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Sample records for surf hilo flood

  1. 78 FR 41184 - Noise Exposure Map Notice for Hilo International Airport, Hilo, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice for Hilo International Airport, Hilo, Hawaii... determination that the noise exposure maps submitted by Hawaii State Department of Transportation, Airports... Safety and Noise Abatement Act) and 14 CFR part 150 are in compliance with applicable requirements....

  2. Surf Tourism, Artificial Surfing Reefs, and Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotkin, Michael H.; Chambliss, Karen; Vamosi, Alexander R.; Lindo, Chris

    2009-07-01

    This paper explores the confluence of surf tourism, artificial surfing reefs, and sustainability. Surfing is an ascendant recreational and tourism industry and artificial surfing reefs are a new and innovative technology and product. Presented within the context of Florida's Space Coast, empirical details on surf tourism are discussed along with the possible implications for sustainability.

  3. Surfing on the Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Israel Paskowitz loves surfing. As a former competitive surfer, he has spent much of his life in the ocean and absorbed in a community of athletes that share a special connection with the water. Surfing is often thought of as a spiritual hobby that brings peace and relaxation to those who experience it. However, it was not until Israel's son,…

  4. Surfing on the Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Israel Paskowitz loves surfing. As a former competitive surfer, he has spent much of his life in the ocean and absorbed in a community of athletes that share a special connection with the water. Surfing is often thought of as a spiritual hobby that brings peace and relaxation to those who experience it. However, it was not until Israel's son,…

  5. 33 CFR 80.1480 - Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1480 Section 80.1480 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1480 Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. A line...

  6. Q&A: Surfing scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jascha

    2013-11-01

    Historian Peter Westwick and his colleague Peter Neushul thought up their scientific history of surfing, The World in the Curl (Crown, 2013), on boards off the coast of California. As the winter surfing season gets into full swing, Westwick talks about warfare, wetsuits, climate change and forecasting surf.

  7. Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floods are common in the United States. Weather such as heavy rain, thunderstorms, hurricanes, or tsunamis can ... is breached, or when a dam breaks. Flash floods, which can develop quickly, often have a dangerous ...

  8. Hilo, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hilo, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST is a...

  9. Hilo, Hawaii 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Hilo, Hawaii Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly...

  10. SURF Model Calibration Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-10

    SURF and SURFplus are high explosive reactive burn models for shock initiation and propagation of detonation waves. They are engineering models motivated by the ignition & growth concept of high spots and for SURFplus a second slow reaction for the energy release from carbon clustering. A key feature of the SURF model is that there is a partial decoupling between model parameters and detonation properties. This enables reduced sets of independent parameters to be calibrated sequentially for the initiation and propagation regimes. Here we focus on a methodology for tting the initiation parameters to Pop plot data based on 1-D simulations to compute a numerical Pop plot. In addition, the strategy for tting the remaining parameters for the propagation regime and failure diameter is discussed.

  11. Surfing the quantum world

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Frank S

    2017-01-01

    The ideas and phenomena of the quantum world are strikingly unlike those encountered in our visual world. Surfing the Quantum World shows why and how this is so. It does this via a historical review and a gentle introduction to the fundamental principles of quantum theory, whose core concepts and symbolic representations are used to explain not only "ordinary" microscopic phenomena like the properties of the hydrogen atom and the structure of the Periodic Table of the Elements, but also a variety of mind-bending phenomena. Readers will learn that particles such as electrons and photons can behave like waves, allowing them to be in two places simultaneously, why white dwarf and neutron stars are gigantic quantum objects, how the maximum height of mountains has a quantum basis, and why quantum objects can tunnel through seemingly impenetrable barriers. Included among the various interpretational issues addressed is whether Schrodinger's cat is ever both dead and alive.

  12. Resolving Implementation Ambiguity and Improving SURF

    CERN Document Server

    Abeles, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) has emerged as one of the more popular feature descriptors and detectors in recent years. Due to SURF's complexity and ambiguities found in its description, performance and algorithmic details between these implementations vary widely. To resolve these ambiguities a set of general techniques for feature stability is defined based on the smoothness rule and applied to SURF. Additional new improvements to SURF are proposed for speed and stability. To illustrate the importance of these implementation details, a performance study of popular SURF implementations is done. By utilizing all the suggested improvements it is possible to create a SURF implementation which is several times faster and/or more stable.

  13. Sand, sea and surf: segmenting South African surfers | Kruger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sand, sea and surf: segmenting South African surfers. ... and that they differ according to their socio-demographic characteristics, surfing behaviour and motives. The results of ... Keywords: Market segmentation; Surfing; South Africa; Typology ...

  14. Performance Analysis of Surfing: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Oliver R L; Abbiss, Chris R; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2017-01-01

    Farley, ORL, Abbiss, CR, and Sheppard, JM. Performance Analysis of Surfing: A Review. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 260-271, 2017-Despite the increased professionalism and substantial growth of surfing worldwide, there is limited information available to practitioners and coaches in terms of key performance analytics that are common in other field-based sports. Indeed, research analyzing surfing performance is limited to a few studies examining male surfers' heart rates, surfing activities through time-motion analysis (TMA) using video recordings and Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) data during competition and recreational surfing. These studies have indicated that specific activities undertaken during surfing are unique with a variety of activities (i.e., paddling, resting, wave riding, breath holding, and recovery of surfboard in the surf). Furthermore, environmental and wave conditions also seem to influence the physical demands of competition surfing. It is due to these demands that surfers are required to have a high cardiorespiratory fitness, high muscular endurance, and considerable strength and anaerobic power, particular within the upper torso. By exploring various methods of performance analysis used within other sports, it is possible to improve our understanding of surfing demands. In so doing this will assist in the development of protocols and strategies to assess physiological characteristics of surfers, monitor athlete performance, improve training prescription, and identify talent. Therefore, this review explores the current literature to provide insights into methodological protocols, delimitations of research into athlete analysis and an overview of surfing dynamics. Specifically, this review will describe and review the use of TMA, GPS, and other technologies (i.e., HR) that are used in external and internal load monitoring as they pertain to surfing.

  15. Mathieu Moonshine and Symmetry Surfing

    CERN Document Server

    Gaberdiel, Matthias R; Paul, Hynek

    2016-01-01

    Mathieu Moonshine, the observation that the Fourier coefficients of the elliptic genus on K3 can be interpreted as dimensions of representations of the Mathieu group M24, has been proven abstractly, but a conceptual understanding in terms of a representation of the Mathieu group on the BPS states, is missing. Some time ago, Taormina and Wendland showed that such an action can be naturally defined on the lowest non-trivial BPS states, using the idea of `symmetry surfing', i.e., by combining the symmetries of different K3 sigma models. In this paper we find non-trivial evidence that this construction can be generalized to all BPS states.

  16. Shock Detector for SURF model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-11

    SURF and its extension SURFplus are reactive burn models aimed at shock initiation and propagation of detonation waves in high explosives. A distinctive feature of these models is that the burn rate depends on the lead shock pressure. A key part of the models is an algorithm to detect the lead shock. Typically, shock capturing hydro algorithms have small oscillations behind a shock. Here we investigate how well the shock detection algorithm works for a nearly steady propagating detonation wave in one-dimension using the Eulerian xRage code.

  17. Shock Detector for SURF model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-11

    SURF and its extension SURFplus are reactive burn models aimed at shock initiation and propagation of detonation waves in high explosives. A distinctive feature of these models is that the burn rate depends on the lead shock pressure. A key part of the models is an algorithm to detect the lead shock. Typically, shock capturing hydro algorithms have small oscillations behind a shock. Here we investigate how well the shock detection algorithm works for a nearly steady propagating detonation wave in one-dimension using the Eulerian xRage code.

  18. Towards designing miniature surfing robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Kang, Saeed; Vandadi, Vahid; Masoud, Hassan

    2016-11-01

    We theoretically study the surfing motion of chemically and thermally active particles located at a flat liquid-gas interface that sits above a liquid layer of finite depth. The particles' activity creates and maintains a surface tension gradient resulting in the auto-surfing. It is intuitively perceived that Marangoni surfers propel towards the direction with a higher surface tension. Remarkably, we find that the surfers may propel in the lower surface tension direction depending on their geometry and proximity to the bottom of the liquid layer. In particular, our analytical calculations for Stokes flow and diffusion-dominated scalar (i.e. chemical concentration and temperature) fields indicate that spherical particles undergo reverse Marangoni propulsion under confinement whereas disk-shaped surfers always move in the expected direction. We extend our results by proposing an approximate formula for the propulsion speed of oblate spheroidal particles based on the speeds of spheres and disks. Overall, our findings pave the way for designing microsurfers capable of operating in bounded environments.

  19. Development of HiLo Microscope and its use in In-Vivo Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shreyas J.

    The functionality of achieving optical sectioning in biomedical research is invaluable as it allows for visualization of a biological sample at different depths while being free of background scattering. Most current microscopy techniques that offer optical sectioning, unfortunately, require complex instrumentation and thus are generally costly. HiLo microscopy, on the other hand, offers the same functionality and advantage at a relatively low cost. Hence, the work described in this thesis involves the design, build, and application of a HiLo microscope. More specifically, a standalone HiLo microscope was built in addition to implementing HiLo microscopy on a standard fluorescence microscope. In HiLo microscopy, optical sectioning is achieved by acquiring two different types of images per focal plane. One image is acquired under uniform illumination and the other is acquired under speckle illumination. These images are processed using an algorithm that extracts in-focus information and removes features and glare that occur as a result of background fluorescence. To show the benefits of the HiLo microscopy, several imaging experiments on various samples were performed under a HiLo microscope and compared against a traditional fluorescence microscope and a confocal microscope, which is considered the gold standard in optical imaging. In-vitro and ex-vivo imaging was performed on a set of pollen grains, and optically cleared mouse brain and heart slices. Each of these experiments showed great reduction in background scattering at different depths under HiLo microscopy. More importantly, HiLo imaging of optically cleared heart slice demonstrated emergence of different vasculature at different depths. Reduction of out-of-focus light increased the spatial resolution and allowed better visualization of capillary vessels. Furthermore, HiLo imaging was tested in an in-vivo model of a rodent dorsal window chamber model. When imaging the same sample under confocal microscope

  20. Characterization of SURF-1 expression and Surf-1p function in normal and disease conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiranti, V; Galimberti, C; Nijtmans, L; Bovolenta, S; Perini, M P; Zeviani, M

    1999-12-01

    Loss-of-function mutations of the SURF-1 gene have been associated with Leigh syndrome with cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency. Mature Surf-1 protein (Surf-1p) is a 30 kDa hydrophobic polypeptide whose function is still unknown. Using antibodies against a recombinant, hemagglutinin-tagged Surf-1p, we have demonstrated that this protein is imported into mitochondria as a larger precursor, which is then processed into the mature product by cleaving off an N-terminal leader polypeptide of approximately 40 amino acids. By using western blot analysis with specific antibodies, we showed that Surf-1p is localized in and tightly bound to the mitochondrial inner membrane. The same analysis revealed that no protein is present in cell lines harboring loss-of-function mutations of SURF-1, regardless of their type and position. Northern blot analysis showed the virtual absence of specific SURF-1 transcripts in different mutant cell lines. This result suggests that several mutations of SURF-1 are associated with severe mRNA instability. To understand better whether and which domains of the protein are essential for function, we generated several constructs with truncated or partially deleted SURF-1 cDNAs. None of these constructs, expressed into Surf-1p null mutant cells, were able to rescue the COX phenotype, suggesting that different regions of the protein are all essential for function. Finally, experiments based on blue native two-dimensional gel electrophoresis indicated that assembly of COX in Surf-1p null mutants is blocked at an early step, most likely before the incorporation of subunit II in the nascent intermediates composed of subunit I alone or subunit I plus subunit IV. However, detection of residual amounts of fully assembled complex suggests a certain degree of redundancy of this system.

  1. Floods and Flash Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floods and flash flooding Now is the time to determine your area’s flood risk. If you are not sure whether you ... If you are in a floodplain, consider buying flood insurance. Do not drive around barricades. If your ...

  2. Experimental Investigation of Shock Wave Surfing

    CERN Document Server

    Parziale, N J; Hornung, H G; Shepherd, J E

    2010-01-01

    Shock wave surfing is investigated experimentally in GALCIT's Mach 4.0 Ludwieg Tube. Shock wave surfing occurs when a secondary free-body follows the bow shock formed by a primary free-body; an example of shock wave surfing occurs during meteorite breakup. The free-bodies in the current investigation are nylon spheres. During each run in the Ludwieg tube a high speed camera is used to capture a series of schlieren images; edge tracking software is used to measure the position of each sphere. Velocity and acceleration are had from processing the position data. The radius ratio and initial orientation of the two spheres are varied in the test matrix. The variation of sphere radius ratio and initial angle between the centers of gravity are shown to have a significant effect on the dynamics of the system.

  3. Quantitative assessment of surf-produced sea spray aerosol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, F.P.; De Leeuw, G.; Jansen, M.; Stive, M.J.F.

    1998-01-01

    The first results are presented from a quantitative model describing the aerosol production in the surf zone. A comparison is made with aerosol produced in the surf zone as measured during EOPACE experiments in La Jolla and Monterey. The surf aerosol production was derived from aerosol concentration

  4. Quantitative assessment of surf-produced sea spray aerosol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, F.P.; De Leeuw, G.; Jansen, M.; Stive, M.J.F.

    1998-01-01

    The first results are presented from a quantitative model describing the aerosol production in the surf zone. A comparison is made with aerosol produced in the surf zone as measured during EOPACE experiments in La Jolla and Monterey. The surf aerosol production was derived from aerosol concentration

  5. Flooding and Flood Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, K.N.; Fallon, J.D.; Lorenz, D.L.; Stark, J.R.; Menard, Jason; Easter, K.W.; Perry, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Floods result in great human disasters globally and nationally, causing an average of $4 billion of damages each year in the United States. Minnesota has its share of floods and flood damages, and the state has awarded nearly $278 million to local units of government for flood mitigation projects through its Flood Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. Since 1995, flood mitigation in the Red River Valley has exceeded $146 million. Considerable local and state funding has been provided to manage and mitigate problems of excess stormwater in urban areas, flooding of farmlands, and flood damages at road crossings. The cumulative costs involved with floods and flood mitigation in Minnesota are not known precisely, but it is safe to conclude that flood mitigation is a costly business. This chapter begins with a description of floods in Minneosta to provide examples and contrasts across the state. Background material is presented to provide a basic understanding of floods and flood processes, predication, and management and mitigation. Methods of analyzing and characterizing floods are presented because they affect how we respond to flooding and can influence relevant practices. The understanding and perceptions of floods and flooding commonly differ among those who work in flood forecasting, flood protection, or water resource mamnagement and citizens and businesses affected by floods. These differences can become magnified following a major flood, pointing to the need for better understanding of flooding as well as common language to describe flood risks and the uncertainty associated with determining such risks. Expectations of accurate and timely flood forecasts and our ability to control floods do not always match reality. Striving for clarity is important in formulating policies that can help avoid recurring flood damages and costs.

  6. Women's Recreational Surfing: A Patronising Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Rebecca; McCuaig, Louise; Phillips, Murray G.

    2015-01-01

    Research analysing the operation of power within sport and physical activity has exposed the marginalisation and exclusion of women's sport in explicit and institutionalised ways. However, for women in recreational and alternative physical activities like surfing, sporting experiences lie outside institutionalised structures, thus requiring…

  7. An Analysis of the SURF Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Oyallon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The SURF method (Speeded Up Robust Features is a fast and robust algorithm for local, similarity invariant representation and comparison of images. Similarly to many other local descriptor-based approaches, interest points of a given image are defined as salient features from a scale-invariant representation. Such a multiple-scale analysis is provided by the convolution of the initial image with discrete kernels at several scales (box filters. The second step consists in building orientation invariant descriptors, by using local gradient statistics (intensity and orientation. The main interest of the SURF approach lies in its fast computation of operators using box filters, thus enabling real-time applications such as tracking and object recognition. The SURF framework described in this paper is based on the PhD thesis of H. Bay [ETH Zurich, 2009], and more specifically on the paper co-written by H. Bay, A. Ess, T. Tuytelaars and L. Van Gool [Computer Vision and Image Understanding, 110 (2008, pp. 346–359]. An implementation is proposed and used to illustrate the approach for image matching. A short comparison with a state-of-the-art approach is also presented, the SIFT algorithm of D. Lowe [International Journal of Computer Vision, 60 (2004, pp. 91–110], with which SURF shares a lot in common.

  8. Density of basalt core from Hilo drill hole, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James G.

    2001-12-01

    Density measurements of 1600 samples of core from 889 to 3097 m depth below sea level in the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Program hole near Hilo, Hawaii show marked differences between the basaltic rock types and help define stratigraphy in the hole. Water-saturated densities of subaerial lava flows (occurring above 1079 m depth) have the broadest range because of the large density variation within a single lava flow. Water-saturated densities commonly range from 2.0 to 3.0 with an average of 2.55±0.24 g/cc. Dikes and sills range from 2.8 to 3.1 g/cc). Densities of hyaloclastite commonly range from 2.3 to 2.7, with an overall average of about 2.5 g/cc. The low-density of most hyaloclastite is due primarily to palagonitization of abundant glass and presence of secondary minerals in the interstices between fragments. Four principal zones of pillow lava, separated by hyaloclastite, occur in the drill core. The shallowest (1983-2136 m) is paradoxically the densest, averaging 3.01±0.10 g/cc. The second (2234-2470 m) is decidedly the lightest, averaging 2.67±0.13 g/cc. The third (2640-2790 m) and fourth (2918-bottom at 3097 m) are high, averaging 2.89±0.17 and 2.97±0.08 g/cc, respectively. The first pillow zone includes degassed pillows i.e. lava erupted on land that flowed into the sea. These pillows are poor in vesicles, because the subaerial, one-atmosphere vesicles were compressed when the flow descended to deeper water and higher pressure. The second (low-density, non-degassed) pillow zone is the most vesicle-rich, apparently because it was erupted subaqueously at a shallow depth. The higher densities of the third and fourth zones result from a low vesicularity of only a few percent and an olivine content averaging more than 5% for the third zone and about 10% for the fourth zone. The uppermost hyaloclastite extending about 400 m below the bottom of the subaerial basalt is poorly cemented and absorbs up to 6 wt% of water when immersed. Progressing downward the

  9. Enhanced Approximated SURF Model For Object Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sangeetha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision applications like camera calibration, 3D reconstruction, and object recognition and image registration are becoming widely popular now a day. In this paper an enhanced model for speeded up robust features (SURF is proposed by which the object recognition process will become three times faster than common SURF model The main idea is to use efficient data structures for both, the detector and the descriptor. The detection of interest regions is considerably speed-up by using an integral image for scale space computation. The descriptor which is based on orientation histograms is accelerated by the use of an integral orientation histogram. We present an analysis of the computational costs comparing both parts of our approach to the conventional method. Extensive experiments show a speed-up by a factor of eight while the matching and repeatability performance is decreased only slightly.

  10. Wave and Current Data from Kuhio Bay in Hilo, Hawaii March through June 2007 (NODC Accession 0050188)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Field data collection was conducted for the U.S. Army Engineer District, Pacific Ocean, Honolulu (POH), during 21 March through 7 June 2007, in Kuhio Bay of Hilo,...

  11. Multispectral observations of the surf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonmaker, Jon S.; Dirbas, Joseph; Gilbert, Gary

    2003-09-01

    Airborne multispectral imagery was collected over various targets on the beach and in the water in an attempt to characterize the surf zone environment with respect to electro-optical system capabilities and to assess the utility of very low cost, small multispectral systems in mine counter measures (MCM) and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance applications. The data was collected by PAR Government Systems Corporation (PGSC) at the Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility at Duck North Carolina and on the beaches of Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base in Southern California. PGSC flew the first two of its MANTIS (Mission Adaptable Narrowband Tunable Imaging Sensor) systems. Both MANTIS systems were flown in an IR - red - green - blue (700, 600, 550, 480 nm) configuration from altitudes ranging from 200 to 700 meters. Data collected has been lightly analyzed and a surf zone index (SZI) defined and calculated. This index allows mine hunting system performance measurements in the surf zone to be normalized by environmental conditions. The SZI takes into account water clarity, wave energy, and foam persistence.

  12. Modeling and Simulation for a Surf Zone Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    on a surf zone vehicle focused on negative buoyancy using tracked platforms that used traditional tank drive mechanisms to remain on the sea floor...through the surf zone transit and drive on to the beach. Provided by the Surf Zone Crawler Group of Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City, a Foster...with the traction and obstacle scaling of a leg [2]. Further work elaborated this concept into an entire drivetrain concept. Focused on the

  13. Fast Calcium Imaging with Optical Sectioning via HiLo Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Marcel A; Ronzitti, Emiliano; Sternberg, Jenna R; Wyart, Claire; Emiliani, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Imaging intracellular calcium concentration via reporters that change their fluorescence properties upon binding of calcium, referred to as calcium imaging, has revolutionized our way to probe neuronal activity non-invasively. To reach neurons densely located deep in the tissue, optical sectioning at high rate of acquisition is necessary but difficult to achieve in a cost effective manner. Here we implement an accessible solution relying on HiLo microscopy to provide robust optical sectioning with a high frame rate in vivo. We show that large calcium signals can be recorded from dense neuronal populations at high acquisition rates. We quantify the optical sectioning capabilities and demonstrate the benefits of HiLo microscopy compared to wide-field microscopy for calcium imaging and 3D reconstruction. We apply HiLo microscopy to functional calcium imaging at 100 frames per second deep in biological tissues. This approach enables us to discriminate neuronal activity of motor neurons from different depths in the spinal cord of zebrafish embryos. We observe distinct time courses of calcium signals in somata and axons. We show that our method enables to remove large fluctuations of the background fluorescence. All together our setup can be implemented to provide efficient optical sectioning in vivo at low cost on a wide range of existing microscopes.

  14. Lidar and aerosol measurements over the surf zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerman, M.M.; Cohen, L.H.; Leeuw, G. de; Kunz, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    The aerosol produced by waves breaking in the surf zone is important for a variety of processes, such as transport of pollutants and bacteria, and electro optical propagation in the coastal zone. Yet, quantitative information on surf produced aerosol is very limited (de Leeuw et al., 2000). In the f

  15. User's Manual for Space Debris Surfaces (SD_SURF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfer, N. C.

    1996-01-01

    A unique collection of computer codes, Space Debris Surfaces (SD_SURF), have been developed to assist in the design and analysis of space debris protection systems. SD_SURF calculates and summarizes a vehicle's vulnerability to space debris as a function of impact velocity and obliquity. An SD_SURF analysis will show which velocities and obliquities are the most probable to cause a penetration. This determination can help the analyst select a shield design which is best suited to the predominant penetration mechanism. The analysis also indicates the most suitable parameters for development or verification testing. The SD_SURF programs offer the option of either FORTRAN programs and Microsoft EXCEL spreadsheets and macros. The FORTRAN programs work with BUMPERII version 1.2a or 1.3 (Cosmic released). The EXCEL spreadsheets and macros can be used independently or with selected output from the SD_SURF FORTRAN programs.

  16. MOD_FreeSurf2D: a Surface Fluid Flow Simulation Model for Rivers, Streams, and Shallow Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N.; Gorelick, S. M.

    2003-12-01

    The MOD_FreeSurf2D, Modular Free Surface Flow in Two-Dimensions, computer model simulates free surface fluid flow in streams, rivers, and shallow estuaries under the assumptions of a well-mixed water column, a small water depth to width ratio, and a hydrostatic pressure distribution. The dependent variables in the model are free surface elevation, which provides total water depth, and fluid velocity. Primary advantages of MOD_FreeSurf2D relative to other two-dimensional models are a stable and computationally efficient numerical representation and a transparent representation of wetting and drying of the simulation domain. MOD_FreeSurf2D approximates the depth-averaged, shallow water equations with a finite volume, semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian numerical representation similar to the TRIM method (Casulli, 1990; Casulli and Cheng, 1992; Casulli, 1999). The semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian approach is computationally efficient because time steps can exceed the Courant-Friedrich-Lewy (CFL) stability criterion without significant accuracy degradation (Robert, 1982; Casulli, 1990). The rectangular, Arakawa C-grid, finite-volume layout allows flooding and drying in response to changing flow conditions without prior channel specification or closed boundary specification. Open boundary conditions available in MOD_FreeSurf2D are specified flux, specified total water depth, specified velocity, radiation free surface, and radiation velocity. MOD_FreeSurf2D requires initial topography, undisturbed water depth, and Manning's roughness coefficient. MOD_FreeSurf2D simulated results are shown to converge to the semi-empirical solution for a simple straight channel case. Two applications demonstrate the accuracy of MOD_FreeSurf2D. The first application is the evolution of water depth in the dambreak-style flume experiment of Bellos et al. (1992). In this case, MOD_FreeSurf2D accurately simulates the changing water depth in the flume during the experiment and models the wetting of

  17. 76 FR 8651 - Special Local Regulation; Mavericks Surf Competition, Half Moon Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Mavericks Surf Competition... the Mavericks Surf Competition. This special local regulation is necessary to ensure the safety of... dangers posed by the surf conditions during the Mavericks Surf Competition, the special local regulation...

  18. Voices from the Hilo Women's Health Study: Talking Story About Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Lynn A.; Sievert, Lynnette L.; Brown, Daniel E.; Reza, Angela; Rahberg, Nichole; Mills, Phoebe; Goodloe, Amber

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose in conducting this qualitative study was to examine how a multi-ethnic sample of women living in Hilo, Hawaii describe menopause. Interviews were conducted with 185 pre-, peri-, and post-menopausal women aged 45 to 55. We found that pre-menopausal women felt anxious compared to peri- and post-menopausal women's more affirmative attitudes of increasing confidence and freedom in this new cycle of life. A dominant theme was the construction of a post-menstrual identity. Peri-and post-menopausal women's attitudes were not biomedically oriented. Local culture and the island lifestyle may provide a positive atmosphere for women going through menopause. PMID:24134306

  19. Let’s Surf on The internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李申禹

    1996-01-01

    在今日大学之校园内,电脑热正呈“奔腾”之势。李申禹所在的寝室购买了一台“合资”电脑,这为他们的学习另辟了一块天地,也为他们的生活着上了一点色彩,Let′s Surf on The Internet这篇习作标题潇洒,内容实在,既写出了作者漫步电脑书林的惊喜,又有对未来的展望——现在的年青人将携着the electronic books跨入新世纪。习作开首较好地运用了parllelism:结尾想象驰骋,并巧妙点题。本文Reviewed by Mr.John C.Green

  20. Palmprint Based Verification System Using SURF Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Badrinath G.; Gupta, Phalguni

    This paper describes the design and development of a prototype of robust biometric system for verification. The system uses features extracted using Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) operator of human hand. The hand image for features is acquired using a low cost scanner. The palmprint region extracted is robust to hand translation and rotation on the scanner. The system is tested on IITK database of 200 images and PolyU database of 7751 images. The system is found to be robust with respect to translation and rotation. It has FAR 0.02%, FRR 0.01% and accuracy of 99.98% and can be a suitable system for civilian applications and high-security environments.

  1. A programmable light engine for quantitative single molecule TIRF and HILO imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Hoff, Marcel; de Sars, Vincent; Oheim, Martin

    2008-10-27

    We report on a simple yet powerful implementation of objective-type total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) and highly inclined and laminated optical sheet (HILO, a type of dark-field) illumination. Instead of focusing the illuminating laser beam to a single spot close to the edge of the microscope objective, we are scanning during the acquisition of a fluorescence image the focused spot in a circular orbit, thereby illuminating the sample from various directions. We measure parameters relevant for quantitative image analysis during fluorescence image acquisition by capturing an image of the excitation light distribution in an equivalent objective backfocal plane (BFP). Operating at scan rates above 1 MHz, our programmable light engine allows directional averaging by circular spinning the spot even for sub-millisecond exposure times. We show that restoring the symmetry of TIRF/HILO illumination reduces scattering and produces an evenly lit field-of-view that affords on-line analysis of evanescnt-field excited fluorescence without pre-processing. Utilizing crossed acousto-optical deflectors, our device generates arbitrary intensity profiles in BFP, permitting variable-angle, multi-color illumination, or objective lenses to be rapidly exchanged.

  2. El comercio leonés de hilos e hilazas en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel BARTOLOMÉ BARTOLOMÉ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La ciudad de León en la Edad Moderna , siglo XVIII, se convirtió en uno de los centros más importantes de España en la comercialización, a través de sus ferias anuales, del hilo e hilaza que se elaboraba del lino. Esta materia prima textil tenía como núcleos principales de producción y abastecimiento las vegas del norte de la ciudad de León: Torio, Curueño, Porma, Bernesga y Luna. Desde la ciudad de León este hilo e hilaza comercializado, que llegaba a suponer los 26.568 kilos de media anual en los años sesenta, se dirigía a los mercados manchegos, sobre todo al toledano, y al vallisoletano, apoyándose en precios muy competitivos.ABSTRACT: In the XVIII century, León was famous for the production de linen thread. In this city there annual markets where people could rind this material. The linen thread was produced in land along the main valleys: Torio, Curueño, Porma, Bernesga, and it was distributed to a number of different markets: Toledo, Valladolid, Villalón... The clue to this success was its competitive price.

  3. El comercio leonés de hilos e hilazas en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel BARTOLOMÉ BARTOLOMÉ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La ciudad de León en la Edad Moderna , siglo XVIII, se convirtió en uno de los centros más importantes de España en la comercialización, a través de sus ferias anuales, del hilo e hilaza que se elaboraba del lino. Esta materia prima textil tenía como núcleos principales de producción y abastecimiento las vegas del norte de la ciudad de León: Torio, Curueño, Porma, Bernesga y Luna. Desde la ciudad de León este hilo e hilaza comercializado, que llegaba a suponer los 26.568 kilos de media anual en los años sesenta, se dirigía a los mercados manchegos, sobre todo al toledano, y al vallisoletano, apoyándose en precios muy competitivos.ABSTRACT: In the XVIII century, León was famous for the production de linen thread. In this city there annual markets where people could rind this material. The linen thread was produced in land along the main valleys: Torio, Curueño, Porma, Bernesga, and it was distributed to a number of different markets: Toledo, Valladolid, Villalón... The clue to this success was its competitive price.

  4. Herança de hilo esparramado em sementes de soja Inheritance of spread hilum in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Carpentieri-Pípolo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a herança da expressão da característica hilo esparramado nos genótipos T48, Bragg e BR 16. Foi encontrado um gene recessivo que condiciona o fenótipo hilo esparramado no genótipo T48. A expressão do caráter hilo esparramado é dependente do locus T_ que controla cor de pubescência, pois somente ocorre em genótipos com pubescência marrom (T_, o que caracteriza efeito pleiotrópico deste locus sobre a característica hilo esparramado. Não houve influência de efeito maternal na expressão desta característica.The objective of this work was to study the inheritance of the expression spread hilum in the genotypes T48, Bragg and BR 16. One recessive gene conditioning the phenotype spread hilum in the T48 genotype was found. The expression of the spread hilum is dependent of locus T_, which controls pubescence color; therefore it occurs only in genotypes with brown pubescence (T_, which characterizes pleiotropic effect of this locus on the trait spread hilum. No maternal effect was found in the expression of spread hilum.

  5. Hilos magnéticos bimetálicos con anisotropía helicoidal, proceso de fabricación y aplicaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Villalabeitia, Manuel; Butta, Mattia; Ripka, Pavel; Infante, Germán; Badini-Confalonieri, Giovanni Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Hilos magnéticos bimetálicos con anisotropía helicoidal, proceso de fabricación y aplicaciones. La presente invención se refiere un hilo magnético bimetálico que comprende cuatro capas diferentes, siendo una de ellas una capa ferromagnética con anisotropía helicoidal. Por tanto, la invención se encuentra enmarcada dentro del campo de materiales magnéticos, y concretamente de hilos magnéticos multicapas, y su aplicación dentro del campo de los elementos sensores, en par...

  6. Surfing the internet with a BCI mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianyou; Li, Yuanqing; Long, Jinyi; Gu, Zhenghui

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we present a new web browser based on a two-dimensional (2D) brain-computer interface (BCI) mouse, where our major concern is the selection of an intended target in a multi-target web page. A real-world web page may contain tens or even hundreds of targets, including hyperlinks, input elements, buttons, etc. In this case, a target filter designed in our system can be used to exclude most of those targets of no interest. Specifically, the user filters the targets of no interest out by inputting keywords with a P300-based speller, while keeps those containing the keywords. Such filtering largely facilitates the target selection task based on our BCI mouse. When there are only several targets in a web page (either an original sparse page or a target-filtered page), the user moves the mouse toward the target of interest using his/her electroencephalographic signal. The horizontal movement and vertical movement are controlled by motor imagery and P300 potential, respectively. If the mouse encounters a target of no interest, the user rejects it and continues to move the mouse. Otherwise the user selects the target and activates it. With the collaboration of the target filtering and a series of mouse movements and target selections/rejections, the user can select an intended target in a web page. Based on our browser system, common navigation functions, including history rolling forward and backward, hyperlink selection, page scrolling, text input, etc, are available. The system has been tested on seven subjects. Experimental results not only validated the efficacy of the proposed method, but also showed that free internet surfing with a BCI mouse is feasible.

  7. Sorry,officer,I was just surfing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    英文姿

    1998-01-01

    美国被称为a nation on wheels(汽车轮子上的国家),当今计算机科学的迅猛发展与汽车车型的改进和设计的“联姻”就是一个必然。 本文对这种“联姻”的产品——network vehicle/net-mobile——的描绘具有极大的诱惑力: In a net-mobile, a motorist could tap into a regional road system not only to getdirections but also to map out a route around rush-hour traffic snags. Drivers andpassengers will be able to send and receive email, track the latest sports scores or stockquotes, surf the Web, and even play video games. 当然,除了上述“表层”的“联姻”之外.尚有其“深层”的“联姻”,如: On-board microcomputers improve fuel economy and reduce emissions. 也许有人会问:开车时一心岂能两用?不必担心: It not only offered such desktop-computer-like services as email, but allowed adriver to use them without looking away form the road. 文章还列举了不少名车,如General Motors,Toyota,BMW和Mecedes-Benz 已经研制了net-mobile的样车。其中的神奇之处有: OnStar also calls automatically for help if an accident triggers the airbag. (OnStar系统能在事故触发了保

  8. Goddard and Caldwell Oahu, Hawaii Surf Observation Dataset for 1968-2004 (NODC Accession 0001754)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surf reports are typically made several times per day at select locations around Oahu, primarily by Honolulu City and County lifeguards and the Surf News Network,...

  9. Goddard and Caldwell: Oahu, Hawaii surf observation data set for 1968 - 2004 (NODC Accession 0001754)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surf reports are typically made several times per day at select locations around Oahu, primarily by Honolulu City and County lifeguards and the Surf News Network,...

  10. Evaluation of Sift and Surf for Vision Based Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaozhi; Soheilian, Bahman; Habets, Emmanuel; Paparoditis, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    Vision based localization is widely investigated for the autonomous navigation and robotics. One of the basic steps of vision based localization is the extraction of interest points in images that are captured by the embedded camera. In this paper, SIFT and SURF extractors were chosen to evaluate their performance in localization. Four street view image sequences captured by a mobile mapping system, were used for the evaluation and both SIFT and SURF were tested on different image scales. Besides, the impact of the interest point distribution was also studied. We evaluated the performances from for aspects: repeatability, precision, accuracy and runtime. The local bundle adjustment method was applied to refine the pose parameters and the 3D coordinates of tie points. According to the results of our experiments, SIFT was more reliable than SURF. Apart from this, both the accuracy and the efficiency of localization can be improved if the distribution of feature points are well constrained for SIFT.

  11. Sea spray aerosol and wave energy dissipation in the surf zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francius, M.J.; Piazzola, J.; Forget, P.; Calve, O. le; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.

    2007-01-01

    Results from a quantitative model for the prediction of the sea-salt mass flux produced in the surf zone are presented in this paper. The model relates the surf zone sea salt mass flux to the amount of wave energy dissipated in the surf zone. In order to apply this aerosol emission model, a wave num

  12. Searching versus surfing: how different ways of acquiring content online affect cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kevin; Kim, Hyo Jung

    2008-06-01

    An experiment tested whether people orient to and encode pictures selected from a Web site differently, depending on whether the pictures were selected by searching or surfing. Participants in the search condition spent more time selecting pictures than the participants in the surf condition spent. The pictures chosen in the search condition elicited cardiac orienting, while pictures chosen in the surf condition did not. Participants recognized pictures acquired by searching more accurately than they recognized those acquired by surfing, indicating that searching led to better encoding than surfing.

  13. Collaboration on ICT in Dutch Higher Education: The SURF Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boezerooy, Petra; Cordewener, Bas; Liebrand, Wim

    2007-01-01

    In "Thinking Ahead: A Vision of the Role of ICT in Education and Research in the Future, 2007-2010," the higher education institutions in the Netherlands agreed on future strategy. Under the direction of SURF, the Dutch national organization, a collaborative strategy for the application of information and communications technology (ICT)…

  14. Global concept, local practice: Taiwanese experience of CouchSurfing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, D.-J.

    2012-01-01

    Hospitality exchange tourism is a new type of niche tourism, which is highly dependent on the Internet. Through participating in global hospitality exchange networks, such as CouchSurfing, tourists can meet local people who are willing to offer free accommodation, and hosts can also meet people arou

  15. CoBrowser: Surfing the Web Using a Standard Browser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, K.; Zubair, M.; Li, L.

    Co-browsing is a synchronous class of collaborative applications, which allows a group of users to surf the Web together. Such an application can be deployed in an education environment in several ways. One example of where it can be used would be in courses that are project-oriented. Students would be required to collectively research or explore…

  16. Droplets move over viscoelastic substrates by surfing a ridge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karpitschka, S.A.; Das, S.; Gorcum, van M.; Perrin, H.; Andreotti, B.; Snoeijer, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid drops on soft solids generate strong deformations below the contact line, resulting from a balance of capillary and elastic forces. The movement of these drops may cause strong, potentially singular dissipation in the soft solid. Here we show that a drop on a soft substrate moves by surfing a

  17. Sea-spray aerosol particles generated in the surf zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.M.J. van; Kusmierczyk‐Michulec, J.T.; Francius, M.J.; Tedeschi, G.; Piazzola,J.; Merritt, D.L.; Fontana, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the properties of aerosol particles generated over the surf zone, two experiments were held at the pier of Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), La Jolla CA, and at the pier of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility (FRF) in Duck NC. On both sites concentrations of s

  18. Observations of turbulence within a natural surf zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruessink, B.G.

    2010-01-01

    Here, the Reynolds stresses and , where u′, v′, and w′ are the cross-shore, alongshore, and vertical turbulence velocities, respectively, and the angle brackets represent time averaging, are used to diagnose turbulence dynamics beneath natural breaking surf-zone waves. The data were col

  19. Internet Surfing for Kindergarten Children: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    The Internet is an effective learning tool for gifted children because it allows them to independently select the areas in which they have talent. The Internet also enables children to discover and maximize their potential. However, younger children might not have a large enough vocabulary to surf the Internet, even if they are gifted. For…

  20. Data on cytochrome c oxidase assembly in mice and human fibroblasts or tissues induced by SURF1 defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovářová, Nikola; Pecina, Petr; Nůsková, Hana; Vrbacký, Marek; Zeviani, Massimo; Mráček, Tomáš; Viscomi, Carlo; Houštěk, Josef

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes data related to a research article entitled "Tissue- and species-specific differences in cytochrome c oxidase assembly induced by SURF1 defects" [1]. This paper includes data of the quantitative analysis of individual forms of respiratory chain complexes I, III and IV present in SURF1 knockout (SURF1 (-/-) ) and control (SURF1 (+/+) ) mouse fibroblasts and tissues and in fibroblasts of human control and patients with SURF1 gene mutation. Also it includes data demonstrating response of complex IV, cytochrome c oxidase (COX), to reversible inhibition of mitochondrial translation in SURF1 (-/-) mouse and SURF1 patient fibroblast cell lines.

  1. Occurrence of larval fishes in the surf zone of a northern Gulf of Mexico barrier island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruple, David L.

    1984-02-01

    Larval fishes were collected from the surf zone of Horn Island, Mississippi between March 1978 and April 1979. A standardized total of 39 435 larvae were taken from 222 collections in the inner and outer surf zone regions, representing fish in 69 taxa. Overall, considerably more larvae were collected in the outer surf zone (78·3%) than in the inner surf zone (21·7%). Engraulids, Chloroscombrus chrysurus and Symphurus spp. were the most abundant larvae taken from the outer surf zone while engraulids, Leiostomus xanthurus, Brevoortia patronus and Trinectes maculatus were the numerically dominant larvae in the inner surf zone. Seasonal peaks in abundance occurred at the outer surf zone stations during May and June and at the inner surf zone stations during December. Larval densities were significantly greater in night collections than in day collections. The occurrence of early larvae, late larvae and juveniles suggests that the surf zone habitat is important to several species of coastal marine fishes. Menticirrhus littoralis, Harengula jaguana and Trachinotus carolinus appear to most readily utilize the surf zone as a nursery area.

  2. 除了细节!还是细节!Lynx Studio Hilo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    展超

    2013-01-01

      CAS(Computer Audio System)是目前两声道音响玩家所关注的焦点之一。在这部分玩家之中,老一辈的玩家会在传统两声道系统的基础上进行升级改造,年轻一族更钟情于DAC配有源音箱。我正是后者!在我个人的角度来看,始终都认为CAS系统的构成应该参考音乐后期制作室中的配置。像专业数字接口卡+外置DAC+独立时钟+前级+有源音箱是我梦想的终极配置,可惜以我目前微薄的收入还实现不了,但专业DAC加前级配有源音箱的简洁配置却能实现。对于从事专业录音的人,他们对Lynx Studio这个美国专业音频品牌相当熟悉。它从成立以来相当专注于数字音频处理产品的制作,我最近就使用了Lynx Studio新推出的Hilo AD/DA转换器。尽管AD部分我基本用不上,但优秀的DA转换设计却让Hilo给我带来了惊喜。

  3. Surf zone Exchange on a Rip Channeled Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, A.; Macmahan, J.

    2008-12-01

    The dispersion and surf zone exchange of GPS-equipped surface drifters observed during the Rip Current EXperiment (RCEX) is examined with help of Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs). LCSs allow for the detection of transport barriers in unsteady flows and are typically applied to shelf-scale circulation systems. Here LCSs are specifically computed to detect the effects of surfzone-originated Very Low Frequency motions (VLFs) with O(10) minute time scale on the cross-shore exchange of floating material using numerical model calculations of the Lagrangian surface velocity at the wave group timescale. After verification with RCEX field observations, the model is run for a range of environmental conditions experienced during the field experiment to assess the effects of VLFs on the cross-shore surf zone exchange. Results are relevant for (but not restricted to) sediment and nutrient exchange, human health, water clarity, and swimmer safety.

  4. Region Duplication Forgery Detection Technique Based on SURF and HAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Region duplication forgery detection is a special type of forgery detection approach and widely used research topic under digital image forensics. In copy move forgery, a specific area is copied and then pasted into any other region of the image. Due to the availability of sophisticated image processing tools, it becomes very hard to detect forgery with naked eyes. From the forged region of an image no visual clues are often detected. For making the tampering more robust, various transformations like scaling, rotation, illumination changes, JPEG compression, noise addition, gamma correction, and blurring are applied. So there is a need for a method which performs efficiently in the presence of all such attacks. This paper presents a detection method based on speeded up robust features (SURF and hierarchical agglomerative clustering (HAC. SURF detects the keypoints and their corresponding features. From these sets of keypoints, grouping is performed on the matched keypoints by HAC that shows copied and pasted regions.

  5. Chesapeake Bay Climate Study Partnership: Undergraduate Student Experiential Learning on Microclimates at the University of Hawai'i, Hilo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, G.; Sriharan, S.; Fan, C.; Adolf, J.

    2015-12-01

    Undergraduate student experiential learning activities focused on microclimates of Hawai'i Island, Hawai'i. Six students from Virginia State University, three students from Delaware State University and faculty advisors were hosted by the University of Hawai'i at Hilo (UHH) Department of Marine Science. This partnership provided integrated, cohesive, and innovative education and research capabilities to minority students on climate change science. Activities included a summer course, instrumentation training, field and laboratory research training, sampling, data collection, logging, analysis, interpretation, report preparation, and research presentation. Most training activities used samples collected during students' field sampling in Hilo Bay. Water quality and phytoplankton data were collected along a 220 degree line transect from the mouth of the Wailuku River to the pelagic zone outside of Hilo Bay into the Pacific Ocean to a distance of 15.5 km. Water clarity, turbidity, chlorophyll, physical water quality parameters, and atmospheric CO2 levels were measured along the transect. Phytoplankton samples were collected for analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Flow Cytometry. Data showed the extent of anthropogenic activity on water quality, with implications for food web dynamics. In addition, atmospheric CO2 concentration, island vegetation, and GPS points were recorded throughout the island of Hawai'i to investigate how variations in microclimate, elevation, and land development affect the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere, vegetation, and water quality. Water quality results at locations near rivers were completely different from other study sites, requiring students' critical thinking skills to find possible reasons for the difference. Our data show a correlation between population density and CO2 concentrations. Anthropogenic activities affecting CO2 and ocean conditions in Hawaiian microclimates can potentially have deleterious effects on the life

  6. SURF IA Conflict Detection and Resolution Algorithm Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Denise R.; Chartrand, Ryan C.; Wilson, Sara R.; Commo, Sean A.; Barker, Glover D.

    2012-01-01

    The Enhanced Traffic Situational Awareness on the Airport Surface with Indications and Alerts (SURF IA) algorithm was evaluated in a fast-time batch simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. SURF IA is designed to increase flight crew situation awareness of the runway environment and facilitate an appropriate and timely response to potential conflict situations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance of the SURF IA algorithm under various runway scenarios, multiple levels of conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) system equipage, and various levels of horizontal position accuracy. This paper gives an overview of the SURF IA concept, simulation study, and results. Runway incursions are a serious aviation safety hazard. As such, the FAA is committed to reducing the severity, number, and rate of runway incursions by implementing a combination of guidance, education, outreach, training, technology, infrastructure, and risk identification and mitigation initiatives [1]. Progress has been made in reducing the number of serious incursions - from a high of 67 in Fiscal Year (FY) 2000 to 6 in FY2010. However, the rate of all incursions has risen steadily over recent years - from a rate of 12.3 incursions per million operations in FY2005 to a rate of 18.9 incursions per million operations in FY2010 [1, 2]. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) also considers runway incursions to be a serious aviation safety hazard, listing runway incursion prevention as one of their most wanted transportation safety improvements [3]. The NTSB recommends that immediate warning of probable collisions/incursions be given directly to flight crews in the cockpit [4].

  7. Stern-Gerlach surfing in laser wakefield accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Flood, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effects of a Stern-Gerlach-type addition to the Lorentz force on electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator. The Stern-Gerlach-type terms are found to generate a family of trajectories describing electrons that surf along the plasma density wave driven by a laser pulse. Such trajectories could lead to an increase in the size of an electron bunch, which may have implications for attempts to exploit such bunches in future free electron lasers.

  8. Stern-Gerlach surfing in laser wakefield accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Stephen P.; Burton, David A.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the effects of a Stern-Gerlach-type addition to the Lorentz force on electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator. The Stern-Gerlach-type terms are found to generate a family of trajectories describing electrons that 'surf' along the plasma density wave driven by a laser pulse. Such trajectories could lead to an increase in the size of an electron bunch, which may have implications for attempts to exploit such bunches in future free electron lasers.

  9. Las alteraciones posturales en miembros inferiores en el surf

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cuando el equilibrio neuromuscular no es óptimo durante la práctica de un deporte, es posible que, a largo plazo, aparezcan trastornos posturales que, dependiendo del tiempo de entrenamiento, pueden convertirse en un obstáculo para la salud. Es por esto, que mediante esta investigación he pretendido mostrar las alteraciones posturales que el surf puede llegar a provocar en quienes lo practican. Objetivo: Analizar las alteraciones posturales en los miembros inferiores de surfist...

  10. Antropología filosófica y deporte: el cuerpo como hilo conductor en el deporte

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastián Solanes, Raúl Francisco

    2012-01-01

    El deporte es un ámbito de interacción, donde los hombres compiten y experimentan una variedad de situaciones conflictivas. Los actuales antropólogos del deporte han dado un giro en donde se ven de forma positiva no sólo el esfuerzo corporal y la dedicación de los deportistas, sino también las emociones, las debilidades, las inseguridades que deben ponerse al descubierto y no negadas. Se trata de defender una antropología filosófica que tome el cuerpo como hilo conductor en deporte que tenga ...

  11. The Vertical Structure of Shallow Water Flow in the Surf Zone and Inner Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    E. Richardson, 2008, Field verification of a CFD model for wave transformation and breaking in the surf zone, J. Waterw. Port Coastal Engrg., 134(2...The Vertical Structure of Shallow Water Flow in the Surf Zone and Inner Shelf Dr. Thomas C. Lippmann Center for Coastal...wave- and tidally-driven shallow water flows in the shallow depths of the inner shelf and surf zone. OBJECTIVES 1. Theoretical investigations of

  12. Tissue- and species-specific differences in cytochrome c oxidase assembly induced by SURF1 defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovářová, Nikola; Pecina, Petr; Nůsková, Hana; Vrbacký, Marek; Zeviani, Massimo; Mráček, Tomáš; Viscomi, Carlo; Houštěk, Josef

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondrial protein SURF1 is a specific assembly factor of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), but its function is poorly understood. SURF1 gene mutations cause a severe COX deficiency manifesting as the Leigh syndrome in humans, whereas in mice SURF1(-/-) knockout leads only to a mild COX defect. We used SURF1(-/-) mouse model for detailed analysis of disturbed COX assembly and COX ability to incorporate into respiratory supercomplexes (SCs) in different tissues and fibroblasts. Furthermore, we compared fibroblasts from SURF1(-/-) mouse and SURF1 patients to reveal interspecies differences in kinetics of COX biogenesis using 2D electrophoresis, immunodetection, arrest of mitochondrial proteosynthesis and pulse-chase metabolic labeling. The crucial differences observed are an accumulation of abundant COX1 assembly intermediates, low content of COX monomer and preferential recruitment of COX into I-III2-IVn SCs in SURF1 patient fibroblasts, whereas SURF1(-/-) mouse fibroblasts were characterized by low content of COX1 assembly intermediates and milder decrease in COX monomer, which appeared more stable. This pattern was even less pronounced in SURF1(-/-) mouse liver and brain. Both the control and SURF1(-/-) mice revealed only negligible formation of the I-III2-IVn SCs and marked tissue differences in the contents of COX dimer and III2-IV SCs, also less noticeable in liver and brain than in heart and muscle. Our studies support the view that COX assembly is much more dependent on SURF1 in humans than in mice. We also demonstrate markedly lower ability of mouse COX to form I-III2-IVn supercomplexes, pointing to tissue-specific and species-specific differences in COX biogenesis.

  13. Impact of the Internet surfing on reading practices and choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayaz Ahmad Loan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reading in the 21st century networked society is no longer confined to the print reading. The scope of the reading has extended to the Internet sources that changed the traditional reading culture of the readers. The present study was conducted to identify the impact of the Internet surfing on reading practices and choices of the net generation college students. The survey method was applied to conduct the study and a questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. A sample of 676 students was selected from different strata based on gender, region and faculty in the degree colleges of the Kashmir region, Jammu and Kashmir state, India. In the sample size only 302 confirmed themselves as the e-readers and their responses were analyzed. Results reveal that the reading behavior of the online readers is in transition as the Internet surfing has increased non-sequential reading, interactive reading, superficial reading, and extensive reading and at the same rates is responsible for decreasing concentrated and in-depth reading. Plus, the Internet surfing has increased reading of the news & views, general knowledge, selected fields, sexual content, spiritual/religious text and has decreased reading of literature. To validate the results, the findings were correlated with earlier studies and hypotheses were formed and tested using the Chi-square test. However, the students have not experienced any electronic reading device like kindle (of Amazon or iPod (of Apple during browsing the electronic sources and it could be the future area of research.

  14. Ribosomal protein L7a is encoded by a gene (Surf-3) within the tightly clustered mouse surfeit locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallongo, A; Yon, J; Fried, M

    1989-01-01

    The mouse Surfeit locus, which contains a cluster of at least four genes (Surf-1 to Surf-4), is unusual in that adjacent genes are separated by no more than 73 base pairs (bp). The heterogeneous 5' ends of Surf-1 and Surf-2 are separated by only 15 to 73 bp, the 3' ends of Surf-1 and Surf-3 are only 70 bp apart, and the 3' ends of Surf-2 and Surf-4 overlap by 133 bp. This very tight clustering suggests a cis interaction between adjacent Surfeit genes. The Surf-3 gene (which could code for a basic polypeptide of 266 amino acids) is a highly expressed member of a pseudogene-containing multigene family. By use of an anti-peptide serum (against the C-terminal nine amino acids of the putative Surf-3 protein) for immunofluorescence and immunoblotting of mouse cell components and by in vitro translation of Surf-3 cDNA hybrid-selected mRNA, the Surf-3 gene product was identified as a 32-kilodalton ribosomal protein located in the 60S ribosomal subunit. From its subunit location, gel migration, and homology with a limited rat ribosomal peptide sequence, the Surf-3 gene was shown to encode the mouse L7a ribosomal protein. The Surf-3 gene is highly conserved through evolution and was detected by nucleic acid hybridization as existing in multiple copies (multigene families) in other mammals and as one or a few copies in birds, Xenopus, Drosophila, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The Surf-3 C-terminal anti-peptide serum detects a 32-kilodalton protein in other mammals, birds, and Xenopus but not in Drosophila and S. pombe. The possible effect of interaction of the Surf-3 ribosomal protein gene with adjacent genes in the Surfeit locus at the transcriptional or posttranscriptional level or both levels is discussed. Images PMID:2648130

  15. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing...

  16. El hilo rojo: palabras y prácticas de la utopía en América latina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas E. Misseri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available GONZÁLEZ DE OLEAGA, Marisa y BOHOSLAVSKY,Ernesto (comp. El hilo rojo: palabras y prácticas de lautopía en América latina . Paidós, 2009. ISBN 978-950-12-8910-7.Por Lucas E. Misseri - Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata –CONICET, Argentina

  17. Image Retrieval Method Using Top-surf Descriptor

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Ye

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the results and details of a content-based image retrieval project using the Top-surf descriptor. The experimental results are preliminary, however, it shows the capability of deducing objects from parts of the objects or from the objects that are similar. This paper uses a dataset consisting of 1200 images of which 800 images are equally divided into 8 categories, namely airplane, beach, motorbike, forest, elephants, horses, bus and building, while the other 400 images are randomly picked from the Internet. The best results achieved are from building category.

  18. Electron surfing acceleration in a current sheet of flares

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A model of electron acceleration in a current sheet of flares is studied by the analytical approximation solution and the test particle simulation. The electron can be trapped in a potential of propagating electrostatic wave. The trapped electron moving with the phase velocity vp of wave may be effectively accelerated by evc p× Bz force along the outflow direction in the current sheet, if a criterion condition K > 0 for electron surfing acceleration is satisfied. The electron will be accelerated continuously until the electron detrap from the wave potential at the turning point S.

  19. Cross-shore currents in the surf zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Vinther, Niels

    2008-01-01

      While the dynamics and kinematics of various types of mean cross-shore current flows in the surf zone (undertow and rip currents) are fairly well understood, the causes for transitions occurring between these two types of mean circulation patterns remain obscure. On longshore barred beaches......, such transitions involve the formation and/or degeneration of rip channels. In this paper, field evidence is presented to suggest that transitions between undertow and rip current (cell) circulations may depend upon the magnitude of the wave-induced onshore mass transport across a longshore bar, rip channel...... that both hydrodynamic conditions and existing bathymetry are critical in determining the type of mean current circulation....

  20. Bedforms and undertow in the surf zone; an analysis of the LIP 11D-data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, M.

    1995-01-01

    The present report gives the results of a study on bedforms and undertow in the surf zone. It is the objective of this study to get a better insight into the physical processes in the surf zone. In this study, we make use of the data obtained during the LIP llDexperiments (Arcilla et al. [1994] and

  1. Transport of larvae and detritus across the surf zone of a steep reflective pocket beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shanks, A.L.; MacMahan, J.; Morgan, S.G.; Reniers, A.J.H.M.; Jarvis, M.; Brown, J.; Fujimura, A.; Griesemer, C.

    2015-01-01

    Larvae of many intertidal species develop offshore and must cross the surf zone to complete their onshore migration to adult habitats. Depending on hydrodynamics, the surf zone may limit this migration, especially on reflective rocky shores. As a logistically tractable analog of a rocky shore enviro

  2. Social Networking Sites' Influence on Travelers' Authentic Experience a Case Study of Couch Surfing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    This study explored travelers' experiences in the era of network hospitality 2.0 using CouchSurfing.org as a case study. The following research questions guided this study: 1) what experience does CouchSurfing create for travelers before, during and after their travel? 2) how does couch surfers' experience relate to authenticity in context of…

  3. E-based Humanities and E-humanities on a SURF platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kircz, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    As of 2003, SURF enables three platforms: ICT and Research, Education, and Organisation. Within these programmes, SURF has funds available to promote ICT innovations. Innovation is not an easy notion to explain. Too often we encounter new wine in old bottles and changes in vocabulary frequently cove

  4. Transport of larvae and detritus across the surf zone of a steep reflective pocket beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shanks, A.L.; MacMahan, J.; Morgan, S.G.; Reniers, A.J.H.M.; Jarvis, M.; Brown, J.; Fujimura, A.; Griesemer, C.

    2015-01-01

    Larvae of many intertidal species develop offshore and must cross the surf zone to complete their onshore migration to adult habitats. Depending on hydrodynamics, the surf zone may limit this migration, especially on reflective rocky shores. As a logistically tractable analog of a rocky shore

  5. Learning and Identity in Overlapping Communities of Practice: Surf Club, School and Sports Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Richard; Nash, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    Large numbers of children and young people spend their weekends and holidays engaged in the activities of over 300 surf clubs across Australia each summer. Long term membership in these clubs, beginning from as young as five years of age, forms a significant part of children's and young people's development yet surf clubs have yet to receive…

  6. Sea spray aerosol production from waves breaking in the surf zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, G. de

    1999-01-01

    Sea spray aerosol is a product of wave breaking. A very strong source of this aerosol is the surf zone. In this sense, measurements in the surf zone can be suitable for the assessment of the contributions of the various spray production mechanisms to the total concentrations. At present, a comprehen

  7. Flooding On

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Drenched riverside towns in central and south parts of China were preparing for even worse flooding as water levels in the country's huge rivers surged and rainstorms continued. As of July 27,accumulated precipitation since June 16 in 70 percent of the drainage areas of the Yangtze River had exceeded 50 mm,after three rounds of rainstorms,said Cai Qihua,Deputy Director of the Yangtze River Flood Control and Drought Relief Headquarters.

  8. Information surfing with the JHU/APL coherent imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratto, Christopher R.; Shipley, Kara R.; Beagley, Nathaniel; Wolfe, Kevin C.

    2015-05-01

    The ability to perform remote forensics in situ is an important application of autonomous undersea vehicles (AUVs). Forensics objectives may include remediation of mines and/or unexploded ordnance, as well as monitoring of seafloor infrastructure. At JHU/APL, digital holography is being explored for the potential application to underwater imaging and integration with an AUV. In previous work, a feature-based approach was developed for processing the holographic imagery and performing object recognition. In this work, the results of the image processing method were incorporated into a Bayesian framework for autonomous path planning referred to as information surfing. The framework was derived assuming that the location of the object of interest is known a priori, but the type of object and its pose are unknown. The path-planning algorithm adaptively modifies the trajectory of the sensing platform based on historical performance of object and pose classification. The algorithm is called information surfing because the direction of motion is governed by the local information gradient. Simulation experiments were carried out using holographic imagery collected from submerged objects. The autonomous sensing algorithm was compared to a deterministic sensing CONOPS, and demonstrated improved accuracy and faster convergence in several cases.

  9. El Cuaderno De Bitácora: Reflexiones al Hilo Del Espacio Europeo De La Educación Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Emilio PALOMERO PESCADOR

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El espacio Europeo de la Educación Superior pone el acento en dos cuestiones básicas, el aprendizaje y el trabajo del alumno. Al hilo de ese discurso, el presente artículo pretende dar a conocer las posibilidades del cuaderno de bitácora en tanto que recurso formativo y como instrumento de investigación-acción en el ámbito de la educación universitaria. El bitácora se presenta aquí como un instrumento al servicio de una pedagogía de la esperanza y de la autonomía, frente a la pedagogía de la sumisión, capaz de convertir el aula en un espacio reflexivo, crítico y comunicativo.

  10. Repensar la comunicación institucional: las diez reglas del surf / Rethinking institutional communication: the ten rules of surfing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Apolo Buenaño

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo se presenta un análisis desde distintas concepciones de la comunicación estratégica, en donde además de vincular aspectos centrales y tensiones que enfrentan las organizaciones en la actualidad, se ofrecen acercamientos teóricos y prácticos que contribuyan a repensar la manera que en se desarrolla la comunicación en las instituciones. En el trabajo se vincula el deporte del surf y sus reglas como eje que permite realizar comparaciones que aporten al abordaje de la comunicación desde perspectivas que buscan la confluencia entre intereses institucionales y de los actores que intervienen en el proceso mediante la investigación del entorno, el respeto a las prácticas sociales y la colaboración como base para la consecución de los objetivos conjuntos. Abstract This article presents an analysis from different conceptions of strategic communication, which in addition to linking central aspects and tensions developed by organizations today, theoretical and practical approaches are offered and contribute to rethink the way that the communication is developed in institutions. In this work the sport of surfing and its rules are vinculated as the axis that allows comparisons to contribute to addressing communication from perspectives seeking convergence between institutional interests and actors involved in the process investigating the environment, the respect to social practices and collaboration as the basis for achieving the common goals.

  11. Influence of the Surf Zone on the Marine Aerosol Concentration in a Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, Gilles; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.; Piazzola, Jacques; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, Jolanta T.

    2017-01-01

    Sea-salt aerosol concentrations in the coastal zone are assessed with the numerical aerosol-transport model MACMod that applies separate aerosol source functions for open ocean and the surf zone near the sea-land transition. Numerical simulations of the aerosol concentration as a function of offshore distance from the surf zone compare favourably with experimental data obtained during a surf-zone aerosol experiment in Duck, North Carolina in autumn 2007. Based on numerical simulations, the effect of variations in aerosol production (source strength) and transport conditions (wind speed, air-sea temperature difference), we show that the surf-zone aerosols are replaced by aerosols generated over the open ocean as the airmass advects out to sea. The contribution from the surf-generated aerosol is significant during high wind speeds and high wave events, and is significant up to 30 km away from the production zone. At low wind speeds, the oceanic component dominates, except within 1-5 km of the surf zone. Similar results are obtained for onshore flow, where no further sea-salt aerosol production occurs as the airmass advects out over land. The oceanic aerosols that are well-mixed throughout the boundary layer are then more efficiently transported inland than are the surf-generated aerosols, which are confined to the first few tens of metres above the surface, and are therefore also more susceptible to the type of surface (trees or grass) that determines the deposition velocity.

  12. Surf zone diatoms: A review of the drivers, patterns and role in sandy beaches food chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odebrecht, Clarisse; Du Preez, Derek R.; Abreu, Paulo Cesar; Campbell, Eileen E.

    2014-10-01

    The accumulation of high biomass of diatoms in the surf zone is a characteristic feature of some sandy beaches where the wave energy is sufficiently high. A few species of diatoms, called surf diatoms, thrive in this harsh environment. The main processes driving the spatial and temporal distribution of surf diatoms as well as their standing biomass and growth were described twenty to thirty years ago based on studies conducted on the western coast of the United States of America and South African beaches. Since then, over fifty locations around the world have been reported to have surf diatom accumulations with most (three-quarters) of these being in the southern hemisphere. Their occurrence is controlled by physical and chemical factors, including wave energy, beach slope and length, water circulation patterns in the surf zone and the availability of nutrients to sustain the high biomass. The main forces driving the patterns of temporal variability of surf diatom accumulations are meteorological. In the short term (hours), the action of wind stress and wave energy controls the diatom accumulation. In the intermediate time scale (weeks to months), seasonal onshore winds of sufficient strength, as well as storm events are important. Furthermore, anthropogenic disturbances that influence the beach ecosystem as well as large-scale events, such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation, may lead to significant changes in surf diatom populations in the long term (inter-annual). Surf diatoms form the base of a short and very productive food chain in the inshore of the sandy beaches where they occur. However, the role of surf diatoms in the microbial food web is not clear and deserves further studies.

  13. Combating Floods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    In summer and autumn of 1998, the river vatleys of the Changjiang, Songhua and Nenjiang rivers were stricken by exceptionally serious floods, As of the, 22nd of August, the flooded areas stretched over 52.4 million acres. More than 223 million people were affected by the flood. 4.97 million houses were ruined, economic losses totaled RMB 166 billion, and most tragically, 3,004 people lost their byes. It was one of the costliest disasters in Chinese history. Millions of People’s Liberation Army soldiers and local people joined hands to battle the floodwaters. Thanks to their unified efforts and tenacious struggle, they successfully withstood the rising, water, resumed production and began to rebuild their homes.

  14. Numerical modeling of surf beat generated by moving breakpoint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG GuoHai; MA XiaoZhou; TENG Bin

    2009-01-01

    As an important hydrodynamic phenomenon in the nearshore zone, the cross-shore surf beat is nu-merically studied in this paper with a fully nonlinear Boussinesq-type model, which resolves the pri-mary wave motion as well as the long waves. Compared with the classical Boussinesq equations, the equations adopted here allow for improved linear dispersion characteristics. Wave breaking and run-up in the swash zone are included in the numerical model. Mutual interactions between short waves and long waves are inherent in the model. The numerical study of long waves is based on bichromatic wave groups with a wide range of mean frequencies, group frequencies and modulation rates. The cross-shore variation in the amplitudes of short waves and long waves is investigated. The model results are compared with laboratory experiments from the literature and good agreement is found.

  15. Modelling of sediment movement in the surf and swash zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TOKPOHOZIN N B; KOUNOUHEWA B; AVOSSEVOU G Y H; HOUEKPOHEHAM A; AWANOU C N

    2015-01-01

    Under the action of marine currents, non-cohesive sediments evolve by bed-load, by saltation or suspension depending on their granulometry. Several authors have considered that the movement of sediment is bidimensional and modelized the effects of swell by a constant velocitynear the seabed. Here we have studied the velocity profile of fluctuating currents near the seabed and studied the movement of sediment in 3D. The results show that in the areas of study (surf and swash) the movement of sediment occurs in a volume, and the evolution of sediment varies from an areato another. The obtained theoretical profiles of the position and velocity vectors confirm the observations of several authors.

  16. Detection of Region Duplication Forgery in Digital Images Using SURF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B L Shivakumar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An Image would yield better impact in convincing someone of something rather than pure description by words. Digital images are widely used in various fields like medical imaging, journalism, scientific manipulations and digital forensics. However, images are not reliable as it may be. Digital images can be easily tampered with image editing tools. One of the major problems in image forensics is determining if a particular image is authentic or not. Digital image forensic is an emerging field of image processing area. Copy-move forgery is one type of image forgery in digital image forensic where various methods have been proposed in the field to detect the forgery. In this paper a technique is presented to detect Copy-Move Forgery based on SURF and KD-Tree for multidimensional data matching. We demonstrate our method with high resolution images affected by copy-move forgery.

  17. SurfCut: Free-Boundary Surface Extraction

    KAUST Repository

    Algarni, Marei

    2016-09-15

    We present SurfCut, an algorithm for extracting a smooth simple surface with unknown boundary from a noisy 3D image and a seed point. In contrast to existing approaches that extract smooth simple surfaces with boundary, our method requires less user input, i.e., a seed point, rather than a 3D boundary curve. Our method is built on the novel observation that certain ridge curves of a front propagated using the Fast Marching algorithm are likely to lie on the surface. Using the framework of cubical complexes, we design a novel algorithm to robustly extract such ridge curves and form the surface of interest. Our algorithm automatically cuts these ridge curves to form the surface boundary, and then extracts the surface. Experiments show the robustness of our method to errors in the data, and that we achieve higher accuracy with lower computational cost than comparable methods. © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

  18. Numerical modeling of surf beat generated by moving breakpoint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    As an important hydrodynamic phenomenon in the nearshore zone, the cross-shore surf beat is numerically studied in this paper with a fully nonlinear Boussinesq-type model, which resolves the primary wave motion as well as the long waves. Compared with the classical Boussinesq equations, the equations adopted here allow for improved linear dispersion characteristics. Wave breaking and run-up in the swash zone are included in the numerical model. Mutual interactions between short waves and long waves are inherent in the model. The numerical study of long waves is based on bichromatic wave groups with a wide range of mean frequencies, group frequencies and modulation rates. The cross-shore variation in the amplitudes of short waves and long waves is investigated. The model results are compared with laboratory experiments from the literature and good agreement is found.

  19. Military personnel recognition system using texture, colour, and SURF features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irhebhude, Martins E.; Edirisinghe, Eran A.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents an automatic, machine vision based, military personnel identification and classification system. Classification is done using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) on sets of Army, Air Force and Navy camouflage uniform personnel datasets. In the proposed system, the arm of service of personnel is recognised by the camouflage of a persons uniform, type of cap and the type of badge/logo. The detailed analysis done include; camouflage cap and plain cap differentiation using gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) texture feature; classification on Army, Air Force and Navy camouflaged uniforms using GLCM texture and colour histogram bin features; plain cap badge classification into Army, Air Force and Navy using Speed Up Robust Feature (SURF). The proposed method recognised camouflage personnel arm of service on sets of data retrieved from google images and selected military websites. Correlation-based Feature Selection (CFS) was used to improve recognition and reduce dimensionality, thereby speeding the classification process. With this method success rates recorded during the analysis include 93.8% for camouflage appearance category, 100%, 90% and 100% rates of plain cap and camouflage cap categories for Army, Air Force and Navy categories, respectively. Accurate recognition was recorded using SURF for the plain cap badge category. Substantial analysis has been carried out and results prove that the proposed method can correctly classify military personnel into various arms of service. We show that the proposed method can be integrated into a face recognition system, which will recognise personnel in addition to determining the arm of service which the personnel belong. Such a system can be used to enhance the security of a military base or facility.

  20. Surfing through Hyperspace - Understanding Higher Universes in Six Easy Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickover, Clifford A.

    2001-05-01

    Do a little armchair time-travel, rub elbows with a four-dimensional intelligent life form, or stretch your mind to the furthest corner of an uncharted universe. With this astonishing guidebook, Surfing Through Hyperspace , you need not be a mathematician or an astrophysicist to explore the all-but-unfathomable concepts of hyperspace and higher-dimensional geometry.No subject in mathematics has intrigued both children and adults as much as the idea of a fourth dimension. Philosophers and parapsychologists have meditated on this mysterious space that no one can point to but may be all around us. Yet this extra dimension has a very real, practical value to mathematicians and physicists who use it every day in their calculations. In the tradition of Flatland , and with an infectious enthusiasm, Clifford Pickover tackles the problems inherent in our 3-D brains trying to visualize a 4-D world, muses on the religious implications of the existence of higher-dimensional consciousness, and urges all curious readers to venture into "the unexplored territory lying beyond the prison of the obvious." Pickover alternates sections that explain the science of hyperspace with sections that dramatize mind-expanding concepts through a fictional dialogue between two futuristic FBI agents who dabble in the fourth dimension as a matter of national security. This highly accessible and entertaining approach turns an intimidating subject into a scientific game open to all dreamers.Surfing Through Hyperspace concludes with a number of puzzles, computer experiments and formulas for further exploration, inviting readers to extend their minds across this inexhaustibly intriguing scientific terrain.

  1. Flooding On

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Drenched riverside towns in central and south parts of China were preparing for even worse flooding aswater levels in the country’s huge rivers surged and rainstorms continued.As of July 27,accumulated precipitation since June 16 in 70 percent of the drainage

  2. Medición del momento de torsión impartido al hilo por las toberas de hilatura neumática.

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    En la hilatura neumática la torsión se imparte por medio de toberas. La capacidad torsional de cada tobera está directamente relacionada con la torsión impartida al hilo. La medición de este parámetro es de gran importancia, ya que permite no sólo verificar el funcionamiento de las toberas, sino también establecer la relación existente entre el régimen aerodinámico imperante en las toberas y el efecto mecánico conseguido, manifestado a través del momento de torsión impartido al hilo. Mediante...

  3. Evaluation of a 3% surf solution (surf field mastitis test) for the diagnosis of subclinical bovine and bubaline mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Ghulam; Naureen, Abeera; Asi, Muhammad Nadeem; Saqib, Muhammad; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate a 3% solution of household detergent viz., Surf Excel (Surf field mastitis test, SFMT) vis-à-vis California mastitis test (CMT), Whiteside test (WST), somatic cell counts (SCC; cut off limit = 5 x 10(5) cells per millilitre) and bacteriological cultures for the detection of subclinical mastitis in quarter foremilk samples (n=800) of dairy cows and buffaloes. Culture and SCC were used as gold standards. All tests were evaluated parallel and serial patterns. The sensitivities of SFMT, SCC, culture, CMT and WST in parallel testing were 72.82, 81.55, 87.38, 75.73 and 54.37%, respectively in cows, while 66.22, 79.73, 82.43, 70.27 and 50.00, respectively in buffaloes. SFMT was significantly (pCMT in both species. In serial testing, percent specificity of SFMT (87.12 in cow; 85.16 in buffaloes) was significantly (PCMT (83.33 in cow; 80.64 in buffaloes). The negative predictive values of SFMT (93.50 in cow; 96.35 in buffaloes) differed non-significantly from that of CMT (94.02 in cow; 96.15 in buffaloes). The kappa index between the tests was moderate to perfect both in parallel (0.54 to >0.80) and serial (0.58 to >0.8) testing. On the basis of closely similar diagnostic efficiency of SFMT to CMT in terms of sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and kappa index together with inexpensive and ready availability of SFMT reagent, it tempting to suggest that SFMT can be use as a cheaper, user-friendly alternative animal-side subclinical mastitis diagnostic test in poor countries.

  4. SURF imaging beams in an aberrative medium: generation and post-processing enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Nasholm, Sven Peter; 10.1109/TUFFC.2012.2494

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents numerical simulations of dual-frequency second-order ultrasound field (SURF) reverberation suppression transmit-pulse complexes. Such propagation was previously studied in a homogeneous medium. Here instead the propagation path includes a strongly aberrating body-wall modeled by a sequence of delay-screens. The applied SURF transmit pulse complexes each consist of a high-frequency imaging 3.5 MHz pulse combined with a low-frequency 0.5 MHz sound speed manipulation pulse. Furthermore, the feasibility of two signal post-processing methods are investigated using the aberrated transmit SURF beams. These methods are previously shown to adjust the depth of maximum SURF reverberation suppression within a homogeneous medium. The request of the study arises because imaging situations where reverberation suppression is useful are also likely to produce pulse wave-front distortion (aberration). Such distortions could potentially produce time-delays that cancel the accumulated propagation time-delay n...

  5. Analytical Derivation of Three Dimensional Vorticity Function for wave breaking in Surf Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, R

    2015-01-01

    In this report, Mathematical model for generalized nonlinear three dimensional wave breaking equations was de- veloped analytically using fully nonlinear extended Boussinesq equations to encompass rotational dynamics in wave breaking zone. The three dimensional equations for vorticity distributions are developed from Reynold based stress equations. Vorticity transport equations are also developed for wave breaking zone. This equations are basic model tools for numerical simulation of surf zone to explain wave breaking phenomena. The model reproduces most of the dynamics in the surf zone. Non linearity for wave height predictions is also shown close to the breaking both in shoaling as well as surf zone. Keyword Wave breaking, Boussinesq equation, shallow water, surf zone. PACS : 47.32-y

  6. The rate of beneficial mutations surfing on the wave of a range expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Lehe

    Full Text Available Many theoretical and experimental studies suggest that range expansions can have severe consequences for the gene pool of the expanding population. Due to strongly enhanced genetic drift at the advancing frontier, neutral and weakly deleterious mutations can reach large frequencies in the newly colonized regions, as if they were surfing the front of the range expansion. These findings raise the question of how frequently beneficial mutations successfully surf at shifting range margins, thereby promoting adaptation towards a range-expansion phenotype. Here, we use individual-based simulations to study the surfing statistics of recurrent beneficial mutations on wave-like range expansions in linear habitats. We show that the rate of surfing depends on two strongly antagonistic factors, the probability of surfing given the spatial location of a novel mutation and the rate of occurrence of mutations at that location. The surfing probability strongly increases towards the tip of the wave. Novel mutations are unlikely to surf unless they enjoy a spatial head start compared to the bulk of the population. The needed head start is shown to be proportional to the inverse fitness of the mutant type, and only weakly dependent on the carrying capacity. The precise location dependence of surfing probabilities is derived from the non-extinction probability of a branching process within a moving field of growth rates. The second factor is the mutation occurrence which strongly decreases towards the tip of the wave. Thus, most successful mutations arise at an intermediate position in the front of the wave. We present an analytic theory for the tradeoff between these factors that allows to predict how frequently substitutions by beneficial mutations occur at invasion fronts. We find that small amounts of genetic drift increase the fixation rate of beneficial mutations at the advancing front, and thus could be important for adaptation during species invasions.

  7. The rate of beneficial mutations surfing on the wave of a range expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehe, Rémi; Hallatschek, Oskar; Peliti, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Many theoretical and experimental studies suggest that range expansions can have severe consequences for the gene pool of the expanding population. Due to strongly enhanced genetic drift at the advancing frontier, neutral and weakly deleterious mutations can reach large frequencies in the newly colonized regions, as if they were surfing the front of the range expansion. These findings raise the question of how frequently beneficial mutations successfully surf at shifting range margins, thereby promoting adaptation towards a range-expansion phenotype. Here, we use individual-based simulations to study the surfing statistics of recurrent beneficial mutations on wave-like range expansions in linear habitats. We show that the rate of surfing depends on two strongly antagonistic factors, the probability of surfing given the spatial location of a novel mutation and the rate of occurrence of mutations at that location. The surfing probability strongly increases towards the tip of the wave. Novel mutations are unlikely to surf unless they enjoy a spatial head start compared to the bulk of the population. The needed head start is shown to be proportional to the inverse fitness of the mutant type, and only weakly dependent on the carrying capacity. The precise location dependence of surfing probabilities is derived from the non-extinction probability of a branching process within a moving field of growth rates. The second factor is the mutation occurrence which strongly decreases towards the tip of the wave. Thus, most successful mutations arise at an intermediate position in the front of the wave. We present an analytic theory for the tradeoff between these factors that allows to predict how frequently substitutions by beneficial mutations occur at invasion fronts. We find that small amounts of genetic drift increase the fixation rate of beneficial mutations at the advancing front, and thus could be important for adaptation during species invasions.

  8. Sandy beach surf zones: An alternative nursery habitat for 0-age Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin Jarrin, J. R.; Miller, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The role of each habitat fish use is of great importance to the dynamics of populations. During their early marine residence, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), an anadromous fish species, mostly inhabit estuaries but also use sandy beach surf zones and the coastal ocean. However, the role of surf zones in the early life history of Chinook salmon is unclear. We hypothesized that surf zones serve as an alternative nursery habitat, defined as a habitat that consistently provides a proportion of a population with foraging and growth rates similar to those experienced in the primary nursery. First, we confirmed that juvenile Chinook salmon cohorts are simultaneously using both habitats by combining field collections with otolith chemical and structural analysis to directly compare size and migration patterns of juveniles collected in two Oregon (USA) estuaries and surf zones during three years. We then compared juvenile catch, diet and growth in estuaries and surf zones. Juveniles were consistently caught in both habitats throughout summer. Catches were significantly higher in estuaries (average ± SD = 34.3 ± 19.7 ind. 100 m-2) than surf zones (1.0 ± 1.5 ind. 100 m-2) and were positively correlated (r = 0.92). Size at capture (103 ± 15 mm fork length, FL), size at marine entry (76 ± 13 mm FL), stomach fullness (2 ± 2% body weight) and growth rates (0.4 ± 0.0 mm day-1) were similar between habitats. Our results suggest that when large numbers of 0-age Chinook salmon inhabit estuaries, juveniles concurrently use surf zones, which serve as an alternative nursery habitat. Therefore, surf zones expand the available rearing habitat for Chinook salmon during early marine residence, a critical period in the life history.

  9. Tsunami flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric; Jones, Henry; McBride, Mark; Fedors, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Panel 5 focused on tsunami flooding with an emphasis on Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) as derived from its counterpart, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) that determines seismic ground-motion hazards. The Panel reviewed current practices in PTHA and determined the viability of extending the analysis to extreme design probabilities (i.e., 10-4 to 10-6). In addition to earthquake sources for tsunamis, PTHA for extreme events necessitates the inclusion of tsunamis generated by submarine landslides, and treatment of the large attendant uncertainty in source characterization and recurrence rates. Tsunamis can be caused by local and distant earthquakes, landslides, volcanism, and asteroid/meteorite impacts. Coastal flooding caused by storm surges and seiches is covered in Panel 7. Tsunamis directly tied to earthquakes, the similarities with (and path forward offered by) the PSHA approach for PTHA, and especially submarine landslide tsunamis were a particular focus of Panel 5.

  10. Large Eddy Simulation for Wave Breaking in the Surf Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玉川; 蒋昌波; 沈焕庭

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the large eddy simulation method is used combined with the marker and cell method to study the wave propagation or shoaling and breaking process. As wave propagates into shallow water, the shoaling leads to the increase of wave height, and then at a certain position, the wave will be breaking. The breaking wave is a powerful agent for generating turbulence, which plays an important role in most of the fluid dynamic processes throughout the sarf zone, such as transformation of wave energy, generation of near-shore current and diffusion of materials. So a proper numerical model for describing the turbulence effect is needed. In this paper, a revised Smagorinsky subgrid-scale model is used to describe the turbulence effect. The present study reveals that the coefficient of the Smagorinsky model for wave propagation or breaking simulation may be taken as a varying function of the water depth and distance away from the wave breaking point. The large eddy simulation model presented in this paper has been used to study the propagation of the solitary wave in constant water depth and the shoaling of the non-breaking solitary wave on a beach. The model is based on large eddy simulation, and to track free-surface movements, the Tokyo University Modified Marker and Cell (TUMMAC) method is employed. In order to ensure the accuracy of each component of this wave mathematical model,several steps have been taken to verify calculated solutions with either analytical solutions or experimental data. For non-breaking waves, very accurate results are obtained for a solitary wave propagating over a constant depth and on a beach. Application of the model to cnoidal wave breaking in the surf zone shows that the model results are in good agreement with analytical solution and experimental data. From the present model results, it can be seen that the turbulent eddy viscosity increases from the bottom to the water surface in surf zone. In the eddy viscosity curve, there is a

  11. The Relationship Between Shoreline Change and Surf Zone Sand Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miselis, J. L.; McNinch, J. E.

    2002-12-01

    There is a lack of information concerning surf zone geologic processes and their relationship to shoreline behavior despite the consensus that the two are intimately linked. Variations in sand thickness over a highly irregular migration surface close to the shoreline may influence wave dynamics and sediment transport and thus may be connected to hotspot formation. A nearshore survey, spanning 40km from north of the USACE-FRF pier in Duck, NC to just north of Oregon Inlet, was conducted using an interferometric swath bathymetry system and a chirp sub-bottom profiler. The study was conducted within 1km of the shore (in the surf zone) to investigate the processes that may be responsible for the behavior of shoreline hotspots in the area. The topmost reflector and the seafloor of the seismic profile were digitized and the depth difference between them was calculated. Though no ground truths were done in the survey area, cores collected from just north of the site suggest that the topmost reflector is a pre-modern ravinement surface (cohesive muds with layers of sand and gravel) upon which the Holocene sands migrate. An isopach map was generated and shows that the layer of sand above the first sub-bottom reflector is very thin and in some places, exposed. There are many variables that may influence hotspot behavior, including bar position and wave conditions, however, the purpose of this study is to determine if there is a spatial correlation between a thin or absent (exposed reflector) nearshore sand layer and the presence of a shoreline hotspot. In an area associated with a hotspot approximately 14km south of the USACE-FRF pier in Duck, the maximum thickness of Holocene sands was less than 2.5m. The average thickness was less than 1m (0.705m). Thicknesses that were less than 0.2m were classified as areas where the reflector was exposed and accounted for 5 percent of those calculated. It seems the thin layer of sand may represent a deficient nearshore sand source

  12. Face Recognition System based on SURF and LDA Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narpat A. Singh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, Improve the quality in face recognition system is a challenge. It is a challenging problem and widely studied in the different type of imag-es to provide the best quality of faces in real life. These problems come due to illumination and pose effect due to light in gradient features. The improvement and optimization of human face recognition and detection is an important problem in the real life that can be handles to optimize the error rate, accuracy, peak signal to noise ratio, mean square error, and structural similarity Index. Now-a-days, there several methods are proposed to recognition face in different problem to optimize above parameters. There occur many invariant changes in hu-man faces due to the illumination and pose variations. In this paper we proposed a novel method in face recogni-tion to improve the quality parameters using speed up robust feature and linear discriminant analysis for opti-mize result. SURF is used for feature matching. In this paper, we use linear discriminant analysis for the edge dimensions reduction to live faces from our data-sets. The proposed method shows the better result as compare to the previous result on the basis of comparative analysis because our method show the better quality and better results in live images of face.

  13. Large herbivores surf waves of green-up during spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Jerod A; Monteith, Kevin L; Aikens, Ellen O; Hayes, Matthew M; Hersey, Kent R; Middleton, Arthur D; Oates, Brendan A; Sawyer, Hall; Scurlock, Brandon M; Kauffman, Matthew J

    2016-06-29

    The green wave hypothesis (GWH) states that migrating animals should track or 'surf' high-quality forage at the leading edge of spring green-up. To index such high-quality forage, recent work proposed the instantaneous rate of green-up (IRG), i.e. rate of change in the normalized difference vegetation index over time. Despite this important advancement, no study has tested the assumption that herbivores select habitat patches at peak IRG. We evaluated this assumption using step selection functions parametrized with movement data during the green-up period from two populations each of bighorn sheep, mule deer, elk, moose and bison, totalling 463 individuals monitored 1-3 years from 2004 to 2014. Accounting for variables that typically influence habitat selection for each species, we found seven of 10 populations selected patches exhibiting high IRG-supporting the GWH. Nonetheless, large herbivores selected for the leading edge, trailing edge and crest of the IRG wave, indicating that other mechanisms (e.g. ruminant physiology) or measurement error inherent with satellite data affect selection for IRG. Our evaluation indicates that IRG is a useful tool for linking herbivore movement with plant phenology, paving the way for significant advancements in understanding how animals track resource quality that varies both spatially and temporally.

  14. Surfing through hyperspace understanding higher universes in six easy lessons

    CERN Document Server

    Pickover, Clifford A

    1999-01-01

    Do a little armchair time-travel, rub elbows with a four-dimensional intelligent life form, or stretch your mind to the furthest corner of an uncharted universe. With this astonishing guidebook, Surfing Through Hyperspace, you need not be a mathematician or an astrophysicist to explore the all-but-unfathomable concepts of hyperspace and higher-dimensional geometry. No subject in mathematics has intrigued both children and adults as much as the idea of a fourth dimension. Philosophers and parapsychologists have meditated on this mysterious space that no one can point to but may be all around us. Yet this extra dimension has a very real, practical value to mathematicians and physicists who use it every day in their calculations. In the tradtion of Flatland, and with an infectious enthusiasm, Clifford Pickover tackles the problems inherent in our 3-D brains trying to visualize a 4-D world, muses on the religious implications of the existence of higher-dimensional consciousness, and urges all curious readers to v...

  15. The Surf Zone Ichthyoplankton Adjacent to an Intermittently Open Estuary, with Evidence of Recruitment during Marine Overwash Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, P. D.; Whitfield, A. K.; Bell, K. N. I.

    2001-03-01

    The composition, structure and seasonality of ichthyoplankton in the surf zone adjacent to the mouth of the intermittently open East Kleinemonde Estuary (33°32'S, 27°03'E) were investigated over a period of 2 years. Altogether 451 fishes, representing at least 21 taxa from 14 families, were collected. The assemblage was dominated by postflexion larvae of euryhaline marine species that are dependent on estuaries as nursery areas. The sparid Rhabdosargus holubi was the most abundant taxon and constituted more than 77% of the total catch. A distinct modal size class was identified for R. holubi , while the mean individual size of this and other abundant taxa was comparable to the observed recruitment size range reported from a wide variety of estuarine nursery habitats in southern Africa. Periodic regression analyses revealed significant peaks in abundance of larval R. holubi during late winter (August), at down and dusk, at new and full moon (spring tides), and on the flood stage of the tidal cycle. Evidence for estuarine immigration during marine overwash events (surging rough seas that enter the estuary) is provided by (1) the stranding of postflexion larvae in the region of the closed estuary mouth following these events, and (2) back extrapolation from length modes within the estuary to coincide with such an event. The advantages and disadvantages of such a recruitment strategy are discussed.

  16. Efficacy of Hi-Lo Evac Endotracheal Tube in Prevention of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Mechanically Ventilated Poisoned Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekhian, Mohammad; Rahimi, Mitra; Aghabiklooei, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common health care-associated infection. To prevent this complication, aspiration of subglottic secretions using Hi-Lo Evac endotracheal tube (Evac ETT) is a recommended intervention. However, there are some reports on Evac ETT dysfunction. We aimed to compare the incidence of VAP (per ventilated patients) in severely ill poisoned patients who were intubated using Evac ETT versus conventional endotracheal tubes (C-ETT) in our toxicology ICU. Materials and Methods. In this clinical randomized trial, 91 eligible patients with an expected duration of mechanical ventilation of more than 48 hours were recruited and randomly assigned into two groups: (1) subglottic secretion drainage (SSD) group who were intubated by Evac ETT (n = 43) and (2) control group who were intubated by C-ETT (n = 48). Results. Of the 91 eligible patients, 56 (61.5%) were male. VAP was detected in 24 of 43 (55.8%) patients in the case group and 23 of 48 (47.9%) patients in the control group (P = 0.45). The most frequently isolated microorganisms were S. aureus (54.10%) and Acinetobacter spp. (19.68%). The incidence of VAP and ICU length of stay were not significantly different between the two groups, but duration of intubation was statistically different and was longer in the SSD group. Mortality rate was less in SSD group but without a significant difference (P = 0.68). Conclusion. The SSD procedure was performed intermittently with one-hour intervals using 10 mL syringe. Subglottic secretion drainage does not significantly reduce the incidence of VAP in patients receiving MV. This strategy appears to be ineffective in preventing VAP among ICU patients. PMID:27651976

  17. Relationships between menstrual and menopausal attitudes and associated demographic and health characteristics: the Hilo Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Lynn A; Sievert, Lynnette L; Brown, Daniel E; Rahberg, Nichole; Reza, Angela

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relation of menstrual attitudes to menopausal attitudes and the demographic and health characteristics associated with each. This cross-sectional study consisted of a randomly selected sample of 1,824 respondents aged 16 to 100 years in multi-ethnic Hilo, Hawai'i. Women completed questionnaires for demographic and health information, such as age, ethnicity, education, residency in Hawai'i, menopausal status, exercise, and attitudes toward menstruation and menopause. Women more often chose positive terms, such as "natural," to describe menstruation (60.8%) and menopause (59.4%). In bivariate analyses, post-menopausal women were significantly more likely to have positive menstrual and menopausal attitudes than pre-menopausal women. Factor analyses were used to cluster attitudes followed by linear regression to identify demographic characteristics associated with factor scores. Asian-American ethnicity, higher education, reporting more exercise, and growing up outside of Hawai'i were associated with positive menstrual attitudes. Higher education, older age, post-menopausal status, growing up outside of Hawai'i and having hot flashes were associated with positive menopausal attitudes. Bivariate correlation analyses suggested significant associations between factor scores for menstrual and menopausal attitudes. Both negative and positive menstrual attitudes were positively correlated with the anticipation of menopause, although negative attitudes toward menstruation were negatively correlated with menopause as a positive, natural life event. Demographic variables, specifically education and where one grows up, influenced women's attitudes toward menstruation and menopause and should be considered for inclusion in subsequent multi-ethnic studies. Further research is also warranted in assessing the relationship between menstrual and menopausal attitudes.

  18. On the mitigation of surf-riding by adjusting center of buoyancy in design stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Yu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available High-speed vessels are prone to the surf-riding in adverse quartering seas. The possibility of mitigating the surf-riding of the ITTC A2 fishing vessel in the design stage is investigated using the 6-DOF weakly non-linear model developed for surf-riding simulations in quartering seas. The longitudinal position of the ship's center of buoyancy (LCB is chosen as the design parameter. The adjusting of LCB is achieved by changing frame area curves, and hull surfaces are reconstructed accordingly using the Radial Basis Function (RBF. Surf-riding motions in regular following seas for cases with different LCBs and Froude numbers are simulated using the numerical model. Results show that the surf-riding cannot be prevented by the adjusting of LCB. However, it occurs with a higher threshold speed when ship's center of buoyancy (COB is moved towards stem compared to moving towards stern, which is mainly due to the differences on wave resistance caused by the adjusting of LCB.

  19. KARAKTERISTIK, MOTIVASI DAN NIAT WISATAWAN SURFING DI PANTAI KECAMATAN KUTA UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Windy Pramita

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Black sandy beach tourist attraction of Kuta Northen region that is Batu Bolong beach and Batu Mejan beach which has potential a beautifull oncean, sunset, sunbathing and surfingthe purpose of this study was to determinethe characteristics, motivasi, and intentions rating surfing at Kuta Northen beach. The method used observation, questionnaires, interviews, literature study, and documentation. 213 respondens rating surfing with quantitative descriptive and regression linier analisys. The result obtained in this study are based on age characteristics surfing travelers will see the most travelers age between 18-29 years, male gender, country of origin Australia, and is a businessman, a master degree educational level, and marital status is not married. Surfing tourist motivation using push and pull factor with the highest scores on the social interaction. And Intention surfing tourist with the highest score there is positive world of mouth with Variabel tourist have the effect of 13,20% with a probability level of sig. 0,000, the motivation positive and significant efeect on the intention tourist but in small quantities. Therefore to improve the intention tourist come to the beach district of north kuta from the motivation pull and push should also improve the quality of beaches such as keeping the beach becomes the most importans thing that will directly make tourist feel comfortable. advice for managers is to add a lifeguard to keep the beach.

  20. Factors affecting surf zone phytoplankton production in Southeastern North Carolina, USA

    KAUST Repository

    Cahoon, Lawrence B.

    2017-07-15

    Abstract: The biomass and productivity of primary producers in the surf zone of the ocean beach at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina, USA, were measured during all seasons, along with environmental parameters and nutrient levels. Variation in biomass (chlorophyll a) was associated with temperature. Primary production (PP), measured by in situ 14-C incubations, was a function of chlorophyll a, tide height at the start of incubations, and rainfall in the preceding 24-hr period. Biomass-normalized production (PB) was also a function of tide height and rainfall in the preceding 24-hr period. We interpreted these results as evidence of surf production 1) as combined contributions of phytoplankton and suspended benthic microalgae, which may confound application of simple P-E models to surf zone production, and 2) being regulated by nutrient source/supply fluctuations independently from other factors. Surf zone biomass and production levels are intermediate between relatively high estuarine values and much lower coastal ocean values. Surf zone production may represent an important trophic connection between these two important ecosystems.

  1. Computing OpenSURF on OpenCL and General Purpose GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanglong Yan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Speeded-Up Robust Feature (SURF algorithm is widely used for image feature detecting and matching in computer vision area. Open Computing Language (OpenCL is a framework for writing programs that execute across heterogeneous platforms consisting of CPUs, GPUs, and other processors. This paper introduces how to implement an open-sourced SURF program, namely OpenSURF, on general purpose GPU by OpenCL, and discusses the optimizations in terms of the thread architectures and memory models in detail. Our final OpenCL implementation of OpenSURF is on average 37% and 64% faster than the OpenCV SURF v2.4.5 CUDA implementation on NVidia's GTX660 and GTX460SE GPUs, repectively. Our OpenCL program achieved real-time performance (>25 Frames Per Second for almost all the input images with different sizes from 320*240 to 1024*768 on NVidia's GTX660 GPU, NVidia's GTX460SE GPU and AMD's Radeon HD 6850 GPU. Our OpenCL approach on NVidia's GTX660 GPU is more than 22.8 times faster than its original CPU version on Intel's Dual-Core E5400 2.7G on average.

  2. Computing OpenSURF on OpenCL and General Purpose GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanglong Yan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Speeded-Up Robust Feature (SURF algorithm is widely used for image feature detecting and matching in computer vision area. Open Computing Language (OpenCL is a framework for writing programs that execute across heterogeneous platforms consisting of CPUs, GPUs, and other processors. This paper introduces how to implement an open-sourced SURF program, namely OpenSURF, on general purpose GPU by OpenCL, and discusses the optimizations in terms of the thread architectures and memory models in detail. Our final OpenCL implementation of OpenSURF is on average 37% and 64% faster than the OpenCV SURF v2.4.5 CUDA implementation on NVidia’s GTX660 and GTX460SE GPUs, repectively. Our OpenCL program achieved real-time performance (>25 Frames Per Second for almost all the input images with different sizes from 320*240 to 1024*768 on NVidia’s GTX660 GPU, NVidia’s GTX460SE GPU and AMD’s Radeon HD 6850 GPU. Our OpenCL approach on NVidia’s GTX660 GPU is more than 22.8 times faster than its original CPU version on Intel’s Dual-Core E5400 2.7G on average.

  3. Measuring and modeling suspended sediment concentration profiles in the surf zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Time-averaged suspended sediment concentration profiles across the surf zone were measured in a large-scale three-dimensional movable bed laboratory facility (LSTF:Large-scale Sediment Transport Facility). Sediment suspension under two different types of breaking waves, spilling and plunging breakers, was investigated. The magnitudes and shapes of the concentration profiles varied substantially at different locations across the surf zone, reflecting the different intensities of breaking-induced turbulence. Sediment sus- pension at the energetic plunging breaker-line was much more active, resulting in nearly homogeneous concentration profiles throughout most of the water column, as compared to the reminder of the surf zone and at the spilling breaker-line. Four suspended sediment concentration models were examined based on the LSTF data, including the mixing turbulence length approach, segment eddy viscosity model, breaking-induced wave-energy dissipation approach, and a combined breaking and turbulence length model developed by this study. Neglecting the breaking-induced turbulence and subsequent sediment mixing, suspended sediment concentration models failed to predict the across-shore variations of the sediment suspension, especially at the plunging breaker-line. Wave-energy dissipation rate provided an accurate method for estimating the intensity of turbulence generated by wave breaking. By incorporating the breaking-induced turbulence, the combined breaking and turbulence length model reproduced the across-shore variation of sediment suspension in the surf zone. The combined model reproduced the measured time-averaged suspended sediment concentration profiles reasonably well across the surf zone.

  4. Solar winds surfs waves in the Sun's atmosphere!

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    opposite ends after threading it through an object, like a ring. If one person wiggles the string rapidly up and down, waves form in the string that move toward the person at the other end. The ring will "surf" these waves and move toward the other person as well. Try it! "Even with this major discovery, there are questions left to answer. The observations have made it abundantly clear that heavy particles like oxygen 'surf' on the waves, and there is also mounting evidence that waves are responsible for accelerating the hydrogen atoms, the most common constituent of the solar wind. Future observations are needed to establish this fact. Many other kinds of particles, such as helium (second most common) have never been observed in the accelerating part of the corona, and new observations are also needed to refine our understanding of how the waves interact with the solar wind as a whole," said Dr. Steven Cranmer of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, lead author of the research to be published in the Astrophysical Journal*. Nevertheless, SOHO has again been able to reveal another of the Sun's mysteries: "This is another triumph for SOHO, stealing a long-held secret from our Sun", said Dr Martin Huber, Head of ESA Space Science Department and co-investigator for UVCS. *Ref. Article by S.Cranmer, G.B. Field and J.L. Kohl on Astrophysical Journal ( June 20, Vol 518, p. 937-947) available on the web at: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/ApJ/journal/issues/ApJ/v518n2/39802/sc0.html

  5. SURF'S UP! – Protein classification by surface comparisons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joanna M Sasin; Adam Godzik; Janusz M Bujnicki

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale genome sequencing and structural genomics projects generate numerous sequences and structures for ‘hypothetical’ proteins without functional characterizations. Detection of homology to experimentally characterized proteins can provide functional clues, but the accuracy of homology-based predictions is limited by the paucity of tools for quantitative comparison of diverging residues responsible for the functional divergence. SURF’S UP! is a web server for analysis of functional relationships in protein families, as inferred from protein surface maps comparison according to the algorithm. It assigns a numerical score to the similarity between patterns of physicochemical features (charge, hydrophobicity) on compared protein surfaces. It allows recognizing clusters of proteins that have similar surfaces, hence presumably similar functions. The server takes as an input a set of protein coordinates and returns files with ``spherical coordinates” of proteins in a PDB format and their graphical presentation, a matrix with values of mutual similarities between the surfaces, and the unrooted tree that represents the clustering of similar surfaces, calculated by the neighbor-joining method. SURF’S UP! facilitates the comparative analysis of physicochemical features of the surface, which are the key determinants of the protein function. By concentrating on coarse surface features, SURF’S UP! can work with models obtained from comparative modelling. Although it is designed to analyse the conservation among homologs, it can also be used to compare surfaces of non-homologous proteins with different three-dimensional folds, as long as a functionally meaningful structural superposition is supplied by the user. Another valuable characteristic of our method is the lack of initial assumptions about the functional features to be compared. SURF’S UP! is freely available for academic researchers at http://asia.genesilico.pl/surfs_up/.

  6. Tomografia computadorizada de abdome normal: estudo retrospectivo das angulações dos hilos renais Normal abdominal computed tomography: a retrospective study of renal hila angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Sakate

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Obter valores da angulação média dos hilos renais em relação ao plano horizontal, traçado sobre músculos eretores da espinha direito e esquerdo, considerando como parâmetro de referência para as medidas das angulações o centro da coluna vertebral lombar. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 250 exames de tomografia computadorizada de abdomes considerados normais de indivíduos de ambos os sexos, sendo 128 masculinos (idade média de 52,45 ± 17,42 anos e 122 femininos (idade média de 54,39 ± 18,27 anos, totalizando 500 hilos renais estudados. A angulação média de cada hilo renal em relação ao plano horizontal foi obtida, sendo considerados sempre os ângulos agudos. RESULTADOS: O estudo comparativo entre os sexos mostrou que não houve diferença estatisticamente significante em relação aos ângulos agudos dos hilos renais. A análise estatística mostrou, com intervalo de confiança de 95%, para média do ângulo direito os limites de 40,40° e 44,54° e para o hilo renal esquerdo os limites de 39,91° e 43,23°. CONCLUSÃO: Os hilos renais, independentemente do sexo, apresentam angulações semelhantes. Valores angulares maiores terão anomalia de hiper-rotação ou hiper-rotação exagerada e valores menores terão anomalia de rotação incompleta ou rotação invertida.OBJECTIVE: To obtain mean angulation values for renal hila in relation to the horizontal plane traced over the right and left spinal erector muscles, considering the center of the lumbar vertebral spine as a parameter for measuring the renal hila angles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors have analyzed 250 abdominal computed tomography studies of both male and female healthy individuals (128 men with mean age 52.45 ± 17.42 years, and 122 women with mean age 54.39 ± 18.27 years, corresponding to 500 renal hila evaluated. The mean angulation of each hilum in relation to the horizontal plane was obtained taking acute angles into consideration

  7. Scaled photographs of surf over the full range of breaker sizes on the north shore of Oahu and Jaws, Maui, Hawaiian Islands (NODC Accession 0001753)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digital surf photographs were scaled using surfers as height benchmarks to estimate the size of the breakers. Historical databases for surf height in Hawaii are...

  8. A Novel Image Retrieval Based on Visual Words Integration of SIFT and SURF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouman Ali

    Full Text Available With the recent evolution of technology, the number of image archives has increased exponentially. In Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR, high-level visual information is represented in the form of low-level features. The semantic gap between the low-level features and the high-level image concepts is an open research problem. In this paper, we present a novel visual words integration of Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT and Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF. The two local features representations are selected for image retrieval because SIFT is more robust to the change in scale and rotation, while SURF is robust to changes in illumination. The visual words integration of SIFT and SURF adds the robustness of both features to image retrieval. The qualitative and quantitative comparisons conducted on Corel-1000, Corel-1500, Corel-2000, Oliva and Torralba and Ground Truth image benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed visual words integration.

  9. A Novel Image Retrieval Based on Visual Words Integration of SIFT and SURF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nouman; Bajwa, Khalid Bashir; Sablatnig, Robert; Chatzichristofis, Savvas A; Iqbal, Zeshan; Rashid, Muhammad; Habib, Hafiz Adnan

    2016-01-01

    With the recent evolution of technology, the number of image archives has increased exponentially. In Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR), high-level visual information is represented in the form of low-level features. The semantic gap between the low-level features and the high-level image concepts is an open research problem. In this paper, we present a novel visual words integration of Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF). The two local features representations are selected for image retrieval because SIFT is more robust to the change in scale and rotation, while SURF is robust to changes in illumination. The visual words integration of SIFT and SURF adds the robustness of both features to image retrieval. The qualitative and quantitative comparisons conducted on Corel-1000, Corel-1500, Corel-2000, Oliva and Torralba and Ground Truth image benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed visual words integration.

  10. Environmental Awareness of Surf Tourists: A Case Study in the Algarve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabia Frank

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Even though surf tourism in Portugal is an economic activity with a steady growth rate, there are not many assessment studies available. Using a survey undertaken in surf camps located in the Vila do Bispo County, this study aims to analyse the environmental awareness of surf tourists in the Algarve. Through the New Environmental Paradigm (NEP scale it is shown that the environmental attitudes of respondents are strongly pro-ecological but also reveal some anthropocentric aspects. Tourists were asked about their willingness to pay for an accommodation tax earmarked for environmental protection in the Algarve. The results show that the large majority (86% would be willing to pay, which indicates a high environmental awareness. It is also found that the willingness to pay is related to the nationality, with respondents from Germany, Austria and Switzerland showing a higher willingness to pay.

  11. Dispositivo rotatorio portátil independiente de la red eléctrica para el acople de hilos de fibra óptica

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Herrero, Asier

    2013-01-01

    El presente proyecto trata sobre el diseño y realización de un dispositivo rotatorio de pequeño tamaño, bajo coste, consumo reducido y con un sistema para poder acoplarle uno o varios hilos de fibra óptica. Además, debe ser diseñado de manera estanca para poder ser introducido en una máquina de recubrimientos por Sputtering, evaporación térmica, etc., y para la realización de tratamientos. Estos tratamientos de recubrimientos en fibras ópticas son bastante complejos, ya que al ...

  12. Loss-of-function mutations of SURF-1 are specifically associated with Leigh syndrome with cytochrome c oxidase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiranti, V; Jaksch, M; Hofmann, S; Galimberti, C; Hoertnagel, K; Lulli, L; Freisinger, P; Bindoff, L; Gerbitz, K D; Comi, G P; Uziel, G; Zeviani, M; Meitinger, T

    1999-08-01

    Mutations of SURF-1, a gene located on chromosome 9q34, have recently been identified in patients affected by Leigh syndrome (LS), associated with deficiency of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. To investigate to what extent SURF-1 is responsible for human disorders because of COX deficiency, we undertook sequence analysis of the SURF-1 gene in 46 unrelated patients. We analyzed 24 COX-defective patients classified as having typical Leigh syndrome (LS(COX)), 6 patients classified as Leigh-like (LL(COX)) cases, and 16 patients classified as non-LS(COX) cases. Frameshift, stop, and splice mutations of SURF-1 were detected in 18 of 24 (75%) of the LS(COX) cases. No mutations were found in the LL(COX) and non-LS(COX) group of patients. Rescue of the COX phenotype was observed in transfected cells from patients harboring SURF-1 mutations, but not in transfected cell lines from 2 patients in whom no mutations were detected by sequence analysis. Loss of function of SURF-1 protein is specifically associated with LS(COX), although a proportion of LS(COX) cases must be the result of abnormalities in genes other than SURF-1. SURF-1 is the first nuclear gene to be consistently mutated in a major category of respiratory chain defects. DNA analysis can now be used to accurately diagnose LS(COX), a common subtype of Leigh syndrome.

  13. Heart Rate Responses of High School Students Participating in Surfing Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Michelle M; Cummins, Kevin M; Nessler, Jeff A; Newcomer, Sean C

    2016-06-01

    Despite the nation's rising epidemic of childhood obesity and diabetes, schools struggle to promote physical activities that help reduce risks for cardiovascular disease. Emerging data suggest that adopting novel activities into physical education (PE) curriculum may serve as an effective strategy for increasing physical activity in children. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize activity in the water and heart rates (HRs) of high school students participating in surf PE courses. Twenty-four male (n = 20) and female (n = 4) high school students (mean age = 16.7 ± 1.0 years) who were enrolled in surf PE courses at 2 high schools participated in this investigation. Daily measurements of surfing durations, average HR, and maximum HR were made on the students with HR monitors (PolarFT1) over an 8-week period. In addition, HR and activity in the water was evaluated during a single session in a subset of students (n = 11) using a HR monitor (PolarRCX5) and a video camera (Canon HD). Activity and HR were synchronized and evaluated in 5-second intervals during data analyses. The average duration that PE students participated in surfing during class was 61.7 ± 1.0 minutes. Stationary, paddling, wave riding, and miscellaneous activities comprised 42.7 ± 9.5, 36.7 ± 7.9, 2.9 ± 1.4, and 17.8 ± 11.4 percent of the surf session, respectively. The average and maximum HRs during these activities were 131.1 ± 0.9 and 177.2 ± 1.0 b·min, respectively. These data suggest that high school students participating in surf PE attained HRs and durations that are consistent with recommendations with cardiovascular fitness and health. In the future, PE programs should consider incorporating other action sports into their curriculum to enhance cardiovascular health.

  14. Flooding and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, flooding is the nation's most common natural disaster. Some floods develop slowly during an extended period of rain or in a warming trend following a heavy snow. Flash floods can occur quickly, without any visible sign of rain. Catastrophic floods are associated with burst dams and levees,…

  15. Run-up of tsunamis and long waves in terms of surf-similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.

    2008-01-01

    of the surf-similarity parameter and the amplitude to depth ratio determined at some offshore location. We use the analytical expressions to analyze the impact of tsunamis on beaches and relate the discussion to the recent Indian Ocean tsunami from December 26, 2004. An important conclusion is that extreme...... run-up combined with extreme flow velocities occurs for surf-similarity parameters of the order 3-6, and for typical tsunami wave periods this requires relatively mild beach slopes. Next, we compare the theoretical solutions to measured run-up of breaking and non-breaking irregular waves on steep...

  16. SURF: Taking Sustainable Remediation from Concept to Standard Operating Procedure (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. M.; Wice, R. B.; Torrens, J.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade, many sectors of industrialized society have been rethinking behavior and re-engineering practices to reduce consumption of energy and natural resources. During this time, green and sustainable remediation (GSR) has evolved from conceptual discussions to standard operating procedure for many environmental remediation practitioners. Government agencies and private sector entities have incorporated GSR metrics into their performance criteria and contracting documents. One of the early think tanks for the development of GSR was the Sustainable Remediation Forum (SURF). SURF brings together representatives of government, industry, consultancy, and academia to parse the means and ends of incorporating societal and economic considerations into environmental cleanup projects. Faced with decades-old treatment programs with high energy outputs and no endpoints in sight, a small group of individuals published the institutional knowledge gathered in two years of ad hoc meetings into a 2009 White Paper on sustainable remediation drivers, practices, objectives, and case studies. Since then, SURF has expanded on those introductory topics, publishing its Framework for Integrating Sustainability into Remediation Projects, Guidance for Performing Footprint Analyses and Life-Cycle Assessments for the Remediation Industry, a compendium of metrics, and a call to improve the integration of land remediation and reuse. SURF's research and members have also been instrumental in the development of additional guidance through ASTM International and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council. SURF's current efforts focus on water reuse, the international perspective on GSR (continuing the conversations that were the basis of SURF's December 2012 meeting at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC), and ways to capture and evaluate the societal benefits of site remediation. SURF also promotes and supports student chapters at universities across the US

  17. GENES Y EVOLUCIÓN EL DELGADO HILO QUE NOS CONECTA POR MILES DE MILLONES DE AÑOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS FERNANDO GARCÍA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La escala temporal en nuestra cotidianidad refleja una pequeña fracción de la historia evolutiva de los organismos, incluidos los humanos. La edad del planeta se estima en 4.500 millones de años, donde ocurrieron profundos cambios en la posición de los continentes y en el clima del planeta. Sin embargo, los cambios más drásticos surgen solo en los últimos 500 millones de años. La genética ha sido una herramienta fundamental para inferir el cambio de los organismos a lo largo de millones de años, por ejemplo, mediante la estimación de tiempos de divergencia. Los seres vivos comparten el material genético como huellas moleculares para rastrear cambios en el pasado. Así, mediante el uso de secuencias de ADN y proteínas, los científicos estudian cómo los organismos han evolucionado, cuándo surgieron importantes novedades evolutivas, cómo interaccionan los genes, y determinan las relaciones evolutivas entre las formas del pasado y las contemporáneas. Las relaciones entre organismos son inferidas por simple similaridad (fenéticas, por compartir características únicas y mediante modelos matemáticos que describen como evolucionan las secuencias de ADN y las proteínas (filogenéticas. La genética también evidencia la dinámica de los genomas (duplicación, transposición, recombinación, inversiones, que resulta en ganancia y pérdida de genes, nuevas funciones, y transferencia horizontal de genes, mecanismos que incrementan la diversidad existente hoy. Aunque el ambiente es fundamental en la evolución de los organismos, es imprescindible reconocer que hay un hilo conductor muy fino y fuerte que nos conecta inevitablemente a esas primeras moléculas que se formaron en el pasado distante.

  18. The Ocean as a Unique Therapeutic Environment: Developing a Surfing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Emily D.; Armitano, Cortney N.; Lamont, Linda S.; Audette, Jennifer G.

    2014-01-01

    Educational aquatic programming offers necessary physical activity opportunities to children with disabilities and the benefits of aquatic activities are more pronounced for children with disabilities than for their able-bodied peers. Similar benefits could potentially be derived from surfing in the ocean. This article describes an adapted surfing…

  19. Modelling Vertical Variation of Turbulent Flow Across a Surf Zone Using SWASH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlema, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the application of the open source non-hydrostatic wave-flow model SWASH to propagation of irregular waves in a barred surf zone, and the model results are discussed by comparing against an extensive laboratory data set. This study focus not only on wave transformation in the sur

  20. Post-Processing Enhancement of Reverberation-Noise Suppression in Dual-Frequency SURF Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Nasholm, Sven Peter; Angelsen, Bjørn A J; 10.1109/TUFFC.2011.1811

    2013-01-01

    A post-processing adjustment technique which aims for enhancement of dual-frequency SURF (Second order UltRasound Field) reverberation-noise suppression imaging in medical ultrasound is analyzed. Two variant methods are investigated through numerical simulations. They both solely involve post-processing of the propagated high-frequency (HF) imaging wave fields, which in real-time imaging corresponds to post-processing of the beamformed receive radio-frequency signals. Hence the transmit pulse complexes are the same as for the previously published SURF reverberation-suppression imaging method. The adjustment technique is tested on simulated data from propagation of SURF pulse complexes consisting of a 3.5 MHz HF imaging pulse added to a 0.5 low-frequency sound-speed manipulation pulse. Imaging transmit beams are constructed with and without adjustment. The post-processing involves filtering, e.g., by a time-shift, in order to equalize the two SURF HF pulses at a chosen depth. This depth is typically chosen to ...

  1. The Ocean as a Unique Therapeutic Environment: Developing a Surfing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Emily D.; Armitano, Cortney N.; Lamont, Linda S.; Audette, Jennifer G.

    2014-01-01

    Educational aquatic programming offers necessary physical activity opportunities to children with disabilities and the benefits of aquatic activities are more pronounced for children with disabilities than for their able-bodied peers. Similar benefits could potentially be derived from surfing in the ocean. This article describes an adapted surfing…

  2. Implementing CHC to Counter Shoulder Surfing Attack in PassPoint – Style Graphical Passwords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Joshuva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Graphical passwords are an alternative to existing alphanumeric passwords. In Graphical passwords users click on images than type a long, complex password. Passpoints scheme is one of the Graphical user authentication techniques. In this method the password is represented by multiple clicks on a single image. One of the advantages with Passpoints scheme is that, a user can click on any place in the image as a click point. Graphical authentication suffers a major drawback of Shoulder-surfing. Shoulder-surfing refers to someone observing the user’s action as the user enters a password. Due to this, the user’s action can be monitored by the attacker or it can be captured using recording devices such as camera. Sobrado and Birget suggested Convex Hull Click (CHC scheme to counter shoulder-surfing using PassIcons which is different from PassPoint scheme. In this paper, we described how CHC is implemented in Passpoint-sheme to counter Shoulder Surfing Attack.

  3. Performance differences between sexes in the pop-up phase of surfing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eurich, Alea D; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Noffal, Guillermo J; Nguyen, Diamond; Khamoui, Andy V; Uribe, Brandon P

    2010-10-01

    Surfing is a dynamic sport that is multidirectional in nature and requires peak performance in variable ocean conditions. Its growing popularity among the female population has stirred curiosity as to whether women can and will 1 day face their male counterparts in head-to-head competition at the top levels. The purpose of this study was to examine male and female differences in performance of a simulated surfing pop-up movement. Forty recreationally trained surfers (20 men and 20 women) were instructed to lie prone on a force plate, in the pop-up position (similar to a push-up), with only their hands in contact with the plate. A velocity transducer was attached to their back via an adjustable strap around their upper trunk. They completed 3 pop-ups as explosively as possible by pushing forcefully with their hands and jumping to their feet. Absolute and relative force and power were measured. Results demonstrated that men exhibited significantly (p pop-up movement. It appears that women may be at a disadvantage in regards to peak performance when compared to their male counterparts in the surfing pop-up movement. Therefore, women should train for both maximum and explosive upper-body strength in addition to their time spent surfing.

  4. Robust Object-Based Watermarking Using SURF Feature Matching and DFT Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cedillo-Hernandez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a robust object-based watermarking method, in which the watermark is embedded into the middle frequencies band of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT magnitude of the selected object region, altogether with the Speeded Up Robust Feature (SURF algorithm to allow the correct watermark detection, even if the watermarked image has been distorted. To recognize the selected object region after geometric distortions, during the embedding process the SURF features are estimated and stored in advance to be used during the detection process. In the detection stage, the SURF features of the distorted image are estimated and match them with the stored ones. From the matching result, SURF features are used to compute the Affine-transformation parameters and the object region is recovered. The quality of the watermarked image is measured using the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR, Structural Similarity Index (SSIM and the Visual Information Fidelity (VIF. The experimental results show the proposed method provides robustness against several geometric distortions, signal processing operations and combined distortions. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves also show the desirable detection performance of the proposed method. The comparison with a previously reported methods based on different techniques is also provided.

  5. Baseline Measurements of Shoulder Surfing Analysis and Comparability for Smartphone Unlock Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-22

    lines, and graphical patterns without lines) in a controlled setting . These videos are designed to simulate shoulder surfing settings under varied attack...than triple the success rate with a single view at 72.44 . The goal of this research is to identify more effective guidance for mobile device users to

  6. Constitutive knockout of Surf1 is associated with high embryonic lethality, mitochondrial disease and cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostino, Alessandro; Invernizzi, Federica; Tiveron, Cecilia; Fagiolari, Gigliola; Prelle, Alessandro; Lamantea, Eleonora; Giavazzi, Alessio; Battaglia, Giorgio; Tatangelo, Laura; Tiranti, Valeria; Zeviani, Massimo

    2003-02-15

    We report here the creation of a constitutive knockout mouse for SURF1, a gene encoding one of the assembly proteins involved in the formation of cytochrome c oxidase (COX). Loss-of-function mutations of SURF1 cause Leigh syndrome associated with an isolated and generalized COX deficiency in humans. The murine phenotype is characterized by the following hallmarks: (1) high post-implantation embryonic lethality, affecting approximately 90% of the Surf1(-/-) individuals; (2) early-onset mortality of post-natal individuals; (3) highly significant deficit in muscle strength and motor performance; (4) profound and isolated defect of COX activity in skeletal muscle and liver, and, to a lesser extent, heart and brain; (5) morphological abnormalities of skeletal muscle, characterized by reduced histochemical reaction to COX and mitochondrial proliferation; (6) no obvious abnormalities in brain morphology, reflecting the virtual absence of overt neurological symptoms. These results indicate a function for murine Surf1 protein (Surf1p) specifically related to COX and recapitulate, at least in part, the human phenotype. This is the first mammalian model for a nuclear disease gene of a human mitochondrial disorder. Our model constitutes a useful tool to investigate the function of Surf1p, help understand the pathogenesis of Surf1p deficiency in vivo, and evaluate the efficacy of treatment.

  7. Measuring and modeling suspended sediment concentration profiles in the surf zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Time-averaged suspended sediment concentration profiles across the surf zone were measured in a large-scale three-dimensional movable bed laboratory facility (LSTF: Large-scale Sediment Transport Facility. Sediment suspension under two different types of breaking waves, spilling and plunging breakers, was investigated. The magnitudes and shapes of the concentration profiles varied substantially at different locations across the surf zone, reflecting the different intensities of breaking-induced turbulence. Sediment suspension at the energetic plunging breaker-line was much more active, resulting in nearly homogeneous concentration profiles throughout most of the water column, as compared to the reminder of the surf zone and at the spilling breaker-line. Four suspended sediment concentration models were examined based on the LSTF data, including the mixing turbulence length approach, segment eddy viscosity model, breaking-induced wave-energy dissipation approach, and a combined breaking and turbulence length model developed by this study. Neglecting the breaking-induced turbulence and subsequent sediment mixing, suspended sediment concentration models failed to predict the across-shore variations of the sediment suspension, especially at the plunging breaker-line. Wave-energy dissipation rate provided an accurate method for estimating the intensity of turbulence generated by wave breaking. By incorporating the breaking-induced turbulence, the combined breaking and turbulence length model reproduced the across-shore variation of sediment suspension in the surf zone. The combined model reproduced the measured time-averaged suspended sediment concentration profiles reasonably well across the surf zone.

  8. Assessments Of Different Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF Algorithm Resolution For Pose Estimation Of UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassem Sheta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The UAV industry is growing rapidly in an attempt to serve both military and commercial applications. A crucial aspect in the development of UAVs is the reduction of navigational sensor costs while maintaining accurate navigation. Advances in visual sensor solutions with traditional navigation sensors are proving to be significantly promising in replacing traditional IMU or GPS systems for many mission scenarios. The basic concept behind Vision Based Navigation (VBN is to find the matches between a set of features in real-time captured images taken by the imaging sensor on the UAV and database images. A scale and rotation invariant image matching algorithm is a key element for VBN of aerial vehicles. Matches between the geo-referenced database images and the new real-time captured ones are determined by employing the fast Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF algorithm. The SURF algorithm consists mainly of two steps: the first is the detection of points of interest and the second is the creation of descriptors for each of these points. In this research paper, two major factors are investigated and tested to efficiently create the descriptors for each point of interest. The first factor is the dimension of the descriptor for a given point of interest. The dimension is affected by the number of descriptor sub-regions which consequently affects the matching time and the accuracy. SURF performance has been investigated and tested using different dimensions of the descriptor. The second factor is the number of sample points in each sub-region which are used to build the descriptor of the point of interest. SURF performance has been investigated and tested by changing thenumber of sample points in each sub-region where the matching accuracy is affected. Assessments of the SURF performance and consequently on UAV VBN are investigated.

  9. Simulación rápida de la propagación del tsunami de Chile de 1960 hasta la bahía de Hilo en Hawái

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silvia Chacón Barrantes

    2007-01-01

    En este trabajo se simula la propagación del tsunami de Chile de 1960, desde su región de generación hasta la bahía de Hilo en Hawái, empleando un método híbrido que permite obtener resultados en un intervalo relativamente...

  10. South China Flooded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Vehicles traverse a flooded street in Liuzhou, guangxi zhuang Autonomous Region, on May 19.heavy rainstorms repeatedly struck China this month, triggering floods, mudflows and landslides. hunan, guangdong and Jiangxi provinces and Chongqing Municipality were the worst hit.

  11. Base Flood Elevation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  12. Flood Control Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  13. Flooding: Prioritizing protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peduzzi, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    With climate change, urban development and economic growth, more assets and infrastructures will be exposed to flooding. Now research shows that investments in flood protection are globally beneficial, but have varied levels of benefit locally.

  14. Flood Hazard Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  15. Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  16. GENES Y EVOLUCION EL DELGADO HILO QUE NOS CONECTA POR MILES DE MILLONES DE AÑOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Luis Fernando

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La escala temporal en nuestra cotidianidad refleja una pequeña fracción de la historia evolutiva de los organismos, incluidos los humanos. La edad del planeta se estima en 4,500 millones de años, en los cuales profundos cambios en la posición de los continentes y grandes transformaciones en el clima de la tierra ocurrieron, aunque los cambios más drásticos surgen tan sólo en los últimos 500 millones de años. La genética ha sido herramienta fundamental para evidenciar el cambio de los organismos a lo largo de miles y millones de años. El material genético, elemento históricamente compartido por los seres vivos es una huella molecular para estudiar y rastrear cambios en el pasado. Así, los científicos logran estudiar en las secuencias de ADN o proteínas cómo evolucionaron los grandes grupos de animales, cuando surgieron importantes novedades evolutivas, cómo interaccionan los genes, y determinar las relaciones evolutivas entre las formas del pasado y las contemporáneas. Las relaciones entre organismos se explican por simple similaridad, por compartir características únicas o mediante modelos matemáticos que describen como evolucionan las secuencias de ADN y las proteínas. La genética también evidencia lo dinámico de los genomas, pues hay ganancia y perdida de genes, nuevas funciones, y transferencia horizontal de genes, mecanismos que incrementan la diversidad orgánica existente hoy. Aunque el ambiente es determinante en la evolución de los organismos, es imprescindible reconocer que hay un hilo conductor muy fino y fuerte que nos une inevitablemente a esas primeras moléculas que se formaron hace 4,500 millones de años. Palabras clave: Evolución, genoma, genética, transferencia horizontal de genes, mutación. ABSTRACT The temporal scale in our daily life is a small fraction of the evolutionary history of organisms, included the humans. The planet age is estimated in 4,5 billion years, in which profound

  17. Flood Risk Regional Flood Defences: Technical report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendering, K.T.

    2015-01-01

    Historically the Netherlands have always had to deal with the threat of flooding, both from the rivers and the sea as well as from heavy rainfall. The country consists of a large amount of polders, which are low lying areas of land protected from flooding by embankments. These polders require an

  18. Flood Risk Regional Flood Defences: Technical report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendering, K.T.

    2015-01-01

    Historically the Netherlands have always had to deal with the threat of flooding, both from the rivers and the sea as well as from heavy rainfall. The country consists of a large amount of polders, which are low lying areas of land protected from flooding by embankments. These polders require an ext

  19. "Do outside": corpo e natureza, medo e gênero no surfe universitário paulistano "From the outside": body and nature, fear and gender in surfing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Martins Bandeira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ao objetivo primeiro desta pesquisa, descrever as dinâmicas do surfe e os significados de sua prática, em especial a relação ser humano/natureza estabelecida por meio do esporte, somaram-se outros objetivos: problematizar a aproximação do pesquisador de seu campo de investigação, a possibilidade de um pesquisador realizar uma investigação através de seu próprio corpo e discutir a questão de gênero no surfe. Sobre o objetivo primeiro desta pesquisa, vivendo e descrevendo as dinâmicas do surfe encontrou-se os significados da relação do surfista com o mar nas sensações corporais experimentadas nas técnicas do remar, sentar, dar o joelhinho e dropar a onda. Que ser capaz de passar a rebentação é associado a um retorno bem sucedido à comunhão do homem com a natureza, sendo as cores, formas e sensações do "outside" o privilégio daquele que vence as dificuldades do tornar-se e ser surfista. Mas, que estas sensações são tidas como possibilidades de corpos corajosos e hábeis, "a priori", entendidos como corpos masculinos. O surfe como campo em que o feminino é visto ainda como exceção dá a pensar que os esportes na natureza e a educação ao ar livre, embora tenham potencial de promover novas condutas políticas e a virtuosa sensibilidade ambiental, não estão livres de reproduzir outros padrões de dominação.The main goal of this research is to describe the dynamics of surfing and its meanings, mainly the human/nature relation established through the sport. Meanwhile, other goals were added: discussing the approach to the field by the researcher, the possibility this researcher could investigate through her own body and the gender matter in the sport. About the main aim of the research, living and experiencing the sport itself, meaning, to the relation between the surfer and the sea, was found in the body sensations experienced through techniques such as paddling, sitting, duck diving and dropping a wave. Being

  20. Spatially Uniform ReliefF (SURF for computationally-efficient filtering of gene-gene interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greene Casey S

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide association studies are becoming the de facto standard in the genetic analysis of common human diseases. Given the complexity and robustness of biological networks such diseases are unlikely to be the result of single points of failure but instead likely arise from the joint failure of two or more interacting components. The hope in genome-wide screens is that these points of failure can be linked to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs which confer disease susceptibility. Detecting interacting variants that lead to disease in the absence of single-gene effects is difficult however, and methods to exhaustively analyze sets of these variants for interactions are combinatorial in nature thus making them computationally infeasible. Efficient algorithms which can detect interacting SNPs are needed. ReliefF is one such promising algorithm, although it has low success rate for noisy datasets when the interaction effect is small. ReliefF has been paired with an iterative approach, Tuned ReliefF (TuRF, which improves the estimation of weights in noisy data but does not fundamentally change the underlying ReliefF algorithm. To improve the sensitivity of studies using these methods to detect small effects we introduce Spatially Uniform ReliefF (SURF. Results SURF's ability to detect interactions in this domain is significantly greater than that of ReliefF. Similarly SURF, in combination with the TuRF strategy significantly outperforms TuRF alone for SNP selection under an epistasis model. It is important to note that this success rate increase does not require an increase in algorithmic complexity and allows for increased success rate, even with the removal of a nuisance parameter from the algorithm. Conclusion Researchers performing genetic association studies and aiming to discover gene-gene interactions associated with increased disease susceptibility should use SURF in place of ReliefF. For instance, SURF should be

  1. Drones at the Beach - Surf Zone Monitoring Using Rotary Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynne, P.; Brouwer, R.; de Schipper, M. A.; Graham, F.; Reniers, A.; MacMahan, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the potential of rotary wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to monitor the surf zone. In recent years, the arrival of lightweight, high-capacity batteries, low-power electronics and compact high-definition cameras has driven the development of commercially available UAVs for hobbyists. Moreover, the low operation costs have increased their potential for scientific research as these UAVs are extremely flexible surveying platforms. The UAVs can fly for ~12 min with a mean loiter radius of 1 - 3.5 m and a mean loiter error of 0.75 - 4.5 m, depending on the environmental conditions, flying style, battery type and vehicle type. Our experiments using multiple, alternating UAVs show that it is possible to have near continuous imagery data with similar Fields Of View. The images obtained from the UAVs (Fig. 1a), and in combination with surveyed Ground Control Points (GCPs) (Fig. 1b, red squares and white circles), can be geo-rectified (Fig. 1c) to pixel resolution between 0.01 - 1 m and a reprojection error, i.e. the difference between the surveyed GPS location of a GCP and the location of the GCP obtained from the geo-rectified image, of O(1 m). These geo-rectified images provide data on a variety of coastal aspects, such as beach width (Wb(x,t)), surf zone width (Wsf(x,t)), wave breaking location (rectangle B), beach usage (circle C) and location of dune vegegation (rectangle D), amongst others. Additionally, the possibility to have consecutive, high frequency (up to 2 Hz) rectified images makes the UAVs a great data instrument for spatially and temporally variable systems, such as the surf zone. Our first observations with the UAVs reveal the potential to quickly obtain surf zone and beach characteristics in response to storms or for day to day beach information, as well as the scientific pursuits of surf zone kinematics on different spatial and temporal scales, and dispersion and advection estimates of pollutants/dye. A selection of findings from

  2. Surf observations from the South Shore of Oahu, Hawaii from 01 March 1972 to 20 November 1987 (NODC Accession 0000274)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Heights of breaking surf were collected by using visual observations from swimmers or divers at the South Shore of Oahu, Hawaii from March 1, 1972 to November 20,...

  3. Efficacy development in science: Investigating the effects of the Teacher-to-Teacher (T2T) professional development model in Hilo elementary schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinner, Pascale Creek

    Conderman and Sheldon Woods (2008) suggest that although science plays a central role in our world today, science instruction seems to be minimized particularly at the elementary grade levels. Research has investigated the construct of efficacy (Bandura, 1977, 2006a; Riggs & Enochs, 1990; Ramey-Gassert, Shroyer & Staver, 1996; Tschannen-Moran, Hoy & Hoy, 1998, 2001). Professional and conceptual development in teachers has also been explored (Gordon, 1990; Sheerer, 1997; Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2007). The purpose of this research was to describe the changes in efficacy elementary teachers experience as they participated in science professional development. Data from a Math/Science Partnership (MSP) grant sample suggested significant changes in science self-efficacy and improved pedagogy. Mixed methods revealed connections resulting in a multi-faceted Progression of Efficacy Growth flowchart. The results suggest that utilizing the Teacher-to-Teacher (T2T) professional development model has created a pathway for more science teaching across the Hilo elementary schools.

  4. Flood Impact Modelling and Natural Flood Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Gareth; Quinn, Paul; ODonnell, Greg

    2016-04-01

    Local implementation of Natural Flood Management methods are now being proposed in many flood schemes. In principal it offers a cost effective solution to a number of catchment based problem as NFM tackles both flood risk and WFD issues. However within larger catchments there is the issue of which subcatchments to target first and how much NFM to implement. If each catchment has its own configuration of subcatchment and rivers how can the issues of flood synchronisation and strategic investment be addressed? In this study we will show two key aspects to resolving these issues. Firstly, a multi-scale network water level recorder is placed throughout the system to capture the flow concentration and travel time operating in the catchment being studied. The second is a Flood Impact Model (FIM), which is a subcatchment based model that can generate runoff in any location using any hydrological model. The key aspect to the model is that it has a function to represent the impact of NFM in any subcatchment and the ability to route that flood wave to the outfall. This function allows a realistic representation of the synchronisation issues for that catchment. By running the model in interactive mode the user can define an appropriate scheme that minimises or removes the risk of synchornisation and gives confidence that the NFM investment is having a good level of impact downstream in large flood events.

  5. Composition, Shell Strength, and Metabolizable Energy of Mulinia lateralis and Ischadium recurvum as Food for Wintering Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia M Wells-Berlin

    Full Text Available Decline in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata waterfowl populations wintering in the Chesapeake Bay has been associated with changes in the availability of benthic bivalves. The Bay has become more eutrophic, causing changes in the benthos available to surf scoters. The subsequent decline in oyster beds (Crassostrea virginica has reduced the hard substrate needed by the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum, one of the primary prey items for surf scoters, causing the surf scoter to switch to a more opportune species, the dwarf surfclam (Mulinia lateralis. The composition (macronutrients, minerals, and amino acids, shell strength (N, and metabolizable energy (kJ of these prey items were quantified to determine the relative foraging values for wintering scoters. Pooled samples of each prey item were analyzed to determine composition. Shell strength (N was measured using a shell crack compression test. Total collection digestibility trials were conducted on eight captive surf scoters. For the prey size range commonly consumed by surf scoters (6-12 mm for M. lateralis and 18-24 mm for I. recurvum, I. recurvum contained higher ash, protein, lipid, and energy per individual organism than M. lateralis. I. recurvum required significantly greater force to crack the shell relative to M. lateralis. No difference in metabolized energy was observed for these prey items in wintering surf scoters, despite I. recurvum's higher ash content and harder shell than M. lateralis. Therefore, wintering surf scoters were able to obtain the same amount of energy from each prey item, implying that they can sustain themselves if forced to switch prey.

  6. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic). SURF CLAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    invisible, outer, jellylike layer and mine surf clam gender (Ropes et al. the germinal vesicle (Ropes 1980). 1969). Male and female surf clams Longo...Jacobsen, M. K., and W. E. Old, Jr. Lindley, M. G., and R. S. Shallen- 1966. On the identity of Spisula berger. 1976, Purification and similis. Am...1966. A quantitative Masse, H. 1975. Feeding biotogy of .3-year-survey on the meiofauna Astropecten aranciacus. Cah , of known macrofauna communities

  7. Composition, shell strength, and metabolizable energy of Mulinia lateralis and Ischadium recurvum as food for wintering surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Alicia; Perry, Matthew; Kohn, R.A.; Paynter, K.T.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Decline in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) waterfowl populations wintering in the Chesapeake Bay has been associated with changes in the availability of benthic bivalves. The Bay has become more eutrophic, causing changes in the benthos available to surf scoters. The subsequent decline in oyster beds (Crassostrea virginica) has reduced the hard substrate needed by the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum), one of the primary prey items for surf scoters, causing the surf scoter to switch to a more opportune species, the dwarf surfclam (Mulinia lateralis). The composition (macronutrients, minerals, and amino acids), shell strength (N), and metabolizable energy (kJ) of these prey items were quantified to determine the relative foraging values for wintering scoters. Pooled samples of each prey item were analyzed to determine composition. Shell strength (N) was measured using a shell crack compression test. Total collection digestibility trials were conducted on eight captive surf scoters. For the prey size range commonly consumed by surf scoters (6-12 mm for M. lateralis and 18-24 mm for I. recurvum), I. recurvum contained higher ash, protein, lipid, and energy per individual organism than M. lateralis. I. recurvum required significantly greater force to crack the shell relative to M. lateralis. No difference in metabolized energy was observed for these prey items in wintering surf scoters, despite I. recurvum's higher ash content and harder shell than M. lateralis. Therefore, wintering surf scoters were able to obtain the same amount of energy from each prey item, implying that they can sustain themselves if forced to switch prey.

  8. Urban pluvial flood prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk; Jensen, David Getreuer

    2016-01-01

    Flooding produced by high-intensive local rainfall and drainage system capacity exceedance can have severe impacts in cities. In order to prepare cities for these types of flood events – especially in the future climate – it is valuable to be able to simulate these events numerically both...... historically and in real-time. There is a rather untested potential in real-time prediction of urban floods. In this paper radar data observations with different spatial and temporal resolution, radar nowcasts of 0–2 h lead time, and numerical weather models with lead times up to 24 h are used as inputs...... to an integrated flood and drainage systems model in order to investigate the relative difference between different inputs in predicting future floods. The system is tested on a small town Lystrup in Denmark, which has been flooded in 2012 and 2014. Results show it is possible to generate detailed flood maps...

  9. SurfKin: an ab initio kinetic code for modeling surface reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thong Nguyen-Minh; Liu, Bin; Huynh, Lam K

    2014-10-05

    In this article, we describe a C/C++ program called SurfKin (Surface Kinetics) to construct microkinetic mechanisms for modeling gas-surface reactions. Thermodynamic properties of reaction species are estimated based on density functional theory calculations and statistical mechanics. Rate constants for elementary steps (including adsorption, desorption, and chemical reactions on surfaces) are calculated using the classical collision theory and transition state theory. Methane decomposition and water-gas shift reaction on Ni(111) surface were chosen as test cases to validate the code implementations. The good agreement with literature data suggests this is a powerful tool to facilitate the analysis of complex reactions on surfaces, and thus it helps to effectively construct detailed microkinetic mechanisms for such surface reactions. SurfKin also opens a possibility for designing nanoscale model catalysts.

  10. Experimental and numerical investigation of the internal kinetics of a surf-zone plunging breaker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emarat, Narumon; Forehand, David I.M.; Christensen, Erik Damgaard

    2012-01-01

    Over the last couple of decades both the qualitative and quantitative understanding of breaking waves in the surf zone have greatly increased. This is due to the advances in experimental and numerical techniques. However, few comparisons between these two different investigative techniques...... for surfzone breaking waves have been reported. In this study, a comparison is made between the experimental and numerical investigation of the internal kinematics of a surf-zone plunging breaker. The full-field velocity measuring technique known as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is used in the experiments....... In the hybrid numerical scheme, the main model solves the Navier–Stokes equations using a Finite Volume method and the free-surface is simulated using a Volume of Fluid (VOF) method. An important feature of this work is that, unlike in most other comparisons between numerical and experimental results, the exact...

  11. An Improvement of Positional Accuracy for View-Based Navigation Using SURF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Yoshinobu; Imamura, Hiroki; Choi, Yongwoon; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    In this paper, we propose a reliable method for view-based navigation of mobile robots fully improved in positional accuracy by using feature-points extracted by SURF, and it is verified from the navigation experiments of them. View-based navigations that have used block matching method are not enough in positional accuracy for robots to avoid obstacles and pass narrow doorways. By applying SURF that is stable to illumination and scale changes in an image to the method for view-based navigation, the navigation for robots becomes more robust to variable indoor conditions. In experiments conducted in an indoor corridor with a robot for comparing the proposed method to conventional one, the positional precision was obtained in centimeter-order of within 10.0[cm]. In this view, it suggests that the proposed method is applied to the view-based navigation for robots in such narrow areas as obstacle avoidance and corridors.

  12. Sobre as ondas: surfe, juventude e cultura no Rio de Janeiro dos anos 1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Dias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Na segunda metade do século XX, torna-se explícita a influência mundial dos Estados Unidos no âmbito esportivo. A disseminação de práticas que possuíam marcas culturais norte-americanas, como é o caso do surfe, não deve ser considerada, contudo, somente como resultado de uma imposição unilateral: há múltiplas apropriações locais que dizem muito sobre o contexto do receptor. Partindo dessa consideração, este artigo objetiva discutir a apreensão do surfe no Rio de Janeiro dos anos 1960. Buscamos debater como a modalidade foi operada como marcador de identidades a partir de vinculações a certas noções de juventude e estilo de vida.

  13. Movements of wintering surf scoters: Predator responses to different prey landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, M.; Esler, Daniel; Iverson, S.A.; Boyd, W.S.

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of predators is widely recognized to be intimately linked to the distribution of their prey. Foraging theory suggests that predators will modify their behaviors, including movements, to optimize net energy intake when faced with variation in prey attributes or abundance. While many studies have documented changes in movement patterns of animals in response to temporal changes in food, very few have contrasted movements of a single predator species naturally occurring in dramatically different prey landscapes. We documented variation in the winter movements, foraging range size, site fidelity, and distribution patterns of a molluscivorous sea duck, the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata), in two areas of coastal British Columbia with very different shellfish prey features. Baynes Sound has extensive tidal flats with abundant clams, which are high-quality and temporally stable prey for scoters. Malaspina Inlet is a rocky fjord-like inlet where scoters consume mussels that are superabundant and easily accessible in some patches but are heavily depleted over the course of winter. We used radio telemetry to track surf scoter movements in both areas and found that in the clam habitats of Baynes Sound, surf scoters exhibited limited movement, small winter ranges, strong foraging site fidelity, and very consistent distribution patterns. By contrast, in mussel habitats in the Malaspina Inlet, surf scoters displayed more movement, larger ranges, little fidelity to specific foraging sites, and more variable distribution patterns. We conclude that features associated with the different prey types, particularly the higher depletion rates of mussels, strongly influenced seasonal space use patterns. These findings are consistent with foraging theory and confirm that predator behavior, specifically movements, is environmentally mediated. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  14. On trend and on the wave: carving cultural identity through active surf dress

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Jonathan Mark

    2015-01-01

    Clothing, as both functional and fashionable, has become a key marker in signifying and shaping personal identity. This is particularly clear in a range of “lifestyle sports” [Wheaton, B. 2004. “Introduction: Mapping the Lifestyle Sportscape.” In Understanding Lifestyle Sports: Consumption, Identity, and Difference, edited by B. Wheaton, 1–28. London: Routledge], including the array of practices associated with the culture of surfing. This paper examines the ways in which companies market per...

  15. "Sub-Surf Rocks"! An A-Level Resource Developed through an Industry-Education Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Hazel

    2012-01-01

    A free internet resource called "Sub-Surf Rocks"! was launched in 2010. Its aim is to use seismic data obtained by the oil industry for enhancing the teaching of structural and economic geology at A-level (ages 16-18) in the UK. Seismic data gives a unique insight into the sub-surface and the many high-quality images coupled with…

  16. Effects of water temperature change on immune function in surf clams, Mactra veneriformis (Bivalvia: Mactridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin Ha; Song, Jae Hee; Choi, Min Chul; Park, Sung Woo

    2009-09-01

    Surf clam, Mactra veneriformis is one of the crucial fishery resources in Korea. This study was performed to examine the immune functions of the surf clam under the stress of water temperature changes at 10 degrees C, 20 degrees C or 30 degrees C for 24h. Viable bacterial counts (VBC), total haemocyte count (THC), phagocytic activity, lysozyme activity, NRR times and SOD activity were assessed in three different water temperature groups. Clams held at 10 degrees C decreased in THC, lysozyme activity and NRR times, but phagocytic activity was increased. The highest temperature (30 degrees C) significantly increased in THC, whereas it decreased in phagocytic activity, lysozyme activity and NRR times. In clams maintained at 20 degrees C, phagocytic activity, lysozyme activity and NRR times were increased whereas THC was somewhat decreased with respect to clams held at 30 degrees C. However, water temperature changes did not elicit any alteration of VBC and SOD activity. The present study demonstrates that acute water temperature change affects the haemocytic and haemolymphatic functions, reducing immunosurveillance in stressed surf clam, M. veneriformis.

  17. Mutations in the SURF1 gene associated with Leigh syndrome and cytochrome C oxidase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péquignot, M O; Dey, R; Zeviani, M; Tiranti, V; Godinot, C; Poyau, A; Sue, C; Di Mauro, S; Abitbol, M; Marsac, C

    2001-05-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency is one of the major causes of Leigh Syndrome (LS), a fatal encephalopathy of infancy or childhood, characterized by symmetrical lesions in the basal ganglia and brainstem. Mutations in the nuclear genes encoding COX subunits have not been found in patients with LS and COX deficiency, but mutations have been identified in SURF1. SURF1 encodes a factor involved in COX biogenesis. To date, 30 different mutations have been reported in 40 unrelated patients. We aim to provide an overview of all known mutations in SURF1, and to propose a common nomenclature. Twelve of the mutations were insertion/deletion mutations in exons 1, 4, 6, 8, and 9; 10 were missense/nonsense mutations in exons 2, 4, 5, 7, and 8; and eight were detected at splicing sites in introns 3 to 7. The most frequent mutation was 312_321del 311_312insAT which was found in 12 patients out of 40. Twenty mutations have been described only once. We also list all polymorphisms discovered to date.

  18. Does human pressure affect the community structure of surf zone fish in sandy beaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Leonardo Lopes; Landmann, Júlia G.; Gaelzer, Luiz R.; Zalmon, Ilana R.

    2017-01-01

    Intense tourism and human activities have resulted in habitat destruction in sandy beach ecosystems with negative impacts on the associated communities. To investigate whether urbanized beaches affect surf zone fish communities, fish and their benthic macrofaunal prey were collected during periods of low and high human pressure at two beaches on the Southeastern Brazilian coast. A BACI experimental design (Before-After-Control-Impact) was adapted for comparisons of tourism impact on fish community composition and structure in urbanized, intermediate and non-urbanized sectors of each beach. At the end of the summer season, we observed a significant reduction in fish richness, abundance, and diversity in the high tourist pressure areas. The negative association between visitors' abundance and the macrofaunal density suggests that urbanized beaches are avoided by surf zone fish due to higher human pressure and the reduction of food availability. Our results indicate that surf zone fish should be included in environmental impact studies in sandy beaches, including commercial species, e.g., the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix. The comparative results from the less urbanized areas suggest that environmental zoning and visitation limits should be used as effective management and preservation strategies on beaches with high conservation potential.

  19. ConSurf 2016: an improved methodology to estimate and visualize evolutionary conservation in macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazy, Haim; Abadi, Shiran; Martz, Eric; Chay, Ofer; Mayrose, Itay; Pupko, Tal; Ben-Tal, Nir

    2016-07-08

    The degree of evolutionary conservation of an amino acid in a protein or a nucleic acid in DNA/RNA reflects a balance between its natural tendency to mutate and the overall need to retain the structural integrity and function of the macromolecule. The ConSurf web server (http://consurf.tau.ac.il), established over 15 years ago, analyses the evolutionary pattern of the amino/nucleic acids of the macromolecule to reveal regions that are important for structure and/or function. Starting from a query sequence or structure, the server automatically collects homologues, infers their multiple sequence alignment and reconstructs a phylogenetic tree that reflects their evolutionary relations. These data are then used, within a probabilistic framework, to estimate the evolutionary rates of each sequence position. Here we introduce several new features into ConSurf, including automatic selection of the best evolutionary model used to infer the rates, the ability to homology-model query proteins, prediction of the secondary structure of query RNA molecules from sequence, the ability to view the biological assembly of a query (in addition to the single chain), mapping of the conservation grades onto 2D RNA models and an advanced view of the phylogenetic tree that enables interactively rerunning ConSurf with the taxa of a sub-tree.

  20. CAMSHIFT IMPROVEMENT WITH MEAN-SHIFT SEGMENTATION, REGION GROWING, AND SURF METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinan Ferdinan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available CAMSHIFT algorithm has been widely used in object tracking. CAMSHIFT utilizescolor features as the model object. Thus, original CAMSHIFT may fail when the object color issimilar with the background color. In this study, we propose CAMSHIFT tracker combined withmean-shift segmentation, region growing, and SURF in order to improve the tracking accuracy.The mean-shift segmentation and region growing are applied in object localization phase to extractthe important parts of the object. Hue-distance, saturation, and value are used to calculate theBhattacharyya distance to judge whether the tracked object is lost. Once the object is judged lost,SURF is used to find the lost object, and CAMSHIFT can retrack the object. The Object trackingsystem is built with OpenCV. Some measurements of accuracy have done using frame-basedmetrics. We use datasets BoBoT (Bonn Benchmark on Tracking to measure accuracy of thesystem. The results demonstrate that CAMSHIFT combined with mean-shift segmentation, regiongrowing, and SURF method has higher accuracy than the previous methods.

  1. Rip currents and alongshore flows in single channels dredged in the surf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Melissa; Elgar, Steve; Raubenheimer, Britt; Warner, John C.; Kumar, Nirnimesh

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the dynamics of flows near nonuniform bathymetry, single channels (on average 30 m wide and 1.5 m deep) were dredged across the surf zone at five different times, and the subsequent evolution of currents and morphology was observed for a range of wave and tidal conditions. In addition, circulation was simulated with the numerical modeling system COAWST, initialized with the observed incident waves and channel bathymetry, and with an extended set of wave conditions and channel geometries. The simulated flows are consistent with alongshore flows and rip-current circulation patterns observed in the surf zone. Near the offshore-directed flows that develop in the channel, the dominant terms in modeled momentum balances are wave-breaking accelerations, pressure gradients, advection, and the vortex force. The balances vary spatially, and are sensitive to wave conditions and the channel geometry. The observed and modeled maximum offshore-directed flow speeds are correlated with a parameter based on the alongshore gradient in breaking-wave-driven-setup across the nonuniform bathymetry (a function of wave height and angle, water depths in the channel and on the sandbar, and a breaking threshold) and the breaking-wave-driven alongshore flow speed. The offshore-directed flow speed increases with dissipation on the bar and reaches a maximum (when the surf zone is saturated) set by the vertical scale of the bathymetric variability.

  2. Wave Height Distribution for Spilling Waves in and outside the Surf Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The wave characteristics affecting coastal sediment transport include wave height, wave period and breaking wave direction. Wave height is a critical factor in determining the amount of sediment transport in the coastal area. The force of sediment transport is much more intense under breaking waves than under non-breaking waves. Breaking waves exhibit various patterns, principally depending on the incident wave steepness and the beach slope. Based on the equations of conservation of mass, momentum and energy, a theoretical model for wave deformation in and outside the surf zone was obtained, which is used to calculate the wave shoaling, wave set-up and setdown and wave height distributions in and outside the surf zone. The analysis and comparison were made about the breaking point location and the wave height decay caused by the wave breaking and the bottom friction. Flume experiments relating to the spilling wave height distribution across the surf zone were conducted to verify the theoretical model. Advanced wave maker, data sampling devices and data processing system were utilized in the flume experiments with a slope covered by sands of different diameters to facilitate the observation and research on the wave transformation and breaking. The agreement between the theoretical and experimental results is good.

  3. Rip currents and alongshore flows in single channels dredged in the surf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Melissa; Elgar, Steve; Raubenheimer, Britt; Warner, John C.; Kumar, Nirnimesh

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the dynamics of flows near nonuniform bathymetry, single channels (on average 30 m wide and 1.5 m deep) were dredged across the surf zone at five different times, and the subsequent evolution of currents and morphology was observed for a range of wave and tidal conditions. In addition, circulation was simulated with the numerical modeling system COAWST, initialized with the observed incident waves and channel bathymetry, and with an extended set of wave conditions and channel geometries. The simulated flows are consistent with alongshore flows and rip-current circulation patterns observed in the surf zone. Near the offshore-directed flows that develop in the channel, the dominant terms in modeled momentum balances are wave-breaking accelerations, pressure gradients, advection, and the vortex force. The balances vary spatially, and are sensitive to wave conditions and the channel geometry. The observed and modeled maximum offshore-directed flow speeds are correlated with a parameter based on the alongshore gradient in breaking-wave-driven-setup across the nonuniform bathymetry (a function of wave height and angle, water depths in the channel and on the sandbar, and a breaking threshold) and the breaking-wave-driven alongshore flow speed. The offshore-directed flow speed increases with dissipation on the bar and reaches a maximum (when the surf zone is saturated) set by the vertical scale of the bathymetric variability.

  4. Zonation of macrofauna across sandy beaches and surf zones along the Dutch coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Janssen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available On nine beaches and two transects in the surf zone along the Dutch coast the presence of benthic macrofauna was studied in relation to basic abiotic characteristics. According to Short's classification system, Dutch beaches are mesotidal and dissipative (Ω = 8.6, and the RTR is low (1.52-1.27, which means that they are not tide-dominated. BSI ranged from 1.4 to 1.1 for the northern and western Dutch coasts respectively and had an overall value of 1.2. The rates of exposure of the beaches varied between 8 and 12, and are therefore regarded as sheltered to moderately exposed. The Dutch beaches display a geographical trend in beach types. Those of the Wadden Sea islands in the northern part of the Netherlands are dissipative, flat, fine-grained, and host high densities of many species of benthic macrofauna. The beaches along the western Dutch coast are less dissipative, steeper, with a higher mean grain size; the species diversity and abundance there are lower. Species diversity and abundance on the beaches increase from the high- to the low-water line. The maximum number of species was found between 0 and -1 m relative to the mean tidal level. The abundance peaks just above the mean tidal level, while the biomass reaches a maximum at the mean tidal level.     Species diversity and abundance are low in the surf zone, but increase towards deeper water. Species numbers are high and the abundance is very high in the trough between the two bars.     The relation between the diversity and abundance of macrobenthic species on the one hand, and the sediment composition, water column depth, and position between the bars on the other show a clear pattern of zonation for the beach, surf zone and near-shore: (1 a supralittoral zone with insects and air-breathing crustaceans, (2 a midshore zone, with intertidal species, (3 a lower shore zone, whose species extend into the shallow surf zone, and (4 a zone of sublittoral fauna in the trough between the

  5. Surf zone fauna of Ecuadorian sandy beaches: Spatial and temporal patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin Jarrin, J. R.; Vanaverbeke, J.; Fockedey, N.; de Grunauer, M. del P. Cornejo R.; Dominguez-Granda, L.

    2017-02-01

    Sandy beaches and their surf zones are the most common open shoreline habitat; however, surf zone fauna in the tropics is one of the least studied communities in the world. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that Ecuadorian surf zone hyperbenthos (invertebrates and vertebrates 1-5 mm in length) and epibenthos (fish and macrocrustaceans > 5 mm in length) vary among beaches and seasons. Therefore, the fauna was described and related to environmental variables. In addition, indicator taxa were identified. The hyperbenthos was divided into holo- and mero-hyperbenthos depending on whether taxa were present during their entire life or only early life stages, respectively. Samples were collected at eight different beaches during the wet, dry and intermediate or transitional season during the low spring tide, from 1999 to 2000, using a hyperbenthic sledge and epibenthic trawl. A total of 447 hyperbenthic and 30 epibenthic taxa were collected, most of which were crustaceans and fish, respectively (52 and 60% of taxa). The mysid, Metamysidopsis sp., was the most abundant member of the hyperbenthos (average ± SD: 14,425 ± 40,039 ind. 100 m- 2, present in 92% of samples collected), and the swimming blue crab, Areneus mexicanus, was the most encountered species among the epibenthos (1 ± 1 ind. 100 m- 2, 97% of samples collected). All faunal groups varied among beaches, while the holo-hyperbenthos and less strongly the epibenthos varied among seasons. Variability in the three faunas among beaches, distance from the continental slope and the Guayas estuarine system, and beach water physical characteristics were all strongly correlated suggesting adjacent habitats can influence surf zone biological communities and water physical characteristics. Seasonal effects were related to changes in water physical characteristics among seasons potentially reflecting changes in oceanic currents. These results suggest that, similarly to other beaches around the world, Ecuadorian

  6. Pneumectomia utilizando sutura em bloco do hilo pulmonar por grampeador linear em cães Lung hilum pneumonectomy in dogs using linear stapler block suture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Akio Shiozaki

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A dissecção individualizada das estruturas do hilo pulmonar para execução de ressecções pulmonares nem sempre é de fácil execução. Nas operações vídeo-assistidas, as dificuldades de dissecção podem impedir a ressecção por essa via, obrigando o cirurgião a converter o procedimento operatório a aberto. As melhoras da qualidade técnica dos grampeadores cirúrgicos na década de 90 foram tão importantes que começam a surgir questionamentos quanto a sua possível eficiência na sutura em bloco das estruturas do hilo pulmonar, dispensando, assim, a dissecção individualizada de seus componentes, para a realização das ressecções. O objetivo de nosso trabalho foi verificar o efeito da sutura mecânica em bloco do hilo pulmonar. Realizamos pneumectomia em 12 cães machos, adultos, mestiços, com sutura simultânea do hilo pulmonar que foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos com seis animais cada, observados até o 7º e 14 º dias de pós-operatório, obedecendo a protocolos experimentais previamente elaborados de verificação da macro e microscopia. A via de acesso foi a toracotomia lateral, realizada no animal anestesiado e mantido em ventilação controlada por ventilador mecânico. A sutura do hilo pulmonar em bloco foi realizada com somente um disparo do grampeador linear cortante de 60mm. Não houve a ocorrência de óbitos, deiscências de sutura ou fístulas arteriais ou venosas. Um animal apresentou abscesso no coto de amputação sem, entretanto, desenvolver fistulas ou deiscências nas suturas. A evolução pós-operatória foi considerada boa em 10 (83,3% dos animais e regular em 2 (16,7%, que apresentaram pequenos abscessos incisionais. Concluímos que esta técnica de sutura é viável, de rápida execução, apresenta bons resultados e necessita de estudos complementares que os corroborem.Individualized dissections of lung hilum structures to perform lung resections are not always easy. In video

  7. RASOR flood modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Joost; Buckman, Lora; Bachmann, Daniel; Visser, Martijn; Tollenaar, Daniel; Vatvani, Deepak; Kramer, Nienke; Goorden, Neeltje

    2015-04-01

    Decision making in disaster management requires fast access to reliable and relevant information. We believe that online information and services will become increasingly important in disaster management. Within the EU FP7 project RASOR (Rapid Risk Assessment and Spatialisation of Risk) an online platform is being developed for rapid multi-hazard risk analyses to support disaster management anywhere in the world. The platform will provide access to a plethora of GIS data that are relevant to risk assessment. It will also enable the user to run numerical flood models to simulate historical and newly defined flooding scenarios. The results of these models are maps of flood extent, flood depths and flow velocities. The RASOR platform will enable to overlay historical event flood maps with observations and Earth Observation (EO) imagery to fill in gaps and assess the accuracy of the flood models. New flooding scenarios can be defined by the user and simulated to investigate the potential impact of future floods. A series of flood models have been developed within RASOR for selected case study areas around the globe that are subject to very different flood hazards: • The city of Bandung in Indonesia, which is prone to fluvial flooding induced by heavy rainfall. The flood hazard is exacerbated by land subsidence. • The port of Cilacap on the south coast of Java, subject to tsunami hazard from submarine earthquakes in the Sunda trench. • The area south of city of Rotterdam in the Netherlands, prone to coastal and/or riverine flooding. • The island of Santorini in Greece, which is subject to tsunamis induced by landslides. Flood models have been developed for each of these case studies using mostly EO data, augmented by local data where necessary. Particular use was made of the new TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement) product from the German Aerospace centre (DLR) and EADS Astrium. The presentation will describe the flood models and the

  8. “Simulación rápida de la propagación del tsunami de Chile de 1960 hasta la bahía de Hilo en Hawái”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Chacón Barrantes

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se simula la propagación del tsunami de Chile de 1960, desde su región de generación hasta la bahía de Hilo en Hawái, empleando un método híbrido que permite obtener resultados en un intervalo relativamente pequeño. Los resultados de este método son comparados con resultados de un modelo numérico en aguas profundas, y con mediciones directas del nivel de mar en la bahía de Hilo. Este método fue diseñado con el propósito de evaluar alertas tempranas y no de reproducir exactamente el registro de un tsunami y los resultados obtenidos son aceptables para este propósito.

  9. NASA Global Flood Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policelli, Fritz; Slayback, Dan; Brakenridge, Bob; Nigro, Joe; Hubbard, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    Product utility key factors: Near real time, automated production; Flood spatial extent Cloudiness Pixel resolution: 250m; Flood temporal extent; Flash floods short duration on ground?; Landcover--Water under vegetation cover vs open water

  10. Ichthyoplankton in a southern african surf zone: Nursery area for the postlarvae of estuarine associated fish species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, A. K.

    1989-12-01

    The surf zone ichthyoplankton of Swartvlei Bay was studied between February 1986 and June 1987, with particular emphasis on its potential role as a nursery area for estuarine associated marine fish species. Larvae and/or postlarvae of 16 families were identified from the surf zone, with the Gobiidae, Soleidae, Sparidae and Mugilidae comprising 85·7% of all teleosts sampled. The postlarvae of several taxa (including the six most common species), which utilize the Swartvlei estuary as a juvenile nursery area, were abundant in the surf zone. Conversely, species which are common in nearshore marine waters as juveniles and adults, but seldom enter estuaries, totalled less than 8% of the surf zone ichthyoplankton assemblage. Larval and postlarval densities peaked during summer when water temperatures exceeded 19°C and the estuary mouth was open. Concentrations of ichthyoplankton were highest at those sampling stations closest to the estuary mouth during the summer period. Diel changes in total catches revealed no significant difference between day and night densities; but of the four major taxa, the Mugilidae and Sparidae tended to be more abundant during the day, the Gobiidae at night and the Soleidae showed no distinct pattern. Results from a 24 h sampling session indicated that tidal phase may also be important in governing ichthyoplankton abundance in the surf zone.

  11. On Flood Alert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    lina braces fora particularly dangerous flood season in the wake of disastrous rainstorms Aseries of heavy storms since early May led to severe flooding and landslides in south and southwest China,causing heavy casualties and economic losses. Severe convective weather such as downpours,

  12. Discover Floods Educators Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project WET Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Now available as a Download! This valuable resource helps educators teach students about both the risks and benefits of flooding through a series of engaging, hands-on activities. Acknowledging the different roles that floods play in both natural and urban communities, the book helps young people gain a global understanding of this common--and…

  13. Scaled photographs of surf over the full range of breaker sizes on the north shore of Oahu and Jaws, Maui, Hawaiian Islands, January 1998 - May 2004 (NODC Accession 0001753)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digital surf photographs were scaled using surfers as height benchmarks to estimate the size of the breakers. Historical databases for surf height in Hawaii are...

  14. Prediction and assimilation of surf-zone processes using a Bayesian network: Part I: Forward models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Holland, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    Prediction of coastal processes, including waves, currents, and sediment transport, can be obtained from a variety of detailed geophysical-process models with many simulations showing significant skill. This capability supports a wide range of research and applied efforts that can benefit from accurate numerical predictions. However, the predictions are only as accurate as the data used to drive the models and, given the large temporal and spatial variability of the surf zone, inaccuracies in data are unavoidable such that useful predictions require corresponding estimates of uncertainty. We demonstrate how a Bayesian-network model can be used to provide accurate predictions of wave-height evolution in the surf zone given very sparse and/or inaccurate boundary-condition data. The approach is based on a formal treatment of a data-assimilation problem that takes advantage of significant reduction of the dimensionality of the model system. We demonstrate that predictions of a detailed geophysical model of the wave evolution are reproduced accurately using a Bayesian approach. In this surf-zone application, forward prediction skill was 83%, and uncertainties in the model inputs were accurately transferred to uncertainty in output variables. We also demonstrate that if modeling uncertainties were not conveyed to the Bayesian network (i.e., perfect data or model were assumed), then overly optimistic prediction uncertainties were computed. More consistent predictions and uncertainties were obtained by including model-parameter errors as a source of input uncertainty. Improved predictions (skill of 90%) were achieved because the Bayesian network simultaneously estimated optimal parameters while predicting wave heights.

  15. Spatial and temporal variability in surf zone fish assemblages on the coast of northern New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, D. H.; Clarke, D. G.; Burlas, M. H.; Ruben, H.; Will, R. J.

    2003-02-01

    The surf zone fish community along 15 km of northern New Jersey shoreline was sampled every 2 weeks by beach seine in the late summers and early falls of 1995-1999 in conjunction with monitoring of a beach nourishment project. Fifty-seven species representing 30 families were collected during the course of the study. Over 90% of each sampling period's catch was composed of five taxa or less. These taxa included Atlantic and rough silversides, Menidia menidia and Membras martinica, bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, and bay and striped anchovies, Anchoa mitchilli and Anchoa hepsetus, with the relative contributions of these taxa varying among years. Both bluefish and anchovy abundances varied by an order of magnitude among years. Size-frequency distributions indicate summer-spawned bluefish recruit to the surf zone habitat as two cohorts in August and October, respectively. Fish abundance and richness were greater at substations closest to rock groins. Taxonomic richness declined along with decreasing water temperature in the fall, but was not correlated with turbidity or tide stage (measured as minutes before or after low tide). The extensive sampling effort undertaken in this study, 2190 seine hauls that captured 295 868 fish, was examined in relation to the number and relative proportions of taxa collected. Species accumulation curves and percent similarity calculations were used to investigate the adequacy of a reduced sampling protocol in characterizing the taxonomic composition of the surf zone fish community. Calculations from eight complete sampling periods (84 seine hauls each) indicate that a reduction in sampling effort by one-half would have yielded on average 75% of the total number of species captured with approximately 85% similarity in relative species composition.

  16. Assessment of surf zone environmental variables in a southwestern Atlantic sandy beach (Monte Hermoso, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, M Clara; Fernández Severini, Melisa D; Buzzi, Natalia S; Piccolo, M Cintia; Perillo, Gerardo M E

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the temporal dynamics (monthly/tidal) of water temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a (chlo-a), suspended particulate matter (SPM), particulate organic carbon (POC), and dissolved nutrients in the surf zone of Monte Hermoso sandy beach, Argentina. We also aimed to understand the underlying mechanisms responsible for the observed variability. Sampling was carried out approximately monthly (September 2009-November 2010), and all samples were collected in a fixed station during high and low tide. Water temperature showed a clear seasonal variability (July: 9 °C-December: 26.5 °C) and a thermal amplitude of 17.5 °C. Salinity ranged from 33 to 37, without a pronounced seasonality. SPM (10-223 mg L(-1)) and POC concentrations (399-6445 mg C m(-3)) were high in surf zone waters. Chlo-a (0.05-9.16 μg L(-1)) was low and did not evidence the occurrence of surf diatom accumulations. Dissolved nutrient concentration was quite fluctuating. None of the variables seemed to be affected by tidal stage. The results showed how fluctuating the physico-chemical and biological variables can be in this particular system. The observed variability can be related with local beach conditions but also with regional processes. The study area is highly influenced by a neighbor estuary and as a consequence, could be vulnerable to their seasonal and inter-annual dynamics. All of these characteristics must be considered for further studies and planning of the uses of natural resources and should be taken into account in any environmental monitoring program conducted in a similar beach system.

  17. Simultaneous Observations of Beach and Surf-Zone Topography from a sUAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, R. K.; Brodie, K. L.; Spore, N.

    2016-02-01

    Beaches and surf-zones can vary rapidly in time and space, necessitating frequent, spatially extensive observations for up-to-date knowledge on their current condition. Traditional surveying methods are expensive, can be dangerous in large wave conditions, and can lack sufficient spatial density. Existing remote sensing technologies have focused on both active sensing (airborne lidar, X-band radar) or passive sensing (electro-optical or infrared imagery) to either directly measure elevations of the beach and seafloor or exploit the optical signal of refracting and breaking waves in the surf-zone. These methods, however, can be prohibitively expensive for widespread, high temporal frequency use, or lack the spatial coverage required to quantify a large stretch of beach. UAS offer an affordable and accessible alternative, but existing COTS UAS sensor suites are not optimized for generation of bathymetry and topography at the same time. Here, we present a new approach using an inexpensive, custom multi-camera sensor designed with a wide field of view for integration on either a fixed wing of multirotor UAS platform. We introduce a processing methodology and workflow to generate a topographic pointcloud and rectified imagery of the water surface using structure from motion algorithms. The topographic pointcloud data is processed to generate a DSM of the beach and extract morphologic parameters (beach slope, dune toe, etc). Rectified imagery of the water surface is used to quantify sandbar location as well as perform a celerity based bathymetric inversion. Accuracy of this methodology is calculated by comparing processed data to lidar pointclouds, as well as photo identifiable targets on the beach and jetted into the surf zone. Funded by the USACE Military Engineering POD:A&U Program and Coastal Field Data Collection Program.

  18. Associations between Functional Movement Screen scores and performance variables in surf athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira da Silva, Bruno A; Clemente, Filipe M; Lourenço Martins, Fernando M

    2017-02-22

    Functional Movement Screen (FMS) have been used to assess the movement patterns in daily sports practice. Some associations between FMS scores and physical variables have been found in some sports. Nevertheless, no study was conducted in surf. Eighteen surf athletes (11 male) participated in the study (18.3 ± 6.3 y; 60.0 ± 9.6 kg; 168.6 ± 8.1 cm). All participants completed anthropometrics, Knee to Wall test, Functional Movement Screen, Isometric Knee Extension, Handgrip, Squat and Countermovement Jump. Based on that, this study investigated: 1) the variance of FMS scores between gender; 2) the association between FMS scores and physical variables of strength of upper and lower limbs, power of lower limbs and anthropometric variables; and 3) which FMS scores best explain the physical performance variables. The analysis of comparison between gender of each item of FMS showed significant statistical differences only in Trunk Stability Push-Up (p = 0.01, ES=0.141). Kendall's Tau b correlation test between FMS scores and physical variables, revealed significant associations. After performed the stepwise multiple linear regression FMS Deep Squat and Trunk Stability Push-Up explains 57% of Knee to Wall test - right side and the model is statistically significant (F(2. 15) = 13.097; p-value = 0.001). In Squat Jump (height) the results show that FMS Trunk Stability Push-Up explains 50.3% of this dimension and the model is statistically significant (F(1. 16) = 18.182; p-value = 0.001). FMS individual scores seems to better explain physical variables than total score. Only Trunk Stability Push-Up test seems to be a reliable indicator to predict physical performance in surf athletes.

  19. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  20. Modification of the Undertow and Turbulence by Submerged Vegetation in a Laboratory Surf Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, T.; Suckale, J.; Marras, S.; Maldonado, S.; Koseff, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Breaking waves in the surf zone are a dominant factor shaping the evolution of our coastlines. The turbulence generated by wave breaking causes sediment resuspension, while wave runup, rundown, and the undertow transport this sediment along and across the shore (Longo et al., 2002). Coastal hazard models must now address the added complications of climate change, including sea level rise, stronger storm events, and ecosystem degradation (Arkema et al., 2013). A robust theoretical understanding of surf zone dynamics is therefore imperative to considering the magnitude and implications of these potential changes. However, little work has been done to extend our current theoretical understanding to realistic beach faces, with aquatic vegetation, reefs, and other roughness elements that might mitigate scour and sedimentation. Clarifying these relationships will help scientists and policy-makers decide where to focus ecosystem restoration and preservation efforts, in order to maximize their protective benefits to infrastructure and economic activity on the coast. In order to evaluate the role of vegetation in coastal protection, we conducted a series of experiments in an idealized laboratory surf zone. We examine the impact of submerged model vegetation on the undertow profile, wave orbital velocities, turbulent kinetic energy, and wave-induced stresses, and compare these results to theoretical formulations that model these quantities. We find that vegetation reduces the wave energy available to be converted to turbulent kinetic energy during breaking, indicating a mechanism to mitigate suspension of sediment. Vegetation also reduces the magnitude of the undertow, likely reducing transport of sediment offshore. These results suggest that vegetation provides significant protective benefits for coastal communities at risk from erosion beyond its well-characterized ability to attenuate wave height, and motivate further work to incorporate these effects into models of near

  1. QSAR study and VolSurf characterization of anti-HIV quinolone library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipponi, Enrica; Cruciani, Gabriele; Tabarrini, Oriana; Cecchetti, Violetta; Fravolini, Arnaldo

    2001-03-01

    Antiviral quinolones are promising compounds in the search for new therapeutically effective agents for the treatment of AIDS. To rationalize the SAR for this new interesting class of anti-HIV derivatives, we performed a 3D-QSAR study on a library of 101 6-fluoro and 6-desfluoroquinolones, taken either from the literature or synthesized by us. The chemometric procedure involved a fully semiempirical minimization of the molecular structures by the AMSOL program, which takes into account the solvatation effect, and their 3D characterization by the VolSurf/GRID program. The QSAR analysis, based on PCA and PLS methods, shows the key structural features responsible for the antiviral activity.

  2. Internal waves and surf zone water quality at Huntington Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H.; Santoro, A.; Nidzieko, N. J.; Hench, J. L.; Boehm, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    This study characterized diurnal, semi-diurnal, and high-frequency internal wave field at Huntington Beach, California, USA and the connection between internal waves and surf zone water quality. An array of oceanographic moorings was deployed in the summer of 2005 and 2006 at 10-20 meter depths offshore of the beach to observe internal waves and cross-shore exchange. Concurrently, surf zone water quality was assessed twice daily at an adjacent station (Huntington State Beach) with measurements of phosphate, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, silicate, chlorophyll a, fecal indicator bacteria, and the human-specific fecal DNA marker in Bacteroidales. Spectral analysis of water temperature shows well-defined spectral peaks at diurnal and semi-diurnal frequencies. Complex Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis of observed currents reveals that the baroclinic component (summation of second to fifth principal components) accounted for 30% of the total variance in the currents in both years, indicating the importance of density-driven flow during the summer when the water column was stratified. The major axis of the first principal component was oriented alongshore, whereas that of the second and third principal components made an angle of 25 to 55 degree with the cross-shore direction. Arrival of cold subthermocline water in the very near shore (within 1 km of the surf zone) was characterized by strong onshore flow near the bottom of the water column. The near bottom, baroclinic, cross-shore current was significantly lag-correlated with the near bottom temperature data along a cross-shore transect towards shore, indicative of shoreward transport of cold subthermocline water. Wavelet analysis of temperature data showed that non-stationary temperature fluctuations were correlated with buoyancy frequency and the near bottom cross-shore baroclinic current. During periods of large temperature fluctuations, the majority of the variance was within the semi-diurnal band; however, the

  3. Comparison Between Surf and Multi-Shock Forest Fire High Explosive Burn Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenfield, Nicholas Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-18

    PAGOSA1 has several different burn models used to model high explosive detonation. Two of these, Multi-Shock Forest Fire and Surf, are capable of modeling shock initiation. Accurately calculating shock initiation of a high explosive is important because it is a mechanism for detonation in many accident scenarios (i.e. fragment impact). Comparing the models to pop-plot data give confidence that the models are accurately calculating detonation or lack thereof. To compare the performance of these models, pop-plots2 were created from simulations where one two cm block of PBX 9502 collides with another block of PBX 9502.

  4. Drug Take Back in Hawai‘i: Partnership Between the University of Hawai‘i Hilo College of Pharmacy and the Narcotics Enforcement Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batz, Forrest; Juarez, Deborah Taira; Ladao, Lani C

    2014-01-01

    Unused/unwanted medications in households and patient care facilities expose vulnerable populations, including children, elders, and pets, to potential harm through inadvertent ingestion, as well as the potential for theft and assault. Hawai‘i Administrative Rules prohibit the return of any prescription medications to retail pharmacies after dispensing. The Hawai‘i Narcotics Enforcement Division (NED) partnered with the University of Hawai‘i at Hilo Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy (CoP) in eleven Drug Take Back events throughout the state. Most participants heard of the events via newspaper and television marketing. The most common methods of medication disposal are via trash or down household drains. Over 8,000 lbs of unused/unwanted medications was collected, identified and logged from 2011 through 2012. The majority of returned drugs were non-controlled substances (90%). Commonly returned medications included prescription cardiac medications such as simvastatin and lisinopril, non-prescription analgesics such as aspirin and ibuprofen, and dietary supplements such as vitamins and iron. Commonly returned controlled substance medications included narcotics such as hydrocodone/acetaminophen combinations and oxycodone, and sedative hypnotics such as zolpidem and lorazepam. PMID:24470984

  5. Mimicking a SURF1 allele reveals uncoupling of cytochrome c oxidase assembly from translational regulation in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, Robert; Bareth, Bettina; Balleininger, Martina; Wissel, Mirjam; Rehling, Peter; Mick, David U

    2011-06-15

    Defects in mitochondrial energy metabolism lead to severe human disorders, mainly affecting tissues especially dependent on oxidative phosphorylation, such as muscle and brain. Leigh Syndrome describes a severe encephalomyopathy in infancy, frequently caused by mutations in SURF1. SURF1, termed Shy1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a conserved assembly factor for the terminal enzyme of the respiratory chain, cytochrome c oxidase. Although the molecular function of SURF1/Shy1 is still enigmatic, loss of function leads to cytochrome c oxidase deficiency and reduced expression of the central subunit Cox1 in yeast. Here, we provide insights into the molecular mechanisms leading to disease through missense mutations in codons of the most conserved amino acids in SURF1. Mutations affecting G(124) do not compromise import of the SURF1 precursor protein but lead to fast turnover of the mature protein within the mitochondria. Interestingly, an Y(274)D exchange neither affects stability nor localization of the protein. Instead, SURF1(Y274D) accumulates in a 200 kDa cytochrome c oxidase assembly intermediate. Using yeast as a model, we demonstrate that the corresponding Shy1(Y344D) is able to overcome the stage where cytochrome c oxidase assembly links to the feedback regulation of mitochondrial Cox1 expression. However, Shy1(Y344D) impairs the assembly at later steps, most apparent at low temperature and exhibits a dominant-negative phenotype upon overexpression. Thus, exchanging the conserved tyrosine (Y(344)) with aspartate in yeast uncouples translational regulation of Cox1 from cytochrome c oxidase assembly and provides evidence for the dual functionality of Shy1.

  6. Flood insurance in Canada: implications for flood management and residential vulnerability to flood hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulahen, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Insurance coverage of damage caused by overland flooding is currently not available to Canadian homeowners. As flood disaster losses and water damage claims both trend upward, insurers in Canada are considering offering residential flood coverage in order to properly underwrite the risk and extend their business. If private flood insurance is introduced in Canada, it will have implications for the current regime of public flood management and for residential vulnerability to flood hazards. This paper engages many of the competing issues surrounding the privatization of flood risk by addressing questions about whether flood insurance can be an effective tool in limiting exposure to the hazard and how it would exacerbate already unequal vulnerability. A case study investigates willingness to pay for flood insurance among residents in Metro Vancouver and how attitudes about insurance relate to other factors that determine residential vulnerability to flood hazards. Findings indicate that demand for flood insurance is part of a complex, dialectical set of determinants of vulnerability.

  7. Flood Insurance in Canada: Implications for Flood Management and Residential Vulnerability to Flood Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulahen, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Insurance coverage of damage caused by overland flooding is currently not available to Canadian homeowners. As flood disaster losses and water damage claims both trend upward, insurers in Canada are considering offering residential flood coverage in order to properly underwrite the risk and extend their business. If private flood insurance is introduced in Canada, it will have implications for the current regime of public flood management and for residential vulnerability to flood hazards. This paper engages many of the competing issues surrounding the privatization of flood risk by addressing questions about whether flood insurance can be an effective tool in limiting exposure to the hazard and how it would exacerbate already unequal vulnerability. A case study investigates willingness to pay for flood insurance among residents in Metro Vancouver and how attitudes about insurance relate to other factors that determine residential vulnerability to flood hazards. Findings indicate that demand for flood insurance is part of a complex, dialectical set of determinants of vulnerability.

  8. Health impacts of floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Weiwei; FitzGerald, Gerard Joseph; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Floods are the most common hazard to cause disasters and have led to extensive morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The impact of floods on the human community is related directly to the location and topography of the area, as well as human demographics and characteristics of the built environment. The aim of this study is to identify the health impacts of disasters and the underlying causes of health impacts associated with floods. A conceptual framework is developed that may assist with the development of a rational and comprehensive approach to prevention, mitigation, and management. This study involved an extensive literature review that located >500 references, which were analyzed to identify common themes, findings, and expert views. The findings then were distilled into common themes. The health impacts of floods are wide ranging, and depend on a number of factors. However, the health impacts of a particular flood are specific to the particular context. The immediate health impacts of floods include drowning, injuries, hypothermia, and animal bites. Health risks also are associated with the evacuation of patients, loss of health workers, and loss of health infrastructure including essential drugs and supplies. In the medium-term, infected wounds, complications of injury, poisoning, poor mental health, communicable diseases, and starvation are indirect effects of flooding. In the long-term, chronic disease, disability, poor mental health, and poverty-related diseases including malnutrition are the potential legacy. This article proposes a structured approach to the classification of the health impacts of floods and a conceptual framework that demonstrates the relationships between floods and the direct and indirect health consequences.

  9. Development of flood index by characterisation of flood hydrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Biswa; Suman, Asadusjjaman

    2015-04-01

    In recent years the world has experienced deaths, large-scale displacement of people, billions of Euros of economic damage, mental stress and ecosystem impacts due to flooding. Global changes (climate change, population and economic growth, and urbanisation) are exacerbating the severity of flooding. The 2010 floods in Pakistan and the 2011 floods in Australia and Thailand demonstrate the need for concerted action in the face of global societal and environmental changes to strengthen resilience against flooding. Due to climatological characteristics there are catchments where flood forecasting may have a relatively limited role and flood event management may have to be trusted upon. For example, in flash flood catchments, which often may be tiny and un-gauged, flood event management often depends on approximate prediction tools such as flash flood guidance (FFG). There are catchments fed largely by flood waters coming from upstream catchments, which are un-gauged or due to data sharing issues in transboundary catchments the flow of information from upstream catchment is limited. Hydrological and hydraulic modelling of these downstream catchments will never be sufficient to provide any required forecasting lead time and alternative tools to support flood event management will be required. In FFG, or similar approaches, the primary motif is to provide guidance by synthesising the historical data. We follow a similar approach to characterise past flood hydrographs to determine a flood index (FI), which varies in space and time with flood magnitude and its propagation. By studying the variation of the index the pockets of high flood risk, requiring attention, can be earmarked beforehand. This approach can be very useful in flood risk management of catchments where information about hydro-meteorological variables is inadequate for any forecasting system. This paper presents the development of FI and its application to several catchments including in Kentucky in the USA

  10. Nogales flood detention study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Levick, Lainie; Guertin, D. Phillip; Callegary, James; Guadarrama, Jesus Quintanar; Anaya, Claudia Zulema Gil; Prichard, Andrea; Gray, Floyd; Castellanos, Edgar; Tepezano, Edgar; Huth, Hans; Vandervoet, Prescott; Rodriguez, Saul; Nunez, Jose; Atwood, Donald; Granillo, Gilberto Patricio Olivero; Ceballos, Francisco Octavio Gastellum

    2010-01-01

    Flooding in Ambos Nogales often exceeds the capacity of the channel and adjacent land areas, endangering many people. The Nogales Wash is being studied to prevent future flood disasters and detention features are being installed in tributaries of the wash. This paper describes the application of the KINEROS2 model and efforts to understand the capacity of these detention features under various flood and urbanization scenarios. Results depict a reduction in peak flow for the 10-year, 1-hour event based on current land use in tributaries with detention features. However, model results also demonstrate that larger storm events and increasing urbanization will put a strain on the features and limit their effectiveness.

  11. Active depinning of bacterial droplets: the collective surfing of Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennes, Marc; Tailleur, Julien; Daerr, Adrian

    2016-11-01

    How systems are endowed with migration capacity is a fascinating question with implications ranging from the design of novel active systems to the control of microbial populations. Bacteria, which can be found in a variety of environments, have developed among the richest set of locomotion mechanisms both at the microscopic and collective levels. Here, we uncover experimentally a new mode of collective bacterial motility in humid environment through the depinning of bacterial droplets. While capillary forces are notoriously enormous at the bacterial scale, even capable of pinning water droplets of millimetric size on inclined surfaces, we show that bacteria are able to harness a variety of mechanisms to unpin contact lines, hence inducing a collective sliding of the colony. Contrary to flagella-dependent migration modes like swarming we show that this much faster colony surfing still occurs in mutant strains of Bacillus subtilis lacking flagella. The diversity of mechanisms involved in the active unpinning seen in our experiments suggests that collective surfing should be a generic mode of migration of microorganisms in humid environments. Bacttern Grant.

  12. Wave Transformation in a Multi-Bar Surf Zone: Case Study of Lubiatowo (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yuan-Jyh; Hsu, Tai-Wen; Ostrowski, Rafał; Szmytkiewicz, Marek

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents results of field and theoretical investigations of wave transformation in the surf zone near the IBW PAN Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo (Poland, the south Baltic Sea). The study site displays multi-bar cross-shore profiles that intensively dissipate wave energy, mostly induced by breaking. The main field data comprise wave heights and cross-shore bathymetric profiles.Wave transformation is modelled theoretically by two approaches, namely the IBW PAN phase-averaged wave transformation model and the approach based on the hydraulic jump model, developed by Hsu & Lai (2009) for hydrological situations encountered under the actual conditions of two field campaigns - in 1987 and 1996. Discrepancies between the measured data and the model results are discussed. In general, the model results are in good agreement with the in-situ observations. The comparison of the field data with the computational results concerns a part of the surf zone between about 5 m water depth and the first nearshore stable bar, where the depth amounts to ca. 1.2 m.

  13. Verification Test of the SURF and SURFplus Models in xRage: Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-20

    The previous study used an underdriven detonation wave (steady ZND reaction zone profile followed by a scale invariant rarefaction wave) for PBX 9502 as a validation test of the implementation of the SURF and SURFplus models in the xRage code. Even with a fairly fine uniform mesh (12,800 cells for 100mm) the detonation wave profile had limited resolution due to the thin reaction zone width (0.18mm) for the fast SURF burn rate. Here we study the effect of finer resolution by comparing results of simulations with cell sizes of 8, 2 and 1 μm, which corresponds to 25, 100 and 200 points within the reaction zone. With finer resolution the lead shock pressure is closer to the von Neumann spike pressure, and there is less noise in the rarefaction wave due to fluctuations within the reaction zone. As a result the average error decreases. The pointwise error is still dominated by the smearing the pressure kink in the vicinity of the sonic point which occurs at the end of the reaction zone.

  14. Comparison of impact forces, accelerations and ankle range of motion in surfing-related landing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Lina E; Tran, Tai T; Nimphius, Sophia; Raymond, Ellen; Secomb, Josh L; Farley, Oliver R L; Newton, Robert U; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the impact forces, accelerations and ankle range of motion in five different landing tasks that are used in training and testing for competitive surfing athletes, to assist coaches in the prescription of landing task progression and monitoring training load. Eleven competitive surfing athletes aged 24 ± 7 years participated, and inertial motion sensors were fixed to the anterior aspect of the feet, mid-tibial shafts, sacrum and eighth thoracic vertebrae on these athletes. Three tasks were performed landing on force plates and two tasks in a modified gymnastics set-up used for land-based aerial training. Peak landing force, resultant peak acceleration and front and rear side ankle dorsiflexion ranges of motion during landing were determined. The peak acceleration was approximately 50% higher when performing aerial training using a mini-trampoline and landing on a soft-density foam board, compared to a similar landing off a 50 cm box. Furthermore, the ankle ranges of motion during the gymnastic type landings were significantly lower than the other landing types (P ≤ 0.05 and P ≤ 0.001), for front and rear sides, respectively. Conclusively, increased task complexity and specificity of the sport increased the tibial peak acceleration, indicating greater training load.

  15. Mutations of SURF-1 in Leigh disease associated with cytochrome c oxidase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiranti, V; Hoertnagel, K; Carrozzo, R; Galimberti, C; Munaro, M; Granatiero, M; Zelante, L; Gasparini, P; Marzella, R; Rocchi, M; Bayona-Bafaluy, M P; Enriquez, J A; Uziel, G; Bertini, E; Dionisi-Vici, C; Franco, B; Meitinger, T; Zeviani, M

    1998-12-01

    Leigh disease associated with cytochrome c oxidase deficiency (LD[COX-]) is one of the most common disorders of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, in infancy and childhood. No mutations in any of the genes encoding the COX-protein subunits have been identified in LD(COX-) patients. Using complementation assays based on the fusion of LD(COX-) cell lines with several rodent/human rho0 hybrids, we demonstrated that the COX phenotype was rescued by the presence of a normal human chromosome 9. Linkage analysis restricted the disease locus to the subtelomeric region of chromosome 9q, within the 7-cM interval between markers D9S1847 and D9S1826. Candidate genes within this region include SURF-1, the yeast homologue (SHY-1) of which encodes a mitochondrial protein necessary for the maintenance of COX activity and respiration. Sequence analysis of SURF-1 revealed mutations in numerous DNA samples from LD(COX-) patients, indicating that this gene is responsible for the major complementation group in this important mitochondrial disorder.

  16. New approach for measuring 3D space by using Advanced SURF Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youm, Minkyo; Min, Byungil; Suh, Kyungsuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Backgeun [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The nuclear disasters compared to natural disaster create a more extreme condition for analyzing and evaluating. In this paper, measuring 3D space and modeling was studied by simple pictures in case of small sand dune. The suggested method can be used for the acquisition of spatial information by robot at the disaster area. As a result, these data are helpful for identify the damaged part, degree of damage and determination of recovery sequences. In this study we are improving computer vision algorithm for 3-D geo spatial information measurement. And confirm by test. First, we can get noticeable improvement of 3-D geo spatial information result by SURF algorithm and photogrammetry surveying. Second, we can confirm not only decrease algorithm running time, but also increase matching points through epi polar line filtering. From the study, we are extracting 3-D model by open source algorithm and delete miss match point by filtering method. However on characteristic of SURF algorithm, it can't find match point if structure don't have strong feature. So we will need more study about find feature point if structure don't have strong feature.

  17. Preventing Shoulder-Surfing Attack with the Concept of Concealing the Password Objects’ Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Foong Ho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, picture-based password systems employ password objects (pictures/icons/symbols as input during an authentication session, thus making them vulnerable to “shoulder-surfing” attack because the visual interface by function is easily observed by others. Recent software-based approaches attempt to minimize this threat by requiring users to enter their passwords indirectly by performing certain mental tasks to derive the indirect password, thus concealing the user’s actual password. However, weaknesses in the positioning of distracter and password objects introduce usability and security issues. In this paper, a new method, which conceals information about the password objects as much as possible, is proposed. Besides concealing the password objects and the number of password objects, the proposed method allows both password and distracter objects to be used as the challenge set’s input. The correctly entered password appears to be random and can only be derived with the knowledge of the full set of password objects. Therefore, it would be difficult for a shoulder-surfing adversary to identify the user’s actual password. Simulation results indicate that the correct input object and its location are random for each challenge set, thus preventing frequency of occurrence analysis attack. User study results show that the proposed method is able to prevent shoulder-surfing attack.

  18. Verification test of the SURF and SURFplus models in xRage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-18

    As a verification test of the SURF and SURFplus models in the xRage code we use a propagating underdriven detonation wave in 1-D. This is about the only test cases for which an accurate solution can be determined based on the theoretical structure of the solution. The solution consists of a steady ZND reaction zone profile joined with a scale invariant rarefaction or Taylor wave and followed by a constant state. The end of the reaction profile and the head of the rarefaction coincide with the sonic CJ state of the detonation wave. The constant state is required to match a rigid wall boundary condition. For a test case, we use PBX 9502 with the same EOS and burn rate as previously used to test the shock detector algorithm utilized by the SURF model. The detonation wave is propagated for 10 μs (slightly under 80mm). As expected, the pointwise errors are largest in the neighborhood of discontinuities; pressure discontinuity at the lead shock front and pressure derivative discontinuities at the head and tail of the rarefaction. As a quantitative measure of the overall accuracy, the L2 norm of the difference of the numerical pressure and the exact solution is used. Results are presented for simulations using both a uniform grid and an adaptive grid that refines the reaction zone.

  19. FLOODPLAIN, FLOOD COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  20. Localized Flood Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    practitioners will cover a range of practices that can help communities build flood resilience, from small scale interventions such as rain gardens and permeable pavement to coordinated open space and floodplain preservation

  1. Floods and Mold Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mold growth may be a problem after flooding. Excess moisture in the home is cause for concern about indoor air quality primarily because it provides breeding conditions for pests, molds and other microorganisms.

  2. The Terrible Flood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dorine; Houston

    1998-01-01

    Dear Xiao Lan. ’Several times a week, no matter which of the major television news networksI turn to, the screen is filled with tragic pictures of flooding along the YangtzeRiver, and I grieve for the suffering people whose lives are being so terriblydisrupted by this disaster. Even more to be grieved is the terrible number of peoplewho have been killed by the floods and their effects.

  3. Flood Bypass Capacity Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siclari, A.; Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Large river flows can damage adjacent flood-prone areas, by exceeding river channel and levee capacities. Particularly large floods are difficult to contain in leveed river banks alone. Flood bypasses often can efficiently reduce flood risks, where excess river flow is diverted over a weir to bypasses, that incur much less damage and cost. Additional benefits of bypasses include ecosystem protection, agriculture, groundwater recharge and recreation. Constructing or expanding an existing bypass costs in land purchase easements, and levee setbacks. Accounting for such benefits and costs, this study develops a simple mathematical model for optimizing flood bypass capacity using benefit-cost and risk analysis. Application to the Yolo Bypass, an existing bypass along the Sacramento River in California, estimates optimal capacity that economically reduces flood damage and increases various benefits, especially for agriculture. Land availability is likely to limit bypass expansion. Compensation for landowners could relax such limitations. Other economic values could affect the optimal results, which are shown by sensitivity analysis on major parameters. By including land geography into the model, location of promising capacity expansions can be identified.

  4. Explorers Presentation: Flooding and Coastal Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2015-01-01

    : Explorers Flooding and Coastal Communities presentation provides an introduction to flooding. This can be used with the lesson plan on building flood defences. It covers: What is a flood? Why does it flood? Where does the water come from? The water cycle; Where is water stored? Examples of Pluvial vs. Coastal flooding; Impacts of flooding; Flood defences; What else influences flooding - Human impacts, Urbanisation, Deforestation, Sea level rise

  5. Norman-based Isolated Data Systems allows users to surf the Internet with no traceable IP address

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "Patented by Norman-based Isolated Data Systems, John Doe is an anonymous proxy server that allows users to surf the Internet exactly as before, with one exception - they are identifiable only as John Doe, with no traceable IP address, which means no tracking, no identification and no profile building" ( 1/2 page)

  6. Mitigating flood exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; McLean, Andrew; Herberman Mash, Holly B; Rosen, Alexa; Kelly, Fiona; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Youngs Jr, Georgia A; Jensen, Jessica; Bernal, Oscar; Neria, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. In 2011, following heavy winter snowfall, two cities bordering two rivers in North Dakota, USA faced major flood threats. Flooding was foreseeable and predictable although the extent of risk was uncertain. One community, Fargo, situated in a shallow river basin, successfully mitigated and prevented flooding. For the other community, Minot, located in a deep river valley, prevention was not possible and downtown businesses and one-quarter of the homes were inundated, in the city’s worst flood on record. We aimed at contrasting the respective hazards, vulnerabilities, stressors, psychological risk factors, psychosocial consequences, and disaster risk reduction strategies under conditions where flood prevention was, and was not, possible. Methods. We applied the “trauma signature analysis” (TSIG) approach to compare the hazard profiles, identify salient disaster stressors, document the key components of disaster risk reduction response, and examine indicators of community resilience. Results. Two demographically-comparable communities, Fargo and Minot, faced challenging river flood threats and exhibited effective coordination across community sectors. We examined the implementation of disaster risk reduction strategies in situations where coordinated citizen action was able to prevent disaster impact (hazard avoidance) compared to the more common scenario when unpreventable disaster strikes, causing destruction, harm, and distress. Across a range of indicators, it is clear that successful mitigation diminishes both physical and psychological impact, thereby reducing the trauma signature of the event. Conclusion. In contrast to experience of historic flooding in Minot, the city of Fargo succeeded in reducing the trauma signature by way of reducing risk through mitigation. PMID:28228985

  7. Flood Risk Analysis and Flood Potential Losses Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The heavy floods in the Taihu Basin showed increasing trend in recent years. In thiswork, a typical area in the northern Taihu Basin was selected for flood risk analysis and potentialflood losses assessment. Human activities have strong impact on the study area' s flood situation (asaffected by the polders built, deforestation, population increase, urbanization, etc. ), and havemade water level higher, flood duration shorter, and flood peaks sharper. Five years of differentflood return periods [(1970), 5 (1962), 10 (1987), 20 (1954), 50 (1991)] were used to cal-culate the potential flood risk area and its losses. The potential flood risk map, economic losses,and flood-impacted population were also calculated. The study's main conclusions are: 1 ) Humanactivities have strongly changed the natural flood situation in the study area, increasing runoff andflooding; 2) The flood risk area is closely related with the precipitation center; 3) Polder construc-tion has successfully protected land from flood, shortened the flood duration, and elevated waterlevel in rivers outside the polders; 4) Economic and social development have caused flood losses toincrease in recent years.

  8. Probabilistic flood extent estimates from social media flood observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Tom; Eilander, Dirk; van Loenen, Arnejan; Booij, Martijn J.; Wijnberg, Kathelijne M.; Verkade, Jan S.; Wagemaker, Jurjen

    2017-05-01

    The increasing number and severity of floods, driven by phenomena such as urbanization, deforestation, subsidence and climate change, create a growing need for accurate and timely flood maps. In this paper we present and evaluate a method to create deterministic and probabilistic flood maps from Twitter messages that mention locations of flooding. A deterministic flood map created for the December 2015 flood in the city of York (UK) showed good performance (F(2) = 0.69; a statistic ranging from 0 to 1, with 1 expressing a perfect fit with validation data). The probabilistic flood maps we created showed that, in the York case study, the uncertainty in flood extent was mainly induced by errors in the precise locations of flood observations as derived from Twitter data. Errors in the terrain elevation data or in the parameters of the applied algorithm contributed less to flood extent uncertainty. Although these maps tended to overestimate the actual probability of flooding, they gave a reasonable representation of flood extent uncertainty in the area. This study illustrates that inherently uncertain data from social media can be used to derive information about flooding.

  9. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK

  10. Assessing Flood Risk Using Reservoir Flood Control Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Fu; Yadong Mei; Zhihuai Xiao

    2016-01-01

    The application of conventional flood operation regulation is restricted due to insufficient description of flood control rules for the Pubugou Reservoir in southern China. Based on the require-ments of different flood control objects, this paper proposes to optimize flood control rules with punish-ment mechanism by defining different parameters of flood control rules in response to flood inflow fore-cast and reservoir water level. A genetic algorithm is adopted for solving parameter optimization problem. The failure risk and overflow volume of the downstream insufficient flood control capacity are assessed through the reservoir operation policies. The results show that an optimised regulation can provide better performance than the current flood control rules.

  11. Epidemlology of exercise-related transient abdominal pain at the Sydney City to Surf community run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D P; Richards, D; Callister, R

    2005-06-01

    A questionnaire was administered to 848 participants (76% runners, 24% walkers) at the conclusion of the 14 km City to Surf community run in order to investigate their experience of exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP). Twenty-seven percent of respondents reported experiencing ETAP during the event, with the condition reported more frequently (pnutritional content of the pre-event meal did not influence the experience of ETAP. Sufferers of ETAP were more likely to experience nausea (r = 0.12, p< 0.01) and report shoulder tip pain (r= 0.14, p< 0.01). The results indicate that ETAP is a commonly experienced problem and provide insights into the cause of the complaint.

  12. A VOF-based numerical model for breaking waves in surf zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces a numerical model for studying the evolution of a periodic wave train,shoaling, and breaking in surf zone. The model can solve the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations for a mean flow, and the k-ε equations for turbulence kinetic energy k and turbulence dissipation rate ε. To track a free surface, the volume of fluid (VOF) function, satisfying the advection equation was introduced. In the numerical treatment, third-order upwind difference scheme was applied to the convection terms of the RANS equations in order to reduce the effect of numerical viscosity. The shoaling and breaking processes of a periodic wave train on gently sloping beaches were modeled. The computed wave heights of a sloping beach and the distribution of breaking wave pressure on a vertical wall were compared with laboratory data.

  13. 3D reconstruction of a human heart fascicle using SurfDriver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Robert J.; Phillips, Steven J.; LaFollette, Paul S., Jr.

    2000-06-01

    The Temple University Medical School has a sequence of over 400 serial sections of adult normal ventricular human heart tissue, cut at 25 micrometer thickness. We used a Zeiss Ultraphot with a 4x planapo objective and a Pixera digital camera to make a series of 45 sequential montages to use in the 3D reconstruction of a fascicle (muscle bundle). We wrote custom software to merge 4 smaller image fields from each section into one composite image. We used SurfDriver software, developed by Scott Lozanoff of the University of Hawaii and David Moody of the University of Alberta, for registration, object boundary identification, and 3D surface reconstruction. We used an Epson Stylus Color 900 printer to get photo-quality prints. We describe the challenge and our solution to the following problems: image acquisition and digitization, image merge, alignment and registration, boundary identification, 3D surface reconstruction, 3D visualization and orientation, snapshot, and photo-quality prints.

  14. Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxin esters in Danish blue mussels and surf clams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kevin; Scanlon, Sine Hedegaard; Jensen, L.B.

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, little focus was given to the presence of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning ( DSP) toxin esters in seafood products. However, during the last few years, the occurrence of a high percentage of esters of the total amount of DSP toxins present in some seafood products has been observed....... Samples of Danish surf clams ( Spisola spp.) and blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis) from 1999 - 2004 were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry ( LC/ MS/ MS) for the presence of DSP toxin esters. The samples contained only okadaic acid and esters of okadaic acid. The level...... of okadaic acid esters of the total okadaic acid equivalents ranged from 21 to 86%, mean 59%. The probability of a high percentage of okadaic acid esters seems to increase with higher amounts of total okadaic acid equivalents in the bivalves. The large prevalence of DSP toxin esters are of particular...

  15. Physical linkages between an offshore canyon and surf zone morphologic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jeff E.; Raubenheimer, Britt; Elgar, Steve; List, Jeffrey H.; Lippmann, Thomas C.

    2017-04-01

    The causes of surf zone morphologic changes observed along a sandy beach onshore of a submarine canyon were investigated using field observations and a numerical model (Delft3D/SWAN). Numerically simulated morphologic changes using four different sediment transport formulae reproduce the temporal and spatial patterns of net cross-shore integrated (between 0 and 6.5 m water depths) accretion and erosion observed in a ˜300 m alongshore region, a few hundred meters from the canyon head. The observations and simulations indicate that the accretion or erosion results from converging or diverging alongshore currents driven primarily by breaking waves and alongshore pressure gradients. The location of convergence or divergence depends on the direction of the offshore waves that refract over the canyon, suggesting that bathymetric features on the inner shelf can have first-order effects on short-term nearshore morphologic change.

  16. Phase speed of electrostatic waves: The critical parameter for efficient electron surfing acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Dieckmann, M E; Parviainen, M; Shukla, P K; Sircombe, N J

    2006-01-01

    Particle acceleration by means of non-linear plasma wave interactions is of great topical interest. Accordingly, in this paper we focus on the electron surfing process. Self-consistent kinetic simulations, using both relativistic Vlasov and PIC (Particle In Cell) approaches, show here that electrons can be accelerated to highly relativistic energies (up to 100 m_e c^2) if the phase speed of the electrostatic wave is mildly relativistic (0.6c to 0.9c for the magnetic field strengths considered). The acceleration is strong because of relativistic stabilisation of the nonlinearly saturated electrostatic wave, seen in both relativistic Vlasov and PIC simulations. An inverse power law momentum distribution can arise for the most strongly accelerated electrons. These results are of relevance to observed rapid changes in the radio synchrotron emission intensities from microquasars, gamma ray bursts and other astrophysical objects that require rapid acceleration mechanisms for electrons.

  17. Phase speed of electrostatic waves: the critical parameter for efficient electron surfing acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckmann, M E [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Sircombe, N J [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Parviainen, M [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Shukla, P K [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Dendy, R O [UKAEA Culham Division, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2006-04-15

    Particle acceleration by means of nonlinear plasma wave interactions is of great topical interest. Accordingly, in this paper we focus on the electron surfing process. Self-consistent kinetic simulations, using both relativistic Vlasov and particle-in-cell (PIC) approaches, show here that electrons can be accelerated to highly relativistic energies (up to 100m{sub e}c{sup 2}) if the phase speed of the electrostatic wave is mildly relativistic (0.6c to 0.9c for the magnetic field strengths considered). The acceleration is strong because of relativistic stabilization of the nonlinearly saturated electrostatic wave, seen in both relativistic Vlasov and PIC simulations. An inverse power law momentum distribution can arise for the most strongly accelerated electrons. These results are of relevance to observed rapid changes in the radio synchrotron emission intensities from microquasars, gamma ray bursts and other astrophysical objects that require rapid acceleration mechanisms for electrons.

  18. Numerical modelling of wind effects on breaking waves in the surf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhihua

    2017-10-01

    Wind effects on periodic breaking waves in the surf zone have been investigated in this study using a two-phase flow model. The model solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the k - 𝜖 turbulence model simultaneously for the flows both in the air and water. Both spilling and plunging breakers over a 1:35 sloping beach have been studied under the influence of wind, with a focus during wave breaking. Detailed information of the distribution of wave amplitudes and mean water level, wave-height-to-water-depth ratio, the water surface profiles, velocity, vorticity, and turbulence fields have been presented and discussed. The inclusion of wind alters the air flow structure above water waves, increases the generation of vorticity, and affects the wave shoaling, breaking, overturning, and splash-up processes. Wind increases the water particle velocities and causes water waves to break earlier and seaward, which agrees with the previous experiment.

  19. Identificción, evaluación de los riesgos laborales y propuesta de medidas de control en el proceso de fabricación de hilo en la fábrica Pasamanería S: A:

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Torres, Angélica Liliana

    2016-01-01

    La empresa Pasamanería S.A, ubicada en la parroquia El Vecino de la Ciudad de Cuenca desarrolla un sistema preventivo para mejorar las condiciones laborales, prevenir accidentes de trabajo y enfermedades ocupacionales. El presente estudio realizado en el área de fabricación de hilo de la empresa, consideró los factores de riesgos en el trabajo en cada una de las actividades a los que se exponen los trabajadores de la sección de Hilandería. Se describieron algunas generalidades de la ...

  20. Composite Flood Risk for New Jersery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Composite Flood Risk layer combines flood hazard datasets from Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) flood zones, NOAA's Shallow Coastal Flooding, and the...

  1. Composite Flood Risk for Virgin Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Composite Flood Risk layer combines flood hazard datasets from Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) flood zones, NOAA's Shallow Coastal Flooding, and the...

  2. Chemolithotrophy in the continental deep subsurface: Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Rose Osburn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The deep subsurface is an enormous repository of microbial life. However, the metabolic capabilities of these microorganisms and the degree to which they are dependent on surface processes are largely unknown. Due to the logistical difficulty of sampling and inherent heterogeneity, the microbial populations of the terrestrial subsurface are poorly characterized. In an effort to better understand the biogeochemistry of deep terrestrial habitats, we evaluate the energetic yield of chemolithotrophic metabolisms and microbial diversity in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF in the former Homestake Gold Mine, SD, USA. Geochemical data, energetic modeling, and DNA sequencing were combined with principle component analysis to describe this deep (down to 8100 ft below surface, terrestrial environment. SURF provides access into an iron-rich Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary deposit that contains deeply circulating groundwater. Geochemical analyses of subsurface fluids reveal enormous geochemical diversity ranging widely in salinity, oxidation state (ORP 330 to -328 mV, and concentrations of redox sensitive species (e.g., Fe2+ from near 0 to 6.2 mg/L and ΣS2- from 7 to 2778 μg/L. As a direct result of this compositional buffet, Gibbs energy calculations reveal an abundance of energy for microorganisms from the oxidation of sulfur, iron, nitrogen, methane, and manganese. Pyrotag DNA sequencing reveals diverse communities of chemolithoautotrophs, thermophiles, aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophs, and numerous uncultivated clades. Extrapolated across the mine footprint, these data suggest a complex spatial mosaic of subsurface primary productivity that is in good agreement with predicted energy yields. Notably, we report Gibbs energy normalized both per mole of reaction and per kg fluid (energy density and find the later to be more consistent with observed physiologies and environmental conditions. Further application of this approach will

  3. Numerical modeling of surf zone dynamics under weakly plunging breakers with SPH method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Christos V.; Memos, Constantine D.; Krestenitis, Yannis N.

    2016-02-01

    The wave breaking of weak plungers over a relatively mild slope is investigated in this paper. Numerical modeling aspects are studied, concerning the propagation and breaking of shore-normal, nonlinear and regular waves. The two-dimensional (2-D) kinematics and dynamics (fluctuating flow features and large 2-D eddies) of the wave-induced flow on a vertical cross-section over the entire surf zone are simulated with the use of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). The academic 'open source' code SPHysics v.2 is employed and the viscosity treatment is based on a Sub-Particle Scale (SPS) approach, similarly to the Large Eddy Simulations (LES) concept. Thorough analysis of the turbulent flow scales determines the necessary refinement of the spatial resolution. The initial particle discretization reaches down to the demarcation point between integral turbulence length scales and Taylor micro-scales. A convolution-type integration method is implemented for the transformation of scattered Lagrangian particle data to Eulerian values at fixed gauges. A heuristic technique of ensemble-averaging is used for the discrimination of the fluctuating flow components from coherent structures and ordered wave motion. Comparisons between numerical and experimental data give encouraging results for several wave features. The wave-induced mean flows are simulated plausibly, and even the 'streaming' effect near the bed is reproduced. The recurring vorticity patterns are derived, and coherent 2-D structures inside the surf zone are identified. Fourier spectral analysis of velocities reveals isotropy of 2-D fluctuating dynamics up to rather high frequencies in shear intensified regions. The simulated Reynolds stresses follow patterns that define the characteristic mechanism of wave breaking for weak plungers. Persisting discrepancies at the incipient breaking region confirm the need for fine, massively 'parallel' 3-D SPS-SPH simulations.

  4. Mapping bathymetry in an active surf zone with the WorldView2 multispectral satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, S. M.; Houser, C.; Brander, R.; Chirico, P.

    2015-12-01

    Rip currents are strong, narrow seaward flows of water that originate in the surf zones of many global beaches. They are related to hundreds of international drownings each year, but exact numbers are difficult to calculate due to logistical difficulties in obtaining accurate incident reports. Annual average rip current fatalities are estimated to be ~100, 53 and 21 in the United States (US), Costa Rica, and Australia respectively. Current warning systems (e.g. National Weather Service) do not account for fine resolution nearshore bathymetry because it is difficult to capture. The method shown here could provide frequent, high resolution maps of nearshore bathymetry at a scale required for improved rip prediction and warning. This study demonstrates a method for mapping bathymetry in the surf zone (20m deep and less), specifically within rip channels, because rips form at topographically low spots in the bathymetry as a result of feedback amongst waves, substrate, and antecedent bathymetry. The methods employ the Digital Globe WorldView2 (WV2) multispectral satellite and field measurements of depth to generate maps of the changing bathymetry at two embayed, rip-prone beaches: Playa Cocles, Puerto Viejo de Talamanca, Costa Rica, and Bondi Beach, Sydney, Australia. WV2 has a 1.1 day pass-over rate with 1.84m ground pixel resolution of 8 bands, including 'yellow' (585-625 nm) and 'coastal blue' (400-450 nm). The data is used to classify bottom type and to map depth to the return in multiple bands. The methodology is tested at each site for algorithm consistency between dates, and again for applicability between sites.

  5. Object Recognition System in Remote Controlled Weapon Station using SIFT and SURF Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midriem Mirdanies

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Object recognition system using computer vision that is implemented on Remote Controlled Weapon Station (RCWS is discussed. This system will make it easier to identify and shoot targeted object automatically. Algorithm was created to recognize real time multiple objects using two methods i.e. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF combined with K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN and Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC for verification. The algorithm is designed to improve object detection to be more robust and to minimize the processing time required. Objects are registered on the system consisting of the armored personnel carrier, tanks, bus, sedan, big foot, and police jeep. In addition, object selection can use mouse to shoot another object that has not been registered on the system. Kinect™ is used to capture RGB images and to find the coordinates x, y, and z of the object. The programming language used is C with visual studio IDE 2010 and opencv libraries. Object recognition program is divided into three parts: 1 reading image from kinect™ and simulation results, 2 object recognition process, and 3 transfer of the object data to the ballistic computer. Communication between programs is performed using shared memory. The detected object data is sent to the ballistic computer via Local Area Network (LAN using winsock for ballistic calculation, and then the motor control system moves the direction of the weapon model to the desired object. The experimental results show that the SIFT method is more suitable because more accurate and faster than SURF with the average processing time to detect one object is 430.2 ms, two object is 618.4 ms, three objects is 682.4 ms, and four objects is 756.2 ms. Object recognition program is able to recognize multi-objects and the data of the identified object can be processed by the ballistic computer in realtime.

  6. Flood Risk Management In Europe: European flood regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegger, D.L.T.; Bakker, M.H.; Green, C.; Driessen, Peter; Delvaux, B.; Rijswick, H.F.M.W. van; Suykens, C.; Beyers, J-C.; Deketelaere, K.; Doorn-Hoekveld, W. van; Dieperink, C.

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, water management is moving from flood defense to a risk management approach, which takes both the probability and the potential consequences of flooding into account. In this report, we will look at Directives and (non-)EU- initiatives in place to deal with flood risk in Europe indirectly

  7. Improving Global Flood Forecasting using Satellite Detected Flood Extent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revilla Romero, B.

    2016-01-01

    Flooding is a natural global phenomenon but in many cases is exacerbated by human activity. Although flooding generally affects humans in a negative way, bringing death, suffering, and economic impacts, it also has potentially beneficial effects. Early flood warning and forecasting systems, as well

  8. Improving Global Flood Forecasting using Satellite Detected Flood Extent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revilla Romero, B.

    2016-01-01

    Flooding is a natural global phenomenon but in many cases is exacerbated by human activity. Although flooding generally affects humans in a negative way, bringing death, suffering, and economic impacts, it also has potentially beneficial effects. Early flood warning and forecasting systems, as well

  9. The Global Flood Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P.; Huddelston, M.; Michel, G.; Thompson, S.; Heynert, K.; Pickering, C.; Abbott Donnelly, I.; Fewtrell, T.; Galy, H.; Sperna Weiland, F.; Winsemius, H.; Weerts, A.; Nixon, S.; Davies, P.; Schiferli, D.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, a Global Flood Model (GFM) initiative has been proposed by Willis, UK Met Office, Esri, Deltares and IBM. The idea is to create a global community platform that enables better understanding of the complexities of flood risk assessment to better support the decisions, education and communication needed to mitigate flood risk. The GFM will provide tools for assessing the risk of floods, for devising mitigation strategies such as land-use changes and infrastructure improvements, and for enabling effective pre- and post-flood event response. The GFM combines humanitarian and commercial motives. It will benefit: - The public, seeking to preserve personal safety and property; - State and local governments, seeking to safeguard economic activity, and improve resilience; - NGOs, similarly seeking to respond proactively to flood events; - The insurance sector, seeking to understand and price flood risk; - Large corporations, seeking to protect global operations and supply chains. The GFM is an integrated and transparent set of modules, each composed of models and data. For each module, there are two core elements: a live "reference version" (a worked example) and a framework of specifications, which will allow development of alternative versions. In the future, users will be able to work with the reference version or substitute their own models and data. If these meet the specification for the relevant module, they will interoperate with the rest of the GFM. Some "crowd-sourced" modules could even be accredited and published to the wider GFM community. Our intent is to build on existing public, private and academic work, improve local adoption, and stimulate the development of multiple - but compatible - alternatives, so strengthening mankind's ability to manage flood impacts. The GFM is being developed and managed by a non-profit organization created for the purpose. The business model will be inspired from open source software (eg Linux): - for non-profit usage

  10. FEMA DFIRM Flood Hazard Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA flood hazard delineations are used by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to designate the Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) and for insurance rating...

  11. FEMA DFIRM Base Flood Elevations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally,...

  12. 2013 FEMA Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  13. FLOOD CHARACTERISTICS AND MANAGEMENT ADAPTATIONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    2011-10-26

    , bearing flood losses and land ... Engineering control of the major tributaries of the Imo River system is required to ..... on previous knowledge of physical nature of flood ... uptake; other factors include a lack of formal titles to.

  14. 2013 FEMA Base Flood Elevation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  15. Base Flood Elevation (BFE) Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally if...

  16. National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) is a compilation of GIS data that comprises a nationwide digital Flood Insurance Rate Map. The GIS data and services are...

  17. FEMA Q3 Flood Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Q3 Flood Data are derived from the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMS) published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The file is georeferenced to...

  18. FEMA 100 year Flood Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Q3 Flood Data product is a digital representation of certain features of FEMA's Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) product, intended for use with desktop mapping...

  19. 2013 FEMA Flood Control Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  20. Chinese Sign Language Recognition Method Based on Depth Image Information and SURF-BoW%基于深度信息和SURF-BoW的中国手语识别算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨全; 彭进业

    2014-01-01

    为实现视频中手语的准确识别,提出一种基于深度图连续自适应均值漂移( DI_CamShift)和加速强健特征词包( SURF-BoW)的中国手语识别算法.该算法将Kinect作为手语视频采集设备,在获取彩色视频的同时得到其深度信息.算法首先计算深度图像中手语手势的主轴方向角和质心位置,通过调整搜索窗口对手势准确跟踪;然后使用基于深度积分图像的OTSU算法分割手势并提取其加速强健特征( SURF),进而构建SURF-BoW作为手语特征并使用SVM识别.通过实验验证该算法在单个手语字母上的最好识别率为99.37%,平均识别率为96.24%.%To realize the accurate recognition of sign language in the video, an algorithm based on depth image CamShift( DI_CamShift) and speeded up robust features-bag of words ( SURF-BoW) is proposed. Kinect is used as the sign language video capture device to obtain both of the color video and depth image information of sign language gestures. Firstly, spindle direction angle and mass center position of the depth images are calculated and the search window is adjusted to track gesture. Next, an OTSU algorithm based on depth integral image is used for gesture segmentation, and the SURF features are extracted. Finally, SURF-BoW is built as the feature of sign language and SVM is utilized for recognition. The best recognition rate of single manual alphabet reaches 99 . 37%, and the average recognition rate is up to 96 . 24%.

  1. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ootegem, Luc [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium); SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Verhofstadt, Elsy [SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium)

    2015-09-15

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks.

  2. Optimal strategies for flood prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijgenraam, Carel; Brekelmans, Ruud; den Hertog, Dick; Roos, C.

    2016-01-01

    Flood prevention policy is of major importance to the Netherlands since a large part of the country is below sea level and high water levels in rivers may also cause floods. In this paper we propose a dike height optimization model to determine economically efficient flood protection standards. We i

  3. Floods in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa K. Andersen; Marshall J. Shepherd

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric warming and associated hydrological changes have implications for regional flood intensity and frequency. Climate models and hydrological models have the ability to integrate various contributing factors and assess potential changes to hydrology at global to local scales through the century. This survey of floods in a changing climate reviews flood...

  4. A randomised crossover comparison of manikin ventilation through Soft Seal®, i‐gel™ and AuraOnce™ supraglottic airway devices by surf lifeguards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adelborg, K; Al‐Mashhadi, R. H; Nielsen, L. H; Dalgas, C; Mortensen, M. B; Løfgren, B

    2014-01-01

    Forty surf lifeguards attempted to ventilate a manikin through one out of three supraglottic airways inserted in random order: the Portex ® Soft Seal ® ; the Intersurgical ® i‐gel™; and the Ambu ® AuraOnce...

  5. Rethinking the relationship between flood risk perception and flood management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholz, S; Muro, M; Jeffrey, P; Smith, H M

    2014-04-15

    Although flood risk perceptions and their concomitant motivations for behaviour have long been recognised as significant features of community resilience in the face of flooding events, there has, for some time now, been a poorly appreciated fissure in the accompanying literature. Specifically, rationalist and constructivist paradigms in the broader domain of risk perception provide different (though not always conflicting) contexts for interpreting evidence and developing theory. This contribution reviews the major constructs that have been applied to understanding flood risk perceptions and contextualises these within broader conceptual developments around risk perception theory and contemporary thinking around flood risk management. We argue that there is a need to re-examine and re-invigorate flood risk perception research, in a manner that is comprehensively underpinned by more constructivist thinking around flood risk management as well as by developments in broader risk perception research. We draw attention to an historical over-emphasis on the cognitive perceptions of those at risk to the detriment of a richer understanding of a wider range of flood risk perceptions such as those of policy-makers or of tax-payers who live outside flood affected areas as well as the linkages between these perspectives and protective measures such as state-supported flood insurance schemes. Conclusions challenge existing understandings of the relationship between risk perception and flood management, particularly where the latter relates to communication strategies and the extent to which those at risk from flooding feel responsible for taking protective actions.

  6. Flooding on Elbe River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Heavy rains in Central Europe over the past few weeks have led to some of the worst flooding the region has witnessed in more than a century. The floods have killed more than 100 people in Germany, Russia, Austria, Hungary, and the Czech Republic and have led to as much as $20 billion in damage. This false-color image of the Elbe River and its tributaries was taken on August 20, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The floodwaters that inundated Dresden, Germany, earlier this week have moved north. As can be seen, the river resembles a fairly large lake in the center of the image just south of the town of Wittenberg. Flooding was also bad further downriver in the towns of Maqgdeburge and Hitzacker. Roughly 20,000 people were evacuated from their homes in northern Germany. Fifty thousand troops, border police, and technical assistance workers were called in to combat the floods along with 100,000 volunteers. The floodwaters are not expected to badly affect Hamburg, which sits on the mouth of the river on the North Sea. Credit:Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  7. On Flood Alert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Aseries of heavy storms since early May led to severe flooding and landslides in south and southwest China,causing heaw casualties and economic losses.Severe convective weather such as downpours,gusts,hail and thunderstorms attacked these areas over a week from May 5.

  8. Fast Flooding over Manhattan

    CERN Document Server

    Clementi, Andrea; Silvestri, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    We consider a Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANET) formed by n agents that move at speed V according to the Manhattan Random-Way Point model over a square region of side length L. The resulting stationary (agent) spatial probability distribution is far to be uniform: the average density over the "central zone" is asymptotically higher than that over the "suburb". Agents exchange data iff they are at distance at most R within each other. We study the flooding time of this MANET: the number of time steps required to broadcast a message from one source agent to all agents of the network in the stationary phase. We prove the first asymptotical upper bound on the flooding time. This bound holds with high probability, it is a decreasing function of R and V, and it is tight for a wide and relevant range of the network parameters (i.e. L, R and V). A consequence of our result is that flooding over the sparse and highly-disconnected suburb can be as fast as flooding over the dense and connected central zone. Rather surprisin...

  9. Flood model for Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palán, Ladislav; Punčochář, Petr

    2017-04-01

    Looking on the impact of flooding from the World-wide perspective, in last 50 years flooding has caused over 460,000 fatalities and caused serious material damage. Combining economic loss from ten costliest flood events (from the same period) returns a loss (in the present value) exceeding 300bn USD. Locally, in Brazil, flood is the most damaging natural peril with alarming increase of events frequencies as 5 out of the 10 biggest flood losses ever recorded have occurred after 2009. The amount of economic and insured losses particularly caused by various flood types was the key driver of the local probabilistic flood model development. Considering the area of Brazil (being 5th biggest country in the World) and the scattered distribution of insured exposure, a domain covered by the model was limited to the entire state of Sao Paolo and 53 additional regions. The model quantifies losses on approx. 90 % of exposure (for regular property lines) of key insurers. Based on detailed exposure analysis, Impact Forecasting has developed this tool using long term local hydrological data series (Agencia Nacional de Aguas) from riverine gauge stations and digital elevation model (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística). To provide most accurate representation of local hydrological behaviour needed for the nature of probabilistic simulation, a hydrological data processing focused on frequency analyses of seasonal peak flows - done by fitting appropriate extreme value statistical distribution and stochastic event set generation consisting of synthetically derived flood events respecting realistic spatial and frequency patterns visible in entire period of hydrological observation. Data were tested for homogeneity, consistency and for any significant breakpoint occurrence in time series so the entire observation or only its subparts were used for further analysis. The realistic spatial patterns of stochastic events are reproduced through the innovative use of d-vine copula

  10. GIS Support for Flood Rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Gengsheng; Mioc, Darka; Anton, François

    2007-01-01

    Under flood events, the ground traffic is blocked in and around the flooded area due to damages to roads and bridges. The traditional transportation network may not always help people to make a right decision for evacuation. In order to provide dynamic road information needed for flood rescue, we...... developed an adaptive web-based transportation network application using Oracle technology. Moreover, the geographic relationships between the road network and flood areas are taken into account. The overlay between the road network and flood polygons is computed on the fly. This application allows users...... to retrieve the shortest and safest route in Fredericton road network during flood event. It enables users to make a timely decision for flood rescue. We are using Oracle Spatial to deal with emergency situations that can be applied to other constrained network applications as well....

  11. Verification Test of the SURF and SURFplus Models in xRage: Part III Affect of Mesh Alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The previous studies used an underdriven detonation wave in 1-dimension (steady ZND reaction zone profile followed by a scale-invariant rarefaction wave) for PBX 9502 as a verification test of the implementation of the SURF and SURFplus models in the xRage code. Since the SURF rate is a function of the lead shock pressure, the question arises as to the effect on accuracy of variations in the detected shock pressure due to the alignment of the shock front with the mesh. To study the effect of mesh alignment we simulate a cylindrically diverging detonation wave using a planar 2-D mesh. The leading issue is the magnitude of azimuthal asymmetries in the numerical solution. The 2-D test case does not have an exact analytic solution. To quantify the accuracy, the 2-D solution along rays through the origin are compared to a highly resolved 1-D simulation in cylindrical geometry.

  12. Temporal and spatial patterns for surf zone bacteria before and after disinfection of the orange county sanitation district effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, G.L.; Noble, M.A.; Xu, J. P.; Rosenfeld, L.K.; McGee, C.D.

    2005-01-01

    Data from pre- and post-disinfection fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) samples from final effluent, an offshore ocean outfall, and surf zone stations off Huntington Beach, CA were compared. Analysis of the results from these data sets confirmed that the ocean outfall was not the FIB source responsible for the postings and closures of local beaches that have occurred each summer since 1999. While FIB counts in the final effluent and offshore showed several order of magnitude reductions after disinfection, there were no significant reductions at the nearby surf zone stations. Additionally, the FIB spectral patterns suggest different sources. The dominant fortnightly cycle suggested that the source was related to the wetting and draining of the land from large spring tide tidal excursions.

  13. Flood marks of the 1813 flood in the Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklanek, Pavol; Pekárová, Pavla; Halmová, Dana; Pramuk, Branislav; Bačová Mitková, Veronika

    2014-05-01

    In August 2013, 200 years have passed since the greatest and most destructive floods known in the Slovak river basins. The flood affected almost the entire territory of Slovakia, northeastern Moravia, south of Poland. River basins of Váh (Orava, Kysuca), Poprad, Nitra, Hron, Torysa, Hornád, upper and middle Vistula, Odra have been most affected. The aim of this paper is to map the flood marks documenting this catastrophic flood in Slovakia. Flood marks and registrations on the 1813 flood in the Váh river basin are characterized by great diversity and are written in Bernolák modification of Slovak, in Latin, German and Hungarian. Their descriptions are stored in municipal chronicles and Slovak and Hungarian state archives. The flood in 1813 devastated the entire Váh valley, as well as its tributaries. Following flood marks were known in the Vah river basin: Dolná Lehota village in the Orava river basin, historical map from 1817 covering the Sučany village and showing three different cross-sections of the Váh river during the 1813 flood, flood mark in the city of Trenčín, Flood mark in the gate of the Brunovce mansion, cross preserved at the old linden tree at Drahovce, and some records in written documents, e.g. Cifer village. The second part of the study deals with flood marks mapping in the Hron, Hnilec and Poprad River basins, and Vistula River basin in Krakow. On the basis of literary documents and the actual measurement, we summarize the peak flow rates achieved during the floods in 1813 in the profile Hron: Banská Bystrica. According to recent situation the 1813 flood peak was approximately by 1.22 m higher, than the flood in 1974. Also in the Poprad basin is the August 1813 flood referred as the most devastating flood in last 400 years. The position of the flood mark is known, but the building was unfortunately removed later. The water level in 1813 was much higher than the water level during the recent flood in June 2010. In Cracow the water level

  14. Citizen involvement in flood risk governance: flood groups and networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twigger-Ross Clare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade has been a policy shift withinUK flood risk management towards localism with an emphasis on communities taking ownership of flood risk. There is also an increased focus on resilience and, more specifically, on community resilience to flooding. This paper draws on research carried out for UK Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs to evaluate the Flood Resilience Community Pathfinder (FRCP scheme in England. Resilience is conceptualised as multidimensional and linked to exisiting capacities within a community. Creating resilience to flooding is an ongoing process of adaptation, learning from past events and preparing for future risks. This paper focusses on the development of formal and informal institutions to support improved flood risk management: institutional resilience capacity. It includes new institutions: e.g. flood groups, as well as activities that help to build inter- and intra- institutional resilience capacity e.g. community flood planning. The pathfinder scheme consisted of 13 projects across England led by local authorities aimed at developing community resilience to flood risk between 2013 – 2015. This paper discusses the nature and structure of flood groups, the process of their development, and the extent of their linkages with formal institutions, drawing out the barriers and facilitators to developing institutional resilience at the local level.

  15. Inner Surf/Swash Zone Morphodynamic Numerical Model Simulation of an Accreting Ridge during Low-Energy Wave Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youn Kyung; Figlus, Jens; Chardón-Maldonado, Patricia; Puleo, Jack A.

    2017-04-01

    The inner surf/swash zone of a coastal beach is characterized as an intermittently wet and dry zone in the nearshore that often develops a variety of morphological features including intertidal bars and ridge-runnel (RR) systems. The cross-shore morphodynamic numerical model CSHORE is used to simulate the beach recovery observed during a field experiment carried out at South Bethany Beach, Delaware, a nourished, high-gradient meso-tidal sandy beach along the U. S. Coast. The field campaign was conducted from February 12 to February 25, 2014 to measure bed profile morphology change and sediment characteristics along with detailed hydrodynamic forcing parameters at six cross-shore stations, closely spaced over approximately 50 m in the inner surf and swash zone. On February 13, 2014 a Nor'easter eroded significant portions of the beach leading to formation of a pronounced RR system on the beach face that subsequently accreted in the recovery process after the storm. Bed profile changes, surf and swash velocity profiles, water free surface elevation and suspended sediment concentrations recorded during the recovery at the cross-shore measuring locations on the seaward face of the accreting ridge are compared with CSHORE simulation results. During post-storm recovery, CSHORE demonstrates shoreward migration of the ridge and slight accretion on the beach face by the end of the simulation period on February 25, 2014. This trend was also observed in the field, where accretion at the ridge crest was up to 1.0 m with respect to the post-storm profile. The CSHORE parameters critical to improving model performance in reproducing measured morphodynamics and hydrodynamics during the ridge accretion process are examined and calibrated. Initial results show promise in using this type of efficient, process-based model to reproduce morphological evolution and depth-averaged hydrodynamics as a result of the complex surf and swash zone dynamics associated with beach accretion and RR

  16. Análisis descriptivo de la dinámica del surf como práctica social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Naranjo Del Giudice

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo de investigación, la cultura del surf es analizada desde la teoría de la práctica social (Giraldo y Halliday 2012, Shove et al., 2012. Para este fin, se estudiaron cada uno de los elementos que conforman la práctica y la forma como estos se interrelacionan como un todo. Las ofertas de valor construidas pueden ser entendidas como constelaciones (Nornmann y Ramírez 1993 de recursos que mediante su integración contextual forman productos y servicios. Los datos fueron recolectados en un año mediante registros de campo, narrativas, registro fotográfico y observación participante. La información fue recolectada por parte de uno de los investigadores que pertenece a la comunidad de surf durante cuatro meses de manera permanentemente y durante ocho meses de manera intermitentes. Se encontró cómo la teoría de la práctica social puede explicar la dinámica del surf y como el surf puede agregar a la teoría de la práctica social un nuevo factor: la comunidad. La relación de interdependencia entre los aspectos pertenecientes a las prácticas sociales según (Giraldo y Halliday 2012, Shove et al., 2012, comprueba que el desarrollo de cada uno de ellos, afecta toda la práctica, lo cual requiere estudios profundos en cada segmento con el fin de crear, mejorar o destruir cualquier práctica social.

  17. Modeling aerosol surface chemistry and gas-particle interaction kinetics with K2-SURF: PAH oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraiwa, M.; Garland, R.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. They have the ability to impact cloud properties, radiative balance and provide surfaces for heterogeneous reactions. The uptake of gaseous species on aerosol surfaces impacts both the aerosol particles and the atmospheric budget of trace gases. These subsequent changes to the aerosol can in turn impact the aerosol chemical and physical properties. However, this uptake, as well as the impact on the aerosol, is not fully understood. This uncertainty is due not only to limited measurement data, but also a dearth of comprehensive and applicable modeling formalizations used for the analysis, interpretation and description of these heterogeneous processes. Without a common model framework, comparing and extrapolating experimental data is difficult. In this study, a novel kinetic surface model (K2-SURF) [Ammann & Pöschl, 2007; Pöschl et al., 2007] was used to describe the oxidation of a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Integrated into this consistent and universally applicable kinetic and thermodynamic process model are the concepts, terminologies and mathematical formalizations essential to the description of atmospherically relevant physicochemical processes involving organic and mixed organic-inorganic aerosols. Within this process model framework, a detailed master mechanism, simplified mechanism and parameterizations of atmospheric aerosol chemistry are being developed and integrated in analogy to existing mechanisms and parameterizations of atmospheric gas-phase chemistry. One of the key aspects to this model is the defining of a clear distinction between various layers of the particle and surrounding gas phase. The processes occurring at each layer can be fully described using known fluxes and kinetic parameters. Using this system there is a clear separation of gas phase, gas-surface and surface bulk transport and reactions. The partitioning of compounds can be calculated using the flux

  18. Butyltins, trace metals and morphological variables in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) wintering on the south coast of British Columbia, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J.E. [Environment Canada, Science and Technology Branch, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, 5421 Robertson Rd., RR1 Delta, British Columbia V4K 3N2 (Canada)]. E-mail: john.elliott@ec.gc.ca; Harris, M.L. [Lorax Environmental, 136 St. Catherine' s Rd, RR3 Bonshaw, Prince Edward Island C0A 1C0 (Canada); Wilson, L.K. [Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, 5421 Robertson Rd, RR1 Delta, British Columbia V4K 3N2 (Canada); Smith, B.D. [Environment Canada, Science and Technology Branch, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, 5421 Robertson Rd., RR1 Delta, British Columbia V4K 3N2 (Canada); Batchelor, S.P. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd., PO Box 5050, Burlington, Ontario L7R 4A6 (Canada); Maguire, J. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd., PO Box 5050, Burlington, Ontario L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2007-09-15

    From 1998 to 2001 we examined spatial and temporal variation in uptake of contaminants by surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) in the Georgia Basin region of the Pacific coast of Canada. Samples were collected during late fall and early spring at industrialized and reference locations, carcasses examined, and tissues collected for histology, biomarkers, and contaminant analyses. Scoters from both Vancouver and Victoria harbours had significantly higher hepatic concentrations of {sigma}butyltins than birds from a reference site. In adult male surf scoters, hepatic {sigma}butyltins increased over the winter at two sites (p = 0.02, n = 26), while mercury increased (p = 0.03, n = 15) and selenium decreased at one site (p = 0.001, n = 15). Body condition decreased over the winter at both the treatment site, Howe Sound (p < 0.0001, n = 12), and the reference site, Baynes Sound (p = 0.02, n = 15). Multiple regression analysis using Akaike's Information Criteria (AIC{sub C}) showed an association between hepatic butyltin concentrations and overall body condition (p = 0.06, r = - 0.237). - Hepatic butyltin concentrations in surf scoters increased significantly over a winter in the Strait of Georgia, and correlated negatively with body condition.

  19. A CFD Model for Wave Transformation and Breaking in the Surf Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopakatla, S. C.; Lippmann, T. C.; Richardson, J. E.; Thornton, E. B.; Holman, R. A.

    2002-12-01

    Wind-generated surface gravity waves are the major driving force for nearshore circulation and sediment transport. As waves shoal in shallow coastal waters, spectra evolve strongly owing to refraction, nonlinear energy transfers, and dissipation caused by wave breaking and bottom friction. Although considerable progress has been made in modeling wave propagation over complex bottom topography, the dissipation mechanisms are still poorly understood. As a consequence, wave transformation models for the surf zone use crude descriptions of the wave breaking process based on simple saturation criteria or empirical probability distributions that do not always work well for the range of bathymetric and wave conditions commonly observed in nature. In this report, we will discuss the results of studies made with the commercially available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software system known as FLOW-3D (Flow Science, Inc., Sante Fe, NM). FLOW-3D is designed to solve transient, free surface flow problems based on the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in three-dimensions. As part of FLOW-3D's formulation, the dissipation of energy is determined by use of coupled turbulence closure schemes (e.g., closure schemes based on the solution of turbulent kinetic energy transport equations). In this study, fine scale pressures and velocities are computed over a two-dimensional beach profile measured during the 1990 Delilah experiment. The model is driven by observed wave spectra obtained in 8 meter water depths, and results compared with a cross-shore array of pressure sensors and current meters spanning the width of the surf zone. In the calculations, wave breaking is a natural consequence of the fluid dynamics and does not require the use of empirical formulations, or breaking criteria. The spatial and temporal variability in the wave breaking locations will be compared with video observations obtained during the experiment. Good comparison between modeled and observed wave

  20. Floods and tsunamis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Mark

    2006-06-01

    Floods and tsunamis cause few severe injuries, but those injuries can overwhelm local areas, depending on the magnitude of the disaster. Most injuries are extremity fractures, lacerations, and sprains. Because of the mechanism of soft tissue and bone injuries, infection is a significant risk. Aspiration pneumonias are also associated with tsunamis. Appropriate precautionary interventions prevent communicable dis-ease outbreaks. Psychosocial health issues must be considered.

  1. Atmospheric Rivers, Floods, and Flash Floods in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelly, Klint T.

    Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) are long (>2000 km), narrow (<1000 km) corridors of enhanced vertically integrated water vapor (IWV) and enhanced IWV transport (IVT). The landfall of ARs along the U.S. West Coast have been linked to extreme precipitation and flooding/flash flooding in regions of complex topography. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between a 10 water-year (2005-2014) climatology of floods, flash floods, and landfalling ARs. The ARs in this study are defined using IVT following the Rutz et al. (2013) methodology, whereas floods and flash floods are identified by the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) Storm Events Database. The results of this study indicate that landfalling ARs are present on a majority of days that there are floods in northern California. Landfalling ARs are predominantly present on a majority of days that there are flash flood reports during the cold-season (November-March); however, the North American monsoon is present on days that there are flash flood reports during the warm-season (April-October). Two exemplary case studies are provided to illustrate the hydrologic impact of landfalling ARs. The first case study illustrated a flood event that occurred in associated with three landfalling ARs that produced 800 mm in regions over the Russian River watershed in northern California and the second case study illustrated a flash flood event that occurred in association with a landfalling AR that produced ˜225 mm of precipitation in regions over the Santa Ynez xii watershed in which produced a flash flood over the southern portions of Santa Barbara County in southern California.

  2. The Impact of HiLo Training on the Rats' Blood Rheolgy During the Recovery Period After Exercise%高住低练对运动后恢复期大鼠血液流变学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮凌; 郝选明; 肖国强

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe the blood rheolgy change during recovery period after exercise by Hilo training;Method: We divide 32 rats into 4 groups.After 4 weeks incremental training,we measure blood rheolgy and changes of related indexes.Results:(1) From low shear to high shear training group,the viscosity of the blood is lower than that of the control group and the middle shear and high shear have a significant difference(P0.05).Hilo group is lower than the control group and training group.Compared with the training group,the low-shear and middle-shear group have a significant difference(P 0.05).(2) The rigidity index in training group and control group has a significant difference(P 0.05).Hilo group is lower than the control group and training group.Compared with the high living group,the deformation index of Hilo group has significant difference(P0.05).(3) The fibrinogen of the training group is lower than the control group and has significant difference(P0.05).The Hilo group is lower than the other group and compared with the training group its fibrinogen has a significant difference(P 0.05).Compared with high living group,the Hilo group's deformation index has a significant difference(P 0.05).Conclusion: In this test for blood rheolgy and related indexes,the Hilo training group is the most ideal training model.%目的:通过高住低练这种低氧训练模式观察大鼠运动后恢复期血液流变学的变化。方法:将32只大鼠分为4组,经过4周递增负荷跑台训练后,测得血液流变学及相关指标的变化。结果:①从低切到高切运动组的血液粘度均低于安静组,其中中切和高切具有显著性差异(P〈0.05);高住组低于安静组和运动组,和运动组相比,低切和中切值具有显著性差异(P〈0.05)。②运动组低于安静组且刚性指数具有显著性差异(P〈0.05);高住组低于安静组和运动组,高住低练组变形性指数

  3. Recent advances in flood forecasting and flood risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Arduino

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent large floods in Europe have led to increased interest in research and development of flood forecasting systems. Some of these events have been provoked by some of the wettest rainfall periods on record which has led to speculation that such extremes are attributable in some measure to anthropogenic global warming and represent the beginning of a period of higher flood frequency. Whilst current trends in extreme event statistics will be difficult to discern, conclusively, there has been a substantial increase in the frequency of high floods in the 20th century for basins greater than 2x105 km2. There is also increasing that anthropogenic forcing of climate change may lead to an increased probability of extreme precipitation and, hence, of flooding. There is, therefore, major emphasis on the improvement of operational flood forecasting systems in Europe, with significant European Community spending on research and development on prototype forecasting systems and flood risk management projects. This Special Issue synthesises the most relevant scientific and technological results presented at the International Conference on Flood Forecasting in Europe held in Rotterdam from 3-5 March 2003. During that meeting 150 scientists, forecasters and stakeholders from four continents assembled to present their work and current operational best practice and to discuss future directions of scientific and technological efforts in flood prediction and prevention. The papers presented at the conference fall into seven themes, as follows.

  4. QSAR Study and VolSurf Characterization of Human Intestinal Absorption of Druge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡桂香; 商志才; 等

    2003-01-01

    The prediction of human intestinal absorption is a major goal in the design,optimization,and selection of candidates for the develoment of oral drugs.In this study,a computerized method(VolSurf with GRID) was used as a novel tool for predicting human intestinal absorption of test compound,and for determining the critical molecular properties needed for human intestinal absorption.The tested molecules consisted of 20 diverse drug-like compounds.Partial least squares(PLS) discriminant analysis was used to correlate the experimental data with the theoretical molecular properties of human intestinal absorption.A good correlation(r2=0.95,q2=0.86) between the molecular modeling results and the experimental data demonstrated that human intestinal absorption could be predicted from the three-dimensional(3D) molecular structure of a compound .Favorable structureal properties identified for the potent intestinal absorption of drugs included strong imbalance between the center of mass of a molecule and the barycentre of its hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions and a definitive hydrophobic region as well as less hydrogen bonding donors and acceptors in the molecule.

  5. Hybrid Video Stabilization for Mobile Vehicle Detection on SURF in Aerial Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Chunxian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of moving vehicles in aerial video sequences is of great importance with many promising applications in surveillance, intelligence transportation, or public service applications such as emergency evacuation and policy security. However, vehicle detection is a challenging task due to global camera motion, low resolution of vehicles, and low contrast between vehicles and background. In this paper, we present a hybrid method to efficiently detect moving vehicle in aerial videos. Firstly, local feature extraction and matching were performed to estimate the global motion. It was demonstrated that the Speeded Up Robust Feature (SURF key points were more suitable for the stabilization task. Then, a list of dynamic pixels was obtained and grouped for different moving vehicles by comparing the different optical flow normal. To enhance the precision of detection, some preprocessing methods were applied to the surveillance system, such as road extraction and other features. A quantitative evaluation on real video sequences indicated that the proposed method improved the detection performance significantly.

  6. Temporal and spatial variability of fecal indicator bacteria in the surf zone off Huntington Beach, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, L.K.; McGee, C.D.; Robertson, G.L.; Noble, M.A.; Jones, B.H.

    2006-01-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations measured in the surf zone off Huntington Beach, CA from July 1998-December 2001 were analyzed with respect to their spatial patterns along 23 km of beach, and temporal variability on time scales from hourly to fortnightly. The majority of samples had bacterial concentrations less than, or equal to, the minimum detection limit, but a small percentage exceeded the California recreational water standards. Areas where coliform bacteria exceeded standards were more prevalent north of the Santa Ana River, whereas enterococci exceedances covered a broad area both north and south of the river. Higher concentrations of bacteria were associated with spring tides. No temporal correspondence was found between these bacterial events and either the timing of cold water pulses near shore due to internal tides, or the presence of southerly swell in the surface wave field. All three fecal indicator bacteria exhibited a diel cycle, but enterococci rebounded to high nighttime values almost as soon as the sun went down, whereas coliform levels were highest near the nighttime low tide, which was also the lower low tide. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enzyme as catalytic wheel powered by a Markovian engine: conformational coupling and barrier surfing models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsong, Tian Yow; Chang, Cheng-Hung

    2005-05-01

    We examine a typical Michaelis-Menten Enzyme (MME) and redress it to form a transducer of free energy, and electric, acoustic, or other types of energy. This amendment and extension is necessary in lieu of recent experiments in which enzymes are shown to perform pump, motor, and locomotion functions resembling their macroscopic counterparts. Classical textbook depicts enzyme, or an MME, as biocatalyst which can enhance the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering the activation barrier but cannot shift the thermodynamic equilibrium of the biochemical reaction. An energy transducer, on the other hand, must also be able to harvest, store, or divert energy and in doing so alter the chemical equilibrium, change the energy form, fuel an energy consuming process, or perform all these functions stepwise in one catalytic turnover. The catalytic wheel presented in this communication is both a catalyst and an energy transducer and can perform all these tasks with ease. A Conformational Coupling Model for the rotary motors and a Barrier Surfing Model for the track-guided stepping motors and transporters, are presented and compared. It is shown that the core engine of the catalytic wheel, or a Brownian motor, is a Markovian engine. It remains to be seen if this core engine is the basic mechanism for a wide variety of bio-molecular energy transducers, as well as certain other dynamic systems, for example, the Parrondo's Games.

  8. Surf Zone Hydrodynamics and its Utilization in Biotechnical Stabilization of Water Reservoir Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Pelikán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The water reservoir banks are eroded mainly by two factors. The first one is wave action (i.e. wave abrasion affecting the bank in direction from the reservoir. The second one is the influence of water flowing downward over the bank surface in direction from land into the reservoir (e.g. rainfall. The determination of regular altitudinal emplacement of proper designed particular biotechnical stabilization elements is the most important factor on which the right functionality of whole construction depends. Surf zone hydrodynamics solves the wave and water level changes inside the region extending from the wave breaking point to the limit of wave up-rush. The paper is focused on the utilization of piece of knowledge from a part of sea coast hydrodynamics and new approach in its application in the conditions of inland water bodies when designing the biotechnical stabilization elements along the shorelines. The “reinforced grass carpets” as a type of biotechnical method of bank stabilization are presented in the paper; whether the growth of grass root system is dependent on presence or absence of geomats in the soil structure and proceeding of their establishment on the shorelines.

  9. Fault tree analysis for urban flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional methods to evaluate flood risk mostly focus on storm events as the main cause of flooding. Fault tree analysis is a technique that is able to model all potential causes of flooding and to quantify both the overall probability of flooding and the contributions of all causes of flooding to

  10. 3D-QSAR studies on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 substrates using the pharmacophore and VolSurf approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako, Roland; Dong, Dong; Wu, Baojian

    2012-09-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7) is an important enzyme responsible for clearance of many drugs. Here, we report two 3D quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for UGT2B7 using the pharmacophore and VolSurf approach, respectively. The dataset included 53 structurally diverse UGT2B7 substrates, 36 of which were used for the training set and 17 of which for the external test set. Pharmacophore-based 3D-QSAR model (or hypothesis) was developed using the Discovery Studio program. A user-defined "glucuronidation site" feature was forcefully included in a pharmacophore hypothesis. VolSurf-based 3D-QSAR model was generated using the VolSurf program. This involves calculation of VolSurf descriptors, variable selection with the FFD algorithm, and partial least squares (PLS) analyses. The best pharmacophore model (r(2) = 0.736) consists of one glucuronidation site, one hydrogen bond acceptor, and three hydrophobic regions. Using this model, K(m) values for 14 of 17 test substrates were predicted within one log unit. The yielded VolSurf (PLS) model with two components shows statistical significance in both fitting and internal predicting (r(2) = 0.866, q(2) = 0.728). Further, the K(m) values for all test substrates were predicted within one log unit. In addition, the VolSurf model reveals an overlay of chemical features influencing the enzyme-substrate binding. Those include molecular size and shape, integy moments, capacity factors, best volumes of DRY probe, H-bonding, and log P. In conclusion, the pharmacophore and VolSurf approaches are successfully utilized to establish predictive models for UGT2B7. The derived models should be an efficient tool for high throughput prediction of UGT2B7 metabolism.

  11. Flood Risk and Flood hazard maps - Visualisation of hydrological risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spachinger, Karl; Dorner, Wolfgang; Metzka, Rudolf [University of Applied Sciences Deggendorf (Germany); Serrhini, Kamal [Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, Genie des Systemes Urbains, France, and Universite Francois Rabelais, Unite Mixte de Recherche, Tours (France); Fuchs, Sven [Institute of Mountain Risk Engineering, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: karl.spachinger@fhd.edu

    2008-11-01

    Hydrological models are an important basis of flood forecasting and early warning systems. They provide significant data on hydrological risks. In combination with other modelling techniques, such as hydrodynamic models, they can be used to assess the extent and impact of hydrological events. The new European Flood Directive forces all member states to evaluate flood risk on a catchment scale, to compile maps of flood hazard and flood risk for prone areas, and to inform on a local level about these risks. Flood hazard and flood risk maps are important tools to communicate flood risk to different target groups. They provide compiled information to relevant public bodies such as water management authorities, municipalities, or civil protection agencies, but also to the broader public. For almost each section of a river basin, run-off and water levels can be defined based on the likelihood of annual recurrence, using a combination of hydrological and hydrodynamic models, supplemented by an analysis of historical records and mappings. In combination with data related to the vulnerability of a region risk maps can be derived. The project RISKCATCH addressed these issues of hydrological risk and vulnerability assessment focusing on the flood risk management process. Flood hazard maps and flood risk maps were compiled for Austrian and German test sites taking into account existing national and international guidelines. These maps were evaluated by eye-tracking using experimental graphic semiology. Sets of small-scale as well as large-scale risk maps were presented to test persons in order to (1) study reading behaviour as well as understanding and (2) deduce the most attractive components that are essential for target-oriented risk communication. A cognitive survey asking for negative and positive aspects and complexity of each single map complemented the experimental graphic semiology. The results indicate how risk maps can be improved to fit the needs of different user

  12. Flood resilience urban territories. Flood resilience urban territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraud, Hélène; Barroca, Bruno; Hubert, Gilles

    2010-05-01

    The flood's impact during the last twenty years on French territory reveals our lack of preparation towards large-extended floods which might cause the stopping of companies' activity, services, or lead to housing unavailability during several months. New Orleans' case has to exemplify us: four years after the disaster, the city still couldn't get back its dynamism. In France, more than 300 towns are flood-exposed. While these towns are the mainspring of territory's development, it is likely that the majority of them couldn't get up quickly after a large-extended flood. Therefore, to understand and improve the urban territory's resilience facing floods is a real stake for territory's development. Urban technical networks supply, unify and irrigate all urban territories' constituents. Characterizing their flood resilience can be interesting to understand better urban resilience. In this context, waste management during and after floods is completely crucial. During a flood, the waste management network can become dysfunctional (roads cut, waste storage installations or waste treatment flooded). How can the mayor respect his obligation to guarantee salubrity and security in his city? In post flood the question is even more problematic. The waste management network presents a real stake for territory's restart. After a flood, building materials, lopped-of branches, furniture, business stocks, farm stocks, mud, rubbles, animal cadavers are wet, mixed, even polluted by hydrocarbons or toxic substances. The waste's volume can be significant. Sanitary and environmental risks can be crucial. In view of this situation, waste's management in post crisis period raises a real problem. What to make of this waste? How to collect it? Where to stock it? How to process it? Who is responsible? Answering these questions is all the more strategic since this waste is the mark of disaster. Thus, cleaning will be the first population's and local actor's reflex in order to forget the

  13. Application of flood index in monitoring Flood-plain ecosystems (by the example of the Middle Ob flood-plain)

    OpenAIRE

    Bolotnov, V. P.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of regional hydroecological monitoring has been developed for the flood-plain of the Middle Ob. Its object is to control the state of flood-plain ecosystem productivity for organization of scientific, regional-adopted and ecologically regulated nature management. For this purpose hydroecological zoning of flood-plain territory performed, the most representative stations of water-gauge observations for each flood-plain zone organized, the scheme of flood-plain flooding was prepared...

  14. Probabilistic Flood Defence Assessment Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slomp Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The WTI2017 project is responsible for the development of flood defence assessment tools for the 3600 km of Dutch primary flood defences, dikes/levees, dunes and hydraulic structures. These tools are necessary, as per January 1st 2017, the new flood risk management policy for the Netherlands will be implemented. Then, the seven decades old design practice (maximum water level methodology of 1958 and two decades old safety standards (and maximum hydraulic load methodology of 1996 will formally be replaced by a more risked based approach for the national policy in flood risk management. The formal flood defence assessment is an important part of this new policy, especially for flood defence managers, since national and regional funding for reinforcement is based on this assessment. This new flood defence policy is based on a maximum allowable probability of flooding. For this, a maximum acceptable individual risk was determined at 1/100 000 per year, this is the probability of life loss of for every protected area in the Netherlands. Safety standards of flood defences were then determined based on this acceptable individual risk. The results were adjusted based on information from cost -benefit analysis, societal risk and large scale societal disruption due to the failure of critical infrastructure e.g. power stations. The resulting riskbased flood defence safety standards range from a 300 to a 100 000 year return period for failure. Two policy studies, WV21 (Safety from floods in the 21st century and VNK-2 (the National Flood Risk in 2010 provided the essential information to determine the new risk based safety standards for flood defences. The WTI2017 project will provide the safety assessment tools based on these new standards and is thus an essential element for the implementation of this policy change. A major issue to be tackled was the development of user-friendly tools, as the new assessment is to be carried out by personnel of the

  15. Temporal clustering of floods in Germany: Do flood-rich and flood-poor periods exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Bruno; Nguyen, Viet Dung; Vorogushyn, Sergiy

    2016-10-01

    The repeated occurrence of exceptional floods within a few years, such as the Rhine floods in 1993 and 1995 and the Elbe and Danube floods in 2002 and 2013, suggests that floods in Central Europe may be organized in flood-rich and flood-poor periods. This hypothesis is studied by testing the significance of temporal clustering in flood occurrence (peak-over-threshold) time series for 68 catchments across Germany for the period 1932-2005. To assess the robustness of the results, different methods are used: Firstly, the index of dispersion, which quantifies the departure from a homogeneous Poisson process, is investigated. Further, the time-variation of the flood occurrence rate is derived by non-parametric kernel implementation and the significance of clustering is evaluated via parametric and non-parametric tests. Although the methods give consistent overall results, the specific results differ considerably. Hence, we recommend applying different methods when investigating flood clustering. For flood estimation and risk management, it is of relevance to understand whether clustering changes with flood severity and time scale. To this end, clustering is assessed for different thresholds and time scales. It is found that the majority of catchments show temporal clustering at the 5% significance level for low thresholds and time scales of one to a few years. However, clustering decreases substantially with increasing threshold and time scale. We hypothesize that flood clustering in Germany is mainly caused by catchment memory effects along with intra- to inter-annual climate variability, and that decadal climate variability plays a minor role.

  16. Towards Interactive Flood Governance: changing approaches in Dutch flood policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. van Ast (Jacko)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In the course of history, flooding of rivers and the sea brought misery to humanity. Low lying delta’s of large rivers like Bangladesh, New Orleans, the Nile delta or the Netherlands belong to the most vulnerable for flood disasters. Since ancient times people pondered

  17. FLOOD AND FLOOD CONTROL OF THE YELLOW RIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenxue LI; Huirang WANG; Yunqi SU; Naiqian JIANG; Yuanfeng ZHANG

    2002-01-01

    The Yellow River is the cradle of China. It had long been the center of politics, economics and culture of China in history. Large coverage flood disaster occurred frequently in the Yellow River basin and the losses were often heavy. Thus, the Yellow River is also considered as the serious hidden danger of China. Since the founding of new China, structural and non-structural systems of flood control have been established basically. Tremendous successes have been made on flood control. Into the 21century, flood control standard of the Lower Yellow River has been increased significantly with the operation of the Xiaolangdi Reservoir. However, problems of the Yellow River are complicated and the tasks for solving these problems are arduous. Particularly, the sedimentation problem can't be solved completely in the near future. The situation of "suspended river" and threat of flood will long exist.Therefore, supported by rapid social and economical development of the nation and relied on advanced technology, the flood control system shall be perfected. Meantime, study of the Yellow River shall be enhanced in order to better understand the flood, get with it and use it thus to reduce flood disaster.

  18. Storage and flood routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, R.W.; Godfrey, R.G.

    1960-01-01

    The basic equations used in flood routing are developed from the law of continuity. In each method the assumptions are discussed to enable the user to select an appropriate technique. In the stage-storage method the storage is related to the mean gage height in the reach under consideration. In the discharge-storage method the storage is determined, from weighted values of inflow and outflow discharge. In the reservoir-storage method the storage is considered as a function of outflow discharge alone. A detailed example is given for each method to illustrate that particular technique.

  19. Flood Insurance Rate Maps and Base Flood Elevations, FIRM, DFIRM, BFE - MO 2014 Springfield FEMA Base Flood Elevations (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This polyline layer indicates the approximate effective FEMA Base Flood Elevation (BFE) associated with the corresponding Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA). Each line...

  20. Flood Insurance Rate Maps and Base Flood Elevations, FIRM, DFIRM, BFE - MO 2010 Springfield FEMA Base Flood Elevations (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This polyline layer indicates the approximate effective FEMA Base Flood Elevations (BFE) associated with the corresponding Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA). Each...

  1. Estancia Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  2. Elephant Butte Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  3. Sierra County Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  4. The Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, Charles

    2015-04-01

    As population growth and economic growth take place, and as climate change accelerates, many regions across the globe are finding themselves increasingly vulnerable to flooding. A recent OECD study of the exposure of the world's large port cities to coastal flooding found that 40 million people were exposed to a 1 in 100 year coastal flood event in 2005, and the total value of exposed assets was about US 3,000 billion, or 5% of global GDP. By the 2070s, those numbers were estimated to increase to 150 million people and US 35,000 billion, or roughly 9% of projected global GDP. Impoverished people in developing countries are particularly at risk because they often live in flood-prone areas and lack the resources to respond. WRI and its Dutch partners - Deltares, IVM-VU University Amsterdam, Utrecht University, and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency - are in the initial stages of developing a robust set of river flood and coastal storm surge risk measures that show the extent of flooding under a variety of scenarios (both current and future), together with the projected human and economic impacts of these flood scenarios. These flood risk data and information will be accessible via an online, easy-to-use Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer. We will also investigate the viability, benefits, and costs of a wide array of flood risk reduction measures that could be implemented in a variety of geographic and socio-economic settings. Together, the activities we propose have the potential for saving hundreds of thousands of lives and strengthening the resiliency and security of many millions more, especially those who are most vulnerable. Mr. Iceland will present Version 1.0 of the Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer and provide a preview of additional elements of the Analyzer to be released in the coming years.

  5. Flood Risk, Flood Mitigation, and Location Choice: Evaluating the National Flood Insurance Program's Community Rating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qin; Davlasheridze, Meri

    2016-06-01

    Climate change is expected to worsen the negative effects of natural disasters like floods. The negative impacts, however, can be mitigated by individuals' adjustments through migration and relocation behaviors. Previous literature has identified flood risk as one significant driver in relocation decisions, but no prior study examines the effect of the National Flood Insurance Program's voluntary program-the Community Rating System (CRS)-on residential location choice. This article fills this gap and tests the hypothesis that flood risk and the CRS-creditable flood control activities affect residential location choices. We employ a two-stage sorting model to empirically estimate the effects. In the first stage, individuals' risk perception and preference heterogeneity for the CRS activities are considered, while mean effects of flood risk and the CRS activities are estimated in the second stage. We then estimate heterogeneous marginal willingness to pay (WTP) for the CRS activities by category. Results show that age, ethnicity and race, educational attainment, and prior exposure to risk explain risk perception. We find significant values for the CRS-creditable mitigation activities, which provides empirical evidence for the benefits associated with the program. The marginal WTP for an additional credit point earned for public information activities, including hazard disclosure, is found to be the highest. Results also suggest that water amenities dominate flood risk. Thus, high amenity values may increase exposure to flood risk, and flood mitigation projects should be strategized in coastal regions accordingly.

  6. Water NOT wanted - Coastal Floods and Flooding Protection in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo Sass

    2016-01-01

    vulnerability towards coastal flooding, the country has experienced severe storm surges throughout history, and hitherto safe areas will become increasingly at risk this century as the climate changes. Historically a seafarers’ nation, Denmark has always been connected with the sea. From medieval time ports...... acceptance of floods has decreased from a “this is a natural consequence of living by the sea” to an explicit: Water Not Wanted! This paper provides a brief overview of floods and flooding protection issues in Denmark (Ch. 2 & Ch. 3), the current legislation (Ch. 4), and discusses challenges in relation...... to climate change adaptation, risk reduction, and to potential ways of rethinking flooding protection in strategies that also incorporate other uses (Ch. 5)....

  7. Flood Risk and Asset Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Within the UK for example, the flooding of the village of Boscastle (August, 2004), that took place over a day, Roca -Collel and Davison (2010), can...Hazard Research Centre. Roca -Collel, M. and Davison, M. (2010). "Two dimensional model analysis of flash- flood processes: application to the Boscastle

  8. Geomorphological factors of flash floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Yulia

    2016-04-01

    Growing anthropogenic load, rise of extreme meteorological events frequency and total precipitation depth often lead to increasing danger of catastrophic fluvial processes worldwide. Flash floods are one of the most dangerous and less understood types of them. Difficulties of their study are mainly related to short duration of single events, remoteness and hard access to origin areas. Most detailed researches of flash floods focus on hydrological parameters of the flow itself and its meteorological factors. At the same time, importance of the basin geological and geomorphological structure for flash floods generation and the role they play in global sediment redistribution is yet poorly understood. However, understanding and quantitative assessment of these features is a real basis for a complete concept of factors, characteristics and dynamics of flash floods. This work is a review of published data on flash floods, and focuses on the geomorphological factors of the phenomenon. We consider both individual roles and interactions between different geomorphological features (the whole basin parameters, characteristics of the single slopes and valley bottom). Special attention is paid to critical values of certain factors. This approach also highlights the gaps or less studied factors of flash floods. Finally, all data is organized into a complex diagram that may be used for flash floods modeling. This also may help to reach a new level of flash flood predictions and risk assessment.

  9. Extreme flooding tolerance in Rorippa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akman, M.; Bhikharie, A.; Mustroph, A.; Sasidharan, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    Low oxygen stress imposed by floods creates a strong selection force shaping plant ecosystems in flood-prone areas. Plants inhabiting these environments adopt various adaptations and survival strategies to cope with increasing water depths. Two Rorippa species, R. sylvestris and R. amphibia that gro

  10. Prediction and assimilation of surf-zone processes using a Bayesian network: Part II: Inverse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Holland, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    A Bayesian network model has been developed to simulate a relatively simple problem of wave propagation in the surf zone (detailed in Part I). Here, we demonstrate that this Bayesian model can provide both inverse modeling and data-assimilation solutions for predicting offshore wave heights and depth estimates given limited wave-height and depth information from an onshore location. The inverse method is extended to allow data assimilation using observational inputs that are not compatible with deterministic solutions of the problem. These inputs include sand bar positions (instead of bathymetry) and estimates of the intensity of wave breaking (instead of wave-height observations). Our results indicate that wave breaking information is essential to reduce prediction errors. In many practical situations, this information could be provided from a shore-based observer or from remote-sensing systems. We show that various combinations of the assimilated inputs significantly reduce the uncertainty in the estimates of water depths and wave heights in the model domain. Application of the Bayesian network model to new field data demonstrated significant predictive skill (R2 = 0.7) for the inverse estimate of a month-long time series of offshore wave heights. The Bayesian inverse results include uncertainty estimates that were shown to be most accurate when given uncertainty in the inputs (e.g., depth and tuning parameters). Furthermore, the inverse modeling was extended to directly estimate tuning parameters associated with the underlying wave-process model. The inverse estimates of the model parameters not only showed an offshore wave height dependence consistent with results of previous studies but the uncertainty estimates of the tuning parameters also explain previously reported variations in the model parameters.

  11. Estimate of Boundary-Layer Depth Over Beijing, China, Using Doppler Lidar Data During SURF-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meng; Gao, Zhiqiu; Miao, Shiguang; Chen, Fei; LeMone, Margaret A.; Li, Ju; Hu, Fei; Wang, Linlin

    2016-09-01

    Planetary boundary-layer (PBL) structure was investigated using observations from a Doppler lidar and the 325-m Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) meteorological tower in the centre of Beijing during the summer 2015 Study of Urban-impacts on Rainfall and Fog/haze (SURF-2015) field campaign. Using six fair-weather days of lidar and tower data under clear to cloudy skies, we evaluate the ability of the Doppler lidar to probe the urban boundary-layer structure, and then propose a composite method for estimating the diurnal cycle of the PBL depth using the Doppler lidar. For the convective boundary layer (CBL), a threshold method using vertical velocity variance (σ _w^2 >0.1 m2s^{-2}) is used, since it provides more reliable CBL depths than a conventional maximum wind-shear method. The nocturnal boundary-layer (NBL) depth is defined as the height at which σ _w^2 decreases to 10 % of its near-surface maximum minus a background variance. The PBL depths determined by combining these methods have average values ranging from ≈ 270 to ≈ 1500 m for the six days, with the greatest maximum depths associated with clear skies. Release of stored and anthropogenic heat contributes to the maintenance of turbulence until late evening, keeping the NBL near-neutral and deeper at night than would be expected over a natural surface. The NBL typically becomes more shallow with time, but grows in the presence of low-level nocturnal jets. While current results are promising, data over a broader range of conditions are needed to fully develop our PBL-depth algorithms.

  12. Estimate of Boundary-Layer Depth Over Beijing, China, Using Doppler Lidar Data During SURF-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meng; Gao, Zhiqiu; Miao, Shiguang; Chen, Fei; LeMone, Margaret A.; Li, Ju; Hu, Fei; Wang, Linlin

    2017-03-01

    Planetary boundary-layer (PBL) structure was investigated using observations from a Doppler lidar and the 325-m Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) meteorological tower in the centre of Beijing during the summer 2015 Study of Urban-impacts on Rainfall and Fog/haze (SURF-2015) field campaign. Using six fair-weather days of lidar and tower data under clear to cloudy skies, we evaluate the ability of the Doppler lidar to probe the urban boundary-layer structure, and then propose a composite method for estimating the diurnal cycle of the PBL depth using the Doppler lidar. For the convective boundary layer (CBL), a threshold method using vertical velocity variance (σ _w^2 >0.1 m2s^{-2}) is used, since it provides more reliable CBL depths than a conventional maximum wind-shear method. The nocturnal boundary-layer (NBL) depth is defined as the height at which σ _w^2 decreases to 10 % of its near-surface maximum minus a background variance. The PBL depths determined by combining these methods have average values ranging from ≈ 270 to ≈ 1500 m for the six days, with the greatest maximum depths associated with clear skies. Release of stored and anthropogenic heat contributes to the maintenance of turbulence until late evening, keeping the NBL near-neutral and deeper at night than would be expected over a natural surface. The NBL typically becomes more shallow with time, but grows in the presence of low-level nocturnal jets. While current results are promising, data over a broader range of conditions are needed to fully develop our PBL-depth algorithms.

  13. Developing a Malaysia flood model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseldine, Lucy; Baxter, Stephen; Wheeler, Phil; Thomson, Tina

    2014-05-01

    Faced with growing exposures in Malaysia, insurers have a need for models to help them assess their exposure to flood losses. The need for an improved management of flood risks has been further highlighted by the 2011 floods in Thailand and recent events in Malaysia. The increasing demand for loss accumulation tools in Malaysia has lead to the development of the first nationwide probabilistic Malaysia flood model, which we present here. The model is multi-peril, including river flooding for thousands of kilometres of river and rainfall-driven surface water flooding in major cities, which may cause losses equivalent to river flood in some high-density urban areas. The underlying hazard maps are based on a 30m digital surface model (DSM) and 1D/2D hydraulic modelling in JFlow and RFlow. Key mitigation schemes such as the SMART tunnel and drainage capacities are also considered in the model. The probabilistic element of the model is driven by a stochastic event set based on rainfall data, hence enabling per-event and annual figures to be calculated for a specific insurance portfolio and a range of return periods. Losses are estimated via depth-damage vulnerability functions which link the insured damage to water depths for different property types in Malaysia. The model provides a unique insight into Malaysian flood risk profiles and provides insurers with return period estimates of flood damage and loss to property portfolios through loss exceedance curve outputs. It has been successfully validated against historic flood events in Malaysia and is now being successfully used by insurance companies in the Malaysian market to obtain reinsurance cover.

  14. Size spectra of bubbles in the foam patches and of sea salt nuclei over the surf zone

    OpenAIRE

    Podzimek, Josef

    2011-01-01

    The size distribution of bubbles in the foam patches and the size distribution of giant chloridenuclei over the surf zone both follow the Nukiyama-Tanassava size distribution function. Theslope of the size distribution curve for bubbles depends, however, on the residence time of thefoam patch at the ocean surface. The best fit of the sea salt nuclei size distribution curve wasfound for s = 0.333 in the Nukiyama-Tanassava distribution.DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.1984.tb00241.x

  15. Flash Flooding and 'Muddy Floods' on Arable Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, J.

    2012-04-01

    Flash flooding is often associated with upland, grazed catchments. It does, however, occur in lowland arable-dominated areas. In southern England, notable examples have occurred at Rottingdean (Brighton) in 1987, at Faringdon (Oxfordshire) in 1993 and at Breaky Bottom vineyard (near Brighton) in 1987 and 2000. All resulted in damage to nearby property. Runoff was largely from recently cultivated ground. The characteristics of such floods are: Rapid runoff from bare soil surfaces. Saturated excess overland flow is likely in the early parts of storms but high intensity rainfall on loamy soils results in crusting and Hortonian overland flow; High rates of erosion; Sediment transport to downvalley sites causing property damage ('muddy flooding'). Muddy floods are known from several areas of Europe e.g. Belgium, northern France, South Limburg (Netherlands) and Slovakia (Boardman et al 2006). In other areas they occur but have gone unreported or are classified under different terms. The necessary conditions for occurrence are areas of arable land which is bare at times of the year when there is a risk of storms. For muddy floods to cause damage (and hence be reported), vulnerable property must lie downstream from such areas of arable land. In some areas the incidence of muddy floods relates to autumn and early winter rainfall and winter cereal crops (e.g. southern England). In continental Europe, flooding is more common in summer and is associated with convectional storms and land uses including sugar beet, maize and potatoes. Predictions of increased numbers of high-intensity storms with future climate change, suggest that arable areas will continue to generate both flash floods and muddy floods.

  16. Improving Gas Flooding Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid Grigg; Robert Svec; Zheng Zeng; Alexander Mikhalin; Yi Lin; Guoqiang Yin; Solomon Ampir; Rashid Kassim

    2008-03-31

    This study focuses on laboratory studies with related analytical and numerical models, as well as work with operators for field tests to enhance our understanding of and capabilities for more efficient enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Much of the work has been performed at reservoir conditions. This includes a bubble chamber and several core flood apparatus developed or modified to measure interfacial tension (IFT), critical micelle concentration (CMC), foam durability, surfactant sorption at reservoir conditions, and pressure and temperature effects on foam systems.Carbon dioxide and N{sub 2} systems have been considered, under both miscible and immiscible conditions. The injection of CO2 into brine-saturated sandstone and carbonate core results in brine saturation reduction in the range of 62 to 82% brine in the tests presented in this paper. In each test, over 90% of the reduction occurred with less than 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected, with very little additional brine production after 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected. Adsorption of all considered surfactant is a significant problem. Most of the effect is reversible, but the amount required for foaming is large in terms of volume and cost for all considered surfactants. Some foams increase resistance to the value beyond what is practical in the reservoir. Sandstone, limestone, and dolomite core samples were tested. Dissolution of reservoir rock and/or cement, especially carbonates, under acid conditions of CO2 injection is a potential problem in CO2 injection into geological formations. Another potential change in reservoir injectivity and productivity will be the precipitation of dissolved carbonates as the brine flows and pressure decreases. The results of this report provide methods for determining surfactant sorption and can be used to aid in the determination of surfactant requirements for reservoir use in a CO{sub 2}-foam flood for mobility control. It also provides data to be used to determine rock permeability

  17. Flood hazard and management: a UK perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheater, Howard S

    2006-08-15

    This paper discusses whether flood hazard in the UK is increasing and considers issues of flood risk management. Urban development is known to increase fluvial flood frequency, hence design measures are routinely implemented to minimize the impact. Studies suggest that historical effects, while potentially large at small scale, are not significant for large river basins. Storm water flooding within the urban environment is an area where flood hazard is inadequately defined; new methods are needed to assess and manage flood risk. Development on flood plains has led to major capital expenditure on flood protection, but government is attempting to strengthen the planning role of the environmental regulator to prevent this. Rural land use management has intensified significantly over the past 30 years, leading to concerns that flood risk has increased, at least at local scale; the implications for catchment-scale flooding are unclear. New research is addressing this issue, and more broadly, the role of land management in reducing flood risk. Climate change impacts on flooding and current guidelines for UK practice are reviewed. Large uncertainties remain, not least for the occurrence of extreme precipitation, but precautionary guidance is in place. Finally, current levels of flood protection are discussed. Reassessment of flood hazard has led to targets for increased flood protection, but despite important developments to communicate flood risk to the public, much remains to be done to increase public awareness of flood hazard.

  18. Somerset County Flood Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Heidi L.

    2007-01-01

    The timely warning of a flood is crucial to the protection of lives and property. One has only to recall the floods of August 2, 1973, September 16 and 17, 1999, and April 16, 2007, in Somerset County, New Jersey, in which lives were lost and major property damage occurred, to realize how costly, especially in terms of human life, an unexpected flood can be. Accurate forecasts and warnings cannot be made, however, without detailed information about precipitation and streamflow in the drainage basin. Since the mid 1960's, the National Weather Service (NWS) has been able to forecast flooding on larger streams in Somerset County, such as the Raritan and Millstone Rivers. Flooding on smaller streams in urban areas was more difficult to predict. In response to this problem the NWS, in cooperation with the Green Brook Flood Control Commission, installed a precipitation gage in North Plainfield, and two flash-flood alarms, one on Green Brook at Seeley Mills and one on Stony Brook at Watchung, in the early 1970's. In 1978, New Jersey's first countywide flood-warning system was installed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Somerset County. This system consisted of a network of eight stage and discharge gages equipped with precipitation gages linked by telephone telemetry and eight auxiliary precipitation gages. The gages were installed throughout the county to collect precipitation and runoff data that could be used to improve flood-monitoring capabilities and flood-frequency estimates. Recognizing the need for more detailed hydrologic information for Somerset County, the USGS, in cooperation with Somerset County, designed and installed the Somerset County Flood Information System (SCFIS) in 1990. This system is part of a statewide network of stream gages, precipitation gages, weather stations, and tide gages that collect data in real time. The data provided by the SCFIS improve the flood forecasting ability of the NWS and aid Somerset County and municipal agencies in

  19. Lateral Flooding Associated to Wave Flood Generation on River Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Núñez, C.; Parrot, J.-F.

    2016-06-01

    This research provides a wave flood simulation using a high resolution LiDAR Digital Terrain Model. The simulation is based on the generation of waves of different amplitudes that modify the river level in such a way that water invades the adjacent areas. The proposed algorithm firstly reconstitutes the original river surface of the studied river section and then defines the percentage of water loss when the wave floods move downstream. This procedure was applied to a gently slope area in the lower basin of Coatzacoalcos river, Veracruz (Mexico) defining the successive areas where lateral flooding occurs on its downstream movement.

  20. Diseño de un programa de Surf recreativo enfocado a colectivos con Síndrome de Down de 6 a 10 años

    OpenAIRE

    Iriarte Gomara, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es diseñar un programa de surf recreativo enfocado a colectivos con Síndrome de Down de 6 a 10 años. El Síndrome de Down se define como una discapacidad intelectual causada por una alteración en el par de cromosomas 21 (OMS, 2011). Resulta de especial relevancia el tratamiento de dicha discapacidad de manera no farmacológica, destacando la actividad física, en este caso el surf, como elemento inclusivo a nivel físico, psicológico y social. Se analizan distintos pro...

  1. Socio-hydrological flood models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendrecht, Marlies; Viglione, Alberto; Blöschl, Günter

    2017-04-01

    Long-term feedbacks between humans and floods may lead to complex phenomena such as coping strategies, levee effects, call effects, adaptation effects, and poverty traps. Such phenomena cannot be represented by traditional flood risk approaches that are based on scenarios. Instead, dynamic models of the coupled human-flood interactions are needed. These types of models should include both social and hydrological variables as well as other relevant variables, such as economic, environmental, political or technical, in order to adequately represent the feedbacks and processes that are of importance in human-flood systems. These socio-hydrological models may play an important role in integrated flood risk management by exploring a wider range of possible futures, including unexpected phenomena, than is possible by creating and studying scenarios. New insights might come to light about the long term effects of certain measures on society and the natural system. Here we discuss a dynamic framework for flood risk and review the models that are presented in literature. We propose a way forward for socio-hydrological modelling of the human-flood system.

  2. From flood management systems to flood resilient systems: integration of flood resilient technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salagnac, J.-L.; Diez, J.; Tourbier, J.

    2012-04-01

    Flooding has always been a major risk world-wide. Humans chose to live and develop settlements close to water (rivers, seas) due to the resources water brings, i.e. food, energy, capacity to economically transport persons and goods, and recreation. However, the risk from flooding, including pluvial flooding, often offsets these huge advantages. Floods sometimes have terrible consequences from both a human and economic point of view. The permanence and growth of urban areas in flood-prone zones despite these risks is a clear indication of the choices of concerned human groups. The observed growing concentration of population along the sea shore, the increase of urban population worldwide, the exponential growth of the world population and possibly climate change are factors that confirm flood will remain a major issue for the next decades. Flood management systems are designed and implemented to cope with such situations. In spite of frequent events, lessons look to be difficult to draw out and progresses are rather slow. The list of potential triggers to improve flood management systems is nevertheless well established: information, education, awareness raising, alert, prevention, protection, feedback from events, ... Many disciplines are concerned which cover a wide range of soft and hard sciences. A huge amount of both printed and electronic literature is available. Regulations are abundant. In spite of all these potentially favourable elements, similar questions spring up after each new significant event: • Was the event forecast precise enough? • Was the alert system efficient? • Why were buildings built in identified flood prone areas? • Why did the concerned population not follow instructions? • Why did the dike break? • What should we do to avoid it happens again? • What about damages evaluation, wastes and debris evacuation, infrastructures and buildings repair, activity recovery, temporary relocation of inhabitants, health concerns, insurance

  3. Flooding Fragility Experiments and Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tahhan, Antonio [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Muchmore, Cody [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nichols, Larinda [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bhandari, Bishwo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pope, Chad [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report describes the work that has been performed on flooding fragility, both the experimental tests being carried out and the probabilistic fragility predictive models being produced in order to use the text results. Flooding experiments involving full-scale doors have commenced in the Portal Evaluation Tank. The goal of these experiments is to develop a full-scale component flooding experiment protocol and to acquire data that can be used to create Bayesian regression models representing the fragility of these components. This work is in support of the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway external hazards evaluation research and development.

  4. Adaptive flood risk management in urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, H.L.P.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Runhaar, H.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    In recent times a shift has occurred from traditional flood management focused on the prevention of flooding (reduction of the probability) only, to more adaptive strategies focused on the reduction of the impacts of floods as a means to improve the resilience of occupied flood plains to increased r

  5. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Flood Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Bruce D.

    1983-01-01

    Describes events leading to a flood in the Wehr Chemistry Laboratory at Marquette University, discussing steps taken to minimize damage upon discovery. Analyzes the problem of flooding in the chemical laboratory and outlines seven steps of flood control: prevention; minimization; early detection; stopping the flood; evaluation; clean-up; and…

  6. Local Flood Action Groups: Governance And Resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forrest, Steven; Trell, Elen-Maarja; Woltjer, Johan; Macoun, Milan; Maier, Karel

    2015-01-01

    A diverse range of citizen groups focusing on flood risk management have been identified in several European countries. The paper discusses the role of flood action (citizen) groups in the context of flood resilience and will do this by analysing the UK and its diverse range of flood groups. These c

  7. On the resonance hypothesis of storm surge and surf beat run-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postacioglu, Nazmi; Sinan Özeren, M.; Canlı, Umut

    2017-06-01

    Resonance has recently been proposed as the fundamental underlying mechanism that shapes the amplification in coastal run-up for storm surges and surf beats, which are long-wavelength disturbances created by fluid velocity differences between the wave groups and the regions outside the wave groups. It is without doubt that the resonance plays a role in run-up phenomena of various kinds; however, we think that the extent to which it plays its role has not been completely understood. For incident waves, which we assume to be linear, the best approach to investigate the role played by the resonance would be to calculate the normal modes by taking radiation damping into account and then testing how those modes are excited by the incident waves. Such modes diverge offshore, but they can still be used to calculate the run-up. There are a small number of previous works that attempt to calculate the resonant frequencies, but they do not relate the amplitudes of the normal modes to those of the incident wave. This is because, by not including radiation damping, they automatically induce a resonance that leads to infinite amplitudes, thus preventing them from predicting the exact contribution of the resonance to coastal run-up. In this study we consider two different coastal geometries: an infinitely wide beach with a constant slope connecting to a flat-bottomed deep ocean and a bay with sloping bottom, again, connected to a deep ocean. For the fully 1-D problem we find significant resonance if the bathymetric discontinuity is large.The linearisation of the seaward boundary condition leads to slightly smaller run-ups. For the 2-D ocean case the analysis shows that the wave confinement is very effective when the bay is narrow. The bay aspect ratio is the determining factor for the radiation damping. One reason why we include a bathymetric discontinuity is to mimic some natural settings where bays and gulfs may lead to abrupt depth gradients such as the Tokyo Bay. The other

  8. Flood damage, vulnerability and risk perception - challenges for flood damage research

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in flood damage analysis mainly focuses on the economic evaluation of tangible flood effects. It is contended in this discussion paper that important economic, social and ecological aspects of flood-related vulnerabilities are neglected. It is a challenge for flood research to develop a wider perspective for flood damage evaluation.

  9. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-08-05

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general procedure were proposed for urban flood risk analysis. Urban Flood Simulation Model (UFSM) and Urban Flood Damage Assessment Model (UFDAM) were integrated to estimate the flood risk in the Pudong flood protection area (Shanghai, China). S-shaped functions were adopted to represent flood return period and damage (R-D) curves. The study results show that flood control works could significantly reduce the flood risk within the 66-year flood return period and the flood risk was reduced by 15.59%. However, the flood risk was only reduced by 7.06% when the flood return period exceeded 66-years. Hence, it is difficult to meet the increasing demands for flood control solely relying on structural measures. The R-D function is suitable to describe the changes of flood control capacity. This frame work can assess the flood risk reduction due to flood control measures, and provide crucial information for strategy development and planning adaptation.

  10. Interacting effects of latitude, mass, age, and sex on winter survival of Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata): Implications for differential migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Esler, Daniel N.; Iverson, Samuel A.; Ward, David; Boyd, Sean; Kirk, Molly; Lewis, Tyler L.; VanStratt, Corey S.; Brodhead, Katherine M.; Hupp, Jerry; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    We quantified variation in winter survival of Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata (L., 1758)) across nearly 30° of latitude on the Pacific coast of North America to evaluate potential effects on winter distributions, including observed differential distributions of age and sex classes. We monitored fates of 297 radio-marked Surf Scoters at three study sites: (1) near the northern periphery of their wintering range in southeast Alaska, USA, (2) the range core in British Columbia, Canada, and (3) the southern periphery in Baja California, Mexico. We detected 34 mortalities and determined that survival averaged lower at the range peripheries than in the range core, was lower during mid-winter than during late winter at all sites, and was positively correlated with body mass within locations. Although neither age nor sex class had direct effects, mass effects led to differential survival patterns among classes. When simultaneously incorporating these interacting influences, adult males of mean mass for their location had highest survival at the northern range periphery in Alaska, whereas adult females and juveniles had higher survival at the range core and the southern periphery. Our observations help to explain patterns of differential migration and distribution reported for this species and highlight seasonal periods (mid-winter) and locations (range peripheries) of elevated levels of mortality for demographically important age–sex classes (adult females).

  11. A Comprehensive Motion Estimation Technique for the Improvement of EIS Methods Based on the SURF Algorithm and Kalman Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xuemin; Hao, Qun; Xie, Mengdi

    2016-04-07

    Video stabilization is an important technology for removing undesired motion in videos. This paper presents a comprehensive motion estimation method for electronic image stabilization techniques, integrating the speeded up robust features (SURF) algorithm, modified random sample consensus (RANSAC), and the Kalman filter, and also taking camera scaling and conventional camera translation and rotation into full consideration. Using SURF in sub-pixel space, feature points were located and then matched. The false matched points were removed by modified RANSAC. Global motion was estimated by using the feature points and modified cascading parameters, which reduced the accumulated errors in a series of frames and improved the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) by 8.2 dB. A specific Kalman filter model was established by considering the movement and scaling of scenes. Finally, video stabilization was achieved with filtered motion parameters using the modified adjacent frame compensation. The experimental results proved that the target images were stabilized even when the vibrating amplitudes of the video become increasingly large.

  12. Urban flood risk assessment using sewer flooding databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caradot, Nicolas; Granger, Damien; Chapgier, Jean; Cherqui, Frédéric; Chocat, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable water management is a global challenge for the 21st century. One key aspect remains protection against urban flooding. The main objective is to ensure or maintain an adequate level of service for all inhabitants. However, level of service is still difficult to assess and the high-risk locations difficult to identify. In this article, we propose a methodology, which (i) allows water managers to measure the service provided by the urban drainage system with regard to protection against urban flooding; and (ii) helps stakeholders to determine effective strategies for improving the service provided. One key aspect of this work is to use a database of sewer flood event records to assess flood risk. Our methodology helps urban water managers to assess the risk of sewer flooding; this approach does not seek to predict flooding but rather to inform decision makers on the current level of risk and on actions which need to be taken to reduce the risk. This work is based on a comprehensive definition of risk, including territorial vulnerability and perceptions of urban water stakeholders. This paper presents the results and the methodological contributions from implementing the methodology on two case studies: the cities of Lyon and Mulhouse.

  13. Flood Progression Modelling and Impact Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mioc, Darka; Anton, François; Nickerson, B.

    People living in the lower valley of the St. John River, New Brunswick, Canada, frequently experience flooding when the river overflows its banks during spring ice melt and rain. To better prepare the population of New Brunswick for extreme flooding, we developed a new flood prediction model...... that computes floodplain polygons before the flood occurs. This allows emergency managers to access the impact of the flood before it occurs and make the early decisions for evacuation of the population and flood rescue. This research shows that the use of GIS and LiDAR technologies combined with hydrological...... modelling can significantly improve the decision making and visualization of flood impact needed for emergency planning and flood rescue. Furthermore, the 3D GIS application we developed for modelling flooded buildings and infrastructure provides a better platform for modelling and visualizing flood...

  14. Smoky River coal flood risk mapping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    The Canada-Alberta Flood Damage Reduction Program (FDRP) is designed to reduce flood damage by identifying areas susceptible to flooding and by encouraging application of suitable land use planning, zoning, and flood preparedness and proofing. The purpose of this study is to define flood risk and floodway limits along the Smoky River near the former Smoky River Coal (SRC) plant. Alberta Energy has been responsible for the site since the mine and plant closed in 2000. The study describes flooding history, available data, features of the river and valley, calculation of flood levels, and floodway determination, and includes flood risk maps. The HEC-RAS program is used for the calculations. The flood risk area was calculated using the 1:100 year return period flood as the hydrological event. 7 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs., 3 apps.

  15. Flood Resilient Systems and their Application for Flood Resilient Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovic, N.; Gabalda, V.; Antanaskovic, D.; Gershovich, I.; Pasche, E.

    2012-04-01

    Following the paradigm shift in flood management from traditional to more integrated approaches, and considering the uncertainties of future development due to drivers such as climate change, one of the main emerging tasks of flood managers becomes the development of (flood) resilient cities. It can be achieved by application of non-structural - flood resilience measures, summarised in the 4As: assistance, alleviation, awareness and avoidance (FIAC, 2007). As a part of this strategy, the key aspect of development of resilient cities - resilient built environment can be reached by efficient application of Flood Resilience Technology (FReT) and its meaningful combination into flood resilient systems (FRS). FRS are given as [an interconnecting network of FReT which facilitates resilience (including both restorative and adaptive capacity) to flooding, addressing physical and social systems and considering different flood typologies] (SMARTeST, http://www.floodresilience.eu/). Applying the system approach (e.g. Zevenbergen, 2008), FRS can be developed at different scales from the building to the city level. Still, a matter of research is a method to define and systematise different FRS crossing those scales. Further, the decision on which resilient system is to be applied for the given conditions and given scale is a complex task, calling for utilisation of decision support tools. This process of decision-making should follow the steps of flood risk assessment (1) and development of a flood resilience plan (2) (Manojlovic et al, 2009). The key problem in (2) is how to match the input parameters that describe physical&social system and flood typology to the appropriate flood resilient system. Additionally, an open issue is how to integrate the advances in FReT and findings on its efficiency into decision support tools. This paper presents a way to define, systematise and make decisions on FRS at different scales of an urban system developed within the 7th FP Project

  16. Flood Fighting Products Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A wave research basin at the ERDC Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory has been modified specifically for testing of temporary, barrier-type, flood fighting products....

  17. Cyber surveillance for flood disasters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2015-01-01

    ... river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image...

  18. Flash floods: forecasting and warning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sene, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    .... Floods of this type are often characterised by fast flowing deep water and a high debris content which - combined with the short lead time available for warnings - add to the risk to people and property...

  19. FEMA Flood Insurance Studies Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital data set provides an inventory of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) that have been conducted for communities and...

  20. NASA's Support to Flood Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D. S.; Murray, J. J.; Stough, T.

    2016-12-01

    The extent of flood and inundation, the impacts on people and infrastructure, and generally the situational awareness on all scales for decision making are areas where NASA is mobilizing scientific results, advanced sensing and technologies, experts and partnerships to support response. NASA has targeted mature application science and ready technology for flood and inundation monitoring and assessment. This includes supporting timely data management and product dissemination with users and partners. Requirements are captured in the form of science-area questions, while solutions measure readiness for use by considering standard tools and approaches that make information more accessible, interoperable, understandable and reliable. The program collaborates with capacity building and areas of education and outreach needed to create and leverage non-traditional partnerships in transdisciplinary areas including socio-economic practice, preparedness and resilience assessment, early warning and forecast response, and emergency management, relief and recovery. The program outcomes also seek alignment with and support to global and community priorities related to water resources and food security. This presentation will examine the achievements of individual projects and the challenges and opportunities of more comprehensive and collaborative teams behind NASA's response to global flooding. Examples from recent event mobilization will be reviewed including to the serious of domestic floods across the south and Midwest United States throughout 2015 and 2016. Progress on the combined use of optical, microwave and SAR remote sensing measurements, topographic and geodetic data and mapping, data sharing practices will be reviewed. Other response case studies will examine global flood events monitored, characterized and supported in various boundary regions and nations. Achievements and future plans will be described for capabilities including global flood modeling, near real

  1. Elk River Watershed - Flood Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C. C.; Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Lewis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding has the potential to cause significant impacts to economic activities as well as to disrupt or displace populations. Changing climate regimes such as extreme precipitation events increase flood vulnerability and put additional stresses on infrastructure. Potential flooding from just under 100 (2009 NPRI Reviewed Facility Data Release, Environment Canada) toxic tailings ponds located in Canada increase risk to human safety and the environment. One such geotechnical failure spilt billions of litres of toxic tailings into the Fraser River watershed, British Columbia, when a tailings pond dam breach occurred in August 2014. Damaged and washed out roadways cut access to essential services as seen by the extensive floods that occurred in Saskatchewan and Manitoba in July 2014, and in Southern Alberta in 2013. Recovery efforts from events such as these can be lengthy, and have substantial social and economic impacts both in loss of revenue and cost of repair. The objective of this study is to investigate existing conditions in the Elk River watershed and model potential future hydrological changes that can increase flood risk hazards. By analyzing existing hydrology, meteorology, land cover, land use, economic, and settlement patterns a baseline is established for existing conditions in the Elk River watershed. Coupling the Generate Earth Systems Science (GENESYS) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model with flood hazard analysis methodology, high-resolution flood vulnerability base line maps are created using historical climate conditions. Further work in 2015 will examine possible impacts for a range of climate change and land use change scenarios to define changes to future flood risk and vulnerability.

  2. Flooding Effect on Earth Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Banimahd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Earth building is a sustainable, environmentally friendly and economical method of construction that has been used worldwide for many centuries. For the past three decades, earth has seen a revival as a building material for a modern construction method due to its benefits in terms of low carbon content, low cost and energy involved during construction, as well as the fact that it is a sustainable technology of building. Climate change is influencing precipitation levels and patterns around the world, and as a consequence, flood risk is increasing rapidly. When flooding occurs, earth buildings are exposed to water by submersion, causing an increase in the degree of saturation of the earth structures and therefore a decrease of the suction between particles. This study investigated the effect of cycles of flooding (consecutive events of flooding followed by dry periods on earth walls. A series of characterization tests were carried out to obtain the physical and mechanical properties of the studied earth material. In a second stage, Flooding Simulation Tests (FST were performed to explore the earth walls’ response to repeated flooding events. The results obtained for the tested earth wall/samples with reinforced material (straw reveal hydraulic hysteresis when wall/samples are subject to cycles of wetting and drying.

  3. Extreme flooding tolerance in Rorippa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Melis; Bhikharie, Amit; Mustroph, Angelika; Sasidharan, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    Low oxygen stress imposed by floods creates a strong selection force shaping plant ecosystems in flood-prone areas. Plants inhabiting these environments adopt various adaptations and survival strategies to cope with increasing water depths. Two Rorippa species, R. sylvestris and R. amphibia that grow in naturally flooded areas, have high submergence tolerance achieved by the so-called quiescence and escape strategies, respectively. In order to dissect the molecular mechanisms involved in these strategies, we investigated submergence-induced changes in gene expression in flooded roots of Rorippa species. There was a higher induction of glycolysis and fermentation genes and faster carbohydrate reduction in R. amphibia, indicating a higher demand for energy potentially leading to faster mortality by starvation. Moreover, R. sylvestris showed induction of genes improving submergence tolerance, potentially enhancing survival in prolonged floods. Additionally, we compared transcript profiles of these 2 tolerant species to relatively intolerant Arabidopsis and found that only Rorippa species induced various inorganic pyrophosphate dependent genes, alternatives to ATP demanding pathways, thereby conserving energy, and potentially explaining the difference in flooding survival between Rorippa and Arabidopsis.

  4. FLOODING ATTACK AWARE SECURE AODV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Madhavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Providing security in a Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a challenging task due to its inherent nature. Flooding is a type of Denial of Service (DoS attack in MANET. Intentional flooding may lead to disturbances in the networking operation. This kind of attack consumes battery power, storage space and bandwidth. Flooding the excessive number of packets may degrade the performance of the network. This study considers hello flooding attack. As the hello packets are continuously flooded by the malicious node, the neighbor node is not able to process other packets. The functioning of the legitimate node is diverted and destroys the networking operation. Absence of hello packet during the periodical hello interval may lead to wrong assumption that the neighbor node has moved away. So one of the intermediate neighbor nodes sends Route Error (RERR message and the source node reinitiates the route discovery process. In a random fashion the hello interval values are changed and convey this information to other nodes in the network in a secured manner. This study identifies and prevents the flooding attack. This methodology considers the performance parameters such as packet delivery ratio, delay and throughput. This algorithm is implemented in Secure AODV and tested in ad hoc environment. The result of the proposed algorithm decreases the control overhead by 2%.

  5. Scales of Natural Flood Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Alex; Quinn, Paul; Owen, Gareth; Hetherington, David; Piedra Lara, Miguel; O'Donnell, Greg

    2016-04-01

    The scientific field of Natural flood Management (NFM) is receiving much attention and is now widely seen as a valid solution to sustainably manage flood risk whilst offering significant multiple benefits. However, few examples exist looking at NFM on a large scale (>10km2). Well-implemented NFM has the effect of restoring more natural catchment hydrological and sedimentological processes, which in turn can have significant flood risk and WFD benefits for catchment waterbodies. These catchment scale improvements in-turn allow more 'natural' processes to be returned to rivers and streams, creating a more resilient system. Although certain NFM interventions may appear distant and disconnected from main stem waterbodies, they will undoubtedly be contributing to WFD at the catchment waterbody scale. This paper offers examples of NFM, and explains how they can be maximised through practical design across many scales (from feature up to the whole catchment). New tools to assist in the selection of measures and their location, and to appreciate firstly, the flooding benefit at the local catchment scale and then show a Flood Impact Model that can best reflect the impacts of local changes further downstream. The tools will be discussed in the context of our most recent experiences on NFM projects including river catchments in the north east of England and in Scotland. This work has encouraged a more integrated approach to flood management planning that can use both traditional and novel NFM strategies in an effective and convincing way.

  6. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective.

  7. Relationship between high-frequency sediment-level oscillations in the swash zone and inner surf zone wave characteristics under calm wave conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Swash zone topography rapidly responds to the surf zone waves. Understanding how sandy beaches respond to wave action is critical for beach erosion research, and plays a critical role in the design and maintenance of shore protection structures. The main objectives of this study were to detect the relationship between high-frequency beachface oscillations and surf zone wave characteristics under plunging breakers by using Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA. The study site is located in Houjiangwan Bay, eastern Guangdong. Topography data were sampled at 6 min intervals. The wave characteristic parameters were calculated by spectrum method. During the field work, the beach showed a reflective state and plunging breakers controlled the surf zone. The beach cusp topography was destructed gradually. The analysis provides 4 canonical correlation processes between the beachface variations and surf zone waves, which explained 95.28% of the overall variation in the data. The result shows wave steepness, the irregularity factor and spectral broadness factor had strong impacts on the topography. The wave steepness was the most important factor for beach profile variations. The results of the present study indicate that data-driven statistical analysis, such as CCA, is useful for analyzing profile response to waves if there is strong correlation between the two variables (beach profiles and wave.

  8. On the use of the fictitious wave steepness and related surf-similarity parameters in methods that describe the hydraulic and structural response to waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heineke, D.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the hydraulic performance of coastal structures - viz. wave run-up, overtopping and reflection - and to evaluate the stability of the armour layers, use is made of the dimensionless surf similarity parameter, as introduced by Battjes (1974). The front side slope of the structure and the wa

  9. On the use of the fictitious wave steepness and related surf-similarity parameters in methods that describe the hydraulic and structural response to waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heineke, D.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the hydraulic performance of coastal structures - viz. wave run-up, overtopping and reflection - and to evaluate the stability of the armour layers, use is made of the dimensionless surf similarity parameter, as introduced by Battjes (1974). The front side slope of the structure and the

  10. 女子皮划艇队员HiLo与LoHi训练后血象指标变化探析%STUDY ON THE WOMEN'S KAYAK TEAM HILO AND LOHI TRAINING ON BLOOD PARAMETERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹艳霞; 李登光; 高克莲

    2011-01-01

    16 elite female rowboats were randomly divided into two groups with 8 in each group, which made 4 weeks training for living high-training low, living low-training high.The main purpose was to discuss the dynamic change rule and character of hematological index such as RBC, Hb and Hct at different hypoxia training model so as to provide the theoretical and practical bases in exercise training. The result showed that there was existed certain difference on change degree, character and rule of RBC, Hb and Hct at different hypoxia training. The training of HiLo and LoHi could significantly improve the level of RBC, Hb and Hct, but improvement degree vary from different training model. As to RBC, Hb and Hct, HiLo>LoHi. 4 weeks, at least two modes of hypoxic training effect can be maintained for 2 weeks, he HiLo group training is better than the ability to maintain Hb LoHi group.%采用实验法,将16名优秀女子皮划艇运动员分成两组,分别进行4周的高住低练(HiLo)与低住高练(LoHi),旨在探讨不同模式低氧训练过程中运动员的RBC、Hb和Hct动态变化规律及特点.结果表明,两种低氧模式训练中Hb 、RBC和Hct的变化规律有些差异;提高红细胞计数、血红蛋白浓度和红细胞压积,HiLo优于LoHi,Hb、RBC和Hct的增加不完全同步;4周两种模式训练效果可以保持2周以上,HiLo组训练后保持RBC和Hct的能力比LoHi组强.

  11. Understanding the effects of past flood events and perceived and estimated flood risks on individuals' voluntary flood insurance purchase behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wanyun; Xian, Siyuan; Lin, Ning; Kunreuther, Howard; Jackson, Nida; Goidel, Kirby

    2017-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the economic damage from flooding in the coastal areas has greatly increased due to rapid coastal development coupled with possible climate change impacts. One effective way to mitigate excessive economic losses from flooding is to purchase flood insurance. Only a minority of coastal residents however have taken this preventive measure. Using original survey data for all coastal counties of the United States Gulf Coast merged with contextual data, this study examines the effects of external influences and perceptions of flood-related risks on individuals' voluntary behaviors to purchase flood insurance. It is found that the estimated flood hazard conveyed through the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) flood maps, the intensities and consequences of past storms and flooding events, and perceived flood-related risks significantly affect individual's voluntary purchase of flood insurance. This behavior is also influenced by home ownership, trust in local government, education, and income. These findings have several important policy implications. First, FEMA's flood maps have been effective in conveying local flood risks to coastal residents, and correspondingly influencing their decisions to voluntarily seek flood insurance in the U.S. Gulf Coast. Flood maps therefore should be updated frequently to reflect timely and accurate information about flood hazards. Second, policy makers should design strategies to increase homeowners' trust in the local government, to better communicate flood risks with residents, to address the affordability issue for the low-income, and better inform less educated homeowners through various educational programs. Future studies should examine the voluntary flood insurance behavior across countries that are vulnerable to flooding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Beyond Flood Hazard Maps: Detailed Flood Characterization with Remote Sensing, GIS and 2d Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillan, J. R.; Marqueso, J. T.; Makinano-Santillan, M.; Serviano, J. L.

    2016-09-01

    Flooding is considered to be one of the most destructive among many natural disasters such that understanding floods and assessing the risks associated to it are becoming more important nowadays. In the Philippines, Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) are two main technologies used in the nationwide modelling and mapping of flood hazards. Although the currently available high resolution flood hazard maps have become very valuable, their use for flood preparedness and mitigation can be maximized by enhancing the layers of information these maps portrays. In this paper, we present an approach based on RS, GIS and two-dimensional (2D) flood modelling to generate new flood layers (in addition to the usual flood depths and hazard layers) that are also very useful in flood disaster management such as flood arrival times, flood velocities, flood duration, flood recession times, and the percentage within a given flood event period a particular location is inundated. The availability of these new layers of flood information are crucial for better decision making before, during, and after occurrence of a flood disaster. The generation of these new flood characteristic layers is illustrated using the Cabadbaran River Basin in Mindanao, Philippines as case study area. It is envisioned that these detailed maps can be considered as additional inputs in flood disaster risk reduction and management in the Philippines.

  13. BEYOND FLOOD HAZARD MAPS: DETAILED FLOOD CHARACTERIZATION WITH REMOTE SENSING, GIS AND 2D MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Santillan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is considered to be one of the most destructive among many natural disasters such that understanding floods and assessing the risks associated to it are becoming more important nowadays. In the Philippines, Remote Sensing (RS and Geographic Information System (GIS are two main technologies used in the nationwide modelling and mapping of flood hazards. Although the currently available high resolution flood hazard maps have become very valuable, their use for flood preparedness and mitigation can be maximized by enhancing the layers of information these maps portrays. In this paper, we present an approach based on RS, GIS and two-dimensional (2D flood modelling to generate new flood layers (in addition to the usual flood depths and hazard layers that are also very useful in flood disaster management such as flood arrival times, flood velocities, flood duration, flood recession times, and the percentage within a given flood event period a particular location is inundated. The availability of these new layers of flood information are crucial for better decision making before, during, and after occurrence of a flood disaster. The generation of these new flood characteristic layers is illustrated using the Cabadbaran River Basin in Mindanao, Philippines as case study area. It is envisioned that these detailed maps can be considered as additional inputs in flood disaster risk reduction and management in the Philippines.

  14. Evidence for trends in UK flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Alice J

    2002-07-15

    Recent major flooding in the UK has raised concern that climate change is causing increases in flood frequency and flood magnitude. This paper considers whether UK flood data provide evidence of increasing trends in fluvial floods. The analysis examines both local and national flood series and investigates the effect of climate variability on trend detection. The results suggest that there have been trends towards more protracted high flows over the last 30-50 years, but that this could be accounted for as part of climatic variation rather than climate change. There is no statistical evidence of a long-term trend in flooding over the last 80-120 years. Thus, although climate change could be influencing floods, direct analysis of flood records does not yet provide proof.

  15. Flood risks and willingness to purchase flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlinger, M.R.; Attanasi, E.D.

    1980-01-01

    Computer simulation experiments were conducted to determine the effects of alternative sources of uncertainty on the willingness to pay for flood insurance. Two alternative insurance protection schemes were investigated: coinsurance and fixed coverage. The question investigated is to what extent does the insurance scheme influence how purchasers respond to risks? Floods were assumed to be log normally distributed and the effects on the purchase of insurance of uncertainties in the parameters of the distribution were explored using response surface analysis. Results indicate that fixed coverage insurance provisions shift most of the uncertainty in the physical parameters governing natural disaster occurrences away from the insuree and onto the insurer. The results also show that the form of the damage function has little effect on the demand for flood insurance.- Authors

  16. Uncertainty in flood risk mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Luisa M. S.; Fonte, Cidália C.; Gomes, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    A flood refers to a sharp increase of water level or volume in rivers and seas caused by sudden rainstorms or melting ice due to natural factors. In this paper, the flooding of riverside urban areas caused by sudden rainstorms will be studied. In this context, flooding occurs when the water runs above the level of the minor river bed and enters the major river bed. The level of the major bed determines the magnitude and risk of the flooding. The prediction of the flooding extent is usually deterministic, and corresponds to the expected limit of the flooded area. However, there are many sources of uncertainty in the process of obtaining these limits, which influence the obtained flood maps used for watershed management or as instruments for territorial and emergency planning. In addition, small variations in the delineation of the flooded area can be translated into erroneous risk prediction. Therefore, maps that reflect the uncertainty associated with the flood modeling process have started to be developed, associating a degree of likelihood with the boundaries of the flooded areas. In this paper an approach is presented that enables the influence of the parameters uncertainty to be evaluated, dependent on the type of Land Cover Map (LCM) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM), on the estimated values of the peak flow and the delineation of flooded areas (different peak flows correspond to different flood areas). The approach requires modeling the DEM uncertainty and its propagation to the catchment delineation. The results obtained in this step enable a catchment with fuzzy geographical extent to be generated, where a degree of possibility of belonging to the basin is assigned to each elementary spatial unit. Since the fuzzy basin may be considered as a fuzzy set, the fuzzy area of the basin may be computed, generating a fuzzy number. The catchment peak flow is then evaluated using fuzzy arithmetic. With this methodology a fuzzy number is obtained for the peak flow

  17. Flood Loss Model for Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punčochář, P.; Podlaha, A.

    2012-04-01

    A new flood model for Austria quantifying fluvial flood losses based on probabilistic event set developed by Impact Forecasting (Aon Benfield's model development centre) was released in June 2011. It was successfully validated with two serious past flood events - August 2002 and August 2005. The model is based on 10 meters cell size digital terrain model with 1cm vertical step and uses daily mean flows from 548 gauge stations of series of average length ~ 60 years. The even set is based on monthly maxima flows correlation, generating 12 stochastic events per year and allows to calculate annual and occurrence exceedance probability loss estimates. The model contains flood extents for more than 24,000 km of modelled river network compatible with HORA project (HOchwasserRisikoflächen Austria) for design flows ranging from 2 to 10,000 years. Model is primarily constructed to work with postal level resolution insurance data reducing positional uncertainty by weighting over more than 2.5 millions address points from Austria Post's ACGeo database. Countrywide flood protections were provided by the Austrian Ministry of Environment. The model was successfully tested with property portfolios of 8 global and local insurance companies and was also successfully validated with August 2002 and August 2005 past events evaluating their return period on the probabilistic simulation basis.

  18. King Tide floods in Tuvalu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C.-C.; Ho, C.-R.; Cheng, Y.-H.

    2013-05-01

    The spatial and temporal distributions of sea level rise present regional floods in some certain areas. The low-lying island countries are obviously the spots affected severely. Tuvalu, an atoll island country located in the south-west Pacific Ocean, is suffering the devastating effects of losing life, property, and intending migration caused by floods. They blame the regional flooding to King Tide, a term used but not clearly identified by Pacific islanders. In this study, we clarify what King Tide is first. By the tide gauge and topography data, we estimated the reasonable value of 3.2 m as the threshold of King Tide. This definition also fits to the statement by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of King Tide occurring once or twice a year. In addition, We cross validate the 19 yr data of tide gauge and satellite altimeter (1993-2012), the correlation coefficient indicates King Tide phenomenon is considerable connected to warm water mass. The 28 King Tide events revealed the fact that flooding can be referenced against spring tide levels, so can it be turned up by warm water mass. The warm water mass pushes up sea level; once spring tide, storm surge, or other climate variability overlaps it, the rising sea level might overflow and so has been called "King Tide" for the floods in Tuvalu. This study provides more understanding of the signals of King Tide and an island country case study of regional sea level rise.

  19. Numerical study of pollutant movement in waves and wave-induced long-shore currents in surf zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Jun; SHEN Yongming; QIU Dahong

    2008-01-01

    Water waves,wave-induced long-shore currents and movement of pollutants in waves and currents have been numerically studied based on the hyperbolic mild-slope equation,the shallow water equation,as well as the pollutant movement equation,and the nu- merical results have also been validated by experimental data.It is shown that the long-shore current velocity and wave set-up in- crease with the increasing incident wave amplitude and slope steepness of the shore plane;the wave set-up increases with the in- creasing incident wave period;and the pollutant morement proceeds more quiekly with the increasing incident wave amplitude and slope steepness of the shore palane.In surf zones,the long-shore currents induced by the inclined incident waves have effectively affected the pollutant movement.

  20. Flood hazard and flood risk assessment at the local spatial scale: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Vojtek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With regard to minimizing flood damage, there are measures of different character each of which has its justification and plays an important role in flood protection. Implementation of traditional flood protection measures is still very important; however, an increasing role should be played particularly by flood prevention and flood risk management. The paper presents a case study on flood hazard and flood risk assessment at the local spatial scale using geographic information systems, remote sensing, and hydraulic modelling. As for determining flood hazard in the model area, which has 3.23 km2, the estimation of maximum flood discharges and hydraulic modelling were important steps. The results of one-dimensional hydraulic modelling, which are water depth and flow velocity rasters, were the basis for determining flood hazard and flood risk. In order to define flood risk, the following steps were applied: determining flood intensity on the basis of water depth and flow velocity rasters, determining flood hazard using three categories (low, medium, and high based on flood intensity, defining vulnerability for the classes of functional areas using three categories of acceptable risk (low, medium, and high, and lastly determination of flood risk which represents a synthesis of flood hazard and vulnerability of the model area.

  1. Flood Insurance Rate Maps and Base Flood Elevations, FIRM, DFIRM, BFE - MO 2014 Springfield FEMA Base Flood Elevations (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This polyline layer indicates the approximate effective FEMA Base Flood Elevation (BFE) associated with the corresponding Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA). Each line...

  2. Recomendações de Gestão dos Recifes Artificiais para a Prática do Surfe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Moraes Ocke

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Os recifes artificiais são estruturas afundadas em ambiente marinho a fim de oferecer múltiplos usos e beneficiar um maior número de usuários. Entretanto, sua capacidade de propiciar melhores condições de surfe tem sido a principal característica atrativa para experiências já realizadas em alguns países do mundo. Neste contexto, esta pesquisa tem o objetivo de apresentar um conjunto de recomendações que possam contribuir com gestores públicos e privados que planejam incluir a implantação de recifes artificiais tendo como foco a melhoria nas condições de surfe em suas localidades. Para tanto, esta pesquisa qualitativa exploratória se desenvolve a partir de breve revisão teórica sobre o tema e de um estudo de casos múltiplos – Austrália, Estados Unidos, Nova Zelândia, India e Inglaterra - para sustentar o raciocínio. Os resultados incluem o caráter inovador deste tipo de estrutura demandando um aprimoramento nos métodos de construção e gestão, programas de monitoramento de longo prazo para avaliação de eficácia, desafios na integração de usuários, participação pública nas diferentes etapas do processo, gestão das expectativas dos mercados envolvidos. Uma vez que poucos estudos referentes ao tema foram desenvolvidos até o presente momento, as análises presentes neste trabalho podem contribuir com o preenchimento desta lacuna no conhecimento.

  3. Implementation and modification of a three-dimensional radiation stress formulation for surf zone and rip-current applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N.; Voulgaris, G.; Warner, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS v 3.0), a three-dimensional numerical ocean model, was previously enhanced for shallow water applications by including wave-induced radiation stress forcing provided through coupling to wave propagation models (SWAN, REF/DIF). This enhancement made it suitable for surf zone applications as demonstrated using examples of obliquely incident waves on a planar beach and rip current formation in longshore bar trough morphology (Haas and Warner, 2009). In this contribution, we present an update to the coupled model which implements a wave roller model and also a modified method of the radiation stress term based on Mellor (2008, 2011a,b,in press) that includes a vertical distribution which better simulates non-conservative (i.e., wave breaking) processes and appears to be more appropriate for sigma coordinates in very shallow waters where wave breaking conditions dominate. The improvements of the modified model are shown through simulations of several cases that include: (a) obliquely incident spectral waves on a planar beach; (b) obliquely incident spectral waves on a natural barred beach (DUCK'94 experiment); (c) alongshore variable offshore wave forcing on a planar beach; (d) alongshore varying bathymetry with constant offshore wave forcing; and (e) nearshore barred morphology with rip-channels. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons to previous analytical, numerical, laboratory studies and field measurements show that the modified model replicates surf zone recirculation patterns (onshore drift at the surface and undertow at the bottom) more accurately than previous formulations based on radiation stress (Haas and Warner, 2009). The results of the model and test cases are further explored for identifying the forces operating in rip current development and the potential implication for sediment transport and rip channel development. Also, model analysis showed that rip current strength is higher when waves approach at angles of 5

  4. Groundwater flood hazards in lowland karst terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Owen; McCormack, Ted

    2016-04-01

    The spatial and temporal complexity of flooding in karst terrains pose unique flood risk management challenges. Lowland karst landscapes can be particularly susceptible to groundwater flooding due to a combination of limited drainage capacity, shallow depth to groundwater and a high level of groundwater-surface water interactions. Historically the worst groundwater flooding to have occurred in the Rep. of Ireland has been centred on the Gort Lowlands, a karst catchment on the western coast of Ireland. Numerous notable flood events have been recorded throughout the 20th century, but flooding during the winters of 2009 and 2015 were the most severe on record, inundating an area in excess of 20km2 and causing widespread and prolonged disruption and damage to property and infrastructure. Effective flood risk management requires an understanding of the recharge, storage and transport mechanisms during flood conditions, but is often hampered by a lack of adequate data. Using information gathered from the 2009 and 2015 events, the main hydrological and geomorphological factors which influence flooding in this complex lowland karst groundwater system under are elucidated. Observed flood mechanisms included backwater flooding of sinks, overland flow caused by the overtopping of sink depressions, high water levels in turlough basins, and surface ponding in local epikarst watersheds. While targeted small-scale flood measures can locally reduce the flood risk associated with some mechanisms, they also have the potential to exacerbate flooding down-catchment and must be assessed in the context of overall catchment hydrology. This study addresses the need to improve our understanding of groundwater flooding in karst terrains, in order to ensure efficient flood prevention and mitigation in future and thus help achieve the aims of the EU Floods Directive.

  5. 2011 floods of the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The Central United States experienced record-setting flooding during 2011, with floods that extended from headwater streams in the Rocky Mountains, to transboundary rivers in the upper Midwest and Northern Plains, to the deep and wide sand-bedded lower Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of its mission, collected extensive information during and in the aftermath of the 2011 floods to support scientific analysis of the origins and consequences of extreme floods. The information collected for the 2011 floods, combined with decades of past data, enables scientists and engineers from the USGS to provide syntheses and scientific analyses to inform emergency managers, planners, and policy makers about life-safety, economic, and environmental-health issues surrounding flood hazards for the 2011 floods and future floods like it. USGS data, information, and scientific analyses provide context and understanding of the effect of floods on complex societal issues such as ecosystem and human health, flood-plain management, climate-change adaptation, economic security, and the associated policies enacted for mitigation. Among the largest societal questions is "How do we balance agricultural, economic, life-safety, and environmental needs in and along our rivers?" To address this issue, many scientific questions have to be answered including the following: * How do the 2011 weather and flood conditions compare to the past weather and flood conditions and what can we reasonably expect in the future for flood magnitudes?

  6. Collecting data for quantitative research on pluvial flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekkers, M.H.; Ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2011-01-01

    Urban pluvial flood management requires detailed spatial and temporal information on flood characteristics and damaging consequences. There is lack of quantitative field data on pluvial flooding resulting in large uncertainties in urban flood model calculations and ensuing decisions for investments

  7. Collecting data for quantitative research on pluvial flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekkers, M.H.; Ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2011-01-01

    Urban pluvial flood management requires detailed spatial and temporal information on flood characteristics and damaging consequences. There is lack of quantitative field data on pluvial flooding resulting in large uncertainties in urban flood model calculations and ensuing decisions for investments

  8. Flood mapping with remote sensing and hydrochemistry: A new method to distinguish the origin of flood water during floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chormanski, J.; Okruszko, T.; Ignar, S.; Batelaan, O.; Rebel, K.T.; Wassen, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    River flooding is important for the ecological functioning of river floodplains. It is implicitly assumed that in many river floodplains during floods, river water is spreading all over the floodplain. We hypothesize that during flood events a spatial distribution of water types exists, which is cor

  9. Multilevel integrated flood management aproach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilly, Mitja; Rusjan, Simon

    2013-04-01

    The optimal solution for complex flood management is integrated approach. Word »integration« used very often when we try to put something together, but should distinguish full multiple integrated approach of integration by parts when we put together and analyse only two variables. In doing so, we lost complexity of the phenomenon. Otherwise if we try to put together all variables we should take so much effort and time and we never finish the job properly. Solution is in multiple integration captures the essential factors, which are different on a case-by-case (Brilly, 2000). Physical planning is one of most important activity in which flood management should be integrated. The physical planning is crucial for vulnerability and its future development and on other hand our structural measures must be incorporate in space and will very often dominated in. The best solution is if space development derived on same time with development of structural measures. There are good examples with such approach (Vienna, Belgrade, Zagreb, and Ljubljana). Problems stared when we try incorporating flood management in already urbanised area or we would like to decrease risk to some lower level. Looking to practice we learn that middle Ages practices were much better than to day. There is also »disaster by design« when hazard increased as consequence of upstream development or in stream construction or remediation. In such situation we have risk on areas well protected in the past. Good preparation is essential for integration otherwise we just lost time what is essential for decision making and development. We should develop clear picture about physical characteristics of phenomena and possible solutions. We should develop not only the flood maps; we should know how fast phenomena could develop, in hour, day or more. Do we need to analyse ground water - surface water relations, we would like to protected area that was later flooded by ground water. Do we need to take care about

  10. Evaluating Flood Resilience Strategies for Coastal Megacities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aerts, J. C. J. H; Botzen, W. J. W; Emanuel, K; Lin, N; de Moel, H; Michel-Kerjan, E. O

    2014-01-01

    ... . Population density in flood-prone coastal zones and megacities is expected to grow by 25% by 2050; projected climate change and sea level rise may further increase the frequency and/or severity of large-scale floods...

  11. Sept 2013 NFHL Flood Control Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  12. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE,

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  13. Flood-frequency characteristics of Wisconsin streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, W.R.; Conger, D.H.; Gebert, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    Flood-frequency characteristics for 269 gaged sites on Wisconsin streams are presented for recurrence intervals of 2 to 100 years. Annual flood peaks for the period of record for each gaged site are included.

  14. Sept 2013 NFHL Flood Hazard Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  15. Sept 2013 NFHL Flood Risk Project Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  16. Flooding in Thailand: flee, fight or float

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan S Sophonpanich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The severity of recent flooding in Thailand and the probability of future flooding have triggered a re-assessment of coping mechanisms employed by both the Thai population and the government.

  17. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, , USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  18. Sept 2013 NFHL Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  19. Flood Insurance Rate Map, Scott County, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  20. Drivers of flood damage on event level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreibich, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Apel, H.

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk is dynamic and influenced by many processes related to hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Flood damage increased significantly over the past decades, however, resulting overall economic loss per event is an aggregated indicator and it is difficult to attribute causes to this increasing...... trend. Much has been learned about damaging processes during floods at the micro-scale, e.g. building level. However, little is known about the main factors determining the amount of flood damage on event level. Thus, we analyse and compare paired flood events, i.e. consecutive, similar damaging floods...... that occurred in the same area. In analogy to ’Paired catchment studies’ - a well-established method in hydrology to understand how changes in land use affect streamflow – we will investigate how and why resulting flood damage in a region differed between the first and second consecutive flood events. One...

  1. Seismic risks posed by mine flooding

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goldbach, OD

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Many South African gold mines will flood when they close, as the groundwater will gradually fill the mining voids. Preliminary investigations have shown that flooding of mines can generate increased levels of seismicity. Examples are given...

  2. Field note from Pakistan floods: Preventing future flood disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Oxley

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Unusually heavy monsoon rains in Northern Pakistan have caused disproportionate levels of extreme flooding and unprecedented flood losses across the entire Indus River basin. Extensive land use changes and environmental degradation in the uplands and lowlands of the river basin together with the construction of a “built environment” out of balance with the functioning, capacities, scale and limits of the local ecosystems have exposed millions of people to an increased risk of extreme #ooding. The catastrophic nature of the August #ooding provides a unique opportunity to fundamentally change Pakistan’s current socio-economic development path by incorporating disaster risk reduction and climate change measures into the post-disaster recovery process to rebuild a safer, more resilient nation. In January 2005 one hundred and sixty-eight nations adopted the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA2005-2015 to bring about a “substantial reduction in disaster losses” by 2015. Despite this global initiative a series of major disasters, including the recent flooding in Pakistan, all indicate that we are not on track to achieve the substantial reduction of disaster losses. The following fieldnote considers what can be done to accelerate progress towards implementation of the Hyogo Framework, drawing on insights and lessons learnt from the August flooding to understand how Pakistan and neighbouring countries can prevent a repeat of such catastrophic disasters in future years.

  3. Learning about Flood Risk: Comparing the Web-Based and Physical Flood-Walk Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu; Nyberg, Lars; Evers, Mariele; Alexandersson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Numerous of sustainable development related challenges are emerging today, e.g. flooding problems. Our group has developed "the flood walk" project since 2010 to convey flood risk knowledge in an authentic context. Considering the limitation of time and space to educate people the flood risk knowledge, we tried to transform the physical…

  4. A rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment: considering multiple flood sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X.; Tatano, H.

    2015-08-01

    Information about the spatial distribution of flood risk is important for integrated urban flood risk management. Focusing on urban areas, spatial flood risk assessment must reflect all risk information derived from multiple flood sources: rivers, drainage, coastal flooding etc. that may affect the area. However, conventional flood risk assessment deals with each flood source independently, which leads to an underestimation of flood risk in the floodplain. Even in floodplains that have no risk from coastal flooding, flooding from river channels and inundation caused by insufficient drainage capacity should be considered simultaneously. For integrated flood risk management, it is necessary to establish a methodology to estimate flood risk distribution across a floodplain. In this paper, a rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment, which considers the joint effects of multiple flood sources, is proposed. The concept of critical rainfall duration determined by the concentration time of flooding is introduced to connect response characteristics of different flood sources with rainfall. A copula method is then adopted to capture the correlation of rainfall amount with different critical rainfall durations. Rainfall events are designed taking advantage of the copula structure of correlation and marginal distribution of rainfall amounts within different critical rainfall durations. A case study in the Otsu River Basin, Osaka prefecture, Japan was conducted to demonstrate this methodology.

  5. A rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment: considering multiple flood sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Jiang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Information about the spatial distribution of flood risk is important for integrated urban flood risk management. Focusing on urban areas, spatial flood risk assessment must reflect all risk information derived from multiple flood sources: rivers, drainage, coastal flooding etc. that may affect the area. However, conventional flood risk assessment deals with each flood source independently, which leads to an underestimation of flood risk in the floodplain. Even in floodplains that have no risk from coastal flooding, flooding from river channels and inundation caused by insufficient drainage capacity should be considered simultaneously. For integrated flood risk management, it is necessary to establish a methodology to estimate flood risk distribution across a floodplain. In this paper, a rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment, which considers the joint effects of multiple flood sources, is proposed. The concept of critical rainfall duration determined by the concentration time of flooding is introduced to connect response characteristics of different flood sources with rainfall. A copula method is then adopted to capture the correlation of rainfall amount with different critical rainfall durations. Rainfall events are designed taking advantage of the copula structure of correlation and marginal distribution of rainfall amounts within different critical rainfall durations. A case study in the Otsu River Basin, Osaka prefecture, Japan was conducted to demonstrate this methodology.

  6. Learning about Flood Risk: Comparing the Web-Based and Physical Flood-Walk Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu; Nyberg, Lars; Evers, Mariele; Alexandersson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Numerous of sustainable development related challenges are emerging today, e.g. flooding problems. Our group has developed "the flood walk" project since 2010 to convey flood risk knowledge in an authentic context. Considering the limitation of time and space to educate people the flood risk knowledge, we tried to transform the physical…

  7. A surface water flooding impact library for flood risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldridge Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand for improved risk-based Surface Water Flooding (SWF warning systems is evident in EU directives and in the UK Government’s Pitt Review of the 2007 summer floods. This paper presents a novel approach for collating receptor and vulnerability datasets via the concept of an Impact Library, developed by the Health and Safety Laboratory as a depository of pre-calculated impact information on SWF risk for use in a real-time SWF Hazard Impact Model (HIM. This has potential benefits for the Flood Forecasting Centre (FFC as the organisation responsible for the issuing of flood guidance information for England and Wales. The SWF HIM takes a pixel-based approach to link probabilistic surface water runoff forecasts produced by CEH’s Grid-to-Grid hydrological model with Impact Library information to generate impact assessments. These are combined to estimate flood risk as a combination of impact severity and forecast likelihood, at 1km pixel level, and summarised for counties and local authorities. The SWF HIM takes advantage of recent advances in operational ensemble forecasting of rainfall by the Met Office and of SWF by the Environment Agency and CEH working together through the FFC. Results are presented for a case study event which affected the North East of England during 2012. The work has been developed through the UK’s Natural Hazards Partnership (NHP, a group of organisations gathered to provide information, research and analysis on natural hazards for civil contingencies, government and responders across the UK.

  8. Economic optimisation of flood risk management projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsimopoulou, V.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands has developed a flood risk management policy based on an economic rationale. After the flood disaster of 1953, when a large area of the south-western part of the country was flooded and more than 1800 people lost their lives, the so-called Delta Committee was installed, whose main pu

  9. The August 1975 Flood over Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Smith, James; Liu, Maofeng; Baeck, MaryLynn

    2016-04-01

    The August 1975 flood in Central China was one of the most destructive floods in history, resulting in 26 000 fatalities, leaving about 10 million people with insufficient shelter, and producing long-lasting famine and disease. Extreme rainfall responsible for this flood event was associated with typhoon Nina during 5-7 August 1975. Despite the prominence of the August 1975 flood, analyses of the storms producing the flood and the resulting flood are sparse. Even fewer attempts were made from the perspective of numerical simulations. We examine details of extreme rainfall for the August 1975 flood based on downscaling simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model driven by 20th Century Reanalysis fields. We further placed key hydrometeorological features for the flood event in a climatological context through the analyses of the 20th Century Reanalysis fields. Results indicate interrelated roles of multiple mesoscale ingredients for deep, moist convection in producing extreme rainfall for the August 1975 flood, superimposed over an anomalous synoptic environment. Attribution analyses on the source of water vapor for this flood event will be conducted based on a Lagrangian parcel tracking algorithm LAGRANTO. Analytical framework developed in this study aims to explore utilization of hydrometeorological approach in flood-control engineering designs by providing details on key elements of flood-producing storms.

  10. Economic optimisation of flood risk management projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsimopoulou, V.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands has developed a flood risk management policy based on an economic rationale. After the flood disaster of 1953, when a large area of the south-western part of the country was flooded and more than 1800 people lost their lives, the so-called Delta Committee was installed, whose main

  11. Economic optimisation of flood risk management projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsimopoulou, V.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands has developed a flood risk management policy based on an economic rationale. After the flood disaster of 1953, when a large area of the south-western part of the country was flooded and more than 1800 people lost their lives, the so-called Delta Committee was installed, whose main pu

  12. The European Flood Risk Directive and Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, E.; Doorn, N.

    2012-01-01

    The European Flood risk directive (2007/60/EC) requires EU Member States to review their system of flood risk management. In doing so, they will have to face ethical issues inherent in flood risk management. This paper discusses three such issues, using examples from the Netherlands. These issues ar

  13. Resilience to flooding: Draft building code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarkson, J.D.; Braun, K.; Desoto-Duncan, A.; Forsyth, G.; De Gijt, J.G.; Huber, N.P.; Miller, D.; Rigo, P.; Sullivan, D.

    2013-01-01

    A significant issue associated Flood Defence Systems (FDS) is the difficulty of predicting how these structures will behave when inevitably they have been loaded beyond their designed capacity by a flood. The flood can cause these structures to fail catastrophically with loss of life and substantial

  14. Flood forecasting using artificial neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varoonchotikul, P.

    2003-01-01

    Flood disasters continue to occur In many countries around the world and cause tremendous casualtles and properties damage. To mitigate the effects of floods, both structural and non-structural measures can be employed, such as dykes, channelisatlon, flood proofing of properties, land-use regulation

  15. Tangible and Intangible Flood damage evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frongia Sara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flooding and flash floods that cause significant economic and social damage have been widely studied in the last few decades. The European Commission Flood Directive 2007/60 Flood Risk Management Plans require the assessment of potential damage to give an appreciation of the magnitude of the consequences of a flood event and so help stakeholders to use a cost benefit approach to planning flood mitigation measures. This paper evaluates the direct tangible flood damage applying the JRC water depth-damage functions for the European territory to estimate the potential economic damage. Intangible damage is evaluated with the Life Safety Model (LSM to study the dynamic interactions among people, vehicles, buildings and the flood wave. LSM assesses potential flood damage and allows the development of a Flood Evacuation Plan in case of an emergency, underlining the evacuation routes adopted by people and vehicles. This enables emergency managers to avoid evacuation bottleneck problems and identify areas of potential high mortality. The impact of changes such as road network improvements, the location of safe havens and timing of flood warnings can be assessed in terms of potential loss of life. The developed methodology has been applied on the Sardinian Flood Risk Management Plan pilot basin, the Coghinas river lowland basin.

  16. Flood Risk Management in the People’s Republic of China: Learning to Live with Flood Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2012-01-01

    This publication presents a shift in the People’s Republic of China from flood control depending on structural measures to integrated flood management using both structural and non-structural measures. The core of the new concept of integrated flood management is flood risk management. Flood risk management is based on an analysis of flood hazard, exposure to flood hazard, and vulnerability of people and property to danger. It is recommended that people learn to live with flood risks, gaining...

  17. Modelling dynamic roughness during floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paarlberg, Andries; Dohmen-Janssen, Catarine M.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Termes, A.P.P.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a dynamic roughness model to predict water levels during floods. Hysteresis effects of dune development are explicitly included. It is shown that differences between the new dynamic roughness model, and models where the roughness coefficient is calibrated, are most

  18. Feedback on flood risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, K.; Roumagnac, A.

    2009-09-01

    For several years, as floods were increasing in South of France, local communities felt deprive to assume their mission of protection and information of citizens, and were looking for assistance in flood management. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. Tools and structures of assistance to anticipation remain slightly developed. To manage repeated crisis, local authorities need to be able to base their policy against flood on prevention, warnings, post-crisis analysis and feedback from former experience. In this objective, after 3 years of test and improvement since 2003, the initiative Predict-Services was developped in South of France: it aims at helping communities and companies to face repeated flood crisis. The principle is to prepare emergency plans, to organize crisis management and reduce risks; to help and assist communities and companies during crisis to activate and adapt their emergency plans with enough of anticipation; and to analyse floods effects and improve emergency plans afterwards. In order to reduce risks, and to keep the benefits of such an initiative, local communities and companies have to maintain the awareness of risk of the citizens and employees. They also have to maintain their safety plans to keep them constantly operational. This is a part of the message relayed. Companies, Local communities, local government authorities and basin stakeholders are the decision makers. Companies and local communities have to involve themselves in the elaboration of safety plans. They are also completely involved in their activation that is their own responsability. This applies to other local government authorities, like districts one's and basin stakeholders, which participle in the financing community safety plans and adminitrative district which are responsible of the transmission of meteorological alert and of rescue actions. In the crossing of the géo-information stemming from the

  19. Characterization of floods in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharia, Manabendra; Kirstetter, Pierre-Emmanuel; Vergara, Humberto; Gourley, Jonathan J.; Hong, Yang

    2017-05-01

    Floods have gained increasing global significance in the recent past due to their devastating nature and potential for causing significant economic and human losses. Until now, flood characterization studies in the United States have been limited due to the lack of a comprehensive database matching flood characteristics such as peak discharges and flood duration with geospatial and geomorphologic information. The availability of a representative and long archive of flooding events spanning 78 years over a variety of hydroclimatic regions results in a spatially and temporally comprehensive flood characterization over the continental U.S. This study, for the first time, employs a large-event database that is based on actual National Weather Service (NWS) definitions of floods instead of the frequently-adopted case study or frequentist approach, allowing us to base our findings on real definitions of floods. It examines flooding characteristics to identify how space and time scales of floods vary with climatic regimes and geomorphology. Flood events were characterized by linking flood response variables in gauged basins to spatially distributed variables describing climatology, geomorphology, and topography. The primary findings of this study are that the magnitude of flooding is highest is regions such as West Coast and southeastern U.S. which experience the most extraordinary precipitation. The seasonality of flooding varies greatly from maxima during the cool season on the West Coast, warm season in the desert Southwest, and early spring in the Southeast. The fastest responding events tend to be in steep basins of the arid Southwest caused by intense monsoon thunderstorms and steep terrain. The envelope curves of unit peak discharge are consistent with those reported for Europe and worldwide. But significant seasonal variability was observed in floods of the U.S. compared to Europe that is attributed to the diversity of causative rainfall ranging from synoptic

  20. Flood inundation extent in storage cell mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.; Farahi; Saeed; Reza; Khodashenas; B.; Ghahraman; K.; Esmaeeli

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of floodplain processes in general and floodplains flooding in particular are vital issues for river engineers and managers. Insufficient observations of flood inundation extent and the infrequent nature of flood inundation necessitate some sort of predictive tools. In this paper flood inundation extent has been simulated by HEC-RAS software in two storage cell and normal modes and capabilities and limitations of the two models have been determined by comparing simulated and observed flood inundation extent which occurred in the study area on Feb 4th, 2004.

  1. Flood inundation extent in storage cell mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Farahi; Saeed Reza Khodashenas; B.Ghahraman; K.Esmaeeli

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of floodplaln processes In general and floodplains flooding in particular are vital issues for river engineers and managers.Insufficient observations of flood inundation extent and the infrequent nature of flood inundation necessitate some sort of predictive tools.In this paper flood in-undation extent has been simulated by HEC-RAS software in two storage cell and normal modes and capabilities and limitations of the two models have been determined by comparing simulated and ob-served flood inundation extent which occurred in the study area on Feb 4th, 2004.

  2. Re-thinking urban flood management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sörensen, Johanna; Persson, Andreas; Sternudd, Catharina

    2016-01-01

    Urban flooding is of growing concern due to increasing densification of urban areas, changes in land use, and climate change. The traditional engineering approach to flooding is designing single-purpose drainage systems, dams, and levees. These methods, however, are known to increase the long......-term flood risk and harm the riverine ecosystems in urban as well as rural areas. In the present paper, we depart from resilience theory and suggest a concept to improve urban flood resilience. We identify areas where contemporary challenges call for improved collaborative urban flood management. The concept...

  3. Spatial and temporal variations of diurnal ichthyofauna on surf-zone of São Francisco do Itabapoana beaches, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Marcelo Paes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variations of diurnal ichthyofauna and the environmental variables influences on its distribution were studied at the surf-zone of three beaches of São Francisco do Itabapoana, northern coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From August/1999 to August/2000, three beach seine hauls were made monthly, and environmental variables were recorded. A total number of 4,562 fishes (74,155g were sampled at the three beaches, where estuarine-dependent species prevailed (44%, followed by marine (31%, estuarine (19% and freshwater species (3%. Species richness, number of individuals and wet weight were significantly higher at Gargaú, followed by Manguinhos and Barra do Itabapoana, respectively. Canonical Correspondence Analysis highlighted influences of the rivers flushing, salinity and plant abundance on the diurnal ichthyofauna distribution and dynamics of São Francisco do Itabapoana surf-zone.

  4. Coping with Pluvial Floods by Private Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Rözer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pluvial floods have caused severe damage to urban areas in recent years. With a projected increase in extreme precipitation as well as an ongoing urbanization, pluvial flood damage is expected to increase in the future. Therefore, further insights, especially on the adverse consequences of pluvial floods and their mitigation, are needed. To gain more knowledge, empirical damage data from three different pluvial flood events in Germany were collected through computer-aided telephone interviews. Pluvial flood awareness as well as flood experience were found to be low before the respective flood events. The level of private precaution increased considerably after all events, but is mainly focused on measures that are easy to implement. Lower inundation depths, smaller potential losses as compared with fluvial floods, as well as the fact that pluvial flooding may occur everywhere, are expected to cause a shift in damage mitigation from precaution to emergency response. However, an effective implementation of emergency measures was constrained by a low dissemination of early warnings in the study areas. Further improvements of early warning systems including dissemination as well as a rise in pluvial flood preparedness are important to reduce future pluvial flood damage.

  5. Composite Flood Risk for Virgin Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Composite Flood Risk layer combines flood hazard datasets from Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) flood zones, NOAA's Shallow Coastal Flooding, and the National Hurricane Center SLOSH model for Storm Surge inundation for category 1, 2, and 3 hurricanes.Geographic areas are represented by a grid of 10 by 10 meter cells and each cell has a ranking based on variation in exposure to flooding hazards: Moderate, High and Extreme exposure. Geographic areas in each input layers are ranked based on their probability of flood risk exposure. The logic was such that areas exposed to flooding on a more frequent basis were given a higher ranking. Thus the ranking incorporates the probability of the area being flooded. For example, even though a Category 3 storm surge has higher flooding elevations, the likelihood of the occurrence is lower than a Category 1 storm surge and therefore the Category 3 flood area is given a lower exposure ranking. Extreme exposure areas are those areas that are exposed to relatively frequent flooding.The ranked input layers are then converted to a raster for the creation of the composite risk layer by using cell statistics in spatial analysis. The highest exposure ranking for a given cell in any of the three input layers is assigned to the corresponding cell in the composite layer.For example, if an area (a cell) is rank as medium in the FEMA layer, moderate in the SLOSH layer, but extreme in the SCF layer, the cell will be considere

  6. Comparing Simple Flood Reservoir Operation Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Connaughton

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of three simple flood operating rules in reducing the peak flow is compared for four simplified hydrograph shapes. The Minimize Flood Peak rule uses available flood storage capacity to store peak flows from an accurate hydrograph forecast. The less demanding Minimize Flooding Frequency operating rule releases water at or below channel capacity until the flood storage pool is filled and outflows are forced to exceed the channel capacity. The Short Forecast Peak Minimization rule minimizes flood peak over a short foreseeable future with existing flood storage capacity. Four simplified hydrograph shapes (triangular, abrupt wave, flood pulse and broad peak were used. The Minimize Flood Peak rule reduces peak flows better than alternatives, but is often impractical. The Short Forecast Peak Minimization rule reduces peak flows for a wide range of conditions. The Minimize Flood Frequency rule may be more relevant where damages occur abruptly, as in many leveed systems. All rules reduce peak outflow more efficiently for more steeply rising hydrographs. The approach suggests some general insights for flood operations of reservoirs.

  7. Living behind dikes: mimicking flooding experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaalberg, Ruud; Midden, Cees J H

    2013-05-01

    Delta areas like the Netherlands are threatened by global climate change. Awareness is, however, rather low. Our research objective was to investigate whether coping responses to flooding risks could be enhanced in a virtual environment (VE). A laboratory experiment was conducted in which participants were exposed to a simulated dike breach and consequent flooding of their virtual residence. We tested the hypothesis that an interactive 3D flood simulation facilitates coping responses compared to noninteractive film and slide simulations. Our results showed that information search, the motivation to evacuate, and the motivation to buy flood insurance increased after exposure to the 3D flood simulation compared to the film and slide simulations. Mediation analyses revealed that some of these presentation mode effects were mediated by a greater sense of being present in the VE. Implications to use high-end flood simulations in a VE to communicate real-world flooding risks and coping responses to threatened residents will be discussed.

  8. Flood risk assessment: concepts, modelling, applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tsakiris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural hazards have caused severe consequences to the natural, modified and human systems, in the past. These consequences seem to increase with time due to both higher intensity of the natural phenomena and higher value of elements at risk. Among the water related hazards flood hazards have the most destructive impacts. The paper presents a new systemic paradigm for the assessment of flood hazard and flood risk in the riverine flood prone areas. Special emphasis is given to the urban areas with mild terrain and complicated topography, in which 2-D fully dynamic flood modelling is proposed. Further the EU flood directive is critically reviewed and examples of its implementation are presented. Some critical points in the flood directive implementation are also highlighted.

  9. Can we predict the next urban flood?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk; Jensen, David Getreuer

    2015-01-01

    Flooding produced by high-intensive local rainfall and drainage system capacity exceedance can have severe impacts in cities. In order to prepare cities for these types of flood events – especially in the future climate – it is valuable to be able to simulate these events numericallyboth...... historically and in real-time. There is a rather untested potential in real-time prediction of urban floods. In this paper radar data observations with different spatial and temporal resolution, radar nowcasts of 0-2 hours leadtime, and numerical weather models with leadtimes up to 24 h are used as inputs...... to an integrated flood and drainage systems model with the purpose to investigate the potential for predicting future floods. The system is tested on a small town Lystrup in Denmark, which has been recently flooded. Results show that it is possible to generate detailed flood maps in real-time with high resolution...

  10. The design and implementation of a semi-autonomous surf-zone robot using advanced sensors and a common robot operating system

    OpenAIRE

    Hickle, Jason.; Halle, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A semi-autonomous vehicle, MONTe, was designed, modeled and tested for deployment and operation in a surf-zone coastal environment. The MONTe platform was designed to use unique land based locomotion that incorporates wheel-legs(WhegsTM) and a tail. Semi-autonomy was realized with data from onboard sensors and implemented through open source Robot Operating System (ROS), hosted on an Ubuntu Linux based processor. Communications vi...

  11. 75 FR 7522 - United States Section; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Flood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Environmental Impact Statement, Flood Control Improvements and Partial Levee Relocation, Presidio Flood Control... EIS) for flood control improvements to the Presidio Flood Control Project, Presidio, Texas (Presidio... Impact Statement, Flood Control Improvements and Partial Levee Relocation, USIBWC Presidio Flood......

  12. Betwixt Droughts and Floods: Flood Management Politics in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Maier-Knapp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attempting to create greater understanding of the political dynamics that influence domestic disaster relief and management (DRM in Thailand, this article takes a closer look at these dynamics by outlining the main actors involved in flood-related DRM. It acknowledges the importance of international and military actors but emphasises the role of national and subnational authorities. The article then identifies the central issues of DRM governance as capacity and bureaucracy and discusses these through a chronological assessment of the flood crisis in Thailand in 2011, interweaving the colourful domestic politics with various political cleavages and dichotomies, and thereby distinguishing between three main dichotomies which it considers as the central drivers of the political dynamics and institutional development of DRM. These issues can be summarised as old versus new institutions, technocracy versus bureaucracy and centralised (but with direct people-orientation through greater channels of citizenry participation versus decentralised bureaucracy with an indirect orientation towards people.

  13. Toward more resilient flood risk governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. J. Driessen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Countries all over the world face increasing flood risks because of urbanization and the effects of climate change. In Europe, flooding is the most common of all natural disasters and accounts for the largest number of casualties and highest amount of economic damage. The current scientific debate on how urban agglomerations can be made more resilient to these flood risks includes a discussion on how a diversification, coordination, and alignment of flood risk management strategies (FRMSs, including flood risk prevention through proactive spatial planning, flood defense, flood risk mitigation, flood preparation, and flood recovery, can contribute to flood resilience. Although effective implementation of FRMSs can be considered a necessary precondition for resilience, efficient and legitimate flood risk governance can enhance this societal resilience to flooding. Governance and legal research has the potential to provide crucial insights into the debate on how to improve resilience. Yet the social sciences have only looked into this issue in a fragmented manner, often without a comparative scope. This special feature addresses this knowledge gap by focusing on the scope and workings of FRMSs, but also on cross-cutting topics such as uncertainties, distributional effects, solidarity, knowledge management, and citizen participation. The papers included in this feature are written by both policy analysts and legal scholars. The above-mentioned issues are thus approached via a multidisciplinary perspective. All papers convincingly show that one-size-fits-all solutions for appropriate and resilient flood risk governance arrangements do not exist. Governance arrangements should be tailored to the existing physical, socio-cultural, and institutional context. This requires an open and transparent debate between scientists and practitioners on the normative starting point of flood risk governance, a clear division of responsibilities, the establishment of

  14. Sobre inundaciones y anegamientos / Reflections on floods and flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrando A., Francisco J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Respecto a anegamientos e inundaciones, el autor realiza algunas precisiones conceptuales que afectan la gestión de acciones preventivas, la planificación y el ordenamiento territorial; además se ofrece una sistematización del quehacer sobre las inundaciones./ The author punctualizes the concepts regarding preventive actions and territorial planning. Also the article includes a systematized list of actions related to flood management.

  15. Use of documentary sources on past flood events for flood risk management and land planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cœur, Denis; Lang, Michel

    2008-09-01

    The knowledge of past catastrophic events can improve flood risk mitigation policy, with a better awareness against risk. As such historical information is usually available in Europe for the past five centuries, historians are able to understand how past society dealt with flood risk, and hydrologists can include information on past floods into an adapted probabilistic framework. In France, Flood Risk Mitigation Maps are based either on the largest historical known flood event or on the 100-year flood event if it is greater. Two actions can be suggested in terms of promoting the use of historical information for flood risk management: (1) the development of a regional flood data base, with both historical and current data, in order to get a good feedback on recent events and to improve the flood risk education and awareness; (2) the commitment to keep a persistent/perennial management of a reference network of hydrometeorological observations for climate change studies.

  16. Three-dimensional modelling of wave-induced current from the surf zone to the inner shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Michaud

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We develop and implement a new method to take into account the impact of waves into the 3-D circulation model SYMPHONIE (Marsaleix et al., 2008, 2009a, following the simplified equations of Bennis et al. (2011 which use glm2z-RANS theory (Ardhuin et al., 2008b. These adiabatic equations are completed by additional parameterizations of wave breaking, bottom friction and wave-enhanced vertical mixing, making the forcing valid from the surf zone through to the open ocean. The wave forcing is performed by wave generation and propagation models WAVEWATCH III® (Tolman, 2008, 2009; Ardhuin et al., 2010 and SWAN (Booij et al., 1999. The model is tested and compared with other models for a plane beach test case, previously tested by Haas and Warner (2009 and Uchiyama et al. (2010. A comparison is also made with the laboratory measurements of Haller et al. (2002 of a barred beach with channels. Results fit with previous simulations performed by other models and with available observational data.

    Finally, a realistic case of energetic waves travelling over a coast of the Gulf of Lion (in the northwest of the Mediterranean Sea for which currents are available at different depths as well as an accurate bathymetric database of the 0–10 m depth range, is then simulated. A grid nesting approach is used to account for the different forcings acting at different spatial scales. The simulation coupling the effects of waves and currents is successful to reproduce the powerful northward littoral drift in the 0–15 m depth zone. More precisely, two distinct cases are identified: when waves have a normal angle of incidence with the coast, they are responsible for complex circulation cells and rip currents in the surf zone, and when they travel obliquely, they generate a northward littoral drift. These features are more complicated than in the test cases, due to the complex bathymetry and the consideration of wind and non-stationary processes. Wave impacts

  17. Three-dimensional modelling of wave-induced current from the surf zone to the inner shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Michaud

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We develop and implement a new method to take into account the impact of waves into the 3-D circulation model SYMPHONIE (Marsaleix et al., 2008, 2009a following the simplified equations of Bennis et al. (2011 which use glm2z-RANS theory (Ardhuin et al., 2008c. These adiabatic equations are completed by additional parameterizations of wave breaking, bottom friction and wave-enhanced vertical mixing, making the forcing valid from the surf zone through to the open ocean. The wave forcing is performed by wave generation and propagation models WAVEWATCH III® (Tolman, 2008, 2009; Ardhuin et al., 2010 and SWAN (Booij et al., 1999. The model is tested and compared with other models for a plane beach test case, previously tested by Haas and Warner (2009and Uchiyama et al. (2010. A comparison is also made with the laboratory measurements of Haller et al. (2002 of a barred beach with channels. Results fit with previous simulations performed by other models and with available observational data.

    Finally, a realistic case is simulated with energetic waves travelling over a coast of the Gulf of Lion (in the northwest of the Mediterranean Sea for which currents are available at different depths as well as an accurate bathymetric database of the 0–10 m depth range. A grid nesting approach is used to account for the different forcings acting at different spatial scales. The simulation coupling the effects of waves and currents is successful to reproduce the powerful northward littoral drift in the 0–15 m depth zone. More precisely, two distinct cases are identified: When waves have a normal angle of incidence with the coast, they are responsible for complex circulation cells and rip currents in the surf zone, and when they travel obliquely, they generate a northward littoral drift. These features are more complicated than in the test cases, due to the complex bathymetry and the consideration of wind and non-stationary processes. Wave impacts in the

  18. Godunov-Based Model of Swash Zone Dynamics to Advance Coastal Flood Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri Majd, M.; Sanders, B. F.

    2012-12-01

    Urbanized lowlands in southern California are defended against coastal flooding by sandy beaches that dynamically adjust to changes in water level and wave conditions, particularly during storm events. Recent research has shown that coastal flood impacts are scaled by the volume of beach overtopping flows, and an improved characterization of dynamic overtopping rates is needed to improve coastal flood forecasting (Gallien et al. 2012). However, uncertainty in the beach slope and height makes it difficult to predict the onset of overtopping and the magnitude of resulting flooding. That is, beaches may evolve significantly over a storm event. Sallenger (Sallenger, 2000) describes Impact Levels to distinguish different impact regimes (swash, collision, overwash and inundation) on dunes and barrier islands. Our goal is to model processes in different regimes as was described by him. Godunov-based models adopt a depth-integrated, two-phase approach and the shallow-water hypothesis to resolve flow and sediment transport in a tightly coupled manner that resolves shocks in the air/fluid and fluid/sediment interface. These models are best known in the context of debris flow modeling where the ability to predict the flow of highly concentrated sediment/fluid mixtures is required. Here, the approach is directed at the swash zone. Existing Godunov-based models are reviewed and shown to have drawbacks relative to wetting and drying and "avalanching"—important processes in the swash zone. This nonphysical erosion can be described as the natural tendency of the schemes to smear out steep bed slopes. To denote and reduce these numerical errors, new numerical methods are presented to address these limitations and the resulting model is applied to a set of laboratory-scale test problems. The shallow-water hypothesis limits the applicability of the model to the swash zone, so it is forced by a time series of water level and cross-shore velocity that accounts for surf zone wave

  19. Urban flood simulation based on the SWMM model

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    China is the nation with the fastest urbanization in the past decades which has caused serious urban flooding. Flood forecasting is regarded as one of the important flood mitigation methods, and is widely used in catchment flood mitigation, but is not widely used in urban flooding mitigation. This paper, employing the SWMM model, one of the widely used urban flood planning and management models, simulates the urban flooding of Dongguan City in the rapidly urbanized southern China. SWMM is fir...

  20. Real-time flood forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C.; Tsay, T.-K.; Chien, C.-H.; Wu, I.-L.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers at the Hydroinformatic Research and Development Team (HIRDT) of the National Taiwan University undertook a project to create a real time flood forecasting model, with an aim to predict the current in the Tamsui River Basin. The model was designed based on deterministic approach with mathematic modeling of complex phenomenon, and specific parameter values operated to produce a discrete result. The project also devised a rainfall-stage model that relates the rate of rainfall upland directly to the change of the state of river, and is further related to another typhoon-rainfall model. The geographic information system (GIS) data, based on precise contour model of the terrain, estimate the regions that were perilous to flooding. The HIRDT, in response to the project's progress, also devoted their application of a deterministic model to unsteady flow of thermodynamics to help predict river authorities issue timely warnings and take other emergency measures.

  1. Drivers of flood damage on event level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk is dynamic and influenced by many processes related to hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Flood damage increased significantly over the past decades, however, resulting overall economic loss per event is an aggregated indicator and it is difficult to attribute causes to this increasing trend. Much has been learned about damaging processes during floods at the micro-scale, e.g. building level. However, little is known about the main factors determining the amount of flood damage on event level. Thus, we analyse and compare paired flood events, i.e. consecutive, similar damaging floods that occurred in the same area. In analogy to 'Paired catchment studies' - a well-established method in hydrology to understand how changes in land use affect streamflow - we will investigate how and why resulting flood damage in a region differed between the first and second consecutive flood events. One example are the 2002 and 2013 floods in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany. The 2002 flood caused the highest economic damage (EUR 11600 million) due to a natural hazard event in Germany. Damage was so high due to extreme flood hazard triggered by extreme precipitation and a high number of resulting dyke breaches. Additionally, exposure hotspots like the city of Dresden at the Elbe river as well as some smaller municipalities at the river Mulde (e.g. Grimma, Eilenburg, Bitterfeld, Dessau) were severely impacted. However, affected parties and authorities learned from the extreme flood in 2002, and many governmental flood risk programs and initiatives were launched. Considerable improvements since 2002 occurred on many levels that deal with flood risk reduction and disaster response, in particular in 1) increased flood prevention by improved spatial planning, 2) an increased number of property-level mitigation measures, 3) more effective early warning and improved coordination of disaster response and 4) a more targeted maintenance of flood defence systems and their

  2. Visual Sensing for Urban Flood Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2015-08-14

    With the increasing climatic extremes, the frequency and severity of urban flood events have intensified worldwide. In this study, image-based automated monitoring of flood formation and analyses of water level fluctuation were proposed as value-added intelligent sensing applications to turn a passive monitoring camera into a visual sensor. Combined with the proposed visual sensing method, traditional hydrological monitoring cameras have the ability to sense and analyze the local situation of flood events. This can solve the current problem that image-based flood monitoring heavily relies on continuous manned monitoring. Conventional sensing networks can only offer one-dimensional physical parameters measured by gauge sensors, whereas visual sensors can acquire dynamic image information of monitored sites and provide disaster prevention agencies with actual field information for decision-making to relieve flood hazards. The visual sensing method established in this study provides spatiotemporal information that can be used for automated remote analysis for monitoring urban floods. This paper focuses on the determination of flood formation based on image-processing techniques. The experimental results suggest that the visual sensing approach may be a reliable way for determining the water fluctuation and measuring its elevation and flood intrusion with respect to real-world coordinates. The performance of the proposed method has been confirmed; it has the capability to monitor and analyze the flood status, and therefore, it can serve as an active flood warning system.

  3. Visual Sensing for Urban Flood Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing climatic extremes, the frequency and severity of urban flood events have intensified worldwide. In this study, image-based automated monitoring of flood formation and analyses of water level fluctuation were proposed as value-added intelligent sensing applications to turn a passive monitoring camera into a visual sensor. Combined with the proposed visual sensing method, traditional hydrological monitoring cameras have the ability to sense and analyze the local situation of flood events. This can solve the current problem that image-based flood monitoring heavily relies on continuous manned monitoring. Conventional sensing networks can only offer one-dimensional physical parameters measured by gauge sensors, whereas visual sensors can acquire dynamic image information of monitored sites and provide disaster prevention agencies with actual field information for decision-making to relieve flood hazards. The visual sensing method established in this study provides spatiotemporal information that can be used for automated remote analysis for monitoring urban floods. This paper focuses on the determination of flood formation based on image-processing techniques. The experimental results suggest that the visual sensing approach may be a reliable way for determining the water fluctuation and measuring its elevation and flood intrusion with respect to real-world coordinates. The performance of the proposed method has been confirmed; it has the capability to monitor and analyze the flood status, and therefore, it can serve as an active flood warning system.

  4. Floods and human health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Katarzyna; Turner, Lyle R; Tong, Shilu

    2012-10-15

    Floods are the most common type of disaster globally, responsible for almost 53,000 deaths in the last decade alone (23:1 low- versus high-income countries). This review assessed recent epidemiological evidence on the impacts of floods on human health. Published articles (2004-2011) on the quantitative relationship between floods and health were systematically reviewed. 35 relevant epidemiological studies were identified. Health outcomes were categorized into short- and long-term and were found to depend on the flood characteristics and people's vulnerability. It was found that long-term health effects are currently not well understood. Mortality rates were found to increase by up to 50% in the first year post-flood. After floods, it was found there is an increased risk of disease outbreaks such as hepatitis E, gastrointestinal disease and leptospirosis, particularly in areas with poor hygiene and displaced populations. Psychological distress in survivors (prevalence 8.6% to 53% two years post-flood) can also exacerbate their physical illness. There is a need for effective policies to reduce and prevent flood-related morbidity and mortality. Such steps are contingent upon the improved understanding of potential health impacts of floods. Global trends in urbanization, burden of disease, malnutrition and maternal and child health must be better reflected in flood preparedness and mitigation programs. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Floods in Brno: history, causes and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brázdil, R.; Dobrovolný, P.; Halíčková, M.; Macková, J.; Øezníčková, L.; Soukalová, E.; Valášek, H.

    2009-09-01

    Brno is the second largest city in the Czech Republic (cca 400,000 inhabitants), a centre of southern Moravia. It was always endangered by floods occurring on the Svratka River and the Svitava River. Observed floods were related mainly to intense snow-melting (with rains and also ice-damming) in winter/early spring or heavy precipitation in the summer half-year. Historical and recent changes in catchments of the both rivers influencing floods are described (land-use, regulations of rivers, water reservoirs). Basic analysis of floods is presented for the period of systematic hydrological measurements (water stages or discharges) with respect to their severity (expressed by N-year return period) and seasonality of floods for the four hydrological stations in Brno and its surroundings. Examples of selected flood events with analysis of meteorological causes, hydrological course and impacts are presented. The most severe floods occurred in March 1941 and August-September 1938. Information about floods from the instrumental period is extended by flood information derived from different documentary evidence. Long-term chronology of Brno floods (since 1650) combining documentary and instrumental data is presented and discussed in the context of climate variability.

  6. Bayesian flood forecasting methods: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shasha; Coulibaly, Paulin

    2017-08-01

    Over the past few decades, floods have been seen as one of the most common and largely distributed natural disasters in the world. If floods could be accurately forecasted in advance, then their negative impacts could be greatly minimized. It is widely recognized that quantification and reduction of uncertainty associated with the hydrologic forecast is of great importance for flood estimation and rational decision making. Bayesian forecasting system (BFS) offers an ideal theoretic framework for uncertainty quantification that can be developed for probabilistic flood forecasting via any deterministic hydrologic model. It provides suitable theoretical structure, empirically validated models and reasonable analytic-numerical computation method, and can be developed into various Bayesian forecasting approaches. This paper presents a comprehensive review on Bayesian forecasting approaches applied in flood forecasting from 1999 till now. The review starts with an overview of fundamentals of BFS and recent advances in BFS, followed with BFS application in river stage forecasting and real-time flood forecasting, then move to a critical analysis by evaluating advantages and limitations of Bayesian forecasting methods and other predictive uncertainty assessment approaches in flood forecasting, and finally discusses the future research direction in Bayesian flood forecasting. Results show that the Bayesian flood forecasting approach is an effective and advanced way for flood estimation, it considers all sources of uncertainties and produces a predictive distribution of the river stage, river discharge or runoff, thus gives more accurate and reliable flood forecasts. Some emerging Bayesian forecasting methods (e.g. ensemble Bayesian forecasting system, Bayesian multi-model combination) were shown to overcome limitations of single model or fixed model weight and effectively reduce predictive uncertainty. In recent years, various Bayesian flood forecasting approaches have been

  7. Floods Risk Management in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Güiza Suárez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The last rainy season 2010-2011 resulted in Colombia in around 500 casualties and more than 3.6 million of victims. Although this rainfall term accounted for one of the strongest it was not an unprecedented event since for more than fifty years this phenomenon has been taking place in the same Colombian regions producing casualties and victims. This fact makes us to think about the public management by authorities regarding flooding prevention in our country. This article elaborates on this topic explaining the risk management system in case of flooding in Colombia. It shows some national figures of the main ravages brought about by the 2010 2011 rainy seasons. Finally the article analyzes two cases of study of how operational is this public policy in risk management: La Mojana and Canal del Dique regions. It was evident that the state failed in managing the risk management from flooding because despite the important investment, every year the victims, casualties and material damages are increasing steadily.

  8. Predicting floods with Flickr tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Nataliya; Jarvis, Stephen; Procter, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, user generated content (UGC) in social media postings and their associated metadata such as time and location stamps are being used to provide useful operational information during natural hazard events such as hurricanes, storms and floods. The main advantage of these new sources of data are twofold. First, in a purely additive sense, they can provide much denser geographical coverage of the hazard as compared to traditional sensor networks. Second, they provide what physical sensors are not able to do: By documenting personal observations and experiences, they directly record the impact of a hazard on the human environment. For this reason interpretation of the content (e.g., hashtags, images, text, emojis, etc) and metadata (e.g., keywords, tags, geolocation) have been a focus of much research into social media analytics. However, as choices of semantic tags in the current methods are usually reduced to the exact name or type of the event (e.g., hashtags '#Sandy' or '#flooding'), the main limitation of such approaches remains their mere nowcasting capacity. In this study we make use of polysemous tags of images posted during several recent flood events and demonstrate how such volunteered geographic data can be used to provide early warning of an event before its outbreak.

  9. Structural aspects of the surf-zone fish assemblage at King's Beach, Algoa Bay, South Africa: Long-term fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasiak, Theresa A.

    1984-04-01

    Regular collections of fish were obtained from the surf-zone at King's Beach, Algoa Bay. A total of 3970 fish, representing 50 species was caught with a coarse net and 16 857 fish, representing 37 species, were caught with a fine net. Predominant species were the blacktail, Diplodus sargus; the sand steenbras, Lithognathus mormyrus; the mullet, Liza richardsoni; the gorrie, Pomadasys olivaceum; the white stumpnose, Rhabdosargus globiceps; the sandshark, Rhinobatos annulatus; and the streepie, Sarpa salpa. No seasonal trends were discernible in the overall abundance or species diversity. The species composition of the dominant component of the fish assemblage varied considerably. This indicated instability in the community structure and cast doubts on the applicability of a classic community concept and the use of diversity indices. Neither classification nor correspondence analysis were of any use in identifying a characteristic species component. Multiple regression analysis indicated that short-term variations in wind conditions might be a primary determinant of fluctuations in abundance. The lack of seasonality in the community parameters may reflect the fact that short-term variability masks seasonal perturbations.

  10. Feature description with SIFT, SURF, BRIEF, BRISK, or FREAK? A general question answered for bone age assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, Muhammad; Deserno, Thomas M; Haak, Daniel; Jonas, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Solving problems in medical image processing is either generic (being applicable to many problems) or specific (optimized for a certain task). For example, bone age assessment (BAA) on hand radiographs is a frequent but cumbersome task for radiologists. For this problem, many specific solutions have been proposed. However, general-purpose feature descriptors are used in many computer vision applications. Hence, the aim of this study is (i) to compare the five leading keypoint descriptors on BAA, and, in doing so, (ii) presenting a generic approach for a specific task. Two methods for keypoint selection were applied: sparse and dense feature points. For each type, SIFT, SURF, BRIEF, BRISK, and FREAK feature descriptors were extracted within the epiphyseal regions of interest (eROI). Classification was performed using a support vector machine. Reference data (1101 radiographs) of the University of Southern California was used for 5-fold cross-validation. The data was grouped into 30 classes representing the bone age range of 0-18 years. With a mean error of 0.605 years, dense SIFT gave best results and outperforms all published methods. The accuracy was 98.36% within the range of 2 years. Dense SIFT represents a generic method for a specific question.

  11. Rancang Bangun Game Aksi dengan Integrasi dan Pengenalan Gambar Menggunakan Algoritma Ekstraksi Fitur SURF dan Klasifikasi SVM pada Perangkat Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Nandriawan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Saat ini perangkat mobile berbasis Android dan iOS sangat digemari oleh anak-anak. Mereka yang telah memiliki perangkat mobile akan menghabiskan seluruh waktunya untuk menatap layar perangkat saat bermain. Akibat yang ditimbulkan adalah penurunan kesehatan mata dan kurangnya bersosialisasi dengan teman sebaya. Menggambar adalah hal yang disukai anak-anak. Dengan menggabungkan menggambar dengan permainan perangkat mobile, anak-anak akan tetap merasa bermain meski mereka sedang tidak menatap layar untuk menggambar. Tugas akhir ini bertujuan untuk membangun sebuah permainan yang dapat mengenali gambar dan menggunakan gambar tersebut dalam permainan. Metode pengenalan gambar dalam tugas akhir ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode Edge Detection dengan algoritma ekstraksi fitur SURF (Speeded-Up Robust Features dan klasifikasi SVM (Support Vector Machine. Jenis permainan yang dibangun merupakan gabungan dari aksi dan tower defense. Hasil dari tugas akhir ini dibagi menjadi 3 yaitu hasil fungsionalitas permainan, hasil daya tarik permainan dan hasil akurasi pengenalan gambar. Semua fungsi yang dibuat pada permainan dapat berjalan dengan baik, dan permainan juga telah memiliki daya tarik yang memikat. Namun hasil akurasi pengenalan gambar masih kurang dari harapan penulis.

  12. PADDLING PERFORMANCE AND RANKING POSITION IN JUNIOR SURFERS COMPETING AT THE ASSOCIATION OF SURFING PROFESSIONALS: A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Cámara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  The aims of this pilot study are on one hand, to evaluate the upper body aerobic characteristics of junior surfers competing at the European branch of the Association of Surfing Professionals (ASP and on the other, to assess the relationship between the junior surfers' upper body aerobic characteristics and their ranking position. Ten surfers competing at the European junior branch of the ASP took part in the study. The maximal oxygen uptake (VO2MAX, the maximum power output (WMAX, the maximum lactate concentration [La]MAX, the maximum heart rate (HRMAX and the power output at the intensity where the lactate threshold and the onset of blood lactate accumulation are produced (WLT and WOBLA were determined during an incremental maximal test in a swim bench ergometer. It was observed a lack of a significant relationship between the ranking position and the parameters at maximal intensity (VO2PEAK, WMAX, HRMAX y [La]MAX. The WLT (W · kg-1 and the WOBLA (W · kg-1 were significantly related to ranking position (r= -0.69, p= 0.02; r= -0.72, p= 0.01, respectively.

  13. Self-organizing maps and VolSurf approach to predict aldose reductase inhibition by flavonoid compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Scotti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aldose Reductase (AR is the polyol pathway key enzyme which converts glucose to sorbitol. High glucose availability in insulin resistant tissues in diabetes leads into an accumulation of sorbitol, which has been associated with typical chronic complications of this disease, such as neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy. In this study, 71 flavonoids AR inhibitors were subjected to two methods of SAR to verify crucial substituents. The first method used the PCA (Principal Component Analysis to elucidate physical and chemical characteristics in the molecules that would be essential for the activity, employing VolSurf descriptors. The rate obtained explained 53% of the system total variance and revealed that a hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance in the molecules is required, since very polar or nonpolar substituents decrease the activity. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs was also employed to determine key substituents by evaluating substitution patterns, using NMR data. This study had a high success rate (85% accuracy in the training set and 88% accuracy in the test set and showed polihydroxilations are essential for high activity and methoxylations and glicosilations primarily at positions C7, C3' and C4' decrease the activity.

  14. Flood risk modelling based on tangible and intangible urban flood damage quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Veldhuis, J A E; Clemens, F H L R

    2010-01-01

    The usual way to quantify flood damage is by application stage-damage functions. Urban flood incidents in flat areas mostly result in intangible damages like traffic disturbance and inconvenience for pedestrians caused by pools at building entrances, on sidewalks and parking spaces. Stage-damage functions are not well suited to quantify damage for these floods. This paper presents an alternative method to quantify flood damage that uses data from a municipal call centre. The data cover a period of 10 years and contain detailed information on consequences of urban flood incidents. Call data are linked to individual flood incidents and then assigned to specific damage classes. The results are used to draw risk curves for a range of flood incidents of increasing damage severity. Risk curves for aggregated groups of damage classes show that total flood risk related to traffic disturbance is larger than risk of damage to private properties, which in turn is larger than flood risk related to human health. Risk curves for detailed damage classes show how distinctions can be made between flood risks related to many types of occupational use in urban areas. This information can be used to support prioritisation of actions for flood risk reduction. Since call data directly convey how citizens are affected by urban flood incidents, they provide valuable information that complements flood risk analysis based on hydraulic models.

  15. Development of flood risk mapping in Kota Tinggi, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, T. H.

    2014-02-01

    Flood risk maps provide valuable information for development of flood risk management. Geospatial technology and modeling enable us to monitor natural disasters around the world. Flooding is the most severe natural disaster that causing huge economic losses every year. Flood risk maps are an essential tool for assessing the consequences of flooding. The main aim of this study is to initiate a framework to develop a local-based flood risk map. Flood risk maps can be produced by using integration of geospatial technology and hydrodynamic modeling. Results show that a flood risk map for Kota Tinggi is produced with unsatisfactory information in term of flood damage.

  16. Advances in Remote Sensing of Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With the publication of eight original research articles, four types of advances in the remote sensing of floods are achieved. The uncertainty of modeled outputs using precipitation datasets derived from in situ observations and remote sensors is further understood. With the terrestrial laser scanner and airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR coupled with high resolution optical and radar imagery, researchers improve accuracy levels in estimating the surface water height, extent, and flow of floods. The unmanned aircraft system (UAS can be the game changer in the acquisition and application of remote sensing data. The UAS may fly everywhere and every time when a flood event occurs. With the development of urban structure maps, the flood risk and possible damage is well assessed. The flood mitigation plans and response activities become effective and efficient using geographic information system (GIS-based urban flood vulnerability and risk maps.

  17. Effects of increased flooding on riparian vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garssen, Annemarie G.; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Riis, Tenna

    2017-01-01

    In many parts of the world, the magnitude and frequency of cold-season precipitation are expected to increase in the near future. This will result in an increased magnitude and duration of winter and spring flooding by rain-fed streams and rivers. Such climate-driven increases in flooding...... of 3 years. We assessed the responses in riparian plant species richness, biomass, plant-available nitrogen and phosphorus and seed deposition to increased flooding depth (+18 cm on average at the lowest positions along the riparian gradient) and prolonged flooding duration (6 weeks on average). After...... 3 years of increased flooding, there was an overall decline in riparian species richness, while riparian plant biomass increased. Extractable soil nitrogen and phosphorus also increased and are likely to have contributed to the increased biomass. Increased flooding resulted in the arrival of more...

  18. [Climate changes, floods, and health consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelozzi, Paola; de' Donato, Francesca

    2014-02-01

    In the European Region, floods are the most common natural disaster, causing extensive damage and disruption. In Italy, it has been estimated that over 68% of municipalities are at high hydrogeological risk and with the recent intense rainfall events local populations have been facing severe disruptions. The health consequences of floods are wide ranging and are dependent upon the vulnerability of the environment and the local population. Health effects can be a direct or indirect consequence of flooding. The immediate health impacts of floods include drowning, heart attacks, injuries and hypothermia. The indirect effects include, injuries and infections, water-borne infectious disease, mental health problems, respiratory disease and allergies in both the medium and long term after a flood. Future efforts should be addressed to integrate health preparedness and prevention measures into emergency flood plans and hydrological warning systems.

  19. Visualization and Damage Assessment for Flooded Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Guozhong; YAN Li; LIU Nan; LIU Renyi

    2004-01-01

    A practical method for visualizing flood area and evaluating damage is presented, which consists of two technical approaches: self-programming and adapting commercial GIS platforms. The low-cost and easy-to-use GIS-Based model developed by self-programming can meet current requirements of most local authorities, especially in developing countries. In this model, two cases, non-source flood and source flood, are distinguished and the Seed-spread algorithm suitable for source-flood is discussed; The flood damage is assessed by overlaying the flood area range with thematic maps and other related social and economic data. and all thematic maps are converted to raster format before overlay analysis. Two measures are taken to improve the operation efficiency of speed seed-spread algorithm. The accuracy of the model mainly depends on the resolution and precision of the DEM data, and the accuracy of registering all raster layers and the quality of attribute data.

  20. 12 CFR 339.7 - Forced placement of flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forced placement of flood insurance. 339.7... GENERAL POLICY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 339.7 Forced placement of flood insurance. If... not covered by flood insurance or is covered by flood insurance in an amount less than the...

  1. 25 CFR 256.24 - Will I need flood insurance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will I need flood insurance? 256.24 Section 256.24... Will I need flood insurance? You will need flood insurance if your dwelling is located in an area identified as having special flood hazards under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Pub. L....

  2. 12 CFR 614.4945 - Forced placement of flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forced placement of flood insurance. 614.4945... OPERATIONS Flood Insurance Requirements § 614.4945 Forced placement of flood insurance. If a System... not covered by flood insurance or are covered by flood insurance in an amount less than the...

  3. 12 CFR 572.7 - Forced placement of flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forced placement of flood insurance. 572.7... HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 572.7 Forced placement of flood insurance. If a savings association, or a... not covered by flood insurance or is covered by flood insurance in an amount less than the...

  4. 12 CFR 760.7 - Forced placement of flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forced placement of flood insurance. 760.7... LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 760.7 Forced placement of flood insurance. If a credit... not covered by flood insurance, or is covered by flood insurance in an amount less than the...

  5. 44 CFR 78.5 - Flood Mitigation Plan development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood Mitigation Plan..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.5 Flood Mitigation Plan development. A Flood Mitigation Plan will articulate...

  6. LAMINATION METHOD OF FLOOD WADIS AND PROJECTION OF THE LAMINATED FLOOD HYDROGRAPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ladjel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The catastrophic floods in semi-arid areas are often caused by floods storm that occur at any time during the year, including the hot season. The prevention of these floods could be done by the construction of small dam hills. This requires the control of theoretical concepts hydrological sizing, especially the hydrological structure to evacuate floods. We suggest a method to calculate the optimal regulation flow of the flood and also the development of a direct calculation formula of a laminated maximum flow. The analysis of the hydro graph’s analogy at the input and the output of the dam, allow searching the dependencies between their characteristics. knowing the characteristics of the hydrograph flood of the project and the reserved capacity for the amortization of the flood, we can directly determine the laminated maximum flow and project the hydrograph of the laminated flood.

  7. Influence of flood risk characteristics on flood insurance demand: a comparison between Germany and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, I.; Botzen, W. J. W.; Kreibich, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2013-07-01

    The existence of sufficient demand for insurance coverage against infrequent losses is important for the adequate function of insurance markets for natural disaster risks. This study investigates how characteristics of flood risk influence household flood insurance demand based on household surveys undertaken in Germany and the Netherlands. Our analyses confirm the hypothesis that willingness to pay (WTP) for insurance against medium-probability medium-impact flood risk in Germany is higher than WTP for insurance against low-probability high-impact flood risk in the Netherlands. These differences in WTP can be related to differences in flood experience, individual risk perceptions, and the charity hazard. In both countries there is a need to stimulate flood insurance demand if a relevant role of private insurance in flood loss compensation is regarded as desirable, for example, by making flood insurance compulsory or by designing information campaigns.

  8. Floods and climate: emerging perspectives for flood risk assessment and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merz, B.; Aerts, J.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Flood estimation and flood management have traditionally been the domain of hydrologists, water resources engineers and statisticians, and disciplinary approaches abound. Dominant views have been shaped; one example is the catchment perspective: floods are formed and influenced by the interaction...... context of floods. We come to the following conclusions: (1) extending the traditional system boundaries (local catchment, recent decades, hydrological/hydraulic processes) opens up exciting possibilities for better understanding and improved tools for flood risk assessment and management. (2) Statistical...... approaches in flood estimation need to be complemented by the search for the causal mechanisms and dominant processes in the atmosphere, catchment and river system that leave their fingerprints on flood characteristics. (3) Natural climate variability leads to time-varying flood characteristics...

  9. Flood early warning system: sensors and internet

    OpenAIRE

    Pengel, B.E.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Melnikova, N.B.; Shirshov, G.S.; Koelewijn, A.R.; Pyayt, A.L.; Mokhov, I.I.; Chavoshian, A.; Takeuchi,K.

    2013-01-01

    The UrbanFlood early warning system (EWS) is designed to monitor data from very large sensornetworks in flood defences such as embankments, dikes, levees, and dams. The EWS, based on the internet, uses real-time sensor information and Artificial Intelligence (AI) to immediately calculate the probability of dike failure, the ensuing scenarios of dike breaching, predicted flood spreading and escape routes for people from the affected areas. Results are presented on interactive decision support ...

  10. Identification and classification of Serbia's historic floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prohaska Stevan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available River flooding in Serbia is a natural phenomenon which largely exceeds the scope of water management and hydraulic engineering, and has considerable impact on the development of Serbian society. Today, the importance and value of areas threatened by floods are among the key considerations of sustainable development. As a result, flood protection techniques and procedures need to be continually refined and updated, following innovations in the fields of science and technology. Knowledge of high flows is key for sizing hydraulic structures and for gauging the cost-effectiveness and safety of the component structures of flood protection systems. However, sizing of hydraulic structures based on computed high flows does not ensure absolute safety; there is a residual flood risk and a risk of structural failure, if a flood exceeds computed levels. In hydrological practice, such floods are often referred to as historic/loads. The goal of this paper is to present a calculation procedure for the objective identification of historic floods, using long, multiple-year series of data on high flows of natural watercourses in Serbia. At its current stage of development, the calculation procedure is based on maximum annual discharges recorded at key monitoring stations of the Hydro-Meteorological Service of Serbia (HMS Serbia. When applied, the procedure results in the identification of specific historic maximum stages/floods (if any at all gauge sites included in the analysis. The probabilistic theory is then applied to assess the statistical significance of each identified historic flood and to classify the historic flood, as appropriate. At the end of the paper, the results of the applied methodology are shown in tabular and graphic form for various Serbian rivers. All identified historic floods are ranked based on their probability of occurrence (i.e., return period.

  11. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general proc...

  12. Reconstruction of the 1945 Wieringermeer Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoes, O. A. C.; Hut, R. W.; van de Giesen, N. C.; Boomgaard, M.

    2013-03-01

    The present state-of-the-art in flood risk assessment focuses on breach models, flood propagation models, and economic modelling of flood damage. However, models need to be validated with real data to avoid erroneous conclusions. Such reference data can either be historic data, or can be obtained from controlled experiments. The inundation of the Wieringermeer polder in the Netherlands in April 1945 is one of the few examples for which sufficient historical information is available. The objective of this article is to compare the flood simulation with flood data from 1945. The context, the breach growth process and the flood propagation are explained. Key findings for current flood risk management addresses the importance of the drainage canal network during the inundation of a polder, and the uncertainty that follows from not knowing the breach growth parameters. This case study shows that historical floods provide valuable data for the validation of models and reveal lessons that are applicable in current day flood risk management.

  13. Flooding in Illinois, April-June 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Charles; Smith, D.F.

    2002-01-01

    Widespread flooding occurred throughout most of Illinois in spring 2002 as a result of multiple intense rainstorms that moved through the State during an extended 2-month period from the third week in April through the month of May in central and southern Illinois, the first week in June in northern Illinois, and the second week in June in west-central Illinois. The scale of flooding was highly variable in time and intensity throughout the State. A Federal disaster was declared for central and southern Illinois to deal with the extensive damage incurred during the severe weather, and to provide emergency aid relief. Discharge and stage records for the flood periods described above are presented for 193 streamflow-gaging stations throughout Illinois and in drainages just upstream of the State. New maximum instantaneous discharge was recorded at 12 stations during this flood period, and new maximum stage was recorded at 15 stations. Flood stage was exceeded for at least 1 day during this 2-month period at 67 of the 82 stations with established flood-stage elevations given by the National Weather Service. Of the 162 streamflowgaging stations with an established flood-frequency distribution, a 5-year or greater flood discharge was recorded at 87 stations, and a 100-year or greater flood discharge occurred at six stations.

  14. Flood Routing Technique for Data Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Jaihyung; Breen, James

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, a new routing algorithm based on a flooding method is introduced. Flooding techniques have been used previously, e.g. for broadcasting the routing table in the ARPAnet [1] and other special purpose networks [3][4][5]. However, sending data using flooding can often saturate the network [2] and it is usually regarded as an inefficient broadcast mechanism. Our approach is to flood a very short packet to explore an optimal route without relying on a pre-established routing table, a...

  15. After the flood is before the next flood - post event review of the Central European Floods of June 2013. Insights, recommendations and next steps for future flood prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoenyi, Michael; Mechler, Reinhard; McCallum, Ian

    2015-04-01

    In early June 2013, severe flooding hit Central and Eastern Europe, causing extensive damage, in particular along the Danube and Elbe main watersheds. The situation was particularly severe in Eastern Germany, Austria, Hungary and the Czech Republic. Based on the Post Event Review Capability (PERC) approach, developed by Zurich Insurance's Flood Resilience Program to provide independent review of large flood events, we examine what has worked well (best practice) and opportunities for further improvement. The PERC overall aims to thoroughly examine aspects of flood resilience, flood risk management and catastrophe intervention in order to help build back better after events and learn for future events. As our research from post event analyses shows a lot of losses are in fact avoidable by taking the right measures pre-event and these measures are economically - efficient with a return of 4 Euro on losses saved for every Euro invested in prevention on average (Wharton/IIASA flood resilience alliance paper on cost benefit analysis, Mechler et al. 2014) and up to 10 Euros for certain countries. For the 2013 flood events we provide analysis on the following aspects and in general identify a number of factors that worked in terms of reducing the loss and risk burden. 1. Understanding risk factors of the Central European Floods 2013 We review the precursors leading up to the floods in June, with an extremely wet May 2013 and an atypical V-b weather pattern that brought immense precipitation in a very short period to the watersheds of Elbe, Donau and partially the Rhine in the D-A-CH countries and researched what happened during the flood and why. Key questions we asked revolve around which protection and risk reduction approaches worked well and which did not, and why. 2. Insights and recommendations from the post event review The PERC identified a number of risk factors, which need attention if risk is to be reduced over time. • Yet another "100-year flood" - risk

  16. 78 FR 9406 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... Georgetown......... Georgetown Township Office, 1515 Baldwin Street, Jenison, MI 49428. Charter Township of... Domestic Assistance No. 97.022, ``Flood Insurance.'') James A. Walke, Acting Deputy Associate...

  17. Subcellular Proteomics of Soybean under Flooding Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Setsuko Komatsu

    2012-01-01

    Flooding is an environmental stress found worldwide and may increase in frequency due to changes in global climate,and causes significant reductions in the growth and yield of several crops.The application of proteomics techniques to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying crop responses to flooding stress may facilitate the development of flood tolerant crops.To understand the response mechanism of soybean under flooding stress,proteomics analysis was carried out.Especially,subcellular proteomics studies have led to a better understanding of the mechanism of flooding stress tolerance in soybean.The effects of flooding stress on root plasma membrane were analyzed using an aqueous two-phase partitioning method in combination with gel-based and gel-free proteomics techniques.The results led to the following conclusions:proteins located in the cell wall were increased in the plasma membrane of flooded plants,indicating the contribution of plasma membrane to modification of the cell wall; superoxide dismutase was increased,indicating that the antioxidative system may play a crucial role in protecting cells from oxidative damage following exposure to flooding stress; heat shock cognate 70 kDa protein likely plays a significant role in protecting other proteins from denaturation and degradation during flooding stress; and signaling proteins might work cooperatively to regulate plasma membrane H +-ATPase and maintain ion homeostasis.Cell wall proteins were isolated from root of flooding stressed plants via sucrose gradient centrifugation and analyzed using gel-based proteomics technique.Cell wall proteins identified were related to lignification,and these results indicated that a decrease of lignification-related proteins is related to flooding decreased ROS and jasmonate biosynthesis.And also,lignin staining confirmed that lignification was suppressed in the roots of flooding stressed soybeans.Mitochondrial fractions were purified from root of flooding stressed

  18. Urban Flood Warning Systems using Radar Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, N.; Bedient, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    There have been an increasing number of urban areas that rely on weather radars to provide accurate precipitation information for flood warning purposes. As non-structural tools, radar-based flood warning systems can provide accurate and timely warnings to the public and private entities in urban areas that are prone to flash floods. The wider spatial and temporal coverage from radar increases flood warning lead-time when compared to rain and stream gages alone. The Third Generation Rice and Texas Medical Center (TMC) Flood Alert System (FAS3) has been delivering warning information with 2 to 3 hours of lead time and a R2 value of 93% to facility personnel in a readily understood format for more than 50 events in the past 15 years. The current FAS utilizes NEXRAD Level II radar rainfall data coupled with a real-time hydrologic model (RTHEC-1) to deliver warning information. The system has a user-friendly dashboard to provide rainfall maps, Google Maps based inundation maps, hydrologic predictions, and real-time monitoring at the bayou. This paper will evaluate its reliable performance during the recent events occurring in 2012 and 2013 and the development of a similar radar-based flood warning system for the City of Sugar Land, Texas. Having a significant role in the communication of flood information, FAS marks an important step towards the establishment of an operational and reliable flood warning system for flood-prone urban areas.

  19. Forecasting Extreme Flooding in South Asia (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    In most years there is extensive flooding across India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. On average, 40 million people are displaced by floods in India and half that many again in Bangladesh. Occasionally, even more extensive and severe flooding occurs across South Asia. In 2007 and 2008 the Brahmaputra flooded three times causing severe disruption of commerce, agriculture and life in general. Systems set up by an international collaboration predicted these Bangladesh floods with an operational system at the 10 and 15-day horizon. These forecasts determined the risk of flooding and allowed the Bangladeshis in peril to prepare, harvesting crops and storing of household and agricultural assets. Savings in increments of annual income resulted form the forecasts. In July and August 2010, severe flooding occurred in Pakistan causing horrendous damage and loss of life. But these floods were also predictable at the 10-day time scale if the same forecasting system developed for Bangladesh had been implemented. Similar systems could be implemented in India but would require local cooperation. We describe the manner in which quantified probabilistic precipitation forecasts, coupled with hydrological models can provide useful and timely extended warnings of flooding.

  20. Fault tree analysis for urban flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Veldhuis, J A E; Clemens, F H L R; van Gelder, P H A J M

    2009-01-01

    Traditional methods to evaluate flood risk generally focus on heavy storm events as the principal cause of flooding. Conversely, fault tree analysis is a technique that aims at modelling all potential causes of flooding. It quantifies both overall flood probability and relative contributions of individual causes of flooding. This paper presents a fault model for urban flooding and an application to the case of Haarlem, a city of 147,000 inhabitants. Data from a complaint register, rainfall gauges and hydrodynamic model calculations are used to quantify probabilities of basic events in the fault tree. This results in a flood probability of 0.78/week for Haarlem. It is shown that gully pot blockages contribute to 79% of flood incidents, whereas storm events contribute only 5%. This implies that for this case more efficient gully pot cleaning is a more effective strategy to reduce flood probability than enlarging drainage system capacity. Whether this is also the most cost-effective strategy can only be decided after risk assessment has been complemented with a quantification of consequences of both types of events. To do this will be the next step in this study.

  1. Flood Response System—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Kumar Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Flood Response System (FRS is a network-enabled solution developed using open-source software. The system has query based flood damage assessment modules with outputs in the form of spatial maps and statistical databases. FRS effectively facilitates the management of post-disaster activities caused due to flood, like displaying spatial maps of area affected, inundated roads, etc., and maintains a steady flow of information at all levels with different access rights depending upon the criticality of the information. It is designed to facilitate users in managing information related to flooding during critical flood seasons and analyzing the extent of damage. The inputs to FRS are provided using two components: (1 a semi-automated application developed indigenously, to delineate inundated areas for Near-Real Time Flood Monitoring using Active Microwave Remote Sensing data and (2 a two-dimensional (2D hydrodynamic river model generated outputs for water depth and velocity in flooded areas for an embankment breach scenario. The 2D Hydrodynamic model, CCHE2D (Center for Computational Hydroscience and Engineering Two-Dimensional model, was used to simulate an area of 600 km2 in the flood-prone zone of the Brahmaputra basin. The resultant inundated area from the model was found to be 85% accurate when validated with post-flood optical satellite data.

  2. Major flood related strains and pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmert, Clayton J; Kvasnicka-Gates, Lexi; Teoh, Ai Ni; Bresin, Konrad; Fiebiger, Siri

    2016-11-01

    To assess the impact of experiencing a major flood during pregnancy on fetal growth and length of gestation, and to consider how flood-related strains might contribute to these effects. The Red River Pregnancy Project was a prospective study carried out for 3 months immediately after the historic 2009 crest of the Red River in Fargo, North Dakota. Pregnant community residents who were at least 18 years old with a singleton, intrauterine pregnancy participated in the study (N = 169). Analyses examined if birth weight and length of gestation were associated with residential distance from flooding and gestational age at time of the flood crest. For pregnancies earlier in gestation during the crest (-1 SD = 12 weeks), birth weight decreased as distance from flooding decreased (-42.29 g/mi, p .10). Biparietal growth trajectories showed a decrease in growth after the crest of the flood but only for women early in pregnancy. However, various measures of flood related and general stress or strain did not explain these effects. Length of gestation was not associated with distance from or the timing of the flood. Pregnant women in the first trimester who experience a major flood near their homes are at risk of having lower birth weight neonates due to a reduction in fetal growth. The mechanisms of this effect deserve further attention in rapidly mounted investigations after disaster. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Future flood losses in major coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallegatte, Stephane; Green, Colin; Nicholls, Robert J.; Corfee-Morlot, Jan

    2013-09-01

    Flood exposure is increasing in coastal cities owing to growing populations and assets, the changing climate, and subsidence. Here we provide a quantification of present and future flood losses in the 136 largest coastal cities. Using a new database of urban protection and different assumptions on adaptation, we account for existing and future flood defences. Average global flood losses in 2005 are estimated to be approximately US$6billion per year, increasing to US$52billion by 2050 with projected socio-economic change alone. With climate change and subsidence, present protection will need to be upgraded to avoid unacceptable losses of US$1trillion or more per year. Even if adaptation investments maintain constant flood probability, subsidence and sea-level rise will increase global flood losses to US$60-63billion per year in 2050. To maintain present flood risk, adaptation will need to reduce flood probabilities below present values. In this case, the magnitude of losses when floods do occur would increase, often by more than 50%, making it critical to also prepare for larger disasters than we experience today. The analysis identifies the cities that seem most vulnerable to these trends, that is, where the largest increase in losses can be expected.

  4. Flood Foresight: A near-real time flood monitoring and forecasting tool for rapid and predictive flood impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Shelton, Kay; Wood, Elizabeth; Berry, Robert; Bevington, John; Hankin, Barry; Lewis, Gavin; Gubbin, Andrew; Griffiths, Samuel; Barnard, Paul; Pinnell, Marc; Huyck, Charles

    2017-04-01

    The hours and days immediately after a major flood event are often chaotic and confusing, with first responders rushing to mobilise emergency responders, provide alleviation assistance and assess loss to assets of interest (e.g., population, buildings or utilities). Preparations in advance of a forthcoming event are becoming increasingly important; early warning systems have been demonstrated to be useful tools for decision markers. The extent of damage, human casualties and economic loss estimates can vary greatly during an event, and the timely availability of an accurate flood extent allows emergency response and resources to be optimised, reduces impacts, and helps prioritise recovery. In the insurance sector, for example, insurers are under pressure to respond in a proactive manner to claims rather than waiting for policyholders to report losses. Even though there is a great demand for flood inundation extents and severity information in different sectors, generating flood footprints for large areas from hydraulic models in real time remains a challenge. While such footprints can be produced in real time using remote sensing, weather conditions and sensor availability limit their ability to capture every single flood event across the globe. In this session, we will present Flood Foresight (www.floodforesight.com), an operational tool developed to meet the universal requirement for rapid geographic information, before, during and after major riverine flood events. The tool provides spatial data with which users can measure their current or predicted impact from an event - at building, basin, national or continental scales. Within Flood Foresight, the Screening component uses global rainfall predictions to provide a regional- to continental-scale view of heavy rainfall events up to a week in advance, alerting the user to potentially hazardous situations relevant to them. The Forecasting component enhances the predictive suite of tools by providing a local

  5. Issues and challenges in flood risk management: Editorial for the special issue on flood risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, S.N.; Dawson, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent flood-related disasters (Japan, Thailand, US, Australia) emphasize the need for an effective management of flood risks. As an introduction to this special issue, this editorial summarizes some of the key challenges in the field. Flood risk management needs to recognize the interconnections be

  6. Applying the Flood Vulnerability Index as a Knowledge base for flood risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balica, S-F.

    2012-01-01

    Floods are one of the most common and widely distributed natural risks to life and property worldwide. An important part of modern flood risk management is to evaluate vulnerability to floods. This evaluation can be done only by using a parametric approach. Worldwide there is a need to enhance our

  7. Bibliography of forest water yields, flooding issues, and the hydrologic modeling of extreme flood events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark H. Eisenbies; M.B. Adams; W. Michael Aust; James A. Burger

    2007-01-01

    Floods continue to cause significant damage in the United States and elsewhere, and questions about the causes of flooding continue to be debated. A significant amount of research has been conducted on the relationship between forest management activities and water yield, peak flows, and flooding; somewhat less research has been conducted on the modeling of these...

  8. Toward more flood resilience: Is a diversification of flood risk management strategies the way forward?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegger, D.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Wiering, M.A.; Rijswick, H.F.M.W. van; Kundzewicz, P.; Matczak, A.; Crabbé, A.; Raadgever, T.; Bakker, M.H.N.; Priest, S.; Larrue, C.; Ek, K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT. European countries face increasing flood risks because of urbanization, increase of exposure and damage potential, and the effects of climate change. In literature and in practice, it is argued that a diversification of strategies for flood risk management (FRM), including flood risk preve

  9. Toward more flood resilience: Is a diversification of flood risk management strategies the way forward?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegger, D.L.T.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Wiering, Mark; van Rijswick, H.F.M.W.; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Matczak, Piotr; Crabbé, Ann; Raadgever, G.T.; Bakker, M.H.N.; Priest, Sally; Larrue, Corinne; Ek, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    European countries face increasing flood risks because of urbanization, increase of exposure and damage potential, and the effects of climate change. In literature and in practice, it is argued that a diversification of strategies for flood risk management (FRM), including flood risk prevention (thr

  10. Floods and climate: emerging perspectives for flood risk assessment and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Merz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Flood estimation and flood management have traditionally been the domain of hydrologists, water resources engineers and statisticians, and disciplinary approaches have abound. Dominant views have been shaped; one example is the catchment perspective: floods are formed and influenced by the interaction of local, catchment-specific characteristics, such as meteorology, topography and geology. These traditional views have been beneficial, but they have a narrow framing. In this paper we contrast traditional views with broader perspectives that are emerging from an improved understanding of the climatic context of floods. We conclude: (1 extending the traditional system boundaries (local catchment, recent decades, hydrological/hydraulic processes opens up exciting possibilities for better understanding and improved tools for flood risk assessment and management. (2 Statistical approaches in flood estimation need to be complemented by the search for the causal mechanisms and dominant processes in the atmosphere, catchment and river system that leave their fingerprints on flood characteristic. (3 Natural climate variability leads to time-varying flood characteristics, and this variation may be partially quantifiable and predictable, with the perspective of a dynamic, climate informed flood risk management. (4 Efforts are needed to fully account for factors that contribute to changes in all three risk components (hazard, exposure, vulnerability, and to better understand the interactions between society and floods. (5 Given the global scale and societal importance, we call for the organization of an international multidisciplinary collaboration and data sharing initiative to understand further the links between climate and flooding and to advance flood research.

  11. FloodAlert: a simplified radar-based EWS for urban flood warning

    OpenAIRE

    Llort Pavon, Xavier; Sánchez-Diezma Guijarro, Rafael; Rodríguez, Álvaro; De Sancho, David; Berenguer Ferrer, Marc; Sempere Torres, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present FloodAlert, a simplified flood Early Warning System [EWS] based on the use of radar observations and radar nowcasting to issue local flood warnings. It is a web-based platform and it is complemented with a flexible and powerful dissemination module.

  12. Development of Integrated Flood Analysis System for Improving Flood Mitigation Capabilities in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Young-Il; Kim, Jong-suk

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the needs of people are growing for a more safety life and secure homeland from unexpected natural disasters. Flood damages have been recorded every year and those damages are greater than the annual average of 2 trillion won since 2000 in Korea. It has been increased in casualties and property damages due to flooding caused by hydrometeorlogical extremes according to climate change. Although the importance of flooding situation is emerging rapidly, studies related to development of integrated management system for reducing floods are insufficient in Korea. In addition, it is difficult to effectively reduce floods without developing integrated operation system taking into account of sewage pipe network configuration with the river level. Since the floods result in increasing damages to infrastructure, as well as life and property, structural and non-structural measures should be urgently established in order to effectively reduce the flood. Therefore, in this study, we developed an integrated flood analysis system that systematized technology to quantify flood risk and flood forecasting for supporting synthetic decision-making through real-time monitoring and prediction on flash rain or short-term rainfall by using radar and satellite information in Korea. Keywords: Flooding, Integrated flood analysis system, Rainfall forecasting, Korea Acknowledgments This work was carried out with the support of "Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science & Technology Development (Project No. PJ011686022015)" Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea

  13. 76 FR 72961 - Flood Hazard Determinations (Including Flood Elevation Determinations)-Change in Notification and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ..., etc.) and provide both a physical address and an internet address where the specific flood elevations... both a physical address and an internet address where the specific flood hazards (as shown in a Flood... published in the Federal Register on or after December 1, 2011. ADDRESSES: The docket for this notice...

  14. Issues and challenges in flood risk management: Editorial for the special issue on flood risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, S.N.; Dawson, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent flood-related disasters (Japan, Thailand, US, Australia) emphasize the need for an effective management of flood risks. As an introduction to this special issue, this editorial summarizes some of the key challenges in the field. Flood risk management needs to recognize the interconnections be

  15. Applying the Flood Vulnerability Index as a Knowledge base for flood risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balica, S-F.

    2012-01-01

    Floods are one of the most common and widely distributed natural risks to life and property worldwide. An important part of modern flood risk management is to evaluate vulnerability to floods. This evaluation can be done only by using a parametric approach. Worldwide there is a need to enhance our

  16. Flood Risk Management in Europe: Similarities and Differences between the STAR-FLOOD consortium countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegger, D.L.T.; Green, C.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Bakker, M.H.N.; Dieperink, C.; Crabbe, A.; Deketelaere, K.; Delvaux, B.; Suykens, C.; Beyers, J-C.; Fournier, M.; Larrue, C.; Manson, C.; van Doorn-Hoekveld, W.; van Rijswick, H.F.M.W.; Kundzewicz, Z.W.; Goytia Casermeiro, S.

    2013-01-01

    This report has been compiled as part of the STAR-FLOOD project, a European FP7 project focused on flood risk governance. The project investigates strategies for dealing with flood risks in 18 vulnerable urban regions in six European countries: Belgium, The UK (more precisely: England and Scotland),

  17. Is flood defense changing in nature? Shifts in the flood defense strategy in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gralepois, M.; Larrue, C.; Wiering, M.A.; Crabbé, A.; Tapsell, S.; Mees, H.; Ek, K.; Szwed, M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT. In many countries, flood defense has historically formed the core of flood risk management but this strategy is now evolving with the changing approach to risk management. This paper focuses on the neglected analysis of institutional changes within the flood defense strategies formulated

  18. Is flood defense changing in nature? Shifts in the flood defense strategy in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gralepois, M.; Larrue, C.; Wiering, M.A.; Crabbé, A.; Tapsell, S.; Mees, H.; Ek, K.; Szwed, M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT. In many countries, flood defense has historically formed the core of flood risk management but this strategy is now evolving with the changing approach to risk management. This paper focuses on the neglected analysis of institutional changes within the flood defense strategies formulated a

  19. Using LiDAR surveys to document floods: A case study of the 2008 Iowa flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Krajewski, Witold F.; Goska, Radek; Young, Nathan

    2017-10-01

    Can we use Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), an emergent remote sensing technology with wide applications, to document floods with high accuracy? To explore the feasibility of this application, we propose a method to extract distributed inundation depths from a LiDAR survey conducted during flooding. This method consists of three steps: (1) collecting LiDAR data during flooding; (2) classifying the LiDAR observational points as flooded water surface points and non-flooded points, and generating a floodwater surface elevation model; and (3) subtracting the bare earth Digital Terrain Model (DTM) from the flood surface elevation model to obtain a flood depth map. We applied this method to the 2008 Iowa flood in the United States and evaluated the results using the high-water mark measurements, flood extent extracted from SPOT (Small Programmable Object Technology) imagery, and the near-simultaneously acquired aerial photography. The root mean squared error of the LiDAR-derived floodwater surface profile to high-water marks was 30 cm, the consistency between the two flooded areas derived from LiDAR and SPOT imagery was 72% (81% if suspicious isolated ponds in the SPOT-derived extent were removed), and LiDAR-derived flood extent had a horizontal resolution of ∼3 m. This work demonstrates that LiDAR technology has the potential to provide calibration and validation reference data with appreciable accuracy for improved flood inundation modeling.

  20. Influencia del proceso de fibrilación y desfibrilación enzimática en las propiedades mecánicas de hilos de fibras celulósicas regeneradas obtenidas por el proceso NMMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo, F.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Fibre spinning from a solution of cellulose in N-methyl-morpholine-N-oxidehydrate is an environmentally friendly process (NMMO, which yields cellulose fibres with excellent mechanical properties. A special feature of these fibbers is their ability to fibrillate in the swollen state. It is possible to control and exploit fibrillation of this kind of fibre (generic name: lyocell through mechanical fibrillation and enzymatic defibrillation treatments. The mechanical properties (elongation at break. Young's modulus, tensile strenght and tenacity of solvent (NMMO-spun lyocell yarns samples have been studied in untreated condition as well as after industrial mechanical fibrillation and enzymatic defibrillation treatments. It is observed that the tenacity of lyocell yarn decreases greatly as a result of the treatments, particularly after the enzymatic treatment. For this reason, the control of these operations plays a critical role in ensuring acceptable mechanical properties of the yarns.

    La obtención de fibras hiladas a partir de una solución de celulosa en N-óxido de N-metilmorfolina hidratado permite obtener fibras de celulosa regenerada, con excelentes propiedades mecánicas por medio de un proceso industrial no contaminante (proceso NMMO. Sin embargo, estas fibras presentan una propiedad especial, su elevada fibrilación, principalmente durante los tratamientos en húmedo, que es posible controlar y explotar mediante las etapas de fibrilación mecánica y desfibrilación enzimática de los productos fabricados. En el presente trabajo se estudiaron las propiedades mecánicas (deformación a la rotura, módulo de Young, resistencia máxima a la tracción y tenacidad de muestras de hilo de esta nueva fibra, evaluando la influencia de los tratamientos industriales de fibrilación mecánica y desfibrilación enzimática. Se observó que la tenacidad y la resistencia a la rotura de las muestras disminuyen significativamente después de estos

  1. Truth or Consequences Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  2. Impact of Flood on the Biodiversity of Agodi Gardens, Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of flood effect on the species diversity in Agodi Biological Gardens ... which were adversely affected by incidence of flood (6 and 20 tree uprooted ... Keywords: Species diversity, Flood effect, Agodi Biological Garden, Climate change.

  3. Concept of Flood Risk Map and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yuanchang

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1 The concept of flood risk map and its mapping procedure Flood risk management is the process for analysis and assessment of flood risks as well as to form nd implement the disaster mitigation plans. Flood risk analysis is the basic work of flood risk assessment and management that can provide people with the possibilities of flood occurrence and its risk in specific areas and consequently raise the public awareness of flood help to form a reasonable flood prevention plan. However, flood risk mapping is a popular measure adopted by many countries and it provides possible flood areas and water levels as well as possible losses in a friendly way. To form a flood risk map, it is neccessary to allocate the historical information,compute the flood risk and analyze the data.

  4. Implementing the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC) in Austria: Flood Risk Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhold, Clemens

    2013-04-01

    he Directive 2007/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2007 on the assessment and management of flood risks (EFD) aims at the reduction of the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activity associated with floods in the Community. This task is to be achieved based on three process steps (1) preliminary flood risk assessment (finalised by the end of 2011), (2) flood hazard maps and flood risk maps (due 2013) and (3) flood risk management plans (due 2015). Currently, an interdisciplinary national working group is defining the methodological framework for flood risk management plans in Austria supported by a constant exchange with international bodies and experts. Referring to the EFD the components of the flood risk management plan are (excerpt): 1. conclusions of the preliminary flood risk assessment 2. flood hazard maps and flood risk maps and the conclusions that can be drawn from those maps 3. a description of the appropriate objectives of flood risk management 4. a summary of measures and their prioritisation aiming to achieve the appropriate objectives of flood risk management The poster refers to some of the major challenges in this process, such as the legal provisions, coordination of administrative units, definition of public relations, etc. The implementation of the EFD requires the harmonisation of legal instruments of various disciplines (e.g. water management, spatial planning, civil protection) enabling a coordinated - and ideally binding - practice of flood risk management. This process is highly influenced by the administrative organisation in Austria - federal, provincial and municipality level. The Austrian approach meets this organisational framework by structuring the development of the flood risk management plan into 3 time-steps: (a) federal blueprint, (b) provincial editing and (c) federal finishing as well as reporting to the European Commission. Each time

  5. Advancing flood risk analysis by integrating adaptive behaviour in large-scale flood risk assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haer, T.; Botzen, W.; Aerts, J.

    2016-12-01

    In the last four decades the global population living in the 1/100 year-flood zone has doubled from approximately 500 million to a little less than 1 billion people. Urbanization in low lying -flood prone- cities further increases the exposed assets, such as buildings and infrastructure. Moreover, climate change will further exacerbate flood risk in the future. Accurate flood risk assessments are important to inform policy-makers and society on current- and future flood risk levels. However, these assessment suffer from a major flaw in the way they estimate flood vulnerability and adaptive behaviour of individuals and governments. Current flood risk projections commonly assume that either vulnerability remains constant, or try to mimic vulnerability through incorporating an external scenario. Such a static approach leads to a misrepresentation of future flood risk, as humans respond adaptively to flood events, flood risk communication, and incentives to reduce risk. In our study, we integrate adaptive behaviour in a large-scale European flood risk framework through an agent-based modelling approach. This allows for the inclusion of heterogeneous agents, which dynamically respond to each other and a changing environment. We integrate state-of-the-art flood risk maps based on climate scenarios (RCP's), and socio-economic scenarios (SSP's), with government and household agents, which behave autonomously based on (micro-)economic behaviour rules. We show for the first time that excluding adaptive behaviour leads to a major misrepresentation of future flood risk. The methodology is applied to flood risk, but has similar implications for other research in the field of natural hazards. While more research is needed, this multi-disciplinary study advances our understanding of how future flood risk will develop.

  6. Social media for disaster response during floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilander, D.; van de Vries, C.; Baart, F.; van Swol, R.; Wagemaker, J.; van Loenen, A.

    2015-12-01

    During floods it is difficult to obtain real-time accurate information about the extent and severity of the hazard. This information is very important for disaster risk reduction management and crisis relief organizations. Currently, real-time information is derived from few sources such as field reports, traffic camera's, satellite images and areal images. However, getting a real-time and accurate picture of the situation on the ground remains difficult. At the same time, people affected by natural hazards increasingly share their observations and their needs through digital media. Unlike conventional monitoring systems, Twitter data contains a relatively large number of real-time ground truth observations representing both physical hazard characteristics and hazard impacts. In the city of Jakarta, Indonesia, the intensity of unique flood related tweets during a flood event, peaked at almost 900 tweets per minute during floods in early 2015. Flood events around the world in 2014/2015 yielded large numbers of flood related tweets: from Philippines (85.000) to Pakistan (82.000) to South-Korea (50.000) to Detroit (20.000). The challenge here is to filter out useful content from this cloud of data, validate these observations and convert them to readily usable information. In Jakarta, flood related tweets often contain information about the flood depth. In a pilot we showed that this type of information can be used for real-time mapping of the flood extent by plotting these observations on a Digital Elevation Model. Uncertainties in the observations were taken into account by assigning a probability to each observation indicating its likelihood to be correct based on statistical analysis of the total population of tweets. The resulting flood maps proved to be correct for about 75% of the neighborhoods in Jakarta. Further cross-validation of flood related tweets against (hydro-) meteorological data is to likely improve the skill of the method.

  7. Home-loving boreal hare mitochondria survived several invasions in Iberia: the relative roles of recurrent hybridisation and allele surfing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo-Ferreira, J; Farelo, L; Freitas, H; Suchentrunk, F; Boursot, P; Alves, P C

    2014-03-01

    Genetic introgression from a resident species into an invading close relative can result from repeated hybridisation along the invasion front and/or allele surfing on the expansion wave. Cases where the phenomenon is massive and systematic, such as for hares (genus Lepus) in Iberia, would be best explained by recurrent hybridisation but this is difficult to prove because the donor populations are generally extinct. In the Pyrenean foothills, Lepus europaeus presumably replaced Lepus granatensis recently and the present species border is parallel to the direction of invasion, so that populations of L. granatensis in the contact zone represent proxies of existing variation before the invasion. Among three pairs of populations sampled across this border, we find less differentiation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) across than along it, as predicted under recurrent hybridisation at the invasion front. Using autosomal microsatellite loci and X- and Y-linked diagnostic loci, we show that admixture across the border is quasi-absent, making it unlikely that lack of interspecific mtDNA differentiation results from ongoing gene flow. Furthermore, we find that the local species ranges are climatically contrasted, making it also unlikely that ongoing ecology-driven movement of the contact account for mtDNA introgression. The lack of mtDNA differentiation across the boundary is mostly due to sharing of mtDNA from a boreal species currently extinct in Iberia (Lepus timidus) whose mitochondria have thus remained in place since the last deglaciation despite successive invasions by two other species. Home-loving mitochondria thus witness past species distribution rather than ongoing exchanges across stabilised contact zones.

  8. Sensitivity of Coastal Flood Risk Assessments to Digital Elevation Models

    OpenAIRE

    Bas van de Sande; Claartje Hoyng; Joost Lansen

    2012-01-01

    Most coastal flood risk studies make use of a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in addition to a projected flood water level in order to estimate the flood inundation and associated damages to property and livelihoods. The resolution and accuracy of a DEM are critical in a flood risk assessment, as land elevation largely determines whether a location will be flooded or will remain dry during a flood event. Especially in low lying deltaic areas, the land elevation variation is usually in the order...

  9. Contribuição ao estudo dos elementos vasculares, arteriais e venosos do hilo renal em suínos Sus scrofa domestica - Linnaeus - 1758 da raça LargeWhite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Marques da Costa

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, em 30 pares de rins de suínos da raça Large White, 15 machos e 15 fêmeas, com aproximadamente quatro meses de idade, procedentes do Matadouro e Frigorífico "Eder", em Itapecerica da Serra, Estado de São Paulo, a distribuição arterial e venosa do hilo deste órgão, mediante disseccão dos elementos vasculares do pedículo renal, após a fixação do material em solução aquosa de formol a 10,0%. Nestes animais, a artéria renal direita fornece de seis (10,0% a vinte (3,3% ramos, com maior frequência de dez (20,0% e a esquerda de quatro (3,3% a dezoito (3,3%, com maior incidência de dez(16,7% e demonstrou uma maior concentração no quadrante craniodorsal, seguido dos quadrantes cranioventral, caudoventral e caudodorsal. No que tange ao número de raízes venosas, a veia renal direita apresenta uma variação de uma (10,0% a cinco (33,8% raízes, com maior frequência de cinco (33,8%,a esquerda de duas (13,3% e sete (3,3%, com maior concentração de três e quatro (53,4%, situadas com maior incidência no quadrante cranioventral, seguido dos quadrantes caudoventral, craniodorsal ecaudodorsal. Quanto à situação global, os ramos das artérias renais direita e esquerda se apresentam em maior número de vezes preponderantemente periféricos(43,3%, enquanto as raízes venosas se mostram exclusivamente periféricas (16,7%. Há igualdade no número de ramos das artérias renais e raízes das veias renais, direitas e esquerdas, apenas 1 vez (3,3%, com distribuião desigual nos quadrantes. Não existem diferenças estatisticamente significantes quanto ao sexo. Estudou-se, em 30 pares de rins de suínos da raça Large White, 15 machos e 15 fêmeas, com aproximadamente quatro meses de idade, procedentes do Matadouro e Frigorífico "Eder", em Itapecerica da Serra, Estado de São Paulo, a distribuição arterial e venosa do hilo deste órgão, mediante dissecção do selementos vasculares do pedículo renal, após a fixação do

  10. Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dirt. More ideas for controlling mosquitos Why? The importance of controlling mosquito-borne diseases, such as West ... Staff Directory Planning, Budget and Results Jobs and Internships Headquarters Offices Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers ...

  11. Considering historical flood events in flood frequency analysis: Is it worth the effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Thomas; Thongwichian, Rossukon

    2017-07-01

    Information about historical floods can be useful in reducing uncertainties in flood frequency estimation. Since the start of the historical record is often defined by the first known flood, the length of the true historical period M remains unknown. We have expanded a previously published method of estimating M to the case of several known floods within the historical period. We performed a systematic evaluation of the usefulness of including historical flood events into flood frequency analysis for a wide range of return periods and studied bias as well as relative root mean square error (RRMSE). Since we used the generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) as parent distribution, we were able to investigate the impact of varying the skewness on RRMSE. We confirmed the usefulness of historical flood data regarding the reduction of RRMSE, however we found that this reduction is less pronounced the more positively skewed the parent distribution was. Including historical flood information had an ambiguous effect on bias: depending on length and number of known floods of the historical period, bias was reduced for large return periods, but increased for smaller ones. Finally, we customized the test inversion bootstrap for estimating confidence intervals to the case that historical flood events are taken into account into flood frequency analysis.

  12. Flood early warning system: sensors and internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pengel, B.E.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Melnikova, N.B.; Shirshov, G.S.; Koelewijn, A.R.; Pyayt, A.L.; Mokhov, I.I.; Chavoshian, A.; Takeuchi, K.

    2013-01-01

    The UrbanFlood early warning system (EWS) is designed to monitor data from very large sensornetworks in flood defences such as embankments, dikes, levees, and dams. The EWS, based on the internet, uses real-time sensor information and Artificial Intelligence (AI) to immediately calculate the probabi

  13. 12 CFR 741.216 - Flood insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood insurance. 741.216 Section 741.216 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR... Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.216 Flood insurance. Any...

  14. 78 FR 52956 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... 77662. City of Pinehurst Pinehurst City Hall, 2497 Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, Orange, TX 77630. City... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency... Register (78 FR 36220-36222) a proposed flood hazard determination notice that contained an erroneous...

  15. Flood planning; the politics of water security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Floods are amongst the most common and devastating natural disasters. In the wake of such an event, the pressure to initiate flood protection schemes that will provide security is enormous, and politicians promise quick solutions in the national interest. Jeroen Warner examines a number of such proj

  16. Economic hotspots: Visualizing Vulnerability to Flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der A.; Logtmeijer, C.J.J.

    2005-01-01

    We simulate a large-scale flooding in the province of South-Holland in the economic centre of the Netherlands. In traditional research, damage due to flooding is computed with a unit loss method coupling land use information to depth-damage functions. Normally only direct costs are incorporated as a

  17. 75 FR 8814 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ...Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of being already in effect in order to qualify or remain qualified for participation in the National Flood Insurance Program...

  18. 78 FR 78995 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood depth... Beverly Shores Town Hall, 500 South Broadway, Beverly Shores, IN 46301. Town of Burns Harbor Building Department, 1240 North Boo Road, Burns Harbor, IN 46304. Town of Chesterton Building Department, 726 Broadway...

  19. 77 FR 46994 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ..., it addresses the following flooding sources: Jones Bayou, Mississippi River, and Porter Bayou. DATES... Incorporated Areas'' addressed the following flooding sources: Jones Bayou, Mississippi River, and Porter Bayou.... Approximately 8.1 miles None +162 upstream of the Arkansas River confluence. Porter Bayou Approximately 0.8 mile...

  20. Assessing infrastructure vulnerability to major floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenssen, Lars

    1998-12-31

    This thesis proposes a method for assessing the direct effects of serious floods on a physical infrastructure or utility. This method should be useful in contingency planning and in the design of structures likely to be damaged by flooding. A review is given of (1) methods of floodplain management and strategies for mitigating floods, (2) methods of risk analysis that will become increasingly important in flood management, (3) methods for hydraulic computations, (4) a variety of scour assessment methods and (5) applications of geographic information systems (GIS) to the analysis of flood vulnerability. Three computer codes were developed: CULVCAP computes the headwater level for circular and box culverts, SCOUR for assessing riprap stability and scour depths, and FASTFLOOD prepares input rainfall series and input files for the rainfall-runoff model used in the case study. A road system in central Norway was chosen to study how to analyse the flood vulnerability of an infrastructure. Finally, the thesis proposes a method for analysing the flood vulnerability of physical infrastructure. The method involves a general stage that will provide data on which parts of the infrastructure are potentially vulnerable to flooding and how to analyse them, and a specific stage which is concerned with analysing one particular kind of physical infrastructure in a study area. 123 refs., 59 figs., 17 tabs= .