WorldWideScience

Sample records for surf hilo flood

  1. Improving high resolution retinal image quality using speckle illumination HiLo imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolin; Bedggood, Phillip; Metha, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    Retinal image quality from flood illumination adaptive optics (AO) ophthalmoscopes is adversely affected by out-of-focus light scatter due to the lack of confocality. This effect is more pronounced in small eyes, such as that of rodents, because the requisite high optical power confers a large dioptric thickness to the retina. A recently-developed structured illumination microscopy (SIM) technique called HiLo imaging has been shown to reduce the effect of out-of-focus light scatter in flood illumination microscopes and produce pseudo-confocal images with significantly improved image quality. In this work, we adopted the HiLo technique to a flood AO ophthalmoscope and performed AO imaging in both (physical) model and live rat eyes. The improvement in image quality from HiLo imaging is shown both qualitatively and quantitatively by using spatial spectral analysis.

  2. Surfing wave climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Antonio; Losada, Iñigo J.; Méndez, Fernando J.

    2014-10-01

    International surfing destinations are highly dependent on specific combinations of wind-wave formation, thermal conditions and local bathymetry. Surf quality depends on a vast number of geophysical variables, and analyses of surf quality require the consideration of the seasonal, interannual and long-term variability of surf conditions on a global scale. A multivariable standardized index based on expert judgment is proposed for this purpose. This index makes it possible to analyze surf conditions objectively over a global domain. A summary of global surf resources based on a new index integrating existing wave, wind, tides and sea surface temperature databases is presented. According to general atmospheric circulation and swell propagation patterns, results show that west-facing low to middle-latitude coasts are more suitable for surfing, especially those in the Southern Hemisphere. Month-to-month analysis reveals strong seasonal variations in the occurrence of surfable events, enhancing the frequency of such events in the North Atlantic and the North Pacific. Interannual variability was investigated by comparing occurrence values with global and regional modes of low-frequency climate variability such as El Niño and the North Atlantic Oscillation, revealing their strong influence at both the global and the regional scale. Results of the long-term trends demonstrate an increase in the probability of surfable events on west-facing coasts around the world in recent years. The resulting maps provide useful information for surfers, the surf tourism industry and surf-related coastal planners and stakeholders.

  3. Medical Aspects of Surfing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renneker, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The medical aspects of surfing include ear and eye injuries and sprains and strains of the lower back and neck, as well as skin cancer from exposure to the sun. Treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention of these problems are discussed. Surfing is recommended as part of an exercise program for reasonably healthy people. (Author/MT)

  4. Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floods are common in the United States. Weather such as heavy rain, thunderstorms, hurricanes, or tsunamis can ... is breached, or when a dam breaks. Flash floods, which can develop quickly, often have a dangerous ...

  5. Periodic Inspections of Hilo, Kahului, Laupahoehoe, and Nawiliwili Breakwaters, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Navigation Projects Program ERDC/CHL TR-11-8 October 2011 Periodic Inspections of Hilo , Kahului, Laupahoehoe, and Nawiliwili Breakwaters, Hawaii ...Descriptions ...................................................................................................... 22  Hilo Harbor breakwater, Hawaii , HI...conducting walking inspections of breakwaters located at Hilo Harbor, Island of Hawaii , HI; Kahului Harbor, Island of Maui, HI; Laupahoehoe Point

  6. The Science of Surfing Waves and Surfing Breaks - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Scarfe, B. E.; Elwany, M. H.S.; Mead, S. T.; Black, K. P.

    2003-01-01

    Surfing breaks have great social and economic value for coastal communities. In order to preserve and enhance these resources, a common language is needed that will bridge the gap between the colloquial slang of surfers and the technical language of scientists and policy makers. This language is the science of surfing waves and surfing breaks, and the more it is developed and used, the easier relations will be between the interested parties. This paper will create the basis for such a languag...

  7. SURF Model Calibration Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-10

    SURF and SURFplus are high explosive reactive burn models for shock initiation and propagation of detonation waves. They are engineering models motivated by the ignition & growth concept of high spots and for SURFplus a second slow reaction for the energy release from carbon clustering. A key feature of the SURF model is that there is a partial decoupling between model parameters and detonation properties. This enables reduced sets of independent parameters to be calibrated sequentially for the initiation and propagation regimes. Here we focus on a methodology for tting the initiation parameters to Pop plot data based on 1-D simulations to compute a numerical Pop plot. In addition, the strategy for tting the remaining parameters for the propagation regime and failure diameter is discussed.

  8. MOCEAN SURF WEAR -MALLISTO

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtovaara, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Surffi on urheilulaji, jossa kuljetaan aallon päällä surffilaudalla. Surffaus on lähtöisin Polynesiasta, mutta nykypäivänä surffausta harrastetaan ympäri maailmaa. Opinnäytetyö käsittelee surf wear -malliston suunnittelua ja toteuttamista omalle toi-minimelle Mocean. Työn tavoitteena oli suunnitella toimiva, mutta myös trendikäs mallisto naissurffareille. Mallisto sisältää bikineitä, surffipaitoja legginsejä ja shortseja. Mallisto on suunniteltu naissurffareille, jotka surffaavat lämpimis...

  9. Surfing surface gravity waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Nick

    2017-11-01

    A simple criterion for water particles to surf an underlying surface gravity wave is presented. It is found that particles travelling near the phase speed of the wave, in a geometrically confined region on the forward face of the crest, increase in speed. The criterion is derived using the equation of John (Commun. Pure Appl. Maths, vol. 6, 1953, pp. 497-503) for the motion of a zero-stress free surface under the action of gravity. As an example, a breaking water wave is theoretically and numerically examined. Implications for upper-ocean processes, for both shallow- and deep-water waves, are discussed.

  10. 78 FR 41184 - Noise Exposure Map Notice for Hilo International Airport, Hilo, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... International Airport, Hilo, Hawaii AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The FAA announces its determination that the noise exposure maps submitted by Hawaii State Department...-Pacific Region, Honolulu Airports District Office, 300 Ala Moana Boulevard, Room 7-128, Honolulu, Hawaii...

  11. 33 CFR 80.1480 - Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. 80.1480 Section 80.1480 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1480 Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, HI. A line drawn...

  12. Unlimited Relativistic Shock Surfing Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ucer, D.; Shapiro, V. D.

    2001-01-01

    Nonrelativistic shock surfing acceleration at quasiperpendicular shocks is usually considered to be a preacceleration mechanism for slow pickup ions to initiate diffusive shock acceleration. In shock surfing, the particle accelerates along the shock front under the action of the convective electric field of the plasma flow. However, the particle also gains kinetic energy normal to the shock and eventually escapes downstream. We consider the case when ions are accelerated to relativistic velocities. In this case, the ions are likely to be trapped for infinitely long times, because the energy of bounce oscillations tends to decrease during acceleration. This suggests the possibility of unlimited acceleration by shock surfing

  13. Surfing the quantum world

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Frank S

    2017-01-01

    The ideas and phenomena of the quantum world are strikingly unlike those encountered in our visual world. Surfing the Quantum World shows why and how this is so. It does this via a historical review and a gentle introduction to the fundamental principles of quantum theory, whose core concepts and symbolic representations are used to explain not only "ordinary" microscopic phenomena like the properties of the hydrogen atom and the structure of the Periodic Table of the Elements, but also a variety of mind-bending phenomena. Readers will learn that particles such as electrons and photons can behave like waves, allowing them to be in two places simultaneously, why white dwarf and neutron stars are gigantic quantum objects, how the maximum height of mountains has a quantum basis, and why quantum objects can tunnel through seemingly impenetrable barriers. Included among the various interpretational issues addressed is whether Schrodinger's cat is ever both dead and alive.

  14. Hilo, Hawaii 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Hilo, Hawaii Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly...

  15. Hilo, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hilo, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST is a...

  16. Surfing-related ocular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J W; McDonald, H R; Rubsamen, P E; Luttrull, J K; Drouilhet, J H; Frambach, D A; Boyer, D S; Lambrou, F H; Hendrick, A; Weiss, J N; Engstrom, R E; Ing, M

    1998-01-01

    This report evaluates the clinical characteristics of surfing-related ocular trauma to learn the nature of such injuries and propose possible preventive measures. The authors reviewed 11 cases of surfing-related eye injuries caused by direct trauma from the surfboard, studying their mechanism of injury, the associated ocular complications, and the anatomic and visual outcomes of surgical repair. Surfing-related ocular injuries occurred exclusively in young males (mean age, 24.8 years; range, 14-37 years). The mechanism of injury most frequently responsible was impact with the sharp nose of the surfboard following a fall. Serious posterior segment complications were observed in all 11 patients, with nine patients suffering ruptured globes. Despite immediate medical attention, five patients did not recover ambulatory levels of visual acuity (>5/200). Surfing-related ocular trauma presenting to the retinal specialist typically leaves the patient with a permanent visual disability. Important factors contributing to these high-velocity injuries include the sharply pointed nose of the surfboard and the leash keeping the surfer in close proximity to the board following a fall. A simple modification in surfboard design such as blunting the sharp nose of the surfboard, or appropriate protective guards fitted over the surfboard nose, should lessen the severity of such injuries.

  17. Analyzing speckle contrast for HiLo microscopy optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzaferri, J.; Kunik, D.; Belisle, J. M.; Singh, K.; Lefrançois, S.; Costantino, S.

    2011-07-01

    HiLo microscopy is a recently developed technique that provides both optical sectioning and fast imaging with a simple implementation and at a very low cost. The methodology combines widefield and speckled illumination images to obtain one optically sectioned image. Hence, the characteristics of such speckle illumination ultimately determine the quality of HiLo images and the overall performance of the method. In this work, we study how speckle contrast influence local variations of fluorescence intensity and brightness profiles of thick samples. We present this article as a guide to adjust the parameters of the system for optimizing the capabilities of this novel technology.

  18. CouchSurfing - a choice for travellers

    OpenAIRE

    Skog, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to examine the thoughts and prejudices CouchSurfing evoke in people who had not previously heard of CouchSurfing. Additionally, the views expressed by people who had previously heard about the phenomenon were also studied. The aim was also to determine how these prejudices affected the behaviour of people. The purpose was to understand different aspects and give a more comprehensive picture of CouchSurfing through this thesis. The theoretical framework of ...

  19. Widefield fluorescence sectioning with HiLo microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Jerome; Lim, Daryl; Chu, Kengyeh K; Bozinovic, Nenad; Ford, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    HiLo microscopy is a widefield fluorescence imaging technique that provides depth discrimination by combining two images, one with non-uniform illumination and one with uniform illumination. We discuss the theory of this technique and a variety of practical implementations in brain-tissue imaging and fluorescence endomicroscopy.

  20. Turbulent viscosity in natural surf zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasso, F.R.; Ruessink, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    Waves breaking in the shallow surf zone near the shoreline inject turbulence into the water column that may reach the bed to suspend sediment. Breaking-wave turbulence in the surf zone is, however, poorly understood, which is one of the reasons why many process-based coastal-evolution models

  1. Surf similarity and solitary wave runup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.

    2008-01-01

    The notion of surf similarity in the runup of solitary waves is revisited. We show that the surf similarity parameter for solitary waves may be effectively reduced to the beach slope divided by the offshore wave height to depth ratio. This clarifies its physical interpretation relative to a previ...... functional dependence on their respective surf similarity parameters. Important equivalencies in the runup of sinusoidal and solitary waves are thus revealed.......The notion of surf similarity in the runup of solitary waves is revisited. We show that the surf similarity parameter for solitary waves may be effectively reduced to the beach slope divided by the offshore wave height to depth ratio. This clarifies its physical interpretation relative...... to a previous parameterization, which was not given in an explicit form. Good coherency with experimental (breaking) runup data is preserved with this simpler parameter. A recasting of analytical (nonbreaking) runup expressions for sinusoidal and solitary waves additionally shows that they contain identical...

  2. Species Trials at the Waiakea Arboretum, Hilo, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    George B. Richmond

    1963-01-01

    Survival counts were made of 84 exotic tree species planted during 1956-1960 in a cleared rain-forest area near Hilo, Hawaii. Growth measurements were recorded for 5- and 6-year-old plantings. Most species had good survival, but some failed entirely. Soil depth was found to have a strong influence on rate of growth, but not on survival. Several valuable timber species...

  3. Floods and Flash Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floods and flash flooding Now is the time to determine your area’s flood risk. If you are not sure whether you ... If you are in a floodplain, consider buying flood insurance. Do not drive around barricades. If your ...

  4. The usage of color invariance in SURF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Gang; Jiang, Zhiguo; Zhao, Danpei

    2009-10-01

    SURF (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) is a robust local invariant feature descriptor. However, SURF is mainly designed for gray images. In order to make use of the information provided by color (mainly RGB channels), this paper presents a novel colored local invariant feature descriptor, CISURF (Color Invariance based SURF). The proposed approach builds the descriptors in a color invariant space, which stems from Kubelka-Munk model and provides more valuable information than the gray space. Compared with the conventional SURF and SIFT descriptors, the experimental results show that descriptors created by CISURF is more robust to the circumstance changes such as the illumination direction, illumination intensity, and the viewpoints, and are more suitable for the deep space background objects.

  5. Small-Scale Surf Zone Geometric Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    using stereo imagery techniques. A waterproof two- camera system with self-logging and internal power was developed using commercial-off-the-shelf...estimates. 14. SUBJECT TERMS surface roughness, nearshore, aerodynamic roughness, surf zone, structure from motion, 3D imagery 15. NUMBER OF... power was developed using commercial-off-the- shelf components and commercial software for operations 1m above the sea surface within the surf zone

  6. Influence of practice time on surfing injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Verônica Bazanella

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: studying the influence of surfing on the prevalence of injuries may contribute to prevention. Objective: to analyze the influence of time practicing sports and the occurrence of previous surgery on the profile and prevalence of injuries caused by surfing. Methods: Sixty-six Brazilian surfers (26.16 ± 0.73 years old participated in this study. Anthropometric data, physical activity level, surfing practice time and the prevalence of injuries (type of injury, anatomical region affected, and mechanism of injury were evaluated. To assess which of the studied variables exerted significant influence on the mean number of injuries, a Poisson log-linear model was adjusted through R software (p < 0.05. Results: most surfers were classified as eutrophic (73%, very active (60.6%, had an average practice time of 10.1 ± 1 years, and were not members of a surfing federation (74%. It was also observed that 90.9% of participants reported injuries caused by surfing and 44.9% affected the lower limbs. The majority of these injuries affected the integumentary system (46.6%. The main mechanism of injury was impact with the board or seabed (40.4%. Furthermore, it was found that surfing federation members presented an average of 58.4% more injuries than non-members (p = 0.007. Surfers who had undergone previous surgeries showed an average number of injuries that was 56.9% higher than other surfers (p = 0.012. In addition, it was found that for each extra year of surfing, the average number of injuries increased by 2.5% (p = 0.0118. Conclusion: the average number of injuries increased with increment in time practicing the sport, previous surgery and membership in a surfing federation.

  7. Buddy-Tutor Project. Hilo Intermediate School. Final Report, March-July, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Social Welfare Development and Research Center.

    An operational description of the 1973-74 Buddy-Tutor Project at Hilo Intermediate School in Hilo, Hawaii and an evaluative assessment of its outcome with statistical treatment of the data is provided in this report. This project is an exploratory behavioral intervention program for educationally deprived students and focuses its efforts on the…

  8. Flooding and Flood Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, K.N.; Fallon, J.D.; Lorenz, D.L.; Stark, J.R.; Menard, Jason; Easter, K.W.; Perry, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Floods result in great human disasters globally and nationally, causing an average of $4 billion of damages each year in the United States. Minnesota has its share of floods and flood damages, and the state has awarded nearly $278 million to local units of government for flood mitigation projects through its Flood Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. Since 1995, flood mitigation in the Red River Valley has exceeded $146 million. Considerable local and state funding has been provided to manage and mitigate problems of excess stormwater in urban areas, flooding of farmlands, and flood damages at road crossings. The cumulative costs involved with floods and flood mitigation in Minnesota are not known precisely, but it is safe to conclude that flood mitigation is a costly business. This chapter begins with a description of floods in Minneosta to provide examples and contrasts across the state. Background material is presented to provide a basic understanding of floods and flood processes, predication, and management and mitigation. Methods of analyzing and characterizing floods are presented because they affect how we respond to flooding and can influence relevant practices. The understanding and perceptions of floods and flooding commonly differ among those who work in flood forecasting, flood protection, or water resource mamnagement and citizens and businesses affected by floods. These differences can become magnified following a major flood, pointing to the need for better understanding of flooding as well as common language to describe flood risks and the uncertainty associated with determining such risks. Expectations of accurate and timely flood forecasts and our ability to control floods do not always match reality. Striving for clarity is important in formulating policies that can help avoid recurring flood damages and costs.

  9. Geotechnical properties of ash deposits near Hilo, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Jibson, R.W.; Wilson, R.C.; Buchanan-Banks, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    Two holes were hand augered and sampled in ash deposits near Hilo, Hawaii. Color, water content and sensitivity of the ash were measured in the field. The ash alternated between reddish brown and dark reddish brown in color and had water contents as high as 392%. A downhole vane shear device measured sensitivities as high as 6.9. A series of laboratory tests including grain size distribution, Atterberg limits, X-ray diffraction analysis, total carbon determination, vane shear, direct shear and triaxial tests were performed to determine the composition and geotechnical properties of the ash. The ash is very fine grained, highly plastic and composed mostly of gibbsite and amorphous material presumably allophane. The ash has a high angle of internal friction ranging from 40-43? and is classified as medium to very sensitive. A series of different ash layers was distinguished on the basis of plasticity and other geotechnical properties. Sensitivity may be due to a metastable fabric, cementation, leaching, high organic content, and thixotropy. The sensitivity of the volcanic ash deposits near Hilo is consistent with documented slope instability during earthquakes in Hawaii. The high angles of internal friction and cementation permit very steep slopes under static conditions. However, because of high sensitivity of the ash, these slopes are particularly susceptible to seismically-induced landsliding.

  10. Fast optically sectioned fluorescence HiLo endomicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Tim N.; Lim, Daryl; Mertz, Jerome

    2012-02-01

    We describe a nonscanning, fiber bundle endomicroscope that performs optically sectioned fluorescence imaging with fast frame rates and real-time processing. Our sectioning technique is based on HiLo imaging, wherein two widefield images are acquired under uniform and structured illumination and numerically processed to reject out-of-focus background. This work is an improvement upon an earlier demonstration of widefield optical sectioning through a flexible fiber bundle. The improved device features lateral and axial resolutions of 2.6 and 17 μm, respectively, a net frame rate of 9.5 Hz obtained by real-time image processing with a graphics processing unit (GPU) and significantly reduced motion artifacts obtained by the use of a double-shutter camera. We demonstrate the performance of our system with optically sectioned images and videos of a fluorescently labeled chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) in the developing G. gallus embryo. HiLo endomicroscopy is a candidate technique for low-cost, high-speed clinical optical biopsies.

  11. Gene surfing in expanding populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallatschek, Oskar; Nelson, David R

    2008-02-01

    Large scale genomic surveys are partly motivated by the idea that the neutral genetic variation of a population may be used to reconstruct its migration history. However, our ability to trace back the colonization pathways of a species from their genetic footprints is limited by our understanding of the genetic consequences of a range expansion. Here, we study, by means of simulations and analytical methods, the neutral dynamics of gene frequencies in an asexual population undergoing a continual range expansion in one dimension. During such a colonization period, lineages can fix at the wave front by means of a "surfing" mechanism [Edmonds, C.A., Lillie, A.S., Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., 2004. Mutations arising in the wave front of an expanding population. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 101, 975-979]. We quantify this phenomenon in terms of (i) the spatial distribution of lineages that reach fixation and, closely related, (ii) the continual loss of genetic diversity (heterozygosity) at the wave front, characterizing the approach to fixation. Our stochastic simulations show that an effective population size can be assigned to the wave that controls the (observable) gradient in heterozygosity left behind the colonization process. This effective population size is markedly higher in the presence of cooperation between individuals ("pushed waves") than when individuals proliferate independently ("pulled waves"), and increases only sub-linearly with deme size. To explain these and other findings, we develop a versatile analytical approach, based on the physics of reaction-diffusion systems, that yields simple predictions for any deterministic population dynamics. Our analytical theory compares well with the simulation results for pushed waves, but is less accurate in the case of pulled waves when stochastic fluctuations in the tip of the wave are important.

  12. THE SUSTAINABILITY OF SURFING TOURISM AT REMOTE DESTINATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Hugues Dit Ciles, Emily Kate

    2009-01-01

    Surfing is an increasing component of the adventure tourism sector. Growth in surfing as a lifestyle, sporting activity and industry has generated a surge of exploration and intrusion by surfing tourism into remote and vulnerable destinations worldwide in the "search" for uncrowded waves at uncharted locations. Consequendy, there have been concerns at the impacts of surfing tourism on coastal, island and marine areas, often characterised by fragile environments and host communi...

  13. Faktor Yang Mendorong Konsumen Membeli Produk Planet Surf

    OpenAIRE

    Nugraheni, Aninda

    2014-01-01

    Era Global kini memberikan persaingan ketat bagi beberapa merek produk dalam memasarkan produk. Hal mendasar dalam pemasaran produk dengan promosi yang dilakukan. Beberapa produk lokal dapat terkalahkan oleh merek produk luar. Penelitian ini mengenai produk Planet Surf yang merupakan merek luar mempunyai posisioning produk surfing atau beach wear. Planet Surf menjadi pilihan anak muda karena fashionable dan up-to-date. Planet Surf merupakan toko yang menjual pakaian, sepatu, tas, dompet, d...

  14. Potential climate change impacts on a tropical estuary: Hilo Bay, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolf, J.; LaPinta, J.; Marusek, J.; Pascoe, K.; Pugh, A.

    2016-02-01

    Hilo Bay is a tropical estuarine ecosystem on the northeast (windward) coast of Hawai`i Island that is potentially vulnerable to climate change effects mediated through elevated water temperatures and/or changing rainfall patterns that impact river and groundwater fluxes. Here, we document trends in water temperature, river flow and phytoplankton dynamics in Hilo Bay. Hilo Bay is fed by two major rivers, Wailuku and Honoli`i, both of which have shown long term declines in output over their 85 and 38 year monitoring periods (USGS), respectively. Time series of groundwater inputs to Hilo Bay do not exist, but the average estimated rate rivals that of average river inputs. Daily average Hilo Bay water temperatures have increased at a rate of 0.35 degrees C per year (p Hilo Bay water quality buoy began in 2010, with the warmest temperatures on record recorded Sept 2015. Salinity did not show a trend over this same time period. Phytoplankton showed a pronounced seasonal cycle in Hilo Bay with a long term average of 3.7 mg m-3 and dominance by diatoms that exploit the co-availability of silica and nitrate in this environment. On shorter time scales of days to Hilo Bay salinity, temperature and phytoplankton biomass. Coincidental atmospheric warming, SST warming in the adjacent North Pacific ocean, and declining river flows will likely work together to result in elevated SST in Hilo Bay if observed trends continue. The El Nino event that started this year is expected to exacerbate this warming through reduce river flow and warmer regional SST.

  15. Marketing plan for online surfing magazine

    OpenAIRE

    Michna, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Název: Marketing plan for online surfing magazine Cíle: The main aim of this thesis is to design a marketing plan for launching new online surfing magazine. This project would emerge from present online media Freeride.cz/Water, which adverse situation is going to be analyzed. Metody: Author used interviewing and personal survey as methods. Secondary data collection, PEST analysis and Google Analytics tool served as framework for resulting SWOT analysis. Výsledky: The marketing plan for one ye...

  16. SURF II: Characteristics, facilities, and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, R.P.; Canfield, R.; Furst, M.; Hamilton, A.; Hughey, L.

    1992-01-01

    This facility report describes the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF II) operated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland. SURF II is a 300-MeV electron storage ring which provides well characterized continuum radiation from the far infrared to the soft x-ray region with the critical wavelength at 17.4 nm. Brief descriptions are given of the user facilities, the characteristics of the synchrotron radiation, the main storage ring, the injector system and each of the operating beam lines, and associated instruments. Further description is given of expansion plans for additional beam lines

  17. Depth-resolved cellular microrheology using HiLo microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelson, Jarett; Choi, Heejin; So, Peter; Huang, Hayden

    2012-06-01

    It is increasingly important to measure cell mechanical properties in three-dimensional environments. Particle tracking microrheology (PTM) can measure cellular viscoelastic properties; however, out-of-plane data can introduce artifacts into these measurements. We developed a technique that employs HiLo microscopy to reduce out-of-plane contributions. This method eliminated signals from 90% of probes 0.5 μm or further from the focal plane, while retaining all in-plane probes. We used this technique to characterize live-cell bilayers and found that there were significant, frequency-dependent changes to the extracted cell moduli when compared to conventional analysis. Our results indicate that removal of out-of-plane information is vital for accurate assessments of cell mechanical properties.

  18. Coral ages and island subsidence, Hilo drill hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.G.; Ingram, B.L.; Ludwig, K. R.; Clague, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    A 25.8-m-thick sedimentary section containing coral fragments occurs directly below a surface lava flow (the ???1340 year old Panaewa lava flow) at the Hilo drill hole. Ten coral samples from this section dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon and five by thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) 230Th/U methods show good agreement. The calcareous unit is 9790 years old at the bottom and 1690 years old at the top and was deposited in a shallow lagoon behind an actively growing reef. This sedimentary unit is underlain by a 34-m-thick lava flow which in turn overlies a thin volcaniclastic silt with coral fragments that yield a single 14C date of 10,340 years. The age-depth relations of the dated samples can be compared with proposed eustatic sea level curves after allowance for island subsidence is taken. Island subsidence averages 2.2 mm/yr for the last 47 years based on measurements from a tide gage near the drill hole or 2.5-2.6 mm/yr for the last 500,000 years based on the ages and depths of a series of drowned coral reefs offshore from west Hawaii. The age-depth measurements of coral fragments are more consistent with eustatic sea levels as determined by coral dating at Barbados and Albrolhos Islands than those based on oxygen isotopic data from deep sea cores. The Panaewa lava flow entered a lagoon underlain by coral debris and covered the drill site with 30.9 m of lava of which 11 m was above sea level. This surface has now subsided to 4.2 m above sea level, but it demonstrates how a modern lava flow entering Hilo Bay would not only change the coastline but could extensively modify the offshore shelf.

  19. An Analysis of the SURF Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Oyallon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The SURF method (Speeded Up Robust Features is a fast and robust algorithm for local, similarity invariant representation and comparison of images. Similarly to many other local descriptor-based approaches, interest points of a given image are defined as salient features from a scale-invariant representation. Such a multiple-scale analysis is provided by the convolution of the initial image with discrete kernels at several scales (box filters. The second step consists in building orientation invariant descriptors, by using local gradient statistics (intensity and orientation. The main interest of the SURF approach lies in its fast computation of operators using box filters, thus enabling real-time applications such as tracking and object recognition. The SURF framework described in this paper is based on the PhD thesis of H. Bay [ETH Zurich, 2009], and more specifically on the paper co-written by H. Bay, A. Ess, T. Tuytelaars and L. Van Gool [Computer Vision and Image Understanding, 110 (2008, pp. 346–359]. An implementation is proposed and used to illustrate the approach for image matching. A short comparison with a state-of-the-art approach is also presented, the SIFT algorithm of D. Lowe [International Journal of Computer Vision, 60 (2004, pp. 91–110], with which SURF shares a lot in common.

  20. Development of HiLo Microscope and its use in In-Vivo Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shreyas J.

    The functionality of achieving optical sectioning in biomedical research is invaluable as it allows for visualization of a biological sample at different depths while being free of background scattering. Most current microscopy techniques that offer optical sectioning, unfortunately, require complex instrumentation and thus are generally costly. HiLo microscopy, on the other hand, offers the same functionality and advantage at a relatively low cost. Hence, the work described in this thesis involves the design, build, and application of a HiLo microscope. More specifically, a standalone HiLo microscope was built in addition to implementing HiLo microscopy on a standard fluorescence microscope. In HiLo microscopy, optical sectioning is achieved by acquiring two different types of images per focal plane. One image is acquired under uniform illumination and the other is acquired under speckle illumination. These images are processed using an algorithm that extracts in-focus information and removes features and glare that occur as a result of background fluorescence. To show the benefits of the HiLo microscopy, several imaging experiments on various samples were performed under a HiLo microscope and compared against a traditional fluorescence microscope and a confocal microscope, which is considered the gold standard in optical imaging. In-vitro and ex-vivo imaging was performed on a set of pollen grains, and optically cleared mouse brain and heart slices. Each of these experiments showed great reduction in background scattering at different depths under HiLo microscopy. More importantly, HiLo imaging of optically cleared heart slice demonstrated emergence of different vasculature at different depths. Reduction of out-of-focus light increased the spatial resolution and allowed better visualization of capillary vessels. Furthermore, HiLo imaging was tested in an in-vivo model of a rodent dorsal window chamber model. When imaging the same sample under confocal microscope

  1. Functional consequences of an arginine180 to glutamine mutation in factor IX Hilo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, D M; McCord, D M; Huang, M N; High, K A; Lundblad, R L; Kasper, C K; Roberts, H R

    1989-05-01

    Factor IX Hilo is a variant factor IX molecule that has no detectable coagulant activity. The defect in factor IX Hilo arises from a point mutation in the gene such that in the protein Arg180 is converted to a Gln. Activation of factor IX Hilo by factor Xla was monitored using the fluorescent active site probe p-aminobenzamidine. Normal factor IX showed complete activation in one hour as determined by measuring the increase in fluorescence when p-aminobenzamidine bound to activated factor IX. Factor IX Hilo showed no increase in fluorescence even after 24 hours, indicating that the active site was not exposed. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that factor IX Hilo was cleaved to a light chain plus a larger peptide with a molecular weight equivalent to a heavy chain covalently linked to an activation peptide. Amino terminal amino acid sequencing of factor IX Hilo cleaved by factor Xla showed cleavage only at Arg145-Ala146, indicating that the Gln180-Val181 bond was not cleaved and that the active site was thus not exposed. The presence of factor IX Hilo in patient plasma was responsible for the patient having a very long ox brain prothrombin time characteristic of severe hemophilia Bm. Patient plasma had an ox brain prothrombin time of 100 seconds using a Thrombotest kit, significantly prolonged over the normal control value of 45 seconds. When factor IX Hilo was depleted from patient plasma using an immunoaffinity column, the ox brain prothrombin time decreased to 41 seconds. When factor IX Hilo was added back to depleted patient plasma, to normal plasma depleted of factor IX by the same affinity column, or to plasma from a CRM- hemophilia B patient, the ox brain prothrombin time was significantly prolonged. We conclude that the Arg180 to Gln mutation in factor IX Hilo results in a molecule that cannot be activated by factor Xla. Further, our data suggest that the mutation results in a molecule that interacts with components of the extrinsic pathway to give

  2. Electron Surfing Acceleration in Magnetic Reconnection

    OpenAIRE

    Hoshino, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    We discuss that energetic electrons are generated near the X-type magnetic reconnection region due to a surfing acceleration mechanism. In a thin plasma sheet, the polarization electric fields pointing towards the neutral sheet are induced around the boundary between the lobe and plasma sheet in association with the Hall electric current. By using a particle-in-cell simulation, we demonstrate that the polarization electric fields are strongly enhanced in an externally driven reconnection syst...

  3. The characterization of surf tourists in the Algarve

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Fabia Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado, Economia do Turismo e Desenvolvimento Regional, Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Algarve, 2014 Even though surf tourism in Portugal is an economic activity with a steady growth rate, there are not many assessment studies available. Using a sample of 240 participants, this dissertation aims to characterize surf tourists that stay in surf camps in the Algarve. Nearly half of all respondents (49,2%) are German. A large proportion of respondents are s...

  4. Planktonic Subsidies to Surf-Zone and Intertidal Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Steven G.; Shanks, Alan L.; MacMahan, Jamie H.; Reniers, Ad J. H. M.; Feddersen, Falk

    2018-01-01

    Plankton are transported onshore, providing subsidies of food and new recruits to surf-zone and intertidal communities. The transport of plankton to the surf zone is influenced by wind, wave, and tidal forcing, and whether they enter the surf zone depends on alongshore variation in surf-zone hydrodynamics caused by the interaction of breaking waves with coastal morphology. Areas with gently sloping shores and wide surf zones typically have orders-of-magnitude-higher concentrations of plankton in the surf zone and dense larval settlement in intertidal communities because of the presence of bathymetric rip currents, which are absent in areas with steep shores and narrow surf zones. These striking differences in subsidies have profound consequences; areas with greater subsidies support more productive surf-zone communities and possibly more productive rocky intertidal communities. Recognition of the importance of spatial subsidies for rocky community dynamics has recently advanced ecological theory, and incorporating surf-zone hydrodynamics would be an especially fruitful line of investigation.

  5. Optically sectioned in vivo imaging with speckle illumination HiLo microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Daryl; Ford, Tim N.; Chu, Kengyeh K.; Mertz, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple wide-field imaging technique, called HiLo microscopy, that is capable of producing optically sectioned images in real time, comparable in quality to confocal laser scanning microscopy. The technique is based on the fusion of two raw images, one acquired with speckle illumination and another with standard uniform illumination. The fusion can be numerically adjusted, using a single parameter, to produce optically sectioned images of varying thicknesses with the same raw data. Direct comparison between our HiLo microscope and a commercial confocal laser scanning microscope is made on the basis of sectioning strength and imaging performance. Specifically, we show that HiLo and confocal 3-D imaging of a GFP-labeled mouse brain hippocampus are comparable in quality. Moreover, HiLo microscopy is capable of faster, near video rate imaging over larger fields of view than attainable with standard confocal microscopes. The goal of this paper is to advertise the simplicity, robustness, and versatility of HiLo microscopy, which we highlight with in vivo imaging of common model organisms including planaria, C. elegans, and zebrafish.

  6. Use of Video Decision Aids to Promote Advance Care Planning in Hilo, Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volandes, Angelo E; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Davis, Aretha Delight; Eubanks, Robert; El-Jawahri, Areej; Seitz, Rae

    2016-09-01

    Advance care planning (ACP) seeks to promote care delivery that is concordant with patients' informed wishes. Scalability and cost may be barriers to widespread ACP, and video decision aids may help address such barriers. Our primary hypothesis was that ACP documentation would increase in Hilo after ACP video implementation. Secondary hypotheses included increased use of hospice, fewer deaths in the hospital, and decreased costs in the last month of life. The city of Hilo in Hawai'i (population 43,263), which is served by one 276-bed hospital (Hilo Medical Center), one hospice (the Hospice of Hilo), and 30 primary care physicians. The intervention consisted of a single, 1- to 4-h training and access to a suite of ACP video decision aids. Prior to implementation, the rate of ACP documentation for hospitalized patients with late-stage disease was 3.2 % (11/346). After the intervention, ACP documentation was 39.9 % (1,107/2,773) (P Hilo patients was $3,458 (95 % CI $3,051 to 3,865) lower per patient after the intervention when compared to the control region. Implementing ACP video decision aids was associated with improved ACP documentation, greater use of hospice, and decreased costs. Decision aids that promote ACP offer a scalable and cost-efficient medium to place patients at the center of their care.

  7. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.60 Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane... Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii in the State of Hawaii. [40 FR 8504, Feb. 27, 1975] ...

  8. Lidar and aerosol measurements over the surf zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerman, M.M.; Cohen, L.H.; Leeuw, G. de; Kunz, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    The aerosol produced by waves breaking in the surf zone is important for a variety of processes, such as transport of pollutants and bacteria, and electro optical propagation in the coastal zone. Yet, quantitative information on surf produced aerosol is very limited (de Leeuw et al., 2000). In the

  9. Wide-field two-photon microscopy with temporal focusing and HiLo background rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Elijah Y. S.; Choi, Heejin; Kim, Daekeun; So, Peter T. C.

    2011-03-01

    Scanningless depth-resolved microscopy is achieved through spatial-temporal focusing and has been demonstrated previously. The advantage of this method is that a large area may be imaged without scanning resulting in higher throughput of the imaging system. Because it is a widefield technique, the optical sectioning effect is considerably poorer than with conventional spatial focusing two-photon microscopy. Here we propose wide-field two-photon microscopy based on spatio-temporal focusing and employing background rejection based on the HiLo microscope principle. We demonstrate the effects of applying HiLo microscopy to widefield temporally focused two-photon microscopy.

  10. Surfing into spirituality and a new, aquatic nature religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bron

    2007-01-01

    "Soul surfers" consider surfing to be a profoundly meaningful practice that brings physical, psychological, and spiritual benefits. They generally agree on where surfing initially developed, that it assumed a religious character, was suppressed for religious reasons, has been undergoing a revival, and enjoins reverence for and protection of nature. This subset of the global surfing community should be understood as a new religious movement-a globalizing, hybridized, and increasingly influential example of what I call aquatic nature religion. For these individuals, surfing is a religious form in which a specific sensual practice constitutes its sacred center, and the corresponding experiences are constructed in a way that leads to a belief in nature as powerful, transformative, healing, and sacred. I advance this argument by analyzing these experiences, as well as the myths, rites, symbols, terminology, technology, material culture, and ethical mores that are found within surfing subcultures.

  11. Geological evidence and sediment transport modelling for the 1946 and 1960 tsunamis in Shinmachi, Hilo, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagué, Catherine; Sugawara, Daisuke; Goto, Kazuhisa; Goff, James; Dudley, Walter; Gadd, Patricia

    2018-02-01

    The Japanese community of Shinmachi, established on low-lying land between downtown Hilo and Waiakea, Hawaii, was obliterated by the 1946 Aleutian tsunami but was rebuilt, only to be destroyed again by the 1960 Chilean tsunami. The aim of this study was to find out if any geological evidence of these well documented events had been preserved in the sedimentary record in Wailoa River State Park, which replaced Shinmachi after the 1960 tsunami. This was achieved by collecting cores in the park and performing sedimentological, chronological and geochemical analyses, the latter also processed by principal component analysis. Sediment transport modelling was carried out for both tsunamis, to infer the source of the sediment and areas of deposition on land. The field survey revealed two distinct units within peat and soil, a thin lower unit composed of weathered basalt fragments within mud (Unit 1) and an upper unit dominated by fine volcanic sand within fine silt exhibiting subtle upward fining and coarsening (Unit 2, consisting of Unit 2A and Unit 2B), although these two anomalous units only occur on the western shore of Waiakea Mill Pond. Analysis with an ITRAX core scanner shows that Unit 1 is characterised by high Mn, Fe, Rb, La and Ce counts, combined with elevated magnetic susceptibility. Based on its chemical and sedimentological characteristics, Unit 1 is attributed to a flood event in Wailoa River that occurred around 1520-1660 CE, most probably as a result of a tropical storm. The sharp lower contact of Unit 2 coincides with the appearance of arsenic, contemporaneous with an increase in Ca, Sr, Si, Ti, K, Zr, Mn, Fe, La and Ce. In this study, As is used as a chronological and source material marker, as it is known to have been released into Wailoa River Estuary and Waiakea Mill Pond by the Canec factory between 1932 and 1963. Thus, not only the chemical and sedimentological evidence but also sediment transport modelling, corroborating the historical record

  12. Optically Sectioned Imaging of Microvasculature of In-Vivo and Ex-Vivo Thick Tissue Models with Speckle-illumination HiLo Microscopy and HiLo Image Processing Implementation in MATLAB Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Ricky Wai

    The work described in this thesis covers the conversion of HiLo image processing into MATLAB architecture and the use of speckle-illumination HiLo microscopy for use of ex-vivo and in-vivo imaging of thick tissue models. HiLo microscopy is a wide-field fluorescence imaging technique and has been demonstrated to produce optically sectioned images comparable to confocal in thin samples. The imaging technique was developed by Jerome Mertz and the Boston University Biomicroscopy Lab and has been implemented in our lab as a stand-alone optical setup and a modification to a conventional fluorescence microscope. Speckle-illumination HiLo microscopy combines two images taken under speckle-illumination and standard uniform-illumination to generate an optically sectioned image that reject out-of-focus fluorescence. The evaluated speckle contrast in the images is used as a weighting function where elements that move out-of-focus have a speckle contrast that decays to zero. The experiments shown here demonstrate the capability of our HiLo microscopes to produce optically-sectioned images of the microvasculature of ex-vivo and in-vivo thick tissue models. The HiLo microscope were used to image the microvasculature of ex-vivo mouse heart sections prepared for optical histology and the microvasculature of in-vivo rodent dorsal window chamber models. Studies in label-free surface profiling with HiLo microscopy is also presented.

  13. Delineation of surf scoter habitat in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland: macrobenthic and sediment composition of surf scoter feeding sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, D.M.; Perry, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Surveys of surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) along the Atlantic coast of the United States have shown population declines in recent decades. The Chesapeake Bay has traditionally been a key wintering area for surf scoters. Past and present research has shown that bivalves constitute a major food item for seaducks in the Chesapeake Bay, with surf scoters feeding primarily on hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum) and dwarf surf clam (Mulinia lateralis). Degraded water quality conditions in the Chesapeake Bay have been well documented and have been shown to greatly influence the composition of benthic communities. Large concentrations of feeding surf scoters (>500 individuals) in the Bay were determined through monthly boat surveys. Locations consistently lacking surf scoters were also determined. Macrobenthos were seasonally sampled at 3 locations containing scoters and 3 locations without scoters. A 1 kilometer square grid was superimposed over each location using GIS and sampling sites within the square were randomly chosen. Benthos were sampled at each site using SCUBA and a meter square quadrat. Biomass and size class estimates were determined for all bivalves within each kilometer square. Results indicated that scoter feeding sites contained significantly greater biomass of M. lateralis, I. recurvum, and Gemma gemma than locations where no scoters were present. Substrate differences were also detected, with scoter feeding sites being composed of a sand/shell mix while non-scoter sites consisted primarily of mud. This data indicates that surf scoters in the Chesapeake Bay are selecting areas with high densities of preferred food items, potentially maximizing there foraging energetics. In addition, two scoter feeding sites also contained a patchwork of eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) and oyster shell, on which much of the I. recurvum was attached. This suggests the possibility that surf scoters utilize eastern oyster habitat and the dramatic depletion of

  14. School-Within-A-School (Hawaii Nui High) Hilo High School Report 1969-70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Social Welfare Development and Research Center.

    The second year of operation of Hilo High School's "School-Within-A-School" [SWS] program is evaluated in this paper. Planning, training, and program implementation are described in the document. The following are the results of the program: There was an improvement in attendance among project students when compared to their record in…

  15. Youth Homelessness and Vulnerability: How Does Couch Surfing Fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Susanna R; Morton, Matthew; Matjasko, Jennifer L; Dworsky, Amy; Samuels, Gina M; Schlueter, David

    2017-09-01

    Youth homelessness is a problem characterized by high levels of vulnerability. The extent to which couch surfing - moving from one temporary housing arrangement to another - is part of youth homelessness is not well understood. Chapin Hall's Voices of Youth Count, a national research initiative, involves a multicomponent approach to studying youth homelessness. This study reports emerging findings regarding couch surfing and homelessness primarily from a national survey of 13,113 adults with youth ages 13-25 in their households or who are themselves ages 18-25. Findings suggest that couch surfing is relatively common, particularly among the older age group. Among households with 13- to 17-year-olds and 18- to 25-year-olds, 4.0% and 20.5%, respectively, reported that any of them had couch surfed in the last 12 months. There are notable social, economic, and educational differences, on average, between youth reporting homelessness and those reporting only couch surfing. However, most youth who report experiencing homelessness also report couch surfing, and these youth who experience both circumstances present high levels of socioeconomic vulnerability. Couch surfing encompasses a range of experiences, some of which likely include need for services. Interviews currently in the field, and expanded analysis of data, will contribute more nuanced policy insights. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  16. Genome Surfing As Driver of Microbial Genomic Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudoir, Mallory J; Panke-Buisse, Kevin; Andam, Cheryl P; Buckley, Daniel H

    2017-08-01

    Historical changes in population size, such as those caused by demographic range expansions, can produce nonadaptive changes in genomic diversity through mechanisms such as gene surfing. We propose that demographic range expansion of a microbial population capable of horizontal gene exchange can result in genome surfing, a mechanism that can cause widespread increase in the pan-genome frequency of genes acquired by horizontal gene exchange. We explain that patterns of genetic diversity within Streptomyces are consistent with genome surfing, and we describe several predictions for testing this hypothesis both in Streptomyces and in other microorganisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Palmprint Based Verification System Using SURF Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Badrinath G.; Gupta, Phalguni

    This paper describes the design and development of a prototype of robust biometric system for verification. The system uses features extracted using Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) operator of human hand. The hand image for features is acquired using a low cost scanner. The palmprint region extracted is robust to hand translation and rotation on the scanner. The system is tested on IITK database of 200 images and PolyU database of 7751 images. The system is found to be robust with respect to translation and rotation. It has FAR 0.02%, FRR 0.01% and accuracy of 99.98% and can be a suitable system for civilian applications and high-security environments.

  18. Density of basalt core from Hilo drill hole, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    Density measurements of 1600 samples of core from 889 to 3097 m depth below sea level in the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Program hole near Hilo, Hawaii show marked differences between the basaltic rock types and help define stratigraphy in the hole. Water-saturated densities of subaerial lava flows (occurring above 1079 m depth) have the broadest range because of the large density variation within a single lava flow. Water-saturated densities commonly range from 2.0 to 3.0 with an average of 2.55 ?? 0.24 g/cc. Dikes and sills range from 2.8 to 3.1 g/cc). Densities of hyaloclastite commonly range from 2.3 to 2.7, with an overall average of about 2.5 g/cc. The low-density of most hyaloclastite is due primarily to palagonitization of abundant glass and presence of secondary minerals in the interstices between fragments. Four principal zones of pillow lava, separated by hyaloclastite, occur in the drill core. The shallowest (1983-2136 m) is paradoxically the densest, averaging 3.01 ?? 0.10 g/cc. The second (2234-2470 m) is decidedly the lightest, averaging 2.67 ?? 0.13 g/cc. The third (2640-2790 m) and fourth (2918-bottom at 3097 m) are high, averaging 2.89 ?? 0.17 and 2.97 ?? 0.08 g/cc, respectively. The first pillow zone includes degassed pillows i.e. lava erupted on land that flowed into the sea. These pillows are poor in vesicles, because the subaerial, one-atmosphere vesicles were compressed when the flow descended to deeper water and higher pressure. The second (low-density, non-degassed) pillow zone is the most vesicle-rich, apparently because it was erupted subaqueously at a shallow depth. The higher densities of the third and fourth zones result from a low vesicularity of only a few percent and an olivine content averaging more than 5% for the third zone and about 10% for the fourth zone. The uppermost hyaloclastite extending about 400 m below the bottom of the subaerial basalt is poorly cemented and absorbs up to 6 wt% of water when immersed. Progressing

  19. Reproduction and recruitment patterns of the surf clam Donax serra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproduction and recruitment patterns of the surf clam Donax serra (Bivalvia, Donacidae) on two ... Keywords: condition index, Donax serra, histology, Namibia, recruitment, reproduction, sandy beach ecology ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  20. Surface Wave Focusing and Acoustic Communications in the Surf Zone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Preisig, James

    2004-01-01

    The forward scattering of acoustic signals off of shoaling surface gravity waves in the surf zone results in a time-varying channel impulse response that is characterized by intense, rapidly fluctuating arrivals...

  1. La importancia del patrocinio deportivo : el surf como última tendencia

    OpenAIRE

    Lvov a Zemlianskaia,Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Se pretende dar a conocer el motivo del constante incremento del patrocinio deportivo, concretamente en el mundo del surf. Esta estrategia de marketing es empleada por muchas marcas como clave del éxito en la diferenciación

  2. A role for Heparan Sulfate in Viral Surfing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Myung-Jin; Akhtar, Jihan; Desai, Prashant; Shukla, Deepak

    2009-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) moieties on cell surfaces are known to provide attachment sites for many viruses including herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1). Here we demonstrate that cells respond to HSV-1 infection by promoting filopodia formation. Filopodia express HS and are subsequently utilized for the transport of HSV-1 virions to cell bodies in a surfing-like phenomenon, which is facilitated by the underlying actin cytoskeleton and is regulated by transient activation of a small Rho GTPase, Cdc42. We also demonstrate that interaction between a highly conserved herpesvirus envelope glycoprotein B (gB) and HS is required for surfing. A HSV-1 mutant that lacks gB fails to surf and quantum-dots conjugated with gB demonstrate surfing-like movements. Our data demonstrates a novel use of a common receptor, HS, which could also be exploited by multiple viruses and quite possibly, many additional ligands for transport along the plasma membrane. PMID:19909728

  3. A role for heparan sulfate in viral surfing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Myung-Jin; Akhtar, Jihan [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Desai, Prashant [Viral Oncology Program, The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, 1650 Orleans Street, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States); Shukla, Deepak, E-mail: dshukla@uic.edu [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) moieties on cell surfaces are known to provide attachment sites for many viruses including herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1). Here, we demonstrate that cells respond to HSV-1 infection by enhancing filopodia formation. Filopodia express HS and are subsequently utilized for the transport of HSV-1 virions to cell bodies in a surfing-like phenomenon, which is facilitated by the underlying actin cytoskeleton and is regulated by transient activation of a small Rho GTPase, Cdc42. We also demonstrate that interaction between a highly conserved herpesvirus envelope glycoprotein B (gB) and HS is required for surfing. A HSV-1 mutant that lacks gB fails to surf and quantum dots conjugated with gB demonstrate surfing-like movements. Our data demonstrates a novel use of a common receptor, HS, which could also be exploited by multiple viruses and quite possibly, many additional ligands for transport along the plasma membrane.

  4. Wave and Current Data from Kuhio Bay in Hilo, Hawaii March through June 2007 (NODC Accession 0050188)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Field data collection was conducted for the U.S. Army Engineer District, Pacific Ocean, Honolulu (POH), during 21 March through 7 June 2007, in Kuhio Bay of Hilo,...

  5. Neutron-photon multigroup cross sections for neutron energies up to 400 MeV: HILO86R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotegawa, Hiroshi; Nakane, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Akira; Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    1993-02-01

    A macroscopic multigroup cross section library of 66 neutron and 22 photon groups for neutron energies up to 400 MeV: HILO86R is prepared for 10 typical shielding materials; water, concrete, iron, air, graphite, polyethylene, heavy concrete, lead, aluminum and soil. The library is a revision of the DLC-119/HILO86, in which only the cross sections below 19.6 MeV have been exchanged with a group cross section processed from the JENDL-3 microscopic cross section library. In the HILO86R library, self shielding factors are used to produce effective cross sections for neutrons less than 19.6 MeV considering rather coarse energy meshes. Energy spectra and dose attenuation in water, concrete and iron have been compared among the HILO, HILO86 and HILO86R libraries for different energy neutron sources. Significant discrepancy has been observed in the energy spectra less than a couple of MeV energy in iron among the libraries, resulting large difference in the dose attenuation. The difference was attributed to the effect of self-shielding factor, namely to the difference between infinite dilution and effective cross sections. Even for 400 MeV neutron source the influence of the self-shielding factor is significant, nevertheless only the cross sections below 19.6 MeV are exchanged. (author)

  6. The Effect of a Single Bout of Surfing on Exercise-Induced Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittsinger, Ryan; Kress, Jeff; Crussemeyer, Jill

    2017-01-01

    Exercise-induced affect (EIA) has been well documented and is often composed of positive affect, negative affect, tranquility, and fatigue. Research on EIA has focused on mainstream sports such as running, walking, or cycling; however, no research has evaluated the influence of action sports participation in activities such surfing on EIA. The current study examined the effect of a single 30-min surfing bout on EIA in 107 adult volunteers. An additional purpose was if change in affect was similar based on surfing history, surfing frequency, and surfing skill level. To assess EIA, each participant completed the Physical Activity Affect Scale (PAAS) prior to and immediately following the 30-min surf session. Dependent t -tests were used to examine differences between pre- and post-test EIA. For the secondary purpose, a change score (PAAS posttest-PAAS pretest) was computed for each subscale. One-way ANOVAs were performed to determine differences among comparisons of surfing history, surfing frequency, and surfing skill level, and the change score for each of the 4 subscales. EIA was significantly altered by surfing, with significant improvements in positive affect and tranquility, and significant reductions in negative affect and fatigue. There were no significant differences among surfing history, surfing frequency, and surfing skill level, and positive affect, negative affect or tranquility. However, there were significant differences between fatigue and surfing history, surfing frequency, and surfing skill level. The results indicate that a single 30-min surfing bout may provide positive benefits for the participant. Implications for future surfing research and EIA are discussed.

  7. The Effect of a Single Bout of Surfing on Exercise-Induced Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    PITTSINGER, RYAN; KRESS, JEFF; CRUSSEMEYER, JILL

    2017-01-01

    Exercise-induced affect (EIA) has been well documented and is often composed of positive affect, negative affect, tranquility, and fatigue. Research on EIA has focused on mainstream sports such as running, walking, or cycling; however, no research has evaluated the influence of action sports participation in activities such surfing on EIA. The current study examined the effect of a single 30-min surfing bout on EIA in 107 adult volunteers. An additional purpose was if change in affect was similar based on surfing history, surfing frequency, and surfing skill level. To assess EIA, each participant completed the Physical Activity Affect Scale (PAAS) prior to and immediately following the 30-min surf session. Dependent t-tests were used to examine differences between pre- and post-test EIA. For the secondary purpose, a change score (PAAS posttest-PAAS pretest) was computed for each subscale. One-way ANOVAs were performed to determine differences among comparisons of surfing history, surfing frequency, and surfing skill level, and the change score for each of the 4 subscales. EIA was significantly altered by surfing, with significant improvements in positive affect and tranquility, and significant reductions in negative affect and fatigue. There were no significant differences among surfing history, surfing frequency, and surfing skill level, and positive affect, negative affect or tranquility. However, there were significant differences between fatigue and surfing history, surfing frequency, and surfing skill level. The results indicate that a single 30-min surfing bout may provide positive benefits for the participant. Implications for future surfing research and EIA are discussed. PMID:29170700

  8. Reconnaissance map showing thickness of volcanic ash deposits in the greater Hilo area, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan-Banks, Jane M.

    1983-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the thickness and distribution of volcanic ash deposits in the greater Hilo area, Hawaii, as a step toward evaluating their susceptibility to failure during earthquake shaking. On several occasions their instability has resulted in serious damage. For example, the 1868 earthquake (m=7+), following a prolonged rainy period, caused a debris flow of hillside ash deposits that killed 31 people in Wood Valley (Bringham, 1869). The 1973 Honomu earthquake (m=6.2) resulted in more damage from shaking to areas underlain by ash deposits in the older part of Hilo than in other areas, and soil slips in ash, as well as rockfalls, were common along the roads north of town (Nielsen and others, 1977). 

  9. Scanning light-sheet microscopy in the whole mouse brain with HiLo background rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Jerome; Kim, Jinhyun

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that light-sheet illumination can enable optically sectioned wide-field imaging of macroscopic samples. However, the optical sectioning capacity of a light-sheet macroscope is undermined by sample-induced scattering or aberrations that broaden the thickness of the sheet illumination. We present a technique to enhance the optical sectioning capacity of a scanning light-sheet microscope by out-of-focus background rejection. The technique, called HiLo microscopy, makes use of two images sequentially acquired with uniform and structured sheet illumination. An optically sectioned image is then synthesized by fusing high and low spatial frequency information from both images. The benefits of combining light-sheet macroscopy and HiLo background rejection are demonstrated in optically cleared whole mouse brain samples, using both green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fluorescence and dark-field scattered light contrast.

  10. Use of Video Decision Aids to Promote Advance Care Planning in Hilo, Hawai?i

    OpenAIRE

    Volandes, Angelo E.; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K.; Davis, Aretha Delight; Eubanks, Robert; El-Jawahri, Areej; Seitz, Rae

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Advance care planning (ACP) seeks to promote care delivery that is concordant with patients’ informed wishes. Scalability and cost may be barriers to widespread ACP, and video decision aids may help address such barriers. Aim Our primary hypothesis was that ACP documentation would increase in Hilo after ACP video implementation. Secondary hypotheses included increased use of hospice, fewer deaths in the hospital, and decreased costs in the last month of life. Setting: The city o...

  11. Fast Calcium Imaging with Optical Sectioning via HiLo Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Marcel A; Ronzitti, Emiliano; Sternberg, Jenna R; Wyart, Claire; Emiliani, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Imaging intracellular calcium concentration via reporters that change their fluorescence properties upon binding of calcium, referred to as calcium imaging, has revolutionized our way to probe neuronal activity non-invasively. To reach neurons densely located deep in the tissue, optical sectioning at high rate of acquisition is necessary but difficult to achieve in a cost effective manner. Here we implement an accessible solution relying on HiLo microscopy to provide robust optical sectioning with a high frame rate in vivo. We show that large calcium signals can be recorded from dense neuronal populations at high acquisition rates. We quantify the optical sectioning capabilities and demonstrate the benefits of HiLo microscopy compared to wide-field microscopy for calcium imaging and 3D reconstruction. We apply HiLo microscopy to functional calcium imaging at 100 frames per second deep in biological tissues. This approach enables us to discriminate neuronal activity of motor neurons from different depths in the spinal cord of zebrafish embryos. We observe distinct time courses of calcium signals in somata and axons. We show that our method enables to remove large fluctuations of the background fluorescence. All together our setup can be implemented to provide efficient optical sectioning in vivo at low cost on a wide range of existing microscopes.

  12. The 'surf zone' in the stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, M. E.; Palmer, T. N.

    Synoptic, coarse-grain, isentropic maps of Ertel's potential vorticity Q for the northern middle stratosphere, estimated using a large-Richardson-number approximation, are presented for a number of days in January-February 1979, together with some related isentropic trajectory calculations The effects of substituting FGGE for NMC base data are noted, as well as some slight corrections to maps published earlier. The combined evidence from the observations and from dynamical models strongly indicates the existence of planetary-wave breaking, a process in which material contours are rapidly and irreversibly deformed. In the winter stratosphere this occurs most spectacularly in a gigantic 'nonlinear critical layer', or 'surf zone', which surrounds the main polar vortex, and which tends to erode the vortex when wave amplitudes become large. Some of the FGGE-based Q maps suggest that we may be seeing glimpses of local dynamical instabilities and vortex-rollup phenomena within breaking planetary waves. Related phenomena in the troposphere are discussed. An objective definition of the area A( t) of the main vortex, as it appears on isentropic Q maps, is proposed. A smoothed time series of daily values of A( t) should be a statistically powerful 'circulation index' for the state of the winter-time middle stratosphere, which avoids the loss of information incurred by Eulerian space and time averaging.

  13. Origin and depositional environment of clastic deposits in the Hilo drill hole, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, M.H.; Clague, D.A.; Lockwood, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Volcaniclastic units cored at depths of about 87, 164, 178, 226, and 246 m below sea level and carbonate units located between depths of 27 and 53 m below sea level in the Hilo drill core were found to be deposited at or near sea level. Four of these units are hydroclastic deposits, formed when subaerially erupted Mauna Loa lava flows entered the ocean and fragmented to produce quenched, glassy fragments during hydrovolcanic explosions. Ash units 24 and 26, at 178 m depth, accumulated at sea level in a freshwater bog. They contain pyroxenes crystallized from tholeiitic magma that we infer erupted explosively at the summit of Kilauea volcano. Two carbon-rich layers from these ashes have a weighted average radiocarbon age of 38.6 ?? 0.9 ka; the ashes probably correlate with the oldest and thickest part of the Pahala ash. Ash unit 44, at the transition from Mauna Kea to Mauna Loa lava flows, was probably nearly 3.2 m thick and is inferred to be equivalent to the lower thick part of the composite Homelani ash mapped in Hilo and on the flanks of Mauna Kea. The age of this part of Homelani ash is between 128 ?? 33 and 200 ?? 10 ka; it may have erupted subglacially during the Pohakuloa glacial maxima on Mauna Kea. Beach sand units 12 and 22 were derived from nearby Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea lava flows. The middle of beach sand unit 38 was derived mainly from lava erupted near the distal end of the subaerial east rift zone of Kilauea volcano; these sands were transported about 33 km northwest to Hilo Bay by prevailing longshore currents. Combined age, depth, and sea level markers in the core allow us to determine that lava flow recurrence intervals averaged one flow every 4 kyr during the past 86 kyr and one flow every 16 kyr between 86 and 200 ka at the drill site and that major explosive eruptions that deposit thick ash in Hilo have occurred only twice in the last 400 kyr. These recurrence intervals support the moderate lava flow hazard zonation (zone 3) for coastal Hilo

  14. Stopover habitats of spring migrating surf scoters in southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, E.K.; Esler, Daniel; Takekawa, John Y.; De La Cruz, S.W.; Sean, Boyd W.; Nysewander, D.R.; Evenson, J.R.; Ward, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    Habitat conditions and nutrient reserve levels during spring migration have been suggested as important factors affecting population declines in waterfowl, emphasizing the need to identify key sites used during spring and understand habitat features and resource availability at stopover sites. We used satellite telemetry to identify stopover sites used by surf scoters migrating through southeast Alaska during spring. We then contrasted habitat features of these sites to those of random sites to determine habitat attributes corresponding to use by migrating scoters. We identified 14 stopover sites based on use by satellite tagged surf scoters from several wintering sites. We identified Lynn Canal as a particularly important stopover site for surf scoters originating throughout the Pacific winter range; approximately half of tagged coastally migrating surf scoters used this site, many for extended periods. Stopover sites were farther from the mainland coast and closer to herring spawn sites than random sites, whereas physical shoreline habitat attributes were generally poor predictors of site use. The geography and resource availability within southeast Alaska provides unique and potentially critical stopover habitat for spring migrating surf scoters. Our work identifies specific sites and habitat resources that deserve conservation and management consideration. Aggregations of birds are vulnerable to human activity impacts such as contaminant spills and resource management decisions. This information is of value to agencies and organizations responsible for emergency response planning, herring fisheries management, and bird and ecosystem conservation. Copyright ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  15. DIOPS: A PC-Based Wave, Tide and Surf Prediction System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allard, Richard; Dykes, James; Kaihatu, James; Wakeham, Dean

    2005-01-01

    The Distributed Integrated Ocean Prediciton System (DIOPS) is a PC-based wave tide and surf prediction system designed to provide DoD accurate and timely surf predictions for essentially any world-wide location...

  16. Goddard and Caldwell: Oahu, Hawaii surf observation data set for 1968 - 2004 (NODC Accession 0001754)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surf reports are typically made several times per day at select locations around Oahu, primarily by Honolulu City and County lifeguards and the Surf News Network,...

  17. Goddard and Caldwell Oahu, Hawaii Surf Observation Dataset for 1968-2004 (NODC Accession 0001754)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surf reports are typically made several times per day at select locations around Oahu, primarily by Honolulu City and County lifeguards and the Surf News Network,...

  18. EVALUATION OF SIFT AND SURF FOR VISION BASED LOCALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Qu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vision based localization is widely investigated for the autonomous navigation and robotics. One of the basic steps of vision based localization is the extraction of interest points in images that are captured by the embedded camera. In this paper, SIFT and SURF extractors were chosen to evaluate their performance in localization. Four street view image sequences captured by a mobile mapping system, were used for the evaluation and both SIFT and SURF were tested on different image scales. Besides, the impact of the interest point distribution was also studied. We evaluated the performances from for aspects: repeatability, precision, accuracy and runtime. The local bundle adjustment method was applied to refine the pose parameters and the 3D coordinates of tie points. According to the results of our experiments, SIFT was more reliable than SURF. Apart from this, both the accuracy and the efficiency of localization can be improved if the distribution of feature points are well constrained for SIFT.

  19. Car surfing: an uncommon cause of traumatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, T; Timberlake, G; Yeager, A; Jadali, M; Royer, K

    1999-02-01

    Car surfing is an infrequent cause of traumatic injuries treated by emergency physicians. This very dangerous activity can result in serious injury or death. We report 5 cases of injuries caused by car surfing seen at our hospital during 1996 and 1997. All involved head injuries after a fall from a moving motor vehicle. There were 3 male and 2 female patients, and 3 cases were fatal. Health care providers should be aware of this type of injury and support efforts to prevent it.

  20. Émergences et diffusions mondiales du surf

    OpenAIRE

    Coëffé, Vincent; Guibert, Christophe; Taunay, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    La diffusion du surf à travers le monde illustre les dimensions matérielles et idéelles d’un processus singulier qui dépasse la simple question des règles sportives et des possibilités économiques de pratique. La problématique de la mondialisation du surf – et donc de ses « codages » symboliques à travers le monde – contribue ainsi à questionner les sports comme exemples de processus d’appropriation des pratiques et des normes culturelles qui leur sont associées. Sont ainsi analysées les émer...

  1. Vasomotor symptoms among Japanese-American and European-American women living in Hilo, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Morrison, Lynn; Brown, Daniel E; Reza, Angela M

    2007-01-01

    The Hilo Women's Health Survey was designed and administered to gather baseline data on women's health in Hilo, HI. This randomized, cross-sectional study allowed for a focus on ethnic differences in symptom reporting. The results presented here focus on hot flash and night sweat experience among Japanese-American and European-American women. Survey packets were mailed to street addresses associated with parcel numbers pulled randomly from Hilo tax maps. Of the 6,401 survey packets delivered to households, 1,824 questionnaires were completed and returned. The results reported here are based on 869 women aged 40 to 60, of whom 249 described themselves to be 100% Japanese and 203 described themselves to be 100% European-American. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine whether the relationship between ethnicity and vasomotor symptoms persisted after controlling for other variables. European-American participants were more likely to have ever experienced a hot flash as compared with Japanese-American participants (72% vs 53%, P<0.01). During the 2 weeks before the survey, European-American participants were more likely to have experienced hot flashes (P<0.05) and night sweats (P<0.01). In logistic regression analyses, after controlling for age, body mass index, menopause status, level of education, financial comfort, smoking habits, alcohol intake, exercise, use of hormone therapy, and soy intake, European-American women were still significantly more likely to have experienced hot flashes (odds ratio=1.858) and night sweats (odds ratio=2.672). The results, based on self-reporting of menopausal symptoms, indicate that Japanese-American women report fewer hot flashes and night sweats than European-American women. Japanese-American women reported a higher intake of soy, but soy intake was not associated with fewer vasomotor symptoms.

  2. Determinants of infant-feeding choice among young women in Hilo, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Lynn; Reza, Angela; Cardines, Ka'imiala; Foutch-Chew, Kristel; Severance, Craig

    2008-09-01

    Our multicultural island community is unique in that many young mothers live in multigenerational households. In this qualitative study, we examined the factors that influenced young mothers' infant-feeding practices in Hilo, a small rural town in the Hawaiian Islands. The study participants consisted of young mothers, health care professionals, and educators. Our findings suggest that both the young mother's mother and her partner are very influential in the infant-feeding decision. Many young women in our study bottle fed to obtain assistance in caretaking, and to facilitate public breastfeeding. Additionally, we explored young mother's views of sexuality and breastfeeding, and their health promotion implications.

  3. Voices from the Hilo Women's Health Study: talking story about menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Lynn A; Brown, Daniel E; Sievert, Lynnette L; Reza, Angela; Rahberg, Nichole; Mills, Phoebe; Goodloe, Amber

    2014-05-01

    Our purpose in conducting this qualitative study was to examine how a multiethnic sample of women living in Hilo, Hawai'i, describe menopause. Interviews were conducted with 185 pre-, peri-, and post-menopausal women aged 45 to 55. We found that pre-menopausal women felt anxious compared with peri- and post-menopausal women's more affirmative attitudes of increasing confidence and freedom in this new cycle of life. A dominant theme was the construction of a post-menstrual identity. Peri-and post-menopausal women's attitudes were not biomedically oriented. Local culture and the island lifestyle may provide a positive atmosphere for women going through menopause.

  4. Droplets move over viscoelastic substrates by surfing a ridge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karpitschka, S.; Das, S.; van Gorcum, M.; Perrin, H.; Andreotti, B.; Snoeijer, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid drops on soft solids generate strong deformations below the contact line, resulting from a balance of capillary and elastic forces. The movement of these drops may cause strong, potentially singular dissipation in the soft solid. Here we show that a drop on a soft substrate moves by surfing a

  5. SurfCut: Free-Boundary Surface Extraction

    KAUST Repository

    Algarni, Marei Saeed Mohammed; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2016-01-01

    We present SurfCut, an algorithm for extracting a smooth simple surface with unknown boundary from a noisy 3D image and a seed point. In contrast to existing approaches that extract smooth simple surfaces with boundary, our method requires less user

  6. SURF'S UP! – Protein classification by surface comparisons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    encounter large protein families with only a few members of ... server for analysis of functional relationships in protein families, as inferred from protein surface maps comparison ... features, SURF'S UP! can work with models obtained from comparative modelling. ... 1997) or, if the user is confident in the quality of automated.

  7. Modeling and Simulation for a Surf Zone Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    Figure 1.6: A picture Carmel River State Beach near Monterey, California showing a typical surf zone enviroment . Features include submerged and exposed...picture of the enviroment [34]. Another benefit that will be gained from the use of ROS for navigation is the direct integration of Gazebo and the

  8. Dorsal finger texture recognition: Investigating fixed-length SURF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, Daniel; Kückelhahn, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We seek to create fixed-length features from dorsal finger skin images extracted by the SURF interest point detector to combine it in the privacy enhancing helper data scheme. The source of the biometric samples is the GUC45 database which features finger vein, fingerprint and dorsal finger skin...

  9. Cross-shore currents in the surf zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Vinther, Niels

    2008-01-01

      While the dynamics and kinematics of various types of mean cross-shore current flows in the surf zone (undertow and rip currents) are fairly well understood, the causes for transitions occurring between these two types of mean circulation patterns remain obscure. On longshore barred beaches...

  10. Tracking image features with PCA-SURF descriptors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pancham, A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available IAPR International Conference on Machine Vision Applications, May 18-22, 2015, Tokyo, JAPAN Tracking Image Features with PCA-SURF Descriptors Ardhisha Pancham CSIR, UKZN South Africa apancham@csir.co.za Daniel Withey CSIR South Africa...

  11. Juveniles, food and the surf zone habitat: implications for teleost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The length composition, abundance patterns and feeding habits of ... recorded off King's Beach only the aforementioned species ..... Christensen (1978) gives the distribution of the streepie, .... plankton in the surf zone and inshore waters of the Eastern .... abundance and diversity of the Swartkops estuary ichthyofauna.

  12. Anthropometric and Performance Perspectives of Female Competitive Surfing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barlow Matthew John

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the anthropometric profiles of female surfers and to identify whether any anthropometrical factors might predict competitive ranking. Secondly, to evaluate the activity profile of female competitive surfing with respect to environmental conditions using Global Positioning System (GPS derived measures.

  13. Strategic Management at Mormaii - the Brazilian Surf Industry Leader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Abilio Bosquetti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The sport of surfing has been growing rapidly in popularity worldwide and Brazil is among the countries with the largest surfing population, behind the United States and Australia, however, multinational surf companies are rushing in emerging markets like Brazil to find new opportunities for growth. This paper intends to provide insights on how local companies in these markets can overcome and even take advantage of differences with global competitors by re-thinking their core competencies and business models. Therefore, empirical research applying qualitative case study methodology was developed to investigate the role of strategy in the surf industry - a fairly unexplored research topic. Semi-structured in-depth interviews with the founder and CEO and the executive directors at the Brazilian surf industry leader - Mormaii, were conducted to understand how the 4-decade local company found its way to success. Although the theories: RBV, Core Competencies, and Dynamic Capabilities complement each other and help to explain firms’ performance and strategic choices, in empirical studies strategy has been analyzed only by one or another theory. Therefore, the simultaneous use of these three theories intended to fill this gap in the literature and bring more consistency to the discussion of this case study. As a result, this empirical study illustrates the RBV perspective, which stems from the principle that the source of firms’ competitive advantage lies in their internal resources and capabilities, rather than simply evaluating environmental opportunities and threats in conducting business. It also highlights the role that core competence and dynamic capabilities play in the company’s virtuous circle of sustainable growth and provides practitioners clues for re-thinking their strategies.

  14. Prevalence and determinants of headaches in Hawaii: the Hilo Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Angela; Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Rahberg, Nichole; Morrison, Lynn A; Brown, Daniel E

    2012-07-01

    Headache frequency has been associated with ethnicity, menopause, abdominal obesity and stress. To examine the prevalence and determinants of headaches in the multi-ethnic community of Hilo, Hawaii. A random sample of 1824 women aged 16-100 was recruited by postal survey; 206 women aged 45-55 were recruited for clinical measures. Both studies queried the presence/absence of headaches during the past 2 weeks. The clinical study also examined migraines and tension headaches. Headaches were examined in relation to demographic, reproductive and lifestyle variables, stress, symptoms and anthropometric measures. Headache prevalence was 47%. Japanese women were less likely to report headaches compared to women of European descent, but, after controlling for measures of stress, Japanese women were at a higher risk for headaches. Post-menopausal women were half as likely to report headaches compared with pre-menopausal women. Women with children younger than 18 were 4-times as likely to report migraines compared with women who did not have children younger than 18. Standardized measures of daily hassles, life and job satisfaction were not associated with headaches. The relationship between headaches and having young children suggests that the everyday stress of family life is a headache risk. This may be particularly true in Hilo, Hawaii, where the value of family is culturally prioritized.

  15. Sea level rise at Honolulu and Hilo, Hawaii: GPS estimates of differential land motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccamise, Dana J.; Merrifield, Mark A.; Bevis, Michael; Foster, James; Firing, Yvonne L.; Schenewerk, Mark S.; Taylor, Frederick W.; Thomas, Donald A.

    2005-02-01

    Since 1946, sea level at Hilo on the Big Island of Hawaii has risen an average of 1.8 +/- 0.4 mm/yr faster than at Honolulu on the island of Oahu. This difference has been attributed to subsidence of the Big Island. However, GPS measurements indicate that Hilo is sinking relative to Honolulu at a rate of -0.4 +/- 0.5 mm/yr, which is too small to account for the difference in sea level trends. In the past 30 years, there has been a statistically significant reduction in the relative sea level trend. While it is possible that the rates of land motion have changed over this time period, the available hydrographic data suggest that interdecadal variations in upper ocean temperature account for much of the differential sea level signal between the two stations, including the recent trend change. These results highlight the challenges involved in estimating secular sea level trends in the presence of significant low frequency variability.

  16. El comercio leonés de hilos e hilazas en el siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel BARTOLOMÉ BARTOLOMÉ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La ciudad de León en la Edad Moderna , siglo XVIII, se convirtió en uno de los centros más importantes de España en la comercialización, a través de sus ferias anuales, del hilo e hilaza que se elaboraba del lino. Esta materia prima textil tenía como núcleos principales de producción y abastecimiento las vegas del norte de la ciudad de León: Torio, Curueño, Porma, Bernesga y Luna. Desde la ciudad de León este hilo e hilaza comercializado, que llegaba a suponer los 26.568 kilos de media anual en los años sesenta, se dirigía a los mercados manchegos, sobre todo al toledano, y al vallisoletano, apoyándose en precios muy competitivos.ABSTRACT: In the XVIII century, León was famous for the production de linen thread. In this city there annual markets where people could rind this material. The linen thread was produced in land along the main valleys: Torio, Curueño, Porma, Bernesga, and it was distributed to a number of different markets: Toledo, Valladolid, Villalón... The clue to this success was its competitive price.

  17. Prevalence of Pterygia in Hawaii: Examining Cumulative Surfing Hours as a Risk Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Alexander D; Miles, Ku'ulei; Brinks, Mitchel V

    2016-08-01

    To examine the association between surfing and pterygium prevalence in Hawaii. A convenience sampling was performed at four beaches on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. A total of 169 individuals were interviewed and underwent penlight examination to assess grade and extent of pterygium. Of 169 participants aged 18-80 years, 88 non-surfers, 41 occasional surfers, 15 recreational surfers and 25 surfing enthusiasts were identified based on their lifetime surfing hours. Overall, 19 participants were found to have pterygia (28 pterygia total) including two non-surfers (2.3%), five occasional surfers (12.2%), three recreational surfers (20.0%), and nine enthusiast surfers (36.0%). Variables associated with pterygium prevalence were lifetime surfing hours (p surfing hours as the primary explanatory variable. After adjustment for confounders, a significant linear relationship was observed between chord length and lifetime surfing hours (p = 0.01). Surfing was associated with an increased pterygium prevalence and trend towards an association with increased pterygium severity. Increased risk of exposure to wind, particle irritation, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation while surfing may contribute to pterygium development. Implications for public health include promoting UV protective eyewear during surfing, in addition to raising awareness about the association of pterygia and the sport of surfing.

  18. High-contrast 3D image acquisition using HiLo microscopy with an electrically tunable lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Katrin; Smolarski, André; Fischer, Andreas; Koukourakis, Nektarios; Stürmer, Moritz; Wallrabe, Ulricke; Czarske, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    We present a HiLo microscope with an electrically tunable lens for high-contrast three-dimensional image acquisition. HiLo microscopy combines wide field and speckled illumination images to create optically sectioned images. Additionally, the depth-of-field is not fixed, but can be adjusted between wide field and confocal-like axial resolution. We incorporate an electrically tunable lens in the HiLo microscope for axial scanning, to obtain three-dimensional data without the need of moving neither the sample nor the objective. The used adaptive lens consists of a transparent polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane into which an annular piezo bending actuator is embedded. A transparent fluid is filled between the membrane and the glass substrate. When actuated, the piezo generates a pressure in the lens which deflects the membrane and thus changes the refractive power. This technique enables a large tuning range of the refractive power between 1/f = (-24 . . . 25) 1/m. As the NA of the adaptive lens is only about 0.05, a fixed high-NA lens is included in the setup to provide high resolution. In this contribution, the scan properties and capabilities of the tunable lens in the HiLo microscope are analyzed. Eventually, exemplary measurements are presented and discussed.

  19. Scanning thin-sheet laser imaging microscopy (sTSLIM) with structured illumination and HiLo background rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Tobias J; Johnson, Shane B; John, Kerstin; Santi, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    We report replacement of one side of a static illumination, dual sided, thin-sheet laser imaging microscope (TSLIM) with an intensity modulated laser scanner in order to implement structured illumination (SI) and HiLo image demodulation techniques for background rejection. The new system is equipped with one static and one scanned light-sheet and is called a scanning thin-sheet laser imaging microscope (sTSLIM). It is an optimized version of a light-sheet fluorescent microscope that is designed to image large specimens (HiLo image demodulation. The static light-sheet has a thickness of 3.2 µm; whereas, the scanned side has a light-sheet thickness of 4.2 µm. The scanned side images specimens with subcellular resolution (HiLo produce superior contrast compared to both the uniform static and scanned light-sheets. HiLo contrast was greater than SI and is faster and more robust than SI because as it produces images in two-thirds of the time and exhibits fewer intensity streaking artifacts. 2011 Optical Society of America

  20. Studies on Anthropogenic Impact on Water Quality in Hilo (Hawaii) Bay and Mapping the Study Stations Using Geospatial Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, A. J.; Williams, M. S.; Adolf, J.; Sriharan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Hilo Bay has uncharacteristically brown waters compared to other waters found in Hawai'i. The majority of the freshwater entering Hilo Bay is from storm and surface water runoff. The anthropogenic impact on water quality at Hilo Bay is due to sediment entrance, cesspools (Bacteria), and invasive species (Albizia). This poster presentation will focus on the water quality and phytoplankton collected on a weekly basis at a buoy positioned one meter from the shore of Hilo Bay, preserving the phytoplankton intact, concentrating and dehydrating the sample with ethanol, and viewing the phytoplankton with a scanning electron microscope (Hitachi S-3400NII). The GPS (Global Positioning System) points were collected at the sampling stations. Three transects on three separate dates were performed in Hilo Bay with salinity, percent dissolved oxygen, turbidity, secchi depth, temperature, and chlorophyll fluorescence data collected at each sampling station. A consistent trend observed in all transects was as distance from the river increased turbidity decreased and salinity increased. The GPS data on June 30, 2015 showed a major correlation between stations and their distance from shore. There is a decrease in the turbidity but not the temperature for these stations. The GPS points collected on July 7, 2015 at thirteen stations starting with station one being at the shore to the water, showed that the salinity concentration fluctuate noticeably at the first 6 stations. As we proceed further away from the shore, the salinity concentration increases from stations seven through thirteen. The water temperature shows little variation throughout the thirteen stations. The turbidity level was high at the shore and shows a noticeable drop at station thirteen.

  1. An Aerial Video Stabilization Method Based on SURF Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Hao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The video captured by Micro Aerial Vehicle is often degraded due to unexpected random trembling and jitter caused by wind and the shake of the aerial platform. An approach for stabilizing the aerial video based on SURF feature and Kalman filter is proposed. SURF feature points are extracted in each frame, and the feature points between adjacent frames are matched using Fast Library for Approximate Nearest Neighbors search method. Then Random Sampling Consensus matching algorithm and Least Squares Method are used to remove mismatching points pairs, and estimate the transformation between the adjacent images. Finally, Kalman filter is applied to smooth the motion parameters and separate Intentional Motion from Unwanted Motion to stabilize the aerial video. Experiments results show that the approach can stabilize aerial video efficiently with high accuracy, and it is robust to the translation, rotation and zooming motion of camera.

  2. Surf zone Exchange on a Rip Channeled Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, A.; Macmahan, J.

    2008-12-01

    The dispersion and surf zone exchange of GPS-equipped surface drifters observed during the Rip Current EXperiment (RCEX) is examined with help of Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs). LCSs allow for the detection of transport barriers in unsteady flows and are typically applied to shelf-scale circulation systems. Here LCSs are specifically computed to detect the effects of surfzone-originated Very Low Frequency motions (VLFs) with O(10) minute time scale on the cross-shore exchange of floating material using numerical model calculations of the Lagrangian surface velocity at the wave group timescale. After verification with RCEX field observations, the model is run for a range of environmental conditions experienced during the field experiment to assess the effects of VLFs on the cross-shore surf zone exchange. Results are relevant for (but not restricted to) sediment and nutrient exchange, human health, water clarity, and swimmer safety.

  3. Monitoring system specifications: retrieval of surf from a salt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The task of developing specifications for a reference monitoring system determined by repository environmental conditions, retrieval operations, and federal regulatory criteria is discussed. The monitoring system specified in this report is capable of measuring (1) package position and orientation, (2) vault deformation, (3) brine accumulation, (4) spent fuel dissolution, (5) temperature, (6) nuclear radiation, and (7) package condition with sufficient accuracy to provide data input to a general risk assessment model. In order to define a monitoring system which can provide probabilistic data on radiological risk to operating personnel and the general public for a salt mine repository, the following information is required: (1) a complete design of the salt SURF repository including inventory, density and waste package design details; (2) probalistic failure rate data on containment integrity of the SURF waste package; (3) probabilistic failure rate data on the monitoring system components

  4. SURF IA Conflict Detection and Resolution Algorithm Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Denise R.; Chartrand, Ryan C.; Wilson, Sara R.; Commo, Sean A.; Barker, Glover D.

    2012-01-01

    The Enhanced Traffic Situational Awareness on the Airport Surface with Indications and Alerts (SURF IA) algorithm was evaluated in a fast-time batch simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. SURF IA is designed to increase flight crew situation awareness of the runway environment and facilitate an appropriate and timely response to potential conflict situations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance of the SURF IA algorithm under various runway scenarios, multiple levels of conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) system equipage, and various levels of horizontal position accuracy. This paper gives an overview of the SURF IA concept, simulation study, and results. Runway incursions are a serious aviation safety hazard. As such, the FAA is committed to reducing the severity, number, and rate of runway incursions by implementing a combination of guidance, education, outreach, training, technology, infrastructure, and risk identification and mitigation initiatives [1]. Progress has been made in reducing the number of serious incursions - from a high of 67 in Fiscal Year (FY) 2000 to 6 in FY2010. However, the rate of all incursions has risen steadily over recent years - from a rate of 12.3 incursions per million operations in FY2005 to a rate of 18.9 incursions per million operations in FY2010 [1, 2]. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) also considers runway incursions to be a serious aviation safety hazard, listing runway incursion prevention as one of their most wanted transportation safety improvements [3]. The NTSB recommends that immediate warning of probable collisions/incursions be given directly to flight crews in the cockpit [4].

  5. Fatal accidents due to train surfing in Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, H; Wirth, I; Geserick, G

    1998-06-08

    This study was undertaken for the purpose of analysing under the aspect of legal medicine, fatal accidents due to train surfing in the local transport system of Berlin (S-Bahn and underground). The period of investigation was from 1989 through 1995, with 41 train surfing accidents, among them 18 with fatal outcome. Evaluation included those 14 deaths which were forensically autopsied. It was based on autopsy records of Berlin-based university institutes (Humboldt University and Free University) as well as the Brandenburg State Institute of Legal Medicine. Also used were data obtained from the Berlin Transport Police Record. The casualties were aged between 13 and 25 years, most of them between 16 and 20. The male-female gender ratio was 13:1. Accidents occurred above all in the warmer season of the year, most of them between 20:00 h and midnight. More than 50% of all cases were affected by alcohol, but centrally acting medicaments or other addictive drugs were not noticed at all. Most of the fatal accidents occurred to users of the Berlin S-Bahn network. Older train models were the preferred surfing objects due to their structural peculiarities. Collision with close-to-track obstacles and slipping from the train proved to be the major sources of danger. An analysis of injuries revealed polytraumatisation but for one exception, with craniocerebral injuries being the most common and severest events. The longest survival time amounted to 24 h. As the psychosocial causes of high-risk behaviour of adolescents will hardly be controllable, withdrawal of technical, that is structural design possibilities appears to be the most important approach to prevention of accidents in the future. This demand is met by the new series of the Berlin S-Bahn. The model of the old series, suitable for surfing, still accounts for about 10% of the rolling stock and is to be decommissioned in 1998.

  6. 'CouchSurfing' : explorations in cosmopolitanism, trust, and resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Josh D.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is based on qualitative and quantitative research conducted via a case study of CouchSurfing.org, a hybrid online/offline hospitality exchange network that enables travelers to locate locals who offer them free accommodation. Chapter one begins with a statistical analysis of CouchSurfers to determine if they hold a cosmopolitan orientation. My analysis incorporates nationally representative samples from 21 different countries, over 1400 CouchSurfers, and 74,000 respondents t...

  7. Selected programs at the new SURF III electron storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furst, Mitchell L.; Arp, Uwe; Cauchon, Gilles P.; Graves, Rossie M.; Hamilton, Andrew D.; Hughey, Lanny R.; Lucatorto, Thomas B.; Tarrio, Charles

    2000-01-01

    The conversion of the electron storage ring at NIST (the National Institute of Standards and Technology) to SURF III (the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility) has resulted in a significant improvement to the azimuthal uniformity of the magnetic field as well as the capability for operating at higher beam energies. Measurements of magnetic field strength revealed azimuthal uniformity of better than ±0.05% at field strengths equivalent to operating energies of 52 MeV to 417 MeV. Initial operation is restricted to energies up to 331 MeV due to temporary limitations in the rf transmission system. Even at 331 MeV there is already a significant extension of the usable short wavelength range of the synchrotron radiation as compared to the range available at the 284 MeV operating energy of SURF II. These and other improvements have a major impact on SURF programs including: the Nanodetector, a conversion microscope which is a prototype real-time imaging system for EUV (extreme ultraviolet) lithography; the Spectrometer Calibration Beamline, used for high-accuracy absolute calibration of spectrometers; and the National EUV Reflectometry Facility, used to measure optical constants of thin-film multilayer optics

  8. NBS SURF 11: A small versatile synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakowsky, G.

    1981-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation sources do not have to be large multi-megadollar installations. SURF II is based on a compact electron storage ring with a radius of only 0.84 m, an operating energy of 250 MeV, and useful light output down to 5 nm. Small beam size, high brightness and wide-angle light ports give SURF II unique capabilities. Presently five beamlines are instrumented and operational, supporting experiments in atomic and molecular physics, surface science and materials studies, as well as providing optical calibration services. Nearing completion is a large facility for calibrating optical instruments, especially those intended for space flight. The capability of determining the absolute light flux emitted by SURF II has recently been improved and is now operational. The technique employs ultralinear silicon photodiodes to detect and count individual electrons in the stored beam. Other user conveniences include close access to the machine, flexible scheduling and close interaction with the operations staff. The machine's simplicity contributes to reliability and a high ratio of beamtime to downtime

  9. The Role of Core Stability in Surfing : According to a Delphi Panel

    OpenAIRE

    Airaksinen, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    Core stability has been widely discussed in physiotherapy. Yet, no consensus has been reached on the anatomy, tasks or benefits of core stability. Good core stability has been proven to decrease low-back pain and prevent specifically female athletes’ from getting lower extremity injuries. Surfing has become an extremely popular sport. As a surfer I am intrigued to know what the exact role of core stability in surfing is. There are a limited number of studies on surfing and most of...

  10. Development of wavelet-ANN models to predict water quality parameters in Hilo Bay, Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Mohamad Javad; Kavianpour, Mohamad Reza

    2015-09-15

    The main objective of this study is to apply artificial neural network (ANN) and wavelet-neural network (WNN) models for predicting a variety of ocean water quality parameters. In this regard, several water quality parameters in Hilo Bay, Pacific Ocean, are taken under consideration. Different combinations of water quality parameters are applied as input variables to predict daily values of salinity, temperature and DO as well as hourly values of DO. The results demonstrate that the WNN models are superior to the ANN models. Also, the hourly models developed for DO prediction outperform the daily models of DO. For the daily models, the most accurate model has R equal to 0.96, while for the hourly model it reaches up to 0.98. Overall, the results show the ability of the model to monitor the ocean parameters, in condition with missing data, or when regular measurement and monitoring are impossible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Diurnal rhythm and concordance between objective and subjective hot flashes: the Hilo Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Lynnette L; Reza, Angela; Mills, Phoebe; Morrison, Lynn; Rahberg, Nichole; Goodloe, Amber; Sutherland, Michael; Brown, Daniel E

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to test for a diurnal pattern in hot flashes in a multiethnic population living in a hot, humid environment and to examine the rates of concordance between objective and subjective measures of hot flashes using ambulatory and laboratory measures. Study participants aged 45 to 55 years were recruited from the general population of Hilo, HI. Women wore a Biolog hot flash monitor (UFI, Morro Bay, CA), kept a diary for 24 hours, and also participated in 3-hour laboratory measures (n = 199). Diurnal patterns were assessed using polynomial regression. For each woman, objectively recorded hot flashes that matched subjective experience were treated as true-positive readings. Subjective hot flashes were considered the standard for computing false-positive and false-negative readings. True-positive, false-positive, and false-negative readings were compared across ethnic groups by chi analyses. Frequencies of sternal, nuchal, and subjective hot flashes peaked at 1500 +/- 1 hours with no difference by ethnicity. Laboratory results supported the pattern seen in ambulatory monitoring. Sternal and nuchal monitoring showed the same frequency of true-positive measures, but nonsternal electrodes picked up more false-positive readings. Laboratory monitoring showed very low frequencies of false negatives. There were no ethnic differences in the frequency of true-positive or false-positive measures. Women of European descent were more likely to report hot flashes that were not objectively demonstrated (false-negative measures). The diurnal pattern and peak in hot flash occurrence in the hot humid environment of Hilo were similar to results from more temperate environments. Lack of variation in sternal versus nonsternal measures and in true-positive measures across ethnicities suggests no appreciable effect of population variation in sweating patterns.

  12. [Effects of HiLo for two weeks on erythrocyte immune adhesion and leukocyte count of swimmers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-Cai; Gao, Bing-Hong; Wu, Ge-Lin; Zhang, Jiu-Li

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the effects of living high-training low (HiLo) on innate immunity in blood of elite swimmers. Six female swimmers undertook HiLo for two weeks, erythrocyte adhesion function and counts of leukocyte were tested in different time of training period. Red blood cell C3b receptor ring rate (RBC-C3bRR) decreased and red blood cell immune complex matter ring rate (RBC-ICR) increased significantly (P < 0.05), the two markers returned to base line 1 week after training. Counts of leukocyte and granulocyte decreased significantly (P < 0.05), and they recovered 1 week after training; Counts of lymphocyte and monocyte decreased without significance during training and did not recovered after training. Immunity of erythrocyte and granulocyte decreased quickly, but lymphocyte and monocyte recovered slowly, swimmers were adaptive to the training.

  13. E-based Humanities and E-humanities on a SURF platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kircz, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    As of 2003, SURF enables three platforms: ICT and Research, Education, and Organisation. Within these programmes, SURF has funds available to promote ICT innovations. Innovation is not an easy notion to explain. Too often we encounter new wine in old bottles and changes in vocabulary frequently

  14. Parents' Perspectives on Surf Therapy for Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Adam M.; Clapham, Emily D.; Deeney, Theresa A.

    2018-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to understand parents' perceptions of their children's participation in an inclusive surf therapy programme in the United States. Ten parents and one caregiver were interviewed about theirs and their children's experience in the surf programme. Parent discussions centred on the child, parent/caregiver,…

  15. Social Networking Sites' Influence on Travelers' Authentic Experience a Case Study of Couch Surfing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    This study explored travelers' experiences in the era of network hospitality 2.0 using CouchSurfing.org as a case study. The following research questions guided this study: 1) what experience does CouchSurfing create for travelers before, during and after their travel? 2) how does couch surfers' experience relate to authenticity in context of…

  16. PENGEMBANGAN SELANCAR (SURFING MELALUI PEMBERDAYAAN MASYARAKAT (COMMUNITY BASED DEVELOPMENT DI KAWASAN WISATA PANTAI KUTA, KABUPATEN BADUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Henny Andayani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Kuta merupakan salah satu kawasan wisata di Kabupaten Badung yang dilengkapi dengan beragam fasilitas wisata, seperti restoran, bar, hotel, laundry, dan money changer. Keberadaan kawasan wisata Kuta tidak terlepas dari atraksi wisata utama berupa keindahan pantai dengan pasir putihnya. Beragam aktifitas wisata seperti berjemur, dan surfing, dapat dilakukan di Kuta. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk (1 Mengetahui keterlibatan dan peran serta masyarakat local dalam pengembangan potensi wisata selancar (surfing selama ini (2 Mengetahui strategi pengembangan aktifitas wisata selancar (surfing sebagai daya tarik wisata baharí/tirta di Bali dengan memberdayakan masyarakat lokal. Pendekatan yang dilakukan dalam penelitian ini adalah pendekatan kualitatif dengan menggunakan teknik pengumpulan data, wawancara, observasi dan studi dokumentasi. Data yang diperoleh selanjutnya dianalisis dengan matriks internal eksternal dan dilanjutkan dengan analisis SWOT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa peran serta dan keikutsertaan masyarakat lokal dalam pengembangan selancar (surfing di kawasan wisata Kuta masih sedikit. Para pelaku dan investor mayoritas berasal dari luar wilayah Kuta. Berdasarkan analisis SWOT didapatkan strategi alternatif yang perlu dikembangkan di Kuta, antara lain: pengembangan surfing berbasis masyarakat lokal di kawasan Kuta, pengembangan usaha jasa pelayanan surfing yang dimiliki dan dikelola oleh masyarakat lokal, strategi peningkatan keamanan dan kenyamanan bagi wisatawan yang melakukan kegiatan surfing di Kawasan Kuta, dan strategi pengembangan kelembagaan terhadap kegiatan surfing.

  17. Comparison of risks due to HLW and SURF repositories in bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, M.S.Y.; Ortiz, N.R.; Wahi, K.K.

    1983-01-01

    A methodology was developed for use in the analysis of risks from geologic disposal of nuclear wastes. This methodology is applied to two conceptual nuclear waste repositories in bedded salt containing High-Level Waste (HLW) and Spent Un-Reprocessed Fuel (SURF), respectively. A comparison of the risk estimated from the HLW and SURF repositories is presented

  18. Breastfeeding Patterns in the Rural Community of Hilo, Hawai‘i: An Exploration of Existing Data Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Flood, Jeanie L

    2013-01-01

    Before any breastfeeding promotion effort, an understanding of the existing breastfeeding patterns is essential. Hawai‘i County is a rural, ethnically diverse, medically underserved community. The purpose of this study was to describe the breastfeeding patterns of women living in Hilo, Hawai‘i. Data from several existing national, state, and local data sets were accessed to identify and describe the breastfeeding patterns of women in this community. Available breastfeeding data about women in...

  19. Relationships between menstrual and menopausal attitudes and associated demographic and health characteristics: The Hilo Women’s Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Lynn A.; Sievert, Lynnette L.; Brown, Daniel E.; Rahberg, Nichole; Reza, Angela

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relation of menstrual attitudes to menopausal attitudes and the demographic and health characteristics associated with each. This cross-sectional study consisted of a randomly selected sample of 1824 respondents aged 16 to 100 years in multi-ethnic Hilo, Hawai`i. Women completed questionnaires for demographic and health information, such as age, ethnicity, education, residency in Hawai`i, menopausal status, exercise, and attitudes toward menstrua...

  20. Cultural boundary surfing in mental health nursing: a creative narration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Jacquie

    2010-01-01

    In the mental health context, nurses navigate multifaceted boundaries every day in an effort to develop and maintain the therapeutic relationship; an endeavour that is breathtaking in its complexity. In this paper, I adopt an unconventional form of writing to explore the individual nature of cultural boundaries, and uncover hidden messages that impact on our efforts to build connections across cultures and ethnicities in mental health settings. Presented as a play, the conversation between protagonists explores cultural competence alongside the notion of 'discovery', and the potential of the Tidal Model to provide a vehicle for successful cultural boundary surfing.

  1. Breastfeeding Patterns in the Rural Community of Hilo, Hawai‘i: An Exploration of Existing Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Before any breastfeeding promotion effort, an understanding of the existing breastfeeding patterns is essential. Hawai‘i County is a rural, ethnically diverse, medically underserved community. The purpose of this study was to describe the breastfeeding patterns of women living in Hilo, Hawai‘i. Data from several existing national, state, and local data sets were accessed to identify and describe the breastfeeding patterns of women in this community. Available breastfeeding data about women in Hilo was obtained from the Hawai‘i WIC program and includes initiation, duration, exclusivity of breastfeeding, and reasons for not breastfeeding. These data were compared to data from published reports available at the county, state, and national level. The State of Hawai‘i and Hilo exceed national targets for breastfeeding initiation; however, rates soon drop following delivery, and mixed feedings of infants is common. The highest percentage of mothers weaned their infants within the first four weeks postpartum. The reasons the majority of the mothers gave for weaning were tied to breastfeeding situations that are amenable to skilled lactation support (eg, milk supply issues and latch or sucking problems). While available data sets offer valuable information on the breastfeeding patterns in this rural community, there are limitations to their usefulness, primarily due to the inconsistent operational definitions of infant feeding variables used in the surveys, and the lack of availability of community level data. PMID:23520565

  2. Breastfeeding patterns in the rural community of Hilo, Hawai'i: an exploration of existing data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Jeanie L

    2013-03-01

    Before any breastfeeding promotion effort, an understanding of the existing breastfeeding patterns is essential. Hawai'i County is a rural, ethnically diverse, medically underserved community. The purpose of this study was to describe the breastfeeding patterns of women living in Hilo, Hawai'i. Data from several existing national, state, and local data sets were accessed to identify and describe the breastfeeding patterns of women in this community. Available breastfeeding data about women in Hilo was obtained from the Hawai'i WIC program and includes initiation, duration, exclusivity of breastfeeding, and reasons for not breastfeeding. These data were compared to data from published reports available at the county, state, and national level. The State of Hawai'i and Hilo exceed national targets for breastfeeding initiation; however, rates soon drop following delivery, and mixed feedings of infants is common. The highest percentage of mothers weaned their infants within the first four weeks postpartum. The reasons the majority of the mothers gave for weaning were tied to breastfeeding situations that are amenable to skilled lactation support (eg, milk supply issues and latch or sucking problems). While available data sets offer valuable information on the breastfeeding patterns in this rural community, there are limitations to their usefulness, primarily due to the inconsistent operational definitions of infant feeding variables used in the surveys, and the lack of availability of community level data.

  3. Habitat use by larval fishes in a temperate South African surf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt-Pringle, Peter; Strydom, Nadine A.

    2003-12-01

    Larval fishes were sampled in the Kwaaihoek surf zone on the south east coast of South Africa. On six occasions between February and May 2002, larval fishes were collected in two habitat types identified in the inner surf zone using a modified beach-seine net. The surf zone habitats were classified as either sheltered trough areas or adjacent exposed surf areas. Temperature, depth and current measurements were taken at all sites. Trough habitats consisted of a depression in surf topography characterised by reduced current velocities and greater average depth than adjacent surf areas. In total, 325 larval fishes were collected. Of these, 229 were collected in trough and 96 in surf habitats. At least 22 families and 37 species were represented in the catch. Dominant families were the Mugilidae, Sparidae, Atherinidae, and Engraulidae. Dominant species included Liza tricuspidens and Liza richardsonii (Mugilidae), Rhabdosargus holubi and Sarpa salpa (Sparidae), Atherina breviceps (Atherinidae) and Engraulis japonicus (Engraulide). Mean CPUE of postflexion larvae of estuary-dependent species was significantly greater in trough areas. The proportion of postflexion larval fishes in trough habitat was significantly greater than that of preflexion stages, a result that was not apparent in surf habitat sampled. CPUE of postflexion larvae of estuary-dependent fishes was negatively correlated with current magnitude and positively correlated with habitat depth. Mean body length of larval fishes was significantly greater in trough than in surf habitats. These results provide evidence that the CPUE of postflexion larvae of estuary-dependent fishes is higher in trough habitat in the surf zone and this may be indicative of active habitat selection for areas of reduced current velocity/wave action. The implications of this behaviour for estuarine recruitment processes are discussed.

  4. Respiratory Problems Associated with Surfing in Coastal Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Chris; Silver, Mary W; Lahiff, Maureen; Colford, John

    2017-03-01

    A pilot project was conducted to examine the health status and possible adverse health effects associated with seawater exposure (microbial water-quality indicators and phytoplankton abundance and their toxins) of surfers in Monterey Bay, Central California coastal waters. Forty-eight surfers enrolled in the study and completed an initial health background survey and weekly health surveys online using Survey Monkey. Descriptive statistics and generalized estimating equation, a regression technique, were used to identify longitudinal and correlated results. The surfers were predominately Caucasian, male, and physically active. They surfed approximately 4 h a week. Their average age was 34 years. The data indicated that the surfers were generally "healthy," with a low prevalence of diabetes, high cholesterol, and hypertension. Their most common health problems were allergies and asthma. During the study, 10% of the surfers reported gastrointestinal symptoms and 29% reported upper respiratory symptoms. This study suggests surfers were significantly more likely to report upper respiratory symptoms when they had a history of allergies, housemates with upper respiratory symptoms, and/or a history of previous adverse health symptoms while surfing during a "red tide" (an event often associated with the presence of phytoplankton toxins). Additionally, female surfers reported upper respiratory symptoms more than males.

  5. Emergency department visits and 'vog'-related air quality in Hilo, Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaud, J.-P.; Grove, J.S.; Krupitsky, Dmitry

    2004-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) visits in Hilo, Hawaii, from January 1997 to May 2001, were examined for associations with volcanic fog, or 'vog', measured as sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and submicrometer particulate matter (PM 1 ). Exponential regression models were used with robust standard errors. Four diagnostic groups were examined: asthma/COPD; cardiac; flu, cold, and pneumonia; and gastroenteritis. Before adjustments, highly significant associations with vog-related air quality were seen for all diagnostic groups except gastroenteritis. After adjusting for month, year, and day of the week, only asthma/COPD had consistently positive associations with air quality. The strongest associations were for SO 2 with a 3-day lag (6.8% per 10 ppb; P=0.001) and PM 1 , with a 1-day lag (13.8% per 10 μg/m 3 ; P=0.011). The association of ED visits for asthma/COPD with month of the year was stronger than associations seen with air quality. Although vog appears influential, non-vog factors dominated associations with the frequency of asthma/COPD ED visits

  6. Relationship between hot flashes and ambulatory blood pressure: the Hilo women's health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel E; Sievert, Lynnette L; Morrison, Lynn A; Rahberg, Nichole; Reza, Angela

    2011-01-01

    To examine ambulatory blood pressure (BP) differences between women who report hot flashes (HFs) and those who do not, and to observe whether an objectively measured HF is associated with transient changes in BP. HFs have been associated with elevated BP, but studies have not examined the relationship between objectively measured HFs and blood pressure during normal daily activities. A sample of 202 women in Hilo, Hawaii, aged 45 to 55 years, were asked to fill out a questionnaire that included demographic information and an inventory of symptoms. The women underwent simultaneous 24-hour monitoring of ambulatory BP and HFs, at the same time keeping a diary that included mood and HF reports. No significant difference was present in mean BP between women who reported having an HF during the last 2 weeks and those who did not. When measurements controlled for negative mood reports and posture, there was a highly significant elevation in Z scores of systolic BP when a measured, objective HF occurred within 10 minutes before a BP reading, and a significant elevation of Z scores of diastolic BP when a subjectively reported HF occurred within 10 minutes after a BP reading. These results suggest that objectively measured HFs precede transient elevations of systolic BP, but it is unclear if there is a causal relationship. These results also suggest that women experience subjective HFs within 10 minutes after a transient increase in diastolic BP. Again, the causal relationship is not understood.

  7. The Relation between Hot Flashes and Ambulatory Blood Pressure: The Hilo Women’s Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel E.; Sievert, Lynnette L.; Morrison, Lynn A.; Rahberg, Nichole; Reza, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Hot flashes (HFs) have been associated with elevated blood pressure, but studies have not examined the relationship between objectively measured HFs and blood pressure during normal daily activities. The objectives of this study are to examine ambulatory blood pressure (BP) differences between women who report HFs and those who do not, and to observe whether an objectively measured HF is associated with transient changes in BP. Methods A sample of 202 women in Hilo, Hawaii aged 45–55 years were asked to fill out a questionnaire that included demographic information and an inventory of symptoms. The women underwent simultaneous 24-hour monitoring of ambulatory BP and HFs, while keeping a diary that included mood and HF reports. Results No significant difference was present in mean BP between women who reported having a HF during the past 2 weeks and those who did not. When measurements controlled for negative mood reports and posture, there was a highly significant elevation in Z scores of systolic BP when a measured, objective HF occurred within 10 minutes preceding a BP reading, and a significant elevation of Z scores of diastolic BP when a subjectively reported HF occurred within 10 minutes after a BP reading. Conclusions These results suggest that objectively measured HFs precede transient elevations of systolic BP, but it is unclear if there is a causal relationship. These results also suggest that women experience subjective HFs within 10 minutes after a transient increase in diastolic BP. Again, the causal relationship is not understood. PMID:21183716

  8. Emergency department visits and "vog"-related air quality in Hilo, Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Jon-Pierre; Grove, John Sinclair; Krupitsky, Dmitry

    2004-05-01

    Emergency department (ED) visits in Hilo, Hawai'i, from January 1997 to May 2001, were examined for associations with volcanic fog, or "vog", measured as sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and submicrometer particulate matter (PM(1)). Exponential regression models were used with robust standard errors. Four diagnostic groups were examined: asthma/COPD; cardiac; flu, cold, and pneumonia; and gastroenteritis. Before adjustments, highly significant associations with vog-related air quality were seen for all diagnostic groups except gastroenteritis. After adjusting for month, year, and day of the week, only asthma/COPD had consistently positive associations with air quality. The strongest associations were for SO(2) with a 3-day lag (6.8% per 10 ppb; P=0.001) and PM(1), with a 1-day lag (13.8% per 10 microg/m(3); P=0.011). The association of ED visits for asthma/COPD with month of the year was stronger than associations seen with air quality. Although vog appears influential, non-vog factors dominated associations with the frequency of asthma/COPD ED visits.

  9. Evaluation of a 3% surf solution (surf field mastitis test) for the diagnosis of subclinical bovine and bubaline mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Ghulam; Naureen, Abeera; Asi, Muhammad Nadeem; Saqib, Muhammad; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate a 3% solution of household detergent viz., Surf Excel (Surf field mastitis test, SFMT) vis-à-vis California mastitis test (CMT), Whiteside test (WST), somatic cell counts (SCC; cut off limit = 5 x 10(5) cells per millilitre) and bacteriological cultures for the detection of subclinical mastitis in quarter foremilk samples (n=800) of dairy cows and buffaloes. Culture and SCC were used as gold standards. All tests were evaluated parallel and serial patterns. The sensitivities of SFMT, SCC, culture, CMT and WST in parallel testing were 72.82, 81.55, 87.38, 75.73 and 54.37%, respectively in cows, while 66.22, 79.73, 82.43, 70.27 and 50.00, respectively in buffaloes. SFMT was significantly (pnegative predictive values of SFMT (93.50 in cow; 96.35 in buffaloes) differed non-significantly from that of CMT (94.02 in cow; 96.15 in buffaloes). The kappa index between the tests was moderate to perfect both in parallel (0.54 to >0.80) and serial (0.58 to >0.8) testing. On the basis of closely similar diagnostic efficiency of SFMT to CMT in terms of sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and kappa index together with inexpensive and ready availability of SFMT reagent, it tempting to suggest that SFMT can be use as a cheaper, user-friendly alternative animal-side subclinical mastitis diagnostic test in poor countries.

  10. Data on cytochrome c oxidase assembly in mice and human fibroblasts or tissues induced by SURF1 defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Kovářová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes data related to a research article entitled “Tissue- and species-specific differences in cytochrome c oxidase assembly induced by SURF1 defects” [1]. This paper includes data of the quantitative analysis of individual forms of respiratory chain complexes I, III and IV present in SURF1 knockout (SURF1−/− and control (SURF1+/+ mouse fibroblasts and tissues and in fibroblasts of human control and patients with SURF1 gene mutation. Also it includes data demonstrating response of complex IV, cytochrome c oxidase (COX, to reversible inhibition of mitochondrial translation in SURF1−/− mouse and SURF1 patient fibroblast cell lines.

  11. Injuries resulting from car surfing--United States, 1990-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-17

    "Car surfing" is a term introduced in the mid-1980s to describe a thrill-seeking activity that involves riding on the exterior of a moving motor vehicle while it is being driven by another person. Although reports of car-surfing injuries have been published in the United States, no study to date has analyzed these events from a national perspective. Because traditional public health datasets do not collect morbidity or mortality data on this practice, CDC searched U.S. newspaper reports to provide an initial characterization of car-surfing injuries on a national scale. That analysis identified 58 reports of car-surfing deaths and 41 reports of nonfatal injury from 1990 through August 2008. Most reports of car-surfing injuries came from newspapers in the Midwest and South (75%), and most of the injuries were among males (70%) and persons aged 15-19 years (69%). The first identified newspaper reports about car-surfing injuries were published in the early 1990s, and new reports have been published every year since then. Parents and teens should be aware of the potentially lethal consequences of car surfing, which can occur even at low vehicle speeds, sometimes resulting from unanticipated movements of the vehicle, such as swerving or braking.

  12. An analytical model for non-conservative pollutants mixing in the surf zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Seo Jin; Hwang, Jin Hwan; Kang, Joo-Hyon; Kim, Joon Ha

    2009-01-01

    Accurate simulation of the surf zone is a prerequisite to improve beach management as well as to understand the fundamentals of fate and transport of contaminants. In the present study, a diagnostic model modified from a classic solute model is provided to illuminate non-conservative pollutants behavior in the surf zone. To readily understand controlling processes in the surf zone, a new dimensionless quantity is employed with index of kappa number (K, a ratio of inactivation rate to transport rate of microbial pollutant in the surf zone), which was then evaluated under different environmental frames during a week simulation period. The sensitivity analysis showed that hydrodynamics and concentration gradients in the surf zone mostly depend on n (number of rip currents), indicating that n should be carefully adjusted in the model. The simulation results reveal, furthermore, that large deviation typically occurs in the daytime, signifying inactivation of fecal indicator bacteria is the main process to control surf zone water quality during the day. Overall, the analytical model shows a good agreement between predicted and synthetic data (R(2) = 0.51 and 0.67 for FC and ENT, respectively) for the simulated period, amplifying its potential use in the surf zone modelling. It is recommended that when the dimensionless index is much larger than 0.5, the present modified model can predict better than the conventional model, but if index is smaller than 0.5, the conventional model is more efficient with respect to time and cost.

  13. Reductions in Sprint Paddling Ability and Countermovement Jump Performance After Surfing Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secomb, Josh L; Sheppard, Jeremy M; Dascombe, Ben J

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether any meaningful change in a surfer's sprint paddling ability and countermovement jump (CMJ) performance developed after a 2-hour surfing training session and also whether any physical demands of the surfing session were related to the resultant changes in the capacities. Fifteen competitive male surfing athletes (age, 22.1 ± 3.9 years; height, 175.4 ± 6.4 cm; body mass, 72.5 ± 7.7 kg) performed a 2-hour surfing training session, with 15-m sprint paddle and CMJ trials performed both before and after the surfing session. Pre- to posttesting measures were analyzed using magnitude-based inferences. Likely declines were observed in the velocity achieved at the 5-, 10-, and 15-m splits of the 15-m sprint paddle, as well as peak velocity. Similarly, likely declines were calculated for CMJ peak force, relative peak force, and jump height. Furthermore, large correlations were calculated between presurfing session peak velocity and the change in 5, 10, 15 m, and peak velocity of the 15-m sprint paddle and total distance covered, wave riding bouts, and success rate. Surfing athletes and coaches may need to consider implementing shorter duration training sessions to reduce the decline in sprint paddling ability and CMJ performance. Furthermore, surfing athletes should possess highly developed sprint paddling ability because this may allow them to undertake a greater workload and catch more waves, which will increase the opportunity for technical refinement of maneuvers and skill acquisition.

  14. Global assessment of surfing conditions: seasonal, interannual and long-term variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, A.; Losada, I.; Mendez, F.

    2012-12-01

    International surfing destinations owe a great debt to specific combinations of wind-wave, thermal conditions and local bathymetry. As surf quality depends on a vast number of geophysical variables, a multivariable standardized index on the basis of expert judgment is proposed to analyze surf resource in a worldwide domain. Data needed is obtained by combining several datasets (reanalyses): 60-year satellite-calibrated spectral wave hindcast (GOW, WaveWatchIII), wind fields from NCEP/NCAR, global sea surface temperature from ERSST.v3b, and global tides from TPXO7.1. A summary of the global surf resource is presented, which highlights the high degree of variability in surfable events. According to general atmospheric circulation, results show that west facing low to middle latitude coasts are more suitable for surfing, especially those in Southern Hemisphere. Month to month analysis reveals strong seasonal changes in the occurrence of surfable events, enhancing those in North Atlantic or North Pacific. Interannual variability is investigated by comparing occurrence values with global and regional climate patterns showing a great influence at both, global and regional scales. Analysis of long term trends shows an increase in the probability of surfable events over the west facing coasts on the planet (i.e. + 30 hours/year in California). The resulting maps provide useful information for surfers and surf related stakeholders, coastal planning, education, and basic research.; Figure 1. Global distribution of medium quality (a) and high quality surf conditions probability (b).

  15. SurfCut: Surfaces of Minimal Paths From Topological Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Algarni, Marei Saeed Mohammed

    2018-03-05

    We present SurfCut, an algorithm for extracting a smooth, simple surface with an unknown 3D curve boundary from a noisy image and a seed point. Our method is built on the novel observation that certain ridge curves of a function defined on a front propagated using the Fast Marching algorithm lie on the surface. Our method extracts and cuts these ridges to form the surface boundary. Our surface extraction algorithm is built on the novel observation that the surface lies in a valley of the distance from Fast Marching. We show that the resulting surface is a collection of minimal paths. Using the framework of cubical complexes and Morse theory, we design algorithms to extract these critical structures robustly. Experiments on three 3D datasets show the robustness of our method, and that it achieves higher accuracy with lower computational cost than state-of-the-art.

  16. SurfCut: Surfaces of Minimal Paths From Topological Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Algarni, Marei Saeed Mohammed

    2017-04-30

    We present SurfCut, an algorithm for extracting a smooth, simple surface with an unknown 3D curve boundary from a noisy 3D image and a seed point. Our method is built on the novel observation that certain ridge curves of a function defined on a front propagated using the Fast Marching algorithm lie on the surface. Our method extracts and cuts these ridges to form the surface boundary. Our surface extraction algorithm is built on the novel observation that the surface lies in a valley of the distance from Fast Marching. We show that the resulting surface is a collection of minimal paths. Using the framework of cubical complexes and Morse theory, we design algorithms to extract these critical structures robustly. Experiments on three 3D datasets show the robustness of our method, and that it achieves higher accuracy with lower computational cost than state-of-the-art.

  17. SurfCut: Free-Boundary Surface Extraction

    KAUST Repository

    Algarni, Marei Saeed Mohammed

    2016-09-15

    We present SurfCut, an algorithm for extracting a smooth simple surface with unknown boundary from a noisy 3D image and a seed point. In contrast to existing approaches that extract smooth simple surfaces with boundary, our method requires less user input, i.e., a seed point, rather than a 3D boundary curve. Our method is built on the novel observation that certain ridge curves of a front propagated using the Fast Marching algorithm are likely to lie on the surface. Using the framework of cubical complexes, we design a novel algorithm to robustly extract such ridge curves and form the surface of interest. Our algorithm automatically cuts these ridge curves to form the surface boundary, and then extracts the surface. Experiments show the robustness of our method to errors in the data, and that we achieve higher accuracy with lower computational cost than comparable methods. © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

  18. Territorial disputes, identity conflicts, and violence in surfing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Martins Bandeira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive manifestations of localism are a current concern among surfers and are becoming well known as a result of specialized media. The objective of this paper was to investigate this phenomenon through the examination of a specific case and empirical fieldwork that was conducted for an ethnography of São Paulo surfers. The data were obtained via participant observations and open interviews. The results indicate that conflicts generally begin as disputes over the best waves. Surfing has a general rule of "wave priority criteria," based on spatial positioning. However, this universal rule may be intentionally broken depending on surfers' sociability. Ethnic and class differences based on historical processes can exist in oppositional relationships among surfers and are manifested by categories of accusation or identity (in São Paulo's case, local, haole, roots,prego,and playboy. However, this category attribution is contextual and interchangeable because surfers circulate between groups and beaches while searching for waves.

  19. ON PREDICTING INFRAGRAVITY ENERGY IN THE SURF ZONE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallenger,, Asbury H.; Holman, Robert A.; Edge, Billy L.

    1985-01-01

    Flow data were obtained in the surf zone across a barred profile during a storm. RMS cross-shore velocities due to waves in the intragravity band (wave periods greater than 20 s) had maxima in excess of 0. 5 m/s over the bar crest. For comparison to measured spectra, synthetic spectra of cross-shore flow were computed using measured nearshore profiles. The structure, in the infragravity band, of these synthetic spectra corresponded reasonably well with the structure of the measured spectra. Total variances of measured cross-shore flow within the infragravity band were nondimensionalized by dividing by total infragravity variances of synthetic spectra. These nondimensional variances were independent of distance offshore and increased with the square of the breaker height. Thus, cross-shore flow due to infragravity waves can be estimated with knowledge of the nearshore profile and incident wave conditions. Refs.

  20. On analyzing colour constancy approach for improving SURF detector performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkiey, Mohd Asyraf; Zaki, Wan Mimi Diyana Wan; Hussain, Aini; Mustafa, Mohd. Marzuki

    2012-04-01

    Robust key point detector plays a crucial role in obtaining a good tracking feature. The main challenge in outdoor tracking is the illumination change due to various reasons such as weather fluctuation and occlusion. This paper approaches the illumination change problem by transforming the input image through colour constancy algorithm before applying the SURF detector. Masked grey world approach is chosen because of its ability to perform well under local as well as global illumination change. Every image is transformed to imitate the canonical illuminant and Gaussian distribution is used to model the global change. The simulation results show that the average number of detected key points have increased by 69.92%. Moreover, the average of improved performance cases far out weight the degradation case where the former is improved by 215.23%. The approach is suitable for tracking implementation where sudden illumination occurs frequently and robust key point detection is needed.

  1. SurfCut: Surfaces of Minimal Paths From Topological Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Algarni, Marei Saeed Mohammed; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2018-01-01

    We present SurfCut, an algorithm for extracting a smooth, simple surface with an unknown 3D curve boundary from a noisy image and a seed point. Our method is built on the novel observation that certain ridge curves of a function defined on a front propagated using the Fast Marching algorithm lie on the surface. Our method extracts and cuts these ridges to form the surface boundary. Our surface extraction algorithm is built on the novel observation that the surface lies in a valley of the distance from Fast Marching. We show that the resulting surface is a collection of minimal paths. Using the framework of cubical complexes and Morse theory, we design algorithms to extract these critical structures robustly. Experiments on three 3D datasets show the robustness of our method, and that it achieves higher accuracy with lower computational cost than state-of-the-art.

  2. Estuary-dependence of larval fishes in a non-estuary associated South African surf zone: evidence for continuity of surf assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strydom, Nadine A.; d'Hotman, Bruce D.

    2005-04-01

    Larval fishes were collected in the Cape Padrone surf zone on the southeast coast of South Africa, using a modified small-mesh seine net. The aim of the study was to assess the composition of fish larvae, with respect to their association with estuaries, in a surf zone that was not in close proximity to an estuary (>5 km). Sampling took place bimonthly during diurnal spring low tides between March and July 2003. In total, 544 fish were caught in the surf zone, comprising 14 families represented by 19 positively identified species, as well as an additional two species that were differentiated but remain unidentified. The families Mugilidae (65%) and Sparidae (26%) dominated the larval catch. The majority of larval fishes caught were in the postflexion stage of development, although some early juveniles were also caught. Body lengths of fish larvae ranged between 2 and 28 mm, with the majority of larvae at the recruitment size for the species. A high proportion of the fish species caught were estuary-dependent. Estuary-dependent marine fish larvae (categories I, II and IV) comprised 68% of total catch by species and 98% by number of individuals. Exclusively marine species (category III) were encountered in low numbers in the surf. The present study provides evidence for continuity in temperate South African surf zones in terms of domination by estuary-dependent larvae and reasons for this pattern are discussed.

  3. Military personnel recognition system using texture, colour, and SURF features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irhebhude, Martins E.; Edirisinghe, Eran A.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents an automatic, machine vision based, military personnel identification and classification system. Classification is done using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) on sets of Army, Air Force and Navy camouflage uniform personnel datasets. In the proposed system, the arm of service of personnel is recognised by the camouflage of a persons uniform, type of cap and the type of badge/logo. The detailed analysis done include; camouflage cap and plain cap differentiation using gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) texture feature; classification on Army, Air Force and Navy camouflaged uniforms using GLCM texture and colour histogram bin features; plain cap badge classification into Army, Air Force and Navy using Speed Up Robust Feature (SURF). The proposed method recognised camouflage personnel arm of service on sets of data retrieved from google images and selected military websites. Correlation-based Feature Selection (CFS) was used to improve recognition and reduce dimensionality, thereby speeding the classification process. With this method success rates recorded during the analysis include 93.8% for camouflage appearance category, 100%, 90% and 100% rates of plain cap and camouflage cap categories for Army, Air Force and Navy categories, respectively. Accurate recognition was recorded using SURF for the plain cap badge category. Substantial analysis has been carried out and results prove that the proposed method can correctly classify military personnel into various arms of service. We show that the proposed method can be integrated into a face recognition system, which will recognise personnel in addition to determining the arm of service which the personnel belong. Such a system can be used to enhance the security of a military base or facility.

  4. Chesapeake Bay Climate Study Partnership: Undergraduate Student Experiential Learning on Microclimates at the University of Hawai'i, Hilo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, G.; Sriharan, S.; Fan, C.; Adolf, J.

    2015-12-01

    Undergraduate student experiential learning activities focused on microclimates of Hawai'i Island, Hawai'i. Six students from Virginia State University, three students from Delaware State University and faculty advisors were hosted by the University of Hawai'i at Hilo (UHH) Department of Marine Science. This partnership provided integrated, cohesive, and innovative education and research capabilities to minority students on climate change science. Activities included a summer course, instrumentation training, field and laboratory research training, sampling, data collection, logging, analysis, interpretation, report preparation, and research presentation. Most training activities used samples collected during students' field sampling in Hilo Bay. Water quality and phytoplankton data were collected along a 220 degree line transect from the mouth of the Wailuku River to the pelagic zone outside of Hilo Bay into the Pacific Ocean to a distance of 15.5 km. Water clarity, turbidity, chlorophyll, physical water quality parameters, and atmospheric CO2 levels were measured along the transect. Phytoplankton samples were collected for analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Flow Cytometry. Data showed the extent of anthropogenic activity on water quality, with implications for food web dynamics. In addition, atmospheric CO2 concentration, island vegetation, and GPS points were recorded throughout the island of Hawai'i to investigate how variations in microclimate, elevation, and land development affect the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere, vegetation, and water quality. Water quality results at locations near rivers were completely different from other study sites, requiring students' critical thinking skills to find possible reasons for the difference. Our data show a correlation between population density and CO2 concentrations. Anthropogenic activities affecting CO2 and ocean conditions in Hawaiian microclimates can potentially have deleterious effects on the life

  5. Physician and pharmacist collaboration: the University of Hawaii at Hilo College of Pharmacy--JABSOM experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Carolyn S J; Holuby, R Scott; Bucci, Lucy L

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the experiential program created at the newly formed University of Hawaii at Hilo College of Pharmacy (UHH CoP). The Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience (IPPE) rotations were developed to prepare student pharmacists for their final year of Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE) rotations by improving clinical skills and patient interactions. In partnership with the John A. Burns School of Medicine (JABSOM) Department of Family Practice, physician and pharmacist teams collaborate to deliver patient care for chronic diseases and elevate educational opportunities provided by UHH CoP. Another goal of the experiential program is to determine whether the investment of pharmacist faculty and adjunct physician/nurse preceptors prepares students for the final year of APPE rotations. A survey was administered to non-faculty pharmacist preceptors who taught the third IPPE rotation during the summer of 2009. Twenty-nine surveys were received from six facilities on Oahu and the Big Island. Initial survey results revealed an overall rating average of 3.72 (Likert scale: 1--lowest to 5--highest), an average of 4.14 for professionalism, an average of 3.41 for overall clinical skills, and an average of 3.45 for overall readiness for experiential rotations. Average ratings when compared with fourth-year students from several mainland colleges ranged from 1.7 to 2.2 (1--worse than, 2--same, 3--better). This data demonstrates that UHH CoP is investing faculty and preceptor resources wisely to enhance the preparation of students for APPE rotations. Hawaii Medical Journal Copyright 2010.

  6. Wave Breaking, Bubble Production and Acoustic Characteristics of the Surf Zone, SIO Component

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deane, Grant

    2001-01-01

    .... The purpose of these measurements was to: (1) statistically characterize the surf zone acoustic channel Doppler and time spreads, and acoustic drop-outs, in terms of the incident wave field and (2...

  7. Sustainable Urban Fringes - Connecting Urban and Rural : Final report of the SURF project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de T.J.N.M. (Theo); Haccoû, H.A. (Huib); Leslie, A. (Allison); Lier, G. (Goos); Littlewood, S. (Stephan); Oldejans, R. (Rolf); Thomas, K. (Kevin); Vries, de B.J. (Bauke); Watt, E. (Emma); Wishardt, M. (Michelle)

    2012-01-01

    What happens at the urban edge and the SURF aspiration to influence it? Projects in the urban fringe Urban fringe governance Integrated policy guidelines and approaches towards urban fringe planning and management The future management of the urban fringe

  8. El control reológico de la mecha aumenta la calidad del hilo y la rentabilidad de la hilatura

    OpenAIRE

    Marsal Amenós, Félix

    2012-01-01

    Se propone en este trabajo un control sistemático del comportamiento reológico de las mechas, en una instalación de dinamometría de gradiente de alargamiento constante. Es de aplicación para todo tipo de hilatura, tanto de las fibras cortas como de las fibras largas. Las experiencias industriales realizadas ponen de manifiesto que con este control se optimiza el estirado de la continua de hilar, obteniendo hilos más regulares de masa, con una mayor rentabilidad industrial. Este trabajo se apl...

  9. The rate of beneficial mutations surfing on the wave of a range expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Lehe

    Full Text Available Many theoretical and experimental studies suggest that range expansions can have severe consequences for the gene pool of the expanding population. Due to strongly enhanced genetic drift at the advancing frontier, neutral and weakly deleterious mutations can reach large frequencies in the newly colonized regions, as if they were surfing the front of the range expansion. These findings raise the question of how frequently beneficial mutations successfully surf at shifting range margins, thereby promoting adaptation towards a range-expansion phenotype. Here, we use individual-based simulations to study the surfing statistics of recurrent beneficial mutations on wave-like range expansions in linear habitats. We show that the rate of surfing depends on two strongly antagonistic factors, the probability of surfing given the spatial location of a novel mutation and the rate of occurrence of mutations at that location. The surfing probability strongly increases towards the tip of the wave. Novel mutations are unlikely to surf unless they enjoy a spatial head start compared to the bulk of the population. The needed head start is shown to be proportional to the inverse fitness of the mutant type, and only weakly dependent on the carrying capacity. The precise location dependence of surfing probabilities is derived from the non-extinction probability of a branching process within a moving field of growth rates. The second factor is the mutation occurrence which strongly decreases towards the tip of the wave. Thus, most successful mutations arise at an intermediate position in the front of the wave. We present an analytic theory for the tradeoff between these factors that allows to predict how frequently substitutions by beneficial mutations occur at invasion fronts. We find that small amounts of genetic drift increase the fixation rate of beneficial mutations at the advancing front, and thus could be important for adaptation during species invasions.

  10. The Effect of a Single Bout of Surfing on Exercise-Induced Affect

    OpenAIRE

    PITTSINGER, RYAN; KRESS, JEFF; CRUSSEMEYER, JILL

    2017-01-01

    Exercise-induced affect (EIA) has been well documented and is often composed of positive affect, negative affect, tranquility, and fatigue. Research on EIA has focused on mainstream sports such as running, walking, or cycling; however, no research has evaluated the influence of action sports participation in activities such surfing on EIA. The current study examined the effect of a single 30-min surfing bout on EIA in 107 adult volunteers. An additional purpose was if change in affect was sim...

  11. The study of online hospitality exchange : The case of couch surfing network

    OpenAIRE

    Zaki, Taher

    2015-01-01

    The work presented here firstly aims at creating awareness about the whole concept of ‘couch surfing,’ relatively a new phenomenon when seeking ‘alternative’ and inexpensive ways to travel to new destinations. This particular research work outlines the emphasis and prospects of alternative ways to travel nowadays. It then progresses to explaining about the couch surfing idea, how it functions as well as its benefits and criticisms. The theoretical framework of this research is based on the mo...

  12. Surfing depth on a behaviour change website: predictors and effects on behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Nele; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Claes, Neree

    2010-03-01

    The primary objectives of the present study were to gain insight into website use and to predict the surfing depth on a behaviour change website and its effect on behaviour. Two hundred eight highly educated adults from the intervention condition of a randomised trial received access to a medical intervention, individual coaching (by e-mail, post, telephone or face-to-face) and a behaviour change website. Website use (e.g. surfing depth, page view duration) was registered. Online questionnaires for physical activity and fat intake were filled out at baseline and after 6 months. Hierarchical linear regression was used to predict surfing depth and its effect on behaviour. Seventy-five per cent of the participants visited the website. Fifty-one and fifty-six per cent consulted the physical activity and fat intake feedback, respectively. The median surfing depth was 2. The total duration of interventions by e-mail predicted deeper surfing (beta=0.36; pSurfing depth did not predict changes in fat intake (beta=-0.07; p=0.45) or physical activity (beta=-0.03; p=0.72). Consulting the physical activity feedback led to more physical activity (beta=0.23; p=0.01). The findings from the present study can be used to guide future website development and improve the information architecture of behaviour change websites.

  13. Simple estimate of entrainment rate of pollutants from a coastal discharge into the surf zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Simon H C; Monismith, Stephen G; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2013-10-15

    Microbial pollutants from coastal discharges can increase illness risks for swimmers and cause beach advisories. There is presently no predictive model for estimating the entrainment of pollution from coastal discharges into the surf zone. We present a novel, quantitative framework for estimating surf zone entrainment of pollution at a wave-dominant open beach. Using physical arguments, we identify a dimensionless parameter equal to the quotient of the surf zone width l(sz) and the cross-flow length scale of the discharge la = M(j) (1/2)/U(sz), where M(j) is the discharge's momentum flux and U(sz) is a representative alongshore velocity in the surf zone. We conducted numerical modeling of a nonbuoyant discharge at an alongshore uniform beach with constant slope using a wave-resolving hydrodynamic model. Using results from 144 numerical experiments we develop an empirical relationship between the surf zone entrainment rate α and l(sz)/(la). The empirical relationship can reasonably explain seven measurements of surf zone entrainment at three diverse coastal discharges. This predictive relationship can be a useful tool in coastal water quality management and can be used to develop predictive beach water quality models.

  14. The greenscape shapes surfing of resource waves in a large migratory herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikens, Ellen O; Kauffman, Matthew J; Merkle, Jerod A; Dwinnell, Samantha P H; Fralick, Gary L; Monteith, Kevin L

    2017-06-01

    The Green Wave Hypothesis posits that herbivore migration manifests in response to waves of spring green-up (i.e. green-wave surfing). Nonetheless, empirical support for the Green Wave Hypothesis is mixed, and a framework for understanding variation in surfing is lacking. In a population of migratory mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), 31% surfed plant phenology in spring as well as a theoretically perfect surfer, and 98% surfed better than random. Green-wave surfing varied among individuals and was unrelated to age or energetic state. Instead, the greenscape, which we define as the order, rate and duration of green-up along migratory routes, was the primary factor influencing surfing. Our results indicate that migratory routes are more than a link between seasonal ranges, and they provide an important, but often overlooked, foraging habitat. In addition, the spatiotemporal configuration of forage resources that propagate along migratory routes shape animal movement and presumably, energy gains during migration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  15. Qualitative Task Analysis to Enhance Sports Characterization: A Surfing Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Miguel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a Matrix of Analysis for Sports Tasks (MAST, regardless of the sports activity, based on practice classification and task analysis. Being this a qualitative research our main question was: in assessing sports’ structure is it possible to make the characterization of any discipline through context and individuals’ behaviours? The sample was within a surf discipline in a competition flowing having 5 of the top 16 Portuguese surfers training together. Based on a qualitative method, studying the surf as the main activity was an interpretative study case. The MAST was applied in four phases: taxonomy; tasks and context description; task analysis; teaching and performance strategies. Its application allowed the activities’ characterization through the observation, surfer’s opinions and bibliographical support. The triangulation of the data was used as an information data treatment. The elements were classified by the challenges proposed to the practitioners and the taxonomy was constituted by the sport activities, group, modality and discipline. Surf is a discipline of surfing which is a sliding sport modality, therefore, a nature sport. In the context description, we had the wave’s components and constraints and the surfboards’ qualities. Through task analysis we obtained a taxonomy of surf manoeuvres. The structural and functional analysis allowed finding solutions for learning of surf techniques with trampoline and skateboards because these fit in sliding sports. MAST makes possible the development of strategies that benefit teaching and performance intervention

  16. Qualitative Task Analysis to Enhance Sports Characterization: A Surfing Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Miguel; Peixoto, César

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a Matrix of Analysis for Sports Tasks (MAST), regardless of the sports activity, based on practice classification and task analysis. Being this a qualitative research our main question was: in assessing sports’ structure is it possible to make the characterization of any discipline through context and individuals’ behaviours? The sample was within a surf discipline in a competition flowing having 5 of the top 16 Portuguese surfers training together. Based on a qualitative method, studying the surf as the main activity was an interpretative study case. The MAST was applied in four phases: taxonomy; tasks and context description; task analysis; teaching and performance strategies. Its application allowed the activities’ characterization through the observation, surfer’s opinions and bibliographical support. The triangulation of the data was used as an information data treatment. The elements were classified by the challenges proposed to the practitioners and the taxonomy was constituted by the sport activities, group, modality and discipline. Surf is a discipline of surfing which is a sliding sport modality, therefore, a nature sport. In the context description, we had the wave’s components and constraints and the surfboards’ qualities. Through task analysis we obtained a taxonomy of surf manoeuvres. The structural and functional analysis allowed finding solutions for learning of surf techniques with trampoline and skateboards because these fit in sliding sports. MAST makes possible the development of strategies that benefit teaching and performance intervention. PMID:25414757

  17. Characterization of Activity and Cardiovascular Responses During Surfing in Recreational Male Surfers Between the Ages of 18 and 75 Years Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaLanne, Christine L; Cannady, Michael S; Moon, Joseph F; Taylor, Danica L; Nessler, Jeff A; Crocker, George H; Newcomer, Sean C

    2017-04-01

    Participation in surfing has evolved to include all age groups. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether activity levels and cardiovascular responses to surfing change with age. Surfing time and heart rate (HR) were measured for the total surfing session and within each activity of surfing (paddling, sitting, wave riding, and miscellaneous). Peak oxygen consumption (VO 2peak ) was also measured during laboratory-based simulated surfboard paddling on a modified swim bench ergometer. VO 2peak decreased with age during simulated paddling (r = -.455, p surfing (p = .837) and time spent within each activity of surfing did not differ with age (n = 160). Mean HR during surfing significantly decreased with age (r = -.231, p = .004). However, surfing HR expressed as a percent of age-predicted maximum increased significantly with age. Therefore, recreational surfers across the age spectrum are achieving intensities and durations that are consistent with guidelines for cardiovascular health.

  18. Flooding and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, flooding is the nation's most common natural disaster. Some floods develop slowly during an extended period of rain or in a warming trend following a heavy snow. Flash floods can occur quickly, without any visible sign of rain. Catastrophic floods are associated with burst dams and levees,…

  19. “100 percent fun”: A case study of benefits from cold water surfing in Jæren, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Elmahdy, Yasmine Mounir

    2015-01-01

    Master's thesis in International hotel and tourism management Norway is steadily progressing towards being a popular cold-water surf destination. The long Norwegian coastline is attracting an increasing number of surfers who surf year round in extreme weather conditions. The aim of this research is to identify the benefits acquired by Norwegian surfers surfing in cold water along the Jæren coast, south the city of Stavanger in Norway. This research adopted a phenomenological approach and q...

  20. Teaching Standard English as a Second Dialect to Primary School Children in Hilo, Hawaii. Volume I of II Volumes. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robert O. H.

    This document describes a four-year program designed to develop and test a method for teaching standard English to nonstandard dialect speakers in the first four grades of elementary school in Hilo, Hawaii. Chapters in this first volume are (1) Introduction, (2) Project Site and Evaluation Strategy, (3) Instrumentation, (4) Development of Lesson…

  1. Teaching Standard English as a Second Dialect to Primary School Children in Hilo, Hawaii. Appendix B: Teacher's Guide and Lessons. Volume II of II Volumes. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, Elaine E.; Sugano, Miyoko

    This document comprises the teacher's guide and lessons for teaching standard English to kindergarten through third grade children in Hilo, Hawaii. Sections are (1) Teacher's Guide, (2) Audio-Visual Aids, (3) Phonemic Symbol List, (4) Phonology Lesson Section, and (5) Structure Lesson Section. Appended are a short glossary of terms,…

  2. Surf zone entrainment, along-shore transport, and human health implications of pollution from tidal outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, S. B.; Kim, J. H.; Jones, B. H.; Jenkins, S. A.; Wasyl, J.; Cudaback, C.

    2005-10-01

    Field experiments and modeling studies were carried out to characterize the surf zone entrainment and along-shore transport of pollution from two tidal outlets that drain into Huntington Beach and Newport Beach, popular public beaches in southern California. The surf zone entrainment and near-shore transport of pollutants from these tidal outlets appears to be controlled by prevailing wave conditions and coastal currents, and fine-scale features of the flow field around the outlets. An analysis of data from dye experiments and fecal indicator bacteria monitoring studies reveals that the along-shore flux of surf zone water is at least 50 to 300 times larger than the cross-shore flux of surf zone water. As a result, pollutants entrained in the surf zone hug the shore, where they travel significant distances parallel to the beach before diluting to extinction. Under the assumption that all surf zone pollution at Huntington Beach originates from two tidal outlets, the Santa Ana River and Talbert Marsh outlets, models of mass and momentum transport in the surf zone approximately capture the observed tidal phasing and magnitude of certain fecal indicator bacteria groups (total coliform) but not others (Escherichia coli and enterococci), implying the existence of multiple sources of, and/or multiple transport pathways for, fecal pollution at this site. The intersection of human recreation and near-shore pollution pathways implies that, from a human health perspective, special care should be taken to reduce the discharge of harmful pollutants from land-side sources of surface water runoff, such as tidal outlets and storm drains.

  3. Green‐wave surfing increases fat gain in a migratory ungulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Arthur D.; Merkle, Jerod A.; McWhirter, Douglas E.; Cook, John G.; Cook, Rachel C.; White, P.J.; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2018-01-01

    Each spring, migratory herbivores around the world track or ‘surf’ green waves of newly emergent vegetation to distant summer or wet‐season ranges. This foraging tactic may help explain the great abundance of migratory herbivores on many seasonal landscapes. However, the underlying fitness benefits of this life‐history strategy remain poorly understood. A fundamental prediction of the green‐wave hypothesis is that migratory herbivores obtain fitness benefits from surfing waves of newly emergent vegetation more closely than their resident counterparts. Here we evaluate whether this behavior increases body‐fat levels – a critically important correlate of reproduction and survival for most ungulates – in elk Cervus elaphus of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Using satellite imagery and GPS tracking data, we found evidence that migrants (n = 23) indeed surfed the green wave, occupying sites 12.7 days closer to peak green‐up than residents (n = 16). Importantly, individual variation in surfing may help account for up to 6 kg of variation in autumn body‐fat levels. Our findings point to a pathway for anthropogenic changes to the green wave (e.g. climate change) or migrants’ ability to surf it (e.g. development) to impact migratory populations. To explore this possibility, we evaluated potential population‐level consequences of constrained surfing with a heuristic model. If green‐wave surfing deteriorates by 5–15 days from observed, our model predicts up to a 20% decrease in pregnancy rates, a 2.5% decrease in population growth, and a 30% decrease in abundance over 50 years. By linking green‐wave surfing to fitness and illustrating potential effects on population growth, our study provides new insights into the evolution of migratory behavior and the prospects for the persistence of migratory ungulate populations in a changing world.

  4. Vortex-induced suspension of sediment in the surf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Junichi; Saruwatari, Ayumi; Watanabe, Yasunori

    2017-12-01

    A major mechanism of sediment suspension by organized vortices produced under violent breaking waves in the surf zone was identified through physical and computational experiments. Counter-rotating flows within obliquely descending eddies produced between adjacent primary roller vortices induce transverse convergent near-bed flows, driving bed load transport to form regular patterns of transverse depositions. The deposited sediment is then rapidly ejected by upward carrier flows induced between the vortices. This mechanism of vortex-induced suspension is supported by experimental evidence that coherent sediment clouds are ejected where the obliquely descending eddies reach the sea bed after the breaking wave front has passed. In addition to the effects of settling and turbulent diffusion caused by breaking waves, the effect of the vortex-induced flows was incorporated into a suspension model on the basis of vorticity dynamics and parametric characteristics of transverse flows in breaking waves. The model proposed here reasonably predicts an exponential attenuation of the measured sediment concentration due to violent plunging waves and significantly improves the underprediction of the concentration produced by previous models.

  5. Surfing through hyperspace understanding higher universes in six easy lessons

    CERN Document Server

    Pickover, Clifford A

    1999-01-01

    Do a little armchair time-travel, rub elbows with a four-dimensional intelligent life form, or stretch your mind to the furthest corner of an uncharted universe. With this astonishing guidebook, Surfing Through Hyperspace, you need not be a mathematician or an astrophysicist to explore the all-but-unfathomable concepts of hyperspace and higher-dimensional geometry. No subject in mathematics has intrigued both children and adults as much as the idea of a fourth dimension. Philosophers and parapsychologists have meditated on this mysterious space that no one can point to but may be all around us. Yet this extra dimension has a very real, practical value to mathematicians and physicists who use it every day in their calculations. In the tradtion of Flatland, and with an infectious enthusiasm, Clifford Pickover tackles the problems inherent in our 3-D brains trying to visualize a 4-D world, muses on the religious implications of the existence of higher-dimensional consciousness, and urges all curious readers to v...

  6. Spinal cord injury with central cord syndrome from surfing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeld, Yaniv; Keren, Yaniv; Haddad, Elias

    2018-01-01

    Central cord syndrome (CCS) is an injury to the center of the spinal cord. It is well known as a hyperextension injury, but it has never been described as a surfing injury. Our report describes this injury in detail. A 35-year-old male novice surfer presented to the emergency department with acute tetraplegia following falling off his surfboard and hitting sea floor at a shallow beach break. He was rescued by a fellow surfer while floating in the sea and unable to raise his head above sea level. Upon arrival at the hospital, tetraplegia and sensory deficits were noted. Radiological investigations showed advanced spinal stenosis at C4-6 levels. T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated myelopathy at C5-C6 level. He was diagnosed as having central cord syndrome, treated conservatively, and regained near full neurologic recovery after a month of rehabilitation. Unique sport activities lead to unique injuries. It is important to accurately describe these injuries in order to create protective measures against them. Neurologic injuries in surfers are uncommon. With low-energy trauma, surfer's myelopathy is still the most common diagnosis, but central cord syndrome should be in the differential diagnosis.

  7. Surfing with capillary waves: a survival strategy for trapped bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Chris; Gharib, Morteza

    2017-11-01

    Honeybees are able to propel themselves at the water surface. A rapid vibration (30-220 Hz) of wings at the air-water interface results in a locomotion speed of 3-4 cm/s. A mechanism for generating thrust required for achieving and maintaining such speed must be different from their mechanism of flight inasmuch as they are in a different fluid environment. In this study, we present the thrust generating mechanism of the honeybee at the air-water interface. A close observation of the wing's interaction with the water surface showed that the wing does not penetrate nor detach from the water surface. Moreover, the stroke speed of the wing exceeds the minimum capillary wave speed, which signifies that the wing constantly generates the capillary wave by pulling on the surface with its wetted underside. Observation of such interaction suggests that honeybee's locomotion at the water surface resembles surfing on the self-generated capillary wave. A further evidence of described mechanism is explored by constructing a similarly sized mechanical model. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CBET-1511414; additional support by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1144469.

  8. Simultaneous visualization of the subfemtomolar expression of microRNA and microRNA target gene using HILO microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Zhen; Ou, Da-Liang; Chang, Hsin-Yuan; Lin, Wei-Yu; Hsu, Chiun; Chang, Po-Ling

    2017-09-01

    The family of microRNAs (miRNAs) not only plays an important role in gene regulation but is also useful for the diagnosis of diseases. A reliable method with high sensitivity may allow researchers to detect slight fluctuations in ultra-trace amounts of miRNA. In this study, we propose a sensitive imaging method for the direct probing of miR-10b (miR-10b-3p, also called miR-10b*) and its target ( HOXD10 mRNA) in fixed cells based on the specific recognition of molecular beacons combined with highly inclined and laminated optical sheet (HILO) fluorescence microscopy. The designed dye-quencher-labelled molecular beacons offer excellent efficiencies of fluorescence resonance energy transfer that allow us to detect miRNA and the target mRNA simultaneously in hepatocellular carcinoma cells using HILO fluorescence microscopy. Not only can the basal trace amount of miRNA be observed in each individual cell, but the obtained images also indicate that this method is useful for monitoring the fluctuations in ultra-trace amounts of miRNA when the cells are transfected with a miRNA precursor or a miRNA inhibitor (anti-miR). Furthermore, a reasonable causal relation between the miR-10b and HOXD10 expression levels was observed in miR-10b* precursor-transfected cells and miR-10b* inhibitor-transfected cells. The trends of the miRNA alterations obtained using HILO microscopy completely matched the RT-qPCR data and showed remarkable reproducibility (the coefficient of variation [CV] = 0.86%) and sensitivity (<1.0 fM). This proposed imaging method appears to be useful for the simultaneous visualisation of ultra-trace amounts of miRNA and target mRNA and excludes the procedures for RNA extraction and amplification. Therefore, the visualisation of miRNA and the target mRNA should facilitate the exploration of the functions of ultra-trace amounts of miRNA in fixed cells in biological studies and may serve as a powerful tool for diagnoses based on circulating cancer cells.

  9. Improved SURF Algorithm and Its Application in Seabed Relief Image Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hong-Mei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The matching based on seabed relief image is widely used in underwater relief matching navigation and target recognition, etc. However, being influenced by various factors, some conventional matching algorithms are difficult to obtain an ideal result in the matching of seabed relief image. SURF(Speeded Up Robust Features algorithm is based on feature points pair to achieve matching, and can get good results in the seabed relief image matching. However, in practical applications, the traditional SURF algorithm is easy to get false matching, especially when the area’s features are similar or not obvious, the problem is more seriously. In order to improve the robustness of the algorithm, this paper proposes an improved matching algorithm, which combines the SURF, and RANSAC (Random Sample Consensus algorithms. The new algorithm integrates the two algorithms advantages, firstly, the SURF algorithm is applied to detect and extract the feature points then to pre-match. Secondly, RANSAC algorithm is utilized to eliminate mismatching points, and then the accurate matching is accomplished with the correct matching points. The experimental results show that the improved algorithm overcomes the mismatching problem effectively and have better precision and faster speed than the traditional SURF algorithm.

  10. Factors affecting surf zone phytoplankton production in Southeastern North Carolina, USA

    KAUST Repository

    Cahoon, Lawrence B.

    2017-07-15

    Abstract: The biomass and productivity of primary producers in the surf zone of the ocean beach at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina, USA, were measured during all seasons, along with environmental parameters and nutrient levels. Variation in biomass (chlorophyll a) was associated with temperature. Primary production (PP), measured by in situ 14-C incubations, was a function of chlorophyll a, tide height at the start of incubations, and rainfall in the preceding 24-hr period. Biomass-normalized production (PB) was also a function of tide height and rainfall in the preceding 24-hr period. We interpreted these results as evidence of surf production 1) as combined contributions of phytoplankton and suspended benthic microalgae, which may confound application of simple P-E models to surf zone production, and 2) being regulated by nutrient source/supply fluctuations independently from other factors. Surf zone biomass and production levels are intermediate between relatively high estuarine values and much lower coastal ocean values. Surf zone production may represent an important trophic connection between these two important ecosystems.

  11. Factors affecting surf zone phytoplankton production in Southeastern North Carolina, USA

    KAUST Repository

    Cahoon, Lawrence B.; Bugica, Kalman; Wooster, Michael K.; Dickens, Amanda Kahn

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: The biomass and productivity of primary producers in the surf zone of the ocean beach at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina, USA, were measured during all seasons, along with environmental parameters and nutrient levels. Variation in biomass (chlorophyll a) was associated with temperature. Primary production (PP), measured by in situ 14-C incubations, was a function of chlorophyll a, tide height at the start of incubations, and rainfall in the preceding 24-hr period. Biomass-normalized production (PB) was also a function of tide height and rainfall in the preceding 24-hr period. We interpreted these results as evidence of surf production 1) as combined contributions of phytoplankton and suspended benthic microalgae, which may confound application of simple P-E models to surf zone production, and 2) being regulated by nutrient source/supply fluctuations independently from other factors. Surf zone biomass and production levels are intermediate between relatively high estuarine values and much lower coastal ocean values. Surf zone production may represent an important trophic connection between these two important ecosystems.

  12. KARAKTERISTIK, MOTIVASI DAN NIAT WISATAWAN SURFING DI PANTAI KECAMATAN KUTA UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Windy Pramita

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Black sandy beach tourist attraction of Kuta Northen region that is Batu Bolong beach and Batu Mejan beach which has potential a beautifull oncean, sunset, sunbathing and surfingthe purpose of this study was to determinethe characteristics, motivasi, and intentions rating surfing at Kuta Northen beach. The method used observation, questionnaires, interviews, literature study, and documentation. 213 respondens rating surfing with quantitative descriptive and regression linier analisys. The result obtained in this study are based on age characteristics surfing travelers will see the most travelers age between 18-29 years, male gender, country of origin Australia, and is a businessman, a master degree educational level, and marital status is not married. Surfing tourist motivation using push and pull factor with the highest scores on the social interaction. And Intention surfing tourist with the highest score there is positive world of mouth with Variabel tourist have the effect of 13,20% with a probability level of sig. 0,000, the motivation positive and significant efeect on the intention tourist but in small quantities. Therefore to improve the intention tourist come to the beach district of north kuta from the motivation pull and push should also improve the quality of beaches such as keeping the beach becomes the most importans thing that will directly make tourist feel comfortable. advice for managers is to add a lifeguard to keep the beach.

  13. Factors affecting surf zone phytoplankton production in Southeastern North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, Lawrence B.; Bugica, Kalman; Wooster, Michael K.; Dickens, Amanda Kahn

    2017-09-01

    The biomass and productivity of primary producers in the surf zone of the ocean beach at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina, USA, were measured during all seasons, along with environmental parameters and nutrient levels. Variation in biomass (chlorophyll a) was associated with temperature. Primary production (PP), measured by in situ 14-C incubations, was a function of chlorophyll a, tide height at the start of incubations, and rainfall in the preceding 24-hr period. Biomass-normalized production (PB) was also a function of tide height and rainfall in the preceding 24-hr period. We interpreted these results as evidence of surf production 1) as combined contributions of phytoplankton and suspended benthic microalgae, which may confound application of simple P-E models to surf zone production, and 2) being regulated by nutrient source/supply fluctuations independently from other factors. Surf zone biomass and production levels are intermediate between relatively high estuarine values and much lower coastal ocean values. Surf zone production may represent an important trophic connection between these two important ecosystems.

  14. Computing OpenSURF on OpenCL and General Purpose GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanglong Yan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Speeded-Up Robust Feature (SURF algorithm is widely used for image feature detecting and matching in computer vision area. Open Computing Language (OpenCL is a framework for writing programs that execute across heterogeneous platforms consisting of CPUs, GPUs, and other processors. This paper introduces how to implement an open-sourced SURF program, namely OpenSURF, on general purpose GPU by OpenCL, and discusses the optimizations in terms of the thread architectures and memory models in detail. Our final OpenCL implementation of OpenSURF is on average 37% and 64% faster than the OpenCV SURF v2.4.5 CUDA implementation on NVidia's GTX660 and GTX460SE GPUs, repectively. Our OpenCL program achieved real-time performance (>25 Frames Per Second for almost all the input images with different sizes from 320*240 to 1024*768 on NVidia's GTX660 GPU, NVidia's GTX460SE GPU and AMD's Radeon HD 6850 GPU. Our OpenCL approach on NVidia's GTX660 GPU is more than 22.8 times faster than its original CPU version on Intel's Dual-Core E5400 2.7G on average.

  15. Scaled photographs of surf over the full range of breaker sizes on the north shore of Oahu and Jaws, Maui, Hawaiian Islands (NODC Accession 0001753)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digital surf photographs were scaled using surfers as height benchmarks to estimate the size of the breakers. Historical databases for surf height in Hawaii are...

  16. Glass in the submarine section of the HSDP2 drill core, Hilo, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolper, Edward; Sherman, Sarah; Garcia, Michael; Baker, Michael; Seaman, Caroline

    2004-07-01

    The Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project recovered ˜3 km of basalt by coring into the flank of Mauna Kea volcano at Hilo, Hawaii. Rocks recovered from deeper than ˜1 km were deposited below sea level and contain considerable fresh glass. We report electron microprobe analyses of 531 glasses from the submarine section of the core, providing a high-resolution record of petrogenesis over ca. 200 Kyr of shield building of a Hawaiian volcano. Nearly all the submarine glasses are tholeiitic. SiO2 contents span a significant range but are bimodally distributed, leading to the identification of low-SiO2 and high-SiO2 magma series that encompass most samples. The two groups are also generally distinguishable using other major and minor elements and certain isotopic and incompatible trace element ratios. On the basis of distributions of high- and low-SiO2 glasses, the submarine section of the core is divided into four zones. In zone 1 (1079-˜1950 mbsl), most samples are degassed high-SiO2 hyaloclastites and massive lavas, but there are narrow intervals of low-SiO2 hyaloclastites. Zone 2 (˜1950-2233 mbsl), a zone of degassed pillows and hyaloclastites, displays a continuous decrease in silica content from bottom to top. In zone 3 (2233-2481 mbsl), nearly all samples are undegassed low-SiO2 pillows. In zone 4 (2481-3098 mbsl), samples are mostly high-SiO2 undegassed pillows and degassed hyaloclastites. This zone also contains most of the intrusive units in the core, all of which are undegassed and most of which are low-SiO2. Phase equilibrium data suggest that parental magmas of the low-SiO2 suite could be produced by partial melting of fertile peridotite at 30-40 kbar. Although the high-SiO2 parents could have equilibrated with harzburgite at 15-20 kbar, they could have been produced neither simply by higher degrees of melting of the sources of the low-SiO2 parents nor by mixing of known dacitic melts of pyroxenite/eclogite with the low-SiO2 parents. Our hypothesis for the

  17. El Cuaderno De Bitácora: Reflexiones al Hilo Del Espacio Europeo De La Educación Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Emilio PALOMERO PESCADOR

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El espacio Europeo de la Educación Superior pone el acento en dos cuestiones básicas, el aprendizaje y el trabajo del alumno. Al hilo de ese discurso, el presente artículo pretende dar a conocer las posibilidades del cuaderno de bitácora en tanto que recurso formativo y como instrumento de investigación-acción en el ámbito de la educación universitaria. El bitácora se presenta aquí como un instrumento al servicio de una pedagogía de la esperanza y de la autonomía, frente a la pedagogía de la sumisión, capaz de convertir el aula en un espacio reflexivo, crítico y comunicativo.

  18. 76 FR 55566 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays and Surfing Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ...-AA00 Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays and Surfing Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone... zones for marine events within the Captain of the Port (COTP) Long Island Sound Zone for a surfing event... unless authorized by the COTP Sector Long Island Sound. DATES: This rule is effective in the CFR on...

  19. The State of stress in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Moo Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    As a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SubTER (Subsurface Technology and Engineering Research, Development and Demonstration) initiative, University of Wisconsin- Madison, Sandia National Laboratories, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory conducted the Permeability (k) and Induced Seismicity Management for Energy Technologies (kISMET) project. The objectives of the project are to define the in situ status of stress in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota and to establish the relations between in situ stress and induced fracture through hydraulically stimulating the fracture. (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota. In situ tests are conducted in a 7.6 cm diameter and 100 long vertical borehole located in the 4850 Level West Access Drift near Davies Campus of SURF (Figure 1). The borehole is located in the zone of Precambrian Metamorphic Schist.

  20. The Research and Application of SURF Algorithm Based on Feature Point Selection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Fang Hu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As the pixel information of depth image is derived from the distance information, when implementing SURF algorithm with KINECT sensor for static sign language recognition, there can be some mismatched pairs in palm area. This paper proposes a feature point selection algorithm, by filtering the SURF feature points step by step based on the number of feature points within adaptive radius r and the distance between the two points, it not only greatly improves the recognition rate, but also ensures the robustness under the environmental factors, such as skin color, illumination intensity, complex background, angle and scale changes. The experiment results show that the improved SURF algorithm can effectively improve the recognition rate, has a good robustness.

  1. A Novel Image Retrieval Based on Visual Words Integration of SIFT and SURF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouman Ali

    Full Text Available With the recent evolution of technology, the number of image archives has increased exponentially. In Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR, high-level visual information is represented in the form of low-level features. The semantic gap between the low-level features and the high-level image concepts is an open research problem. In this paper, we present a novel visual words integration of Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT and Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF. The two local features representations are selected for image retrieval because SIFT is more robust to the change in scale and rotation, while SURF is robust to changes in illumination. The visual words integration of SIFT and SURF adds the robustness of both features to image retrieval. The qualitative and quantitative comparisons conducted on Corel-1000, Corel-1500, Corel-2000, Oliva and Torralba and Ground Truth image benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed visual words integration.

  2. Environmental Awareness of Surf Tourists: A Case Study in the Algarve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabia Frank

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Even though surf tourism in Portugal is an economic activity with a steady growth rate, there are not many assessment studies available. Using a survey undertaken in surf camps located in the Vila do Bispo County, this study aims to analyse the environmental awareness of surf tourists in the Algarve. Through the New Environmental Paradigm (NEP scale it is shown that the environmental attitudes of respondents are strongly pro-ecological but also reveal some anthropocentric aspects. Tourists were asked about their willingness to pay for an accommodation tax earmarked for environmental protection in the Algarve. The results show that the large majority (86% would be willing to pay, which indicates a high environmental awareness. It is also found that the willingness to pay is related to the nationality, with respondents from Germany, Austria and Switzerland showing a higher willingness to pay.

  3. High resolution satellite image indexing and retrieval using SURF features and bag of visual words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouteldja, Samia; Kourgli, Assia

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the performance of SURF descriptor for high resolution satellite imagery (HRSI) retrieval through a BoVW model on a land-use/land-cover (LULC) dataset. Local feature approaches such as SIFT and SURF descriptors can deal with a large variation of scale, rotation and illumination of the images, providing, therefore, a better discriminative power and retrieval efficiency than global features, especially for HRSI which contain a great range of objects and spatial patterns. Moreover, we combine SURF and color features to improve the retrieval accuracy, and we propose to learn a category-specific dictionary for each image category which results in a more discriminative image representation and boosts the image retrieval performance.

  4. Diurnal rhythm and concordance between objective and subjective hot flashes: The Hilo Women’s Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Lynnette L.; Reza, Angela; Mills, Phoebe; Morrison, Lynn; Rahberg, Nichole; Goodloe, Amber; Sutherland, Michael; Brown, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test for a diurnal pattern in hot flashes in a multi-ethnic population living in a hot, humid environment. To examine rates of concordance between objective and subjective measures of hot flashes using ambulatory and laboratory measures. Methods Study participants aged 45–55 were recruited from the general population of Hilo, Hawaii. Women wore a Biolog hot flash monitor, kept a diary for 24-hours, and also participated in 3-hour laboratory measures (n=199). Diurnal patterns were assessed using polynomial regression. For each woman, objectively recorded hot flashes that matched subjective experience were treated as true positive readings. Subjective hot flashes were considered the standard for computing false positive and false negative readings. True positive, false positive, and false negative readings were compared across ethnic groups by chi-square analyses. Results Frequencies of sternal, nuchal and subjective hot flashes peaked at 15:00 ± 1 hour with no difference by ethnicity. Laboratory results supported the pattern seen in ambulatory monitoring. Sternal and nuchal monitoring showed the same frequency of true positive measures, but non-sternal electrodes picked up more false positive readings. Laboratory monitoring showed very low frequencies of false negatives. There were no ethnic differences in the frequency of true positive or false positive measures. Women of European descent were more likely to report hot flashes that were not objectively demonstrated (false negative measures). Conclusions The diurnal pattern and peak in hot flash occurrence in the hot humid environment of Hilo was similar to results from more temperate environments. Lack of variation in sternal vs. non-sternal measures, and in true positive measures across ethnicities suggests no appreciable effect of population variation in sweating patterns. PMID:20220538

  5. Flood Hazard Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  6. Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  7. Base Flood Elevation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  8. Flood Risk Regional Flood Defences : Technical report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, M.; Jonkman, S.N.; Lendering, K.T.

    2015-01-01

    Historically the Netherlands have always had to deal with the threat of flooding, both from the rivers and the sea as well as from heavy rainfall. The country consists of a large amount of polders, which are low lying areas of land protected from flooding by embankments. These polders require an

  9. Heart Rate Responses of High School Students Participating in Surfing Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Michelle M; Cummins, Kevin M; Nessler, Jeff A; Newcomer, Sean C

    2016-06-01

    Despite the nation's rising epidemic of childhood obesity and diabetes, schools struggle to promote physical activities that help reduce risks for cardiovascular disease. Emerging data suggest that adopting novel activities into physical education (PE) curriculum may serve as an effective strategy for increasing physical activity in children. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize activity in the water and heart rates (HRs) of high school students participating in surf PE courses. Twenty-four male (n = 20) and female (n = 4) high school students (mean age = 16.7 ± 1.0 years) who were enrolled in surf PE courses at 2 high schools participated in this investigation. Daily measurements of surfing durations, average HR, and maximum HR were made on the students with HR monitors (PolarFT1) over an 8-week period. In addition, HR and activity in the water was evaluated during a single session in a subset of students (n = 11) using a HR monitor (PolarRCX5) and a video camera (Canon HD). Activity and HR were synchronized and evaluated in 5-second intervals during data analyses. The average duration that PE students participated in surfing during class was 61.7 ± 1.0 minutes. Stationary, paddling, wave riding, and miscellaneous activities comprised 42.7 ± 9.5, 36.7 ± 7.9, 2.9 ± 1.4, and 17.8 ± 11.4 percent of the surf session, respectively. The average and maximum HRs during these activities were 131.1 ± 0.9 and 177.2 ± 1.0 b·min, respectively. These data suggest that high school students participating in surf PE attained HRs and durations that are consistent with recommendations with cardiovascular fitness and health. In the future, PE programs should consider incorporating other action sports into their curriculum to enhance cardiovascular health.

  10. SurF: an innovative framework in biosecurity and animal health surveillance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellner, Petra; Watts, Jonathan; Bingham, Paul; Bullians, Mark; Gould, Brendan; Pande, Anjali; Riding, Tim; Stevens, Paul; Vink, Daan; Stärk, Katharina Dc

    2018-05-16

    Surveillance for biosecurity hazards is being conducted by the New Zealand Competent Authority, the Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) to support New Zealand's biosecurity system. Surveillance evaluation should be an integral part of the surveillance life cycle, as it provides a means to identify and correct problems and to sustain and enhance the existing strengths of a surveillance system. The surveillance evaluation Framework (SurF) presented here was developed to provide a generic framework within which the MPI biosecurity surveillance portfolio, and all of its components, can be consistently assessed. SurF is an innovative, cross-sectoral effort that aims to provide a common umbrella for surveillance evaluation in the animal, plant, environment and aquatic sectors. It supports the conduct of the following four distinct components of an evaluation project: (i) motivation for the evaluation, (ii) scope of the evaluation, (iii) evaluation design and implementation and (iv) reporting and communication of evaluation outputs. Case studies, prepared by MPI subject matter experts, are included in the framework to guide users in their assessment. Three case studies were used in the development of SurF in order to assure practical utility and to confirm usability of SurF across all included sectors. It is anticipated that the structured approach and information provided by SurF will not only be of benefit to MPI but also to other New Zealand stakeholders. Although SurF was developed for internal use by MPI, it could be applied to any surveillance system in New Zealand or elsewhere. © 2018 2018 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. SURF: Taking Sustainable Remediation from Concept to Standard Operating Procedure (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. M.; Wice, R. B.; Torrens, J.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade, many sectors of industrialized society have been rethinking behavior and re-engineering practices to reduce consumption of energy and natural resources. During this time, green and sustainable remediation (GSR) has evolved from conceptual discussions to standard operating procedure for many environmental remediation practitioners. Government agencies and private sector entities have incorporated GSR metrics into their performance criteria and contracting documents. One of the early think tanks for the development of GSR was the Sustainable Remediation Forum (SURF). SURF brings together representatives of government, industry, consultancy, and academia to parse the means and ends of incorporating societal and economic considerations into environmental cleanup projects. Faced with decades-old treatment programs with high energy outputs and no endpoints in sight, a small group of individuals published the institutional knowledge gathered in two years of ad hoc meetings into a 2009 White Paper on sustainable remediation drivers, practices, objectives, and case studies. Since then, SURF has expanded on those introductory topics, publishing its Framework for Integrating Sustainability into Remediation Projects, Guidance for Performing Footprint Analyses and Life-Cycle Assessments for the Remediation Industry, a compendium of metrics, and a call to improve the integration of land remediation and reuse. SURF's research and members have also been instrumental in the development of additional guidance through ASTM International and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council. SURF's current efforts focus on water reuse, the international perspective on GSR (continuing the conversations that were the basis of SURF's December 2012 meeting at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC), and ways to capture and evaluate the societal benefits of site remediation. SURF also promotes and supports student chapters at universities across the US

  12. Run-up of tsunamis and long waves in terms of surf-similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.

    2008-01-01

    of the surf-similarity parameter and the amplitude to depth ratio determined at some offshore location. We use the analytical expressions to analyze the impact of tsunamis on beaches and relate the discussion to the recent Indian Ocean tsunami from December 26, 2004. An important conclusion is that extreme...... run-up combined with extreme flow velocities occurs for surf-similarity parameters of the order 3-6, and for typical tsunami wave periods this requires relatively mild beach slopes. Next, we compare the theoretical solutions to measured run-up of breaking and non-breaking irregular waves on steep...

  13. A Preliminary Assessment of the SURF Reactive Burn Model Implementation in FLAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Carl Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McCombe, Ryan Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carver, Kyle [United States Air Force, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-09-18

    Properly validated and calibrated reactive burn models (RBM) can be useful engineering tools for assessing high explosive performance and safety. Experiments with high explosives are expensive. Inexpensive RBM calculations are increasingly relied on for predictive analysis for performance and safety. This report discusses the validation of Menikoff and Shaw’s SURF reactive burn model, which has recently been implemented in the FLAG code. The LANL Gapstick experiment is discussed as is its’ utility in reactive burn model validation. Data obtained from pRad for the LT-63 series is also presented along with FLAG simulations using SURF for both PBX 9501 and PBX 9502. Calibration parameters for both explosives are presented.

  14. COMPETING FOR WAVES: THE UNJUST REALITY OF WOMEN´S POSITION IN THE WORLD OF SURFING

    OpenAIRE

    İNCE YENİLMEZ, Meltem; ÇELİK, Onur Burak

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the years, women have suffered from oppression delivered by the male chauvinism. This maltreatment was present in every aspect of life, and surf was no exception. Since surfing has existed, it has been thought to be a sport just for men. Has this misconception driven women to avoid the sport at all costs for several years and dedicate themselves to completely different activities? This paper will provide an insight on the evolution of women´s role in this sport. Moreover, the situa...

  15. Pressure Gradients in the Inner Surf and Outer Swash Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, A.; Puleo, J. A.; Torres-Freyermuth, A.

    2010-12-01

    The swash zone is a highly dynamic region of the beach profile. Although there has been significant progression in understanding the complex hydrodynamics of the swash zone, an improvement in the understanding of the sediment transport mechanisms deserves further investigation. Prior studies have demonstrated that the existing formulations derived from the energetics-type formulation do not accurately and consistently predict sediment transport. Thus, measurements and numerical modeling can contribute in the improvement of the current predictive capability of sediment transport. A potential enhancement to nearshore sediment transport is the horizontal pressure gradient. However, measuring the dynamic pressure gradient in nearshore flows is a difficult task. For instance, standard pressure sensors are generally ill-suited for this type of measurement in shallow swash flows due to the obstructing size of the sensor and the potential for flow interference. With improved measurement apparati and techniques, it is possible to obtain measurements of the horizontal pressure gradient. Our current research includes laboratory and numerical model investigation of the horizontal pressure gradient in the inner surf and outer swash zone. An inexpensive differential pressure gauge is employed allowing for a pressure port on the order of 2 mm diameter. Four pressure sensor pairs are installed 1 cm above the bed with a cross-shore spacing of 8 cm. The sensors are deployed just outside of and at various locations within the outer swash zone to determine spatio-temporal pressure variations. The measurement of total pressure coupled with the corresponding free surface measurements from co-located capacitance wave gauges yields time series of the hydrostatic and dynamic pressure and pressure gradients. A VOF-type RANS model is employed in this investigation. Firstly, the numerical model is validated with swash measurements. Then, model simulations will be performed in order to

  16. Urban pluvial flood prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk; Jensen, David Getreuer

    2016-01-01

    Flooding produced by high-intensive local rainfall and drainage system capacity exceedance can have severe impacts in cities. In order to prepare cities for these types of flood events – especially in the future climate – it is valuable to be able to simulate these events numerically both...... historically and in real-time. There is a rather untested potential in real-time prediction of urban floods. In this paper radar data observations with different spatial and temporal resolution, radar nowcasts of 0–2 h lead time, and numerical weather models with lead times up to 24 h are used as inputs...... to an integrated flood and drainage systems model in order to investigate the relative difference between different inputs in predicting future floods. The system is tested on a small town Lystrup in Denmark, which has been flooded in 2012 and 2014. Results show it is possible to generate detailed flood maps...

  17. FLOOD MENACE IN KADUNA METROPOLIS: IMPACTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    damage, causes of flooding, human response to flooding and severity of ... from moving out. Source of ... Man responds to flood hazards through adjustment, flood abatement ... action to minimize or ameliorate flood hazards; flood abatement.

  18. Field Observations of Surf Zone-Inner Shelf Exchange on a Rip-Channeled Beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.A.; MacMahan, J.H.; Reniers, A.J.H.M.; Thornton, E.B.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-shore exchange between the surf zone and the inner shelf is investigated using Lagrangian and Eulerian field measurements of rip current flows on a rip-channeled beach in Sand City, California. Surface drifters released on the inner shelf during weak wind conditions moved seaward due to rip

  19. Surf zone fish diet as an indicator of environmental and anthropogenic influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Leonardo Lopes; Zalmon, Ilana Rosental

    2017-10-01

    Changes in species' abundance have been used as indicators of environmental and anthropogenic disturbances. However, sublethal, e.g., diet, changes should be detected before some alterations in the composition and structure of fish assemblages occur as a result of ecological negative impacts. The objective of the present study was to assess possible changes in surf zone fish diet in response to environmental and anthropogenic disturbances. Surf zone fish were sampled and their stomach contents were analyzed on two sandy beaches under different levels of human pressure in Southeastern Brazil. Habitat variables related to seasonality, food availability, anthropogenic disturbance, upwelling and river influence were measured as follows: (1) wave height; (2) water temperature; (3) intertidal macroinvertebrates abundance; (4) solid waste amount; (5) salinity; (6) particulate organic carbon (POC) and (7) chlorophyll a (Chl a). Our results showed the influence of seasonality, prey abundance and hydrodynamics in prey selection, and diet overlap between typical surf zone residents. A literature search was also performed and it shows that insects and Emerita brasiliensis eggs, which were the main food item consumed by some surf zone fish at urbanized Brazilian beaches, are unusual worldwide. Furthermore, solid waste was related to high consumption of insects by pompanos fish in urbanized areas, suggesting that this fish diet could be a sublethal indicator of human impact on sandy beaches.

  20. A generative Bezier curve model for surf-zone tracking in coastal image sequences

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burke, Michael G

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work introduces a generative Bezier curve model suitable for surf-zone curve tracking in coastal image sequences. The model combines an adaptive curve parametrised by control points governed by local random walks with a global sinusoidal motion...

  1. The effects of surfing and the natural environment on the well-being of combat veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddick, Nick; Smith, Brett; Phoenix, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    Although researchers have identified the benefits of physical activity on well-being, there is little evidence concerning the effects of nature-based physical activity. We investigated the effect of one nature-based activity-surfing-on the well-being of combat veterans experiencing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We conducted interviews and participant observations with a group of combat veterans belonging to a United Kingdom-based veterans' surfing charity. Our primary analytical approach was dialogical narrative analysis. Based on our rigorous analysis and findings, we suggest that surfing facilitated a sense of respite from PTSD. Respite was a fully embodied feeling of release from suffering that was cultivated through surfing and shaped by the stories veterans told of their experiences. We significantly extend previous knowledge on physical activity, combat veterans, and PTSD by highlighting how nature-based physical activity, encapsulated in the conceptual notion of the "blue gym," can promote well-being among combat veterans. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. The Ocean as a Unique Therapeutic Environment: Developing a Surfing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Emily D.; Armitano, Cortney N.; Lamont, Linda S.; Audette, Jennifer G.

    2014-01-01

    Educational aquatic programming offers necessary physical activity opportunities to children with disabilities and the benefits of aquatic activities are more pronounced for children with disabilities than for their able-bodied peers. Similar benefits could potentially be derived from surfing in the ocean. This article describes an adapted surfing…

  3. Study on Low Illumination Simultaneous Polarization Image Registration Based on Improved SURF Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanjun; Yang, Xu

    2017-12-01

    Registration of simultaneous polarization images is the premise of subsequent image fusion operations. However, in the process of shooting all-weather, the polarized camera exposure time need to be kept unchanged, sometimes polarization images under low illumination conditions due to too dark result in SURF algorithm can not extract feature points, thus unable to complete the registration, therefore this paper proposes an improved SURF algorithm. Firstly, the luminance operator is used to improve overall brightness of low illumination image, and then create integral image, using Hession matrix to extract the points of interest to get the main direction of characteristic points, calculate Haar wavelet response in X and Y directions to get the SURF descriptor information, then use the RANSAC function to make precise matching, the function can eliminate wrong matching points and improve accuracy rate. And finally resume the brightness of the polarized image after registration, the effect of the polarized image is not affected. Results show that the improved SURF algorithm can be applied well under low illumination conditions.

  4. Deleterious mutations can surf to high densities on the wave front of an expanding population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Justin M J; Münkemüller, Tamara; Burton, Olivia J; Best, Alex; Dytham, Calvin; Johst, Karin

    2007-10-01

    There is an increasing recognition that evolutionary processes play a key role in determining the dynamics of range expansion. Recent work demonstrates that neutral mutations arising near the edge of a range expansion sometimes surf on the expanding front leading them rather than that leads to reach much greater spatial distribution and frequency than expected in stationary populations. Here, we extend this work and examine the surfing behavior of nonneutral mutations. Using an individual-based coupled-map lattice model, we confirm that, regardless of its fitness effects, the probability of survival of a new mutation depends strongly upon where it arises in relation to the expanding wave front. We demonstrate that the surfing effect can lead to deleterious mutations reaching high densities at an expanding front, even when they have substantial negative effects on fitness. Additionally, we highlight that this surfing phenomenon can occur for mutations that impact reproductive rate (i.e., number of offspring produced) as well as mutations that modify juvenile competitive ability. We suggest that these effects are likely to have important consequences for rates of spread and the evolution of spatially expanding populations.

  5. Clay-oil flocculation during surf washing at the Sea Empress incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, P.; Lunel, T.; Bailey, N.; Lee, K.

    1997-01-01

    Results of investigations into clay-oil flocculation during surf washing of oiled cobbles at Marros Beach, as a response to oiling during the Sea Empress incident, were summarized. Stranded oil on the cobble storm beach was found to associate with fine minerals and form flocs when introduced into sea water. The emulsions persisted for about 14 days after the oiling, after which it begun to disintegrate. After 50 days the remaining emulsion was found to be unstable and penetrated the beach to depths of up to three meters. Since no evidence of biodegradation was found during this period, oil reduction was attributed to sheening, facilitated by tidal fluctuations. Surf washing operation was undertaken over a seven day period beginning 47 days after the spill. Some 8150 tonnes of oiled cobbles were moved a distance of between 12 and 18 m seaward along a length of 850 m. Analysis of samples after two days following surf washing showed that oil concentration did not exceed 22 ppm, compared to 700 ppm before relocation. The significant reduction was considered to have been the result of enhanced oil dispersion coupled with the effects of the surf washing operations. 10 refs., 7 tabs., 10 figs

  6. Seabed Gradient Controlling Onshore Transport Rates of Surf Sand during Beach Retreat by Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Jun; Yi, Hi-Il

    2018-03-01

    A simple relationship is proposed for the onshore transport rates of surf-zone sand to evaluate the beach retreat caused by sea level rise. It suggests that the preservation potential of surf sand is proportional inversely to the seabed gradient during beach retreat. According to this relationship, the erosional remnants of surf sand would be more readily developed on a gentler shelf collectively as transgressive sand sheets. This finding may explain the previous studies regarding the Korean shelves that proposed that the Holocene transgressive sand sheets (HTSS) occur not in the steep eastern shelf but in the gentle western shelf. In line with such presence/absence of the HTSS are the results from some coastal seismic profiles obtained in the present study. The profiles indicate that sand deposits are restricted within the nearshore in the eastern coast, whereas they are persistently traceable to the offshore HTSS in the western coast. Tide is proven to have a negligible influence on the total duration of surf-zone processes. This study may be useful in predicting the consequences of the beach retreat that takes place worldwide as sea levels rise as a result of global warming.

  7. Drug Take Back in Hawai‘i: Partnership Between the University of Hawai‘i Hilo College of Pharmacy and the Narcotics Enforcement Division

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Carolyn S; Batz, Forrest; Juarez, Deborah Taira; Ladao, Lani C

    2014-01-01

    Unused/unwanted medications in households and patient care facilities expose vulnerable populations, including children, elders, and pets, to potential harm through inadvertent ingestion, as well as the potential for theft and assault. Hawai‘i Administrative Rules prohibit the return of any prescription medications to retail pharmacies after dispensing. The Hawai‘i Narcotics Enforcement Division (NED) partnered with the University of Hawai‘i at Hilo Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy (CoP) ...

  8. Exploring Critical Alternatives for Youth Development through Lifestyle Sport: Surfing and Community Development in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Wheaton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While competition-based team sports remain dominant in community and sport-for-development programs, researchers are exploring the value of alternative, less “sportized” activities such as lifestyle/action sports. In this paper, we explore the ways in which surfing is being used in development programs in Aotearoa/New Zealand, examining the perceived social benefits and impact. Our methods involved: (a mapping the range of surfing projects; and (b 8 in-depth interviews with program personnel. Widespread conviction in the positive developmental benefits of surfing was evident, and that surfing had a “special” capacity to reform or heal those who participate in it. However, the ways in which individuals’ self-developments were promoted appear to be following the traditional sport/youth development path. They focus on policies aimed at improved life chances, equipping youth with the tools for self-improvement and self-management, inculcating self-governance and self-reliance. However, a counter narrative co-existed, highlighting surfing as a freeing experience, which, rather than restoring social order, works to instigate a personal transformation or awakening. Despite the range of challenges presented by surfing as a tool for positive development, surfing presents a potentially “critical alternative” which if sport-for-development programs are to be a form of social change, we should remain open to exploring.

  9. Identification of an evolutionary conserved SURF-6 domain in a family of nucleolar proteins extending from human to yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polzikov, Mikhail; Zatsepina, Olga; Magoulas, Charalambos

    2005-01-01

    The mammalian SURF-6 protein is localized in the nucleolus, yet its function remains elusive in the recently characterized nucleolar proteome. We discovered by searching the Protein families database that a unique evolutionary conserved SURF-6 domain is present in the carboxy-terminal of a novel family of eukaryotic proteins extending from human to yeast. By using the enhanced green fluorescent protein as a fusion protein marker in mammalian cells, we show that proteins from distantly related taxonomic groups containing the SURF-6 domain are localized in the nucleolus. Deletion sequence analysis shows that multiple regions of the SURF-6 protein are capable of nucleolar targeting independently of the evolutionary conserved domain. We identified that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae member of the SURF-6 family, named rrp14 or ykl082c, has been categorized in yeast databases to interact with proteins involved in ribosomal biogenesis and cell polarity. These results classify SURF-6 as a new family of nucleolar proteins in the eukaryotic kingdom and point out that SURF-6 has a distinct domain within the known nucleolar proteome that may mediate complex protein-protein interactions for analogous processes between yeast and mammalian cells

  10. 75 FR 11744 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Aupuni Street, Hilo, HI 96720. Hawaii (FEMA Docket No: B- Unincorporated areas March 12, 2009; The... 09-1568P). Hawaii Tribune- County, 25 Aupuni Herald. Street, Hilo, HI 96720. Idaho: Blaine (FEMA.... Chairperson, Henry County Board of Commissioners, 140 Henry Parkway, McDonough, GA 30253. Hawaii: Hawaii (FEMA...

  11. ImageSURF: An ImageJ Plugin for Batch Pixel-Based Image Segmentation Using Random Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan O'Mara

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation is a necessary step in automated quantitative imaging. ImageSURF is a macro-compatible ImageJ2/FIJI plugin for pixel-based image segmentation that considers a range of image derivatives to train pixel classifiers which are then applied to image sets of any size to produce segmentations without bias in a consistent, transparent and reproducible manner. The plugin is available from ImageJ update site http://sites.imagej.net/ImageSURF/ and source code from https://github.com/omaraa/ImageSURF. Funding statement: This research was supported by an Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship.

  12. Mauna Loa lava accumulation rates at the Hilo drill site: Formation of lava deltas during a period of declining overall volcanic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, P.W.; Moore, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    Accumulation rates for lava flows erupted from Mauna Loa, as sampled in the uppermost 280 m of the Hilo drill hole, vary widely for short time intervals (several thousand years), but overall are broadly similar to those documented elsewhere on this volcano since 100 ka. Thickness variations and accumulation rates for Mauna Loa lavas at the Hilo drill site have been strongly affected by local paleotopography, including funneling and ponding between Mauna Kea and Kilauea. In addition, gentle submerged slopes of Mauna Kea in Hilo Bay have permitted large shoreline displacements by Mauna Loa flows. Ages of eruptive intervals have been determined from published isotopic data and from eustatic sea level curves modified to include the isostatic subsidence of the island of Hawaii at 2.2-2.6 mm/yr. Prior to 10 ka, rates of Mauna Loa lava accumulation at the drill site varied from 0.6 to 4.3 mm/yr for dateable intervals, with an overall rate of 1.8 mm/yr. Major eruptive pulses at about 1.3 and 10 ka, each probably representing a single long-lived eruption based on lack of weathering between flow units, increase the overall accumulation rate to 2.4 mm/yr. The higher rate since 10 ka reflects construction of thick near-shoreline lava deltas as postglacial sea levels rose rapidly. Large lava deltas form only along coastal segments where initially subaerial slopes have been submerged by the combined effects of eustatic sea level rise, isostatic subsidence, or spreading of volcano flanks. Overall accumulation of 239 m of lava at the drill site since 100-120 ka closely balances submergence of the Hilo area, suggesting that processes of coastal lava deposition have been modulated by rise in sea level. The Hilo accumulation rate is slightly higher than average rates of 1-2 mm/yr determined elsewhere along the Mauna Loa coast, based on rates of shoreline coverage and dated sea cliff and fault scarp exposures. Low rates of coastal lava accumulation since 100 ka, near or below the rate

  13. Bubble Clouds and their Transport within the Surf Zone as Measured with a Distributed Array of Upward-Looking Sonars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dahl, Peter

    2000-01-01

    ... in the surf zone and the effects of these bubbles on acoustic propagation. This paper discusses data gathered by the Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, using a set of four upward-looking sonars (frequency 240 kHz...

  14. Spatially Uniform ReliefF (SURF for computationally-efficient filtering of gene-gene interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greene Casey S

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide association studies are becoming the de facto standard in the genetic analysis of common human diseases. Given the complexity and robustness of biological networks such diseases are unlikely to be the result of single points of failure but instead likely arise from the joint failure of two or more interacting components. The hope in genome-wide screens is that these points of failure can be linked to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs which confer disease susceptibility. Detecting interacting variants that lead to disease in the absence of single-gene effects is difficult however, and methods to exhaustively analyze sets of these variants for interactions are combinatorial in nature thus making them computationally infeasible. Efficient algorithms which can detect interacting SNPs are needed. ReliefF is one such promising algorithm, although it has low success rate for noisy datasets when the interaction effect is small. ReliefF has been paired with an iterative approach, Tuned ReliefF (TuRF, which improves the estimation of weights in noisy data but does not fundamentally change the underlying ReliefF algorithm. To improve the sensitivity of studies using these methods to detect small effects we introduce Spatially Uniform ReliefF (SURF. Results SURF's ability to detect interactions in this domain is significantly greater than that of ReliefF. Similarly SURF, in combination with the TuRF strategy significantly outperforms TuRF alone for SNP selection under an epistasis model. It is important to note that this success rate increase does not require an increase in algorithmic complexity and allows for increased success rate, even with the removal of a nuisance parameter from the algorithm. Conclusion Researchers performing genetic association studies and aiming to discover gene-gene interactions associated with increased disease susceptibility should use SURF in place of ReliefF. For instance, SURF should be

  15. Drones at the Beach - Surf Zone Monitoring Using Rotary Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynne, P.; Brouwer, R.; de Schipper, M. A.; Graham, F.; Reniers, A.; MacMahan, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the potential of rotary wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to monitor the surf zone. In recent years, the arrival of lightweight, high-capacity batteries, low-power electronics and compact high-definition cameras has driven the development of commercially available UAVs for hobbyists. Moreover, the low operation costs have increased their potential for scientific research as these UAVs are extremely flexible surveying platforms. The UAVs can fly for ~12 min with a mean loiter radius of 1 - 3.5 m and a mean loiter error of 0.75 - 4.5 m, depending on the environmental conditions, flying style, battery type and vehicle type. Our experiments using multiple, alternating UAVs show that it is possible to have near continuous imagery data with similar Fields Of View. The images obtained from the UAVs (Fig. 1a), and in combination with surveyed Ground Control Points (GCPs) (Fig. 1b, red squares and white circles), can be geo-rectified (Fig. 1c) to pixel resolution between 0.01 - 1 m and a reprojection error, i.e. the difference between the surveyed GPS location of a GCP and the location of the GCP obtained from the geo-rectified image, of O(1 m). These geo-rectified images provide data on a variety of coastal aspects, such as beach width (Wb(x,t)), surf zone width (Wsf(x,t)), wave breaking location (rectangle B), beach usage (circle C) and location of dune vegegation (rectangle D), amongst others. Additionally, the possibility to have consecutive, high frequency (up to 2 Hz) rectified images makes the UAVs a great data instrument for spatially and temporally variable systems, such as the surf zone. Our first observations with the UAVs reveal the potential to quickly obtain surf zone and beach characteristics in response to storms or for day to day beach information, as well as the scientific pursuits of surf zone kinematics on different spatial and temporal scales, and dispersion and advection estimates of pollutants/dye. A selection of findings from

  16. Car surfing: an underreported mechanism of serious injury in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, J D; Newsted, J; Drongowski, R A; Lelli, J L

    2001-01-01

    Car surfing, in which participants stand on top of a moving vehicle as though it were a surfboard, has been reported as a cause of traumatic injury in only 5 cases in the literature. Over the last 8 years, however, the authors have treated 26 children, primarily adolescents, for injuries resulting from car surfing. This report describes the injuries and outcomes of this potentially underreported mechanism of injury. Medical records of 26 patients treated for car surfing injuries between 1991 and 1999 were reviewed. Demographics, hospital course, and type and severity of injuries were analyzed. Eighteen boys (69%) and 8 girls (31%) with an average age of 15.7+/-3.4 years (range, 6 to 22) have presented with injuries related to car surfing. All patients had fallen from the hood, roof, or trunk of a moving motor vehicle, the majority falling from the hood (n = 13; 50%). Injury severity was evaluated using the Injury Severity Scores (ISS; 12.4+/-6.5), Revised Trauma Score (RTS; 7.5+/- 1.1) and Glasgow Coma Score (GCS; 13.5+/-3.2). Injury severity was equivalent between boys and girls (P>.05). Central nervous system injuries predominated, with closed head injuries occurring in 22 (85%) and loss of consciousness in 10 (39%). Skull fractures occurred in 11 (42%) and intracranial bleeding in 9 (35%). Long-term cognitive rehabilitation was necessary in 22 (85%) patients. Three patients (12%) had spinal column fractures, with 2 (8%) suffering permanent paralysis. Two extremity (8%) and 3 (11.7%) pelvic fractures occurred. Most patients (73%) suffered significant skin and soft tissue injuries. Two patients (8%) presented with solid visceral injuries, and 1 child died. Car surfing is an extremely high-risk behavior in children and adolescents that leads to significant morbidity, long-term disability, and is potentially fatal. The incidence of car surfing may be greater than has been reported previously; therefore, prevention programs aimed at discouraging this high

  17. Cytochrome C oxydase deficiency: SURF1 gene investigation in patients with Leigh syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalej, Marwa; Kammoun, Thouraya; Alila-Fersi, Olfa; Kharrat, Marwa; Ammar, Marwa; Felhi, Rahma; Mkaouar-Rebai, Emna; Keskes, Leila; Hachicha, Mongia; Fakhfakh, Faiza

    2018-03-18

    Leigh syndrome (LS) is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disorder occurring in infancy. The most common clinical signs reported in LS are growth retardation, optic atrophy, ataxia, psychomotor retardation, dystonia, hypotonia, seizures and respiratory disorders. The paper reported a manifestation of 3 Tunisian patients presented with LS syndrome. The aim of this study is the MT[HYPHEN]ATP6 and SURF1 gene screening in Tunisian patients affected with classical Leigh syndrome and the computational investigation of the effect of detected mutations on its structure and functions by clinical and bioinformatics analyses. After clinical investigations, three Tunisian patients were tested for mutations in both MT-ATP6 and SURF1 genes by direct sequencing followed by in silico analyses to predict the effects of sequence variation. The result of mutational analysis revealed the absence of mitochondrial mutations in MT-ATP6 gene and the presence of a known homozygous splice site mutation c.516-517delAG in sibling patients added to the presence of a novel double het mutations in LS patient (c.752-18 A > C/c. c.751 + 16G > A). In silico analyses of theses intronic variations showed that it could alters splicing processes as well as SURF1 protein translation. Leigh syndrome (LS) is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disorder occurring in infancy. The most common clinical signs reported in LS are growth retardation, optic atrophy, ataxia, psychomotor retardation, dystonia, hypotonia, seizures and respiratory disorders. The paper reported a manifestation of 3 Tunisian patients presented with LS syndrome. The aim of this study is MT-ATP6 and SURF1 genes screening in Tunisian patients affected with classical Leigh syndrome and the computational investigation of the effect of detected mutations on its structure and functions. After clinical investigations, three Tunisian patients were tested for mutations in both MT-ATP6 and SURF1 genes by direct sequencing followed by in

  18. Composition, Shell Strength, and Metabolizable Energy of Mulinia lateralis and Ischadium recurvum as Food for Wintering Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia M Wells-Berlin

    Full Text Available Decline in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata waterfowl populations wintering in the Chesapeake Bay has been associated with changes in the availability of benthic bivalves. The Bay has become more eutrophic, causing changes in the benthos available to surf scoters. The subsequent decline in oyster beds (Crassostrea virginica has reduced the hard substrate needed by the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum, one of the primary prey items for surf scoters, causing the surf scoter to switch to a more opportune species, the dwarf surfclam (Mulinia lateralis. The composition (macronutrients, minerals, and amino acids, shell strength (N, and metabolizable energy (kJ of these prey items were quantified to determine the relative foraging values for wintering scoters. Pooled samples of each prey item were analyzed to determine composition. Shell strength (N was measured using a shell crack compression test. Total collection digestibility trials were conducted on eight captive surf scoters. For the prey size range commonly consumed by surf scoters (6-12 mm for M. lateralis and 18-24 mm for I. recurvum, I. recurvum contained higher ash, protein, lipid, and energy per individual organism than M. lateralis. I. recurvum required significantly greater force to crack the shell relative to M. lateralis. No difference in metabolized energy was observed for these prey items in wintering surf scoters, despite I. recurvum's higher ash content and harder shell than M. lateralis. Therefore, wintering surf scoters were able to obtain the same amount of energy from each prey item, implying that they can sustain themselves if forced to switch prey.

  19. Exploring Critical Alternatives for Youth Development through Lifestyle Sport: Surfing and Community Development in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Belinda Wheaton; Georgina Roy; Rebecca Olive

    2017-01-01

    While competition-based team sports remain dominant in community and sport-for-development programs, researchers are exploring the value of alternative, less “sportized” activities such as lifestyle/action sports. In this paper, we explore the ways in which surfing is being used in development programs in Aotearoa/New Zealand, examining the perceived social benefits and impact. Our methods involved: (a) mapping the range of surfing projects; and (b) 8 in-depth interviews with program personne...

  20. Discover Floods Educators Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project WET Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Now available as a Download! This valuable resource helps educators teach students about both the risks and benefits of flooding through a series of engaging, hands-on activities. Acknowledging the different roles that floods play in both natural and urban communities, the book helps young people gain a global understanding of this common--and…

  1. Decreased in vitro mitochondrial function is associated with enhanced brain metabolism, blood flow, and memory in Surf1-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Pulliam, Daniel A; Deepa, Sathyaseelan S; Halloran, Jonathan J; Hussong, Stacy A; Burbank, Raquel R; Bresnen, Andrew; Liu, Yuhong; Podlutskaya, Natalia; Soundararajan, Anuradha; Muir, Eric; Duong, Timothy Q; Bokov, Alex F; Viscomi, Carlo; Zeviani, Massimo; Richardson, Arlan G; Van Remmen, Holly; Fox, Peter T; Galvan, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have challenged the prevailing view that reduced mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress are correlated with reduced longevity. Mice carrying a homozygous knockout (KO) of the Surf1 gene showed a significant decrease in mitochondrial electron transport chain Complex IV activity, yet displayed increased lifespan and reduced brain damage after excitotoxic insults. In the present study, we examined brain metabolism, brain hemodynamics, and memory of Surf1 KO mice using in vitro measures of mitochondrial function, in vivo neuroimaging, and behavioral testing. We show that decreased respiration and increased generation of hydrogen peroxide in isolated Surf1 KO brain mitochondria are associated with increased brain glucose metabolism, cerebral blood flow, and lactate levels, and with enhanced memory in Surf1 KO mice. These metabolic and functional changes in Surf1 KO brains were accompanied by higher levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha, and by increases in the activated form of cyclic AMP response element-binding factor, which is integral to memory formation. These findings suggest that Surf1 deficiency-induced metabolic alterations may have positive effects on brain function. Exploring the relationship between mitochondrial activity, oxidative stress, and brain function will enhance our understanding of cognitive aging and of age-related neurologic disorders. PMID:23838831

  2. Characterization of breeding habitats for black and surf scoters in the eastern boreal forest and subarctic regions of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Kidwell, D.M.; Wells, A.M.; Lohnes, E.J.R.; Osenton, P.C.; Altmann, S.H.; Hanson, Alan; Kerekes, Joseph; Paquet, Julie

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed characteristics of wetland habitats used by breeding black scoters (Melanitta nigra) and surf scoters (M. perspicillata) in the eastern boreal forest and subarctic regions of Canada based on satellite telemetry data collected in the spring and summer. During 2002 and 2004, nine black scoters (four males, five females) were tracked to breeding areas in Quebec, Manitoba, and Northwest Territories. In addition, in 2001?04, seven surf scoters (three males, four females) were tracked to breeding areas in Labrador, Quebec, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut. Based on satellite telemetry data, locations of black and surf scoters in breeding areas were not significantly different in regard to latitude and longitude. Presumed breeding areas were manually plotted on topographic maps and percent cover type and water were estimated. Breeding habitat of black scoters was significantly different than that for surf scoters, with black scoters mainly using open (tundra) areas (44%) and surf scoters using mainly forest areas (66%). Surf scoters presumed breeding areas were at significantly higher elevations than areas used by black scoters. Some breeding areas were associated with islands, but the role of islands for breeding areas is equivocal. These results aid in the identification of potentially critical breeding areas and provide a baseline classification of breeding habitats used by these two species.

  3. Flood action plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slopek, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Safe operating procedures developed by TransAlta Utilities for dealing with flooding, resulting from upstream dam failures or extreme rainfalls, were presented. Several operating curves developed by Monenco AGRA were described, among them the No Overtopping Curve (NOC), the Safe Filling Curve (SFC), the No Spill Curve (NSC) and the Guaranteed Fill Curve (GFC). The concept of an operational comfort zone was developed and defined. A flood action plan for all operating staff was created as a guide in case of a flooding incident. Staging of a flood action plan workshop was described. Dam break scenarios pertinent to the Bow River were developed for subsequent incorporation into a Flood Action Plan Manual. Evaluation of the technical presentations made during workshops were found them to have been effective in providing operating staff with a better understanding of the procedures that they would perform in an emergency. 8 figs

  4. SurfKin: an ab initio kinetic code for modeling surface reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thong Nguyen-Minh; Liu, Bin; Huynh, Lam K

    2014-10-05

    In this article, we describe a C/C++ program called SurfKin (Surface Kinetics) to construct microkinetic mechanisms for modeling gas-surface reactions. Thermodynamic properties of reaction species are estimated based on density functional theory calculations and statistical mechanics. Rate constants for elementary steps (including adsorption, desorption, and chemical reactions on surfaces) are calculated using the classical collision theory and transition state theory. Methane decomposition and water-gas shift reaction on Ni(111) surface were chosen as test cases to validate the code implementations. The good agreement with literature data suggests this is a powerful tool to facilitate the analysis of complex reactions on surfaces, and thus it helps to effectively construct detailed microkinetic mechanisms for such surface reactions. SurfKin also opens a possibility for designing nanoscale model catalysts. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Experimental and numerical investigation of the internal kinetics of a surf-zone plunging breaker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emarat, Narumon; Forehand, David I.M.; Christensen, Erik Damgaard

    2012-01-01

    Over the last couple of decades both the qualitative and quantitative understanding of breaking waves in the surf zone have greatly increased. This is due to the advances in experimental and numerical techniques. However, few comparisons between these two different investigative techniques...... for surfzone breaking waves have been reported. In this study, a comparison is made between the experimental and numerical investigation of the internal kinematics of a surf-zone plunging breaker. The full-field velocity measuring technique known as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is used in the experiments...... was found for all comparisons: free-surface elevations, velocity vector maps, velocity profiles and velocity-magnitude contours. However, some small discrepancies were observed. In the free-surface elevation comparisons, a slight time lag was observed in the numerical results and it is suggested...

  6. A change detection method for remote sensing image based on LBP and SURF feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lei; Yang, Hao; Li, Jin; Zhang, Yun

    2018-04-01

    Finding the change in multi-temporal remote sensing image is important in many the image application. Because of the infection of climate and illumination, the texture of the ground object is more stable relative to the gray in high-resolution remote sensing image. And the texture features of Local Binary Patterns (LBP) and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) are outstanding in extracting speed and illumination invariance. A method of change detection for matched remote sensing image pair is present, which compares the similarity by LBP and SURF to detect the change and unchanged of the block after blocking the image. And region growing is adopted to process the block edge zone. The experiment results show that the method can endure some illumination change and slight texture change of the ground object.

  7. Sobre as ondas: surfe, juventude e cultura no Rio de Janeiro dos anos 1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Dias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Na segunda metade do século XX, torna-se explícita a influência mundial dos Estados Unidos no âmbito esportivo. A disseminação de práticas que possuíam marcas culturais norte-americanas, como é o caso do surfe, não deve ser considerada, contudo, somente como resultado de uma imposição unilateral: há múltiplas apropriações locais que dizem muito sobre o contexto do receptor. Partindo dessa consideração, este artigo objetiva discutir a apreensão do surfe no Rio de Janeiro dos anos 1960. Buscamos debater como a modalidade foi operada como marcador de identidades a partir de vinculações a certas noções de juventude e estilo de vida.

  8. The positive impact of structured surfing courses on the wellbeing of vulnerable young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Cath; Devine-Wright, Hannah; Taylor, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Involvement in positive leisure activities is a key way for young people to develop resilience and social and emotional skills. This paper outlines the evaluation of a six-week surfing intervention, the Wave Project, which aimed to boost wellbeing and confidence among 84 young people aged eight to 18, all of whom faced mental health issues or social exclusion. The intervention resulted in a significant and sustained increase in wellbeing. One year later, 70% of clients regularly attend a surf club and many have become trained as session volunteers. Parents and referrers noticed an increase in positive attitude and better communication, as well as improved self-management and behaviour at both home and school It is concluded that the Wave Project provides a demonstrable and cost-effective way to deliver mental health care, mentoring and social integration of young people. Further service evaluation of accessibility and long-term outcomes is also recommended.

  9. InterProSurf: a web server for predicting interacting sites on protein surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Surendra S.; Schein, Catherine H.; Oezguen, Numan; Power, Trevor D.; Braun, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Summary A new web server, InterProSurf, predicts interacting amino acid residues in proteins that are most likely to interact with other proteins, given the 3D structures of subunits of a protein complex. The prediction method is based on solvent accessible surface area of residues in the isolated subunits, a propensity scale for interface residues and a clustering algorithm to identify surface regions with residues of high interface propensities. Here we illustrate the application of InterProSurf to determine which areas of Bacillus anthracis toxins and measles virus hemagglutinin protein interact with their respective cell surface receptors. The computationally predicted regions overlap with those regions previously identified as interface regions by sequence analysis and mutagenesis experiments. PMID:17933856

  10. Model comparisons of the reactive burn model SURF in three ASC codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitley, Von Howard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stalsberg, Krista Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reichelt, Benjamin Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Shipley, Sarah Jayne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-12

    A study of the SURF reactive burn model was performed in FLAG, PAGOSA and XRAGE. In this study, three different shock-to-detonation transition experiments were modeled in each code. All three codes produced similar model results for all the experiments modeled and at all resolutions. Buildup-to-detonation time, particle velocities and resolution dependence of the models was notably similar between the codes. Given the current PBX 9502 equations of state and SURF calibrations, each code is equally capable of predicting the correct detonation time and distance when impacted by a 1D impactor at pressures ranging from 10-16 GPa, as long as the resolution of the mesh is not too coarse.

  11. Discriminative region extraction and feature selection based on the combination of SURF and saliency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li; Wang, Chunhong; Rao, Changhui

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a possible optimization on salient region algorithm, which is extensively used in recognizing and learning object categories. Salient region algorithm owns the superiority of intra-class tolerance, global score of features and automatically prominent scale selection under certain range. However, the major limitation behaves on performance, and that is what we attempt to improve. By reducing the number of pixels involved in saliency calculation, it can be accelerated. We use interest points detected by fast-Hessian, the detector of SURF, as the candidate feature for saliency operation, rather than the whole set in image. This implementation is thereby called Saliency based Optimization over SURF (SOSU for short). Experiment shows that bringing in of such a fast detector significantly speeds up the algorithm. Meanwhile, Robustness of intra-class diversity ensures object recognition accuracy.

  12. The Design and Implementation of a Prototype Surf-Zone Robot for Waterborne Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Measurement Unit IR Infrared MC Mission Complexity MONTe Mobility over Non-Trivial Terrain MOSART Mobile Surf-zone Amphibious Robot NIST... rubber coating (Plasti-Dip) and a liquid repellent treatment (Rust-Oleum Never Wet–multisurface). An FDM sparse part T5 was coated as depicted in Figure...Coating Process on FDM Part T5 Figure 15. (a) FDM part with two layers of black rubber coating (first coating), (b) FDM part with liquid repelling

  13. "Sub-Surf Rocks"! An A-Level Resource Developed through an Industry-Education Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Hazel

    2012-01-01

    A free internet resource called "Sub-Surf Rocks"! was launched in 2010. Its aim is to use seismic data obtained by the oil industry for enhancing the teaching of structural and economic geology at A-level (ages 16-18) in the UK. Seismic data gives a unique insight into the sub-surface and the many high-quality images coupled with…

  14. Tissue- and species-specific differences in cytochrome c oxidase assembly induced by SURF1 defects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářová, Nikola; Pecina, Petr; Nůsková, Hana; Vrbacký, Marek; Zeviani, M.; Mráček, Tomáš; Viscomi, C.; Houštěk, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1862, č. 4 (2016), s. 705-715 ISSN 0925-4439 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GB14-36804G; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA MZd(CZ) NT12370 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : cytochrome c oxidase * respiratory supercomplexes * leigh syndrome * SURF1−/− mouse knockout * doxycycline * pulse-chase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.476, year: 2016

  15. Baseline Measurements of Shoulder Surfing Analysis and Comparability for Smartphone Unlock Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-22

    In this research, we explore a novel approach to measuring the susceptibility of smarthphone unlock authentication to shoulder surfing attacks. We...have created a series of video recordings where researchers enter authentication sequences into mobile devices (e.g. PINs, graphical patterns with...and played the role of attackers, viewing video-recorded footage of PIN and graphical pattern authentication input with various camera angles, hand

  16. Adaptation of respiratory chain biogenesis to cytochrome c oxidase deficiency caused by SURF1 gene mutations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářová, Nikola; Vrbacká-Čížková, Alena; Pecina, Petr; Stránecký, V.; Pronicka, E.; Kmoch, S.; Houštěk, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 1822, č. 7 (2012), s. 1114-1124 ISSN 0925-4439 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NS9759; GA MZd(CZ) NT12370; GA ČR(CZ) GD305/08/H037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : mitochondrial disorder * SURF1 gene * Leigh syndrome * gene expression * oxidative phosphorylation * cytochrome c oxidase Subject RIV: FG - Pediatrics Impact factor: 4.910, year: 2012

  17. Current research at NBS using synchrotron radiation at SURF-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, A.C.; Rakowsky, G.; Ederer, D.L.; Stockbauer, R.L.; West, J.B.; Dehmer, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    The National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF-II) is used in conjunction with a high flux normal incidence monochromator for angle resolved wavelength dependent photoelectron studies. The recent work has concentrated on studies of the effect of shape resonances on molecular vibrational intensity distributions as well as the effects of autoionization upon the vibrational intensity distributions over narrow wavelength regions. Results for CO, N 2 , Ar and Xe will be discussed

  18. Surfing and drift acceleration at high mach number quasi-perpendicular shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, T.

    2008-01-01

    Electron acceleration in high Mach number collisionless shocks relevant to supernova remnant is discussed. By performing one- and two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of quasi-perpendicular shocks, we find that energetic electrons are quickly generated in the shock transition region through shock surfing and drift acceleration. The electron energization is strong enough to account for the observed injection at supernova remnant shocks. (author)

  19. Sound Surfing Network (SSN): Mobile Phone-based Sound Spatialization with Audience Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Saebyul; Ban, Seonghoon; Hong, Dae Ryong; Yeo, Woon Seung

    2013-01-01

    SSN (Sound Surfing Network) is a performance system that provides a new musicalexperience by incorporating mobile phone-based spatial sound control tocollaborative music performance. SSN enables both the performer and theaudience to manipulate the spatial distribution of sound using the smartphonesof the audience as distributed speaker system. Proposing a new perspective tothe social aspect music appreciation, SSN will provide a new possibility tomobile music performances in the context of in...

  20. Spent unreprocessed fuel (SURF) facility evaluation plan of the alternative storage concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, S.M.

    1978-01-01

    Concepts were evaluated for the storage of unreprocessed spent fuel in a retrievable surface storage facility. This document provides a systematic format for making a concept selection from the seven alternative concepts presented in RHO-LD-2. Results of the evaluation was that the Drywell concept was rated highest with the Water Basin Concept and the Sealed Storage Cask concept with multiple canisters of SURF coming in a close second and third

  1. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  2. Iowa Flood Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.; Goska, R.; Mantilla, R.; Weber, L. J.; Young, N.

    2011-12-01

    The Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS) is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, flood-related data, information and interactive visualizations for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and rainfall conditions are available in the IFIS by streaming data from automated IFC bridge sensors, USGS stream gauges, NEXRAD radars, and NWS forecasts. Simple 2D and 3D interactive visualizations in the IFIS make the data more understandable to general public. Users are able to filter data sources for their communities and selected rivers. The data and information on IFIS is also accessible through web services and mobile applications. The IFIS is optimized for various browsers and screen sizes to provide access through multiple platforms including tablets and mobile devices. The IFIS includes a rainfall-runoff forecast model to provide a five-day flood risk estimate for around 500 communities in Iowa. Multiple view modes in the IFIS accommodate different user types from general public to researchers and decision makers by providing different level of tools and details. River view mode allows users to visualize data from multiple IFC bridge sensors and USGS stream gauges to follow flooding condition along a river. The IFIS will help communities make better-informed decisions on the occurrence of floods, and will alert communities

  3. CAMSHIFT IMPROVEMENT WITH MEAN-SHIFT SEGMENTATION, REGION GROWING, AND SURF METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinan Ferdinan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available CAMSHIFT algorithm has been widely used in object tracking. CAMSHIFT utilizescolor features as the model object. Thus, original CAMSHIFT may fail when the object color issimilar with the background color. In this study, we propose CAMSHIFT tracker combined withmean-shift segmentation, region growing, and SURF in order to improve the tracking accuracy.The mean-shift segmentation and region growing are applied in object localization phase to extractthe important parts of the object. Hue-distance, saturation, and value are used to calculate theBhattacharyya distance to judge whether the tracked object is lost. Once the object is judged lost,SURF is used to find the lost object, and CAMSHIFT can retrack the object. The Object trackingsystem is built with OpenCV. Some measurements of accuracy have done using frame-basedmetrics. We use datasets BoBoT (Bonn Benchmark on Tracking to measure accuracy of thesystem. The results demonstrate that CAMSHIFT combined with mean-shift segmentation, regiongrowing, and SURF method has higher accuracy than the previous methods.

  4. Does human pressure affect the community structure of surf zone fish in sandy beaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Leonardo Lopes; Landmann, Júlia G.; Gaelzer, Luiz R.; Zalmon, Ilana R.

    2017-01-01

    Intense tourism and human activities have resulted in habitat destruction in sandy beach ecosystems with negative impacts on the associated communities. To investigate whether urbanized beaches affect surf zone fish communities, fish and their benthic macrofaunal prey were collected during periods of low and high human pressure at two beaches on the Southeastern Brazilian coast. A BACI experimental design (Before-After-Control-Impact) was adapted for comparisons of tourism impact on fish community composition and structure in urbanized, intermediate and non-urbanized sectors of each beach. At the end of the summer season, we observed a significant reduction in fish richness, abundance, and diversity in the high tourist pressure areas. The negative association between visitors' abundance and the macrofaunal density suggests that urbanized beaches are avoided by surf zone fish due to higher human pressure and the reduction of food availability. Our results indicate that surf zone fish should be included in environmental impact studies in sandy beaches, including commercial species, e.g., the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix. The comparative results from the less urbanized areas suggest that environmental zoning and visitation limits should be used as effective management and preservation strategies on beaches with high conservation potential.

  5. Mechanical interactions in bacterial colonies and the surfing probability of beneficial mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Fred D; Gralka, Matti; Hallatschek, Oskar; Waclaw, Bartlomiej

    2017-06-01

    Bacterial conglomerates such as biofilms and microcolonies are ubiquitous in nature and play an important role in industry and medicine. In contrast to well-mixed cultures routinely used in microbial research, bacteria in a microcolony interact mechanically with one another and with the substrate to which they are attached. Here, we use a computer model of a microbial colony of rod-shaped cells to investigate how physical interactions between cells determine their motion in the colony and how this affects biological evolution. We show that the probability that a faster-growing mutant 'surfs' at the colony's frontier and creates a macroscopic sector depends on physical properties of cells (shape, elasticity and friction). Although all these factors contribute to the surfing probability in seemingly different ways, their effects can be summarized by two summary statistics that characterize the front roughness and cell alignment. Our predictions are confirmed by experiments in which we measure the surfing probability for colonies of different front roughness. Our results show that physical interactions between bacterial cells play an important role in biological evolution of new traits, and suggest that these interactions may be relevant to processes such as de novo evolution of antibiotic resistance. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Health impacts of floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Weiwei; FitzGerald, Gerard Joseph; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Floods are the most common hazard to cause disasters and have led to extensive morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The impact of floods on the human community is related directly to the location and topography of the area, as well as human demographics and characteristics of the built environment. The aim of this study is to identify the health impacts of disasters and the underlying causes of health impacts associated with floods. A conceptual framework is developed that may assist with the development of a rational and comprehensive approach to prevention, mitigation, and management. This study involved an extensive literature review that located >500 references, which were analyzed to identify common themes, findings, and expert views. The findings then were distilled into common themes. The health impacts of floods are wide ranging, and depend on a number of factors. However, the health impacts of a particular flood are specific to the particular context. The immediate health impacts of floods include drowning, injuries, hypothermia, and animal bites. Health risks also are associated with the evacuation of patients, loss of health workers, and loss of health infrastructure including essential drugs and supplies. In the medium-term, infected wounds, complications of injury, poisoning, poor mental health, communicable diseases, and starvation are indirect effects of flooding. In the long-term, chronic disease, disability, poor mental health, and poverty-related diseases including malnutrition are the potential legacy. This article proposes a structured approach to the classification of the health impacts of floods and a conceptual framework that demonstrates the relationships between floods and the direct and indirect health consequences.

  7. Efficacy of Hi-Lo Evac Endotracheal Tube in Prevention of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Mechanically Ventilated Poisoned Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoochani Khorasani, Ahmad; Shadnia, Shahin; Mashayekhian, Mohammad; Rahimi, Mitra; Aghabiklooei, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common health care-associated infection. To prevent this complication, aspiration of subglottic secretions using Hi-Lo Evac endotracheal tube (Evac ETT) is a recommended intervention. However, there are some reports on Evac ETT dysfunction. We aimed to compare the incidence of VAP (per ventilated patients) in severely ill poisoned patients who were intubated using Evac ETT versus conventional endotracheal tubes (C-ETT) in our toxicology ICU. Materials and Methods. In this clinical randomized trial, 91 eligible patients with an expected duration of mechanical ventilation of more than 48 hours were recruited and randomly assigned into two groups: (1) subglottic secretion drainage (SSD) group who were intubated by Evac ETT (n = 43) and (2) control group who were intubated by C-ETT (n = 48). Results. Of the 91 eligible patients, 56 (61.5%) were male. VAP was detected in 24 of 43 (55.8%) patients in the case group and 23 of 48 (47.9%) patients in the control group (P = 0.45). The most frequently isolated microorganisms were S. aureus (54.10%) and Acinetobacter spp. (19.68%). The incidence of VAP and ICU length of stay were not significantly different between the two groups, but duration of intubation was statistically different and was longer in the SSD group. Mortality rate was less in SSD group but without a significant difference (P = 0.68). Conclusion. The SSD procedure was performed intermittently with one-hour intervals using 10 mL syringe. Subglottic secretion drainage does not significantly reduce the incidence of VAP in patients receiving MV. This strategy appears to be ineffective in preventing VAP among ICU patients.

  8. Efficacy of Hi-Lo Evac Endotracheal Tube in Prevention of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Mechanically Ventilated Poisoned Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghoochani Khorasani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is the most common health care-associated infection. To prevent this complication, aspiration of subglottic secretions using Hi-Lo Evac endotracheal tube (Evac ETT is a recommended intervention. However, there are some reports on Evac ETT dysfunction. We aimed to compare the incidence of VAP (per ventilated patients in severely ill poisoned patients who were intubated using Evac ETT versus conventional endotracheal tubes (C-ETT in our toxicology ICU. Materials and Methods. In this clinical randomized trial, 91 eligible patients with an expected duration of mechanical ventilation of more than 48 hours were recruited and randomly assigned into two groups: (1 subglottic secretion drainage (SSD group who were intubated by Evac ETT (n=43 and (2 control group who were intubated by C-ETT (n=48. Results. Of the 91 eligible patients, 56 (61.5% were male. VAP was detected in 24 of 43 (55.8% patients in the case group and 23 of 48 (47.9% patients in the control group (P=0.45. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were S. aureus (54.10% and Acinetobacter spp. (19.68%. The incidence of VAP and ICU length of stay were not significantly different between the two groups, but duration of intubation was statistically different and was longer in the SSD group. Mortality rate was less in SSD group but without a significant difference (P=0.68. Conclusion. The SSD procedure was performed intermittently with one-hour intervals using 10 mL syringe. Subglottic secretion drainage does not significantly reduce the incidence of VAP in patients receiving MV. This strategy appears to be ineffective in preventing VAP among ICU patients.

  9. Physician and Pharmacist Collaboration: The University of Hawai‘i at Hilo College of Pharmacy - JABSOM Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holuby, R Scott; Bucci, Lucy L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the experiential program created at the newly formed University of Hawai‘i at Hilo College of Pharmacy (UHH CoP). The Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience (IPPE) rotations were developed to prepare student pharmacists for their final year of Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE) rotations by improving clinical skills and patient interactions. In partnership with the John A. Burns School of Medicine (JABSOM) Department of Family Practice, physician and pharmacist teams collaborate to deliver patient care for chronic diseases and elevate educational opportunities provided by UHH CoP. Another goal of the experiential program is to determine whether the investment of pharmacist faculty and adjunct physician/nurse preceptors prepares students for the final year of APPE rotations. A survey was administered to non-faculty pharmacist preceptors who taught the third IPPE rotation during the summer of 2009. Twenty-nine surveys were received from six facilities on O‘ahu and the Big Island. Initial survey results revealed an overall rating average of 3.72 (Likert scale: 1-lowest to 5-highest), an average of 4.14 for professionalism, an average of 3.41 for overall clinical skills, and an average of 3.45 for overall readiness for experiential rotations. Average ratings when compared with fourth-year students from several mainland colleges ranged from 1.7 to 2.2 (1-worse than, 2-same, 3-better). This data demonstrates that UHH CoP is investing faculty and preceptor resources wisely to enhance the preparation of students for APPE rotations. PMID:20540001

  10. Relationships between menstrual and menopausal attitudes and associated demographic and health characteristics: The Hilo Women’s Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Lynnette L.; Brown, Daniel E.; Rahberg, Nichole; Reza, Angela

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relation of menstrual attitudes to menopausal attitudes and the demographic and health characteristics associated with each. This cross-sectional study consisted of a randomly selected sample of 1824 respondents aged 16 to 100 years in multi-ethnic Hilo, Hawai`i. Women completed questionnaires for demographic and health information, such as age, ethnicity, education, residency in Hawai`i, menopausal status, exercise, and attitudes toward menstruation and menopause. Women more often chose positive terms, such as “natural,” to describe menstruation (60.8%) and menopause (59.4%). In bivariate analyses, post-menopausal women were significantly more likely to have positive menstrual and menopausal attitudes than pre-menopausal women. Factor analyses were used to cluster attitudes followed by linear regression to identify demographic characteristics associated with factor scores. Asian-American ethnicity, higher education, reporting more exercise, and growing up outside of Hawai`i were associated with positive menstrual attitudes. Higher education, older age, post-menopausal status, growing up outside of Hawai`i and having hot flashes were associated with positive menopausal attitudes. Bivariate correlation analyses suggested significant associations between factor scores for menstrual and menopausal attitudes. Both negative and positive menstrual attitudes were positively correlated with the anticipation of menopause, although negative attitudes toward menstruation were negatively correlated with menopause as a positive, natural life event. Demographic variables, specifically education and where one grows up, influenced women’s attitudes toward menstruation and menopause and should be considered for inclusion in subsequent multi-ethnic studies. Further research is also warranted in assessing the relationship between menstrual and menopausal attitudes. PMID:20853216

  11. Age at menopause and determinants of hysterectomy and menopause in a multi-ethnic community: the Hilo Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Murphy, Lorna; Morrison, Lynn A; Reza, Angela M; Brown, Daniel E

    2013-12-01

    A lifespan approach was used to evaluate age at menopause, and determinants of surgical and natural menopause, in the multi-ethnic community of Hilo, Hawaii. Participants aged 40-60 years (n=898) were drawn from a larger, randomly generated sample recruited by postal questionnaires. Median age at natural menopause was computed by probit analysis. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine determinants of hysterectomy, and Cox regression analysis was used to examine risk factors for an earlier age at menopause. History of hysterectomy, age at menopause. Frequency of hysterectomy was 19.2% at a mean age of 40.5 years. The likelihood of hysterectomy increased with older ages, lower education, mixed ancestry, having been overweight at age 30, and married 20 years prior to survey. Median age at natural menopause was 53.0 years. Smoking and not being married 10 years before survey were associated with an earlier age at menopause. Median age at menopause was later than the national average. Ethnicity and education were determinants of hysterectomy, but not associated with age at natural menopause. Events later in the lifespan (e.g., smoking and not being married 10 years prior to the survey) were more important than earlier events (e.g., childhood residence) in relation to age at menopause. The timing of weight gain and marital status appear to be important in relation to surgical menopause, and the timing of marital status appears to be important in relation to the timing of natural menopause. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationships between menstrual and menopausal attitudes and associated demographic and health characteristics: the Hilo Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Lynn A; Sievert, Lynnette L; Brown, Daniel E; Rahberg, Nichole; Reza, Angela

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relation of menstrual attitudes to menopausal attitudes and the demographic and health characteristics associated with each. This cross-sectional study consisted of a randomly selected sample of 1,824 respondents aged 16 to 100 years in multi-ethnic Hilo, Hawai'i. Women completed questionnaires for demographic and health information, such as age, ethnicity, education, residency in Hawai'i, menopausal status, exercise, and attitudes toward menstruation and menopause. Women more often chose positive terms, such as "natural," to describe menstruation (60.8%) and menopause (59.4%). In bivariate analyses, post-menopausal women were significantly more likely to have positive menstrual and menopausal attitudes than pre-menopausal women. Factor analyses were used to cluster attitudes followed by linear regression to identify demographic characteristics associated with factor scores. Asian-American ethnicity, higher education, reporting more exercise, and growing up outside of Hawai'i were associated with positive menstrual attitudes. Higher education, older age, post-menopausal status, growing up outside of Hawai'i and having hot flashes were associated with positive menopausal attitudes. Bivariate correlation analyses suggested significant associations between factor scores for menstrual and menopausal attitudes. Both negative and positive menstrual attitudes were positively correlated with the anticipation of menopause, although negative attitudes toward menstruation were negatively correlated with menopause as a positive, natural life event. Demographic variables, specifically education and where one grows up, influenced women's attitudes toward menstruation and menopause and should be considered for inclusion in subsequent multi-ethnic studies. Further research is also warranted in assessing the relationship between menstrual and menopausal attitudes.

  13. Nogales flood detention study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Levick, Lainie; Guertin, D. Phillip; Callegary, James; Guadarrama, Jesus Quintanar; Anaya, Claudia Zulema Gil; Prichard, Andrea; Gray, Floyd; Castellanos, Edgar; Tepezano, Edgar; Huth, Hans; Vandervoet, Prescott; Rodriguez, Saul; Nunez, Jose; Atwood, Donald; Granillo, Gilberto Patricio Olivero; Ceballos, Francisco Octavio Gastellum

    2010-01-01

    Flooding in Ambos Nogales often exceeds the capacity of the channel and adjacent land areas, endangering many people. The Nogales Wash is being studied to prevent future flood disasters and detention features are being installed in tributaries of the wash. This paper describes the application of the KINEROS2 model and efforts to understand the capacity of these detention features under various flood and urbanization scenarios. Results depict a reduction in peak flow for the 10-year, 1-hour event based on current land use in tributaries with detention features. However, model results also demonstrate that larger storm events and increasing urbanization will put a strain on the features and limit their effectiveness.

  14. Development of flood index by characterisation of flood hydrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Biswa; Suman, Asadusjjaman

    2015-04-01

    In recent years the world has experienced deaths, large-scale displacement of people, billions of Euros of economic damage, mental stress and ecosystem impacts due to flooding. Global changes (climate change, population and economic growth, and urbanisation) are exacerbating the severity of flooding. The 2010 floods in Pakistan and the 2011 floods in Australia and Thailand demonstrate the need for concerted action in the face of global societal and environmental changes to strengthen resilience against flooding. Due to climatological characteristics there are catchments where flood forecasting may have a relatively limited role and flood event management may have to be trusted upon. For example, in flash flood catchments, which often may be tiny and un-gauged, flood event management often depends on approximate prediction tools such as flash flood guidance (FFG). There are catchments fed largely by flood waters coming from upstream catchments, which are un-gauged or due to data sharing issues in transboundary catchments the flow of information from upstream catchment is limited. Hydrological and hydraulic modelling of these downstream catchments will never be sufficient to provide any required forecasting lead time and alternative tools to support flood event management will be required. In FFG, or similar approaches, the primary motif is to provide guidance by synthesising the historical data. We follow a similar approach to characterise past flood hydrographs to determine a flood index (FI), which varies in space and time with flood magnitude and its propagation. By studying the variation of the index the pockets of high flood risk, requiring attention, can be earmarked beforehand. This approach can be very useful in flood risk management of catchments where information about hydro-meteorological variables is inadequate for any forecasting system. This paper presents the development of FI and its application to several catchments including in Kentucky in the USA

  15. Zonation of macrofauna across sandy beaches and surf zones along the Dutch coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Janssen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available On nine beaches and two transects in the surf zone along the Dutch coast the presence of benthic macrofauna was studied in relation to basic abiotic characteristics. According to Short's classification system, Dutch beaches are mesotidal and dissipative (Ω = 8.6, and the RTR is low (1.52-1.27, which means that they are not tide-dominated. BSI ranged from 1.4 to 1.1 for the northern and western Dutch coasts respectively and had an overall value of 1.2. The rates of exposure of the beaches varied between 8 and 12, and are therefore regarded as sheltered to moderately exposed. The Dutch beaches display a geographical trend in beach types. Those of the Wadden Sea islands in the northern part of the Netherlands are dissipative, flat, fine-grained, and host high densities of many species of benthic macrofauna. The beaches along the western Dutch coast are less dissipative, steeper, with a higher mean grain size; the species diversity and abundance there are lower. Species diversity and abundance on the beaches increase from the high- to the low-water line. The maximum number of species was found between 0 and -1 m relative to the mean tidal level. The abundance peaks just above the mean tidal level, while the biomass reaches a maximum at the mean tidal level.     Species diversity and abundance are low in the surf zone, but increase towards deeper water. Species numbers are high and the abundance is very high in the trough between the two bars.     The relation between the diversity and abundance of macrobenthic species on the one hand, and the sediment composition, water column depth, and position between the bars on the other show a clear pattern of zonation for the beach, surf zone and near-shore: (1 a supralittoral zone with insects and air-breathing crustaceans, (2 a midshore zone, with intertidal species, (3 a lower shore zone, whose species extend into the shallow surf zone, and (4 a zone of sublittoral fauna in the trough between the

  16. Legitimizing differentiated flood protection levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, Hartmann; Spit, Tejo

    2016-01-01

    The European flood risk management plan is a new instrument introduced by the Floods Directive. It introduces a spatial turn and a scenario approach in flood risk management, ultimately leading to differentiated flood protection levels on a catchment basis. This challenges the traditional sources of

  17. Flood-proof motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Marcus [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Even before the Fukushima event occurred some German nuclear power plants (NPP) have considered flooding scenarios. As a result of one of these studies, AREVA performed an upgrade project in NPP Isar 1 with flood-proof motors as a replacement of existing air-cooled low-voltage and high-voltage motors of the emergency cooling chain. After the Fukushima event, in which the cooling chains failed, the topic flood-proof equipment gets more and more into focus. This compact will introduce different kinds of flood-proof electrical motors which are currently installed or planned for installation into NPPs over the world. Moreover the process of qualification, as it was performed during the project in NPP Isar 1, will be shown. (orig.)

  18. Floods and Mold Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mold growth may be a problem after flooding. Excess moisture in the home is cause for concern about indoor air quality primarily because it provides breeding conditions for pests, molds and other microorganisms.

  19. FLOODPLAIN, FLOOD COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  20. Flood-proof motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Even before the Fukushima event occurred some German nuclear power plants (NPP) have considered flooding scenarios. As a result of one of these studies, AREVA performed an upgrade project in NPP Isar 1 with flood-proof motors as a replacement of existing air-cooled low-voltage and high-voltage motors of the emergency cooling chain. After the Fukushima event, in which the cooling chains failed, the topic flood-proof equipment gets more and more into focus. This compact will introduce different kinds of flood-proof electrical motors which are currently installed or planned for installation into NPPs over the world. Moreover the process of qualification, as it was performed during the project in NPP Isar 1, will be shown. (orig.)

  1. Flood hazard assessment in areas prone to flash flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvočka, Davor; Falconer, Roger A.; Bray, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    Contemporary climate projections suggest that there will be an increase in the occurrence of high-intensity rainfall events in the future. These precipitation extremes are usually the main cause for the emergence of extreme flooding, such as flash flooding. Flash floods are among the most unpredictable, violent and fatal natural hazards in the world. Furthermore, it is expected that flash flooding will occur even more frequently in the future due to more frequent development of extreme weather events, which will greatly increase the danger to people caused by flash flooding. This being the case, there will be a need for high resolution flood hazard maps in areas susceptible to flash flooding. This study investigates what type of flood hazard assessment methods should be used for assessing the flood hazard to people caused by flash flooding. Two different types of flood hazard assessment methods were tested: (i) a widely used method based on an empirical analysis, and (ii) a new, physically based and experimentally calibrated method. Two flash flood events were considered herein, namely: the 2004 Boscastle flash flood and the 2007 Železniki flash flood. The results obtained in this study suggest that in the areas susceptible to extreme flooding, the flood hazard assessment should be conducted using methods based on a mechanics-based analysis. In comparison to standard flood hazard assessment methods, these physically based methods: (i) take into account all of the physical forces, which act on a human body in floodwater, (ii) successfully adapt to abrupt changes in the flow regime, which often occur for flash flood events, and (iii) rapidly assess a flood hazard index in a relatively short period of time.

  2. Implications of Sea Level Rise on Coastal Flood Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeber, V.; Li, N.; Cheung, K.; Lane, P.; Evans, R. L.; Donnelly, J. P.; Ashton, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    Recent global and local projections suggest the sea level will be on the order of 1 m or higher than the current level by the end of the century. Coastal communities and ecosystems in low-lying areas are vulnerable to impacts resulting from hurricane or large swell events in combination with sea-level rise. This study presents the implementation and results of an integrated numerical modeling package to delineate coastal inundation due to storm landfalls at future sea levels. The modeling package utilizes a suite of numerical models to capture both large-scale phenomena in the open ocean and small-scale processes in coastal areas. It contains four components to simulate (1) meteorological conditions, (2) astronomical tides and surge, (3) wave generation, propagation, and nearshore transformation, and (4) surf-zone processes and inundation onto dry land associated with a storm event. Important aspects of this package are the two-way coupling of a spectral wave model and a storm surge model as well as a detailed representation of surf and swash zone dynamics by a higher-order Boussinesq-type wave model. The package was validated with field data from Hurricane Ivan of 2005 on the US Gulf coast and applied to tropical and extratropical storm scenarios respectively at Eglin, Florida and Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. The results show a nonlinear increase of storm surge level and nearshore wave energy with a rising sea level. The exacerbated flood hazard can have major consequences for coastal communities with respect to erosion and damage to infrastructure.

  3. Ichthyoplankton in a southern african surf zone: Nursery area for the postlarvae of estuarine associated fish species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, A. K.

    1989-12-01

    The surf zone ichthyoplankton of Swartvlei Bay was studied between February 1986 and June 1987, with particular emphasis on its potential role as a nursery area for estuarine associated marine fish species. Larvae and/or postlarvae of 16 families were identified from the surf zone, with the Gobiidae, Soleidae, Sparidae and Mugilidae comprising 85·7% of all teleosts sampled. The postlarvae of several taxa (including the six most common species), which utilize the Swartvlei estuary as a juvenile nursery area, were abundant in the surf zone. Conversely, species which are common in nearshore marine waters as juveniles and adults, but seldom enter estuaries, totalled less than 8% of the surf zone ichthyoplankton assemblage. Larval and postlarval densities peaked during summer when water temperatures exceeded 19°C and the estuary mouth was open. Concentrations of ichthyoplankton were highest at those sampling stations closest to the estuary mouth during the summer period. Diel changes in total catches revealed no significant difference between day and night densities; but of the four major taxa, the Mugilidae and Sparidae tended to be more abundant during the day, the Gobiidae at night and the Soleidae showed no distinct pattern. Results from a 24 h sampling session indicated that tidal phase may also be important in governing ichthyoplankton abundance in the surf zone.

  4. Characterizing surf zone injuries from the five most populated beaches on the Atlantic-fronting Delaware coast: Delaware surf zone injury demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelp, Matthew B; Puleo, Jack A; Cowan, Paul; Arford-Granholm, Michelle

    2017-12-24

    Beaches are a popular destination for recreation activities. Surf zone injuries (SZI) can occur resulting from a variety of in-water activities. Little is known regarding the sustained injury types, or demographics of injured persons and activities leading to injuries. This study examines the distribution of SZI types, activities and populations occurring on Delaware Beaches as recorded by a local level III trauma center (Department of Emergency Medicine at Beebe Healthcare in Lewes, Delaware). There were 2021 injuries over the eight study years (2010-2017). The relative demographics of the injured population are similar despite fluctuating injury totals (mean [SD], 253.1 [104.4]). Non-locals (n=1757) were 6.7 times more likely to be injured as their local (n=264) counterparts (RR, 2.62; 95% CI, 2.08-3.31). Males (n=1258) were 1.7 times more likely to be injured than their female (n=763) counterparts (RR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.21-1.37). Serious injuries, defined as patients requiring admission to a trauma service, represented 9.1% (n=184) of injuries. Fatal SZI (n=6) were categorized as serious injuries. Wading (50.1%) was found to be the dominant activity associated with injury followed by body surfing (18.4%), and body boarding (13.3%). To the authors' knowledge, this study is one of the first to investigate long-term trends in SZI data, injury activity, and demographics. Better understanding of the characteristics of injuries will allow for improved awareness techniques, targeted at populations with higher injury rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mitigating flood exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; McLean, Andrew; Herberman Mash, Holly B; Rosen, Alexa; Kelly, Fiona; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Youngs Jr, Georgia A; Jensen, Jessica; Bernal, Oscar; Neria, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. In 2011, following heavy winter snowfall, two cities bordering two rivers in North Dakota, USA faced major flood threats. Flooding was foreseeable and predictable although the extent of risk was uncertain. One community, Fargo, situated in a shallow river basin, successfully mitigated and prevented flooding. For the other community, Minot, located in a deep river valley, prevention was not possible and downtown businesses and one-quarter of the homes were inundated, in the city’s worst flood on record. We aimed at contrasting the respective hazards, vulnerabilities, stressors, psychological risk factors, psychosocial consequences, and disaster risk reduction strategies under conditions where flood prevention was, and was not, possible. Methods. We applied the “trauma signature analysis” (TSIG) approach to compare the hazard profiles, identify salient disaster stressors, document the key components of disaster risk reduction response, and examine indicators of community resilience. Results. Two demographically-comparable communities, Fargo and Minot, faced challenging river flood threats and exhibited effective coordination across community sectors. We examined the implementation of disaster risk reduction strategies in situations where coordinated citizen action was able to prevent disaster impact (hazard avoidance) compared to the more common scenario when unpreventable disaster strikes, causing destruction, harm, and distress. Across a range of indicators, it is clear that successful mitigation diminishes both physical and psychological impact, thereby reducing the trauma signature of the event. Conclusion. In contrast to experience of historic flooding in Minot, the city of Fargo succeeded in reducing the trauma signature by way of reducing risk through mitigation. PMID:28228985

  6. The imbalanced surfing-life of humanity to survival in the global changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    We have written many times about the imbalance of Nature as the cause of the global change. Here, we offer some method for the humanity survival in the face of global change of the imbalanced anisotropic real Nature. There are two logics of understanding the real Nature: the traditional balanced, and the new imbalanced. The balanced logic presupposes that Nature is balanced, isotropic, etc. The imbalanced logic presupposes opposite that Nature is imbalanced, anisotropic, etc. Respectively can be two styles of the people life: balanced and imbalanced. The image of the flat earth corresponds well with the balanced lifestyle of people. On the balanced life people spend activities to achieve the balance by reducing the change, stabilization, leveling any level changes, etc. If there is a mountain on the road, it must be align the track or make the tunnel. If there is a ravine on the road, then it need backfilled or to build a bridge. If someone is in restless, it must be calm, etc. As example of the happiness in the balanced life is the stability, balance, and therefore the global changes of Nature are perceived as a catastrophe. In the balanced lifestyle people can easily decide to use force, especially if there is not enough knowledge. But Nature has power which in billions times greater than the forces of humanity. Therefore, humanity will beaten in struggle with Nature and disappear. The imbalanced lifestyle is the fundamentally different. The imbalanced lifestyle complies with the surface of the ocean, which always changes, but sometimes can be and flat. But the flat calm ocean surface is inconvenient for the imbalanced life. You need to pull boat yourself because is no wind in the sails. The anisotropic imbalanced Nature has gradients in all parameters. At a certain level of knowledge and experience, people can use this multi-dimensional gradient essence of the real Nature for human's discretion. The imbalanced life is like a surfing. If properly understood

  7. Application of Flood Nomograph for Flood Forecasting in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Hoon Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Imperviousness has increased due to urbanization, as has the frequency of extreme rainfall events by climate change. Various countermeasures, such as structural and nonstructural measures, are required to prepare for these effects. Flood forecasting is a representative nonstructural measure. Flood forecasting techniques have been developed for the prevention of repetitive flood damage in urban areas. It is difficult to apply some flood forecasting techniques using training processes because training needs to be applied at every usage. The other flood forecasting techniques that use rainfall data predicted by radar are not appropriate for small areas, such as single drainage basins. In this study, a new flood forecasting technique is suggested to reduce flood damage in urban areas. The flood nomograph consists of the first flooding nodes in rainfall runoff simulations with synthetic rainfall data at each duration. When selecting the first flooding node, the initial amount of synthetic rainfall is 1 mm, which increases in 1 mm increments until flooding occurs. The advantage of this flood forecasting technique is its simple application using real-time rainfall data. This technique can be used to prepare a preemptive response in the process of urban flood management.

  8. Do Japanese American women really have fewer hot flashes than European Americans? The Hilo Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel E; Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Morrison, Lynn A; Reza, Angela M; Mills, Phoebe S

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have found a significantly lower frequency of reported hot flashes (HFs) in Japanese and Japanese American (JA) populations, leading to speculation about possible dietary, genetic, or cultural differences. These studies have relied on subjective reports of HFs. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to compare both reported and objective HFs measured by sternal and nuchal skin conductance among JA and European American (EA) women. Two surveys of HF frequencies were carried out among women of either EA or JA ethnicity; aged 45 to 55 years; living in Hilo, Hawaii; and not using exogenous hormones. The first was a postal questionnaire (n = 325); the second was carried out during a clinical study of HFs (n = 134). Women in the second group underwent 24-hour ambulatory and 3-hour laboratory monitoring for objective HFs measured through skin conductance at sternal and nuchal sites. Subjective HFs were recorded on the monitor or in a diary. JAs were significantly less likely to report having had HFs in the previous 2 weeks compared with EAs (postal sample: JAs, 30.9%; EAs, 43.9%; chi(2) = 6.9, P < 0.01; monitored sample: JAs, 26.1%; EAs, 46.6%; chi(2) = 5.3, P < 0.05). JAs were also significantly less likely to report experiencing other symptoms (15 of 30 in the postal sample; 6 of 30 in the monitored sample) than EAs. However, JAs did not significantly differ in likelihood of reporting subjective HFs during the 24-hour ambulatory period (JAs, 51.1%; EAs, 55.8%; chi(2) = 0.3, NS), nor in percentage of individuals displaying one or more objective HFs as measured by the skin conductance monitor (JAs, 77.8%; EAs, 72.1%; chi(2) = 0.5, NS). JAs also did not have a significantly fewer number of objective HFs (t = 0.2, NS) nor of subjective HFs (t = 0.8, NS) during the monitoring period, and these results were unchanged when analyses controlled for menopause status and body mass index. The common finding of fewer reported HFs in people of Japanese ancestry may

  9. Sialendoscope-assisted transoral removal of hilo-parenchymal sub-mandibular stones: surgical results and subjective scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaccio, P; Gaffuri, M; Rossi, V; Pignataro, L

    2017-04-01

    It has been suggested that a conservative trans-oral approach to proximal and hilo-parenchymal submandibular stones (HPSMS) is a valid alternative to the more frequently used sialadenectomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical, ultrasonographic and patients' subjective outcomes of results of the trans-oral removal of HPSMS. Between January 2003 and September 2015, sialendoscope-assisted trans-oral surgery was used to remove symptomatic, large (> 7 mm), fixed and palpable HPSMS from 479 patients under general anaesthesia. All patients were followed clinically and ultrasonographically to investigate symptom relief and recurrence of stones, and were telephonically interviewed to assess saliva-related subjective outcomes with a questionnaire. Stones were successfully removed from 472 patients (98.5%); the seven failures (1.5%) concerned pure parenchymal stones. One year after the procedure, 408 patients (85.1%) were symptom free, 59 (12.3%) had recurrent obstructive symptoms and 12 (2.6%) had recurrent infections. Of the 54 patients who developed a recurrent stone (11.2%), 52 underwent a second procedure: 29 interventional sialendoscopies, two sialendoscope-assisted intra-corporeal pneumatic lithotripsy, eight secondary transoral surgery to remove residual stones, six a cycle of extra-corporeal lithotripsy and seven submandibular sialadenectomy. Most patients (75.2%) reported mild surgery-related pain. The symptoms of 454 patients (94.8%) improved after adjunctive treatment and, at the end of follow-up, the affected gland was preserved in 98.5% of patients. A sialendoscope-assisted trans-oral removal of large HPSMS is a safe, effective, conservative surgical procedure, and functional preservation of the main duct and parenchyma of the obstructed gland allows sialendoscopic access through the natural ostium in case of recurrence. Combining a trans-oral approach with other minimally invasive, conservative procedures ensures symptomatic relief and salivary

  10. Simultaneous Observations of Beach and Surf-Zone Topography from a sUAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, R. K.; Brodie, K. L.; Spore, N.

    2016-02-01

    Beaches and surf-zones can vary rapidly in time and space, necessitating frequent, spatially extensive observations for up-to-date knowledge on their current condition. Traditional surveying methods are expensive, can be dangerous in large wave conditions, and can lack sufficient spatial density. Existing remote sensing technologies have focused on both active sensing (airborne lidar, X-band radar) or passive sensing (electro-optical or infrared imagery) to either directly measure elevations of the beach and seafloor or exploit the optical signal of refracting and breaking waves in the surf-zone. These methods, however, can be prohibitively expensive for widespread, high temporal frequency use, or lack the spatial coverage required to quantify a large stretch of beach. UAS offer an affordable and accessible alternative, but existing COTS UAS sensor suites are not optimized for generation of bathymetry and topography at the same time. Here, we present a new approach using an inexpensive, custom multi-camera sensor designed with a wide field of view for integration on either a fixed wing of multirotor UAS platform. We introduce a processing methodology and workflow to generate a topographic pointcloud and rectified imagery of the water surface using structure from motion algorithms. The topographic pointcloud data is processed to generate a DSM of the beach and extract morphologic parameters (beach slope, dune toe, etc). Rectified imagery of the water surface is used to quantify sandbar location as well as perform a celerity based bathymetric inversion. Accuracy of this methodology is calculated by comparing processed data to lidar pointclouds, as well as photo identifiable targets on the beach and jetted into the surf zone. Funded by the USACE Military Engineering POD:A&U Program and Coastal Field Data Collection Program.

  11. Prediction and assimilation of surf-zone processes using a Bayesian network: Part I: Forward models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Holland, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    Prediction of coastal processes, including waves, currents, and sediment transport, can be obtained from a variety of detailed geophysical-process models with many simulations showing significant skill. This capability supports a wide range of research and applied efforts that can benefit from accurate numerical predictions. However, the predictions are only as accurate as the data used to drive the models and, given the large temporal and spatial variability of the surf zone, inaccuracies in data are unavoidable such that useful predictions require corresponding estimates of uncertainty. We demonstrate how a Bayesian-network model can be used to provide accurate predictions of wave-height evolution in the surf zone given very sparse and/or inaccurate boundary-condition data. The approach is based on a formal treatment of a data-assimilation problem that takes advantage of significant reduction of the dimensionality of the model system. We demonstrate that predictions of a detailed geophysical model of the wave evolution are reproduced accurately using a Bayesian approach. In this surf-zone application, forward prediction skill was 83%, and uncertainties in the model inputs were accurately transferred to uncertainty in output variables. We also demonstrate that if modeling uncertainties were not conveyed to the Bayesian network (i.e., perfect data or model were assumed), then overly optimistic prediction uncertainties were computed. More consistent predictions and uncertainties were obtained by including model-parameter errors as a source of input uncertainty. Improved predictions (skill of 90%) were achieved because the Bayesian network simultaneously estimated optimal parameters while predicting wave heights.

  12. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK

  13. Floods in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follansbee, Robert; Sawyer, Leon R.

    1948-01-01

    The first records of floods in Colorado antedated the settlement of the State by about 30 years. These were records of floods on the Arkansas and Republican Rivers in 1826. Other floods noted by traders, hunters and emigrants, some of whom were on their way to the Far West, occurred in 1844 on the Arkansas River, and by inference on the South Platte River. Other early floods were those on the Purgatoire, the Lower Arkansas, and the San Juan Rivers about 1859. The most serious flood since settlement began was that on the Arkansas River during June 1921, which caused the loss of about 100 lives and an estimated property loss of $19,000,000. Many floods of lesser magnitude have occurred, and some of these have caused loss of life and very considerable property damage. Topography is the chief factor in determining the location of storms and resulting floods. These occur most frequently on the eastern slope of the Front Range. In the mountains farther west precipitation is insufficient to cause floods except during periods of melting snow, in June. In the southwestern part of the State, where precipitation during periods of melting snow is insufficient to cause floods, the severest floods yet experienced resulted from heavy rains in September 1909 and October 1911. In the eastern foothills region, usually below an altitude of about 7,500 feet and extending for a distance of about 50 miles east of the mountains, is a zone subject to rainfalls of great intensity known as cloudbursts. These cloudbursts are of short duration and are confined to very small areas. At times the intensity is so great as to make breathing difficult for those exposed to a storm. The areas of intense rainfall are so small that Weather Bureau precipitation stations have not been located in them. Local residents, being cloudburst conscious, frequently measure the rainfall in receptacles in their yards, and such records constitute the only source of information regarding the intensity. A flood

  14. Performance of the SURF-II high-throughput toroidal grating monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, R.L.; Ederer, D.L.; Barth, J.; Stockbauer, R.

    1988-01-01

    The performance of the 'high-flux' toroidal grating monochromator (HFTGM) at the NBS SURF-II synchrotron storage ring is assessed. Two gratings are studied: One with a ruled profile and the other having a laminar profile. The laminar profile is shown to reduce substantially the intensity of higher-order diffracted light with only a small decrease in the intensity of the first order light. The dependence of the energy resolution as a function of the area of the grating illuminated is also discussed. (orig.)

  15. Modification of the Undertow and Turbulence by Submerged Vegetation in a Laboratory Surf Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, T.; Suckale, J.; Marras, S.; Maldonado, S.; Koseff, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Breaking waves in the surf zone are a dominant factor shaping the evolution of our coastlines. The turbulence generated by wave breaking causes sediment resuspension, while wave runup, rundown, and the undertow transport this sediment along and across the shore (Longo et al., 2002). Coastal hazard models must now address the added complications of climate change, including sea level rise, stronger storm events, and ecosystem degradation (Arkema et al., 2013). A robust theoretical understanding of surf zone dynamics is therefore imperative to considering the magnitude and implications of these potential changes. However, little work has been done to extend our current theoretical understanding to realistic beach faces, with aquatic vegetation, reefs, and other roughness elements that might mitigate scour and sedimentation. Clarifying these relationships will help scientists and policy-makers decide where to focus ecosystem restoration and preservation efforts, in order to maximize their protective benefits to infrastructure and economic activity on the coast. In order to evaluate the role of vegetation in coastal protection, we conducted a series of experiments in an idealized laboratory surf zone. We examine the impact of submerged model vegetation on the undertow profile, wave orbital velocities, turbulent kinetic energy, and wave-induced stresses, and compare these results to theoretical formulations that model these quantities. We find that vegetation reduces the wave energy available to be converted to turbulent kinetic energy during breaking, indicating a mechanism to mitigate suspension of sediment. Vegetation also reduces the magnitude of the undertow, likely reducing transport of sediment offshore. These results suggest that vegetation provides significant protective benefits for coastal communities at risk from erosion beyond its well-characterized ability to attenuate wave height, and motivate further work to incorporate these effects into models of near

  16. Diffraction and depths-of-field effects in electron beam imaging at SURF III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arp, U.

    2001-01-01

    Imaging an electron beam with visible light is a common method of diagnostics applied to electron accelerators. It is a straightforward way to deduce the transverse electron distribution as well as its changes over time. The electrons stored in the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF) III at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were studied over an extended period of time to characterize the upgraded accelerator. There is good agreement between experimental and theoretical horizontal beam sizes at three different electron energies

  17. A status report on the SURF II synchrotron radiation facility at NBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    Recent work to upgrade the SURF II (Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility) storage ring is described, resulting in reliable operation up to 252 MeV at currents in the range 10-20 mA. A wide variety of experiments is now in progress at the facility, encompassing solid state physics, atomic and molecular physics and molecular biology, as well as the all-important radiometric standards work. The instrumentation used for these experiments is described; brief details of the experiments themselves are also given. (orig.)

  18. The Prevalence of Rough Sleeping and Sofa Surfing Amongst Young People in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Whilst data on statutory homelessness is well recorded in the UK, there is a lack of data on informal homelessness (such as ‘sofa surfing’) and rough sleeping, other than that which relies on partial information and street counts. This paper presents findings from a recent online survey of young people and helps to fill this gap. It found that rates of sofa surfing and rough sleeping among young people were much higher than previously thought. Twenty-six percent of young people (aged 16–25) h...

  19. Probable maximum flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L.

    1991-11-01

    This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility

  20. Habitats used by black and surf scoters in eastern North America as determined by satellite radio telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Kidwell, D.M.; Wells-Berlin, A. M.; Lohnes, E.J.R.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Osenton, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    Satellite radio telemetry was used to determine the movements and habitats of black scoters (Melanitta nigra) and surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) in eastern North America. A total of 21 surf scoters were instrumented during five years (2001-05) and 32 black scoters were instrumented during three years (2002-04) with implanted PTT 100 satellite transmitters (39 g) with external antenna. Nesting habitat of black scoters was more open than surf scoters (44% vs. 11%), whereas nesting habitat for surf scoters was located in more forested areas (66% vs. 20%). Locations of black scoters in breeding areas on average were at significantly higher latitude and lower elevations than sites used by surf scoters. Satellite telemetry determined that James Bay was the major molting area for male black and surf scoters, although some males molted along the coast of Labrador-Newfoundland. Black scoters instrumented on the Restigouche River, which is a major staging area, were widely distributed along the Atlantic Coast from Cape Cod to Georgia during winter. Major wintering areas for black scoters were Cape Cod (Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket Island), Long Island, and New Jersey. In these northern marine wintering areas, black scoters were located farther from shore (4.2 km) and in deeper water (8.3 m) than black scoters in more southern estuarine areas, where distance from shore was 3.1 km and water depth was 5.2 m. Surf scoters instrumented in Chesapeake Bay in late winter showed a strong tendency to return to the Bay the following winter after they had migrated to and from breeding areas. In Chesapeake Bay, black scoters and surf scoters were located mostly in mesohaline areas that had similar water depths (5.1 m vs. 7.5 m) and distances from shore (3.0 km vs. 2.9 km). Distance from shore and depth of water increased over time during the winter for both species. Updated information from the ARGOS Systems aboard the NOAA satellites on scoter movements was made accessible on

  1. Probabilistic flood extent estimates from social media flood observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Tom; Eilander, Dirk; Van Loenen, Arnejan; Booij, Martijn J.; Wijnberg, Kathelijne M.; Verkade, Jan S.; Wagemaker, Jurjen

    2017-01-01

    The increasing number and severity of floods, driven by phenomena such as urbanization, deforestation, subsidence and climate change, create a growing need for accurate and timely flood maps. In this paper we present and evaluate a method to create deterministic and probabilistic flood maps from

  2. Probabilistic flood extent estimates from social media flood observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Tom; Eilander, Dirk; Van Loenen, Arnejan; Booij, Martijn J.; Wijnberg, Kathelijne M.; Verkade, Jan S.; Wagemaker, Jurjen

    2017-01-01

    The increasing number and severity of floods, driven by phenomena such as urbanization, deforestation, subsidence and climate change, creates a growing need for accurate and timely flood maps. This research focussed on creating flood maps using user generated content from Twitter. Twitter data has

  3. Mapping flood hazards under uncertainty through probabilistic flood inundation maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, T.; Bledsoe, B. P.; Miller, A. J.; Lee, G.

    2017-12-01

    Changing precipitation, rapid urbanization, and population growth interact to create unprecedented challenges for flood mitigation and management. Standard methods for estimating risk from flood inundation maps generally involve simulations of floodplain hydraulics for an established regulatory discharge of specified frequency. Hydraulic model results are then geospatially mapped and depicted as a discrete boundary of flood extents and a binary representation of the probability of inundation (in or out) that is assumed constant over a project's lifetime. Consequently, existing methods utilized to define flood hazards and assess risk management are hindered by deterministic approaches that assume stationarity in a nonstationary world, failing to account for spatio-temporal variability of climate and land use as they translate to hydraulic models. This presentation outlines novel techniques for portraying flood hazards and the results of multiple flood inundation maps spanning hydroclimatic regions. Flood inundation maps generated through modeling of floodplain hydraulics are probabilistic reflecting uncertainty quantified through Monte-Carlo analyses of model inputs and parameters under current and future scenarios. The likelihood of inundation and range of variability in flood extents resulting from Monte-Carlo simulations are then compared with deterministic evaluations of flood hazards from current regulatory flood hazard maps. By facilitating alternative approaches of portraying flood hazards, the novel techniques described in this presentation can contribute to a shifting paradigm in flood management that acknowledges the inherent uncertainty in model estimates and the nonstationary behavior of land use and climate.

  4. Flood Risk Management In Europe: European flood regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegger, D.L.T.; Bakker, M.H.; Green, C.; Driessen, Peter; Delvaux, B.; Rijswick, H.F.M.W. van; Suykens, C.; Beyers, J-C.; Deketelaere, K.; Doorn-Hoekveld, W. van; Dieperink, C.

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, water management is moving from flood defense to a risk management approach, which takes both the probability and the potential consequences of flooding into account. In this report, we will look at Directives and (non-)EU- initiatives in place to deal with flood risk in Europe indirectly

  5. Exploitation of Documented Historical Floods for Achieving Better Flood Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Kolaković

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishing Base Flood Elevation for a stream network corresponding to a big catchment is feasible by interdisciplinary approach, involving stochastic hydrology, river hydraulics, and computer aided simulations. A numerical model calibrated by historical floods has been exploited in this study. The short presentation of the catchment of the Tisza River in this paper is followed by the overview of historical floods which hit the region in the documented period of 130 years. Several well documented historical floods provided opportunity for the calibration of the chosen numerical model. Once established, the model could be used for investigation of different extreme flood scenarios and to establish the Base Flood Elevation. The calibration has shown that the coefficient of friction in case of the Tisza River is dependent both on the actual water level and on the preceding flood events. The effect of flood plain maintenance as well as the activation of six potential detention ponds on flood mitigation has been examined. Furthermore, the expected maximum water levels have also been determined for the case if the ever observed biggest 1888 flood hit the region again. The investigated cases of flood superposition highlighted the impact of tributary Maros on flood mitigation along the Tisza River.

  6. Improving Global Flood Forecasting using Satellite Detected Flood Extent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revilla Romero, B.

    2016-01-01

    Flooding is a natural global phenomenon but in many cases is exacerbated by human activity. Although flooding generally affects humans in a negative way, bringing death, suffering, and economic impacts, it also has potentially beneficial effects. Early flood warning and forecasting systems, as well

  7. The Global Flood Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P.; Huddelston, M.; Michel, G.; Thompson, S.; Heynert, K.; Pickering, C.; Abbott Donnelly, I.; Fewtrell, T.; Galy, H.; Sperna Weiland, F.; Winsemius, H.; Weerts, A.; Nixon, S.; Davies, P.; Schiferli, D.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, a Global Flood Model (GFM) initiative has been proposed by Willis, UK Met Office, Esri, Deltares and IBM. The idea is to create a global community platform that enables better understanding of the complexities of flood risk assessment to better support the decisions, education and communication needed to mitigate flood risk. The GFM will provide tools for assessing the risk of floods, for devising mitigation strategies such as land-use changes and infrastructure improvements, and for enabling effective pre- and post-flood event response. The GFM combines humanitarian and commercial motives. It will benefit: - The public, seeking to preserve personal safety and property; - State and local governments, seeking to safeguard economic activity, and improve resilience; - NGOs, similarly seeking to respond proactively to flood events; - The insurance sector, seeking to understand and price flood risk; - Large corporations, seeking to protect global operations and supply chains. The GFM is an integrated and transparent set of modules, each composed of models and data. For each module, there are two core elements: a live "reference version" (a worked example) and a framework of specifications, which will allow development of alternative versions. In the future, users will be able to work with the reference version or substitute their own models and data. If these meet the specification for the relevant module, they will interoperate with the rest of the GFM. Some "crowd-sourced" modules could even be accredited and published to the wider GFM community. Our intent is to build on existing public, private and academic work, improve local adoption, and stimulate the development of multiple - but compatible - alternatives, so strengthening mankind's ability to manage flood impacts. The GFM is being developed and managed by a non-profit organization created for the purpose. The business model will be inspired from open source software (eg Linux): - for non-profit usage

  8. Camp Marmal Flood Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    was simulated by means of a broad - crested weir built into the topography of the mesh. There is 0.5 m of freeboard and the width of the weir is 30 m...ER D C/ CH L TR -1 2- 5 Camp Marmal Flood Study Co as ta l a nd H yd ra ul ic s La bo ra to ry Jeremy A. Sharp , Steve H. Scott...Camp Marmal Flood Study Jeremy A. Sharp , Steve H. Scott, Mark R. Jourdan, and Gaurav Savant Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer

  9. FEMA DFIRM Base Flood Elevations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally,...

  10. 2013 FEMA Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  11. FEMA DFIRM Flood Hazard Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA flood hazard delineations are used by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to designate the Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) and for insurance rating...

  12. Base Flood Elevation (BFE) Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally if...

  13. National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) is a compilation of GIS data that comprises a nationwide digital Flood Insurance Rate Map. The GIS data and services are...

  14. FEMA 100 year Flood Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Q3 Flood Data product is a digital representation of certain features of FEMA's Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) product, intended for use with desktop mapping...

  15. 2013 FEMA Flood Control Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  16. FEMA Q3 Flood Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Q3 Flood Data are derived from the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMS) published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The file is georeferenced to...

  17. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ootegem, Luc; Verhofstadt, Elsy; Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks

  18. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ootegem, Luc [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium); SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Verhofstadt, Elsy [SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium)

    2015-09-15

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks.

  19. New approach for measuring 3D space by using Advanced SURF Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youm, Minkyo; Min, Byungil; Suh, Kyungsuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Backgeun [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The nuclear disasters compared to natural disaster create a more extreme condition for analyzing and evaluating. In this paper, measuring 3D space and modeling was studied by simple pictures in case of small sand dune. The suggested method can be used for the acquisition of spatial information by robot at the disaster area. As a result, these data are helpful for identify the damaged part, degree of damage and determination of recovery sequences. In this study we are improving computer vision algorithm for 3-D geo spatial information measurement. And confirm by test. First, we can get noticeable improvement of 3-D geo spatial information result by SURF algorithm and photogrammetry surveying. Second, we can confirm not only decrease algorithm running time, but also increase matching points through epi polar line filtering. From the study, we are extracting 3-D model by open source algorithm and delete miss match point by filtering method. However on characteristic of SURF algorithm, it can't find match point if structure don't have strong feature. So we will need more study about find feature point if structure don't have strong feature.

  20. Understanding successful and unsuccessful landings of aerial maneuver variations in professional surfing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, J R; Riddiford-Harland, D L; Whitting, J W; Sheppard, J M; Steele, J R

    2018-05-01

    Although performing aerial maneuvers can increase wave score and winning potential in competitive surfing, the critical features underlying successful aerial performance have not been systematically investigated. This study aimed to analyze highly skilled aerial maneuver performance and to identify the critical features associated with successful or unsuccessful landing. Using video recordings of the World Surf League's Championship Tour, every aerial performed during the quarterfinal, semifinal, and final heats from the 11 events in the 2015 season was viewed. From this, 121 aerials were identified with the Frontside Air (n = 15) and Frontside Air Reverse (n = 67) being selected to be qualitatively assessed. Using chi-squared analyses, a series of key critical features, including landing over the center of the surfboard (FS Air χ 2  = 14.00, FS Air Reverse χ 2  = 26.61; P < .001) and landing with the lead ankle in dorsiflexion (FS Air χ 2  = 3.90, FS Air Reverse χ 2  = 13.64; P < .05), were found to be associated with successful landings. These critical features help surfers land in a stable position, while maintaining contact with the surfboard. The results of this study provide coaches with evidence to adjust the technique of their athletes to improve their winning potential. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Robust and Effective Component-based Banknote Recognition by SURF Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, Faiz M; Yang, Xiaodong; Tian, YingLi

    2011-01-01

    Camera-based computer vision technology is able to assist visually impaired people to automatically recognize banknotes. A good banknote recognition algorithm for blind or visually impaired people should have the following features: 1) 100% accuracy, and 2) robustness to various conditions in different environments and occlusions. Most existing algorithms of banknote recognition are limited to work for restricted conditions. In this paper we propose a component-based framework for banknote recognition by using Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF). The component-based framework is effective in collecting more class-specific information and robust in dealing with partial occlusion and viewpoint changes. Furthermore, the evaluation of SURF demonstrates its effectiveness in handling background noise, image rotation, scale, and illumination changes. To authenticate the robustness and generalizability of the proposed approach, we have collected a large dataset of banknotes from a variety of conditions including occlusion, cluttered background, rotation, and changes of illumination, scaling, and viewpoints. The proposed algorithm achieves 100% recognition rate on our challenging dataset.

  2. Longitudinal instability studies at the SURF II storage ring at NIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkay, K.C.; Sereno, N.S.

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of the longitudinal instability observed in the storage ring at the Synchrotrons Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF II) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NET) were performed to understand the mechanism driving the instability. The instability, studied in depth by Ralcowsky and others, manifests itself in broad resonance features in the horizontal and vertical motion spectrum of the synchrotrons light from DC to a few kHz. Also observed are multiple synchrotrons harmonics that modulate the revolution harmonics; these are characteristic of longitudinal phase oscillations. These spectral features of the motion are found to be correlated with the periodic lengthening and shortening of the bunch length on time scales from approximately0.1 ms to 20 ms, depending on machine and radio-frequency (rf) system parameters. In this report, the growth rate of the instability is determined from measurements using an rf pickup electrode. The measured growth rates are compared to computed growth rates from an analytical model. Recommendations are made regarding options to control or mitigate the instability. In light of upgrade plans for SURF III, a few comments are presented about the beam lifetime

  3. Mechanical interactions in bacterial colonies and the surfing probability of beneficial mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Fred D.

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial conglomerates such as biofilms and microcolonies are ubiquitous in nature and play an important role in industry and medicine. In contrast to well-mixed cultures routinely used in microbial research, bacteria in a microcolony interact mechanically with one another and with the substrate to which they are attached. Here, we use a computer model of a microbial colony of rod-shaped cells to investigate how physical interactions between cells determine their motion in the colony and how this affects biological evolution. We show that the probability that a faster-growing mutant ‘surfs’ at the colony's frontier and creates a macroscopic sector depends on physical properties of cells (shape, elasticity and friction). Although all these factors contribute to the surfing probability in seemingly different ways, their effects can be summarized by two summary statistics that characterize the front roughness and cell alignment. Our predictions are confirmed by experiments in which we measure the surfing probability for colonies of different front roughness. Our results show that physical interactions between bacterial cells play an important role in biological evolution of new traits, and suggest that these interactions may be relevant to processes such as de novo evolution of antibiotic resistance. PMID:28592660

  4. A model for the generation of two-dimensional surf beat

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Jeffrey H.

    1992-01-01

    A finite difference model predicting group-forced long waves in the nearshore is constructed with two interacting parts: an incident wave model providing time-varying radiation stress gradients across the nearshore, and a long-wave model which solves the equations of motion for the forcing imposed by the incident waves. Both shallow water group-bound long waves and long waves generated by a time-varying breakpoint are simulated. Model-generated time series are used to calculate the cross correlation between wave groups and long waves through the surf zone. The cross-correlation signal first observed by Tucker (1950) is well predicted. For the first time, this signal is decomposed into the contributions from the two mechanisms of leaky mode forcing. Results show that the cross-correlation signal can be explained by bound long waves which are amplified, though strongly modified, through the surf zone before reflection from the shoreline. The breakpoint-forced long waves are added to the bound long waves at a phase of pi/2 and are a secondary contribution owing to their relatively small size.

  5. Turbulent stresses in the surf-zone: Which way is up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, John W.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Edge, B.L

    1997-01-01

    Velocity observations from a vertical stack of three-component Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters (ADVs) within the energetic surf-zone are presented. Rapid temporal sampling and small sampling volume provide observations suitable for investigation of the role of turbulent fluctuations in surf-zone dynamics. While sensor performance was good, failure to recover reliable measures of tilt from the vertical compromise the data value. We will present some cursory observations supporting the ADV performance, and examine the sensitivity of stress estimates to uncertainty in the sensor orientation. It is well known that turbulent stress estimates are highly sensitive to orientation relative to vertical when wave motions are dominant. Analyses presented examine the potential to use observed flow-field characteristics to constrain sensor orientation. Results show that such an approach may provide a consistent orientation to a fraction of a degree, but the inherent sensitivity of stress estimates requires a still more restrictive constraint. Regardless, the observations indicate the degree to which stress estimates are dependent on orientation, and provide some indication of the temporal variability in time-averaged stress estimates.

  6. Verification test of the SURF and SURFplus models in xRage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-18

    As a verification test of the SURF and SURFplus models in the xRage code we use a propagating underdriven detonation wave in 1-D. This is about the only test cases for which an accurate solution can be determined based on the theoretical structure of the solution. The solution consists of a steady ZND reaction zone profile joined with a scale invariant rarefaction or Taylor wave and followed by a constant state. The end of the reaction profile and the head of the rarefaction coincide with the sonic CJ state of the detonation wave. The constant state is required to match a rigid wall boundary condition. For a test case, we use PBX 9502 with the same EOS and burn rate as previously used to test the shock detector algorithm utilized by the SURF model. The detonation wave is propagated for 10 μs (slightly under 80mm). As expected, the pointwise errors are largest in the neighborhood of discontinuities; pressure discontinuity at the lead shock front and pressure derivative discontinuities at the head and tail of the rarefaction. As a quantitative measure of the overall accuracy, the L2 norm of the difference of the numerical pressure and the exact solution is used. Results are presented for simulations using both a uniform grid and an adaptive grid that refines the reaction zone.

  7. Lower-Body Muscle Structure and Jump Performance of Stronger and Weaker Surfing Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secomb, Josh L; Nimphius, Sophia; Farley, Oliver R; Lundgren, Lina; Tran, Tai T; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2016-07-01

    To identify whether there are any significant differences in the lower-body muscle structure and countermovement-jump (CMJ) and squat-jump (SJ) performance between stronger and weaker surfing athletes. Twenty elite male surfers had their lower-body muscle structure assessed with ultrasonography and completed a series of lower-body strength and jump tests including isometric midthigh pull (IMTP), CMJ, and SJ. Athletes were separated into stronger (n = 10) and weaker (n = 10) groups based on IMTP performance. Large significant differences were identified between the groups for vastus lateralis (VL) thickness (P = .02, ES = 1.22) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) pennation angle (P = .01, ES = 1.20), and a large nonsignificant difference was identified in LG thickness (P = .08, ES = 0.89). Furthermore, significant differences were present between the groups for peak force, relative peak force, and jump height in the CMJ and SJ (P Stronger surfing athletes in this study had greater VL and LG thickness and LG pennation angle. These muscle structures may explain their better performance in the CMJ and SJ. A unique finding in this study was that the stronger group appeared to better use their strength and muscle structure for braking as they had significantly higher eccentric peak velocity and vertical displacement during the CMJ. This enhanced eccentric phase may have resulted in a greater production and subsequent utilization of stored elastic strain energy that led to the significantly better CMJ performance in the stronger group.

  8. Comparison of impact forces, accelerations and ankle range of motion in surfing-related landing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Lina E; Tran, Tai T; Nimphius, Sophia; Raymond, Ellen; Secomb, Josh L; Farley, Oliver R L; Newton, Robert U; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the impact forces, accelerations and ankle range of motion in five different landing tasks that are used in training and testing for competitive surfing athletes, to assist coaches in the prescription of landing task progression and monitoring training load. Eleven competitive surfing athletes aged 24 ± 7 years participated, and inertial motion sensors were fixed to the anterior aspect of the feet, mid-tibial shafts, sacrum and eighth thoracic vertebrae on these athletes. Three tasks were performed landing on force plates and two tasks in a modified gymnastics set-up used for land-based aerial training. Peak landing force, resultant peak acceleration and front and rear side ankle dorsiflexion ranges of motion during landing were determined. The peak acceleration was approximately 50% higher when performing aerial training using a mini-trampoline and landing on a soft-density foam board, compared to a similar landing off a 50 cm box. Furthermore, the ankle ranges of motion during the gymnastic type landings were significantly lower than the other landing types (P ≤ 0.05 and P ≤ 0.001), for front and rear sides, respectively. Conclusively, increased task complexity and specificity of the sport increased the tibial peak acceleration, indicating greater training load.

  9. Floods in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa K. Andersen; Marshall J. Shepherd

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric warming and associated hydrological changes have implications for regional flood intensity and frequency. Climate models and hydrological models have the ability to integrate various contributing factors and assess potential changes to hydrology at global to local scales through the century. This survey of floods in a changing climate reviews flood...

  10. Math Fights Flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besseling, Niels; Bokhove, Onno; Kolechkina, Alla; Molenaar, Jaap; van Nooyen, Ronald; Rottschäfer, Vivi; Stein, Alfred; Stoorvogel, Anton

    2008-01-01

    Due to climate changes that are expected in the coming years, the characteristics of the rainfall will change. This can potentially cause flooding or have negative influences on agriculture and nature. In this research, we study the effects of this change in rainfall and investigate what can be done

  11. Flood model for Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palán, Ladislav; Punčochář, Petr

    2017-04-01

    Looking on the impact of flooding from the World-wide perspective, in last 50 years flooding has caused over 460,000 fatalities and caused serious material damage. Combining economic loss from ten costliest flood events (from the same period) returns a loss (in the present value) exceeding 300bn USD. Locally, in Brazil, flood is the most damaging natural peril with alarming increase of events frequencies as 5 out of the 10 biggest flood losses ever recorded have occurred after 2009. The amount of economic and insured losses particularly caused by various flood types was the key driver of the local probabilistic flood model development. Considering the area of Brazil (being 5th biggest country in the World) and the scattered distribution of insured exposure, a domain covered by the model was limited to the entire state of Sao Paolo and 53 additional regions. The model quantifies losses on approx. 90 % of exposure (for regular property lines) of key insurers. Based on detailed exposure analysis, Impact Forecasting has developed this tool using long term local hydrological data series (Agencia Nacional de Aguas) from riverine gauge stations and digital elevation model (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística). To provide most accurate representation of local hydrological behaviour needed for the nature of probabilistic simulation, a hydrological data processing focused on frequency analyses of seasonal peak flows - done by fitting appropriate extreme value statistical distribution and stochastic event set generation consisting of synthetically derived flood events respecting realistic spatial and frequency patterns visible in entire period of hydrological observation. Data were tested for homogeneity, consistency and for any significant breakpoint occurrence in time series so the entire observation or only its subparts were used for further analysis. The realistic spatial patterns of stochastic events are reproduced through the innovative use of d-vine copula

  12. Influence of Flood Detention Capability in Flood Prevention for Flood Disaster of Depression Area

    OpenAIRE

    Chia Lin Chan; Yi Ju Yang; Chih Chin Yang

    2011-01-01

    Rainfall records of rainfall station including the rainfall potential per hour and rainfall mass of five heavy storms are explored, respectively from 2001 to 2010. The rationalization formula is to investigate the capability of flood peak duration of flood detention pond in different rainfall conditions. The stable flood detention model is also proposed by using system dynamic control theory to get the message of flood detention pond in this research. When rainfall freque...

  13. GENES Y EVOLUCION EL DELGADO HILO QUE NOS CONECTA POR MILES DE MILLONES DE AÑOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Garcia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La escala temporal en nuestra cotidianidad refleja una pequeña fracción de la historia evolutiva de los organismos, incluidos los humanos. La edad del planeta se estima en 4,500 millones de años, en los cuales profundos cambios en la posición de los continentes y grandes transformaciones en el clima de la tierra ocurrieron, aunque los cambios más drásticos surgen tan sólo en los últimos 500 millones de años. La genética ha sido herramienta fundamental para evidenciar el cambio de los organismos a lo largo de miles y millones de años. El material genético, elemento históricamente compartido por los seres vivos es una huella molecular para estudiar y rastrear cambios en el pasado. Así, los científicos logran estudiar en las secuencias de ADN o proteínas cómo evolucionaron los grandes grupos de animales, cuando surgieron importantes novedades evolutivas, cómo interaccionan los genes, y determinar las relaciones evolutivas entre las formas del pasado y las contemporáneas. Las relaciones entre organismos se explican por simple similaridad, por compartir características únicas o mediante modelos matemáticos que describen como evolucionan las secuencias de ADN y las proteínas. La genética también evidencia lo dinámico de los genomas, pues hay ganancia y perdida de genes, nuevas funciones, y transferencia horizontal de genes, mecanismos que incrementan la diversidad orgánica existente hoy. Aunque el ambiente es determinante en la evolución de los organismos, es imprescindible reconocer que hay un hilo conductor muy fino y fuerte que nos une inevitablemente a esas primeras moléculas que se formaron hace 4,500 millones de años. Palabras clave: Evolución, genoma, genética, transferencia horizontal de genes, mutación. ABSTRACT The temporal scale in our daily life is a small fraction of the evolutionary history of organisms, included the humans. The planet age is estimated in 4,5 billion years, in which profound changes in

  14. Efficacy development in science: Investigating the effects of the Teacher-to-Teacher (T2T) professional development model in Hilo elementary schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinner, Pascale Creek

    Conderman and Sheldon Woods (2008) suggest that although science plays a central role in our world today, science instruction seems to be minimized particularly at the elementary grade levels. Research has investigated the construct of efficacy (Bandura, 1977, 2006a; Riggs & Enochs, 1990; Ramey-Gassert, Shroyer & Staver, 1996; Tschannen-Moran, Hoy & Hoy, 1998, 2001). Professional and conceptual development in teachers has also been explored (Gordon, 1990; Sheerer, 1997; Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2007). The purpose of this research was to describe the changes in efficacy elementary teachers experience as they participated in science professional development. Data from a Math/Science Partnership (MSP) grant sample suggested significant changes in science self-efficacy and improved pedagogy. Mixed methods revealed connections resulting in a multi-faceted Progression of Efficacy Growth flowchart. The results suggest that utilizing the Teacher-to-Teacher (T2T) professional development model has created a pathway for more science teaching across the Hilo elementary schools.

  15. Norman-based Isolated Data Systems allows users to surf the Internet with no traceable IP address

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "Patented by Norman-based Isolated Data Systems, John Doe is an anonymous proxy server that allows users to surf the Internet exactly as before, with one exception - they are identifiable only as John Doe, with no traceable IP address, which means no tracking, no identification and no profile building" ( 1/2 page)

  16. Data on cytochrome c oxidase assembly in mice and human fibroblasts or tissues induced by SURF1 defect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářová, Nikola; Pecina, Petr; Nůsková, Hana; Vrbacký, Marek; Zeviani, M.; Mráček, Tomáš; Viscomi, C.; Houštěk, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, June 01 (2016), s. 1004-1009 ISSN 2352-3409 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GB14-36804G; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA MZd(CZ) NT12370 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : cytochrome c oxidase * respiratory chain * SURF1 * knockout * doxycycline Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  17. O SISTEMA DE OPERAÇÃO DO SERVIÇO DE SURFE NO RIO DE JANEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Andrade de Castro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfing arrived in Brazil in 1938, giving rise to the first national surfers. By the 1970s, the sports had evolved into both a social and market structure, specifically in the states of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul, where surfboard producers, importers of materials and raw materials, promotion of championships and sporting events, as well as major brands and specialist stores began to open, starting a growing trend of new products and services. This paper analyzes the management operation of the surfing service sector in the State of Rio de Janeiro, and seeks to understand the complex relations between components, to explore those connections and make suggestions for future opportunities. The results show that Brazil is a strong consumer market of goods and services related to surfing due to the climate, young population, of which the majority lives close to the coast, features that are especially strong in Rio de Janeiro state. Among the factors that contribute to the development of surfing in Brazil is its insertion into the general media, in particular its projected image as a young and exciting activity, whose practice is related to psychological factors such as emotion, control of the external environment and overcoming challenges. The products and services that enable the consumer to overcome there physical and psychological challenges with the objective of achieving stronger control over these factors reveals growing possibilities for business and innovation.

  18. Concentrations and temporal variations of /sup 210/Po, /sup 210/Pb, and Al in the surf zone ecosystem of Copalis Beach, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, J T; Carpenter, R

    1979-01-01

    Surf diatoms monitored during a 21-month period at Copalis Beach, Washington, contained elevated concentrations of Al, /sup 210/Pb, and supported /sup 210/Po compared to net phytoplankton from Washington coastal waters and Puget Sound. Aluminum concentrations of several percent dry weight found in the surf diatoms were not a reflection of contamination by discrete inorganic particulate matter but were the result of a natural coating of clay-sized particles on Chaetoceros armatum, the predominant diatom in the surfblooms. A high correlation between Al and /sup 210/Pb in the surf diatoms suggests /sup 210/Pb and supported /sup 210/Po were also associated with the clay-sized particles. During fall through spring, the unsupported /sup 210/Po concentrations in the surf diatoms were correlated with the input of /sup 210/Po by precipitation. A summer maximum in unsupported /sup 210/Po concentrations in the surf diatoms may reflect upwelling that causes higher dissolved /sup 210/Po concentrations in the summer surf relative to those of late spring and early fall. The consumers of the surf diatoms exhibited larger /sup 210/Po-activity-to-/sup 210/Pb-activity ratios than their food, indicating /sup 210/Po was preferentially accumulated in the higher trophic level.

  19. GIS Support for Flood Rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Gengsheng; Mioc, Darka; Anton, François

    2007-01-01

    Under flood events, the ground traffic is blocked in and around the flooded area due to damages to roads and bridges. The traditional transportation network may not always help people to make a right decision for evacuation. In order to provide dynamic road information needed for flood rescue, we...... to retrieve the shortest and safest route in Fredericton road network during flood event. It enables users to make a timely decision for flood rescue. We are using Oracle Spatial to deal with emergency situations that can be applied to other constrained network applications as well....... developed an adaptive web-based transportation network application using Oracle technology. Moreover, the geographic relationships between the road network and flood areas are taken into account. The overlay between the road network and flood polygons is computed on the fly. This application allows users...

  20. Numerical simulation of flood barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srb, Pavel; Petrů, Michal; Kulhavý, Petr

    This paper deals with testing and numerical simulating of flood barriers. The Czech Republic has been hit by several very devastating floods in past years. These floods caused several dozens of causalities and property damage reached billions of Euros. The development of flood measures is very important, especially for the reduction the number of casualties and the amount of property damage. The aim of flood control measures is the detention of water outside populated areas and drainage of water from populated areas as soon as possible. For new flood barrier design it is very important to know its behaviour in case of a real flood. During the development of the barrier several standardized tests have to be carried out. Based on the results from these tests numerical simulation was compiled using Abaqus software and some analyses were carried out. Based on these numerical simulations it will be possible to predict the behaviour of barriers and thus improve their design.

  1. Surf Utopia

    OpenAIRE

    Goffin, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    With swell data at our finger tips, the what where when and how drives the daily search bars. Being lucky enough to catch the wind and waves together are what dreams are made of. Whilst visually deconstructing the perfect conditions I've focused the elements down to the main details. Size, Swell Period, Temperature and Wind Speed manages the core information whilst leaving out the politics of the on or off shore debates. Either in board shorts or in a thermal wet suit, big gnarly...

  2. Citizen involvement in flood risk governance: flood groups and networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twigger-Ross Clare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade has been a policy shift withinUK flood risk management towards localism with an emphasis on communities taking ownership of flood risk. There is also an increased focus on resilience and, more specifically, on community resilience to flooding. This paper draws on research carried out for UK Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs to evaluate the Flood Resilience Community Pathfinder (FRCP scheme in England. Resilience is conceptualised as multidimensional and linked to exisiting capacities within a community. Creating resilience to flooding is an ongoing process of adaptation, learning from past events and preparing for future risks. This paper focusses on the development of formal and informal institutions to support improved flood risk management: institutional resilience capacity. It includes new institutions: e.g. flood groups, as well as activities that help to build inter- and intra- institutional resilience capacity e.g. community flood planning. The pathfinder scheme consisted of 13 projects across England led by local authorities aimed at developing community resilience to flood risk between 2013 – 2015. This paper discusses the nature and structure of flood groups, the process of their development, and the extent of their linkages with formal institutions, drawing out the barriers and facilitators to developing institutional resilience at the local level.

  3. Quantifying Wave Breaking Shape and Type in the Surf-Zone Using LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, A.; Brodie, K. L.; Hartzell, P. J.; Glennie, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Waves change shape as they shoal and break across the surf-zone, ultimately dissipating and transferring their energy into turbulence by either spilling or plunging. This injection of turbulence and changes in wave shape can affect the direction of sediment transport at the seafloor, and ultimately lead to morphological evolution. Typical methods for collecting wave data in the surf-zone include in-situ pressure gauges, velocimeters, ultrasonic sensors, and video imagery. Drawbacks to these data collection methods are low spatial resolution of point measurements, reliance on linear theory to calculate sea-surface elevations, and intensive computations required to extract wave properties from stereo 2D imagery. As a result, few field measurements of the shapes of plunging and/or spilling breakers exist, and existing knowledge is confined to results of laboratory studies. We therefore examine the use of a multi-beam scanning Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) remote sensing instrument with the goal of classifying the breaking type of propagating waves in the surf-zone and quantitatively determining wave morphometric properties. Data were collected with a Velodyne HDL-32E LiDAR scanner (360° vertical field of view) mounted on an arm of the Coastal Research Amphibious Buggy (CRAB) at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility in Duck, North Carolina. Processed laser scan data are used to visualize the lifecycle of a wave (shoaling, breaking, broken) and identify wave types (spilling, plunging, non-breaking) as they pass beneath the scanner. For each rotation of the LiDAR scanner, the point cloud data are filtered, smoothed, and detrended in order to identify individual waves and measure their properties, such as speed, height, period, upward/downward slope, asymmetry, and skewness. The 3D nature of point cloud data is advantageous for research, because it enables viewing from any angle. In our analysis, plan views are used to separate individual waves

  4. Floods and tsunamis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Mark

    2006-06-01

    Floods and tsunamis cause few severe injuries, but those injuries can overwhelm local areas, depending on the magnitude of the disaster. Most injuries are extremity fractures, lacerations, and sprains. Because of the mechanism of soft tissue and bone injuries, infection is a significant risk. Aspiration pneumonias are also associated with tsunamis. Appropriate precautionary interventions prevent communicable dis-ease outbreaks. Psychosocial health issues must be considered.

  5. Identification of flood-rich and flood-poor periods in flood series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediero, Luis; Santillán, David; Garrote, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Recently, a general concern about non-stationarity of flood series has arisen, as changes in catchment response can be driven by several factors, such as climatic and land-use changes. Several studies to detect trends in flood series at either national or trans-national scales have been conducted. Trends are usually detected by the Mann-Kendall test. However, the results of this test depend on the starting and ending year of the series, which can lead to different results in terms of the period considered. The results can be conditioned to flood-poor and flood-rich periods located at the beginning or end of the series. A methodology to identify statistically significant flood-rich and flood-poor periods is developed, based on the comparison between the expected sampling variability of floods when stationarity is assumed and the observed variability of floods in a given series. The methodology is applied to a set of long series of annual maximum floods, peaks over threshold and counts of annual occurrences in peaks over threshold series observed in Spain in the period 1942-2009. Mediero et al. (2014) found a general decreasing trend in flood series in some parts of Spain that could be caused by a flood-rich period observed in 1950-1970, placed at the beginning of the flood series. The results of this study support the findings of Mediero et al. (2014), as a flood-rich period in 1950-1970 was identified in most of the selected sites. References: Mediero, L., Santillán, D., Garrote, L., Granados, A. Detection and attribution of trends in magnitude, frequency and timing of floods in Spain, Journal of Hydrology, 517, 1072-1088, 2014.

  6. Assessing mobility and redistribution patterns of sand and oil agglomerates in the surf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalyander, P. Soupy; Long, Joesph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Thompson, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates that formed in the surf zone following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill continued to cause beach re-oiling 3 years after initial stranding. To understand this phenomena and inform operational response now and for future spills, a numerical method to assess the mobility and alongshore movement of these “surface residual balls” (SRBs) was developed and applied to the Alabama and western Florida coasts. Alongshore flow and SRB mobility and potential flux were used to identify likely patterns of transport and deposition. Results indicate that under typical calm conditions, cm-size SRBs are unlikely to move alongshore, whereas mobility and transport is likely during storms. The greater mobility of sand compared to SRBs makes burial and exhumation of SRBs likely, and inlets were identified as probable SRB traps. Analysis of field data supports these model results.

  7. Experimental study on thermal dispersion in and near the surf zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komori, Shuzo; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi; Wada, Akira

    1978-01-01

    The site of Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company was selected, and first, irregular waves with the typical wave spectra (in usual time and in storm time) in the sea region of the site were reproduced in the hydraulic model, then the characteristics of thermal dispersion and the velocityfield of warmed water (its discharge is 25.3 m 3 /sec.) in and near the surf zone under the action of those irregular waves were discussed. Finally, the similarity was investigated between the dispersion phenomenon in the hydraulic model and that in the prototype by comparing the experimental results of the dispersion range of warmed water with the results of field measurements. It may be concluded that the enveloped range of thermal dispersion in prototype can be predicted fairly correctly under almost the same discharge condition as this experiment if the prototype conditions of waves and currents are considered carefully and reproduced in a hydraulic model. (Kobatake, H.)

  8. Modified SURF Algorithm Implementation on FPGA For Real-Time Object Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomyslav Sledevič

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the FPGA-based implementation of the modified speeded-up robust features (SURF algorithm. FPGA was selected for parallel process implementation using VHDL to ensure features extraction in real-time. A sliding 84×84 size window was used to store integral pixels and accelerate Hessian determinant calculation, orientation assignment and descriptor estimation. The local extreme searching was used to find point of interest in 8 scales. The simplified descriptor and orientation vector were calculated in parallel in 6 scales. The algorithm was investigated by tracking marker and drawing a plane or cube. All parts of algorithm worked on 25 MHz clock. The video stream was generated using 60 fps and 640×480 pixel camera.Article in Lithuanian

  9. New application of the radioactive tracer method for sediment movement measurements in the surf zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarczyk, A.; Strzelecki, M.; Szpilowski, S.; Wierzchnicki, R.; Basinski, T.

    1989-01-01

    The investigations of sediment movement with the use of radiotracers have been carried out in a surf zone of Lubiatowo. Inception of sand motion and sediment transport velocity were the objective of the experiment. The spider type construction was located at the depth of 0.7 m. An artificial sand made of iridium glass (γ = 2.660 kg/m 3 ) containing 0.25 weight per cent of 192 Ir was used as a tracer. The fraction of 0.15 to 0.20 mm has been chosen as the representative diameter of sand grains existing at the investigated bottom region. The inception of sand movement versus current velocity and wave conditions as well as displacement velocity of tracer mass were determined. An improved construction was designed and tested. (author)

  10. Measurement of synchrotron radiation from the NBS SURF II using a silicon radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    A project is described in which the synchrotron radiation output from the NBS storage ring known as SURF II, is measured using a well characterized silicon based radiometer. This device consists of a silicon photodiode coupled with two interference filters to restrict the spectral response to a finite and convenient spectral region for the measurement. Considerations required for the characterization of the radiometer will be discussed. The absolute radiant flux from the storage ring is also calculable from various machine parameters. A measurement of the number of circulating electrons will be derived from electron counting techniques at low levels. This will yield an important intercomparison between the synchrotron flux measurements determined in two entirely different ways. (orig.)

  11. Surfer's myelopathy: a rare presentation in a non-surfing setting and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Monish M; Phan, Kevin; Hariswamy, Soumya; Rao, Prashanth J

    2016-09-01

    Surfers myelopathy can be a rapidly devastating disease and little is known surrounding the pathophysiology of the condition. Although the classical pattern of illness has been well reported, it has never been observed in a non-surfing setting. A 51-year-old demolition worker presented with acute non-traumatic myelopathy. Clinical examination revealed sensory loss to the level of L2. T2-MRI and MRI-DWI revealed a hyperintense signal suggestive of an ischaemic event. A diagnosis of surfer's myelopathy was made and he was commenced on steroid therapy. Following steroid therapy and fluid management the patient was discharged after 6 days with minor anaethesia but significant overall neurological improvement. Diagnosis of SM requires a thorough history, clinical examination and imaging (MRI, MRI-DWI). The patient should be admitted early and investigated. The use of rehabilitation services may be useful if available.

  12. The development of flood map in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Siti Fairus; Zin, Rosli Mohamad; Mohamad, Ismail; Balubaid, Saeed; Mydin, Shaik Hussein; MDR, E. M. Roodienyanto

    2017-11-01

    In Malaysia, flash floods are common occurrences throughout the year in flood prone areas. In terms of flood extent, flash floods affect smaller areas but because of its tendency to occur in densely urbanized areas, the value of damaged property is high and disruption to traffic flow and businesses are substantial. However, in river floods especially the river floods of Kelantan and Pahang, the flood extent is widespread and can extend over 1,000 square kilometers. Although the value of property and density of affected population is lower, the damage inflicted by these floods can also be high because the area affected is large. In order to combat these floods, various flood mitigation measures have been carried out. Structural flood mitigation alone can only provide protection levels from 10 to 100 years Average Recurrence Intervals (ARI). One of the economically effective non-structural approaches in flood mitigation and flood management is using a geospatial technology which involves flood forecasting and warning services to the flood prone areas. This approach which involves the use of Geographical Information Flood Forecasting system also includes the generation of a series of flood maps. There are three types of flood maps namely Flood Hazard Map, Flood Risk Map and Flood Evacuation Map. Flood Hazard Map is used to determine areas susceptible to flooding when discharge from a stream exceeds the bank-full stage. Early warnings of incoming flood events will enable the flood victims to prepare themselves before flooding occurs. Properties and life's can be saved by keeping their movable properties above the flood levels and if necessary, an early evacuation from the area. With respect to flood fighting, an early warning with reference through a series of flood maps including flood hazard map, flood risk map and flood evacuation map of the approaching flood should be able to alert the organization in charge of the flood fighting actions and the authority to

  13. Swiss Re Global Flood Hazard Zones: Know your flood risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinukollu, R. K.; Castaldi, A.; Mehlhorn, J.

    2012-12-01

    Floods, among all natural disasters, have a great damage potential. On a global basis, there is strong evidence of increase in the number of people affected and economic losses due to floods. For example, global insured flood losses have increased by 12% every year since 1970 and this is expected to further increase with growing exposure in the high risk areas close to rivers and coastlines. Recently, the insurance industry has been surprised by the large extent of losses, because most countries lack reliable hazard information. One example has been the 2011 Thailand floods where millions of people were affected and the total economic losses were 30 billion USD. In order to assess the flood risk across different regions and countries, the flood team at Swiss Re based on a Geomorphologic Regression approach, developed in house and patented, produced global maps of flood zones. Input data for the study was obtained from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) elevation data, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) and HydroSHEDS. The underlying assumptions of the approach are that naturally flowing rivers shape their channel and flood plain according to basin inherent forces and characteristics and that the flood water extent strongly depends on the shape of the flood plain. On the basis of the catchment characteristics, the model finally calculates the probability of a location to be flooded or not for a defined return period, which in the current study was set to 100 years. The data is produced at a 90-m resolution for latitudes 60S to 60N. This global product is now used in the insurance industry to inspect, inform and/or insure the flood risk across the world.

  14. French policy localism: Surfing on ‘Positive Energie Territories’ (Tepos)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadaï, Alain; Labussière, Olivier; Debourdeau, Ariane; Régnier, Yannick; Cointe, Béatrice; Dobigny, Laure

    2015-01-01

    This paper is interested in sustainable energy initiatives in French rural areas. It follows up the UK debate about ‘localism’. UK policy localism has been cast as neoliberal, framing communities as competent and competitive actors, morally responsible and accountable for their destiny. In France, the emerging policy localism is surfing on an ongoing political structuration of innovative rural territories – ‘Positive Energie Territories’ (TEPOS). The paper presents and discusses the results of a rough census (undertaken in 2012) of significant experiences in this domain. It points to a few experiences and depicts them as risky, trial-and-error transcalar processes that endow locally emergent energy issues with a political dimension. To this extent, they amount to a different way of doing energy policy. The analysis points to an ambiguity in French policy localism. This localism may pave the way for an upscaling of the ongoing TEPOS political structuration, or tend to make TEPOS into demonstration territories within a neoliberal RTD policy approach. In the latter case, it may not necessarily fit territories to pursue their political structuration with a view to the energy transition. - Highlights: • The paper bears witness to the emergence of a French energy policy localism. • It presents a sample of significant local rural experiences in the climate energy domain in rural France. • These experiences are risky, trial-and-error transcalar processes. • They amount to a different way of doing energy policy. • French localism surfs on these innovative territories while remaining ambiguous about the status that it confers on them

  15. Object Recognition System in Remote Controlled Weapon Station using SIFT and SURF Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midriem Mirdanies

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Object recognition system using computer vision that is implemented on Remote Controlled Weapon Station (RCWS is discussed. This system will make it easier to identify and shoot targeted object automatically. Algorithm was created to recognize real time multiple objects using two methods i.e. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF combined with K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN and Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC for verification. The algorithm is designed to improve object detection to be more robust and to minimize the processing time required. Objects are registered on the system consisting of the armored personnel carrier, tanks, bus, sedan, big foot, and police jeep. In addition, object selection can use mouse to shoot another object that has not been registered on the system. Kinect™ is used to capture RGB images and to find the coordinates x, y, and z of the object. The programming language used is C with visual studio IDE 2010 and opencv libraries. Object recognition program is divided into three parts: 1 reading image from kinect™ and simulation results, 2 object recognition process, and 3 transfer of the object data to the ballistic computer. Communication between programs is performed using shared memory. The detected object data is sent to the ballistic computer via Local Area Network (LAN using winsock for ballistic calculation, and then the motor control system moves the direction of the weapon model to the desired object. The experimental results show that the SIFT method is more suitable because more accurate and faster than SURF with the average processing time to detect one object is 430.2 ms, two object is 618.4 ms, three objects is 682.4 ms, and four objects is 756.2 ms. Object recognition program is able to recognize multi-objects and the data of the identified object can be processed by the ballistic computer in realtime.

  16. Impacts of wave-induced circulation in the surf zone on wave setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Thomas; Bertin, Xavier; Coulombier, Thibault; de Bakker, Anouk

    2018-03-01

    Wave setup corresponds to the increase in mean water level along the coast associated with the breaking of short-waves and is of key importance for coastal dynamics, as it contributes to storm surges and the generation of undertows. Although overall well explained by the divergence of the momentum flux associated with short waves in the surf zone, several studies reported substantial underestimations along the coastline. This paper investigates the impacts of the wave-induced circulation that takes place in the surf zone on wave setup, based on the analysis of 3D modelling results. A 3D phase-averaged modelling system using a vortex force formalism is applied to hindcast an unpublished field experiment, carried out at a dissipative beach under moderate to very energetic wave conditions (Hm 0 = 6m at breaking and Tp = 22s). When using an adaptive wave breaking parameterisation based on the beach slope, model predictions for water levels, short waves and undertows improved by about 30%, with errors reducing to 0.10 m, 0.10 m and 0.09 m/s, respectively. The analysis of model results suggests a very limited impact of the vertical circulation on wave setup at this dissipative beach. When extending this analysis to idealized simulations for different beach slopes ranging from 0.01 to 0.05, it shows that the contribution of the vertical circulation (horizontal and vertical advection and vertical viscosity terms) becomes more and more relevant as the beach slope increases. In contrast, for a given beach slope, the wave height at the breaking point has a limited impact on the relative contribution of the vertical circulation on the wave setup. For a slope of 0.05, the contribution of the terms associated with the vertical circulation accounts for up to 17% (i.e. a 20% increase) of the total setup at the shoreline, which provides a new explanation for the underestimations reported in previously published studies.

  17. Sandstone uranium deposits: analogues for surf disposal in some sedimentary rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookins, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    Sandstone uranium deposits are well suited as analogs for SURF. These deposits typically occur as tabular or lensoid masses of uraniferous sandstone, commonly where the argillaceous mineral and organic content is high. Primary minerals consist of pitchblende and/or coffinite, with possibly some urano-organic phases as well. The ore is usually associated with authigenic ferromagnesian clay minerals, such as chlorite and/or authigenic illite and/or mixed layer smectite-illite; and with pyrite ± jordisite ± seleniferrous species ± calcite. Organic matter is usually associated with the ore. The clay minerals in the ore zones are commonly vanadiferrous. The genesis of the sandstone uranium deposits is now fairly well understood and allows semi-quantitative estimates to be placed on behaviour of analog-elements for many constituents of SURF (or HLW). Prior to mineralization, oxidized species of U, V, Se, Mo, As are carried together as oxyanions; these species precipitate in a restricted range of Eh-pH when reducing conditions are met. Concomitant with removal of these species, due to formation of reduced, insoluble species, several other elements of interest are concentrated in the ore zones as well. Chalcophile elements, such as Cu, Co, Mn, Zn, Cd, Sb, and others are fixed in authigenic sulfide phases, and the alkalis Rb, K, and Cs are fixed in the authigenic illite and illitic mixed layer clays. The alkaline earth elements Sr and Ba are commonly fixed in sulfate-rich rock. The rare earth elements (REE) are incorporated into authigenic clay minerals or into oxy-hydroxide phases. (author)

  18. Probabilistic Modeling and Evaluation of Surf Zone Injury Occurrence along the Delaware Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelp, M.; Puleo, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Beebe Healthcare in Lewes, DE collected along the DE coast surf zone injury (SZI) data for seven summer seasons from 2010 through 2016. Data include, but are not limited to, time of injury, gender, age, and activity. Over 2000 injuries were recorded over the seven year period, including 116 spinal injuries and three fatalities. These injuries are predominantly wave related incidents including wading (41%), bodysurfing (26%), and body-boarding (20%). Despite the large number of injuries, beach associated hazards do not receive the same level of awareness that rip currents receive. Injury population statistics revealed those between the ages of 11 and 15 years old suffered the greatest proportion of injuries (18.8%). Male water users were twice as likely to sustain injury as their female counterparts. Also, non-locals were roughly six times more likely to sustain injury than locals. In 2016, five or more injuries occurred for 18.5% of the days sampled, and no injuries occurred for 31.4% of the sample days. The episodic nature of injury occurrence and population statistics indicate the importance of environmental conditions and human behavior on surf zone injuries. Higher order statistics are necessary to effectively assess SZI cause and likelihood of occurrence on a particular day. A Bayesian network using Netica software (Norsys) was constructed to model SZI and predict changes in injury likelihood on an hourly basis. The network incorporates environmental data collected by weather stations, NDBC buoy #44009, USACE buoy at Bethany Beach, and by researcher personnel on the beach. The Bayesian model includes prior (e.g., historic) information to infer relationships between provided parameters. Sensitivity analysis determined the most influential variables to injury likelihood are population, water temperature, nearshore wave height, beach slope, and the day of the week. Forecasting during the 2017 summer season will test model ability to predict injury likelihood.

  19. Mapping bathymetry in an active surf zone with the WorldView2 multispectral satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, S. M.; Houser, C.; Brander, R.; Chirico, P.

    2015-12-01

    Rip currents are strong, narrow seaward flows of water that originate in the surf zones of many global beaches. They are related to hundreds of international drownings each year, but exact numbers are difficult to calculate due to logistical difficulties in obtaining accurate incident reports. Annual average rip current fatalities are estimated to be ~100, 53 and 21 in the United States (US), Costa Rica, and Australia respectively. Current warning systems (e.g. National Weather Service) do not account for fine resolution nearshore bathymetry because it is difficult to capture. The method shown here could provide frequent, high resolution maps of nearshore bathymetry at a scale required for improved rip prediction and warning. This study demonstrates a method for mapping bathymetry in the surf zone (20m deep and less), specifically within rip channels, because rips form at topographically low spots in the bathymetry as a result of feedback amongst waves, substrate, and antecedent bathymetry. The methods employ the Digital Globe WorldView2 (WV2) multispectral satellite and field measurements of depth to generate maps of the changing bathymetry at two embayed, rip-prone beaches: Playa Cocles, Puerto Viejo de Talamanca, Costa Rica, and Bondi Beach, Sydney, Australia. WV2 has a 1.1 day pass-over rate with 1.84m ground pixel resolution of 8 bands, including 'yellow' (585-625 nm) and 'coastal blue' (400-450 nm). The data is used to classify bottom type and to map depth to the return in multiple bands. The methodology is tested at each site for algorithm consistency between dates, and again for applicability between sites.

  20. Recent advances in flood forecasting and flood risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Arduino

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent large floods in Europe have led to increased interest in research and development of flood forecasting systems. Some of these events have been provoked by some of the wettest rainfall periods on record which has led to speculation that such extremes are attributable in some measure to anthropogenic global warming and represent the beginning of a period of higher flood frequency. Whilst current trends in extreme event statistics will be difficult to discern, conclusively, there has been a substantial increase in the frequency of high floods in the 20th century for basins greater than 2x105 km2. There is also increasing that anthropogenic forcing of climate change may lead to an increased probability of extreme precipitation and, hence, of flooding. There is, therefore, major emphasis on the improvement of operational flood forecasting systems in Europe, with significant European Community spending on research and development on prototype forecasting systems and flood risk management projects. This Special Issue synthesises the most relevant scientific and technological results presented at the International Conference on Flood Forecasting in Europe held in Rotterdam from 3-5 March 2003. During that meeting 150 scientists, forecasters and stakeholders from four continents assembled to present their work and current operational best practice and to discuss future directions of scientific and technological efforts in flood prediction and prevention. The papers presented at the conference fall into seven themes, as follows.

  1. Public perception of flood risks, flood forecasting and mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brilly

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A multidisciplinary and integrated approach to the flood mitigation decision making process should provide the best response of society in a flood hazard situation including preparation works and post hazard mitigation. In Slovenia, there is a great lack of data on social aspects and public response to flood mitigation measures and information management. In this paper, two studies of flood perception in the Slovenian town Celje are represented. During its history, Celje was often exposed to floods, the most recent serious floods being in 1990 and in 1998, with a hundred and fifty return period and more than ten year return period, respectively. Two surveys were conducted in 1997 and 2003, with 157 participants from different areas of the town in the first, and 208 in the second study, aiming at finding the general attitude toward the floods. The surveys revealed that floods present a serious threat in the eyes of the inhabitants, and that the perception of threat depends, to a certain degree, on the place of residence. The surveys also highlighted, among the other measures, solidarity and the importance of insurance against floods.

  2. Flooding correlations in narrow channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Baek, W. P.; Chang, S. H.

    1999-01-01

    Heat transfer in narrow gap is considered as important phenomena in severe accidents in nuclear power plants. Also in heat removal of electric chip. Critical heat flux(CHF) in narrow gap limits the maximum heat transfer rate in narrow channel. In case of closed bottom channel, flooding limited CHF occurrence is observed. Flooding correlations will be helpful to predict the CHF in closed bottom channel. In present study, flooding data for narrow channel geometry were collected and the work to recognize the effect of the span, w and gap size, s were performed. And new flooding correlations were suggested for high-aspect-ratio geometry. Also, flooding correlation was applied to flooding limited CHF data

  3. Flood Hazards - A National Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    In the late summer of 2005, the remarkable flooding brought by Hurricane Katrina, which caused more than $200 billion in losses, constituted the costliest natural disaster in U.S. history. However, even in typical years, flooding causes billions of dollars in damage and threatens lives and property in every State. Natural processes, such as hurricanes, weather systems, and snowmelt, can cause floods. Failure of levees and dams and inadequate drainage in urban areas can also result in flooding. On average, floods kill about 140 people each year and cause $6 billion in property damage. Although loss of life to floods during the past half-century has declined, mostly because of improved warning systems, economic losses have continued to rise due to increased urbanization and coastal development.

  4. Fault tree analysis for urban flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional methods to evaluate flood risk mostly focus on storm events as the main cause of flooding. Fault tree analysis is a technique that is able to model all potential causes of flooding and to quantify both the overall probability of flooding and the contributions of all causes of flooding to

  5. Comparison of recreational health risks associated with surfing and swimming in dry weather and post-storm conditions at Southern California beaches using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Linda Y; Jiang, Sunny C

    2012-05-01

    Southern California is an increasingly urbanized hotspot for surfing, thus it is of great interest to assess the human illness risks associated with this popular ocean recreational water sport from exposure to fecal bacteria contaminated coastal waters. Quantitative microbial risk assessments were applied to eight popular Southern California beaches using readily available enterococcus and fecal coliform data and dose-response models to compare health risks associated with surfing during dry weather and storm conditions. The results showed that the level of gastrointestinal illness risks from surfing post-storm events was elevated, with the probability of exceeding the US EPA health risk guideline up to 28% of the time. The surfing risk was also elevated in comparison with swimming at the same beach due to ingestion of greater volume of water. The study suggests that refinement of dose-response model, improving monitoring practice and better surfer behavior surveillance will improve the risk estimation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rethinking the relationship between flood risk perception and flood management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholz, S; Muro, M; Jeffrey, P; Smith, H M

    2014-04-15

    Although flood risk perceptions and their concomitant motivations for behaviour have long been recognised as significant features of community resilience in the face of flooding events, there has, for some time now, been a poorly appreciated fissure in the accompanying literature. Specifically, rationalist and constructivist paradigms in the broader domain of risk perception provide different (though not always conflicting) contexts for interpreting evidence and developing theory. This contribution reviews the major constructs that have been applied to understanding flood risk perceptions and contextualises these within broader conceptual developments around risk perception theory and contemporary thinking around flood risk management. We argue that there is a need to re-examine and re-invigorate flood risk perception research, in a manner that is comprehensively underpinned by more constructivist thinking around flood risk management as well as by developments in broader risk perception research. We draw attention to an historical over-emphasis on the cognitive perceptions of those at risk to the detriment of a richer understanding of a wider range of flood risk perceptions such as those of policy-makers or of tax-payers who live outside flood affected areas as well as the linkages between these perspectives and protective measures such as state-supported flood insurance schemes. Conclusions challenge existing understandings of the relationship between risk perception and flood management, particularly where the latter relates to communication strategies and the extent to which those at risk from flooding feel responsible for taking protective actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Flood Risk and Flood hazard maps - Visualisation of hydrological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spachinger, Karl; Dorner, Wolfgang; Metzka, Rudolf; Serrhini, Kamal; Fuchs, Sven

    2008-01-01

    Hydrological models are an important basis of flood forecasting and early warning systems. They provide significant data on hydrological risks. In combination with other modelling techniques, such as hydrodynamic models, they can be used to assess the extent and impact of hydrological events. The new European Flood Directive forces all member states to evaluate flood risk on a catchment scale, to compile maps of flood hazard and flood risk for prone areas, and to inform on a local level about these risks. Flood hazard and flood risk maps are important tools to communicate flood risk to different target groups. They provide compiled information to relevant public bodies such as water management authorities, municipalities, or civil protection agencies, but also to the broader public. For almost each section of a river basin, run-off and water levels can be defined based on the likelihood of annual recurrence, using a combination of hydrological and hydrodynamic models, supplemented by an analysis of historical records and mappings. In combination with data related to the vulnerability of a region risk maps can be derived. The project RISKCATCH addressed these issues of hydrological risk and vulnerability assessment focusing on the flood risk management process. Flood hazard maps and flood risk maps were compiled for Austrian and German test sites taking into account existing national and international guidelines. These maps were evaluated by eye-tracking using experimental graphic semiology. Sets of small-scale as well as large-scale risk maps were presented to test persons in order to (1) study reading behaviour as well as understanding and (2) deduce the most attractive components that are essential for target-oriented risk communication. A cognitive survey asking for negative and positive aspects and complexity of each single map complemented the experimental graphic semiology. The results indicate how risk maps can be improved to fit the needs of different user

  8. Towards a Flood Severity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettner, A.; Chong, A.; Prades, L.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Muir, S.; Amparore, A.; Slayback, D. A.; Poungprom, R.

    2017-12-01

    Flooding is the most common natural hazard worldwide, affecting 21 million people every year. In the immediate moments following a flood event, humanitarian actors like the World Food Program need to make rapid decisions ( 72 hrs) on how to prioritize affected areas impacted by such an event. For other natural disasters like hurricanes/cyclones and earthquakes, there are industry-recognized standards on how the impacted areas are to be classified. Shake maps, quantifying peak ground motion, from for example the US Geological Survey are widely used for assessing earthquakes. Similarly, cyclones are tracked by Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS) who release storm nodes and tracks (forecasted and actual), with wind buffers and classify the event according to the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. For floods, the community is usually able to acquire unclassified data of the flood extent as identified from satellite imagery. Most often no water discharge hydrograph is available to classify the event into recurrence intervals simply because there is no gauging station, or the gauging station was unable to record the maximum discharge due to overtopping or flood damage. So, the question remains: How do we methodically turn a flooded area into classified areas of different gradations of impact? Here, we present a first approach towards developing a global applicable flood severity index. The flood severity index is set up such that it considers relatively easily obtainable physical parameters in a short period of time like: flood frequency (relating the current flood to historical events) and magnitude, as well as land cover, slope, and where available pre-event simulated flood depth. The scale includes categories ranging from very minor flooding to catastrophic flooding. We test and evaluate the postulated classification scheme against a set of past flood events. Once a severity category is determined, socio

  9. Pneumectomia utilizando sutura em bloco do hilo pulmonar por grampeador linear em cães Lung hilum pneumonectomy in dogs using linear stapler block suture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Akio Shiozaki

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A dissecção individualizada das estruturas do hilo pulmonar para execução de ressecções pulmonares nem sempre é de fácil execução. Nas operações vídeo-assistidas, as dificuldades de dissecção podem impedir a ressecção por essa via, obrigando o cirurgião a converter o procedimento operatório a aberto. As melhoras da qualidade técnica dos grampeadores cirúrgicos na década de 90 foram tão importantes que começam a surgir questionamentos quanto a sua possível eficiência na sutura em bloco das estruturas do hilo pulmonar, dispensando, assim, a dissecção individualizada de seus componentes, para a realização das ressecções. O objetivo de nosso trabalho foi verificar o efeito da sutura mecânica em bloco do hilo pulmonar. Realizamos pneumectomia em 12 cães machos, adultos, mestiços, com sutura simultânea do hilo pulmonar que foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos com seis animais cada, observados até o 7º e 14 º dias de pós-operatório, obedecendo a protocolos experimentais previamente elaborados de verificação da macro e microscopia. A via de acesso foi a toracotomia lateral, realizada no animal anestesiado e mantido em ventilação controlada por ventilador mecânico. A sutura do hilo pulmonar em bloco foi realizada com somente um disparo do grampeador linear cortante de 60mm. Não houve a ocorrência de óbitos, deiscências de sutura ou fístulas arteriais ou venosas. Um animal apresentou abscesso no coto de amputação sem, entretanto, desenvolver fistulas ou deiscências nas suturas. A evolução pós-operatória foi considerada boa em 10 (83,3% dos animais e regular em 2 (16,7%, que apresentaram pequenos abscessos incisionais. Concluímos que esta técnica de sutura é viável, de rápida execução, apresenta bons resultados e necessita de estudos complementares que os corroborem.Individualized dissections of lung hilum structures to perform lung resections are not always easy. In video

  10. Cestovní ruch a sociální sítě: Projekt CouchSurfing v Česku

    OpenAIRE

    Hásová, Adéla

    2012-01-01

    The master thesis focuses on the virtual social network sites which are concern to be exceptionally actual issue. Moreover the thesis deals with social networks in tourism. The number of various social networks about travelling is high. However, only the community of CouchSurfing (hospitality exchange network) was chosen for the research purposes of the thesis. The research included in the thesis focuses on CouchSurfing because is the greatest hospitality exchange site in these days. It inclu...

  11. Probabilistic Flood Defence Assessment Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slomp Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The WTI2017 project is responsible for the development of flood defence assessment tools for the 3600 km of Dutch primary flood defences, dikes/levees, dunes and hydraulic structures. These tools are necessary, as per January 1st 2017, the new flood risk management policy for the Netherlands will be implemented. Then, the seven decades old design practice (maximum water level methodology of 1958 and two decades old safety standards (and maximum hydraulic load methodology of 1996 will formally be replaced by a more risked based approach for the national policy in flood risk management. The formal flood defence assessment is an important part of this new policy, especially for flood defence managers, since national and regional funding for reinforcement is based on this assessment. This new flood defence policy is based on a maximum allowable probability of flooding. For this, a maximum acceptable individual risk was determined at 1/100 000 per year, this is the probability of life loss of for every protected area in the Netherlands. Safety standards of flood defences were then determined based on this acceptable individual risk. The results were adjusted based on information from cost -benefit analysis, societal risk and large scale societal disruption due to the failure of critical infrastructure e.g. power stations. The resulting riskbased flood defence safety standards range from a 300 to a 100 000 year return period for failure. Two policy studies, WV21 (Safety from floods in the 21st century and VNK-2 (the National Flood Risk in 2010 provided the essential information to determine the new risk based safety standards for flood defences. The WTI2017 project will provide the safety assessment tools based on these new standards and is thus an essential element for the implementation of this policy change. A major issue to be tackled was the development of user-friendly tools, as the new assessment is to be carried out by personnel of the

  12. Temporal clustering of floods in Germany: Do flood-rich and flood-poor periods exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Bruno; Nguyen, Viet Dung; Vorogushyn, Sergiy

    2016-10-01

    The repeated occurrence of exceptional floods within a few years, such as the Rhine floods in 1993 and 1995 and the Elbe and Danube floods in 2002 and 2013, suggests that floods in Central Europe may be organized in flood-rich and flood-poor periods. This hypothesis is studied by testing the significance of temporal clustering in flood occurrence (peak-over-threshold) time series for 68 catchments across Germany for the period 1932-2005. To assess the robustness of the results, different methods are used: Firstly, the index of dispersion, which quantifies the departure from a homogeneous Poisson process, is investigated. Further, the time-variation of the flood occurrence rate is derived by non-parametric kernel implementation and the significance of clustering is evaluated via parametric and non-parametric tests. Although the methods give consistent overall results, the specific results differ considerably. Hence, we recommend applying different methods when investigating flood clustering. For flood estimation and risk management, it is of relevance to understand whether clustering changes with flood severity and time scale. To this end, clustering is assessed for different thresholds and time scales. It is found that the majority of catchments show temporal clustering at the 5% significance level for low thresholds and time scales of one to a few years. However, clustering decreases substantially with increasing threshold and time scale. We hypothesize that flood clustering in Germany is mainly caused by catchment memory effects along with intra- to inter-annual climate variability, and that decadal climate variability plays a minor role.

  13. Reserve Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  14. Elephant Butte Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  15. The Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, Charles

    2015-04-01

    As population growth and economic growth take place, and as climate change accelerates, many regions across the globe are finding themselves increasingly vulnerable to flooding. A recent OECD study of the exposure of the world's large port cities to coastal flooding found that 40 million people were exposed to a 1 in 100 year coastal flood event in 2005, and the total value of exposed assets was about US 3,000 billion, or 5% of global GDP. By the 2070s, those numbers were estimated to increase to 150 million people and US 35,000 billion, or roughly 9% of projected global GDP. Impoverished people in developing countries are particularly at risk because they often live in flood-prone areas and lack the resources to respond. WRI and its Dutch partners - Deltares, IVM-VU University Amsterdam, Utrecht University, and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency - are in the initial stages of developing a robust set of river flood and coastal storm surge risk measures that show the extent of flooding under a variety of scenarios (both current and future), together with the projected human and economic impacts of these flood scenarios. These flood risk data and information will be accessible via an online, easy-to-use Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer. We will also investigate the viability, benefits, and costs of a wide array of flood risk reduction measures that could be implemented in a variety of geographic and socio-economic settings. Together, the activities we propose have the potential for saving hundreds of thousands of lives and strengthening the resiliency and security of many millions more, especially those who are most vulnerable. Mr. Iceland will present Version 1.0 of the Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer and provide a preview of additional elements of the Analyzer to be released in the coming years.

  16. Flood Risk, Flood Mitigation, and Location Choice: Evaluating the National Flood Insurance Program's Community Rating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qin; Davlasheridze, Meri

    2016-06-01

    Climate change is expected to worsen the negative effects of natural disasters like floods. The negative impacts, however, can be mitigated by individuals' adjustments through migration and relocation behaviors. Previous literature has identified flood risk as one significant driver in relocation decisions, but no prior study examines the effect of the National Flood Insurance Program's voluntary program-the Community Rating System (CRS)-on residential location choice. This article fills this gap and tests the hypothesis that flood risk and the CRS-creditable flood control activities affect residential location choices. We employ a two-stage sorting model to empirically estimate the effects. In the first stage, individuals' risk perception and preference heterogeneity for the CRS activities are considered, while mean effects of flood risk and the CRS activities are estimated in the second stage. We then estimate heterogeneous marginal willingness to pay (WTP) for the CRS activities by category. Results show that age, ethnicity and race, educational attainment, and prior exposure to risk explain risk perception. We find significant values for the CRS-creditable mitigation activities, which provides empirical evidence for the benefits associated with the program. The marginal WTP for an additional credit point earned for public information activities, including hazard disclosure, is found to be the highest. Results also suggest that water amenities dominate flood risk. Thus, high amenity values may increase exposure to flood risk, and flood mitigation projects should be strategized in coastal regions accordingly. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Deviation from Trajectory Detection in Vision based Robotic Navigation using SURF and Subsequent Restoration by Dynamic Auto Correction Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Debraj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Speeded Up Robust Feature (SURF is used to position a robot with respect to an environment and aid in vision-based robotic navigation. During the course of navigation irregularities in the terrain, especially in an outdoor environment may deviate a robot from the track. Another reason for deviation can be unequal speed of the left and right robot wheels. Hence it is essential to detect such deviations and perform corrective operations to bring the robot back to the track. In this paper we propose a novel algorithm that uses image matching using SURF to detect deviation of a robot from the trajectory and subsequent restoration by corrective operations. This algorithm is executed in parallel to positioning and navigation algorithms by distributing tasks among different CPU cores using Open Multi-Processing (OpenMP API.

  18. Floods in the Saguenay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martel, R.; Michaud, E.; Tousignant, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    Footage of a natural disaster that occurred between July 20 and 25 1996, in the Saguenay region of Quebec was documented. A heavy downpour of rain raised the water level of the Kenogami Lake reservoir beyond its capacity. This created huge pressure on its dam that upset the fragile balance between nature and rock. The dam raptured, resulting in a flood of previously unseen proportions. The Riviere au Sable in Jonquiere became an overwhelming body of water. The video showed how the shores of the river were eroded and how apartment buildings were engulfed by the torrent of water. A newly constructed electricity power plant had to be decommissioned, roads were washed away and entire neighborhoods were devastated. The devastation suffered by the cities of Chicoutimi, Jonquiere, Ville de la Baie, Ferland-Boileau, and L'Anse St-Jean was recorded. Thousands of victims of the disaster were evacuated with the help of the Canadian Armed Forces. Some of the work of reconstruction, begun even before the total retreat of the flood, involved restoration of roads, bridges and communication networks, was also shown

  19. Flood risk management in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysiak, J.; Testella, F.; Bonaiuto, M.

    2013-01-01

    Italy's recent history is punctuated with devastating flood disasters claiming high death toll and causing vast but underestimated economic, social and environmental damage. The responses to major flood and landslide disasters such as the Polesine (1951), Vajont (1963), Firenze (1966), Valtelina...

  20. The Internet as a source of health information among Singaporeans: prevalence, patterns of health surfing and impact on health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siow, T R; Soh, I P; Sreedharan, S; Das De, S; Tan, P P; Seow, A; Lun, K C

    2003-11-01

    The Internet is an increasingly popular source of healthcare information. This study describes the prevalence of health surfers in Singapore and their health-surfing patterns. It also assesses their confidence in online health information and the impact the Internet has on health-seeking behaviour. A cross-sectional survey using a standardised questionnaire was carried out among residents aged 13 to 55 years in 1852 units in Bishan North. These units were selected by single-stage simple random cluster sampling method. The household response rate was 51% (n = 950) and the individual response rate was 69% (n = 1646). Responding and non-responding households were similar in terms of ethnicity and housing type. Of the responders, 62.9% surfed the Internet and 37.7% have surfed for health information. Health surfers tended to be younger (20 to 39 years) and have higher education status. Indians were also more likely than other ethnic groups to surf for health. Professional health-related sites comprised the majority (68%) of sites visited, and the most common search keywords concern chronic degenerative diseases, e.g. hypertension. The top preferred sources of health information were doctors (25.9%), the Internet (25.3%) and the traditional mass media (20.5%). Almost half (45.1%) considered online health information trustworthy if it was from a professional source or if the website displayed the source, while 10.6% trusted the information if it concurred with the doctors' advice. The vast majority (91.7%) had taken some action in response to the information. The Internet is being used as an accessible source of health information by a substantial proportion of the lay public. While this can facilitate greater partnership in healthcare, it underlines the need for doctors to be pro-active in the practice of evidence-based medicine, and for guidelines to enable patients to use this tool in a discerning manner.

  1. Ecophysiological and biochemical variation of the surf zone diatom asterionellopsis glacialis sensu lato from Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Rubi Rörig

    Full Text Available Abstract Patches formed by dense accumulations of diatoms in the surf zone (surf diatoms are common on sandy beaches with intermediate to dissipative morphodynamic states. Their appearances are correlated with environmental factors such as the passage of cold fronts when onshore winds increase beach hydrodynamics, resuspending epibenthic stocks and accumulating them through the inner surf zone. In Santa Catarina state, Southern Brazil, two beaches are known to have frequent occurrence of accumulations of the surf diatom Asterionellopsis glacialis sensu lato: Rincão Beach (28°50' S and Navegantes Beach (26°52' S. The high biomass of this alga and its central importance in the trophic structure of the coastal ecosystems suggest studies about its potential applications. In the present study, strains of A. glacialis were isolated, cultured under different conditions and evaluated for ecophysiological aspects: growth rate under different conditions, potential biological activities of exudates, biomass and lipid content, and fatty acid profile. A. glacialis cells in culture showed deformation, which were ameliorated by using agitation and silicon and phosphorus enriched culture media. Exudates of the strains showed no allelopathic effects, although previous studies have indicated activity. Lipid content showed variation depending on the strain and culture media. Values ranged from 9% to 13.6% by dry weight. In all strains saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids were identified. Some hypotheses were proposed to explain the variation of the lipid contents, fatty acid profiles and physiological features between strains of the same species. We believe that the fatty acids profile of this primary producer has important consequences in the sandy beach ecology.

  2. Decreased affinity for oxygen of cytochrome-c oxidase in Leigh syndrome caused by SURF1 mutations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecina, Petr; Gnaiger, E.; Zeman, J.; Pronicka, E.; Houštěk, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 287, č. 5 (2004), s. C1384-C1388 ISSN 0363-6143 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA303/03/0749 Grant - others:CZ-AT(CZ) Kontakt-Aktion 2004/S; GA UK(CZ) 24/2004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : oxygen kinetics * mitochondrial disease * SURF1 Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.939, year: 2004

  3. Surf, sand, scrapes and stings: First aid incidents involving children at New Zealand beaches, 2007–2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Kevin; Webber, Jonathon

    2014-03-01

    Aims: In spite of the popularity of beaches for family recreation, little is known about childhood injuries sustained at beaches. It is the purpose of this study to analyse data from incidents necessitating first aid treatment from reports compiled by surf lifeguards on New Zealand beaches.Method: A retrospective analysis of first aid incidents involving children (safety via greater care giver awareness, the use of protective clothing and footwear, and child safety promotion via health professionals and safety organisations are discussed.

  4. Development and Evaluation of a Simple, Multifactorial Model Based on Landing Performance to Indicate Injury Risk in Surfing Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Lina E; Tran, Tai T; Nimphius, Sophia; Raymond, Ellen; Secomb, Josh L; Farley, Oliver R L; Newton, Robert U; Steele, Julie R; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2015-11-01

    To develop and evaluate a multifactorial model based on landing performance to estimate injury risk for surfing athletes. Five measures were collected from 78 competitive surfing athletes and used to create a model to serve as a screening tool for landing tasks and potential injury risk. In the second part of the study, the model was evaluated using junior surfing athletes (n = 32) with a longitudinal follow-up of their injuries over 26 wk. Two models were compared based on the collected data, and magnitude-based inferences were applied to determine the likelihood of differences between injured and noninjured groups. The study resulted in a model based on 5 measures--ankle-dorsiflexion range of motion, isometric midthigh-pull lower-body strength, time to stabilization during a drop-and-stick (DS) landing, relative peak force during a DS landing, and frontal-plane DS-landing video analysis--for male and female professional surfers and male and female junior surfers. Evaluation of the model showed that a scaled probability score was more likely to detect injuries in junior surfing athletes and reported a correlation of r = .66, P = .001, with a model of equal variable importance. The injured (n = 7) surfers had a lower probability score (0.18 ± 0.16) than the noninjured group (n = 25, 0.36 ± 0.15), with 98% likelihood, Cohen d = 1.04. The proposed model seems sensitive and easy to implement and interpret. Further research is recommended to show full validity for potential adaptations for other sports.

  5. Internal flooding analyses results of Slovak NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopira, Vladimir

    2000-01-01

    The assessment of the flood risk was the objective of the internal flooding analysis for NPPs Bohunice V1, V2 and Mochovce. All important flooding sources were identified. The rooms containing safety important components were analyzed from the point of view of: Integrity of flood boundaries; Capability for drainage; Flood signalisation; Flood localization and liquidation; Vulnerability of safety system component. The redundancies of safety systems are located mostly separately and no flood can endanger more than single train. It can be concluded that NPPs with WWER-440 are very safe against the flooding initiating event

  6. A Comparison of Aerobic Fitness Testing on a Swim Bench and Treadmill in a Recreational Surfing Cohort: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzeh Khundaqji

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The intermittent manner of surfing accentuates the importance of both the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems. Currently, the optimal method of assessing surfing-specific aerobic fitness is using a swim bench (SWB ergometer; however, their limited availability presents a barrier to surfers wanting to know their maximal aerobic power (VO2peak. As a result, the aims of this pilot study were to determine the VO2peak of recreational surfers using a new commercial SWB ergometer and to propose and examine the feasibility of a regression model to predict SWB ergometer VO2peak values. A total of nine recreational surfers were assessed where body measurements were conducted followed by maximal aerobic capacity testing (swim bench and treadmill to profile the cohort. Findings demonstrated that VO2peak values were significantly greater (p < 0.001 on the treadmill compared to the SWB ergometer (M = 66.01 ± 8.23 vs. 37.41 ± 8.73 mL/kg/min. Peak heart rate was also significantly greater on the treadmill compared to the SWB ergometer. Multiple regression analysis was used to produce a model which predicted SWB VO2peak values with an R2 value of 0.863 and an adjusted R2 value of 0.726. The physiological profiling of the recreational cohort coupled with a surfer’s predicted SWB VO2peak value will allow for identification of surfing-specific aerobic fitness levels and evidence-based training recommendations.

  7. FEATURE RECOGNITION BERBASIS CORNER DETECTION DENGAN METODE FAST, SURF DAN FLANN TREE UNTUK IDENTIFIKASI LOGO PADA AUGMENTED REALITY MOBILE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastri Prathivi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Logo is a graphical symbol that is the identity of an organization, institution, or company. Logo is generally used to introduce to the public the existence of an organization, institution, or company. Through the existence of an agency logo can be seen by the public. Feature recognition is one of the processes that exist within an augmented reality system. One of uses augmented reality is able to recognize the identity of the logo through a camera.The first step to make a process of feature recognition is through the corner detection. Incorporation of several method such as FAST, SURF, and FLANN TREE for the feature detection process based corner detection feature matching up process, will have the better ability to detect the presence of a logo. Additionally when running the feature extraction process there are several issues that arise as scale invariant feature and rotation invariant feature. In this study the research object in the form of logo to the priority to make the process of feature recognition. FAST, SURF, and FLANN TREE method will detection logo with scale invariant feature and rotation invariant feature conditions. Obtained from this study will demonstration the accuracy from FAST, SURF, and FLANN TREE methods to solve the scale invariant and rotation invariant feature problems.

  8. Developing a Malaysia flood model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseldine, Lucy; Baxter, Stephen; Wheeler, Phil; Thomson, Tina

    2014-05-01

    Faced with growing exposures in Malaysia, insurers have a need for models to help them assess their exposure to flood losses. The need for an improved management of flood risks has been further highlighted by the 2011 floods in Thailand and recent events in Malaysia. The increasing demand for loss accumulation tools in Malaysia has lead to the development of the first nationwide probabilistic Malaysia flood model, which we present here. The model is multi-peril, including river flooding for thousands of kilometres of river and rainfall-driven surface water flooding in major cities, which may cause losses equivalent to river flood in some high-density urban areas. The underlying hazard maps are based on a 30m digital surface model (DSM) and 1D/2D hydraulic modelling in JFlow and RFlow. Key mitigation schemes such as the SMART tunnel and drainage capacities are also considered in the model. The probabilistic element of the model is driven by a stochastic event set based on rainfall data, hence enabling per-event and annual figures to be calculated for a specific insurance portfolio and a range of return periods. Losses are estimated via depth-damage vulnerability functions which link the insured damage to water depths for different property types in Malaysia. The model provides a unique insight into Malaysian flood risk profiles and provides insurers with return period estimates of flood damage and loss to property portfolios through loss exceedance curve outputs. It has been successfully validated against historic flood events in Malaysia and is now being successfully used by insurance companies in the Malaysian market to obtain reinsurance cover.

  9. SURF - SUrvey of Risk Factor management: first report of an international audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Mt; Reiner, Z; Sheu, W; Ryden, L; Sutter, J de; De Bacquer, D; DeBacker, G; Mithal, A; Chung, N; Lim, Yt; Dudina, A; Reynolds, A; Dunney, K; Graham, I

    2014-07-01

    Despite the fact that subjects with established coronary heart disease (CHD) are at high risk of further events and deserve meticulous secondary prevention, current audits such as EUROASPIRE show poor control of major risk factors. Ongoing monitoring is required. We present a new risk factor audit system, SURF (Survey of Risk Factor management), that can be conducted much more quickly and easily than existing audit systems and has the potential to allow hospitals of all sizes to participate in a unified international audit system that will complement EUROASPIRE. Initial experience indicates that SURF is truly simple to undertake in an international setting, and this is illustrated with the results of a substantive pilot project conducted in Europe and Asia. The data collection system was designed to allow rapid and easy data collection as part of routine clinic work. Consecutive patients (aged 18 and over) with established CHD attending outpatient cardiology clinics were included. Information on demographics, previous coronary medical history, smoking history, history of hypertension, dyslipidaemia or diabetes, physical activity, attendance at cardiac rehabilitation, cardiac medications, lipid and glucose levels (and HbA1c in diabetics) if available within the last year, blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index, and waist circumference were collected using a one-page data collection sheet. Years spent in full time education was added as an additional question during the pilot phase. Three European countries - Ireland (n = 251), Belgium (n = 122), and Croatia (n = 124) - and four Asian countries - Singapore (n = 142), Taiwan (n = 334), India (n = 97), and Korea (n = 45) - were included in the pilot study. The results of initial field testing were confirmed in that it proved possible to collect data within 60-90 seconds per subject. There was poor control of several risk factors including high levels of physical inactivity (41

  10. Texas floods of 1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding, Seth D.

    1948-01-01

    Floods occurred in Texas during, June, July, and November 1940 that exceeded known stages on many small streams and at a few places on the larger streams. Stages at several stream-gaging stations exceeded the maximum known at those places since the collection of daily records began. A storm, haying its axis generally on a north-south line from Cameron to Victoria and extending across the Brazos, Colorado, Lavaca, and Guadalupe River Basins, caused heavy rainfall over a large part of south-central Texas. The maximum recorded rain of 22.7 inches for the 2-day period June 29-30 occurred at Engle. Of this amount, 17.5 inches fell in the 12-hour period between 8 p.m. June 29, and 8 a.m. June 30. Light rains fell at a number of places on June 28, and additional light rains fell at many places within the area from July 1 to 4. During the period June 28 to July 4 more than 20 inches of rain fell over an area of 300 square miles, more than 15 inches over 1,920 square miles, and more than 10 inches over 5,100 square miles. The average annual rainfall for the area experiencing the heaviest rainfall during this storm is about 35 inches. Farming is largely confined to the fertile flood plains in much of the area subjected to the record-breaking floods in June and July. Therefore these floods, coming at the height of the growing season, caused severe losses to crops. Much damage was done also to highways and railways. The city of Hallettsville suffered the greatest damage of any urban area. The Lavaca River at that place reached a stage 8 feet higher than ever known before, drowned several people, destroyed many homes, and submerged almost the entire business district. The maximum discharge there was 93,100 second-feet from a drainage area of 101 square miles. Dry Creek near Smithville produced a maximum discharge of 1,879 second-feet from an area of 1.48 square miles and a runoff of 11.3 inches in a 2-day period from a rainfall of 19.5 inches. The area in the Colorado River

  11. Improving Gas Flooding Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid Grigg; Robert Svec; Zheng Zeng; Alexander Mikhalin; Yi Lin; Guoqiang Yin; Solomon Ampir; Rashid Kassim

    2008-03-31

    This study focuses on laboratory studies with related analytical and numerical models, as well as work with operators for field tests to enhance our understanding of and capabilities for more efficient enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Much of the work has been performed at reservoir conditions. This includes a bubble chamber and several core flood apparatus developed or modified to measure interfacial tension (IFT), critical micelle concentration (CMC), foam durability, surfactant sorption at reservoir conditions, and pressure and temperature effects on foam systems.Carbon dioxide and N{sub 2} systems have been considered, under both miscible and immiscible conditions. The injection of CO2 into brine-saturated sandstone and carbonate core results in brine saturation reduction in the range of 62 to 82% brine in the tests presented in this paper. In each test, over 90% of the reduction occurred with less than 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected, with very little additional brine production after 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected. Adsorption of all considered surfactant is a significant problem. Most of the effect is reversible, but the amount required for foaming is large in terms of volume and cost for all considered surfactants. Some foams increase resistance to the value beyond what is practical in the reservoir. Sandstone, limestone, and dolomite core samples were tested. Dissolution of reservoir rock and/or cement, especially carbonates, under acid conditions of CO2 injection is a potential problem in CO2 injection into geological formations. Another potential change in reservoir injectivity and productivity will be the precipitation of dissolved carbonates as the brine flows and pressure decreases. The results of this report provide methods for determining surfactant sorption and can be used to aid in the determination of surfactant requirements for reservoir use in a CO{sub 2}-foam flood for mobility control. It also provides data to be used to determine rock permeability

  12. Isolation and characterization of bacteria capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organophosphorus pesticides from PAH-contaminated soil in Hilo, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jong-Su; Keum, Young-Soo; Harada, Renee M; Li, Qing X

    2007-07-11

    Nineteen bacterial strains were isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil in Hilo, HI, and characterized by two different spray-plated methods, turbidity test in liquid medium, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Analysis of the soil showed 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a range from 0.6 to 30 mg/kg of dry weight each and 12 PAH metabolites. Five distinct bacterial strains (C3, C4, P1-1, JS14, and JS19b1) selected from preliminary plating and turbidity tests were further tested for PAH degradation through single PAH degradation assay. Strains C3, C4, and P1-1 degraded phenanthrene (40 mg/L) completely during 7 days of incubation. Strain JS14 degraded fluoranthene (40 mg/L) completely during 10 days of incubation. Strain JS19b1 degraded 100% of phenanthrene (40 mg/L) in 7 days, 77% of fluorene (40 mg/L) in 14 days, 97% of fluoranthene (40 mg/L) in 10 days, and 100% of pyrene (40 mg/L) in 14 days. Turbidity tests showed that strains P1-1, JS14, and JS19b1 utilized several organophosphorus pesticides as growth substrate. P1-1 can degrade carbofenothion, chlorfenvinphos, diazinon, fonofos, and pirimiphos-methyl. JS14 can transform chlorfenvinphos and diazinon. JS19b1 can break down diazinon, pirimiphos-methyl, and temephos.

  13. Drug Take Back in Hawai‘i: Partnership Between the University of Hawai‘i Hilo College of Pharmacy and the Narcotics Enforcement Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batz, Forrest; Juarez, Deborah Taira; Ladao, Lani C

    2014-01-01

    Unused/unwanted medications in households and patient care facilities expose vulnerable populations, including children, elders, and pets, to potential harm through inadvertent ingestion, as well as the potential for theft and assault. Hawai‘i Administrative Rules prohibit the return of any prescription medications to retail pharmacies after dispensing. The Hawai‘i Narcotics Enforcement Division (NED) partnered with the University of Hawai‘i at Hilo Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy (CoP) in eleven Drug Take Back events throughout the state. Most participants heard of the events via newspaper and television marketing. The most common methods of medication disposal are via trash or down household drains. Over 8,000 lbs of unused/unwanted medications was collected, identified and logged from 2011 through 2012. The majority of returned drugs were non-controlled substances (90%). Commonly returned medications included prescription cardiac medications such as simvastatin and lisinopril, non-prescription analgesics such as aspirin and ibuprofen, and dietary supplements such as vitamins and iron. Commonly returned controlled substance medications included narcotics such as hydrocodone/acetaminophen combinations and oxycodone, and sedative hypnotics such as zolpidem and lorazepam. PMID:24470984

  14. Drug take back in Hawai'i: partnership between the University of Hawai'i Hilo College of Pharmacy and the Narcotics Enforcement Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Carolyn S; Batz, Forrest; Juarez, Deborah Taira; Ladao, Lani C

    2014-01-01

    Unused/unwanted medications in households and patient care facilities expose vulnerable populations, including children, elders, and pets, to potential harm through inadvertent ingestion, as well as the potential for theft and assault. Hawai'i Administrative Rules prohibit the return of any prescription medications to retail pharmacies after dispensing. The Hawai'i Narcotics Enforcement Division (NED) partnered with the University of Hawai'i at Hilo Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy (CoP) in eleven Drug Take Back events throughout the state. Most participants heard of the events via newspaper and television marketing. The most common methods of medication disposal are via trash or down household drains. Over 8,000 lbs of unused/unwanted medications was collected, identified and logged from 2011 through 2012. The majority of returned drugs were non-controlled substances (90%). Commonly returned medications included prescription cardiac medications such as simvastatin and lisinopril, non-prescription analgesics such as aspirin and ibuprofen, and dietary supplements such as vitamins and iron. Commonly returned controlled substance medications included narcotics such as hydrocodone/acetaminophen combinations and oxycodone, and sedative hypnotics such as zolpidem and lorazepam.

  15. Ablation of the mitochondrial complex IV assembly protein Surf1 leads to increased expression of the UPRMT and increased resistance to oxidative stress in primary cultures of fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Pharaoh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mice deficient in the electron transport chain (ETC complex IV assembly protein SURF1 have reduced assembly and activity of cytochrome c oxidase that is associated with an upregulation of components of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRMT and increased mitochondrial number. We hypothesized that the upregulation of proteins associated with the UPRMT in response to reduced cytochrome c oxidase activity in Surf1−/− mice might contribute to increased stress resistance. To test this hypothesis we asked whether primary cultures of fibroblasts from Surf1−/− mice exhibit enhanced resistance to stressors compared to wild-type fibroblasts. Here we show that primary dermal fibroblasts isolated from Surf1−/− mice have increased expression of UPRMT components ClpP and Hsp60, and increased expression of Lon protease. Fibroblasts from Surf1−/− mice are significantly more resistant to cell death caused by oxidative stress induced by paraquat or tert-Butyl hydroperoxide compared to cells from wild-type mice. In contrast, Surf1−/− fibroblasts show no difference in sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide stress. The enhanced cell survival in response to paraquat or tert-Butyl hydroperoxide in Surf1−/− fibroblasts compared to wild-type fibroblasts is associated with induced expression of Lon, ClpP, and Hsp60, increased maximal respiration, and increased reserve capacity as measured using the Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer. Overall these data support a protective role for the activation of the UPRMT in cell survival.

  16. A high throughput 2 m normal incidence monochromator for SURF-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ederer, D.L.; Cole, B.E.; West, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    The high intrinsic brightness of the circulating electron beam at SURF-II is used as the entrance slit for a two-meter normal incidence monochromator. A typical beam size for the electron beam is 100 μm high by 2 mm wide yielding an obserbed resolution of 0.4 Angstroem with a 200 μm exit slit and a 2400 lines/mm grating. The instrument accepts a beam with a 65 mrad horizontal divergence and a 10 mrad vertical divergence. A plane pre-mirror used near normal incidence reflects the incoming radiation onto the 2 m grating; this combination provides a horizontal exit beam, and enables the experiment to be located three meters from the orbit tangent point. With magnesium fluoride coated aluminium optics a flux of 2 x 10'' photon/s x Angstroem at 1200 Angstroem is observed with a 10 mA circulating current. A flux of 5 x 10 10 photon/s x Angstroem at 600 Angstroem is obserbed with an osmium coated grating and a 10 mA circulating current. Sample spectra of the angle-resolved photoelectron spectrum of CO are presented. (orig.)

  17. Impacts of beach wrack removal via grooming on surf zone water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Todd L; Sassoubre, Lauren M; Zhou, Christina; French-Owen, Darien; Hassaballah, Abdulrahman; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2014-02-18

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are used to assess the microbial water quality of recreational waters. Increasingly, nonfecal sources of FIB have been implicated as causes of poor microbial water quality in the coastal environment. These sources are challenging to quantify and difficult to remediate. The present study investigates one nonfecal FIB source, beach wrack (decaying aquatic plants), and its impacts on water quality along the Central California coast. The prevalence of FIB on wrack was studied using a multibeach survey, collecting wrack throughout Central California. The impacts of beach grooming, to remove wrack, were investigated at Cowell Beach in Santa Cruz, California using a long-term survey (two summers, one with and one without grooming) and a 48 h survey during the first ever intensive grooming event. FIB were prevalent on wrack but highly variable spatially and temporally along the nine beaches sampled in Central California. Beach grooming was generally associated with either no change or a slight increase in coastal FIB concentrations and increases in surf zone turbidity and silicate, phosphate, and dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations. The findings suggest that beach grooming for wrack removal is not justified as a microbial pollution remediation strategy.

  18. Surf Zone Hydrodynamics and its Utilization in Biotechnical Stabilization of Water Reservoir Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Pelikán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The water reservoir banks are eroded mainly by two factors. The first one is wave action (i.e. wave abrasion affecting the bank in direction from the reservoir. The second one is the influence of water flowing downward over the bank surface in direction from land into the reservoir (e.g. rainfall. The determination of regular altitudinal emplacement of proper designed particular biotechnical stabilization elements is the most important factor on which the right functionality of whole construction depends. Surf zone hydrodynamics solves the wave and water level changes inside the region extending from the wave breaking point to the limit of wave up-rush. The paper is focused on the utilization of piece of knowledge from a part of sea coast hydrodynamics and new approach in its application in the conditions of inland water bodies when designing the biotechnical stabilization elements along the shorelines. The “reinforced grass carpets” as a type of biotechnical method of bank stabilization are presented in the paper; whether the growth of grass root system is dependent on presence or absence of geomats in the soil structure and proceeding of their establishment on the shorelines.

  19. Hybrid Video Stabilization for Mobile Vehicle Detection on SURF in Aerial Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Chunxian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of moving vehicles in aerial video sequences is of great importance with many promising applications in surveillance, intelligence transportation, or public service applications such as emergency evacuation and policy security. However, vehicle detection is a challenging task due to global camera motion, low resolution of vehicles, and low contrast between vehicles and background. In this paper, we present a hybrid method to efficiently detect moving vehicle in aerial videos. Firstly, local feature extraction and matching were performed to estimate the global motion. It was demonstrated that the Speeded Up Robust Feature (SURF key points were more suitable for the stabilization task. Then, a list of dynamic pixels was obtained and grouped for different moving vehicles by comparing the different optical flow normal. To enhance the precision of detection, some preprocessing methods were applied to the surveillance system, such as road extraction and other features. A quantitative evaluation on real video sequences indicated that the proposed method improved the detection performance significantly.

  20. Genetic surfing, not allopatric divergence, explains spatial sorting of mitochondrial haplotypes in venomous coralsnakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streicher, Jeffrey W; McEntee, Jay P; Drzich, Laura C; Card, Daren C; Schield, Drew R; Smart, Utpal; Parkinson, Christopher L; Jezkova, Tereza; Smith, Eric N; Castoe, Todd A

    2016-07-01

    Strong spatial sorting of genetic variation in contiguous populations is often explained by local adaptation or secondary contact following allopatric divergence. A third explanation, spatial sorting by stochastic effects of range expansion, has been considered less often though theoretical models suggest it should be widespread, if ephemeral. In a study designed to delimit species within a clade of venomous coralsnakes, we identified an unusual pattern within the Texas coral snake (Micrurus tener): strong spatial sorting of divergent mitochondrial (mtDNA) lineages over a portion of its range, but weak sorting of these lineages elsewhere. We tested three alternative hypotheses to explain this pattern-local adaptation, secondary contact following allopatric divergence, and range expansion. Collectively, near panmixia of nuclear DNA, the signal of range expansion associated sampling drift, expansion origins in the Gulf Coast of Mexico, and species distribution modeling suggest that the spatial sorting of divergent mtDNA lineages within M. tener has resulted from genetic surfing of standing mtDNA variation-not local adaptation or allopatric divergence. Our findings highlight the potential for the stochastic effects of recent range expansion to mislead estimations of population divergence made from mtDNA, which may be exacerbated in systems with low vagility, ancestral mtDNA polymorphism, and male-biased dispersal. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Electron surfing acceleration by the electron two-stream instability in a weak magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckmann, M E; Shukla, P K

    2006-01-01

    The thermalization of relativistically flowing colliding plasmas is not well understood. The transition layer, in which both plasmas interact and thermalize, is wide and highly structured and the instabilities in this layer may yield non-thermal particle distributions and shock-less energy dissipation. The objective in this work is to explore the ability of an electron two-stream instability for thermalizing a plasma beam that moves at the mildly relativistic speed 0.3c through weakly magnetized plasma and to identify the resulting particle distributions. It is demonstrated here with particle-in-cell simulations that the electron two-stream instability leads to waves that propagate within a wide angular range relative to the flow velocity. The waves are thus not planar, as required for efficient electron surfing acceleration (ESA). The short lifetime of the waves implies, however, only weak modifications of the ESA by the oblique modes, since the waves are sufficiently homogeneous. The ion (proton) beams are not modulated, which would be required to extract some of their energy. The instability can thus heat the electrons significantly, but it fails to accelerate them to relativistic energies and it cannot form a shock layer by thermalizing the protons, at least not for the system and the resolved timescales considered here

  2. The Prevalence of Rough Sleeping and Sofa Surfing Amongst Young People in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Clarke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Whilst data on statutory homelessness is well recorded in the UK, there is a lack of data on informal homelessness (such as ‘sofa surfing’ and rough sleeping, other than that which relies on partial information and street counts. This paper presents findings from a recent online survey of young people and helps to fill this gap. It found that rates of sofa surfing and rough sleeping among young people were much higher than previously thought. Twenty-six percent of young people (aged 16–25 had slept rough at some point in their life and 35 percent had ‘sofa surfed’ (stayed with friends or family on their floor or sofa because they had nowhere else to go. The paper explores the implications of this for how we conceptualise homelessness. It suggests that homelessness may often be neither cause nor consequence of wider forms of exclusion, but that we may need to explore further the factors that enable some people to move swiftly out of homelessness more easily than others.

  3. Electron surfing acceleration by the electron two-stream instability in a weak magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckmann, M E; Shukla, P K [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    The thermalization of relativistically flowing colliding plasmas is not well understood. The transition layer, in which both plasmas interact and thermalize, is wide and highly structured and the instabilities in this layer may yield non-thermal particle distributions and shock-less energy dissipation. The objective in this work is to explore the ability of an electron two-stream instability for thermalizing a plasma beam that moves at the mildly relativistic speed 0.3c through weakly magnetized plasma and to identify the resulting particle distributions. It is demonstrated here with particle-in-cell simulations that the electron two-stream instability leads to waves that propagate within a wide angular range relative to the flow velocity. The waves are thus not planar, as required for efficient electron surfing acceleration (ESA). The short lifetime of the waves implies, however, only weak modifications of the ESA by the oblique modes, since the waves are sufficiently homogeneous. The ion (proton) beams are not modulated, which would be required to extract some of their energy. The instability can thus heat the electrons significantly, but it fails to accelerate them to relativistic energies and it cannot form a shock layer by thermalizing the protons, at least not for the system and the resolved timescales considered here.

  4. A unified spectral parameterization for wave breaking: From the deep ocean to the surf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipot, J.-F.; Ardhuin, F.

    2012-11-01

    A new wave-breaking dissipation parameterization designed for phase-averaged spectral wave models is presented. It combines wave breaking basic physical quantities, namely, the breaking probability and the dissipation rate per unit area. The energy lost by waves is first explicitly calculated in physical space before being distributed over the relevant spectral components. The transition from deep to shallow water is made possible by using a dissipation rate per unit area of breaking waves that varies with the wave height, wavelength and water depth. This parameterization is implemented in the WAVEWATCH III modeling framework, which is applied to a wide range of conditions and scales, from the global ocean to the beach scale. Wave height, peak and mean periods, and spectral data are validated using in situ and remote sensing data. Model errors are comparable to those of other specialized deep or shallow water parameterizations. This work shows that it is possible to have a seamless parameterization from the deep ocean to the surf zone.

  5. Flooding Fragility Experiments and Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tahhan, Antonio [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Muchmore, Cody [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nichols, Larinda [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bhandari, Bishwo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pope, Chad [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report describes the work that has been performed on flooding fragility, both the experimental tests being carried out and the probabilistic fragility predictive models being produced in order to use the text results. Flooding experiments involving full-scale doors have commenced in the Portal Evaluation Tank. The goal of these experiments is to develop a full-scale component flooding experiment protocol and to acquire data that can be used to create Bayesian regression models representing the fragility of these components. This work is in support of the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway external hazards evaluation research and development.

  6. Structural evaluation of multifunctional flood defenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorendt, M.Z.; Kothuis, Baukje; Kok, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Flood risk reduction aims to minimize losses in low-lying areas. One of the ways to reduce flood risks is to protect land by means of flood defenses. The Netherlands has a long tradition of flood protection and, therefore, a wide variety of technical reports written

  7. Local Flood Action Groups: Governance And Resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forrest, Steven; Trell, Elen-Maarja; Woltjer, Johan; Macoun, Milan; Maier, Karel

    2015-01-01

    A diverse range of citizen groups focusing on flood risk management have been identified in several European countries. The paper discusses the role of flood action (citizen) groups in the context of flood resilience and will do this by analysing the UK and its diverse range of flood groups. These

  8. Adjustable Robust Strategies for Flood Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postek, Krzysztof; den Hertog, Dick; Kind, J.; Pustjens, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Flood protection is of major importance to many flood-prone regions and involves substantial investment and maintenance costs. Modern flood risk management requires often to determine a cost-efficient protection strategy, i.e., one with lowest possible long run cost and satisfying flood protection

  9. Smoky River coal flood risk mapping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    The Canada-Alberta Flood Damage Reduction Program (FDRP) is designed to reduce flood damage by identifying areas susceptible to flooding and by encouraging application of suitable land use planning, zoning, and flood preparedness and proofing. The purpose of this study is to define flood risk and floodway limits along the Smoky River near the former Smoky River Coal (SRC) plant. Alberta Energy has been responsible for the site since the mine and plant closed in 2000. The study describes flooding history, available data, features of the river and valley, calculation of flood levels, and floodway determination, and includes flood risk maps. The HEC-RAS program is used for the calculations. The flood risk area was calculated using the 1:100 year return period flood as the hydrological event. 7 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs., 3 apps.

  10. Flood Resilient Systems and their Application for Flood Resilient Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovic, N.; Gabalda, V.; Antanaskovic, D.; Gershovich, I.; Pasche, E.

    2012-04-01

    Following the paradigm shift in flood management from traditional to more integrated approaches, and considering the uncertainties of future development due to drivers such as climate change, one of the main emerging tasks of flood managers becomes the development of (flood) resilient cities. It can be achieved by application of non-structural - flood resilience measures, summarised in the 4As: assistance, alleviation, awareness and avoidance (FIAC, 2007). As a part of this strategy, the key aspect of development of resilient cities - resilient built environment can be reached by efficient application of Flood Resilience Technology (FReT) and its meaningful combination into flood resilient systems (FRS). FRS are given as [an interconnecting network of FReT which facilitates resilience (including both restorative and adaptive capacity) to flooding, addressing physical and social systems and considering different flood typologies] (SMARTeST, http://www.floodresilience.eu/). Applying the system approach (e.g. Zevenbergen, 2008), FRS can be developed at different scales from the building to the city level. Still, a matter of research is a method to define and systematise different FRS crossing those scales. Further, the decision on which resilient system is to be applied for the given conditions and given scale is a complex task, calling for utilisation of decision support tools. This process of decision-making should follow the steps of flood risk assessment (1) and development of a flood resilience plan (2) (Manojlovic et al, 2009). The key problem in (2) is how to match the input parameters that describe physical&social system and flood typology to the appropriate flood resilient system. Additionally, an open issue is how to integrate the advances in FReT and findings on its efficiency into decision support tools. This paper presents a way to define, systematise and make decisions on FRS at different scales of an urban system developed within the 7th FP Project

  11. Flood Hazard Areas - High Risk

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The S_Fld_Haz_Ar table contains information about the flood hazards within the study area. A spatial file with locational information also corresponds with this data...

  12. FEMA Flood Insurance Studies Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital data set provides an inventory of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) that have been conducted for communities and...

  13. Flooding characteristics of Goodloe packing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begovich, J.M.; Watson, J.S.

    1976-08-01

    Experimental flooding data for the countercurrent flow of air and water in a 7.62-cm-diam glass column filled with Goodloe packing were compared with a correlation reported by the packing manufacturer. Flooding rates observed in this study were as low as one-half those predicted by the correlation. Rearranging the packing by inverting the column and removing some packing segments yielded results similar to the correlation for liquid-to-gas (L/G) mass flow rate ratios greater than 10, but the experimental flooding curve fell significantly below the correlation at lower L/G ratios. When the column was repacked with new packing, the results were essentially the same as those obtained in the inverted column. Thus, it is believed that a carefully packed column is more likely to yield flooding rates similar to those obtained in the new or inverted columns rather than rates predicted by the original correlation

  14. Flood Fighting Products Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A wave research basin at the ERDC Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory has been modified specifically for testing of temporary, barrier-type, flood fighting products....

  15. FLOOD CHARACTERISTICS AND MANAGEMENT ADAPTATIONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. ... people are estimated to be at such risk by 2080 .... SCS-CN method is based on the water balance .... and psychological burden of flood hazard often fall.

  16. Introduction to flood control science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong U; Ha, Jin Uk; Kim, Dong Ha; Shin, Hong Ryeol; Song, Seok Hwan; Kim, Jin Gyu; Moon, Heon Cheol

    2003-01-01

    This book covers introduction, industrialization disaster such as Bhopal and Chernobyl disaster, earthquake disaster, volcano disaster, avalanche disaster including loss allocation and prevention measures, and natural fire by showing California, Yellowstone park and similarity between fire and flood. It also introduces climate change and disaster, Earth's greenhouse effect and disaster due to current sea level rise, flood damage, drought disaster, famine and drought, prediction of drought, population problems, outlook of world population, and disaster prevention administration system of Korea.

  17. Elk River Watershed - Flood Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C. C.; Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Lewis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding has the potential to cause significant impacts to economic activities as well as to disrupt or displace populations. Changing climate regimes such as extreme precipitation events increase flood vulnerability and put additional stresses on infrastructure. Potential flooding from just under 100 (2009 NPRI Reviewed Facility Data Release, Environment Canada) toxic tailings ponds located in Canada increase risk to human safety and the environment. One such geotechnical failure spilt billions of litres of toxic tailings into the Fraser River watershed, British Columbia, when a tailings pond dam breach occurred in August 2014. Damaged and washed out roadways cut access to essential services as seen by the extensive floods that occurred in Saskatchewan and Manitoba in July 2014, and in Southern Alberta in 2013. Recovery efforts from events such as these can be lengthy, and have substantial social and economic impacts both in loss of revenue and cost of repair. The objective of this study is to investigate existing conditions in the Elk River watershed and model potential future hydrological changes that can increase flood risk hazards. By analyzing existing hydrology, meteorology, land cover, land use, economic, and settlement patterns a baseline is established for existing conditions in the Elk River watershed. Coupling the Generate Earth Systems Science (GENESYS) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model with flood hazard analysis methodology, high-resolution flood vulnerability base line maps are created using historical climate conditions. Further work in 2015 will examine possible impacts for a range of climate change and land use change scenarios to define changes to future flood risk and vulnerability.

  18. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective.

  19. Scales of Natural Flood Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Alex; Quinn, Paul; Owen, Gareth; Hetherington, David; Piedra Lara, Miguel; O'Donnell, Greg

    2016-04-01

    The scientific field of Natural flood Management (NFM) is receiving much attention and is now widely seen as a valid solution to sustainably manage flood risk whilst offering significant multiple benefits. However, few examples exist looking at NFM on a large scale (>10km2). Well-implemented NFM has the effect of restoring more natural catchment hydrological and sedimentological processes, which in turn can have significant flood risk and WFD benefits for catchment waterbodies. These catchment scale improvements in-turn allow more 'natural' processes to be returned to rivers and streams, creating a more resilient system. Although certain NFM interventions may appear distant and disconnected from main stem waterbodies, they will undoubtedly be contributing to WFD at the catchment waterbody scale. This paper offers examples of NFM, and explains how they can be maximised through practical design across many scales (from feature up to the whole catchment). New tools to assist in the selection of measures and their location, and to appreciate firstly, the flooding benefit at the local catchment scale and then show a Flood Impact Model that can best reflect the impacts of local changes further downstream. The tools will be discussed in the context of our most recent experiences on NFM projects including river catchments in the north east of England and in Scotland. This work has encouraged a more integrated approach to flood management planning that can use both traditional and novel NFM strategies in an effective and convincing way.

  20. Flooding Effect on Earth Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Banimahd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Earth building is a sustainable, environmentally friendly and economical method of construction that has been used worldwide for many centuries. For the past three decades, earth has seen a revival as a building material for a modern construction method due to its benefits in terms of low carbon content, low cost and energy involved during construction, as well as the fact that it is a sustainable technology of building. Climate change is influencing precipitation levels and patterns around the world, and as a consequence, flood risk is increasing rapidly. When flooding occurs, earth buildings are exposed to water by submersion, causing an increase in the degree of saturation of the earth structures and therefore a decrease of the suction between particles. This study investigated the effect of cycles of flooding (consecutive events of flooding followed by dry periods on earth walls. A series of characterization tests were carried out to obtain the physical and mechanical properties of the studied earth material. In a second stage, Flooding Simulation Tests (FST were performed to explore the earth walls’ response to repeated flooding events. The results obtained for the tested earth wall/samples with reinforced material (straw reveal hydraulic hysteresis when wall/samples are subject to cycles of wetting and drying.

  1. Constructing risks – Internalisation of flood risks in the flood risk management plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Matthijs; Hartmann, T.; Spit, T.J.M.; Johann, Georg

    Traditional flood protection methods have focused efforts on different measures to keep water out of floodplains. However, the European Flood Directive challenges this paradigm (Hartmann and Driessen, 2013). Accordingly, flood risk management plans should incorporate measures brought about by

  2. 76 FR 8900 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    .... Burleyson Drive, Dalton, GA 30720. Hawaii: Hawaii (FEMA Docket No.: B- Unincorporated areas April 30, 2010; May The Honorable William P. September 7, 2010 155166 1135). of Hawaii County (09- 7, 2010; Hawaii Kenoi, Mayor, Hawaii 09-1789P). Tribune-Herald. County, 25 Aupuni Street, Hilo, HI 96720. Hawaii (FEMA...

  3. 75 FR 18082 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Democrat. Adams Street, Tallahassee, FL 32301. Hawaii: Hawaii Unincorporated areas August 12, 2009; The Honorable William P. December 17, 2009 155166 of Hawaii County (08- August 19, 2009; Kenoi, Mayor, Hawaii 09-1858P). Hawaii Tribune- County, 25 Aupuni Herald. Street, Hilo, HI 96720. Kansas: Johnson City of...

  4. 75 FR 81892 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ..., 500 San Sebastian View, St. Augustine, FL 32084. Hawaii: Hawaii (FEMA Docket No.: B- Unincorporated areas April 16, 2010; The Honorable William P. August 23, 2010 155166 1124) of Hawaii County (09- April 23, 2010; Kenoi, Mayor, Hawaii 09-1398P). Hawaii Tribune- County, 25 Aupuni Herald. Street, Hilo, HI...

  5. 75 FR 78610 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ...)........ Citizen. County, 1407 Burleyson Drive, Dalton, GA 30720. Hawaii: Hawaii Unincorporated areas April 30, 2010, May The Honorable William P. September 7, 2010.... 155166 of Hawaii County. 7, 2010, Hawaii Kenoi, Mayor, County of (09-09-1789P)........ Tribune-Herald. Hawaii, 25 Aupuni Street, Hilo, HI 96720. Idaho...

  6. 75 FR 35672 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... of Commissioners, P.O. Box 398, Fort Myers, FL 33902. Hawaii: Hawaii Unincorporated areas April 16, 2010; The Honorable William P. August 23, 2010 155166 of Hawaii County (09- April 23, 2010; Kenoi, Mayor, Hawaii 09-1398P). Hawaii Tribune- County, 25 Aupuni Herald. Street, Hilo, HI 96720. Illinois: St...

  7. 76 FR 43603 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    .... Hawaii: Hawaii (FEMA Docket No.: B- Unincorporated areas January 3, 2011; The Honorable William P. May 10, 2011 155166 1191). of Hawaii County (10- January 10, 2011; Kenoi, Mayor, Hawaii 09-3793P). The Hawaii Tribune- County, 25 Aupuni Herald. Street, Hilo, HI 96720. North Carolina: Alamance (FEMA Docket No.: B...

  8. 75 FR 78615 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... East Avenue, Cedartown, GA 30125. Hawaii: Hawaii Unincorporated areas June 10, 2010, June The Honorable William P. October 15, 2010..... 155166 of Hawaii County. 17, 2010, Hawaii Kenoi, Mayor, Hawaii (09-09-2120P)........ Tribune-Herald. County, 25 Aupuni Street, Hilo, HI 96720. Kansas: Johnson City of Fairway...

  9. Scale invariant SURF detector and automatic clustering segmentation for infrared small targets detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiying; Bai, Jiaojiao; Li, Zhengjie; Liu, Yan; Liu, Kunhong

    2017-06-01

    The detection and discrimination of infrared small dim targets is a challenge in automatic target recognition (ATR), because there is no salient information of size, shape and texture. Many researchers focus on mining more discriminative information of targets in temporal-spatial. However, such information may not be available with the change of imaging environments, and the targets size and intensity keep changing in different imaging distance. So in this paper, we propose a novel research scheme using density-based clustering and backtracking strategy. In this scheme, the speeded up robust feature (SURF) detector is applied to capture candidate targets in single frame at first. And then, these points are mapped into one frame, so that target traces form a local aggregation pattern. In order to isolate the targets from noises, a newly proposed density-based clustering algorithm, fast search and find of density peak (FSFDP for short), is employed to cluster targets by the spatial intensive distribution. Two important factors of the algorithm, percent and γ , are exploited fully to determine the clustering scale automatically, so as to extract the trace with highest clutter suppression ratio. And at the final step, a backtracking algorithm is designed to detect and discriminate target trace as well as to eliminate clutter. The consistence and continuity of the short-time target trajectory in temporal-spatial is incorporated into the bounding function to speed up the pruning. Compared with several state-of-arts methods, our algorithm is more effective for the dim targets with lower signal-to clutter ratio (SCR). Furthermore, it avoids constructing the candidate target trajectory searching space, so its time complexity is limited to a polynomial level. The extensive experimental results show that it has superior performance in probability of detection (Pd) and false alarm suppressing rate aiming at variety of complex backgrounds.

  10. Frequent Surfing on Social Health Networks is Associated With Increased Knowledge and Patient Health Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosberg, Dafna; Grinvald, Haya; Reuveni, Haim; Magnezi, Racheli

    2016-08-10

    The advent of the Internet has driven a technological revolution that has changed our lives. As part of this phenomenon, social networks have attained a prominent role in health care. A variety of medical services is provided over the Internet, including home monitoring, interactive communications between the patient and service providers, and social support, among others. This study emphasizes some of the practical implications of Web-based health social networks for patients and for health care systems. The objective of this study was to assess how participation in a social network among individuals with a chronic condition contributed to patient activation, based on the Patient Activation Measure (PAM). A prospective, cross-sectional survey with a retrospective component was conducted. Data were collected from Camoni, a Hebrew-language Web-based social health network, participants in the diabetes mellitus, pain, hypertension, and depression/anxiety forums, during November 2012 to 2013. Experienced users (enrolled at least 6 months) and newly enrolled received similar versions of the same questionnaire including sociodemographics and PAM. Among 686 participants, 154 of 337 experienced and 123 of 349 newly enrolled completed the questionnaire. Positive correlations (Psocial relationships, and chronic disease knowledge. Men surfed longer than women (χ²3=10.104, Psocial health network use were correlated with increased knowledge about a chronic disease. Experienced surfers had higher PAM than newly enrolled, suggesting that continued site use may contribute to increased activation. Web-based social health networks offer an opportunity to expand patient knowledge and increase involvement in personal health, thereby increasing patient activation. Further studies are needed to examine these changes on other aspects of chronic illnesses such as quality of life and costs.

  11. Do flood risk perceptions provide useful insights for flood risk management? Findings from central Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Bubeck, P.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Suu, L.T.T.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Following the renewed attention for non-structural flood risk reduction measures implemented at the household level, there has been an increased interest in individual flood risk perceptions. The reason for this is the commonly-made assumption that flood risk perceptions drive the motivation of individuals to undertake flood risk mitigation measures, as well as the public's demand for flood protection, and therefore provide useful insights for flood risk management. This study empirically exa...

  12. Age at menopause and determinants of hysterectomy and menopause in a multi-ethnic community: The Hilo Women’s Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Murphy, Lorna; Morrison, Lynn; Reza, Angela; Brown, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives A lifespan approach was used to evaluate age at menopause, and determinants of surgical and natural menopause, in the multi-ethnic community of Hilo, Hawaii. Study design Participants aged 40–60 years (n=898) were drawn from a larger, randomly-generated sample recruited by postal questionnaires. Median age at natural menopause was computed by probit analysis. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine determinants of hysterectomy, and Cox regression analysis was used to examine risk factors for an earlier age at menopause. Main outcome measures History of hysterectomy, Age at menopause Results Frequency of hysterectomy was 19.2% at a mean age of 40.5 years. The likelihood of hysterectomy increased with older ages, lower education, mixed ancestry, having been overweight at age 30, and married 20 years prior to survey. Median age at natural menopause was 53.0 years. Smoking and not being married 10 years before survey were associated with an earlier age at menopause. Conclusions Median age at menopause was later than the national average. Ethnicity and education were determinants of hysterectomy, but not associated with age at natural menopause. Events later in the lifespan (e.g., smoking and not being married 10 years prior to the survey) were more important than earlier events (e.g., childhood residence) in relation to age at menopause. The timing of weight gain and marital status appear to be important in relation to surgical menopause, and the timing of marital status appears to be important in relation to the timing of natural menopause. PMID:24054435

  13. Drivers of flood damage on event level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreibich, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Apel, H.

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk is dynamic and influenced by many processes related to hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Flood damage increased significantly over the past decades, however, resulting overall economic loss per event is an aggregated indicator and it is difficult to attribute causes to this increasing...... trend. Much has been learned about damaging processes during floods at the micro-scale, e.g. building level. However, little is known about the main factors determining the amount of flood damage on event level. Thus, we analyse and compare paired flood events, i.e. consecutive, similar damaging floods...... example are the 2002 and 2013 floods in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany. The 2002 flood caused the highest economic damage (EUR 11600 million) due to a natural hazard event in Germany. Damage was so high due to extreme flood hazard triggered by extreme precipitation and a high number...

  14. Isolation of a library of aromadendranes from Landolphia dulcis and its characterization using the VolSurf approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staerk, Dan; Skole, Brian; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen

    2004-01-01

    -energy structures obtained with the MMFF force field. VolSurf descriptors were calculated from the GRID maps and subsequently analyzed by multivariate statistics. The analysis disclosed the presence of a common motif for possible interactions of the aromadendranes with a putative target receptor. At the same time...... established by means of NMR methods including COSY, NOESY, HSQC, and HMBC experiments, supported by HRMS and optical rotation data. Virtual characterization of the aromadendrane library (1-9) was performed using chemoinformatics tools. 3D molecular fields were calculated with the GRID program using low...

  15. Tissue-specific cytochrome c oxidase assembly defects due to mutations in SCO2 and SURF1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stibůrek, L.; Veselá, K.; Hansíková, H.; Pecina, Petr; Tesařová, M.; Černá, L.; Houštěk, Josef; Zeman, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 392, č. 3 (2005), s. 625-632 ISSN 0264-6021 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA303/03/0749; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR(CZ) GP303/03/D132 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 17/2004/C; Priority 1(XE) LSHMCT-2004-503116 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : assembly pathway * cytochrome c oxidase * SURF1 Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 4.224, year: 2005

  16. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic). SURF CLAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    ter across the vitelline membrane; the Male and female surf clams are identi- innqr germinal vesicle averages 0.79 cal in external appearance, and...Jones et al. ) (1978) reported age-size relationships In laboratcry experiments con- using cut and polished shells (Table ducted •t 21.7 0 C (71 0 F...and Long Island’s south period (4-6 weeks), due to a persist - shore, out. to a depth of 75 m (246 ent southerly flow of air;. and ft), because of the

  17. Análisis y diseño de identidad visual con aplicaciones publicitarias y de producto: marca de ropa deportiva especializada en surf

    OpenAIRE

    Olea Fernández, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Aquest treball té com a objectiu principal veure quins canvis ha sofert la roba esportiva dins del surf i com han evolucionat els elements més significatius d'aquesta roba per, finalment, realitzar la creació dels elements gràfics més representatius sobre una marca de surf, especialitzada en roba esportiva. Durant l'estudi s'abastaran tots els processos necessaris on estan involucrats tant la figura del disseny gràfic com la creació dels elements gràfics més representatius d'una marca

  18. Flooding Mechanism in Vertical Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronny-Dwi Agussulistyo; Indarto

    2000-01-01

    This research was carried out to investigate the mechanism of flooding ina vertical liquid-gas counter current flow, along two meter length of thetube. The tube use both circular and square tube, a cross section of squaretube was made the same as a cross section of circular tube with one inchdiameter tube. The liquid enters the tube, passes through a porous wall inletand a groove inlet in a distributor and it flows downwards through a liquidoutlet in a collector. The gas is being introduced at the bottom of the tube,it flows upwards through nozzle in the collector. The results of researchshowed that the flooding occurs earlier in the circular tube than in thesquare tube, either uses a porous wall inlet or a groove inlet. In the squaretube , onset of the flooding occurs at the top of the tube, in front ofliquid injection, it is related to the formation of a film wave, just belowthe liquid feed. Whereas in the circular tube, onset of the flooding occursfrom the bottom of the tube, at the liquid outlet, it is related to theexpand of the film wave. However, in the circular tube with the groove inlet,for the higher liquid flow rate, onset of the flooding from the top, like inthe square tube. (author)

  19. Effects of Flood Control Strategies on Flood Resilience Under Sociohydrological Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Kyungmin; Jeong, Hanseok; Sangwan, Nikhil; Yu, David J.

    2018-04-01

    A community capacity to cope with flood hazards, or community flood resilience, emerges from the interplay of hydrological and social processes. This interplay can be significantly influenced by the flood control strategy adopted by a society, i.e., how a society sets its desired flood protection level and strives to achieve this goal. And this interplay can be further complicated by rising land-sea level differences, seasonal water level fluctuations, and economic change. But not much research has been done on how various forms of flood control strategies affect human-flood interactions under these disturbances and therefore flood resilience in the long run. The current study is an effort to address these issues by developing a conceptual model of human-flood interaction mediated by flood control strategies. Our model extends the existing model of Yu et al. (2017), who investigated the flood resilience of a community-based flood protection system in coastal Bangladesh. The major extensions made in this study are inclusions of various forms of flood control strategies (both adaptive and nonadaptive ones), the challenge of rising land-sea level differences, and various high tide level scenarios generated from modifying the statistical variances and averages. Our results show that adaptive forms of flood control strategies tend to outperform nonadaptive ones for maintaining the model community's flood protection system. Adaptive strategies that dynamically adjust target flood protection levels through close monitoring of flood damages and social memories of flood risk can help the model community deal with various disturbances.

  20. Comparing flood loss models of different complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Kai; Kreibich, Heidi; Vogel, Kristin; Riggelsen, Carsten; Scherbaum, Frank; Merz, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    Any deliberation on flood risk requires the consideration of potential flood losses. In particular, reliable flood loss models are needed to evaluate cost-effectiveness of mitigation measures, to assess vulnerability, for comparative risk analysis and financial appraisal during and after floods. In recent years, considerable improvements have been made both concerning the data basis and the methodological approaches used for the development of flood loss models. Despite of that, flood loss models remain an important source of uncertainty. Likewise the temporal and spatial transferability of flood loss models is still limited. This contribution investigates the predictive capability of different flood loss models in a split sample cross regional validation approach. For this purpose, flood loss models of different complexity, i.e. based on different numbers of explaining variables, are learned from a set of damage records that was obtained from a survey after the Elbe flood in 2002. The validation of model predictions is carried out for different flood events in the Elbe and Danube river basins in 2002, 2005 and 2006 for which damage records are available from surveys after the flood events. The models investigated are a stage-damage model, the rule based model FLEMOps+r as well as novel model approaches which are derived using data mining techniques of regression trees and Bayesian networks. The Bayesian network approach to flood loss modelling provides attractive additional information concerning the probability distribution of both model predictions and explaining variables.

  1. 2011 floods of the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The Central United States experienced record-setting flooding during 2011, with floods that extended from headwater streams in the Rocky Mountains, to transboundary rivers in the upper Midwest and Northern Plains, to the deep and wide sand-bedded lower Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of its mission, collected extensive information during and in the aftermath of the 2011 floods to support scientific analysis of the origins and consequences of extreme floods. The information collected for the 2011 floods, combined with decades of past data, enables scientists and engineers from the USGS to provide syntheses and scientific analyses to inform emergency managers, planners, and policy makers about life-safety, economic, and environmental-health issues surrounding flood hazards for the 2011 floods and future floods like it. USGS data, information, and scientific analyses provide context and understanding of the effect of floods on complex societal issues such as ecosystem and human health, flood-plain management, climate-change adaptation, economic security, and the associated policies enacted for mitigation. Among the largest societal questions is "How do we balance agricultural, economic, life-safety, and environmental needs in and along our rivers?" To address this issue, many scientific questions have to be answered including the following: * How do the 2011 weather and flood conditions compare to the past weather and flood conditions and what can we reasonably expect in the future for flood magnitudes?

  2. Flood Water Segmentation from Crowdsourced Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, J. K.; Minsker, B. S.

    2017-12-01

    In the United States, 176 people were killed by flooding in 2015. Along with the loss of human lives is the economic cost which is estimated to be $4.5 billion per flood event. Urban flooding has become a recent concern due to the increase in population, urbanization, and global warming. As more and more people are moving into towns and cities with infrastructure incapable of coping with floods, there is a need for more scalable solutions for urban flood management.The proliferation of camera-equipped mobile devices have led to a new source of information for flood research. In-situ photographs captured by people provide information at the local level that remotely sensed images fail to capture. Applications of crowdsourced images to flood research required understanding the content of the image without the need for user input. This paper addresses the problem of how to automatically segment a flooded and non-flooded region in crowdsourced images. Previous works require two images taken at similar angle and perspective of the location when it is flooded and when it is not flooded. We examine three different algorithms from the computer vision literature that are able to perform segmentation using a single flood image without these assumptions. The performance of each algorithm is evaluated on a collection of labeled crowdsourced flood images. We show that it is possible to achieve a segmentation accuracy of 80% using just a single image.

  3. Vitamin A and contaminant concentrations in surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) wintering on the Pacific coast of British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, M.L.; Wilson, L.K.; Trudeau, S.F.; Elliott, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Surf scoters are part of a community of sea ducks on the western coast of North America that have shown signs of long-term, unexplained declines in breeding bird numbers. Substantial numbers of scoters winter in the major harbours on the west coast, after breeding in the west-central northern boreal forest. To address the potential for contaminants to impact the health and survival of those birds, we investigated the condition and contamination of surf scoters during the winters of 1998-2001 at four foraging locations in the Strait of Georgia region of the Pacific coast of Canada. Vitamin A status was evaluated in liver and plasma samples collected from adults and juveniles, as part of a larger assessment of tissue contamination, body condition and biomarker responses. Individuals collected from a relatively contaminated site, Howe Sound, showed consistently low hepatic concentrations of retinol and retinyl palmitate forms of vitamin A, and gender-specific associations of retinyl palmitate with hepatic EROD activity. The relationship of hepatic retinol to retinyl palmitate was not constant across geographic locations, and a clear, linear relationship between the two forms of vitamin A was only evident in birds from the relatively uncontaminated site. This study also identified strong positive relationships between vitamin A and tissue burdens of cadmium and zinc. The positive association between hepatic retinyl palmitate and renal cadmium is similar to one observed in laboratory rats, in which a mechanism of interference with the controlled release of retinol from the liver was suggested

  4. A Comprehensive Motion Estimation Technique for the Improvement of EIS Methods Based on the SURF Algorithm and Kalman Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xuemin; Hao, Qun; Xie, Mengdi

    2016-04-07

    Video stabilization is an important technology for removing undesired motion in videos. This paper presents a comprehensive motion estimation method for electronic image stabilization techniques, integrating the speeded up robust features (SURF) algorithm, modified random sample consensus (RANSAC), and the Kalman filter, and also taking camera scaling and conventional camera translation and rotation into full consideration. Using SURF in sub-pixel space, feature points were located and then matched. The false matched points were removed by modified RANSAC. Global motion was estimated by using the feature points and modified cascading parameters, which reduced the accumulated errors in a series of frames and improved the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) by 8.2 dB. A specific Kalman filter model was established by considering the movement and scaling of scenes. Finally, video stabilization was achieved with filtered motion parameters using the modified adjacent frame compensation. The experimental results proved that the target images were stabilized even when the vibrating amplitudes of the video become increasingly large.

  5. Collecting data for quantitative research on pluvial flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spekkers, M.H.; Ten Veldhuis, J.A.E.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2011-01-01

    Urban pluvial flood management requires detailed spatial and temporal information on flood characteristics and damaging consequences. There is lack of quantitative field data on pluvial flooding resulting in large uncertainties in urban flood model calculations and ensuing decisions for investments

  6. Keurbooms Estuary floods and sedimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckart H. Schumann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Keurbooms Estuary at Plettenberg Bay lies on a wave-dominated, microtidal coast. It has a dune-topped sandy barrier, or barrier dune, almost 4 km long, with a narrow back-barrier lagoon connected to its source rivers, the Keurbooms and Bitou. The estuary exits to the sea through this barrier dune, and it is the geomorphology and mouth position in relation to floods, which is the subject of this paper. Measurements of rainfall, water level, waves and high- and low-tide water lines were used to analyse the mouth variability over the years 2006–2012. Two major floods occurred during this time, with the first in November 2007 eroding away more than 500 000 m3 of sediment. The new mouth was established at the Lookout Rocks limit – the first time since 1915. The second flood occurred in July 2012 and opened up a new mouth about 1 km to the north-east; high waves also affected the position of the breach. The mouth has a tendency to migrate southwards against the longshore drift, but at any stage this movement can be augmented or reversed. The effectiveness of floods in breaching a new mouth through the barrier dune depends on the flood size and the nature of the exit channel in the back-barrier lagoon. Other factors such as ocean waves, sea level, vegetative state of the dune and duration of the flood are also important and can determine where the breach occurs, and if the new mouth will dominate the old mouth.

  7. SURFS: Riding the waves with Synthetic UniveRses For Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Pascal J.; Welker, Charlotte; Power, Chris; Lagos, Claudia del P.; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Cañas, Rodrigo; Poulton, Rhys

    2018-04-01

    We present the Synthetic UniveRses For Surveys (SURFS) simulations, a set of N-body/Hydro simulations of the concordance Λ Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM) cosmology. These simulations use Planck cosmology, contain up to 10 billion particles, and sample scales and halo masses down to 1 kpc and 108 M⊙. We identify and track haloes from z = 24 to today using a state-of-the-art 6D halo finder and merger tree builder. We demonstrate that certain properties of haloes merger trees are numerically converged for haloes composed of ≳100 particles. Haloes smoothly grow in mass, Vmax, with the mass history characterized by log M(a) ∝ exp [-(a/β)α], where a is the scale factor, α(M) ≈ 0.8 & β(M) ≈ 0.024, with these parameters decreasing with decreasing halo mass. Subhaloes follow power-law cumulative mass and velocity functions, i.e. n( > f) ∝ f-α with αM = 0.83 ± 0.01 and α _{V_max}=2.13± 0.03 for mass and velocity, respectively, independent of redshift, as seen in previous studies. The halo-to-halo scatter in amplitude is 0.9 dex. The number of subhaloes in a halo weakly correlates with a halo's concentration c and spin λ:haloes of high c and low λ have 60 per cent more subhaloes than similar mass haloes of low c and high λ. High cadence tracking shows subhaloes are dynamic residents, with 25 per cent leaving their host halo momentarily, becoming a backsplash subhalo, and another 20 per cent changing hosts entirely, in agreement with previous studies. In general, subhaloes have elliptical orbits, e ≈ 0.6, with periods of 2.3^{+2.1}_{-1.7} Gyrs. Subhaloes lose most of their mass at pericentric passage with mass loss rates of ˜ 40 per cent Gyr-1. These catalogues will be made publicly available.

  8. Models and observations of foam coverage and bubble content in the surf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, J. T.; Shi, F.; Holman, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    column motion. Preliminary steps to calibrate and verify the resulting models will be taken based on results to be collected during the Surf Zone Optics experiment at Duck, NC in September 2010. Initial efforts will focus on an examination of breaking wave patterns and persistent foam distributions, using ARGUS imagery.

  9. Flood risk governance arrangements in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matczak, P.; Lewandowski, J.; Choryński, A.; Szwed, M.; Kundzewicz, Z. W.

    2015-06-01

    The STAR-FLOOD (Strengthening and Redesigning European Flood Risk Practices Towards Appropriate and Resilient Flood Risk Governance Arrangements) project, funded by the European Commission, investigates strategies for dealing with flood risk in six European countries: Belgium, the UK, France, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden and in 18 vulnerable urban regions in these countries. The project aims to describe, analyse, explain, and evaluate the main similarities and differences between the selected EU Member States in terms of development and performance of flood risk governance arrangements. It also discusses the scientific and societal importance of these similarities and differences. Attention is paid to identification and characterization of shifts in flood risk governance arrangements and in flood risk management strategies and to determination of triggering factors and restraining factors. An assessment of a change of resilience and appropriateness (legitimacy, effectiveness, efficiency) of flood risk governance arrangements in Poland is presented and comparison with other European countries is offered.

  10. Rhine Cities - Urban Flood Integration (UFI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redeker, C.

    2013-01-01

    While agglomerations along the Rhine are confronted with the uncertainties of an increasing flood risk due to climate change, different programs are claiming urban river front sites. Simultaneously, urban development, flood management, as well as navigation and environmental protection are

  11. Flood Insurance Rate Map, Scott County, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  12. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE,

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  13. Sept 2013 NFHL Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  14. Seismic risks posed by mine flooding

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goldbach, OD

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available are allowed to flood. Such flooding-induced seismicity can have significant environmental, social and economic consequences, and may endanger neighbouring mines and surface communities. While fluid-induced seismicity has been observed in other settings (e...

  15. Flood risk governance arrangements in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Matczak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The STAR-FLOOD (Strengthening and Redesigning European Flood Risk Practices Towards Appropriate and Resilient Flood Risk Governance Arrangements project, funded by the European Commission, investigates strategies for dealing with flood risk in six European countries: Belgium, the UK, France, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden and in 18 vulnerable urban regions in these countries. The project aims to describe, analyse, explain, and evaluate the main similarities and differences between the selected EU Member States in terms of development and performance of flood risk governance arrangements. It also discusses the scientific and societal importance of these similarities and differences. Attention is paid to identification and characterization of shifts in flood risk governance arrangements and in flood risk management strategies and to determination of triggering factors and restraining factors. An assessment of a change of resilience and appropriateness (legitimacy, effectiveness, efficiency of flood risk governance arrangements in Poland is presented and comparison with other European countries is offered.

  16. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, , USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  17. Water NOT wanted - Coastal Floods and Flooding Protection in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo Sass

    2016-01-01

    vulnerability towards coastal flooding, the country has experienced severe storm surges throughout history, and hitherto safe areas will become increasingly at risk this century as the climate changes. Historically a seafarers’ nation, Denmark has always been connected with the sea. From medieval time ports...

  18. Field note from Pakistan floods: Preventing future flood disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Oxley

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Unusually heavy monsoon rains in Northern Pakistan have caused disproportionate levels of extreme flooding and unprecedented flood losses across the entire Indus River basin. Extensive land use changes and environmental degradation in the uplands and lowlands of the river basin together with the construction of a “built environment” out of balance with the functioning, capacities, scale and limits of the local ecosystems have exposed millions of people to an increased risk of extreme #ooding. The catastrophic nature of the August #ooding provides a unique opportunity to fundamentally change Pakistan’s current socio-economic development path by incorporating disaster risk reduction and climate change measures into the post-disaster recovery process to rebuild a safer, more resilient nation. In January 2005 one hundred and sixty-eight nations adopted the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA2005-2015 to bring about a “substantial reduction in disaster losses” by 2015. Despite this global initiative a series of major disasters, including the recent flooding in Pakistan, all indicate that we are not on track to achieve the substantial reduction of disaster losses. The following fieldnote considers what can be done to accelerate progress towards implementation of the Hyogo Framework, drawing on insights and lessons learnt from the August flooding to understand how Pakistan and neighbouring countries can prevent a repeat of such catastrophic disasters in future years.

  19. Flood Label for buildings : a tool for more flood-resilient cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, T.; Scheibel, Marc

    2016-01-01

    River floods are among the most expensive natural disasters in Europe. Traditional flood protection methods are not sufficient anymore. It is widely acknowledged in the scholarly debate and in practice of flood risk management that traditional flood protection measures such as dikes need to be

  20. Effectiveness of flood damage mitigation measures: Empirical evidence from French flood disasters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poussin, J.K.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Recent destructive flood events and projected increases in flood risks as a result of climate change in many regions around the world demonstrate the importance of improving flood risk management. Flood-proofing of buildings is often advocated as an effective strategy for limiting damage caused by

  1. Flooding in imagination vs flooding in vivo: A comparison with agoraphobics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmelkamp, Paul M.G.; Wessels, Hemmy

    In this investigation of agoraphobic patients, 3 different flooding procedures were compared: (1) prolonged exposure in vivo, (2) flooding in the imagination by a ‘live’ therapist and (3) a combination of flooding in the imagination and flooding in vivo. After an intermediate-test all clients were

  2. Why are decisions in flood disaster management so poorly supported by information from flood models?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leskens, Anne; Brugnach, Marcela Fabiana; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Schuurmans, W.

    2014-01-01

    Flood simulation models can provide practitioners of Flood Disaster Management with sophisticated estimates of floods. Despite the advantages that flood simulation modeling may provide, experiences have proven that these models are of limited use. Until now, this problem has mainly been investigated

  3. Economic optimisation of flood risk management projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsimopoulou, V.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands has developed a flood risk management policy based on an economic rationale. After the flood disaster of 1953, when a large area of the south-western part of the country was flooded and more than 1800 people lost their lives, the so-called Delta Committee was installed, whose main

  4. Exploring logistics aspects of flood emergency measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, S.L.J.M.; Vis, I.F.A.; Jonkman, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    Floods are often preceded by warnings such as heavy rain that may make preparatory activities possible in order to prevent flooding from actually happening. However, flood emergency preparedness lacks insight in logistical aspects. This paper develops a framework of logistical aspects of emergency

  5. Exploring Logistics Aspects of Flood Emergency Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, Sander; Vis, Iris F. A.; Jonkman, Sebastiaan N.

    Floods are often preceded by warnings such as heavy rain that may make preparatory activities possible in order to prevent flooding from actually happening. However, flood emergency preparedness lacks insight in logistical aspects. This paper develops a framework of logistical aspects of emergency

  6. Application of RUNTA code in flood analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Martin, F.; Benitez Fonzalez, F.

    1994-01-01

    Flood probability analyses carried out to date indicate the need to evaluate a large number of flood scenarios. This necessity is due to a variety of reasons, the most important of which include: - Large number of potential flood sources - Wide variety of characteristics of flood sources - Large possibility of flood-affected areas becoming inter linked, depending on the location of the potential flood sources - Diversity of flood flows from one flood source, depending on the size of the rupture and mode of operation - Isolation times applicable - Uncertainties in respect of the structural resistance of doors, penetration seals and floors - Applicable degrees of obstruction of floor drainage system Consequently, a tool which carries out the large number of calculations usually required in flood analyses, with speed and flexibility, is considered necessary. The RUNTA Code enables the range of possible scenarios to be calculated numerically, in accordance with all those parameters which, as a result of previous flood analyses, it is necessary to take into account in order to cover all the possible floods associated with each flood area

  7. Flood Progression Modelling and Impact Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mioc, Darka; Anton, François; Nickerson, B.

    People living in the lower valley of the St. John River, New Brunswick, Canada, frequently experience flooding when the river overflows its banks during spring ice melt and rain. To better prepare the population of New Brunswick for extreme flooding, we developed a new flood prediction model...

  8. Interconnected ponds operation for flood hazard distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, S. S.; Ridwan, B. W.

    2016-05-01

    The climatic anomaly, which comes with extreme rainfall, will increase the flood hazard in an area within a short period of time. The river capacity in discharging the flood is not continuous along the river stretch and sensitive to the flood peak. This paper contains the alternatives on how to locate the flood retention pond that are physically feasible to reduce the flood peak. The flood ponds were designed based on flood curve number criteria (TR-55, USDA) with the aim of rapid flood peak capturing and gradual flood retuning back to the river. As a case study, the hydrologic condition of upper Ciliwung river basin with several presumed flood pond locations was conceptually designed. A fundamental tank model that reproducing the operation of interconnected ponds was elaborated to achieve the designed flood discharge that will flows to the downstream area. The flood hazard distribution status, as the model performance criteria, will be computed within Ciliwung river reach in Manggarai Sluice Gate spot. The predicted hazard reduction with the operation of the interconnected retention area result had been bench marked with the normal flow condition.

  9. The European Flood Risk Directive and Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, E.; Doorn, N.

    2012-01-01

    The European Flood risk directive (2007/60/EC) requires EU Member States to review their system of flood risk management. In doing so, they will have to face ethical issues inherent in flood risk management. This paper discusses three such issues, using examples from the Netherlands. These issues

  10. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section... DEFENSE PROGRAMMATIC REGULATIONS FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE EVERGLADES RESTORATION PLAN Ensuring Protection of... Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent...

  11. 46 CFR 28.580 - Unintentional flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unintentional flooding. 28.580 Section 28.580 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS Stability § 28.580 Unintentional flooding. (a) Applicability. Except for an open boat that... survive the assumed damage and unintentional flooding described in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section...

  12. Extending flood damage assessment methodology to include ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal and sustainable flood plain management, including flood control, can only be achieved when the impacts of flood control measures are considered for both the man-made and natural environments, and the sociological aspects are fully considered. Until now, methods/models developed to determine the influences ...

  13. Mapping flood and flooding potential indices: a methodological approach to identifying areas susceptible to flood and flooding risk. Case study: the Prahova catchment (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, Liliana; Costache, Romulus; Prăvălie, Remus; Ioana-Toroimac, Gabriela

    2017-04-01

    Given that floods continue to cause yearly significant worldwide human and material damages, flood risk mitigation is a key issue and a permanent challenge in developing policies and strategies at various spatial scales. Therefore, a basic phase is elaborating hazard and flood risk maps, documents which are an essential support for flood risk management. The aim of this paper is to develop an approach that allows for the identification of flash-flood and flood-prone susceptible areas based on computing and mapping of two indices: FFPI (Flash-Flood Potential Index) and FPI (Flooding Potential Index). These indices are obtained by integrating in a GIS environment several geographical variables which control runoff (in the case of the FFPI) and favour flooding (in the case of the FPI). The methodology was applied in the upper (mountainous) and middle (hilly) catchment of the Prahova River, a densely populated and socioeconomically well-developed area which has been affected repeatedly by water-related hazards over the past decades. The resulting maps showing the spatialization of the FFPI and FPI allow for the identification of areas with high susceptibility to flashfloods and flooding. This approach can provide useful mapped information, especially for areas (generally large) where there are no flood/hazard risk maps. Moreover, the FFPI and FPI maps can constitute a preliminary step for flood risk and vulnerability assessment.

  14. Continental and global scale flood forecasting systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emerton, Rebecca E.; Stephens, Elisabeth M.; Pappenberger, Florian; Pagano, Thomas P.; Weerts, A.H.; Wood, A.; Salamon, Peter; Brown, James D.; Hjerdt, Niclas; Donnelly, Chantal; Baugh, Calum A.; Cloke, Hannah L.

    2016-01-01

    Floods are the most frequent of natural disasters, affecting millions of people across the globe every year. The anticipation and forecasting of floods at the global scale is crucial to preparing for severe events and providing early awareness where local flood models and warning services may not

  15. Hepatojejunostomia periférica: uma alternativa técnica no tratamento paliativo das neoplasias malignas do hilo hepático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pelegrini Coral

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar a experiência do nosso Serviço com a descompressão cirúrgica da árvore biliar através de uma hepatojejunostomia periférica. MÉTODO: Entre julho de 2000 a julho de 2005, 11 pacientes foram à laparotomia para ressecção de tumores do hilo hepático e, durante o trans-operatório, apresentavam lesões irressecáveis. Os dados analisados foram: idade, sexo, morbidade, mortalidade, dosagem de bilirrubinas séricas pré-operatórias e no 7ºdia de pós-operatório, prurido pré e pós-operatório e sobrevida. RESULTADOS: A idade média dos pacientes foi de 67 anos, seis eram mulheres e cinco eram homens. Icterícia estava presente em 100% dos casos e prurido em 80%. Seis pacientes tiveram o diagnóstico de neoplasia de vesícula biliar e cinco de colangiocarcinoma. Ocorreram três óbitos intra-hospitalares. A dosagem média no pré-operatório de bilirrubina total foi 19,33mg/dl e bilirrubina direta 16,81mg/dl e no pós-operatório 4,88mg/dl e 3,64mg/dl, respectivamente. Oito pacientes que receberam alta hospitalar tiveram sobrevida média de oito meses, evoluindo sem icterícia e prurido. CONCLUSÃO: A hepatojejunostomia periférica pode ser considerada uma boa opção como tratamento paliativo . Ela demonstrou ser segura, com sangramento mínimo, rápida execução e mortalidade aceitável, melhorando significativamente a icterícia, o prurido e fornecendo uma sobrevida satisfatória.

  16. Flood Risk Management in the People’s Republic of China: Learning to Live with Flood Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2012-01-01

    This publication presents a shift in the People’s Republic of China from flood control depending on structural measures to integrated flood management using both structural and non-structural measures. The core of the new concept of integrated flood management is flood risk management. Flood risk management is based on an analysis of flood hazard, exposure to flood hazard, and vulnerability of people and property to danger. It is recommended that people learn to live with flood risks, gaining...

  17. Evaluation of a Surfing Programme Designed to Increase Personal Well-Being and Connectedness to the Natural Environment among "At Risk" Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hignett, Amanda; White, Mathew P.; Pahl, Sabine; Jenkin, Rebecca; Froy, Mod Le

    2018-01-01

    Outdoor activities can be an important complement to classroom learning, especially for children/young people excluded, or at risk of exclusion, from mainstream schooling. The current research explored the impact of a 12-week surfing programme among such a group in the UK. Pre-post data on physiological health (heart rate (HR)/blood pressure),…

  18. On the use of the fictitious wave steepness and related surf-similarity parameters in methods that describe the hydraulic and structural response to waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heineke, D.; Verhagen, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the hydraulic performance of coastal structures - viz. wave run-up, overtopping and reflection - and to evaluate the stability of the armour layers, use is made of the dimensionless surf similarity parameter, as introduced by Battjes (1974). The front side slope of the structure and the

  19. Modelling dynamic roughness during floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paarlberg, Andries; Dohmen-Janssen, Catarine M.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Termes, A.P.P.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a dynamic roughness model to predict water levels during floods. Hysteresis effects of dune development are explicitly included. It is shown that differences between the new dynamic roughness model, and models where the roughness coefficient is calibrated, are most

  20. A Fair Approach to Flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, N.

    2017-01-01

    Floods can be some of the most unexpected and devastating natural phenomena. Reducing their risks everywhere is near impossible, whether due to financial reasons or more physical obstacles. Dr Neelke Doorn at Delft University of Technology is working to improve policies related to water, with the

  1. Feedback on flood risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, K.; Roumagnac, A.

    2009-09-01

    For several years, as floods were increasing in South of France, local communities felt deprive to assume their mission of protection and information of citizens, and were looking for assistance in flood management. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. Tools and structures of assistance to anticipation remain slightly developed. To manage repeated crisis, local authorities need to be able to base their policy against flood on prevention, warnings, post-crisis analysis and feedback from former experience. In this objective, after 3 years of test and improvement since 2003, the initiative Predict-Services was developped in South of France: it aims at helping communities and companies to face repeated flood crisis. The principle is to prepare emergency plans, to organize crisis management and reduce risks; to help and assist communities and companies during crisis to activate and adapt their emergency plans with enough of anticipation; and to analyse floods effects and improve emergency plans afterwards. In order to reduce risks, and to keep the benefits of such an initiative, local communities and companies have to maintain the awareness of risk of the citizens and employees. They also have to maintain their safety plans to keep them constantly operational. This is a part of the message relayed. Companies, Local communities, local government authorities and basin stakeholders are the decision makers. Companies and local communities have to involve themselves in the elaboration of safety plans. They are also completely involved in their activation that is their own responsability. This applies to other local government authorities, like districts one's and basin stakeholders, which participle in the financing community safety plans and adminitrative district which are responsible of the transmission of meteorological alert and of rescue actions. In the crossing of the géo-information stemming from the

  2. Drivers of flood damage on event level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreibich, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Apel, H.

    2016-01-01

    example are the 2002 and 2013 floods in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany. The 2002 flood caused the highest economic damage (EUR 11600 million) due to a natural hazard event in Germany. Damage was so high due to extreme flood hazard triggered by extreme precipitation and a high number......-level mitigation measures, 3) more effective early warning and improved coordination of disaster response and 4) a more targeted maintenance of flood defence systems and their deliberate relocation. Thus, despite higher hydrological severity damage due to the 2013 flood was significantly lower than in 2002. In our...

  3. Urban sprawl and flooding in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantz, S.E.

    1970-01-01

    The floods of January 1969 in south-coastal California provide a timely example of the effect of urban sprawl on flood damage. Despite recordbreaking, or near recordbreaking, stream discharges, damage was minimal in the older developed areas that are protected against inundation and debris damage by carefully planned flood-control facilities, including debris basins and flood-conveyance channels. By contrast, heavy damage occurred in areas of more recent urban sprawl, where the hazards of inundation and debris or landslide damage have not been taken into consideration, and where the improvement and development of drainage or flood-control facilities have not kept pace with expanding urbanization.

  4. Top flooding modeling with MAAP4 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet-Thibault, E.; Marguet, S.

    2006-01-01

    An engineering top flooding model was developed in MAAP4.04d.4, the severe accident code used in EDF, to simulate the thermal-hydraulic phenomena that should take place if emergency core cooling (ECC) water was injected in hot leg during quenching. In the framework of the ISTC (International Science and Technology Centre), a top flooding test was proposed in the PARAMETER facility (Podolsk, Russia). The MAAP calculation of the PARAMETER top flooding test is presented in this paper. A comparison between top and bottom flooding was made on the bundle test geometry. According to this study, top flooding appears to cool quickly and effectively the upper plenum internals. (author)

  5. Characterising Record Flooding in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, A.; Bates, P. D.; Smith, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Though the most notable floods in history have been carefully explained, there remains a lack of literature that explores the nature of record floods as a whole in the United Kingdom. We characterise the seasonality, statistical and spatial distribution, and meteorological causes of peak river flows for 521 gauging stations spread across the British Isles. We use annual maximum data from the National River Flow Archive, catchment descriptors from the Flood Estimation Handbook, and historical records of large floods. What we aim to find is in what ways, if any, the record flood for a station is different from more 'typical' floods. For each station, we calculate two indices: the seasonal anomaly and the flood index. Broadly, the seasonal anomaly is the degree to which a station's record flood happens at a different time of year compared to typical floods at that site, whilst the flood index is a station's record flood discharge divided by the discharge of the 1-in-10-year return period event. We find that while annual maximum peaks are dominated by winter frontal rainfall, record floods are disproportionately caused by summer convective rainfall. This analysis also shows that the larger the seasonal anomaly, the higher the flood index. Additionally, stations across the country have record floods that occur in the summer with no notable spatial pattern, yet the most seasonally anomalous record events are concentrated around the south and west of the British Isles. Catchment descriptors tell us little about the flood index at a particular station, but generally areas with lower mean annual precipitation have a higher flood index. The inclusion of case studies from recent and historical examples of notable floods across the UK supplements our analysis and gives insight into how typical these events are, both statistically and meteorologically. Ultimately, record floods in general happen at relatively unexpected times and with unpredictable magnitudes, which is a

  6. Flood loss assessment in the Kota Tinggi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, T H; Ibrahim, A L; Rahman, M Z A; Mazura, Z

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia is free from several destructive and widespread natural disasters but frequently affected by floods, which caused massive flood damage. In 2006 and 2007, an extreme rainfall occured in many parts of Peninsular Malaysia, which caused severe flooding in several major cities. Kota Tinggi was chosen as study area as it is one the seriously affected area in Johor state. The aim of this study is to estimate potential flood damage to physical elements in Kota Tinggi. The flood damage map contains both qualitative and quantitative information which corresponds to the consequences of flooding. This study only focuses on physical elements. Three different damage functions were adopted to calculate the potential flood damage and flood depth is considered as the main parameter. The adopted functions are United States, the Netherlands and Malaysia. The estimated flood damage for housing using United States, the Netherlands and Malaysia was RM 350/m 2 RM 200/m 2 and RM 100/m 2 respectively. These results successfully showed the average flood damage of physical element. Such important information needed by local authority and government for urban spatial planning and aiming to reduce flood risk

  7. Coping with Pluvial Floods by Private Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Rözer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pluvial floods have caused severe damage to urban areas in recent years. With a projected increase in extreme precipitation as well as an ongoing urbanization, pluvial flood damage is expected to increase in the future. Therefore, further insights, especially on the adverse consequences of pluvial floods and their mitigation, are needed. To gain more knowledge, empirical damage data from three different pluvial flood events in Germany were collected through computer-aided telephone interviews. Pluvial flood awareness as well as flood experience were found to be low before the respective flood events. The level of private precaution increased considerably after all events, but is mainly focused on measures that are easy to implement. Lower inundation depths, smaller potential losses as compared with fluvial floods, as well as the fact that pluvial flooding may occur everywhere, are expected to cause a shift in damage mitigation from precaution to emergency response. However, an effective implementation of emergency measures was constrained by a low dissemination of early warnings in the study areas. Further improvements of early warning systems including dissemination as well as a rise in pluvial flood preparedness are important to reduce future pluvial flood damage.

  8. Improving Flash Flood Prediction in Multiple Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxton, P. D.; Troch, P. A.; Schaffner, M.; Unkrich, C.; Goodrich, D.; Wagener, T.; Yatheendradas, S.

    2009-12-01

    Flash flooding is a major concern in many fast responding headwater catchments . There are many efforts to model and to predict these flood events, though it is not currently possible to adequately predict the nature of flash flood events with a single model, and furthermore, many of these efforts do not even consider snow, which can, by itself, or in combination with rainfall events, cause destructive floods. The current research is aimed at broadening the applicability of flash flood modeling. Specifically, we will take a state of the art flash flood model that is designed to work with warm season precipitation in arid environments, the KINematic runoff and EROSion model (KINEROS2), and combine it with a continuous subsurface flow model and an energy balance snow model. This should improve its predictive capacity in humid environments where lateral subsurface flow significantly contributes to streamflow, and it will make possible the prediction of flooding events that involve rain-on-snow or rapid snowmelt. By modeling changes in the hydrologic state of a catchment before a flood begins, we can also better understand the factors or combination of factors that are necessary to produce large floods. Broadening the applicability of an already state of the art flash flood model, such as KINEROS2, is logical because flash floods can occur in all types of environments, and it may lead to better predictions, which are necessary to preserve life and property.

  9. Composite Flood Risk for Virgin Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Composite Flood Risk layer combines flood hazard datasets from Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) flood zones, NOAA's Shallow Coastal Flooding, and the National Hurricane Center SLOSH model for Storm Surge inundation for category 1, 2, and 3 hurricanes.Geographic areas are represented by a grid of 10 by 10 meter cells and each cell has a ranking based on variation in exposure to flooding hazards: Moderate, High and Extreme exposure. Geographic areas in each input layers are ranked based on their probability of flood risk exposure. The logic was such that areas exposed to flooding on a more frequent basis were given a higher ranking. Thus the ranking incorporates the probability of the area being flooded. For example, even though a Category 3 storm surge has higher flooding elevations, the likelihood of the occurrence is lower than a Category 1 storm surge and therefore the Category 3 flood area is given a lower exposure ranking. Extreme exposure areas are those areas that are exposed to relatively frequent flooding.The ranked input layers are then converted to a raster for the creation of the composite risk layer by using cell statistics in spatial analysis. The highest exposure ranking for a given cell in any of the three input layers is assigned to the corresponding cell in the composite layer.For example, if an area (a cell) is rank as medium in the FEMA layer, moderate in the SLOSH layer, but extreme in the SCF layer, the cell will be considere

  10. Quantification of Surf Zone Bathymetry from Video Observations of Wave Breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarninkhof, S.; Ruessink, G.

    2002-12-01

    Cost-efficient methods to quantify surf zone bathymetry with high resolution in time and space would be of great value for coastal research and management. Automated video techniques provide the potential to do so. Time-averaged video observations of the nearshore zone show bright intensities at locations where waves preferentially break. Highly similar patterns are found from model simulations of depth-induced wave breaking, which show increasing rates of wave dissipation in shallow areas like sand bars. Thus, video observations of wave breaking - at least qualitatively - reflect sub-merged beach bathymetry. In search of the quantification of this relationship, we present a new model concept to map sub-merged beach bathymetry from time-averaged video images. This is achieved by matching model-predicted and video-observed rates of wave dissipation. First, time-averaged image intensities are sampled along a cross-shore array and interpreted in terms of a wave dissipation parameter. This involves a correction for the effect of persistent foam, which is visible at time-averaged video images but not predicted by common wave propagation models. The dissipation profiles thus obtained are used to update an initial beach bathymetry through optimisation of the match between measured and modelled rates of wave dissipation. The latter is done by raising the bottom elevation in areas where the measured dissipation rate exceeds the computed dissipation and vice versa. Since the model includes video data with high resolution in time (typically multiple images over a tidal cycle), it allows for virtually continous monitoring of surfzone bathymetry . Model tests against a synthetic data set of artificially generated wave dissipation profiles have shown the model's capability to accurately reconstruct beach bathymetry, over a wide range of morphological configurations. Maximum model deviations were found in the case of highly developed bar-trough systems (bar heights up to 4 m) and

  11. Can we predict the next urban flood?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk; Jensen, David Getreuer

    2015-01-01

    Flooding produced by high-intensive local rainfall and drainage system capacity exceedance can have severe impacts in cities. In order to prepare cities for these types of flood events – especially in the future climate – it is valuable to be able to simulate these events numericallyboth...... historically and in real-time. There is a rather untested potential in real-time prediction of urban floods. In this paper radar data observations with different spatial and temporal resolution, radar nowcasts of 0-2 hours leadtime, and numerical weather models with leadtimes up to 24 h are used as inputs...... to an integrated flood and drainage systems model with the purpose to investigate the potential for predicting future floods. The system is tested on a small town Lystrup in Denmark, which has been recently flooded. Results show that it is possible to generate detailed flood maps in real-time with high resolution...

  12. Betwixt Droughts and Floods: Flood Management Politics in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Maier-Knapp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attempting to create greater understanding of the political dynamics that influence domestic disaster relief and management (DRM in Thailand, this article takes a closer look at these dynamics by outlining the main actors involved in flood-related DRM. It acknowledges the importance of international and military actors but emphasises the role of national and subnational authorities. The article then identifies the central issues of DRM governance as capacity and bureaucracy and discusses these through a chronological assessment of the flood crisis in Thailand in 2011, interweaving the colourful domestic politics with various political cleavages and dichotomies, and thereby distinguishing between three main dichotomies which it considers as the central drivers of the political dynamics and institutional development of DRM. These issues can be summarised as old versus new institutions, technocracy versus bureaucracy and centralised (but with direct people-orientation through greater channels of citizenry participation versus decentralised bureaucracy with an indirect orientation towards people.

  13. Sobre inundaciones y anegamientos / Reflections on floods and flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrando A., Francisco J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Respecto a anegamientos e inundaciones, el autor realiza algunas precisiones conceptuales que afectan la gestión de acciones preventivas, la planificación y el ordenamiento territorial; además se ofrece una sistematización del quehacer sobre las inundaciones./ The author punctualizes the concepts regarding preventive actions and territorial planning. Also the article includes a systematized list of actions related to flood management.

  14. Flood of April 1975 at Williamston, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutilla, R.L.; Swallow, L.A.

    1975-01-01

    On April 18 between 5 p.m. and 12 p.m. the city of Williamston experienced an intense rain storm that caused the Red Cedar River and the many small streams in the area to overflow their banks and resulted in the most devastating flood since at least 1904. Local officials estimated a loss of \\$775,000 in property damage. Damage from flooding by the Red Cedar River was caused primarily by inundation, rather than by water moving at high velocity, as is common when many streams are flooded. During the flood of April 1975 many basements were flooded as well as the lower floors of some homes in the flood plain. Additional damage occurred in places when sewers backed up and flooded basements, and when ground water seeped through basement walls and floors—situations that affected many homes including those that were well outside of the flood plain.During the time of flooding the U.S. Geological Survey obtained aerial photography and data on a streamflow to document the disaster. This report shows on a photomosaic base map the extent of flooding along the Red Cedar River at Williamston, during the flood. It also presents data obtained at stream-gaging stations near Williamston, as well as the results of peak-flow discharge measurements made on the Red Cedar River at Michigan State Highway M-52 east of the city. Information on the magnitude of the flood can guide in making decisions pertaining to the use of flood-plains in the area. It is one of a series of reports on the April 1975 flood in the Lansing metropolitan area.

  15. Aquatic chemistry of flood events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavins, Maris; Rodinov, Valery

    2015-04-01

    During flood events a major discharge of water and dissolved substances happens. However flood waters very much differs from water composition during low-water events. Aquatic chemistry of flood waters also is of importance at the calculation of loadings as well as they might have major impact on water quality in receiving water bodies (lakes, coastal waters and seas). Further flood regime of rivers is subjected to changes due to climate change and growing impact of human activities. The aim of this study is to analyse water chemical composition changes during flood events in respect to low water periods, character of high-water events and characteristics of the corresponding basin. Within this study, the concentrations of major dissolved substances in the major rivers of Latvia have been studied using monitoring data as well as field studies during high water/ low water events. As territories of studies flows of substances in river basins/subbasins with different land-use character and different anthropogenic impacts has been studied to calculate export values depending on the land-use character. Impact of relations between dissolved substances and relations in respect to budgets has been calculated. The dynamics of DOC, nutrient and major dissolved substance flows depending on landuse pattern and soil properties in Latvia has been described, including emissions by industrial and agricultural production. In these changes evidently climate change signals can be identified. The water chemistry of a large number of rivers during flood events has been determined and the possible impact of water chemical composition on DOC and nutrient flows has been evaluated. Long-term changes (1977-2013) of concentrations of dissolved substances do not follow linear trends but rather show oscillating patterns, indicating impact of natural factors, e.g. changing hydrological and climatic conditions. There is a positive correlation between content of inert dissolved substances and

  16. Use of documentary sources on past flood events for flood risk management and land planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cœur, Denis; Lang, Michel

    2008-09-01

    The knowledge of past catastrophic events can improve flood risk mitigation policy, with a better awareness against risk. As such historical information is usually available in Europe for the past five centuries, historians are able to understand how past society dealt with flood risk, and hydrologists can include information on past floods into an adapted probabilistic framework. In France, Flood Risk Mitigation Maps are based either on the largest historical known flood event or on the 100-year flood event if it is greater. Two actions can be suggested in terms of promoting the use of historical information for flood risk management: (1) the development of a regional flood data base, with both historical and current data, in order to get a good feedback on recent events and to improve the flood risk education and awareness; (2) the commitment to keep a persistent/perennial management of a reference network of hydrometeorological observations for climate change studies.

  17. Floods in Serbia in the 1999-2009 period: Hydrological analysis and flood protection measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Ana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review on greatest floods recorded in Vojvodina and central Serbia within the period from 1999 to 2009 is given in this paper. For 13 hydrological stations, that recorded the greatest floods for the present period, probability of occurrence of these floods has been accomplished. Based on analysis of time series of discharge and water level maximum, performed by applying probability theory and mathematical statistics, and calculated theoretical probability distribution function of floods, probability of occurrence of flood has been obtained. Most often the best agreement with the empirical distribution function had a Log-Pearson III, Pearson III distribution. These results can be used for dimensioning of hydro-technical objects for flood protection. The most significant causes for floods recorded in this period were melting of snow and intensive rainfall. In this paper the current situation of flood protection and future development of flood protection measures were also presented. .

  18. Attheya armata along the European Atlantic coast - The turn of the screw on the causes of "surf diatom"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballeira, R.; Leira, M.; López-Rodríguez, M. C.; Otero, X. L.

    2018-05-01

    The "surf diatom" species Attheya armata (West) Crawford accumulations have been detected in the coasts of Galicia (NW Spain) in recent years. However, unlike in other parts of the world, the current knowledge of the phenomenon in European coasts remains disperse and scarce. A multiple approach has been used to monitor a sector of the Galician coast and to evaluate chemical and biological parameters in the environment, as well as under in vitro culture conditions, with the aim of studying the causes underlying these episodes. Contrary to the general assumption, our results indicate no direct relationship between the ephemeral accumulation episodes occurrences with the continental discharges or nutrient levels in beach waters. The isotopic reference values for coastal food web in Galicia allows to affirm with certainty that A. armata accumulations is dominate by the sediment dynamics.

  19. Larval fish in the surf zone of Pontal do Sul beach, Pontal do Paraná, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santiago Godefroid

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 6,575 larvae in the preflexion, flexion and post-flexion stages of 15 families, 26 genera and 29 species were captured in the surf zone of Pontal do Sul beach, Paraná, Brazil. Samples of the families Gerreidae and Scianidae predominated and larvae of Eucinostomus argenteus (Baird&Girard, 1854, Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823, Eucinostomus gula (Cuvier, 1830, Menticirrhus ameri-canus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Anchoa tricolor (Agassiz, 1829 were the most dominant species. Greater abundance of larvae was observed during the summer, followed by winter and in a less extent during spring and autumn. The number of species was greater in the summer, and there were no significant differences in the rest of the seasons.

  20. Dynamics of the relativistic acceleration of charged particles in space plasma while surfing the package electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erokhin, N.S.; Zol'nikova, N.N.; Kuznetsov, E.A.; Mikhajlovskaya, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Based on numerical calculations considered the relativistic acceleration of charged particles in space plasma when surfing on the spatially localized package of electromagnetic waves. The problem is reduced to the study of unsteady, nonlinear equation for the wave phase at the carrier frequency at the location of the accelerated charge, which is solved numerically. We study the temporal dynamics of the relativistic factor, the component of momentum and velocity of the particle, its trajectory is given gyro-rotation in an external magnetic field after the departure of the effective potential well. Dependence of the dynamics of a particle interacting with the wave of the sign of the velocity of the charge along the wave front. We formulate the optimal conditions of the relativistic particle acceleration wave packet, indicate the possibility of again (after a number gyro-turnover) charge trapping wave with an additional relativistic acceleration.

  1. Surfer’s myelopathy: a rare presentation in a non-surfing setting and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Kevin; Hariswamy, Soumya; Rao, Prashanth J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Surfers myelopathy can be a rapidly devastating disease and little is known surrounding the pathophysiology of the condition. Although the classical pattern of illness has been well reported, it has never been observed in a non-surfing setting. Methods A 51-year-old demolition worker presented with acute non-traumatic myelopathy. Clinical examination revealed sensory loss to the level of L2. T2-MRI and MRI-DWI revealed a hyperintense signal suggestive of an ischaemic event. A diagnosis of surfer’s myelopathy was made and he was commenced on steroid therapy. Results Following steroid therapy and fluid management the patient was discharged after 6 days with minor anaethesia but significant overall neurological improvement. Conclusions Diagnosis of SM requires a thorough history, clinical examination and imaging (MRI, MRI-DWI). The patient should be admitted early and investigated. The use of rehabilitation services may be useful if available. PMID:27757436

  2. Exosomes surf on filopodia to enter cells at endocytic hot spots, traffic within endosomes, and are targeted to the ER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusermann, Wolf; Hean, Justin; Trojer, Dominic; Steib, Emmanuelle; von Bueren, Stefan; Graff-Meyer, Alexandra; Genoud, Christel; Martin, Katrin; Pizzato, Nicolas; Voshol, Johannes; Morrissey, David V; Andaloussi, Samir E L; Wood, Matthew J; Meisner-Kober, Nicole C

    2016-04-25

    Exosomes are nanovesicles released by virtually all cells, which act as intercellular messengers by transfer of protein, lipid, and RNA cargo. Their quantitative efficiency, routes of cell uptake, and subcellular fate within recipient cells remain elusive. We quantitatively characterize exosome cell uptake, which saturates with dose and time and reaches near 100% transduction efficiency at picomolar concentrations. Highly reminiscent of pathogenic bacteria and viruses, exosomes are recruited as single vesicles to the cell body by surfing on filopodia as well as filopodia grabbing and pulling motions to reach endocytic hot spots at the filopodial base. After internalization, exosomes shuttle within endocytic vesicles to scan the endoplasmic reticulum before being sorted into the lysosome as their final intracellular destination. Our data quantify and explain the efficiency of exosome internalization by recipient cells, establish a new parallel between exosome and virus host cell interaction, and suggest unanticipated routes of subcellular cargo delivery. © 2016 Heusermann et al.

  3. Implementation and modification of a three-dimensional radiation stress formulation for surf zone and rip-current applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N.; Voulgaris, G.; Warner, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS v 3.0), a three-dimensional numerical ocean model, was previously enhanced for shallow water applications by including wave-induced radiation stress forcing provided through coupling to wave propagation models (SWAN, REF/DIF). This enhancement made it suitable for surf zone applications as demonstrated using examples of obliquely incident waves on a planar beach and rip current formation in longshore bar trough morphology (Haas and Warner, 2009). In this contribution, we present an update to the coupled model which implements a wave roller model and also a modified method of the radiation stress term based on Mellor (2008, 2011a,b,in press) that includes a vertical distribution which better simulates non-conservative (i.e., wave breaking) processes and appears to be more appropriate for sigma coordinates in very shallow waters where wave breaking conditions dominate. The improvements of the modified model are shown through simulations of several cases that include: (a) obliquely incident spectral waves on a planar beach; (b) obliquely incident spectral waves on a natural barred beach (DUCK'94 experiment); (c) alongshore variable offshore wave forcing on a planar beach; (d) alongshore varying bathymetry with constant offshore wave forcing; and (e) nearshore barred morphology with rip-channels. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons to previous analytical, numerical, laboratory studies and field measurements show that the modified model replicates surf zone recirculation patterns (onshore drift at the surface and undertow at the bottom) more accurately than previous formulations based on radiation stress (Haas and Warner, 2009). The results of the model and test cases are further explored for identifying the forces operating in rip current development and the potential implication for sediment transport and rip channel development. Also, model analysis showed that rip current strength is higher when waves approach at angles of 5

  4. Composition and Dynamics of the Nucleolinus, a Link between the Nucleolus and Cell Division Apparatus in Surf Clam (Spisula) Oocytes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliegro, Mark C.; Hartson, Steven; Alliegro, Mary Anne

    2012-01-01

    The nucleolinus is a little-known cellular structure, discovered over 150 years ago (Agassiz, L. (1857) Contributions to the Natural History of the United States of America, First Monograph, Part IIL, Little, Brown and Co., Boston) and thought by some investigators in the late 19th to mid-20th century to function in the formation of the centrosomes or spindle. A role for the nucleolinus in formation of the cell division apparatus has recently been confirmed in oocytes of the surf clam, Spisula solidissima (Alliegro, M. A., Henry, J. J., and Alliegro, M. C. (2010) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 13718–13723). However, we know so little about the composition and dynamics of this compartment, it is difficult to construct mechanistic hypotheses or even to be sure that prior reports were describing analogous structures in the cells of mammals, amphibians, plants, and other organisms where it was observed. Surf clam oocytes are an attractive model to approach this problem because the nucleolinus is easily visible by light microscopy, making it accessible by laser microsurgery as well as isolation by common cell fractionation techniques. In this report, we analyze the macromolecular composition of isolated Spisula nucleolini and examine the relationship of this structure to the nucleolus and cell division apparatus. Analysis of nucleolinar RNA and protein revealed a set of molecules that overlaps with but is nevertheless distinct from the nucleolus. The proteins identified were primarily ones involved in nucleic acid metabolism and cell cycle regulation. Monoclonal antibodies generated against isolated nucleolini revealed centrosomal forerunners in the oocyte cytoplasm. Finally, induction of damage to the nucleolinus by laser microsurgery altered the trafficking of α- and γ-tubulin after fertilization. These observations strongly support a role for the nucleolinus in cell division and represent our first clues regarding mechanism. PMID:22219192

  5. The role of suspension events in cross-shore and longshore suspended sediment transport in the surf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Suspension of sand in the surf zone is intermittent. Especially striking in a time series of concentration are periods of intense suspension, suspension events, when the water column suspended sediment concentration is an order of magnitude greater than the mean concentration. The prevalence, timing, and contribution of suspension events to cross-shore and longshore suspended sediment transport are explored using field data collected in the inner half of the surf zone during a large storm at Duck, NC. Suspension events are defined as periods when the concentration is above a threshold. Events tended to occur during onshore flow under the wave crest, resulting in an onshore contribution to the suspended sediment transport. Even though large events occurred less than 10 percent of the total time, at some locations onshore transport associated with suspension events was greater than mean-current driven offshore-directed transport during non-event periods, causing the net suspended sediment transport to be onshore. Events and fluctuations in longshore velocity were not correlated. However, events did increase the longshore suspended sediment transport by approximately the amount they increase the mean concentration, which can be up to 35%. Because of the lack of correlation, the longshore suspended sediment transport can be modeled without considering the details of the intensity and time of events as the vertical integration of the product of the time-averaged longshore velocity and an event-augmented time-averaged concentration. However, to accurately model cross-shore suspended sediment transport, the timing and intensity of suspension events must be reproduced.

  6. Composition and dynamics of the nucleolinus, a link between the nucleolus and cell division apparatus in surf clam (Spisula) oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliegro, Mark C; Hartson, Steven; Alliegro, Mary Anne

    2012-02-24

    The nucleolinus is a little-known cellular structure, discovered over 150 years ago (Agassiz, L. (1857) Contributions to the Natural History of the United States of America, First Monograph, Part IIL, Little, Brown and Co., Boston) and thought by some investigators in the late 19th to mid-20th century to function in the formation of the centrosomes or spindle. A role for the nucleolinus in formation of the cell division apparatus has recently been confirmed in oocytes of the surf clam, Spisula solidissima (Alliegro, M. A., Henry, J. J., and Alliegro, M. C. (2010) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 13718-13723). However, we know so little about the composition and dynamics of this compartment, it is difficult to construct mechanistic hypotheses or even to be sure that prior reports were describing analogous structures in the cells of mammals, amphibians, plants, and other organisms where it was observed. Surf clam oocytes are an attractive model to approach this problem because the nucleolinus is easily visible by light microscopy, making it accessible by laser microsurgery as well as isolation by common cell fractionation techniques. In this report, we analyze the macromolecular composition of isolated Spisula nucleolini and examine the relationship of this structure to the nucleolus and cell division apparatus. Analysis of nucleolinar RNA and protein revealed a set of molecules that overlaps with but is nevertheless distinct from the nucleolus. The proteins identified were primarily ones involved in nucleic acid metabolism and cell cycle regulation. Monoclonal antibodies generated against isolated nucleolini revealed centrosomal forerunners in the oocyte cytoplasm. Finally, induction of damage to the nucleolinus by laser microsurgery altered the trafficking of α- and γ-tubulin after fertilization. These observations strongly support a role for the nucleolinus in cell division and represent our first clues regarding mechanism.

  7. Forecasting characteristics of flood effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamutova, M. V.; Rezchikov, A. F.; Kushnikov, V. A.; Ivaschenko, V. A.; Bogomolov, A. S.; Filimonyuk, L. Yu; Dolinina, O. N.; Kushnikova, E. V.; Shulga, T. E.; Tverdokhlebov, V. A.; Fominykh, D. S.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents the development of a mathematical model of the system dynamics. Mathematical model allows forecasting the characteristics of flood effects. Model is based on a causal diagram and is presented by a system of nonlinear differential equations. Simulated characteristics are the nodes of the diagram, and edges define the functional relationships between them. The numerical solution of the system of equations using the Runge-Kutta method was obtained. Computer experiments to determine the characteristics on different time interval have been made and results of experiments have been compared with real data of real flood. The obtained results make it possible to assert that the developed model is valid. The results of study are useful in development of an information system for the operating and dispatching staff of the Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defence, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters (EMERCOM).

  8. Bangladesh floods, cyclones and ENSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, A.M.

    1994-04-01

    It has been found that in general there is a reduction of rainfall in all the regions of Bangladesh in all the seasons - premonsoon, monsoon and post monsoon during El Nino years. It has also been observed that in strong El Nino year Bangladesh is not hit by a catastrophic flood or a catastrophic cyclone. In the past, occurrence of famines in this region of the world coincided with El Nino years. The years of weak El Nino or when the El Nino index is positive seem to be favourable for the occurrence of floods and cyclones in Bangladesh. A theory of the modulation of the monsoon in Bangladesh by the Walker circulation has been described in the paper. (author). 14 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  9. Contaminated sediment transport during floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past 48 years, operations and waste disposal activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have resulted in the contamination of parts of the White Oak Creek catchment. The contaminants presenting the highest risk to human health and the environment are particle reactive and are associated with the soils and sediments in the White Oak Creek drainage system. The erosion of these sediments during floods can result in the transport of contaminants both within the catchment and off-site into the Clinch River. A data collection program and a modeling investigation are being used to evaluate the probability of contaminated sediment transport during floods and to develop strategies for controlling off-site transport under present and future conditions

  10. Computerized evaluation of flood impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnon, J.; Quach, T.T.; Marche, C.; Lessard, G.

    1998-01-01

    A computerized evaluation process for assessing the economic impacts of a potential dam failure is described. The DOMINO software, which was developed by Hydro-Quebec, takes into account flow data from dam break simulations of floods, the territory involved, plus the economic evaluations of the real estate and infrastructures affected. Some examples of software applications and impact evaluations are presented. The principal elements involved in estimating economic or other types of impacts induced by natural flooding or dam failure, are: (1) flow forecasting, (2) defining the contour of the involved territory, and (3) accounting for the various impacts identified in the affected zone. Owing to its wide range of functions and utilities, DOMINO has proven to be a very useful, user-friendly and portable decision-making tool. 5 refs., 6 tabs

  11. Floods and human health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Katarzyna; Turner, Lyle R; Tong, Shilu

    2012-10-15

    Floods are the most common type of disaster globally, responsible for almost 53,000 deaths in the last decade alone (23:1 low- versus high-income countries). This review assessed recent epidemiological evidence on the impacts of floods on human health. Published articles (2004-2011) on the quantitative relationship between floods and health were systematically reviewed. 35 relevant epidemiological studies were identified. Health outcomes were categorized into short- and long-term and were found to depend on the flood characteristics and people's vulnerability. It was found that long-term health effects are currently not well understood. Mortality rates were found to increase by up to 50% in the first year post-flood. After floods, it was found there is an increased risk of disease outbreaks such as hepatitis E, gastrointestinal disease and leptospirosis, particularly in areas with poor hygiene and displaced populations. Psychological distress in survivors (prevalence 8.6% to 53% two years post-flood) can also exacerbate their physical illness. There is a need for effective policies to reduce and prevent flood-related morbidity and mortality. Such steps are contingent upon the improved understanding of potential health impacts of floods. Global trends in urbanization, burden of disease, malnutrition and maternal and child health must be better reflected in flood preparedness and mitigation programs. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Structural master plan of flood mitigation measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Heidari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood protection is one of the practical methods in damage reduction. Although it not possible to be completely protected from flood disaster but major part of damages can be reduced by mitigation plans. In this paper, the optimum flood mitigation master plan is determined by economic evaluation in trading off between the construction costs and expected value of damage reduction as the benefits. Size of the certain mitigation alternative is also be obtained by risk analysis by accepting possibility of flood overtopping. Different flood mitigation alternatives are investigated from various aspects in the Dez and Karun river floodplain areas as a case study in south west of IRAN. The results show that detention dam and flood diversion are the best alternatives of flood mitigation methods as well as enforcing the flood control purpose of upstream multipurpose reservoirs. Dyke and levees are not mostly justifiable because of negative impact on down stream by enhancing routed flood peak discharge magnitude and flood damages as well.

  13. Predicting floods with Flickr tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Nataliya; Jarvis, Stephen; Procter, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, user generated content (UGC) in social media postings and their associated metadata such as time and location stamps are being used to provide useful operational information during natural hazard events such as hurricanes, storms and floods. The main advantage of these new sources of data are twofold. First, in a purely additive sense, they can provide much denser geographical coverage of the hazard as compared to traditional sensor networks. Second, they provide what physical sensors are not able to do: By documenting personal observations and experiences, they directly record the impact of a hazard on the human environment. For this reason interpretation of the content (e.g., hashtags, images, text, emojis, etc) and metadata (e.g., keywords, tags, geolocation) have been a focus of much research into social media analytics. However, as choices of semantic tags in the current methods are usually reduced to the exact name or type of the event (e.g., hashtags '#Sandy' or '#flooding'), the main limitation of such approaches remains their mere nowcasting capacity. In this study we make use of polysemous tags of images posted during several recent flood events and demonstrate how such volunteered geographic data can be used to provide early warning of an event before its outbreak.

  14. Bayesian flood forecasting methods: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shasha; Coulibaly, Paulin

    2017-08-01

    Over the past few decades, floods have been seen as one of the most common and largely distributed natural disasters in the world. If floods could be accurately forecasted in advance, then their negative impacts could be greatly minimized. It is widely recognized that quantification and reduction of uncertainty associated with the hydrologic forecast is of great importance for flood estimation and rational decision making. Bayesian forecasting system (BFS) offers an ideal theoretic framework for uncertainty quantification that can be developed for probabilistic flood forecasting via any deterministic hydrologic model. It provides suitable theoretical structure, empirically validated models and reasonable analytic-numerical computation method, and can be developed into various Bayesian forecasting approaches. This paper presents a comprehensive review on Bayesian forecasting approaches applied in flood forecasting from 1999 till now. The review starts with an overview of fundamentals of BFS and recent advances in BFS, followed with BFS application in river stage forecasting and real-time flood forecasting, then move to a critical analysis by evaluating advantages and limitations of Bayesian forecasting methods and other predictive uncertainty assessment approaches in flood forecasting, and finally discusses the future research direction in Bayesian flood forecasting. Results show that the Bayesian flood forecasting approach is an effective and advanced way for flood estimation, it considers all sources of uncertainties and produces a predictive distribution of the river stage, river discharge or runoff, thus gives more accurate and reliable flood forecasts. Some emerging Bayesian forecasting methods (e.g. ensemble Bayesian forecasting system, Bayesian multi-model combination) were shown to overcome limitations of single model or fixed model weight and effectively reduce predictive uncertainty. In recent years, various Bayesian flood forecasting approaches have been

  15. Going beyond the flood insurance rate map: insights from flood hazard map co-production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Luke

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Flood hazard mapping in the United States (US is deeply tied to the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP. Consequently, publicly available flood maps provide essential information for insurance purposes, but they do not necessarily provide relevant information for non-insurance aspects of flood risk management (FRM such as public education and emergency planning. Recent calls for flood hazard maps that support a wider variety of FRM tasks highlight the need to deepen our understanding about the factors that make flood maps useful and understandable for local end users. In this study, social scientists and engineers explore opportunities for improving the utility and relevance of flood hazard maps through the co-production of maps responsive to end users' FRM needs. Specifically, two-dimensional flood modeling produced a set of baseline hazard maps for stakeholders of the Tijuana River valley, US, and Los Laureles Canyon in Tijuana, Mexico. Focus groups with natural resource managers, city planners, emergency managers, academia, non-profit, and community leaders refined the baseline hazard maps by triggering additional modeling scenarios and map revisions. Several important end user preferences emerged, such as (1 legends that frame flood intensity both qualitatively and quantitatively, and (2 flood scenario descriptions that report flood magnitude in terms of rainfall, streamflow, and its relation to an historic event. Regarding desired hazard map content, end users' requests revealed general consistency with mapping needs reported in European studies and guidelines published in Australia. However, requested map content that is not commonly produced included (1 standing water depths following the flood, (2 the erosive potential of flowing water, and (3 pluvial flood hazards, or flooding caused directly by rainfall. We conclude that the relevance and utility of commonly produced flood hazard maps can be most improved by illustrating

  16. Going beyond the flood insurance rate map: insights from flood hazard map co-production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Adam; Sanders, Brett F.; Goodrich, Kristen A.; Feldman, David L.; Boudreau, Danielle; Eguiarte, Ana; Serrano, Kimberly; Reyes, Abigail; Schubert, Jochen E.; AghaKouchak, Amir; Basolo, Victoria; Matthew, Richard A.

    2018-04-01

    Flood hazard mapping in the United States (US) is deeply tied to the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). Consequently, publicly available flood maps provide essential information for insurance purposes, but they do not necessarily provide relevant information for non-insurance aspects of flood risk management (FRM) such as public education and emergency planning. Recent calls for flood hazard maps that support a wider variety of FRM tasks highlight the need to deepen our understanding about the factors that make flood maps useful and understandable for local end users. In this study, social scientists and engineers explore opportunities for improving the utility and relevance of flood hazard maps through the co-production of maps responsive to end users' FRM needs. Specifically, two-dimensional flood modeling produced a set of baseline hazard maps for stakeholders of the Tijuana River valley, US, and Los Laureles Canyon in Tijuana, Mexico. Focus groups with natural resource managers, city planners, emergency managers, academia, non-profit, and community leaders refined the baseline hazard maps by triggering additional modeling scenarios and map revisions. Several important end user preferences emerged, such as (1) legends that frame flood intensity both qualitatively and quantitatively, and (2) flood scenario descriptions that report flood magnitude in terms of rainfall, streamflow, and its relation to an historic event. Regarding desired hazard map content, end users' requests revealed general consistency with mapping needs reported in European studies and guidelines published in Australia. However, requested map content that is not commonly produced included (1) standing water depths following the flood, (2) the erosive potential of flowing water, and (3) pluvial flood hazards, or flooding caused directly by rainfall. We conclude that the relevance and utility of commonly produced flood hazard maps can be most improved by illustrating pluvial flood hazards

  17. Sustainable flood memories, lay knowledges and the development of community resilience to future flood risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwen Lindsey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shifts to devolved flood risk management in the UK pose questions about how the changing role of floodplain residents in community-led adaptation planning can be supported and strengthened. This paper shares insights from an interdisciplinary research project that has proposed the concept of ‘sustainable flood memory’ in the context of effective flood risk management. The research aimed to increase understanding of whether and how flood memories from the UK Summer 2007 extreme floods provide a platform for developing lay knowledges and flood resilience. The project investigated what factors link flood memory and lay knowledges of flooding, and how these connect and disconnect during and after flood events. In particular, and relation to flood governance directions, we sought to explore how such memories might play a part in individual and community resilience. The research presented here explores some key themes drawn from semi-structured interviews with floodplain residents with recent flood experiences in contrasting demographic and physical settings in the lower River Severn catchment. These include changing practices in making flood memories and materialising flood knowledge and the roles of active remembering and active forgetting.

  18. Estimation of flood environmental effects using flood zone mapping techniques in Halilrood Kerman, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudaghpour, Siamak; Bagheri, Majid; Bagheri, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    High flood occurrences with large environmental damages have a growing trend in Iran. Dynamic movements of water during a flood cause different environmental damages in geographical areas with different characteristics such as topographic conditions. In general, environmental effects and damages caused by a flood in an area can be investigated from different points of view. The current essay is aiming at detecting environmental effects of flood occurrences in Halilrood catchment area of Kerman province in Iran using flood zone mapping techniques. The intended flood zone map was introduced in four steps. Steps 1 to 3 pave the way to calculate and estimate flood zone map in the understudy area while step 4 determines the estimation of environmental effects of flood occurrence. Based on our studies, wide range of accuracy for estimating the environmental effects of flood occurrence was introduced by using of flood zone mapping techniques. Moreover, it was identified that the existence of Jiroft dam in the study area can decrease flood zone from 260 hectares to 225 hectares and also it can decrease 20% of flood peak intensity. As a result, 14% of flood zone in the study area can be saved environmentally.

  19. Nová missense mutace 574C>T v genu SURF1 - biochemická a molekulárně genetická studie u sedmi dětí s Leighovým syndromem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapková, M.; Hansíková, H.; Godinot, C.; Houšťková, H.; Houštěk, Josef; Zeman, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 20 (2002), s. 636-641 ISSN 0008-7335 R&D Projects: GA MZd NE6555 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 8/2000/C; CZ - FR(XC) Projekt Barrande 2001/028-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : Leigh syndrome * SURF1 gene * SURF1 protein Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  20. Nová missense mutace 574C>T v genu SURF1 - biochemická a molekulárně genetická studie u sedmi dětí s Leighovým syndromem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapková, M.; Hansíková, H.; Godinot, C.; Houšťková, H.; Houštěk, Josef; Zeman, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 20 (2002), s. 636-641 ISSN 0008-7335 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NE6555; GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A079 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 8/2000/C; FR-CZ(CZ) Barrande 2001/028-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : Leigh syndrome * SURF1 gene * Surf1 protein Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology