Dwesa-Cwebe Marine Protected Area, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A. Venter

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary assessment of surf-zone and estuarine line fish was carried out in the DwesaCwebe Marine Protected Area (MPA, on the Wild Coast, South Africa. The purpose was to provide baseline data on inshore line-fish stocks in the MPA. A total of 28 species was recorded, of which 53% have a conservation status reflecting some concern and 43% are endemic to southern Africa. This highlights the value of the MPA for protection of important line-fish species. Within the MPA, localised differences were detected in species diversity, size frequency and catch per unit effort between unexploited and illegally exploited areas. These differences were more prominent in slow growing, long-lived species. It thus appears that illegal exploitation is negatively affecting fish populations within the MPA, which counteract and potentially could eliminate the benefits of fish protection typically associated with no-take MPAs. These results highlight the need for improved law enforcement and better communication with neighbouring communities to increase awareness. It is further recommended that the current no-take status of the MPA should be maintained. In addition, baseline fisheries information was collected on certain fish species that could be used to inform future conservation management of the MPA.Conservation implications: The Dwesa-Cwebe Marine Protected Area is unique and important for the conservation of key surf zone and estuarine fish species. However there is a significant risk to the fish populations due to illegal exploitation. Key interventions should include enhanced law enforcement but, more important, the creation of alternative livelihoods and long term sustainable benefits to local communities.

  11. Implementation of the vortex force formalism in the coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave-sediment transport (COAWST) modeling system for inner shelf and surf zone applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nirnimesh; Voulgaris, George; Warner, John C.; Olabarrieta, Maitane

    2012-01-01

    The coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave-sediment transport modeling system (COAWST) enables simulations that integrate oceanic, atmospheric, wave and morphological processes in the coastal ocean. Within the modeling system, the three-dimensional ocean circulation module (ROMS) is coupled with the wave generation and propagation model (SWAN) to allow full integration of the effect of waves on circulation and vice versa. The existing wave-current coupling component utilizes a depth dependent radiation stress approach. In here we present a new approach that uses the vortex force formalism. The formulation adopted and the various parameterizations used in the model as well as their numerical implementation are presented in detail. The performance of the new system is examined through the presentation of four test cases. These include obliquely incident waves on a synthetic planar beach and a natural barred beach (DUCK' 94); normal incident waves on a nearshore barred morphology with rip channels; and wave-induced mean flows outside the surf zone at the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO).

  12. Air pollution problem in the Mexico City metropolitan zone: Photochemical pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, H.B.; Alvarez, P.S.; Echeverria, R.S.; Jardon, R.T. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera (Mexico). Seccion de Contaminacion Ambiental

    1997-12-31

    Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) represents an example of a megacity where the air pollution problem has reached an important evolution in a very short time, causing a risk in the health of a population of more than 20 million inhabitants. The atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, began several decades ago, but it increased drastically in the middle of the 80`s. It is important to recognize that in the 60`s, 70`s and the first half of the 80`s the main pollutants were sulfur dioxide and total suspended particles. However since the second half of the 80`s until now, ozone is the most important air pollutant besides of the suspended particles (PM{sub 10}) and other toxic pollutants (1--8). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the evolution of the ozone atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, as well as to analyze the results of several implemented air pollution control strategies.

  13. Redox zones of a landfill leachate pollution plume (Vejen, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkilde, John; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    Downgradient from an old municipal landfill allowing leachate, rich in dissolved organic carbon, to enter a shallow sandy aerobic aquifer, a sequence of redoxe zones is identified from groundwater chemical analysis. Below the landfill, methanogenic conditions prevail, followed by sulfidogenic...... the fate of reactive pollutants leached from the landfill....

  14. Surf Tourism, Artificial Surfing Reefs, and Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotkin, Michael H.; Chambliss, Karen; Vamosi, Alexander R.; Lindo, Chris

    2009-07-01

    This paper explores the confluence of surf tourism, artificial surfing reefs, and sustainability. Surfing is an ascendant recreational and tourism industry and artificial surfing reefs are a new and innovative technology and product. Presented within the context of Florida's Space Coast, empirical details on surf tourism are discussed along with the possible implications for sustainability.

  15. Surfing on the Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Israel Paskowitz loves surfing. As a former competitive surfer, he has spent much of his life in the ocean and absorbed in a community of athletes that share a special connection with the water. Surfing is often thought of as a spiritual hobby that brings peace and relaxation to those who experience it. However, it was not until Israel's son,…

  16. Surfing on the Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Israel Paskowitz loves surfing. As a former competitive surfer, he has spent much of his life in the ocean and absorbed in a community of athletes that share a special connection with the water. Surfing is often thought of as a spiritual hobby that brings peace and relaxation to those who experience it. However, it was not until Israel's son,…

  17. Hyperspectral observation of anthropogenic and biogenic pollution in coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrova, Olga; Loupian, Evgeny; Mityagina, Marina; Uvarov, Ivan

    The work presents results of anthropogenic and biogenic pollution detection in coastal zones of the Black and Caspian Seas based on satellite hyperspetral data provided by the Hyperion and HICO instruments. Techniques developed on the basis of the analysis of spectral characteristics calculated in special points were employed to address the following problems: (a) assessment of the blooming intensity of cyanobacteria and their distribution in bays of western Crimea and discrimination between anthropogenic pollutant discharge events and algae bloom; (b) detection of anthropogenic pollution in Crimean lakes utilized as industrial liquid discharge reservoirs; (c) detection of oil pollution in areas of shelf oil production in the Caspian Sea. Information values of different spectral bands and their composites were estimated in connection with the retrieval of the main sea water components: phytoplankton, suspended matter and colored organic matter, and also various anthropogenic pollutants, including oil. Software tools for thematic hyperspectral data processing in application to the investigation of sea coastal zones and internal water bodies were developed on the basis of the See the Sea geoportal created by the Space Research Institute RAS. The geoportal is focused on the study of processes in the world ocean with the emphasis on the advantages of satellite systems of observation. The tools that were introduced into the portal allow joint analysis of quasi-simultaneous satellite data, in particular data from the Hyperion, HICO, OLI Landsat-8, ETM Landsat-7 and TM Landsat-5 instruments. Results of analysis attempts combining data from different sensors are discussed. Their strong and weak points are highlighted. The study was completed with partial financial support from The Russian Foundation for Basic Research grants # 14-05-00520-a and 13-07-12017.

  18. Remote sensing in the mixing zone. [water pollution in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villemonte, J. R.; Hoopes, J. A.; Wu, D. S.; Lillesand, T. M.

    1973-01-01

    Characteristics of dispersion and diffusion as the mechanisms by which pollutants are transported in natural river courses were studied with the view of providing additional data for the establishment of water quality guidelines and effluent outfall design protocols. Work has been divided into four basic categories which are directed at the basic goal of developing relationships which will permit the estimation of the nature and extent of the mixing zone as a function of those variables which characterize the outfall structure, the effluent, and the river, as well as climatological conditions. The four basic categories of effort are: (1) the development of mathematical models; (2) laboratory studies of physical models; (3) field surveys involving ground and aerial sensing; and (4) correlation between aerial photographic imagery and mixing zone characteristics.

  19. Natural Arsenic Pollution of Groundwater in Mining Zones of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armienta, M. A.; Rodriguez, R.; Villasennor, G.; Romero, F.; Talavera, O.; Ceniceros, N.; Aguayo, A.; Cruz, O.

    2007-05-01

    Arsenic concentrations exceeding drinking-water standards have been measured in groundwater of various areas of Mexico. This is a relevant public health problem since groundwater supplies most drinking water of the country. Although a natural source has been proposed as the cause of water contamination at most sites, the specific processes releasing As have only been identified in a few aquifers. The geological characteristics of Mexico including volcanic, geothermal, and highly mineralized zones constitute favorable environments for As occurrence. Furthermore, As-abundance in bedrock has lead Mexico to be one of the major world As-producers. As-bearing minerals like arsenopyrite, scorodite, mimetite, adamite, tennantite and nickeline can be found in several zones. Besides, arsenic may be a minor component of Fe, Ag, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Au ores. While thousands of people have been chronically exposed to As, arsenic-related health effects have been documented only for residents at some Mexican locations, like Comarca Lagunera, Zimapan, and Acambaro. Water-rock interactions may release As to water in mining areas, but ore extraction and processing produce surface wastes that can also release As to groundwater. Investigations developed in two historical mining zones revealed different As contents in groundwater. At Zimapan, a semi-arid area about 250 km NE of Mexico City, abundant arsenopyrite and hydrogeological conditions produced high As concentrations in deep wells exploited for drinking water supply. Oxidation and dissolution of As-bearing minerals mainly arsenopyrite, scorodite and tennantite released As to the fractured deep limestone aquifer. In addition, mining operations polluted shallow wells. In contrast, low levels of As were detected in wells near mine tailings in the warm sub-humid zone of Taxco, Guerrero. To explain those differences, the mineralogy and the geochemical processes occurring in tailings at both areas were studied. Results showed that besides

  20. Q&A: Surfing scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jascha

    2013-11-01

    Historian Peter Westwick and his colleague Peter Neushul thought up their scientific history of surfing, The World in the Curl (Crown, 2013), on boards off the coast of California. As the winter surfing season gets into full swing, Westwick talks about warfare, wetsuits, climate change and forecasting surf.

  1. [Zoning planning in non-point source pollution control in Hanyang district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Ma, Ke-Ming; Guo, Qing-Hai; Zhao, Jing-Zhu; Luo, Yong-Feng

    2006-01-01

    It is most important for managing urban non-point source (NPS) pollution, actualizing the urban sustainable development as well, that zoning planning of urban NPS pollution control is studied. A case study on principles and methods of zoning planning in urban NPS pollution is carried out. Principles of urban sustainable development, priority of urban NPS pollution sensitivity, similarity of urban NPS control direction and region conjugate are put forward. Besides, it is for the first time that a more quantitive method is presented, in the case of Hanyang district, Wuhan city, which is based on L-THIA model and spatial analysis technique in GIS. Assessment of NPS pollution status quo, as well as analysis of NPS sensitivity, is the kernel component of the quantitive method. Hanyang might be divided into four NPS pollution control zones. It is helpful for decision-making of regional NPS pollution control.

  2. SURF Model Calibration Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-10

    SURF and SURFplus are high explosive reactive burn models for shock initiation and propagation of detonation waves. They are engineering models motivated by the ignition & growth concept of high spots and for SURFplus a second slow reaction for the energy release from carbon clustering. A key feature of the SURF model is that there is a partial decoupling between model parameters and detonation properties. This enables reduced sets of independent parameters to be calibrated sequentially for the initiation and propagation regimes. Here we focus on a methodology for tting the initiation parameters to Pop plot data based on 1-D simulations to compute a numerical Pop plot. In addition, the strategy for tting the remaining parameters for the propagation regime and failure diameter is discussed.

  3. Impact of low emission zones and local traffic policies on ambient air pollution concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, H.; Janssen, N.A.; Fischer, P.H.; Kos, G.P.; Weijers, E.P.; Cassee, F.R.; Zee, S.C. van der; Hartog, J.J. de; Meliefste, K.; Wang, M.; Brunekreef, B.; Hoek, G.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evaluations of the effectiveness of air pollution policy interventions are scarce. This study investigated air pollution at street level before and after implementation of local traffic policies including low emission zones (LEZ) directed at heavy duty vehicles (trucks) in five Dutch

  4. Temporal trend and source apportionment of water pollution in different functional zones of Qiantang River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shiliang; Li, Dan; Zhang, Qi; Xiao, Rui; Huang, Fang; Wu, Jiaping

    2011-02-01

    The increasingly serious river water pollution in developing countries poses great threat to environmental health and human welfare. The assignment of river function to specific uses, known as zoning, is a useful tool to reveal variations of water environmental adaptability to human impact. Therefore, characterizing the temporal trend and identifying responsible pollution sources in different functional zones could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river water environment. The aim of this study is to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal trends and sources of water pollution in different functional zones with a case study of the Qiantang River, China. Measurement data were obtained and pretreated for 13 variables from 41 monitoring sites in four categories of functional zones during the period 1996-2004. An exploratory approach, which combines smoothing and non-parametric statistical tests, was applied to characterize trends of four significant parameters (permanganate index, ammonia nitrogen, total cadmium and fluoride) accounting for differences among different functional zones identified by discriminant analysis. Aided by GIS, yearly pollution index (PI) for each monitoring site was further mapped to compare the within-group variations in temporal dynamics for different functional zones. Rotated principal component analysis and receptor model (absolute principle component score-multiple linear regression, APCS-MLR) revealed that potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions varied among the four functional zones. Variations of APCS values for each site of one functional zone as well as their annual average values highlighted the uncertainties associated with cross space-time effects in source apportionment. All these results reinforce the notion that the concept of zoning should be taken seriously in water pollution control. Being applicable to other rivers, the framework of management-oriented source apportionment

  5. Longshore sediment transport in the surf zone based on different formulae: A case study along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Shanas, P.R.; Dora, G.U.; Johnson, G.; Philip, C.S.

    Understanding longshore sediment transport (LST) is a prerequisite for designing an effective coastal zone management strategy. The present study estimates the LST along the central west coast of India based on four bulk LST formulae: (1...

  6. Redox zones of a landfill leachate pollution plume (Vejen, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkilde, John; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    Downgradient from an old municipal landfill allowing leachate, rich in dissolved organic carbon, to enter a shallow sandy aerobic aquifer, a sequence of redoxe zones is identified from groundwater chemical analysis. Below the landfill, methanogenic conditions prevail, followed by sulfidogenic......, ferrogenic, nitrate-reducing and aerobic environments overa distance of 370 m. This redox zone sequence is consistent with thermodynamical principles and is closely matched by the leachate plume determined by the chloride plume distribution. The redox zone sequence is believed to be key in controlling...

  7. Surfing the quantum world

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Frank S

    2017-01-01

    The ideas and phenomena of the quantum world are strikingly unlike those encountered in our visual world. Surfing the Quantum World shows why and how this is so. It does this via a historical review and a gentle introduction to the fundamental principles of quantum theory, whose core concepts and symbolic representations are used to explain not only "ordinary" microscopic phenomena like the properties of the hydrogen atom and the structure of the Periodic Table of the Elements, but also a variety of mind-bending phenomena. Readers will learn that particles such as electrons and photons can behave like waves, allowing them to be in two places simultaneously, why white dwarf and neutron stars are gigantic quantum objects, how the maximum height of mountains has a quantum basis, and why quantum objects can tunnel through seemingly impenetrable barriers. Included among the various interpretational issues addressed is whether Schrodinger's cat is ever both dead and alive.

  8. Vadose Zone Monitoring as a Key to Groundwater Protection from Pollution Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Ofer

    2016-04-01

    Minimization subsurface pollution is much dependent on the capability to provide real-time information on the chemical and hydrological properties of the percolating water. Today, most monitoring programs are based on observation wells that enable data acquisitions from the saturated part of the subsurface. Unfortunately, identification of pollutants in well water is clear evidence that the contaminants already crossed the entire vadose-zone and accumulated in the aquifer water to detectable concentration. Therefore, effective monitoring programs that aim at protecting groundwater from pollution hazard should include vadose zone monitoring technologies that are capable to provide real-time information on the chemical composition of the percolating water. Obviously, identification of pollution process in the vadose zone may provide an early warning on potential risk to groundwater quality, long before contaminates reach the water-table and accumulate in the aquifers. Since productive agriculture must inherently include down leaching of excess lower quality water, understanding the mechanisms controlling transport and degradation of pollutants in the unsaturated is crucial for water resources management. A vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS), which was specially developed to enable continuous measurements of the hydrological and chemical properties of percolating water, was used to assess the impact of various agricultural setups on groundwater quality, including: (a) intensive organic and conventional greenhouses, (b) citrus orchard and open field crops , and (c) dairy farms. In these applications frequent sampling of vadose zone water for chemical and isotopic analysis along with continuous measurement of water content was used to assess the link between agricultural setups and groundwater pollution potential. Transient data on variation in water content along with solute breakthrough at multiple depths were used to calibrate flow and transport models. These models

  9. Wave breaking in the surf zone and deep-water in a non-hydrostatic RANS model. Part 2: Turbulence and mean circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhti, Morteza; Kirby, James T.; Shi, Fengyan; Ma, Gangfeng

    2016-11-01

    Field-scale modeling of wave-breaking-induced turbulence and mean circulation is still challenging. Although Boussinesq-type models have been successfully used to study field-scale wave transformation and wave-breaking-driven circulation, they cannot provide turbulence or the vertical structure of the velocity field. In addition, the applicability of such models is limited to shallow water. In Part 1 (Derakhti et al., 2016b) of this study, we showed that the non-hydrostatic σ-coordinate RANS model NHWAVE, as described by Derakhti et al. (2016a), accurately predicts organized wave motions and total wave-breaking-induced energy dissipation from deep-water up to the swash zone using a few vertical σ-layers. In this paper, our goal is to examine what level of detail of wave-breaking-induced turbulence and mean circulation, both in depth- and steepness-limited breaking waves, can be reproduced by NHWAVE. Further, effects of modeled turbulent eddy viscosity on the predicted time-averaged velocity distribution is discussed. We establish that NHWAVE is capable of predicting the structure of the mean velocity and vorticity fields including large-scale breaking-induced coherent vortices in deep-water breaking events; where the absence of turbulence-induced eddy viscosity results in the overprediction of the velocity and vorticity field in the breaking region. We show that NHWAVE reduces the required CPU time up to two orders of magnitude in comparison with a comparable VOF-based simulation.

  10. Study on Migration and Transformation Rule of Organic Pollutants (COD) in Aerated Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Collecting waste water with a certain concentration of organic pollutants COD (chemical oxygen demand), static adsorption, static biodegradation and dynamic soil column experiments were made in laboratory, we researched migration and transformation of COD in aerated zone, and put forward a mathematical model showing the process. The results show that adsorption of organism in aerated zone is linear, which is represented by Henry's law s=Kdc+sd, adsorption coefficient Kd =0. 069 3;biodegradation diagram accord basically with first-order kinetics equation c=c0e-K1t , biodegradation coefficient K1 = 0. 049 9 d-1; dispersion coefficient D= 0. 002 42 m2/d in experiments. The migration and transformation of organic pollutants (COD) in aerated zone jointly result from many factors such as dispersion, adsorption and biodegradation etc..

  11. Cloud Based GIS Approach for Monitoring Environmental Pollution in the Coastal Zone of Kalutara, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.P.M. Sirirwardane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Geographic Information Systems (GIS can be used as a powerful tool in many aspects of handling geospatial data. By considering the modern geospatial approaches, this research is focused on monitoring environmental pollution in the coastal zone of Kalutara area, with the objective of identification of existing natural resources. Green vegetation patches, water bodies and beech areas were detected using remote sensing techniques. A detailed GPS field survey was conducted and identified minor environmental resources with various pollution incidents. This information was used to improve the available data sets. The types of pollution incidents were categorised according to the severity level by considering the relationship to each natural resource. Maps were created and data was uploaded to the ArcGIS online cloud platform. Web services were hosted using this cloud infrastructure. Pollution incidents data layer has been given web based editing capabilities for field monitoring using GPS enabled mobiles. Field observations were conducted and locations of the pollution effects were uploaded into web maps from the field with related attributes. The hot spots were used to get better understanding and awareness of the environmental pollution. As the results, pollution incidents were identified and there was a significant effect to the minor environmental elements. The cloud infrastructure, helped to bring down the barriers of data sharing and the incident reporting mechanism became more convenient during the field observations.

  12. Purification effect of two typical water source vegetation buffer zones on land-sourced pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang

    2017-03-01

    Two vegetation buffer zones (tree-shrub-grass pattern and tree-grass pattern) were selected as test objects around Siming reservoir in Yuyao City of China. The effect of the storm runoff intensity (low and high intensity) and the buffer zone width (1 m, 3 m, 5 m, 7 m, 9 m, 12 m, 16 m) on pollutants (suspended solids, ammonium nitrogen and total phosphorus) was studied by the artificial simulation runoff. The results showed that with the increase of the width of buffer zone, the pollutant concentration was decreased. The purification effect of the two buffer zones on suspended solids and total phosphorus was basically stable at 52-55% and 34-37%, respectively. But the purification effect on ammonium nitrogen was the tree-shrub-grass pattern (69.7%) significantly better than that of tree-grass pattern (52.1%). The purification rate at the low runoff intensity was 1.8-2.0 times that at the high runoff intensity. The relationship between the purification rate and buffer zone width can be expressed by the natural logarithm equation, and the model adjustment coefficient was greater than 0.92.

  13. Transformation of Waves Across the Surf Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    by -2 2 -2p(H) = 2H/Hrs exp(-H /Hrs) (1) where iH is the rms wave height.rms Using pressure records in the Gulf of Mexico , Longuet- Higgins (1975...Spring, MD 20910 21. Director 2 Instituto Oceanografico de la Armada Guayaquil, Ecuador 22. Director de Educacion de la Armada Comandancia General de

  14. Suspended Sediments Measured in the Surf Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    described by Komar and Inman (1970). Sus- pended sediments were measured in situ by swimmers using a mechanical water sampling device which...PEÜüENC’-1 fH* 39 imt ^^m "/• ffr- 7 If) \\ h A /’ kl v \\ n/\\ i > ^ U, Vectra of onshore-offshore flow vs. nephelcmeter

  15. Surf-zone Underwater Robotic Demonstration Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    dynamically advantageous shape for a robotic system. To address locomotive factors ARA completed a research and technical study based on an Archimedes ...effective hull shape. To study mobility and traction a propulsion system based on an Archimedes screw drive was used. A drive design based on an... Archimedes screw was chosen because of its ability to operate in various mediums with varying flow rates. A test bed was designed and assembled in order to

  16. Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics for Surf Zone Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    2010.) The GPU-SPHysics code, initiated by Dr. Alexis Hérault at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia in Sicily, has been applied to... Geofisica e Vulcanologia, sezione di Catania, for the development of GPU-SPHysics. Drs. Hérault and Bilotta were in residence at JHU during January of

  17. Ecomorphology and food habits of teleost fishes Trachinotus carolinus (Teleostei: Carangidae and Menticirrhus littoralis (Teleostei: Sciaenidae, inhabiting the surf zone off Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Prestrelo Palmeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecomorphology and food habits of juvenile Trachinotus carolinus and Menticirrhus littoralis caught in the surf zone of sandy beaches in Niterói, RJ, were investigated between July 2006 and May 2007. These fish species differ morphologically, but present similarities in their diet composition suggest some slight overlapping in their diet. The importance of food items was assessed using Kawakami and Vazzoler's feeding index. Morphometric variables were recorded to correlate with the diet composition of the different size classes for each species. A total of 210 fishes (Trachinotus carolinus - 122, Menticirrhus littoralis - 88, ranging between 24.2 mm and 112 mm total length, were analyzed, but the stomachs of only 84.8% of them contained food. Trachinotus carolinus presented mysids, Polychaetes and Emerita spp. as the predominant items in their diet. Formicidae and Isopoda were the most important items for class I individuals, whereas mysids and Emerita spp. were important for classes II and III. Class I individuals also showed smaller sized prey (amphipods and isopods and clupeid fish larvae in their diet. Emerita spp. dominated the food items of Menticirrhus littoralis regardless of the size class. Polychaetes, the second most important item was better represented in class sizes II and III. The main morphometric variable correlated with such differences included mouth position and diameter of the eye.A ecomorfologia e os hábitos alimentares de juvenis de Trachinotus carolinus e Menticirrhus littoralis capturados na zona de arrebentação de praias arenosas em Niterói, RJ, foram investigados entre julho de 2006 e Maio de 2007. Ambas as espécies diferem morfologicamente, mas apresentam semelhanças em sua dieta, sugerindo uma possível sobreposição alimentar. A importância dos itens alimentares foi avaliada utilizando o índice alimentar de Kawakami e Vazzoler. Variáveis morfométricas foram correlacionadas à dieta observada para

  18. [Distribution of Urban Soil Heavy Metal and Pollution Evaluation in Different Functional Zones of Yinchuan City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, You-qi; Bai, Yi-ru; Wang, Jian-yu

    2016-02-15

    Surface soil samples (0-20 cm) from eight different functional areas in Yinchuan city were collected. There were 10 samples respectively in each functional area. The urban soil heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cu and Cr) pollution characteristics and sources in eight different functional areas were evaluated by mathematical statistics and geostatistical analysis method. Meanwhile, the spatial distributions of heavy metals based on the geography information system (GIS) were plotted. The average values of total Zn, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cu and Cr were 74.87, 0.15, 29.02, 553.55, 40.37 and 80.79 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The results showed that the average value of soil heavy metals was higher than the soil background value of Ningxia, which indicated accumulation of the heavy metals in urban soil. The single factor pollution index of soil heavy metals was in the sequence of Cu > Pb > Zn > Cr > Cd > Mn. The average values of total Zn, Cd, Pb and Cr were higher in north east, south west and central city, while the average values of Mn and Cu were higher in north east and central city. There was moderate pollution in road and industrial area of Yinchuan, while the other functional areas showed slight pollution according to Nemoro synthesis index. The pollution degree of different functional areas was as follows: road > industrial area > business district > medical treatment area > residential area > public park > development zone > science and education area. The results indicated that the soil heavy metal pollution condition in Yinchuan City has been affected by human activities with the development of economy.

  19. Introduction: Assessing non-point source pollution in the vadose zone with advanced information technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Dennis L.; Loague, Keith; Ellsworth, Timothy R.

    The information age has ushered in a global awareness of complex environmental problems that do not respect political or physical boundaries: climatic change, ozone layer depletion, deforestation, desertification, and non-point source (NPS) pollution. Among these global environmental problems, NPS pollutants represent a perfect example of a complex multidisciplinary problem that exists over multiple scales with tremendous spatial and temporal complexity. To address the NPS problem, specific to the vadose zone, advanced information technologies must be applied in a spatial context. An integrated system of advanced information technologies (i.e., global positioning, geographic information system, geostatistics, remote sensing, solute transport modeling, neural networks, transfer functions, fuzzy logic, hierarchical theory, and uncertainty analysis) provides a framework from which real-time and/or simulated assessments of NPS pollution can be made. The ability to accurately assess present and future NPS-pollution impacts on ecosystems ranging from local to global scales provides a powerful tool for environmental stewardship and guiding future human activities.

  20. Heavy metal pollution in tidal zones of Bohai Bay using the dated sediment cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Yan-wen; MENG Wei; ZHENG Bing-hui; SU Yi-bin

    2006-01-01

    Three sediment cores were collected in November 2003 from Dagu estuary to Qikou estuary. The main polluted heavy metals in the sediment of tidal zones for the Bohai Bay have been found by analyzing the relationship among the contents of heavy metals, the contents of geochemical elements (Fe, Al and Mn) and the size of grain. The dominating contaminative elements in tidal sediments of Bohai Bay are Pb, Zn and Cd. Their contents are higher than the corresponding upper limit of environmental background values and they have very faint correlation with the corresponding contents of geochemical elements and the size of grain, indicating the anthropogenic enrichment. Especially, the preliminary study on the pollution sources and the history of heavy metals in the Dagu estuary has been done using the dated results. The contamination by Zn and Cd also started in the middle 1950s, while the contamination by Pb appeared in the early 1940s. The pollution by Zn and Cd mainly originate from sewage discharge, while the pollution by Pb has many sources, like atmosphere deposition and industrial discharge.

  1. COMIS v3.1 simulation environment for multi zone air flow and pollutant transport modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, A.; Weber, A.; Dorer, V. [Energy Systems/Building Equipment Laboratory (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland); Keilholz, W.; Pelletret, R. [Software Development and Software Certification (CSTB), Sophia Antipolis (France)

    2002-07-01

    COMIS simulates multi zone air flow and pollutant transport. It has been developed in an international context at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and within International Energy Agency (IEA) Annex 23. At the end of Annex 23, the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA) took over the co-ordination of further developments, and - together with Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment (CSTB) - the maintenance of COMIS. In January 2001, the 'COMIS v3.1 with IISiBat v2.4' package was released, and is available now from CSTB. In this paper, the main features of the COMIS simulation engine, and the latest improvements are presented. An example demonstrates the use of COMIS. Pollutant transport and impact evaluation with the new version are discussed. The coupling of COMIS with the thermal simulation program TRNSYS is discussed. (author)

  2. Resolving Implementation Ambiguity and Improving SURF

    CERN Document Server

    Abeles, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) has emerged as one of the more popular feature descriptors and detectors in recent years. Due to SURF's complexity and ambiguities found in its description, performance and algorithmic details between these implementations vary widely. To resolve these ambiguities a set of general techniques for feature stability is defined based on the smoothness rule and applied to SURF. Additional new improvements to SURF are proposed for speed and stability. To illustrate the importance of these implementation details, a performance study of popular SURF implementations is done. By utilizing all the suggested improvements it is possible to create a SURF implementation which is several times faster and/or more stable.

  3. Sand, sea and surf: segmenting South African surfers | Kruger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sand, sea and surf: segmenting South African surfers. ... and that they differ according to their socio-demographic characteristics, surfing behaviour and motives. The results of ... Keywords: Market segmentation; Surfing; South Africa; Typology ...

  4. Performance Analysis of Surfing: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Oliver R L; Abbiss, Chris R; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2017-01-01

    Farley, ORL, Abbiss, CR, and Sheppard, JM. Performance Analysis of Surfing: A Review. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 260-271, 2017-Despite the increased professionalism and substantial growth of surfing worldwide, there is limited information available to practitioners and coaches in terms of key performance analytics that are common in other field-based sports. Indeed, research analyzing surfing performance is limited to a few studies examining male surfers' heart rates, surfing activities through time-motion analysis (TMA) using video recordings and Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) data during competition and recreational surfing. These studies have indicated that specific activities undertaken during surfing are unique with a variety of activities (i.e., paddling, resting, wave riding, breath holding, and recovery of surfboard in the surf). Furthermore, environmental and wave conditions also seem to influence the physical demands of competition surfing. It is due to these demands that surfers are required to have a high cardiorespiratory fitness, high muscular endurance, and considerable strength and anaerobic power, particular within the upper torso. By exploring various methods of performance analysis used within other sports, it is possible to improve our understanding of surfing demands. In so doing this will assist in the development of protocols and strategies to assess physiological characteristics of surfers, monitor athlete performance, improve training prescription, and identify talent. Therefore, this review explores the current literature to provide insights into methodological protocols, delimitations of research into athlete analysis and an overview of surfing dynamics. Specifically, this review will describe and review the use of TMA, GPS, and other technologies (i.e., HR) that are used in external and internal load monitoring as they pertain to surfing.

  5. Mathieu Moonshine and Symmetry Surfing

    CERN Document Server

    Gaberdiel, Matthias R; Paul, Hynek

    2016-01-01

    Mathieu Moonshine, the observation that the Fourier coefficients of the elliptic genus on K3 can be interpreted as dimensions of representations of the Mathieu group M24, has been proven abstractly, but a conceptual understanding in terms of a representation of the Mathieu group on the BPS states, is missing. Some time ago, Taormina and Wendland showed that such an action can be naturally defined on the lowest non-trivial BPS states, using the idea of `symmetry surfing', i.e., by combining the symmetries of different K3 sigma models. In this paper we find non-trivial evidence that this construction can be generalized to all BPS states.

  6. Shock Detector for SURF model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-11

    SURF and its extension SURFplus are reactive burn models aimed at shock initiation and propagation of detonation waves in high explosives. A distinctive feature of these models is that the burn rate depends on the lead shock pressure. A key part of the models is an algorithm to detect the lead shock. Typically, shock capturing hydro algorithms have small oscillations behind a shock. Here we investigate how well the shock detection algorithm works for a nearly steady propagating detonation wave in one-dimension using the Eulerian xRage code.

  7. Shock Detector for SURF model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-11

    SURF and its extension SURFplus are reactive burn models aimed at shock initiation and propagation of detonation waves in high explosives. A distinctive feature of these models is that the burn rate depends on the lead shock pressure. A key part of the models is an algorithm to detect the lead shock. Typically, shock capturing hydro algorithms have small oscillations behind a shock. Here we investigate how well the shock detection algorithm works for a nearly steady propagating detonation wave in one-dimension using the Eulerian xRage code.

  8. Towards designing miniature surfing robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Kang, Saeed; Vandadi, Vahid; Masoud, Hassan

    2016-11-01

    We theoretically study the surfing motion of chemically and thermally active particles located at a flat liquid-gas interface that sits above a liquid layer of finite depth. The particles' activity creates and maintains a surface tension gradient resulting in the auto-surfing. It is intuitively perceived that Marangoni surfers propel towards the direction with a higher surface tension. Remarkably, we find that the surfers may propel in the lower surface tension direction depending on their geometry and proximity to the bottom of the liquid layer. In particular, our analytical calculations for Stokes flow and diffusion-dominated scalar (i.e. chemical concentration and temperature) fields indicate that spherical particles undergo reverse Marangoni propulsion under confinement whereas disk-shaped surfers always move in the expected direction. We extend our results by proposing an approximate formula for the propulsion speed of oblate spheroidal particles based on the speeds of spheres and disks. Overall, our findings pave the way for designing microsurfers capable of operating in bounded environments.

  9. [Retrospective monitoring of radioactive pollution in zones of the nuclear industry impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peremitina, T O; Polishchuk, Iu M; Nesvetaĭlo, V D

    2007-01-01

    An approach to the acquisition of retrospective information on the radioactive pollution of the territories to organize the radioecological monitoring of environment was proposed. The approach is based on the application of the method of dendrochronoindication, allowing one to obtain the retrospective information on the delivery and accumulation of radioactive and other chemicals in the growth rings of the trees. Statistical processing and the analysis of the arrays of the multidimensional retrospective data was carried out using the principal components method. It was shown that the approach proposed allows one to reveal the emergency emissions that took place in the past at the enterprises of nuclear industry and make a well-grounded selection of the monitoring sites to establish the radioecological monitoring in the zones of nuclear industry impact.

  10. Calculation method for steady-state pollutant concentration in mixing zones considering variable lateral diffusion coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen; Wu, Zhouhu; Song, Zhiwen

    2017-07-01

    Prediction of the pollutant mixing zone (PMZ) near the discharge outfall in Huangshaxi shows large error when using the methods based on the constant lateral diffusion assumption. The discrepancy is due to the lack of consideration of the diffusion coefficient variation. The variable lateral diffusion coefficient is proposed to be a function of the longitudinal distance from the outfall. Analytical solution of the two-dimensional advection-diffusion equation of a pollutant is derived and discussed. Formulas to characterize the geometry of the PMZ are derived based on this solution, and a standard curve describing the boundary of the PMZ is obtained by proper choices of the normalization scales. The change of PMZ topology due to the variable diffusion coefficient is then discussed using these formulas. The criterion of assuming the lateral diffusion coefficient to be constant without large error in PMZ geometry is found. It is also demonstrated how to use these analytical formulas in the inverse problems including estimating the lateral diffusion coefficient in rivers by convenient measurements, and determining the maximum allowable discharge load based on the limitations of the geometrical scales of the PMZ. Finally, applications of the obtained formulas to onsite PMZ measurements in Huangshaxi present excellent agreement.

  11. Characterization of SURF-1 expression and Surf-1p function in normal and disease conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiranti, V; Galimberti, C; Nijtmans, L; Bovolenta, S; Perini, M P; Zeviani, M

    1999-12-01

    Loss-of-function mutations of the SURF-1 gene have been associated with Leigh syndrome with cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency. Mature Surf-1 protein (Surf-1p) is a 30 kDa hydrophobic polypeptide whose function is still unknown. Using antibodies against a recombinant, hemagglutinin-tagged Surf-1p, we have demonstrated that this protein is imported into mitochondria as a larger precursor, which is then processed into the mature product by cleaving off an N-terminal leader polypeptide of approximately 40 amino acids. By using western blot analysis with specific antibodies, we showed that Surf-1p is localized in and tightly bound to the mitochondrial inner membrane. The same analysis revealed that no protein is present in cell lines harboring loss-of-function mutations of SURF-1, regardless of their type and position. Northern blot analysis showed the virtual absence of specific SURF-1 transcripts in different mutant cell lines. This result suggests that several mutations of SURF-1 are associated with severe mRNA instability. To understand better whether and which domains of the protein are essential for function, we generated several constructs with truncated or partially deleted SURF-1 cDNAs. None of these constructs, expressed into Surf-1p null mutant cells, were able to rescue the COX phenotype, suggesting that different regions of the protein are all essential for function. Finally, experiments based on blue native two-dimensional gel electrophoresis indicated that assembly of COX in Surf-1p null mutants is blocked at an early step, most likely before the incorporation of subunit II in the nascent intermediates composed of subunit I alone or subunit I plus subunit IV. However, detection of residual amounts of fully assembled complex suggests a certain degree of redundancy of this system.

  12. Bioremediation of the oil spill polluted marine intertidal zone and its toxicity effect on microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Yongrui; Xu, Nana; Bao, Mutai; Li, Yiming; Lv, Dong; Sun, Peiyan

    2015-04-01

    Custom-designed devices with 0.6 m (L) × 0.3 m (W) × 0.4 m (H) and a microbial consortium were applied to simulate bioremediation on the oil spill polluted marine intertidal zone. After the bioremediation, the removal efficiency of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon homologues in crude oil evaluated by GC-MS were higher than 58% and 41% respectively. Besides, the acute toxicity effects of crude oil on three microalgae, i.e. Dicrateria sp., Skeletonema costatum and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, varied with concentration. The effects of microbe and surfactant treated water on the three microalgae followed a decreasing order: the microbial consortium plus Tween-80 > the microbial consortium > Tween-80. During 96 h, the cell densities of the three microalgae in treated seawater increased from 4.0 × 10(5), 1.0 × 10(5) and 2.5 × 10(5) cells per mL to 1.7 × 10(6), 8.5 × 10(5) and 2.5 × 10(6) cells per mL, respectively, which illustrated that the quality of seawater contaminated by crude oil was significantly improved by the bioremediation.

  13. A new statistical model of wave heights based on the concept of wave breaking critical zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jiaxuan; LI Xunqiang; ZHU Shouxian; ZHANG Wenjing; WANG Lei

    2015-01-01

    When waves propagate from deep water to shallow water, wave heights and steepness increase and then waves roll back and break. This phenomenon is called surf. Currently, the present statistical calculation model of surf was derived mainly from the wave energy conservation equation and the linear wave dispersion relation, but it cannot reflect accurately the process which is a rapid increasing in wave height near the broken point. So, the concept of a surf breaking critical zone is presented. And the nearshore is divided as deep water zone, shallow water zone, surf breaking critical zone and after breaking zone. Besides, the calculation formula for the height of the surf breaking critical zone has founded based on flume experiments, thereby a new statistical calculation model on the surf has been established. Using the new model, the calculation error of wave height maximum is reduced from 17.62% to 6.43%.

  14. Numerical modeling of surf beat generated by moving breakpoint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG GuoHai; MA XiaoZhou; TENG Bin

    2009-01-01

    As an important hydrodynamic phenomenon in the nearshore zone, the cross-shore surf beat is nu-merically studied in this paper with a fully nonlinear Boussinesq-type model, which resolves the pri-mary wave motion as well as the long waves. Compared with the classical Boussinesq equations, the equations adopted here allow for improved linear dispersion characteristics. Wave breaking and run-up in the swash zone are included in the numerical model. Mutual interactions between short waves and long waves are inherent in the model. The numerical study of long waves is based on bichromatic wave groups with a wide range of mean frequencies, group frequencies and modulation rates. The cross-shore variation in the amplitudes of short waves and long waves is investigated. The model results are compared with laboratory experiments from the literature and good agreement is found.

  15. Numerical modeling of surf beat generated by moving breakpoint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    As an important hydrodynamic phenomenon in the nearshore zone, the cross-shore surf beat is numerically studied in this paper with a fully nonlinear Boussinesq-type model, which resolves the primary wave motion as well as the long waves. Compared with the classical Boussinesq equations, the equations adopted here allow for improved linear dispersion characteristics. Wave breaking and run-up in the swash zone are included in the numerical model. Mutual interactions between short waves and long waves are inherent in the model. The numerical study of long waves is based on bichromatic wave groups with a wide range of mean frequencies, group frequencies and modulation rates. The cross-shore variation in the amplitudes of short waves and long waves is investigated. The model results are compared with laboratory experiments from the literature and good agreement is found.

  16. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  17. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  18. Assessment of hematological profiles of adult male athletes from two different air pollutant zones of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Paulomi; Chatterjee, Pinaki

    2015-01-01

    Health effects from air pollution are severe concern of today's world. The study was undertaken to assess the effects of air pollution on hematological profiles of trained and untrained males of West Bengal. The sample consisted of 60 sprinters, 60 footballers, and 120 untrained males, subdivided into two groups from two zones, namely, Tollygunge and Sonarpur. Suspended particulate matter (SPM), respirable particulate matter (RPM), oxides of sulfur (SOx), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) of ambient air were monitored for both zones. Height and weight of all the subjects were measured. Venous blood sample was drawn from the cubital vein, and the red blood cell count (TC), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were determined by standard methods. Results revealed that SPM, RPM, SOx, and NOx concentrations were significantly higher in the Tollygunge area than Sonarpur. TC, PCV, and Hb concentration of untrained males were significantly higher than footballers in both regions but no significant difference were observed when compared with sprinters, except the Hb concentration in the Tollygunge zone. On the other hand, all hematological parameters of both trained and untrained males were significantly higher in the Sonarpur area than Tollygunge. It was concluded that environmental air pollutants might influence hematological profile adversely both in trained and sedentary males. However, further investigation in this area is needed.

  19. Experimental Investigation of Shock Wave Surfing

    CERN Document Server

    Parziale, N J; Hornung, H G; Shepherd, J E

    2010-01-01

    Shock wave surfing is investigated experimentally in GALCIT's Mach 4.0 Ludwieg Tube. Shock wave surfing occurs when a secondary free-body follows the bow shock formed by a primary free-body; an example of shock wave surfing occurs during meteorite breakup. The free-bodies in the current investigation are nylon spheres. During each run in the Ludwieg tube a high speed camera is used to capture a series of schlieren images; edge tracking software is used to measure the position of each sphere. Velocity and acceleration are had from processing the position data. The radius ratio and initial orientation of the two spheres are varied in the test matrix. The variation of sphere radius ratio and initial angle between the centers of gravity are shown to have a significant effect on the dynamics of the system.

  20. Gas sampling method for determining pollutant concentrations in the flame zone of two swirl-can combustor modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A gas sampling probe and traversing mechanism were developed to obtain detailed measurements of gaseous pollutant concentrations in the primary and mixing regions of combustors in order to better understand how pollutants are formed. The gas sampling probe was actuated by a three-degree-of-freedom traversing mechanism and the samples obtained were analyzed by an on-line gas analysis system. The pollutants in the flame zone of two different swirl-can combustor modules were measured at an inlet-air temperature of 590 K, pressure of 6 atmospheres, and reference velocities of 23 and 30 meters per second at a fuel-air ratio of 0.02. Typical results show large spatial gradients in the gaseous pollutant concentration close to the swirl-can module. Average concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide decrease rapidly in the downstream wake regions of each module. By careful and detailed probing, the effect of various module design features on pollutant formation can be assessed. The techniques presently developed seem adequate to obtain the desired information.

  1. 77 FR 9850 - Safety Zone; 2012 Mavericks Invitational, Half Moon Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA08 Safety Zone; 2012 Mavericks Invitational, Half Moon Bay... temporary safety zone in support of the Mavericks Surf Competition. This temporary safety zone will... process would be completed. Because of the dangers posed by the surf conditions during the 2012 Mavericks...

  2. Women's Recreational Surfing: A Patronising Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Rebecca; McCuaig, Louise; Phillips, Murray G.

    2015-01-01

    Research analysing the operation of power within sport and physical activity has exposed the marginalisation and exclusion of women's sport in explicit and institutionalised ways. However, for women in recreational and alternative physical activities like surfing, sporting experiences lie outside institutionalised structures, thus requiring…

  3. An Analysis of the SURF Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Oyallon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The SURF method (Speeded Up Robust Features is a fast and robust algorithm for local, similarity invariant representation and comparison of images. Similarly to many other local descriptor-based approaches, interest points of a given image are defined as salient features from a scale-invariant representation. Such a multiple-scale analysis is provided by the convolution of the initial image with discrete kernels at several scales (box filters. The second step consists in building orientation invariant descriptors, by using local gradient statistics (intensity and orientation. The main interest of the SURF approach lies in its fast computation of operators using box filters, thus enabling real-time applications such as tracking and object recognition. The SURF framework described in this paper is based on the PhD thesis of H. Bay [ETH Zurich, 2009], and more specifically on the paper co-written by H. Bay, A. Ess, T. Tuytelaars and L. Van Gool [Computer Vision and Image Understanding, 110 (2008, pp. 346–359]. An implementation is proposed and used to illustrate the approach for image matching. A short comparison with a state-of-the-art approach is also presented, the SIFT algorithm of D. Lowe [International Journal of Computer Vision, 60 (2004, pp. 91–110], with which SURF shares a lot in common.

  4. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the pollution of Al-Fe-humus podzols in the impact zone of a nonferrous metallurgical plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyanguzova, I. V.; Goldvirt, D. K.; Fadeeva, I. K.

    2016-10-01

    The dependence of the level of contamination of the upper horizon of Al-Fe-humus podzols (Podzols Rustic) with heavy metals (Ni, Cu) on the distance from the Severonickel smelter (Monchegorsk, Murmansk oblast) was studied on a number of test plots in the medium-aged pine stands. It was found that metal concentrations in the soils could be reasonably approximated by the negative exponential function. In the buffer zone of the smelter, the concentrations of Ni and Cu exceed background values by 8-17 times; in the impact zone, by 50-100 times. The study of the dynamics of acid-soluble forms of Ni and Cu in the organic horizons of podzols on the key plots showed that the boundaries of polluted territory shift towards background regions despite the recent five-eightfold decrease in the emissions. The concentrations of heavy metals in the litter horizons continued to increase in the buffer zone. In the impact zone, their contamination remained at the very high level. Firm bounding of heavy metals in the organic horizon coupled with their continuing aerial input did not allow the beginning of the soil self-purification process, which might last for decades and centuries. Raster electron microscope and X-ray spectral microanalysis showed that particles (>85%) of the ashed matter of organic horizons from the background region, the buffer zone, and the impact zone is mainly represented by various soil-forming minerals and iron oxides (in particular, magnetite). In the samples from the impact zone, about 5% of the mineral particles had the surface morphology and chemical composition typical of dust particles emitted into the air by metal smelters. Most probably, these spherical particles represented magnetite Fe3O4 enriched in heavy metals (Cu, Ni).

  5. Content and the forms of heavy metals in bottom sediments in the zone of industrial pollution sources ,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voytyuk Y.Y.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Regularities in the distribution of heavy metals in sediments in the zone of influence of the steel industry in Mariupol are installed. The study results of the forms of occurrence of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni are represented. Ecological and geochemical assessment of sediment contamination by heavy metals is performed. The main sources of pollution of bottom sediments are air borne emissions from industrial plants, hydrogenous pollution in industrial sewage entering the water, sewage sludge, ash dumps, slag, ore, sludge, oil spills and salt solutions. Pollution hydrogenous sediments may be significant, contaminated sediments are a source of long-term contamination of water, even after cessation of discharges into rivers untreated wastewater. The environmental condition of bottom sediments in gross content of heavy metals is little information because they do not reflect the transformation and further migration to adjacent environment. The study forms of giving objective information for ecological and geochemical evaluation. The study forms of heavy metals in the sediments carried by successive extracts. Concentrations of heavy metals in the extracts determined by atomic absorption spectrometer analysis CAS-115. It was established that a number of elements typical of exceeding their content in bottom sediments of the background values, due likely to their technogenic origin. Man-made pollution of bottom sediments. Mariupol has disrupted the natural form of the ratio of heavy metals. In the studied sediments form ion exchange increased content of heavy metals, which contributes to their migration in the aquatic environment.

  6. The presence and near-shore transport of human fecal pollution in Lake Michigan beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, S.L.; Liu, L.B.; Phanikumar, M.S.; Jenkins, T.M.; Wong, M.V.; Rose, J.B.; Whitman, R.L.; Shively, D.A.; Nevers, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    The Great Lakes are a source of water for municipal, agricultural and industrial use, and support significant recreation, commercial and sport fishing industries. Every year millions of people visit the 500 plus recreational beaches in the Great Lakes. An increasing public health risk has been suggested with increased evidence of fecal contamination at the shoreline. To investigate the transport and fate of fecal pollution at Great Lakes beaches and the health risk associated with swimming at these beaches, the near-shore waters of Mt Baldy Beach, Lake Michigan and Trail Creek, a tributary discharging into the lake were examined for fecal pollution indicators. A model of surf zone hydrodynamics coupled with a transport model with first-order inactivation of pollutant was used to understand the relative importance of different processes operating in the surf zone (e.g. physical versus biological processes). The Enterococcus human fecal pollution marker, which targets a putative virulence factor, the enterococcal surface protein (esp) in Enterococcus faecium, was detected in 2/28 samples (7%) from the tributaries draining into Lake Michigan and in 6/30 samples (20%) from Lake Michigan beaches. Preliminary analysis suggests that the majority of fecal indicator bactateria variation and water quality changes at the beaches can be explained by inputs from the influential stream and hydrometeorological conditions. Using modeling methods to predict impaired water quality may help reduce potential health threats to recreational visitors.

  7. Cd pollution and ecological risk assessment for mining activity zone in Karst Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; He, J. L.; Wen, X. M.; Tan, H.

    2017-08-01

    The monitored soil samples were collected from farmland in the area with mining activity in Karst area in Liupanshui. In this article, moss bag technology and TSP were used simultaneously for Cd transportation and deposition in the study area. Geostatistics and GIS were then used for the spatial distribution of Cd in the soil. Afterwards, Cd pollution to the soil environment and human health was studied by using the geo-accumulation index and potential ecological risk index methods. The results indicated that atmospheric deposition is the major route of Cd pollution. A moderate to strong pollution of Cd in the area and the degree of potential ecological risk was in a high level in the study area. Furthermore, Cd pollution in Liupanshui may originate from mining activity and atmospheric deposition.

  8. Investigation of Polluted Zones by Lead in North West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodadadi A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available National project of Important Heavy Metals Identification of Iran (IHMI, following the UNDP and supported by Department of Environment of Iran (DOE, has been completed by Modares Environmental Research Center (MERC. Due to this project the pollution potential sources was investigated by overall distribution maps of any parameters that may cause the lead pollution. Then the sampling points was determined by some geo-statistical analysis and the sampling process was done according to standard methods of sampling, preserving, transferring to lab, measuring and analyzing etc through the 3 months in three phases of materials (effluent and discharges, solid waste, water, soil and sediment samples from natural sources like river etc.. After gathering the final results, overlaying the potential sources and polluted positions (according to violation of national and international standards of sampled points by Geographic Information Systems (GIS led the research to closing to the pollutant sources in north west provinces (Eastern Azerbaijan, Western Azerbaijan, Ardabil and Zanjan. The synthetic and natural pollution sources observed were 17 and 20 respectively. Abir River, Niroo Gostar Taban Industrial Complex and Copper Industries were the most important pollution sources in material phases of Natural, effluent and solid waste respectively.

  9. Influence of abiotic factors on spatiotemporal patterns of larval fish assemblages in the surf zones of the Yangtze River estuary and Hangzhou Bay%长江口和杭州湾碎波带仔稚鱼群聚时空分布特征及相关环境因子分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈渊戈; 毛成责; 林楠; 钟俊生; 徐兆礼

    2015-01-01

    2009年8月至2010年8月每月大潮前后在长江口和杭州湾碎波带的12个站点采集仔稚鱼,共采集到仔稚鱼14907尾,隶属24科74种,主要优势种有刀鲚(Coilia nasus,47.84%)、普氏缰虾虎鱼(Amoya pflaumii,11.58%)、属(Hemiculter spp.,9.12%)、飘鱼属(Pseudolaubuca spp.,6.29%)、多鳞四指马鲅(Eleutheronema rhadinum,5.62%)。分析了碎波带仔稚鱼群聚的时空分布特征与水温、盐度、底质、地形等环境因子的关系。聚类和排序的结果显示,全年仔稚鱼群聚在时间序列上可分为4组,各组间存在明显的种类更替,出现的主要优势种分别是12月–翌年4月的乔氏新银鱼(Neosalanx jordani),5月的中国大银鱼(Protosalanx chinensis)、中国花鲈(Lateolabrax maculatus),6月–9月的刀鲚、普氏缰虾虎鱼、属、飘鱼属、多鳞四指马鲅,以及10月、11月的有明银鱼(Salanx ariakensis)。在空间梯度上可分为长江口碎波带站点和杭州湾碎波带站点两组,两组间相异性贡献度最高的种类是刀鲚和普氏缰虾虎鱼(>10%),多个组内的独有种类显示出不同生态类型鱼类仔稚鱼对碎波带栖息地的生境选择分化。CCA 结果显示,所选的5个环境因子中只有水温和盐度对仔稚鱼群聚整体的时空分布有显著影响,但是对整个时空分布特征的解释度并不算高,意味着还存在其他重要的影响因素,可能包括饵料生物、径流等。对主要种类在单种的尺度上进行了丰度时空分布与环境因子的 GAM 曲线拟合,发现底质和地形对特定种类的仔稚鱼的分布有显著影响。地形开阔平坦、底质为沙质的站点仔稚鱼种类和丰度都相对较多,如优势种中的飘鱼属种类、多鳞四指马鲅、日本须鳎(Paraplagusia japonica)等都倾向选择栖息在开阔平坦的沙质底站点。%The surf zone is an important habitat for larval organisms; in particular, a large amount of research has de-monstrated the utility of

  10. Assimilative capacity and pollution dispersion studies for the industrial zone of Manali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manju, N. [Meenakshi College for Women, Chennai (India). Dept. of Physics; Balakrishnan, R. [Madras Christian College, Chennai (India). Dept. of Physics; Mani, N. [Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board, Chennai (India)

    2002-07-01

    In this study the micro-meteorological parameters have been analyzed and the assimilative capacity of Manali is estimated on the basis of ventilation coefficient for the four seasons of the year 1998. Among the various seasons, summer has the lowest pollution potential. The industrial source complex short-term model has been used to predict the spatial distribution of three pollutants namely sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and suspended particulate matter. The model has been validated using the data measured at site. Statistical evaluation of the model indicates satisfactory performance. Using the model predictions, isopleths have been drawn. The northeastern part of Manali has been identified as vulnerable to high levels of pollution necessitating mitigation measures to be initiated in the region. (author)

  11. Enhanced Approximated SURF Model For Object Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sangeetha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision applications like camera calibration, 3D reconstruction, and object recognition and image registration are becoming widely popular now a day. In this paper an enhanced model for speeded up robust features (SURF is proposed by which the object recognition process will become three times faster than common SURF model The main idea is to use efficient data structures for both, the detector and the descriptor. The detection of interest regions is considerably speed-up by using an integral image for scale space computation. The descriptor which is based on orientation histograms is accelerated by the use of an integral orientation histogram. We present an analysis of the computational costs comparing both parts of our approach to the conventional method. Extensive experiments show a speed-up by a factor of eight while the matching and repeatability performance is decreased only slightly.

  12. [Transportation and risk assessment of heavy metal pollution in water-soil from the Riparian Zone of Daye Lake, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-quan; Li, Xiu; Zhang, Quan-fa; Li, Qiong; Xiao, Wen-sheng; Wang, Yong-kui; Zhang, Jian-chun; Gai, Xi-guang

    2015-01-01

    Each 20 water samples and soil samples (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm) were collected from the riparian zone of Daye Lake in dry season during March 2013. Heavy metals (Cu, Ph, Cd, Zn) have been detected by flame atomic absorption spectrometric (FAAS). The results showed that the average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn in the water were 7.14, 25.94, 15.72 and 37.58 microg x L(-1), respectively. The concentration of Cu was higher than the five degree of the surface water environment quality standard. The average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn in soil(0-10 cm) were 108.38, 53.92, 3.55, 139.26 mg x kg(-1) in soil (10-20 cm) were 93.00, 51.72, 2.08, 171.00 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The Cd concentrations were higher than the three grade value of the national soil environment quality standard. The transportation of Pb from soil to water was relatively stable, and Zn was greatly influenced by soil property and the surrounding environment from soil to water. The transformation of heavy metal in west riparian zone was higher than that of east riparian zone. The potential environmental risk was relatively high. Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn were dominated by residue fraction of the modified BCR sequential extraction method. The overall migration order of heavy metal element was: Pb > Cu > Cd > Zn. There were stronger transformation and higher environmental pollution risk of Cu, Pb. The index of assessment and potential ecological risk coefficient indicated that heavy metal pollution in soil (0-10 cm) was higher than the soil (10-20 cm), Cd was particularly serious.

  13. An assessment of oil pollution in the coastal zone of patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commendatore, Marta Graciela; Esteves, José Luis

    2007-11-01

    The Patagonian coast is considered a relatively pristine environment. However, studies conducted along coastal Patagonia have showed hydrocarbon pollution mostly concentrated at ports that have fishing, oil loading, general merchant, and/or tourist activities. A high value of total aliphatic hydrocarbons (TAH) was found at the Rawson fishing port (741 microg/g dw). In other ports with and without petroleum-related activities, hydrocarbon values were approximately 100 microg/g dw. The highest values for TAH and total aromatic hydrocarbons (TArH) were found in Faro Aristizábal, north of San Jorge gulf (1304 and 737 microg/g dw, respectively). This is very likely the result of petroleum-related activities at the Comodoro Rivadavia, Caleta Cordova, and Caleta Olivia ports located within this gulf. In other coastal areas away from potential anthropogenic sources, hydrocarbon values were less than 2 and 3 microg/g dw for TAH and TArH, respectively. This review of published and unpublished information suggests that ports are important oil pollution sources in the Patagonian coast. More detailed studies are needed to evaluate the area affected by port activities, to understand the mechanisms of hydrocarbon distribution in surrounding environments, and to assess bioaccumulation in marine organisms. Despite that some regulations exist to control oil pollution derived from port and docked vessel activities, new and stricter management guidelines should be implemented.

  14. Distribution of selected carcinogenic hydrocarbon and heavy metals in an oil-polluted agriculture zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaichi, E O; Wegwu, M O; Nwosu, U L

    2014-12-01

    Owing to the importance of clean and fertile agricultural soil for the continued existence of man, this study investigated the concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some heavy metals in soils and selected commonly consumed vegetables and tubers from oil-polluted active agricultural farmland in Gokana of Ogoniland, Rivers State, Nigeria. Samples from Umuchichi, Osisioma Local Government Area in Abia State, Nigeria, a non-oil-polluted area constituted the control. In test and control, up to 3,830 ± 19.6 mgkg(-1) dw and 6,950 ± 68.3 mgkg(-1) dw (exceeding DPR set limits) and 11.3 ± 0.04 mgkg(-1) dw and 186 ± 0.02 mgkg(-1) dw for TPH and PAHs, respectively, were recorded in test soil and plant samples, respectively. Among the metals studied (Pb, Cd, Cr, Mn, Fe and Zn), Pb and Cr uptake exceeded WHO set limits for crops in test samples. Combined sources of pollution were evident from our studies. Bitterleaf and Waterleaf could be tried as bioindicators owing to expressed contaminants uptake pattern.

  15. Overview about polluted sites management by mining activities in coastal-desertic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Arturo; Letelier, María Victoria; Arenas, Franko; Cuevas, Jacqueline; Fuentes, Bárbara

    2016-04-01

    In Chile the main mining operations as well as artisanal and small-scale mining (copper, gold and silver) are located in desert areas. A large number of abandoned polluted sites with heavy metals and metalloids (Hg, Pb, Cu, Sb, As) remain in coastal areas close to human centers. The aim of this work was to identify the best remediation alternatives considering the physic-chemical characteristics of the coastal-desertic soils. The concentrations of above mentioned pollutants as well as soil properties were determined. The results showed variable concentration of the pollutants, highest detected values were: Hg (46.5 mg kg-1), Pb (84.7 mg kg-1), Cu (283.0 mg kg-1), Sb (90 mg kg-1), As (2,691 mg kg-1). The soils characteristic were: high alkalinity with pH: 7.75-9.66, high electric conductivity (EC: 1.94-118 mScm-1), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR: 5.07-8.22) and low permeability of the soils. Coastal-desertic sites are potential sources of pollution for population, and for terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Exposure routes of pollution for the population include: primary, by incidental ingestion and inhalation of soil and dust and secondary, by the ingestion of marine sediments, sea food and seawater. Rehabilitation of coastal-desertic sites, by using techniques like soil washing in situ, chemical stabilization, or phytostabilization, is conditioned by physic-chemical properties of the soils. In these cases the recommendation for an appropriate management, remediation and use of the sites includes: 1) physic chemical characterization of the soils, 2) evaluation of environmental risk, 3) education of the population and 3) application of a remediation technology according to soil characteristic and the planned use of the sites. Acknowledgments: Funding for this study was supported by the Regional Council of Antofagasta under Project Estudio de ingeniería para la remediación de sitios abandonados con potencial presencia de contaminantes identificados en la comuna de

  16. Interaction of convective flow generated by human body with room ventilation flow: impact on transport of pollution to the breathing zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Sekhar, Chandra

    2014-01-01

    concentration by factor of 5.5. Downward flow of 0.175 m/s does not change airflow patterns and pollutant concentration in the breathing zone, while the velocity of 0.425 m/s offsets the thermal plume and minimizes the concentration. Since the downward flow at 0.30 m/s collides with the CBL at the forehead......This study aims to investigate the interaction between the human convective boundary layer (CBL) and uniform airflow from two directions and with different velocities. The study has two objectives: first, to characterize the velocity field in the breathing zone of a thermal manikin under its...... interaction with opposing flow from above and assisting flow from below; and secondly, implication of such a flow interaction on the particle transport from the feet to the breathing zone is examined. The results reveal that the human body heat transports the pollution to the breathing zone and increases...

  17. Fate of organic contaminants in the redox zones of a landfill leachate pollution plume (Vejen, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkilde, John; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    Samples from 75 sample locations in a landfill leachate pollution plume reveal a significant disappearance of specific organic compounds (SOC's) within the first 100 m of the plume. Only the herbicide Mecoprop® (MCPP) migrates further. Since sorption and dilution cannot account for the decreasing...... concentrations, degradation is considered to be the governing process. Non-volatile organic carbon shows a corresponding fate probably acting as a substrate for the microbial processes. The first 20 m of the plume are methanogenic/sulfidogenic, judged on the chemistry of the groundwater, followed...

  18. Fate of organic contaminants in the redox zones of a landfill leachate pollution plume (Vejen, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkilde, John; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    Samples from 75 sample locations in a landfill leachate pollution plume reveal a significant disappearance of specific organic compounds (SOC's) within the first 100 m of the plume. Only the herbicide Mecoprop® (MCPP) migrates further. Since sorption and dilution cannot account for the decreasing...... concentrations, degradation is considered to be the governing process. Non-volatile organic carbon shows a corresponding fate probably acting as a substrate for the microbial processes. The first 20 m of the plume are methanogenic/sulfidogenic, judged on the chemistry of the groundwater, followed...

  19. Verification Test of the SURF and SURFplus Models in xRage: Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-20

    The previous study used an underdriven detonation wave (steady ZND reaction zone profile followed by a scale invariant rarefaction wave) for PBX 9502 as a validation test of the implementation of the SURF and SURFplus models in the xRage code. Even with a fairly fine uniform mesh (12,800 cells for 100mm) the detonation wave profile had limited resolution due to the thin reaction zone width (0.18mm) for the fast SURF burn rate. Here we study the effect of finer resolution by comparing results of simulations with cell sizes of 8, 2 and 1 μm, which corresponds to 25, 100 and 200 points within the reaction zone. With finer resolution the lead shock pressure is closer to the von Neumann spike pressure, and there is less noise in the rarefaction wave due to fluctuations within the reaction zone. As a result the average error decreases. The pointwise error is still dominated by the smearing the pressure kink in the vicinity of the sonic point which occurs at the end of the reaction zone.

  20. Assessing soil heavy metal pollution in the water-level-fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chen; Li, Siyue; Zhang, Yulong; Zhang, Quanfa

    2011-07-15

    The water-level-fluctuation zone (WLFZ) between the elevations of 145-175 m in China's Three Gorges Reservoir has experienced a novel hydrological regime with half a year (May-September) exposed in summer and another half (October-April) submerged in winter. In September 2008 (before submergence) and June 2009 (after submergence), soil samples were collected in 12 sites in the WLFZ and heavy metals (Hg, As, Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn) were determined. Enrichment factor (EF), factor analysis (FA), and factor analysis-multiple linear regression (FA-MLR) were employed for heavy metal pollution assessment, source identification, and source apportionment, respectively. Results demonstrate spatial variability in heavy metals before and after submergence and elements of As, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn are higher in the upper and low reaches. FA and FA-MLR reveal that As and Cd are the primary pollutants before submergence, and over 45% of As originates from domestic sewage and 59% of Cd from industrial wastes. After submergence, the major contaminants are Hg, Cd, and Pb, and traffic exhaust contributes approximately 81% to Hg and industrial effluent accounts about 36% and 73% for Cd and Pb, respectively. Our results suggest that increased shipping and industrial wastes have deposited large amounts of heavy metals which have been accumulated in the WLFZ during submergence period.

  1. Breaker turbulence and sediment suspension in the surf zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Hughes, Michael G

    2010-01-01

    Field measurements of fluid velocities and suspended sediment concentrations were used to investigate the relative role of coherent vortices (related to wave breaking) in suspended sediment dynamics. The measurements were obtained from a barred (intermediate-type) beach and the instrument rig was...... between the horizontal fluid velocity and vortex-induced sediment suspension for each of the wave types, which may contribute to an explanation of net offshore and onshore sediment transport observed during episodes of beach erosion and recovery, respectively....

  2. Sensors and Algorithms for an Unmanned Surf-Zone Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    AXV TESIS - COMPLEMENTARY FILTER TEST % File writen by Oscar Garcia 24/08/15 clear all clc clf imu = fopen(’imucomp2.txt’,’r’); 178...IMU data fusion and filtering using a first order Kalman filter. % AXV TESIS - IMU KALMAN FILTER TEST % File writen by Oscar Garcia 30/08/15...AXV_IMU_EKF.m It performs IMU data fusion and filtering using an extended Kalman filter. % AXV TESIS - IMU EKF TEST % File writen by Oscar Garcia 30/08

  3. Effects of Surf Zone Sediment Properties on Shock Wave Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    to be a first order factor. In addition, modeling predictions require the compressibility of the sediments at high and low pressures . The objective...sands in a test tank and initiate shock waves with a high energy laser system. The results will be used to validate numercal model predictions of

  4. Performance of a Tilt Current Meter in the Surf Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Asger Bendix; Carstensen, Stefan; Christensen, Drude Fritzbøger

    2017-01-01

    Tilt Current Meters (TCM’s) are relatively simple and inexpensive instruments for measuring currents in rivers and inthe sea. Their low cost and easy deployment means that a relatively large number of TCM’s can be deployed comparedto more conventional current meters such as Acoustic Doppler...

  5. Oscillatory infragravity wave contribution to surf zone sediment transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Greenwood, Brian

    2008-01-01

    can create a perturbation of the bar crest and/or generate a crescentic bar. These results provide support for the template model for crescentic bar formation, first proposed by Bowen and Inman (Bowen, A.J. and Inman, D.L., 1971. Edge waves and crescentic bars. J.Geophys.Res., 76, 8662-8670) although...

  6. User's Manual for Space Debris Surfaces (SD_SURF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfer, N. C.

    1996-01-01

    A unique collection of computer codes, Space Debris Surfaces (SD_SURF), have been developed to assist in the design and analysis of space debris protection systems. SD_SURF calculates and summarizes a vehicle's vulnerability to space debris as a function of impact velocity and obliquity. An SD_SURF analysis will show which velocities and obliquities are the most probable to cause a penetration. This determination can help the analyst select a shield design which is best suited to the predominant penetration mechanism. The analysis also indicates the most suitable parameters for development or verification testing. The SD_SURF programs offer the option of either FORTRAN programs and Microsoft EXCEL spreadsheets and macros. The FORTRAN programs work with BUMPERII version 1.2a or 1.3 (Cosmic released). The EXCEL spreadsheets and macros can be used independently or with selected output from the SD_SURF FORTRAN programs.

  7. Analytic method for pollutant mixing zone in rivers%河流污染混合区的解析计算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武周虎; 贾洪玉

    2009-01-01

    以顺直宽矩形明渠中垂向线源等强度排放物质浓度分布的解析解为基础,探讨了污染混合区的计算方法,推导了污染混合区最大长度、最大宽度与相应纵坐标、面积以及最大允许污染负荷的理论计算公式,进行了污染混合区的算例分析.其结果可以作为河流污染混合区允许范围和最大允许污染负荷的计算依据,解析计算方法比采用二维水质模型进行污染混合区的计算更加快捷灵活、方便实用.给出了非保守物质污染混合区最大长度的理论计算公式和忽略反应降解作用按保守物质处理的条件:降解数De≤0.027.%On the basis of the theoretical solution to the concentration distribution under the conditions of the invariableness continuous plumb line source in the straight width rectangle of the river, this paper discusses the analytic method of the pollutant mixing zone in rivers, and deduces the largest length of the pollution mixing zone, the largest width and its corresponding formula of longitudinal coordinate, the area and the largest allowable pollutant load. The example analysis of the pollutant mixing zone is conducted. The result indicates that the analytic method can be used for the analytic gist of the outfall's pollutant mixing zone in the allowable range and the largest allowable pollutant load, and the theoretical calculation is faster, more flexible, more convenient and more practicable than the 2D water quality model used for the calculation of the pollutant mixing zone. The paper gives the largest length calculation formula of the non-conservative substances pollutant mixing zone and the condition, neglecting the reaction and the decay effect and dealing with it based on the conservative substance. The formula of the decay number (De) is as follows: De≤0.027.

  8. The bovine tuberculosis burden in cattle herds in zones with low dose radiation pollution in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Pozmogova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a study of the tuberculosis (TB incidence in cattle exposed to low doses of radiation resulting from the Chernobyl (pronounced ‘Chornobyl’ in Ukrainian nuclear plant catastrophe in 1986. The purpose of the study was to determine if ionising radiation influences the number of outbreaks of bovine TB and their severity on farms in the Kyiv, Cherkasy and Chernigiv regions of Ukraine. These farms are all located within a 200 km radius of Chernobyl and have had low-dose radiation pollution. Pathological and blood samples were taken from cattle in those regions that had positive TB skin tests. Mycobacterium spp. were isolated, differentiated by PCR, analysed and tested in guinea-pigs and rabbits. Species differentiation showed a significant percentage of atypical mycobacteria, which resulted in the allergic reactions to tuberculin antigen in the skin test. Mixed infection of M. bovis and M. avium subsp. hominissuis was found in three cases. The results concluded that low-dose radiation plays a major role in the occurrence of bovine TB in regions affected by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MEANS FOR ESTIMATION OF ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMICAL LOSSES FROM POLLUTION OF ATMOSPHERIC AIR IN ZONES OF TECHNOGENIC OBJECTS IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. POPOV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the solution of one of the most important problems of rational use of natural resources. Modern mathematical tools for damage estimation, which are caused by atmospheric pollution to natural objects, and also methods for calculation of the cost for their renewal were developed. The solution of problem was divided into 3 stages. At the first stage it was defined basic anthropogenic sources of pollution, was illustrated conceptual behavior of pollutants in the atmosphere emitted by technological stationary point source. Choice of mathematical model that allows to determine the distribution of pollutants concentration in the air in zones of pollution by point stationary sources in the short-term discharges was proved. At the second stage it was developed mathematical tools to determine the level of objects damage, which were in the zone of pollution, depending on the intensity and duration of exposure of technogenic sources. At the third stage it was developed mathematical models to determine the recoverable amount of natural objects depending on their level of damage. Model example of developed means usage was described. Advantages of developed means over existed analogs were noticed.

  10. Assessing heavy metal pollution in the water level fluctuation zone of China's Three Gorges Reservoir using geochemical and soil microbial approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chen; Li, Siyue; Zhang, Yulong; Tong, Xunzhang; Zhang, Quanfa

    2013-01-01

    The water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) in the Three Gorges Reservoir is located in the intersection of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and assessing heavy metal pollution in the drown zone is critical for ecological remediation and water conservation. In this study, soils were collected in June and September 2009 in natural recovery area and revegetation area of the WLFZ, and geochemical approaches including geoaccumulation index (I (geo)) and factor analysis and soil microbial community structure were applied to assess the spatial variability and evaluate the influence of revegetation on metals in the WLFZ. Geochemical approaches demonstrated the moderate pollutant of Cd, the slight pollutant of Hg, and four types of pollutant sources including industrial and domestic wastewater, natural rock weathering, traffic exhaust, and crustal materials in the WLFZ. Our results also demonstrated significantly lower concentrations for elements of As, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Mn in the revegetation area. Moreover, soil microbial community structure failed to monitor the heavy metal pollution in such a relatively clean area. Our results suggest that revegetation plays an important role in controlling heavy metal pollution in the WLFZ of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

  11. Exposure of children to air pollution in the industrial zone of Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugica-Alvarez, Violeta; Quintanilla-Vega, Betsabé; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Alvarado-Cruz, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    An air quality monitoring in three schools located in the most important industrial zone at the Northeast of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) was conducted in order to determine the exposure of children to toxics contained in PM10. Particles were analyzed for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), organic and elemental carbon by ICP-AES, GC-MS and TOT (Sunset lab) respectively. Average concentration of PM10 was 108.4±11.6 μg/m3. Most abundant metals were Fe, Zn and Pb with concentrations ranged by 1.1-5.4 μg/m3, 0.3-2 μg/m3, and 0.18-0.63 μg/m3 respectively; the sum of the seventeen PAHs varied from 1.4 to 3.3 ng/m3 where most abundant PAH were indene[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The sum of the seven carcinogenic PAH contributed in average with the 48% of the total mixture. Carcinogenic potential of PAH were obtained using toxic equivalent factors determined by Nisbet and La Goy which varied from 0.3 to 0.6 ng/ m3 of benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BAPeq), this value is lower than the standard proposed for the European Community of 1 ng/ m3, but higher than the standard from the United Kingdom of 0.25 ng/ m3. Principal component analysis for source apportionment showed that vehicular and industrial emissions are the main sources of PM in the zone. In general, the concentrations of particles as well as concentration of metals and PAHs are lower than concentrations measured six year before, showing that the established measures have improved the air quality. Nevertheless these PM10 concentrations exceeded frequently the Mexican Standard and children are especially susceptible due to the higher risk to develop diseases if the exposure occurs at early age.

  12. 76 FR 8651 - Special Local Regulation; Mavericks Surf Competition, Half Moon Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Mavericks Surf Competition... the Mavericks Surf Competition. This special local regulation is necessary to ensure the safety of... dangers posed by the surf conditions during the Mavericks Surf Competition, the special local regulation...

  13. Let’s Surf on The internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李申禹

    1996-01-01

    在今日大学之校园内,电脑热正呈“奔腾”之势。李申禹所在的寝室购买了一台“合资”电脑,这为他们的学习另辟了一块天地,也为他们的生活着上了一点色彩,Let′s Surf on The Internet这篇习作标题潇洒,内容实在,既写出了作者漫步电脑书林的惊喜,又有对未来的展望——现在的年青人将携着the electronic books跨入新世纪。习作开首较好地运用了parllelism:结尾想象驰骋,并巧妙点题。本文Reviewed by Mr.John C.Green

  14. Palmprint Based Verification System Using SURF Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Badrinath G.; Gupta, Phalguni

    This paper describes the design and development of a prototype of robust biometric system for verification. The system uses features extracted using Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) operator of human hand. The hand image for features is acquired using a low cost scanner. The palmprint region extracted is robust to hand translation and rotation on the scanner. The system is tested on IITK database of 200 images and PolyU database of 7751 images. The system is found to be robust with respect to translation and rotation. It has FAR 0.02%, FRR 0.01% and accuracy of 99.98% and can be a suitable system for civilian applications and high-security environments.

  15. Atmospheric pollution in the area of Vitry-sur-Seine and Alfortville; Pollution atmospherique dans la zone de Vitry-sur-Seine et d'Alfortville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayet, P.

    1997-07-01

    The aim of this report, demanded by the environmental minister, is the present state and the evolution of the atmospheric pollution in the area of Vitry-sur-seine and Alfortville, near Paris. In the first part the report takes stock of the air quality to show a decrease in the pollution due to fixed sources. A special interest is given in a second part to exhaust gases from the main factory of the area: the EDF power plant. The report concludes on the decrease of the industrial air pollution, the increase of the traffic air pollution and asks for the public information. (A.L.B.)

  16. Geometry and dynamics of wave ripples in the nearshore zone of a coarse sandy beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masselink, G.; Austin, M. J.; O'Hare, T. J.; Russell, P. E.

    2007-10-01

    Extensive measurements of ripple characteristics and dynamics along with associated suspended sediment fluxes and hydrodynamic conditions were made in the shoaling and surf zones of a macrotidal coarse grained beach at Sennen Cove, Cornwall, England (median grain diameter 0.69 mm). Suborbital vortex ripples were observed during the majority of the study period with height ˜5 cm and length ˜35 cm. The scale and shape of the ripples did not vary significantly as the bed shear stress increased during wave shoaling and breaking. However, ripple migration rates (onshore directed) were strongly dependent on their location relative to the breakpoint, increasing from ˜0.1 cm min-1 under shoaling waves to 2 cm min-1 in the outer surf zone during low-energy conditions. Farther inside the surf zone, ripples persisted but migration rates slowed, probably owing to the presence of the offshore-directed mean flow which impedes landward migration of the ripples. Under low-wave conditions (during which measured sediment fluxes peaked around the outer surf zone and decreased through the saturated surf zone), bed form transport rates under shoaling waves were of the same magnitude as net suspended sediment fluxes but at least an order of magnitude smaller in the outer surf zone. Under high-energy conditions (during which suspended sediment fluxes in the surf zone were offshore directed owing to the presence of the seaward directed mean flow), bed form transport rates were several orders of magnitude smaller than suspended fluxes.

  17. Pollution from organic contaminants in Greek marine areas, receiving anthropogenic pressures from intense activities in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread pollutants in marine sediments, receiving the pressures from various anthropogenic activities in the coastal zone. Due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic behaviour, PAHs are classified as priority contaminants to be monitored in environmental quality control schemes. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of PAHs in coastal areas of Greece directly influenced from the operation of major industrial units in the coastal zone, investigate their sources and evaluate their potential toxicity by comparison against effect - based sediment quality guidelines. Thirty two surface sediment samples were collected from three areas of the Hellenic coastline: a) Antikyra bay in Korinthiakos gulf, influenced from the operation of an alumina and aluminium production plant b) Larymna bay in Noth Evoikos gulf, influenced from the operation of a nickel production plant and c) Aliveri bay in South Evoikos Gulf, influenced from a cement production plant. In all the areas studied, aquaculture and fishing activities have been also developed in the coastal zone. PAH concentrations were determined by GC-MS, after soxhlet extraction and fractionation by silica column chromatography. PAH sources and origin were investigated by applying several isomeric ratio diagnostic criteria. The mean quotient Effect- Range Median (m-ERM) was used to evaluate the potential of adverse effects posed to benthic organisms. Three m-ERM-q values were used to differentiate the probability of observing toxicity and classify sites into four categories: sediments with m-ERM1.5 have the highest probability (76%) of toxicity. Extremely high PAH concentrations more than 100,000 ng/g were found in the close vicinity of the alumina production plant in Antikyra bay. High levels of PAHs up to 22,000 ng/g were also found in Aliveri bay, whereas lowest values, but still indicating significant pollution, were measured close to the nickel production plant

  18. Assessment of surface water pollutant models of estuaries and coastal zone of Quang Ninh – Hai Phong using Spot-5 images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Luong Chinh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The coastal zone and estuaries of Quang Ninh and Hai Phong have great potential not only for economic development but also for protection and conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem. Nowadays, due to industrial, agricultural and anthropogenic activities signs of water pollution in the region have been found. The level of surface water pollution can be determined by traditional methods through observatory stations. However, a traditional approach to determine water contamination is discontinuous, and thereby makes pollution assessment of the entire estuary very difficult. Nowadays, remote sensing technology has been developed and widely applied in many fields, for instance, in monitoring water environments. Remote sensing data combined with information from in-situ observations allow for extraction of polluted components in water and accurate measurements of pollution level in the large regions ensuring objectivity. According to results obtained from Spot-5 imagery of Quang Ninh and Hai Phong, the extracted pollution components, like BOD, COD and TSS can be determined with the root mean square error, the absolute mean error and the absolute mean percentage error (%: ±4.37 (mg/l 3.86 (mg/l, 27%; ±55.32 (mg/l, 48.30 (mg/l, 14%; and ±32.90 (mg/l, 23.38 (mg/l, 28%; respectively. Obtained outcomes guarantee objectivity in assessing water contaminant levels in the investigated regions and show the advantages of remote sensing applications in Resource and Environmental Monitoring in relation to Water – Air – Land.

  19. Social Impact Assessment of Crude Oil Pollution on Small Scale Farmers in Oil Producing Communities of the Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofuoku, A. O. U.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the social impact of oil production on small holder farmers in oil-producing communities of the Central zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 respondents by the use of questionnaires. Soil erosion (96.6%, noise pollution (98.3%, bush burning (93.3%, land degradation/pollution (87.5%, water pollution (80.3%, air pollution (62.5%, massive deforestation (62.5% and acid rain (52.5% were seen as the major environmental problems experienced in the study area. The respondents reported that oil pollution impacted negatively on their income (83.3%, agricultural production (98.3% and land availability (85.8%. None of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents such as age, gender, Educational level, religion, marital status, type of farming, family size, Farming experience, farm size, income, housing, tenure, membership of organization, land tenure and source of labour were found to determine the social impact of oil pollution on small-scale farmers. Recommendations given dwelt on making the environment conducive for the communities, agricultural activities and it sustenance for future generations.

  20. Pollution status of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from the Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenglong; Zou, Xinqing; Gao, Jianhua; Zhao, Yifei; Yu, Wenwen; Li, Yali; Song, Qiaochu

    2016-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are mainly produced by incomplete combustion and are used as indicators of anthropogenic activities on the environment. This study analyses the PAHs level in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE), an important component of Yangtze River and a developed and populated region in China. Surface sediments were collected from 77 sites at the YRE and its adjacent coastal zone (IACZ) for a comprehensive study of PAHs. Kriging interpolation technology and Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model were applied to explore the spatial distribution and sources of PAHs. Concentrations of 16 PAHs (ΣPAHs) varied from 27.2 ng g(-1) to 621.6 ng g(-1) dry weight, with an average value of 158.2 ng g(-1). Spatially, ΣPAHs exhibited wide fluctuation and exhibited an increasing tendency from north to south. In addition, ΣPAHs exhibited a decreasing trend with increasing distance between the estuary and IACZ. The deposition flux of PAHs indicated that more than 107.8 t a(-1) PAHs was deposited in the study area annually. The results of the PMF model revealed that anthropogenic activities were the main sources of PAHs in the study area. Vehicle emissions and marine engines were the most important sources and accounted for 40.9% of the pollution. Coal combustion, petrogenic sources, and wood combustion were other sources that contributed 23.9%, 23.6%, and 11.5%, respectively. The distribution patterns of PAHs in the YRE and IACZ were influenced by many complicated factors such as sediment grain size, hydrodynamics and so on. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Verification test of the SURF and SURFplus models in xRage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-18

    As a verification test of the SURF and SURFplus models in the xRage code we use a propagating underdriven detonation wave in 1-D. This is about the only test cases for which an accurate solution can be determined based on the theoretical structure of the solution. The solution consists of a steady ZND reaction zone profile joined with a scale invariant rarefaction or Taylor wave and followed by a constant state. The end of the reaction profile and the head of the rarefaction coincide with the sonic CJ state of the detonation wave. The constant state is required to match a rigid wall boundary condition. For a test case, we use PBX 9502 with the same EOS and burn rate as previously used to test the shock detector algorithm utilized by the SURF model. The detonation wave is propagated for 10 μs (slightly under 80mm). As expected, the pointwise errors are largest in the neighborhood of discontinuities; pressure discontinuity at the lead shock front and pressure derivative discontinuities at the head and tail of the rarefaction. As a quantitative measure of the overall accuracy, the L2 norm of the difference of the numerical pressure and the exact solution is used. Results are presented for simulations using both a uniform grid and an adaptive grid that refines the reaction zone.

  2. Spatial Quantification of Non-Point Source Pollution in a Meso-Scale Catchment for an Assessment of Buffer Zones Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikołaj Piniewski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to spatially quantify diffuse pollution sources and estimate the potential efficiency of applying riparian buffer zones as a conservation practice for mitigating chemical pollutant losses. This study was conducted using a semi-distributed Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model that underwent extensive calibration and validation in the Sulejów Reservoir catchment (SRC, which occupies 4900 km2 in central Poland. The model was calibrated and validated against daily discharges (10 gauges, NO3-N and TP loads (7 gauges. Overall, the model generally performed well during the calibration period but not during the validation period for simulating discharge and loading of NO3-N and TP. Diffuse agricultural sources appeared to be the main contributors to the elevated NO3-N and TP loads in the streams. The existing, default representation of buffer zones in SWAT uses a VFS sub-model that only affects the contaminants present in surface runoff. The results of an extensive monitoring program carried out in 2011–2013 in the SRC suggest that buffer zones are highly efficient for reducing NO3-N and TP concentrations in shallow groundwater. On average, reductions of 56% and 76% were observed, respectively. An improved simulation of buffer zones in SWAT was achieved through empirical upscaling of the measurement results. The mean values of the sub-basin level reductions are 0.16 kg NO3/ha (5.9% and 0.03 kg TP/ha (19.4%. The buffer zones simulated using this approach contributed 24% for NO3-N and 54% for TP to the total achieved mean reduction at the sub-basin level. This result suggests that additional measures are needed to achieve acceptable water quality status in all water bodies of the SRC, despite the fact that the buffer zones have a high potential for reducing contaminant emissions.

  3. Verification Test of the SURF and SURFplus Models in xRage: Part III Affect of Mesh Alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The previous studies used an underdriven detonation wave in 1-dimension (steady ZND reaction zone profile followed by a scale-invariant rarefaction wave) for PBX 9502 as a verification test of the implementation of the SURF and SURFplus models in the xRage code. Since the SURF rate is a function of the lead shock pressure, the question arises as to the effect on accuracy of variations in the detected shock pressure due to the alignment of the shock front with the mesh. To study the effect of mesh alignment we simulate a cylindrically diverging detonation wave using a planar 2-D mesh. The leading issue is the magnitude of azimuthal asymmetries in the numerical solution. The 2-D test case does not have an exact analytic solution. To quantify the accuracy, the 2-D solution along rays through the origin are compared to a highly resolved 1-D simulation in cylindrical geometry.

  4. SAR observations of coastal zone conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, G. A.; Kasischke, E. S.; Shuchman, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Applications of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology to the observation of coastal zones phenomena are detailed. The conditions observed include gravity wave detection, surf zone location, surface currents, and long-period 'surf beats'. Algorithms have been developed and successfully tested that determine significant wave and current parameters from the sea surface backscatter of microwave energy. Doppler information from the SAR optical correlator allows a rough estimation of near shore surface flow velocities that has been found in agreement with both theory and in situ observations as well. Seasat SAR data of the Scotland and North Carolina coasts are considered, as well as the results of bathymetric updating of coastal area charts.

  5. Indoor air pollution in a zone of extreme poverty of Metropolitan Santiago; Contaminacion intradomiciliaria en un sector de extrema pobreza de la comuna de La Pintana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caceres L.D.; Adonis P.M.; Retamal G.C.; Ancic C.P.; Valencia G.M.; Ramos S.X.; Olivares V.N.; Gil H.L. [Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Programa Biologia Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Medicina,

    2001-07-01

    Indoor pollution can be an important risk factor for human health, considering that people spend more than 60% of their time in their houses. The aim of the study is to investigate indoor pollution in a zone of extreme poverty in Metropolitan Santiago, between June and October 1997. During 24h, carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), respirable particulate matter (PM10), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons absorbed in PM5, temperature and humidity, were measured in the interiors of 24 houses in La Pintana, Santiago, Chile. The higher pollutant concentrations were observed during hours when heating was used, in houses that used coal (mean PM{sub 10} 250 {mu} g/m{sup 3}, CO 42 ppm, SO{sub 2} 192 ppb) or firewood (mean PM{sub 10} 489 {mu} g/m{sup 3}, CO 57 ppm, SO{sub 2} 295 ppb). In all houses, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected and they came from the interior of the house and not from external filtered air. Coal, firewood and cigarette smoke were important sources of carcinogenic and kerosene and gas were sources of non carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the houses studied, the population was exposed to an accumulation of highly toxic pollutants, caused by a lack of ventilation. A high relative humidity also contributed to the growth of biological pollutants. 27 refs.

  6. 长江南京段水污染现状及限排总量%Water pollution and permissible pollution bearing capacity of water function zones in Nanjing reach of Yangtze River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈乐

    2013-01-01

    Based on a five-year variation trend of the water quality of 18 water function zones in the Nanjing reach of the Yangtze River, the main pollution sources and the quantity of pollutants discharged into the river were evaluated and analyzed.Suggestions on permissible pollution bearing capacity and pollutant reduction of the water function zones are made.The results of the study show the following: The up-to-standard rates of 83.3% of the water function zones decreased with time during the period from 2005 to 2009.The monitored water quality in 83.3% of the water function zones in 2009 did not reach standards.The main pollution sources were the rivers connecting with the Yangtze River, where the discharge of COD and NH 3-N were, respectively, 65.7% and 49.9% of the total discharge into the river.The discharge of COD and NH 3-N at industrial sewage outlets were, respectively, 20.9% and 25.0% of the total discharge into the river.The permissible pollution bearing capacities of COD and NH3-N in the Nanjing reach of the Yangtze River were 6.59 ×10 4 tons per year and 0.26 ×10 4 tons per year, respectively.Pollutants need to be reduced in the water function zones , including five drinking water source regions, one reserved area, and three fishery, agricultural, and industrial water use areas.The pollutants in the drinking water source regions need to be reduced to as large degree as possible .The reduction rates of COD and NH3-N ranged from 87.0% to 99.0%, and 17.8% to 97.4%, respectively.%  通过长江南京段18个水功能区水质的5 a 变化趋势,分析主要污染源及其入江排污量,提出了各水功能区限制排污总量和入江污染物削减建议.结果表明:长江南京段2005—2009年期间,83畅3%的水功能区达标率均随时间呈下降趋势,2009年83畅3%的水功能区所有的水质监测点均没有达到其水质目标;主要污染源头为通江河道,其 COD、NH3-N 排放量分别占入江排污总量的65畅7%、49畅9%

  7. Surfing the internet with a BCI mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianyou; Li, Yuanqing; Long, Jinyi; Gu, Zhenghui

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we present a new web browser based on a two-dimensional (2D) brain-computer interface (BCI) mouse, where our major concern is the selection of an intended target in a multi-target web page. A real-world web page may contain tens or even hundreds of targets, including hyperlinks, input elements, buttons, etc. In this case, a target filter designed in our system can be used to exclude most of those targets of no interest. Specifically, the user filters the targets of no interest out by inputting keywords with a P300-based speller, while keeps those containing the keywords. Such filtering largely facilitates the target selection task based on our BCI mouse. When there are only several targets in a web page (either an original sparse page or a target-filtered page), the user moves the mouse toward the target of interest using his/her electroencephalographic signal. The horizontal movement and vertical movement are controlled by motor imagery and P300 potential, respectively. If the mouse encounters a target of no interest, the user rejects it and continues to move the mouse. Otherwise the user selects the target and activates it. With the collaboration of the target filtering and a series of mouse movements and target selections/rejections, the user can select an intended target in a web page. Based on our browser system, common navigation functions, including history rolling forward and backward, hyperlink selection, page scrolling, text input, etc, are available. The system has been tested on seven subjects. Experimental results not only validated the efficacy of the proposed method, but also showed that free internet surfing with a BCI mouse is feasible.

  8. Sorry,officer,I was just surfing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    英文姿

    1998-01-01

    美国被称为a nation on wheels(汽车轮子上的国家),当今计算机科学的迅猛发展与汽车车型的改进和设计的“联姻”就是一个必然。 本文对这种“联姻”的产品——network vehicle/net-mobile——的描绘具有极大的诱惑力: In a net-mobile, a motorist could tap into a regional road system not only to getdirections but also to map out a route around rush-hour traffic snags. Drivers andpassengers will be able to send and receive email, track the latest sports scores or stockquotes, surf the Web, and even play video games. 当然,除了上述“表层”的“联姻”之外.尚有其“深层”的“联姻”,如: On-board microcomputers improve fuel economy and reduce emissions. 也许有人会问:开车时一心岂能两用?不必担心: It not only offered such desktop-computer-like services as email, but allowed adriver to use them without looking away form the road. 文章还列举了不少名车,如General Motors,Toyota,BMW和Mecedes-Benz 已经研制了net-mobile的样车。其中的神奇之处有: OnStar also calls automatically for help if an accident triggers the airbag. (OnStar系统能在事故触发了保

  9. Goddard and Caldwell Oahu, Hawaii Surf Observation Dataset for 1968-2004 (NODC Accession 0001754)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surf reports are typically made several times per day at select locations around Oahu, primarily by Honolulu City and County lifeguards and the Surf News Network,...

  10. Goddard and Caldwell: Oahu, Hawaii surf observation data set for 1968 - 2004 (NODC Accession 0001754)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surf reports are typically made several times per day at select locations around Oahu, primarily by Honolulu City and County lifeguards and the Surf News Network,...

  11. Evaluation of Sift and Surf for Vision Based Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaozhi; Soheilian, Bahman; Habets, Emmanuel; Paparoditis, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    Vision based localization is widely investigated for the autonomous navigation and robotics. One of the basic steps of vision based localization is the extraction of interest points in images that are captured by the embedded camera. In this paper, SIFT and SURF extractors were chosen to evaluate their performance in localization. Four street view image sequences captured by a mobile mapping system, were used for the evaluation and both SIFT and SURF were tested on different image scales. Besides, the impact of the interest point distribution was also studied. We evaluated the performances from for aspects: repeatability, precision, accuracy and runtime. The local bundle adjustment method was applied to refine the pose parameters and the 3D coordinates of tie points. According to the results of our experiments, SIFT was more reliable than SURF. Apart from this, both the accuracy and the efficiency of localization can be improved if the distribution of feature points are well constrained for SIFT.

  12. Assessment of air pollution stress on some commonly grown tree species in industrial zone of Durgapur, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayek, S; Satpati, S; Gupta, S; Saha, R N; Datta, J K

    2011-01-01

    The present study deals with the biochemical responses of some selected tree species with respect to increased air pollution in Durgapur industrial city in India. Areas in vicinity to industries possess very high concentrations of suspended particulate matter (571 microg/m3), SOx (132 microg/m3) and NOx (97 microg/m3) which shows significant correlations (p Air Pollution Toblerance Index (APTI) and Tectona grandis (6.13 +/- 0.276), Lagerstroemia speciosa (7.075 +/- 0.18) and Delonix regia (6.87 +/- 0.079) were sensitive with lower APTI values. Therefore, plant species with higher APTI value, being more resistant, can be used as pollutant absorbent to reduce the pollution level and are suitable for plantations in industrial areas.

  13. Pollution Status of Trace Metals in Groundwater Due to Industrail Activities in and Around Dhaka Export Processing Zone, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOLAM AHMED

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Effluents from multiindustrail activities influence inland water system directly, which subsiquently affect groundwater quality and human health. Some previous reports indicated that inadequate treatment process of discharged effluent of Dhaka Export Processing Zone (DEPZ increased the concentrations of pollutants in surface water system and deteriorated total fishing and agricultural system around DEPZ and its connected area. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate wether the concentration of selective metals viz. Li, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Cs, Ba, Pb and U in two types of groundwater sources were either with in the permissible guidlines or influenced by DEPZ multi industrail on their levels of contamination. The concentrations of metals were determined using inductively Couples Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. The mean concentrations of the elements in both types of groundwater were in the levels of their permissible guidlines, except for Ni (12.91 µg/L, Ga (0.48µg/L, Sr (90.26 µg/L and Cs (0.07µg//Lin groundwater inside DEPZ, which were 1.30, 5.00, 1.50 and 1.40 times higher than the maximum permissible limit (MPL of 10 µg/L, 0.09 µg/L, 60 µg/L, and 0.05µg/L, respectively. The mean concentrations of Li (6.85 µg/L, Zn(268 µg/L, Ga (0.12 µg/L, Sr (131 µg/L and Cs (0.07 µg/L were 3.43, 1.34, 1.33, 2.18, 1.40 times higher then the MPL of 2 µg/L, 200 µg/L, 0.09 µg/L, 60 µg/L and 0.05 µg/L, respectively, in groundwater around DEPZ. Comparatively Zn and Sr possessed higher concentrations, and Cs and U possessed lower concentration in both types of groundwater sources. The elements were distributed in homogeneous and hetrogeneous manner among the source points for deep-tubewell (DTWS and shallow tubewell (STWs, respectively. The significant positive correlations were found between the elements viz., Co-V (0.85, Ni-Sr ((0.70, Co-Cd (0.86, As-Se (0.99, Cs-Zn (0.95, Li-U (0.,71, Zn-U (0

  14. Searching versus surfing: how different ways of acquiring content online affect cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kevin; Kim, Hyo Jung

    2008-06-01

    An experiment tested whether people orient to and encode pictures selected from a Web site differently, depending on whether the pictures were selected by searching or surfing. Participants in the search condition spent more time selecting pictures than the participants in the surf condition spent. The pictures chosen in the search condition elicited cardiac orienting, while pictures chosen in the surf condition did not. Participants recognized pictures acquired by searching more accurately than they recognized those acquired by surfing, indicating that searching led to better encoding than surfing.

  15. Evaluating the role of soil variability on groundwater pollution and recharge at regional scale by integrating a process-based vadose zone model in a stochastic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Antonio; Comegna, Alessandro; Dragonetti, Giovanna; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Zdruli, Pandi

    2013-04-01

    Interpreting and predicting the evolution of water resources and soils at regional scale are continuing challenges for natural scientists. Examples include non-point source (NPS) pollution of soil and surface and subsurface water from agricultural chemicals and pathogens, as well as overexploitation of groundwater resources. The presence and build up of NPS pollutants may be harmful for both soil and groundwater resources. The accumulation of salts and trace elements in soils can significantly impact crop productivity, while loading of salts, nitrates, trace elements and pesticides into groundwater supplies can deteriorate a source of drinking and irrigation water. Consequently, predicting the spatial distribution and fate of NPS pollutants in soils at applicative scales is now considered crucial for maintaining the fragile balance between crop productivity and the negative environmental impacts of NPS pollutants, which is a basis of sustainable agriculture. Soil scientists and hydrologists are regularly asked to assist state agencies to understand these critical environmental issues. The most frequent inquiries are related to the development of mathematical models needed for analyzing the impacts of alternative land-use and best management use and management of soil and water resources. Different modelling solutions exist, mainly differing on the role of the vadose zone and its horizontal and vertical variability in the predictive models. The vadose zone (the region from the soil surface to the groundwater surface) is a complex physical, chemical and biological ecosystem that controls the passage of NPS pollutants from the soil surface where they have been deposited or accumulated due to agricultural activities, to groundwater. Physically based distributed hydrological models require the internal variability of the vadose zone be explored at a variety of scales. The equations describing fluxes and storage of water and solutes in the unsaturated zone used in these

  16. Collaboration on ICT in Dutch Higher Education: The SURF Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boezerooy, Petra; Cordewener, Bas; Liebrand, Wim

    2007-01-01

    In "Thinking Ahead: A Vision of the Role of ICT in Education and Research in the Future, 2007-2010," the higher education institutions in the Netherlands agreed on future strategy. Under the direction of SURF, the Dutch national organization, a collaborative strategy for the application of information and communications technology (ICT)…

  17. Global concept, local practice: Taiwanese experience of CouchSurfing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, D.-J.

    2012-01-01

    Hospitality exchange tourism is a new type of niche tourism, which is highly dependent on the Internet. Through participating in global hospitality exchange networks, such as CouchSurfing, tourists can meet local people who are willing to offer free accommodation, and hosts can also meet people arou

  18. CoBrowser: Surfing the Web Using a Standard Browser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, K.; Zubair, M.; Li, L.

    Co-browsing is a synchronous class of collaborative applications, which allows a group of users to surf the Web together. Such an application can be deployed in an education environment in several ways. One example of where it can be used would be in courses that are project-oriented. Students would be required to collectively research or explore…

  19. Droplets move over viscoelastic substrates by surfing a ridge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karpitschka, S.A.; Das, S.; Gorcum, van M.; Perrin, H.; Andreotti, B.; Snoeijer, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid drops on soft solids generate strong deformations below the contact line, resulting from a balance of capillary and elastic forces. The movement of these drops may cause strong, potentially singular dissipation in the soft solid. Here we show that a drop on a soft substrate moves by surfing a

  20. Internet Surfing for Kindergarten Children: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    The Internet is an effective learning tool for gifted children because it allows them to independently select the areas in which they have talent. The Internet also enables children to discover and maximize their potential. However, younger children might not have a large enough vocabulary to surf the Internet, even if they are gifted. For…

  1. Data on cytochrome c oxidase assembly in mice and human fibroblasts or tissues induced by SURF1 defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovářová, Nikola; Pecina, Petr; Nůsková, Hana; Vrbacký, Marek; Zeviani, Massimo; Mráček, Tomáš; Viscomi, Carlo; Houštěk, Josef

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes data related to a research article entitled "Tissue- and species-specific differences in cytochrome c oxidase assembly induced by SURF1 defects" [1]. This paper includes data of the quantitative analysis of individual forms of respiratory chain complexes I, III and IV present in SURF1 knockout (SURF1 (-/-) ) and control (SURF1 (+/+) ) mouse fibroblasts and tissues and in fibroblasts of human control and patients with SURF1 gene mutation. Also it includes data demonstrating response of complex IV, cytochrome c oxidase (COX), to reversible inhibition of mitochondrial translation in SURF1 (-/-) mouse and SURF1 patient fibroblast cell lines.

  2. Investigation of respirable particulate matter pollutants on air-breathing zone workers in the Beam Rolling Mills Factory (Iran National Steel Industrial Group, Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiei Masoud

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Workers of iron and steel factories are exposed to a wide range of pollutants depending on the particular process, the materials involved, the effectiveness of monitoring and the control measures. Adverse effects are determined by the physical state and propensities of the pollutant involved, the intensity and duration of the exposure, the extent of pollutant accumulation in the body and the sensitivity of the individual to its effects. The main aim of this study is to assess the levels of the indoor respirable particulate matter (RPM and to compare the health condition of exposed workers, with nonexposed employees group. Line 630 has only one furnace of 40 tons and line 650 has two furnaces of 20 and 40 tons capacity due to which the mean of the RPM concentrations in the breathing zone was significantly different ( P < 0.05 in line 650 but not in line 630 as compared with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Hygiene′s (3 mg/m 3 . The average of the RPM concentrations in production line 650 is higher than that of production line 630, with the 95% confidence interval in saw cabin station number 1 of production line 650.

  3. Study of pollution in the El Jadida-Safi Atlantic coastal zone (Morocco) by using PIXE and SSNTD methods

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    International audience; In this work PIXE experiments were performed for measuring heavy and light elements (ranging from aluminium to lead) concentrations inside various polluted and unpolluted soils as well as liquid samples collected from different phosphate factory sewers in the El Jadida-Safi Atlantic coastal region (Morocco). In addition, uranium (238U) and thorium (232Th) contents were evaluated in the same samples studied by using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track det...

  4. Water quality assessment of highly polluted rivers in a semi-arid Mediterranean zone Oued Fez and Sebou River (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, J. L.; Raïs, N.; Chahinian, N.; Moulin, P.; Ijjaali, M.

    2014-03-01

    Oued Fez (one of the Sebou River tributaries - Morocco) allowed us to study and quantify the effect of the lack of wastewater treatment on surface water quality in semi-arid hydrological context. The analysis is based on field data collected from June 2009 to December 2011. Concentration and load patterns of nitrogen, phosphorus and chromium (used in the processing of leather) are compared in stable hydrological conditions during low flow and high flow periods in an eight-location sampling network. The Oued Fez and the Sebou River are characterised by severe pollution downstream from the city of Fez, particularly TN (mainly NH4 and Norg), TP (mainly Ppart) and TCr. The most polluted sites are those directly under the influence of domestic and industrial waste water inputs, particularly tannery effluents. Obviously, the concentrations measured at these locations are above all environmental quality standards. Pollutant loads are very heavy in the Sebou River and can contaminate the river course for kilometres. Moreover, as the water of the Sebou River is used for the irrigation of vegetables, serious problems of public health could arise. A better understanding of contaminant dynamics and self-purifying processes in these rivers will help implement actions and steps aimed at improving water quality in the Sebou River, which is the primary water supply source in Morocco and is used for agricultural and industrials purposes as well as for drinking water.

  5. An assessment of The Effects of Elevation and Aspect on Deposition of Airborne Pollution and Water Quality in an Alpine Critical Zone: San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A.; Giardino, J. R.; Marcantonio, F.

    2015-12-01

    The alpine critical zone is affected by various inputs, storages, pathways, and outputs. Unfortunately, many of these processes distribute the pollutants beyond the immediate area and into the surrounding biological and anthropogenic communities. Years of mining and improper disposal of the tailings and acid-mine drainage have degraded the quality of surface water within the San Juan Mountains. However, mining may not be the only factor significantly affecting the surface water quality in this high-elevation environment. As a high elevation system, this area is a fragile ecosystem with inputs ranging from local mining to atmospheric transport and deposition. Studies from around the world have shown atmospheric transport and deposition affect high-elevation systems. Thus, a significant question arises: does elevation or aspect affect the volume and rate of atmospheric deposition of pollutants? We assume atmospheric deposition occurs on the slopes in addition to in streams, lakes, and ponds. Deposition on slopes can be transported to nearby surface waters and increase the impact of the atmospheric pollutants along with residence time. Atmospheric deposition data were collected for aluminum, iron, manganese, nitrate, phosphate, and sulfate. Water chemistry data were collected for the same constituents as the atmospheric deposition with the addition of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance. Deposition samples were collected on a five-day sampling regime during two summers. Water quality samples were collected in-stream adjacent to the deposition-ample collectors. Collection sites were located on opposite sides of Red Mountain at five equal elevations providing two different aspects. The north side is drained by Red Mountain Creek and the south side is drained by Mineral Creek. Differences in atmospheric deposition and water quality at different elevations and aspects suggest there is a relationship between aspect and elevation on atmospheric

  6. A quantitative analysis of microplastic pollution along the south-eastern coastline of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, H A; Froneman, P W

    2015-12-15

    The extent of microplastic pollution (coastline of South Africa, looking at whether bays are characterised by higher microplastic densities than open stretches of coastline in both beach sediment and surf-zone water. Microplastic (mean ± standard error) densities in the beach sediment ranged between 688.9 ± 348.2 and 3308 ± 1449 particles · m(-2), while those in the water column varied between 257.9 ± 53.36 and 1215 ± 276.7 particles · m(-3). With few exceptions there were no significant spatial patterns in either the sediment or water column microplastic densities; with little differences in density between bays and the open coast (P>0.05). These data indicate that the presence of microplastics were not associated with proximity to land-based sources or population density, but rather is governed by water circulation.

  7. EFFECTS OF THE CONSTRUCTION OF IRRIGATION RESERVOIRS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF POLLUTANTS IN ESTUARINE ZONES OF SMALL MEDITERRANEAN RIVERS. THE CASE OF SPERCHIOS RIVER, GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manos Dassenakis

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sperchios is a small river in central Greece and although its estuary has been characterised as an Important Bird Area and is included in the European network “NATURA 2000”, it is very poorly managed from an environmental point of view. The Sperchios basin is one of the most important agricultural regions in Greece but it is influenced also by industrial and urban pollution. An earthen dyke is erected b every summer about 2km upstream from the river mouth in order to collect the river water for irrigation purposes. The change in the site of the intermixing zone due to this fact affects the salinity of the water and the amount of suspended matter as well as the chemical behaviour and partitioning of both heavy metals and nutrients. The suspended matter was found to be the major carrier for most metals e.g. lead, zinc, copper whereas phosphorus was the limiting factor for the phytoplankton growth.

  8. Study of pollution in the El Jadida-Safi Atlantic coastal zone (Morocco) by using PIXE and SSNTD methods

    CERN Document Server

    Erramli, H; Misdaq, M A; Sauvage, T; Ramboz, Claire

    2008-01-01

    In this work PIXE experiments were performed for measuring heavy and light elements (ranging from aluminium to lead) concentrations inside various polluted and unpolluted soils as well as liquid samples collected from different phosphate factory sewers in the El Jadida-Safi Atlantic coastal region (Morocco). In addition, uranium (238U) and thorium (232Th) contents were evaluated in the same samples studied by using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The influence of the phosphate industry wastes on the concentrations of both radioactive and non-radioactive elements of the samples studied was investigated.

  9. Study of pollution in the El Jadida-Safi Atlantic coastal zone (Morocco) by using PIXE and SSNTD methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erramli, H; Gogon, H D; Misdaq, M A; Sauvage, T; Ramboz, C

    2008-08-01

    In this work, PIXE experiments were performed for measuring heavy and light elements' (ranging from aluminium to lead) concentrations inside various polluted and unpolluted soils as well as liquid samples collected from different phosphate factory sewers in the El Jadida-Safi Atlantic coastal region (Morocco). In addition, uranium ((238)U) and thorium ((232)Th) contents were evaluated in the same samples studied by using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The influence of the phosphate industry wastes on the concentrations of both radioactive and non-radioactive elements of the samples studied was investigated.

  10. Aerosol pollution in urban and industrialized area under marine influence: physical-chemistry of particles; Les aerosols de pollution en zone urbaine et industrielle sous influence marine: physico-chimie des particules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimetz, J

    2007-12-15

    Harbors for trade are known as highly urbanized and industrialized areas with important maritime, railway and road traffic. Industries are mainly represented by steel, cement works, and oil refineries. The maritime sector is becoming an even larger source of air pollution. Atmospheric NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3} levels and chemical analysis of airborne particulate matter were monitored in Dunkerque conurbation in 2005 and 2006. This study was included in the IRENI program. In low-pressure conditions, local pollutants are spread out far away the agglomeration, whereas, in high-pressure regimes, the atmospheric stability and sea-breezes allow an accumulation of pollutants over the urban zone. Size-resolved chemical analyses of particulate matter collected as function of the aerodynamic diameter (D{sub a}) were performed. Ions (Na{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd,...) and organic fraction (EC, OC) are associated with sub- or/and super-micron particles. The size, morphology and chemical species of individual particles collected selectively in the 12O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, PbO,... containing particles emitted in the Dunkerque harbour area and aged sea-salt aerosol particles (NaCl, NaNO{sub 3},...) from long range transport of air masses. Thin organic coatings from natural and anthropogenic origin are observed on the particles by ToF-SIMS imaging. (author)

  11. Region Duplication Forgery Detection Technique Based on SURF and HAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Region duplication forgery detection is a special type of forgery detection approach and widely used research topic under digital image forensics. In copy move forgery, a specific area is copied and then pasted into any other region of the image. Due to the availability of sophisticated image processing tools, it becomes very hard to detect forgery with naked eyes. From the forged region of an image no visual clues are often detected. For making the tampering more robust, various transformations like scaling, rotation, illumination changes, JPEG compression, noise addition, gamma correction, and blurring are applied. So there is a need for a method which performs efficiently in the presence of all such attacks. This paper presents a detection method based on speeded up robust features (SURF and hierarchical agglomerative clustering (HAC. SURF detects the keypoints and their corresponding features. From these sets of keypoints, grouping is performed on the matched keypoints by HAC that shows copied and pasted regions.

  12. SURF IA Conflict Detection and Resolution Algorithm Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Denise R.; Chartrand, Ryan C.; Wilson, Sara R.; Commo, Sean A.; Barker, Glover D.

    2012-01-01

    The Enhanced Traffic Situational Awareness on the Airport Surface with Indications and Alerts (SURF IA) algorithm was evaluated in a fast-time batch simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. SURF IA is designed to increase flight crew situation awareness of the runway environment and facilitate an appropriate and timely response to potential conflict situations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance of the SURF IA algorithm under various runway scenarios, multiple levels of conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) system equipage, and various levels of horizontal position accuracy. This paper gives an overview of the SURF IA concept, simulation study, and results. Runway incursions are a serious aviation safety hazard. As such, the FAA is committed to reducing the severity, number, and rate of runway incursions by implementing a combination of guidance, education, outreach, training, technology, infrastructure, and risk identification and mitigation initiatives [1]. Progress has been made in reducing the number of serious incursions - from a high of 67 in Fiscal Year (FY) 2000 to 6 in FY2010. However, the rate of all incursions has risen steadily over recent years - from a rate of 12.3 incursions per million operations in FY2005 to a rate of 18.9 incursions per million operations in FY2010 [1, 2]. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) also considers runway incursions to be a serious aviation safety hazard, listing runway incursion prevention as one of their most wanted transportation safety improvements [3]. The NTSB recommends that immediate warning of probable collisions/incursions be given directly to flight crews in the cockpit [4].

  13. Stern-Gerlach surfing in laser wakefield accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Flood, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effects of a Stern-Gerlach-type addition to the Lorentz force on electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator. The Stern-Gerlach-type terms are found to generate a family of trajectories describing electrons that surf along the plasma density wave driven by a laser pulse. Such trajectories could lead to an increase in the size of an electron bunch, which may have implications for attempts to exploit such bunches in future free electron lasers.

  14. Stern-Gerlach surfing in laser wakefield accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Stephen P.; Burton, David A.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the effects of a Stern-Gerlach-type addition to the Lorentz force on electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator. The Stern-Gerlach-type terms are found to generate a family of trajectories describing electrons that 'surf' along the plasma density wave driven by a laser pulse. Such trajectories could lead to an increase in the size of an electron bunch, which may have implications for attempts to exploit such bunches in future free electron lasers.

  15. Las alteraciones posturales en miembros inferiores en el surf

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cuando el equilibrio neuromuscular no es óptimo durante la práctica de un deporte, es posible que, a largo plazo, aparezcan trastornos posturales que, dependiendo del tiempo de entrenamiento, pueden convertirse en un obstáculo para la salud. Es por esto, que mediante esta investigación he pretendido mostrar las alteraciones posturales que el surf puede llegar a provocar en quienes lo practican. Objetivo: Analizar las alteraciones posturales en los miembros inferiores de surfist...

  16. Nitrate pollution from agriculture in different hydrogeological zones of the regional groundwater flow system in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianyao; Tang, Changyuan; Sakura, Yasuo; Yu, Jingjie; Fukushima, Yoshihiro

    2005-06-01

    A survey of the quality of groundwater across a broad area of the North China Plain, undertaken in 1998 to 2000, indicates that nitrate pollution is a serious problem affecting the drinking water for a vast population. The use of nitrogen (N)-fertilizer in agriculture has greatly increased over the past 20 years to meet the food needs of the rapidly expanding population. During the study, 295 water samples were collected from wells and springs to determine the water chemistry and the extent of nitrate pollution. High concentrations of nitrate, especially in a recharge area along the western side, but also in the vicinity of Beijing and locally in other parts of the plain, pose a serious problem for the drinking water supply. In places, the nitrate concentration exceeds the maximum for safe drinking water of 45 mg/L. The intense use of N-fertilizer and the widespread use of untreated groundwater for crop irrigation contribute greatly to the problem, but no doubt the disposal of industrial and municipal waste into streams and infiltrating the aquifer also contribute to the problem; however, the lack of data prevents evaluation of those sources. In the recharge area, nitrate is found at depths of as much as 50 m. Near Beijing, relatively high concentrations of nitrate occur at depths of as much as 80 m. In the discharge area, in the vicinity of the Yellow River, high concentrations of nitrate occur at depths of <8 m.

  17. Distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPS) IN wild Bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) from different FAO capture zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, L M; Labella, G F; Panseri, S; Pavlovic, R; Bonacci, S; Arioli, F

    2016-06-01

    Residues of environmental contaminants in food represent a concern in food safety programs. In this study, the distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were evaluated in 79 tuna samples from FAO areas 51 (Indian Ocean), 71 (Pacific Ocean), 34 (Atlantic Ocean), and 37 (Mediterranean Sea). 6 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 16 organochlorines (OCs) and 7 polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were selected as representative compounds according to EFSA POPs monitoring guidelines. An analytical method, based on Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE), with an "in-line" clean-up step and GC-MS/MS detection, was developed, validated and applied. PCBs were detected in all FAO areas, with a prevalence of 100% for most of them. In the FAO area 37, only, all PBDEs were detected. Only 5 OCs were detected. The results showed that POPs contamination of tuna reflects FAO area contamination; in particular FAO area 37 was the most polluted. Moreover, tuna muscle was an appropriate matrix for monitoring contamination and for obtaining information about food safety.

  18. The level of air pollution in the impact zone of coal-fired power plant (Karaganda City) using the data of geochemical snow survey (Republic of Kazakhstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil'bayeva, T. E.; Talovskaya, A. V.; Yazikov, Ye G.; Matveenko, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Coal-fired power plants emissions impact the air quality and human health. Of great significance is assessment of solid airborne particles emissions from those plants and distance of their transportation. The article presents the results of air pollution assessment in the zone of coal-fired power plant (Karaganda City) using snow survey. Based on the mass of solid airborne particles deposited in snow, time of their deposition on snow at the distance from 0.5 to 4.5 km a value of dust load has been determined. It is stated that very high level of pollution is observed at the distance from 0.5 to 1 km. there is a trend in decrease of dust burden value with the distance from the stacks of coal-fired power plant that may be conditioned by the particle size and washing out smaller ash particles by ice pellets forming at freezing water vapour in stacks of the coal-fired power plant. Study in composition of solid airborne particles deposited in snow has shown that they mainly contain particulates of underburnt coal, Al-Si- rich spheres, Fe-rich spheres, and coal dust. The content of the particles in samples decreases with the distance from the stacks of the coal-fired power plant.

  19. The bovine tuberculosis burden in cattle herds in zones with low dose radiation pollution in the Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, Richard E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skrypnyk, Artem [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zavgorodniy, Andriy [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stegniy, Borys [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gerilovych, Anton [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kutsan, Oleksandr [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pozmogova, Svitlana [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sapko, Svitlana [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The authors describe a study of the tuberculosis (TB) incidence in cattle exposed to low doses of radiation resulting from the Chernobyl (pronounced ‘Chornobyl’ in Ukrainian) nuclear plant catastrophe in 1986. The purpose of the study was to determine if ionising radiation influences the number of outbreaks of bovine TB and their severity on farms in the Kyiv, Cherkasy and Chernigiv regions of the Ukraine. These farms are all located within a 200 km radius of Chernobyl and have had low-dose radiation pollution. Pathological and blood samples were taken from cattle in those regions that had positive TB skin tests. Mycobacterium spp. were isolated, differentiated by PCR, analysed and tested in guinea pigs and rabbits. Species differentiation showed a significant percentage of atypical mycobacteria, which resulted in the allergic reactions to tuberculin antigen in the skin test. Mixed infection of M. bovis and M. avium subsp. hominissuis was found in three cases. The results concluded that low-dose radiation plays a major role in the occurrence of bovine TB in regions affected by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster.

  20. Tissue- and species-specific differences in cytochrome c oxidase assembly induced by SURF1 defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovářová, Nikola; Pecina, Petr; Nůsková, Hana; Vrbacký, Marek; Zeviani, Massimo; Mráček, Tomáš; Viscomi, Carlo; Houštěk, Josef

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondrial protein SURF1 is a specific assembly factor of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), but its function is poorly understood. SURF1 gene mutations cause a severe COX deficiency manifesting as the Leigh syndrome in humans, whereas in mice SURF1(-/-) knockout leads only to a mild COX defect. We used SURF1(-/-) mouse model for detailed analysis of disturbed COX assembly and COX ability to incorporate into respiratory supercomplexes (SCs) in different tissues and fibroblasts. Furthermore, we compared fibroblasts from SURF1(-/-) mouse and SURF1 patients to reveal interspecies differences in kinetics of COX biogenesis using 2D electrophoresis, immunodetection, arrest of mitochondrial proteosynthesis and pulse-chase metabolic labeling. The crucial differences observed are an accumulation of abundant COX1 assembly intermediates, low content of COX monomer and preferential recruitment of COX into I-III2-IVn SCs in SURF1 patient fibroblasts, whereas SURF1(-/-) mouse fibroblasts were characterized by low content of COX1 assembly intermediates and milder decrease in COX monomer, which appeared more stable. This pattern was even less pronounced in SURF1(-/-) mouse liver and brain. Both the control and SURF1(-/-) mice revealed only negligible formation of the I-III2-IVn SCs and marked tissue differences in the contents of COX dimer and III2-IV SCs, also less noticeable in liver and brain than in heart and muscle. Our studies support the view that COX assembly is much more dependent on SURF1 in humans than in mice. We also demonstrate markedly lower ability of mouse COX to form I-III2-IVn supercomplexes, pointing to tissue-specific and species-specific differences in COX biogenesis.

  1. Impact of the Internet surfing on reading practices and choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayaz Ahmad Loan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reading in the 21st century networked society is no longer confined to the print reading. The scope of the reading has extended to the Internet sources that changed the traditional reading culture of the readers. The present study was conducted to identify the impact of the Internet surfing on reading practices and choices of the net generation college students. The survey method was applied to conduct the study and a questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. A sample of 676 students was selected from different strata based on gender, region and faculty in the degree colleges of the Kashmir region, Jammu and Kashmir state, India. In the sample size only 302 confirmed themselves as the e-readers and their responses were analyzed. Results reveal that the reading behavior of the online readers is in transition as the Internet surfing has increased non-sequential reading, interactive reading, superficial reading, and extensive reading and at the same rates is responsible for decreasing concentrated and in-depth reading. Plus, the Internet surfing has increased reading of the news & views, general knowledge, selected fields, sexual content, spiritual/religious text and has decreased reading of literature. To validate the results, the findings were correlated with earlier studies and hypotheses were formed and tested using the Chi-square test. However, the students have not experienced any electronic reading device like kindle (of Amazon or iPod (of Apple during browsing the electronic sources and it could be the future area of research.

  2. Ribosomal protein L7a is encoded by a gene (Surf-3) within the tightly clustered mouse surfeit locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallongo, A; Yon, J; Fried, M

    1989-01-01

    The mouse Surfeit locus, which contains a cluster of at least four genes (Surf-1 to Surf-4), is unusual in that adjacent genes are separated by no more than 73 base pairs (bp). The heterogeneous 5' ends of Surf-1 and Surf-2 are separated by only 15 to 73 bp, the 3' ends of Surf-1 and Surf-3 are only 70 bp apart, and the 3' ends of Surf-2 and Surf-4 overlap by 133 bp. This very tight clustering suggests a cis interaction between adjacent Surfeit genes. The Surf-3 gene (which could code for a basic polypeptide of 266 amino acids) is a highly expressed member of a pseudogene-containing multigene family. By use of an anti-peptide serum (against the C-terminal nine amino acids of the putative Surf-3 protein) for immunofluorescence and immunoblotting of mouse cell components and by in vitro translation of Surf-3 cDNA hybrid-selected mRNA, the Surf-3 gene product was identified as a 32-kilodalton ribosomal protein located in the 60S ribosomal subunit. From its subunit location, gel migration, and homology with a limited rat ribosomal peptide sequence, the Surf-3 gene was shown to encode the mouse L7a ribosomal protein. The Surf-3 gene is highly conserved through evolution and was detected by nucleic acid hybridization as existing in multiple copies (multigene families) in other mammals and as one or a few copies in birds, Xenopus, Drosophila, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The Surf-3 C-terminal anti-peptide serum detects a 32-kilodalton protein in other mammals, birds, and Xenopus but not in Drosophila and S. pombe. The possible effect of interaction of the Surf-3 ribosomal protein gene with adjacent genes in the Surfeit locus at the transcriptional or posttranscriptional level or both levels is discussed. Images PMID:2648130

  3. Image Retrieval Method Using Top-surf Descriptor

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Ye

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the results and details of a content-based image retrieval project using the Top-surf descriptor. The experimental results are preliminary, however, it shows the capability of deducing objects from parts of the objects or from the objects that are similar. This paper uses a dataset consisting of 1200 images of which 800 images are equally divided into 8 categories, namely airplane, beach, motorbike, forest, elephants, horses, bus and building, while the other 400 images are randomly picked from the Internet. The best results achieved are from building category.

  4. Electron surfing acceleration in a current sheet of flares

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A model of electron acceleration in a current sheet of flares is studied by the analytical approximation solution and the test particle simulation. The electron can be trapped in a potential of propagating electrostatic wave. The trapped electron moving with the phase velocity vp of wave may be effectively accelerated by evc p× Bz force along the outflow direction in the current sheet, if a criterion condition K > 0 for electron surfing acceleration is satisfied. The electron will be accelerated continuously until the electron detrap from the wave potential at the turning point S.

  5. Social Networking Sites' Influence on Travelers' Authentic Experience a Case Study of Couch Surfing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    This study explored travelers' experiences in the era of network hospitality 2.0 using CouchSurfing.org as a case study. The following research questions guided this study: 1) what experience does CouchSurfing create for travelers before, during and after their travel? 2) how does couch surfers' experience relate to authenticity in context of…

  6. E-based Humanities and E-humanities on a SURF platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kircz, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    As of 2003, SURF enables three platforms: ICT and Research, Education, and Organisation. Within these programmes, SURF has funds available to promote ICT innovations. Innovation is not an easy notion to explain. Too often we encounter new wine in old bottles and changes in vocabulary frequently cove

  7. Learning and Identity in Overlapping Communities of Practice: Surf Club, School and Sports Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Richard; Nash, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    Large numbers of children and young people spend their weekends and holidays engaged in the activities of over 300 surf clubs across Australia each summer. Long term membership in these clubs, beginning from as young as five years of age, forms a significant part of children's and young people's development yet surf clubs have yet to receive…

  8. Information surfing with the JHU/APL coherent imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratto, Christopher R.; Shipley, Kara R.; Beagley, Nathaniel; Wolfe, Kevin C.

    2015-05-01

    The ability to perform remote forensics in situ is an important application of autonomous undersea vehicles (AUVs). Forensics objectives may include remediation of mines and/or unexploded ordnance, as well as monitoring of seafloor infrastructure. At JHU/APL, digital holography is being explored for the potential application to underwater imaging and integration with an AUV. In previous work, a feature-based approach was developed for processing the holographic imagery and performing object recognition. In this work, the results of the image processing method were incorporated into a Bayesian framework for autonomous path planning referred to as information surfing. The framework was derived assuming that the location of the object of interest is known a priori, but the type of object and its pose are unknown. The path-planning algorithm adaptively modifies the trajectory of the sensing platform based on historical performance of object and pose classification. The algorithm is called information surfing because the direction of motion is governed by the local information gradient. Simulation experiments were carried out using holographic imagery collected from submerged objects. The autonomous sensing algorithm was compared to a deterministic sensing CONOPS, and demonstrated improved accuracy and faster convergence in several cases.

  9. Repensar la comunicación institucional: las diez reglas del surf / Rethinking institutional communication: the ten rules of surfing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Apolo Buenaño

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo se presenta un análisis desde distintas concepciones de la comunicación estratégica, en donde además de vincular aspectos centrales y tensiones que enfrentan las organizaciones en la actualidad, se ofrecen acercamientos teóricos y prácticos que contribuyan a repensar la manera que en se desarrolla la comunicación en las instituciones. En el trabajo se vincula el deporte del surf y sus reglas como eje que permite realizar comparaciones que aporten al abordaje de la comunicación desde perspectivas que buscan la confluencia entre intereses institucionales y de los actores que intervienen en el proceso mediante la investigación del entorno, el respeto a las prácticas sociales y la colaboración como base para la consecución de los objetivos conjuntos. Abstract This article presents an analysis from different conceptions of strategic communication, which in addition to linking central aspects and tensions developed by organizations today, theoretical and practical approaches are offered and contribute to rethink the way that the communication is developed in institutions. In this work the sport of surfing and its rules are vinculated as the axis that allows comparisons to contribute to addressing communication from perspectives seeking convergence between institutional interests and actors involved in the process investigating the environment, the respect to social practices and collaboration as the basis for achieving the common goals.

  10. Effects of Air Pollution and the Introduction of the London Low Emission Zone on the Prevalence of Respiratory and Allergic Symptoms in Schoolchildren in East London: A Sequential Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen E Wood

    Full Text Available The adverse effects of traffic-related air pollution on children's respiratory health have been widely reported, but few studies have evaluated the impact of traffic-control policies designed to reduce urban air pollution. We assessed associations between traffic-related air pollutants and respiratory/allergic symptoms amongst 8-9 year-old schoolchildren living within the London Low Emission Zone (LEZ. Information on respiratory/allergic symptoms was obtained using a parent-completed questionnaire and linked to modelled annual air pollutant concentrations based on the residential address of each child, using a multivariable mixed effects logistic regression analysis. Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants was associated with current rhinitis: NOx (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02, NO2 (1.03, 1.00-1.06, PM10 (1.16, 1.04-1.28 and PM2.5 (1.38, 1.08-1.78, all per μg/m3 of pollutant, but not with other respiratory/allergic symptoms. The LEZ did not reduce ambient air pollution levels, or affect the prevalence of respiratory/allergic symptoms over the period studied. These data confirm the previous association between traffic-related air pollutant exposures and symptoms of current rhinitis. Importantly, the London LEZ has not significantly improved air quality within the city, or the respiratory health of the resident population in its first three years of operation. This highlights the need for more robust measures to reduce traffic emissions.

  11. Detection of Region Duplication Forgery in Digital Images Using SURF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B L Shivakumar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An Image would yield better impact in convincing someone of something rather than pure description by words. Digital images are widely used in various fields like medical imaging, journalism, scientific manipulations and digital forensics. However, images are not reliable as it may be. Digital images can be easily tampered with image editing tools. One of the major problems in image forensics is determining if a particular image is authentic or not. Digital image forensic is an emerging field of image processing area. Copy-move forgery is one type of image forgery in digital image forensic where various methods have been proposed in the field to detect the forgery. In this paper a technique is presented to detect Copy-Move Forgery based on SURF and KD-Tree for multidimensional data matching. We demonstrate our method with high resolution images affected by copy-move forgery.

  12. SurfCut: Free-Boundary Surface Extraction

    KAUST Repository

    Algarni, Marei

    2016-09-15

    We present SurfCut, an algorithm for extracting a smooth simple surface with unknown boundary from a noisy 3D image and a seed point. In contrast to existing approaches that extract smooth simple surfaces with boundary, our method requires less user input, i.e., a seed point, rather than a 3D boundary curve. Our method is built on the novel observation that certain ridge curves of a front propagated using the Fast Marching algorithm are likely to lie on the surface. Using the framework of cubical complexes, we design a novel algorithm to robustly extract such ridge curves and form the surface of interest. Our algorithm automatically cuts these ridge curves to form the surface boundary, and then extracts the surface. Experiments show the robustness of our method to errors in the data, and that we achieve higher accuracy with lower computational cost than comparable methods. © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

  13. Military personnel recognition system using texture, colour, and SURF features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irhebhude, Martins E.; Edirisinghe, Eran A.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents an automatic, machine vision based, military personnel identification and classification system. Classification is done using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) on sets of Army, Air Force and Navy camouflage uniform personnel datasets. In the proposed system, the arm of service of personnel is recognised by the camouflage of a persons uniform, type of cap and the type of badge/logo. The detailed analysis done include; camouflage cap and plain cap differentiation using gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) texture feature; classification on Army, Air Force and Navy camouflaged uniforms using GLCM texture and colour histogram bin features; plain cap badge classification into Army, Air Force and Navy using Speed Up Robust Feature (SURF). The proposed method recognised camouflage personnel arm of service on sets of data retrieved from google images and selected military websites. Correlation-based Feature Selection (CFS) was used to improve recognition and reduce dimensionality, thereby speeding the classification process. With this method success rates recorded during the analysis include 93.8% for camouflage appearance category, 100%, 90% and 100% rates of plain cap and camouflage cap categories for Army, Air Force and Navy categories, respectively. Accurate recognition was recorded using SURF for the plain cap badge category. Substantial analysis has been carried out and results prove that the proposed method can correctly classify military personnel into various arms of service. We show that the proposed method can be integrated into a face recognition system, which will recognise personnel in addition to determining the arm of service which the personnel belong. Such a system can be used to enhance the security of a military base or facility.

  14. Surfing through Hyperspace - Understanding Higher Universes in Six Easy Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickover, Clifford A.

    2001-05-01

    Do a little armchair time-travel, rub elbows with a four-dimensional intelligent life form, or stretch your mind to the furthest corner of an uncharted universe. With this astonishing guidebook, Surfing Through Hyperspace , you need not be a mathematician or an astrophysicist to explore the all-but-unfathomable concepts of hyperspace and higher-dimensional geometry.No subject in mathematics has intrigued both children and adults as much as the idea of a fourth dimension. Philosophers and parapsychologists have meditated on this mysterious space that no one can point to but may be all around us. Yet this extra dimension has a very real, practical value to mathematicians and physicists who use it every day in their calculations. In the tradition of Flatland , and with an infectious enthusiasm, Clifford Pickover tackles the problems inherent in our 3-D brains trying to visualize a 4-D world, muses on the religious implications of the existence of higher-dimensional consciousness, and urges all curious readers to venture into "the unexplored territory lying beyond the prison of the obvious." Pickover alternates sections that explain the science of hyperspace with sections that dramatize mind-expanding concepts through a fictional dialogue between two futuristic FBI agents who dabble in the fourth dimension as a matter of national security. This highly accessible and entertaining approach turns an intimidating subject into a scientific game open to all dreamers.Surfing Through Hyperspace concludes with a number of puzzles, computer experiments and formulas for further exploration, inviting readers to extend their minds across this inexhaustibly intriguing scientific terrain.

  15. Evaluation of a 3% surf solution (surf field mastitis test) for the diagnosis of subclinical bovine and bubaline mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Ghulam; Naureen, Abeera; Asi, Muhammad Nadeem; Saqib, Muhammad; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate a 3% solution of household detergent viz., Surf Excel (Surf field mastitis test, SFMT) vis-à-vis California mastitis test (CMT), Whiteside test (WST), somatic cell counts (SCC; cut off limit = 5 x 10(5) cells per millilitre) and bacteriological cultures for the detection of subclinical mastitis in quarter foremilk samples (n=800) of dairy cows and buffaloes. Culture and SCC were used as gold standards. All tests were evaluated parallel and serial patterns. The sensitivities of SFMT, SCC, culture, CMT and WST in parallel testing were 72.82, 81.55, 87.38, 75.73 and 54.37%, respectively in cows, while 66.22, 79.73, 82.43, 70.27 and 50.00, respectively in buffaloes. SFMT was significantly (pCMT in both species. In serial testing, percent specificity of SFMT (87.12 in cow; 85.16 in buffaloes) was significantly (PCMT (83.33 in cow; 80.64 in buffaloes). The negative predictive values of SFMT (93.50 in cow; 96.35 in buffaloes) differed non-significantly from that of CMT (94.02 in cow; 96.15 in buffaloes). The kappa index between the tests was moderate to perfect both in parallel (0.54 to >0.80) and serial (0.58 to >0.8) testing. On the basis of closely similar diagnostic efficiency of SFMT to CMT in terms of sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and kappa index together with inexpensive and ready availability of SFMT reagent, it tempting to suggest that SFMT can be use as a cheaper, user-friendly alternative animal-side subclinical mastitis diagnostic test in poor countries.

  16. SURF imaging beams in an aberrative medium: generation and post-processing enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Nasholm, Sven Peter; 10.1109/TUFFC.2012.2494

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents numerical simulations of dual-frequency second-order ultrasound field (SURF) reverberation suppression transmit-pulse complexes. Such propagation was previously studied in a homogeneous medium. Here instead the propagation path includes a strongly aberrating body-wall modeled by a sequence of delay-screens. The applied SURF transmit pulse complexes each consist of a high-frequency imaging 3.5 MHz pulse combined with a low-frequency 0.5 MHz sound speed manipulation pulse. Furthermore, the feasibility of two signal post-processing methods are investigated using the aberrated transmit SURF beams. These methods are previously shown to adjust the depth of maximum SURF reverberation suppression within a homogeneous medium. The request of the study arises because imaging situations where reverberation suppression is useful are also likely to produce pulse wave-front distortion (aberration). Such distortions could potentially produce time-delays that cancel the accumulated propagation time-delay n...

  17. The rate of beneficial mutations surfing on the wave of a range expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Lehe

    Full Text Available Many theoretical and experimental studies suggest that range expansions can have severe consequences for the gene pool of the expanding population. Due to strongly enhanced genetic drift at the advancing frontier, neutral and weakly deleterious mutations can reach large frequencies in the newly colonized regions, as if they were surfing the front of the range expansion. These findings raise the question of how frequently beneficial mutations successfully surf at shifting range margins, thereby promoting adaptation towards a range-expansion phenotype. Here, we use individual-based simulations to study the surfing statistics of recurrent beneficial mutations on wave-like range expansions in linear habitats. We show that the rate of surfing depends on two strongly antagonistic factors, the probability of surfing given the spatial location of a novel mutation and the rate of occurrence of mutations at that location. The surfing probability strongly increases towards the tip of the wave. Novel mutations are unlikely to surf unless they enjoy a spatial head start compared to the bulk of the population. The needed head start is shown to be proportional to the inverse fitness of the mutant type, and only weakly dependent on the carrying capacity. The precise location dependence of surfing probabilities is derived from the non-extinction probability of a branching process within a moving field of growth rates. The second factor is the mutation occurrence which strongly decreases towards the tip of the wave. Thus, most successful mutations arise at an intermediate position in the front of the wave. We present an analytic theory for the tradeoff between these factors that allows to predict how frequently substitutions by beneficial mutations occur at invasion fronts. We find that small amounts of genetic drift increase the fixation rate of beneficial mutations at the advancing front, and thus could be important for adaptation during species invasions.

  18. The rate of beneficial mutations surfing on the wave of a range expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehe, Rémi; Hallatschek, Oskar; Peliti, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Many theoretical and experimental studies suggest that range expansions can have severe consequences for the gene pool of the expanding population. Due to strongly enhanced genetic drift at the advancing frontier, neutral and weakly deleterious mutations can reach large frequencies in the newly colonized regions, as if they were surfing the front of the range expansion. These findings raise the question of how frequently beneficial mutations successfully surf at shifting range margins, thereby promoting adaptation towards a range-expansion phenotype. Here, we use individual-based simulations to study the surfing statistics of recurrent beneficial mutations on wave-like range expansions in linear habitats. We show that the rate of surfing depends on two strongly antagonistic factors, the probability of surfing given the spatial location of a novel mutation and the rate of occurrence of mutations at that location. The surfing probability strongly increases towards the tip of the wave. Novel mutations are unlikely to surf unless they enjoy a spatial head start compared to the bulk of the population. The needed head start is shown to be proportional to the inverse fitness of the mutant type, and only weakly dependent on the carrying capacity. The precise location dependence of surfing probabilities is derived from the non-extinction probability of a branching process within a moving field of growth rates. The second factor is the mutation occurrence which strongly decreases towards the tip of the wave. Thus, most successful mutations arise at an intermediate position in the front of the wave. We present an analytic theory for the tradeoff between these factors that allows to predict how frequently substitutions by beneficial mutations occur at invasion fronts. We find that small amounts of genetic drift increase the fixation rate of beneficial mutations at the advancing front, and thus could be important for adaptation during species invasions.

  19. 淄博化工园区大气有机污染应急监测与管理对策%Research on Emergency Monitoring and Solutions for Air Organic Pollution in Zibo Chemical Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖洋; 王新娟

    2014-01-01

    针对工业聚集区内多种恶臭混杂的情况,以淄博化工园区为例,研究了大气有机污染突发事件中有机物的应急监测方法,并提出了治理对策。利用便携式气相色谱-质谱联用仪,对重点企业事先监测,掌握各企业特征污染物,作为应急监测查找污染源头的依据;现场分析受污染空气中的化合物组成及浓度,通过查询、比对各企业特征污染物,确认责任排污企业。提出了末端监测处罚治理与对重点污染企业推行清洁生产相结合,应急监测与有机污染物在线监测相结合,建立企业污染源特征组分数据库,加强企业无组织排放监测与监管等治理大气有机污染的建议。%For a variety of mixed stench in one chemical industrial zone of Zibo city, the monitoring method for the organic compounds causing air organic pollution in polluted air was studied, and the corresponding solu-tions were also proposed.After the prior monitoring of key companies using portable GC-MS, the characterized pollutants for each company were mastered as the important basis for finding the pollution sources in emergency monitoring.The on-site determination of composition and concentration of the organic compounds in polluted air was carried out, and then the responsible polluters were confirmed by checking for the company characteristic pollutants.Finally, several suggestions were proposed including the combination of the monitoring sanctions con-trol and implementation of clean production to key polluting companies, the combination of emergency monitoring and online monitoring of organic pollutants, the establishment of corporate pollution characteristic component da-tabase, as well as the reinforced environmental monitoring and supervision of the unorganized emissions.

  20. Evaluation of sanitary impact of the urban air pollution. Avignon area impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Zone d'Avignon impact a court et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    An health impact assessment of air pollution based on the I.n.V.S. guidelines has been conducted in Avignon according to the Regional Plan for the quality of air in the region of Provence Alpes Cote d'Azur. Short term impact of atmospheric pollution has been estimated in term of mortality (total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and hospital admissions (for respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiac reasons) attributable to air pollution. Long-term impact was also assessed by the number of deaths due to atmospheric pollution. The study has been carried out in seven cities homogeneously exposed belonging to Vaucluse (Avignon, Le Pontet, Morieres les Avignon, Sorgues and Vedene) and two cities of the Gard department (les Angles and Villeneuve les Avignon) representing a study population of 153,624 inhabitants. Two period of study have been defined: period 1999-2000 for short and long term evaluations on the mortality and the year 2001 for the morbidity analysis. This study rests on methodological principles of E.I.S. (evaluation of sanitary impact) of urban air pollution whom methodology is in four steps: identification of dangers, exposure estimation, choice of exposure-risk relationship and risk characterisation. The pollutions indicators are built from four pollutants nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide and PM{sub 10}. The exposure-risk relationships used come from epidemiological studies realised in general population, by preferring the multi centers studies and European ones. The number of deaths by year due to air pollution is 23, whom 10 by cardiovascular diseases, 2 by respiratory diseases. The most efficient scenario are these ones corresponding to air pollution decreases of 25% in the considered pollutant. About the long term sanitary benefits, the different scenario show that the European norm forecasted for 2005 is respected. The respect of the European norm expected for 2010 should allow to avoid 10 deaths on the totality of registered

  1. 抚仙湖缓冲带污染负荷分析及治理方案%Pollution Load Analysis and Treatment Programs for Buffer Zones of the Fuxian Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳妮; 施永生; 邓晶晶

    2013-01-01

    This paper described the plateau lake-Fuxian Lake and its buffer zones in Yunnan province,calculated the pollutant production quantity,discharge quantity and the lake inflow quantity of buffer zones,analyzed the main environmental problems and put forward the treatment program.Analysis results showed:rural domestic sewage and agricultural non-point source pollution had become main pollution sources in buffer zones.The lake inflow quantity of COD,TN,TP,and NH3-N were 578.89 t/a,120.61t/a,13.04t/a and 43.64t/a,respectively.On the basis of effective pollution control,natural ecological construction with mainly natural restoration and auxiliary labour should be done.The light pollution water purification engineering around the lake should be built.Environmental benefits were indicated from the aspects of pollution cut and storage,and water purification.The management program of orderly development of local tourism was proposed.%对云南高原湖泊抚仙湖及其缓冲带进行了概述,对缓冲带内污染负荷的产生量、排放量、入湖量进行了计算、分析,总结了主要环境问题,并提出治理方案.结果表明:农村生活污水和农田面源成为缓冲带内主要污染源,污染物入湖量COD为578.89 t/a、TN为120.61 t/a、rTp为13.04 t/a、NH3-N为43.64 t/a.在缓冲带村落污染得到有效控制的基础上,进行自然修复为主、人工为辅的自然缓冲带生态建设,实施环湖低污染水净化工程建设,强调污染截蓄、水质净化等方面的环境效益的最大体现,并提出当地旅游在限制中有序开发的管理方案.

  2. Evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution. Montpellier area impact at short and long term; Evaluation de l'impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine. Zone de Montpellier impact a court et long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The assessment of the health impact of urban atmospheric pollution in Montpellier agglomeration has been carried out as part of the development of atmosphere protection plan. The study, based on the four standardised steps of health risk assessment, has two objectives. First of all, it aims at assessing the short-term impact of atmospheric pollution on mortality (total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and on hospital intakes (for respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiac reasons). Second, the long-term impact is assessed by the number of deaths due to atmospheric pollution. On the other part, the computation of the expected health gain, as a function of different scenarios of atmospheric pollutants reduction, can allow to plan air quality improvement measures. The assessment of atmospheric pollution impact has been carried out in eleven cities, homogeneously exposed, belonging to Montpellier agglomeration (Castelnau-le-Lez, Clapiers, Le Cres, Grabels, Jacou, Juvignac, Montferrier-sur-Lez, Montpellier, Saint-Clement-de-Riviere, Saint- Jean-de-Vedas, Vendargues). It is based on the analysis of mortality figures during two years (1999 and 2000) and of hospital intakes during four years (from 1999 to 2002). The studied population is made up 288.059 inhabitants. Atmospheric pollution indicators analysed are ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and particles having diameter below 10 {mu}m. Every year, the atmospheric pollution is directly responsible in the studied area of 34 anticipated deaths, among including 13 for cardiovascular reason and 4 for respiratory reason. For morbidity, it generates every year 79 hospital admissions for cardiovascular reason, 15 for cardiac reason, 9 for respiratory reason for older than 65 years old people and 4 for 15-64 years old people. Older than 65 years old people are proportionally more impacted. These events could theoretically be avoided with pollution levels in the order of those reached the less polluted days. Health

  3. Face Recognition System based on SURF and LDA Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narpat A. Singh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, Improve the quality in face recognition system is a challenge. It is a challenging problem and widely studied in the different type of imag-es to provide the best quality of faces in real life. These problems come due to illumination and pose effect due to light in gradient features. The improvement and optimization of human face recognition and detection is an important problem in the real life that can be handles to optimize the error rate, accuracy, peak signal to noise ratio, mean square error, and structural similarity Index. Now-a-days, there several methods are proposed to recognition face in different problem to optimize above parameters. There occur many invariant changes in hu-man faces due to the illumination and pose variations. In this paper we proposed a novel method in face recogni-tion to improve the quality parameters using speed up robust feature and linear discriminant analysis for opti-mize result. SURF is used for feature matching. In this paper, we use linear discriminant analysis for the edge dimensions reduction to live faces from our data-sets. The proposed method shows the better result as compare to the previous result on the basis of comparative analysis because our method show the better quality and better results in live images of face.

  4. Large herbivores surf waves of green-up during spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Jerod A; Monteith, Kevin L; Aikens, Ellen O; Hayes, Matthew M; Hersey, Kent R; Middleton, Arthur D; Oates, Brendan A; Sawyer, Hall; Scurlock, Brandon M; Kauffman, Matthew J

    2016-06-29

    The green wave hypothesis (GWH) states that migrating animals should track or 'surf' high-quality forage at the leading edge of spring green-up. To index such high-quality forage, recent work proposed the instantaneous rate of green-up (IRG), i.e. rate of change in the normalized difference vegetation index over time. Despite this important advancement, no study has tested the assumption that herbivores select habitat patches at peak IRG. We evaluated this assumption using step selection functions parametrized with movement data during the green-up period from two populations each of bighorn sheep, mule deer, elk, moose and bison, totalling 463 individuals monitored 1-3 years from 2004 to 2014. Accounting for variables that typically influence habitat selection for each species, we found seven of 10 populations selected patches exhibiting high IRG-supporting the GWH. Nonetheless, large herbivores selected for the leading edge, trailing edge and crest of the IRG wave, indicating that other mechanisms (e.g. ruminant physiology) or measurement error inherent with satellite data affect selection for IRG. Our evaluation indicates that IRG is a useful tool for linking herbivore movement with plant phenology, paving the way for significant advancements in understanding how animals track resource quality that varies both spatially and temporally.

  5. Surfing through hyperspace understanding higher universes in six easy lessons

    CERN Document Server

    Pickover, Clifford A

    1999-01-01

    Do a little armchair time-travel, rub elbows with a four-dimensional intelligent life form, or stretch your mind to the furthest corner of an uncharted universe. With this astonishing guidebook, Surfing Through Hyperspace, you need not be a mathematician or an astrophysicist to explore the all-but-unfathomable concepts of hyperspace and higher-dimensional geometry. No subject in mathematics has intrigued both children and adults as much as the idea of a fourth dimension. Philosophers and parapsychologists have meditated on this mysterious space that no one can point to but may be all around us. Yet this extra dimension has a very real, practical value to mathematicians and physicists who use it every day in their calculations. In the tradtion of Flatland, and with an infectious enthusiasm, Clifford Pickover tackles the problems inherent in our 3-D brains trying to visualize a 4-D world, muses on the religious implications of the existence of higher-dimensional consciousness, and urges all curious readers to v...

  6. Aerobic capacity and hematological response to exercise: A study on school-going regularly exercising boys in two different air pollution zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulomi Das

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The study findings suggest that air pollution could have negative effects on the hematological profile of boys and longitudinal studies may be carried out for assessing its clinical importance.

  7. Aerosol Production in the Surf Zone and Effects on IR Extinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neele, F. P.; Leeuw, G. de; Eijk, A. M. J. van;

    1998-01-01

    Paper presented at the RTO SET Symposium on E-O Propagation, Signature and System Performance Under Adverse Meteorological Conditions Considering Out-of-Area Operations, held at the Italian Air Force Academy, Naples, Italy, 16-19 March 1998....

  8. Video and Field Observations of Wave Attenuation in a Muddy Surf Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    the Gulf of Mexico . These authors showed that during pre-frontal conditions when wave energy increases, sediment is resuspended, mixed and...shallow shelf, Gulf of Mexico . Continental Shelf Research 26, 2073-2091. Marques, W., 2009. Estudo da dinamica da pluma costeira da Lagoa dos Patos. Phd... Brasil . Pesquisas em Geociencias 20. 18-26. Vinzon, S., Meirelles. S.. Le3o. T.. 2008. Wave generated lutoclines offshore of Cassino Beach. Brazil

  9. A Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Wave-Generated Foam Patterns in the Surf Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-10

    tilted downward in the offshore direction (Nadaoka et al. 1989). Nadaoka et al. (1989) also observed that the ODEs can reach the bottom and are a...150 200 250 300 350 12 (outlined in black in Figure 4). It is necessary to use a search box because the UAV moves slightly with wind gusts. Each...approximately 0.25 to 0.64 meters. The areas are also consistent between the top boxes, which are located farther offshore , and the bottom boxes, which

  10. Software and Support Development for an Environmental Data Buoy System for Predicting Surf-Zone Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-28

    Version ii • ~PROGRAMr BOPRTM C PROGRAM NAME IS B10 :R T, READS DATA FROM MEHOR’ AN’D CHECKS C; ADDRESS AND PU’S DATA INTO 1024-DATA ARRAY C PRINT OUT...next I -99994X 999941M 29:, 0-* Nif WE 1 J>0; to "neqb" 30: "posb": for L1I to 1024; if WE L >0; ’to "pos" 31: next L rL1t104ifWL K;’o"n" 32: "neqb

  11. Importance of Antecedent Beach and Surf-Zone Morphology to Wave Runup Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    tidal dependence in SIG , which instead correlates well with sqrt(HoLo) (r2=0.65, p<ɘ.001). DISCUSSION: The above results are discussed in the...band energy reaching the shoreline, supporting one hypothesis proposed by Guedes et al. (2011). Interestingly, neither Hsig nor SIG correlates with...observed ηR, SIN, and SIG (similar to the approach of Equation 1) and these variables compared with forcing parameters measured at the foreshore (Bf and

  12. The Design and Implementation of a Prototype Surf-Zone Robot for Waterborne Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    developed and tested for mobility in a beachfront environment. Three wheel- designs were tested during fixed pattern tests on grass, concrete and sand. The...part of the internal electronics. To include the connectors in the design, the waterproof cylinder end caps are modified using CNC milling as shown... rubber coating (Plasti-Dip) and a liquid repellent treatment (Rust-Oleum Never Wet–multisurface). An FDM sparse part T5 was coated as depicted in Figure

  13. Design of a Prototype Autonomous Amphibious WHEGS(Trademark) Robot for Surf-Zone Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    screws that are in line with the slotted holes. Once assembled, orthodontic rubber bands are stretched between the fixed screws in the outer shell, and...is received from the user on port 4001. It extracts the information about the required speed and servo position, transmits that directly to the pulse...doesn’t have any errors, it extracts the robots current heading, pitch, and roll information. d. GPS Costatement The GPS costatement is also

  14. Estimating wave energy dissipation in the surf zone using thermal infrared imagery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carini, Roxanne J; Chickadel, C. Chris; Jessup, Andrew T; Thomson, Jim

    2015-01-01

    ...‐resolving model by Duncan (1981). The wave energy dissipation rate estimates show a pattern of increased breaking during low tide over a sand bar, consistent with in situ turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate estimates from fixed...

  15. Surf zone, infragravity wave energy flux, and runup in extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, J. W.; Brodie, K. L.; McNinch, J.; Guza, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    Waves, currents, and sand levels were observed on a 1.4 km-long cross-shore transect extending from the back beach to ~11 m water depth at Agate Beach, Oregon in Fall 2013. Wave runup and water table fluctuations on this low slope (1:80) beach were measured with a cliff-mounted scanning Lidar and buried pressure sensors. Significant wave heights at an offshore buoy in 128m depth ranged from small (0.5m) to extreme (7.5m), with peak periods between 4-22 seconds. Infragravity frequency (nominally 0.01 Hz) horizontal runup excursions exceeded 100m, and infragravity cross-shore velocity exceeded 3 m/s. Cross-shore patterns of infragravity wave energy flux, observed with seven co-located pressure and current meters, indicate 'proto-saturation' of the inner surfzone in extreme conditions. That is, the intensification of incident wave forcing (e.g. higher energy, longer swell) leads to a wider surfzone and an increase in the shoreward infragravity wave energy seaward of the surfzone, but produces more modest increases in flux in the inner surfzone, and in the runup. Nonlinear energy balances, based on the observations, show transfer of energy from sea-swell to infragravity waves, and vice-versa. The infragravity energy balance closes in cases with low energy incident sea-swell. With more energetic incident waves, there is an unexplained inner surfzone energy sink at the lowest IG frequencies (0.004-0.02 Hz). Ongoing work aims to quantify the effect on infragravity energy balances by infragravity wave breaking and bottom friction. Additionally, the estimates may be degraded by contamination with rotational velocities of surfzone eddies. Whatever the dynamical explanation, infragravity wave runup on a low slope beach in high-energy conditions is limited significantly by dissipation. The slow rate of runup increase suggests nascent, or 'proto' saturation. This work was supported by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

  16. The importance of the surf zone for fish and brown shrimp in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teal, L.R.; Keeken, van O.A.

    2011-01-01

    Human activity in the North Sea is increasing, invloving more motorised cargo shipping, and rapidly expanding construction and operation of oil platforms and wind farms. In recent years underwater sand levees or sand suppletion near shore has been performed for coastal protection. The aim of this li

  17. Surf zone dynamics along the south Karnataka Coast between Bhatkal and Ullal, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; SanilKumar, V.; Nayak, B.U.; Raju, N.S.N.

    stronger in June, and relatively low and steady during the rest of the year. Coast between Padubidri and Ullal experienced relatively stronger longshore currents than the coast between Maravanthe and Malpe. Longshore sediment transport rate was relatively...

  18. Infragravity-wave modulation of short-wave celerity in the surf zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tissier, M.; Bonneton, P.; Michallet, H.; Ruessink, B.G.

    2015-01-01

    The cross-shore evolution of individual wave celerity is investigated using two highresolution laboratory experiments on bichromatic waves. Individual waves are tracked during their onshore propagation and their characteristics, including celerity, are estimated. The intrawave variability in celerit

  19. Cross-shore suspended sediment transport in the surf zone: A fieldbased parameterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Black, Kerry; Greenwood, Brian

    2002-01-01

    sediment transport, sediment concentrations, incident waves, undertow, morphodynamics, beach processes......sediment transport, sediment concentrations, incident waves, undertow, morphodynamics, beach processes...

  20. Waves, Currents, and Sediment Transport in the Surf Zone Along Long, Straight Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    bmx + F bwx + F srx + F swmx + F srmx (4.49) τ cby = F bmy + F bwy...F sry + F swmy + F srmy +F bvy (4.50) with F bhpx = −ρgh ∂¯η ∂x (4.51) 119 F bmx = −ρ ∂ ∂x ( aU 2 s + q bx U 0 ) (4.52) F bwx = − ∂ ∂x S xx (4.53) F...shows “mean-current- associated” forcing terms due to the mean current advection, F bmx (thin full line), the interaction of waves and mean currents,

  1. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  2. Polluted online information? Surfing Italian websites dealing with the topic of waste and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orizio, G.; Locatelli, M. K.; Caimi, L.; Gelatti, U.

    2011-10-01

    In the field of health communication, a particularly critical issue is communication to the public of environmental risks, especially on topics for which there is still a high degree of scientific uncertainty regarding risk estimates. One such topic is undoubtedly the impact of waste on people's health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and characteristics of Italian websites dealing with the topic of waste and health. The keywords 'waste' and 'health' were entered in 2010 in the three most commonly used search engines, and the first five pages were analysed. The selected websites were coded according to the content analysis method. For websites of interest we evaluated the 'page rank'. Out of the 150 occurrences analysed, the number of websites found to deal with this subject was only 19, four of which were of an institutional nature. The majority of websites gave a message of increased health risk associated with the three kinds of waste disposal tackled. As regards visibility, only one of the four institutional websites maintained its position on the first page of the three search engines. We found that institutional health websites have low visibility, despite extensive media coverage of waste and health issues in Italy as a result of the Naples case, which was debated globally. This indicates that public health institutions' web strategies are basically unable to meet people's health information requirements, which could strengthen rival health information providers.

  3. Distribution and abundance of copepods in the pollution gradient zones of Bombay Harbour-Thana Creek-Bassein Creek, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, Neelam

    the monsoon months (June-September). Diversity indices (Shannon-Weaver's H' and Margalefs D) were higher in the outer coastal waters than in creek zone indicating lethal or sublethal effects of industrial and domestic waster on the general faunistic...

  4. On the mitigation of surf-riding by adjusting center of buoyancy in design stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Yu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available High-speed vessels are prone to the surf-riding in adverse quartering seas. The possibility of mitigating the surf-riding of the ITTC A2 fishing vessel in the design stage is investigated using the 6-DOF weakly non-linear model developed for surf-riding simulations in quartering seas. The longitudinal position of the ship's center of buoyancy (LCB is chosen as the design parameter. The adjusting of LCB is achieved by changing frame area curves, and hull surfaces are reconstructed accordingly using the Radial Basis Function (RBF. Surf-riding motions in regular following seas for cases with different LCBs and Froude numbers are simulated using the numerical model. Results show that the surf-riding cannot be prevented by the adjusting of LCB. However, it occurs with a higher threshold speed when ship's center of buoyancy (COB is moved towards stem compared to moving towards stern, which is mainly due to the differences on wave resistance caused by the adjusting of LCB.

  5. KARAKTERISTIK, MOTIVASI DAN NIAT WISATAWAN SURFING DI PANTAI KECAMATAN KUTA UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Windy Pramita

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Black sandy beach tourist attraction of Kuta Northen region that is Batu Bolong beach and Batu Mejan beach which has potential a beautifull oncean, sunset, sunbathing and surfingthe purpose of this study was to determinethe characteristics, motivasi, and intentions rating surfing at Kuta Northen beach. The method used observation, questionnaires, interviews, literature study, and documentation. 213 respondens rating surfing with quantitative descriptive and regression linier analisys. The result obtained in this study are based on age characteristics surfing travelers will see the most travelers age between 18-29 years, male gender, country of origin Australia, and is a businessman, a master degree educational level, and marital status is not married. Surfing tourist motivation using push and pull factor with the highest scores on the social interaction. And Intention surfing tourist with the highest score there is positive world of mouth with Variabel tourist have the effect of 13,20% with a probability level of sig. 0,000, the motivation positive and significant efeect on the intention tourist but in small quantities. Therefore to improve the intention tourist come to the beach district of north kuta from the motivation pull and push should also improve the quality of beaches such as keeping the beach becomes the most importans thing that will directly make tourist feel comfortable. advice for managers is to add a lifeguard to keep the beach.

  6. Computing OpenSURF on OpenCL and General Purpose GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanglong Yan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Speeded-Up Robust Feature (SURF algorithm is widely used for image feature detecting and matching in computer vision area. Open Computing Language (OpenCL is a framework for writing programs that execute across heterogeneous platforms consisting of CPUs, GPUs, and other processors. This paper introduces how to implement an open-sourced SURF program, namely OpenSURF, on general purpose GPU by OpenCL, and discusses the optimizations in terms of the thread architectures and memory models in detail. Our final OpenCL implementation of OpenSURF is on average 37% and 64% faster than the OpenCV SURF v2.4.5 CUDA implementation on NVidia's GTX660 and GTX460SE GPUs, repectively. Our OpenCL program achieved real-time performance (>25 Frames Per Second for almost all the input images with different sizes from 320*240 to 1024*768 on NVidia's GTX660 GPU, NVidia's GTX460SE GPU and AMD's Radeon HD 6850 GPU. Our OpenCL approach on NVidia's GTX660 GPU is more than 22.8 times faster than its original CPU version on Intel's Dual-Core E5400 2.7G on average.

  7. Computing OpenSURF on OpenCL and General Purpose GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanglong Yan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Speeded-Up Robust Feature (SURF algorithm is widely used for image feature detecting and matching in computer vision area. Open Computing Language (OpenCL is a framework for writing programs that execute across heterogeneous platforms consisting of CPUs, GPUs, and other processors. This paper introduces how to implement an open-sourced SURF program, namely OpenSURF, on general purpose GPU by OpenCL, and discusses the optimizations in terms of the thread architectures and memory models in detail. Our final OpenCL implementation of OpenSURF is on average 37% and 64% faster than the OpenCV SURF v2.4.5 CUDA implementation on NVidia’s GTX660 and GTX460SE GPUs, repectively. Our OpenCL program achieved real-time performance (>25 Frames Per Second for almost all the input images with different sizes from 320*240 to 1024*768 on NVidia’s GTX660 GPU, NVidia’s GTX460SE GPU and AMD’s Radeon HD 6850 GPU. Our OpenCL approach on NVidia’s GTX660 GPU is more than 22.8 times faster than its original CPU version on Intel’s Dual-Core E5400 2.7G on average.

  8. Solar winds surfs waves in the Sun's atmosphere!

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    opposite ends after threading it through an object, like a ring. If one person wiggles the string rapidly up and down, waves form in the string that move toward the person at the other end. The ring will "surf" these waves and move toward the other person as well. Try it! "Even with this major discovery, there are questions left to answer. The observations have made it abundantly clear that heavy particles like oxygen 'surf' on the waves, and there is also mounting evidence that waves are responsible for accelerating the hydrogen atoms, the most common constituent of the solar wind. Future observations are needed to establish this fact. Many other kinds of particles, such as helium (second most common) have never been observed in the accelerating part of the corona, and new observations are also needed to refine our understanding of how the waves interact with the solar wind as a whole," said Dr. Steven Cranmer of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, lead author of the research to be published in the Astrophysical Journal*. Nevertheless, SOHO has again been able to reveal another of the Sun's mysteries: "This is another triumph for SOHO, stealing a long-held secret from our Sun", said Dr Martin Huber, Head of ESA Space Science Department and co-investigator for UVCS. *Ref. Article by S.Cranmer, G.B. Field and J.L. Kohl on Astrophysical Journal ( June 20, Vol 518, p. 937-947) available on the web at: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/ApJ/journal/issues/ApJ/v518n2/39802/sc0.html

  9. SURF'S UP! – Protein classification by surface comparisons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joanna M Sasin; Adam Godzik; Janusz M Bujnicki

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale genome sequencing and structural genomics projects generate numerous sequences and structures for ‘hypothetical’ proteins without functional characterizations. Detection of homology to experimentally characterized proteins can provide functional clues, but the accuracy of homology-based predictions is limited by the paucity of tools for quantitative comparison of diverging residues responsible for the functional divergence. SURF’S UP! is a web server for analysis of functional relationships in protein families, as inferred from protein surface maps comparison according to the algorithm. It assigns a numerical score to the similarity between patterns of physicochemical features (charge, hydrophobicity) on compared protein surfaces. It allows recognizing clusters of proteins that have similar surfaces, hence presumably similar functions. The server takes as an input a set of protein coordinates and returns files with ``spherical coordinates” of proteins in a PDB format and their graphical presentation, a matrix with values of mutual similarities between the surfaces, and the unrooted tree that represents the clustering of similar surfaces, calculated by the neighbor-joining method. SURF’S UP! facilitates the comparative analysis of physicochemical features of the surface, which are the key determinants of the protein function. By concentrating on coarse surface features, SURF’S UP! can work with models obtained from comparative modelling. Although it is designed to analyse the conservation among homologs, it can also be used to compare surfaces of non-homologous proteins with different three-dimensional folds, as long as a functionally meaningful structural superposition is supplied by the user. Another valuable characteristic of our method is the lack of initial assumptions about the functional features to be compared. SURF’S UP! is freely available for academic researchers at http://asia.genesilico.pl/surfs_up/.

  10. Pollution bi nitrate in the urban and rural zone of Macachins town, La Palma, Argentina; Contaminacion por nitrato en la zona urbana y rural de la localidad de Machachin, La Pampa, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzman, M. e.; Dalmaso, M. G.; Marno, E.

    2009-07-01

    The town of Macachin is located over the Valle Argentino aquifer. there, the phreatic aquifer is lodged in a sandy superficial cap and in the slime-sandy sediments. The objective of this work is to depict the pollution of the unconfined aquifer of Macachin, considering the presence of nitrate as determining actor of the quality of the resource. The peri urban area was analysed with the purpose of cover the area of relocalization of the sources of potable water for the town. In the urban area, the domiciliary perforations and in those os supply were considered. Samples in perforations and in drilled wells were collected. Temperature, pH, electrical conductivity and the ions concentration for nitrate and chloride were measured. Statistical basic parameters were calculated for eight wells in exploitation and also for the perforations and drilled wells. It was concluded that the conditions of the underground waters is little satisfactory. All of the domiciliary wells sampled contained a quantity of nitrate that overcomes the maximum levels allowed for the consumption of potable water. In the city's wells of supply a significant increase of the nitrate concentrations was identified since 1998, approximately. The contribution of organic matter to the underground water could be originated in the decomposition of the domiciliary wastes arranged in cesspools. In both areas, the nitrate concentrations in the unsaturated zone are similar and superior to the limit allowed for human consumption. The pollution sources in the rural zone can be permanent corrals of animals. (Author) 10 refs.

  11. Scaled photographs of surf over the full range of breaker sizes on the north shore of Oahu and Jaws, Maui, Hawaiian Islands (NODC Accession 0001753)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digital surf photographs were scaled using surfers as height benchmarks to estimate the size of the breakers. Historical databases for surf height in Hawaii are...

  12. A Novel Image Retrieval Based on Visual Words Integration of SIFT and SURF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouman Ali

    Full Text Available With the recent evolution of technology, the number of image archives has increased exponentially. In Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR, high-level visual information is represented in the form of low-level features. The semantic gap between the low-level features and the high-level image concepts is an open research problem. In this paper, we present a novel visual words integration of Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT and Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF. The two local features representations are selected for image retrieval because SIFT is more robust to the change in scale and rotation, while SURF is robust to changes in illumination. The visual words integration of SIFT and SURF adds the robustness of both features to image retrieval. The qualitative and quantitative comparisons conducted on Corel-1000, Corel-1500, Corel-2000, Oliva and Torralba and Ground Truth image benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed visual words integration.

  13. A Novel Image Retrieval Based on Visual Words Integration of SIFT and SURF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nouman; Bajwa, Khalid Bashir; Sablatnig, Robert; Chatzichristofis, Savvas A; Iqbal, Zeshan; Rashid, Muhammad; Habib, Hafiz Adnan

    2016-01-01

    With the recent evolution of technology, the number of image archives has increased exponentially. In Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR), high-level visual information is represented in the form of low-level features. The semantic gap between the low-level features and the high-level image concepts is an open research problem. In this paper, we present a novel visual words integration of Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF). The two local features representations are selected for image retrieval because SIFT is more robust to the change in scale and rotation, while SURF is robust to changes in illumination. The visual words integration of SIFT and SURF adds the robustness of both features to image retrieval. The qualitative and quantitative comparisons conducted on Corel-1000, Corel-1500, Corel-2000, Oliva and Torralba and Ground Truth image benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed visual words integration.

  14. Environmental Awareness of Surf Tourists: A Case Study in the Algarve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabia Frank

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Even though surf tourism in Portugal is an economic activity with a steady growth rate, there are not many assessment studies available. Using a survey undertaken in surf camps located in the Vila do Bispo County, this study aims to analyse the environmental awareness of surf tourists in the Algarve. Through the New Environmental Paradigm (NEP scale it is shown that the environmental attitudes of respondents are strongly pro-ecological but also reveal some anthropocentric aspects. Tourists were asked about their willingness to pay for an accommodation tax earmarked for environmental protection in the Algarve. The results show that the large majority (86% would be willing to pay, which indicates a high environmental awareness. It is also found that the willingness to pay is related to the nationality, with respondents from Germany, Austria and Switzerland showing a higher willingness to pay.

  15. Loss-of-function mutations of SURF-1 are specifically associated with Leigh syndrome with cytochrome c oxidase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiranti, V; Jaksch, M; Hofmann, S; Galimberti, C; Hoertnagel, K; Lulli, L; Freisinger, P; Bindoff, L; Gerbitz, K D; Comi, G P; Uziel, G; Zeviani, M; Meitinger, T

    1999-08-01

    Mutations of SURF-1, a gene located on chromosome 9q34, have recently been identified in patients affected by Leigh syndrome (LS), associated with deficiency of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. To investigate to what extent SURF-1 is responsible for human disorders because of COX deficiency, we undertook sequence analysis of the SURF-1 gene in 46 unrelated patients. We analyzed 24 COX-defective patients classified as having typical Leigh syndrome (LS(COX)), 6 patients classified as Leigh-like (LL(COX)) cases, and 16 patients classified as non-LS(COX) cases. Frameshift, stop, and splice mutations of SURF-1 were detected in 18 of 24 (75%) of the LS(COX) cases. No mutations were found in the LL(COX) and non-LS(COX) group of patients. Rescue of the COX phenotype was observed in transfected cells from patients harboring SURF-1 mutations, but not in transfected cell lines from 2 patients in whom no mutations were detected by sequence analysis. Loss of function of SURF-1 protein is specifically associated with LS(COX), although a proportion of LS(COX) cases must be the result of abnormalities in genes other than SURF-1. SURF-1 is the first nuclear gene to be consistently mutated in a major category of respiratory chain defects. DNA analysis can now be used to accurately diagnose LS(COX), a common subtype of Leigh syndrome.

  16. Heart Rate Responses of High School Students Participating in Surfing Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Michelle M; Cummins, Kevin M; Nessler, Jeff A; Newcomer, Sean C

    2016-06-01

    Despite the nation's rising epidemic of childhood obesity and diabetes, schools struggle to promote physical activities that help reduce risks for cardiovascular disease. Emerging data suggest that adopting novel activities into physical education (PE) curriculum may serve as an effective strategy for increasing physical activity in children. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize activity in the water and heart rates (HRs) of high school students participating in surf PE courses. Twenty-four male (n = 20) and female (n = 4) high school students (mean age = 16.7 ± 1.0 years) who were enrolled in surf PE courses at 2 high schools participated in this investigation. Daily measurements of surfing durations, average HR, and maximum HR were made on the students with HR monitors (PolarFT1) over an 8-week period. In addition, HR and activity in the water was evaluated during a single session in a subset of students (n = 11) using a HR monitor (PolarRCX5) and a video camera (Canon HD). Activity and HR were synchronized and evaluated in 5-second intervals during data analyses. The average duration that PE students participated in surfing during class was 61.7 ± 1.0 minutes. Stationary, paddling, wave riding, and miscellaneous activities comprised 42.7 ± 9.5, 36.7 ± 7.9, 2.9 ± 1.4, and 17.8 ± 11.4 percent of the surf session, respectively. The average and maximum HRs during these activities were 131.1 ± 0.9 and 177.2 ± 1.0 b·min, respectively. These data suggest that high school students participating in surf PE attained HRs and durations that are consistent with recommendations with cardiovascular fitness and health. In the future, PE programs should consider incorporating other action sports into their curriculum to enhance cardiovascular health.

  17. 铁山港临海工业区重金属污染及综合防治%Heavy metal pollution and countermeasures of prevention and control in Linhai industrial zone of Tieshan port

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐健淞; 林佩静

    2013-01-01

    广西铁山港临海工业区是北部湾经济开发区的重点工业园区之一,近年来经济发展迅速及重金属企业的进驻,重金属的污染综合防治受到重视.根据2011年及2012年对铁山港临海工业区重金属污染源及环境现状调查结果,采用单因子指数法对环境现状进行了评价,对污染物排放给环境造成的影响进行了分析与预测,提出重金属污染的预防与治理措施.结果表明:重金属主要污染因子均达标排放,废气中主要含铅及镍;固体废渣综合利用不外排;废水中主要含铬,大部分回用.废气中金属尘的最大落地浓度范围为以废气源为中心约lkm范围;海洋水质、地下水水质、地表水水质和土壤的重金属浓度变化不明显,污染均处于较低水平.通过采取推动区域循环经济建设,减少污染物的产生和排放,形成产业生态链;强化污染源治理,防止渗滤液的流失,针对性地处理废水中的铅和铬;区域加强排放总量控制;提高管理水平,加强日常监督,防止污染转移;注重预警应急体系的建设等综合防治措施,保持铁山港区环境中的重金属污染处于较低水平,减少了对周围环境的危害.%Tieshan port is an important industrial area in the Beibu gulf economic zone.As the economy in this area develops rapidly,heavy metal pollution and its prevention have been focused.Based on the investigation of heavy metal pollution in Linhai industrial zone of Tieshan port in Guangxi from 2011 to 2012,the environment quality of this area was assessed using single factor index method.Environmental impact of pollutant emission was also predicted and analyzed,and the prevention and control measures for heavy metal pollution were proposed on the basis of the investigation and analysis.The results show that the main heavy metals are discharged within the standard;the main gas pollutants are plumbum and nickel; solid waste is recycled; the main

  18. Run-up of tsunamis and long waves in terms of surf-similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.

    2008-01-01

    of the surf-similarity parameter and the amplitude to depth ratio determined at some offshore location. We use the analytical expressions to analyze the impact of tsunamis on beaches and relate the discussion to the recent Indian Ocean tsunami from December 26, 2004. An important conclusion is that extreme...... run-up combined with extreme flow velocities occurs for surf-similarity parameters of the order 3-6, and for typical tsunami wave periods this requires relatively mild beach slopes. Next, we compare the theoretical solutions to measured run-up of breaking and non-breaking irregular waves on steep...

  19. SURF: Taking Sustainable Remediation from Concept to Standard Operating Procedure (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. M.; Wice, R. B.; Torrens, J.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade, many sectors of industrialized society have been rethinking behavior and re-engineering practices to reduce consumption of energy and natural resources. During this time, green and sustainable remediation (GSR) has evolved from conceptual discussions to standard operating procedure for many environmental remediation practitioners. Government agencies and private sector entities have incorporated GSR metrics into their performance criteria and contracting documents. One of the early think tanks for the development of GSR was the Sustainable Remediation Forum (SURF). SURF brings together representatives of government, industry, consultancy, and academia to parse the means and ends of incorporating societal and economic considerations into environmental cleanup projects. Faced with decades-old treatment programs with high energy outputs and no endpoints in sight, a small group of individuals published the institutional knowledge gathered in two years of ad hoc meetings into a 2009 White Paper on sustainable remediation drivers, practices, objectives, and case studies. Since then, SURF has expanded on those introductory topics, publishing its Framework for Integrating Sustainability into Remediation Projects, Guidance for Performing Footprint Analyses and Life-Cycle Assessments for the Remediation Industry, a compendium of metrics, and a call to improve the integration of land remediation and reuse. SURF's research and members have also been instrumental in the development of additional guidance through ASTM International and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council. SURF's current efforts focus on water reuse, the international perspective on GSR (continuing the conversations that were the basis of SURF's December 2012 meeting at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC), and ways to capture and evaluate the societal benefits of site remediation. SURF also promotes and supports student chapters at universities across the US

  20. Total Amount Control in Tuwei River Basin Under the Control of Characteristic Parameters of Pollution Zone%基于污染带特征指标控制的秃尾河流域总量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓; 逄勇; 谢蓉蓉; 王雪; 吴大刚

    2015-01-01

    As the first grade tributary of the Yellow River basin, Tuwei River is significant because it is not only an important water source but also a pollutant receiving river in the basin. It is urgent to carry out researches on total amount controlling in Tuwei River to maintain the water quality. In this paper,the length of pollution mixing zone and pollutant concentration of pollution mixing section were used as the control parameters to quantify the total pollutant amount. A two-dimensional mathematical model of water environment which had been suitably calibrated and validated was applied to simulate 3 different kinds of water environmental situations at different conditions: the current situation without any pollutant reduction, the situation with pollutant reduction proposed by government and the situation with pollutant reduction proposed by experts. The results showed that:1 ) the bed roughness of Tuwei River basin was from 0. 029 to 0. 033 , the degradation coefficient of COD was 0. 10 - 0. 14 d-1 , the degradation coefficient of NH3-N was 0. 09-0. 12 d-1 , and the transverse diffusion coefficient of pollutants was 0. 88 m2/s. 2) it was also found that only the pollution reduction condition proposed by experts could reach the standard with the total amount of NH3-N 0. 185 t/d and COD 1. 25 t/d.%秃尾河作为黄河上游主要一级支流,是陕西省内重要的水源及纳污河段,故开展秃尾河总量控制研究对保护流域内水环境质量及维持西北、华北区域社会经济稳定具有重要意义.提出了以污染混合带长度与污染混合均匀断面水质质量浓度等污染带特征指标作为控制因子来进行污染控制总量确定的方法,并利用已率定验证合理的秃尾河二维水环境数学模型,分别对现状排污方案、区域环评规划排污方案及后续水环境研究专题报告专家推荐削减方案等3套不同方案进行水质模拟,通过对不同方案形成的污染带特征进行分析,

  1. Temporal variation on environmental variables and pollution indicators in marine sediments under sea Salmon farming cages in protected and exposed zones in the Chilean inland Southern Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Mauricio A

    2016-12-15

    The impacts of any activity on marine ecosystems will depend on the characteristics of the receptor medium and its resilience to external pressures. Salmon farming industry develops along a constant gradient of hydrodynamic conditions in the south of Chile. However, the influence of the hydrodynamic characteristics (weak or strong) on the impacts of intensive salmon farming is still poorly understood. This one year study evaluates the impacts of salmon farming on the marine sediments of both protected and exposed marine zones differing in their hydrodynamic characteristics. Six physico-chemical, five biological variables and seven indexes of marine sediments status were evaluated under the salmon farming cages and control sites. Our results identified a few key variables and indexes necessary to accurately evaluate the salmon farming impacts on both protected and exposed zones. Interestingly, the ranking of importance of the variables and the temporality of the observed changes, varied depending on the hydrodynamic characteristics. Biological variables (nematodes abundance) and environmental indexes (Simpson's dominance, Shannon's diversity and Pielou evenness) are the first to reflect detrimental impacts under the salmon farming cages. Then the physico-chemical variables such as redox, sulphurs and phosphorus in both zones also show detrimental impacts. Based on the present results we propose that the hydrodynamic regime is an important driver of the magnitude and temporality of the effects of salmon farming on marine sediments. The variables and indexes that best reflect the effects of salmon farming, in both protected and exposed zones, are also described.

  2. Integrated approach for demarcating subsurface pollution and saline water intrusion zones in SIPCOT area: a case study from Cuddalore in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, S; Sonkamble, S; Krishnakumar, K; Mondal, N C

    2012-08-01

    This paper deals with a systematic hydrogeological, geophysical, and hydrochemical investigations carried out in SIPCOT area in Southern India to demarcate groundwater pollution and saline intrusion through Uppanar River, which flows parallel to sea coast with high salinity (average TDS 28, 870 mg/l) due to back waters as well as discharge of industrial and domestic effluents. Hydrogeological and geophysical investigations comprising topographic survey, self-potential, multi-electrode resistivity imaging, and water quality monitoring were found the extent of saline water intrusion in the south and pockets of subsurface pollution in the north of the study area. Since the area is beset with highly permeable unconfined quaternary alluvium forming potential aquifer at shallow depth, long-term excessive pumping and influence of the River have led to lowering of the water table and degradation of water quality through increased salinity there by generating reversal of hydraulic gradient in the south. The improper management of industrial wastes and left over chemicals by closed industries has led surface and subsurface pollution in the north of the study area.

  3. Pollutant Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the types of air pollutants, including common or criteria pollutants, and hazardous air pollutants and links to additional information. Also links to resources on other air pollution issues.

  4. [Specific Features of Radioactive Pollution of Soils of Catchment Areas of Lake Shablish (Distant Zone of the East Ural Radioactive Trace)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryagin, V V; Levina, S G; Sutyagin, A A; Parfilova, N S

    2015-01-01

    Specific features of 90Sr and 137Cs distribution and accumulation in soil cuts of superaqueous and eluvial positions of catchment areas of Lake Shablish located in a distant zone of the East Ural radioactive trace are considered. Some physical and chemical characteristics of the soils were defined. It is established that the signs typical for the lake ecosystems of distant East-Ural radioactive trace zone which underwent impact of technogenic influence are common for soils of catchment areas of Lake Shablish. The distinctions in some characteristic features of the specific activity of long-living radionuclides for the soils of superaqueous and eluvial positions of catchment areas connected with the character of the water regime of soils are shown.

  5. The Ocean as a Unique Therapeutic Environment: Developing a Surfing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Emily D.; Armitano, Cortney N.; Lamont, Linda S.; Audette, Jennifer G.

    2014-01-01

    Educational aquatic programming offers necessary physical activity opportunities to children with disabilities and the benefits of aquatic activities are more pronounced for children with disabilities than for their able-bodied peers. Similar benefits could potentially be derived from surfing in the ocean. This article describes an adapted surfing…

  6. Post-Processing Enhancement of Reverberation-Noise Suppression in Dual-Frequency SURF Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Nasholm, Sven Peter; Angelsen, Bjørn A J; 10.1109/TUFFC.2011.1811

    2013-01-01

    A post-processing adjustment technique which aims for enhancement of dual-frequency SURF (Second order UltRasound Field) reverberation-noise suppression imaging in medical ultrasound is analyzed. Two variant methods are investigated through numerical simulations. They both solely involve post-processing of the propagated high-frequency (HF) imaging wave fields, which in real-time imaging corresponds to post-processing of the beamformed receive radio-frequency signals. Hence the transmit pulse complexes are the same as for the previously published SURF reverberation-suppression imaging method. The adjustment technique is tested on simulated data from propagation of SURF pulse complexes consisting of a 3.5 MHz HF imaging pulse added to a 0.5 low-frequency sound-speed manipulation pulse. Imaging transmit beams are constructed with and without adjustment. The post-processing involves filtering, e.g., by a time-shift, in order to equalize the two SURF HF pulses at a chosen depth. This depth is typically chosen to ...

  7. The Ocean as a Unique Therapeutic Environment: Developing a Surfing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Emily D.; Armitano, Cortney N.; Lamont, Linda S.; Audette, Jennifer G.

    2014-01-01

    Educational aquatic programming offers necessary physical activity opportunities to children with disabilities and the benefits of aquatic activities are more pronounced for children with disabilities than for their able-bodied peers. Similar benefits could potentially be derived from surfing in the ocean. This article describes an adapted surfing…

  8. Implementing CHC to Counter Shoulder Surfing Attack in PassPoint – Style Graphical Passwords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Joshuva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Graphical passwords are an alternative to existing alphanumeric passwords. In Graphical passwords users click on images than type a long, complex password. Passpoints scheme is one of the Graphical user authentication techniques. In this method the password is represented by multiple clicks on a single image. One of the advantages with Passpoints scheme is that, a user can click on any place in the image as a click point. Graphical authentication suffers a major drawback of Shoulder-surfing. Shoulder-surfing refers to someone observing the user’s action as the user enters a password. Due to this, the user’s action can be monitored by the attacker or it can be captured using recording devices such as camera. Sobrado and Birget suggested Convex Hull Click (CHC scheme to counter shoulder-surfing using PassIcons which is different from PassPoint scheme. In this paper, we described how CHC is implemented in Passpoint-sheme to counter Shoulder Surfing Attack.

  9. Performance differences between sexes in the pop-up phase of surfing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eurich, Alea D; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Noffal, Guillermo J; Nguyen, Diamond; Khamoui, Andy V; Uribe, Brandon P

    2010-10-01

    Surfing is a dynamic sport that is multidirectional in nature and requires peak performance in variable ocean conditions. Its growing popularity among the female population has stirred curiosity as to whether women can and will 1 day face their male counterparts in head-to-head competition at the top levels. The purpose of this study was to examine male and female differences in performance of a simulated surfing pop-up movement. Forty recreationally trained surfers (20 men and 20 women) were instructed to lie prone on a force plate, in the pop-up position (similar to a push-up), with only their hands in contact with the plate. A velocity transducer was attached to their back via an adjustable strap around their upper trunk. They completed 3 pop-ups as explosively as possible by pushing forcefully with their hands and jumping to their feet. Absolute and relative force and power were measured. Results demonstrated that men exhibited significantly (p pop-up movement. It appears that women may be at a disadvantage in regards to peak performance when compared to their male counterparts in the surfing pop-up movement. Therefore, women should train for both maximum and explosive upper-body strength in addition to their time spent surfing.

  10. Robust Object-Based Watermarking Using SURF Feature Matching and DFT Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cedillo-Hernandez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a robust object-based watermarking method, in which the watermark is embedded into the middle frequencies band of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT magnitude of the selected object region, altogether with the Speeded Up Robust Feature (SURF algorithm to allow the correct watermark detection, even if the watermarked image has been distorted. To recognize the selected object region after geometric distortions, during the embedding process the SURF features are estimated and stored in advance to be used during the detection process. In the detection stage, the SURF features of the distorted image are estimated and match them with the stored ones. From the matching result, SURF features are used to compute the Affine-transformation parameters and the object region is recovered. The quality of the watermarked image is measured using the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR, Structural Similarity Index (SSIM and the Visual Information Fidelity (VIF. The experimental results show the proposed method provides robustness against several geometric distortions, signal processing operations and combined distortions. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves also show the desirable detection performance of the proposed method. The comparison with a previously reported methods based on different techniques is also provided.

  11. Baseline Measurements of Shoulder Surfing Analysis and Comparability for Smartphone Unlock Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-22

    lines, and graphical patterns without lines) in a controlled setting . These videos are designed to simulate shoulder surfing settings under varied attack...than triple the success rate with a single view at 72.44 . The goal of this research is to identify more effective guidance for mobile device users to

  12. Effect of fuel zoning and fuel nozzle design on pollution emissions at ground idle conditions for a double-annular ram-induction combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, T. R.

    1973-01-01

    An exhaust emission survey was conducted on a double-annular ram induction combustor at simulated ground idle conditions. The combustor was designed for a large augmented turbofan engine capable of sustained flight speeds up to Mach 3.0. The emission levels of total hydrocarbon (THC), carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitric oxide were measured. The effects of fuel zoning, fuel nozzle design, and operating conditions (inlet temperature and reference Mach number) on the level of these emissions were determined. At an overall combustor fuel/air ratio of 0.007, fuel zoning reduced THC emissions by a factor of 5 to 1. The reduction in THC emissions is attributed to the increase in local fuel/air ratio provided by the fuel zoning. An alternative method of increasing fuel/air ratio would be to operate with larger-than-normal compressor overboard bleed; however, analysis on this method indicated an increase in idle fuel consumption of 20 percent. The use of air-atomizing nozzles reduced the THC emissions by 2 to 1.

  13. Constitutive knockout of Surf1 is associated with high embryonic lethality, mitochondrial disease and cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostino, Alessandro; Invernizzi, Federica; Tiveron, Cecilia; Fagiolari, Gigliola; Prelle, Alessandro; Lamantea, Eleonora; Giavazzi, Alessio; Battaglia, Giorgio; Tatangelo, Laura; Tiranti, Valeria; Zeviani, Massimo

    2003-02-15

    We report here the creation of a constitutive knockout mouse for SURF1, a gene encoding one of the assembly proteins involved in the formation of cytochrome c oxidase (COX). Loss-of-function mutations of SURF1 cause Leigh syndrome associated with an isolated and generalized COX deficiency in humans. The murine phenotype is characterized by the following hallmarks: (1) high post-implantation embryonic lethality, affecting approximately 90% of the Surf1(-/-) individuals; (2) early-onset mortality of post-natal individuals; (3) highly significant deficit in muscle strength and motor performance; (4) profound and isolated defect of COX activity in skeletal muscle and liver, and, to a lesser extent, heart and brain; (5) morphological abnormalities of skeletal muscle, characterized by reduced histochemical reaction to COX and mitochondrial proliferation; (6) no obvious abnormalities in brain morphology, reflecting the virtual absence of overt neurological symptoms. These results indicate a function for murine Surf1 protein (Surf1p) specifically related to COX and recapitulate, at least in part, the human phenotype. This is the first mammalian model for a nuclear disease gene of a human mitochondrial disorder. Our model constitutes a useful tool to investigate the function of Surf1p, help understand the pathogenesis of Surf1p deficiency in vivo, and evaluate the efficacy of treatment.

  14. 高分辨率人口空气污染暴露GIS空间区划研究%GIS Aided Spatial Zoning of High-Resolution Population Exposure to Air Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹滨; 彭芬; 焦利民; 翁敏

    2013-01-01

    Through integrating atmospheric dispersion model, GIS spatial analysis and population dasymetric mapping model (PDMM), we firstly conducted high-resolution simulations of air pollution concentration and population spatial distribution. Then, a model for assessing population relative risks of air pollution exposure (MAPRRAPE) was proposed and implemented for spatial zoning of population exposure to SO2 at various levels by taking Tar-rant County as a case. The results show that the population exposure to SO2 for Tarrant County in 2000 detected by air pollution concentration method obviously differs from those produced by MAPRRAPE. While the results disclose the defect of the air pollution concentration based population exposure, it thereby conversely confirms the significance of MAPRRAPE in decision making for preventing and controlling regional air pollution exposure.%集成大气污染扩散模型、GIS空间分析及人口动态制图模型(PDMM)实现了高空间分辨率空气污染浓度和人口空间分布模拟,通过构建人口空气污染暴露相对风险评价模型实现了人口空气污染暴露程度的空间格局划分.研究结果显示,空气污染浓度与人口空气污染暴露相对风险评价模型两种方法生成的人口空气污染暴露评估结果差异较大.研究结果揭示,前者在区域人口空气污染暴露评估中存在缺陷的同时(如无人居住的SO2高浓度区被误判为人口SO2污染暴露高风险区),也肯定了基于后者得到的人口空气污染暴露空间区划结果在区域空气污染暴露风险调控政策制定过程中的重要理论意义与实践价值.

  15. In situ vadose zone bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhener, Patrick; Ponsin, Violaine

    2014-06-01

    Contamination of the vadose zone with various pollutants is a world-wide problem, and often technical or economic constraints impose remediation without excavation. In situ bioremediation in the vadose zone by bioventing has become a standard remediation technology for light spilled petroleum products. In this review, focus is given on new in situ bioremediation strategies in the vadose zone targeting a variety of other pollutants such as perchlorate, nitrate, uranium, chromium, halogenated solvents, explosives and pesticides. The techniques for biostimulation of either oxidative or reductive degradation pathways are presented, and biotransformations to immobile pollutants are discussed in cases of non-degradable pollutants. Furthermore, research on natural attenuation in the vadose zone is presented.

  16. Assessments Of Different Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF Algorithm Resolution For Pose Estimation Of UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassem Sheta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The UAV industry is growing rapidly in an attempt to serve both military and commercial applications. A crucial aspect in the development of UAVs is the reduction of navigational sensor costs while maintaining accurate navigation. Advances in visual sensor solutions with traditional navigation sensors are proving to be significantly promising in replacing traditional IMU or GPS systems for many mission scenarios. The basic concept behind Vision Based Navigation (VBN is to find the matches between a set of features in real-time captured images taken by the imaging sensor on the UAV and database images. A scale and rotation invariant image matching algorithm is a key element for VBN of aerial vehicles. Matches between the geo-referenced database images and the new real-time captured ones are determined by employing the fast Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF algorithm. The SURF algorithm consists mainly of two steps: the first is the detection of points of interest and the second is the creation of descriptors for each of these points. In this research paper, two major factors are investigated and tested to efficiently create the descriptors for each point of interest. The first factor is the dimension of the descriptor for a given point of interest. The dimension is affected by the number of descriptor sub-regions which consequently affects the matching time and the accuracy. SURF performance has been investigated and tested using different dimensions of the descriptor. The second factor is the number of sample points in each sub-region which are used to build the descriptor of the point of interest. SURF performance has been investigated and tested by changing thenumber of sample points in each sub-region where the matching accuracy is affected. Assessments of the SURF performance and consequently on UAV VBN are investigated.

  17. Home-loving boreal hare mitochondria survived several invasions in Iberia: the relative roles of recurrent hybridisation and allele surfing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo-Ferreira, J; Farelo, L; Freitas, H; Suchentrunk, F; Boursot, P; Alves, P C

    2014-03-01

    Genetic introgression from a resident species into an invading close relative can result from repeated hybridisation along the invasion front and/or allele surfing on the expansion wave. Cases where the phenomenon is massive and systematic, such as for hares (genus Lepus) in Iberia, would be best explained by recurrent hybridisation but this is difficult to prove because the donor populations are generally extinct. In the Pyrenean foothills, Lepus europaeus presumably replaced Lepus granatensis recently and the present species border is parallel to the direction of invasion, so that populations of L. granatensis in the contact zone represent proxies of existing variation before the invasion. Among three pairs of populations sampled across this border, we find less differentiation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) across than along it, as predicted under recurrent hybridisation at the invasion front. Using autosomal microsatellite loci and X- and Y-linked diagnostic loci, we show that admixture across the border is quasi-absent, making it unlikely that lack of interspecific mtDNA differentiation results from ongoing gene flow. Furthermore, we find that the local species ranges are climatically contrasted, making it also unlikely that ongoing ecology-driven movement of the contact account for mtDNA introgression. The lack of mtDNA differentiation across the boundary is mostly due to sharing of mtDNA from a boreal species currently extinct in Iberia (Lepus timidus) whose mitochondria have thus remained in place since the last deglaciation despite successive invasions by two other species. Home-loving mitochondria thus witness past species distribution rather than ongoing exchanges across stabilised contact zones.

  18. "Do outside": corpo e natureza, medo e gênero no surfe universitário paulistano "From the outside": body and nature, fear and gender in surfing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Martins Bandeira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ao objetivo primeiro desta pesquisa, descrever as dinâmicas do surfe e os significados de sua prática, em especial a relação ser humano/natureza estabelecida por meio do esporte, somaram-se outros objetivos: problematizar a aproximação do pesquisador de seu campo de investigação, a possibilidade de um pesquisador realizar uma investigação através de seu próprio corpo e discutir a questão de gênero no surfe. Sobre o objetivo primeiro desta pesquisa, vivendo e descrevendo as dinâmicas do surfe encontrou-se os significados da relação do surfista com o mar nas sensações corporais experimentadas nas técnicas do remar, sentar, dar o joelhinho e dropar a onda. Que ser capaz de passar a rebentação é associado a um retorno bem sucedido à comunhão do homem com a natureza, sendo as cores, formas e sensações do "outside" o privilégio daquele que vence as dificuldades do tornar-se e ser surfista. Mas, que estas sensações são tidas como possibilidades de corpos corajosos e hábeis, "a priori", entendidos como corpos masculinos. O surfe como campo em que o feminino é visto ainda como exceção dá a pensar que os esportes na natureza e a educação ao ar livre, embora tenham potencial de promover novas condutas políticas e a virtuosa sensibilidade ambiental, não estão livres de reproduzir outros padrões de dominação.The main goal of this research is to describe the dynamics of surfing and its meanings, mainly the human/nature relation established through the sport. Meanwhile, other goals were added: discussing the approach to the field by the researcher, the possibility this researcher could investigate through her own body and the gender matter in the sport. About the main aim of the research, living and experiencing the sport itself, meaning, to the relation between the surfer and the sea, was found in the body sensations experienced through techniques such as paddling, sitting, duck diving and dropping a wave. Being

  19. Spatially Uniform ReliefF (SURF for computationally-efficient filtering of gene-gene interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greene Casey S

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide association studies are becoming the de facto standard in the genetic analysis of common human diseases. Given the complexity and robustness of biological networks such diseases are unlikely to be the result of single points of failure but instead likely arise from the joint failure of two or more interacting components. The hope in genome-wide screens is that these points of failure can be linked to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs which confer disease susceptibility. Detecting interacting variants that lead to disease in the absence of single-gene effects is difficult however, and methods to exhaustively analyze sets of these variants for interactions are combinatorial in nature thus making them computationally infeasible. Efficient algorithms which can detect interacting SNPs are needed. ReliefF is one such promising algorithm, although it has low success rate for noisy datasets when the interaction effect is small. ReliefF has been paired with an iterative approach, Tuned ReliefF (TuRF, which improves the estimation of weights in noisy data but does not fundamentally change the underlying ReliefF algorithm. To improve the sensitivity of studies using these methods to detect small effects we introduce Spatially Uniform ReliefF (SURF. Results SURF's ability to detect interactions in this domain is significantly greater than that of ReliefF. Similarly SURF, in combination with the TuRF strategy significantly outperforms TuRF alone for SNP selection under an epistasis model. It is important to note that this success rate increase does not require an increase in algorithmic complexity and allows for increased success rate, even with the removal of a nuisance parameter from the algorithm. Conclusion Researchers performing genetic association studies and aiming to discover gene-gene interactions associated with increased disease susceptibility should use SURF in place of ReliefF. For instance, SURF should be

  20. Surf observations from the South Shore of Oahu, Hawaii from 01 March 1972 to 20 November 1987 (NODC Accession 0000274)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Heights of breaking surf were collected by using visual observations from swimmers or divers at the South Shore of Oahu, Hawaii from March 1, 1972 to November 20,...

  1. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  2. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  3. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  4. Composition, Shell Strength, and Metabolizable Energy of Mulinia lateralis and Ischadium recurvum as Food for Wintering Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia M Wells-Berlin

    Full Text Available Decline in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata waterfowl populations wintering in the Chesapeake Bay has been associated with changes in the availability of benthic bivalves. The Bay has become more eutrophic, causing changes in the benthos available to surf scoters. The subsequent decline in oyster beds (Crassostrea virginica has reduced the hard substrate needed by the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum, one of the primary prey items for surf scoters, causing the surf scoter to switch to a more opportune species, the dwarf surfclam (Mulinia lateralis. The composition (macronutrients, minerals, and amino acids, shell strength (N, and metabolizable energy (kJ of these prey items were quantified to determine the relative foraging values for wintering scoters. Pooled samples of each prey item were analyzed to determine composition. Shell strength (N was measured using a shell crack compression test. Total collection digestibility trials were conducted on eight captive surf scoters. For the prey size range commonly consumed by surf scoters (6-12 mm for M. lateralis and 18-24 mm for I. recurvum, I. recurvum contained higher ash, protein, lipid, and energy per individual organism than M. lateralis. I. recurvum required significantly greater force to crack the shell relative to M. lateralis. No difference in metabolized energy was observed for these prey items in wintering surf scoters, despite I. recurvum's higher ash content and harder shell than M. lateralis. Therefore, wintering surf scoters were able to obtain the same amount of energy from each prey item, implying that they can sustain themselves if forced to switch prey.

  5. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic). SURF CLAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    invisible, outer, jellylike layer and mine surf clam gender (Ropes et al. the germinal vesicle (Ropes 1980). 1969). Male and female surf clams Longo...Jacobsen, M. K., and W. E. Old, Jr. Lindley, M. G., and R. S. Shallen- 1966. On the identity of Spisula berger. 1976, Purification and similis. Am...1966. A quantitative Masse, H. 1975. Feeding biotogy of .3-year-survey on the meiofauna Astropecten aranciacus. Cah , of known macrofauna communities

  6. Composition, shell strength, and metabolizable energy of Mulinia lateralis and Ischadium recurvum as food for wintering surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Alicia; Perry, Matthew; Kohn, R.A.; Paynter, K.T.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Decline in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) waterfowl populations wintering in the Chesapeake Bay has been associated with changes in the availability of benthic bivalves. The Bay has become more eutrophic, causing changes in the benthos available to surf scoters. The subsequent decline in oyster beds (Crassostrea virginica) has reduced the hard substrate needed by the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum), one of the primary prey items for surf scoters, causing the surf scoter to switch to a more opportune species, the dwarf surfclam (Mulinia lateralis). The composition (macronutrients, minerals, and amino acids), shell strength (N), and metabolizable energy (kJ) of these prey items were quantified to determine the relative foraging values for wintering scoters. Pooled samples of each prey item were analyzed to determine composition. Shell strength (N) was measured using a shell crack compression test. Total collection digestibility trials were conducted on eight captive surf scoters. For the prey size range commonly consumed by surf scoters (6-12 mm for M. lateralis and 18-24 mm for I. recurvum), I. recurvum contained higher ash, protein, lipid, and energy per individual organism than M. lateralis. I. recurvum required significantly greater force to crack the shell relative to M. lateralis. No difference in metabolized energy was observed for these prey items in wintering surf scoters, despite I. recurvum's higher ash content and harder shell than M. lateralis. Therefore, wintering surf scoters were able to obtain the same amount of energy from each prey item, implying that they can sustain themselves if forced to switch prey.

  7. (90)Sr in teeth of cattle abandoned in evacuation zone: Record of pollution from the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koarai, Kazuma; Kino, Yasushi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Chiba, Mirei; Osaka, Ken; Sasaki, Keiichi; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Isogai, Emiko; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Oka, Toshitaka; Sekine, Tsutomu; Fukumoto, Manabu; Shinoda, Hisashi

    2016-04-05

    Here we determined the (90)Sr concentrations in the teeth of cattle abandoned in the evacuation area of the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident. (90)Sr activity concentrations in the teeth varied from 6-831 mBq (g Ca)(-1) and exhibited a positive relationship with the degree of radioactive contamination that the cattle experienced. Even within an individual animal, the specific activity of (90)Sr (Bq (g Sr)(-1)) varied depending on the development stage of the teeth during the FNPP accident: teeth that were early in development exhibited high (90)Sr specific activities, while teeth that were late in development exhibited low specific activities. These findings demonstrate that (90)Sr is incorporated into the teeth during tooth development; thus, tooth (90)Sr activity concentrations reflect environmental (90)Sr levels during tooth formation. Assessment of (90)Sr in teeth could provide useful information about internal exposure to (90)Sr radiation and allow for the measurement of time-course changes in the degree of environmental (90)Sr pollution.

  8. 90Sr in teeth of cattle abandoned in evacuation zone: Record of pollution from the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koarai, Kazuma; Kino, Yasushi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Chiba, Mirei; Osaka, Ken; Sasaki, Keiichi; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Isogai, Emiko; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Oka, Toshitaka; Sekine, Tsutomu; Fukumoto, Manabu; Shinoda, Hisashi

    2016-04-01

    Here we determined the 90Sr concentrations in the teeth of cattle abandoned in the evacuation area of the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident. 90Sr activity concentrations in the teeth varied from 6-831 mBq (g Ca)-1 and exhibited a positive relationship with the degree of radioactive contamination that the cattle experienced. Even within an individual animal, the specific activity of 90Sr (Bq (g Sr)-1) varied depending on the development stage of the teeth during the FNPP accident: teeth that were early in development exhibited high 90Sr specific activities, while teeth that were late in development exhibited low specific activities. These findings demonstrate that 90Sr is incorporated into the teeth during tooth development; thus, tooth 90Sr activity concentrations reflect environmental 90Sr levels during tooth formation. Assessment of 90Sr in teeth could provide useful information about internal exposure to 90Sr radiation and allow for the measurement of time-course changes in the degree of environmental 90Sr pollution.

  9. SurfKin: an ab initio kinetic code for modeling surface reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thong Nguyen-Minh; Liu, Bin; Huynh, Lam K

    2014-10-05

    In this article, we describe a C/C++ program called SurfKin (Surface Kinetics) to construct microkinetic mechanisms for modeling gas-surface reactions. Thermodynamic properties of reaction species are estimated based on density functional theory calculations and statistical mechanics. Rate constants for elementary steps (including adsorption, desorption, and chemical reactions on surfaces) are calculated using the classical collision theory and transition state theory. Methane decomposition and water-gas shift reaction on Ni(111) surface were chosen as test cases to validate the code implementations. The good agreement with literature data suggests this is a powerful tool to facilitate the analysis of complex reactions on surfaces, and thus it helps to effectively construct detailed microkinetic mechanisms for such surface reactions. SurfKin also opens a possibility for designing nanoscale model catalysts.

  10. An Improvement of Positional Accuracy for View-Based Navigation Using SURF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Yoshinobu; Imamura, Hiroki; Choi, Yongwoon; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    In this paper, we propose a reliable method for view-based navigation of mobile robots fully improved in positional accuracy by using feature-points extracted by SURF, and it is verified from the navigation experiments of them. View-based navigations that have used block matching method are not enough in positional accuracy for robots to avoid obstacles and pass narrow doorways. By applying SURF that is stable to illumination and scale changes in an image to the method for view-based navigation, the navigation for robots becomes more robust to variable indoor conditions. In experiments conducted in an indoor corridor with a robot for comparing the proposed method to conventional one, the positional precision was obtained in centimeter-order of within 10.0[cm]. In this view, it suggests that the proposed method is applied to the view-based navigation for robots in such narrow areas as obstacle avoidance and corridors.

  11. Sobre as ondas: surfe, juventude e cultura no Rio de Janeiro dos anos 1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Dias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Na segunda metade do século XX, torna-se explícita a influência mundial dos Estados Unidos no âmbito esportivo. A disseminação de práticas que possuíam marcas culturais norte-americanas, como é o caso do surfe, não deve ser considerada, contudo, somente como resultado de uma imposição unilateral: há múltiplas apropriações locais que dizem muito sobre o contexto do receptor. Partindo dessa consideração, este artigo objetiva discutir a apreensão do surfe no Rio de Janeiro dos anos 1960. Buscamos debater como a modalidade foi operada como marcador de identidades a partir de vinculações a certas noções de juventude e estilo de vida.

  12. Movements of wintering surf scoters: Predator responses to different prey landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, M.; Esler, Daniel; Iverson, S.A.; Boyd, W.S.

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of predators is widely recognized to be intimately linked to the distribution of their prey. Foraging theory suggests that predators will modify their behaviors, including movements, to optimize net energy intake when faced with variation in prey attributes or abundance. While many studies have documented changes in movement patterns of animals in response to temporal changes in food, very few have contrasted movements of a single predator species naturally occurring in dramatically different prey landscapes. We documented variation in the winter movements, foraging range size, site fidelity, and distribution patterns of a molluscivorous sea duck, the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata), in two areas of coastal British Columbia with very different shellfish prey features. Baynes Sound has extensive tidal flats with abundant clams, which are high-quality and temporally stable prey for scoters. Malaspina Inlet is a rocky fjord-like inlet where scoters consume mussels that are superabundant and easily accessible in some patches but are heavily depleted over the course of winter. We used radio telemetry to track surf scoter movements in both areas and found that in the clam habitats of Baynes Sound, surf scoters exhibited limited movement, small winter ranges, strong foraging site fidelity, and very consistent distribution patterns. By contrast, in mussel habitats in the Malaspina Inlet, surf scoters displayed more movement, larger ranges, little fidelity to specific foraging sites, and more variable distribution patterns. We conclude that features associated with the different prey types, particularly the higher depletion rates of mussels, strongly influenced seasonal space use patterns. These findings are consistent with foraging theory and confirm that predator behavior, specifically movements, is environmentally mediated. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  13. On trend and on the wave: carving cultural identity through active surf dress

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Jonathan Mark

    2015-01-01

    Clothing, as both functional and fashionable, has become a key marker in signifying and shaping personal identity. This is particularly clear in a range of “lifestyle sports” [Wheaton, B. 2004. “Introduction: Mapping the Lifestyle Sportscape.” In Understanding Lifestyle Sports: Consumption, Identity, and Difference, edited by B. Wheaton, 1–28. London: Routledge], including the array of practices associated with the culture of surfing. This paper examines the ways in which companies market per...

  14. "Sub-Surf Rocks"! An A-Level Resource Developed through an Industry-Education Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Hazel

    2012-01-01

    A free internet resource called "Sub-Surf Rocks"! was launched in 2010. Its aim is to use seismic data obtained by the oil industry for enhancing the teaching of structural and economic geology at A-level (ages 16-18) in the UK. Seismic data gives a unique insight into the sub-surface and the many high-quality images coupled with…

  15. Effects of water temperature change on immune function in surf clams, Mactra veneriformis (Bivalvia: Mactridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin Ha; Song, Jae Hee; Choi, Min Chul; Park, Sung Woo

    2009-09-01

    Surf clam, Mactra veneriformis is one of the crucial fishery resources in Korea. This study was performed to examine the immune functions of the surf clam under the stress of water temperature changes at 10 degrees C, 20 degrees C or 30 degrees C for 24h. Viable bacterial counts (VBC), total haemocyte count (THC), phagocytic activity, lysozyme activity, NRR times and SOD activity were assessed in three different water temperature groups. Clams held at 10 degrees C decreased in THC, lysozyme activity and NRR times, but phagocytic activity was increased. The highest temperature (30 degrees C) significantly increased in THC, whereas it decreased in phagocytic activity, lysozyme activity and NRR times. In clams maintained at 20 degrees C, phagocytic activity, lysozyme activity and NRR times were increased whereas THC was somewhat decreased with respect to clams held at 30 degrees C. However, water temperature changes did not elicit any alteration of VBC and SOD activity. The present study demonstrates that acute water temperature change affects the haemocytic and haemolymphatic functions, reducing immunosurveillance in stressed surf clam, M. veneriformis.

  16. Mutations in the SURF1 gene associated with Leigh syndrome and cytochrome C oxidase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péquignot, M O; Dey, R; Zeviani, M; Tiranti, V; Godinot, C; Poyau, A; Sue, C; Di Mauro, S; Abitbol, M; Marsac, C

    2001-05-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency is one of the major causes of Leigh Syndrome (LS), a fatal encephalopathy of infancy or childhood, characterized by symmetrical lesions in the basal ganglia and brainstem. Mutations in the nuclear genes encoding COX subunits have not been found in patients with LS and COX deficiency, but mutations have been identified in SURF1. SURF1 encodes a factor involved in COX biogenesis. To date, 30 different mutations have been reported in 40 unrelated patients. We aim to provide an overview of all known mutations in SURF1, and to propose a common nomenclature. Twelve of the mutations were insertion/deletion mutations in exons 1, 4, 6, 8, and 9; 10 were missense/nonsense mutations in exons 2, 4, 5, 7, and 8; and eight were detected at splicing sites in introns 3 to 7. The most frequent mutation was 312_321del 311_312insAT which was found in 12 patients out of 40. Twenty mutations have been described only once. We also list all polymorphisms discovered to date.

  17. ConSurf 2016: an improved methodology to estimate and visualize evolutionary conservation in macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazy, Haim; Abadi, Shiran; Martz, Eric; Chay, Ofer; Mayrose, Itay; Pupko, Tal; Ben-Tal, Nir

    2016-07-08

    The degree of evolutionary conservation of an amino acid in a protein or a nucleic acid in DNA/RNA reflects a balance between its natural tendency to mutate and the overall need to retain the structural integrity and function of the macromolecule. The ConSurf web server (http://consurf.tau.ac.il), established over 15 years ago, analyses the evolutionary pattern of the amino/nucleic acids of the macromolecule to reveal regions that are important for structure and/or function. Starting from a query sequence or structure, the server automatically collects homologues, infers their multiple sequence alignment and reconstructs a phylogenetic tree that reflects their evolutionary relations. These data are then used, within a probabilistic framework, to estimate the evolutionary rates of each sequence position. Here we introduce several new features into ConSurf, including automatic selection of the best evolutionary model used to infer the rates, the ability to homology-model query proteins, prediction of the secondary structure of query RNA molecules from sequence, the ability to view the biological assembly of a query (in addition to the single chain), mapping of the conservation grades onto 2D RNA models and an advanced view of the phylogenetic tree that enables interactively rerunning ConSurf with the taxa of a sub-tree.

  18. CAMSHIFT IMPROVEMENT WITH MEAN-SHIFT SEGMENTATION, REGION GROWING, AND SURF METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinan Ferdinan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available CAMSHIFT algorithm has been widely used in object tracking. CAMSHIFT utilizescolor features as the model object. Thus, original CAMSHIFT may fail when the object color issimilar with the background color. In this study, we propose CAMSHIFT tracker combined withmean-shift segmentation, region growing, and SURF in order to improve the tracking accuracy.The mean-shift segmentation and region growing are applied in object localization phase to extractthe important parts of the object. Hue-distance, saturation, and value are used to calculate theBhattacharyya distance to judge whether the tracked object is lost. Once the object is judged lost,SURF is used to find the lost object, and CAMSHIFT can retrack the object. The Object trackingsystem is built with OpenCV. Some measurements of accuracy have done using frame-basedmetrics. We use datasets BoBoT (Bonn Benchmark on Tracking to measure accuracy of thesystem. The results demonstrate that CAMSHIFT combined with mean-shift segmentation, regiongrowing, and SURF method has higher accuracy than the previous methods.

  19. Assessment of heavy metal and bacterial pollution in coastal aquifers from SIPCOT industrial zones, Gulf of Mannar, South Coast of Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, S.; Antony Ravindran, A.; Venkatramanan, S.; Singaraja, C.

    2015-06-01

    Heavy metals and microbiological contamination were investigated in groundwater in the industrial and coastal city of Thoothukudi. The main sources of drinking water in this area are water bores which are dug up to the depth of 10-50 m in almost every house. A number of chemical and pharmaceutical industries have been established since past three decades. Effluents from these industries are reportedly being directly discharged onto surrounding land, irrigation fields and surface water bodies forming point and non-point sources of contamination for groundwater in the study area. The study consists of the determination of physico-chemical properties, trace metals, heavy metals and microbiological quality of drinking water. Heavy metals were analysed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and compared with the (WHO in Guidelines for drinking water quality, 2004) standards. The organic contamination was detected in terms of most probable number (MPN) test in order to find out faecal coliforms that were identified through biochemical tests. A comparison of the results of groundwater samples with WHO guidelines reveals that most of the groundwater samples are heavily contaminated with heavy metals like arsenic, selenium, lead, boron, aluminium, iron and vanadium. The selenium level was higher than 0.01 mg/l in 82 % of the study area and the arsenic concentration exceeded 0.01 mg/l in 42 % of the area. The results reveal that heavy metal contamination in the area is mainly due to the discharge of effluents from copper industries, alkali chemical industry, fertiliser industry, thermal power plant and sea food industries. The results showed that there are pollutions for the groundwater, and the total Coliform means values ranged from 0.6-145 MPN ml-1, faecal Coliform ranged from 2.2-143 MPN ml-1, Escherichia coli ranged from 0.9 to 40 MPN ml-1 and faecal streptococci ranged from 10-9.20 × 102 CFU ml-1. The coastal regions are highly contaminated with total

  20. Assessment of heavy metal and bacterial pollution in coastal aquifers from SIPCOT industrial zones, Gulf of Mannar, South Coast of Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, S.; Antony Ravindran, A.; Venkatramanan, S.; Singaraja, C.

    2017-05-01

    Heavy metals and microbiological contamination were investigated in groundwater in the industrial and coastal city of Thoothukudi. The main sources of drinking water in this area are water bores which are dug up to the depth of 10-50 m in almost every house. A number of chemical and pharmaceutical industries have been established since past three decades. Effluents from these industries are reportedly being directly discharged onto surrounding land, irrigation fields and surface water bodies forming point and non-point sources of contamination for groundwater in the study area. The study consists of the determination of physico-chemical properties, trace metals, heavy metals and microbiological quality of drinking water. Heavy metals were analysed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and compared with the (WHO in Guidelines for drinking water quality, 2004) standards. The organic contamination was detected in terms of most probable number (MPN) test in order to find out faecal coliforms that were identified through biochemical tests. A comparison of the results of groundwater samples with WHO guidelines reveals that most of the groundwater samples are heavily contaminated with heavy metals like arsenic, selenium, lead, boron, aluminium, iron and vanadium. The selenium level was higher than 0.01 mg/l in 82 % of the study area and the arsenic concentration exceeded 0.01 mg/l in 42 % of the area. The results reveal that heavy metal contamination in the area is mainly due to the discharge of effluents from copper industries, alkali chemical industry, fertiliser industry, thermal power plant and sea food industries. The results showed that there are pollutions for the groundwater, and the total Coliform means values ranged from 0.6-145 MPN ml-1, faecal Coliform ranged from 2.2-143 MPN ml-1, Escherichia coli ranged from 0.9 to 40 MPN ml-1 and faecal streptococci ranged from 10-9.20 × 102 CFU ml-1. The coastal regions are highly contaminated with total

  1. Pollution Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  2. Subduction zones seen by GOCE gravity gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Švarc, Mario; Herceg, Matija; Cammarano, Fabio

    and used as starting point for analysis based on image processing. On obtained maps, locations of known subduction zones were represented with characteristic elongated patterns and cross-sections. Cross sections of well-known subduction zones were used as input patterns for pattern recognition method....... Few pattern recognition methods were tested on all 6 gravity gradient tensor components represented as global scale maps with resolution of 100km (corresponds to the resolution of the GOCE satellite data). By adjusting pattern recognition methods’ features and optimizing various input patterns......, the best method was applied. That is a combination of methods based on SURF (Speeded Up Robust Features) and MSER (Maximally Stable Extremal Regions) algorithms provided in MATLAB’s Computer Vision System Toolbox. Based on 6 gravity gradient components, the global gradient anomaly maps were produced...

  3. On the Potential of Surfers to Monitor Environmental Indicators in the Coastal Zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J W Brewin

    Full Text Available The social and economic benefits of the coastal zone make it one of the most treasured environments on our planet. Yet it is vulnerable to increasing anthropogenic pressure and climate change. Coastal management aims to mitigate these pressures while augmenting the socio-economic benefits the coastal region has to offer. However, coastal management is challenged by inadequate sampling of key environmental indicators, partly due to issues relating to cost of data collection. Here, we investigate the use of recreational surfers as platforms to improve sampling coverage of environmental indicators in the coastal zone. We equipped a recreational surfer, based in the south west United Kingdom (UK, with a temperature sensor and Global Positioning System (GPS device that they used when surfing for a period of one year (85 surfing sessions. The temperature sensor was used to derive estimates of sea-surface temperature (SST, an important environmental indicator, and the GPS device used to provide sample location and to extract information on surfer performance. SST data acquired by the surfer were compared with data from an oceanographic station in the south west UK and with satellite observations. Our results demonstrate: (i high-quality SST data can be acquired by surfers using low cost sensors; and (ii GPS data can provide information on surfing performance that may help motivate data collection by surfers. Using recent estimates of the UK surfing population, and frequency of surfer participation, we speculate around 40 million measurements on environmental indicators per year could be acquired at the UK coastline by surfers. This quantity of data is likely to enhance coastal monitoring and aid UK coastal management. Considering surfing is a world-wide sport, our results have global implications and the approach could be expanded to other popular marine recreational activities for coastal monitoring of environmental indicators.

  4. Enviormental Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Saini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Environment Pollution is one of the greatest problems today which is increasing with every passing year and causing crucial and severe damage to the earth. It has become a real problem since the beginning of the industrial revolution. It is the contamination of physical and biological components of the Earth / atmosphere system to such an extent that normal environmental processes are harmed. Pollution of the environment consists of five main types of pollution, namely air, water, soil, noise and light. Development activities such as construction, transport and manufacturing not only deplete natural resources, but also produce large quantities of waste which leads to air pollution, water, soil and the oceans; global warming and acid rain. This paper provides the insight view about the affects of environment pollution in the perspective of air pollution, water and land/ soil waste pollution on human and also provide the ways to save the environment with all these pollution.

  5. Water pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Students will learn about what causes water pollution and how to be environmentally aware. *Note: Students should understand the concept of the water cycle before moving onto water pollution (see Lesson Plan “Oceans all Around Us”).

  6. Scaled photographs of surf over the full range of breaker sizes on the north shore of Oahu and Jaws, Maui, Hawaiian Islands, January 1998 - May 2004 (NODC Accession 0001753)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digital surf photographs were scaled using surfers as height benchmarks to estimate the size of the breakers. Historical databases for surf height in Hawaii are...

  7. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  8. Associations between Functional Movement Screen scores and performance variables in surf athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira da Silva, Bruno A; Clemente, Filipe M; Lourenço Martins, Fernando M

    2017-02-22

    Functional Movement Screen (FMS) have been used to assess the movement patterns in daily sports practice. Some associations between FMS scores and physical variables have been found in some sports. Nevertheless, no study was conducted in surf. Eighteen surf athletes (11 male) participated in the study (18.3 ± 6.3 y; 60.0 ± 9.6 kg; 168.6 ± 8.1 cm). All participants completed anthropometrics, Knee to Wall test, Functional Movement Screen, Isometric Knee Extension, Handgrip, Squat and Countermovement Jump. Based on that, this study investigated: 1) the variance of FMS scores between gender; 2) the association between FMS scores and physical variables of strength of upper and lower limbs, power of lower limbs and anthropometric variables; and 3) which FMS scores best explain the physical performance variables. The analysis of comparison between gender of each item of FMS showed significant statistical differences only in Trunk Stability Push-Up (p = 0.01, ES=0.141). Kendall's Tau b correlation test between FMS scores and physical variables, revealed significant associations. After performed the stepwise multiple linear regression FMS Deep Squat and Trunk Stability Push-Up explains 57% of Knee to Wall test - right side and the model is statistically significant (F(2. 15) = 13.097; p-value = 0.001). In Squat Jump (height) the results show that FMS Trunk Stability Push-Up explains 50.3% of this dimension and the model is statistically significant (F(1. 16) = 18.182; p-value = 0.001). FMS individual scores seems to better explain physical variables than total score. Only Trunk Stability Push-Up test seems to be a reliable indicator to predict physical performance in surf athletes.

  9. QSAR study and VolSurf characterization of anti-HIV quinolone library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipponi, Enrica; Cruciani, Gabriele; Tabarrini, Oriana; Cecchetti, Violetta; Fravolini, Arnaldo

    2001-03-01

    Antiviral quinolones are promising compounds in the search for new therapeutically effective agents for the treatment of AIDS. To rationalize the SAR for this new interesting class of anti-HIV derivatives, we performed a 3D-QSAR study on a library of 101 6-fluoro and 6-desfluoroquinolones, taken either from the literature or synthesized by us. The chemometric procedure involved a fully semiempirical minimization of the molecular structures by the AMSOL program, which takes into account the solvatation effect, and their 3D characterization by the VolSurf/GRID program. The QSAR analysis, based on PCA and PLS methods, shows the key structural features responsible for the antiviral activity.

  10. Comparison Between Surf and Multi-Shock Forest Fire High Explosive Burn Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenfield, Nicholas Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-18

    PAGOSA1 has several different burn models used to model high explosive detonation. Two of these, Multi-Shock Forest Fire and Surf, are capable of modeling shock initiation. Accurately calculating shock initiation of a high explosive is important because it is a mechanism for detonation in many accident scenarios (i.e. fragment impact). Comparing the models to pop-plot data give confidence that the models are accurately calculating detonation or lack thereof. To compare the performance of these models, pop-plots2 were created from simulations where one two cm block of PBX 9502 collides with another block of PBX 9502.

  11. Mimicking a SURF1 allele reveals uncoupling of cytochrome c oxidase assembly from translational regulation in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, Robert; Bareth, Bettina; Balleininger, Martina; Wissel, Mirjam; Rehling, Peter; Mick, David U

    2011-06-15

    Defects in mitochondrial energy metabolism lead to severe human disorders, mainly affecting tissues especially dependent on oxidative phosphorylation, such as muscle and brain. Leigh Syndrome describes a severe encephalomyopathy in infancy, frequently caused by mutations in SURF1. SURF1, termed Shy1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a conserved assembly factor for the terminal enzyme of the respiratory chain, cytochrome c oxidase. Although the molecular function of SURF1/Shy1 is still enigmatic, loss of function leads to cytochrome c oxidase deficiency and reduced expression of the central subunit Cox1 in yeast. Here, we provide insights into the molecular mechanisms leading to disease through missense mutations in codons of the most conserved amino acids in SURF1. Mutations affecting G(124) do not compromise import of the SURF1 precursor protein but lead to fast turnover of the mature protein within the mitochondria. Interestingly, an Y(274)D exchange neither affects stability nor localization of the protein. Instead, SURF1(Y274D) accumulates in a 200 kDa cytochrome c oxidase assembly intermediate. Using yeast as a model, we demonstrate that the corresponding Shy1(Y344D) is able to overcome the stage where cytochrome c oxidase assembly links to the feedback regulation of mitochondrial Cox1 expression. However, Shy1(Y344D) impairs the assembly at later steps, most apparent at low temperature and exhibits a dominant-negative phenotype upon overexpression. Thus, exchanging the conserved tyrosine (Y(344)) with aspartate in yeast uncouples translational regulation of Cox1 from cytochrome c oxidase assembly and provides evidence for the dual functionality of Shy1.

  12. Active depinning of bacterial droplets: the collective surfing of Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennes, Marc; Tailleur, Julien; Daerr, Adrian

    2016-11-01

    How systems are endowed with migration capacity is a fascinating question with implications ranging from the design of novel active systems to the control of microbial populations. Bacteria, which can be found in a variety of environments, have developed among the richest set of locomotion mechanisms both at the microscopic and collective levels. Here, we uncover experimentally a new mode of collective bacterial motility in humid environment through the depinning of bacterial droplets. While capillary forces are notoriously enormous at the bacterial scale, even capable of pinning water droplets of millimetric size on inclined surfaces, we show that bacteria are able to harness a variety of mechanisms to unpin contact lines, hence inducing a collective sliding of the colony. Contrary to flagella-dependent migration modes like swarming we show that this much faster colony surfing still occurs in mutant strains of Bacillus subtilis lacking flagella. The diversity of mechanisms involved in the active unpinning seen in our experiments suggests that collective surfing should be a generic mode of migration of microorganisms in humid environments. Bacttern Grant.

  13. Comparison of impact forces, accelerations and ankle range of motion in surfing-related landing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Lina E; Tran, Tai T; Nimphius, Sophia; Raymond, Ellen; Secomb, Josh L; Farley, Oliver R L; Newton, Robert U; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the impact forces, accelerations and ankle range of motion in five different landing tasks that are used in training and testing for competitive surfing athletes, to assist coaches in the prescription of landing task progression and monitoring training load. Eleven competitive surfing athletes aged 24 ± 7 years participated, and inertial motion sensors were fixed to the anterior aspect of the feet, mid-tibial shafts, sacrum and eighth thoracic vertebrae on these athletes. Three tasks were performed landing on force plates and two tasks in a modified gymnastics set-up used for land-based aerial training. Peak landing force, resultant peak acceleration and front and rear side ankle dorsiflexion ranges of motion during landing were determined. The peak acceleration was approximately 50% higher when performing aerial training using a mini-trampoline and landing on a soft-density foam board, compared to a similar landing off a 50 cm box. Furthermore, the ankle ranges of motion during the gymnastic type landings were significantly lower than the other landing types (P ≤ 0.05 and P ≤ 0.001), for front and rear sides, respectively. Conclusively, increased task complexity and specificity of the sport increased the tibial peak acceleration, indicating greater training load.

  14. Mutations of SURF-1 in Leigh disease associated with cytochrome c oxidase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiranti, V; Hoertnagel, K; Carrozzo, R; Galimberti, C; Munaro, M; Granatiero, M; Zelante, L; Gasparini, P; Marzella, R; Rocchi, M; Bayona-Bafaluy, M P; Enriquez, J A; Uziel, G; Bertini, E; Dionisi-Vici, C; Franco, B; Meitinger, T; Zeviani, M

    1998-12-01

    Leigh disease associated with cytochrome c oxidase deficiency (LD[COX-]) is one of the most common disorders of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, in infancy and childhood. No mutations in any of the genes encoding the COX-protein subunits have been identified in LD(COX-) patients. Using complementation assays based on the fusion of LD(COX-) cell lines with several rodent/human rho0 hybrids, we demonstrated that the COX phenotype was rescued by the presence of a normal human chromosome 9. Linkage analysis restricted the disease locus to the subtelomeric region of chromosome 9q, within the 7-cM interval between markers D9S1847 and D9S1826. Candidate genes within this region include SURF-1, the yeast homologue (SHY-1) of which encodes a mitochondrial protein necessary for the maintenance of COX activity and respiration. Sequence analysis of SURF-1 revealed mutations in numerous DNA samples from LD(COX-) patients, indicating that this gene is responsible for the major complementation group in this important mitochondrial disorder.

  15. New approach for measuring 3D space by using Advanced SURF Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youm, Minkyo; Min, Byungil; Suh, Kyungsuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Backgeun [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The nuclear disasters compared to natural disaster create a more extreme condition for analyzing and evaluating. In this paper, measuring 3D space and modeling was studied by simple pictures in case of small sand dune. The suggested method can be used for the acquisition of spatial information by robot at the disaster area. As a result, these data are helpful for identify the damaged part, degree of damage and determination of recovery sequences. In this study we are improving computer vision algorithm for 3-D geo spatial information measurement. And confirm by test. First, we can get noticeable improvement of 3-D geo spatial information result by SURF algorithm and photogrammetry surveying. Second, we can confirm not only decrease algorithm running time, but also increase matching points through epi polar line filtering. From the study, we are extracting 3-D model by open source algorithm and delete miss match point by filtering method. However on characteristic of SURF algorithm, it can't find match point if structure don't have strong feature. So we will need more study about find feature point if structure don't have strong feature.

  16. Preventing Shoulder-Surfing Attack with the Concept of Concealing the Password Objects’ Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Foong Ho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, picture-based password systems employ password objects (pictures/icons/symbols as input during an authentication session, thus making them vulnerable to “shoulder-surfing” attack because the visual interface by function is easily observed by others. Recent software-based approaches attempt to minimize this threat by requiring users to enter their passwords indirectly by performing certain mental tasks to derive the indirect password, thus concealing the user’s actual password. However, weaknesses in the positioning of distracter and password objects introduce usability and security issues. In this paper, a new method, which conceals information about the password objects as much as possible, is proposed. Besides concealing the password objects and the number of password objects, the proposed method allows both password and distracter objects to be used as the challenge set’s input. The correctly entered password appears to be random and can only be derived with the knowledge of the full set of password objects. Therefore, it would be difficult for a shoulder-surfing adversary to identify the user’s actual password. Simulation results indicate that the correct input object and its location are random for each challenge set, thus preventing frequency of occurrence analysis attack. User study results show that the proposed method is able to prevent shoulder-surfing attack.

  17. MOD_FreeSurf2D: a Surface Fluid Flow Simulation Model for Rivers, Streams, and Shallow Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N.; Gorelick, S. M.

    2003-12-01

    The MOD_FreeSurf2D, Modular Free Surface Flow in Two-Dimensions, computer model simulates free surface fluid flow in streams, rivers, and shallow estuaries under the assumptions of a well-mixed water column, a small water depth to width ratio, and a hydrostatic pressure distribution. The dependent variables in the model are free surface elevation, which provides total water depth, and fluid velocity. Primary advantages of MOD_FreeSurf2D relative to other two-dimensional models are a stable and computationally efficient numerical representation and a transparent representation of wetting and drying of the simulation domain. MOD_FreeSurf2D approximates the depth-averaged, shallow water equations with a finite volume, semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian numerical representation similar to the TRIM method (Casulli, 1990; Casulli and Cheng, 1992; Casulli, 1999). The semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian approach is computationally efficient because time steps can exceed the Courant-Friedrich-Lewy (CFL) stability criterion without significant accuracy degradation (Robert, 1982; Casulli, 1990). The rectangular, Arakawa C-grid, finite-volume layout allows flooding and drying in response to changing flow conditions without prior channel specification or closed boundary specification. Open boundary conditions available in MOD_FreeSurf2D are specified flux, specified total water depth, specified velocity, radiation free surface, and radiation velocity. MOD_FreeSurf2D requires initial topography, undisturbed water depth, and Manning's roughness coefficient. MOD_FreeSurf2D simulated results are shown to converge to the semi-empirical solution for a simple straight channel case. Two applications demonstrate the accuracy of MOD_FreeSurf2D. The first application is the evolution of water depth in the dambreak-style flume experiment of Bellos et al. (1992). In this case, MOD_FreeSurf2D accurately simulates the changing water depth in the flume during the experiment and models the wetting of

  18. Enviormental Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Kanika Saini; Dr. Sona Malhotra

    2016-01-01

    Environment Pollution is one of the greatest problems today which is increasing with every passing year and causing crucial and severe damage to the earth. It has become a real problem since the beginning of the industrial revolution. It is the contamination of physical and biological components of the Earth / atmosphere system to such an extent that normal environmental processes are harmed. Pollution of the environment consists of five main types of pollution, namely air, water,...

  19. [Uncertainty analysis of groundwater protection and control zoning in Beijing plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; He, Jiang-Tao; Wang, Jun-Jie; Liu, Li-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Liang

    2012-09-01

    Groundwater pollution prevention mapping has important meaning to groundwater protection, pollution prevention and effective management. A mapping method was built through combining groundwater pollution risk assessment, groundwater value and wellhead protection area zoning. To make the method more accurate, two series of uncertainty analysis were performed and discussed. One was performed by changing the weights of the toxicity, mobility and degradation of pollutants, and the other was by changing the weights of groundwater pollution risk, groundwater value and wellhead protection area zoning. The results showed that the weights of groundwater pollution risk, groundwater value and wellhead protection area zoning were more sensitive than the weights of toxicity, mobility and degradation of pollutants.

  20. Norman-based Isolated Data Systems allows users to surf the Internet with no traceable IP address

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "Patented by Norman-based Isolated Data Systems, John Doe is an anonymous proxy server that allows users to surf the Internet exactly as before, with one exception - they are identifiable only as John Doe, with no traceable IP address, which means no tracking, no identification and no profile building" ( 1/2 page)

  1. Dependence of the surf zone aerosol on wind direction and wind speed at a coastal site on the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tymon Zieliński

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 1992 lidar-based measurements have been carried out under various meteorological conditions and at various times of the year. The aerosol optical properties were determined in the marine boundary layer as a function of altitude using such factors as wind direction, duration and velocity and aerosol size distribution and concentration. It was confirmed that in all cases, the total aerosol concentration, size distribution and aerosol extinction increase with wind speed but decrease with altitude. In the range of wind velocities from 1 to 15 m s-1 the mean aerosol optical thickness of the atmosphere (VIS obtained from the lidar varied from 0.1 to 0.38 for offshore winds and from 0.01 to about 0.1 for onshore winds, while the Ångström parameter for VIS oscillated around 0.65 for onshore winds and around 1 for offshore winds. Both parameters depended strongly on the history of the air mass above the Baltic Sea. Such aerosol optical thicknesses are in agreement with those obtained by other researchers in the Baltic Sea area.

  2. Interaction between breaking/broken waves and infragravity-scale phenomena to control sediment suspension transport in the surf zone

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, GG

    2002-07-30

    Full Text Available of instrumentation, ?ume geometry, water-levels, wave conditions tested, etc. reference is made to Sanchez-Arcilla et al. (1994). For the purpose of the present study, use was primarily made of instrumentation attached to a roving car- riage deployed at various... the carriage to measure beach pro?les (San- chez-Arcilla et al., 1994). The present study makes use of measurements taken during the second series of tests at LIP11D (Tests 2A and 2B). Test 2A was commenced with a Dean-type beach pro?le, with a dune included...

  3. Development and Testing of a Hybrid Wheg (trademark)-Mobile Platform for Autonomous Surf-Zone Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    transmitted to the front Wheg through a 0.5 inch driveshaft mounted internally to a 1 inch suspension shaft and then through a set of geared pulleys ...that engages additional teeth on the smaller pulley . The final gear ratio is 46:1. The Whegs turn at 178 RPM under no load and nominal motor voltage...can minimize load friction and inertia by the proper selection of the gear ratio N. Jeq = Ja + 1 N2 Jl (2.8) Feq = Fa + 1 N2 Fl (2.9) 2.3 Quasi

  4. Consolidation and Using Oriented Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution in Typical Soils of Hollowed Villages of Plain Agricultural Zones:A Case Study of Yucheng City, Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yu-rui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hollow village renovation is an important content of rural land comprehensive consolidation. Under the core goal of sustainable utilization of land, revealing heavy metal pollution in typical soils of hollow village is the guiding link of the consolidation work, especially the reconstruction of farmland. Taking Yucheng City of Huang-Huai-Hai Plain as an example, this paper aims to analyze the content of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in seven kinds of typical soils, namely the village roads, sunning grounds, pit-pond sediments, woodland topsoils, courtyard farmlands, courtyard soils and clay wall soils which may be involved in the reconstruction of typical hollow village. Individual pollution index and comprehensive pollution index were used to evaluate the degree of heavy metal pollution according to the relevant national standards in order to provide the basis for safe and rational soil utilization during the hollow village consolidation. The results showed that in the above 7 types of tested soils, except for the pollution index of courtyard farmland was 0.85(pollution level Ⅱ, belong to "less clean" soil, other six types were <0.7(pollution level Ⅰ, belong to "clean" soil, which could be directly used in the hollow village consolidation for reconstruction of topsoil for agriculture. This study revealed the heavy metal pollution condition in the typical soils of plain agricultural areas. It has important reference value to the consolidation of hollow villages scientifically and the reconstruction of safe and high standard farmland.

  5. On Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊

    2005-01-01

    Long long ago,our world was very beautiful, there were trees, flowers,rivers ... they were very clean and tidy.But now, the hillsarenrt green, the rivers aren't clean,the fish has died. Pollution is becoming more and more serious all over the world. We are living in a polluted environment which is bad forour health.

  6. Epidemlology of exercise-related transient abdominal pain at the Sydney City to Surf community run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D P; Richards, D; Callister, R

    2005-06-01

    A questionnaire was administered to 848 participants (76% runners, 24% walkers) at the conclusion of the 14 km City to Surf community run in order to investigate their experience of exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP). Twenty-seven percent of respondents reported experiencing ETAP during the event, with the condition reported more frequently (pnutritional content of the pre-event meal did not influence the experience of ETAP. Sufferers of ETAP were more likely to experience nausea (r = 0.12, p< 0.01) and report shoulder tip pain (r= 0.14, p< 0.01). The results indicate that ETAP is a commonly experienced problem and provide insights into the cause of the complaint.

  7. 3D reconstruction of a human heart fascicle using SurfDriver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Robert J.; Phillips, Steven J.; LaFollette, Paul S., Jr.

    2000-06-01

    The Temple University Medical School has a sequence of over 400 serial sections of adult normal ventricular human heart tissue, cut at 25 micrometer thickness. We used a Zeiss Ultraphot with a 4x planapo objective and a Pixera digital camera to make a series of 45 sequential montages to use in the 3D reconstruction of a fascicle (muscle bundle). We wrote custom software to merge 4 smaller image fields from each section into one composite image. We used SurfDriver software, developed by Scott Lozanoff of the University of Hawaii and David Moody of the University of Alberta, for registration, object boundary identification, and 3D surface reconstruction. We used an Epson Stylus Color 900 printer to get photo-quality prints. We describe the challenge and our solution to the following problems: image acquisition and digitization, image merge, alignment and registration, boundary identification, 3D surface reconstruction, 3D visualization and orientation, snapshot, and photo-quality prints.

  8. Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxin esters in Danish blue mussels and surf clams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kevin; Scanlon, Sine Hedegaard; Jensen, L.B.

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, little focus was given to the presence of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning ( DSP) toxin esters in seafood products. However, during the last few years, the occurrence of a high percentage of esters of the total amount of DSP toxins present in some seafood products has been observed....... Samples of Danish surf clams ( Spisola spp.) and blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis) from 1999 - 2004 were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry ( LC/ MS/ MS) for the presence of DSP toxin esters. The samples contained only okadaic acid and esters of okadaic acid. The level...... of okadaic acid esters of the total okadaic acid equivalents ranged from 21 to 86%, mean 59%. The probability of a high percentage of okadaic acid esters seems to increase with higher amounts of total okadaic acid equivalents in the bivalves. The large prevalence of DSP toxin esters are of particular...

  9. Phase speed of electrostatic waves: The critical parameter for efficient electron surfing acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Dieckmann, M E; Parviainen, M; Shukla, P K; Sircombe, N J

    2006-01-01

    Particle acceleration by means of non-linear plasma wave interactions is of great topical interest. Accordingly, in this paper we focus on the electron surfing process. Self-consistent kinetic simulations, using both relativistic Vlasov and PIC (Particle In Cell) approaches, show here that electrons can be accelerated to highly relativistic energies (up to 100 m_e c^2) if the phase speed of the electrostatic wave is mildly relativistic (0.6c to 0.9c for the magnetic field strengths considered). The acceleration is strong because of relativistic stabilisation of the nonlinearly saturated electrostatic wave, seen in both relativistic Vlasov and PIC simulations. An inverse power law momentum distribution can arise for the most strongly accelerated electrons. These results are of relevance to observed rapid changes in the radio synchrotron emission intensities from microquasars, gamma ray bursts and other astrophysical objects that require rapid acceleration mechanisms for electrons.

  10. Phase speed of electrostatic waves: the critical parameter for efficient electron surfing acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckmann, M E [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Sircombe, N J [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Parviainen, M [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Shukla, P K [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Dendy, R O [UKAEA Culham Division, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2006-04-15

    Particle acceleration by means of nonlinear plasma wave interactions is of great topical interest. Accordingly, in this paper we focus on the electron surfing process. Self-consistent kinetic simulations, using both relativistic Vlasov and particle-in-cell (PIC) approaches, show here that electrons can be accelerated to highly relativistic energies (up to 100m{sub e}c{sup 2}) if the phase speed of the electrostatic wave is mildly relativistic (0.6c to 0.9c for the magnetic field strengths considered). The acceleration is strong because of relativistic stabilization of the nonlinearly saturated electrostatic wave, seen in both relativistic Vlasov and PIC simulations. An inverse power law momentum distribution can arise for the most strongly accelerated electrons. These results are of relevance to observed rapid changes in the radio synchrotron emission intensities from microquasars, gamma ray bursts and other astrophysical objects that require rapid acceleration mechanisms for electrons.

  11. Chemolithotrophy in the continental deep subsurface: Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Rose Osburn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The deep subsurface is an enormous repository of microbial life. However, the metabolic capabilities of these microorganisms and the degree to which they are dependent on surface processes are largely unknown. Due to the logistical difficulty of sampling and inherent heterogeneity, the microbial populations of the terrestrial subsurface are poorly characterized. In an effort to better understand the biogeochemistry of deep terrestrial habitats, we evaluate the energetic yield of chemolithotrophic metabolisms and microbial diversity in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF in the former Homestake Gold Mine, SD, USA. Geochemical data, energetic modeling, and DNA sequencing were combined with principle component analysis to describe this deep (down to 8100 ft below surface, terrestrial environment. SURF provides access into an iron-rich Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary deposit that contains deeply circulating groundwater. Geochemical analyses of subsurface fluids reveal enormous geochemical diversity ranging widely in salinity, oxidation state (ORP 330 to -328 mV, and concentrations of redox sensitive species (e.g., Fe2+ from near 0 to 6.2 mg/L and ΣS2- from 7 to 2778 μg/L. As a direct result of this compositional buffet, Gibbs energy calculations reveal an abundance of energy for microorganisms from the oxidation of sulfur, iron, nitrogen, methane, and manganese. Pyrotag DNA sequencing reveals diverse communities of chemolithoautotrophs, thermophiles, aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophs, and numerous uncultivated clades. Extrapolated across the mine footprint, these data suggest a complex spatial mosaic of subsurface primary productivity that is in good agreement with predicted energy yields. Notably, we report Gibbs energy normalized both per mole of reaction and per kg fluid (energy density and find the later to be more consistent with observed physiologies and environmental conditions. Further application of this approach will

  12. Object Recognition System in Remote Controlled Weapon Station using SIFT and SURF Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midriem Mirdanies

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Object recognition system using computer vision that is implemented on Remote Controlled Weapon Station (RCWS is discussed. This system will make it easier to identify and shoot targeted object automatically. Algorithm was created to recognize real time multiple objects using two methods i.e. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF combined with K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN and Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC for verification. The algorithm is designed to improve object detection to be more robust and to minimize the processing time required. Objects are registered on the system consisting of the armored personnel carrier, tanks, bus, sedan, big foot, and police jeep. In addition, object selection can use mouse to shoot another object that has not been registered on the system. Kinect™ is used to capture RGB images and to find the coordinates x, y, and z of the object. The programming language used is C with visual studio IDE 2010 and opencv libraries. Object recognition program is divided into three parts: 1 reading image from kinect™ and simulation results, 2 object recognition process, and 3 transfer of the object data to the ballistic computer. Communication between programs is performed using shared memory. The detected object data is sent to the ballistic computer via Local Area Network (LAN using winsock for ballistic calculation, and then the motor control system moves the direction of the weapon model to the desired object. The experimental results show that the SIFT method is more suitable because more accurate and faster than SURF with the average processing time to detect one object is 430.2 ms, two object is 618.4 ms, three objects is 682.4 ms, and four objects is 756.2 ms. Object recognition program is able to recognize multi-objects and the data of the identified object can be processed by the ballistic computer in realtime.

  13. Lands pollution; Pollution des sols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillewaere, J.P. [Direction regionale de l`industrie, de la recherche et de l`environnement, (DRIRE), Pas-de-Calais, 62 (France); Sauvalle, B. [Ministere de l`Amenagement du Territoire et de l`Environnement, 75 - Paris (France). Direction de la Prevention des Pollutions et des Risques; Llauro, D. [Rhone-Poulenc Industrialisation (France)] [and others

    1998-12-31

    This book reviews point by point all the pollution risks in terms of polluted land typology, regulations...It indicates too the methods to carry out for a simplified assessment, the treatment possibilities by bio-technologies, the eco-toxicity tests in the risk analysis. (O.M.)

  14. Chinese Sign Language Recognition Method Based on Depth Image Information and SURF-BoW%基于深度信息和SURF-BoW的中国手语识别算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨全; 彭进业

    2014-01-01

    为实现视频中手语的准确识别,提出一种基于深度图连续自适应均值漂移( DI_CamShift)和加速强健特征词包( SURF-BoW)的中国手语识别算法.该算法将Kinect作为手语视频采集设备,在获取彩色视频的同时得到其深度信息.算法首先计算深度图像中手语手势的主轴方向角和质心位置,通过调整搜索窗口对手势准确跟踪;然后使用基于深度积分图像的OTSU算法分割手势并提取其加速强健特征( SURF),进而构建SURF-BoW作为手语特征并使用SVM识别.通过实验验证该算法在单个手语字母上的最好识别率为99.37%,平均识别率为96.24%.%To realize the accurate recognition of sign language in the video, an algorithm based on depth image CamShift( DI_CamShift) and speeded up robust features-bag of words ( SURF-BoW) is proposed. Kinect is used as the sign language video capture device to obtain both of the color video and depth image information of sign language gestures. Firstly, spindle direction angle and mass center position of the depth images are calculated and the search window is adjusted to track gesture. Next, an OTSU algorithm based on depth integral image is used for gesture segmentation, and the SURF features are extracted. Finally, SURF-BoW is built as the feature of sign language and SVM is utilized for recognition. The best recognition rate of single manual alphabet reaches 99 . 37%, and the average recognition rate is up to 96 . 24%.

  15. The Multi-Scale Response of Water Quality, Biodiversity and Carbon Sequestration to Coupled Macronutrient Cycling from Source to Sea: TURF2SURF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Andrew; Emmett, Bridget; Jago, Colin; Stutter, Marc; Biggs, Jeremy

    2016-04-01

    Turf2Surf is a large, multi-disciplinary project that aims to test the hypothesis that the spatial and temporal patterns of water quality, C sequestration and biodiversity are better explained through the large-scale coupling of C, N and P cycles than by single cycle, single system approaches. To achieve this, a catchment-scale study of the River Conwy (349 km2) in Wales is being done with emphasis on determining when, where and how coupled macronutrient (C, N, P) cycling occurs in the biogeochemical hot-spots of the soils, the riparian zone, instream and in the river-estuarine transition zone. A major integrated measurement programme is now largely complete. New data are being analysed to understand which soil properties have greatest influence on above and below-ground productivity including plant traits and how microbial processing is controlled by stoichiometry and nutrient priming. Within the stream network, new understanding is being produced on the in-river algal and whole ecosystem (metabolic) response to CNP additions and the factors affecting the fate and cycling of organic matter. In the estuary, initial results indicate a subsurface jet is causing stratification and a velocity anomaly has been observed. Both are important in terms of suspended matter transport and floc break-up. An integrated model is being built to describe the soil-atmosphere-vegetation processes which is linked, firstly, to flow and water quality models that describe the CNP flux transport and transformations from the headwaters to the estuary and, secondly, to biodiversity models. The purpose of the integrated model is to quantify how coupled CNP cycles may respond to environmental change and thereby affect C sequestration, water quality and biodiversity in the future. The team are now in the major phase of data synthesis and model development and are interested in linking with similar studies involving coupled CNP cycles across the atmospheric

  16. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to view this content or go to source URL . What NIEHS is Doing on Air Pollution Who ... Junction Last Reviewed: February 06, 2017 This page URL: NIEHS website: https://www.niehs.nih.gov/ Email ...

  17. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Page Brochures & Fact Sheets Environmental Health Topics Science Education Kids Environment | Kids Health Research Home Page At NIEHS ... Agents Water Pollution Environmental Science Basics Population Research Science Education Kids Environment | Kids Health Research Home Research At NIEHS ...

  18. A randomised crossover comparison of manikin ventilation through Soft Seal®, i‐gel™ and AuraOnce™ supraglottic airway devices by surf lifeguards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adelborg, K; Al‐Mashhadi, R. H; Nielsen, L. H; Dalgas, C; Mortensen, M. B; Løfgren, B

    2014-01-01

    Forty surf lifeguards attempted to ventilate a manikin through one out of three supraglottic airways inserted in random order: the Portex ® Soft Seal ® ; the Intersurgical ® i‐gel™; and the Ambu ® AuraOnce...

  19. Analysis of the relationship between economic growth and environmental pollution in Circum-Bohai-Sea Zone: Based on Environmental Kuznets Curve%环渤海地区经济增长与环境污染关系分析——基于环境库兹涅茨曲线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐胜; 王晓惠; 宋维玲; 董伟

    2011-01-01

    发达国家的发展历史表明,经济发展与环境污染存在一定的关系,在经济发展的初级阶段,经济的快速增长可能以牺牲环境为代价.环渤海地区经济增长与环境污染的矛盾尤为突出.文章运用环境库兹涅茨曲线原理和模型,分析了环渤海地区经济增长与环境污染之间的关系.研究发现,在过去一段时间内,环渤海地区的环境污染状况与经济收入也基本符合倒“U”型的库兹涅茨曲线关系.目前,从工业污染水平来看,环渤海地区已经进入高增长、低污染的发展阶段;而从总体污染水平来看,环渤海地区仍处于高增长、高污染的发展阶段.%The developmental history of developed countries has shown that there are some relationships between economic development and environmental pollution, and at the primary stage of economic development, the fast-growing economy may be followed by environmental sacrifices. This problem was dramatically serious in the Circum-Bohai-Sea Zone during the past few years. This paper uses the principle and model of Environmental Kuznets Curve to analyze the relationship between economic growth and environmental pollution in the Circum-Bohai-Sea Zone. The results showed that, in the past few decades, the relationship of this area basically matched with the U-shape Environmental Kuznets Curve. And the study finds that the economy in this area has been at the stage of fast-growing with low environmental pollution according to the industrial polluting level, but still at the stage of fast-growing with high environmental pollution according to the total polluting level.

  20. Urban pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancini, Angela; Tomei, Francesco; Tomei, Gianfranco; Caciari, Tiziana; Di Giorgio, Valeria; André, Jean-Claude; Palermo, Paola; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Nardone, Nadia; Schifano, Maria Pia; Fiaschetti, Maria; Cetica, Carlotta; Ciarrocca, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution represents a health risk for people living in urban environment. Urban air consists in a complex mixture of chemicals and carcinogens and its effects on health can be summarized in acute respiratory effects, neoplastic nonneoplastic (e.g. chronic bronchitis) chronic respiratory effects, and effects on other organs and systems. Air pollution may be defined according to origin of the phenomena that determine it: natural causes (natural fumes, decomposition, volcanic ash) or anthropogenic causes which are the result of human activities (industrial and civil emissions). Transport is the sector that more than others contributes to the deterioration of air quality in cities. In this context, in recent years, governments of the territory were asked to advance policies aimed at solving problems related to pollution. In consideration of the many effects on health caused by pollution it becomes necessary to know the risks from exposure to various environmental pollutants and to limit and control their effects. Many are the categories of "outdoor" workers, who daily serve the in urban environment: police, drivers, newsagents, etc.

  1. Análisis descriptivo de la dinámica del surf como práctica social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Naranjo Del Giudice

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo de investigación, la cultura del surf es analizada desde la teoría de la práctica social (Giraldo y Halliday 2012, Shove et al., 2012. Para este fin, se estudiaron cada uno de los elementos que conforman la práctica y la forma como estos se interrelacionan como un todo. Las ofertas de valor construidas pueden ser entendidas como constelaciones (Nornmann y Ramírez 1993 de recursos que mediante su integración contextual forman productos y servicios. Los datos fueron recolectados en un año mediante registros de campo, narrativas, registro fotográfico y observación participante. La información fue recolectada por parte de uno de los investigadores que pertenece a la comunidad de surf durante cuatro meses de manera permanentemente y durante ocho meses de manera intermitentes. Se encontró cómo la teoría de la práctica social puede explicar la dinámica del surf y como el surf puede agregar a la teoría de la práctica social un nuevo factor: la comunidad. La relación de interdependencia entre los aspectos pertenecientes a las prácticas sociales según (Giraldo y Halliday 2012, Shove et al., 2012, comprueba que el desarrollo de cada uno de ellos, afecta toda la práctica, lo cual requiere estudios profundos en cada segmento con el fin de crear, mejorar o destruir cualquier práctica social.

  2. Modeling aerosol surface chemistry and gas-particle interaction kinetics with K2-SURF: PAH oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraiwa, M.; Garland, R.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. They have the ability to impact cloud properties, radiative balance and provide surfaces for heterogeneous reactions. The uptake of gaseous species on aerosol surfaces impacts both the aerosol particles and the atmospheric budget of trace gases. These subsequent changes to the aerosol can in turn impact the aerosol chemical and physical properties. However, this uptake, as well as the impact on the aerosol, is not fully understood. This uncertainty is due not only to limited measurement data, but also a dearth of comprehensive and applicable modeling formalizations used for the analysis, interpretation and description of these heterogeneous processes. Without a common model framework, comparing and extrapolating experimental data is difficult. In this study, a novel kinetic surface model (K2-SURF) [Ammann & Pöschl, 2007; Pöschl et al., 2007] was used to describe the oxidation of a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Integrated into this consistent and universally applicable kinetic and thermodynamic process model are the concepts, terminologies and mathematical formalizations essential to the description of atmospherically relevant physicochemical processes involving organic and mixed organic-inorganic aerosols. Within this process model framework, a detailed master mechanism, simplified mechanism and parameterizations of atmospheric aerosol chemistry are being developed and integrated in analogy to existing mechanisms and parameterizations of atmospheric gas-phase chemistry. One of the key aspects to this model is the defining of a clear distinction between various layers of the particle and surrounding gas phase. The processes occurring at each layer can be fully described using known fluxes and kinetic parameters. Using this system there is a clear separation of gas phase, gas-surface and surface bulk transport and reactions. The partitioning of compounds can be calculated using the flux

  3. Butyltins, trace metals and morphological variables in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) wintering on the south coast of British Columbia, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J.E. [Environment Canada, Science and Technology Branch, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, 5421 Robertson Rd., RR1 Delta, British Columbia V4K 3N2 (Canada)]. E-mail: john.elliott@ec.gc.ca; Harris, M.L. [Lorax Environmental, 136 St. Catherine' s Rd, RR3 Bonshaw, Prince Edward Island C0A 1C0 (Canada); Wilson, L.K. [Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, 5421 Robertson Rd, RR1 Delta, British Columbia V4K 3N2 (Canada); Smith, B.D. [Environment Canada, Science and Technology Branch, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, 5421 Robertson Rd., RR1 Delta, British Columbia V4K 3N2 (Canada); Batchelor, S.P. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd., PO Box 5050, Burlington, Ontario L7R 4A6 (Canada); Maguire, J. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd., PO Box 5050, Burlington, Ontario L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2007-09-15

    From 1998 to 2001 we examined spatial and temporal variation in uptake of contaminants by surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) in the Georgia Basin region of the Pacific coast of Canada. Samples were collected during late fall and early spring at industrialized and reference locations, carcasses examined, and tissues collected for histology, biomarkers, and contaminant analyses. Scoters from both Vancouver and Victoria harbours had significantly higher hepatic concentrations of {sigma}butyltins than birds from a reference site. In adult male surf scoters, hepatic {sigma}butyltins increased over the winter at two sites (p = 0.02, n = 26), while mercury increased (p = 0.03, n = 15) and selenium decreased at one site (p = 0.001, n = 15). Body condition decreased over the winter at both the treatment site, Howe Sound (p < 0.0001, n = 12), and the reference site, Baynes Sound (p = 0.02, n = 15). Multiple regression analysis using Akaike's Information Criteria (AIC{sub C}) showed an association between hepatic butyltin concentrations and overall body condition (p = 0.06, r = - 0.237). - Hepatic butyltin concentrations in surf scoters increased significantly over a winter in the Strait of Georgia, and correlated negatively with body condition.

  4. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  5. QSAR Study and VolSurf Characterization of Human Intestinal Absorption of Druge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡桂香; 商志才; 等

    2003-01-01

    The prediction of human intestinal absorption is a major goal in the design,optimization,and selection of candidates for the develoment of oral drugs.In this study,a computerized method(VolSurf with GRID) was used as a novel tool for predicting human intestinal absorption of test compound,and for determining the critical molecular properties needed for human intestinal absorption.The tested molecules consisted of 20 diverse drug-like compounds.Partial least squares(PLS) discriminant analysis was used to correlate the experimental data with the theoretical molecular properties of human intestinal absorption.A good correlation(r2=0.95,q2=0.86) between the molecular modeling results and the experimental data demonstrated that human intestinal absorption could be predicted from the three-dimensional(3D) molecular structure of a compound .Favorable structureal properties identified for the potent intestinal absorption of drugs included strong imbalance between the center of mass of a molecule and the barycentre of its hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions and a definitive hydrophobic region as well as less hydrogen bonding donors and acceptors in the molecule.

  6. Hybrid Video Stabilization for Mobile Vehicle Detection on SURF in Aerial Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Chunxian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of moving vehicles in aerial video sequences is of great importance with many promising applications in surveillance, intelligence transportation, or public service applications such as emergency evacuation and policy security. However, vehicle detection is a challenging task due to global camera motion, low resolution of vehicles, and low contrast between vehicles and background. In this paper, we present a hybrid method to efficiently detect moving vehicle in aerial videos. Firstly, local feature extraction and matching were performed to estimate the global motion. It was demonstrated that the Speeded Up Robust Feature (SURF key points were more suitable for the stabilization task. Then, a list of dynamic pixels was obtained and grouped for different moving vehicles by comparing the different optical flow normal. To enhance the precision of detection, some preprocessing methods were applied to the surveillance system, such as road extraction and other features. A quantitative evaluation on real video sequences indicated that the proposed method improved the detection performance significantly.

  7. Enzyme as catalytic wheel powered by a Markovian engine: conformational coupling and barrier surfing models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsong, Tian Yow; Chang, Cheng-Hung

    2005-05-01

    We examine a typical Michaelis-Menten Enzyme (MME) and redress it to form a transducer of free energy, and electric, acoustic, or other types of energy. This amendment and extension is necessary in lieu of recent experiments in which enzymes are shown to perform pump, motor, and locomotion functions resembling their macroscopic counterparts. Classical textbook depicts enzyme, or an MME, as biocatalyst which can enhance the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering the activation barrier but cannot shift the thermodynamic equilibrium of the biochemical reaction. An energy transducer, on the other hand, must also be able to harvest, store, or divert energy and in doing so alter the chemical equilibrium, change the energy form, fuel an energy consuming process, or perform all these functions stepwise in one catalytic turnover. The catalytic wheel presented in this communication is both a catalyst and an energy transducer and can perform all these tasks with ease. A Conformational Coupling Model for the rotary motors and a Barrier Surfing Model for the track-guided stepping motors and transporters, are presented and compared. It is shown that the core engine of the catalytic wheel, or a Brownian motor, is a Markovian engine. It remains to be seen if this core engine is the basic mechanism for a wide variety of bio-molecular energy transducers, as well as certain other dynamic systems, for example, the Parrondo's Games.

  8. Use of microalgae to remove pollutants from power plant discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Edward W.; Benemann, John R.; Weissman, Joseph C.; Tillett, David M.

    1991-01-01

    A method and system for removing pollutants dissolved in the aqueous discharge of a plant, such as a power plant, from a body of water having known hydraulogy and physicochemical characteristics, the method comprising (a) modifying the hydraulic system of the body of water including use of physical barriers to define a zone in a portion of the body of water which zone includes the discharge point and where the water has a range of physicochemical characteristics; (b) selecting a large and preferably filamentous, planktonically growing strain of algae adapted to absorb the particular pollutants and genetically dominating algae at the physicochemical characteristics of the zone; (c) establishing a colony of the selected algal strain in the zone; (d) harvesting a portion of the colony; and (e) reinnoculating the zone near the discharge point with a fraction of the harvested portion. The fraction used for reinnoculation can be adjusted to balance the rate of pollutant removal to the rate of pollutant discharge.

  9. 3D-QSAR studies on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 substrates using the pharmacophore and VolSurf approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako, Roland; Dong, Dong; Wu, Baojian

    2012-09-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7) is an important enzyme responsible for clearance of many drugs. Here, we report two 3D quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for UGT2B7 using the pharmacophore and VolSurf approach, respectively. The dataset included 53 structurally diverse UGT2B7 substrates, 36 of which were used for the training set and 17 of which for the external test set. Pharmacophore-based 3D-QSAR model (or hypothesis) was developed using the Discovery Studio program. A user-defined "glucuronidation site" feature was forcefully included in a pharmacophore hypothesis. VolSurf-based 3D-QSAR model was generated using the VolSurf program. This involves calculation of VolSurf descriptors, variable selection with the FFD algorithm, and partial least squares (PLS) analyses. The best pharmacophore model (r(2) = 0.736) consists of one glucuronidation site, one hydrogen bond acceptor, and three hydrophobic regions. Using this model, K(m) values for 14 of 17 test substrates were predicted within one log unit. The yielded VolSurf (PLS) model with two components shows statistical significance in both fitting and internal predicting (r(2) = 0.866, q(2) = 0.728). Further, the K(m) values for all test substrates were predicted within one log unit. In addition, the VolSurf model reveals an overlay of chemical features influencing the enzyme-substrate binding. Those include molecular size and shape, integy moments, capacity factors, best volumes of DRY probe, H-bonding, and log P. In conclusion, the pharmacophore and VolSurf approaches are successfully utilized to establish predictive models for UGT2B7. The derived models should be an efficient tool for high throughput prediction of UGT2B7 metabolism.

  10. Zoning of rural water conservation in China: A case study at Ashihe River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the effective control of point source (PS pollution accomplished, water pollution problems caused by non-point source (NPS pollution have increased in recent years. The worsening agricultural NPS pollution has drawn the attention of the Chinese Government and researcher scientists and has resulted in the often mentioned “three red lines” on water resources management. One of the red lines is to control water pollution within a rational range. The Agricultural NPS pollution, which includes pollution from housing, and from livestock and crop production, is the main source. Based on the NPS pollution statutes, an index system for integrated evaluation of water quality, and a zoning scheme for rural water conservation were established. Using the method of one-dimensional Euclidean distance, this country is divided into 9 sub-zones at the provincial level, which are the first level zones. The zoning themes include natural resources, socio-economic development, water use efficiency, and pollutants emission intensity. According to pollution types of livestock, agriculture, or both, the first level zones are divided into 25 second level zones. The third class zoning is divided also based on pollution intensity of total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD. On the basis of the second level zoning, there were formed 70 rural water conservation third level zones. This case study in the Ashihe river watershed indicated that the main pollution sources are consistent with the zoning research result, and this zoning has shown a good way to guide the agricultural NPS pollution control in not only the wide rural area of China but also other parts of the world.

  11. The Internet Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐宁宁

    2005-01-01

    Life today has brought new problems. As we know, there are fourterrible pollutions in the world: water pollution, noise pollution, air pol-lution and rubbish pollution. Water pollution kills our fish and pollutesour drinking water. Noise pollution makes us talk louder and become angry more easily. Air pollution makes us hold our breath longer and be badto all living things in the world. Rubbish pollution often makes our livingenvironment much dirtier. But I think that the Internet pollution is anothernew pollution in the world.

  12. 近岸波浪作用下污染物运动数值研究%Numerical study of pollutant motion under water waves in near-shore zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王平; 张宁川

    2014-01-01

    The wave is an important hydrodynamics influence factor on pollutant transport and diffusion.In the process of wave propagation, the water perturbations would make the water turbulence factor increasing,and the wave-induced current by wave breaking would affect pollutant transport.By combining the near-shore wave model which is based on the wave action balance equation and the eikonal equation,the 3D current model and pollutant movement model,the change of dispersion coefficient in wave propagation and the transport of pollutants by wave-induced current are simulated.The coupled model is based on unstructured meshes,which is fit to simulate wave coupled with current and pollutant over the large-scale near-shore region.The numerical results are compared with analytical values and the experimental data to verify the accuracy and adaptability of the coupled model.%近岸波浪是影响污染物输移扩散的重要水动力因素之一。波浪对污染物输移扩散的影响主要有波浪扰动造成的水体紊动系数的增大和波浪破碎后形成的波生流对污染物输移作用。结合基于波作用守恒方程和光程函数方程的近岸波浪模型、三维水动力模型,以及污染物输移扩散模型,对波浪传播过程中污染物离散系数变化以及波浪破碎后形成的波生流中的污染物输移进行了数值模拟。模型基于非结构化网格,可用于大范围波流以及污染物的耦合计算。数值结果与解析值以及实验结果进行了对比,验证了模型的精度和适应性。

  13. Transport of gaseous pollutants around a human body in quiescent indoor environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Mioduszewski, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    (CBL) to transport the pollution in quiescent indoor environment. A human body is resembled by a thermal manikin with a body shape and surface temperature distribution of a real person. The objective of the study is to examine the impact of the pollutant location around the human body on the pollution...... concentration levels in the breathing zone. The results show that the location of the pollution source has a considerable influence of the breathing zone concentrations. This is contributed to the human CBL, as it pulls the pollution emitted close to the human body and transports it to the breathing zone...... the human body should be recognized in ventilation design practice....

  14. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  15. Estimate of Boundary-Layer Depth Over Beijing, China, Using Doppler Lidar Data During SURF-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meng; Gao, Zhiqiu; Miao, Shiguang; Chen, Fei; LeMone, Margaret A.; Li, Ju; Hu, Fei; Wang, Linlin

    2016-09-01

    Planetary boundary-layer (PBL) structure was investigated using observations from a Doppler lidar and the 325-m Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) meteorological tower in the centre of Beijing during the summer 2015 Study of Urban-impacts on Rainfall and Fog/haze (SURF-2015) field campaign. Using six fair-weather days of lidar and tower data under clear to cloudy skies, we evaluate the ability of the Doppler lidar to probe the urban boundary-layer structure, and then propose a composite method for estimating the diurnal cycle of the PBL depth using the Doppler lidar. For the convective boundary layer (CBL), a threshold method using vertical velocity variance (σ _w^2 >0.1 m2s^{-2}) is used, since it provides more reliable CBL depths than a conventional maximum wind-shear method. The nocturnal boundary-layer (NBL) depth is defined as the height at which σ _w^2 decreases to 10 % of its near-surface maximum minus a background variance. The PBL depths determined by combining these methods have average values ranging from ≈ 270 to ≈ 1500 m for the six days, with the greatest maximum depths associated with clear skies. Release of stored and anthropogenic heat contributes to the maintenance of turbulence until late evening, keeping the NBL near-neutral and deeper at night than would be expected over a natural surface. The NBL typically becomes more shallow with time, but grows in the presence of low-level nocturnal jets. While current results are promising, data over a broader range of conditions are needed to fully develop our PBL-depth algorithms.

  16. Estimate of Boundary-Layer Depth Over Beijing, China, Using Doppler Lidar Data During SURF-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meng; Gao, Zhiqiu; Miao, Shiguang; Chen, Fei; LeMone, Margaret A.; Li, Ju; Hu, Fei; Wang, Linlin

    2017-03-01

    Planetary boundary-layer (PBL) structure was investigated using observations from a Doppler lidar and the 325-m Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) meteorological tower in the centre of Beijing during the summer 2015 Study of Urban-impacts on Rainfall and Fog/haze (SURF-2015) field campaign. Using six fair-weather days of lidar and tower data under clear to cloudy skies, we evaluate the ability of the Doppler lidar to probe the urban boundary-layer structure, and then propose a composite method for estimating the diurnal cycle of the PBL depth using the Doppler lidar. For the convective boundary layer (CBL), a threshold method using vertical velocity variance (σ _w^2 >0.1 m2s^{-2}) is used, since it provides more reliable CBL depths than a conventional maximum wind-shear method. The nocturnal boundary-layer (NBL) depth is defined as the height at which σ _w^2 decreases to 10 % of its near-surface maximum minus a background variance. The PBL depths determined by combining these methods have average values ranging from ≈ 270 to ≈ 1500 m for the six days, with the greatest maximum depths associated with clear skies. Release of stored and anthropogenic heat contributes to the maintenance of turbulence until late evening, keeping the NBL near-neutral and deeper at night than would be expected over a natural surface. The NBL typically becomes more shallow with time, but grows in the presence of low-level nocturnal jets. While current results are promising, data over a broader range of conditions are needed to fully develop our PBL-depth algorithms.

  17. A computational method for the characteristics of pollutant mixing zone in rivers and the sewage outfall classification criteria Ⅰ. Principles and methods%河流污染混合区特性计算方法及排污口分类准则Ⅰ:原理与方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武周虎; 任杰; 黄真理; 武文

    2014-01-01

    在连续点源离岸排放条件下,从考虑河流纵向移流、横向扩散的简化二维方程解析解出发,对基于环境扩散的宽阔河流探讨了污染混合区的计算方法。给出了污染混合区边界曲线的标准方程及无量纲形式;分别给出了离岸系数0≤η≤2和η>2两种类型污染混合区5个特征点各参数及面积与离岸系数η的关系曲线,分析了各参数的变化规律,提出了以离岸系数η作为判据的分类参数和临界条件。给出了河流岸边、离岸与中心排放的分类判别准则:(1)当0≤η≤0.7时,简化为岸边(近岸)排放类型;(2)当0.7<η<2.3时,称为离岸排放类型;(3)当η≥2.3时,简化为中心排放类型。对河流离岸排放提出了达到全断面均匀混合距离的计算公式,比现行公式有所改进。为河流排污口位置的优化设计和控制排污量计算提供了分类、简便、快捷的理论方法,具有重要实用价值。%Upon the condition that continuous point source is discharged off-bank in rivers those are wide according to their environmental diffusion, calculation method for the pollutant-mixing zone was derived from the simplified two-dimensional transport equation which considers the longitudinal advection and trans-vers diffusion. Standard and non-dimensionalized equations for the boundary of the pollutant-mixing zone were obtained. Two kinds of pollutant-mixing zone were identified by the off-bank coefficient:0≤η≤2 and η>2. Relations between the five characteristic parameters, plus the area of the zone, and η were found. The changing pattern of the parameters was analyzed. The off-bank coefficient η was proposed as the classification parameter, providing the criteria for the categorization. The classification criteria for river bank,off-bank and river center discharge types are:① for 0≤η≤0.7,the outfall can be simplified as the type of river bank (near

  18. 社会生态视阈下的敏感区养殖污染治理分析%Analysis of livestock farming pollution control in ecologically sensitive areas through socio-ecological lens:A case of the water sourcing buffer zone of Xiqin Water Plant in Nanping City, Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜焱强; 孙小霞; 许佳贤; 苏时鹏

    2014-01-01

    染治理的新思路。%In livestock pollution control, the attitudes and behaviors of various stakeholders have not only been influenced by ecological and economic conditions and their interrelationships, but also directly affected the effectiveness of pollution management which is critical for sustainable development in rural regions. In order to improve the effectiveness and public participation in livestock pollution control in ecologically sensitive areas, this study explored a new idea of governance to effectively control pollution from livestock farms through socio-ecological lens by using the water sourcing buffer zone of Xiqin Water Plant in Nanping City (Fujian Province, China) as a case study. The Mitchell scoring method was used to identify and classify stakeholders. A theory-driven analytical framework was formulated to examine the differences in ecological, social and economic desires among different stakeholders, the relationship networks of pig farmers, village committee members and the general public, and the roles and impacts of these stakeholders in pollution governance. This framework was tested in an empirical analysis using data collected through face-to-face interviews and direct observations of 13 village committees and 111 households in the water sourcing zone of Xiqin Water Plant. Tobit regression was used to identify the factors influencing the attitudes of stakeholders toward pollution control in pig farming. Logistic regression was used to determine the factors influencing the behavior of stakeholders in controlling pollution. The results showed that the social, economic and ecological desires of stakeholders and their social networks had statistically significant impacts on governance decisions-making. Attitudes toward pollution control differed across stakeholders - pig farmers, upstream inhabitants and village committees preferred economic development while downstream inhabitants and village committees favored environmental protection. Village committees had

  19. utilisation des lichens comme bioindicateurs de la pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hydro

    Use of lichens as bioindicators of air pollution by lead, cadmium and zinc in the ... mainly road traffic and pottery emissions that, affect air quality. ...... Hetauda industrial area Narayani Zone Makwanpur district, Nepal”, Environmental Monitoring.

  20. Diseño de un programa de Surf recreativo enfocado a colectivos con Síndrome de Down de 6 a 10 años

    OpenAIRE

    Iriarte Gomara, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es diseñar un programa de surf recreativo enfocado a colectivos con Síndrome de Down de 6 a 10 años. El Síndrome de Down se define como una discapacidad intelectual causada por una alteración en el par de cromosomas 21 (OMS, 2011). Resulta de especial relevancia el tratamiento de dicha discapacidad de manera no farmacológica, destacando la actividad física, en este caso el surf, como elemento inclusivo a nivel físico, psicológico y social. Se analizan distintos pro...

  1. Characteristics of Organic Pollutants in the Sediments from a Typical Electronics Industrial Zone%典型电器工业区河涌沉积物中有机污染物特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘近; 邓代永; 许玫英; 孙国萍

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the contamination status of organic pollutants in a river of a typical electrical equipment industrial area, Ronggui, Foshan, the sediments were sampled for the composition, concentration and occurrence analysis of organic pollutants. The polar and non-polar fractionation methods were employed for the fingerprint establishment of organic pollutants. One hundred and seventy-one of organic chemicals including ten categories of alkanes, alkenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, heterocyclic compounds, phthalate esters, aldehydes, ketones, polar compounds, silicon-containing material as well as alkyl esters were examined. The number of different categories of the detected organic pollutants in a descending order was; alkanes > polar compounds > polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons > aldehydes and ketones > heterocyclic compounds > benzene homologues, phthalate ester > alkyl esters > silicon material > olefins. The abundance of detected organic pollutants in a descending order was; alkanes > polar compounds > alkyl esters > olefins > polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons > phthalates > silicon material > aldehydes and ketones > heterocyclic compounds > benzene homologues. Among the 51 kinds of alkanes detected, nonadecane accounted for 14.83% , and the persistent organic pollutants accounted for 2. 33% of the total organic matter. Compared to similar studies, there were 51 kinds of alkanes and they accounted for 55.5% of the total organic chemicals, showing high diversity and abundance. In addition, some electronics industry-related organic pollutants such as silicone materials were also detected in high frequency.%为评估制造业对纳污水体有机物的污染影响,了解污染河道中有机物的种类、含量及赋存特性,采用极性和非极性逐步分离的方法对广东佛山市顺德区容桂街道内河涌沉积物中的有机物进行了综合的物理图谱解析研究.结果表明,污染沉积物中共检出包括烷烃

  2. Groundwater Pollution from Underground Coal Gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In situ coal gasification poses a potential environmental risk to groundwater pollution although it depends mainly on local hydrogeological conditions.In our investigation, the possible processes of groundwater pollution originating from underground coal gasification (UCG) were analyzed.Typical pollutants were identified and pollution control measures are proposed.Groundwater pollution is caused by the diffusion and penetration of contaminants generated by underground gasification processes towards surrounding strata and the possible leaching of underground residue by natural groundwater flow after gasification.Typical organic pollutants include phenols, benzene, minor components such as PAHs and heterocyclics.Inorganic pollutants involve cations and anions.The natural groundwater flow after gasification through the seam is attributable to the migration of contaminants, which can be predicted by mathematical modeling.The extent and concentration of the groundwater pollution plume depend primarily on groundwater flow velocity, the degree of dispersion and the adsorption and reactions of the various contaminants.The adsorption function of coal and surrounding strata make a big contribution to the decrease of the contaminants over time and with the distance from the burn cavity.Possible pollution control measures regarding UCG include identifying a permanently, unsuitable zone, setting a hydraulic barrier and pumping contaminated water out for surface disposal.Mitigation measures during gasification processes and groundwater remediation after gasification are also proposed.

  3. Investigations of coastal zones using a modular amphibious vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeziulin, Denis; Makarov, Vladimir; Filatov, Valery; Beresnev, Pavel; Belyakov, Vladimir; Kurkin, Andrey

    2017-04-01

    The project aims to develop a means of verification of data on sea excitement derived from Autonomous mobile robotic system (AMRS) for coastal monitoring and forecasting marine natural disasters [Kurkin A., Pelinovsky E., Tyugin D., Giniyatullin A., Kurkina O., Belyakov V., Makarov V., Zeziulin D., Kuznetsov K. Autonomous Robotic System for Coastal Monitoring // Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on the Mediterranean Coastal Environment MEDCOAST. 2015. V. 2. P. 933-944]. The chassis of the developed remote-controlled modular amphibious vehicle (MAV) will be equipped with a video camera and a hydrostatic wave-plotting device with strings sensors mounted on the stationary body's supports. To track the position of the MAV there will be installed the navigation system in order to correct the measurement data. The peculiarity of the tricycle MAV is the ability to change its geometric parameters that will increase its stability to actions of destructive waves and mobility. In May-June 2016 authors took part in conducting field tests of the AMRS on the Gulf of Mordvinov (Sea of Okhotsk, Sakhalin Island). Participation in this expedition contributed to obtaining experimental data on the topography and the physical and mechanical properties of the surf zone of the most promising field of using the MAV as a road for its moving. Within the project there was developed a mathematical model of the MAV motion in coastal conditions taking into account the new analytical dependences describing the physical and mechanical characteristics of the ground surfaces and the landscape, as well as hydrodynamic effects of surf zones. The reasonable selection of rational parameters of the MAV and developing the methodology of creating effective vehicles for investigations of specific coastal areas of the Okhotsk Sea will be made by using the mathematical model.

  4. On the resonance hypothesis of storm surge and surf beat run-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postacioglu, Nazmi; Sinan Özeren, M.; Canlı, Umut

    2017-06-01

    Resonance has recently been proposed as the fundamental underlying mechanism that shapes the amplification in coastal run-up for storm surges and surf beats, which are long-wavelength disturbances created by fluid velocity differences between the wave groups and the regions outside the wave groups. It is without doubt that the resonance plays a role in run-up phenomena of various kinds; however, we think that the extent to which it plays its role has not been completely understood. For incident waves, which we assume to be linear, the best approach to investigate the role played by the resonance would be to calculate the normal modes by taking radiation damping into account and then testing how those modes are excited by the incident waves. Such modes diverge offshore, but they can still be used to calculate the run-up. There are a small number of previous works that attempt to calculate the resonant frequencies, but they do not relate the amplitudes of the normal modes to those of the incident wave. This is because, by not including radiation damping, they automatically induce a resonance that leads to infinite amplitudes, thus preventing them from predicting the exact contribution of the resonance to coastal run-up. In this study we consider two different coastal geometries: an infinitely wide beach with a constant slope connecting to a flat-bottomed deep ocean and a bay with sloping bottom, again, connected to a deep ocean. For the fully 1-D problem we find significant resonance if the bathymetric discontinuity is large.The linearisation of the seaward boundary condition leads to slightly smaller run-ups. For the 2-D ocean case the analysis shows that the wave confinement is very effective when the bay is narrow. The bay aspect ratio is the determining factor for the radiation damping. One reason why we include a bathymetric discontinuity is to mimic some natural settings where bays and gulfs may lead to abrupt depth gradients such as the Tokyo Bay. The other

  5. Interacting effects of latitude, mass, age, and sex on winter survival of Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata): Implications for differential migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Esler, Daniel N.; Iverson, Samuel A.; Ward, David; Boyd, Sean; Kirk, Molly; Lewis, Tyler L.; VanStratt, Corey S.; Brodhead, Katherine M.; Hupp, Jerry; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    We quantified variation in winter survival of Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata (L., 1758)) across nearly 30° of latitude on the Pacific coast of North America to evaluate potential effects on winter distributions, including observed differential distributions of age and sex classes. We monitored fates of 297 radio-marked Surf Scoters at three study sites: (1) near the northern periphery of their wintering range in southeast Alaska, USA, (2) the range core in British Columbia, Canada, and (3) the southern periphery in Baja California, Mexico. We detected 34 mortalities and determined that survival averaged lower at the range peripheries than in the range core, was lower during mid-winter than during late winter at all sites, and was positively correlated with body mass within locations. Although neither age nor sex class had direct effects, mass effects led to differential survival patterns among classes. When simultaneously incorporating these interacting influences, adult males of mean mass for their location had highest survival at the northern range periphery in Alaska, whereas adult females and juveniles had higher survival at the range core and the southern periphery. Our observations help to explain patterns of differential migration and distribution reported for this species and highlight seasonal periods (mid-winter) and locations (range peripheries) of elevated levels of mortality for demographically important age–sex classes (adult females).

  6. A Comprehensive Motion Estimation Technique for the Improvement of EIS Methods Based on the SURF Algorithm and Kalman Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xuemin; Hao, Qun; Xie, Mengdi

    2016-04-07

    Video stabilization is an important technology for removing undesired motion in videos. This paper presents a comprehensive motion estimation method for electronic image stabilization techniques, integrating the speeded up robust features (SURF) algorithm, modified random sample consensus (RANSAC), and the Kalman filter, and also taking camera scaling and conventional camera translation and rotation into full consideration. Using SURF in sub-pixel space, feature points were located and then matched. The false matched points were removed by modified RANSAC. Global motion was estimated by using the feature points and modified cascading parameters, which reduced the accumulated errors in a series of frames and improved the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) by 8.2 dB. A specific Kalman filter model was established by considering the movement and scaling of scenes. Finally, video stabilization was achieved with filtered motion parameters using the modified adjacent frame compensation. The experimental results proved that the target images were stabilized even when the vibrating amplitudes of the video become increasingly large.

  7. Strengthening Coastal Pollution Management in the Wider Caribbean Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavieren, van H.; Metcalfe, C.D.; Drouillard, K.; Sale, P.; Gold-Bouchot, G.; Reid, R.; Vermeulen, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Control of aquatic pollution is critical for improving coastal zone management and for the conservation of fisheries resources. Countries in the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR) generally lack monitoring capacity and do not have reliable information on the levels and distribution of pollutants, particul

  8. Strengthening Coastal Pollution Management in the Wider Caribbean Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavieren, van H.; Metcalfe, C.D.; Drouillard, K.; Sale, P.; Gold-Bouchot, G.; Reid, R.; Vermeulen, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Control of aquatic pollution is critical for improving coastal zone management and for the conservation of fisheries resources. Countries in the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR) generally lack monitoring capacity and do not have reliable information on the levels and distribution of pollutants, particul

  9. Breaking of storm waves on sand and reef zone in the Lesser Antilles Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorville, Jean-François; Berthelot, Hugues; Zahibo, Narcisse

    2010-05-01

    The most part of the exposed coastal zone of the Lesser Antilles Arc are composed by sand and coral reef. The high frequencies of passage of cyclones near these islands and anticyclone's swell subject them to waves of large amplitude. These waves are 4 to 5 times lager to the normal conditions. The weak slopes observed on these zones are particularly sensitive to this type of waves and cause the process of surfing. The mode of dissipation of these waves influenced the run-up and the floods on the coast. The surf zones are situated in 5 in 20 meters of the line of coast. A displacement of sea water towards the coast line is provoked by the breaking of the waves. These quantities of water are held by the particularly bathymetry of these islands and provoke a raised of the sea level. The propagation of the waves are allowed by the sea elevation in the surf zone In the evaluation of the marine risk in the Lesser Antilles Arc, a model of sea state forecast are developed in the Laboratory of Geosciences and Energy (LaRGE) in the French West Indies and French Guiana University (Guadeloupe , FWI). This forecast model is based on the coupling of several numerical models. WaveWatch III and SWAN are used for the wave propagation on large and small sectors. An ocean circulation model based on POM is used to evaluate the sea current and the sea level. To improve the forecasts on the exposed coast, in the zone included between the surf and swash, the sea elevation induced by the large amplitude wave are particularly studies. The numerical model of wave propagation near the coast SWAN is used to determine the sea state before the surf zone. The dissipation and the breaking of the large amplitude waves are studied with the spectral values give by SWAN and the local conditions (bathymetry, sea level, slope, bottom friction). During the months of November and December 2009, several large amplitude waves, coming from the North Atlantic Ocean, impact the west coast of Guadeloupe. The

  10. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  11. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us As ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Lead Air Pollution Basics How does lead get ...

  12. 蔗糖改性纳米铁原位反应带对硝基苯污染的模拟修复研究%Simulated remediation for nitrobenzene pollution with in-situ reactive zone of sucrose-modified nanoscale zero valent iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卉; 赵勇胜; 韩占涛; 张威

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the remediation effeciency for nitrobenzene pollution, in-situ reactive zone of modified nanosale zero valent iron was created in one-dimensional simulation columns using prepared slurry, and the persistence of its function was also assessed through the calculation of permeability change. The results of simulated experiments show that the removal efficiency of nitrobenzene was 45%~80%, and the changing process of the permeability of the reactive zone could be divided into thress stages: rapid decline in 0~10d, slow decline in 10~30 d and stable stage in 30~60d with average decrease of 53.2%. Still, the reactive zone kept favourable operation without blocking in different aquifer conditions, which proved that the zone of SM-NZVI could continue to remediate availably. Larger particle size of aquifer medium and suspension concentration resulted in higher degradation efficiency of nitrobenzene which increased by 23.7% and 13.7%, respectively. However, higher flow velocity of underground water and pollutant concentration were adverse to the removal of nitrobenzene which both decreased by 46.8% or so. The ratio of iron to nitrobenzene participating in the reaction actually in each zone was 11.2, 17.9, 12.6, 3.3 and 25.7, respectively, it means that the utilization percentage of SM-NZVI particles was relatively low and thus excess suspension should be injected to the underground for ideal remediation results.%在一维模拟装置中创建改性纳米铁原位反应带,研究反应带对硝基苯污染的修复情况,并通过反应带渗透性变化对其可持续修复能力进行评估.模拟试验结果表明:不同条件下硝基苯的去除率为45%~80%;反应带渗透性变化过程按时间分为3个阶段,分别是0~10d的快速下降期、10~30d的缓慢下降期和30~60d的稳定期,平均下降了53.2%,堵塞现象未发生,反应带可持续修复能力较好.较大的介质粒径和浆液浓度使污染物降解效率增加,硝

  13. On the use of the fictitious wave steepness and related surf-similarity parameters in methods that describe the hydraulic and structural response to waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heineke, D.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the hydraulic performance of coastal structures - viz. wave run-up, overtopping and reflection - and to evaluate the stability of the armour layers, use is made of the dimensionless surf similarity parameter, as introduced by Battjes (1974). The front side slope of the structure and the wa

  14. On the use of the fictitious wave steepness and related surf-similarity parameters in methods that describe the hydraulic and structural response to waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heineke, D.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the hydraulic performance of coastal structures - viz. wave run-up, overtopping and reflection - and to evaluate the stability of the armour layers, use is made of the dimensionless surf similarity parameter, as introduced by Battjes (1974). The front side slope of the structure and the

  15. USCG Vessel Pollution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  16. USCG Facility Pollution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  17. Distribution of Urban Soil Heavy Metal and Pollution Evaluation in Different Functional Zones of Yinchuan City%基于 GIS 的银川市不同功能区土壤重金属污染评价及分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王幼奇; 白一茹; 王建宇

    2016-01-01

    Surface soil samples (0- 20 cm) from eight different functional areas in Yinchuan city were collected. There were 10 samples respectively in each functional area. The urban soil heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cu and Cr) pollution characteristics and sources in eight different functional areas were evaluated by mathematical statistics and geostatistical analysis method. Meanwhile, the spatial distributions of heavy metals based on the geography information system (GIS) were plotted. The average values of total Zn, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cu and Cr were 74. 87, 0. 15, 29. 02, 553. 55, 40. 37 and 80. 79 mg•kg - 1 , respectively. The results showed that the average value of soil heavy metals was higher than the soil background value of Ningxia, which indicated accumulation of the heavy metals in urban soil. The single factor pollution index of soil heavy metals was in the sequence of Cu > Pb > Zn > Cr > Cd > Mn. The average values of total Zn, Cd, Pb and Cr were higher in north east, south west and central city, while the average values of Mn and Cu were higher in north east and central city. There was moderate pollution in road and industrial area of Yinchuan, while the other functional areas showed slight pollution according to Nemoro synthesis index. The pollution degree of different functional areas was as follows: road > industrial area > business district > medical treatment area > residential area > public park > development zone > science and education area. The results indicated that the soil heavy metal pollution condition in Yinchuan City has been affected by human activities with the development of economy.%以银川市8种不同城市功能区表层土壤(0~20 cm)为研究对象,每个功能区各采集10个土样,共80个样.通过数理统计和地统计学方法,分析和评价银川市区不同功能区土壤重金属 Zn、 Cd、 Pb、 Mn、 Cu 和 Cr 污染现状及其来源,并在 GIS 支持下绘制土壤重金属含量空间

  18. Use of modular amphibious vehicles for conducting research in coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeziulin, Denis; Makarov, Vladimir; Belyaev, Alexander; Beresnev, Pavel; Kurkin, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    The project aims to create workable running systems of research complexes, moving along the bottom of coastal areas (in shallow waters) for investigation of waves, currents, sediment transport; investigation of ecosystems and biodiversity assessment of organisms; inspection and monitoring environmental conditions and anthropogenic load on nature; bathymetric studies. With all the variety of functional capabilities of modern robotic systems, possibilities of their application in the context of the study of coastal zones are extremely limited. Conducting research using aerial vehicles is limited to safety conditions of flight. Use of floating robotic systems in environmental monitoring and ecosystem research is only possible in conditions of relatively «soft» wave climate of the coastal zone. For these purposes, there are special amphibians such as remote-controlled vehicle Surf Rover [Daily, William R., Mark A. Johnson, and Daniel A. Oslecki. «Initial Development of an Amphibious ROV for Use in Big Surf.» Marine Technology Society 28.1 (1994): 3-10. Print.], mobile system MARC-1 [«The SPROV'er.» Florida Institute of Technology: Department of Marine and. Environmental Systems. Web. 05 May 2010.]. The paper describes methodological approaches to the selection of the design parameters of a new system.

  19. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-12-01

    Air pollution conditions in Iwakuni city were monitored at 9 monitoring stations, and 21 locations where sulfur oxides were measured by the lead peroxide candle method, and 13 locations where particulates concentrations were determined by the deposit cage method. The average SO/sub x/ concentrations in 1973 measured by the lead peroxide candle method ranged from 0.17 mg sulfur trioxide/day/100 sq cm at the Miso Office to 0.58 mg SO/sub 3//day/100 sq cm at Mitsui Sekiyu Shataku. The average SO/sub x/ concentrations measured by the conductivity method ranged from 0.021 ppM at Kazuki Kominkan to 0.037 ppM at the Higashi Fire Department. Only 58% of a total of 264 measurement days gave hourly average concentrations below the environmental standard of 0.04 ppM at the Higashi Fire Deparment. The average airborne particulate concentrations ranged from 0.050 mg/cu m at Totsu Kominkan to 0.056 mg/cu at the Higashi Fire Department. The average nitrogen oxides concentrations measured by the Saltzman method ranged from 0.007 ppM to 0.061 ppM. The average oxidant concentrations at the Iwakuni Municipal Office and Kazuki Kominkan were 0.028 ppM and 0.037 ppM, respectively.

  20. 土壤重金属污染及潜在生态风险评价——以山东半岛蓝色经济区为例%Characteristics of heavy metals pollution in soil and potential ecological risk assessment-a case study of Blue Economic Zone of Shandong Peninsula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代杰瑞; 胡雪平; 王增辉

    2013-01-01

    This paper intends to present a renovated method in hoping to help to make rough evaluation of the heavy metal pollution in the surface soil to solve the ever-worsening soil-contaminated problem in the process of its development. For our research purpose, we have redefined the potential environmental contamination indexes proposed by Hakanson, an expert from Sweden, and worked out the potential hazards of heavy metals to the surface soil. The method we have developed is to investigate the ecological environment effect of heavy metals on the soil of Blue Economic Zone of Shandong Peninsula. The results of our surveying investigation demonstrate that the most serious contamination element is Hg, followed by Cd, Cu, Pb. Thus, heavy metal contamination in the soil as a result of investigation can be stated in a degrading order of Hg > Cd > Cu > Pb > Zn > Cr > As. And, from the point of view of the potential environment risks or hazards of such metals to the environment can be illustrated in an order of Hg > Cd > As > Pb > Cu > Cr > Zn. Generally speaking, the heavy metal pollution situation taking place in the Zone, tends to cause 13.75% soil of the zone suffering from high potential environment risk. The combined contamination damage is characterized by Hg and Cd, scattering in the area of Laizhou-Zhaoyuan-Yantai and Mouping-Rushan areas of gold mines and towns with a large size of population. The safety crop production in the above areas has already been noticeably affected. Therefore, it is of urgent need to take into full account the geological background and human activities (including pollution and contamination from gold exploration, industrial development, the urban sprawling with its dense population), for these are the main factors causing such high potential environment hazards in the corresponding areas.%以山东半岛蓝色经济区土壤为对象,研究土壤中重金属污染的特征,采用Hakanson潜在生态危害指数法评价土壤中重金属的

  1. Modified boundary conditions and field equations for a 2D surf beat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petit, H.A.H.; Klopman, G.; Battjes, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    This progress report refers to work done at the Fluid IVlechanics Section within the framework of the Netherlands Centre for Coastal Research (NCK). In the coastal zone the long wave motion may contribute significantly to the morpho-dynamics, due to its strong correlation with the short wave motion

  2. 76 FR 65180 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application to Shuck Surf Clams/Ocean Quahogs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the Northeastern United States through the Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean...). Affected Public: Business or other for-profit organizations. Estimated Number of Respondents: 205... proposed collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the...

  3. Zoning Districts, Zoning, Published in 2002, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Zoning Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2002. It is described as 'Zoning'. Data by this publisher are often...

  4. Light Pollution: The Global View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, H. E.

    2003-04-01

    It is only since recent years that the importance of the effects of outdoor lighting on the night-time environment and on the physical and mental health of humans is recognized on a wider scale. The related issue of light pollution is a particularly complex one, with potential conflicts of interest between the utilities, environmentalists, astronomers, the lighting industry and various government departments. Energy politics are always a sensitive issue, and light pollution is no exception to this rule. The effects of light pollution on flora, fauna -including humans and their widely varying night-time activities- are often subtle and need extensive field studies to be quantified in a sensible manner. The present conference, initiated by Commission 50 of the International Astronomical Union, is an attempt to bring together the astronomical community, the lighting industry, end-users, the utilities, and public authorities for a discussion and an exchange of ideas and information that will create goodwill among these groups and will thus contribute to making the global efforts to reduce pollution more efficient and effective. Radio frequency pollution was also discussed in the context of radio astronomy and its efforts to create radio-quiet zones in collaboration with the government authorities that allocate frequency bands to the various users -mainly the telecommunications industry- and to protect the major planned and present radio observatories of the world. The 3-day conference was attended by more than 130 representatives from 12 countries of all the above-mentioned groups, and a wide range of topics was discussed. Some of the highlights were: The presentation of the 1st world atlas of artificial night sky brightness (Cinzano et al.); the article by the International Darksky Association on their world-wide efforts to curb light pollution (Alvarez del Castillo et al.); the laws controlling light pollution implemented in Spain (Diaz et al.) and Chile (Sanhueza et

  5. Recomendações de Gestão dos Recifes Artificiais para a Prática do Surfe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Moraes Ocke

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Os recifes artificiais são estruturas afundadas em ambiente marinho a fim de oferecer múltiplos usos e beneficiar um maior número de usuários. Entretanto, sua capacidade de propiciar melhores condições de surfe tem sido a principal característica atrativa para experiências já realizadas em alguns países do mundo. Neste contexto, esta pesquisa tem o objetivo de apresentar um conjunto de recomendações que possam contribuir com gestores públicos e privados que planejam incluir a implantação de recifes artificiais tendo como foco a melhoria nas condições de surfe em suas localidades. Para tanto, esta pesquisa qualitativa exploratória se desenvolve a partir de breve revisão teórica sobre o tema e de um estudo de casos múltiplos – Austrália, Estados Unidos, Nova Zelândia, India e Inglaterra - para sustentar o raciocínio. Os resultados incluem o caráter inovador deste tipo de estrutura demandando um aprimoramento nos métodos de construção e gestão, programas de monitoramento de longo prazo para avaliação de eficácia, desafios na integração de usuários, participação pública nas diferentes etapas do processo, gestão das expectativas dos mercados envolvidos. Uma vez que poucos estudos referentes ao tema foram desenvolvidos até o presente momento, as análises presentes neste trabalho podem contribuir com o preenchimento desta lacuna no conhecimento.

  6. Pollution management system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A pollution management system comprises an array of one or more inlets and at least one outlet. The one or more inlets are arranged to collect polluted air and supply said polluted air to a polluted air treatment element. The one or more inlets each comprise a respective inlet sensor for measuring...... a level of pollution at the inlet, and the at least one outlet comprises an outlet sensor for measuring a level of pollution at the outlet. The inlet sensors and the outlet sensor are arranged to provide feedback to the polluted air treatment element....

  7. Spatial variation and source apportionment of water pollution in Qiantang River (China) using statistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fang; Wang, Xiaoquan; Lou, Liping; Zhou, Zhiqing; Wu, Jiaping

    2010-03-01

    Understanding the spatial distribution and apportioning the sources of water pollution are important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this work, we considered data for 13 water quality variables collected during the year 2004 at 46 monitoring sites along the Qiantang River (China). Fuzzy comprehensive analysis categorized the data into three major pollution zones (low, moderate, and high) based on national quality standards for surface waters, China. Most sites classified as "low pollution zones" (LP) occurred in the main river channel, whereas those classified as "moderate and high pollution zones" (MP and HP, respectively) occurred in the tributaries. Factor analysis identified two potential pollution sources that explained 67% of the total variance in LP, two potential pollution sources that explained 73% of the total variance in MP, and three potential pollution sources that explained 80% of the total variance in HP. UNMIX was used to estimate contributions from identified pollution sources to each water quality variable and each monitoring site. Most water quality variables were influenced primarily by pollution due to industrial wastewater, agricultural activities and urban runoff. In LP, non-point source pollution such as agricultural runoff and urban runoff dominated; in MP and HP, mixed source pollution dominated. The pollution in the small tributaries was more serious than that in the main channel. These results provide information for developing better pollution control strategies for the Qiantang River.

  8. Theoretical molecular descriptors relevant to the uptake of persistent organic pollutants from soil by zucchini. A QSAR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordás, Barna; Bélai, Iván; Koomíves, Tamás

    2011-04-13

    The uptake of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from soil by plants allows the development of phytoremediation protocols to rehabilitate contaminated areas. The use of diverse theoretical descriptors has been reported in the literature for developing quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for predicting the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of POPs in different plants. In this paper an evaluation is given on the molecular properties of POPs in terms of theoretical molecular descriptors that are relevant to the uptake and accumulation of these persistent pollutants from soil by two zucchini varieties. Statistically significant and predictive linear regression models have been developed for the BCF values of 20 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans and 14 polyhalogenated biphenyls in two zucchini varieties based on retrospective data. The relevant parameters have been selected from a set of 1660 DRAGON, 150 VolSurf, and 11 quantum chemical descriptors. The two most significant regression models, containing VolSurf, DRAGON GETAWAY, and quantum chemical descriptors, displayed the following statistical parameters: (eq 3) n = 27, R(2) = 0.940, q(2) = 0.922, SE = 0.155, F = 392.1; (eq 4) n = 27, R(2) = 0.921, q(2) = 0.898, SE = 0.161, F = 140.4. Predictive capabilities of the equations have been validated by using external validation sets. The QSAR models proposed might contribute to the development of viable soil remediation strategies.

  9. [Physical process based risk assessment of groundwater pollution in the mining area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fa-Sheng; Cheng, Pin; Zhang, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Case studies of groundwater pollution risk assessment at home and abroad generally start from groundwater vulnerability, without considering the influence of characteristic pollutants on the consequences of pollution too much. Vulnerability is the natural sensitivity of the environment to pollutants. Risk assessment of groundwater pollution should reflect the movement and distribution of pollutants in groundwater. In order to improve the risk assessment theory and method of groundwater pollution, a physical process based risk assessment methodology for groundwater pollution was proposed in a mining area. According to the sensitivity of the economic and social conditions and the possible distribution of pollutants in the future, the spatial distribution of risk levels in aquifer was ranged before hand, and the pollutant source intensity corresponding to each risk level was deduced accordingly. By taking it as the criterion for the classification of groundwater pollution risk assessment, the groundwater pollution risk in the mining area was evaluated by simulating the migration of pollutants in the vadose zone and aquifer. The result show that the risk assessment method of groundwater pollution based on physical process can give the concentration distribution of pollutants and the risk level in the spatial and temporal. For single punctuate polluted area, it gives detailed risk characterization, which is better than the risk assessment method that based on aquifer intrinsic vulnerability index, and it is applicable to the risk assessment of existing polluted sites, optimizing the future sites and providing design parameters for the site construction.

  10. Optimal pollution trading without pollution reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many kinds of water pollution occur in pulses, e.g., agricultural and urban runoff. Ecosystems, such as wetlands, can serve to regulate these pulses and smooth pollution distributions over time. This smoothing reduces total environmental damages when “instantaneous” damages are m...

  11. Optimal pollution trading without pollution reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many kinds of water pollution occur in pulses, e.g., agricultural and urban runoff. Ecosystems, such as wetlands, can serve to regulate these pulses and smooth pollution distributions over time. This smoothing reduces total environmental damages when “instantaneous” damages are m...

  12. Types of ectomycorrhizae and mycobioindication of forest site pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraigher, H.; Batic, F.; Agerer, R. [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1996-12-31

    Types of ectomycorrhizae on Norway spruce were determined in soil cores from two differently polluted forest research plots from the emission zone of the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant (TPP), Slovenia. 17 types of ectomycorrhizae were determined on 28443 root tips in soil cores from the polluted plot (Zavodnje). On the less polluted plot (Mislinja) 24 different types were determined on 38502 root tips in equal volume and number, of soil cores. In the discussion of mycobioindication of forest site pollution the authors employed a supposedly pollution sensitive (Hydnum rufescens), and supposedly unsensitive (Paxillus involutus) fungal species in ectomycorrhizae. However, further screening of comparable forest sites differently influenced by pollution is needed to confirm the choice of species.

  13. Exploring Oil Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses damages of oil tanker spillage to the marine organisms and scientists' research in oil pollution removal techniques. Included is a list of learning activities concerning the causes and effects of oil pollution and methods of solving the problem. (CC)

  14. Pollution of coastal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    cities. Various types of wastes, if not properly treated, would cause serious pollution of these shallow seas endangering marine life and spoiling recreational facilities. Different polluting agents like sewage, chemicals, industrial coolants etc...

  15. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  16. Nonpoint Source Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccoy, Nicholas; Chao, Bing; Gang, Daniel Dianchen

    2015-10-01

    The article presents a comprehensive review of research advancing in 2014 on nonpoint source pollution (NPS). The topics presented relate to nonpoint source pollution (NPS) within agricultural and urban areas. NPS pollution from agricultural areas is the main focus in this review. Management of NPS in agricultural, urban and rural areas is presented. Modeling of NPS pollution in different watersheds with various modeling tools is reviewed.

  17. Air pollution and society

    OpenAIRE

    Brimblecombe P.

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  18. Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

  19. The Other Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

  20. Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

  1. The Other Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

  2. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  3. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  4. Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Model Application for OSAT3 Guidance: Surf-zone integrated alongshore potential flux for oil-sand balls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a method for estimating the mobility and potential alongshore transport of heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates...

  5. Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Model Application for OSAT3 Guidance: Surf-zone integrated alongshore potential flux for oil-sand balls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a method for estimating the mobility and potential alongshore transport of heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates...

  6. The Design and Implementation of a Semi-Autonomous Surf-Zone Robot Using Advanced Sensors and a Common Robot Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    the entire robot. The torque of the motor and gearing allowed the tail to lift the entire rear of the robot. Dynamic tests were conducted to...associated drive assembly. Each assem- bly contains a belt and pulley configuration that transfers torque from the drive assembly to each WhegTM. It...watertight integrity of the overall design. This single unit will encase the servo drive gears shielding it from debris and sand and thus preventing damage

  7. Wave breaking in the surf zone and deep-water in a non-hydrostatic RANS model. Part 1: Organized wave motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhti, Morteza; Kirby, James T.; Shi, Fengyan; Ma, Gangfeng

    2016-11-01

    We examine wave-breaking predictions ranging from shallow- to deep-water conditions using a non-hydrostatic σ-coordinate RANS model NHWAVE as described in Derakhti et al. (2016a), comparing results both with corresponding experiments and with the results of a volume-of-fluid (VOF)/Navier-Stokes solver (Ma et al., 2011; Derakhti and Kirby, 2014a,b). Our study includes regular and irregular depth-limited breaking waves on planar and barred beaches as well as steepness-limited unsteady breaking focused wave packets in intermediate and deep water. In Part 1 of this paper, it is shown that the model resolves organized wave motions in terms of free-surface evolution, spectral evolution, organized wave velocity evolution and wave statistics, using a few vertical σ-levels. In addition, the relative contribution of modeled physical dissipation and numerical dissipation to the integral breaking-induced wave energy loss is discussed. In steepness-limited unsteady breaking focused wave packets, the turbulence model has not been triggered, and all the dissipation is imposed indirectly by the numerical scheme. Although the total wave-breaking-induced energy dissipation is underestimated in the unsteady wave packets, the model is capable of predicting the dispersive and nonlinear properties of different wave packet components before and after the break point, as well as the overall wave height decay and the evolution of organized wave velocity field and power spectrum density over the breaking region. In Part 2 (Derakhti et al., 2016b), model reproduction of wave-breaking-induced turbulence and mean circulation is examined in detail. The same equations and numerical methods are used for the various depth regimes, and no ad-hoc treatment, such as imposing hydrostatic conditions, is involved in triggering breaking. Vertical grid resolution in all simulated cases is at least an order of magnitude coarser than that of typical VOF-based simulations.

  8. A study on the air pollution related human diseases in Thiruvananthapuram City, Kerala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bency, K.T.; Jansy, J.; Thakappan, B.; Kumar, B.; Sreelekha, T.T.; Hareendran, N.K.; Nair, P.K.K.; Krishnan Nair, M. [National Inst. of Environmental Health, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India). Regional Cancer Centre

    2005-07-01

    This paper contains the results of a study that examined the impacts of air pollution on human health in Thiruvananthapuram City, India. The study compared health impacts arising from air pollution in three different zones including residential, commercial, and industrial. The paper presents the findings from the study according to each of these zones and presents conclusions.The study found that each zone had its individual environmental problems which were characterized by specific diseases. In the residential zone, there was a prevalence of diseases such as breast cancer and cardiac-related problems as well as dietary problems linked to obesity. In the industrial zone, respiratory illnesses related to air pollution were prevalent. Cardiac and vector-borne diseases, related to environmental hazards like waste water stagnation, dust and solid waste problem, were high in the commercial zone. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  9. [Atopy, environmental pollution and respiratory function. Study of 1000 children from 2 areas of the city of Naples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, L; Della Pietra, B; Striano, S; Vuilleumier, P; Principe, A M; Vignone, G; Poeta, F; Balzano, N

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the chronic respiratory deficiency in childhood caused by two possible motives: allergy and ambiental pollution. We executed aerial samples in two zones of Naples, one (USL 45) with heavy pollution because many factories present and other with slight pollution (USL 40). The authors calculated the PEF (Peak Expiratory Flow at the first second) and in a group of subject also the spirometric values, in two groups of subjects, one of atopic children and in the other of non atopic children. The study showed a greater number of atopic subjects with abnormal PEF in the zone with heavy pollution; in non atopic children the abnormal PEF was greater in the zone with heavy pollution (35.2%) in comparison with slight pollution zone (3%).

  10. The information content of high-frequency environmental monitoring data signals pollution events in the coastal ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Youngsul; Sanders, Brett F; Grant, Stanley B

    2006-10-15

    There are an increasing number of coastal ocean observing systems that deploy new technology for environmental sensing and stream these data in near-real-time to end-users (e.g., scientists and coastal managers) via the worldwide web. The temporal resolution, spatial coverage, and accessibility of these data open up new opportunities for better understanding and managing the coastal ocean, but they also present enormous challenges relative to data processing and data interpretation, particularly in cases where these data are to inform rapid management decision making. Here we demonstrate that changes in surf zone water quality at a popular beach in southern California are signaled by changes in the Fisher Information and Shannon Entropy of high frequency (1/4 min(-1)) measurements of salinity and temperature in the surf zone. These results support the hypothesis that the information content of environmental signals, such as salinity and temperature, can be used to identify changes in the water quality of the coastal ocean. More generally, the approach described here-of using information theory indices calculated from monitoring data as real-time indicators of environmental change-is quite general, and may therefore be applicable to other situations where rapid management decisions are based on high-frequency measurements of environmental parameters.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION MAPS ON KEY PLOT OF KRASNOYARSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Bozhilina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper suggested the construction of a comprehensive air pollution map as an example of the key area of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. To create a map developed an original technique for limiting emissions spread zones in the atmosphere from industrial plants near the cities on the basis of climatic data. The proposed method is based on taking into account the repeatability wind speed and direction and length of time of pollutants in the atmosphere. The used methods of cartographic representation – quantitative background (emissions per unit area within the zones of the potential spread of contaminants, localized diagrams (emissions and air pollution index for the city, contour lines (the value of air pollution potential. Using an integrated map allows you to specify the impact of the transfer of pollutants in the formation of the level of pollution in the city, together with the volumes and values of emissions of air pollution potential.

  12. As transport characterization in the vadose zone of the soil : a combined study between field and laboratory experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Julien; Rollin, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metals are major soil pollutants since a lot of former industrial soils are polluted by these contaminants. In the context of risk assessment of contaminated sites, they are of particular concerns because of their toxicity toward human beings. Nevertheless, the vadose zone of the soil is not taken into consideration in this kind of studies though this is where the pollution enters the soil. That is why mechanisms responsible for trace element release in the unsaturated zone of the soil ...

  13. Identification and spatial patterns of coastal water pollution sources based on GIS and chemometric approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Feng; GUO Huai-cheng; LIU Yong; HAO Ze-jia

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive and joint applications of GIS and chemometric approach were applied in identification and spatial patterns of coastal water pollution sources with a large data set (5 years (2000-2004), 17 parameters) obtained through coastal water monitoring of Southern Water Control Zone in Hong Kong. According to cluster analysis the pollution degree was significantly different between September-next May (the 1st period) and June-August (the 2nd period). Based on these results, four potential pollution sources, such as organic/eutrophication pollution, natural pollution, mineral/anthropic pollution and fecal pollution were identified by factor analysis/principal component analysis. Then the factor scores of each monitoring site were analyzed using inverse distance weighting method, and the results indicated degree of the influence by various potential pollution sources differed among the monitoring sites. This study indicated that hybrid approach was useful and effective for identification of coastal water pollution source and spatial pattern.

  14. Sensing land pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Land pollution is described in numerous ways by various societies. Pollutants of land are material by-products of human activity and range from environmentally ineffective to positively toxic. The pollution of land by man is centuries old and correlates directly with economy, technology and population. In order to remotely sense land pollution, standards or thresholds must be established. Examples of the potential for sensing land pollution and quality are presented. The technological capabilities for remotely sensed land quality is far advanced over the judgment on how to use the sensed data. Until authoritative and directive decisions on land pollution policy are made, sensing of pollutants will be a random, local and academic affair.

  15. Feature description with SIFT, SURF, BRIEF, BRISK, or FREAK? A general question answered for bone age assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, Muhammad; Deserno, Thomas M; Haak, Daniel; Jonas, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Solving problems in medical image processing is either generic (being applicable to many problems) or specific (optimized for a certain task). For example, bone age assessment (BAA) on hand radiographs is a frequent but cumbersome task for radiologists. For this problem, many specific solutions have been proposed. However, general-purpose feature descriptors are used in many computer vision applications. Hence, the aim of this study is (i) to compare the five leading keypoint descriptors on BAA, and, in doing so, (ii) presenting a generic approach for a specific task. Two methods for keypoint selection were applied: sparse and dense feature points. For each type, SIFT, SURF, BRIEF, BRISK, and FREAK feature descriptors were extracted within the epiphyseal regions of interest (eROI). Classification was performed using a support vector machine. Reference data (1101 radiographs) of the University of Southern California was used for 5-fold cross-validation. The data was grouped into 30 classes representing the bone age range of 0-18 years. With a mean error of 0.605 years, dense SIFT gave best results and outperforms all published methods. The accuracy was 98.36% within the range of 2 years. Dense SIFT represents a generic method for a specific question.

  16. Rancang Bangun Game Aksi dengan Integrasi dan Pengenalan Gambar Menggunakan Algoritma Ekstraksi Fitur SURF dan Klasifikasi SVM pada Perangkat Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Nandriawan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Saat ini perangkat mobile berbasis Android dan iOS sangat digemari oleh anak-anak. Mereka yang telah memiliki perangkat mobile akan menghabiskan seluruh waktunya untuk menatap layar perangkat saat bermain. Akibat yang ditimbulkan adalah penurunan kesehatan mata dan kurangnya bersosialisasi dengan teman sebaya. Menggambar adalah hal yang disukai anak-anak. Dengan menggabungkan menggambar dengan permainan perangkat mobile, anak-anak akan tetap merasa bermain meski mereka sedang tidak menatap layar untuk menggambar. Tugas akhir ini bertujuan untuk membangun sebuah permainan yang dapat mengenali gambar dan menggunakan gambar tersebut dalam permainan. Metode pengenalan gambar dalam tugas akhir ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode Edge Detection dengan algoritma ekstraksi fitur SURF (Speeded-Up Robust Features dan klasifikasi SVM (Support Vector Machine. Jenis permainan yang dibangun merupakan gabungan dari aksi dan tower defense. Hasil dari tugas akhir ini dibagi menjadi 3 yaitu hasil fungsionalitas permainan, hasil daya tarik permainan dan hasil akurasi pengenalan gambar. Semua fungsi yang dibuat pada permainan dapat berjalan dengan baik, dan permainan juga telah memiliki daya tarik yang memikat. Namun hasil akurasi pengenalan gambar masih kurang dari harapan penulis.

  17. PADDLING PERFORMANCE AND RANKING POSITION IN JUNIOR SURFERS COMPETING AT THE ASSOCIATION OF SURFING PROFESSIONALS: A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Cámara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  The aims of this pilot study are on one hand, to evaluate the upper body aerobic characteristics of junior surfers competing at the European branch of the Association of Surfing Professionals (ASP and on the other, to assess the relationship between the junior surfers' upper body aerobic characteristics and their ranking position. Ten surfers competing at the European junior branch of the ASP took part in the study. The maximal oxygen uptake (VO2MAX, the maximum power output (WMAX, the maximum lactate concentration [La]MAX, the maximum heart rate (HRMAX and the power output at the intensity where the lactate threshold and the onset of blood lactate accumulation are produced (WLT and WOBLA were determined during an incremental maximal test in a swim bench ergometer. It was observed a lack of a significant relationship between the ranking position and the parameters at maximal intensity (VO2PEAK, WMAX, HRMAX y [La]MAX. The WLT (W · kg-1 and the WOBLA (W · kg-1 were significantly related to ranking position (r= -0.69, p= 0.02; r= -0.72, p= 0.01, respectively.

  18. Self-organizing maps and VolSurf approach to predict aldose reductase inhibition by flavonoid compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Scotti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aldose Reductase (AR is the polyol pathway key enzyme which converts glucose to sorbitol. High glucose availability in insulin resistant tissues in diabetes leads into an accumulation of sorbitol, which has been associated with typical chronic complications of this disease, such as neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy. In this study, 71 flavonoids AR inhibitors were subjected to two methods of SAR to verify crucial substituents. The first method used the PCA (Principal Component Analysis to elucidate physical and chemical characteristics in the molecules that would be essential for the activity, employing VolSurf descriptors. The rate obtained explained 53% of the system total variance and revealed that a hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance in the molecules is required, since very polar or nonpolar substituents decrease the activity. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs was also employed to determine key substituents by evaluating substitution patterns, using NMR data. This study had a high success rate (85% accuracy in the training set and 88% accuracy in the test set and showed polihydroxilations are essential for high activity and methoxylations and glicosilations primarily at positions C7, C3' and C4' decrease the activity.

  19. Water Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of water pollution and water pollution treatment systems is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of pollution such as lake bottom vegetation, synthetic organic pollutants, heat pollution, radioactive substance pollution, and human and industrial waste products are discussed. Several types of water purification…

  20. Pollution tolerant protozoa in polluted wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Di; Chen, Ying; Wang, Li; Yao, Lin; Pan, Xu-Ming; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2017-02-16

    This study for the first time confirmed that eight dominating protozoan species, Cryptomonas erosa, Euglena axyuris, Euglena caudate, Euglena gasterosteus, Euglena acus, Vorticella campanula, Vorticella convallaria and Epistylis lacustris, were the pollution tolerant species at chemical oxygen demand 54-104mg/L. These species cannot be used as indicator for clean water quality as commonly believed. The protozoa can be actively participating in the energy transfer chain between nano-planktonic and higher plants in polluted wetlands.

  1. Source apportionment and spatial heterogeneity of agricultural non-point source pollution based on water environmental function zoning%基于水环境功能区划的农业面源污染源解析及其空间异质性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晓雍; 沈根祥; 郭春霞; 顾海蓉; 朱英; 王振旗

    2011-01-01

    Taking township as basic unit, the inventory analysis method and equivalent standard method were conducted to determine the discharge amount of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) from different types of agricultural non-point sources, including chemical fertilizer application, animal manure application, crop straws, animal husbandry, aquaculture and rural sewage. The impact of agricultural non-point source pollution (ANPSP) on water environment and its spatial heterogeneity were analyzed based on water environmental function zoning at the scales of county and town. The results indicated that, the absolute discharge amount of COD, TN and TP from ANPSP were 4.42× 104,1.13× 104, 0.44× 104 t/a respectively, and the discharge amount in equivalent standard were 0.16× 104, 0.93 × 104, 1.65× 104 m3/a respectively. The primary pollution source was animal husbandry, which load ratio in equivalent standard reached 66.31%, and the primary pollutant was TP, which load ratio in equivalent standard reached 60.32%. Discharge concentration of COD, TN and TP caused by ANPSP in different districts were in the range of 4.16-40.91, 1.30-8.71, 0.23-4.94 mg/L respectively, while the average water quality index ranged from 0.67 to 5.91. From the point view of town-based pollution stress, the pollution extent of the towns in South Shanghai and Chongming Island was much higher, which had greater agriculture productive value and located near the water conservation area with stricter water quality standards.%通过清单分析方法和等标污染负荷法,以乡镇为单元研究了上海市化肥施用、有机肥施用、农作物秸秆、畜禽养殖、水产养殖、农村生活污水等农业面源污染来源化学需氧量(COD)、总氮(TN)、总磷(TP)等污染物的排放量及其贡献率,并根据各区域水环境功能区划分别在区县尺度和乡镇尺度分析了农业面源污染程度及其区域分布.结果表明,上

  2. Zoning Districts - Volusia County HUB Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Historically Underutilized Business (HUB) Zones in Volusia County. Go to http://www.sba.gov/hubzone or contact the Department of Economic Development (386) 248-8048...

  3. Pollution prevention through chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, J.J.; Anastas, P.T.; Hassur, S.M.; Tobin, P.S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics

    1995-09-01

    Prosperity without pollution, and the consideration of how to achieve this economic and environmental imperative, has become the fundamental environmental theme of the 1990s. The new strategy--pollution prevention--will serve s the keystone of federal, state, and local environmental policy. The challenge is to switch from two decades of environmental policy based on pollution controls and government-mandated regulations to a future environmental policy based on pollution prevention, source reduction, recycling, and waste minimization. To make this change will require a new social compact among environmental, industrial, and regulatory interests. This chapter focuses on the role of chemistry and the contributions of synthetic and process analytical chemists. It also describes the implementation of pollution prevention concepts into the premanufacturing notice review process mandated by Section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and discusses the implications of pollution prevention for chemical safety. 55 refs.

  4. Perspective of environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argent, B.B.; Thompson, D. [Sheffield Univ., Dept. of Engineering Materials, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Edyvean, R.G.J. [Sheffield Univ., Dept. of Chemical and Process Engineering, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Spears, D.A. [Sheffield Univ., Dept. of Earth Sciences, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2004-04-01

    This article aims to stimulate interest in pollution problems that are associated with the minerals industries. Because this subject is so broad, this study has concentrated on a limited number of topics that have been studied by the authors. After a brief survey indicating major sources of pollution through gaseous emissions, contamination of waterways and land fill sites, attention is focused on some of the methods of predicting, monitoring and limiting emissions together with remediation of polluted sites. (Author)

  5. Thallium pollution in China: A geo-environmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Tangfu; Yang, Fei; Li, Shehong; Zheng, Baoshan; Ning, Zengping

    2012-04-01

    It is well known that thallium (Tl) is a non-essential and toxic metal to human health, but less is known about the geo-environmentally-induced Tl pollution and its associated health impacts. High concentrations of Tl that are primarily associated with the epithermal metallogenesis of sulfide minerals have the potential of producing Tl pollution in the environment, which has been recognized as an emerging pollutant in China. This paper aims to review the research progress in China on Tl pollution in terms of the source, mobility, transportation pathway, and health exposure of Tl and to address the environmental concerns on Tl pollution in a geo-environmental perspective. Tl associated with the epithermal metallogenesis of sulfide minerals has been documented to disperse readily and accumulate through the geo-environmental processes of soil enrichment, water transportation and food crop growth beyond a mineralized zone. The enrichments of Tl in local soil, water, and crops may result in Tl pollution and consequent adverse health effects, e.g. chronic Tl poisoning. Investigation of the baseline Tl in the geo-environment, proper land use and health-related environmental planning and regulation are critical to prevent the Tl pollution. Examination of the human urinary Tl concentration is a quick approach to identify exposure of Tl pollution to humans. The experiences of Tl pollution in China can provide important lessons for many other regions in the world with similar geo-environmental contexts because of the high mobility and toxicity of Tl.

  6. SURF-based position estimation method using aerial image sequences.%基于SURF特征的航空序列图像位置估计算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔奎贤; 赵妮; 李耀军

    2013-01-01

    视觉传感器在航空无人机导航和定位任务中应用越来越广泛。针对无人机位置参数估计问题,提出了一种基于SURF特征的图像配准算法,该算法能够适应航空序列图像的旋转、尺度变换及噪声干扰,实现无人机位置的精确估计。构建了SURF尺度空间,运用快速Hessian矩阵定位极值点,计算出航空图像的64维SURF特征描述子;基于Hessian矩阵迹完成特征点匹配;使用RANSAC算法剔除出格点,实现位置参数的精确估计。通过航空图像序列实测数据位置估计实验,验证了该算法的有效性。%Vision sensor is widely used in the aviation aircraft navigation and positioning tasks. For position parameter estima-tion of aircraft, this paper presents a SURF feature based image registration algorithm, it is able to adapt to aerial image sequence rotation, scale transformation and noise, to achieve accurate estimates of aircraft position. It builds SURF scale space, uses fast Hessian matrix maximum values to calculate 64-dimensional SURF feature descriptors of aerial images. Based on the trace of the Hessian matrix, it completes feature points matching task. By using RANSAC algorithm, it removes the outliers matching points for accurate position estimate. Experiments with two real aerial image sequences show the effectiveness of the proposed position estimation algorithm.

  7. 基于SURF算子的快速手背静脉识别%Fast recognition of hand vein with SURF descriptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀艳; 刘铁根; 邓仕超; 何瑾; 王云新

    2011-01-01

    A recognition algorithm for hand vein based on speeded-up robust features( SURF) was proposed. Firstly,the region of interest ( ROI) of the hand vein image is obtained through image preprocessing. The local SURF features of test sample and register samples are extracted and matched based on Euclid distance, and then the mismatching pairs are rejected. Finally, the matching rate is calculated as the similarity between registered sample and test sample to realize personal identity recognition. The recognition performance was evaluated in verification mode using TJU hand vein image database, the equal error rate ( EER) is 0.07% and average recognition time is 0.153 s. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is able to realize hand vein recognition reliably and quickly.%提出基于加速鲁棒性特征(speeded-up robustfeatures,SURF)的手背静脉识别算法.首先对手背静脉图像进行预处理,提取手背静脉感兴趣区域(ROI),然后提取手背静脉的局部SURF特征,基于欧式距离实现测试样本和注册样本特征点的匹配,并剔除错误匹配对,最后计算匹配率作为待识别样本和注册样本之间的相似度测试实现身份识别.利用TJU手背静脉图像数据库对算法性能进行测试,在认证模式下等错率为0.07%,平均识别时间0.153 s.实验结果证明该算法可以快速有效地实现手背静脉识别.

  8. 基于特性分析的SURF加速方法研究%RESEARCH ON SPEED-UP METHOD OF SURF THROUGH PROPERTIES ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡益斌; 肖菁; 戴卓方; 李戈; 张为华

    2012-01-01

    To resolve the problem of a little bit low speed the typical image feature extraction algorithm SURF (speeded up robust feature) has, in the paper we do an in-depth analysis on the algorithm properties in regard to its running time, instruction type, memory access, hot spots,and etc. On this basis, we optimise the SURF algorithm by reconstructing the judgment logic, the memory accessing and data organisations,the library functions implementation and other strategies. Moreover,we analyse the role of speedup of each optimisation strategy on the algorithm through experiments. And experimental data show that these optimisation strategies can effectively improve the running efficiency of SURF in the premise of guaranteeing 100% accuracy of the algorithm, and 2. 75X ultimate performance improvement is achieved.%针对典型图像特征提取算法SURF速度偏慢的问题,深入分析该算法在运行时间、指令类型、内存访问、热点等方面的特性.在此基础上,运用重构判断逻辑、重构内存访问与数据组织形式、重构库函数实现等策略对SURF算法进行优化.并通过实验,分析各种优化策略对算法的加速作用.实验数据显示,这些优化策略可以在保证算法100%精确的前提下,有效地提高SURF算法的运行效率,最终达到2.75X的性能提升.

  9. Water quality dynamics and hydrology in nitrate loaded riparian zones in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefting, Mariet; Beltman, Boudewijn; Karssenberg, Derek; Rebel, Karin; van Riessen, Mirjam; Spijker, Maarten

    2006-01-01

    Riparian zones are known to function as buffers, reducing non-point source pollution from agricultural land to streams. In the Netherlands, riparian zones are subject to high nitrogen inputs. We combined hydrological, chemical and soil profile data with groundwater modelling to evaluate whether chronically N loaded riparian zones were still mitigating diffuse nitrate fluxes. Hydraulic parameters and water quality were monitored over 2 years in 50 piezometres in a forested and grassland riparian zone. Average nitrate loadings were high in the forested zone with 87 g NO(3)(-)-N m(-2) y(-1) and significantly lower in the grassland zone with 15 g NO(3)(-)-N m(-2) y(-1). Groundwater from a second aquifer diluted the nitrate loaded agricultural runoff. Biological N removal however occurred in both riparian zones, the grassland zone removed about 63% of the incoming nitrate load, whereas in the forested zone clear symptoms of saturation were visible and only 38% of the nitrate load was removed.

  10. Webpage Recommendation Model in Personal Surfing%个性化浏览中网页推荐的结构模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏贵洋; 王永成; 马颖华

    2003-01-01

    This paper first introduces the inevitability direction of Internet personal technique's development, and then analyzes the differences between Information Retrieval and Information Filtering. Further more, combining with the group user interests and individual user interests, using VSM and FCM algorithm, this paper proposes a webpage recommendation model in personal surfing. This model can be applied not only in single website, but also in enterprise information collecting system. It also brings forward a method to extend concept. The advantage of the model is automatic concepts learning in the processing of user's feedback and browsing. Contrasting to concept dictionary method, it is more agility and gains well retrieval results.

  11. Diversificação na gestão estratégica em microempresas de ensino do surfe: um estudo multicasos

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Ana Carolina Costa

    2015-01-01

    Podemos observar a existência de diversas estratégias que norteiam o desenvolvimento de um negócio. Uma delas é a diversificação. Esta dissertação apresenta um estudo da diversificação na gestão estratégica de microempresas de ensino do surfe (MEES) do Rio de Janeiro. No caso das MEES, há particularidades que tornam muito importante a diversificação para a sobrevivência e desenvolvimento delas. Por isso, escolhemos estudar o tema nesse tipo de empresa. A pesquisa analisou o processo de divers...

  12. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  13. Pollutants in food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selenka, F.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of pollutants is defined. Examples of pollutants are presented whose behaviour in the human organism is described. The residues to be found in meat, processed meat, and milk are listed, and the consequences to be drawn for food control are presented.

  14. Outdoor air Pollution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, PBC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter focuses on the air pollutants which are generally found in the troposphere and does not provide detail on specific areas where atmospheric pollutants and atmospheric chemistry may differ from that generally found, such as in the arctic...

  15. Pollution and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larr, Allison S.; Neidell, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Childhood is a particularly sensitive time when it comes to pollution exposure. Allison Larr and Matthew Neidell focus on two atmospheric pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--that can harm children's health in many ways. Ozone irritates the lungs, causing various respiratory symptoms; it can also damage the lung lining or aggravate lung…

  16. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  17. ZoneLib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob; Schiøler, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    We present a dynamic model for climate in a livestock building divided into a number of zones, and a corresponding modular Simulink library (ZoneLib). While most literature in this area consider air flow as a control parameter we show how to model climate dynamics using actual control signals...... development of ZoneLib....

  18. Generalized Fibonacci zone plates

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  19. Shanghai's Development Zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Since the early 1980s,development zones began appearing in China.Their Success largely stems from the preferential policies they offer and the safe investment environment they work hard to create.As zones have personalities themselves,it is essential to look beyond the pamphlets and published information and get down to the nittygritty.Shanghai has more State designated Economic and Technology Development Zones than any other city in China.In the following article,we have chosen development zones located around Shanghai and conducted a comparison.

  20. Phthalate pollution in an Amazonian rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Alain; Boulay, Raphaël; Dejean, Alain; Touchard, Axel; Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie

    2016-08-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous contaminants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals that can become trapped in the cuticles of insects, including ants which were recognized as good bioindicators for such pollution. Because phthalates have been noted in developed countries and because they also have been found in the Arctic, a region isolated from direct anthropogenic influence, we hypothesized that they are widespread. So, we looked for their presence on the cuticle of ants gathered from isolated areas of the Amazonian rainforest and along an anthropogenic gradient of pollution (rainforest vs. road sides vs. cities in French Guiana). Phthalate pollution (mainly di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) was higher on ants gathered in cities and along road sides than on those collected in the pristine rainforest, indicating that it follows a human-mediated gradient of disturbance related to the use of plastics and many other products that contain phthalates in urban zones. Their presence varied with the ant species; the cuticle of Solenopsis saevissima traps higher amount of phthalates than that of compared species. However, the presence of phthalates in isolated areas of pristine rainforests suggests that they are associated both with atmospheric particles and in gaseous form and are transported over long distances by wind, resulting in a worldwide diffusion. These findings suggest that there is no such thing as a "pristine" zone.

  1. Hydrography - Water Pollution Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Water Pollution Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Pollution...

  2. From Field- to Landscape-Scale Vadose Zone Processes: Scale Issues, Modeling, and Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corwin, D.L.; Hopmans, J.; Rooij, de G.H.

    2006-01-01

    Modeling and monitoring vadose zone processes across multiple scales is a fundamental component of many environmental and natural resource issues including nonpoint source (NPS) pollution, watershed management, and nutrient management, to mention just a few. In this special section in Vadose Zone Jo

  3. Snowmelt pollutant removal in bioretention areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthanna, Tone Merete; Viklander, Maria; Blecken, Godecke; Thorolfsson, Sveinn T

    2007-10-01

    Snow accumulating in urban areas and alongside roads can accumulate high pollutant loads and the subsequent snowmelt can produce high pollutant loads in receiving waters. This paper examines the treatment of roadside snowmelt in bioretention with respect to pollutant removal, pollutant pathways, and major sinks. Bioretention was used to treat snowmelt from three types of urban roads in Trondheim, Norway: residential, medium, and roads with high-density traffic. Metal retention in bioretention boxes had a mass reduction in zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium in the range of 89-99%, and a decrease in outflow concentrations in the range 81-99%. Cadmium was only measured in the water samples, while the other three metals were traced through the system to identify the main sinks. The top mulch layer was the largest sink for the retained metals, with up to 74% of the zinc retained in this mulch layer. The plant metal uptakes were only 2-8% of the total metal retention; however, the plants still play an important role with respect to root zone development and regeneration, which fosters infiltration and reduces the outflow load. Dissolved pollutants in snowmelt tend to be removed with the first flush of meltwater, creating an enrichment ratio with respect to the average pollutant concentrations in the snow. The effect of this enrichment ratio was examined through the bioretention system, and found to be less predominant than that typically reported for untreated snowmelt. The enrichment factors were in the range of 0.65-1.51 for the studied metals.

  4. Pollutant swapping: greenhouse gas emissions from wetland systems constructed to mitigate agricultural pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Adam; Quinton, John; Surridge, Ben; McNamara, Niall

    2014-05-01

    Diffuse (non-point) water pollution from agricultural land continues to challenge water quality management, requiring the adoption of new land management practices. The use of constructed agricultural wetlands is one such practice, designed to trap multiple pollutants mobilised by rainfall prior to them reaching receiving water. Through capturing and storing pollutants in bottom sediments, it could be hypothesised that the abundance of nutrients stored in the anoxic conditions commonly found in these zones may lead to pollutant swapping. Under these circumstances, trapped material may undergo biogeochemical cycling to change chemical or physical form and thereby become more problematic or mobile within the environment. Thus, constructed agricultural wetlands designed to mitigate against one form of pollution may in fact offset the created benefits by 'swapping' this pollution into other forms and pathways, such as through release to the atmosphere. Pollutant swapping to the atmosphere has been noted in analogous wetland systems designed to treat municipal and industrial wastewaters, with significant fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O being recorded in some cases. However the small size, low level of engineering and variable nutrient/sediment inputs which are features of constructed agricultural wetlands, means that this knowledge is not directly transferable. Therefore, more information is required when assessing whether a wetland's potential to act as hotspot for pollution swapping outweighs its potential to act as a mitigation tool for surface water pollution. Here we present results from an on-going monitoring study at a trial agricultural wetland located in small a mixed-use catchment in Cumbria, UK. Estimates were made of CH4, CO2 and N2O flux from the wetland surface using adapted floating static chambers, which were then directly compared with fluxes from an undisturbed riparian zone. Results indicate that while greenhouse gas flux from the wetland may be

  5. Subduction of fracture zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin Manea, Vlad; Gerya, Taras; Manea, Marina; Zhu, Guizhi; Leeman, William

    2013-04-01

    Since Wilson proposed in 1965 the existence of a new class of faults on the ocean floor, namely transform faults, the geodynamic effects and importance of fracture zone subduction is still little studied. It is known that oceanic plates are characterized by numerous fracture zones, and some of them have the potential to transport into subduction zones large volumes of water-rich serpentinite, providing a fertile water source for magma generated in subduction-related arc volcanoes. In most previous geodynamic studies, subducting plates are considered to be homogeneous, and there is no clear indication how the subduction of a fracture zone influences the melting pattern in the mantle wedge and the slab-derived fluids distribution in the subarc mantle. Here we show that subduction of serpentinized fracture zones plays a significant role in distribution of melt and fluids in the mantle wedge above the slab. Using high-resolution tree-dimensional coupled petrological-termomechanical simulations of subduction, we show that fluids, including melts and water, vary dramatically in the region where a serpentinized fracture zone enters into subduction. Our models show that substantial hydration and partial melting tend to concentrate where fracture zones are being subducted, creating favorable conditions for partially molten hydrous plumes to develop. These results are consistent with the along-arc variability in magma source compositions and processes in several regions, as the Aleutian Arc, the Cascades, the Southern Mexican Volcanic Arc, and the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone.

  6. Assessment of Light Pollution Impact on Protected Areas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, W.; He, G.; Ni, Y.

    2017-09-01

    The Protected Areas (PAs) with natural, ecological and cultural value play important role in biological processes, biodiversity and ecosystem service. During the past years of rapid urban expansion in China, the spatial range and intensity of light pollution unprecedented increase. Historically, optical remote sensing and field survey data had been used to reveal that human activities impacted on PAs for individual areas and few papers documented the issue of light pollution impact on PAs at national scale. Here, time series night-time light satellite images of Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) were selected to assess the light pollution impacted on PAs in China. The method we proposed can be effectively applied to assess the impact of light pollution on PAs and the percent of dark PAs decreased by 35.38 % from 1992 to 2012 at nationwide. The trend of light pollution of most PAs in stable, however, light pollution of the local area is increase significantly, especially in northern Xinjiang, Gansu, Xizang, Yunnan, Jiangsu and Shandong. Considering the current status of light pollution encroach into PAs, two strategies of appropriate buffer zone and wide measured for light pollution are also recommend.

  7. Using of epiphytic lichens for bioindication of air pollution in Vranje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytic lichens were used dor bioindication of air pollution in the city of Vranje for the first time. In 43 investigated places, the authors established the presence of 38 lichen taxa from 20 genera. By calculating the index of atmospheric purity (IAP, they established three zones with different air pollution levels (a "lichen desert zone", a "transitional zone", and a "normal zone" and two subzones (a "narrow transitional zone", and a "wider transitional zone". The species Melanelia exasperatula, M. glabra, Lecanora allophana, Lecidella elaechroma, Ochrolechia sp, Ramalina sp., and Parmelina quercina were established as the most sensitive. On the other hand, Phaeophyscia orbicularis, Xanthoria parietina, and Parmelia sulcata were the most tolerant.

  8. Petroleum Pollution of Groundwater in Zibo and Its Prevention Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建芳; 武强; 李铎

    2003-01-01

    The source of ground water supply in Dawu is an extremely huge one in Shandong province. Now it is faced with serious pollution of petroleum in Hougao area. Aiming at this problem, the petroleum pollution in aeration zone and in groundwater was analyzed. The result shows that the contaminant of groundwater comes from the leaching of petroleum in the soil horizon of aeration zone through precipitation, and the quick flow of groundwater makes the convection dominate themigration of contaminant. So movement of groundwater controls the distribution of petroleum contaminant, which is consistent with the direction of ground flow. Building a groundwater closure zone in Hougao is an effective method to stop the contaminated groundwater flowing toward the water supply source of Dawu. The petroleum contaminant can be effectively reduced through using the aeration, biological and oxidation technologies.

  9. Earthworms and Soil Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Tamae

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short review, we describe recent studies concerning the relationship between earthworms and soil pollutants, and discuss the possibility of using the earthworm as a bio-monitoring organism for soil pollution.

  10. Environmental pollution studies

    CERN Document Server

    Best, Gerry

    1999-01-01

    This book examines a number of important contemporary environmental issues in an informative and easy-to-read style. The topics covered include sewage treatment, eutrophication, air pollution, acid rain, global warming and pollution from farming. A particularly valuable section of the book describes a range of tests that can be carried out on various environmental parameters. The procedures require relatively simple equipment and they have been pre-tested in a school laboratory. "Environmental Pollution Studies" will be of value to senior school pupils and students at college or university embarking on courses in environmental science.

  11. MEASURING THE STELLAR MASSES OF z ∼ 7 GALAXIES WITH THE SPITZER ULTRAFAINT SURVEY PROGRAM (SURFS UP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, R. E. Jr.; Casertano, S.; Stiavelli, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gonzalez, A. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Lemaux, B. C. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Bradač, M.; Cain, B.; Hall, N.; Huang, K.-H.; Lubin, L. [University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Allen, S.; Von der Linden, A. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Gladders, M. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Hildebradt, H.; Schrabback, T. [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, University of Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Hinz, J.; Zaritsky, D. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Treu, T., E-mail: rryan@stsci.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    We present Spitzer/IRAC observations of nine z'-band dropouts highly magnified (2 ≲ μ ≲ 12) by the Bullet Cluster. We combine archival imaging with our Exploratory program (SURFS UP), which results in a total integration time of ∼30 hr per Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) band. We detect (≳ 3σ) in both IRAC bands the brightest of these high-redshift galaxies, with [3.6] = 23.80 ± 0.28 mag, [4.5] = 23.78 ± 0.25 mag, and (H – [3.6]) = 1.17 ± 0.32 mag. The remaining eight galaxies are undetected to [3.6] ∼ 26.4 mag and [4.5] ∼ 26.0 mag with stellar masses of ∼5 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}. The detected galaxy has an estimated magnification of μ = 12 ± 4, which implies this galaxy has an ultraviolet luminosity of L{sub 1500}∼0.3 L{sub z=7}{sup ∗}—the lowest-luminosity individual source detected in IRAC at z ≳ 7. By modeling the broadband photometry, we estimate the galaxy has an intrinsic star formation rate (SFR) of SFR ∼ 1.3 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and stellar mass of M ∼ 2.0 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}, which gives a specific star formation rate of sSFR ∼ 0.7 Gyr{sup –1}. If this galaxy had sustained this SFR since z ∼ 20, it could have formed the observed stellar mass (to within a factor of ∼2). We also discuss alternate star formation histories and argue that the exponentially increasing model is unlikely. Finally, based on the intrinsic SFR, we estimate that this galaxy has a likely [C II] flux of (f {sub [C} {sub II]}) = 1.6 mJy.

  12. PAISAJE, PATRIMONIO Y TURISMO DE SURF: FACTORES DE ATRACCIÓN Y MOTIVACIÓN EN EL «PARQUE NATURAL DEL ESTRECHO» (ESPAÑA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rivera Mateos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia la incidencia de diversos factores geográficos, físico-ambien - tales, paisajísticos y socioculturales en la conformación y desarrollo de un destino especia - lizado en turismo deportivo de naturaleza y deportes acuáticos (win dsurf, surf, kite surf ...: Tarifa y el Parque Natural del Estrecho. Se realiza un análisis de los valores ambientales, climáticos, paisajísticos e histórico-culturales de los espacios que conforman su sistema de patrimonio territorial y que sirven de soporte y cualificación de las prácticas surferas, así como de la percepción de los mismos como factores competitivos y de atracción y sostenibi - lidad turísticas entre los agentes locales implicados en el desarrollo de estos deportes a partir de su propia experiencia y valoración.

  13. 骑浪横甩薄弱性衡准技术的发展%Development of Surf-riding Broaching Vulnerability Criteria Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐哲

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the physical background and the vulnerability criterion development process for the first layer and the second layer of surf-riding/broaching. Also it analyzes the preliminary criteria and the vulnerability criteria method for calculating of surf-riding/broaching. Mastering the development state of this technology can be useful for the research of relative area, and would become the base for the second general criteria technology.%介绍了骑浪/横甩的物理背景,以及骑浪/横甩第一层和第二层薄弱性衡准发展过程,并分析了骑浪横甩薄弱性衡准计算方法及初步衡准,掌握骑浪横甩薄弱性衡准技术的发展现状,有助于骑浪/横甩相关技术领域的研究,为船舶第二代完整稳性的技术发展奠定基础。

  14. SIFT和SURF在无人机影像匹配的对比研究%Comparative Study of SIFT and SURF in UAV Image Matching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗亮; 熊助国

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of the UAV image, in combination with the characteristics of SIFT and SURF operators, the two operators are com-pared in terms of feature extraction efficiency and feature extraction speed, according to the experiments on two kinds of operators in eval-uating the pros and cons of UAV image matching, the experiments show that SURF has a speed advantage, also in green vegetation cover surface can match is better than SIFT operator.%从无人机影像的特点考虑,结合SIFT和SURF算子的特点进行了两种算子在特征提取有效性、特征提取速度方面的比对,通过对两种算子在无人机影像匹配的实验中凸现的好坏做出评价,实验发现SURF的优势不仅仅在速度上,而且在绿色植被覆盖的地表下能匹配效果要优于SIFT算子。

  15. IODE's Role in Managing and Exchanging Ocean Data from Coastal Zones

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The coastal zones in the world are exposed to continuously increasing environmental stresses: pollution, eutrophication, erosion problems which are amplified by steadily growing economic and recreational use and demographic changes. In view of the position of the coastal environment as a buffering zone and interface between land and open ocean, an effort in integrated coastal zone management is required to achieve sustainable development. Besides the possible impact of global climate change a...

  16. 基于SURF特征与模糊推理的掌纹识别%Palmprint recognition based on SURF features and fuzzy reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶筱娇; 王晅

    2016-01-01

    To alleviate the limitations that the existing palmprint recognition methods are time-consuming, and their robustness to the variations of orientation, position and illumination in capturing palmprint images is insufficient, this paper describes a new palmprint recognition method based on Speeded Up Robust Features(SURF)and fuzzy reasoning. The proposed method consists of two phases: enrolling phase and identification phase. In the enrolling phase, keypoints are detected with SURF from the enrolled palmprint images and mutually matched between training samples, and then for each enrolled user, the keypoints which matching frequencies exceed 50% are selected. For each selected keypoint, the matching rate, the mean and variance of the location coordinates and the mean of SURF descriptors in the enrolled palmprint images, the maximal distance between the mean and the SURF descriptors are determined and regarded as the user's palmprint patterns stored in a pattern library. In the identification phase, it utilizes SURF to detect keypoints from the palmprint image to be identified, and then the fuzzy matching degrees for all palmprint patterns in the library are calculated. A fussy reasoning approach is developed for matching. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method yields a better performance in terms of the correct classification percentages compared with the recent palmprint recognition algorithms. It is also shown that the proposed approach is robust to the variations of orientation, position and illumination, and yields observably low computational cost.%针对现有掌纹识别算法对掌纹图像在采集过程中的位置、方向、亮度变化缺乏足够的鲁棒性,而且计算复杂度较高的问题,提出了一种基于SURF描述字的掌纹识别算法.算法分为训练与识别两个过程,在训练过程中,提取属于同一类所有训练样本的SURF描述字进行互配,然后计算训练样本中互配

  17. Investigating Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using live plants and cigarette smoke to demonstrate the effects of air pollution on a living organism. Procedures include growth of the test plants in glass bottles, and construction and operation of smoking machine. (CS)

  18. River and Stream Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ... rainstorms and runoff of animal waste from farms, pets, and wildlife. Sewage systems can be improved to ...

  19. Landsat and water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castruccio, P.; Fowler, T.; Loats, H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Report presents data derived from satellite images predicting pollution loads after rainfall. It explains method for converting Landsat images of Eastern United States into cover maps for Baltimore/five county region.

  20. Particle Pollution Designations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This area provides information on the process EPA, the states, and the tribes follow to designate areas as attainment (meeting) or nonattainment (not meeting) the particle pollution air quality standards.

  1. Evaluation of air pollution phytotoxicity in a seasonally dry tropical urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, J; Pandey, U

    1994-12-01

    This study was conducted in the urban environment of Varanasi, India, to evaluate the plant responses to urban air pollution. Twenty sites were selected in four different zones of the city. At each site, seven woody perennials of same age classes were selected. Out of the four zones (I, II, III and IV), zone IV was used as a reference (control) zone as it received the minimum pollution input. Plant species growing in polluted and control areas were compared with respect to foliar dust load, per cent leaf area injury, leaf area, specific leaf weight and chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, SO 4 (2-) S and total N concentration in the leaves. Results indicated that the air pollution level in Varanasi causes leaf damage, reduces leaf area, specific leaf weight and chlorophyll, ascorbic acid and total N concentrations in the leaves. Sulphur concentration in leaves increased with increasing level of SO2 in the ambient air. The magnitude of such changes was maximum at the zone receiving maximum pollution load. Carissa carandas was found to be the most sensitive species and Bougainvillea spectabilis, the least. The study shows that the urban air pollution level in Varanasi is detrimental for the growth of plants involved in this study.

  2. Indoor Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kirk R.

    2003-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution in developing-country cities is difficult to overlook. Indoor air pollution caused by burning such traditional fuels as wood, crop residues, and dung is less evident, yet it is responsible for a significant part of country and global disease burdens. The main groups affected are poor women and children in rural areas and urban slums as they go about their daily activi...

  3. Contents and toxicity of heavy metals in soils of the zone affected by aerial emissions from the Severonikel Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evdokimova, G. A.; Kalabin, G. V.; Mozgova, N. P.

    2011-02-01

    In 2009, the zoning of the terrestrial ecosystems in the area exposed to aerial emissions from the Severonikel Enterprise (Murmansk oblast) was performed on the basis of the parameters characterizing the state of the soils, including the contents of the main heavy metal pollutants and exchangeable calcium and magnesium, the soils' pH, the ratio of the organic to mineral soil components, and the state of the soils' microbiota. Three zones differing in the degree of the soil pollution were delimited. These were the zones of heavy, moderate, and weak pollution, which extended for up to 3, 25, and 50 km from the emission source in the prevailing wind direction. The data on the amount of bacterial and fungal biomass provided evidence of the profound degradation of the soils in the heavily polluted zone. In particular, the biomass of the soil microbiota, including its prokaryotic and eukaryotic components, was two to six times lower in this zone than in the background (control) area. The soils of the heavily polluted zone can be classified as strongly toxic for plants, and most of the soils of the moderately polluted zone also fall into the same category.

  4. Heavy metals contamination characteristics in soil of different mining activity zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Guo-li; LIAO Da-xue; LI Quan-ming

    2008-01-01

    Depending upon the polluted features of various mining activities in a typical nonferrous metal mine, the contaminated soil area was divided into four zones which were polluted by tailings, mine drainage, dust deposition in wind and spreading minerals during vehicle transportation, respectively. In each zone, soil samples were collected. Total 28 soil samples were dug and analyzed by ICP-AES and other relevant methods. The results indicate that the average contents of Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu and As in soils are 508.6, 384.8, 7.53, 356 and 44.6 mg/kg, respectively. But the contents of heavy metals in different zone have distinct differences. The proportion of oxidizing association with organic substance is small. Difference of the association of heavy metals is small in different polluted zones.

  5. Pollution Microbiology, A Laboratory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finstein, Melvin S.

    This manual is designed for use in the laboratory phase of courses dealing with microbial aspects of pollution. It attempts to cover the subject area broadly in four major categories: (1) microorganisms in clean and polluted waters, (2) carbonaceous pollutants, (3) nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, and sulfur as pollutants, and (4) sanitary…

  6. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air…

  7. Surfing a Standing Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos Valadares, Eduardo; Alves, Esdras Garcia

    2005-05-01

    Local "reversal of gravity" can be simulated with an inverted pendulum whose pivot is made to oscillate vertically. A beautiful demonstration of this surprising effect can be found in Ref. 1. In this case, the pendulum is a piece of plastic straw and its pivot pin is fixed at the end of a plastic ruler that is made to oscillate vertically by a small eccentric motor. A theoretical treatment of this inverted pendulum may be found in Ref. 2.

  8. Surf Aces Resurfaced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2013-01-01

    The rise of the American counter-culture between the early- to mid-1960s and early- to mid-1970s was closely associated with the growth of environmentalism. This article explores how both informed popular music, a form of expression which during these years became not only a prominent form of ent...

  9. Surfing on a herringbone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Dan; Lagubeau, Guillaume; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David

    2016-05-01

    Evaporation of a liquid on a hot solid can be exploited to induce both levitation and self-propulsion if the vapor flow under the liquid is made directional. Here we propose to force an anisotropic flow of vapor with a herringbone pattern at a solid surface. Liquids are found to self-propel on such hot materials, drawn by the underlying flow of vapor. The simplicity of the geometry allows us to predict the direction of vapor flow rectification, to quantitatively model the propulsion, and to discuss how the pattern must be designed to optimize both driving force and drop velocity.

  10. Surfing a Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    Star Orbiting Massive Milky Way Centre Approaches to within 17 Light-Hours [1] Summary An international team of astronomers [2], lead by researchers at the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) , has directly observed an otherwise normal star orbiting the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. Ten years of painstaking measurements have been crowned by a series of unique images obtained by the Adaptive Optics (AO) NAOS-CONICA (NACO) instrument [3] on the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory. It turns out that earlier this year the star approached the central Black Hole to within 17 light-hours - only three times the distance between the Sun and planet Pluto - while travelling at no less than 5000 km/sec . Previous measurements of the velocities of stars near the center of the Milky Way and variable X-ray emission from this area have provided the strongest evidence so far of the existence of a central Black Hole in our home galaxy and, implicitly, that the dark mass concentrations seen in many nuclei of other galaxies probably are also supermassive black holes. However, it has not yet been possible to exclude several alternative configurations. In a break-through paper appearing in the research journal Nature on October 17th, 2002, the present team reports their exciting results, including high-resolution images that allow tracing two-thirds of the orbit of a star designated "S2" . It is currently the closest observable star to the compact radio source and massive black hole candidate "SgrA*" ("Sagittarius A") at the very center of the Milky Way. The orbital period is just over 15 years. The new measurements exclude with high confidence that the central dark mass consists of a cluster of unusual stars or elementary particles, and leave little doubt of the presence of a supermassive black hole at the centre of the galaxy in which we live . PR Photo 23a/02 : NACO image of the central region of the Milky Way . PR Photo 23b/02 : NACO image of the central region of the Milky Way (close-up) . PR Photo 23c/02 : Orbit of the star "S2" around the central Black Hole. PR Video Clip 02/02 : Motion of "S2" and other stars around the central Black Hole. Quasars and Black Holes Ever since the discovery of the quasars (quasi-stellar radio sources) in 1963, astrophysicists have searched for an explanation of the energy production in these most luminous objects in the Universe. Quasars reside at the centres of galaxies, and it is believed that the enormous energy emitted by these objects is due to matter falling onto a supermassive Black Hole, releasing gravitational energy through intense radiation before that material disappears forever into the hole (in physics terminology: "passes beyond the event horizon" [4]). To explain the prodigious energy production of quasars and other active galaxies, one needs to conjecture the presence of black holes with masses of one million to several billion times the mass of the Sun. Much evidence has been accumulating during the past years in support of the above "accreting black hole" model for quasars and other galaxies, including the detection of dark mass concentrations in their central regions. However, an unambiguous proof requires excluding all possible other, non-black hole configurations of the central mass concentration. For this, it is imperative to determine the shape of the gravitational field very close to the central object - and this is not possible for the distant quasars due to technological limitations of the currently available telescopes. The centre of the Milky Way ESO PR Photo 23a/02 ESO PR Photo 23a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 427 pix - 95k [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 853 pix - 488k] Caption : PR Photo 23a/02 is a reproduction of an image of the innermost area of the Milky Way, only a few light-years across, obtained in mid-2002 with the NACO instrument [3] at the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN telescope. It combines frames in three infrared wavebands between 1.6 and 3.5 µm. The compact objects are stars and their colours indicate their temperature (blue = "hot", red = "cool"). There is also diffuse infrared emission from interstellar dust between the stars. The two yellow arrows mark the position of the black hole candidate "SgrA*" at the very centre of the Milky Way galaxy. The scale is indicated; the 1 light-year bar subtends an angle of 8 arcsec in the sky. The centre of our Milky Way galaxy is located in the southern constallation Sagittarius (The Archer) and is "only" 26,000 light-years away [5]. On high-resolution images, it is possible to discern thousands of individual stars within the central, one light-year wide region (this corresponds to about one-quarter of the distance to "Proxima Centauri", the star nearest to the solar system). Using the motions of these stars to probe the gravitational field, observations with the 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile) (and subsequently at the 10-m Keck telescope , Hawaii, USA) over the last decade have shown that a mass of about 3 million times that of the Sun is concentrated within a radius of only 10 light-days [5] of the compact radio and X-ray source SgrA* ("Sagittarius A") at the center of the star cluster. This means that SgrA* is the most likely counterpart of the putative black hole and, at the same time, it makes the Galactic Center the best piece of evidence for the existence of such supermassive black holes . However, those earlier investigations could not exclude several other, non-black hole configurations. "We then needed even sharper images to settle the issue of whether any configuration other than a black hole is possible and we counted on the ESO VLT telescope to provide those" , explains Reinhard Genzel , Director at the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Garching near Munich (Germany) and member of the present team. "The new NAOS-CONICA (NACO) instrument, built in a close collaboration between our institute, the Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA: Heidelberg, Germany), ESO and the Paris-Meudon and Grenoble Observatories (France), was just what we needed to take this decisive step forward" . The NACO observations of the Milky Way centre ESO PR Photo 23b/02 ESO PR Photo 23b/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 618 pix - 82k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1236 pix - 456k] ESO PR Photo 23c/02 ESO PR Photo 23c/02 [Preview - JPEG: 486 x 400 pix - 78k] [Normal - JPEG: 971 x 800 pix - 352k] ESO PR Video Clip 02/02 [MPEG] ESO PR Video Clip 02/02 [MPEG Video; 533 k] Caption : PR Photo 23b/02 shows an infrared NACO image of a ~ 2 x 2 arcsec 2 area, centred on the position of the compact radio source "SgrA*" at the centre of the Milky Way Galaxy; it is marked by a small cross. The image was obtained in the K s -band at wavelength 2.1 µm in May 2002 and the angular resolution (image sharpness) is about 0.060 arcsec. At about the same time, the star designated "S2" came within 0.015 arcsec of the radio source. At the distance of the Milky Way Center, 1 arcsec on the sky corresponds to 46 light-days [5]; the bar is 20 light-days long (0.44 arcsec). In PR Photo 23c/02 , "SgrA*" and S2 are identified in the left panel. The right panel displays the orbit of S2 as observed between 1992 and 2002, relative to SgrA* (marked with a circle). The positions of S2 at the different epochs are indicated by crosses with the dates (expressed in fractions of the year) shown at each point. The size of the crosses indicates the measurement errors. The solid curve is the best-fitting elliptical orbit - one of the foci is at the position of SgrA* . The 2002 data points come from NACO observations done during the early commissioning, fine adjustement, and Science Verification phases for this instrument; these data were promptly made public through the ESO Archive, cf. the NACO data webpage. PR Video Clip 02/02 was produced by the Max-Planck-Society and shows the observed motions of S2 and other stars in this area. The new NACO instrument [3] was installed in late 2001 at the VLT 8.2-m YEPUN telescope. Already during the initial tests, it produced many impressive images, some of which have been the subject of earlier ESO press releases [6]. "The first observations this year with NACO gave us right away the sharpest and 'deepest' images of the Milky Way Centre ever taken, showing a large number of stars in that area in great detail" , says Andreas Eckart of the University of Cologne, another member of the international team that is headed by Rainer Schödel, Thomas Ott and Reinhard Genzel from MPE. "But we were still to be overwhelmed by the wonderful outcome of those data! " Combining their infrared images with high-resolution radio data, the team was able to determine - during a ten-year period - very accurate positions of about one thousand stars in the central area with respect to the compact radio source SgrA* , see PR Photo 23c/02 . "When we included the latest NACO data in our analysis in May 2002, we could not believe our eyes. The star S2 , which is the one currently closest to SgrA*, had just performed a rapid swing-by near the radio source. We suddenly realised that we were actually witnessing the motion of a star in orbit around the central black hole, taking it incredibly close to that mysterious object" , says a very happy Thomas Ott , who is now working in the MPE team on his PhD thesis. In orbit around the central black hole No event like this one has ever been recorded . These unique data show unambiguously that S2 is moving along an elliptical orbit with SgrA* at one focus, i.e. S2 orbits SgrA* like the Earth orbits the Sun, cf. the right panel of PR Photo 23c/02 . The superb data also allow a precise determination of the orbital parameters (shape, size, etc.). It turns out that S2 reached its closest distance to SgrA* in the spring of 2002, at which moment it was only 17 light-hours [5] away from the radio source, or just 3 times the Sun-Pluto distance. It was then moving at more than 5000 km/s, or nearly two hundred times the speed of the Earth in its orbit around the Sun. The orbital period is 15.2 years. The orbit is rather elongated - the eccentricity is 0.87 - indicating that S2 is about 10 light-days away from the central mass at the most distant orbital point [7]. "We are now able to demonstrate with certainty that SgrA* is indeed the location of the central dark mass we knew existed. Even more important, our new data have "shrunk" by a factor of several thousand the volume within which those several million solar masses are contained" , says Rainer Schödel , PhD student at MPE and also first author of the resulting paper. In fact, model calculations now indicate that the best estimate of the mass of the Black Hole at the centre of the Milky Way is 2.6 ± 0.2 million times the mass of the Sun . No other possibilities According to the detailed analysis presented in the Nature article, other previously possible configurations, such as very compact clusters of neutron stars, stellar size black holes or low mass stars, or even a ball of putative heavy neutrinos, can now be definitively excluded. The only still viable non-black hole configuration is a hypothetical star of heavy elementary particles called bosons, which would look very similar to a black hole. "However" , says Reinhard Genzel , "even if such a boson star is in principle possible, it would rapidly collapse into a supermassive black hole anyhow, so I think we have pretty much clinched the case!" Next observations "Most astrophysicists would accept that the new data provide compelling evidence that a supermassive black hole exists in the center of the Milky Way. This makes even more likely the supermassive black hole interpretation for the enormous concentration of dark mass detected at the center of many other galaxies" , says Alvio Renzini , VLT Programme Scientist at ESO. So what remains to be done? The next big quest now is to understand when and how these supermassive black holes formed and why almost every massive galaxy appears to contain one. The formation of central black holes and that of their host galaxies themselves increasingly appear to be just one problem and the same. Indeed, one of the outstanding challenges for the VLT to solve in the next few years. There is also little doubt that coming interferometric observations with instruments at the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) and the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) will also result in another giant leap within this exciting field of research. Andreas Eckart is optimistic: "Perhaps it will even be possible with X-ray and radio observations in the next few years to directly demonstrate the existence of the event horizon." More information The information presented in this Press Release is based on a research article ("Seeing a Star Orbit around the Supermassive Black Hole at the centre of the Milky Way" by Rainer Schödel et al.) that appears in the research journal "Nature" on October 17, 2002. Notes [1]: This press release is issued in coordination between ESO and the Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Garching, Germany. A German version is available at http://www.mpg.de/pri02/pri0287.htm. [2]: The team consists of Rainer Schödel, Thomas Ott, Reinhard Genzel, Reiner Hofmann and Matt Lehnert (Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany), Andreas Eckart and Nelly Mouawad (Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Cologne, Germany), Tal Alexander (The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel), Mark J. Reid (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass., USA), Rainer Lenzen and Markus Hartung (Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg, Germany), François Lacombe, Daniel Rouan, Eric Gendron and Gérard Rousset (Observatoire de Paris - Section de Meudon, France), Anne-Marie Lagrange (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique, Observatoire de Grenoble, France), Wolfgang Brandner, Nancy Ageorges, Chris Lidman, Alan F.M. Moorwood, Jason Spyromilio and Norbert Hubin (ESO) and Karl M. Menten (Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Bonn, Germany). [3]: The NACO facility has two major components, CONICA and NAOS . The COudé Near-Infrared CAmera (CONICA) was developed by a German Consortium, with an extensive ESO collaboration. The Consortium consists of Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA) (Heidelberg) and the Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE) (Garching). The Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS) was developed, with the support of INSU-CNRS, by a French Consortium in collaboration with ESO. The French consortium consists of Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales (ONERA) , Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (LAOG) and Observatoire de Paris (DESPA and DASGAL). [4]: In Albert Einstein's Theory of General Relativity, any mass has a characteristic radius, the "event horizon", or "Schwarzschild radius" named after the German astrophysicist Karl Schwarzschild . Within this radius, even light cannot escape the pull of the gravitational force. The radius for a 2.6 ± 0.2 million solar masses black hole (as the one at the centre of the Milky Way galaxy) is about 7.7 million km (26 light-seconds). [5]: Astronomical distances are often expressed in the time it takes the light, travelling at 300,000 km/sec, to cover them. 1 light-hour = 1.08 10 9 km; 1 light-day = 2.6 10 10 km; 1 light-month = 7.8 10 11 km; 1 light-year = 9.5 10 12 km. [6]: Earlier NACO images have been published in ESO PR 25/01 , ESO PR Photos 04a-c/02 , ESO PR Photos 19a-c/02 and ESO PR Photos 21a-c/02. [7]: S2 is an otherwise "normal" star, but some 15 times more massive and 7 times larger than the Sun. Its orbit around the Black Hole is comparatively stable. Even though it moves relatively close to the Black Hole in the present orbit, S2 would have to be at least 70 times closer (about 16 light-minutes from the Black Hole) before it would risk being disrupted by tidal forces. Astronomers refer to the extreme orbital points as "perenigricon" (closest to the Black Hole) and "aponigricon" (farthest away).

  11. Surfing China's National Defense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Guilin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Following the start of its first test run on August 20, 2009, the website www.mod.gov.cn of the Ministry of National Defense (MOD) of the People's Republic of China has logged more than 2 billion hits,from many countries and regions including China, the United States,the United Kingdom, Japan, Australia and Singapore. China National Defense News reporters recently interviewed Ji Guilin, the website's Editor in Chief, on its performance and the feedback of netizens.

  12. Surf Aces Resurfaced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2013-01-01

    of entertainment but also a forum for cultural and social criticism. More particularly, through contextual and lyrical analyses of recordings by The Beach Boys, it identifies patterns of change and continuity in the articulation of counter-cultural, ecological and related sensibilities. During late 1966 and early......, what had formerly been considered high risk had by 1970 become good business as once-marginal environmentalism gained broader acceptability: thus did ‘America’s band’ articulate the flowering, greening and fading of the counter-culture.......The rise of the American counter-culture between the early- to mid-1960s and early- to mid-1970s was closely associated with the growth of environmentalism. This article explores how both informed popular music, a form of expression which during these years became not only a prominent form...

  13. BLM Solar Energy Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Priority development areas for utility-scale solar energy facilities as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision. An additional Solar Energy Zone identified...

  14. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  15. Microgravity silicon zoning investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, E. L.; Gill, G. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The flow instabilities in floating zones of silicon were investigated and methods for investigation of these instabilities in microgravity were defined. Three principal tasks were involved: (1) characterization of the float zone in small diameter rods; (2) investigation of melt flow instabilities in circular melts in silicon disks; and (3) the development of a prototype of an apparatus that could be used in near term space experiments to investigate flow instabilities in a molten zone. It is shown that in a resistance heated zoner with 4 to 7 mm diameter silicon rods that the critical Marangoni number is about 1480 compared to a predicted value of 14 indicative that viable space experiments might be performed. The prototype float zone apparatus is built and specifications are prepared for a flight zoner should a decision be reached to proceed with a space flight experimental investigation.

  16. The gray zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, H J

    1998-01-01

    Think for a minute about the terms equivocal and indeterminate. Equivocal is defined as "of uncertain significance", and indeterminate is defined as "indefinite, uncertain". Now think of the context in which laboratory results are reported: either by using the exact words equivocal or indeterminate or cloaked in technical jargon (e.g., cytologic diagnoses "ASCUS" or "AGUS"). Clinicians expect (or at least want) laboratory results to be black or white (i.e., bimodally distributed), whereas laboratorians strive for the perfect shade of gray because of data that often are bimodal but overlapping. A consequence of this color war is "the gray zone" (often confused with the "twilight zone"), a noncommittal zone that leaves laboratorians and clinicians alike plenty of wiggle room, allowing us to interpret results on either side of the fence. This article examines the root causes of the gray zone, with several clinical examples of how it permeates laboratory interpretation.

  17. Coastal Zone of Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water, Salt and Nutrients Budgets of Two Estuaries in the. Coastal Zone of ... in destabilization of plankton communities, resulting in high ...... The water exchange time (1) was. 315 and 48 days in ..... account. Know your Milieu Series. Limbe,.

  18. Promise Zones for Applicants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists applicants to HUD's Promise Zone initiative prepare data to submit with their application by allowing applicants to draw the exact location of the...

  19. Geoinformation modeling system for analysis of atmosphere pollution impact on vegetable biosystems using space images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polichtchouk, Yuri; Ryukhko, Viatcheslav; Tokareva, Olga; Alexeeva, Mary

    2002-02-01

    Geoinformation modeling system structure for assessment of the environmental impact of atmospheric pollution on forest- swamp ecosystems of West Siberia is considered. Complex approach to the assessment of man-caused impact based on the combination of sanitary-hygienic and landscape-geochemical approaches is reported. Methodical problems of analysis of atmosphere pollution impact on vegetable biosystems using geoinformation systems and remote sensing data are developed. Landscape structure of oil production territories in southern part of West Siberia are determined on base of processing of space images from spaceborn Resource-O. Particularities of atmosphere pollution zones modeling caused by gas burning in torches in territories of oil fields are considered. For instance, a pollution zones were revealed modeling of contaminants dispersal in atmosphere by standard model. Polluted landscapes areas are calculated depending on oil production volume. It is shown calculated data is well approximated by polynomial models.

  20. AIR POLLUTION OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAKAROVA V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Any manufacturing processes related to the generation of waste. Year after year, a growing mass of waste is one of the main factors reducing the quality of the environment and destruction of natural landscapes. Industrial development inevitably enhances human impacts on the environment and disrupts the ecological balance [3]. Atmospher air is a vital element of the environment. The development of industry, the growth of cities, increasing the number of transport, active exploration of near-Earth space lead to a change in the gas composition of the atmosphere and disruption of its natural balance. Air quality affects the health of the population [5]. Without water or food a person can do for a while, but without air he can not live a few minutes, therefore saving air breathable is an urgent problem. Purpose. The results of geological studies clearly indicate that the contamination of the surface layer of the atmosphere is the most powerful permanent factor of influence on the human food chain and the environment. This problem was reflected in the scientific literature [2; 3; 6], and the second significant indicator of ecological well-being of the region is the number of generation and accumulation of waste. According to this indicator, Dnipropetrovsk region is in the lead, as relates to the industrialized regions. The idea of the article is to consider the air pollution of the urban environment in terms of the accumulation of waste in the territory of enterprises, in particular slag dumps metallurgical production. Conclusion. Slag dumps located on the premises are a significant source of air pollution urbanized areas due to the permanent nature of the spread of contamination. Slag dump of PAT "Nikopol Ferroalloy Plant" is a source of manganese, zinc, nickel emissions. As a conclusion about the magnitude of pollution of the atmospheric boundary layer can say the following: on the border of the sanitary protection zone (SPZ, in

  1. Simulated floating zone method

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, Ryo; Kato, Yasuyuki; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides the simulated floating zone (SFZ) method that is an efficient simulation technique to obtain thermal equilibrium states, especially useful when domain formation prevents the system from reaching a spatially-uniform stable state. In the SFZ method, the system is heated up locally, and the heated region is steadily shifted, similar to the floating zone method for growing a single crystal with less lattice defect and impurity in experiments. We demonstrate that the SFZ method...

  2. Star Surface Polluted by Planetary Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    normal planet-hosting stars. "We find that evolved stars are not enriched in metals, even when hosting planets," says Pasquini. "Thus, the anomalies found in planet-hosting stars seem to disappear when they get older and puff up!" Looking at the various options, the astronomers conclude that the most likely explanation lies in the difference in the structure between red giants and solar-like stars: the size of the convective zone, the region where all the gas is completely mixed. In the Sun, this convective zone comprises only 2% of the star's mass. But in red giants, the convective zone is huge, encompassing 35 times more mass. The polluting material would thus be 35 times more diluted in a red giant than in a solar-like star. "Although the interpretation of the data is not straightforward, the simplest explanation is that solar-like stars appear metal-rich because of the pollution of their atmospheres," says co-author Artie Hatzes, Director of the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg (Germany) where some of the data were obtained. When the star was still surrounded by a proto-planetary disc, material enriched in more heavy elements would fall onto the star, thereby polluting its surface. The metal excess produced by this pollution, while visible in the thin atmospheres of solar-like stars, is completely diluted in the extended, massive atmospheres of the giants.

  3. Mapping air quality zones for coastal urban centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Brian; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Thé, Jesse; Munshed, Mohammad; Faisal, Shah; Abdullah, Meshal; Al Aseed, Athari

    2017-05-01

    This study presents a new method that incorporates modern air dispersion models allowing local terrain and land-sea breeze effects to be considered along with political and natural boundaries for more accurate mapping of air quality zones (AQZs) for coastal urban centers. This method uses local coastal wind patterns and key urban air pollution sources in each zone to more accurately calculate air pollutant concentration statistics. The new approach distributes virtual air pollution sources within each small grid cell of an area of interest and analyzes a puff dispersion model for a full year's worth of 1-hr prognostic weather data. The difference of wind patterns in coastal and inland areas creates significantly different skewness (S) and kurtosis (K) statistics for the annually averaged pollutant concentrations at ground level receptor points for each grid cell. Plotting the S-K data highlights grouping of sources predominantly impacted by coastal winds versus inland winds. The application of the new method is demonstrated through a case study for the nation of Kuwait by developing new AQZs to support local air management programs. The zone boundaries established by the S-K method were validated by comparing MM5 and WRF prognostic meteorological weather data used in the air dispersion modeling, a support vector machine classifier was trained to compare results with the graphical classification method, and final zones were compared with data collected from Earth observation satellites to confirm locations of high-exposure-risk areas. The resulting AQZs are more accurate and support efficient management strategies for air quality compliance targets effected by local coastal microclimates. A novel method to determine air quality zones in coastal urban areas is introduced using skewness (S) and kurtosis (K) statistics calculated from grid concentrations results of air dispersion models. The method identifies land-sea breeze effects that can be used to manage local air

  4. MindSurf: a pilot study to assess the usability and acceptability of a smartphone app designed to promote contentment, wellbeing, and goal achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Timothy A; Haviland, Jennifer; Tai, Sara J; Vanags, Thea; Mansell, Warren

    2016-12-12

    The Method of Levels (MOL) is a transdiagnostic cognitive therapy that promotes contentment, wellbeing, and goal achievement through the resolution of internal conflicts underlying psychological distress. MOL, based on Perceptual Control Theory (PCT), was developed in routine clinical practice and has been used effectively across different health services by different practitioners. Access to MOL-style questions through a smartphone app could, potentially, help both the general public maintain robust mental health, and also be a useful adjunct to therapy for clinical populations. The app is called MindSurf because of its focus on helping people explore their thinking. Prior to developing the app and using it with different populations it was necessary to determine whether such an idea would be usable for and acceptable to potential app users. Therefore, a pilot study was conducted with a non-clinical sample to assess the usability and acceptability of the app including monitoring whether the questions delivered in this way were associated with any adverse events. A pilot study using quantitative as well as qualitative methods and incorporating a repeated measures, A-B design was conducted. The 23 participants were healthy adult volunteers who were all either undergraduate students, postgraduate students, or staff of the University of Manchester. They received MOL-style questions on their mobile phones over a 1-week period. Qualitative results were encouraging and indicated that the format and style of questioning were acceptable to participants and did not lead to increased worry or concern. A one-way, repeated measures ANOVA indicated that there was a nonsignificant decrease in scores on the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS21) over a 2 week period. The results of the pilot study justified development of MindSurf and further testing once it is available for use. A power analysis indicated that the pilot study was underpowered to detect

  5. Un hombre llamado pez: la historia de Duke Kahanamoku, el nadador más rápido del mundo y el padre del surf moderno. [A Man Called Fish: the History of Duke Kahanamoku, the fastest swimmer of the World and the father of modern surfing].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Esparza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Duke Kahanamoku (1890-1968 forma parte del Salón de la Fama de la natación, y también del Salón de la Fama del surf. Es la única persona que tiene ese doble mérito. Las razones no son difíciles de entender: fue el nadador más rápido de entre los humanos hasta que llegó otro que no lo era: Tarzán, o mejor dicho, Johnny Weissmüller; y en cuanto al arte de montar las olas tuvo el mérito de expandir por otros mares y océanos esa actividad milenaria surgida en el Hawái arcaico hasta el punto de ser considerado por casi todos el padre del surf moderno. ¿Cuáles fueron sus éxitos en la natación? ¿Qué había de innovador en su técnica que le hizo el más rápido? ¿Cómo expandió el surf al mismo tiempo que realizaba exhibiciones de natación? ¿De qué energía carismática estaba dotado este hombre, que hasta el propio JFK en su visita a Honolulu en 1962 se saltó absolutamente todo el protocolo entre las autoridades norteamericanas para dirigirse directamente hacia él y saludarle efusivamente? He aquí su historia.

  6. Marine pollution: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentukevičienė, Marina; Brannvall, Evelina

    2008-01-01

    This overview of marine pollution follows the methodology as proposed below. Firstly, well-known databases (Science Direct, GeoRef, SpringerLINK, etc.) on technological research were studied. All collected references were divided into 27 sections following the key words associated with marine pollution, oil spills, alien species migration, etc. The most commercially promising research and development (R & D) activities seem to be market-oriented sections: detection of oil spills at sea, containment and recovery of floating oil at sea, detection of oil spills on land, disposal of oil and debris on land, alien species migration prevention from ballast water and underwater hull cleaning in water, NOx and SOx emissions, pollutions from ship-building and repair, and biogeochemical modelling. Great market demands for commercially patented innovations are very attractive for initiating new R & D projects.

  7. Optimization of remediation strategies using vadose zone monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Ofer

    2016-04-01

    In-situ bio-remediation of the vadose zone depends mainly on the ability to change the subsurface hydrological, physical and chemical conditions in order to enable development of specific, indigenous, pollutants degrading bacteria. As such the remediation efficiency is much dependent on the ability to implement optimal hydraulic and chemical conditions in deep sections of the vadose zone. These conditions are usually determined in laboratory experiments where parameters such as the chemical composition of the soil water solution, redox potential and water content of the sediment are fully controlled. Usually, implementation of desired optimal degradation conditions in deep vadose zone at full scale field setups is achieved through infiltration of water enriched with chemical additives on the land surface. It is assumed that deep percolation into the vadose zone would create chemical conditions that promote biodegradation of specific compounds. However, application of water with specific chemical conditions near land surface dose not necessarily results in promoting of desired chemical and hydraulic conditions in deep sections of the vadose zone. A vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS) that was recently developed allows continuous monitoring of the hydrological and chemical properties of deep sections of the unsaturated zone. The VMS includes flexible time-domain reflectometry (FTDR) probes which allow continuous monitoring of the temporal variation of the vadose zone water content, and vadose-zone sampling ports (VSPs) which are designed to allow frequent sampling of the sediment pore-water and gas at multiple depths. Implementation of the vadose zone monitoring system in sites that undergoes active remediation provides real time information on the actual chemical and hydrological conditions in the vadose zone as the remediation process progresses. Up-to-date the system has been successfully implemented in several studies on water flow and contaminant transport in

  8. Bioindication of air pollution in Niš by using epiphytic lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioindication of air pollution in the city of Niš, by using epiphytic lichens, was performed for the first time in 1992. In this paper the authors present the results of repeated investigations in 2002, by using new, modern method, and their comparison with the former investigations. In repeated investigations, on 59 investigated spots, the authors established the presence of 42 lichen taxa, 3 zones with different air pollution level ("lichens desert", "transitional zone" and "normal zone" and two subzones ("narrow transitional zone" and "wider transitional zone", as well. As the most sensitive, some Melanelia-species (M. elegantula, M. exasperata, M. glabra, Evernia prunastr and Flavoparmelia caperata, were established while on the other hand, Phaeophyscia orbicularis, Physcia adscendens, Ph. stellaris and Lecanora argentata were the most tolerant.

  9. Pollution from Urban Runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    1992-01-01

    The main idea of this paper is to establish the following facts: Biodegradable organic matter discharged from combined sewer overflows (CSO) gives rise to an acute effect on the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of a river. This acute effect consist of two subeffects: an immediate oxygen deplet...... depletion which takes place in the polluted water volume passing down the river, and a delayed oxygen depletion which is associated with degradation of the organic matter accumulated at the river bottom during the passage of the polluted water volume....

  10. Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    stream_size 12413 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Environ_Int_32_145.pdf.txt stream_source_info Environ_Int_32_145.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 editorial persistent... problem of marine pollution, it is indeed a prime need of the hour to assess the state of pollution of the marine environment. environmental data off Cundapoor and Kasargod along the coast of Karnataka that can be utilized for comprehensive interpretation...

  11. Local Environment Recognition System Using Modified SURF-Based 3D Panoramic Environment Map for Obstacle Avoidance of a Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Koo Kang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a local environment recognition system for obstacle avoidance. In vision systems, obstacles that are located beyond the Field of View (FOV cannot be detected precisely. To deal with the FOV problem, we propose a 3D Panoramic Environment Map (PEM using a Modified SURF algorithm (MSURF. Moreover, in order to decide the avoidance direction and motion automatically, we also propose a Complexity Measure (CM and Fuzzy-Logic-based Avoidance Motion Selector (FL-AMS. The CM is utilized to decide an avoidance direction for obstacles. The avoidance motion is determined using FL-AMS, which considers environmental conditions such as the size of obstacles and available space. The proposed system is applied to a humanoid robot built by the authors. The results of the experiment show that the proposed method can be effectively applied to a practical environment.

  12. In-situ Observations of Swash-zone Flow Velocities and Sediment Transport on a Steep Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon-Maldonado, P.; Puleo, J. A.; Figlus, J.

    2014-12-01

    A 45 m scaffolding frame containing an array of instruments was installed at South Bethany Beach, Delaware, to obtain in-situ measurements in the swash zone. Six cross-shore stations were established to simultaneously measure near-bed velocity profiles, sediment concentration and water level fluctuations on a steep beach. Measurements of swash-zone hydrodynamics and morphological change were collected from February 12 to 25, 2014, following a large Nor'easter storm with surf zone significant wave height exceeding 5 m. Swash-zone flow velocities (u,v,w) were measured at each cross-shore location using a Nortek Vectrino profiling velocimeter that measured a 30 mm velocity profile at 1 mm vertical increments at 100 Hz. These velocity profiles were used to quantify the vertical flow structure over the foreshore and estimate hydrodynamic parameters such as bed shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy dissipation. Sediment concentrations were measured using optical backscatter sensors (OBS) to obtain spatio-temporal measurements during both uprush and backwash phases of the swash cycle. Cross-shore sediment transport rates at each station were estimated by taking the product of cross-shore velocity and sediment concentration. Foreshore elevations were sampled every low tide using a Leica GPS system with RTK capability. Cross-shore sediment transport rates and gradients derived from the velocities and bed shear stress estimates will be related to the observed morphological change.

  13. Research on Sonar Image Registration and Fusion Based on SURF Algorithm%基于SURF的声纳图像配准与融合方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭军

    2013-01-01

    针对侧扫声纳图像分辨率高测深精度低而多波束声纳图像分辨率低测深精度高的特点,提出了一种基于SUFR的声纳图像自动配准与融合方法.该算法检测同一区域内侧扫声纳图像和多波束图像的特征点,通过最近邻匹配获得匹配点后,计算图像间的变换矩阵,利用空间变换完成配准,采用加权融合法实现两者的融合.实验结果表明该算法具有很好的鲁棒性,配准精度达到像素级,可实现两者的高精度自动配准与融合,取得了理想的效果.%According to multi - beam sonar system, the high - resolution backscatter but poor horizontal position accuracy, and side -scan sonar system, the accurate bathymetry and horizontal position but low resolution, the study is concerned with an automatic registration and fusion method of sonar image based on SURF. To achieve the integration of multi - beam sonar system and side - scan sonar system with the weighted fusion method, it extracts feature points by using SURF, computes transformation matrix by using match points, and performs registration and fusion with a spatial transform. The results indicate that this method is robust and stable with registration accuracy up to pixel level realizing the quite precise automatic registration and fusion, and is more suitable for sonar image.

  14. 改进SURF算法的图像拼接算法研究%An image stitching algorithm based on improved SURF algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马林伟; 朱国魂

    2014-01-01

    针对目前图像拼接算法存在对于图像配准过程中对应特征点对难以准确匹配的问题,提出了一个通过改进的 SURF 算法提取图像特征点,然后对得到的特征点进行描述,利用快速RANSAC 算法配准图像,最后采用像素加权的方法进行图像融合。实验结果表明,提出的改进 SURF方法有效地提高了特征点提取的准确性,去除了错误的匹配点对,将整个拼接过程的效率从之前的13.03对/秒提升到15.20对/秒。%Image stitching is mainly used in aerial image processing, medical image analysis, virtual reality technology, computer vision, etc. For image registration, the difficult is to accurately extract the corresponding feature points. This paper puts forward a kind of algorithm based on improved SURF algorithm to extract image feature points, and then describes the feature points, using the RANSAC algorithm to registration the image. Finally, it uses the method of weighted pixel in image fusion. The experiment results show that this method improved the accuracy of feature extract, wipe out the wrong matching points, and improved the processing of stitching from 13.03/s to 15.20/s.

  15. 基于SIFT,PCA-SIFT和SURF特征检测方法的研究%Based on SIFT,PCA-SIFT and SURF Feature Detection Method Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏荣; 李晓明

    2012-01-01

    To study features,we compared with SIFT(Scale Invariant Feature Transform),PCA-SIFT(Principal Component Analysis Scale Invariant Feature Transform)and SURF(Speeded Up Robust Features)three kinds of robust feature detection method.We use KNN(K-Nearest Neighbor)and random sampling method of these three kinds of methods for analysis.Where KNN used to seek matching pairs,random sampling for removing errors from match to match.Feature detection performance robustness is the image rotation,image blurring,illumination variation,the scale change of the image.The experimental evaluation is the use of repetition rate and the number of correct matching of the two statistical methods.In a variety of image transform in SIFT and SURF performance is consistent,but also has faster calculation speed.PCA-SIFT in the image rotation and illumination changes provides a better performance.%文章对SIFT,PCA-SIFT和SURF三种鲁棒性较强的特征检测方法作对比.文中运用KNN(K-Nearest Neighbor)和RANSAC的方法对这三种方法进行分析.其中KNN用于寻求匹配对,RANSAC用于从匹配对中剔除错误匹配.特征检测性能的鲁棒性主要是对图像旋转、图像模糊、光照变化、尺度变化下的图像进行测试.在各种图像变换中SIFT都体现出了稳定性,但计算速度相对比较慢.SURF不仅与SIFT的性能相一致,而且还拥有较快的计算速度.PCA-SIFT在图像旋转和光照变化中有较好的性能.

  16. A Research on Monocular Visual SLAM Based on SURF Feature%基于SURF特征的单目视觉SLAM方法研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡衡; 梁岚珍

    2015-01-01

    Because the visual information is easily affected by external environment factors, therefore the selected feature points of mobile robot based on visual simultaneous localization and map building requires high stability and good robustness. For the problem of monocular visual mobile robot SLAM(Simultaneous Localization and Mapping),a kind of mono-SLAM algorithm based on Extended kalman filter is proposed by using SURF(Speed Up Robust Features) feature points and the inverse depth method. The process of SLAM is completed by fusing the information of SURF features and robot information with EKF. The result of simulation experiment indicates that the proposed algorithm is feasible, and with high localization precision in indoor structured environment.%由于视觉信息很容易受到外界环境因素的影响,因此基于视觉的移动机器人同步定位与地图构建问题所选取的特征点要求具有较高的精确度和良好的鲁棒性。针对单目SLAM问题,提出一种基于扩展卡尔曼滤波器的单目视觉SLAM算法。该算法采用SURF特征点,结合反向深度估计法,应用扩展卡尔曼滤波器融合SURF特征信息与机器人位姿信息完成SLAM过程。仿真实验结果表明,在未知室内结构化环境下,该算法运行可靠,定位精度高。

  17. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)-based analysis and imaging of polyethylene microplastics formation during sea surf simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungnickel, H; Pund, R; Tentschert, J; Reichardt, P; Laux, P; Harbach, H; Luch, A

    2016-09-01

    Plastic particles smaller than 5mm, so called microplastics have the capability to accumulate in rivers, lakes and the marine environment and therefore have begun to be considered in eco-toxicology and human health risk assessment. Environmental microplastic contaminants may originate from consumer products like body wash, tooth pastes and cosmetic products, but also from degradation of plastic waste; they represent a potential but unpredictable threat to aquatic organisms and possibly also to humans. We investigated exemplarily for polyethylene (PE), the most abundant constituent of microplastic particles in the environment, whether such fragments could be produced from larger pellets (2mm×6mm). So far only few analytical methods exist to identify microplastic particles smaller than 10μm, especially no imaging mass spectrometry technique. We used at first time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) for analysis and imaging of small PE-microplastic particles directly in the model system Ottawa sand during exposure to sea surf simulation. As a prerequisite, a method for identification of PE was established by identification of characteristic ions for PE out of an analysis of grinded polymer samples. The method was applied onto Ottawa sand in order to investigate the influence of simulated environmental conditions on particle transformation. A severe degradation of the primary PE pellet surface, associated with the transformation of larger particles into smaller ones already after 14days of sea surf simulation, was observed. Within the subsequent period of 14days to 1month of exposure the number of detected smallest-sized particles increased significantly (50%) while the second smallest fraction increased even further to 350%. Results were verified using artificially degraded PE pellets and Ottawa sand.

  18. Assessment of the environmental significance of nutrients and heavy metal pollution in the river network of Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dević, Gordana; Sakan, Sanja; Đorđević, Dragana

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the data for ten water quality variables collected during 2009 at 75 monitoring sites along the river network of Serbia are considered. The results are alarming because 48% of the studied sites were contaminated by Ni, Mn, Pb, As, and nutrients, which are key factors impairing the water quality of the rivers in Serbia. Special attention should be paid to Zn and Cu, listed in the priority toxic pollutants of US EPA for aquatic life protection. The employed Q-model cluster analysis grouped the data into three major pollution zones (low, moderate, and high). Most sites classified as "low pollution zones" (LP) were in the main rivers, whereas those classified as "moderate and high pollution zones" (MP and HP, respectively) were in the large and small tributaries/hydro-system. Principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) showed that the dissolved metals and nutrients in the Serbian rivers varied depending on the river, the heterogeneity of the anthropogenic activities in the basins (influenced primarily by industrial wastewater, agricultural activities, and urban runoff pollution), and natural environmental variability, such as geological characteristics. In LP dominated non-point source pollution, such as agricultural and urban runoff, whereas mixed source pollution dominated in the MP and HP zones. These results provide information to be used for developing better pollution control strategies for the river network of Serbia.

  19. Assessment of water quality and identification of polluted risky regions based on field observations & GIS in the Honghe River watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chang-An; Zhang, Wanchang; Zhang, Zhijie; Liu, Yuanmin; Deng, Cai; Nie, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Water quality assessment at the watershed scale requires not only an investigation of water pollution and the recognition of main pollution factors, but also the identification of polluted risky regions resulted in polluted surrounding river sections. To realize this objective, we collected water samplings from 67 sampling sites in the Honghe River watershed of China with Grid GIS method to analyze six parameters including dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). Single factor pollution index and comprehensive pollution index were adopted to explore main water pollutants and evaluate water quality pollution level. Based on two evaluate methods, Geo-statistical analysis and Geographical Information System (GIS) were used to visualize the spatial pollution characteristics and identifying potential polluted risky regions. The results indicated that the general water quality in the watershed has been exposed to various pollutants, in which TP, NO2-N and TN were the main pollutants and seriously exceeded the standard of Category III. The zones of TP, TN, DO, NO2-N and NH3-N pollution covered 99.07%, 62.22%, 59.72%, 37.34% and 13.82% of the watershed respectively, and they were from medium to serious polluted. 83.27% of the watershed in total was polluted by comprehensive pollutants. These conclusions may provide useful and effective information for watershed water pollution control and management.

  20. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available , Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study Methodology Results Optimal Exploration Target Zones Pravesh Debba1, Emmanual M.J. Carranza2, Alfred Stein2, Freek D. van der Meer2 1CSIR, Logistics... and Quantitative Methods, CSIR Built Environment 2International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), Hengelosestraat 99, P.O. Box 6, 7500AA Enschede, The Netherlands Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer...